Gas Core Reactor Numerical Simulation Using a Coupled MHD-MCNP Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kazeminezhad, F.; Anghaie, S.
2008-01-01
Analysis is provided in this report of using two head-on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks to achieve supercritical nuclear fission in an axially elongated cylinder filled with UF4 gas as an energy source for deep space missions. The motivation for each aspect of the design is explained and supported by theory and numerical simulations. A subsequent report will provide detail on relevant experimental work to validate the concept. Here the focus is on the theory of and simulations for the proposed gas core reactor conceptual design from the onset of shock generations to the supercritical state achieved when the shocks collide. The MHD model is coupled to a standard nuclear code (MCNP) to observe the neutron flux and fission power attributed to the supercritical state brought about by the shock collisions. Throughout the modeling, realistic parameters are used for the initial ambient gaseous state and currents to ensure a resulting supercritical state upon shock collisions.
Uncertainty Analysis of Model Coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Held, H.; Knopf, B.; Schneider von Deimling, T.; Schellnhuber, H.-J.
The Earth System is a highly complex system that is often modelled by coupling sev- eral nonlinear submodules. For predicting the climate with these models, the following uncertainties play an essential role: parameter uncertainty, uncertainty in initial con- ditions or model uncertainty. Here we will address uncertainty in initial conditions as well as model uncertainty. As the process of coupling is an important part of model- ing, the main aspect of this work is the investigation of uncertainties that are due to the coupling process. For this study we use conceptual models that, compared to GCMs, have the advantage that the model itself as well as the output can be treated in a mathematically elabo- rated way. As the time for running the model is much shorter, the investigation is also possible for a longer period, e.g. for paleo runs. In consideration of these facts it is feasible to analyse the whole phase space of the model. The process of coupling is investigated by using different methods of examining low order coupled atmosphere-ocean systems. In the dynamical approach a fully coupled system of the two submodules can be compared to a system where one submodule forces the other. For a particular atmosphere-ocean system, based on the Lorenz model for the atmosphere, there can be shown significant differences in the predictability of a forced system depending whether the subsystems are coupled in a linear or a non- linear way. In [1] it is shown that in the linear case the forcing cannot represent the coupling, but in the nonlinear case, that we investigated in our study, the variability and the statistics of the coupled system can be reproduced by the forcing. Another approach to analyse the coupling is to carry out a bifurcation analysis. Here the bifurcation diagram of a single atmosphere system is compared to that of a cou- pled atmosphere-ocean system. Again it can be seen from the different behaviour of the coupled and the uncoupled system, that the
Session on coupled atmospheric/chemistry coupled models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thompson, Anne
1993-01-01
The session on coupled atmospheric/chemistry coupled models is reviewed. Current model limitations, current issues and critical unknowns, and modeling activity are addressed. Specific recommendations and experimental strategies on the following are given: multiscale surface layer - planetary boundary layer - chemical flux measurements; Eulerian budget study; and Langrangian experiment. Nonprecipitating cloud studies, organized convective systems, and aerosols - heterogenous chemistry are also discussed.
The Challenges to Coupling Dynamic Geospatial Models
Goldstein, N
2006-06-23
Many applications of modeling spatial dynamic systems focus on a single system and a single process, ignoring the geographic and systemic context of the processes being modeled. A solution to this problem is the coupled modeling of spatial dynamic systems. Coupled modeling is challenging for both technical reasons, as well as conceptual reasons. This paper explores the benefits and challenges to coupling or linking spatial dynamic models, from loose coupling, where information transfer between models is done by hand, to tight coupling, where two (or more) models are merged as one. To illustrate the challenges, a coupled model of Urbanization and Wildfire Risk is presented. This model, called Vesta, was applied to the Santa Barbara, California region (using real geospatial data), where Urbanization and Wildfires occur and recur, respectively. The preliminary results of the model coupling illustrate that coupled modeling can lead to insight into the consequences of processes acting on their own.
Coupled transport in rotor models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iubini, S.; Lepri, S.; Livi, R.; Politi, A.
2016-08-01
Steady nonequilibrium states are investigated in a one-dimensional setup in the presence of two thermodynamic currents. Two paradigmatic nonlinear oscillators models are investigated: an XY chain and the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Their distinctive feature is that the relevant variable is an angle in both cases. We point out the importance of clearly distinguishing between energy and heat flux. In fact, even in the presence of a vanishing Seebeck coefficient, a coupling between (angular) momentum and energy arises, mediated by the unavoidable presence of a coherent energy flux. Such a contribution is the result of the ‘advection’ induced by the position-dependent angular velocity. As a result, in the XY model, the knowledge of the two diagonal elements of the Onsager matrix suffices to reconstruct its transport properties. The analysis of the nonequilibrium steady states finally allows to strengthen the connection between the two models.
A multilingual programming model for coupled systems.
Ong, E. T.; Larson, J. W.; Norris, B.; Tobis, M.; Steder, M.; Jacob, R. L.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Wisconsin; Univ. of Chicago; The Australian National Univ.
2008-01-01
Multiphysics and multiscale simulation systems share a common software requirement-infrastructure to implement data exchanges between their constituent parts-often called the coupling problem. On distributed-memory parallel platforms, the coupling problem is complicated by the need to describe, transfer, and transform distributed data, known as the parallel coupling problem. Parallel coupling is emerging as a new grand challenge in computational science as scientists attempt to build multiscale and multiphysics systems on parallel platforms. An additional coupling problem in these systems is language interoperability between their constituent codes. We have created a multilingual parallel coupling programming model based on a successful open-source parallel coupling library, the Model Coupling Toolkit (MCT). This programming model's capabilities reach beyond MCT's native Fortran implementation to include bindings for the C++ and Python programming languages. We describe the method used to generate the interlanguage bindings. This approach enables an object-based programming model for implementing parallel couplings in non-Fortran coupled systems and in systems with language heterogeneity. We describe the C++ and Python versions of the MCT programming model and provide short examples. We report preliminary performance results for the MCT interpolation benchmark. We describe a major Python application that uses the MCT Python bindings, a Python implementation of the control and coupling infrastructure for the community climate system model. We conclude with a discussion of the significance of this work to productivity computing in multidisciplinary computational science.
Convectively coupled Kelvin waves in CMIP5 coupled climate models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lu; Li, Tim
2016-04-01
This study provided a quantitative evaluation of convectively coupled Kelvin waves (CCKWs) over the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean simulated by 20 coupled climate models that participated in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5. The two leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) modes of filtered daily precipitation anomalies are used to represent the eastward propagating CCKWs in both observations and simulations. The eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the EOF modes represent the spatial patterns and intensity of CCKWs respectively, and the lead-lag relationship between the two EOF principle components describe the phase propagation of CCKWs. A non-dimensional metric was designed in consideration of all the three factors (i.e., pattern, amplitude and phase propagation) for evaluation. The relative rankings of the models based on the skill scores calculated by the metric are conducted for the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, respectively. Two models (NorESM1-M and MPI-ESM-LR) are ranked among the best 20 % for both the regions. Three models (inmcm4, MRI-CGCM3 and HadGEM2-ES) are ranked among the worst 20 % for both the regions. While the observed CCKW amplitude is greater north of the equator in the Pacific, some models overestimate the CCKW ampliutde in the Southern Hemisphere. This bias is related to the mean state precipitation bias along the south Pacific convergence zone.
Coupling environmental models and geospatial data processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandmeyer, Jo Ellen
2000-10-01
This research investigated geospatial functions for solving environmental problems from the perspective of the environmental modeler. Its purpose is to better understand the different approaches to coupling complex models and geospatial data processing, plus the implications for the coupled system. To this end, various coupling methodologies were systematically explored using a geographic information system (GIS) and an emissions processor (SMOKE) for air quality models (AQMs). SMOKE converts an emissions inventory into the format required by an AQM. A GIS creates a file describing the spatial distribution of emissions among the cells in a modeling domain. To demonstrate advantages of a coupled GIS---environmental model system, two methods of spatially distributing on-road mobile emissions to cells were examined. The existing method calculates emissions for each road class, but distributes emissions to the cells using population density. For the new method a GIS builds road density by class and then distributes the emissions using road density. Comparing these methods reveals a significantly different spatial pattern of emissions. Next, various model-coupling methodologies were analyzed, revealing numerous coupling approaches, some of which were categorized in the literature. Critiquing these categorizations while comparing them with documented implementations led to the development of a new coupling hierarchy. The properties of each hierarchical level are discussed with the advantages and limitations of each design. To successfully couple models, the spatial and temporal scales of all models in the coupled system and the spatiotemporal extents of the data must be reconciled. Finally, a case study demonstrated methodologies for coupling SMOKE and a GIS. One methodology required a new approach utilizing dynamically linked libraries. Consequently, emissions were processed using SMOKE from a GIS. Also, a new method of converting data from netCDF files into a database
Dynamic coupling of three hydrodynamic models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartnack, J. N.; Philip, G. T.; Rungoe, M.; Smith, G.; Johann, G.; Larsen, O.; Gregersen, J.; Butts, M. B.
2008-12-01
The need for integrated modelling is evidently present within the field of flood management and flood forecasting. Engineers, modellers and managers are faced with flood problems which transcend the classical hydrodynamic fields of urban, river and coastal flooding. Historically the modeller has been faced with having to select one hydrodynamic model to cover all the aspects of the potentially complex dynamics occurring in a flooding situation. Such a single hydrodynamic model does not cover all dynamics of flood modelling equally well. Thus the ideal choice may in fact be a combination of models. Models combining two numerical/hydrodynamic models are becoming more standard, typically these models combine a 1D river model with a 2D overland flow model or alternatively a 1D sewer/collection system model with a 2D overland solver. In complex coastal/urban areas the flood dynamics may include rivers/streams, collection/storm water systems along with the overland flow. The dynamics within all three areas is of the same time scale and there is feedback in the system across the couplings. These two aspects dictate a fully dynamic three way coupling as opposed to running the models sequentially. It will be shown that the main challenges of the three way coupling are time step issues related to the difference in numerical schemes used in the three model components and numerical instabilities caused by the linking of the model components. MIKE FLOOD combines the models MIKE 11, MIKE 21 and MOUSE into one modelling framework which makes it possible to couple any combination of river, urban and overland flow fully dynamically. The MIKE FLOOD framework will be presented with an overview of the coupling possibilities. The flood modelling concept will be illustrated through real life cases in Australia and in Germany. The real life cases reflect dynamics and interactions across all three model components which are not possible to reproduce using a two-way coupling alone. The
Coupled wake boundary layer model of windfarms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stevens, Richard; Gayme, Dennice; Meneveau, Charles
2014-11-01
We present a coupled wake boundary layer (CWBL) model that describes the distribution of the power output in a windfarm. The model couples the traditional, industry-standard wake expansion/superposition approach with a top-down model for the overall windfarm boundary layer structure. Wake models capture the effect of turbine positioning, while the top-down approach represents the interaction between the windturbine wakes and the atmospheric boundary layer. Each portion of the CWBL model requires specification of a parameter that is unknown a-priori. The wake model requires the wake expansion rate, whereas the top-down model requires the effective spanwise turbine spacing within which the model's momentum balance is relevant. The wake expansion rate is obtained by matching the mean velocity at the turbine from both approaches, while the effective spanwise turbine spacing is determined from the wake model. Coupling of the constitutive components of the CWBL model is achieved by iterating these parameters until convergence is reached. We show that the CWBL model predictions compare more favorably with large eddy simulation results than those made with either the wake or top-down model in isolation and that the model can be applied successfully to the Horns Rev and Nysted windfarms. The `Fellowships for Young Energy Scientists' (YES!) of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter supported by NWO, and NSF Grant #1243482.
An Appraisal of Coupled Climate Model Simulations
Sperber, K; Gleckler, P; Covey, C; Taylor, K; Bader, D; Phillips, T; Fiorino, M; Achutarao, K
2004-02-24
In 2002, the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) proposed the concept for a state-of-the-science appraisal of climate models to be performed approximately every two years. Motivation for this idea arose from the perceived needs of the international modeling groups and the broader climate research community to document progress more frequently than provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Reports. A committee of external reviewers, which included senior researchers from four leading international modeling centers, supported the concept by stating in its review: ''The panel enthusiastically endorses the suggestion that PCMDI develop an independent appraisal of coupled model performance every 2-3 years. This would provide a useful 'mid-course' evaluation of modeling progress in the context of larger IPCC and national assessment activities, and should include both coupled and single-component model evaluations.''
Model reduction for networks of coupled oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gottwald, Georg A.
2015-05-01
We present a collective coordinate approach to describe coupled phase oscillators. We apply the method to study synchronisation in a Kuramoto model. In our approach, an N-dimensional Kuramoto model is reduced to an n-dimensional ordinary differential equation with n ≪ N , constituting an immense reduction in complexity. The onset of both local and global synchronisation is reproduced to good numerical accuracy, and we are able to describe both soft and hard transitions. By introducing two collective coordinates, the approach is able to describe the interaction of two partially synchronised clusters in the case of bimodally distributed native frequencies. Furthermore, our approach allows us to accurately describe finite size scalings of the critical coupling strength. We corroborate our analytical results by comparing with numerical simulations of the Kuramoto model with all-to-all coupling networks for several distributions of the native frequencies.
Playing with fermion couplings in Higgsless models
Casalbuoni, R.; De Curtis, S.; Dolce, D.; Dominici, D.
2005-04-01
We discuss the fermion couplings in a four dimensional SU(2) linear moose model by allowing for direct couplings between the left-handed fermions on the boundary and the gauge fields in the internal sites. This is realized by means of a product of nonlinear {sigma}-model scalar fields which, in the continuum limit, is equivalent to a Wilson line. The effect of these new nonlocal couplings is a contribution to the {epsilon}{sub 3} parameter which can be of opposite sign with respect to the one coming from the gauge fields along the string. Therefore, with some fine-tuning, it is possible to satisfy the constraints from the electroweak data.
Simplified coupling power model for fibers fusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saktioto, J.; Ali, J.; Fadhali, M.
2009-09-01
Fiber coupler fabrication used for an optical waveguide requires lossless power for an optimal application. The previous research coupled fibers were successfully fabricated by injecting hydrogen flow at 1 bar and fused slightly by unstable torch flame in the range of 800-1350°C. Optical parameters may vary significantly over wide range physical properties. Coupling coefficient and refractive index are estimated from the experimental result of the coupling ratio distribution from 1% to 75%. The change of geometrical fiber affects the normalized frequency V even for single mode fibers. V is derived and some parametric variations are performed on the left and right hand side of the coupling region. A partial power is modelled and derived using V, normalized lateral phase constant u, and normalized lateral attenuation constant, w through the second kind of modified Bessel function of the l order, which obeys the normal mode and normalized propagation constant b. Total power is maintained constant in order to comply with the energy conservation law. The power is integrated through V, u, and w over the pulling length of 7500 µm for 1-D. The core radius of a fiber significantly affects V and power partially at coupling region rather than wavelength and refractive index of core and cladding. This model has power phenomena in transmission and reflection for an optical switch and tunable filter.
Parallelization of the Coupled Earthquake Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Block, Gary; Li, P. Peggy; Song, Yuhe T.
2007-01-01
This Web-based tsunami simulation system allows users to remotely run a model on JPL s supercomputers for a given undersea earthquake. At the time of this reporting, predicting tsunamis on the Internet has never happened before. This new code directly couples the earthquake model and the ocean model on parallel computers and improves simulation speed. Seismometers can only detect information from earthquakes; they cannot detect whether or not a tsunami may occur as a result of the earthquake. When earthquake-tsunami models are coupled with the improved computational speed of modern, high-performance computers and constrained by remotely sensed data, they are able to provide early warnings for those coastal regions at risk. The software is capable of testing NASA s satellite observations of tsunamis. It has been successfully tested for several historical tsunamis, has passed all alpha and beta testing, and is well documented for users.
The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meehl, Gerald A.; Boer, George J.; Covey, Curt; Latif, Mojib; Stouffer, Ronald J.
2000-02-01
The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) was established to study and intercompare climate simulations made with coupled ocean-atmosphere-cryosphere-land GCMs. There are two main phases (CMIP1 and CMIP2), which study, respectively, 1) the ability of models to simulate current climate, and 2) model simulations of climate change due to an idealized change in forcing (a 1% per year CO2 increase). Results from a number of CMIP projects were reported at the first CMIP Workshop held in Melbourne, Australia, in October 1998. Some recent advances in global coupled modeling related to CMIP were also reported. Presentations were based on preliminary unpublished results. Key outcomes from the workshop were that 1) many observed aspects of climate variability are simulated in global coupled models including the North Atlantic oscillation and its linkages to North Atlantic SSTs, El Niño-like events, and monsoon interannual variability; 2) the amplitude of both high- and low-frequency global mean surface temperature variability in many global coupled models is less than that observed, with the former due in part to simulated ENSO in the models being generally weaker than observed, and the latter likely to be at least partially due to the uncertainty in the estimates of past radiative forcing; 3) an El Niño-like pattern in the mean SST response with greater surface warming in the eastern equatorial Pacific than the western equatorial Pacific is found by a number of models in global warming climate change experiments, but other models have a more spatially uniform or even a La Niña-like, response; 4) flux adjustment, by definition, improves the simulation of mean present-day climate over oceans, does not guarantee a drift-free climate, but can produce a stable base state in some models to enable very long term (1000 yr and longer) integrations-in these models it does not appear to have a major effect on model processes or model responses to increasing CO2; and 5) recent
Coupled intertwiner dynamics: A toy model for coupling matter to spin foam models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinhaus, Sebastian
2015-09-01
The universal coupling of matter and gravity is one of the most important features of general relativity. In quantum gravity, in particular spin foams, matter couplings have been defined in the past, yet the mutual dynamics, in particular if matter and gravity are strongly coupled, are hardly explored, which is related to the definition of both matter and gravitational degrees of freedom on the discretization. However, extracting these mutual dynamics is crucial in testing the viability of the spin foam approach and also establishing connections to other discrete approaches such as lattice gauge theories. Therefore, we introduce a simple two-dimensional toy model for Yang-Mills coupled to spin foams, namely an Ising model coupled to so-called intertwiner models defined for SU (2 )k. The two systems are coupled by choosing the Ising coupling constant to depend on spin labels of the background, as these are interpreted as the edge lengths of the discretization. We coarse grain this toy model via tensor network renormalization and uncover an interesting dynamics: the Ising phase transition temperature turns out to be sensitive to the background configurations and conversely, the Ising model can induce phase transitions in the background. Moreover, we observe a strong coupling of both systems if close to both phase transitions.
Analytical model of internally coupled ears.
Vossen, Christine; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; van Hemmen, J Leo
2010-08-01
Lizards and many birds possess a specialized hearing mechanism: internally coupled ears where the tympanic membranes connect through a large mouth cavity so that the vibrations of the tympanic membranes influence each other. This coupling enhances the phase differences and creates amplitude differences in the tympanic membrane vibrations. Both cues show strong directionality. The work presented herein sets out the derivation of a three dimensional analytical model of internally coupled ears that allows for calculation of a complete vibration profile of the membranes. The analytical model additionally provides the opportunity to incorporate the effect of the asymmetrically attached columella, which leads to the activation of higher membrane vibration modes. Incorporating this effect, the analytical model can explain measurements taken from the tympanic membrane of a living lizard, for example, data demonstrating an asymmetrical spatial pattern of membrane vibration. As the analytical calculations show, the internally coupled ears increase the directional response, appearing in large directional internal amplitude differences (iAD) and in large internal time differences (iTD). Numerical simulations of the eigenfunctions in an exemplary, realistically reconstructed mouth cavity further estimate the effects of its complex geometry. PMID:20707461
Modeling partially coupled objects with smooth particle hydrodynamics
Wingate, C.A.
1996-10-01
A very simple phenomenological model is presented to model objects that are partially coupled (i.e. welded or bonded) where usually the coupled interface is weaker than the bulk material. The model works by letting objects fully interact in compression and having the objects only partially interact in tension. A disconnect factor is provided to adjust the tensile interaction to simulate coupling strengths. Three cases of an example impact calculation are shown-no coupling, full coupling and partial coupling.
Modeling coupled avulsion and earthquake timescale dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reitz, M. D.; Steckler, M. S.; Paola, C.; Seeber, L.
2014-12-01
River avulsions and earthquakes can be hazardous events, and many researchers work to better understand and predict their timescales. Improvements in the understanding of the intrinsic processes of deposition and strain accumulation that lead to these events have resulted in better constraints on the timescales of each process individually. There are however several mechanisms by which these two systems may plausibly become linked. River deposition and avulsion can affect the stress on underlying faults through differential loading by sediment or water. Conversely, earthquakes can affect river avulsion patterns through altering the topography. These interactions may alter the event recurrence timescales, but this dynamic has not yet been explored. We present results of a simple numerical model, in which two systems have intrinsic rates of approach to failure thresholds, but the state of one system contributes to the other's approach to failure through coupling functions. The model is first explored for the simplest case of two linear approaches to failure, and linearly proportional coupling terms. Intriguing coupling dynamics emerge: the system settles into cycles of repeating earthquake and avulsion timescales, which are approached at an exponential decay rate that depends on the coupling terms. The ratio of the number of events of each type and the timescale values also depend on the coupling coefficients and the threshold values. We then adapt the model to a more complex and realistic scenario, in which a river avulses between either side of a fault, with parameters corresponding to the Brahmaputra River / Dauki fault system in Bangladesh. Here the tectonic activity alters the topography by gradually subsiding during the interseismic time, and abruptly increasing during an earthquake. The river strengthens the fault by sediment loading when in one path, and weakens it when in the other. We show this coupling can significantly affect earthquake and avulsion
Coupled wave model for large magnet coils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gabriel, G. J.
1980-01-01
A wave coupled model based on field theory is evolved for analysis of fast electromagnetic transients on superconducting coils. It is expected to play a useful role in the design of protection methods against damage due to high voltages or any adverse effects that might arise from unintentional transients. The significant parameters of the coil are identified to be the turn to turn wave coupling coefficients and the travel time of an electromagnetic disturbance around a single turn. Unlike circuit theoretic inductor, the coil response evolves in discrete steps having durations equal to this travel time. It is during such intervals that high voltages are likely to occur. The model also bridges the gap between the low and high ends of the frequency spectrum.
Towards Better Coupling of Hydrological Simulation Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Penton, D.; Stenson, M.; Leighton, B.; Bridgart, R.
2012-12-01
Standards for model interoperability and scientific workflow software provide techniques and tools for coupling hydrological simulation models. However, model builders are yet to realize the benefits of these and continue to write ad hoc implementations and scripts. Three case studies demonstrate different approaches to coupling models, the first using tight interfaces (OpenMI), the second using a scientific workflow system (Trident) and the third using a tailored execution engine (Delft Flood Early Warning System - Delft-FEWS). No approach was objectively better than any other approach. The foremost standard for coupling hydrological models is the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI), which defines interfaces for models to interact. An implementation of the OpenMI standard involves defining interchange terms and writing a .NET/Java wrapper around the model. An execution wrapper such as OatC.GUI or Pipistrelle executes the models. The team built two OpenMI implementations for eWater Source river system models. Once built, it was easy to swap river system models. The team encountered technical challenges with versions of the .Net framework (3.5 calling 4.0) and with the performance of the execution wrappers when running daily simulations. By design, the OpenMI interfaces are general, leaving significant decisions around the semantics of the interfaces to the implementer. Increasingly, scientific workflow tools such as Kepler, Taverna and Trident are able to replace custom scripts. These tools aim to improve the provenance and reproducibility of processing tasks. In particular, Taverna and the myExperiment website have had success making many bioinformatics workflows reusable and sharable. The team constructed Trident activities for hydrological software including IQQM, REALM and eWater Source. They built an activity generator for model builders to build activities for particular river systems. The models were linked at a simulation level, without any daily time
Nonlinear Walecka models and point-coupling relativistic models
Lourenco, O.; Amaral, R. L. P. G.; Dutra, M.; Delfino, A.
2009-10-15
We study hadronic nonlinear point-coupling (NLPC) models which reproduce numerically the binding energy, the incompressibility, and the nucleon effective mass at the nuclear matter saturation obtained by different nonlinear Walecka (NLW) models. We have investigated their behaviors as functions of the nuclear matter density to observe how they deviate from known NLW models. In our study we present a meson-exchange modified nonlinear Walecka model (MNLW) which exactly underlies a nonlinear point-coupling model (NLPC) presenting third- and fourth-order scalar density self-couplings. A discussion about naive dimensional analysis (NDA) and naturalness is also provided for a large class of NLW and NLPC models. At finite temperature, critical and flash parameters of both approaches are presented.
Four mass coupled oscillator guitar model.
Popp, John E
2012-01-01
Coupled oscillator models have been used for the low frequency response (50 to 250 Hz) of a guitar. These 2 and 3 mass models correctly predict measured resonance frequency relationships under various laboratory boundary conditions, but did not always represent the true state of a guitar in the players' hands. The model presented has improved these models in three ways, (1) a fourth oscillator includes the guitar body, (2) plate stiffnesses and other fundamental parameters were measured directly and effective areas and masses used to calculate the responses, including resonances and phases, directly, and (3) one of the three resultant resonances varies with neck and side mass and can also be modeled as a bar mode of the neck and body. The calculated and measured resonances and phases agree reasonably well. PMID:22280705
Coupling a terrestrial biogeochemical model to the common land model
Shi, Xiaoying; Mao, Jiafu; Wang, Yingping; Dai, Yongjiu; Tang, Xuli
2011-01-01
A terrestrial biogeochemical model (CASACNP) was coupled to a land surface model (the Common Land Model, CoLM) to simulate the dynamics of carbon substrate in soil and its limitation on soil respiration. The combined model, CoLM-CASACNP, was able to predict long-term carbon sources and sinks that CoLM alone could not. The coupled model was tested using measurements of belowground respiration and surface fluxes from two forest ecosystems. The combined model simulated reasonably well the diurnal and seasonal variations of net ecosystem carbon exchange, as well as seasonal variation in the soil respiration rate of both the forest sites chosen for this study. However, the agreement between model simulations and actual measurements was poorer under dry conditions. The model should be tested against more measurements before being applied globally to investigate the feedbacks between the carbon cycle and climate change.
Session on validation of coupled models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuo, Bill
1993-01-01
The session on validation of coupled models is reviewed. The current use of a mesoscale model with a grid size of 20-km during STORM-FEST in 1992 has proven to be extremely valuable. The availability of forecast products at a much higher temporal and spatial resolution was very helpful for mesoscale forecasting, mission planning, and the guidance of research aircraft. Recent numerical simulation of ocean cyclones and mesoscsle convective systems using nonhydrostatic cloud/mesoscale models with a grid size as small as 2-km have demonstrated the potential of these models for predicting mesoscale convective systems, squall lines, hurricane rainbands, mesoscale gravity waves, and mesoscale frontal structures embedded within an extratropical cyclone. Although mesoscale/cloud scale models have demonstrated strong potential for use in operational forecasting, very limited quantitative evaluation (and verification) of these models were performed. As a result, the accuracy, the systematic biases, and the useful forecasts limits were not properly defined for these models. Also, no serious attempts were made to use these models for operational prediction of mesoscale convective systems.
Multiphysics and Multiscale Model Coupling Using Gerris
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keen, T. R.; Dykes, J. D.; Campbell, T. J.
2012-12-01
This work is implementing oceanographic processes encompassing multiple physics and scales using the Gerris Flow Solver (GFS) in order to examine their interdependence and sensitivity to changes in the physical environment. The processes include steady flow due to tides and the wind, phase-averaged wave-forced flow and oscillatory currents, and sediment transport. The 2D steady flow is calculated by the Ocean module contained within GFS. This model solves the Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations using the finite volume method. The model domain is represented by quad-tree adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). A stationary wave field is computed for a specified wave spectrum is uniformly distributed over the domain as a tracer with local wind input parameterized as a source, and dissipation by friction and breaking as a sink. Alongshore flow is included by a radiation stress term; this current is added to the steady flow component from tides and wind. Wave-current interaction is parameterized using a bottom boundary layer model. Sediment transport as suspended and bed load is implemented using tracers that are transported via the advection equations. A bed-conservation equation is implemented to allow changes in seafloor elevation to be used in adjusting the AMR refinement. These processes are being coupled using programming methods that are inherent to GFS and that do not require modification or recompiling of the code. These techniques include passive tracers, C functions that operate as plug-ins, and user-defined C-type macros included with GFS. Our results suggest that the AMR model coupling method is useful for problems where the dynamics are governed by several processes. This study is examining the relative influence of the steady currents, wave field, and sedimentation. Hydrodynamic and sedimentation interaction in nearshore environments is being studied for an idealized beach and for the Sandy Duck storm of Oct. 1998. The potential behavior of muddy sediments on the
Coupled map lattice model of jet breakup
Minich, R W; Schwartz, A J; Baker, E L
2001-01-25
An alternative approach is described to evaluate the statistical nature of the breakup of shaped charge liners. Experimental data from ductile and brittle copper jets are analyzed in terms of velocity gradient, deviation of {Delta}V from linearity, R/S analysis, and the Hurst exponent within the coupled map lattice model. One-dimensional simulations containing 600 zones of equal mass and using distinctly different force-displacement curves are generated to simulate ductile and brittle behavior. A particle separates from the stretching jet when an element of material reaches the failure criterion. A simple model of a stretching rod using brittle, semi-brittle, and ductile force-displacement curves is in agreement with the experimental results for the Hurst exponent and the phase portraits and indicates that breakup is a correlated phenomenon.
Generalized hydrodynamics model for strongly coupled plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diaw, A.; Murillo, M. S.
2015-07-01
Beginning with the exact equations of the Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon hierarchy, we obtain the density, momentum, and stress tensor-moment equations. We close the moment equations with two closures, one that guarantees an equilibrium state given by density-functional theory and another that includes collisions in the relaxation of the stress tensor. The introduction of a density functional-theory closure ensures self-consistency in the equation-of-state properties of the plasma (ideal and excess pressure, electric fields, and correlations). The resulting generalized hydrodynamics thus includes all impacts of Coulomb coupling, viscous damping, and the high-frequency (viscoelastic) response. We compare our results with those of several known models, including generalized hydrodynamic theory and models obtained using the Singwi-Tosi-Land-Sjolander approximation and the quasilocalized charge approximation. We find that the viscoelastic response, including both the high-frequency elastic generalization and viscous wave damping, is important for correctly describing ion-acoustic waves. We illustrate this result by considering three very different systems: ultracold plasmas, dusty plasmas, and dense plasmas. The new model is validated by comparing its results with those of the current autocorrelation function obtained from molecular-dynamics simulations of Yukawa plasmas, and the agreement is excellent. Generalizations of this model to mixtures and quantum systems should be straightforward.
Extended source model for diffusive coupling.
González-Ochoa, Héctor O; Flores-Moreno, Roberto; Reyes, Luz M; Femat, Ricardo
2016-01-01
Motivated by the prevailing approach to diffusion coupling phenomena which considers point-like diffusing sources, we derived an analogous expression for the concentration rate of change of diffusively coupled extended containers. The proposed equation, together with expressions based on solutions to the diffusion equation, is intended to be applied to the numerical solution of systems exclusively composed of ordinary differential equations, however is able to account for effects due the finite size of the coupled sources. PMID:26802012
Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere coupling model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kachakhidze, M. K., III
2015-12-01
The present work offers interpretation of a mechanism of formation of hypothetic ideal electromagnetic contour, creation of which is envisaged in incoming earthquake focal zone. Model of generation of EM emissions detected before earthquake is based on physical analogues of distributed and conservative systems and focal zones. According to the model the process of earthquake preparation from the moment of appearance of cracks in the system, including completion of series of foreshocks, earthquake and aftershocks, are entirely explained by oscillating systems.According to the authors of the work electromagnetic emissions in radio diapason is more universal and reliable than other anomalous variations of various geophysical phenomena in earthquake preparation period; Besides, VLF/LF electromagnetic emissions might be declared as the main precursor of earthquake because it might turn out very useful with the view of prediction of large (M5) inland earthquakes and to govern processes going on in lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling (LAIC) system. Based on this model, in case of electromagnetic emissions spectrum monitoring in the period that precedes earthquake it is possible to determine, with certain accuracy, the time, location and magnitude of an incoming earthquake simultaneously.The present item considers possible physical mechanisms of the geophysical phenomena, which may accompany earthquake preparation process and expose themselves several months, weeks or days prior to earthquakes. Such as: Changing of intensity of electro-telluric current in focal area; Perturbations of geomagnetic field in forms of irregular pulsations or regular short-period pulsations; Perturbations of atmospheric electric field; Irregular changing of characteristic parameters of the lower ionosphere (plasma frequency, electron concentration, height of D layer, etc.); Irregular perturbations reaching the upper ionosphere, namely F2-layer, for 2-3 days before the earthquake
Coupling approaches used in atmospheric entry models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gritsevich, M. I.
2012-09-01
While a planet orbits the Sun, it is subject to impact by smaller objects, ranging from tiny dust particles and space debris to much larger asteroids and comets. Such collisions have taken place frequently over geological time and played an important role in the evolution of planets and the development of life on the Earth. Though the search for near-Earth objects addresses one of the main points of the Asteroid and Comet Hazard, one should not underestimate the useful information to be gleaned from smaller atmospheric encounters, known as meteors or fireballs. Not only do these events help determine the linkages between meteorites and their parent bodies; due to their relative regularity they provide a good statistical basis for analysis. For successful cases with found meteorites, the detailed atmospheric path record is an excellent tool to test and improve existing entry models assuring the robustness of their implementation. There are many more important scientific questions meteoroids help us to answer, among them: Where do these objects come from, what are their origins, physical properties and chemical composition? What are the shapes and bulk densities of the space objects which fully ablate in an atmosphere and do not reach the planetary surface? Which values are directly measured and which are initially assumed as input to various models? How to couple both fragmentation and ablation effects in the model, taking real size distribution of fragments into account? How to specify and speed up the recovery of a recently fallen meteorites, not letting weathering to affect samples too much? How big is the pre-atmospheric projectile to terminal body ratio in terms of their mass/volume? Which exact parameters beside initial mass define this ratio? More generally, how entering object affects Earth's atmosphere and (if applicable) Earth's surface? How to predict these impact consequences based on atmospheric trajectory data? How to describe atmospheric entry
Madden-Julian Variability in Coupled Models
Sperber, K R; Gualdi, S; Li, W; Slingo, J M
2001-12-12
The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a dominant mode of tropical variability (Madden and Julian 1971, 1972). It is manifested on a timescale of {approx}30-70 days through large-scale circulation anomalies which occur in conjunction with eastward propagating convective anomalies over the eastern hemisphere. Recent evidence has suggested that an interactive ocean may be important for the simulation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (Flatau et al. 1997, Sperber et al. 1997, Waliser et al. 1999, Inness et al. 2002). As part of an initiative to the CLIVAR Working Group on Coupled Modeling, we examine ocean-atmosphere GCMs to ascertain the degree to which they can represent the 4-dimensional space-time structure of the MJO. The eastward propagation of convection is also examined with respect to the surface fluxes and SST, and we compare and contrast the behavior over the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific. Importantly, the results are interpreted with respect to systematic error of the mean state.
