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Sample records for coupled oscillators application

  1. Control of coupled oscillator networks with application to microgrid technologies

    PubMed Central

    Skardal, Per Sebastian; Arenas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The control of complex systems and network-coupled dynamical systems is a topic of vital theoretical importance in mathematics and physics with a wide range of applications in engineering and various other sciences. Motivated by recent research into smart grid technologies, we study the control of synchronization and consider the important case of networks of coupled phase oscillators with nonlinear interactions—a paradigmatic example that has guided our understanding of self-organization for decades. We develop a method for control based on identifying and stabilizing problematic oscillators, resulting in a stable spectrum of eigenvalues, and in turn a linearly stable synchronized state. The amount of control, that is, number of oscillators, required to stabilize the network is primarily dictated by the coupling strength, dynamical heterogeneity, and mean degree of the network, and depends little on the structural heterogeneity of the network itself. PMID:26601231

  2. Control of coupled oscillator networks with application to microgrid technologies.

    PubMed

    Skardal, Per Sebastian; Arenas, Alex

    2015-08-01

    The control of complex systems and network-coupled dynamical systems is a topic of vital theoretical importance in mathematics and physics with a wide range of applications in engineering and various other sciences. Motivated by recent research into smart grid technologies, we study the control of synchronization and consider the important case of networks of coupled phase oscillators with nonlinear interactions-a paradigmatic example that has guided our understanding of self-organization for decades. We develop a method for control based on identifying and stabilizing problematic oscillators, resulting in a stable spectrum of eigenvalues, and in turn a linearly stable synchronized state. The amount of control, that is, number of oscillators, required to stabilize the network is primarily dictated by the coupling strength, dynamical heterogeneity, and mean degree of the network, and depends little on the structural heterogeneity of the network itself. PMID:26601231

  3. Phase patterns of coupled oscillators with application to wireless communication

    SciTech Connect

    Arenas, A.

    2008-01-02

    Here we study the plausibility of a phase oscillators dynamical model for TDMA in wireless communication networks. We show that emerging patterns of phase locking states between oscillators can eventually oscillate in a round-robin schedule, in a similar way to models of pulse coupled oscillators designed to this end. The results open the door for new communication protocols in a continuous interacting networks of wireless communication devices.

  4. Saturation in coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, Ahmed; Hanna, James

    2015-03-01

    We consider a weakly nonlinear system consisting of a resonantly forced oscillator coupled to an unforced oscillator. It has long been known that, for quadratic nonlinearities and a 2:1 resonance between the oscillators, a perturbative solution of the dynamics exhibits a phenomenon known as saturation. At low forcing, the forced oscillator responds, while the unforced oscillator is quiescent. Above a critical value of the forcing, the forced oscillator's steady-state amplitude reaches a plateau, while that of the unforced oscillator increases without bound. We show that, contrary to established folklore, saturation is not unique to quadratically nonlinear systems. We present conditions on the form of the nonlinear couplings and resonance that lead to saturation. Our results elucidate a mechanism for localization or diversion of energy in systems of coupled oscillators, and suggest new approaches for the control or suppression of vibrations in engineered systems.

  5. Coupled Oscillators with Chemotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawai, Satoshi; Aizawa, Yoji

    1998-08-01

    A simple coupled oscillator system with chemotaxis is introducedto study morphogenesis of cellular slime molds. The modelsuccessfuly explains the migration of pseudoplasmodium which hasbeen experimentally predicted to be lead by cells with higherintrinsic frequencies. Results obtained predict that its velocityattains its maximum value in the interface region between totallocking and partial locking and also suggest possible rolesplayed by partial synchrony during multicellular development.

  6. Dynamics of three coupled van der Pol oscillators with application to circadian rhythms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rompala, Kevin; Rand, Richard; Howland, Howard

    2007-08-01

    In this work we study a system of three van der Pol oscillators. Two of the oscillators are identical, and are not directly coupled to each other, but rather are coupled via the third oscillator. We investigate the existence of the in-phase mode in which the two identical oscillators have the same behavior. To this end we use the two variable expansion perturbation method (also known as multiple scales) to obtain a slow flow, which we then analyze using the computer algebra system MACSYMA and the numerical bifurcation software AUTO. Our motivation for studying this system comes from the presence of circadian rhythms in the chemistry of the eyes. We model the circadian oscillator in each eye as a van der Pol oscillator. Although there is no direct connection between the two eyes, they are both connected to the brain, especially to the pineal gland, which is here represented by a third van der Pol oscillator.

  7. Covariant harmonic oscillators and coupled harmonic oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Daesoo; Kim, Young S.; Noz, Marilyn E.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that the system of two coupled harmonic oscillators shares the basic symmetry properties with the covariant harmonic oscillator formalism which provides a concise description of the basic features of relativistic hadronic features observed in high-energy laboratories. It is shown also that the coupled oscillator system has the SL(4,r) symmetry in classical mechanics, while the present formulation of quantum mechanics can accommodate only the Sp(4,r) portion of the SL(4,r) symmetry. The possible role of the SL(4,r) symmetry in quantum mechanics is discussed.

  8. Coupled opto-electronic oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, X. Steve (Inventor); Maleki, Lute (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A coupled opto-electronic oscillator that directly couples a laser oscillation with an electronic oscillation to simultaneously achieve a stable RF oscillation at a high frequency and ultra-short optical pulsation by mode locking with a high repetition rate and stability. Single-mode selection can be achieved even with a very long opto-electronic loop. A multimode laser can be used to pump the electronic oscillation, resulting in a high operation efficiency. The optical and the RF oscillations are correlated to each other.

  9. Symmetries of coupled harmonic oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, D.; Kim, Y. S.

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that the system of two coupled harmonic oscillators possesses many interesting symmetries. It is noted that the symmetry of a single oscillator is that of the three-parameter group Sp(2). Thus two uncoupled oscillator exhibits a direct product of two Sp(2) groups, with six parameters. The coupling can be achieved through a rotation in the two-dimensional space of two oscillator coordinates. The closure of the commutation relations for the generators leads to the ten-parameter group Sp(4) which is locally isomorphic to the deSitter group O(3,2).

  10. Phase chaos in coupled oscillators.

    PubMed

    Popovych, Oleksandr V; Maistrenko, Yuri L; Tass, Peter A

    2005-06-01

    A complex high-dimensional chaotic behavior, phase chaos, is found in the finite-dimensional Kuramoto model of coupled phase oscillators. This type of chaos is characterized by half of the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents being positive and the Lyapunov dimension equaling almost the total system dimension. Intriguingly, the strongest phase chaos occurs for intermediate-size ensembles. Phase chaos is a common property of networks of oscillators of very different natures, such as phase oscillators, limit-cycle oscillators, and chaotic oscillators, e.g., Rössler systems. PMID:16089804

  11. Phase chaos in coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovych, Oleksandr V.; Maistrenko, Yuri L.; Tass, Peter A.

    2005-06-01

    A complex high-dimensional chaotic behavior, phase chaos, is found in the finite-dimensional Kuramoto model of coupled phase oscillators. This type of chaos is characterized by half of the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents being positive and the Lyapunov dimension equaling almost the total system dimension. Intriguingly, the strongest phase chaos occurs for intermediate-size ensembles. Phase chaos is a common property of networks of oscillators of very different natures, such as phase oscillators, limit-cycle oscillators, and chaotic oscillators, e.g., Rössler systems.

  12. Coupled Oscillatory Systems with 𝔻4 Symmetry and Application to van der Pol Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murza, Adrian C.; Yu, Pei

    In this paper, we study the dynamics of autonomous ODE systems with 𝔻4 symmetry. First, we consider eight weakly-coupled oscillators and establish the condition for the existence of stable heteroclinic cycles in most generic 𝔻4-equivariant systems. Then, we analyze the action of 𝔻4 on ℂ2 and study the pattern of periodic solutions arising from Hopf bifurcation. We identify the type of periodic solutions associated with the pairs (H,K) of spatiotemporal or spatial symmetries, and prove their existence by using the HmodK Theorem due to Hopf bifurcation and the 𝔻4 symmetry. In particular, we give a rigorous proof for the existence of a fourth branch of periodic solutions in 𝔻4-equivariant systems. Further, we apply our theory to study a concrete case: two coupled van der Pol oscillators with 𝔻4 symmetry. We use normal form theory to analyze the periodic solutions arising from Hopf bifurcation. Among the families of the periodic solutions, we pay particular attention to the phase-locked oscillations, each of them being embedded in one of the invariant manifolds, and identify the in-phase, completely synchronized motions. We derive their explicit expressions and analyze their stability in terms of the parameters.

  13. Period variability of coupled noisy oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Fumito; Kori, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    Period variability, quantified by the standard deviation (SD) of the cycle-to-cycle period, is investigated for noisy phase oscillators. We define the checkpoint phase as the beginning or end point of one oscillation cycle and derive an expression for the SD as a function of this phase. We find that the SD is dependent on the checkpoint phase only when oscillators are coupled. The applicability of our theory is verified using a realistic model. Our work clarifies the relationship between period variability and synchronization from which valuable information regarding coupling can be inferred.

  14. Magnetically Coupled Magnet-Spring Oscillators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donoso, G.; Ladera, C. L.; Martin, P.

    2010-01-01

    A system of two magnets hung from two vertical springs and oscillating in the hollows of a pair of coils connected in series is a new, interesting and useful example of coupled oscillators. The electromagnetically coupled oscillations of these oscillators are experimentally and theoretically studied. Its coupling is electromagnetic instead of…

  15. Mixed-mode oscillation suppression states in coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Debarati; Banerjee, Tanmoy

    2015-11-01

    We report a collective dynamical state, namely the mixed-mode oscillation suppression state where the steady states of the state variables of a system of coupled oscillators show heterogeneous behaviors. We identify two variants of it: The first one is a mixed-mode death (MMD) state, which is an interesting oscillation death state, where a set of variables show dissimilar values, while the rest arrive at a common value. In the second mixed death state, bistable and monostable nontrivial homogeneous steady states appear simultaneously to a different set of variables (we refer to it as the MNAD state). We find these states in the paradigmatic chaotic Lorenz system and Lorenz-like system under generic coupling schemes. We identify that while the reflection symmetry breaking is responsible for the MNAD state, the breaking of both the reflection and translational symmetries result in the MMD state. Using a rigorous bifurcation analysis we establish the occurrence of the MMD and MNAD states, and map their transition routes in parameter space. Moreover, we report experimental observation of the MMD and MNAD states that supports our theoretical results. We believe that this study will broaden our understanding of oscillation suppression states; subsequently, it may have applications in many real physical systems, such as laser and geomagnetic systems, whose mathematical models mimic the Lorenz system.

  16. Stochastic switching in delay-coupled oscillators.

    PubMed

    D'Huys, Otti; Jüngling, Thomas; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2014-09-01

    A delay is known to induce multistability in periodic systems. Under influence of noise, coupled oscillators can switch between coexistent orbits with different frequencies and different oscillation patterns. For coupled phase oscillators we reduce the delay system to a nondelayed Langevin equation, which allows us to analytically compute the distribution of frequencies and their corresponding residence times. The number of stable periodic orbits scales with the roundtrip delay time and coupling strength, but the noisy system visits only a fraction of the orbits, which scales with the square root of the delay time and is independent of the coupling strength. In contrast, the residence time in the different orbits is mainly determined by the coupling strength and the number of oscillators, and only weakly dependent on the coupling delay. Finally we investigate the effect of a detuning between the oscillators. We demonstrate the generality of our results with delay-coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators. PMID:25314515

  17. Interaction function of oscillating coupled neurons

    PubMed Central

    Dodla, Ramana; Wilson, Charles J.

    2013-01-01

    Large scale simulations of electrically coupled neuronal oscillators often employ the phase coupled oscillator paradigm to understand and predict network behavior. We study the nature of the interaction between such coupled oscillators using weakly coupled oscillator theory. By employing piecewise linear approximations for phase response curves and voltage time courses, and parameterizing their shapes, we compute the interaction function for all such possible shapes and express it in terms of discrete Fourier modes. We find that reasonably good approximation is achieved with four Fourier modes that comprise of both sine and cosine terms. PMID:24229210

  18. Dynamical robustness of coupled heterogeneous oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Gouhei; Morino, Kai; Daido, Hiroaki; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2014-05-01

    We study tolerance of dynamic behavior in networks of coupled heterogeneous oscillators to deterioration of the individual oscillator components. As the deterioration proceeds with reduction in dynamic behavior of the oscillators, an order parameter evaluating the level of global oscillation decreases and then vanishes at a certain critical point. We present a method to analytically derive a general formula for this critical point and an approximate formula for the order parameter in the vicinity of the critical point in networks of coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators. Using the critical point as a measure for dynamical robustness of oscillator networks, we show that the more heterogeneous the oscillator components are, the more robust the oscillatory behavior of the network is to the component deterioration. This property is confirmed also in networks of Morris-Lecar neuron models coupled through electrical synapses. Our approach could provide a useful framework for theoretically understanding the role of population heterogeneity in robustness of biological networks.

  19. A Fresh Look at Coupled-Oscillator Spatial Power Combining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, L.W.; Pogorzelski, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    Quasi-optical oscillators were proposed a little more than ten years ago as a means of developing the power levels needed for applications at millimeter frequencies using large numbers of individual semiconductor devices each of which produces only a modest amount of power [J.W. Mink, IEEE Trans. MTT., vol. 34, p. 273, 19861. An operating system was demonstrated soon after [Z.B. Popovic et. al, Int. J. Infrared and Millimeter Waves, v. 9, p. 647, 1988] in the form of a so-called grid oscillator. This device constituted a rectangular array of oscillating devices that are mutually coupled so that they oscillator coherently. The interconnecting lines in one direction serve as radiators so that the oscillators radiate directly, and the radiated fields add. Subsequently, coupled oscillators using resonant transmission line lengths was demonstrated by Mortazawi and Itoh [IEEE Trans. MTT., vol. 38, p. 86,1990). In recent work, coupled-oscillator power combiners have received less attention, with amplifier/combiners receiving more attention. Specific weaknesses of spatial-combining oscillators have motivated this transition. Namely, the oscillators employ low-Q resonators (resulting in low signal quality) and no clear means of modulation has been identified until recently. In this presentation, we review coupled-oscillator combiners in broad terms, indicating the features that make particular systems viable. We indicate how these features can be reconciled to functional requirements for system applications. Comparisons are drawn between two approaches to obtain mutual coupling: One employs low-Q oscillator circuits at each site, with concomitantly high propensity for the oscillators to couple. The other approach employs moderate-Q oscillators at each site with the concomitant requirement to tune the oscillators so that they share a range of frequencies over which they can couple and lock. In either case, precise frequency control and modulation can be achieved through

  20. Collective phase response curves for heterogeneous coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannay, Kevin M.; Booth, Victoria; Forger, Daniel B.