Coupling Climate Models and Forward-Looking Economic Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Judd, K.; Brock, W. A.
2010-12-01
Authors: Dr. Kenneth L. Judd, Hoover Institution, and Prof. William A. Brock, University of Wisconsin Current climate models range from General Circulation Models (GCM’s) with millions of degrees of freedom to models with few degrees of freedom. Simple Energy Balance Climate Models (EBCM’s) help us understand the dynamics of GCM’s. The same is true in economics with Computable General Equilibrium Models (CGE’s) where some models are infinite-dimensional multidimensional differential equations but some are simple models. Nordhaus (2007, 2010) couples a simple EBCM with a simple economic model. One- and two- dimensional ECBM’s do better at approximating damages across the globe and positive and negative feedbacks from anthroprogenic forcing (North etal. (1981), Wu and North (2007)). A proper coupling of climate and economic systems is crucial for arriving at effective policies. Brock and Xepapadeas (2010) have used Fourier/Legendre based expansions to study the shape of socially optimal carbon taxes over time at the planetary level in the face of damages caused by polar ice cap melt (as discussed by Oppenheimer, 2005) but in only a “one dimensional” EBCM. Economists have used orthogonal polynomial expansions to solve dynamic, forward-looking economic models (Judd, 1992, 1998). This presentation will couple EBCM climate models with basic forward-looking economic models, and examine the effectiveness and scaling properties of alternative solution methods. We will use a two dimensional EBCM model on the sphere (Wu and North, 2007) and a multicountry, multisector regional model of the economic system. Our aim will be to gain insights into intertemporal shape of the optimal carbon tax schedule, and its impact on global food production, as modeled by Golub and Hertel (2009). We will initially have limited computing resources and will need to focus on highly aggregated models. However, this will be more complex than existing models with forward
Strong coupling theory for interacting lattice models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stanescu, Tudor D.; Kotliar, Gabriel
2004-11-01
We develop a strong coupling approach for a general lattice problem. We argue that this strong coupling perspective represents the natural framework for a generalization of the dynamical mean field theory (DMFT). The main result of this analysis is twofold: (1) It provides the tools for a unified treatment of any nonlocal contribution to the Hamiltonian. Within our scheme, nonlocal terms such as hopping terms, spin-spin interactions, or nonlocal Coulomb interactions are treated on equal footing. (2) By performing a detailed strong-coupling analysis of a generalized lattice problem, we establish the basis for possible clean and systematic extensions beyond DMFT. To this end, we study the problem using three different perspectives. First, we develop a generalized expansion around the atomic limit in terms of the coupling constants for the nonlocal contributions to the Hamiltonian. By analyzing the diagrammatics associated with this expansion, we establish the equations for a generalized dynamical mean-field theory. Second, we formulate the theory in terms of a generalized strong coupling version of the Baym-Kadanoff functional. Third, following Pairault, Sénéchal, and Tremblay [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5389 (1998)], we present our scheme in the language of a perturbation theory for canonical fermionic and bosonic fields and we establish the interpretation of various strong coupling quantities within a standard perturbative picture.
Modeling of coupled geochemical and transport processes: An overview
Carnahan, C.L.
1989-10-01
Early coupled models associated with fluid flow and solute transport have been limited by assumed conditions of constant temperature, fully saturated fluid flow, and constant pore fluid velocity. Developments including coupling of chemical reactions to variable fields of temperature and fluid flow have generated new requirements for experimental data. As the capabilities of coupled models expand, needs are created for experimental data to be used for both input and validation. 25 refs.
Time-delayed coupled logistic capacity model in population dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cáceres, Manuel O.
2014-08-01
This study proposes a delay-coupled system based on the logistic equation that models the interaction of a population with its varying environment. The integro-diferential equations of the model are presented in terms of a distributed time-delayed coupled logistic-capacity equation. The model eliminates the need for a prior knowledge of the maximum saturation environmental carrying capacity value. Therefore the dynamics toward the final attractor in a distributed time-delayed coupled logistic-capacity model is studied. Exact results are presented, and analytical conclusions have been done in terms of the two parameters of the model.
CIDGA - Coupling of Interior Dynamic models with Global Atmosphere models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noack, Lena; Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Breuer, Doris
2010-05-01
Atmosphere temperatures and in particular the surface temperatures mostly depend on the solar heat flux and the atmospheric composition. The latter can be influenced by interior processes of the planet, i.e. volcanism that releases greenhouse gases such as H2O, CO2 and methane into the atmosphere and plate tectonics through which atmospheric CO2 is recycled via carbonates into the mantle. An increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere results in an increase of the surface temperature. Changes in the surface temperature on the other hand may influence the cooling behaviour of the planet and hence influence its volcanic activity [Phillips et al., 2001]. This feedback relation between mantle convection and atmosphere is not very well understood, since until now mostly either the interior dynamic of a planet or its atmosphere was investigated separately. 2D or 3D mantle convection models to the authors' knowledge haven't been coupled to the atmosphere so far. We have used the 3D spherical simulation code GAIA [Hüttig et al., 2008] including partial melt production and coupled it with the atmosphere module CIDGA using a gray greenhouse model for varying H2O concentrations. This way, not only the influence of mantle dynamics on the atmosphere can be investigated, but also the recoupling effect, that the surface temperature has on the mantle dynamics. So far, we consider one-plate planets without crustal and thus volatile recycling. Phillips et al. [2001] already investigated the coupling effect of the surface temperature on mantle dynamics by using simple parameterized convection models for Venus. In their model a positive feedback mechanism has been observed, i.e., an increase of the surface temperature leads to an increase of partial melt and hence an increase of atmosphere density and surface temperature. Applying our model to Venus, we show that an increase of surface temperature leads not only to an increase of partial melt in the mantle; it also
Quark-meson coupling model with the cloudy bag
Nagai, S.; Miyatsu, T.; Saito, Kenji; Tsushima, Kazuo
2008-07-01
Using the volume coupling version of the cloudy bag model, the quark-meson coupling model is extended to study the role of pion field and the properties of nuclear matter. The extended model includes the effect of gluon exchange as well as the pion-cloud effect, and provides a good description of the nuclear matter properties. The relationship between the extended model and the EFT approach to nuclear matter is also discussed.
D3-Equivariant coupled advertising oscillators model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Chunrui; Zheng, Huifeng
2011-04-01
A ring of three coupled advertising oscillators with delay is considered. Using the symmetric functional differential equation theories, the multiple Hopf bifurcations of the equilibrium at the origin are demonstrated. The existence of multiple branches of bifurcating periodic solution is obtained. Numerical simulation supports our analysis results.
Synchronized action of synaptically coupled chaotic model neurons.
Abarbanel, H D; Huerta, R; Rabinovich, M I; Rulkov, N F; Rowat, P F; Selverston, A I
1996-11-15
Experimental observations of the intracellular recorded electrical activity in individual neurons show that the temporal behavior is often chaotic. We discuss both our own observations on a cell from the stomatogastric central pattern generator of lobster and earlier observations in other cells. In this paper we work with models with chaotic neurons, building on models by Hindmarsh and Rose for bursting, spiking activity in neurons. The key feature of these simplified models of neurons is the presence of coupled slow and fast subsystems. We analyze the model neurons using the same tools employed in the analysis of our experimental data. We couple two model neurons both electrotonically and electrochemically in inhibitory and excitatory fashions. In each of these cases, we demonstrate that the model neurons can synchronize in phase and out of phase depending on the strength of the coupling. For normal synaptic coupling, we have a time delay between the action of one neuron and the response of the other. We also analyze how the synchronization depends on this delay. A rich spectrum of synchronized behaviors is possible for electrically coupled neurons and for inhibitory coupling between neurons. In synchronous neurons one typically sees chaotic motion of the coupled neurons. Excitatory coupling produces essentially periodic voltage trajectories, which are also synchronized. We display and discuss these synchronized behaviors using two "distance" measures of the synchronization. PMID:8888609
Graphical models of residue coupling in protein families.
Thomas, John; Ramakrishnan, Naren; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris
2008-01-01
Many statistical measures and algorithmic techniques have been proposed for studying residue coupling in protein families. Generally speaking, two residue positions are considered coupled if, in the sequence record, some of their amino acid type combinations are significantly more common than others. While the proposed approaches have proven useful in finding and describing coupling, a significant missing component is a formal probabilistic model that explicates and compactly represents the coupling, integrates information about sequence,structure, and function, and supports inferential procedures for analysis, diagnosis, and prediction.We present an approach to learning and using probabilistic graphical models of residue coupling. These models capture significant conservation and coupling constraints observable ina multiply-aligned set of sequences. Our approach can place a structural prior on considered couplings, so that all identified relationships have direct mechanistic explanations. It can also incorporate information about functional classes, and thereby learn a differential graphical model that distinguishes constraints common to all classes from those unique to individual classes. Such differential models separately account for class-specific conservation and family-wide coupling, two different sources of sequence covariation. They are then able to perform interpretable functional classification of new sequences, explaining classification decisions in terms of the underlying conservation and coupling constraints. We apply our approach in studies of both G protein-coupled receptors and PDZ domains, identifying and analyzing family-wide and class-specific constraints, and performing functional classification. The results demonstrate that graphical models of residue coupling provide a powerful tool for uncovering, representing, and utilizing significant sequence structure-function relationships in protein families. PMID:18451428
Model of globally coupled Duffing flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimada, Tokuzo; Moriya, Takanobu
2014-03-01
A Duffing oscillator in a certain parameter range shows period-doubling that has the same Feigenbaum ratio as the logistic map, which is an important issue in universality in chaos. In this paper a globally coupled lattice of Duffing flows (GCFL), which is a natural extension of the globally coupled logistic map lattice (GCML), is constructed. It is observed that GCFL inherits various intriguing properties of GCML and that universality at the level of elements is thus lifted to that of systems. Phase diagrams for GCFL are determined, which are essentially the same as those for GCML. Similar to the two-clustered periodic attractor of GCML, the GCFL two-clustered attractor exhibits a successive period-doubling with an increase of population imbalance between the clusters (\\vartheta -bifurcation). A nontrivial distinction between the GCML and GCFL attractors that originates from the symmetry in the Duffing equation is investigated in detail.
Modeling of Inner Magnetosphere Coupling Processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khazanov, George V.
2011-01-01
The Ring Current (RC) is the biggest energy player in the inner magnetosphere. It is the source of free energy for Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) wave excitation provided by a temperature anisotropy of RC ions, which develops naturally during inward E B convection from the plasmasheet. The cold plasmasphere, which is under the strong influence of the magnetospheric electric field, strongly mediates the RC-EMIC wave-particle-coupling process and ultimately becomes part of the particle and energy interplay. On the other hand, there is a strong influence of the RC on the inner magnetospheric electric and magnetic field configurations and these configurations, in turn, are important to RC dynamics. Therefore, one of the biggest needs for inner magnetospheric research is the continued progression toward a coupled, interconnected system with the inclusion of nonlinear feedback mechanisms between the plasma populations, the electric and magnetic fields, and plasma waves. As we clearly demonstrated in our studies, EMIC waves strongly interact with electrons and ions of energies ranging from approx.1 eV to approx.10 MeV, and that these waves strongly affect the dynamics of resonant RC ions, thermal electrons and ions, and the outer RB relativistic electrons. As we found, the rate of ion and electron scattering/heating in the Earth's magnetosphere is not only controlled by the wave intensity-spatial-temporal distribution but also strongly depends on the spectral distribution of the wave power. The latter is also a function of the plasmaspheric heavy ion content, and the plasma density and temperature distributions along the magnetic field lines. The above discussion places RC-EMIC wave coupling dynamics in context with inner magnetospheric coupling processes and, ultimately, relates RC studies with plasmaspheric and Superthermal Electrons formation processes as well as with outer RB physics.
Exact solutions for a coupled nonlocal model of nanobeams
Marotti de Sciarra, Francesco E-mail: raffaele.barretta@unina.it; Barretta, Raffaele E-mail: raffaele.barretta@unina.it
2014-10-06
BERNOULLI-EULER nanobeams under concentrated forces/couples with the nonlocal constitutive behavior proposed by ERINGEN do not exhibit small-scale effects. A new model obtained by coupling the ERINGEN and gradient models is formulated in the present note. A variational treatment is developed by imposing suitable thermodynamic restrictions for nonlocal models and the ensuing differential and boundary conditions of elastic equilibrium are provided. The nonlocal elastostatic problem is solved in a closed-form for nanocantilever and clamped nanobeams.
Coupling entropy of co-processing model on social networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhanli
2015-08-01
Coupling entropy of co-processing model on social networks is investigated in this paper. As one crucial factor to determine the processing ability of nodes, the information flow with potential time lag is modeled by co-processing diffusion which couples the continuous time processing and the discrete diffusing dynamics. Exact results on master equation and stationary state are achieved to disclose the formation. In order to understand the evolution of the co-processing and design the optimal routing strategy according to the maximal entropic diffusion on networks, we propose the coupling entropy comprehending the structural characteristics and information propagation on social network. Based on the analysis of the co-processing model, we analyze the coupling impact of the structural factor and information propagating factor on the coupling entropy, where the analytical results fit well with the numerical ones on scale-free social networks.
Overview of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP)
Meehl, G A; Covey, C; McAvaney, B; Latif, M; Stouffer, R J
2004-08-05
The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) is designed to allow study and intercomparison of multi-model simulations of present-day and future climate. The latter are represented by idealized forcing of compounded 1% per year CO2 increase to the time of CO2 doubling near year 70 in simulations with global coupled models that contain, typically, components representing atmosphere, ocean, sea ice and land surface. Results from CMIP diagnostic subprojects were presented at the Second CMIP Workshop held at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany, in September, 2003. Significant progress in diagnosing and understanding results from global coupled models has been made since the First CMIP Workshop in Melbourne, Australia in 1998. For example, the issue of flux adjustment is slowly fading as more and more models obtain stable multi-century surface climates without them. El Nino variability, usually about half the observed amplitude in the previous generation of coupled models, is now more accurately simulated in the present generation of global coupled models, though there are still biases in simulating the patterns of maximum variability. Typical resolutions of atmospheric component models contained in coupled models is now usually around 2.5 degrees latitude-longitude, with the ocean components often having about twice the atmospheric model resolution, with even higher resolution in the equatorial tropics. Some new-generation coupled models have atmospheric model resolutions of around 1.5 degrees latitude-longitude. Modeling groups now routinely run the CMIP control and 1% CO2 simulations in addition to 20th and 21st century climate simulations with a variety of forcings (e.g. volcanoes, solar variability, anthropogenic sulfate aerosols, ozone, and greenhouse gases (GHGs), with the anthropogenic forcings for future climate as well). However, persistent systematic errors noted in previous generations of global coupled models still are present
Perturbative unification of gauge couplings in supersymmetric E6 models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, Gi-Chol; Maru, Nobuhito; Yotsutani, Kaho
2016-07-01
We study gauge coupling unification in supersymmetric (SUSY) E6 models where an additional U(1)‧ gauge symmetry is broken near the TeV scale and a number of exotic matter fields from the 27 representations have O(TeV) mass. Solving the two-loop renormalization group equations (RGE) of gauge couplings and a kinetic mixing coupling between the U(1)‧ and U(1)Y gauge fields, we find that the gauge couplings fall into the non-perturbative regime below the grand unified theories (GUT) scale. We examine threshold corrections on the running of gauge couplings from both light and heavy ( ˜ GUT scale) particles and show constraints on the size of corrections to achieve the perturbative unification of gauge couplings.
Coupled thermomechanical modeling using dissimilar geometries in arpeggio.
Kostka, Timothy D.; Templeton, Jeremy Alan
2010-11-01
Performing coupled thermomechanical simulations is becoming an increasingly important aspect of nuclear weapon (NW) safety assessments in abnormal thermal environments. While such capabilities exist in SIERRA, they have thus far been used only in a limited sense to investigate NW safety themes. An important limiting factor is the difficulty associated with developing geometries and meshes appropriate for both thermal and mechanical finite element models, which has limited thermomechanical analysis to simplified configurations. This work addresses the issue of how to perform coupled analyses on models where the underlying geometries and associated meshes are different and tailored to their relevant physics. Such an approach will reduce the model building effort and enable previously developed single-physics models to be leveraged in future coupled simulations. A combined-environment approach is presented in this report using SIERRA tools, with quantitative comparisons made between different options in SIERRA. This report summarizes efforts on running a coupled thermomechanical analysis using the SIERRA Arpeggio code.
Two-level parabolic model with phase-jump coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lehto, J. M. S.; Suominen, K.-A.
2016-07-01
We study the coherent dynamics of a two-level parabolic model and ways to enhance population transfer and even to obtain complete population inversion in such models. Motivated by the complete population inversion effect of zero-area pulses found in [Phys. Rev. A 73, 023416 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevA.73.023416], we consider a scheme where a given coupling function is transformed to a zero-area coupling by performing a phase jump in the middle of the evolution. With a phase-jump coupling, complete population inversion can be achieved with relatively small coupling. In the case of Zener tunneling, complete population inversion is obtained for strong-enough coupling regardless of the height of the tunneling barrier. We also derive a universal formula for the effect of the phase jump.
Nuclear Hybrid Energy System Modeling: RELAP5 Dynamic Coupling Capabilities
Piyush Sabharwall; Nolan Anderson; Haihua Zhao; Shannon Bragg-Sitton; George Mesina
2012-09-01
The nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) research team is currently developing a dynamic simulation of an integrated hybrid energy system. A detailed simulation of proposed NHES architectures will allow initial computational demonstration of a tightly coupled NHES to identify key reactor subsystem requirements, identify candidate reactor technologies for a hybrid system, and identify key challenges to operation of the coupled system. This work will provide a baseline for later coupling of design-specific reactor models through industry collaboration. The modeling capability addressed in this report focuses on the reactor subsystem simulation.
Coupled land surface/hydrologic/atmospheric models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pielke, Roger; Steyaert, Lou; Arritt, Ray; Lahtakia, Mercedes; Smith, Chris; Ziegler, Conrad; Soong, Su Tzai; Avissar, Roni; Wetzel, Peter; Sellers, Piers
1993-01-01
The topics covered include the following: prototype land cover characteristics data base for the conterminous United States; surface evapotranspiration effects on cumulus convection and implications for mesoscale models; the use of complex treatment of surface hydrology and thermodynamics within a mesoscale model and some related issues; initialization of soil-water content for regional-scale atmospheric prediction models; impact of surface properties on dryline and MCS evolution; a numerical simulation of heavy precipitation over the complex topography of California; representing mesoscale fluxes induced by landscape discontinuities in global climate models; emphasizing the role of subgrid-scale heterogeneity in surface-air interaction; and problems with modeling and measuring biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of energy, water, and carbon on large scales.
Accurate theoretical chemistry with coupled pair models.
Neese, Frank; Hansen, Andreas; Wennmohs, Frank; Grimme, Stefan
2009-05-19
Quantum chemistry has found its way into the everyday work of many experimental chemists. Calculations can predict the outcome of chemical reactions, afford insight into reaction mechanisms, and be used to interpret structure and bonding in molecules. Thus, contemporary theory offers tremendous opportunities in experimental chemical research. However, even with present-day computers and algorithms, we cannot solve the many particle Schrodinger equation exactly; inevitably some error is introduced in approximating the solutions of this equation. Thus, the accuracy of quantum chemical calculations is of critical importance. The affordable accuracy depends on molecular size and particularly on the total number of atoms: for orientation, ethanol has 9 atoms, aspirin 21 atoms, morphine 40 atoms, sildenafil 63 atoms, paclitaxel 113 atoms, insulin nearly 800 atoms, and quaternary hemoglobin almost 12,000 atoms. Currently, molecules with up to approximately 10 atoms can be very accurately studied by coupled cluster (CC) theory, approximately 100 atoms with second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), approximately 1000 atoms with density functional theory (DFT), and beyond that number with semiempirical quantum chemistry and force-field methods. The overwhelming majority of present-day calculations in the 100-atom range use DFT. Although these methods have been very successful in quantum chemistry, they do not offer a well-defined hierarchy of calculations that allows one to systematically converge to the correct answer. Recently a number of rather spectacular failures of DFT methods have been found-even for seemingly simple systems such as hydrocarbons, fueling renewed interest in wave function-based methods that incorporate the relevant physics of electron correlation in a more systematic way. Thus, it would be highly desirable to fill the gap between 10 and 100 atoms with highly correlated ab initio methods. We have found that one of the earliest (and now
Coupled oscillator model for nonlinear gravitational perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Huan; Zhang, Fan; Green, Stephen R.; Lehner, Luis
2015-04-01
Motivated by the gravity-fluid correspondence, we introduce a new method for characterizing nonlinear gravitational interactions. Namely we map the nonlinear perturbative form of the Einstein equation to the equations of motion of a collection of nonlinearly coupled harmonic oscillators. These oscillators correspond to the quasinormal or normal modes of the background spacetime. We demonstrate the mechanics and the utility of this formalism within the context of perturbed asymptotically anti-de Sitter black brane spacetimes. We confirm in this case that the boundary fluid dynamics are equivalent to those of the hydrodynamic quasinormal modes of the bulk spacetime. We expect this formalism to remain valid in more general spacetimes, including those without a fluid dual. In other words, although born out of the gravity-fluid correspondence, the formalism is fully independent and it has a much wider range of applicability. In particular, as this formalism inspires an especially transparent physical intuition, we expect its introduction to simplify the often highly technical analytical exploration of nonlinear gravitational dynamics.
Coupled Oscillator Model for Nonlinear Gravitational Perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Huan; Zhang, Fan; Green, Stephen; Lehner, Luis
2015-04-01
Motivated by the fluid/gravity correspondence, we introduce a new method for characterizing nonlinear gravitational interactions. Namely we map the nonlinear perturbative form of the Einstein's equation to the equations of motion of a series of nonlinearly-coupled harmonic oscillators. These oscillators correspond to the quasinormal modes of the background spacetime. We demonstrate the mechanics and the utility of this formalism with an asymptotically AdS black-brane spacetime, where the equations of motion for the oscillators are shown to be equivalent to the Navier-Stokes equation for the boundary fluid in the mode-expansion picture. We thereby expand on the explicit correspondence connecting the fluid and gravity sides for this particular physical set-up. Perhaps more importantly, we expect this formalism to remain valid in more general spacetimes, including those without a fluid/gravity correspondence. In other words, although born out of the correspondence, the formalism survives independently of it and has a much wider range of applicability.
The Coupled Chemical and Physical Dynamics Model of MALDI.
Knochenmuss, Richard
2016-06-12
The coupled physical and chemical dynamics model of ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) has reproduced and explained a wide variety of MALDI phenomena. The rationale behind and elements of the model are reviewed, including the photophysics, kinetics, and thermodynamics of primary and secondary reaction steps. Experimental results are compared with model predictions to illustrate the foundations of the model, coupling of ablation and ionization, differences between and commonalities of matrices, secondary charge transfer reactions, ionization in both polarities, fluence and concentration dependencies, and suppression and enhancement effects. PMID:27070182
Finite Element Modelling of Fluid Coupling in the Coiled Cochlea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ni, Guangjian; Elliott, S. J.; Lineton, B.; Saba, R.
2011-11-01
A finite element model is first used to calculate the modal pressure difference for a box model of the cochlea, which shows that the number of fluid elements across the width of the cochlea determines the accuracy with which the near field, or short wavenumber, component of the fluid coupling is reproduced. Then results are compared with the analytic results to validate the accuracy of the FE model. It is, however, the far field, or long wavelength, component of the fluid coupling that is most affected by the geometry. A finite element model of the coiled cochlea is then used to calculate fluid coupling in this case, which has similar characteristics to the uncoiled model.
ITG sideband coupling models for zonal flows
Stransky, M.
2011-05-15
Four-wave interaction model between ITG mode and zonal flow was derived using fluid equations. In this model, the zonal flow is excited non-linearly by ITG turbulence via Reynolds stress. Numerical simulations show that the system allows for a small range above the ITG threshold where the zonal flow can stabilize an unstable ITG mode, effectively increasing {eta}{sub i} threshold, an effect which has been called the Dimits shift. However, the shift is smaller than in known cases such that in the Cyclone base.
A Dynamic Coupled Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Ring Current Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pembroke, Asher
In this thesis we describe a coupled model of Earth's magnetosphere that consists of the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation, the MIX ionosphere solver and the Rice Convection Model (RCM). We report some results of the coupled model using idealized inputs and model parameters. The algorithmic and physical components of the model are described, including the transfer of magnetic field information and plasma boundary conditions to the RCM and the return of ring current plasma properties to the LFM. Crucial aspects of the coupling include the restriction of RCM to regions where field-line averaged plasma-beta ¡=1, the use of a plasmasphere model, and the MIX ionosphere model. Compared to stand-alone MHD, the coupled model produces a substantial increase in ring current pressure and reduction of the magnetic field near the Earth. In the ionosphere, stronger region-1 and region-2 Birkeland currents are seen in the coupled model but with no significant change in the cross polar cap potential drop, while the region-2 currents shielded the low-latitude convection potential. In addition, oscillations in the magnetic field are produced at geosynchronous orbit with the coupled code. The diagnostics of entropy and mass content indicate that these oscillations are associated with low-entropy flow channels moving in from the tail and may be related to bursty bulk flows and bubbles seen in observations. As with most complex numerical models, there is the ongoing challenge of untangling numerical artifacts and physics, and we find that while there is still much room for improvement, the results presented here are encouraging. Finally, we introduce several new methods for magnetospheric visualization and analysis, including a fluid-spatial volume for RCM and a field-aligned analysis mesh for the LFM. The latter allows us to construct novel visualizations of flux tubes, drift surfaces, topological boundaries, and bursty-bulk flows.
A multicomponent coupled model of glacier hydrology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flowers, Gwenn Elizabeth
Multiple lines of evidence suggest a causal link between subglacial hydrology and phenomena such as fast-flowing ice. This evidence includes a measured correlation between water under alpine glaciers and their motion, the presence of saturated sediment beneath Antaxctic ice streams, and geologic signatures of enhanced paleo-ice flow over deformable substrates. The complexity of the glacier bed as a three-component mixture presents an obstacle to unraveling these conundra. Inadequate representations of hydrology, in part, prevent us from closing the gap between empirical descriptions and a comprehensive consistent framework for understanding the dynamics of glacierized systems. I have developed a distributed numerical model that solves equations governing glacier surface runoff, englacial water transport, subglacial drainage, and subsurface groundwater flow. Ablation and precipitation drive the surface model through a temperature-index parameterization. Water is permitted to flow over and off the glacier, or to the bed through a system of crevasses, pipes, and fractures. A macroporous sediment horizon transports subglacial water to the ice margin or to an underlying aquifer. Governing equations are derived from the law of mass conservation and are expressed as a balance between the internal redistribution of water and external sources. Each of the four model components is represented as a two-dimensional, vertically-integrated layer that communicates with its neighbors through water exchange. Stacked together, these layers approximate a three-dimensional system. I tailor the model to Trapridge Glacier, where digital maps of the surface and bed have been derived from ice-penetrating radar data. Observations of subglacial water pressure provide additional constraints on model parameters and a basis for comparison of simulations with real data. Three classical idealizations of glacier geometry are used for simple model experiments. Equilibrium tests emphasize geometric
Coupled Facility/Payload Vibration Modeling Improvements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carnahan, Timothy M.; Kaiser, Michael
2015-01-01
A major phase of aerospace hardware verification is vibration testing. The standard approach for such testing is to use a shaker to induce loads into the payload. In preparation for vibration testing at NASA/GSFC there is an analysis to assess the responses of the payload. A new method of modeling the test is presented that takes into account dynamic interactions between the facility and the payload. This dynamic interaction has affected testing in the past, but been ignored or adjusted for during testing. By modeling the combination of the facility and test article (payload) it is possible to improve the prediction of hardware responses. Many aerospace test facilities work in similar way to those at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Lessons learned here should be applicable to other test facilities with similar setups.
Coupled Facility-Payload Vibration Modeling Improvements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carnahan, Timothy M.; Kaiser, Michael A.
2015-01-01
A major phase of aerospace hardware verification is vibration testing. The standard approach for such testing is to use a shaker to induce loads into the payload. In preparation for vibration testing at National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center an analysis is performed to assess the responses of the payload. A new method of modeling the test is presented that takes into account dynamic interactions between the facility and the payload. This dynamic interaction has affected testing in the past, but been ignored or adjusted for during testing. By modeling the combined dynamics of the facility and test article (payload) it is possible to improve the prediction of hardware responses. Many aerospace test facilities work in similar way to those at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. Lessons learned here should be applicable to other test facilities with similar setups.
Strong Local-Nonlocal Coupling for Integrated Fracture Modeling
Littlewood, David John; Silling, Stewart A.; Mitchell, John A.; Seleson, Pablo D.; Bond, Stephen D.; Parks, Michael L.; Turner, Daniel Z.; Burnett, Damon J.; Ostien, Jakob; Gunzburger, Max
2015-09-01
Peridynamics, a nonlocal extension of continuum mechanics, is unique in its ability to capture pervasive material failure. Its use in the majority of system-level analyses carried out at Sandia, however, is severely limited, due in large part to computational expense and the challenge posed by the imposition of nonlocal boundary conditions. Combined analyses in which peridynamics is em- ployed only in regions susceptible to material failure are therefore highly desirable, yet available coupling strategies have remained severely limited. This report is a summary of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project "Strong Local-Nonlocal Coupling for Inte- grated Fracture Modeling," completed within the Computing and Information Sciences (CIS) In- vestment Area at Sandia National Laboratories. A number of challenges inherent to coupling local and nonlocal models are addressed. A primary result is the extension of peridynamics to facilitate a variable nonlocal length scale. This approach, termed the peridynamic partial stress, can greatly reduce the mathematical incompatibility between local and nonlocal equations through reduction of the peridynamic horizon in the vicinity of a model interface. A second result is the formulation of a blending-based coupling approach that may be applied either as the primary coupling strategy, or in combination with the peridynamic partial stress. This blending-based approach is distinct from general blending methods, such as the Arlequin approach, in that it is specific to the coupling of peridynamics and classical continuum mechanics. Facilitating the coupling of peridynamics and classical continuum mechanics has also required innovations aimed directly at peridynamic models. Specifically, the properties of peridynamic constitutive models near domain boundaries and shortcomings in available discretization strategies have been addressed. The results are a class of position-aware peridynamic constitutive laws for
Service-Oriented Approach to Coupling Earth System Models and Modeling Frameworks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goodall, J. L.; Saint, K. D.; Ercan, M. B.; Briley, L. J.; Murphy, S.; You, H.; DeLuca, C.; Rood, R. B.
2012-12-01
Modeling water systems often requires coupling models across traditional Earth science disciplinary boundaries. While there has been significant effort within various Earth science disciplines (e.g., atmospheric science, hydrology, and Earth surface dynamics) to create models and, more recently, modeling frameworks, there has been less work on methods for coupling across disciplinary-specific models and modeling frameworks. We present work investigating one possible method for coupling across disciplinary-specific Earth system models and modeling frameworks: service-oriented architectures. In a service-oriented architecture, models act as distinct units or components within a system and are designed to pass well defined messages to consumers of the service. While the approach offers the potential to couple heterogeneous computational models by allowing a high degree of autonomy across models of the Earth system, there are significant scientific and technical challenges to be addressed when coupling models designed for different communities and built for different modeling frameworks. We have addressed some of these challenges through a case study where we coupled a hydrologic model compliant with the OpenMI standard with an atmospheric model compliant with the EMSF standard. In this case study, the two models were coupled through data exchanges of boundary conditions enabled by exposing the atmospheric model as a web service. A discussion of the technical and scientific challenges, some that we have addressed and others that remain open, will be presented including differences in computer architectures, data semantics, and spatial scales between the coupled models.
Non compact continuum limit of two coupled Potts models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vernier, Éric; Lykke Jacobsen, Jesper; Saleur, Hubert
2014-10-01
We study two Q-state Potts models coupled by the product of their energy operators, in the regime 2 < Q ⩽ 4 where the coupling is relevant. A particular choice of weights for the square lattice is shown to be equivalent to the integrable a_3(2) vertex model. It corresponds to a selfdual system of two antiferromagnetic Potts models, coupled ferromagnetically. We derive the Bethe ansatz equations and study them numerically for two arbitrary twist angles. The continuum limit is shown to involve two compact bosons and one non compact boson, with discrete states emerging from the continuum at appropriate twists. The non compact boson entails strong logarithmic corrections to the finite-size behaviour of the scaling levels, an understanding of which allows us to correct an earlier proposal for some of the critical exponents. In particular, we infer the full set of magnetic scaling dimensions (watermelon operators) of the Potts model.
Development of a Validated Model of Ground Coupling
Metz, P. D.
1980-01-01
A research program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) studies ground coupling, the use of the earth as a heat source/sink or storage element for solar heat pump space conditioning systems. This paper outlines the analytical and experimental research to date toward the development of an experimentally validated model of ground coupling and based on experimental results from December, 1978 to September, 1979, expores sensitivity of present model predictions to variations in thermal conductivity and other factors. Ways in which the model can be further refined are discussed.
Lumped-element models characterize DR coupling effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hearn, Chase P.
1992-01-01
An approach to the analysis of closely spaced resonances produced by a microstrip coupled dielectric resonator is presented. In particular, it is shown that the use of a lumped-element model significantly simplifies the analysis. An experimental verification demonstrates that the model predicts the adjacent complementary resonances to within 1.6 percent of the measured value.
Energy demand analytics using coupled technological and economic models
Impacts of a range of policy scenarios on end-use energy demand are examined using a coupling of MARKAL, an energy system model with extensive supply and end-use technological detail, with Inforum LIFT, a large-scale model of the us. economy with inter-industry, government, and c...
FULLY COUPLED "ONLINE" CHEMISTRY WITHIN THE WRF MODEL
A fully coupled "online" Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF/Chem) model has been developed. The air quality component of the model is fully consistent with the meteorological component; both components use the same transport scheme (mass and scalar preserving), the s...
Improving data transfer for model coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, C.; Liu, L.; Yang, G.; Li, R.; Wang, B.
2015-10-01
Data transfer, which means transferring data fields between two component models or rearranging data fields among processes of the same component model, is a fundamental operation of a coupler. Most of state-of-the-art coupler versions currently use an implementation based on the point-to-point (P2P) communication of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) (call such an implementation "P2P implementation" for short). In this paper, we reveal the drawbacks of the P2P implementation, including low communication bandwidth due to small message size, variable and big number of MPI messages, and jams during communication. To overcome these drawbacks, we propose a butterfly implementation for data transfer. Although the butterfly implementation can outperform the P2P implementation in many cases, it degrades the performance in some cases because the total message size transferred by the butterfly implementation is larger than that by the P2P implementation. To make the data transfer completely improved, we design and implement an adaptive data transfer library that combines the advantages of both butterfly implementation and P2P implementation. Performance evaluation shows that the adaptive data transfer library significantly improves the performance of data transfer in most cases and does not decrease the performance in any cases. Now the adaptive data transfer library is open to the public and has been imported into a coupler version C-Coupler1 for performance improvement of data transfer. We believe that it can also improve other coupler versions.
Ray-tracing simulations of coupled dark energy models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pace, Francesco; Baldi, Marco; Moscardini, Lauro; Bacon, David; Crittenden, Robert
2015-02-01
Dark matter and dark energy are usually assumed to couple only gravitationally. An extension to this picture is to model dark energy as a scalar field coupled directly to cold dark matter. This coupling leads to new physical effects, such as a fifth force and a time-dependent dark matter particle mass. In this work we examine the impact that coupling has on weak lensing statistics by constructing realistic simulated weak lensing maps using ray-tracing techniques through N-body cosmological simulations. We construct maps for different lensing quantities, covering a range of scales from a few arcminutes to several degrees. The concordance Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model is compared to different coupled dark energy models, described either by an exponential scalar field potential (standard coupled dark energy scenario) or by a SUGRA potential (bouncing model). We analyse several statistical quantities and our results, with sources at low redshifts are largely consistent with previous work on cosmic microwave background lensing by Carbone et al. The most significant differences from the ΛCDM model are due to the enhanced growth of the perturbations and to the effective friction term in non-linear dynamics. For the most extreme models, we see differences in the power spectra up to 40 per cent compared to the ΛCDM model. The different time evolution of the linear matter overdensity can account for most of the differences, but when controlling for this using a ΛCDM model having the same normalization, the overall signal is smaller due to the effect of the friction term appearing in the equation of motion for dark matter particles.
A Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean-Wave Modeling System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allard, R. A.; Smith, T.; Rogers, W. E.; Jensen, T. G.; Chu, P.; Campbell, T. J.
2012-12-01
A growing interest in the impacts that large and small scale ocean and atmospheric events (El Niño, hurricanes, etc.) have on weather forecasting has led to the coupling of atmospheric, ocean circulation and ocean wave models. The Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS™ ) consists of the Navy's atmospheric model coupled to the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) and the wave models SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) and WAVEWATCH III (WW3™). In a fully coupled mode, COAMPS, NCOM, and SWAN (or WW3) may be integrated concurrently so that currents and water levels, wave-induced stress, bottom drag, Stokes drift current, precipitation, and surface fluxes of heat, moisture, and momentum are exchanged across the air-wave-sea interface. This coupling is facilitated through the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF). The ESMF version of COAMPS is being transitioned to operational production centers at the Naval Oceanographic Office and the Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center. Highlights from validation studies for the Florida Straits, Hurricane Ivan and the Adriatic Sea will be presented. COAMPS® is a registered trademark of the Naval Research Laboratory.
Coupling TOUGH2 with CLM3: Developing a Coupled Land Surface andSubsurface Model
Pan, Lehua; Jin, Jiming; Miller, Norman; Wu, Yu-Shu; Bodvarsson,Gudmundur
2006-05-19
An understanding of the hydrologic interactions among atmosphere, land surface, and subsurface is one of the keys to understanding the water cycling system that supports life on earth. The inherent coupled processes and complex feedback structures among subsystems make such interactions difficult to simulate. In this paper, we present a model that simulates the land surface and subsurface hydrologic response to meteorological forcing. This model combines a state-of-the-art land-surface model, the NCAR Community Land Model version 3 (CLM3), with a variably saturated groundwater model, TOUGH2, through an internal interface that includes flux and state variables shared by the two submodels. Specifically, TOUGH2 uses infiltration, evaporation, and root-uptake rates, calculated by CLM3, as source/sink terms in its simulation; CLM3 uses saturation and capillary pressure profiles, calculated by TOUGH2, as state variables in its simulation. This new model, CLMT2, preserves the best aspects of both submodels: the state-of-the-art modeling capability of surface energy and hydrologic processes (including snow, runoff, freezing/melting, evapotranspiration, radiation, and biophysiological processes) from CLM3 and the more realistic physical-process-based modeling capability of subsurface hydrologic processes (including heterogeneity, three-dimensional flow, seamless combining of unsaturated and saturated zone, and water table) from TOUGH2. The preliminary simulation results show that the coupled model greatly improved the predictions of the groundwater table, evapotranspiration, and surface temperature at a real watershed, as evaluated using 18 years of observed data. The new model is also ready to be coupled with an atmospheric simulation model, to form one of the first top of the atmosphere to deep groundwater atmosphere-land-surface-subsurface models.
Hawke, B.C.
1963-02-26
This patent relates to a releasable coupling connecting a control rod to a control rod drive. This remotely operable coupling mechanism can connect two elements which are laterally and angviarly misaligned, and provides a means for sensing the locked condition of the elements. The coupling utilizes a spherical bayonet joint which is locked against rotation by a ball detent lock. (AEC)
Dynamic Coupling of Alaska Based Ecosystem and Geophysical Models into an Integrated Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bennett, A.; Carman, T. B.
2012-12-01
As scientific models and the challenges they address have grown in complexity and scope, so has interest in dynamically coupling or integrating these models. Dynamic model coupling presents software engineering challenges stemming from differences in model architectures, differences in development styles between modeling groups, and memory and run time performance concerns. The Alaska Integrated Ecosystem Modeling (AIEM) project aims to dynamically couple three independently developed scientific models so that each model can exchange run-time data with each of the other models. The models being coupled are a stochastic fire dynamics model (ALFRESCO), a permafrost model (GIPL), and a soil and vegetation model (DVM-DOS-TEM). The scientific research objectives of the AIEM project are to: 1) use the coupled models for increasing our understanding of climate change and other stressors on landscape level physical and ecosystem processes, and; 2) provide support for resource conservation planning and decision making. The objectives related to the computer models themselves are modifiability, maintainability, and performance of the coupled and individual models. Modifiability and maintainability are especially important in a research context because source codes must be continually adapted to address new scientific concepts. Performance is crucial to delivering results in a timely manner. To achieve the objectives while addressing the challenges in dynamic model coupling, we have designed an architecture that emphasizes high cohesion for each individual model and loose coupling between the models. Each model will retain the ability to run independently, or to be available as a linked library to the coupled model. Performance is facilitated by parallelism in the spatial dimension. With close collaboration among modeling groups, the methodology described here has demonstrated the feasibility of coupling complex ecological and geophysical models to provide managers with more
Preliminary investigation of models of coupled clocks and coupled driven pendulums
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LeBailly, Christopher A.
In this paper we study a phenomena observed in the 17 th century by Christiaan Huygens. He found that two pendulum clocks placed on a common support synchronized over time. We study a model of this type of coupling primarily using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. We look at time series to get a picture of what types of synchronization occur and then once we figure out how to classify synchronization we study how varying the damping in the system affects the synchronization. We next look at what happens when driven pendulums replace the clocks. We compare phase portraits and bifurcation diagrams of the uncoupled driven pendulum to the coupled driven pendulums to get a picture of how the dynamics and chaotic tendencies of the driven pendulum change with the coupling.
Fluid coupling in a discrete model of cochlear mechanics.
Elliott, Stephen J; Lineton, Ben; Ni, Guangjian
2011-09-01
A discrete model of cochlear mechanics is introduced that includes a full, three-dimensional, description of fluid coupling. This formulation allows the fluid coupling and basilar membrane dynamics to be analyzed separately and then coupled together with a simple piece of linear algebra. The fluid coupling is initially analyzed using a wavenumber formulation and is separated into one component due to one-dimensional fluid coupling and one comprising all the other contributions. Using the theory of acoustic waves in a duct, however, these two components of the pressure can also be associated with a far field, due to the plane wave, and a near field, due to the evanescent, higher order, modes. The near field components are then seen as one of a number of sources of additional longitudinal coupling in the cochlea. The effects of non-uniformity and asymmetry in the fluid chamber areas can also be taken into account, to predict both the pressure difference between the chambers and the mean pressure. This allows the calculation, for example, of the effect of a short cochlear implant on the coupled response of the cochlea. PMID:21895085
Analytic Thermoelectric Couple Modeling: Variable Material Properties and Transient Operation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mackey, Jonathan A.; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred
2015-01-01
To gain a deeper understanding of the operation of a thermoelectric couple a set of analytic solutions have been derived for a variable material property couple and a transient couple. Using an analytic approach, as opposed to commonly used numerical techniques, results in a set of useful design guidelines. These guidelines can serve as useful starting conditions for further numerical studies, or can serve as design rules for lab built couples. The analytic modeling considers two cases and accounts for 1) material properties which vary with temperature and 2) transient operation of a couple. The variable material property case was handled by means of an asymptotic expansion, which allows for insight into the influence of temperature dependence on different material properties. The variable property work demonstrated the important fact that materials with identical average Figure of Merits can lead to different conversion efficiencies due to temperature dependence of the properties. The transient couple was investigated through a Greens function approach; several transient boundary conditions were investigated. The transient work introduces several new design considerations which are not captured by the classic steady state analysis. The work helps to assist in designing couples for optimal performance, and also helps assist in material selection.
Initialization and Predictability of a Coupled ENSO Forecast Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Dake; Zebiak, Stephen E.; Cane, Mark A.; Busalacchi, Antonio J.
1997-01-01
The skill of a coupled ocean-atmosphere model in predicting ENSO has recently been improved using a new initialization procedure in which initial conditions are obtained from the coupled model, nudged toward observations of wind stress. The previous procedure involved direct insertion of wind stress observations, ignoring model feedback from ocean to atmosphere. The success of the new scheme is attributed to its explicit consideration of ocean-atmosphere coupling and the associated reduction of "initialization shock" and random noise. The so-called spring predictability barrier is eliminated, suggesting that such a barrier is not intrinsic to the real climate system. Initial attempts to generalize the nudging procedure to include SST were not successful; possible explanations are offered. In all experiments forecast skill is found to be much higher for the 1980s than for the 1970s and 1990s, suggesting decadal variations in predictability.
First Analysis Of A Coupled Mediterranean - Atmosphere Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Somot, S.; Sevault, F.; Béranger, K.; Déqué, M.; Crépon, M.
A regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model has been developed to study the climate of the Mediterranean Region in a joint research between Météo-France-CNRM and CNRS-IPSL. This model is based on a variable resolution version of the global spectral AGCM Arpège-Climat with an horizontal grid mesh of 50 km over the mediterranean area and a limited area version of the OGCM OPA with an horizontal grid mesh of 10 km. The two models are coupled with the OASIS coupler developed by CERFACS. Outside the Mediterranean Sea, the sea surface temperature is prescribed from interannual observed data. A ten year coupled simulation has been done without relaxation nor correction. Sea- sonal averages as well as interannual variability have been compared with available observations and with uncoupled simulations.
A Coupled Aeroelastic Model for Launch Vehicle Stability Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orr, Jeb S.
2010-01-01
A technique for incorporating distributed aerodynamic normal forces and aeroelastic coupling effects into a stability analysis model of a launch vehicle is presented. The formulation augments the linear state-space launch vehicle plant dynamics that are compactly derived as a system of coupled linear differential equations representing small angular and translational perturbations of the rigid body, nozzle, and sloshing propellant coupled with normal vibration of a set of orthogonal modes. The interaction of generalized forces due to aeroelastic coupling and thrust can be expressed as a set of augmenting non-diagonal stiffness and damping matrices in modal coordinates with no penalty on system order. While the eigenvalues of the structural response in the presence of thrust and aeroelastic forcing can be predicted at a given flight condition independent of the remaining degrees of freedom, the coupled model provides confidence in closed-loop stability in the presence of rigid-body, slosh, and actuator dynamics. Simulation results are presented that characterize the coupled dynamic response of the Ares I launch vehicle and the impact of aeroelasticity on control system stability margins.
Validation of coupled atmosphere-fire behavior models
Bossert, J.E.; Reisner, J.M.; Linn, R.R.; Winterkamp, J.L.; Schaub, R.; Riggan, P.J.
1998-12-31
Recent advances in numerical modeling and computer power have made it feasible to simulate the dynamical interaction and feedback between the heat and turbulence induced by wildfires and the local atmospheric wind and temperature fields. At Los Alamos National Laboratory, the authors have developed a modeling system that includes this interaction by coupling a high resolution atmospheric dynamics model, HIGRAD, with a fire behavior model, BEHAVE, to predict the spread of wildfires. The HIGRAD/BEHAVE model is run at very high resolution to properly resolve the fire/atmosphere interaction. At present, these coupled wildfire model simulations are computationally intensive. The additional complexity of these models require sophisticated methods for assuring their reliability in real world applications. With this in mind, a substantial part of the research effort is directed at model validation. Several instrumented prescribed fires have been conducted with multi-agency support and participation from chaparral, marsh, and scrub environments in coastal areas of Florida and inland California. In this paper, the authors first describe the data required to initialize the components of the wildfire modeling system. Then they present results from one of the Florida fires, and discuss a strategy for further testing and improvement of coupled weather/wildfire models.
Coupling Efforts to the Accurate and Efficient Tsunami Modelling System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Son, S.
2015-12-01
In the present study, we couple two different types of tsunami models, i.e., nondispersive shallow water model of characteristic form(MOST ver.4) and dispersive Boussinesq model of non-characteristic form(Son et al. (2011)) in an attempt to improve modelling accuracy and efficiency. Since each model deals with different type of primary variables, additional care on matching boundary condition is required. Using an absorbing-generating boundary condition developed by Van Dongeren and Svendsen(1997), model coupling and integration is achieved. Characteristic variables(i.e., Riemann invariants) in MOST are converted to non-characteristic variables for Boussinesq solver without any loss of physical consistency. Established modelling system has been validated through typical test problems to realistic tsunami events. Simulated results reveal good performance of developed modelling system. Since coupled modelling system provides advantageous flexibility feature during implementation, great efficiencies and accuracies are expected to be gained through spot-focusing application of Boussinesq model inside the entire domain of tsunami propagation.
Effect of nonlinear nonlinear coupling to a pure dephasing model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Li; Zhao, Nan
2015-03-01
We investigate the influence of the nonlinear coupling to the coherence of a pure dephasing model. The total system consists of a qubit and a Bosonic bath, which are coupled by an interaction HI =g1σz ⊗ x +g2σz ⊗x2 with x =1/√{ 2} (a +a†) . It's shown that no matter how small g2 is, the long time behavior of the coherence is significantly changed by the nonlinear coupling for free induction decay (FID), while the effect of g1 can be neglected as long as g1 is much smaller than the enegy splitting of the qubit. In the case that many-pulse dynamical decoupling control is exerted on the qubit, g2 also modulates the oscillation of the coherence. Our results indicate that the nonlinear coupling must be taken into account for long time dynamics.
Triple neutral gauge boson couplings in noncommutative Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deshpande, N. G.; He, Xiao-Gang
2002-05-01
It has been shown recently that the triple neutral gauge boson couplings are not uniquely determined in noncommutative extension of the Standard Model (NCSM). Depending on specific schemes used, the couplings are different and may even be zero. To distinguish different realizations of the NCSM, additional information either from theoretical or experimental considerations is needed. In this Letter we show that these couplings can be uniquely determined from considerations of unification of electroweak and strong interactions. Using SU(5) as the underlying theory and integrating out the heavy degrees of freedom, we obtain unique non-zero new triple γγγ, γγZ, γZZ, ZZZ, γGG, ZGG and GGG couplings at the leading order in the NCSM. We also briefly discuss experimental implications.
A coupled bubble plume-reservoir model for hypolimnetic oxygenation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singleton, V. L.; Rueda, F. J.; Little, J. C.
2010-12-01
A model for a linear bubble plume used for hypolimnetic oxygenation was coupled with a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model to simulate the complex interaction between bubble plumes and the large-scale processes of transport and mixing. The coupled model accurately simulated the evolution of dissolved oxygen (DO) and temperature fields that occurred during two full-scale diffuser tests in a water supply reservoir. The prediction of asymmetric circulation cells laterally and longitudinally on both sides of the linear diffuser was due to the uneven reservoir bathymetry. Simulation of diffuser operation resulted in baroclinic pressure gradients, which caused vertical oscillations above the hypolimnion and contributed to distribution of plume detrainment upstream and downstream of the diffuser. On the basis of a first-order variance analysis, the largest source of uncertainty for both predicted DO and temperature was the model bathymetry, which accounted for about 90% of the overall uncertainty. Because the oxygen addition rate was 4 times the sediment oxygen uptake (SOU) rate, DO predictions were not sensitive to SOU. In addition to bathymetry, the momentum assigned to plume entrainment and detrainment is a significant source of uncertainty in the coupled model structure and appreciably affects the predicted intensity of mixing and lake circulation. For baseline runs, the entrainment and detrainment velocities were assumed to be half of the velocities through the flux face of the grid cells. Additional research on appropriate values of the plume detrainment momentum for the coupled model is required.
String coupling and interactions in type IIB matrix model
Kitazawa, Yoshihisa; Nagaoka, Satoshi
2009-05-15
We investigate the interactions of closed strings in a IIB matrix model. The basic interaction of the closed superstring is realized by the recombination of two intersecting strings. Such interaction is investigated in a IIB matrix model via two-dimensional noncommutative gauge theory in the IR limit. By estimating the probability of the recombination, we identify the string coupling g{sub s} in the IIB matrix model. We confirm that our identification is consistent with matrix string theory.
Using Lateral Coupled Snakes for Modeling the Contours of Worms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qing; Ronneberger, Olaf; Schulze, Ekkehard; Baumeister, Ralf; Burkhardt, Hans
A model called lateral coupled snakes is proposed to describe the contours of moving C. elegans worms on 2D images with high accuracy. The model comprises two curves with point correspondence between them. The line linking a corresponding pair is approximately perpendicular to the curves at the two points, which is ensured by shear restoring forces. Experimental proofs reveal that the model is a promising tool for locating and segmenting worms or objects with similar shapes.
A Fully Coupled Model for Electromechanics of the Heart
Xia, Henian; Wong, Kwai; Zhao, Xiaopeng
2012-01-01
We present a fully coupled electromechanical model of the heart. The model integrates cardiac electrophysiology and cardiac mechanics through excitation-induced contraction and deformation-induced current. Numerical schemes based on finite element were implemented in a supercomputer. Numerical examples were presented using a thin cardiac tissue and a dog ventricle with realistic geometry. Performance of the parallel simulation scheme was studied. The model provides a useful tool to understand cardiovascular dynamics. PMID:23118801
Revisiting ENSO Coupled Instability Theory and SST Error Growth in a Fully Coupled Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larson, S.; Kirtman, B. P.
2015-12-01
In an effort to untangle certain mechanisms contributing to the initiation of ENSO events, a coupled model framework is presented to isolate coupled instability induced SST error (or anomaly) growth in the ENSO region. The modeling framework using CCSM4 allows for seasonal ensembles of initialized simulations that are utilized to quantify the spatial and temporal behavior of coupled instabilities and the associated implications for ENSO predictability. The experimental design allows for unstable growth of initial perturbations that are not prescribed and several cases exhibit sufficiently rapid growth to produce ENSO events that do not require a previous ENSO event, large-scale wind trigger, or subsurface heat content precursor. Without these precursors, however, ENSO amplitude is reduced, suggesting that a combination of processes is essential to achieving peak amplitude in CCSM4. The results imply that even without classical precursors, including western Pacific "preconditioning," ENSO events can be excited via coupled instabilities in fully coupled models. By removing the subsurface heat content precursor, however, essentially a lower bounds for ENSO predictability in CCSM4 is established, although seasonal ensembles initialized later in the calendar year retain some predictability. The initial error growth exhibits strong seasonality with fastest growth during spring and summer and also dependence on the initialization month with fastest growth occurring in the July ensemble. The error growth displays a well-defined seasonal limit with ensembles initialized in the winter or spring exhibiting a clear seasonal halt in error growth around September, consistent with increased background stability typical during fall. Overall, dynamically driven error growth in CCSM4 is deemed best characterized by strong seasonality, dependence on the initialization month, and nonlinearity. The results pose real implications for predictability because the final error structure is
Coupling Stokes and Darcy Flow in Melt Migration Modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaus, B.; Lehmann, R.; Lukáčová-Medvid'ová, M.
2015-12-01
Melt migration can be modelled by coupling variable-viscosity Stokes flow and Darcy flow. Stokes Flow, generally, captures the long-term behavior of the mantle and lithosphere while Darcy flow models the two-phase regime. The major unknowns of the coupled system are solid velocity, fluid pressure and compaction pressure, captured in the so-called three-field formulation of the system. The fluid velocity can be computed in a post-processing step. We present lithosperic-scale results of the fully-coupled system with visco-elasto-plastic rheologies. This comprises elasto-plastic effects from shearing (Mode II) as well as poro-elastic effects and "opening mode" (Mode I) tensile plasticity. The system is solved using the Finite Element Method on triangular or quadrilateral grids in the Matlab-based code MVEP. Triangular meshes are adapted dynamically to better resolve the different deformation modes (diapiric, channeling, diking).
Thermosphere-ionosphere coupling - An experiment in interactive modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Roble, Raymond G.
1990-01-01
Using the NCAR thermosphere general circulation model, a series of controlled experiments is performed to investigate the interactive coupling between ionospheric plasma densities and thermospheric neutral winds. The interaction is accomplished by parameterizing the F layer peak height, h(m)F2, in an empirical ionospheric model in terms of the meridional wind, v(south), and by forcing the h(m)F2 and the v(south) parameters to remain mutually coupled in a dynamical calculation. It was found that mutual coupling between forcing and meridional wind is weak during the daytime when the F layer exhibits a broad vertical structure. At night, when the F2 layer is more localized, the neutral dynamical structure is dependent on whether forcing is significantly above or below the altitude (about 275-300 km) at which ion drag effectively competes with viscosity in the neutral momentum balance.
Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and THC Seepage) Models
E. Gonnenthal; N. Spyoher
2001-02-05
The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the Near-Field Environment (NFE) and Unsaturated Zone (UZ) models used to evaluate the potential effects of coupled thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC) processes on unsaturated zone flow and transport. This is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report'', Addendum D, Attachment D-4 (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) 2000 [153447]) and ''Technical Work Plan for Nearfield Environment Thermal Analyses and Testing'' (CRWMS M and O 2000 [153309]). These models include the Drift Scale Test (DST) THC Model and several THC seepage models. These models provide the framework to evaluate THC coupled processes at the drift scale, predict flow and transport behavior for specified thermal loading conditions, and predict the chemistry of waters and gases entering potential waste-emplacement drifts. The intended use of this AMR is to provide input for the following: (1) Performance Assessment (PA); (2) Abstraction of Drift-Scale Coupled Processes AMR (ANL-NBS-HS-000029); (3) UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR); and (4) Near-Field Environment (NFE) PMR. The work scope for this activity is presented in the TWPs cited above, and summarized as follows: continue development of the repository drift-scale THC seepage model used in support of the TSPA in-drift geochemical model; incorporate heterogeneous fracture property realizations; study sensitivity of results to changes in input data and mineral assemblage; validate the DST model by comparison with field data; perform simulations to predict mineral dissolution and precipitation and their effects on fracture properties and chemistry of water (but not flow rates) that may seep into drifts; submit modeling results to the TDMS and document the models. The model development, input data, sensitivity and validation studies described in
Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and THC Seepage) Models
E. Sonnenthale
2001-04-16
The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the Near-Field Environment (NFE) and Unsaturated Zone (UZ) models used to evaluate the potential effects of coupled thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC) processes on unsaturated zone flow and transport. This is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report'', Addendum D, Attachment D-4 (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating Contractor (M&O) 2000 [1534471]) and ''Technical Work Plan for Nearfield Environment Thermal Analyses and Testing'' (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153309]). These models include the Drift Scale Test (DST) THC Model and several THC seepage models. These models provide the framework to evaluate THC coupled processes at the drift scale, predict flow and transport behavior for specified thermal loading conditions, and predict the chemistry of waters and gases entering potential waste-emplacement drifts. The intended use of this AMR is to provide input for the following: Performance Assessment (PA); Near-Field Environment (NFE) PMR; Abstraction of Drift-Scale Coupled Processes AMR (ANL-NBS-HS-000029); and UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). The work scope for this activity is presented in the TWPs cited above, and summarized as follows: Continue development of the repository drift-scale THC seepage model used in support of the TSPA in-drift geochemical model; incorporate heterogeneous fracture property realizations; study sensitivity of results to changes in input data and mineral assemblage; validate the DST model by comparison with field data; perform simulations to predict mineral dissolution and precipitation and their effects on fracture properties and chemistry of water (but not flow rates) that may seep into drifts; submit modeling results to the TDMS and document the models. The model development, input data, sensitivity and validation studies described in this AMR are required
Models of Excitation–Contraction Coupling in Cardiac Ventricular Myocytes
Jafri, M. Saleet
2012-01-01
Excitation–contraction coupling describes the processes relating to electrical excitation through force generation and contraction in the heart. It occurs at multiple levels from the whole heart, to single myocytes and down to the sarcomere. A central process that links electrical excitation to contraction is calcium mobilization. Computational models that are well grounded in experimental data have been an effective tool to understand the complex dynamics of the processes involved in excitation–contraction coupling. Presented here is a summary of some computational models that have added to the understanding of the cellular and subcellular mechanisms that control ventricular myocyte calcium dynamics. Models of cardiac ventricular myocytes that have given insight into termination of calcium release and interval–force relations are discussed in this manuscript. Computational modeling of calcium sparks, the elementary events in cardiac excitation–contraction coupling, has given insight into mechanism governing their dynamics and termination as well as their role in excitation–contraction coupling and is described herein. PMID:22821602
Asymptotic behavior of coupled linear systems modeling suspension bridges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dell'Oro, Filippo; Giorgi, Claudio; Pata, Vittorino
2015-06-01
We consider the coupled linear system describing the vibrations of a string-beam system related to the well-known Lazer-McKenna suspension bridge model. For ɛ > 0 and k > 0, the decay properties of the solution semigroup are discussed in dependence of the nonnegative parameters γ and h, which are responsible for the damping effects.
Spectra, triple, and quartic gauge couplings in a Higgsless model
Cheung Kingman; Wu Xiaohong; Yan Qishu
2007-12-01
Spectra, triple, and quartic gauge couplings of the Higgsless model with gauge group SU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R}xU(1){sub B-L} defined in warped space are explored with a numerical method. We extend the equation of motions, boundary conditions, and formalism of multi-gauge-boson vertices to the Hirn-Sanz scenario. By assuming the ideally delocalized fermion profile, we study the spectra of vector bosons as well as the triple and quartic gauge couplings among vector bosons. It is found that mass spectra can be greatly modified by the parameters of QCD power corrections. Meanwhile, the triple and quartic gauge couplings can deviate from the values of the standard model to at least {+-}10% and can saturate the LEP2 bounds. We find the triple gauge couplings of ZWW can be 50% smaller than the unitarity bounds. The triple gauge couplings of ZWW is 20% smaller than the unitarity bounds, which might challenge the detection of Z via s channel at LHC if m{sub Z}>500 GeV.
An efficient model for coupling structural vibrations with acoustic radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frendi, Abdelkader; Maestrello, Lucio; Ting, LU
1993-01-01
The scattering of an incident wave by a flexible panel is studied. The panel vibration is governed by the nonlinear plate equations while the loading on the panel, which is the pressure difference across the panel, depends on the reflected and transmitted waves. Two models are used to calculate this structural-acoustic interaction problem. One solves the three dimensional nonlinear Euler equations for the flow-field coupled with the plate equations (the fully coupled model). The second uses the linear wave equation for the acoustic field and expresses the load as a double integral involving the panel oscillation (the decoupled model). The panel oscillation governed by a system of integro-differential equations is solved numerically and the acoustic field is then defined by an explicit formula. Numerical results are obtained using the two models for linear and nonlinear panel vibrations. The predictions given by these two models are in good agreement but the computational time needed for the 'fully coupled model' is 60 times longer than that for 'the decoupled model'.
A tightly coupled non-equilibrium model for inductively coupled radio-frequency plasmas
Munafò, A. Alfuhaid, S. A. Panesi, M.; Cambier, J.-L.
2015-10-07
The objective of the present work is the development of a tightly coupled magneto-hydrodynamic model for inductively coupled radio-frequency plasmas. Non Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (NLTE) effects are described based on a hybrid State-to-State approach. A multi-temperature formulation is used to account for thermal non-equilibrium between translation of heavy-particles and vibration of molecules. Excited electronic states of atoms are instead treated as separate pseudo-species, allowing for non-Boltzmann distributions of their populations. Free-electrons are assumed Maxwellian at their own temperature. The governing equations for the electro-magnetic field and the gas properties (e.g., chemical composition and temperatures) are written as a coupled system of time-dependent conservation laws. Steady-state solutions are obtained by means of an implicit Finite Volume method. The results obtained in both LTE and NLTE conditions over a broad spectrum of operating conditions demonstrate the robustness of the proposed coupled numerical method. The analysis of chemical composition and temperature distributions along the torch radius shows that: (i) the use of the LTE assumption may lead to an inaccurate prediction of the thermo-chemical state of the gas, and (ii) non-equilibrium phenomena play a significant role close the walls, due to the combined effects of Ohmic heating and macroscopic gradients.
A tightly coupled non-equilibrium model for inductively coupled radio-frequency plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munafò, A.; Alfuhaid, S. A.; Cambier, J.-L.; Panesi, M.
2015-10-01
The objective of the present work is the development of a tightly coupled magneto-hydrodynamic model for inductively coupled radio-frequency plasmas. Non Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (NLTE) effects are described based on a hybrid State-to-State approach. A multi-temperature formulation is used to account for thermal non-equilibrium between translation of heavy-particles and vibration of molecules. Excited electronic states of atoms are instead treated as separate pseudo-species, allowing for non-Boltzmann distributions of their populations. Free-electrons are assumed Maxwellian at their own temperature. The governing equations for the electro-magnetic field and the gas properties (e.g., chemical composition and temperatures) are written as a coupled system of time-dependent conservation laws. Steady-state solutions are obtained by means of an implicit Finite Volume method. The results obtained in both LTE and NLTE conditions over a broad spectrum of operating conditions demonstrate the robustness of the proposed coupled numerical method. The analysis of chemical composition and temperature distributions along the torch radius shows that: (i) the use of the LTE assumption may lead to an inaccurate prediction of the thermo-chemical state of the gas, and (ii) non-equilibrium phenomena play a significant role close the walls, due to the combined effects of Ohmic heating and macroscopic gradients.
Mutual coupling, channel model, and BER for curvilinear antenna arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Zhiyong
This dissertation introduces a wireless communications system with an adaptive beam-former and investigates its performance with different antenna arrays. Mutual coupling, real antenna elements and channel models are included to examine the system performance. In a beamforming system, mutual coupling (MC) among the elements can significantly degrade the system performance. However, MC effects can be compensated if an accurate model of mutual coupling is available. A mutual coupling matrix model is utilized to compensate mutual coupling in the beamforming of a uniform circular array (UCA). Its performance is compared with other models in uplink and downlink beamforming scenarios. In addition, the predictions are compared with measurements and verified with results from full-wave simulations. In order to accurately investigate the minimum mean-square-error (MSE) of an adaptive array in MC, two different noise models, the environmental and the receiver noise, are modeled. The minimum MSEs with and without data domain MC compensation are analytically compared. The influence of mutual coupling on the convergence is also examined. In addition, the weight compensation method is proposed to attain the desired array pattern. Adaptive arrays with different geometries are implemented with the minimum MSE algorithm in the wireless communications system to combat interference at the same frequency. The bit-error-rate (BER) of systems with UCA, uniform rectangular array (URA) and UCA with center element are investigated in additive white Gaussian noise plus well-separated signals or random direction signals scenarios. The output SINR of an adaptive array with multiple interferers is analytically examined. The influence of the adaptive algorithm convergence on the BER is investigated. The UCA is then investigated in a narrowband Rician fading channel. The channel model is built and the space correlations are examined. The influence of the number of signal paths, number of the
Delay model for dynamically switching coupled RLC interconnects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Devendra Kumar; Kaushik, Brajesh Kumar; Sharma, Rajender Kumar
2014-04-01
With the evolution of integrated circuit technology, the interconnect parasitics can be the limiting factor in high speed signal transmission. With increasing frequency of operation, length of interconnect and fast transition time of the signal, the RC models are not sufficient to estimate the delay accurately. To mitigate this problem, accurate delay models for coupled interconnects are very much required. This paper proposes an analytical model for estimating propagation delay in lossy coupled RLC interconnect lines for simultaneously switching scenario. To verify the proposed model, the analytical results are compared with those of FDTD and SPICE results for the two cases of inputs switching under consideration. An average error of 2.07% is observed which shows an excellent agreement with SPICE simulation and FDTD computations.
Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and THC Seepage) Models
P. Dixon
2004-04-05
The purpose of this Model Report (REV02) is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) models used to evaluate the potential effects of coupled thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes on UZ flow and transport. This Model Report has been developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC (BSC) 2002 [160819]). The technical work plan (TWP) describes planning information pertaining to the technical scope, content, and management of this Model Report in Section 1.12, Work Package AUZM08, ''Coupled Effects on Flow and Seepage''. The plan for validation of the models documented in this Model Report is given in Attachment I, Model Validation Plans, Section I-3-4, of the TWP. Except for variations in acceptance criteria (Section 4.2), there were no deviations from this TWP. This report was developed in accordance with AP-SIII.10Q, ''Models''. This Model Report documents the THC Seepage Model and the Drift Scale Test (DST) THC Model. The THC Seepage Model is a drift-scale process model for predicting the composition of gas and water that could enter waste emplacement drifts and the effects of mineral alteration on flow in rocks surrounding drifts. The DST THC model is a drift-scale process model relying on the same conceptual model and much of the same input data (i.e., physical, hydrological, thermodynamic, and kinetic) as the THC Seepage Model. The DST THC Model is the primary method for validating the THC Seepage Model. The DST THC Model compares predicted water and gas compositions, as well as mineral alteration patterns, with observed data from the DST. These models provide the framework to evaluate THC coupled processes at the drift scale, predict flow and transport behavior for specified thermal-loading conditions, and predict the evolution of mineral alteration and fluid chemistry around potential waste emplacement drifts. The DST THC Model is used solely for the validation of the THC
Coupled Climate Model Appraisal a Benchmark for Future Studies
Phillips, T J; AchutaRao, K; Bader, D; Covey, C; Doutriaux, C M; Fiorino, M; Gleckler, P J; Sperber, K R; Taylor, K E
2005-08-22
The Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) has produced an extensive appraisal of simulations of present-day climate by eleven representative coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models (OAGCMs) which were developed during the period 1995-2002. Because projections of potential future global climate change are derived chiefly from OAGCMs, there is a continuing need to test the credibility of these predictions by evaluating model performance in simulating the historically observed climate. For example, such an evaluation is an integral part of the periodic assessments of climate change that are reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The PCMDI appraisal thus provides a useful benchmark for future studies of this type. The appraisal mainly analyzed multi-decadal simulations of present-day climate by models that employed diverse representations of climate processes for atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land, as well as different techniques for coupling these components (see Table). The selected models were a subset of those entered in phase 2 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP2, Covey et al. 2003). For these ''CMIP2+ models'', more atmospheric or oceanic variables were provided than the minimum requirements for participation in CMIP2. However, the appraisal only considered those climate variables that were supplied from most of the CMIP2+ models. The appraisal focused on three facets of the simulations of current global climate: (1) secular trends in simulation time series which would be indicative of a problematical ''coupled climate drift''; (2) comparisons of temporally averaged fields of simulated atmospheric and oceanic climate variables with available observational climatologies; and (3) correspondences between simulated and observed modes of climatic variability. Highlights of these climatic aspects manifested by different CMIP2+ simulations are briefly discussed here.