    2015-08-01

    Phase response curves (PRCs) have become an indispensable tool in understanding the entrainment and synchronization of biological oscillators. However, biological oscillators are often found in large coupled heterogeneous systems and the variable of physiological importance is the collective rhythm resulting from an aggregation of the individual oscillations. To study this phenomena we consider phase resetting of the collective rhythm for large ensembles of globally coupled Sakaguchi-Kuramoto oscillators. Making use of Ott-Antonsen theory we derive an asymptotically valid analytic formula for the collective PRC. A result of this analysis is a characteristic scaling for the change in the amplitude and entrainment points for the collective PRC compared to the individual oscillator PRC. We support the analytical findings with numerical evidence and demonstrate the applicability of the theory to large ensembles of coupled neuronal oscillators.

  1. A Simplified Theory of Coupled Oscillator Array Phase Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pogorzelski, R. J.; York, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Linear and planar arrays of coupled oscillators have been proposed as means of achieving high power rf sources through coherent spatial power combining. In such - applications, a uniform phase distribution over the aperture is desired. However, it has been shown that by detuning some of the oscillators away from the oscillation frequency of the ensemble of oscillators, one may achieve other useful aperture phase distributions. Notable among these are linear phase distributions resulting in steering of the output rf beam away from the broadside direction. The theory describing the operation of such arrays of coupled oscillators is quite complicated since the phenomena involved are inherently nonlinear. This has made it difficult to develop an intuitive understanding of the impact of oscillator tuning on phase control and has thus impeded practical application. In this work a simpl!fied theory is developed which facilitates intuitive understanding by establishing an analog of the phase control problem in terms of electrostatics.

  2. Synchronization of optically coupled resonant tunneling diode oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeira, Bruno; Figueiredo, José M. L.; Ironside, Charles N.; Quintana, José M.

    2013-11-01

    We experimentally investigate the synchronous response of two fiber-optic coupled optoelectronic circuit oscillators based on resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs). The fiber-optic synchronization link employs injection of a periodic oscillating optical modulated signal generated by a master RTD-laser diode (LD) oscillator to a slave RTD-photodetector (PD) oscillator. The synchronous regimes were evaluated as a function of frequency detuning and optical injection strength. The results show the slave RTD-PD oscillator follows the frequency and noise characteristics of the master RTD-LD oscillator resulting in two oscillators with similar phase noise characteristics exhibiting single side band phase noise levels below -100 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset from the carrier frequency. Optical synchronization of RTD-based optoelectronic circuit oscillators have many applications spanning from sensing, to microwave generation, and data transmission.

  3. Vortex sound in unconfined flows: Application to the coupling of a jet-slot oscillator with a resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glesser, M.; Valeau, V.; Sakout, A.

    2008-07-01

    The aeroacoustical coupling of a jet-slot oscillator to the acoustic resonances of the flow-supply duct is studied in this paper. This configuration, producing self-sustained tones, is original in particular because the source domain is unconfined and the coupling occurs to high-order acoustic resonances. The development of a model, based on the Howe's corollary of the vortex-sound theory permits the flow-acoustic interactions induced in the production of such tones to be modelled theoretically. This model, together with a careful experimental exploration, provided a description of this aeroacoustic sound source. The findings show that the combination of two mechanisms determines the operating frequency that maximizes the acoustic fluctuations responsible for the production of the tones: (i) the energy exchange between the hydrodynamic and the acoustic fluctuations of the fluid, and (ii) the enhancement of the acoustic oscillation by the resonances. Some differences from the usual behaviour of acoustically coupled self-sustained oscillations—in particular, related to the oscillation amplitude and the synchronization between the vortical and acoustical fields—are highlighted.

  4. Reentrant transition in coupled noisy oscillators.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yasuaki; Kori, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    We report on a synchronization-breaking instability observed in a noisy oscillator unidirectionally coupled to a pacemaker. Using a phase oscillator model, we find that, as the coupling strength is increased, the noisy oscillator lags behind the pacemaker more frequently and the phase slip rate increases, which may not be observed in averaged phase models such as the Kuramoto model. Investigation of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation enables us to obtain the reentrant transition line between the synchronized state and the phase slip state. We verify our theory using the Brusselator model, suggesting that this reentrant transition can be found in a wide range of limit cycle oscillators. PMID:25679676

  5. Coupled Oscillator Model for Nonlinear Gravitational Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huan; Zhang, Fan; Green, Stephen; Lehner, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Motivated by the fluid/gravity correspondence, we introduce a new method for characterizing nonlinear gravitational interactions. Namely we map the nonlinear perturbative form of the Einstein's equation to the equations of motion of a series of nonlinearly-coupled harmonic oscillators. These oscillators correspond to the quasinormal modes of the background spacetime. We demonstrate the mechanics and the utility of this formalism with an asymptotically AdS black-brane spacetime, where the equations of motion for the oscillators are shown to be equivalent to the Navier-Stokes equation for the boundary fluid in the mode-expansion picture. We thereby expand on the explicit correspondence connecting the fluid and gravity sides for this particular physical set-up. Perhaps more importantly, we expect this formalism to remain valid in more general spacetimes, including those without a fluid/gravity correspondence. In other words, although born out of the correspondence, the formalism survives independently of it and has a much wider range of applicability.

  6. Synchronization in chaotic oscillators by cyclic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olusola, O. I.; Njah, A. N.; Dana, S. K.

    2013-07-01

    We introduce a type of cyclic coupling to investigate synchronization of chaotic oscillators. We derive analytical solutions of the critical coupling for stable synchronization under the cyclic coupling for the Rössler system and the Lorenz oscillator as paradigmatic illustration. Based on the master stability function (MSF) approach, the analytical results on critical coupling are verified numerically. An enhancing effect in terms of lowering the critical coupling or enlarging the synchronization window in a critical coupling space is noticed. The cyclic coupling is also applied in other models, Hindmarsh-Rose model, Sprott system, Chen system and forced Duffing system to confirm the enhancing effect. The cyclic coupling allows tuning of two coupling constants in reverse directions when an optimal control of synchronization is feasible.

  7. Recent Developments in the Analysis of Couple Oscillator Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pogorzelski, Ronald J.

    2000-01-01

    This presentation considers linear arrays of coupled oscillators. Our purpose in coupling oscillators together is to achieve high radiated power through the spatial power combining which results when the oscillators are injection locked to each other. York, et. al. have shown that, left to themselves, the ensemble of injection locked oscillators oscillate at the average of the tuning frequencies of all the oscillators. Coupling these arrays achieves high radiated power through coherent spatial power combining. The coupled oscillators are usually designed to produce constant aperture phase. Oscillators are injection locked to each other or to a master oscillator to produce coherent radiation. Oscillators do not necessarily oscillate at their tuning frequency.

  8. Arrays of coupled chemical oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Forrester, Derek Michael

    2015-01-01

    Oscillating chemical reactions result from complex periodic changes in the concentration of the reactants. In spatially ordered ensembles of candle flame oscillators the fluctuations in the ratio of oxygen atoms with respect to that of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen produces an oscillation in the visible part of the flame related to the energy released per unit mass of oxygen. Thus, the products of the reaction vary in concentration as a function of time, giving rise to an oscillation in the amount of soot and radiative emission. Synchronisation of interacting dynamical sub-systems occurs as arrays of flames that act as master and slave oscillators, with groups of candles numbering greater than two, creating a synchronised motion in three-dimensions. In a ring of candles the visible parts of each flame move together, up and down and back and forth, in a manner that appears like a “worship”. Here this effect is shown for rings of flames which collectively empower a central flame to pulse to greater heights. In contrast, situations where the central flames are suppressed are also found. The phenomena leads to in-phase synchronised states emerging between periods of anti-phase synchronisation for arrays with different columnar sizes of candle and positioning. PMID:26582365

  9. Arrays of coupled chemical oscillators.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Derek Michael

    2015-01-01

    Oscillating chemical reactions result from complex periodic changes in the concentration of the reactants. In spatially ordered ensembles of candle flame oscillators the fluctuations in the ratio of oxygen atoms with respect to that of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen produces an oscillation in the visible part of the flame related to the energy released per unit mass of oxygen. Thus, the products of the reaction vary in concentration as a function of time, giving rise to an oscillation in the amount of soot and radiative emission. Synchronisation of interacting dynamical sub-systems occurs as arrays of flames that act as master and slave oscillators, with groups of candles numbering greater than two, creating a synchronised motion in three-dimensions. In a ring of candles the visible parts of each flame move together, up and down and back and forth, in a manner that appears like a "worship". Here this effect is shown for rings of flames which collectively empower a central flame to pulse to greater heights. In contrast, situations where the central flames are suppressed are also found. The phenomena leads to in-phase synchronised states emerging between periods of anti-phase synchronisation for arrays with different columnar sizes of candle and positioning. PMID:26582365

  10. Arrays of coupled chemical oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrester, Derek Michael

    2015-11-01

    Oscillating chemical reactions result from complex periodic changes in the concentration of the reactants. In spatially ordered ensembles of candle flame oscillators the fluctuations in the ratio of oxygen atoms with respect to that of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen produces an oscillation in the visible part of the flame related to the energy released per unit mass of oxygen. Thus, the products of the reaction vary in concentration as a function of time, giving rise to an oscillation in the amount of soot and radiative emission. Synchronisation of interacting dynamical sub-systems occurs as arrays of flames that act as master and slave oscillators, with groups of candles numbering greater than two, creating a synchronised motion in three-dimensions. In a ring of candles the visible parts of each flame move together, up and down and back and forth, in a manner that appears like a “worship”. Here this effect is shown for rings of flames which collectively empower a central flame to pulse to greater heights. In contrast, situations where the central flames are suppressed are also found. The phenomena leads to in-phase synchronised states emerging between periods of anti-phase synchronisation for arrays with different columnar sizes of candle and positioning.

  11. Cluster synchronization modes in an ensemble of coupled chaotic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belykh, Vladimir N.; Belykh, Igor V.; Mosekilde, Erik

    2001-03-01

    Considering systems of diffusively coupled identical chaotic oscillators, an effective method to determine the possible states of cluster synchronization and ensure their stability is presented. The method, which may find applications in communication engineering and other fields of science and technology, is illustrated through concrete examples of coupled biological cell models.

  12. Designing the Dynamics of Globally Coupled Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orosz, G.; Moehlis, J.; Ashwin, P.

    2009-09-01

    A method for designing cluster states with prescribed stability is presented for coupled phase oscillator systems with all-to-all coupling. We determine criteria for the coupling function that ensure the existence and stability of a large variety of clustered configurations. We show that such criteria can be satisfied by choosing Fourier coefficients of the coupling function. We demonstrate that using simple trigonometric and localized coupling functions one can realize arbitrary patterns of stable clusters and that the designed systems are capable of performing finite state computation. The design principles may be relevant when engineering complex dynamical behavior of coupled systems, e.g. the emergent dynamics of artificial neural networks, coupled chemical oscillators and robotic swarms.

  13. Synchronization of coupled Boolean phase oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosin, David P.; Rontani, Damien; Gauthier, Daniel J.

    2014-04-01

    We design, characterize, and couple Boolean phase oscillators that include state-dependent feedback delay. The state-dependent delay allows us to realize an adjustable coupling strength, even though only Boolean signals are exchanged. Specifically, increasing the coupling strength via the range of state-dependent delay leads to larger locking ranges in uni- and bidirectional coupling of oscillators in both experiment and numerical simulation with a piecewise switching model. In the unidirectional coupling scheme, we unveil asymmetric triangular-shaped locking regions (Arnold tongues) that appear at multiples of the natural frequency of the oscillators. This extends observations of a single locking region reported in previous studies. In the bidirectional coupling scheme, we map out a symmetric locking region in the parameter space of frequency detuning and coupling strength. Because of the large scalability of our setup, our observations constitute a first step towards realizing large-scale networks of coupled oscillators to address fundamental questions on the dynamical properties of networks in a new experimental setting.

  14. Dispersion dipoles for coupled Drude oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odbadrakh, Tuguldur T.; Jordan, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    We present the dispersion-induced dipole moments of coupled Drude oscillators obtained from two approaches. The first approach evaluates the dipole moment using the second-order Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory wave function allowing for dipole-dipole and dipole-quadrupole coupling. The second approach, based on response theory, employs an integral of the dipole-dipole polarizability of one oscillator and the dipole-dipole-quadrupole hyperpolarizability of the other oscillator over imaginary frequencies. The resulting dispersion dipoles exhibit an R-7 dependence on the separation between the two oscillators and are connected to the leading-order C6/R6 dispersion energy through the electrostatic Hellmann-Feynman theorem.

  15. Coupled oscillator model for nonlinear gravitational perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huan; Zhang, Fan; Green, Stephen R.; Lehner, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Motivated by the gravity-fluid correspondence, we introduce a new method for characterizing nonlinear gravitational interactions. Namely we map the nonlinear perturbative form of the Einstein equation to the equations of motion of a collection of nonlinearly coupled harmonic oscillators. These oscillators correspond to the quasinormal or normal modes of the background spacetime. We demonstrate the mechanics and the utility of this formalism within the context of perturbed asymptotically anti-de Sitter black brane spacetimes. We confirm in this case that the boundary fluid dynamics are equivalent to those of the hydrodynamic quasinormal modes of the bulk spacetime. We expect this formalism to remain valid in more general spacetimes, including those without a fluid dual. In other words, although born out of the gravity-fluid correspondence, the formalism is fully independent and it has a much wider range of applicability. In particular, as this formalism inspires an especially transparent physical intuition, we expect its introduction to simplify the often highly technical analytical exploration of nonlinear gravitational dynamics.

  16. Mode coupling in spin torque oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Steven S.-L.; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dong; Heinonen, Olle

    2016-09-01

    A number of recent experimental works have shown that the dynamics of a single spin torque oscillator can exhibit complex behavior that stems from interactions between two or more modes of the oscillator, such as observed mode-hopping or mode coexistence. There has been some initial work indicating how the theory for a single-mode (macro-spin) spin torque oscillator should be generalized to include several modes and the interactions between them. In the present work, we rigorously derive such a theory starting with the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation for magnetization dynamics by expanding up to third-order terms in deviation from equilibrium. Our results show how a linear mode coupling, which is necessary for observed mode-hopping to occur, arises through coupling to a magnon bath. The acquired temperature dependence of this coupling implies that the manifold of orbits and fixed points may shift with temperature.