Coupling Hydrologic and Hydrodynamic Models to Estimate PMF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Felder, G.; Weingartner, R.
2015-12-01
Most sophisticated probable maximum flood (PMF) estimations derive the PMF from the probable maximum precipitation (PMP) by applying deterministic hydrologic models calibrated with observed data. This method is based on the assumption that the hydrological system is stationary, meaning that the system behaviour during the calibration period or the calibration event is presumed to be the same as it is during the PMF. However, as soon as a catchment-specific threshold is reached, the system is no longer stationary. At or beyond this threshold, retention areas, new flow paths, and changing runoff processes can strongly affect downstream peak discharge. These effects can be accounted for by coupling hydrologic and hydrodynamic models, a technique that is particularly promising when the expected peak discharge may considerably exceed the observed maximum discharge. In such cases, the coupling of hydrologic and hydraulic models has the potential to significantly increase the physical plausibility of PMF estimations. This procedure ensures both that the estimated extreme peak discharge does not exceed the physical limit based on riverbed capacity and that the dampening effect of inundation processes on peak discharge is considered. Our study discusses the prospect of considering retention effects on PMF estimations by coupling hydrologic and hydrodynamic models. This method is tested by forcing PREVAH, a semi-distributed deterministic hydrological model, with randomly generated, physically plausible extreme precipitation patterns. The resulting hydrographs are then used to externally force the hydraulic model BASEMENT-ETH (riverbed in 1D, potential inundation areas in 2D). Finally, the PMF estimation results obtained using the coupled modelling approach are compared to the results obtained using ordinary hydrologic modelling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deppenmeier, Anna-Lena; Hazeleger, Wilco; Haarsma, Rein; Prodhomme, Chloé; Exarchou, Eleftheria; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.
2016-04-01
State-of-the-art coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) still fail to simulate the mean state and variability of the tropical Atlantic (TA) climate correctly. We investigate the importance of air-sea interaction at different regions in the TA by means of performing partially coupled sensitivity experiments with the state-of-the-art CGCM EC-Earth3.1. All simulations are intialised from the observed climate state. By studying the initial drift in sensitivity experiments we obtain insight into the tropical dynamics and sources of model bias. We test the influence of realistic wind stress forcing over different regions of the TA on the development of SST as well as other oceanic biases. A series of hindcasts fully initialised in May and run until the end of August are performed with prescribed ERA-Interim zonal and meridional wind stresses over three different regions: firstly, we force the entire TA from 15N - 30S. Secondly, we force the equatorial band only between 5N - 5S, and finally we force the coastal area of the Angola Benguela upwelling region between 0W and the coast and between 5S - 30N. Our setup only affects the oceanic forcing and leaves the atmosphere free to adapt, such that we can identify the air-sea interaction processes in the different regions and their effect on the SST bias in the fully coupled system. The differences between forcing the entire TA and the equatorial region only are very small, which hints to the great importance of the relatively narrow equatorial region. The coastal upwelling area does not strongly affect the equatorial region in our model. We identify the equatorial band as most susceptible to errors in the wind stress forcing and, due to the strong atmosphere-ocean coupling, as source of the main biases in our model. The partially coupled experiments with initialised seasonal hindcasts appear to be a powerful tool to identify the sources of model biases and to identify relevant air-sea interaction processes in the TA.
Theoretical Modeling of Mechanical-Electrical Coupling of Carbon Nanotubes
Lu, Jun-Qiang; Jiang, Hanqiang
2008-01-01
Carbon nanotubes have been studied extensively due to their unique properties, ranging from electrical, mechanical, optical, to thermal properties. The coupling between the electrical and mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes has emerged as a new field, which raises both interesting fundamental problems and huge application potentials. In this article, we will review our recently work on the theoretical modeling on mechanical-electrical coupling of carbon nanotubes subject to various loading conditions, including tension/compression, torsion, and squashing. Some related work by other groups will be also mentioned.
A Coupled Wave-Current-Sediment model for Skagit Bay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cowles, G. W.; Holmes, E. M.; Ralston, D. K.
2010-12-01
Along with tidal currents, waves provide a dominant forcing mechanism for sediment transport on many tidal flats. In semi-enclosed regions such as Skagit Bay, Washington, the wave action is due mainly to local wind forcing that occurs over seasonal and event scales. Due to the limited fetch, variations in along-flat wave characteristics can drive gradients in the wave-induced bottom stress and resulting sediment transport. In this work, we use an unstructured grid, coupled wave-current-sediment model to study the influence of wave-induced near bottom stresses in the presence of tidal currents on the sediment transport within the Skagit River delta and Skagit Bay. The coupled model consists of three primary components: the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) for hydrodynamics, the unstructured grid model SWAN to compute the phase-averaged wave field, and the Community Sediment Transport Modeling System. Model sensitivities to the choice of coupling and bottom boundary layer formulations are examined. Results from process oriented simulations will be presented. The process studies use a realistic domain with controlled forcing conditions to quantify the influence of wave-induced bed stresses on the sediment dynamics in Skagit Bay.
Climate Change and Groundwater: A Coupling of Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chesebrough, E.; Gorokhovich, Y.
2012-12-01
Groundwater is the largest source of readily available freshwater on our planet. Aquifers are vulnerable to climate change and require new groundwater management plans to account for changing precipitation patterns and sea level rise, among other factors. Atmospheric General Circulation Models (GCMs) use algorithms applied to historic and modern data to simulate current climatic conditions and predict future changes on a global scale. However, these GCMs are limited in their application at a regional level, thus making hydrogeological predictions difficult. Models designed specifically for hydrogeology are most commonly designed for regional assessment, and they can incorporate GCM outputs. Some of the challenges in coupling GCM outputs and hydrogeological models are the differences in spatial and temporal scales. In addition, the different scenarios of climate response to Greenhouse Gas forcings create a range of outputs from GCMs, affecting the predicting capacity of hydrogeological models. The use of dynamic and statistical downscaling of GCMs make it possible to overcome these challenges by taking the climate simulation output from GCMs and incorporating it as the input for hydrogeological models. This coupling of GCMs to groundwater models makes new groundwater management plans possible, which will ensure the sustainability of these resources in the future. The studies referenced within this paper highlight the advantages and disadvantages of various combinations of coupling and downscaling methodologies.
A dynamical stochastic coupled model for financial markets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Govindan, T. E.; Ibarra-Valdez, Carlos; Ruiz de Chávez, J.
2007-07-01
A model coupling a deterministic dynamical system which represents trading, with a stochastic one that represents asset prices evolution is presented. Both parts of the model have connections with well established dynamic models in mathematical economics and finance. The main objective is to represent the double feedback between trading dynamics (the demand/supply interaction) and price dynamics (assumed as largely random). We present the model, and address to some extent existence and uniqueness, continuity with respect to initial conditions and stability of solutions. The non-Lipschitz case is briefly considered as well.
A neural mass model of phase-amplitude coupling.
Chehelcheraghi, Mojtaba; Nakatani, Chie; Steur, Erik; van Leeuwen, Cees
2016-06-01
Brain activity shows phase-amplitude coupling between its slow and fast oscillatory components. We study phase-amplitude coupling as recorded at individual sites, using a modified version of the well-known Wendling neural mass model. To the population of fast inhibitory interneurons of this model, we added external modulatory input and dynamic self-feedback. These two modifications together are sufficient to let the inhibitory population serve as a limit-cycle oscillator, with frequency characteristics comparable to the beta and gamma bands. The frequency and power of these oscillations can be tuned through the time constant of the dynamic and modulatory input. Alpha band activity is generated, as is usual in such models, as a result of interactions of pyramidal neurons and a population of slow inhibitory interneurons. The slow inhibitory population activity directly influences the fast oscillations via the synaptic gain between slow and fast inhibitory populations. As a result, the amplitude envelope of the fast oscillation is coupled to the phase of the slow activity; this result is consistent with the notion that phase-amplitude coupling is effectuated by interactions between inhibitory interneurons. PMID:27241189
A Bidirectional Coupling Procedure Applied to Multiscale Respiratory Modeling
Kuprat, Andrew P.; Kabilan, Senthil; Carson, James P.; Corley, Richard A.; Einstein, Daniel R.
2013-07-01
In this study, we present a novel multiscale computational framework for efficiently linking multiple lower-dimensional models describing the distal lung mechanics to imaging-based 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of the upper pulmonary airways in order to incorporate physiologically appropriate outlet boundary conditions. The framework is an extension of the Modified Newton’s Method with nonlinear Krylov accelerator developed by Carlson and Miller [1, 2, 3]. Our extensions include the retention of subspace information over multiple timesteps, and a special correction at the end of a timestep that allows for corrections to be accepted with verified low residual with as little as a single residual evaluation per timestep on average. In the case of a single residual evaluation per timestep, the method has zero additional computational cost compared to uncoupled or unidirectionally coupled simulations. We expect these enhancements to be generally applicable to other multiscale coupling applications where timestepping occurs. In addition we have developed a “pressure-drop” residual which allows for stable coupling of flows between a 3D incompressible CFD application and another (lower-dimensional) fluid system. We expect this residual to also be useful for coupling non-respiratory incompressible fluid applications, such as multiscale simulations involving blood flow. The lower-dimensional models that are considered in this study are sets of simple ordinary differential equations (ODEs) representing the compliant mechanics of symmetric human pulmonary airway trees. To validate the method, we compare the predictions of hybrid CFD-ODE models against an ODE-only model of pulmonary airflow in an idealized geometry. Subsequently, we couple multiple sets of ODEs describing the distal lung to an imaging-based human lung geometry. Boundary conditions in these models consist of atmospheric pressure at the mouth and intrapleural pressure applied to the multiple
A bidirectional coupling procedure applied to multiscale respiratory modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuprat, A. P.; Kabilan, S.; Carson, J. P.; Corley, R. A.; Einstein, D. R.
2013-07-01
In this study, we present a novel multiscale computational framework for efficiently linking multiple lower-dimensional models describing the distal lung mechanics to imaging-based 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) models of the upper pulmonary airways in order to incorporate physiologically appropriate outlet boundary conditions. The framework is an extension of the modified Newton's method with nonlinear Krylov accelerator developed by Carlson and Miller [1], Miller [2] and Scott and Fenves [3]. Our extensions include the retention of subspace information over multiple timesteps, and a special correction at the end of a timestep that allows for corrections to be accepted with verified low residual with as little as a single residual evaluation per timestep on average. In the case of a single residual evaluation per timestep, the method has zero additional computational cost compared to uncoupled or unidirectionally coupled simulations. We expect these enhancements to be generally applicable to other multiscale coupling applications where timestepping occurs. In addition we have developed a "pressure-drop" residual which allows for stable coupling of flows between a 3D incompressible CFD application and another (lower-dimensional) fluid system. We expect this residual to also be useful for coupling non-respiratory incompressible fluid applications, such as multiscale simulations involving blood flow. The lower-dimensional models that are considered in this study are sets of simple ordinary differential equations (ODEs) representing the compliant mechanics of symmetric human pulmonary airway trees. To validate the method, we compare the predictions of hybrid CFD-ODE models against an ODE-only model of pulmonary airflow in an idealized geometry. Subsequently, we couple multiple sets of ODEs describing the distal lung to an imaging-based human lung geometry. Boundary conditions in these models consist of atmospheric pressure at the mouth and intrapleural
A Bidirectional Coupling Procedure Applied to Multiscale Respiratory Modeling.
Kuprat, A P; Kabilan, S; Carson, J P; Corley, R A; Einstein, D R
2013-07-01
In this study, we present a novel multiscale computational framework for efficiently linking multiple lower-dimensional models describing the distal lung mechanics to imaging-based 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of the upper pulmonary airways in order to incorporate physiologically appropriate outlet boundary conditions. The framework is an extension of the Modified Newton's Method with nonlinear Krylov accelerator developed by Carlson and Miller [1, 2, 3]. Our extensions include the retention of subspace information over multiple timesteps, and a special correction at the end of a timestep that allows for corrections to be accepted with verified low residual with as little as a single residual evaluation per timestep on average. In the case of a single residual evaluation per timestep, the method has zero additional computational cost compared to uncoupled or unidirectionally coupled simulations. We expect these enhancements to be generally applicable to other multiscale coupling applications where timestepping occurs. In addition we have developed a "pressure-drop" residual which allows for stable coupling of flows between a 3D incompressible CFD application and another (lower-dimensional) fluid system. We expect this residual to also be useful for coupling non-respiratory incompressible fluid applications, such as multiscale simulations involving blood flow. The lower-dimensional models that are considered in this study are sets of simple ordinary differential equations (ODEs) representing the compliant mechanics of symmetric human pulmonary airway trees. To validate the method, we compare the predictions of hybrid CFD-ODE models against an ODE-only model of pulmonary airflow in an idealized geometry. Subsequently, we couple multiple sets of ODEs describing the distal lung to an imaging-based human lung geometry. Boundary conditions in these models consist of atmospheric pressure at the mouth and intrapleural pressure applied to the multiple sets
A bidirectional coupling procedure applied to multiscale respiratory modeling
Kuprat, A.P.; Kabilan, S.; Carson, J.P.; Corley, R.A.; Einstein, D.R.
2013-07-01
In this study, we present a novel multiscale computational framework for efficiently linking multiple lower-dimensional models describing the distal lung mechanics to imaging-based 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) models of the upper pulmonary airways in order to incorporate physiologically appropriate outlet boundary conditions. The framework is an extension of the modified Newton’s method with nonlinear Krylov accelerator developed by Carlson and Miller [1], Miller [2] and Scott and Fenves [3]. Our extensions include the retention of subspace information over multiple timesteps, and a special correction at the end of a timestep that allows for corrections to be accepted with verified low residual with as little as a single residual evaluation per timestep on average. In the case of a single residual evaluation per timestep, the method has zero additional computational cost compared to uncoupled or unidirectionally coupled simulations. We expect these enhancements to be generally applicable to other multiscale coupling applications where timestepping occurs. In addition we have developed a “pressure-drop” residual which allows for stable coupling of flows between a 3D incompressible CFD application and another (lower-dimensional) fluid system. We expect this residual to also be useful for coupling non-respiratory incompressible fluid applications, such as multiscale simulations involving blood flow. The lower-dimensional models that are considered in this study are sets of simple ordinary differential equations (ODEs) representing the compliant mechanics of symmetric human pulmonary airway trees. To validate the method, we compare the predictions of hybrid CFD–ODE models against an ODE-only model of pulmonary airflow in an idealized geometry. Subsequently, we couple multiple sets of ODEs describing the distal lung to an imaging-based human lung geometry. Boundary conditions in these models consist of atmospheric pressure at the mouth and intrapleural
Frisch, E.; Johnson, C.G.
1962-05-15
A detachable coupling arrangement is described which provides for varying the length of the handle of a tool used in relatively narrow channels. The arrangement consists of mating the key and keyhole formations in the cooperating handle sections. (AEC)
A Coupled General Circulation Model of the Archean Earth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wolf, E. T.; Toon, O. B.
2011-12-01
We present results from a new coupled general circulation model suitable for deep paleoclimate studies. Particular interest is given to the faint young Sun paradox. The model is based on the Community Earth System Model maintained by the National Center for Atmospheric Research [1]. Prognostic atmosphere, ocean, land, ice, and hydrological cycle models are coupled. A new correlated-k radiative transfer model has been implemented allowing accurate flux calculations for anoxic atmospheres containing high concentrations of CO2 and CH4 [2, 3]. This model represents a significant improvement upon one-dimensional radiative-convective climate models used previously to study ancient climate [4]. Cloud and ice albedo feedbacks will be accurately quantified and new constraints on Archean surface temperatures will be revealed. References [1] Collins W.D. et al. "Description of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 3.0)." NCAR Technical Note, 2004. [2] Toon O.B., McKay, C.P., Ackerman, T.P. "Rapid Calculation of Radiative Heating Rates and Photodissociation Rates in Inhomogeneous Multiple Scattering Atmospheres." J. Geo. Res., 94(D13), 16287 - 16301, 1989. [3] Mlawer, E.J., et al. "Radiative transfer for inhomogeneous atmospheres: RRTM, a validated correlated-k model for the longwave." J. Geo. Res., 102(D14), 16663 - 16682, 1997. [4] Kasting J.F., Pollack, J.B., Crisp, D. "Effects of High CO2 Levels on Surface Temperature and Atmospheric Oxidation State of the Early Earth." J. Atm. Chem., 1, 403-428, 1984.
Pathological gambling and couple: towards an integrative systemic model.
Cunha, Diana; Relvas, Ana Paula
2014-06-01
This article is a critical literature review of pathological gambling focused in the family factors, particularly in the couple dynamics. Its main goal is to develop an explicative integrative systemic model of pathological gambling, based in these couple dynamics. To achieve that aim, a bibliography search was made, using on-line data bases (e.g., EBSCO Host) and recognized books in pathological gambling subject, as well as in the systemic approach in general. This process privileged the recent works (about 70 % of the reviewed literature was published in the last decade), however, also considered some classic works (the oldest one dates back to 1970). The guiding focus of this literature search evolves according to the following steps: (1) search of general comprehension of pathological gambling (19 references), (2) search specification to the subject "pathological gambling and family" (24 references), (3) search specification to the subject "pathological gambling and couple"(11 references), (4) search of systemic information which integrates the evidence resulted in the previous steps (4 references). The developed model is constituted by different levels of systemic complexity (social context, family of origin, couple and individual) and explains the problem as a signal of perturbation in the marital subsystem vital functions (e.g., power and control) though the regularities of marital dynamics of pathological gamblers. Furthermore, it gives theoretical evidence of the systemic familiar intervention in the pathological gambling. PMID:23423730
Coupled surface-water and ground-water model
Swain, Eric D.; Wexler, Eliezer J.
1991-01-01
In areas with dynamic and hydraulically well connected ground-water and surface-water systems, it is desirable that stream-aquifer interaction be simulated with models of equal sophistication and accuracy. Accordingly, a new, coupled ground-water and surface-water model was developed by combining the U.S. Geological Survey models MODFLOW and BRANCH. MODFLOW is the widely used modular three-dimensional, finite-difference, ground-water model and BRANCH is a one-dimensional numerical model commonly used to simulate flow in open-channel networks. Because time steps used in ground-water modeling commonly are much longer than those used in surface-water simulations, provision has been made for handling multiple BRANCH time steps within one MODFLOW time step. Verification testing of the coupled model was done using data from previous studies and by comparing results with output from a simpler four-point implicit open-channel flow model linked with MODFLOW.
Coupled vibro-acoustic model updating using frequency response functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nehete, D. V.; Modak, S. V.; Gupta, K.
2016-03-01
Interior noise in cavities of motorized vehicles is of increasing significance due to the lightweight design of these structures. Accurate coupled vibro-acoustic FE models of such cavities are required so as to allow a reliable design and analysis. It is, however, experienced that the vibro-acoustic predictions using these models do not often correlate acceptably well with the experimental measurements and hence require model updating. Both the structural and the acoustic parameters addressing the stiffness as well as the damping modeling inaccuracies need to be considered simultaneously in the model updating framework in order to obtain an accurate estimate of these parameters. It is also noted that the acoustic absorption properties are generally frequency dependent. This makes use of modal data based methods for updating vibro-acoustic FE models difficult. In view of this, the present paper proposes a method based on vibro-acoustic frequency response functions that allow updating of a coupled FE model by considering simultaneously the parameters associated with both the structural as well as the acoustic model of the cavity. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through numerical studies on a 3D rectangular box cavity with a flexible plate. Updating parameters related to the material property, stiffness of joints between the plate and the rectangular cavity and the properties of absorbing surfaces of the acoustic cavity are considered. The robustness of the method under presence of noise is also studied.
MOUNTAIN-SCALE COUPLED PROCESSES (TH/THC/THM)MODELS
Y.S. Wu
2005-08-24
This report documents the development and validation of the mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic (TH), thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC), and thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) models. These models provide technical support for screening of features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174842], Section 2.1.1.1). The purpose and validation criteria for these models are specified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Coupled Processes (Mountain-Scale TH/THC/THM, Drift-Scale THC Seepage, and Drift-Scale Abstraction) Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174842]). Model results are used to support exclusion of certain FEPs from the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model on the basis of low consequence, consistent with the requirements of 10 CFR 63.342 [DIRS 173273]. Outputs from this report are not direct feeds to the TSPA-LA. All the FEPs related to the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale UZ and SZ flow are discussed in Sections 6 and 7 of this report. The mountain-scale coupled TH/THC/THM processes models numerically simulate the impact of nuclear waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including a representation of heat-driven processes occurring in the far field. The mountain-scale TH simulations provide predictions for thermally affected liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature (together called the flow fields). The main focus of the TH model is to predict the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes, and drainage between drifts. The TH model captures mountain-scale three-dimensional flow effects, including lateral diversion and mountain-scale flow patterns. The mountain-scale THC model evaluates TH effects on water and gas
Nonrelativistic approaches derived from point-coupling relativistic models
Lourenco, O.; Dutra, M.; Delfino, A.; Sa Martins, J. S.
2010-03-15
We construct nonrelativistic versions of relativistic nonlinear hadronic point-coupling models, based on new normalized spinor wave functions after small component reduction. These expansions give us energy density functionals that can be compared to their relativistic counterparts. We show that the agreement between the nonrelativistic limit approach and the Skyrme parametrizations becomes strongly dependent on the incompressibility of each model. We also show that the particular case A=B=0 (Walecka model) leads to the same energy density functional of the Skyrme parametrizations SV and ZR2, while the truncation scheme, up to order {rho}{sup 3}, leads to parametrizations for which {sigma}=1.
Modeling Reactive Transport in Coupled Groundwater-Conduit Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spiessl, S. M.; Sauter, M.; Zheng, C.; Viswanathan, H. S.
2002-05-01
Modeling reactive transport in coupled groundwater-conduit systems requires consideration of two transport time scales in the flow and transport models. Consider for example a subsurface mine consisting of a network of highly conductive shafts, drifts or ventilation raises (i.e., conduits) within the considerably less permeable ore material (i.e., matrix). In the conduits, potential contaminants can travel much more rapidly than in the background aquifer (matrix). Since conduits cannot necessarily be regarded as a continuum, double continuum models are only of limited use for simulation of contaminant transport in such coupled groundwater-conduit systems. This study utilizes a "hybrid" flow and transport model in which contaminants can in essence be transported at a slower time scale in the matrix and at a faster time scale in the conduits. The hybrid flow model uses an approach developed by Clemens et al. (1996), which is based on the modelling of flow in a discrete pipe network, coupled to a continuum representing the low-permeability inter-conduit matrix blocks. Laminar or turbulent flow can be simulated in the different pipes depending on the flow conditions in the model domain. The three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow model MODFLOW (Harbaugh and McDonald, 1996) is used to simulate flow in the continuum. Contaminant transport within the matrix is simulated with a continuum approach using the three-dimensional multi-species solute transport model MT3DMS (Zheng and Wang, 1999), while that in the conduit system is simulated with a one-dimensional advective transport model. As a first step for reactive transport modeling in such systems, only equilibrium reactions among multiple species are considered by coupling the hybrid transport model to a geochemical speciation package. An idealized mine network developed by Viswanathan and Sauter (2001) is used as a test problem in this study. The numerical experiment is based on reference date collected from
Coupled Hydrological and Hydraulic Modeling for Flood Mapping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drobot, Radu; Draghia, Aurelian
2014-05-01
The delineation of the flooded areas involves both hydrological and hydraulic modeling. Usually, the hydrological and hydraulic processes are separately treated. In the proposed methodology, the coupled modeling of the hydrological and hydraulic processes is used. The calibration and validation of the hydrological parameters is undertaken based on historical floods using the corresponding precipitations for the same period. The calibration process was more complicated in the presence of reservoirs, when not only the discharges downstream but also the water level in the reservoirs had to be accurately reproduced. The time step for precipitation is 1 hour, corresponding to the concentration time of the smallest catchments. The maximum annual precipitation for different time steps (1; 3; 6; 24 hours) were statistically processed and based on these results the cumulative rainfall curves and the synthetic hyetographs were derived. The rainfall duration is depending on the concentration time. Mike 11 with UHM module based on SCS model was used for coupled hydrological and hydraulic modeling. The coupled hydrological and hydraulic simulation for the scaled precipitation leads both at the computation of the components which contribute to the generation of the P% flood at the Hydrometric stations as well as to the determination of the discharge hydrograph along the main river. Based on these results the flood hazard maps were obtained using a DTM based on Lidar data. The methodology was applied for a river basin in Romania of 12500 km2.
Coupled land-atmosphere modeling of methane emissions with WRF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, D.
2013-12-01
This project aims to couple a soil model for methane transport to an atmospheric model to predict methane emissions and dispersion. Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, 20 times as efficient at trapping heat in the atmosphere as the most prevalent greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. It has been estimated that 60% of methane emissions in the earth's atmosphere come from anthropogenic sources, 17% of which comes from landfills, making landfills the third largest contributor of human-generated methane. Due to high costs and non-ideal weather conditions, field measurements of methane concentration at landfills are difficult and infrequent, so estimates of annual emissions from landfills are not very accurate. We plan to create a coupled land-atmosphere model that takes production and oxidation of methane into account when calculating methane emissions. This model will give a better understanding of how much methane is emitted annually from a given landfill and assist with monitoring efforts. It will also demonstrate the magnitude of diurnal and seasonal variations in methane emissions, which may identify errors in yearly methane emissions estimates made by extrapolating from a small number of field measurements. As a first step, an existing land-surface model, Noah, is modified to compute the transport of oxygen and methane along a 1-D soil column. Surface emissions are calculated using a gradient flux method with a boundary layer conductance that depends on the wind speed. These modifications to the land-surface model will be added to the Weather Research and Forecasting model to predict atmospheric dispersion of methane emitted by landfills. Comparisons to observations are made at two different landfill sites to validate the coupled model.
Nao/ao Variability In The Coupled Bergen Climate Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sorteberg, A.; Furevik, T.; Bentsen, M.; Drange, H.; Kvamsto, N. G.; Thorstensen-Kindem, I.
A new fully coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice model, known as the Bergen Climate Model (BCM), has been developed. The coupled model can be run with stretched co- ordinates both in the atmosphere and ocean and consists of the atmospheric model ARPEGE/IFS, and a global version of the isopycnal ocean model MICOM, including a sea ice model. The atmospheric model ARPEGE/IFS (c22) is a spectral model devel- oped jointly by Meteo-France and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The ocean circulation model is the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MI- COM). Several modifications have been done to the MICOM model including the incorporation of a thermodynamic and dynamic sea ice model, the use of tempera- ture as a prognostic variable instead of salinity, and the use of a metric scale factor in both lateral, so the model can easily be configured on a general orthogonal grid. Also,the thickness diffusion has been modified to better handle diffusion near bottom topography and the base of the mixed layer. Coupling has been done with the library OASIS where 14 different fields are ex- changed using Montecarlo mapping and subgrid interpolation. Continental runoff into the correct rivers and discharge into the correct ocean grid cells are performed using the Total Runoff Integrating Pathways (TRIP) data set. Results will be present from a 300 years flux adjusted control integration of BCM with todays climate, using a unstretched T63 truncation in the atmosphere and a 0.8 by 2.4 degree resolution (near the equator gradually transforming to approximate square grid cells towards the poles) in the ocean. The model output has been analysed for large scale variability in both the ocean and atmosphere, with emphasise on the North Atlantic and Arctic climate. Statistical properties of the NAO/AO signal, and its im- pacts on the climate components, are identified and compared with observations. The NAO/AO mode of variability show up in the model with
Assessing groundwater policy with coupled economic-groundwater hydrologic modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mulligan, Kevin B.; Brown, Casey; Yang, Yi-Chen E.; Ahlfeld, David P.
2014-03-01
This study explores groundwater management policies and the effect of modeling assumptions on the projected performance of those policies. The study compares an optimal economic allocation for groundwater use subject to streamflow constraints, achieved by a central planner with perfect foresight, with a uniform tax on groundwater use and a uniform quota on groundwater use. The policies are compared with two modeling approaches, the Optimal Control Model (OCM) and the Multi-Agent System Simulation (MASS). The economic decision models are coupled with a physically based representation of the aquifer using a calibrated MODFLOW groundwater model. The results indicate that uniformly applied policies perform poorly when simulated with more realistic, heterogeneous, myopic, and self-interested agents. In particular, the effects of the physical heterogeneity of the basin and the agents undercut the perceived benefits of policy instruments assessed with simple, single-cell groundwater modeling. This study demonstrates the results of coupling realistic hydrogeology and human behavior models to assess groundwater management policies. The Republican River Basin, which overlies a portion of the Ogallala aquifer in the High Plains of the United States, is used as a case study for this analysis.
Robust Validation of ENSO in IPCC-Class Coupled Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stevenson, Samantha; Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Jochum, Markus
2010-05-01
Wavelet probability analysis, a new method of model validation, is used to assess the performance of ENSO in a variety of coupled climate models. Wavelet probability analysis relies on wavelet spectra for a given time series, for which the amount of spectral overlap between subsets is measured using a quantity known as the wavelet probability index (WPI). This approach provides quantitative estimates of model agreement relative to either observations or other models, accompanied by well-defined confidence levels. ENSO, as represented by the NINO3.4 index, has been examined in 2,000 year long coupled integrations of both the new NCAR CCSM3.5 and GFDL's CM2.1; interestingly, it is not possible to distinguish either model from observations of NINO3.4 during 1949-2003, for runs shorter than 200 years. At longer model run lengths, some inaccuracies are seen in both CCSM3.5 and CM2.1 relative to observations. CCSM3.5 and CM2.1 are compared to one another using hypothesis testing procedures, and changes in model physics discussed in terms of their impact on ENSO. Finally, the method is applied to non-equilibrium simulations, using both high-CO2 'ramp-up' runs and selected IPCC AR4 integrations. This allows the effect of changing CO2 levels on ENSO activity to be examined, and the statistical significance of such effects to be determined.
A parallel coupled oceanic-atmospheric general circulation model
Wehner, M.F.; Bourgeois, A.J.; Eltgroth, P.G.; Duffy, P.B.; Dannevik, W.P.
1994-12-01
The Climate Systems Modeling group at LLNL has developed a portable coupled oceanic-atmospheric general circulation model suitable for use on a variety of massively parallel (MPP) computers of the multiple instruction, multiple data (MIMD) class. The model is composed of parallel versions of the UCLA atmospheric general circulation model, the GFDL modular ocean model (MOM) and a dynamic sea ice model based on the Hiber formulation extracted from the OPYC ocean model. The strategy to achieve parallelism is twofold. One level of parallelism is accomplished by applying two dimensional domain decomposition techniques to each of the three constituent submodels. A second level of parallelism is attained by a concurrent execution of AGCM and OGCM/sea ice components on separate sets of processors. For this functional decomposition scheme, a flux coupling module has been written to calculate the heat, moisture and momentum fluxes independent of either the AGCM or the OGCM modules. The flux coupler`s other roles are to facilitate the transfer of data between subsystem components and processors via message passing techniques and to interpolate and aggregate between the possibly incommensurate meshes.
Conformal Loop quantization of gravity coupled to the standard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pullin, Jorge; Gambini, Rodolfo
2016-03-01
We consider a local conformal invariant coupling of the standard model to gravity free of any dimensional parameter. The theory is formulated in order to have a quantized version that admits a spin network description at the kinematical level like that of loop quantum gravity. The Gauss constraint, the diffeomorphism constraint and the conformal constraint are automatically satisfied and the standard inner product of the spin-network basis still holds. The resulting theory has resemblances with the Bars-Steinhardt-Turok local conformal theory, except it admits a canonical quantization in terms of loops. By considering a gauge fixed version of the theory we show that the Standard model coupled to gravity is recovered and the Higgs boson acquires mass. This in turn induces via the standard mechanism masses for massive bosons, baryons and leptons.
Modeling of a bipedal robot using mutually coupled Rayleigh oscillators.
Filho, Armando C de Pina; Dutra, Max S; Raptopoulos, Luciano S C
2005-01-01
The objective of the work presented here was the modeling of a bipedal robot using a central pattern generator (CPG) formed by a set of mutually coupled Rayleigh oscillators. We analyzed a 2D model, with the three most important determinants of gait, that performs only motions parallel to the sagittal plane. Using oscillators with integer relation of frequency, we determined the transient motion and the stable limit cycles of the network formed by the three oscillators, showing the behavior of the knee angles and the hip angle. A comparison of the plotted graphs revealed that the system provided excellent results when compared to experimental analysis. Based on the results of the study, we come to the conclusion that the use of mutually coupled Rayleigh oscillators can represent an excellent method of signal generation, allowing their application for feedback control of a walking machine. PMID:15580522
Bose-Hubbard model with occupation-parity couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Kuei; Bolech, C. J.
2014-02-01
We study a Bose-Hubbard model having on-site repulsion, nearest-neighbor tunneling, and ferromagneticlike coupling between occupation parities of nearest-neighbor sites. For a uniform system in any dimension at zero tunneling, we obtain an exact phase diagram characterized by Mott-insulator (MI) and pair liquid phases and regions of phase separation of two MIs. For a general trapped system in one and two dimensions with finite tunneling, we perform quantum Monte Carlo and Gutzwiller mean-field calculations, both of which show the evolution of the system, as the parity coupling increases, from a superfluid to wedding-cake-structure MIs with their occupations jumping by 2. We also identify an exotic pair superfluid at relatively large tunneling strength. Our model ought to effectively describe recent findings in imbalanced Fermi gases in two-dimensional optical lattices and also potentially apply to an anisotropic version of bilinear-biquadratic spin systems.
Eikonal solutions to optical model coupled-channel equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cucinotta, Francis A.; Khandelwal, Govind S.; Maung, Khin M.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.
1988-01-01
Methods of solution are presented for the Eikonal form of the nucleus-nucleus coupled-channel scattering amplitudes. Analytic solutions are obtained for the second-order optical potential for elastic scattering. A numerical comparison is made between the first and second order optical model solutions for elastic and inelastic scattering of H-1 and He-4 on C-12. The effects of bound-state excitations on total and reaction cross sections are also estimated.
Strongly Coupled Models with a Higgs-like Boson
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pich, Antonio; Rosell, Ignasi; José Sanz-Cillero, Juan
2013-11-01
Considering the one-loop calculation of the oblique S and T parameters, we have presented a study of the viability of strongly-coupled scenarios of electroweak symmetry breaking with a light Higgs-like boson. The calculation has been done by using an effective Lagrangian, being short-distance constraints and dispersive relations the main ingredients of the estimation. Contrary to a widely spread believe, we have demonstrated that strongly coupled electroweak models with massive resonances are not in conflict with experimentalconstraints on these parameters and the recently observed Higgs-like resonance. So there is room for these models, but they are stringently constrained. The vector and axial-vector states should be heavy enough (with masses above the TeV scale), the mass splitting between them is highly preferred to be small and the Higgs-like scalar should have a WW coupling close to the Standard Model one. It is important to stress that these conclusions do not depend critically on the inclusion of the second Weinberg sum rule. We wish to thank the organizers of LHCP 2013 for the pleasant conference. This work has been supported in part by the Spanish Government and the European Commission [FPA2010-17747, FPA2011- 23778, AIC-D-2011-0818, SEV-2012-0249 (Severo Ochoa Program), CSD2007-00042 (Consolider Project CPAN)], the Generalitat Valenciana [PrometeoII/2013/007] and the Comunidad de Madrid [HEPHACOS S2009/ESP-1473].
To study gaseous exchanges between the soil, biosphere and atmosphere, a biochemical model was coupled with the latest version of Meyers Multi-Layer Deposition Model. The biochemical model describes photosynthesis and respiration and their coupling with stomatal resistance for...
Modelling of a refrigerating system coupled with a refrigerated room
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hongwei
1991-08-01
The development of a set of comprehensive computer models to simulate and analyze both steady state and non steady state behavior of a refrigerating system coupled with a refrigerated room is described. The refrigerating system is a single stage vapor compression system consisting of four basic elements: a reciprocating piston compressor, a dry expansion evaporator (or cooler), a shell and tube watercooled condensor and a thermostatic expansion valve. To validate the computer models, a test plant on which steady state and dynamic measurements were carried out, was set up. Experiments to determine several empirical constants encountered in the models were done, and the simulation results were compared with a series of measurements within a wide range of operation conditions. The validated models were applied to the prediction of the air distributions in a cold store and the study of a system with different capacity control systems, proving the capability and reliability of the models.
A Fully Coupled Computational Model of the Silylation Process
G. H. Evans; R. S. Larson; V. C. Prantil; W. S. Winters
1999-02-01
This report documents the development of a new finite element model of the positive tone silylation process. Model development makes use of pre-existing Sandia technology used to describe coupled thermal-mechanical behavior in deforming metals. Material properties and constitutive models were obtained from the literature. The model is two-dimensional and transient and focuses on the part of the lithography process in which crosslinked and uncrosslinked resist is exposed to a gaseous silylation agent. The model accounts for the combined effects of mass transport (diffusion of silylation agent and reaction product), chemical reaction resulting in the uptake of silicon and material swelling, the generation of stresses, and the resulting material motion. The influence of stress on diffusion and reaction rates is also included.
Gauge coupling unification in a classically scale invariant model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haba, Naoyuki; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Yuya
2016-02-01
There are a lot of works within a class of classically scale invariant model, which is motivated by solving the gauge hierarchy problem. In this context, the Higgs mass vanishes at the UV scale due to the classically scale invariance, and is generated via the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism. Since the mass generation should occur not so far from the electroweak scale, we extend the standard model only around the TeV scale. We construct a model which can achieve the gauge coupling unification at the UV scale. In the same way, the model can realize the vacuum stability, smallness of active neutrino masses, baryon asymmetry of the universe, and dark matter relic abundance. The model predicts the existence vector-like fermions charged under SU(3) C with masses lower than 1 TeV, and the SM singlet Majorana dark matter with mass lower than 2.6 TeV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mooney, P.; Mulligan, F. J.; Bruyere, C. L.; Bonnlander, B.
2014-12-01
We examine the influence of physics parameterizations and ocean coupling on the ability of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the storm track and intensity of 2011 storms Irene and Ophelia. Of the physics parameterizations investigated - cumulus parameterizations, planetary boundary layer, microphysics, radiation, and land surface models - cumulus parameterizations have the greatest impact on WRF's ability to reproduce the two storms, particularly storm intensity. We also investigated the influence of coupling the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) to the WRF model. This was achieved using the Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Wave Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system which couples ROMS to WRF using the Model Coupling Toolkit (MCT). Simulated storm intensity and track are modified as a result of coupling ROMS to WRF, but coupling will not compensate for a poor initial parameterization selection.
Standard model-like D-brane models and gauge couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamada, Yuta; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Uemura, Shohei
2015-08-01
We systematically search intersecting D-brane models, which just realize the Standard Model chiral matter contents and gauge symmetry. We construct new classes of non-supersymmetric Standard Model-like models. We also study the gauge coupling constants of these models. The tree level gauge coupling is a function of the compactification moduli, the string scale, the string coupling and the winding numbers of D-branes. By tuning them, we examine whether the models can explain the experimental values of gauge couplings. As a result, we find that the string scale should be greater than 1014-15 GeV if the compactification scale and the string scale are of the same order.
A coupled model of fluid flow in jointed rock
Swenson, Daniel; Martineau, Rick; James, Mark; Brown, Don
1991-01-01
We present a fully coupled model of fluid flow in jointed rock, where the fluid flow depends on the joint openings and the joint openings depend on the fluid pressure. The joints and rock blocks are modeled discretely using the finite element method. Solutions for the fluid and rock are obtained and iteration is performed until both solutions converge. Example applications include an examination of the effects of back-pressure on flow in a geothermal reservoir and transient fluid injection into a reservoir.
Warm stellar matter within the quark-meson-coupling model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panda, P. K.; Providência, C.; Menezes, D. P.
2010-10-01
In the present article, we investigate stellar matter obtained within the quark-meson-coupling (QMC) model for fixed temperature and with the entropy of the order of 1 or 2 Boltzmann units per baryon for neutrino-free matter and matter with trapped neutrinos. A new prescription for the calculation of the baryon effective masses in terms of the free energy is used. Comparing the results of the present work with those obtained from the nonlinear Walecka model, smaller strangeness and neutrino fractions are predicted within QMC. As a consequence, QMC has a smaller window of metastability for conversion into a low-mass blackhole during cooling.
Warm stellar matter within the quark-meson-coupling model
Panda, P. K.; Providencia, C.; Menezes, D. P.
2010-10-15
In the present article, we investigate stellar matter obtained within the quark-meson-coupling (QMC) model for fixed temperature and with the entropy of the order of 1 or 2 Boltzmann units per baryon for neutrino-free matter and matter with trapped neutrinos. A new prescription for the calculation of the baryon effective masses in terms of the free energy is used. Comparing the results of the present work with those obtained from the nonlinear Walecka model, smaller strangeness and neutrino fractions are predicted within QMC. As a consequence, QMC has a smaller window of metastability for conversion into a low-mass blackhole during cooling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Syvitski, J. P.; Csdms Scientific; Software Team
2010-12-01
CSDMS is the virtual home for a diverse community who foster and promote the modeling of earth surface processes, with emphasis on the movement of fluids, sediment and solutes through landscapes, seascapes and through their sedimentary basins. CSDMS develops, integrates, disseminates & archives software (> 150 models and 3million+ lines of code) that reflects and predicts earth surface processes over a broad range of time and space scales. CSDMS deals with the Earth's surface—the ever-changing, dynamic interface between lithosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and atmosphere. CSDMS employs state-of-the-art architectures, interface standards and frameworks that make it possible to convert stand-alone models into flexible, "plug-and-play" components that can be assembled into larger applications. The CSDMS model-coupling environment offers language interoperability, structured and unstructured grids, and serves as a migration pathway for surface dynamics modelers towards High-Performance Computing (HPC). The CSDMS Modeling Tool is a key product of the overall project, as it allows earth scientists with relatively modest computer coding experience to use the CSDMS modules for earth surface dynamics research and education. The CMT Tool is platform independent. CMT can easily couple models that have followed the CSDMS protocols for model contribution: 1) Open-source license; 2) Available; 3) Vetted; 4) Open-source language; 5) Refactored for componentization; 6) Metadata & test files; 7) Clean and documented using keywords.
Safer Batteries through Coupled Multiscale Modeling (ICCS 2015)
Turner, John A; Allu, Srikanth; Berrill, Mark A; Elwasif, Wael R; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Kumar, Abhishek; Lebrun-Grandie, Damien T; Pannala, Dr. Sreekanth; Simunovic, Srdjan
2015-01-01
Batteries are highly complex electrochemical systems, with performance and safety governed by coupled nonlinear electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical processes over a range of spatiotemporal scales. We describe a new, open source computational environment for battery simulation known as VIBE - the Virtual Integrated Battery Environment. VIBE includes homogenized and pseudo-2D electrochemistry models such as those by Newman-Tiedemann-Gu (NTG) and Doyle- Fuller-Newman (DFN, a.k.a. DualFoil) as well as a new advanced capability known as AMPERES (Advanced MultiPhysics for Electrochemical and Renewable Energy Storage). AMPERES provides a 3D model for electrochemistry and full coupling with 3D electrical and thermal models on the same grid. VIBE/AMPERES has been used to create three-dimensional battery cell and pack models that explicitly simulate all the battery components (current collectors, electrodes, and separator). The models are used to predict battery performance under normal operations and to study thermal and mechanical response under adverse conditions.
The dynamics of a coupled soilscape-landscape evolution model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Welivitiya, Dimuth; Willgoose, Garry; Hancock, Greg
2016-04-01
In this study we present results obtained from a landform evolution model coupled with SSSPAM5D soilscape evolution model. This presentation will show a number of computer animations with this coupled model using a range of widely accepted soil profile weathering models, and erosion/armouring models. The animations clearly show that subtle changes in process can result in dramatic changes in long-term equilibrium hillslope and soilscape form. We will discuss the reasons for these differences, arguing from the various mathematical and physical assumptions modelled, and infer how observed hillslope form may provide identifiable (and perhaps quantifiable) landform and soilscape signatures of landscape and soilscape process, and in particular the coupling between the landscape and the soilscape. Specifically we have simulated soilscapes using 3 depth dependent weathering functions: 1) Exponential, 2) Humped and 3) Reversed exponential. The Exponential weathering function simulates physical weathering due to thermal effects, and the weathering rate exponentially decreases with depth. The Humped function simulates chemical and/or physical weathering with moisture feedbacks, where the highest weathering rate is at a finite depth below the surface and exponentially declines with depth. The Reversed exponential function simulates chemical weathering, and the highest weathering rate is at the soil-saprolite interface and exponentially decreases both above and below the interface. Both the Humped and Reversed exponential functions can be used as approximations to chemical weathering as they can be derived analytically by solving widely accepted geochemical weathering equations. The Humped function can arise where the weathering fluid is introduced at the top of the soil profile (e.g. rainfall equilibrated with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere), while the Reversed exponential can be derived when carbon dioxide is generated within the profile (e.g. by biodegradation of soil
Evolution of a Coupled Marine Ice Sheet - Sea Level Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomez, N.; Pollard, D.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Huybers, P.; Clark, P. U.
2012-04-01
An instability mechanism is widely predicted for marine ice sheets resting upon reversed bed slopes whereby ice-sheet thinning or rising sea level is thought to lead to irreversible retreat of the grounding line. Previous analyses of marine ice-sheet stability have considered the influence of a sea-level perturbation on ice-sheet stability by assuming a geographically uniform, or eustatic, change in sea level. However, gravitational, deformational and rotational effects associated with changes in the volume of grounded ice lead to markedly non-uniform spatial patterns of sea-level change. In particular, a gravitationally self-consistent sea-level theory predicts a sea-level fall in the vicinity of a shrinking ice sheet that is an order of magnitude greater amplitude than the sea-level rise that would be predicted assuming eustasy. We highlight the stabilizing influence of local sea-level changes on marine ice sheets by incorporating gravitationally self-consistent sea-level changes into a steady state model of ice sheet stability (Gomez et. al., Nature Geoscience, 2010). In addition, we develop a dynamic coupled ice sheet - sea level model to consider the impact of this stabilizing mechanism on the timescale of ice sheet retreat. The coupled system combines a sea-level model valid for a self-gravitating, viscoelastically deforming Earth to a 1D, dynamic marine ice sheet-shelf model. The evolution of the coupled model is explored for a suite of simulations in which we vary the bed slope and the forcing that initiates retreat. We find that the sea-level fall at the grounding line associated with a retreating ice sheet acts to slow the retreat; in simulations with shallow reversed bed slopes and/or small initial forcing, the drop in sea level can be sufficient to halt the retreat. The rate of sea-level change at the grounding line has an elastic component due to ongoing changes in ice-sheet geometry, and a viscous component due to past ice and ocean load changes. When
Upscalling processes in an ocean-atmosphere multiscale coupled model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masson, S. G.; Berthet, S.; Samson, G.; Crétat, J.; Colas, F.; Echevin, V.; Jullien, S.; Hourdin, C.
2015-12-01
This work explores new pathways toward a better representation of the multi-scale physics that drive climate variability. We are analysing the key upscaling processes by which small-scale localized errors have a knock-on effect onto global climate. We focus on the Peru-Chilli coastal upwelling, an area known to hold among the strongest models biases in the Tropics. Our approach is based on the development of a multiscale coupling interface allowing us to couple WRF with the NEMO oceanic model in a configuration including 2-way nested zooms in the oceanic and/or the atmospheric component of the coupled model. Upscalling processes are evidenced and quantified by comparing three 20-year long simulations of a tropical channel (45°S-45°N), which differ by their horizontal resolution: 0.75° everywhere, 0.75°+0.25° zoom in the southeastern Pacific or 0.25° everywhere. This set of three 20-year long simulations was repeated with 3 different sets of parameterizations to assess the robustness of our results. Our results show that adding an embedded zoom over the southeastern Pacific only in the atmosphere cools down the SST along the Peru-Chili coast, which is a clear improvement. This change is associated with a displacement of the low-level cloud cover, which moves closer to the coast cooling further the coastal area SST. Offshore, we observe the opposite effect with a reduction of the cloud cover with higher resolution, which increases solar radiation and warms the SST. Increasing the resolution in the oceanic component show contrasting results according to the different set parameterization used in the experiments. Some experiment shows a coastal cooling as expected, whereas, in other cases, we observe a counterintuitive response with a warming of the coastal SST. Using at the same time an oceanic and an atmospheric zoom mostly combines the results obtained when using the 2-way nesting in only one component of the coupled model. In the best case, we archive by this
Model independent predictions for rare top decays with weak coupling
Datta, Alakabha; Duraisamy, Murugeswaran
2010-04-01
Measurements at B factories have provided important constraints on new physics in several rare processes involving the B meson. New physics, if present in the b quark sector may also affect the top sector. In an effective Lagrangian approach, we write down operators, where effects in the bottom and the top sector are related. Assuming the couplings of the operators to be of the same size as the weak coupling g of the standard model and taking into account constraints on new physics from the bottom sector as well as top branching ratios, we make predictions for the rare top decays t{yields}cV, where V={gamma}, Z. We find branching fractions for these decays within possible reach of the LHC. Predictions are also made for t{yields}sW.
Particle production within the quark meson coupling model
Panda, P. K.; Menezes, D. P.; Providencia, C.
2009-07-15
Quark-meson coupling (QMC) models can be successfully applied to the description of compact star properties in nuclear astrophysics as well as to nuclear matter. In the regime of hot hadronic matter very few calculations exist using the QMC model, in particular when applied to particle yields in heavy ion collisions. In the present work, we identify the free energy of the bag with the effective mass of the baryons and we calculate the particle production yields on a Au+Au collision at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) with the QMC model and compare them with results obtained previously with other relativistic models. A smaller temperature for the fireball, T=132 MeV, is obtained because of the smaller effective baryon masses predicted by QMC. QMC was also applied to the description of particle yields at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) in Pb+Pb collisions.
Thermodynamics of the BMN matrix model at strong coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa, Miguel S.; Greenspan, Lauren; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.
2015-03-01
We construct the black hole geometry dual to the deconfined phase of the BMN matrix model at strong 't Hooft coupling. We approach this solution from the limit of large temperature where it is approximately that of the non-extremal D0-brane geometry with a spherical S 8 horizon. This geometry preserves the SO(9) symmetry of the matrix model trivial vacuum. As the temperature decreases the horizon becomes deformed and breaks the SO(9) to the SO(6) × SO(3) symmetry of the matrix model. When the black hole free energy crosses zero the system undergoes a phase transition to the confined phase described by a Lin-Maldacena geometry. We determine this critical temperature, whose computation is also within reach of Monte Carlo simulations of the matrix model.
Coupled Hydro-Mechanical Modeling of Fluid Geological Storage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castelletto, N.; Garipov, T.; Tchelepi, H. A.
2013-12-01
The accurate modeling of the complex coupled physical processes occurring during the injection and the post-injection period is a key factor for assessing the safety and the feasibility of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in subsurface formations. In recent years, it has become widely accepted the importance of the coupling between fluid flow and geomechanical response in constraining the sustainable pressure buildup caused by fluid injection relative to the caprock sealing capacity, induced seismicity effects and ground surface stability [e.g., Rutqvist, 2012; Castelletto et al., 2013]. Here, we present a modeling approach based on a suitable combination of Finite Volumes (FVs) and Finite Elements (FEs) to solve the coupled system of partial differential equations governing the multiphase flow in a deformable porous medium. Specifically, a FV method is used for the flow problem while the FE method is adopted to address the poro-elasto-plasticity equations. The aim of the present work is to compare the performance and the robustness of unconditionally stable sequential-implicit schemes [Kim et al., 2011] and the fully-implicit method in solving the algebraic systems arising from the discretization of the governing equations, for both normally conditioned and severely ill-conditioned problems. The two approaches are tested against well-known analytical solutions and experimented with in a realistic application of CO2 injection in a synthetic aquifer. References: - Castelletto N., G. Gambolati, and P. Teatini (2013), Geological CO2 sequestration in multi-compartment reservoirs: Geomechanical challenges, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 118, 2417-2428, doi:10.1002/jgrb.50180. - Kim J., H. A. Tchelepi, and R. Juanes (2011), Stability, accuracy and efficiency of sequential methods for coupled flow and geomechanics, SPE J., 16(2), 249-262. - Rutqvist J. (2012), The geomechanics of CO2 storage in deep sedimentary formations, Geotech. Geol. Eng., 30, 525-551.
A fully coupled thermal, chemical, mechanical cookoff model
Hobbs, M.L.; Baer, M.R.; Gross, R.J.
1994-05-01
Cookoff modeling of confined energetic materials involves the coupling of thermal, chemical and mechanical effects. In the past, modeling has focussed on the prediction of thermal runaway with little regard to the effects of mechanical behavior of the energetic material. To address the mechanical response of the energetic material, a constitutive submodel has been developed which can be incorporated into thermal-chemical-mechanical analysis. This work presents development of this submodel and its incorporation into a fully coupled one-dimensional, thermal-chemical-mechanical computer code to simulate thermal initiation of energetic materials. Model predictions include temperature, chemical species, stress, strain, solid/gas pressure, solid/gas density, yield function, and gas volume fraction. Sample results from a scaled aluminum tube filled with RDX exposed to a constant temperature bath at 500 K will be displayed. The micromechanical submodel is based on bubble mechanics which describes nucleation, decomposition, and elastic/plastic mechanical behavior. This constitutive material description requires input of temperatures and reacted fraction of the energetic material as provided by the reactive heat flow code, XCHEM, and the mechanical response is predicted using a quasistatic mechanics code, SANTOS. A parametric sensitivity analysis indicates that a small degree of decomposition causes significant pressurization of the energetic material, which implies that cookoff modeling must consider the strong interaction between thermal-chemistry and mechanics. This document consists of view graphs from the poster session.
Interchain coupling and 3D modeling of trans-polyacetylene
Bronold, F.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R.
1992-01-01
In spite of the success of the SSH model for trans-polyacetylene in interpreting many experimental results (e.g. optical and magnetic properties) there remain some aspects of the real material which are outside the scope of the simple 1D model. Especially ordering phenomena of doped and undoped trans-polyacetylene as well as transport properties (e.g. electronic and thermal conductivity) are beyond a 1D description. There are many attempts to construct a transport theory for this novel class of materials using solitons or polaxons as the basic ingredients. But so far it is not yet clear whether these typical 1D excitations still exist in crystalline transpolyacetylene. Therefore, to clarify the role which intrinsic self-localized nonlinear excitations characteristic of 1D models play in the bulk (3D) material, we study the stability of a polaronic excitation against interchain coupling. As a preliminary step we consider first two coupled t-(CH){sub x}-chains where the {pi}-electrons are allowed to hop from one chain to the other. Then we introduce a 3D generalization of the SSH model and study a polaron in a 3D crystalline environment.
Interchain coupling and 3D modeling of trans-polyacetylene
Bronold, F.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R.
1992-09-01
In spite of the success of the SSH model for trans-polyacetylene in interpreting many experimental results (e.g. optical and magnetic properties) there remain some aspects of the real material which are outside the scope of the simple 1D model. Especially ordering phenomena of doped and undoped trans-polyacetylene as well as transport properties (e.g. electronic and thermal conductivity) are beyond a 1D description. There are many attempts to construct a transport theory for this novel class of materials using solitons or polaxons as the basic ingredients. But so far it is not yet clear whether these typical 1D excitations still exist in crystalline transpolyacetylene. Therefore, to clarify the role which intrinsic self-localized nonlinear excitations characteristic of 1D models play in the bulk (3D) material, we study the stability of a polaronic excitation against interchain coupling. As a preliminary step we consider first two coupled t-(CH){sub x}-chains where the {pi}-electrons are allowed to hop from one chain to the other. Then we introduce a 3D generalization of the SSH model and study a polaron in a 3D crystalline environment.
A coupling model for amplified spontaneous emission in laser resonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Hua; Wang, Xiaojun; Shang, Jianli; Yu, Yi; Tang, Chun
2015-10-01
The competition between amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and main laser in solid-state laser resonators is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. A coupled model using the spatial volume integral instead of the Monte Carlo type raytrace technique is proposed to depict ASE in the laser resonators. This model is able to evaluate all possible reflections at both the polishing surface and the diffusive side, to calculate ASE for an inhomogeneous gain distribution, and to include the spectral correction. An experiment is carefully designed to verify the theoretical model and to investigate the distinct physical properties caused by the coupling between ASE and the laser oscillations. The experimental data exhibit an excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. According to that model, we confirm that ASE in thin-disk lasers can be characterized approximately by the product of the threshold gain of the resonator and the diameter of the disks, as laser modes are highly overlapped with the pumping beam. Theoretical evaluation shows that the scattering characteristic of the disk side impacts on ASE significantly. Furthermore, we point out that ASE decreases output laser power by affecting threshold pumping power, while slope efficiency is not changed by ASE. This observation provides us with a simple way to estimate the decrease of the optical efficiency by ASE.
High-resolution reactive transport: A coupled parallel hydrogeochemical model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beisman, J. J.; Maxwell, R. M.; Steefel, C. I.; Sitchler, A.; Molins, S.
2013-12-01
Subsurface hydrogeochemical systems are an especially complex component of the terrestrial environment and play host to a multitude of interactions. Parameterizations of these interactions are perhaps the least understood component of terrestrial systems, presenting uncertainties in the predictive understanding of biogeochemical cycling and transport. Thorough knowledge of biogeochemical transport processes is critical to the quantification of carbon/nutrient fluxes in the subsurface, and to the development of effective contaminant remediation techniques. Here we present a coupled parallel hydrogeochemical model, ParCrunchFlow, as a tool to further our understanding of governing processes and interactions in natural hydrogeochemical systems. ParCrunchFlow is a coupling of the reactive transport simulator CrunchFlow with the hydrologic model ParFlow. CrunchFlow is a multicomponent reactive flow and transport code that can be used to simulate a range of important processes and environments, including reactive contaminant transport, chemical weathering, carbon sequestration, biogeochemical cycling, and water-rock interaction. ParFlow is a parallel, three-dimensional, variably-saturated, coupled surface-subsurface flow and transport code with the ability to simulate complex topography, geology, and heterogeneity. ParCrunchflow takes advantage of the efficient parallelism built into Parflow, allowing the numerical simulation of reactive transport processes in chemically and physically heterogeneous media at high spatial resolutions. This model provides an ability to further examine the interactions and feedbacks between biogeochemical systems and complex subsurface flow fields. In addition to the details of model construction, results will be presented that show floodplain nutrient cycling and the effects of heterogeneity on small-scale mixing reactions at the Department of Energy's Old Rifle Legacy site.
Models of coupled salt and water transport across leaky epithelia.
Weinstein, A M; Stephenson, J L
1981-05-15
A general formulation is presented for the verification of isotonic transport and for the assignment of a degree of osmotic coupling in any epithelial model. In particular, it is shown that the concentration of the transported fluid in the presence of exactly equal bathing media is, in general, not a sufficient calculation by which to decide the issue of isotonicity of transport. Within this framework, two epithelial models are considered: (1) A nonelectrolyte compartment model of the lateral intercellular space is presented along with its linearization about the condition of zero flux. This latter approximate model is shown to be useful in the estimation of deviation from isotonicity, intraepithelial solute polarization effects, and the capacity to transport water against a gradient. In the case of uphill water transport, some limitations of a model of fixed geometry are indicated and the advantage of modeling a compliant interspace is suggested. (2) A comprehensive model of cell and channel is described which includes the major electrolytes and the possible presence of intraepithelial gradients. The general approach to verification of isotonicity is illustrated for this numerical model. In addition, the insights about parameter dependence gained from the linear compartment model are shown to be applicable to understanding this large simulation. PMID:6264088
Status of the seamless coupled modelling system ICON-ART
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vogel, Bernhard; Rieger, Daniel; Schroeter, Jenniffer; Bischoff-Gauss, Inge; Deetz, Konrad; Eckstein, Johannes; Foerstner, Jochen; Gasch, Philipp; Ruhnke, Roland; Vogel, Heike; Walter, Carolin; Weimer, Michael
2016-04-01
The integrated modelling framework ICON-ART [1] (ICOsahedral Nonhydrostatic - Aerosols and Reactive Trace gases) extends the numerical weather prediction modelling system ICON by modules for gas phase chemistry, aerosol dynamics and related feedback processes. The nonhydrostatic global modelling system ICON [2] is a joint development of German Weather Service (DWD) and Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M) with local grid refinement down to grid sizes of a few kilometers. It will be used for numerical weather prediction, climate projections and for research purposes. Since January 2016 ICON runs operationally at DWD for weather forecast on the global scale with a grid size of 13 km. Analogous to its predecessor COSMO-ART [3], ICON-ART is designed to account for feedback processes between meteorological variables and atmospheric trace substances. Up to now, ICON-ART contains the dispersion of volcanic ash, radioactive tracers, sea salt aerosol, as well as ozone-depleting stratospheric trace substances [1]. Recently, we have extended ICON-ART by a mineral dust emission scheme with global applicability and nucleation parameterizations which allow the cloud microphysics to explicitly account for prognostic aerosol distributions. Also very recently an emission scheme for volatile organic compounds was included. We present first results of the impact of natural aerosol (i.e. sea salt aerosol and mineral dust) on cloud properties and precipitation as well as the interaction of primary emitted particles with radiation. Ongoing developments are the coupling with a radiation scheme to calculate the photolysis frequencies, a coupling with the RADMKA (1) chemistry and first steps to include isotopologues of water. Examples showing the capabilities of the model system will be presented. This includes a simulation of the transport of ozone depleting short-lived trace gases from the surface into the stratosphere as well as of long-lived tracers. [1] Rieger, D., et al
The kinesin walk: a dynamic model with elastically coupled heads.
Derényi, I; Vicsek, T
1996-01-01
Recently individual two-headed kinesin molecules have been studied in in vitro motility assays revealing a number of their peculiar transport properties. In this paper we propose a simple and robust model for the kinesin stepping process with elastically coupled Brownian heads that show all of these properties. The analytic and numerical treatment of our model results in a very good fit to the experimental data and practically has no free parameters. Changing the values of the parameters in the restricted range allowed by the related experimental estimates has almost no effect on the shape of the curves and results mainly in a variation of the zero load velocity that can be directly fitted to the measured data. In addition, the model is consistent with the measured pathway of the kinesin ATPase. PMID:8692894
Model Organisms in G Protein-Coupled Receptor Research.
Langenhan, Tobias; Barr, Maureen M; Bruchas, Michael R; Ewer, John; Griffith, Leslie C; Maiellaro, Isabella; Taghert, Paul H; White, Benjamin H; Monk, Kelly R
2015-09-01
The study of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) has benefited greatly from experimental approaches that interrogate their functions in controlled, artificial environments. Working in vitro, GPCR receptorologists discovered the basic biologic mechanisms by which GPCRs operate, including their eponymous capacity to couple to G proteins; their molecular makeup, including the famed serpentine transmembrane unit; and ultimately, their three-dimensional structure. Although the insights gained from working outside the native environments of GPCRs have allowed for the collection of low-noise data, such approaches cannot directly address a receptor's native (in vivo) functions. An in vivo approach can complement the rigor of in vitro approaches: as studied in model organisms, it imposes physiologic constraints on receptor action and thus allows investigators to deduce the most salient features of receptor function. Here, we briefly discuss specific examples in which model organisms have successfully contributed to the elucidation of signals controlled through GPCRs and other surface receptor systems. We list recent examples that have served either in the initial discovery of GPCR signaling concepts or in their fuller definition. Furthermore, we selectively highlight experimental advantages, shortcomings, and tools of each model organism. PMID:25979002
Model for a transformer-coupled toroidal plasma source
Rauf, Shahid; Balakrishna, Ajit; Chen Zhigang; Collins, Ken
2012-01-15
A two-dimensional fluid plasma model for a transformer-coupled toroidal plasma source is described. Ferrites are used in this device to improve the electromagnetic coupling between the primary coils carrying radio frequency (rf) current and a secondary plasma loop. Appropriate components of the Maxwell equations are solved to determine the electromagnetic fields and electron power deposition in the model. The effect of gas flow on species transport is also considered. The model is applied to 1 Torr Ar/NH{sub 3} plasma in this article. Rf electric field lines form a loop in the vacuum chamber and generate a plasma ring. Due to rapid dissociation of NH{sub 3}, NH{sub x}{sup +} ions are more prevalent near the gas inlet and Ar{sup +} ions are the dominant ions farther downstream. NH{sub 3} and its by-products rapidly dissociate into small fragments as the gas flows through the plasma. With increasing source power, NH{sub 3} dissociates more readily and NH{sub x}{sup +} ions are more tightly confined near the gas inlet. Gas flow rate significantly influences the plasma characteristics. With increasing gas flow rate, NH{sub 3} dissociation occurs farther from the gas inlet in regions with higher electron density. Consequently, more NH{sub 4}{sup +} ions are produced and dissociation by-products have higher concentrations near the outlet.
Model Organisms in G Protein–Coupled Receptor Research
Barr, Maureen M.; Bruchas, Michael R.; Ewer, John; Griffith, Leslie C.; Maiellaro, Isabella; Taghert, Paul H.; White, Benjamin H.
2015-01-01
The study of G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) has benefited greatly from experimental approaches that interrogate their functions in controlled, artificial environments. Working in vitro, GPCR receptorologists discovered the basic biologic mechanisms by which GPCRs operate, including their eponymous capacity to couple to G proteins; their molecular makeup, including the famed serpentine transmembrane unit; and ultimately, their three-dimensional structure. Although the insights gained from working outside the native environments of GPCRs have allowed for the collection of low-noise data, such approaches cannot directly address a receptor’s native (in vivo) functions. An in vivo approach can complement the rigor of in vitro approaches: as studied in model organisms, it imposes physiologic constraints on receptor action and thus allows investigators to deduce the most salient features of receptor function. Here, we briefly discuss specific examples in which model organisms have successfully contributed to the elucidation of signals controlled through GPCRs and other surface receptor systems. We list recent examples that have served either in the initial discovery of GPCR signaling concepts or in their fuller definition. Furthermore, we selectively highlight experimental advantages, shortcomings, and tools of each model organism. PMID:25979002
Modelling of strongly coupled particle growth and aggregation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gruy, F.; Touboul, E.
2013-02-01
The mathematical modelling of the dynamics of particle suspension is based on the population balance equation (PBE). PBE is an integro-differential equation for the population density that is a function of time t, space coordinates and internal parameters. Usually, the particle is characterized by a unique parameter, e.g. the matter volume v. PBE consists of several terms: for instance, the growth rate and the aggregation rate. So, the growth rate is a function of v and t. In classical modelling, the growth and the aggregation are independently considered, i.e. they are not coupled. However, current applications occur where the growth and the aggregation are coupled, i.e. the change of the particle volume with time is depending on its initial value v0, that in turn is related to an aggregation event. As a consequence, the dynamics of the suspension does not obey the classical Von Smoluchowski equation. This paper revisits this problem by proposing a new modelling by using a bivariate PBE (with two internal variables: v and v0) and by solving the PBE by means of a numerical method and Monte Carlo simulations. This is applied to a physicochemical system with a simple growth law and a constant aggregation kernel.
Global Magnetospheric Simulations: coupling with ionospheric and solar wind models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lapenta, Giovanni; Olshevskyi, Vyacheslav; Amaya, Jorge; Deca, Jan; Markidis, Stefano; Vapirev, Alexander
2013-04-01
We present results on the global fully kinetic model of the magnetosphere of the Earth. The simulations are based on the iPic3D code [1] that treats kinetically all plasma species solving implicitly the equations of motion for electrons and ions, coupled with the Maxwell equations. We present results of our simulations and discuss the coupling at the inner boundary near the Earth with models of the ionosphere and at the outer boundary with models of the arriving solar wind. The results are part of the activities of the Swiff FP7 project: www.swiff.eu [1] Stefano Markidis, Giovanni Lapenta, Rizwan-uddin, Multi-scale simulations of plasma with iPIC3D, Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Volume 80, Issue 7, March 2010, Pages 1509-1519, ISSN 0378-4754, 10.1016/j.matcom.2009.08.038 [2] Giovanni Lapenta, Particle simulations of space weather, Journal of Computational Physics, Volume 231, Issue 3, 1 February 2012, Pages 795-821, ISSN 0021-9991, 10.1016/j.jcp.2011.03.035.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Maria, Elisabetta; Fages, François; Soliman, Sylvain
In systems biology, the number of models of cellular processes increases rapidly, but re-using models in different contexts or for different questions remains a challenging issue. In this paper, we show how the validation of a coupled model and the optimization of its parameters with respect to biological properties formalized in temporal logics, can be done automatically by model-checking. More specifically, we illustrate this approach with the coupling of existing models of the mammalian cell cycle, the p53-based DNA-damage repair network, and irinotecan metabolism, with respect to the biological properties of this anticancer drug.