  17. Oscillator death induced by amplitude-dependent coupling in repulsively coupled oscillators.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiqing; Xiao, Guibao; Zhu, Yun; Zhan, Meng; Xiao, Jinghua; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-05-01

    The effects of amplitude-dependent coupling on oscillator death (OD) are investigated for two repulsively coupled Lorenz oscillators. Based on numerical simulations, it is shown that as constraint strengths on the amplitude-dependent coupling change, an oscillatory state may undergo a transition to an OD state. The parameter regimes of the OD domain are theoretically determined, which coincide well with the numerical results. An electronic circuit is set up to exhibit the transition process to the OD state with an amplitude-dependent coupling. These findings may have practical importance on chaos control and oscillation depression. PMID:26066224

  18. Modeling of a bipedal robot using mutually coupled Rayleigh oscillators.

    PubMed

    Filho, Armando C de Pina; Dutra, Max S; Raptopoulos, Luciano S C

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the work presented here was the modeling of a bipedal robot using a central pattern generator (CPG) formed by a set of mutually coupled Rayleigh oscillators. We analyzed a 2D model, with the three most important determinants of gait, that performs only motions parallel to the sagittal plane. Using oscillators with integer relation of frequency, we determined the transient motion and the stable limit cycles of the network formed by the three oscillators, showing the behavior of the knee angles and the hip angle. A comparison of the plotted graphs revealed that the system provided excellent results when compared to experimental analysis. Based on the results of the study, we come to the conclusion that the use of mutually coupled Rayleigh oscillators can represent an excellent method of signal generation, allowing their application for feedback control of a walking machine. PMID:15580522

  19. D3-Equivariant coupled advertising oscillators model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunrui; Zheng, Huifeng

    2011-04-01

    A ring of three coupled advertising oscillators with delay is considered. Using the symmetric functional differential equation theories, the multiple Hopf bifurcations of the equilibrium at the origin are demonstrated. The existence of multiple branches of bifurcating periodic solution is obtained. Numerical simulation supports our analysis results.

  20. Inference of Stochastic Nonlinear Oscillators with Applications to Physiological Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Luchinsky, Dmitry G.

    2004-01-01

    A new method of inferencing of coupled stochastic nonlinear oscillators is described. The technique does not require extensive global optimization, provides optimal compensation for noise-induced errors and is robust in a broad range of dynamical models. We illustrate the main ideas of the technique by inferencing a model of five globally and locally coupled noisy oscillators. Specific modifications of the technique for inferencing hidden degrees of freedom of coupled nonlinear oscillators is discussed in the context of physiological applications.

  1. Synchronization Dynamics of Coupled Chemical Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompkins, Nathan

    The synchronization dynamics of complex networks have been extensively studied over the past few decades due to their ubiquity in the natural world. Prominent examples include cardiac rhythms, circadian rhythms, the flashing of fireflies, predator/prey population dynamics, mammalian gait, human applause, pendulum clocks, the electrical grid, and of the course the brain. Detailed experiments have been done to map the topology of many of these systems and significant advances have been made to describe the mathematics of these networks. Compared to these bodies of work relatively little has been done to directly test the role of topology in the synchronization dynamics of coupled oscillators. This Dissertation develops technology to examine the dynamics due to topology within networks of discrete oscillatory components. The oscillatory system used here consists of the photo-inhibitable Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction water-in-oil emulsion where the oscillatory drops are diffusively coupled to one another and the topology is defined by the geometry of the diffusive connections. Ring networks are created from a close-packed 2D array of drops using the Programmable Illumination Microscope (PIM) in order to test Turing's theory of morphogenesis directly. Further technology is developed to create custom planar networks of BZ drops in more complicated topologies which can be individually perturbed using illumination from the PIM. The work presented here establishes the validity of using the BZ emulsion system with a PIM to study the topology induced effects on the synchronization dynamics of coupled chemical oscillators, tests the successes and limitations of Turing's theory of morphogenesis, and develops new technology to further probe the effects of network topology on a system of coupled oscillators. Finally, this Dissertation concludes by describing ongoing experiments which utilize this new technology to examine topology induced transitions of synchronization

  2. Heterogeneity of time delays determines synchronization of coupled oscillators.

    PubMed

    Petkoski, Spase; Spiegler, Andreas; Proix, Timothée; Aram, Parham; Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Jirsa, Viktor K

    2016-07-01

    Network couplings of oscillatory large-scale systems, such as the brain, have a space-time structure composed of connection strengths and signal transmission delays. We provide a theoretical framework, which allows treating the spatial distribution of time delays with regard to synchronization, by decomposing it into patterns and therefore reducing the stability analysis into the tractable problem of a finite set of delay-coupled differential equations. We analyze delay-structured networks of phase oscillators and we find that, depending on the heterogeneity of the delays, the oscillators group in phase-shifted, anti-phase, steady, and non-stationary clusters, and analytically compute their stability boundaries. These results find direct application in the study of brain oscillations. PMID:27575125

  3. Heterogeneity of time delays determines synchronization of coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkoski, Spase; Spiegler, Andreas; Proix, Timothée; Aram, Parham; Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Jirsa, Viktor K.

    2016-07-01

    Network couplings of oscillatory large-scale systems, such as the brain, have a space-time structure composed of connection strengths and signal transmission delays. We provide a theoretical framework, which allows treating the spatial distribution of time delays with regard to synchronization, by decomposing it into patterns and therefore reducing the stability analysis into the tractable problem of a finite set of delay-coupled differential equations. We analyze delay-structured networks of phase oscillators and we find that, depending on the heterogeneity of the delays, the oscillators group in phase-shifted, anti-phase, steady, and non-stationary clusters, and analytically compute their stability boundaries. These results find direct application in the study of brain oscillations.

  4. Dynamics of learning in coupled oscillators tutored with delayed reinforcements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevisan, M. A.; Bouzat, S.; Samengo, I.; Mindlin, G. B.

    2005-07-01

    In this work we analyze the solutions of a simple system of coupled phase oscillators in which the connectivity is learned dynamically. The model is inspired by the process of learning of birdsongs by oscine birds. An oscillator acts as the generator of a basic rhythm and drives slave oscillators which are responsible for different motor actions. The driving signal arrives at each driven oscillator through two different pathways. One of them is a direct pathway. The other one is a reinforcement pathway, through which the signal arrives delayed. The coupling coefficients between the driving oscillator and the slave ones evolve in time following a Hebbian-like rule. We discuss the conditions under which a driven oscillator is capable of learning to lock to the driver. The resulting phase difference and connectivity are a function of the delay of the reinforcement. Around some specific delays, the system is capable of generating dramatic changes in the phase difference between the driver and the driven systems. We discuss the dynamical mechanism responsible for this effect and possible applications of this learning scheme.

  5. Synchronization of weakly coupled oscillators: coupling, delay and topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallada, Enrique; Tang, Ao

    2013-12-01

    There are three key factors in a system of coupled oscillators that characterize the interaction between them: coupling (how to affect), delay (when to affect) and topology (whom to affect). The existing work on each of these factors has mainly focused on special cases. With new angles and tools, this paper makes progress in relaxing some assumptions on these factors. There are three main results in this paper. Firstly, by using results from algebraic graph theory, a sufficient condition is obtained that can be used to check equilibrium stability. This condition works for arbitrary topology, generalizing existing results and also leading to a sufficient condition on the coupling function which guarantees that the system will reach synchronization. Secondly, it is known that identical oscillators with sin () coupling functions are guaranteed to synchronize in phase on a complete graph. Our results prove that in many cases certain structures such as symmetry and concavity, rather than the exact shape of the coupling function, are the keys for global synchronization. Finally, the effect of heterogenous delays is investigated. Using mean field theory, a system of delayed coupled oscillators is approximated by a non-delayed one whose coupling depends on the delay distribution. This shows how the stability properties of the system depend on the delay distribution and allows us to predict its behavior. In particular, we show that for sin () coupling, heterogeneous delays are equivalent to homogeneous delays. Furthermore, we can use our novel sufficient instability condition to show that heterogeneity, i.e. wider delay distribution, can help reach in-phase synchronization.

  6. Model reduction for networks of coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottwald, Georg A.

    2015-05-01

    We present a collective coordinate approach to describe coupled phase oscillators. We apply the method to study synchronisation in a Kuramoto model. In our approach, an N-dimensional Kuramoto model is reduced to an n-dimensional ordinary differential equation with n ≪ N , constituting an immense reduction in complexity. The onset of both local and global synchronisation is reproduced to good numerical accuracy, and we are able to describe both soft and hard transitions. By introducing two collective coordinates, the approach is able to describe the interaction of two partially synchronised clusters in the case of bimodally distributed native frequencies. Furthermore, our approach allows us to accurately describe finite size scalings of the critical coupling strength. We corroborate our analytical results by comparing with numerical simulations of the Kuramoto model with all-to-all coupling networks for several distributions of the native frequencies.

  7. Predicting synchrony in heterogeneous pulse coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talathi, Sachin S.; Hwang, Dong-Uk; Miliotis, Abraham; Carney, Paul R.; Ditto, William L.

    2009-08-01

    Pulse coupled oscillators (PCOs) represent an ubiquitous model for a number of physical and biological systems. Phase response curves (PRCs) provide a general mathematical framework to analyze patterns of synchrony generated within these models. A general theoretical approach to account for the nonlinear contributions from higher-order PRCs in the generation of synchronous patterns by the PCOs is still lacking. Here, by considering a prototypical example of a PCO network, i.e., two synaptically coupled neurons, we present a general theory that extends beyond the weak-coupling approximation, to account for higher-order PRC corrections in the derivation of an approximate discrete map, the stable fixed point of which can predict the domain of 1:1 phase locked synchronous states generated by the PCO network.

  8. Four mass coupled oscillator guitar model.

    PubMed

    Popp, John E

    2012-01-01

    Coupled oscillator models have been used for the low frequency response (50 to 250 Hz) of a guitar. These 2 and 3 mass models correctly predict measured resonance frequency relationships under various laboratory boundary conditions, but did not always represent the true state of a guitar in the players' hands. The model presented has improved these models in three ways, (1) a fourth oscillator includes the guitar body, (2) plate stiffnesses and other fundamental parameters were measured directly and effective areas and masses used to calculate the responses, including resonances and phases, directly, and (3) one of the three resultant resonances varies with neck and side mass and can also be modeled as a bar mode of the neck and body. The calculated and measured resonances and phases agree reasonably well. PMID:22280705

  9. Quantum dissipative effect of one dimension coupled anharmonic oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Sulaiman, A.; Zen, Freddy P.

    2015-04-16

    Quantum dissipative effect of one dimension coupled anharmonic oscillator is investigated. The systems are two coupled harmonic oscillator with the different masses. The dissipative effect is studied based on the quantum state diffusion formalism. The result show that the anharmonic effect increase the amplitude but the lifetime of the oscillation depend on the damping coefficient and do not depend on the temperature.

  10. Control of Oscillation Patterns in a Symmetric Coupled Biological Oscillator System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamatsu, Atsuko; Tanaka, Reiko; Yamamoto, Takatoki; Fujii, Teruo

    2003-08-01

    A chain of three-oscillator system was constructed with living biological oscillators of phasmodial slime mold, Physarum polycehalum and the oscillation patterns were analyzed by the symmetric Hopf bifurcation theory using group theory. Multi-stability of oscillation patterns was observed, even when the coupling strength was fixed. This suggests that the coupling strength is not an effective parameter to obtain a desired oscillation pattern among the multiple patterns. Here we propose a method to control oscillation patterns using resonance to external stimulus and demonstrate pattern switching induced by frequency resonance given to only one of oscillators in the system.

  11. The Coupled Harmonic Oscillator: Not Just for Seniors Anymore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preyer, Norris W.

    1996-01-01

    Presents experiments that use Microcomputer Based Laboratory (MBL) techniques to enable freshmen physics students to investigate complex systems, such as nonlinear oscillators or coupled harmonic oscillators, at a level appropriate for an independent project. (JRH)

  12. Active Coupled Oscillators in the Inner Ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strimbu, Clark Elliott

    Auditory and vestibular systems are endowed with an active process that enables them to detect signals as small as a few Angstroms; they also exhibit frequency selectivity; show strong nonlinearities; and can exhibit as spontaneous activity. Much of this active process comes from the sensory hair cells at the periphery of the auditory and vestibular systems. Each hair cell is capped by an eponymous hair bundle, a specialized structure that transduces mechanical forces into electrical signals. Experiments on mechanically decoupled cells from the frog sacculus have shown that individual hair bundles behave in an active manner analogous to an intact organ suggesting a common cellular basis for the active processes seen in many species. In particular, mechanically decoupled hair bundles show rapid active movements in response to transient stimuli and exhibit spontaneous oscillations. However, a single mechanosensitive hair cell is unable to match the performance of an entire organ. In vivo, hair bundles are often coupled to overlying membranes, gelatinous extracellular matrices. We used an in vitro preparation of the frog sacculus in which the otolithic membrane has been left intact. Under natural coupling conditions, there is a strong degree of correlation across the saccular epithelium, suggesting that the collective response of many cells contributes to the extreme sensitivity of this organ. When the membrane is left intact, the hair bundles do not oscillate spontaneously, showing that the natural coupling and loading tunes them into a quiescent regime. However, when stimulated by a pulse, the bundles show a rapid biphasic response that is abolished when the transduction channels are blocked. The active forces generated by the bundles are sufficient to move the overlying membrane.

  13. Spontaneous mode switching in coupled oscillators competing for constant amounts of resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Yoshito; Aono, Masashi; Hara, Masahiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2010-03-01

    We propose a widely applicable scheme of coupling that models competitions among dynamical systems for fixed amounts of resources. Two oscillators coupled in this way synchronize in antiphase. Three oscillators coupled circularly show a number of oscillation modes such as rotation and partially in-phase synchronization. Intriguingly, simple oscillators in the model also produce complex behavior such as spontaneous switching among different modes. The dynamics reproduces well the spatiotemporal oscillatory behavior of a true slime mold Physarum, which is capable of computational optimization.