Upscaled modeling of CO2 injection with coupled thermal processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gasda, Sarah; Stephansen, Annette; Dahle, Helge; Aavatsmark, Ivar
2013-04-01
Large-scale models of CO2 storage in geological formations must capture the relevant physical, chemical and thermodynamical processes that affect the migration and ultimate fate of injected CO2. These processes should be modeled over the appropriate length and time scales. Some important mechanisms include convection-driven dissolution, caprock roughness, and local capillary effects, all of which can impact the direction and speed of the plume as well as long-term trapping efficiency. In addition, CO2 can be injected at a different temperature than reservoir conditions, leading to significant density variation within the plume over space and time. This impacts buoyancy and migration patterns, which becomes particularly important for injection sites with temperature and pressure conditions near the critical point. Therefore, coupling thermal processes with fluid flow should be considered in order to correctly capture plume migration and trapping within the reservoir. A practical modeling approach for CO2 storage over relatively large length and time scales is the vertical-equilibrium model, which solves partially integrated conservation equations for flow in two lateral dimensions. We couple heat transfer within the vertical equilibrium framework for fluid flow, focusing on the thermal processes that most impact the CO2 plume. We investigate a simplified representation of heat exchange between the plume and the reservoir that also includes transport of heat within the plume. In addition, we explore CO2 thermodynamic models for reliable prediction of density under different injection pressures, temperatures and composition. The model concept is demonstrated on simple systems and applied to a realistic storage aquifer.
Dynamic model of neural networks with asymmetric diluted couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, M. Y.; Choi, Meekyoung
1990-06-01
We study an asymmetric diluted version of the dynamic model for neural networks proposed recently, which explicitly takes into account the existence of several time scales without discretizing the time. The dynamics is neither totally synchronous nor totally asynchronous, and the couplings in the neural networks are asymmetric. These considerations may be regarded as more biologically realistic. We obtain the phase diagram as a function of the temperature ɛ-1, the capacity α, and the ratio a of the refractory period to the action potential duration.
Coupled atmosphere-ocean models of Titan's past
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKay, C. P.; Pollack, J. B.; Lunine, J. I.; Courtin, R.
1993-03-01
The behavior and possible past evolution of fully coupled atmosphere and ocean model of Titan are investigated. It is found that Titan's surface temperature was about 20 K cooler at 4 Gyr ago and will be about 5 K warmer 0.5 Gyr in the future. The change in solar luminosity and the conversion of oceanic CH4 to C2H6 drive the evolution of the ocean and atmosphere over time. Titan appears to have experienced a frozen epoch about 3 Gyr ago independent of whether an ocean is present or not. This finding may have important implications for understanding the inventory of Titan's volatile compounds.
Hypernuclei in the quark-meson coupling model
K. Tsushima, P. A. M. Guichon
2010-07-01
We present results of hypernuclei calculated in the latest quark-meson coupling (QMC) model, where the effect of the mean scalar field in-medium on the one-gluon exchange hyperfine interaction, is also included self-consistently. The extra repulsion associated with this increased hyperfine interaction in-medium completely changes the predictions for {\\Sigma} hypernuclei. Whereas in the earlier version of QMC they were bound by an amount similar to {\\Lambda} hypernuclei, they are unbound in the latest version of QMC, in qualitative agreement with the experimental absence of such states.
Magnetosphere-thermosphere coupling - An experiment in interactive modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Harel, Moshe
1989-01-01
The present use of the Rice convection model to investigate the electrodynamic coupling of the thermosphere to the inner magnetosphere encompasses the effects of EUV-driven and convection-driven neutral winds under quasi-equilibrium conditions. Convection-driven winds are included self-consistently and interactively; a steady-state wind parameterization is written analytically in terms of the electrostatic potential, which is in turn included in a closed-loop calculation for the electric potential itself. The simulations conducted show that, as the neutral system approaches a quasi-equilibrium state, the neutral winds play a much more significant role.
Coupled thermal-hydraulic-chemical modelling of enhanced geothermal systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bächler, D.; Kohl, T.
2005-05-01
The study investigates thermal-, hydraulic- and chemically coupled processes of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). On the basis of the two existing numerical codes, the finite element program FRACTURE and the geochemical module of CHEMTOUGH, FRACHEM was developed, to simulate coupled thermal-hydraulic-chemical (THC) processes, accounting for the Soultz specific conditions such as the high salinity of the reservoir fluid and the high temperatures. The finite element part calculates the thermal and hydraulic field and the geochemical module the chemical processes. According to the characteristics of the Soultz EGS reservoir, the geochemical module was modified. (i) The Debye-Huckel approach was replaced by the Pitzer formalism. (ii) New kinetic laws for calcite, dolomite, quartz and pyrite were implemented. (iii) The porosity-permeability relation was replaced by a new relation for fractured rock. (iv) The possibility of re-injecting the produced fluid was implemented. The sequential non-iterative approach (SNIA) was used to couple transport and reactions. Sensitivity analyses proved the proper functionality of FRACHEM, but highlighted the sensitivity of the SNIA approach to time steps. To quantify the FRACHEM results, a comparative simulation with the code SHEMAT was conducted, which validated FRACHEM. Coupled THC processes in a fractured zone in the Soultz reservoir at 3500 m (T0= 165 °C), which occur as a result of the injection of fluid (Tinj= 65 °C) at one end of the zone and the production at the other end, were modelled for 2 yr. Calcite is the most reactive mineral and therefore the porosity and permeability evolution results from the calcite reactions: near the injection point, porosity and permeability increase and near the production well they decrease. After 2 yr, the system seems to be very close to steady-state. Therefore, mineral dissolution and precipitation during the circulation of the fluid in the reservoir do not represent a limiting factor on
Drift dynamics in a coupled model initialized for decadal forecasts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanchez-Gomez, Emilia; Cassou, Christophe; Ruprich-Robert, Yohan; Fernandez, Elodie; Terray, Laurent
2016-03-01
Drifts are always present in models when initialized from observed conditions because of intrinsic model errors; those potentially affect any type of climate predictions based on numerical experiments. Model drifts are usually removed through more or less sophisticated techniques for skill assessment, but they are rarely analysed. In this study, we provide a detailed physical and dynamical description of the drifts in the CNRM-CM5 coupled model using a set of decadal retrospective forecasts produced within CMIP5. The scope of the paper is to give some physical insights and lines of approach to, on one hand, implement more appropriate techniques of initialisation that minimize the drift in forecast mode, and on the other hand, eventually reduce the systematic biases of the models. We first document a novel protocol for ocean initialization adopted by the CNRM-CERFACS group for forecasting purpose in CMIP5. Initial states for starting dates of the predictions are obtained from a preliminary integration of the coupled model where full-field ocean surface temperature and salinity are restored everywhere to observations through flux derivative terms and full-field subsurface fields (below the prognostic ocean mixed layer) are nudged towards NEMOVAR reanalyses. Nudging is applied only outside the 15°S-15°N band allowing for dynamical balance between the depth and tilt of the tropical thermocline and the model intrinsic biased wind. A sensitivity experiment to the latitudinal extension of no-nudging zone (1°S-1°N instead of 15°, hereafter referred to as NOEQ) has been carried out. In this paper, we concentrate our analyses on two specific regions: the tropical Pacific and the North Atlantic basins. In the Pacific, we show that the first year of the forecasts is characterized by a quasi-systematic excitation of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) warm events whatever the starting dates. This, through ocean-to-atmosphere heat transfer materialized by diabatic heating
Stochastic Ocean Eddy Perturbations in a Coupled General Circulation Model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Howe, N.; Williams, P. D.; Gregory, J. M.; Smith, R. S.
2014-12-01
High-resolution ocean models, which are eddy permitting and resolving, require large computing resources to produce centuries worth of data. Also, some previous studies have suggested that increasing resolution does not necessarily solve the problem of unresolved scales, because it simply introduces a new set of unresolved scales. Applying stochastic parameterisations to ocean models is one solution that is expected to improve the representation of small-scale (eddy) effects without increasing run-time. Stochastic parameterisation has been shown to have an impact in atmosphere-only models and idealised ocean models, but has not previously been studied in ocean general circulation models. Here we apply simple stochastic perturbations to the ocean temperature and salinity tendencies in the low-resolution coupled climate model, FAMOUS. The stochastic perturbations are implemented according to T(t) = T(t-1) + (∆T(t) + ξ(t)), where T is temperature or salinity, ΔT is the corresponding deterministic increment in one time step, and ξ(t) is Gaussian noise. We use high-resolution HiGEM data coarse-grained to the FAMOUS grid to provide information about the magnitude and spatio-temporal correlation structure of the noise to be added to the lower resolution model. Here we present results of adding white and red noise, showing the impacts of an additive stochastic perturbation on mean climate state and variability in an AOGCM.
Coupled Dynamic Modeling to Assess Human Impact on Watershed Hydrology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohammed, I. N.; Tsai, Y.; Turnbull, S.; Bomblies, A.; Zia, A.
2014-12-01
Humans are intrinsic to the hydrologic system, both as agents of change and as beneficiaries of ecosystem services. This connection has been underappreciated in hydrology. We present a modeling linkage framework of an agent-based land use change model with a physical-based watershed model. The coupled model framework presented constitutes part of an integrated assessment model that is being developed to study human-ecosystem interaction in Missisquoi Bay, spanning Vermont and Québec, which is experiencing high concentrations of nutrients from the Missisquoi River watershed. The integrated assessment approach proposed is comprised of linking two simulation models: the Interactive Land-Use Transition Agent-Based Model (ILUTABM) and a physically based process model, the Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System (RHESSys). The ILUTABM treats both landscape and landowners as agents and simulates annual land-use patterns resulting from landowners annual land-use decisions and Best Management Practices (BMPs) adaptations to landowners utilities, land productivity and perceived impacts of floods. The Missisquoi River at Swanton watershed RHESSys model (drainage area of 2,200 km2) driven by climate data was first calibrated to daily streamflows and water quality sensor data at the watershed outlet. Simulated land-use patterns were then processed to drive the calibrated RHESSys model to obtain streamflow nutrient loading realizations. Nutrients loading realizations are then examined and routed back to the ILUTAB model to obtain public polices needed to manage the Missisquoi watershed as well as the Lake Champlain in general. We infer that the applicability of this approach can be generalized to other similar watersheds. Index Terms: 0402: Agricultural systems; 1800: Hydrology; 1803: Anthropogenic effects; 1834 Human impacts; 6344: System operation and management; 6334: Regional Planning
Evolution of a Coupled Marine Ice Sheet - Sea Level Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomez, N.; Pollard, D.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Huybers, P.; Clark, P. U.
2011-12-01
An instability mechanism is widely predicted for marine ice sheets resting upon reversed bed slopes. In this case, ice-sheet thinning or rising sea level is thought to lead to irreversible retreat of the grounding line. Previous analyses of marine ice-sheet stability have considered the influence of a sea-level perturbation on ice-sheet stability by assuming a geographically uniform, or eustatic, change in sea level. However, gravitational and deformational effects associated with changes in the volume of grounded ice lead to markedly non-uniform spatial patterns of sea-level change. In particular, a gravitationally self-consistent sea-level theory predicts a near-field sea-level change of opposite sign, and an order of magnitude greater amplitude, than would be predicted assuming eustasy. In recent work (Gomez et. al., Nature Geoscience, 2010), we highlighted the potential importance of this stabilizing sea-level mechanism by incorporating gravitationally self-consistent sea-level changes into a steady state ice sheet model. We extend this earlier analysis to investigate the influence of this stabilization mechanism on the timescale of ice-sheet retreat by coupling a sea-level model valid for a self-gravitating, viscoelastically deforming Earth to a 1D, dynamic marine ice sheet-shelf model. The evolution of the coupled model is explored for a suite of simulations in which we vary the bed slope and the forcing that initiates retreat. We find that the sea-level fall at the grounding line associated with a retreating ice sheet acts to slow the retreat; in simulations with shallow reversed bed slopes and/or small initial forcing, the drop in sea level can be sufficient to halt the retreat. The rate of sea-level change at the grounding line has an elastic component due to ongoing changes in ice-sheet geometry, and a viscous component due to past ice and ocean load changes. When the ice-sheet model is forced from steady state, on short timescales (< ~500 years), viscous
Modelling couplings between reaction, fluid flow and deformation: Kinetics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malvoisin, Benjamin; Podladchikov, Yury Y.; Connolly, James A. D.
2016-04-01
Mineral assemblages out of equilibrium are commonly found in metamorphic rocks testifying of the critical role of kinetics for metamorphic reactions. As experimentally determined reaction rates in fluid-saturated systems generally indicate complete reaction in less than several years, i.e. several orders of magnitude faster than field-based estimates, metamorphic reaction kinetics are generally thought to be controlled by transport rather than by processes at the mineral surface. However, some geological processes like earthquakes or slow-slip events have shorter characteristic timescales, and transport processes can be intimately related to mineral surface processes. Therefore, it is important to take into account the kinetics of mineral surface processes for modelling fluid/rock interactions. Here, a model coupling reaction, fluid flow and deformation was improved by introducing a delay in the achievement of equilibrium. The classical formalism for dissolution/precipitation reactions was used to consider the influence of the distance from equilibrium and of temperature on the reaction rate, and a dependence on porosity was introduced to model evolution of reacting surface area during reaction. The fitting of experimental data for three reactions typically occurring in metamorphic systems (serpentine dehydration, muscovite dehydration and calcite decarbonation) indicates a systematic faster kinetics close from equilibrium on the dehydration side than on the hydration side. This effect is amplified through the porosity term in the reaction rate since porosity is formed during dehydration. Numerical modelling indicates that this difference in reaction rate close from equilibrium plays a key role in microtextures formation. The developed model can be used in a wide variety of geological systems where couplings between reaction, deformation and fluid flow have to be considered.
Modeling Coupled Processes in Clay Formations for Radioactive Waste Disposal
Liu, Hui-Hai; Rutqvist, Jonny; Zheng, Liange; Sonnenthal, Eric; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens
2010-08-31
example, the excavation-damaged zone (EDZ) near repository tunnels can modify local permeability (resulting from induced fractures), potentially leading to less confinement capability (Tsang et al., 2005). Because of clay's swelling and shrinkage behavior (depending on whether the clay is in imbibition or drainage processes), fracture properties in the EDZ are quite dynamic and evolve over time as hydromechanical conditions change. To understand and model the coupled processes and their impact on repository performance is critical for the defensible performance assessment of a clay repository. Within the Natural Barrier System (NBS) group of the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign at DOE's Office of Nuclear Energy, LBNL's research activities have focused on understanding and modeling such coupled processes. LBNL provided a report in this April on literature survey of studies on coupled processes in clay repositories and identification of technical issues and knowledge gaps (Tsang et al., 2010). This report will document other LBNL research activities within the natural system work package, including the development of constitutive relationships for elastic deformation of clay rock (Section 2), a THM modeling study (Section 3) and a THC modeling study (Section 4). The purpose of the THM and THC modeling studies is to demonstrate the current modeling capabilities in dealing with coupled processes in a potential clay repository. In Section 5, we discuss potential future R&D work based on the identified knowledge gaps. The linkage between these activities and related FEPs is presented in Section 6.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erbe, B.; Schliemann, J.
2010-12-01
We report an unexpected systematic degeneracy between different multiplets in an inversion symmetric system of two coupled Gaudin models with homogeneous couplings, as occurring for example in the context of solid state quantum information processing. We construct the full degenerate subspace (being of macroscopic dimension), which turns out to lie in the kernel of the commutator between the two Gaudin models and the coupling term. Finally we investigate to what extent the degeneracy is related to the inversion symmetry of the system and find that indeed there is a large class of systems showing the same type of degeneracy.
Coupling SWAT and ANN models for enhanced daily streamflow prediction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noori, Navideh; Kalin, Latif
2016-02-01
To improve daily flow prediction in unmonitored watersheds a hybrid model was developed by combining a quasi-distributed watershed model and artificial neural network (ANN). Daily streamflow data from 29 nearby watersheds in and around the city of Atlanta, Southeastern United States, with leave-one-site-out jackknifing technique were used to build the flow predictive models during warm and cool seasons. Daily streamflow was first simulated with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and then the SWAT simulated baseflow and stormflow were used as inputs to ANN. Out of the total 29 test watersheds, 62% and 83% of them had Nash-Sutcliffe values above 0.50 during the cool and warm seasons, respectively (considered good or better). As the percent forest cover or the size of test watershed increased, the performances of the models gradually decreased during both warm and cool seasons. This indicates that the developed models work better in urbanized watersheds. In addition, SWAT and SWAT Calibration Uncertainty Procedure (SWAT-CUP) program were run separately for each station to compare the flow prediction accuracy of the hybrid approach to SWAT. Only 31% of the sites during the calibration and 34% of validation runs had ENASH values ⩾0.50. This study showed that coupling ANN with semi-distributed models can lead to improved daily streamflow predictions in ungauged watersheds.
A coupled energy transport and hydrological model for urban canopies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Z.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Smith, J. A.
2011-12-01
Urban land-atmosphere interaction has been attracting more research efforts in order to understand the complex physics of flow and mass and heat transport in urban surfaces and the lower urban atmosphere. In this work, we developed and implemented a new physically-based single-layer urban canopy model, coupling the surface exchange of energy and the subsurface transport of water/soil moisture. The new model incorporates sub-facet heterogeneity for each urban surface (roof, wall or ground). This better simulates the energy transport in urban canopy layers, especially over low-intensity built (suburban type) terrains that include a significant fraction of vegetated surfaces. We implemented detailed urban hydrological models for both natural terrains (bare soil and vegetation) and porous engineered materials with water-holding capacity (concrete, gravel, etc). The skill of the new scheme was tested against experimental data collected through a wireless sensor network deployed over the campus of Princeton University. The model performance was found to be robust and insensitive to changes in weather conditions or seasonal variability. Predictions of the volumetric soil water content were also in good agreement with field measurements, highlighting the model capability of capturing subsurface water transport for urban lawns. The new model was also applied to a case study assessing different strategies, i.e. white versus green roofs, in the mitigation of urban heat island effect.
A fully coupled 2D model of equiaxed eutectic solidification
Charbon, Ch.; LeSar, R.
1995-12-31
We propose a model of equiaxed eutectic solidification that couples the macroscopic level of heat diffusion with the microscopic level of nucleation and growth of the eutectic grains. The heat equation with the source term corresponding to the latent heat release due to solidification is calculated numerically by means of an implicit finite difference method. In the time stepping scheme, the evolution of solid fraction is deduced from a stochastic model of nucleation and growth which uses the local temperature (interpolated from the FDM mesh) to determine the local grain density and the local growth rate. The solid-liquid interface of each grain is tracked by using a subdivision of each grain perimeter in a large number of sectors. The state of each sector (i.e. whether it is still in contact with the liquid or already captured by an other grain) and the increase of radius of each grain during one time step allows one to compute the increase of solid fraction. As for deterministic models, the results of the model are the evolution of temperature and of solid fraction at any point of the sample. Moreover the model provides a complete picture of the microstructure, thus not limiting the microstructural information to the average grain density but allowing one to compute any stereological value of interest. We apply the model to the solidification of gray cast iron.
Modelling blast induced damage from a fully coupled explosive charge
Onederra, Italo A.; Furtney, Jason K.; Sellers, Ewan; Iverson, Stephen
2015-01-01
This paper presents one of the latest developments in the blasting engineering modelling field—the Hybrid Stress Blasting Model (HSBM). HSBM includes a rock breakage engine to model detonation, wave propagation, rock fragmentation, and muck pile formation. Results from two controlled blasting experiments were used to evaluate the code’s ability to predict the extent of damage. Results indicate that the code is capable of adequately predicting both the extent and shape of the damage zone associated with the influence of point-of-initiation and free-face boundary conditions. Radial fractures extending towards a free face are apparent in the modelling output and matched those mapped after the experiment. In the stage 2 validation experiment, the maximum extent of visible damage was of the order of 1.45 m for the fully coupled 38-mm emulsion charge. Peak radial velocities were predicted within a relative difference of only 1.59% at the nearest history point at 0.3 m from the explosive charge. Discrepancies were larger further away from the charge, with relative differences of −22.4% and −42.9% at distances of 0.46 m and 0.61 m, respectively, meaning that the model overestimated particle velocities at these distances. This attenuation deficiency in the modelling produced an overestimation of the damage zone at the corner of the block due to excessive stress reflections. The extent of visible damage in the immediate vicinity of the blasthole adequately matched the measurements. PMID:26412978
Wealth distribution of simple exchange models coupled with extremal dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bagatella-Flores, N.; Rodríguez-Achach, M.; Coronel-Brizio, H. F.; Hernández-Montoya, A. R.
2015-01-01
Punctuated Equilibrium (PE) states that after long periods of evolutionary quiescence, species evolution can take place in short time intervals, where sudden differentiation makes new species emerge and some species extinct. In this paper, we introduce and study the effect of punctuated equilibrium on two different asset exchange models: the yard sale model (YS, winner gets a random fraction of a poorer player's wealth) and the theft and fraud model (TF, winner gets a random fraction of the loser's wealth). The resulting wealth distribution is characterized using the Gini index. In order to do this, we consider PE as a perturbation with probability ρ of being applied. We compare the resulting values of the Gini index at different increasing values of ρ in both models. We found that in the case of the TF model, the Gini index reduces as the perturbation ρ increases, not showing dependence with the agents number. While for YS we observe a phase transition which happens around ρc = 0.79. For perturbations ρ <ρc the Gini index reaches the value of one as time increases (an extreme wealth condensation state), whereas for perturbations greater than or equal to ρc the Gini index becomes different to one, avoiding the system reaches this extreme state. We show that both simple exchange models coupled with PE dynamics give more realistic results. In particular for YS, we observe a power low decay of wealth distribution.
Modeling of price and profit in coupled-ring networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tangmongkollert, Kittiwat; Suwanna, Sujin
2016-06-01
We study the behaviors of magnetization, price, and profit profiles in ring networks in the presence of the external magnetic field. The Ising model is used to determine the state of each node, which is mapped to the buy-or-sell state in a financial market, where +1 is identified as the buying state, and -1 as the selling state. Price and profit mechanisms are modeled based on the assumption that price should increase if demand is larger than supply, and it should decrease otherwise. We find that the magnetization can be induced between two rings via coupling links, where the induced magnetization strength depends on the number of the coupling links. Consequently, the price behaves linearly with time, where its rate of change depends on the magnetization. The profit grows like a quadratic polynomial with coefficients dependent on the magnetization. If two rings have opposite direction of net spins, the price flows in the direction of the majority spins, and the network with the minority spins gets a loss in profit.
Modeling viscosity and diffusion of plasma mixtures across coupling regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arnault, Philippe
2014-10-01
Viscosity and diffusion of plasma for pure elements and multicomponent mixtures are modeled from the high-temperature low-density weakly coupled regime to the low-temperature high-density strongly coupled regime. Thanks to an atom in jellium modeling, the effect of electron screening on the ion-ion interaction is incorporated through a self-consistent definition of the ionization. This defines an effective One Component Plasma, or an effective Binary Ionic Mixture, that is representative of the strength of the interaction. For the viscosity and the interdiffusion of mixtures, approximate kinetic expressions are supplemented by mixing laws applied to the excess viscosity and self-diffusion of pure elements. The comparisons with classical and quantum molecular dynamics results reveal deviations in the range 20--40% on average with almost no predictions further than a factor of 2 over many decades of variation. Applications in the inertial confinement fusion context could help in predicting the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities.
A coupled mechanical/hydrologic model for WIPP shaft seals
Ehgartner, B.
1991-06-01
Effective sealing of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) shafts will be required to isolate defense-generated transuranic wastes from the accessible environment. Shafts penetrate water-bearing hard rock formations before entering a massive creeping-salt formation (Salado) where the WIPP is located. Short and long-term seals are planned for the shafts. Short-term seals, a composite of concrete and bentonite, will primarily be located in the hard rock formations separating the water-bearing zones from the Salado Formation. These seals will limit water flow to the underlying long-term seals in the Salado. The long-term seals will consist of lengthly segments of initially unsaturated crushed salt. Creep closure of the shaft will consolidate unsaturated crushed salt, thereby reducing its permeability. However, water passing through the upper short-term seals and brine inherent to the salt host rock itself will eventually saturate the crushed salt and consolidation could be inhibited. Before saturating, portions of the crushed salt in the shafts are expected to consolidate to a permeability equivalent to the salt host rock, thereby effectively isolating the waste from the overlying water-bearing formations. A phenomenological model is developed for the coupled mechanical/hydrologic behavior of sealed WIPP shafts. The model couples creep closure of the shaft, crushed salt consolidation, and the associated reduction in permeability with Darcy's law for saturated fluid flow to predict the overall permeability of the shaft seal system with time. 17 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.
Modeling Spin-Orbit Coupling in the Monohalocarbenes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nyambo, Silver; Reid, Scott A.
2012-06-01
The monohalocarbenes CHX (X = F, Cl, Br, I) are model systems for examining carbene singlet-triplet energy gaps and spin-orbit coupling. In a series of studies, our group and others have used Single Vibronic Level (SVL) emission spectroscopy and Stimulated Emission Pumping (SEP) spectroscopy to probe the ground vibrational level structure in these carbenes, which has provided a wealth of spectroscopic information and clearly demonstrated the presence of perturbations involving the low-lying triplet state for X = Cl, Br, and I. To model these interactions in more detail, we used the structures, harmonic frequencies, and normal mode displacements from ab initio and DFT calculations to calculate the vibrational overlaps of the singlet and triplet state levels, incorporating the full effects of Dushinsky mixing. These results were then incorporated with the purely electronic spin-orbit matrix element into a matrix diagonalization routine which calculated the term energies of the mixed singlet-triplet levels, which were iteratively fit to the extensive experimental results from SVL emission and SEP spectroscopy for the carbenes and their deuterated isotopomers. These calculations have allowed many new assignments to be made, particularly for CHI, and provided improved estimates of the spin-orbit coupling matrix elements and singlet-triplet gaps.
rule, and in and models with FCNC quark couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buras, Andrzej J.; De Fazio, Fulvia; Girrbach, Jennifer
2014-07-01
The experimental value for the isospin amplitude in decays has been successfully explained within the standard model (SM), both within the large approach to QCD and by QCD lattice calculations. On the other hand within the large approach the value of is by at least below the data. While this deficit could be the result of theoretical uncertainties in this approach and could be removed by future precise QCD lattice calculations, it cannot be excluded that the missing piece in comes from new physics (NP). We demonstrate that this deficit can be significantly softened by tree-level FCNC transitions mediated by a heavy colourless gauge boson with a flavour-violating left-handed coupling and an approximately universal flavour diagonal right-handed coupling to the quarks. The approximate flavour universality of the latter coupling assures negligible NP contributions to . This property, together with the breakdown of the GIM mechanisms at tree level, allows one to enhance significantly the contribution of the leading QCD-penguin operator to . A large fraction of the missing piece in the rule can be explained in this manner for in the reach of the LHC, while satisfying the constraints from , , , LEP-II and the LHC. The presence of a small right-handed flavour-violating coupling and of enhanced matrix elements of left-right operators allows one to satisfy simultaneously the constraints from and , although this requires some fine-tuning. We identify the quartic correlation between contributions to , , and . The tests of this proposal will require much improved evaluations of and within the SM, of as well as precise tree-level determinations of and . We present correlations between , and with and without the rule constraint and generalise the whole analysis to with colour () and with FCNC couplings. In the latter case no improvement on can be achieved without destroying the agreement of the SM with the data on . Moreover, this scenario is very tightly constrained by . On the
Coupling multi-physics models to cardiac mechanics.
Nordsletten, D A; Niederer, S A; Nash, M P; Hunter, P J; Smith, N P
2011-01-01
We outline and review the mathematical framework for representing mechanical deformation and contraction of the cardiac ventricles, and how this behaviour integrates with other processes crucial for understanding and modelling heart function. Building on general conservation principles of space, mass and momentum, we introduce an arbitrary Eulerian-Lagrangian framework governing the behaviour of both fluid and solid components. Exploiting the natural alignment of cardiac mechanical properties with the tissue microstructure, finite deformation measures and myocardial constitutive relations are referred to embedded structural axes. Coupling approaches for solving this large deformation mechanics framework with three dimensional fluid flow, coronary hemodynamics and electrical activation are described. We also discuss the potential of cardiac mechanics modelling for clinical applications. PMID:19917304
Coupling MHD Simulations of CMEs to SEP Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torok, T.; Gorby, M.; Linker, J.; Schwadron, N.
2015-12-01
Large Solar Energetic Particle events (SEPs) are a main space weather hazard and extremely dangerous to astronauts and electronic equipmentin space. They are typically associated with fast Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). Recent results indicate that SEPs can be generated already inthe early phase of CME expansion low in the corona, but the underlyingphysical mechanisms are not yet well understood. State-of-the-artmagnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of CME initiation and evolution,combined with numerical models of particle acceleration and propagation,provide a powerful tool to investigate these mechanisms. In this talk, we present recent developments in the coupling of CORHEL/MAS thermodynamicMHD simulations of fast CMEs to the EPREM particle code, and we discuss the insights that can be gained from such a combined modeling approach.
Representing Icebergs In A Fully Coupled Climate Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bügelmayer, Marianne; Roche, Didier; Renssen, Hans
2014-05-01
Changes in the global climate during past and current times strongly impact the Polar Regions, which in turn affect the global climate due to several mechanisms, such as albedo, topography, ablation and ice discharge. Icebergs are an important part of the climate system as they interact with the ocean, atmosphere and cryosphere. Several approaches have been taken to incorporate iceberg calving into numerical models under different climate forcings. The studies done so far have in common that the icebergs were moved by reconstructed or modelled forcing fields and that the initial size distribution of the icebergs was prescribed according to present day observations. Hence, uncertainties in the forcing fields and in the parameterization of the iceberg size may alter the results. To investigate the impact of the background forcing (atmosphere, ocean) and the pre-defined size distribution on the icebergs and consequently on the Northern hemisphere climate and the Greenland ice sheet, we have coupled an earth system model of intermediate complexity (iLOVECLIM, Roche et al., 2013) to an ice sheet/ice shelf model (GRISLI, Ritz et al., 2001) and an iceberg module (Jongma et al., 2009; Bügelmayer et al., 2014). Using this set-up, we performed 15 sensitivity experiments that differ in the applied forcing (atmosphere, ocean), the applied boundary conditions (pre-industrial, 4xCO2, 1/4 x CO2) and the initial size distribution of the icebergs. In the presented study only the Greenland ice sheet is considered. We find that, under pre-industrial conditions, the atmospheric forcing pushes the icebergs further away from their calving sites and further into the North Atlantic, whereas the ocean currents transport the bergs along the Greenland coast and southward along the Canadian coast. Although the purely atmospheric-forced bergs cause warmer oceanic conditions than the oceanic-driven bergs, the overall effect on climate and the resulting ice sheet due to variations in the
Seawater intrusions: Coupling groundwater model and geophysical data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steklova, K.; Haber, E.; Cockett, R.
2012-12-01
The process of seawater intrusions into freshwater aquifers occurs naturally, but also as a result of increased groundwater extraction. Different types of models to capture this complex process involving density driven flow and variable boundary conditions have already been proposed and implemented. However, many fewer studies were done in groundwater management planning, for example how to adjust the future groundwater extraction or injection rates with respect to saltwater intrusions occurrence. Geophysical methods (e.g. DC resistivity) offer a good alternative to standard hydrological measurement techniques which need to deal with the miscibility of both freshwater and saltwater and only scarce observation points. The resistivity survey can provide 3D data at lower cost, however the precision depends on the reference models and often decreases with depth. Therefore we suggest an optimization framework which links the hydrogeological model with geophysical datasets. The dynamics of the system is represented by a 3D model for transient groundwater flow in a confined aquifer based on discretized flow and solute mass balance equations. To overcome the difficulty of coupled nonlinear governing equations a semi - Lagrangian method is implemented for the transport equation. This enables to choose arbitrarily large time step without losing stability. For the geophysical forward and inverse problem RESINVM3D package is used. Once the coupled optimization framework is used for many time steps it leads to an optimal control problem. Kalman filtering techniques are often used for such problems, after each time step the optimal state estimates are found based on the system dynamics and observations which are in this case provided by geophysical data. For the variable density flow the process dynamic is nonlinear, in such cases the KF state estimates derivation assumes that the deviation from linearity is of a first order. For the seawater intrusions, where the concentration
Coupled Modeling of Fault Poromechanics During Geologic CO2 Storage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jha, B.; Hager, B. H.; Juanes, R.
2012-12-01
Perhaps the most pressing current debate surrounding carbon capture and storage (CCS) revolves around the pressure limitations on geologic storage [Szulczewski et al., 2012]. Overpressures due to CO2 injection could fracture the caprock [Birkholzer and Zhou, 2009], trigger earthquakes [Cappa and Rutqvist, 2011], and potentially compromise the caprock by activating faults [Zoback and Gorelick, 2012]. While an alarmist view of these issues [Zoback and Gorelick, 2012] appears unwarranted, it seems clear that addressing the coupled processes of CO2 injection and fault poromechanics constitutes a pressing challenge for CCS. More generally, the fundamental link between earthquakes and groundwater flow is a first-order geoscience problem. Despite the interest that this issue has received in recent times, many aspects remain poorly understood, from the physics of the problem to the ability to perform credible fully-coupled simulations. Here, we advance our current simulation technology for forecasting fault slip and fault activation from fluid injection and withdrawal at depth. We present the development and application of a coupled multiphase-flow and reservoir-geomechanics simulator able to model the poromechanics of faults. We use a recently-discovered operator split, the fixed-stress split [Kim et al., 2011], to obtain an unconditionally-stable sequential iterative scheme for the simulation of multiphase flow and geomechanics. The geomechanics code PyLith [Aagaard et al., 2011] permits simulating faults as surfaces of discontinuity. We use the rigorous nonlinear formulation of coupled geomechanics, in which the variation in the fluid mass of each phase is tracked [Coussy, 1995]. Our approach allows us to model strong capillarity and compressibility effects, which can be important in the context of CO2 injection. We present results from several synthetic case studies to highlight the main features of our simulator, and to perform a preliminary risk assessment of leakage
A Coupled Surface/Subsurface Model for Hydrological Drought Investigations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Musuuza, J. L.; Kumar, R.; Samaniego, L. E.; Fischer, T.; Kolditz, O.; Attinger, S.
2013-12-01
Hydrological droughts occur when storage in the ground and surface-water bodies falls below statistical average. Due to the inclusion of regional groundwater, hydrological droughts evolve relatively slowly. The atmospheric and surface components of the hydrological cycle have been widely studied, are well understood, and their prognoses are fairly accurate. In large-scale land surface models on the other hand, subsurface (groundwater) flow processes are usually assumed unidirectional and limited to the vertically-downward percolation and the horizontal runoffs. The vertical feedback from groundwater to the unsaturated zone as well as the groundwater recharge from surface waters are usually misrepresented, resulting in poor model performance during low-flow periods. The feedback is important during meteorological droughts because it replenishes soil moisture from ground- and surface water, thereby delaying the onset of agricultural droughts. If sustained for long periods however, the depletion can significantly reduce surface and subsurface storage and lead to severe hydrological droughts. We hypothesise that an explicit incorporation of the groundwater component into an existing land surface model would lead to better representation of low flows, which is critical for drought analyses. It would also improve the model performance during low-flow periods. For this purpose, we coupled the process-based mHM surface model (Samaniego et al. 2010) with MODFLOW (Harbaugh 2005) to analyse droughts in the Unstrut catchment, one of the tributaries of the Elbe. The catchment is located in one of the most drought-prone areas of Germany. We present results for stand-alone and coupled mHM simulations for the period 1970-2000. References Arlen W. Harbaugh. MODFLOW-2005, The U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-water Model-the Ground-water Flow Process, chapter Modelling techniques, sec. A. Ground water, pages 1:1-9:62. USGS, 2005. Luis Samaniego, Rohini Kumar, and Sabine Attinger
Developing hillslope-based catchment models: coupling Boussinesq and regional scale flow models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broda, S.; Paniconi, C.; Larocque, M.
2009-04-01
The gaining recognition of hillslopes as fundamental building blocks in watershed hydrology makes them appealing for incorporation into larger scale river basin models. Hillslope processes are commonly simulated by means of the Boussinesq equation and are therefore applicable to single layer flow systems only. Two coupled models are presented to simulate both local hillslope scale and regional scale groundwater flow: 1) the hillslope-storage Boussinesq (hsB) model representing unconfined flow and a steady, analytic element model representing transient regional deep groundwater flow through a succession of steady state stress periods over many hydrological years, and 2) the hsB model and a newly developed analytical solution for 1D transient confined groundwater flow. Recharge zones are defined by means of irregular geometric domains, capturing the plan form geometry of the hillslopes. Lateral flows are calculated in inclined aquifers of homogeneous thickness. Tests are conducted on i) single hillslopes of varying inclination and plan form geometry and ii) a laboratory watershed, and heads and baseflows are compared to the results from a fully coupled 3D Richards equation model. Both approaches presented provide reasonable heads and fluxes for a range of hillslope properties in comparison to the benchmark model, and are promising approaches, applicable to a range of land surface models that lack a detailed description of subsurface flow. However the coupled hsB/1D-analytical model is numerically more stable and computationally more efficient than the coupled hsB/analytic element model.
Coupled thermo-hydro-chemical models of swelling bentonites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samper, Javier; Mon, Alba; Zheng, Liange; Montenegro, Luis; Naves, Acacia; Pisani, Bruno
2014-05-01
The disposal of radioactive waste in deep geological repositories is based on the multibarrier concept of retention of the waste by a combination of engineered and geological barriers. The engineered barrier system (EBS) includes the solid conditioned waste-form, the waste container, the buffer made of materials such as clay, grout or crushed rock that separate the waste package from the host rock and the tunnel linings and supports. The geological barrier supports the engineered system and provides stability over the long term during which time radioactive decay reduces the levels of radioactivity. The strong interplays among thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes during the hydration, thermal and solute transport stages of the engineered barrier system (EBS) of a radioactive waste repository call for coupled THMC models for the metallic overpack, the unsaturated compacted bentonite and the concrete liner. Conceptual and numerical coupled THMC models of the EBS have been developed, which have been implemented in INVERSE-FADES-CORE. Chemical reactions are coupled to the hydrodynamic processes through chemical osmosis (C-H coupling) while bentonite swelling affects solute transport via changes in bentonite porosity changes (M-H coupling). Here we present THMC models of heating and hydration laboratory experiments performed by CIEMAT (Madrid, Spain) on compacted FEBEX bentonite and numerical models for the long-term evolution of the EBS for 1 Ma. The changes in porosity caused by swelling are more important than those produced by the chemical reactions during the early evolution of the EBS (t < 100 years). For longer times, however, the changes in porosity induced by the dissolution/precipitation reactions are more relevant due to: 1) The effect of iron mineral phases (corrosion products) released by the corrosion of the carbon steel canister; and 2) The hyper alkaline plume produced by the concrete liner. Numerical results show that
Affine group formulation of the Standard Model coupled to gravity
Chou, Ching-Yi; Ita, Eyo; Soo, Chopin
2014-04-15
In this work we apply the affine group formalism for four dimensional gravity of Lorentzian signature, which is based on Klauder’s affine algebraic program, to the formulation of the Hamiltonian constraint of the interaction of matter and all forces, including gravity with non-vanishing cosmological constant Λ, as an affine Lie algebra. We use the hermitian action of fermions coupled to gravitation and Yang–Mills theory to find the density weight one fermionic super-Hamiltonian constraint. This term, combined with the Yang–Mills and Higgs energy densities, are composed with York’s integrated time functional. The result, when combined with the imaginary part of the Chern–Simons functional Q, forms the affine commutation relation with the volume element V(x). Affine algebraic quantization of gravitation and matter on equal footing implies a fundamental uncertainty relation which is predicated upon a non-vanishing cosmological constant. -- Highlights: •Wheeler–DeWitt equation (WDW) quantized as affine algebra, realizing Klauder’s program. •WDW formulated for interaction of matter and all forces, including gravity, as affine algebra. •WDW features Hermitian generators in spite of fermionic content: Standard Model addressed. •Constructed a family of physical states for the full, coupled theory via affine coherent states. •Fundamental uncertainty relation, predicated on non-vanishing cosmological constant.
Decadal climate predictions with an high resolution coupled model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monerie, P. A.; Valcke, S.; Moine, M. P.; Maisonnave, E.; Coquart, L.; Cassou, C.; Terray, L.
2014-12-01
We analyze the decadal prediction skill of sea surface temperature variability with a high resolution coupled Ocean-Atmosphere General Circulation Model (OAGCM). The HR CERFACS was developed at the CERFACS (Centre Européen de Recherche et de Formation Avancée en Calcul Scientifique) laboratory in the framework of the EU-FP7 SPECS (Seasonal-to-decadal climate Predictions for the improvement of European Climate Services) project in order to address the question of decadal predictability with the use of a high spatial resolution. The atmospheric model is ARPEGE/IFS with a T359 spectral truncature and the oceanic model is NEMO at 0.25° resolution including the LIM2 sea ice model. Each hindcasts consist of a 10-members ensemble integrated over a 10-years period. These hindcasts are full-field initialized every year from 1993 to 2009 and initial oceanic state is given by the GLORYS2V1 (0.25° resolution) sea-surface temperatures. Members of a given ensemble (one initialization date) are generated by perturbations of the atmospheric initial conditions. We study the predictability of the global sea-surface temperature focusing on the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), the North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre (SPG) and the El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We also investigate the prediction skill of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC).
Coupled model of physical and biological processes affecting maize pollination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arritt, R.; Westgate, M.; Riese, J.; Falk, M.; Takle, E.
2003-04-01
Controversy over the use of genetically modified (GM) crops has led to increased interest in evaluating and controlling the potential for inadvertent outcrossing in open-pollinated crops such as maize. In response to this problem we have developed a Lagrangian model of pollen dispersion as a component of a coupled end-to-end (anther to ear) physical-biological model of maize pollination. The Lagrangian method is adopted because of its generality and flexibility: first, the method readily accommodates flow fields of arbitrary complexity; second, each element of the material being transported can be identified by its source, time of release, or other properties of interest. The latter allows pollen viability to be estimated as a function of such factors as travel time, temperature, and relative humidity, so that the physical effects of airflow and turbulence on pollen dispersion can be considered together with the biological aspects of pollen release and viability. Predicted dispersion of pollen compares well both to observations and to results from a simpler Gaussian plume model. Ability of the Lagrangian model to handle complex air flows is demonstrated by application to pollen dispersion in the vicinity of an agricultural shelter belt. We also show results indicating that pollen viability can be quantified by an "aging function" that accounts for temperature, humidity, and time of exposure.
Coupled Thermal-Chemical-Mechanical Modeling of Validation Cookoff Experiments
ERIKSON,WILLIAM W.; SCHMITT,ROBERT G.; ATWOOD,A.I.; CURRAN,P.D.
2000-11-27
The cookoff of energetic materials involves the combined effects of several physical and chemical processes. These processes include heat transfer, chemical decomposition, and mechanical response. The interaction and coupling between these processes influence both the time-to-event and the violence of reaction. The prediction of the behavior of explosives during cookoff, particularly with respect to reaction violence, is a challenging task. To this end, a joint DoD/DOE program has been initiated to develop models for cookoff, and to perform experiments to validate those models. In this paper, a series of cookoff analyses are presented and compared with data from a number of experiments for the aluminized, RDX-based, Navy explosive PBXN-109. The traditional thermal-chemical analysis is used to calculate time-to-event and characterize the heat transfer and boundary conditions. A reaction mechanism based on Tarver and McGuire's work on RDX{sup 2} was adjusted to match the spherical one-dimensional time-to-explosion data. The predicted time-to-event using this reaction mechanism compares favorably with the validation tests. Coupled thermal-chemical-mechanical analysis is used to calculate the mechanical response of the confinement and the energetic material state prior to ignition. The predicted state of the material includes the temperature, stress-field, porosity, and extent of reaction. There is little experimental data for comparison to these calculations. The hoop strain in the confining steel tube gives an estimation of the radial stress in the explosive. The inferred pressure from the measured hoop strain and calculated radial stress agree qualitatively. However, validation of the mechanical response model and the chemical reaction mechanism requires more data. A post-ignition burn dynamics model was applied to calculate the confinement dynamics. The burn dynamics calculations suffer from a lack of characterization of the confinement for the flaw
Coupled geophysical-hydrological modeling of controlled NAPL spill
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kowalsky, M. B.; Majer, E.; Peterson, J. E.; Finsterle, S.; Mazzella, A.
2006-12-01
Past studies have shown reasonable sensitivity of geophysical data for detecting or monitoring the movement of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in the subsurface. However, heterogeneity in subsurface properties and in NAPL distribution commonly results in non-unique data interpretation. Combining multiple geophysical data types and incorporating constraints from hydrological models will potentially decrease the non-uniqueness in data interpretation and aid in site characterization. Large-scale laboratory experiments have been conducted over several years to evaluate the use of various geophysical methods, including ground-penetrating radar (GPR), seismic, and electrical methods, for monitoring controlled spills of tetrachloroethylene (PCE), a hazardous industrial solvent that is pervasive in the subsurface. In the current study, we consider an experiment in which PCE was introduced into a large tank containing a heterogeneous distribution of sand and clay mixtures, and allowed to migrate while time-lapse geophysical data were collected. We consider two approaches for interpreting the surface GPR and crosswell seismic data. The first approach involves (a) waveform inversion of the surface GPR data using a non-gradient based optimization algorithm to estimate the dielectric constant distributions and (b) conversion of crosswell seismic travel times to acoustic velocity distributions; the dielectric constant and acoustic velocity distributions are then related to NAPL saturation using appropriate petrophysical models. The second approach takes advantage of a recently developed framework for coupled hydrological-geophysical modeling, providing a hydrological constraint on interpretation of the geophysical data and additionally resulting in quantitative estimates of the most relevant hydrological parameters that determine NAPL behavior in the system. Specifically, we simulate NAPL migration using the multiphase multicomponent flow simulator TOUGH2 with a 2-D radial
Stepwise calibration procedure for regional coupled hydrological-hydrogeological models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Labarthe, Baptiste; Abasq, Lena; de Fouquet, Chantal; Flipo, Nicolas
2014-05-01
Stream-aquifer interaction is a complex process depending on regional and local processes. Indeed, the groundwater component of hydrosystem and large scale heterogeneities control the regional flows towards the alluvial plains and the rivers. In second instance, the local distribution of the stream bed permeabilities controls the dynamics of stream-aquifer water fluxes within the alluvial plain, and therefore the near-river piezometric head distribution. In order to better understand the water circulation and pollutant transport in watersheds, the integration of these multi-dimensional processes in modelling platform has to be performed. Thus, the nested interfaces concept in continental hydrosystem modelling (where regional fluxes, simulated by large scale models, are imposed at local stream-aquifer interfaces) has been presented in Flipo et al (2014). This concept has been implemented in EauDyssée modelling platform for a large alluvial plain model (900km2) part of a 11000km2 multi-layer aquifer system, located in the Seine basin (France). The hydrosystem modelling platform is composed of four spatially distributed modules (Surface, Sub-surface, River and Groundwater), corresponding to four components of the terrestrial water cycle. Considering the large number of parameters to be inferred simultaneously, the calibration process of coupled models is highly computationally demanding and therefore hardly applicable to a real case study of 10000km2. In order to improve the efficiency of the calibration process, a stepwise calibration procedure is proposed. The stepwise methodology involves determining optimal parameters of all components of the coupled model, to provide a near optimum prior information for the global calibration. It starts with the surface component parameters calibration. The surface parameters are optimised based on the comparison between simulated and observed discharges (or filtered discharges) at various locations. Once the surface parameters
Properties of Coupled Oscillator Model for Bidirectional Associative Memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawaguchi, Satoshi
2016-08-01
In this study, we consider the stationary state and dynamical properties of a coupled oscillator model for bidirectional associative memory. For the stationary state, we apply the replica method to obtain self-consistent order parameter equations. The theoretical results for the storage capacity and overlap agree well with the numerical simulation. For the retrieval process, we apply statistical neurodynamics to include temporal noise correlations. For the successful retrieval process, the theoretical result obtained with the fourth-order approximation qualitatively agrees with the numerical simulation. However, for the unsuccessful retrieval process, higher-order noise correlations suppress severely; therefore, the maximum value of the overlap and the relaxation time are smaller than those of the numerical simulation. The reasons for the discrepancies between the theoretical result and numerical simulation, and the validity of our analysis are discussed.
Finite Hypernuclei in the Latest Quark-Meson Coupling Model
Pierre A. M. Guichon; Anthony W. Thomas; Kazuo Tsushima
2007-12-12
The most recent development of the quark-meson coupling (QMC) model, in which the effect of the mean scalar field in-medium on the hyperfine interaction is also included self-consistently, is used to compute the properties of finite hypernuclei. The calculations for $\\Lambda$ and $\\Xi$ hypernuclei are of comparable quality to earlier QMC results without the additional parameter needed there. Even more significantly, the additional repulsion associated with the increased hyperfine interaction in-medium completely changes the predictions for $\\Sigma$ hypernuclei. Whereas in the earlier work they were bound by an amount similar to $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei, here they are unbound, in qualitative agreement with the experimental absence of such states. The equivalent non-relativistic potential felt by the $\\Sigma$ is repulsive inside the nuclear interior and weakly attractive in the nuclear surface, as suggested by the analysis of $\\Sigma$-atoms.
Multi-Scale Coupling in Ocean and Climate Modeling
Zhengyu Liu, Leslie Smith
2009-08-14
We have made significant progress on several projects aimed at understanding multi-scale dynamics in geophysical flows. Large-scale flows in the atmosphere and ocean are influenced by stable density stratification and rotation. The presence of stratification and rotation has important consequences through (i) the conservation of potential vorticity q = {omega} {center_dot} {del} {rho}, where {omega} is the total vorticity and {rho} is the density, and (ii) the existence of waves that affect the redistribution of energy from a given disturbance to the flow. Our research is centered on quantifying the effects of potential vorticity conservation and of wave interactions for the coupling of disparate time and space scales in the oceans and the atmosphere. Ultimately we expect the work to help improve predictive capabilities of atmosphere, ocean and climate modelers. The main findings of our research projects are described.
Acoustically-coupled flow-induced vibration of a computational vocal fold model
Daily, David Jesse; Thomson, Scott L.
2012-01-01
The flow-induced vibration of synthetic vocal fold models has been previously observed to be acoustically-coupled with upstream flow supply tubes. This phenomenon was investigated using a finite element model that included flow–structure–acoustic interactions. The length of the upstream duct was varied to explore the coupling between model vibration and subglottal acoustics. Incompressible and slightly compressible flow models were tested. The slightly compressible model exhibited acoustic coupling between fluid and solid domains in a manner consistent with experimental observations, whereas the incompressible model did not, showing the slightly compressible approach to be suitable for simulating acoustically-coupled vocal fold model flow-induced vibration. PMID:23585700
Acoustically-coupled flow-induced vibration of a computational vocal fold model.
Daily, David Jesse; Thomson, Scott L
2013-01-15
The flow-induced vibration of synthetic vocal fold models has been previously observed to be acoustically-coupled with upstream flow supply tubes. This phenomenon was investigated using a finite element model that included flow-structure-acoustic interactions. The length of the upstream duct was varied to explore the coupling between model vibration and subglottal acoustics. Incompressible and slightly compressible flow models were tested. The slightly compressible model exhibited acoustic coupling between fluid and solid domains in a manner consistent with experimental observations, whereas the incompressible model did not, showing the slightly compressible approach to be suitable for simulating acoustically-coupled vocal fold model flow-induced vibration. PMID:23585700
A Coupled Multiscale Model of Texture Evolution and Plastic Anisotropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gawad, J.; Van Bael, A.; Yerra, S. K.; Samaey, G.; Van Houtte, P.; Roose, D.
2010-06-01
In this paper we present a multiscale model of a plastic deformation process in which the anisotropy of plastic properties is related to the evolution of the crystallographic texture. The model spans several length scales from the macroscopic deformation of the workpiece to the microscale interactions between individual grains in a polycrystalline material. The macroscopic behaviour of the material is described by means of a Finite Element (FE) model. Plastic anisotropy is taken into account in a constitutive law, based on the concept of a plastic potential in strain rate space. The coefficients of a sixth-order Facet equation are determined using the Taylor theory, provided that the current crystallographic texture at a given FE integration point is known. Texture evolution in the FE integration points is predicted by an ALAMEL micromechanical model. Mutual interactions between coarse and fine scale are inherent in the physics of the deformation process. These dependencies are taken into account by full bidirectional coupling in the model. Therefore, the plastic deformation influences the crystallographic texture and the evolution of the texture induces anisotropy of the macroscopic deformation. The presented approach enables an adaptive texture and yield surface update scheme with respect to the local plastic deformation in the FE integration points. Additionally, the computational cost related to the updates of the constitutive law is reduced by application of parallel computing techniques. Suitability of on-demand computing for this computational problem is discussed. The parallelisation strategy addresses both distributed memory and shared memory architectures. The cup drawing process has been simulated using the multiscale model outlined above. The discussion of results includes the analysis of the planar anisotropy in the cup and the influence of complex deformation path on texture development. Evolution of texture at selected material points is assessed as
Long-Term Variability in a Coupled Atmosphere Biosphere Model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delire, Christine; Foley, Jonathan A.; Thompson, Starley
2004-10-01
A fully coupled atmosphere biosphere model, version 3 of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM3) and the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS), is used to illustrate how vegetation dynamics may be capable of producing long-term variability in the climate system, particularly through the hydrologic cycle and precipitation. Two simulations of the global climate are conducted with fixed climatological sea surface temperatures: one including vegetation as a dynamic boundary condition, and the other keeping vegetation cover fixed. A comparison of the precipitation power spectra over land from these two simulations shows that dynamic interactions between the atmosphere and vegetation enhance precipitation variability at time scales from a decade to a century, while damping variability at shorter time scales.In these simulations, the two-way coupling between the atmosphere and the dynamic vegetation cover introduces persistent precipitation anomalies in several ecological transition zones: between forest and grasslands in the North American midwest, in southern Africa, and at the southern limit of the tropical forest in the Amazon basin, and between savanna and desert in the Sahel, Australia, and portions of the Arabian Peninsula. These regions contribute most to the long-term variability of the atmosphere vegetation system.Slow changes in the vegetation cover, resulting from a “red noise” integration of high-frequency atmospheric variability, are responsible for generating this long-term variability. Lead and lag correlation between precipitation and vegetation leaf area index (LAI) shows that LAI influences precipitation in the following years, and vice versa. A mechanism involving changes in LAI resulting in albedo, roughness, and evapotranspiration changes is proposed.
Fully Coupled Well Models for Fluid Injection and Production
White, Mark D.; Bacon, Diana H.; White, Signe K.; Zhang, Z. F.
2013-08-05
these equations varies from zero coupling to full coupling. In this paper we describe a fully coupled solution approach for well model that allows for a flexible well trajectory and screened interval within a structured hexahedral computational grid. In this scheme the nonlinear well equations have been fully integrated into the Jacobian matrix for the reservoir conservation equations, minimizing the matrix bandwidth.
Finite element modeling of a 3D coupled foot-boot model.
Qiu, Tian-Xia; Teo, Ee-Chon; Yan, Ya-Bo; Lei, Wei
2011-12-01
Increasingly, musculoskeletal models of the human body are used as powerful tools to study biological structures. The lower limb, and in particular the foot, is of interest because it is the primary physical interaction between the body and the environment during locomotion. The goal of this paper is to adopt the finite element (FE) modeling and analysis approaches to create a state-of-the-art 3D coupled foot-boot model for future studies on biomechanical investigation of stress injury mechanism, foot wear design and parachute landing fall simulation. In the modeling process, the foot-ankle model with lower leg was developed based on Computed Tomography (CT) images using ScanIP, Surfacer and ANSYS. Then, the boot was represented by assembling the FE models of upper, insole, midsole and outsole built based on the FE model of the foot-ankle, and finally the coupled foot-boot model was generated by putting together the models of the lower limb and boot. In this study, the FE model of foot and ankle was validated during balance standing. There was a good agreement in the overall patterns of predicted and measured plantar pressure distribution published in literature. The coupled foot-boot model will be fully validated in the subsequent works under both static and dynamic loading conditions for further studies on injuries investigation in military and sports, foot wear design and characteristics of parachute landing impact in military. PMID:21676642
High-resolution coupled ice sheet-ocean modeling using the POPSICLES model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ng, E. G.; Martin, D. F.; Asay-Davis, X.; Price, S. F.; Collins, W.
2014-12-01
It is expected that a primary driver of future change of the Antarctic ice sheet will be changes in submarine melting driven by incursions of warm ocean water into sub-ice shelf cavities. Correctly modeling this response on a continental scale will require high-resolution modeling of the coupled ice-ocean system. We describe the computational and modeling challenges in our simulations of the full Southern Ocean coupled to a continental-scale Antarctic ice sheet model at unprecedented spatial resolutions (0.1 degree for the ocean model and adaptive mesh refinement down to 500m in the ice sheet model). The POPSICLES model couples the POP2x ocean model, a modified version of the Parallel Ocean Program (Smith and Gent, 2002), with the BISICLES ice-sheet model (Cornford et al., 2012) using a synchronous offline-coupling scheme. Part of the PISCEES SciDAC project and built on the Chombo framework, BISICLES makes use of adaptive mesh refinement to fully resolve dynamically-important regions like grounding lines and employs a momentum balance similar to the vertically-integrated formulation of Schoof and Hindmarsh (2009). Results of BISICLES simulations have compared favorably to comparable simulations with a Stokes momentum balance in both idealized tests like MISMIP3D (Pattyn et al., 2013) and realistic configurations (Favier et al. 2014). POP2x includes sub-ice-shelf circulation using partial top cells (Losch, 2008) and boundary layer physics following Holland and Jenkins (1999), Jenkins (2001), and Jenkins et al. (2010). Standalone POP2x output compares well with standard ice-ocean test cases (e.g., ISOMIP; Losch, 2008) and other continental-scale simulations and melt-rate observations (Kimura et al., 2013; Rignot et al., 2013). For the POPSICLES Antarctic-Southern Ocean simulations, ice sheet and ocean models communicate at one-month coupling intervals.
A simple coupled model of tropical Atlantic decadal climate variability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kushnir, Yochanan; Seager, Richard; Miller, Jennifer; Chiang, John C. H.
2002-12-01
A linear, zonally averaged model of the interaction between the tropical Atlantic (TA) atmosphere and ocean is presented. A balance between evaporation and meridional heat advection in the mixed layer determines the sea surface temperature tendency. The atmosphere is a fixed-depth, sub-cloud layer in which the specific humidity anomaly is determined by a steady-state balance between evaporation, meridional advection, and a parameterized humidity exchange with the free atmosphere. When the model is integrated, forced with observed surface wind anomalies from 1965 to the present, its simulation of the observed sea surface temperature (SST) is realistic and comparable to a simulation with a full ocean GCM. A statistical representation of surface winds and their relationship to the SST gradient across the equator is used to formulate and test a coupled model of their regional variability. Forced on both sides of the equator, in the trade-wind regions, with ``white-noise'' windspeed perturbations, the SST-wind relationship in the near-equatorial region feeds back positively on existing SST anomalies and gives rise to decadal variability.
Modeling solute advection coupled with sorption kinetics in heterogeneous formations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selroos, Jan-Olof; Cvetkovic, Vladimir
1992-05-01
A method for coupling sorption kinetics and solute advection in particle-tracking models is proposed; this method is efficient for the case where sorption rate coefficients can be assumed constant field scale parameters. A simulation example of reactive solute advection in two-dimensional heterogeneous porous media is presented. The effect of sorption kinetics on solute advection is investigated. Nonequilibrium effects are exhibited as enhanced tailing in the solute breakthrough. Because high variability in the hydraulic conductivity also yields enhanced tailing, the nonequilibrium effect is more pronounced for the case of low variability. Moreover, it may be difficult to distinguish cases of low variability with nonequilibrium sorption from cases of high variability with equilibrium sorption. A comparison of Monte Carlo ensemble results is made with an analytical model for the mass arrival of kinetically sorbing solute in heterogeneous porous media obtained using first-order perturbation. The comparison indicates that the analytical model provides reasonable approximations of the expected solute breakthrough if the variance of the natural logarithm of the hydraulic conductivity is smaller than 1.
A Generalized Hydrodynamics Model for Strongly Coupled Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diaw, Abdourahmane; Murillo, Michael Sean
2015-11-01
Starting with the equations of the Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon hierarchy, we obtain the density, momentum and stress tensor-moment equations. The closure proceeds in two steps. The first that guarantees an equilibrium state is given by density functional theory. It ensures self consistency in the equation-of-state properties of the plasma. The second involves modifying the two-body distribution function to include collisions in the relaxation of the stress tensor. The resulting generalized hydrodynamics thus includes all impacts of Coulomb coupling, viscous damping, and the high-frequency response. We compare our results with those of several known models, including generalized hydrodynamic theory and models obtained using the Singwi-Tosi-Land-Sjolander approximation and the quasi-localized charge approximation. We find that the viscoelastic response, including both the high-frequency elastic generalization and viscous wave damping, is important for correctly describing ion-acoustic waves. We illustrate this result by considering three very different systems: ultracold plasmas, dusty plasmas, and dense plasmas. The new model is validated by comparing its results with those obtained from molecular-dynamics simulations of Yukawa plasmas, and the agreement is excellent. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (Grant No. FA9550-12-1-0344).
Coupled transport/hyperelastic model for nastic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Homison, Chris; Weiland, Lisa M.
2006-03-01
Nastic materials are high energy density active materials that mimic processes used in the plant kingdom to produce large deformations through the conversion of chemical energy. These materials utilize the controlled transport of charge and fluid across a selectively-permeable membrane to achieve bulk deformation in a process referred to in the plant kingdom as nastic movements. The nastic material being developed consists of synthetic membranes containing biological ion pumps, ion channels, and ion exchangers surrounding fluid-filled cavities embedded within a polymer matrix. In this paper the formulation of a biological transport model and its coupling with a hyperelastic finite element model of the polymer matrix is discussed. The transport model includes contributions from ion pumps, ion exchangers, and solvent flux. This work will form the basis for a feedback loop in material synthesis efforts. The goal of these studies is to determine the relative importance of the various parameters associated with both the polymer matrix and the biological transport components.
Modeling of magnetoelastic nanostructures with a fully coupled mechanical-micromagnetic model.
Liang, Cheng-Yen; Keller, Scott M; Sepulveda, Abdon E; Bur, Alexandre; Sun, Wei-Yang; Wetzlar, Kyle; Carman, Gregory P
2014-10-31
Micromagnetic simulations of magnetoelastic nanostructures traditionally rely on either the Stoner-Wohlfarth model or the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) model, assuming uniform strain (and/or assuming uniform magnetization). While the uniform strain assumption is reasonable when modeling magnetoelastic thin films, this constant strain approach becomes increasingly inaccurate for smaller in-plane nanoscale structures. This paper presents analytical work intended to significantly improve the simulation of finite structures by fully coupling the LLG model with elastodynamics, i.e., the partial differential equations are intrinsically coupled. The coupled equations developed in this manuscript, along with the Stoner-Wohlfarth model and the LLG (constant strain) model are compared to experimental data on nickel nanostructures. The nickel nanostructures are 100 × 300 × 35 nm single domain elements that are fabricated on a Si/SiO2 substrate; these nanostructures are mechanically strained when they experience an applied magnetic field, which is used to generate M vs H curves. Results reveal that this paper's fully-coupled approach corresponds the best with the experimental data on coercive field changes. This more sophisticated modeling technique is critical for guiding the design process of future nanoscale strain-mediated multiferroic elements, such as those needed in memory systems. PMID:25288449
Modeling of magnetoelastic nanostructures with a fully coupled mechanical-micromagnetic model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Cheng-Yen; Keller, Scott M.; Sepulveda, Abdon E.; Bur, Alexandre; Sun, Wei-Yang; Wetzlar, Kyle; Carman, Gregory P.
2014-10-01
Micromagnetic simulations of magnetoelastic nanostructures traditionally rely on either the Stoner-Wohlfarth model or the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) model, assuming uniform strain (and/or assuming uniform magnetization). While the uniform strain assumption is reasonable when modeling magnetoelastic thin films, this constant strain approach becomes increasingly inaccurate for smaller in-plane nanoscale structures. This paper presents analytical work intended to significantly improve the simulation of finite structures by fully coupling the LLG model with elastodynamics, i.e., the partial differential equations are intrinsically coupled. The coupled equations developed in this manuscript, along with the Stoner-Wohlfarth model and the LLG (constant strain) model are compared to experimental data on nickel nanostructures. The nickel nanostructures are 100 × 300 × 35 nm single domain elements that are fabricated on a Si/SiO2 substrate; these nanostructures are mechanically strained when they experience an applied magnetic field, which is used to generate M vs H curves. Results reveal that this paper’s fully-coupled approach corresponds the best with the experimental data on coercive field changes. This more sophisticated modeling technique is critical for guiding the design process of future nanoscale strain-mediated multiferroic elements, such as those needed in memory systems.
Coupling Radar Rainfall to Hydrological Models for Water Abstraction Management
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asfaw, Alemayehu; Shucksmith, James; Smith, Andrea; MacDonald, Ken
2015-04-01
The impacts of climate change and growing water use are likely to put considerable pressure on water resources and the environment. In the UK, a reform to surface water abstraction policy has recently been proposed which aims to increase the efficiency of using available water resources whilst minimising impacts on the aquatic environment. Key aspects to this reform include the consideration of dynamic rather than static abstraction licensing as well as introducing water trading concepts. Dynamic licensing will permit varying levels of abstraction dependent on environmental conditions (i.e. river flow and quality). The practical implementation of an effective dynamic abstraction strategy requires suitable flow forecasting techniques to inform abstraction asset management. Potentially the predicted availability of water resources within a catchment can be coupled to predicted demand and current storage to inform a cost effective water resource management strategy which minimises environmental impacts. The aim of this work is to use a historical analysis of UK case study catchment to compare potential water resource availability using modelled dynamic abstraction scenario informed by a flow forecasting model, against observed abstraction under a conventional abstraction regime. The work also demonstrates the impacts of modelling uncertainties on the accuracy of predicted water availability over range of forecast lead times. The study utilised a conceptual rainfall-runoff model PDM - Probability-Distributed Model developed by Centre for Ecology & Hydrology - set up in the Dove River catchment (UK) using 1km2 resolution radar rainfall as inputs and 15 min resolution gauged flow data for calibration and validation. Data assimilation procedures are implemented to improve flow predictions using observed flow data. Uncertainties in the radar rainfall data used in the model are quantified using artificial statistical error model described by Gaussian distribution and
Coupling a geodynamic seismic cycling model to rupture dynamic simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabriel, Alice; van Dinther, Ylona
2014-05-01
The relevance and results of dynamic rupture scenarios are implicitly linked to the geometry and pre-existing stress and strength state on a fault. The absolute stresses stored along faults during interseismic periods, are largely unquantifiable. They are, however, pivotal in defining coseismic rupture styles, near-field ground motion, and macroscopic source properties (Gabriel et al., 2012). Obtaining these in a physically consistent manner requires seismic cycling models, which directly couple long-term deformation processes (over 1000 year periods), the self-consistent development of faults, and the resulting dynamic ruptures. One promising approach to study seismic cycling enables both the generation of spontaneous fault geometries and the development of thermo-mechanically consistent fault stresses. This seismo-thermo-mechanical model has been developed using a methodology similar to that employed to study long-term lithospheric deformation (van Dinther et al., 2013a,b, using I2ELVIS of Gerya and Yuen, 2007). We will innovatively include the absolute stress and strength values along physically consistent evolving non-finite fault zones (regions of strain accumulation) from the geodynamic model into dynamic rupture simulations as an initial condition. The dynamic rupture simulations will be performed using SeisSol, an arbitrary high-order derivative Discontinuous Galerkin (ADER-DG) scheme (Pelties et al., 2012). The dynamic rupture models are able to incorporate the large degree of fault geometry complexity arising in naturally evolving geodynamic models. We focus on subduction zone settings with and without a splay fault. Due to the novelty of the coupling, we first focus on methodological challenges, e.g. the synchronization of both methods regarding the nucleation of events, the localization of fault planes, and the incorporation of similar frictional constitutive relations. We then study the importance of physically consistent fault stress, strength, and
Understanding subtropical anvil cirrus: A coupled modeling study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carver, Robert Wyatt
This research investigates the sensitivity of anvil layer cirrus's characteristics to its mesoscale environment. A coupled modeling system composed of a mesoscale model and cloud model is used to represent the evolution of systems with different scales. Lagrangian trajectories in the mesoscale model are used to determine the mesoscale environment of the simulated anvil and calculate the mesoscale forcing. A new sedimentation parameterization for the cloud model is developed to better represent fall speeds for large particles. Convection and the resulting outflow cirrus occurring near Ft. Myers, Florida on July 16, 2002 are used for the case study. The mesoscale model produced convection and an ice cloud similar to what was observed that day. The cloud model was used to determine the set of cloud processes in response to the mesoscale forcing that produced more condensate and prolonged cloud lifetime. These simulations show that differential radiative heating and cooling is the key process. The cooling and moistening in response to the mesoscale forcing produces more ice, enhancing cloud-top radiative cooling and cloud-base infrared warming. This generates more buoyancy, strengthening the cloud's updrafts and producing many small crystals to further enhance the cloud-top cooling, until sedimentation removes enough mass to end the positive feedbacks. The presence and magnitude of the mesoscale forcing alters the amount of condensate formed, altering the cloud-top cooling rate and the cloud's response to the forcing. The anvil cloud simulation was relatively insensitive to the initial condensate once the cloud becomes optically thick enough to be considered a black-body. While longwave cloud-top cooling is necessary for the interactions between mesoscale forcing and cloud dynamics, the most turbulent anvil cirrus layers require shortwave in-cloud warming. In response to recent measurements of the deposition coefficient, alpha d, I develop a parameterization that
Model reduction of a coupled numerical model using proper orthogonal decomposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xinya; Chen, Xiao; Hu, Bill X.; Navon, I. Michael
2013-12-01
POD is applied to the coupled variable-density flow and solute transport system.Detailed derivation is presented for the developed GFEM-POD reduced-order model.Henry problem and Elder problem are tested to confirm the proposed procedure.Accuracy is mainly influenced by the optimal selection and update of snapshots.Reduced model can substitute full model with much less computational cost.