  14. Spontaneous mode switching in coupled oscillators competing for constant amounts of resources.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Yoshito; Aono, Masashi; Hara, Masahiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2010-03-01

    We propose a widely applicable scheme of coupling that models competitions among dynamical systems for fixed amounts of resources. Two oscillators coupled in this way synchronize in antiphase. Three oscillators coupled circularly show a number of oscillation modes such as rotation and partially in-phase synchronization. Intriguingly, simple oscillators in the model also produce complex behavior such as spontaneous switching among different modes. The dynamics reproduces well the spatiotemporal oscillatory behavior of a true slime mold Physarum, which is capable of computational optimization. PMID:20370272

  15. Chaos in generically coupled phase oscillator networks with nonpairwise interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bick, Christian; Ashwin, Peter; Rodrigues, Ana

    2016-09-01

    The Kuramoto-Sakaguchi system of coupled phase oscillators, where interaction between oscillators is determined by a single harmonic of phase differences of pairs of oscillators, has very simple emergent dynamics in the case of identical oscillators that are globally coupled: there is a variational structure that means the only attractors are full synchrony (in-phase) or splay phase (rotating wave/full asynchrony) oscillations and the bifurcation between these states is highly degenerate. Here we show that nonpairwise coupling—including three and four-way interactions of the oscillator phases—that appears generically at the next order in normal-form based calculations can give rise to complex emergent dynamics in symmetric phase oscillator networks. In particular, we show that chaos can appear in the smallest possible dimension of four coupled phase oscillators for a range of parameter values.

  16. Synchronization using environmental coupling in mercury beating heart oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singla, Tanu; Montoya, Fernando; Rivera, M.; Tajima, Shunsuke; Nakabayashi, Seiichiro; Parmananda, P.

    2016-06-01

    We report synchronization of Mercury Beating Heart (MBH) oscillators using the environmental coupling mechanism. This mechanism involves interaction of the oscillators with a common medium/environment such that the oscillators do not interact among themselves. In the present work, we chose a modified MBH system as the common environment. In the absence of coupling, this modified system does not exhibit self sustained oscillations. It was observed that, as a result of the coupling of the MBH oscillators with this common environment, the electrical and the mechanical activities of both the oscillators synchronized simultaneously. Experimental results indicate the emergence of both lag and the complete synchronization in the MBH oscillators. Simulations of the phase oscillators were carried out in order to better understand the experimental observations.

  17. Transitional behavior in hydrodynamically coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Box, S.; Debono, L.; Phillips, D. B.; Simpson, S. H.

    2015-02-01

    In this article we consider the complete set of synchronized and phase-locked states available to pairs of hydrodynamically coupled colloidal rotors, consisting of spherical beads driven about circular paths in the same, and in opposing senses. Oscillators such as these have previously been used as coarse grained, minimal models of beating cilia. Two mechanisms are known to be important in establishing synchrony. The first involves perturbation of the driving force, and the second involves deformation of the rotor trajectory. We demonstrate that these mechanisms are of similar strength, in the regime of interest, and interact to determine observed behavior. Combining analysis and simulation with experiments performed using holographic optical tweezers, we show how varying the amplitude of the driving force perturbation leads to a transition from synchronized to phase-locked states. Analogies with biological systems are discussed, as are implications for the design of biomimetic devices.

  18. Non-conventional synchronization of weakly coupled active oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manevitch, L. I.; Kovaleva, M. A.; Pilipchuk, V. N.

    2013-03-01

    We present a new type of self-sustained vibrations in the fundamental physical model covering a broad area of applications from wave generation in radiophysics and nonlinear optics to the heart muscle contraction and eyesight disorder in biophysics. Such a diversity of applications is due to the universal physical phenomenon of synchronization. Previous studies of this phenomenon, originating from Huygens famous observation, are based mainly on the model of two weakly coupled Van der Pol oscillators and usually deal with their synchronization in the regimes close to nonlinear normal modes (NNMs). In this work, we show for the first time that, in the important case of threshold excitation, an alternative synchronization mechanism can develop when the conventional synchronization becomes impossible. We identify this mechanism as an appearance of dynamic attractor with the complete periodic energy exchange between the oscillators, which is the dissipative analogue of highly intensive beats in a conservative system. This type of motion is therefore opposite to the NNM-type synchronization with no energy exchange by definition. The analytical description of these vibrations employs the concept of Limiting Phase Trajectories (LPTs) introduced by one of the authors earlier for conservative systems. Finally, within the LPT approach, we describe the transition from the complete energy exchange between the oscillators to the energy localization mostly on one of the two oscillators. The localized mode is an attractor in the range of model parameters wherein the LPT as well as the in-phase and out-of-phase NNMs become unstable.

  19. Periodic patterns in a ring of delay-coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlikowski, P.; Yanchuk, S.; Popovych, O. V.; Tass, P. A.

    2010-09-01

    We describe the appearance and stability of spatiotemporal periodic patterns (rotating waves) in unidirectional rings of coupled oscillators with delayed couplings. We show how delays in the coupling lead to the splitting of each rotating wave into several new ones. The appearance of rotating waves is mediated by the Hopf bifurcations of the symmetric equilibrium. We also conclude that the coupling delays can be effectively replaced by increasing the number of oscillators in the chain. The phenomena are shown for the Stuart-Landau oscillators as well as for the coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo systems modeling an ensemble of spiking neurons interacting via excitatory chemical synapses.

  20. Surprises of the Transformer as a Coupled Oscillator System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, J. P.; Silvestre, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    We study a system of two RLC oscillators coupled through a variable mutual inductance. The system is interesting because it exhibits some peculiar features of coupled oscillators: (i) there are two natural frequencies; (ii) in general, the resonant frequencies do not coincide with the natural frequencies; (iii) the resonant frequencies of both…

  1. Cooperative dynamics in coupled systems of fast and slow phase oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu; Okita, Takayuki

    2016-02-01

    We propose a coupled system of fast and slow phase oscillators. We observe two-step transitions to quasiperiodic motions by direct numerical simulations of this coupled oscillator system. A low-dimensional equation for order parameters is derived using the Ott-Antonsen ansatz. The applicability of the ansatz is checked by the comparison of numerical results of the coupled oscillator system and the reduced low-dimensional equation. We investigate further several interesting phenomena in which mutual interactions between the fast and slow oscillators play an essential role. Fast oscillations appear intermittently as a result of excitatory interactions with slow oscillators in a certain parameter range. Slow oscillators experience an oscillator-death phenomenon owing to their interaction with fast oscillators. This oscillator death is explained as a result of saddle-node bifurcation in a simple phase equation obtained using the temporal average of the fast oscillations. Finally, we show macroscopic synchronization of the order 1 :m between the slow and fast oscillators.

  2. Stable and transient multicluster oscillation death in nonlocally coupled networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Isabelle; Kapeller, Marie; Loos, Sarah; Zakharova, Anna; Fiedler, Bernold; Schöll, Eckehard

    2015-11-01

    In a network of nonlocally coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators with symmetry-breaking coupling, we study numerically, and explain analytically, a family of inhomogeneous steady states (oscillation death). They exhibit multicluster patterns, depending on the cluster distribution prescribed by the initial conditions. Besides stable oscillation death, we also find a regime of long transients asymptotically approaching synchronized oscillations. To explain these phenomena analytically in dependence on the coupling range and the coupling strength, we first use a mean-field approximation, which works well for large coupling ranges but fails for coupling ranges, which are small compared to the cluster size. Going beyond standard mean-field theory, we predict the boundaries of the different stability regimes as well as the transient times analytically in excellent agreement with numerical results.

  3. Implication of Two-Coupled Differential Van der Pol Duffing Oscillator in Weak Signal Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hang-hang; Xu, Xue-mei; Yang, Bing-chu; Yin, Lin-zi

    2016-04-01

    The principle of the Van der Pol Duffing oscillator for state transition and for determining critical value is described, which has been studied to indicate that the application of the Van der Pol Duffing oscillator in weak signal detection is feasible. On the basis of this principle, an improved two-coupled differential Van der Pol Duffing oscillator is proposed which can identify signals under any frequency and ameliorate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The analytical methods of the proposed model and the construction of the proposed oscillator are introduced in detail. Numerical experiments on the properties of the proposed oscillator compared with those of the Van der Pol Duffing oscillator are carried out. Our numerical simulations have confirmed the analytical treatment. The results demonstrate that this novel oscillator has better detection performance than the Van der Pol Duffing oscillator.

  4. Symmetry-broken states on networks of coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xin; Abrams, Daniel M.

    2016-05-01

    When identical oscillators are coupled together in a network, dynamical steady states are often assumed to reflect network symmetries. Here, we show that alternative persistent states may also exist that break the symmetries of the underlying coupling network. We further show that these symmetry-broken coexistent states are analogous to those dubbed "chimera states," which can occur when identical oscillators are coupled to one another in identical ways.

  5. Phase dynamics of coupled oscillators reconstructed from data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenblum, Michael; Kralemann, Bjoern; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2013-03-01

    We present a technique for invariant reconstruction of the phase dynamics equations for coupled oscillators from data. The invariant description is achieved by means of a transformation of phase estimates (protophases) obtained from general scalar observables to genuine phases. Staring from the bivariate data, we obtain the coupling functions in terms of these phases. We discuss the importance of the protophase-to-phase transformation for characterization of strength and directionality of interaction. To illustrate the technique we analyse the cardio-respiratory interaction on healthy humans. Our invariant approach is confirmed by high similarity of the coupling functions obtained from different observables of the cardiac system. Next, we generalize the technique to cover the case of small networks of coupled periodic units. We use the partial norms of the reconstructed coupling functions to quantify directed coupling between the oscillators. We illustrate the method by different network motifs for three coupled oscillators. We also discuss nonlinear effects in coupling.

  6. Coupling cold atoms with mechanical oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya, Cris; Valencia, Jose; Geraci, Andrew; Eardley, Matthew; Kitching, John

    2014-05-01

    Macroscopic systems, coupled to quantum systems with well understood coherence properties, can enable the study of the boundary between quantum microscopic phenomena and macroscopic systems. Ultra-cold atoms can be probed and manipulated with micro-mechanical resonators that provide single-spin sensitivity and sub-micron spatial resolution, facilitating studies of decoherence and quantum control. In the future, hybrid quantum systems consisting of cold atoms interfaced with mechanical devices may have applications in quantum information science. We describe our experiment to couple laser-cooled Rb atoms to a magnetic cantilever tip. This cantilever is precisely defined on the surface of a chip with lithography and the atoms are trapped at micron-scale distances from this chip. To match cantilever mechanical resonances, atomic magnetic resonances are tuned with a magnetic field.

  7. Temperature of a decoherent oscillator with strong coupling.

    PubMed

    Unruh, W G

    2012-09-28

    The temperature of an oscillator coupled to the vacuum state of a heat bath via Ohmic coupling is non-zero, as measured by the reduced density matrix of the oscillator. This study shows that the actual temperature, as measured by a thermometer, is still zero (or, in the thermal state of the bath, the temperature of the bath). The decoherence temperature is due to 'false-decoherence', with a correlation between the oscillator and the heat bath causing the decoherence, but the heat baths state dragged along with the state of the oscillator. PMID:22908337

  8. Opto-Electronic Oscillator and its Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, X. S.; Maleki, L.

    1996-01-01

    We present the theoretical and experimental results of a new class of microwave oscillators called opto-electronic oscillators (OEO). We discuss techniques of achieving high stability single mode operation and demonstrate the applications of OEO in photonic communication systems.

  9. A common lag scenario in quenching of oscillation in coupled oscillators.

    PubMed

    Suresh, K; Sabarathinam, S; Thamilmaran, K; Kurths, Jürgen; Dana, Syamal K

    2016-08-01

    A large parameter mismatch can induce amplitude death in two instantaneously coupled oscillators. Alternatively, a time delay in the coupling can induce amplitude death in two identical oscillators. We unify the mechanism of quenching of oscillation in coupled oscillators, either by a large parameter mismatch or a delay coupling, by a common lag scenario that is, surprisingly, different from the conventional lag synchronization. We present numerical as well as experimental evidence of this unknown kind of lag scenario when the lag increases with coupling and at a critically large value at a critical coupling strength, amplitude death emerges in two largely mismatched oscillators. This is analogous to amplitude death in identical systems with increasingly large coupling delay. In support, we use examples of the Chua oscillator and the Bonhoeffer-van der Pol system. Furthermore, we confirm this lag scenario during the onset of amplitude death in identical Stuart-Landau system under various instantaneous coupling forms, repulsive, conjugate, and a type of nonlinear coupling. PMID:27586600

  10. A common lag scenario in quenching of oscillation in coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, K.; Sabarathinam, S.; Thamilmaran, K.; Kurths, Jürgen; Dana, Syamal K.

    2016-08-01

    A large parameter mismatch can induce amplitude death in two instantaneously coupled oscillators. Alternatively, a time delay in the coupling can induce amplitude death in two identical oscillators. We unify the mechanism of quenching of oscillation in coupled oscillators, either by a large parameter mismatch or a delay coupling, by a common lag scenario that is, surprisingly, different from the conventional lag synchronization. We present numerical as well as experimental evidence of this unknown kind of lag scenario when the lag increases with coupling and at a critically large value at a critical coupling strength, amplitude death emerges in two largely mismatched oscillators. This is analogous to amplitude death in identical systems with increasingly large coupling delay. In support, we use examples of the Chua oscillator and the Bonhoeffer-van der Pol system. Furthermore, we confirm this lag scenario during the onset of amplitude death in identical Stuart-Landau system under various instantaneous coupling forms, repulsive, conjugate, and a type of nonlinear coupling.

  11. Classification of attractors for systems of identical coupled Kuramoto oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Engelbrecht, Jan R.; Mirollo, Renato

    2014-03-15

    We present a complete classification of attractors for networks of coupled identical Kuramoto oscillators. In such networks, each oscillator is driven by the same first-order trigonometric function, with coefficients given by symmetric functions of the entire oscillator ensemble. For N≠3 oscillators, there are four possible types of attractors: completely synchronized fixed points or limit cycles, and fixed points or limit cycles where all but one of the oscillators are synchronized. The case N = 3 is exceptional; systems of three identical Kuramoto oscillators can also posses attracting fixed points or limit cycles with all three oscillators out of sync, as well as chaotic attractors. Our results rely heavily on the invariance of the flow for such systems under the action of the three-dimensional group of Möbius transformations, which preserve the unit disc, and the analysis of the possible limiting configurations for this group action.

  12. Experimental demonstration of revival of oscillations from death in coupled nonlinear oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, D. V.; Suresh, K.; Chandrasekar, V. K.; Zou, Wei; Dana, Syamal K.; Kathamuthu, Thamilmaran; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that a processing delay, a finite response time, in the coupling can revoke the stability of the stable steady states, thereby facilitating the revival of oscillations in the same parameter space where the coupled oscillators suffered the quenching of oscillation. This phenomenon of reviving of oscillations is demonstrated using two different prototype electronic circuits. Further, the analytical critical curves corroborate that the spread of the parameter space with stable steady state is diminished continuously by increasing the processing delay. Finally, the death state is completely wiped off above a threshold value by switching the stability of the stable steady state to retrieve sustained oscillations in the same parameter space. The underlying dynamical mechanism responsible for the decrease in the spread of the stable steady states and the eventual reviving of oscillation as a function of the processing delay is explained using analytical results.

  13. Experimental demonstration of revival of oscillations from death in coupled nonlinear oscillators.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, D V; Suresh, K; Chandrasekar, V K; Zou, Wei; Dana, Syamal K; Kathamuthu, Thamilmaran; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that a processing delay, a finite response time, in the coupling can revoke the stability of the stable steady states, thereby facilitating the revival of oscillations in the same parameter space where the coupled oscillators suffered the quenching of oscillation. This phenomenon of reviving of oscillations is demonstrated using two different prototype electronic circuits. Further, the analytical critical curves corroborate that the spread of the parameter space with stable steady state is diminished continuously by increasing the processing delay. Finally, the death state is completely wiped off above a threshold value by switching the stability of the stable steady state to retrieve sustained oscillations in the same parameter space. The underlying dynamical mechanism responsible for the decrease in the spread of the stable steady states and the eventual reviving of oscillation as a function of the processing delay is explained using analytical results. PMID:27131491

  14. A quantitative analysis of coupled oscillations using mobile accelerometer sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Palacio, Juan Carlos; Velázquez-Abad, Luisberis; Giménez, Fernando; Monsoriu, Juan A.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, smartphone acceleration sensors were used to perform a quantitative analysis of mechanical coupled oscillations. Symmetric and asymmetric normal modes were studied separately in the first two experiments. In the third, a coupled oscillation was studied as a combination of the normal modes. Results indicate that acceleration sensors of smartphones, which are very familiar to students, represent valuable measurement instruments for introductory and first-year physics courses.

  15. Oscillations and Synchronization in a System of Three Reactively Coupled Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Alexander P.; Turukina, Ludmila V.; Chernyshov, Nikolai Yu.; Sedova, Yuliya V.

    We consider a system of three interacting van der Pol oscillators with reactive coupling. Phase equations are derived, using proper order of expansion over the coupling parameter. The dynamics of the system is studied by means of the bifurcation analysis and with the method of Lyapunov exponent charts. Essential and physically meaningful features of the reactive coupling are discussed.

  16. Fluctuations in a coupled-oscillator model of the cardiovascular system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Jorge A.; Suárez-Vargas, Jose J.; Stefanovska, Aneta; McClintock, Peter V. E.

    2007-06-01

    We present a model of the cardiovascular system (CVS) based on a system of coupled oscillators. Using this approach we can describe several complex physiological phenomena that can have a range of applications. For instance, heart rate variability (HRV), can have a new deterministic explanation. The intrinsic dynamics of the HRV is controlled by deterministic couplings between the physiological oscillators in our model and without the need to introduce external noise as is commonly done. This new result provides potential applications not only for physiological systems but also for the design of very precise electronic generators where the frequency stability is crucial. Another important phenomenon is that of oscillation death. We show that in our CVS model the mechanism leading to the quenching of the oscillations can be controlled, not only by the coupling parameter, but by a more general scheme. In fact, we propose that a change in the relative current state of the cardiovascular oscillators can lead to a cease of the oscillations without actually changing the strength of the coupling among them. We performed real experiments using electronic oscillators and show them to match the theoretical and numerical predictions. We discuss the relevance of the studied phenomena to real cardiovascular systems regimes, including the explanation of certain pathologies, and the possible applications in medical practice.

  17. Hopf bifurcation with dihedral group symmetry - Coupled nonlinear oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golubitsky, Martin; Stewart, Ian

    1986-01-01

    The theory of Hopf bifurcation with symmetry developed by Golubitsky and Stewart (1985) is applied to systems of ODEs having the symmetries of a regular polygon, that is, whose symmetry group is dihedral. The existence and stability of symmetry-breaking branches of periodic solutions are considered. In particular, these results are applied to a general system of n nonlinear oscillators coupled symmetrically in a ring, and the generic oscillation patterns are described. It is found that the symmetry can force some oscillators to have twice the frequency of others. The case of four oscillators has exceptional features.

  18. Globally coupled noisy oscillators with inhomogeneous periodic forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbay, Michael; Larsen, Michael L.; Tsimring, Lev S.

    2004-12-01

    We study the collective properties of an array of nonlinear noisy oscillators driven by nonidentical periodic signals. We consider the case of a globally coupled array of harmonically forced, weakly nonlinear oscillators where there is a constant difference between the phases of the forcing signals applied to adjacent oscillators. This system is a prototypical model of a nonlinear phased array receiver. We derive analytical results for the array output in the limit of a large number of oscillators for the noise-free and noisy cases. Numerical simulations show good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  19. Corticothalamic Projections Control Synchronization in Locally Coupled Bistable Thalamic Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Jörg; Schuster, Heinz Georg; Claussen, Jens Christian; Mölle, Matthias

    2007-08-01

    Thalamic circuits are able to generate state-dependent oscillations of different frequencies and degrees of synchronization. However, little is known about how synchronous oscillations, such as spindle oscillations in the thalamus, are organized in the intact brain. Experimental findings suggest that the simultaneous occurrence of spindle oscillations over widespread territories of the thalamus is due to the corticothalamic projections, as the synchrony is lost in the decorticated thalamus. In this Letter we study the influence of corticothalamic projections on the synchrony in a thalamic network, and uncover the underlying control mechanism, leading to a control method which is applicable for several types of oscillations in the central nervous system.

  20. Perceptual grouping by entrainment in coupled Kuramoto oscillator networks.

    PubMed

    Meier, Martin; Haschke, Robert; Ritter, Helge J

    2014-01-01

    In this article we present a network composed of coupled Kuramoto oscillators, which is able to solve a broad spectrum of perceptual grouping tasks. Based on attracting and repelling interactions between these oscillators, the network dynamics forms various phase-synchronized clusters of oscillators corresponding to individual groups of similar input features. The degree of similarity between features is determined by a set of underlying receptive fields, which are learned directly from the feature domain. After illustrating the theoretical principles of the network, the approach is evaluated in an image segmentation task. Furthermore, the influence of a varying degree of sparse couplings is evaluated. PMID:24571099

  1. Suppression and revival of oscillation in indirectly coupled limit cycle oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, P. R.; Kamal, N. K.; Verma, U. K.; Suresh, K.; Thamilmaran, K.; Shrimali, M. D.

    2016-09-01

    We study the phenomena of suppression and revival of oscillations in a system of limit cycle oscillators coupled indirectly via a dynamic local environment. The dynamics of the environment is assumed to decay exponentially with time. We show that for appropriate coupling strength, the decay parameter of the environment plays a crucial role in the emergent dynamics such as amplitude death (AD) and oscillation death (OD). We also show that introducing a feedback factor in the diffusion term revives the oscillations in this system. The critical curves for the regions of different emergent states as a function of coupling strength, decay parameter of the environment and feedback factor in the coupling are obtained analytically using linear stability analysis. These results are found to be consistent with the numerics and are also observed experimentally.

  2. Coupling a Bose condensate to micromechanical oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Chandler; Fox, Eli; Flanz, Scott; Vengalattore, Mukund

    2011-05-01

    We describe the construction of a compact apparatus to investigate the interaction of a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate and a micromechanical oscillator. The apparatus uses a double magneto-optical trap, Raman sideband cooling, and evaporative cooling to rapidly produce a 87Rb BEC in close proximity to a high Q membrane. The micromotion of the membrane results in small Zeeman shifts at the location of the BEC due to a magnetic domain attached to the oscillator. Detection of this micromotion by the condensate results in a backaction on the membrane. We investigate prospects of using this backaction to generate nonclassical states of the mechanical oscillator. This work was funded by the DARPA ORCHID program.

  3. Deterministic coherence resonance in coupled chaotic oscillators with frequency mismatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarchik, A. N.; Jaimes-Reátegui, R.

    2015-11-01

    A small mismatch between natural frequencies of unidirectionally coupled chaotic oscillators can induce coherence resonance in the slave oscillator for a certain coupling strength. This surprising phenomenon resembles "stabilization of chaos by chaos," i.e., the chaotic driving applied to the chaotic system makes its dynamics more regular when the natural frequency of the slave oscillator is a little different than the natural frequency of the master oscillator. The coherence is characterized with the dominant component in the power spectrum of the slave oscillator, normalized standard deviations of both the peak amplitude and the interpeak interval, and Lyapunov exponents. The enhanced coherence is associated with increasing negative both the third and the fourth Lyapunov exponents, while the first and second exponents are always positive and zero, respectively.

  4. Deterministic coherence resonance in coupled chaotic oscillators with frequency mismatch.

    PubMed

    Pisarchik, A N; Jaimes-Reátegui, R

    2015-11-01

    A small mismatch between natural frequencies of unidirectionally coupled chaotic oscillators can induce coherence resonance in the slave oscillator for a certain coupling strength. This surprising phenomenon resembles "stabilization of chaos by chaos," i.e., the chaotic driving applied to the chaotic system makes its dynamics more regular when the natural frequency of the slave oscillator is a little different than the natural frequency of the master oscillator. The coherence is characterized with the dominant component in the power spectrum of the slave oscillator, normalized standard deviations of both the peak amplitude and the interpeak interval, and Lyapunov exponents. The enhanced coherence is associated with increasing negative both the third and the fourth Lyapunov exponents, while the first and second exponents are always positive and zero, respectively. PMID:26651632

  5. Dynamics of globally delay-coupled neurons displaying subthreshold oscillations.

    PubMed

    Masoller, Cristina; Torrent, M C; García-Ojalvo, Jordi

    2009-08-28

    We study an ensemble of neurons that are coupled through their time-delayed collective mean field. The individual neuron is modelled using a Hodgkin-Huxley-type conductance model with parameters chosen such that the uncoupled neuron displays autonomous subthreshold oscillations of the membrane potential. We find that the ensemble generates a rich variety of oscillatory activities that are mainly controlled by two time scales: the natural period of oscillation at the single neuron level and the delay time of the global coupling. When the neuronal oscillations are synchronized, they can be either in-phase or out-of-phase. The phase-shifted activity is interpreted as the result of a phase-flip bifurcation, also occurring in a set of globally delay-coupled limit cycle oscillators. At the bifurcation point, there is a transition from in-phase to out-of-phase (or vice versa) synchronized oscillations, which is accompanied by an abrupt change in the common oscillation frequency. This phase-flip bifurcation was recently investigated in two mutually delay-coupled oscillators and can play a role in the mechanisms by which the neurons switch among different firing patterns. PMID:19620122

  6. Resonant-tunnelling diode oscillator using a slot-coupled quasioptical open resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, K. D.; Brown, E. R.; Parker, C. D.; Goodhue, W. D.; Chen, C. L.

    1991-01-01

    A resonant-tunneling diode has oscillated at X-band frequencies in a microwave circuit consisting of a slot antenna coupled to a semiconfocal open resonator. Coupling between the open resonator and the slot oscillator improves the noise-to-carrier ratio by about 36 dB relative to that of the slot oscillator alone in the 100-200 kHz range. A circuit operating near 10 GHz has been designed as a scale model for millimeter- and submillimeter-wave applications.

  7. Synchronization-based computation through networks of coupled oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Malagarriga, Daniel; García-Vellisca, Mariano A.; Villa, Alessandro E. P.; Buldú, Javier M.; García-Ojalvo, Jordi; Pons, Antonio J.

    2015-01-01

    The mesoscopic activity of the brain is strongly dynamical, while at the same time exhibits remarkable computational capabilities. In order to examine how these two features coexist, here we show that the patterns of synchronized oscillations displayed by networks of neural mass models, representing cortical columns, can be used as substrates for Boolean-like computations. Our results reveal that the same neural mass network may process different combinations of dynamical inputs as different logical operations or combinations of them. This dynamical feature of the network allows it to process complex inputs in a very sophisticated manner. The results are reproduced experimentally with electronic circuits of coupled Chua oscillators, showing the robustness of this kind of computation to the intrinsic noise and parameter mismatch of the coupled oscillators. We also show that the information-processing capabilities of coupled oscillations go beyond the simple juxtaposition of logic gates. PMID:26300765

  8. Synchronization-based computation through networks of coupled oscillators.

    PubMed

    Malagarriga, Daniel; García-Vellisca, Mariano A; Villa, Alessandro E P; Buldú, Javier M; García-Ojalvo, Jordi; Pons, Antonio J

    2015-01-01

    The mesoscopic activity of the brain is strongly dynamical, while at the same time exhibits remarkable computational capabilities. In order to examine how these two features coexist, here we show that the patterns of synchronized oscillations displayed by networks of neural mass models, representing cortical columns, can be used as substrates for Boolean-like computations. Our results reveal that the same neural mass network may process different combinations of dynamical inputs as different logical operations or combinations of them. This dynamical feature of the network allows it to process complex inputs in a very sophisticated manner. The results are reproduced experimentally with electronic circuits of coupled Chua oscillators, showing the robustness of this kind of computation to the intrinsic noise and parameter mismatch of the coupled oscillators. We also show that the information-processing capabilities of coupled oscillations go beyond the simple juxtaposition of logic gates. PMID:26300765

  9. Coupled chemical oscillators and emergent system properties.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Irving R

    2014-09-25

    We review recent work on a variety of systems, from the nanometre to the centimetre scale, including microemulsions, microfluidic droplet arrays, gels and flow reactors, in which chemical oscillators interact to generate novel spatiotemporal patterns and/or mechanical motion. PMID:24835430