Standard Model Gauge Couplings from Gauge-Dilatation Symmetry Breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odagiri, Kosuke
2014-09-01
It is well known that the self-energy of the gauge bosons is quadratically divergent in the Standard Model when a simple cutoff is imposed. We demonstrate phenomenologically that the quadratic divergences in fact unify. The unification occurs at a surprisingly low scale, GeV. Suppose now that there is a spontaneously broken rotational symmetry between the space-time coordinates and gauge theoretical phases. The symmetry-breaking pattern is such that the gauge bosons arise as the massless Goldstone bosons, whereas the dilatonic mode acts as the massive (Higgs) boson, whose vacuum expectation value determines the gauge couplings. In this case, the quadratic divergences or the tadpoles of the gauge boson self-energy should indeed unify because these divergences need to be cancelled by a universal dilatonic contribution, assuming dynamical symmetry breaking. If there is dynamical symmetry breaking, we are in principle able to calculate the value of the gauge couplings as well as the scale hierarchy . We perform this calculation by adopting a naive quartic symmetry-breaking potential which unfortunately violates local gauge invariance. Using tadpole-cancellation and dilatonic self-energy conditions, the value of is then found to be approximately GeV in the Feynman gauge and GeV in the Landau gauge. The cancellation of an anomaly in the dilaton self-energy requires that the number of fermionic generations equals three. The symmetry-breaking needs to be driven by some other mass-generating mechanism such as electroweak symmetry breaking. Our estimation for is of the correct order if GeV.
Finite Nuclei in the Quark-Meson Coupling Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stone, J. R.; Guichon, P. A. M.; Reinhard, P. G.; Thomas, A. W.
2016-03-01
We report the first use of the effective quark-meson coupling (QMC) energy density functional (EDF), derived from a quark model of hadron structure, to study a broad range of ground state properties of even-even nuclei across the periodic table in the nonrelativistic Hartree-Fock+BCS framework. The novelty of the QMC model is that the nuclear medium effects are treated through modification of the internal structure of the nucleon. The density dependence is microscopically derived and the spin-orbit term arises naturally. The QMC EDF depends on a single set of four adjustable parameters having a clear physics basis. When applied to diverse ground state data the QMC EDF already produces, in its present simple form, overall agreement with experiment of a quality comparable to a representative Skyrme EDF. There exist, however, multiple Skyrme parameter sets, frequently tailored to describe selected nuclear phenomena. The QMC EDF set of fewer parameters, derived in this work, is not open to such variation, chosen set being applied, without adjustment, to both the properties of finite nuclei and nuclear matter.
Coupled Growth and Division of Model Protocell Membranes
2009-01-01
The generation of synthetic forms of cellular life requires solutions to the problem of how biological processes such as cyclic growth and division could emerge from purely physical and chemical systems. Small unilamellar fatty acid vesicles grow when fed with fatty acid micelles and can be forced to divide by extrusion, but this artificial division process results in significant loss of protocell contents during each division cycle. Here we describe a simple and efficient pathway for model protocell membrane growth and division. The growth of large multilamellar fatty acid vesicles fed with fatty acid micelles, in a solution where solute permeation across the membranes is slow, results in the transformation of initially spherical vesicles into long thread-like vesicles, a process driven by the transient imbalance between surface area and volume growth. Modest shear forces are then sufficient to cause the thread-like vesicles to divide into multiple daughter vesicles without loss of internal contents. In an environment of gentle shear, protocell growth and division are thus coupled processes. We show that model protocells can proceed through multiple cycles of reproduction. Encapsulated RNA molecules, representing a primitive genome, are distributed to the daughter vesicles. Our observations bring us closer to the laboratory synthesis of a complete protocell consisting of a self-replicating genome and a self-replicating membrane compartment. In addition, the robustness and simplicity of this pathway suggests that similar processes might have occurred under the prebiotic conditions of the early Earth. PMID:19323552
A Coupled THMC model of FEBEX mock-up test
Zheng, Liange; Samper, Javier
2008-09-15
FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) is a demonstration and research project for the engineered barrier system (EBS) of a radioactive waste repository in granite. It includes two full-scale heating and hydration tests: the in situ test performed at Grimsel (Switzerland) and a mock-up test operating at CIEMAT facilities in Madrid (Spain). The mock-up test provides valuable insight on thermal, hydrodynamic, mechanical and chemical (THMC) behavior of EBS because its hydration is controlled better than that of in situ test in which the buffer is saturated with water from the surrounding granitic rock. Here we present a coupled THMC model of the mock-up test which accounts for thermal and chemical osmosis and bentonite swelling with a state-surface approach. The THMC model reproduces measured temperature and cumulative water inflow data. It fits also relative humidity data at the outer part of the buffer, but underestimates relative humidities near the heater. Dilution due to hydration and evaporation near the heater are the main processes controlling the concentration of conservative species while surface complexation, mineral dissolution/precipitation and cation exchanges affect significantly reactive species as well. Results of sensitivity analyses to chemical processes show that pH is mostly controlled by surface complexation while dissolved cations concentrations are controlled by cation exchange reactions.
A coupled geomorphic and ecological model of tidal marsh evolution.
Kirwan, Matthew L; Murray, A Brad
2007-04-10
The evolution of tidal marsh platforms and interwoven channel networks cannot be addressed without treating the two-way interactions that link biological and physical processes. We have developed a 3D model of tidal marsh accretion and channel network development that couples physical sediment transport processes with vegetation biomass productivity. Tidal flow tends to cause erosion, whereas vegetation biomass, a function of bed surface depth below high tide, influences the rate of sediment deposition and slope-driven transport processes such as creek bank slumping. With a steady, moderate rise in sea level, the model builds a marsh platform and channel network with accretion rates everywhere equal to the rate of sea-level rise, meaning water depths and biological productivity remain temporally constant. An increase in the rate of sea-level rise, or a reduction in sediment supply, causes marsh-surface depths, biomass productivity, and deposition rates to increase while simultaneously causing the channel network to expand. Vegetation on the marsh platform can promote a metastable equilibrium where the platform maintains elevation relative to a rapidly rising sea level, although disturbance to vegetation could cause irreversible loss of marsh habitat. PMID:17389384
Finite Nuclei in the Quark-Meson Coupling Model.
Stone, J R; Guichon, P A M; Reinhard, P G; Thomas, A W
2016-03-01
We report the first use of the effective quark-meson coupling (QMC) energy density functional (EDF), derived from a quark model of hadron structure, to study a broad range of ground state properties of even-even nuclei across the periodic table in the nonrelativistic Hartree-Fock+BCS framework. The novelty of the QMC model is that the nuclear medium effects are treated through modification of the internal structure of the nucleon. The density dependence is microscopically derived and the spin-orbit term arises naturally. The QMC EDF depends on a single set of four adjustable parameters having a clear physics basis. When applied to diverse ground state data the QMC EDF already produces, in its present simple form, overall agreement with experiment of a quality comparable to a representative Skyrme EDF. There exist, however, multiple Skyrme parameter sets, frequently tailored to describe selected nuclear phenomena. The QMC EDF set of fewer parameters, derived in this work, is not open to such variation, chosen set being applied, without adjustment, to both the properties of finite nuclei and nuclear matter. PMID:26991171
Global coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models in LASG/IAP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yongqiang, Yu; Xuehong, Zhang; Yufu, Guo
2004-06-01
Coupled ocean-atmospheric general circulation models are the only tools to quantitatively simulate the climate system. Since the end of the 1980s, a group of scientists in the State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG), Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), have been working to develop a global OGCM and a global coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model (CGCM). From the original flux anomaly-coupling model developed in the beginning of the 1990s to the latest directly-coupling model, LASG scientists have developed four global coupled GCMs. This study summarizes the development history of these models and describes the third and fourth coupled GCMs and selected applications. Strengths and weaknesses of these models are highlighted.
From strong to weak coupling in holographic models of thermalization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grozdanov, Sašo; Kaplis, Nikolaos; Starinets, Andrei O.
2016-07-01
We investigate the analytic structure of thermal energy-momentum tensor correlators at large but finite coupling in quantum field theories with gravity duals. We compute corrections to the quasinormal spectra of black branes due to the presence of higher derivative R 2 and R 4 terms in the action, focusing on the dual to N=4 SYM theory and Gauss-Bonnet gravity. We observe the appearance of new poles in the complex frequency plane at finite coupling. The new poles interfere with hydrodynamic poles of the correlators leading to the breakdown of hydrodynamic description at a coupling-dependent critical value of the wave-vector. The dependence of the critical wave vector on the coupling implies that the range of validity of the hydrodynamic description increases monotonically with the coupling. The behavior of the quasinormal spectrum at large but finite coupling may be contrasted with the known properties of the hierarchy of relaxation times determined by the spectrum of a linearized kinetic operator at weak coupling. We find that the ratio of a transport coefficient such as viscosity to the relaxation time determined by the fundamental non-hydrodynamic quasinormal frequency changes rapidly in the vicinity of infinite coupling but flattens out for weaker coupling, suggesting an extrapolation from strong coupling to the kinetic theory result. We note that the behavior of the quasinormal spectrum is qualitatively different depending on whether the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density is greater or less than the universal, infinite coupling value of ℏ /4π k B . In the former case, the density of poles increases, indicating a formation of branch cuts in the weak coupling limit, and the spectral function shows the appearance of narrow peaks. We also discuss the relation of the viscosity-entropy ratio to conjectured bounds on relaxation time in quantum systems.
Coupled Deterministic-Monte Carlo Transport for Radiation Portal Modeling
Smith, Leon E.; Miller, Erin A.; Wittman, Richard S.; Shaver, Mark W.
2008-01-14
Radiation portal monitors are being deployed, both domestically and internationally, to detect illicit movement of radiological materials concealed in cargo. Evaluation of the current and next generations of these radiation portal monitor (RPM) technologies is an ongoing process. 'Injection studies' that superimpose, computationally, the signature from threat materials onto empirical vehicle profiles collected at ports of entry, are often a component of the RPM evaluation process. However, measurement of realistic threat devices can be both expensive and time-consuming. Radiation transport methods that can predict the response of radiation detection sensors with high fidelity, and do so rapidly enough to allow the modeling of many different threat-source configurations, are a cornerstone of reliable evaluation results. Monte Carlo methods have been the primary tool of the detection community for these kinds of calculations, in no small part because they are particularly effective for calculating pulse-height spectra in gamma-ray spectrometers. However, computational times for problems with a high degree of scattering and absorption can be extremely long. Deterministic codes that discretize the transport in space, angle, and energy offer potential advantages in computational efficiency for these same kinds of problems, but the pulse-height calculations needed to predict gamma-ray spectrometer response are not readily accessible. These complementary strengths for radiation detection scenarios suggest that coupling Monte Carlo and deterministic methods could be beneficial in terms of computational efficiency. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and its collaborators are developing a RAdiation Detection Scenario Analysis Toolbox (RADSAT) founded on this coupling approach. The deterministic core of RADSAT is Attila, a three-dimensional, tetrahedral-mesh code originally developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, and since expanded and refined by Transpire, Inc. [1
Coupling hydrodynamic and wave propagation modeling for waveform modeling of SPE.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larmat, C. S.; Steedman, D. W.; Rougier, E.; Delorey, A.; Bradley, C. R.
2015-12-01
The goal of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is to bring empirical and theoretical advances to the problem of detection and identification of underground nuclear explosions. This paper presents effort to improve knowledge of the processes that affect seismic wave propagation from the hydrodynamic/plastic source region to the elastic/anelastic far field thanks to numerical modeling. The challenge is to couple the prompt processes that take place in the near source region to the ones taking place later in time due to wave propagation in complex 3D geologic environments. In this paper, we report on results of first-principles simulations coupling hydrodynamic simulation codes (Abaqus and CASH), with a 3D full waveform propagation code, SPECFEM3D. Abaqus and CASH model the shocked, hydrodynamic region via equations of state for the explosive, borehole stemming and jointed/weathered granite. LANL has been recently employing a Coupled Euler-Lagrange (CEL) modeling capability. This has allowed the testing of a new phenomenological model for modeling stored shear energy in jointed material. This unique modeling capability has enabled highfidelity modeling of the explosive, the weak grout-filled borehole, as well as the surrounding jointed rock. SPECFEM3D is based on the Spectral Element Method, a direct numerical method for full waveform modeling with mathematical accuracy (e.g. Komatitsch, 1998, 2002) thanks to its use of the weak formulation of the wave equation and of high-order polynomial functions. The coupling interface is a series of grid points of the SEM mesh situated at the edge of the hydrodynamic code domain. Displacement time series at these points are computed from output of CASH or Abaqus (by interpolation if needed) and fed into the time marching scheme of SPECFEM3D. We will present validation tests and waveforms modeled for several SPE tests conducted so far, with a special focus on effect of the local topography.
Modeling Nitrogen Leaching With A Biogeochemical Model Coupled With Soil Hydrology Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barman, R.; Yang, X.; Jain, A.; Post, W. M.; Sivapalan, M.
2008-12-01
Land use changes for cropland, excessive application of fertilizers in agriculture, and increase in anthropogenic activities such as fossil fuel burning have lead to widespread increases in anthropogenic production of reactive N and NH3 emissions, and N deposition rates. An important consequence of these processes is intensification of soil nutrient leaching activities, leading to serious ground water contamination problems. The current study focuses on the issue of nitrogen (nitrate and ammonium) leaching due to land cover changes for cropland, excess N fertilizer application, and atmospheric nitrogen deposition on nitrogen leaching at a global scale. Simulations of nitrogen leaching require integration of processes involving soil hydrology and biogeochemical cycles. An existing terrestrial coupled carbon-nitrogen cycle model, Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM), was used to estimate nitrogen leaching. The N-cycle in ISAM includes the major processes associated with nitrogen (immobilization, mineralization, nitrification, denitrification, leaching, nitrogen fixation, and vegetation nitrogen uptake). ISAM also considers how carbon and nitrogen dynamics are influenced by the effects of human perturbations to the N cycle including atmospheric deposition and fertilizer application, and the fate of N in land use activities, i.e., deforestation and agricultural harvest. In this study, the ISAM soil hydrology was extended and improved with CLM 3.5 hydrology processes and algorithms, which extended the modeling capabilities to consider the prediction of nitrogen leaching. The model performance was evaluated with flow and nutrient data at several locations within the Upper Sangamon River Basin in Illinois, and flow data in contrasting watersheds in Oklahoma. This talk will focus on describing the results of a series of modeling experiments examining the influence of land management changes for cropland and nitrogen deposition on nitrogen leaching at a global scale
A coupled DEM-CFD method for impulse wave modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Tao; Utili, Stefano; Crosta, GiovanBattista
2015-04-01
Rockslides can be characterized by a rapid evolution, up to a possible transition into a rock avalanche, which can be associated with an almost instantaneous collapse and spreading. Different examples are available in the literature, but the Vajont rockslide is quite unique for its morphological and geological characteristics, as well as for the type of evolution and the availability of long term monitoring data. This study advocates the use of a DEM-CFD framework for the modelling of the generation of hydrodynamic waves due to the impact of a rapid moving rockslide or rock-debris avalanche. 3D DEM analyses in plane strain by a coupled DEM-CFD code were performed to simulate the rockslide from its onset to the impact with still water and the subsequent wave generation (Zhao et al., 2014). The physical response predicted is in broad agreement with the available observations. The numerical results are compared to those published in the literature and especially to Crosta et al. (2014). According to our results, the maximum computed run up amounts to ca. 120 m and 170 m for the eastern and western lobe cross sections, respectively. These values are reasonably similar to those recorded during the event (i.e. ca. 130 m and 190 m respectively). In these simulations, the slope mass is considered permeable, such that the toe region of the slope can move submerged in the reservoir and the impulse water wave can also flow back into the slope mass. However, the upscaling of the grains size in the DEM model leads to an unrealistically high hydraulic conductivity of the model, such that only a small amount of water is splashed onto the northern bank of the Vajont valley. The use of high fluid viscosity and coarse grain model has shown the possibility to model more realistically both the slope and wave motions. However, more detailed slope and fluid properties, and the need for computational efficiency should be considered in future research work. This aspect has also been
2 π production in the Giessen coupled-channels model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shklyar, V.; Lenske, H.; Mosel, U.
2016-04-01
The coupled-channels Lagrangian approach underlying the Giessen model (GiM) is extended to describe the π N →π N ,2 π N scattering in the resonance energy region. As a feasibility study we investigate single- and double-pion production up to the second resonance region. The 2 π N production has been significantly improved by using the isobar approximation with σ N and π Δ (1232 ) in the intermediate state. The three-body unitarity is maintained up to an interference pattern between the isobar subchannels. The scattering amplitudes are obtained as a solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation in the K -matrix approximation. As a first application we perform a partial-wave analysis of the π N →π N ,π0π0N reactions in the Roper resonance region. We obtain Rσ N(1440 ) =27-9+4% and Rπ Δ(1440 ) =12-3+5% for the σ N and π Δ (1232 ) decay branching ratios of N*(1440 ) , respectively. The extracted π N inelasticities and reaction amplitudes are consistent with the results from other groups.
Physical Modeling of Dynamic Coupling between Chromosomal Loci.
Lampo, Thomas J; Kennard, Andrew S; Spakowitz, Andrew J
2016-01-19
The motion of chromosomal DNA is essential to many biological processes, including segregation, transcriptional regulation, recombination, and packaging. Physical understanding of these processes would be dramatically enhanced through predictive, quantitative modeling of chromosome dynamics of multiple loci. Using a polymer dynamics framework, we develop a prediction for the correlation in the velocities of two loci on a single chromosome or otherwise connected by chromatin. These predictions reveal that the signature of correlated motion between two loci can be identified by varying the lag time between locus position measurements. In general, this theory predicts that as the lag time interval increases, the dual-loci dynamic behavior transitions from being completely uncorrelated to behaving as an effective single locus. This transition corresponds to the timescale of the stress communication between loci through the intervening segment. This relatively simple framework makes quantitative predictions based on a single timescale fit parameter that can be directly compared to the in vivo motion of fluorescently labeled chromosome loci. Furthermore, this theoretical framework enables the detection of dynamically coupled chromosome regions from the signature of their correlated motion. PMID:26789757
Examining the Utility of Topic Models for Linguistic Analysis of Couple Therapy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Doeden, Michelle A.
2012-01-01
This study examined the basic utility of topic models, a computational linguistics model for text-based data, to the investigation of the process of couple therapy. Linguistic analysis offers an additional lens through which to examine clinical data, and the topic model is presented as a novel methodology within couple and family psychology that…
Chenot, Jean-Loup; Bay, Francois
2007-04-07
The different stages of metal forming processes often involve - beyond the mechanical deformations processes - other physical coupled problems, such as heat transfer, electromagnetism or metallurgy. The purpose of this paper is to focus on problems involving electromagnetic couplings. After a brief recall on electromagnetic modeling, we shall then focus on induction heating processes and present some results regarding heat transfer, as well as mechanical couplings. A case showing coupling for metallurgic microstructure evolution will conclude this paper.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sojka, J. J.; Schunk, R. W.; Rees, D.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Moffett, R. J.; Quegan, S.
1992-01-01
Several physical models of the high-latitude ionosphere have been developed that describe the time-dependent evolution of the E- and F-region plasma density. The models require a variety of inputs, including solar EUV fluxes, magnetospheric convection, auroral precipitation, and neutral atmosphere. Of specific relevance to this study is how the neutral atmosphere is incorporated into the ionospheric models. For the USU ionospheric model, the neutral atmosphere is the MSIS 1986 empirical model, while for the UCL-Sheffield coupled thermospheric-ionospheric model the neutral atmosphere is computed simultaneously with the ionosphere. Both models were run for similar solar and magnetospheric conditions (solar maximum, moderate geomagnetic activity, and winter solstice). Solar maximum conditions ensured a strong coupling between the ionosphere and thermosphere, which provided the possibility of a large ionospheric difference between the two physical models. This was further enhanced by choosing winter conditions so that the densities were not dominated by sunlight. The comparison of the two models indicated that both models predict the same morphological features with similar ionospheric densities, generally within about 30 percent.
Coupling geodynamic with thermodynamic modelling for reconstructions of magmatic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rummel, Lisa; Kaus, Boris J. P.; White, Richard
2016-04-01
Coupling geodynamic with petrological models is fundamental for understanding magmatic systems from the melting source in the mantle to the point of magma crystallisation in the upper crust. Most geodynamic codes use very simplified petrological models consisting of a single, fixed, chemistry. Here, we develop a method to better track the petrological evolution of the source rock and corresponding volcanic and plutonic rocks by combining a geodynamic code with a thermodynamic model for magma generation and evolution. For the geodynamic modelling a finite element code (MVEP2) solves the conservation of mass, momentum and energy equations. The thermodynamic modelling of phase equilibria in magmatic systems is performed with pMELTS for mantle-like bulk compositions. The thermodynamic dependent properties calculated by pMELTS are density, melt fraction and the composition of the liquid and solid phase in the chemical system: SiO2-TiO2-Al2O3-Fe2O3-Cr2O3-FeO-MgO-CaO-Na2O-K2O-P2O5-H2O. In order to take into account the chemical depletion of the source rock with increasing melt extraction events, calculation of phase diagrams is performed in two steps: 1) With an initial rock composition density, melt fraction as well as liquid and solid composition are computed over the full upper mantle P-T range. 2) Once the residual rock composition (equivalent to the solid composition after melt extraction) is significantly different from the initial rock composition and the melt fraction is lower than a critical value, the residual composition is used for next calculations with pMELTS. The implementation of several melt extraction events take the change in chemistry into account until the solidus is shifted to such high temperatures that the rock cannot be molten anymore under upper mantle conditions. An advantage of this approach is that we can track the change of melt chemistry with time, which can be compared with natural constraints. In the thermo-mechanical code the
Modeling of the Coupled Magnetospheric and Neutral Wind Dynamos
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thayer, Jeffrey P.
1997-01-01
the magnetosphere. The influence of the neutral wind was then determined not by estimating how much electric potential or current density it provides, but by determining the contribution of the neutral wind to the net electromagnetic energy transferred between the ionosphere and magnetosphere. The estimate of the net electromagnetic energy transfer and the role of the neutral winds proves to be a more fundamental quantity in studies of magnetosphere- ionosphere coupling also showed that by using electric and magnetic field measurements from the HILAT satellite, the Poynting flux could be a measurable quantity from polar-orbiting, low- altitude spacecraft. Through collaboration with Dr. Heelis and others at UTD and their expertise of the electric field measurements on the DE-B satellite, an extensive analysis was planned to determine the Poynting flux from the DE-B measurements in combination with a modeling effort to help interpret the observations taking into account the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere.
Exploring coupled 4D-Var data assimilation using an idealised atmosphere-ocean model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Polly; Fowler, Alison; Lawless, Amos; Haines, Keith
2014-05-01
The successful application of data assimilation techniques to operational numerical weather prediction and ocean forecasting systems has led to an increased interest in their use for the initialisation of coupled atmosphere-ocean models in prediction on seasonal to decadal timescales. Coupled data assimilation presents a significant challenge but offers a long list of potential benefits including improved use of near-surface observations, reduction of initialisation shocks in coupled forecasts, and generation of a consistent system state for the initialisation of coupled forecasts across all timescales. In this work we explore some of the fundamental questions in the design of coupled data assimilation systems within the context of an idealised one-dimensional coupled atmosphere-ocean model. The system is based on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecast System (IFS) atmosphere model and a K-Profile Parameterisation (KKP) mixed layer ocean model developed by the National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) climate group at the University of Reading. It employs a strong constraint incremental 4D-Var scheme and is designed to enable the effective exploration of various approaches to performing coupled model data assimilation whilst avoiding many of the issues associated with more complex models. Working with this simple framework enables a greater range and quantity of experiments to be performed. Here, we will describe the development of our simplified single-column coupled atmosphere-ocean 4D-Var assimilation system and present preliminary results from a series of identical twin experiments devised to investigate and compare the behaviour and sensitivities of different coupled data assimilation methodologies. This includes comparing fully and weakly coupled assimilations with uncoupled assimilation, investigating whether coupled assimilation can eliminate or lessen initialisation shock in coupled model forecasts, and
DRIFT-SCALE COUPLED PROCESSES (DST AND TH SEEPAGE) MODELS
J.T. Birkholzer; S. Mukhopadhyay
2005-01-13
The purpose of this report is to document drift-scale modeling work performed to evaluate the thermal-hydrological (TH) behavior in Yucca Mountain fractured rock close to waste emplacement drifts. The heat generated by the decay of radioactive waste results in rock temperatures elevated from ambient for thousands of years after emplacement. Depending on the thermal load, these temperatures are high enough to cause boiling conditions in the rock, giving rise to water redistribution and altered flow paths. The predictive simulations described in this report are intended to investigate fluid flow in the vicinity of an emplacement drift for a range of thermal loads. Understanding the TH coupled processes is important for the performance of the repository because the thermally driven water saturation changes affect the potential seepage of water into waste emplacement drifts. Seepage of water is important because if enough water gets into the emplacement drifts and comes into contact with any exposed radionuclides, it may then be possible for the radionuclides to be transported out of the drifts and to the groundwater below the drifts. For above-boiling rock temperatures, vaporization of percolating water in the fractured rock overlying the repository can provide an important barrier capability that greatly reduces (and possibly eliminates) the potential of water seeping into the emplacement drifts. In addition to this thermal process, water is inhibited from entering the drift opening by capillary forces, which occur under both ambient and thermal conditions (capillary barrier). The combined barrier capability of vaporization processes and capillary forces in the near-field rock during the thermal period of the repository is analyzed and discussed in this report.
Coupling giant impacts and long-term evolution models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golabek, G. J.; Emsenhuber, A.; Jutzi, M.; Gerya, T. V.; Asphaug, E. I.
2015-10-01
The crustal dichotomy [1] is the dominant geological feature on planet Mars. The exogenic approach to the origin of the crustal dichotomy [2-6] assumes that the northern lowlands correspond to a giant impact basin formed after primordial crust formation. However these simulations only consider the impact phase without studying the long-term repercussions of such a collision. The endogenic approach [7], suggesting a degree-1 mantle upwelling underneath the southern highlands [8-11], relies on a high Rayleigh number and a particular viscosity profile to form a low degree convective pattern within the geological constraints for the dichotomy formation. Such vigorous convection, however, results in continuous magmatic resurfacing, destroying the initially dichotomous crustal structure in the long-term. A further option is a hybrid exogenic-endogenic approach [12-15], which proposes an impact-induced magma ocean and subsequent superplume in the southern hemisphere. However these models rely on simple scaling laws to impose the thermal effects of the collision. Here we present the first results of impact simulations performed with a SPH code [16,17] serially coupled with geodynamical computations performed using the code I3VIS [18] to improve the latter approach and test it against observations. We are exploring collisions varying the impactor velocities, impact angles and target body properties, and are gauging the sensitivity to the handoff from SPH to I3VIS. As expected, our first results indicate the formation of a transient hemispherical magma ocean in the impacted hemisphere, and the merging of the cores. We also find that impact angle and velocity have a strong effect on the post-impact temperature field [5] and on the timescale and nature of core merger.
Coupling giant impacts and longer-term evolution models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golabek, Gregor; Jutzi, Martin; Emsenhuber, Alexandre; Gerya, Taras; Asphaug, Erik
2016-04-01
The crustal dichotomy is the dominant geological feature on planet Mars. The exogenic approach to the origin of the crustal dichotomy assumes that the northern lowlands correspond to a giant impact basin formed after primordial crust formation. However these simulations only consider the impact phase without studying the long-term repercussions of such a collision. The endogenic approach, suggesting a degree-1 mantle upwelling underneath the southern highlands, relies on a high Rayleigh number and a particular viscosity profile to form a low degree convective pattern within the geological constraints for the dichotomy formation. Such vigorous convection, however, results in continuous magmatic resurfacing, destroying the initially dichotomous crustal structure in the long-term. A further option is a hybrid exogenic-endogenic approach, which proposes an impact-induced magma ocean and subsequent superplume in the southern hemisphere. However these models rely on simple scaling laws to impose the thermal effects of the collision. Here we present the first results of impact simulations performed with a SPH code serially coupled with geodynamical computations performed using the code I3VIS to improve the latter approach and test it against observations. We are exploring collisions varying the impactor velocities, impact angles and target body properties, and are gauging the sensitivity to the handoff from SPH to I3VIS. As expected, our first results indicate the formation of a transient hemispherical magma ocean in the impacted hemisphere, and the merging of the cores. We also find that impact angle and velocity have a strong effect on the post-impact temperature field and on the timescale and nature of core merger.
Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models
J. Birkholzer; S. Mukhopadhyay
2004-09-29
The purpose of this report is to document drift-scale modeling work performed to evaluate the thermal-hydrological (TH) behavior in Yucca Mountain fractured rock close to waste emplacement drifts. The heat generated by the decay of radioactive waste results in rock temperatures elevated from ambient for thousands of years after emplacement. Depending on the thermal load, these temperatures are high enough to cause boiling conditions in the rock, giving rise to water redistribution and altered flow paths. The predictive simulations described in this report are intended to investigate fluid flow in the vicinity of an emplacement drift for a range of thermal loads. Understanding the TH coupled processes is important for the performance of the repository because the thermally driven water saturation changes affect the potential seepage of water into waste emplacement drifts. Seepage of water is important because if enough water gets into the emplacement drifts and comes into contact with any exposed radionuclides, it may then be possible for the radionuclides to be transported out of the drifts and to the groundwater below the drifts. For above-boiling rock temperatures, vaporization of percolating water in the fractured rock overlying the repository can provide an important barrier capability that greatly reduces (and possibly eliminates) the potential of water seeping into the emplacement drifts. In addition to this thermal process, water is inhibited from entering the drift opening by capillary forces, which occur under both ambient and thermal conditions (capillary barrier). The combined barrier capability of vaporization processes and capillary forces in the near-field rock during the thermal period of the repository is analyzed and discussed in this report.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rihani, J.; Larsen, M.; Stisen, S.; Refsgaard, J.; Jensen, K.; Simmer, C.
2013-12-01
In recent years, a number of simulation platforms with varying complexity which couple groundwater, land surface, and atmospheric models have emerged. These platforms are designed to include processes affecting energy fluxes and soil moisture variations at the land surface such as shallow groundwater, overland flow, and subsurface lateral flow. Previous studies demonstrate the sensitivity of atmospheric boundary layer dynamics and precipitation to land surface energy fluxes and groundwater dynamics, as well as the importance of capturing these interactions through coupled models. This study compares two distributed, physically-based, state-of-the-art hydrological modelling platforms: The ParFlow-CLM-COSMO platform TerrSysMP (Terrestrial System Modelling Platform), developed within the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre 32 (TR32), and the HIRHAM-MIKE SHE platform developed within the HOBE Centre for Hydrology and the HYdrological Modelling for Assessing Climate Change Impacts at differeNT Scales (HYACINTS) project. Both platforms differ in the handling of subsurface processes in the unsaturated zone as well as in the coupling approach used. We focus in particular on the inclusion of lateral flow in the unsaturated zone. While both models use the 3D groundwater flow equation in the saturated subsurface region, MIKE SHE implements the 1D Richards' equation to simulate water flow in the unsaturated zone using simulated dynamic groundwater levels from its saturated zone module. ParFlow within TerrSysMP on the other hand includes lateral flows in the unsaturated zone by implementing the 3D Richards' equation for the entire subsurface region. Some of the main questions investigated by this work are: 1. Is the dynamic approach of including lateral flows in the unsaturated zone needed within real watersheds? 2. If so, at which locations and times does it become important? 3. How does lateral flow in the unsaturated zone affect location and effectiveness of zones of
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shooman, Martin L.; Cortes, Eladio R.
1991-01-01
The network-complexity of LANs and of LANs that are interconnected by bridges and routers poses a challenging reliability-modeling problem. The present effort toward these problems' solution attempts to simplify them by reducing their number of states through truncation and state merging, as suggested by Shooman and Laemmel (1990). Through the use of state merging, it becomes possible to reduce the Bateman-Cortes 161 state model to a two state model with a closed-form solution. In the case of coupled networks, a technique which allows for problem-decomposition must be used.
Analysis of Neural-BOLD Coupling Through Four Models of the Neural Metabolic Demand
Tyler, Christopher W.; Likova, Lora T.; Nicholas, Spero C.
2015-01-01
The coupling of the neuronal energetics to the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response is still incompletely understood. To address this issue, we compared the fits of four plausible models of neurometabolic coupling dynamics to available data for simultaneous recordings of the local field potential and the local BOLD response recorded from monkey primary visual cortex over a wide range of stimulus durations. The four models of the metabolic demand driving the BOLD response were: direct coupling with the overall LFP; rectified coupling to the LFP; coupling with a slow adaptive component of the implied neural population response; and coupling with the non-adaptive intracellular input signal defined by the stimulus time course. Taking all stimulus durations into account, the results imply that the BOLD response is most closely coupled with metabolic demand derived from the intracellular input waveform, without significant influence from the adaptive transients and nonlinearities exhibited by the LFP waveform. PMID:26696806