  10. Phase response curves elucidating the dynamics of coupled oscillators.

    PubMed

    Granada, A; Hennig, R M; Ronacher, B; Kramer, A; Herzel, H

    2009-01-01

    Phase response curves (PRCs) are widely used in circadian clocks, neuroscience, and heart physiology. They quantify the response of an oscillator to pulse-like perturbations. Phase response curves provide valuable information on the properties of oscillators and their synchronization. This chapter discusses biological self-sustained oscillators (circadian clock, physiological rhythms, etc.) in the context of nonlinear dynamics theory. Coupled oscillators can synchronize with different frequency ratios, can generate toroidal dynamics (superposition of independent frequencies), and may lead to deterministic chaos. These nonlinear phenomena can be analyzed with the aid of a phase transition curve, which is intimately related to the phase response curve. For illustration purposes, this chapter discusses a model of circadian oscillations based on a delayed negative feedback. In a second part, the chapter provides a step-by-step recipe to measure phase response curves. It discusses specifications of this recipe for circadian rhythms, heart rhythms, neuronal spikes, central pattern generators, and insect communication. Finally, it stresses the predictive power of measured phase response curves. PRCs can be used to quantify the coupling strength of oscillations, to classify oscillator types, and to predict the complex dynamics of periodically driven oscillations. PMID:19216921

  11. Efficient Synchronization of Dipolarly Coupled Vortex-Based Spin Transfer Nano-Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locatelli, Nicolas; Hamadeh, Abbass; Abreu Araujo, Flavio; Belanovsky, Anatoly D.; Skirdkov, Petr N.; Lebrun, Romain; Naletov, Vladimir V.; Zvezdin, Konstantin A.; Muñoz, Manuel; Grollier, Julie; Klein, Olivier; Cros, Vincent; de Loubens, Grégoire

    2015-11-01

    Due to their nonlinear properties, spin transfer nano-oscillators can easily adapt their frequency to external stimuli. This makes them interesting model systems to study the effects of synchronization and brings some opportunities to improve their microwave characteristics in view of their applications in information and communication technologies and/or to design innovative computing architectures. So far, mutual synchronization of spin transfer nano-oscillators through propagating spinwaves and exchange coupling in a common magnetic layer has been demonstrated. Here we show that the dipolar interaction is also an efficient mechanism to synchronize neighbouring oscillators. We experimentally study a pair of vortex-based spin transfer nano-oscillators, in which mutual synchronization can be achieved despite a significant frequency mismatch between oscillators. Importantly, the coupling efficiency is controlled by the magnetic configuration of the vortices, as confirmed by an analytical model and micromagnetic simulations highlighting the physics at play in the synchronization process.

  12. Efficient Synchronization of Dipolarly Coupled Vortex-Based Spin Transfer Nano-Oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Locatelli, Nicolas; Hamadeh, Abbass; Abreu Araujo, Flavio; Belanovsky, Anatoly D.; Skirdkov, Petr N.; Lebrun, Romain; Naletov, Vladimir V.; Zvezdin, Konstantin A.; Muñoz, Manuel; Grollier, Julie; Klein, Olivier; Cros, Vincent; de Loubens, Grégoire

    2015-01-01

    Due to their nonlinear properties, spin transfer nano-oscillators can easily adapt their frequency to external stimuli. This makes them interesting model systems to study the effects of synchronization and brings some opportunities to improve their microwave characteristics in view of their applications in information and communication technologies and/or to design innovative computing architectures. So far, mutual synchronization of spin transfer nano-oscillators through propagating spinwaves and exchange coupling in a common magnetic layer has been demonstrated. Here we show that the dipolar interaction is also an efficient mechanism to synchronize neighbouring oscillators. We experimentally study a pair of vortex-based spin transfer nano-oscillators, in which mutual synchronization can be achieved despite a significant frequency mismatch between oscillators. Importantly, the coupling efficiency is controlled by the magnetic configuration of the vortices, as confirmed by an analytical model and micromagnetic simulations highlighting the physics at play in the synchronization process. PMID:26608230

  13. Efficient Synchronization of Dipolarly Coupled Vortex-Based Spin Transfer Nano-Oscillators.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Nicolas; Hamadeh, Abbass; Abreu Araujo, Flavio; Belanovsky, Anatoly D; Skirdkov, Petr N; Lebrun, Romain; Naletov, Vladimir V; Zvezdin, Konstantin A; Muñoz, Manuel; Grollier, Julie; Klein, Olivier; Cros, Vincent; de Loubens, Grégoire

    2015-01-01

    Due to their nonlinear properties, spin transfer nano-oscillators can easily adapt their frequency to external stimuli. This makes them interesting model systems to study the effects of synchronization and brings some opportunities to improve their microwave characteristics in view of their applications in information and communication technologies and/or to design innovative computing architectures. So far, mutual synchronization of spin transfer nano-oscillators through propagating spinwaves and exchange coupling in a common magnetic layer has been demonstrated. Here we show that the dipolar interaction is also an efficient mechanism to synchronize neighbouring oscillators. We experimentally study a pair of vortex-based spin transfer nano-oscillators, in which mutual synchronization can be achieved despite a significant frequency mismatch between oscillators. Importantly, the coupling efficiency is controlled by the magnetic configuration of the vortices, as confirmed by an analytical model and micromagnetic simulations highlighting the physics at play in the synchronization process. PMID:26608230

  14. Synchronization and beam forming in an array of repulsively coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulkov, N. F.; Tsimring, L.; Larsen, M. L.; Gabbay, M.

    2006-11-01

    We study the dynamics of an array of Stuart-Landau oscillators with repulsive coupling. Autonomous network with global repulsive coupling settles on one from a continuum of synchronized regimes characterized by zero mean field. Driving this array by an external oscillatory signal produces a nonzero mean field that follows the driving signal even when the oscillators are not locked to the external signal. At sufficiently large amplitude the external signal synchronizes the oscillators and locks the phases of the array oscillations. Application of this system as a beam-forming element of a phase array antenna is considered. The phase dynamics of the oscillator array synchronization is used to reshape the phases of signals received from the phase array antenna and improve its beam pattern characteristics.

  15. Delayed feedback control of synchronization in weakly coupled oscillator networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novičenko, Viktor

    2015-08-01

    We study control of synchronization in weakly coupled oscillator networks by using a phase-reduction approach. Starting from a general class of limit-cycle oscillators we derive a phase model, which shows that delayed feedback control changes effective coupling strengths and effective frequencies. We derive the analytical condition for critical control gain, where the phase dynamics of the oscillator becomes extremely sensitive to any perturbations. As a result the network can attain phase synchronization even if the natural interoscillatory couplings are small. In addition, we demonstrate that delayed feedback control can disrupt the coherent phase dynamic in synchronized networks. The validity of our results is illustrated on networks of diffusively coupled Stuart-Landau and FitzHugh-Nagumo models.

  16. Hopf normal form with SN symmetry and reduction to systems of nonlinearly coupled phase oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashwin, Peter; Rodrigues, Ana

    2016-06-01

    Coupled oscillator models where N oscillators are identical and symmetrically coupled to all others with full permutation symmetry SN are found in a variety of applications. Much, but not all, work on phase descriptions of such systems consider the special case of pairwise coupling between oscillators. In this paper, we show this is restrictive-and we characterize generic multi-way interactions between oscillators that are typically present, except at the very lowest order near a Hopf bifurcation where the oscillations emerge. We examine a network of identical weakly coupled dynamical systems that are close to a supercritical Hopf bifurcation by considering two parameters, ɛ (the strength of coupling) and λ (an unfolding parameter for the Hopf bifurcation). For small enough λ > 0 there is an attractor that is the product of N stable limit cycles; this persists as a normally hyperbolic invariant torus for sufficiently small ɛ > 0. Using equivariant normal form theory, we derive a generic normal form for a system of coupled phase oscillators with SN symmetry. For fixed N and taking the limit 0 < ɛ ≪ λ ≪ 1, we show that the attracting dynamics of the system on the torus can be well approximated by a coupled phase oscillator system that, to lowest order, is the well-known Kuramoto-Sakaguchi system of coupled oscillators. The next order of approximation generically includes terms with up to four interacting phases, regardless of N. Using a normalization that maintains nontrivial interactions in the limit N → ∞, we show that the additional terms can lead to new phenomena in terms of coexistence of two-cluster states with the same phase difference but different cluster size.

  17. Network oscillations of inferior olive neurons: entrainment and phase-locking of locally-coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartrand, Thomas; Goldman, Mark S.; Lewis, Timothy J.

    2015-03-01

    Although the inferior olive is known to contribute to the generation of timing and error signals for motor control, the specific role of its distinctive spatiotemporal activity patterns is still controversial. Olivary neurons display regular, sometimes synchronized oscillations of subthreshold membrane potential, driven in part by the highest density of electrical coupling of any brain region. We show that a reduced model of coupled phase oscillators is sufficient to reproduce and study experimental observations previously only demonstrated in more complex models. These include stable phase differences, variability of entrainment frequency, wave propagation, and cluster formation. Using the phase-response curve (PRC) of a conductance-based model of olivary neurons, we derive our phase model according to the theory of weakly-coupled oscillators. We retain the heterogeneity of intrinsic frequencies and heterogeneous, spatially constrained coupling as weak perturbations to the limit-cycle dynamics. Generalizing this model to an ensemble of coupled oscillator lattices with frequency and coupling disorder, we study the onset of entrainment and phase-locking as coupling is strengthened, including the scaling of cluster sizes with coupling strength near each phase transition.

  18. GENERAL: Bursting Ca2+ Oscillations and Synchronization in Coupled Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Quan-Bao; Lu, Qi-Shao; Yang, Zhuo-Qin; Duan, Li-Xia

    2008-11-01

    A mathematical model proposed by Grubelnk et al. [Biophys. Chew,. 94 (2001) 59] is employed to study the physiological role of mitochondria and the cytosolic proteins in generating complex Ca2+ oscillations. Intracel-lular bursting calcium oscillations of point-point, point-cycle and two-folded limit cycle types are observed and explanations are given based on the fast/slow dynamical analysis, especially for point-cycle and two-folded limit cycle types, which have not been reported before. Furthermore, synchronization of coupled bursters of Ca2+ oscillations via gap junctions and the effect of bursting types on synchronization of coupled cells are studied. It is argued that bursting oscillations of point-point type may be superior to achieve synchronization than that of point-cycle type.

  19. Coupled domain wall oscillations in magnetic cylindrical nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Murapaka, Chandrasekhar; Goolaup, S.; Purnama, I.; Lew, W. S.

    2015-02-07

    We report on transverse domain wall (DW) dynamics in two closely spaced cylindrical nanowires. The magnetostatically coupled DWs are shown to undergo an intrinsic oscillatory motion along the nanowire length in addition to their default rotational motion. In the absence of external forces, the amplitude of the DW oscillation is governed by the change in the frequency of the DW rotation. It is possible to sustain the DW oscillations by applying spin-polarized current to the nanowires to balance the repulsive magnetostatic coupling. The current density required to sustain the DW oscillation is found to be in the order of 10{sup 5 }A/cm{sup 2}. Morover, our analysis of the oscillation reveals that the DWs in cylindrical nanowires possess a finite mass.

  20. Numerically induced bursting in a set of coupled neuronal oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medetov, Bekbolat; Weiß, R. Gregor; Zhanabaev, Zeinulla Zh.; Zaks, Michael A.

    2015-03-01

    We present our numerical observations on dynamics in the system of two linearly coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators close to the destabilization of the state of rest. Under the considered parameter values the system, if integrated sufficiently accurately, converges to small-scale periodic oscillations. However, minor numerical inaccuracies, which occur already at the default precision of the standard Runge-Kutta solver, lead to a breakup of periodicity and an onset of large-scale aperiodic bursting.

  1. Sharp versus smooth synchronization transition of locally coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciszak, M.; Montina, A.; Arecchi, F. T.

    2008-07-01

    We provide a general condition for the occurrence of a sudden transition to synchronization in an array of oscillators mutually coupled via the nearest neighbors. At the onset of synchronization a specific constraint must be fulfilled: precisely, the response time of a single system to signals from the adjacent sites must be smaller than the refractory period. We verify this criterion in some models for neuronal dynamics, namely, in excitable systems driven by noise as well as in chaotic oscillators.

  2. Dynamical regimes of four almost identical chemical oscillators coupled via pulse inhibitory coupling with time delay.

    PubMed

    Vanag, Vladimir K; Smelov, Pavel S; Klinshov, Vladimir V

    2016-02-21

    The dynamic regimes in networks of four almost identical spike oscillators with pulsatile coupling via inhibitor are systematically studied. We used two models to describe individual oscillators: a phase-oscillator model and a model for the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. A time delay τ between a spike in one oscillator and the spike-induced inhibitory perturbation of other oscillators is introduced. Diagrams of all rhythms found for three different types of connectivities (unidirectional on a ring, mutual on a ring, and all-to-all) are built in the plane C(inh)-τ, where C(inh) is the coupling strength. It is shown analytically and numerically that only four regular rhythms are stable for unidirectional coupling: walk (phase shift between spikes of neighbouring oscillators equals the quarter of the global period T), walk-reverse (the same as walk but consecutive spikes take place in the direction opposite to the direction of connectivity), anti-phase (any two neighbouring oscillators are anti-phase), and in-phase oscillations. In the case of mutual on the ring coupling, an additional in-phase-anti-phase mode emerges. For all-to-all coupling, two new asymmetrical patterns (two-cluster and three-cluster modes) have been found. More complex rhythms are observed at large C(inh), when some oscillators are suppressed completely or generate smaller number of spikes than others. PMID:26863079

  3. Cavity-mediated coupling of mechanical oscillators limited by quantum back-action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spethmann, Nicolas; Kohler, Jonathan; Schreppler, Sydney; Buchmann, Lukas; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M.

    2016-01-01

    A complex quantum system can be constructed by coupling simple elements. For example, trapped-ion or superconducting quantum bits may be coupled by Coulomb interactions, mediated by the exchange of virtual photons. Alternatively, quantum objects can be made to emit and exchange real photons, providing either unidirectional coupling in cascaded geometries, or bidirectional coupling that is particularly strong when both objects are placed within a common electromagnetic resonator. However, in such an open system, the capacity of a coupling channel to convey quantum information or generate entanglement may be compromised by photon loss. Here, we realize phase-coherent interactions between two addressable, spatially separated, near-ground-state mechanical oscillators within a driven optical cavity. We observe the quantum back-action noise imparted by the optical coupling resulting in correlated mechanical fluctuations of the two oscillators. Our results illustrate challenges and opportunities of coupling quantum objects with light for applications of quantum cavity optomechanics.

  4. Enhancing the stability of the synchronization of multivariable coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevilla-Escoboza, R.; Gutiérrez, R.; Huerta-Cuellar, G.; Boccaletti, S.; Gómez-Gardeñes, J.; Arenas, A.; Buldú, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    Synchronization processes in populations of identical networked oscillators are the focus of intense studies in physical, biological, technological, and social systems. Here we analyze the stability of the synchronization of a network of oscillators coupled through different variables. Under the assumption of an equal topology of connections for all variables, the master stability function formalism allows assessing and quantifying the stability properties of the synchronization manifold when the coupling is transferred from one variable to another. We report on the existence of an optimal coupling transference that maximizes the stability of the synchronous state in a network of Rössler-like oscillators. Finally, we design an experimental implementation (using nonlinear electronic circuits) which grounds the robustness of the theoretical predictions against parameter mismatches, as well as against intrinsic noise of the system.

  5. Clustering and phase synchronization in populations of coupled phase oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cascallares, Guadalupe; Gleiser, Pablo M.

    2015-10-01

    In many species daily rhythms are endogenously generated by groups of coupled neurons that play the role of a circadian pacemaker. The adaptation of the circadian clock to environmental and seasonal changes has been proposed to be regulated by a dual oscillator system. In order to gain insight into this model, we analyzed the synchronization properties of two fully coupled groups of Kuramoto oscillators. Each group has an internal coupling parameter and the interaction between the two groups can be controlled by two parameters allowing for symmetric or non-symmetric coupling. We show that even for such a simple model counterintuitive behaviours take place, such as a global decrease in synchrony when the coupling between the groups is increased. Through a detailed analysis of the local synchronization processes we explain this behaviour.

  6. Phase and amplitude dynamics of nonlinearly coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cudmore, P.; Holmes, C. A.

    2015-02-01

    This paper addresses the amplitude and phase dynamics of a large system of nonlinearly coupled, non-identical damped harmonic oscillators, which is based on recent research in coupled oscillation in optomechanics. Our goal is to investigate the existence and stability of collective behaviour which occurs due to a play-off between the distribution of individual oscillator frequency and the type of nonlinear coupling. We show that this system exhibits synchronisation, where all oscillators are rotating at the same rate, and that in the synchronised state the system has a regular structure related to the distribution of the frequencies of the individual oscillators. Using a geometric description, we show how changes in the non-linear coupling function can cause pitchfork and saddle-node bifurcations which create or destroy stable and unstable synchronised solutions. We apply these results to show how in-phase and anti-phase solutions are created in a system with a bi-modal distribution of frequencies.

  7. Chimera states in purely local delay-coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Bidesh K.; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2016-05-01

    We study the existence of chimera states in a network of locally coupled chaotic and limit-cycle oscillators. The necessary condition for chimera state in purely local coupled oscillators is discussed. At first, we numerically observe the existence of chimera or multichimera states in the locally coupled Hindmarsh-Rose neuron model. We find that delay time in the nonlinear local coupling reduces the domain of the coherent island in the parameter space of the synaptic coupling strength and time delay, and thus the coherent region can be completely eliminated once the time delay exceeds a certain threshold. We then consider another form of nonlinearity in the local coupling, and the existence of chimera states is observed in the time-delayed Mackey-Glass system and in a Van der Pol oscillator. We also discuss the effect of time delay in local coupling for the existence of chimera states in Mackey-Glass systems. The nonlinearity present in the coupling function plays a key role in the emergence of chimera or multichimera states. A phase diagram for the chimera state is identified over a wide parameter space.

  8. Coupled, Active Oscillators and Lizard Otoacoustic Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergevin, Christopher; Velenovsky, David S.; Bonine, Kevin E.

    2011-11-01

    The present study empirically explores the relationship between spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) and stimulus-frequency emissions (SFOAEs) in lizards, an ideal group for such research given their relatively simple inner ear (e.g., lack of basilar membrane traveling waves), diverse morphology across species/families (e.g., tectorial membrane structure) and robust emissions. In a nutshell, our results indicate that SFOAEs evoked using low-level tones are intimately related to underlying SOAE activity, and appear to represent the entrained response of active oscillators closely tuned to the probe frequency. The data described here indicate several essential features that are desirable to capture in theoretical models for auditory transduction in lizards, and potentially represent generic properties at work in many different classes of "active" ears.

  9. Persistent chimera states in nonlocally coupled phase oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Yusuke; Okuda, Koji

    2015-12-01

    Chimera states in the systems of nonlocally coupled phase oscillators are considered stable in the continuous limit of spatially distributed oscillators. However, it is reported that in the numerical simulations without taking such limit, chimera states are chaotic transient and finally collapse into the completely synchronous solution. In this Rapid Communication, we numerically study chimera states by using the coupling function different from the previous studies and obtain the result that chimera states can be stable even without taking the continuous limit, which we call the persistent chimera state.

  10. Coupling among three chemical oscillators: Synchronization, phase death, and frustration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Minoru; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Mori, Yoshihito

    1993-02-01

    Various modes in three coupled chemical oscillators in a triangular arrangement were observed. As a well-defined nonlinear oscillator, the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction was studied in a continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Coupling among CSTR's was performed by mass exchange. The coupling strength was quantitatively controlled by changing the flow rate of reacting solutions among the three CSTR's using peristaltic pumps between each pair of the reactors. As a key parameter to control the model of coupling, we changed the symmetry of the interaction between the oscillators. In the case of the symmetric coupling, a quasiperiodic state or a biperiodic mode, an all-death mode and two kinds of synchronized modes appeared, depending on the coupling strength. On the other hand, under the asymmetric coupling, a quasiperiodic state or a biperiodic mode, an all death mode and four kinds of synchronized modes appeared. Those modes have been discussed in relation to the idea of ``frustration'' in the Ising spin system, where the three-phase mode appears as a transition from the Ising spin system to the XY spin system.

  11. Search for an Atomic EDM with Optical-Coupling Nuclear Spin Oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Asahi, K.; Uchida, M.; Inoue, T.; Hatakeyama, N.; Yoshimi, A.

    2007-06-13

    We have constructed a nuclear spin oscillator of a new type, that employs a feedback scheme based on an optical spin detection and suceeding spin control by a transverse field application. This spin oscillator parallels the conventional spin maser in many points, but exhibits advantages and requirements that are different from those with the spin maser. By means of the optical-coupling nuclear spin oscillator, an experimental setup to search for an electric dipole moment (EDM) in a spin 1/2 diamagnetic atom 129Xe is being developed.

  12. Twofold transition in PT-symmetric coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Carl M.; Gianfreda, Mariagiovanna; Özdemir, Şahin K.; Peng, Bo; Yang, Lan

    2013-12-01

    The inspiration for this theoretical paper comes from recent experiments on a PT-symmetric system of two coupled optical whispering galleries (optical resonators). The optical system can be modeled as a pair of coupled linear oscillators, one with gain and the other with loss. If the coupled oscillators have a balanced loss and gain, the system is described by a Hamiltonian and the energy is conserved. This theoretical model exhibits two PT transitions depending on the size of the coupling parameter ɛ. For small ɛ, the PT symmetry is broken and the system is not in equilibrium, but when ɛ becomes sufficiently large, the system undergoes a transition to an equilibrium phase in which the PT symmetry is unbroken. For very large ɛ, the system undergoes a second transition and is no longer in equilibrium. The principal result presented here is that the classical and quantized versions of the system exhibit transitions at exactly the same values of ɛ.

  13. Synchronization of Coupled Oscillators on a Two-Dimensional Plane.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dameng; Fu, Yong Qing; Zheng, Bo

    2016-08-01

    The effect of the transfer rate of signal molecules on coupled chemical oscillators arranged on a two-dimensional plane was systematically investigated in this paper. A microreactor equipped with a surface acoustic wave (SAW) mixer was applied to adjust the transfer rate of the signal molecules in the microreactor. The SAW mixer with adjustable input powers provided a simple means to generate different mixing rates in the microreactor. A robust synchronization of the oscillators was found at an input radio frequency power of 20 dBm, with which the chemical waves were initiated at a fixed site of the oscillator system. With increasing input power, the frequency of the chemical waves was increased, which agreed well with the prediction given by the time-delayed phase oscillator model. Results from the finite element simulation agreed well with the experimental results. PMID:27124217

  14. Cold atoms coupled with mechanical oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, Jose; Montoya, Cris; Ranjit, Gambhir; Geraci, Andrew; Eardley, Matt; Kitching, John

    2015-05-01

    Mechanical resonators can be used to probe and manipulate atomic spins with nanometer spatial resolution and single-spin sensitivity, ultimately enabling new approaches in neutral-atom quantum computation, quantum simulation, or precision sensing. We describe our experiment that manipulates the spin of trapped, cold Rb atoms using magnetic material on a cantilever. Cold atoms can also be used as a coolant for mechanical resonators: we estimate that ground state cooling of an optically trapped nano-sphere is achievable when starting at room temperature, by sympathetic cooling of a cold atomic gas optically coupled to the nanoparticle.

  15. Clustering in delay-coupled smooth and relaxational chemical oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaha, Karen; Lehnert, Judith; Keane, Andrew; Dahms, Thomas; Hövel, Philipp; Schöll, Eckehard; Hudson, John L.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate cluster synchronization in networks of nonlinear systems with time-delayed coupling. Using a generic model for a system close to the Hopf bifurcation, we predict the order of appearance of different cluster states and their corresponding common frequencies depending upon coupling delay. We may tune the delay time in order to ensure the existence and stability of a specific cluster state. We qualitatively and quantitatively confirm these results in experiments with chemical oscillators. The experiments also exhibit strongly nonlinear relaxation oscillations as we increase the voltage, i.e., go further away from the Hopf bifurcation. In this regime, we find secondary cluster states with delay-dependent phase lags. These cluster states appear in addition to primary states with delay-independent phase lags observed near the Hopf bifurcation. Extending the theory on Hopf normal-form oscillators, we are able to account for realistic interaction functions, yielding good agreement with experimental findings.

  16. Raman-Suppressing Coupling for Optical Parametric Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute; Matsko, Andrey; Rubiola, Enrico

    2007-01-01

    A Raman-scattering-suppressing input/ output coupling scheme has been devised for a whispering-gallery-mode optical resonator that is used as a four-wave-mixing device to effect an all-optical parametric oscillator. Raman scattering is undesired in such a device because (1) it is a nonlinear process that competes with the desired nonlinear four-wave conversion process involved in optical parametric oscillation and (2) as such, it reduces the power of the desired oscillation and contributes to output noise. The essence of the present input/output coupling scheme is to reduce output loading of the desired resonator modes while increasing output loading of the undesired ones.

  17. Golden Ratio in a Coupled-Oscillator Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorman, Crystal M.; Goff, John Eric

    2007-01-01

    The golden ratio appears in a classical mechanics coupled-oscillator problem that many undergraduates may not solve. Once the symmetry is broken in a more standard problem, the golden ratio appears. Several student exercises arise from the problem considered in this paper.

  18. String-Coupled Pendulum Oscillators: Theory and Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moloney, Michael J.

    1978-01-01

    A coupled-oscillator system is given which is readily set up, using only household materials. The normal-mode analysis of this system is worked out, and an experiment or demonstration is recommended in which one verifies the theory by measuring two times and four lengths. (Author/GA)

  19. Amplitude-phase coupling in a spin-torque nano-oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Kiwamu; Nagasawa, Tazumi; Sato, Rie; Mizushima, Koichi

    2009-04-01

    The spin-torque nano-oscillator in the presence of thermal fluctuation is described by the normal form of the Hopf bifurcation with an additive white noise. By the application of the reduction method, the amplitude-phase coupling factor, which has a significant effect on the power spectrum of the spin-torque nano-oscillator, is calculated from the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski equation with the nonlinear Gilbert damping. The amplitude-phase coupling factor exhibits a large variation depending on an in-plane anisotropy under the practical external fields.

  20. Three People Can Synchronize as Coupled Oscillators during Sports Activities

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Keiko; Yamamoto, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally investigated the synchronized patterns of three people during sports activities and found that the activity corresponded to spatiotemporal patterns in rings of coupled biological oscillators derived from symmetric Hopf bifurcation theory, which is based on group theory. This theory can provide catalogs of possible generic spatiotemporal patterns irrespective of their internal models. Instead, they are simply based on the geometrical symmetries of the systems. We predicted the synchronization patterns of rings of three coupled oscillators as trajectories on the phase plane. The interactions among three people during a 3 vs. 1 ball possession task were plotted on the phase plane. We then demonstrated that two patterns conformed to two of the three patterns predicted by the theory. One of these patterns was a rotation pattern (R) in which phase differences between adjacent oscillators were almost 2π/3. The other was a partial anti-phase pattern (PA) in which the two oscillators were anti-phase and the third oscillator frequency was dead. These results suggested that symmetric Hopf bifurcation theory could be used to understand synchronization phenomena among three people who communicate via perceptual information, not just physically connected systems such as slime molds, chemical reactions, and animal gaits. In addition, the skill level in human synchronization may play the role of the bifurcation parameter. PMID:21998570

  1. Three people can synchronize as coupled oscillators during sports activities.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Keiko; Yamamoto, Yuji

    2011-10-01

    We experimentally investigated the synchronized patterns of three people during sports activities and found that the activity corresponded to spatiotemporal patterns in rings of coupled biological oscillators derived from symmetric Hopf bifurcation theory, which is based on group theory. This theory can provide catalogs of possible generic spatiotemporal patterns irrespective of their internal models. Instead, they are simply based on the geometrical symmetries of the systems. We predicted the synchronization patterns of rings of three coupled oscillators as trajectories on the phase plane. The interactions among three people during a 3 vs. 1 ball possession task were plotted on the phase plane. We then demonstrated that two patterns conformed to two of the three patterns predicted by the theory. One of these patterns was a rotation pattern (R) in which phase differences between adjacent oscillators were almost 2π/3. The other was a partial anti-phase pattern (PA) in which the two oscillators were anti-phase and the third oscillator frequency was dead. These results suggested that symmetric Hopf bifurcation theory could be used to understand synchronization phenomena among three people who communicate via perceptual information, not just physically connected systems such as slime molds, chemical reactions, and animal gaits. In addition, the skill level in human synchronization may play the role of the bifurcation parameter. PMID:21998570

  2. Speech encoding by coupled cortical theta and gamma oscillations.

    PubMed

    Hyafil, Alexandre; Fontolan, Lorenzo; Kabdebon, Claire; Gutkin, Boris; Giraud, Anne-Lise

    2015-01-01

    Many environmental stimuli present a quasi-rhythmic structure at different timescales that the brain needs to decompose and integrate. Cortical oscillations have been proposed as instruments of sensory de-multiplexing, i.e., the parallel processing of different frequency streams in sensory signals. Yet their causal role in such a process has never been demonstrated. Here, we used a neural microcircuit model to address whether coupled theta-gamma oscillations, as observed in human auditory cortex, could underpin the multiscale sensory analysis of speech. We show that, in continuous speech, theta oscillations can flexibly track the syllabic rhythm and temporally organize the phoneme-level response of gamma neurons into a code that enables syllable identification. The tracking of slow speech fluctuations by theta oscillations, and its coupling to gamma-spiking activity both appeared as critical features for accurate speech encoding. These results demonstrate that cortical oscillations can be a key instrument of speech de-multiplexing, parsing, and encoding. PMID:26023831

  3. Speech encoding by coupled cortical theta and gamma oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Hyafil, Alexandre; Fontolan, Lorenzo; Kabdebon, Claire; Gutkin, Boris; Giraud, Anne-Lise

    2015-01-01

    Many environmental stimuli present a quasi-rhythmic structure at different timescales that the brain needs to decompose and integrate. Cortical oscillations have been proposed as instruments of sensory de-multiplexing, i.e., the parallel processing of different frequency streams in sensory signals. Yet their causal role in such a process has never been demonstrated. Here, we used a neural microcircuit model to address whether coupled theta–gamma oscillations, as observed in human auditory cortex, could underpin the multiscale sensory analysis of speech. We show that, in continuous speech, theta oscillations can flexibly track the syllabic rhythm and temporally organize the phoneme-level response of gamma neurons into a code that enables syllable identification. The tracking of slow speech fluctuations by theta oscillations, and its coupling to gamma-spiking activity both appeared as critical features for accurate speech encoding. These results demonstrate that cortical oscillations can be a key instrument of speech de-multiplexing, parsing, and encoding. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06213.001 PMID:26023831

  4. Collective Cell Movement Promotes Synchronization of Coupled Genetic Oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Uriu, Koichiro; Morelli, Luis G.

    2014-01-01

    Collective cell movement is a crucial component of embryonic development. Intercellular interactions regulate collective cell movement by allowing cells to transfer information. A key question is how collective cell movement itself influences information flow produced in tissues by intercellular interactions. Here, we study the effect of collective cell movement on the synchronization of locally coupled genetic oscillators. This study is motivated by the segmentation clock in zebrafish somitogenesis, where short-range correlated movement of cells has been observed. We describe the segmentation clock tissue by a Voronoi diagram, cell movement by the force balance of self-propelled and repulsive forces between cells, the dynamics of the direction of self-propelled motion, and the synchronization of genetic oscillators by locally coupled phase oscillators. We find that movement with a correlation length of about 2 ∼ 3 cell diameters is optimal for the synchronization of coupled oscillators. Quantification of cell mixing reveals that this short-range correlation of cell movement allows cells to exchange neighbors most efficiently. Moreover, short-range correlated movement strongly destabilizes nonuniform spatial phase patterns, further promoting global synchronization. Our theoretical results suggest that collective cell movement may enhance the synchronization of the segmentation clock in zebrafish somitogenesis. More generally, collective cell movement may promote information flow in tissues by enhancing cell mixing and destabilizing spurious patterns. PMID:25028893

  5. Collective cell movement promotes synchronization of coupled genetic oscillators.

    PubMed

    Uriu, Koichiro; Morelli, Luis G

    2014-07-15

    Collective cell movement is a crucial component of embryonic development. Intercellular interactions regulate collective cell movement by allowing cells to transfer information. A key question is how collective cell movement itself influences information flow produced in tissues by intercellular interactions. Here, we study the effect of collective cell movement on the synchronization of locally coupled genetic oscillators. This study is motivated by the segmentation clock in zebrafish somitogenesis, where short-range correlated movement of cells has been observed. We describe the segmentation clock tissue by a Voronoi diagram, cell movement by the force balance of self-propelled and repulsive forces between cells, the dynamics of the direction of self-propelled motion, and the synchronization of genetic oscillators by locally coupled phase oscillators. We find that movement with a correlation length of about 2 ∼ 3 cell diameters is optimal for the synchronization of coupled oscillators. Quantification of cell mixing reveals that this short-range correlation of cell movement allows cells to exchange neighbors most efficiently. Moreover, short-range correlated movement strongly destabilizes nonuniform spatial phase patterns, further promoting global synchronization. Our theoretical results suggest that collective cell movement may enhance the synchronization of the segmentation clock in zebrafish somitogenesis. More generally, collective cell movement may promote information flow in tissues by enhancing cell mixing and destabilizing spurious patterns. PMID:25028893

  6. Travelling waves in arrays of delay-coupled phase oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laing, Carlo R.

    2016-09-01

    We consider the effects of several forms of delays on the existence and stability of travelling waves in non-locally coupled networks of Kuramoto-type phase oscillators and theta neurons. By passing to the continuum limit and using the Ott/Antonsen ansatz, we derive evolution equations for a spatially dependent order parameter. For phase oscillator networks, the travelling waves take the form of uniformly twisted waves, and these can often be characterised analytically. For networks of theta neurons, the waves are studied numerically.

  7. Noninvariance groups for many-particle systems: Coupled harmonic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellman, Michael E.

    1984-07-01

    Noninvariance groups for many-particle systems are investigated in the context of the model problem of the coupling of a pair of harmonic oscillators to give normal modes. First, a recent paper analyzing normal modes in terms of breaking of the SU(2) invariance symmetry of the uncoupled system is reviewed. Next, the noninvariance group description of the one-dimensional oscillator spectrum in terms of infinite-dimensional unitary representations of SU(1,1) is summarized. Then, the analysis of normal modes in terms of a broken noninvariance SU(2,1) group for the two-dimensional problem is carried out. First, the T, U, and V SU(2) subgroup classifications of SU(3) are reviewed in the context of representations for the three-dimensional oscillator. Second, the analogous SU(2) and SU(1,1) subgroup classification of the infinite two-dimensional spectrum is presented. The SU(1,1) groups classify infinite sequences of excitation of the symmetric and antisymmetric stretch, respectively. Then, in an alternate approach, SU(1,1) representations for the spectra of the individual oscillators are coupled, analogous to vector coupling of angular momentum. Normal modes can be obtained in this manner, but only in the limit in which an arbitrary parameter labeling the group representations takes the value infinity. The relation of these results to the theory of group contractions and their implications for the description of truncated spectra (such as coupled Morse oscillators or π-electron spectra of linear polyenes) are briefly discussed.

  8. Coupled Langmuir oscillations in 2-dimensional quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2014-03-15

    In this work, we present a hydrodynamic model to study the coupled quantum electron plasma oscillations (QEPO) for two dimensional (2D) degenerate plasmas, which incorporates all the essential quantum ingredients such as the statistical degeneracy pressure, electron-exchange, and electron quantum diffraction effect. Effects of diverse physical aspects like the electronic band-dispersion effect, the electron exchange-correlations and the quantum Bohm-potential as well as other important plasma parameters such as the coupling parameter (plasma separation) and the plasma electron number-densities on the linear response of the coupled system are investigated. By studying three different 2D plasma coupling types, namely, graphene-graphene, graphene-metalfilm, and metalfilm-metalfilm coupling configurations, it is remarked that the collective quantum effects can influence the coupled modes quite differently, depending on the type of the plasma configuration. It is also found that the slow and fast QEPO frequency modes respond very differently to the change in plasma parameters. Current findings can help in understanding of the coupled density oscillations in multilayer graphene, graphene-based heterojunctions, or nanofabricated integrated circuits.

  9. Time Delay Effect in a Living Coupled Oscillator System with the Plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamatsu, Atsuko; Fujii, Teruo; Endo, Isao

    2000-08-01

    A living coupled oscillator system was constructed by a cell patterning method with a plasmodial slime mold, in which parameters such as coupling strength and distance between the oscillators can be systematically controlled. Rich oscillation phenomena between the two-coupled oscillators, namely, desynchronizing and antiphase/in-phase synchronization were observed according to these parameters. Both experimental and theoretical approaches showed that these phenomena are closely related to the time delay effect in interactions between the oscillators.

  10. Reviving oscillation with optimal spatial period of frequency distribution in coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Tongfa; Liu, Weiqing; Zhu, Yun; Xiao, Jinghua; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    The spatial distributions of system's frequencies have significant influences on the critical coupling strengths for amplitude death (AD) in coupled oscillators. We find that the left and right critical coupling strengths for AD have quite different relations to the increasing spatial period m of the frequency distribution in coupled oscillators. The left one has a negative linear relationship with m in log-log axis for small initial frequency mismatches while remains constant for large initial frequency mismatches. The right one is in quadratic function relation with spatial period m of the frequency distribution in log-log axis. There is an optimal spatial period m0 of frequency distribution with which the coupled system has a minimal critical strength to transit from an AD regime to reviving oscillation. Moreover, the optimal spatial period m0 of the frequency distribution is found to be related to the system size √{ N } . Numerical examples are explored to reveal the inner regimes of effects of the spatial frequency distribution on AD.

  11. Universal lineshapes at the crossover between weak and strong critical coupling in Fano-resonant coupled oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Zanotto, Simone; Tredicucci, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss a model describing key features concerning the lineshapes and the coherent absorption conditions in Fano-resonant dissipative coupled oscillators. The model treats on the same footing the weak and strong coupling regimes, and includes the critical coupling concept, which is of great relevance in numerous applications; in addition, the role of asymmetry is thoroughly analyzed. Due to the wide generality of the model, which can be adapted to various frameworks like nanophotonics, plasmonics, and optomechanics, we envisage that the analytical formulas presented here will be crucial to effectively design devices and to interpret experimental results. PMID:27091489

  12. Universal lineshapes at the crossover between weak and strong critical coupling in Fano-resonant coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanotto, Simone; Tredicucci, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    In this article we discuss a model describing key features concerning the lineshapes and the coherent absorption conditions in Fano-resonant dissipative coupled oscillators. The model treats on the same footing the weak and strong coupling regimes, and includes the critical coupling concept, which is of great relevance in numerous applications; in addition, the role of asymmetry is thoroughly analyzed. Due to the wide generality of the model, which can be adapted to various frameworks like nanophotonics, plasmonics, and optomechanics, we envisage that the analytical formulas presented here will be crucial to effectively design devices and to interpret experimental results.

  13. Universal lineshapes at the crossover between weak and strong critical coupling in Fano-resonant coupled oscillators.

    PubMed

    Zanotto, Simone; Tredicucci, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss a model describing key features concerning the lineshapes and the coherent absorption conditions in Fano-resonant dissipative coupled oscillators. The model treats on the same footing the weak and strong coupling regimes, and includes the critical coupling concept, which is of great relevance in numerous applications; in addition, the role of asymmetry is thoroughly analyzed. Due to the wide generality of the model, which can be adapted to various frameworks like nanophotonics, plasmonics, and optomechanics, we envisage that the analytical formulas presented here will be crucial to effectively design devices and to interpret experimental results. PMID:27091489

  14. Collective oscillations and coupled modes in confined microfluidic droplet arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiller, Ulf D.; Fleury, Jean-Baptiste; Seemann, Ralf; Gompper, Gerhard

    Microfluidic droplets have a wide range of applications ranging from analytic assays in cellular biology to controlled mixing in chemical engineering. Ensembles of microfluidic droplets are interesting model systems for non-equilibrium many-body phenomena. When flowing in a microchannel, trains of droplets can form microfluidic crystals whose dynamics are governed by long-range hydrodynamic interactions and boundary effects. In this contribution, excitation mechanisms for collective waves in dense and confined microfluidic droplet arrays are investigated by experiments and computer simulations. We demonstrate that distinct modes can be excited by creating specific `defect' patterns in flowing droplet trains. While longitudinal modes exhibit a short-lived cascade of pairs of laterally displacing droplets, transversely excited modes form propagating waves that behave like microfluidic phonons. We show that the confinement induces a coupling between longitudinal and transverse modes. We also investigate the life time of the collective oscillations and discuss possible mechanisms for the onset of instabilities. Our results demonstrate that microfluidic phonons can exhibit effects beyond the linear theory, which can be studied particularly well in dense and confined systems. This work was supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under Grant No. SE 1118/4.

  15. Synchronization of two memristively coupled van der Pol oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatov, M.; Hansen, M.; Ziegler, M.; Kohlstedt, H.

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this letter is to convey two essential principles of biological computing—synchronization and memory—in an electronic circuit with two van der Pol (vdP) oscillators coupled via a memristive device. The coupling was mediated by connecting the gate terminals of two programmable unijunction transistors through a resistance-capacitance network comprising an Ag-TiOx-Al memristive device. In the high resistance state the memristance was in the order of MΩ, which leads to two independent self-sustained oscillators characterized by the different frequencies f1 and f2 and no phase relation between the oscillations. Depending on the mediated pulse amplitude, the memristive device switched to the low resistance state after a few cycles and a frequency adaptation and phase locking were observed. The experimental results are underlined by theoretically considering a system of two coupled vdP equations. This experiment may pave the way to larger neuromorphic networks in which the coupling parameters (through memristive devices) can vary in time and strength and are able to remember the history of applied electrical potentials.

  16. Synchronization of finite-state pulse-coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Hanbaek

    2015-05-01

    We propose a novel generalized cellular automaton (GCA) model for discrete-time pulse-coupled oscillators and study the emergence of synchrony. Given a finite simple graph and an integer n ≥ 3, each vertex is an identical oscillator of period n with the following weak coupling along the edges: each oscillator inhibits its phase update if it has at least one neighboring oscillator at a particular "blinking" state and if its state is ahead of this blinking state. We obtain conditions on initial configurations and on network topologies for which states of all vertices eventually synchronize. We show that our GCA model synchronizes arbitrary initial configurations on paths, trees, and with random perturbation, any connected graph. In particular, our main result is the following local-global principle for tree networks: for n ∈ { 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 } , any n-periodic network on a tree synchronizes arbitrary initial configuration if and only if the maximum degree of the tree is less than the period n.

  17. Observation of chaotic dynamics of coupled nonlinear oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Buskirk, R.; Jeffries, C.

    1985-05-01

    Experimental data are employed as bases for theoretically modelling the behavior of a finite number of driven nonlinear coupled oscillators. Attention is focused on Si p-n junction resonators exposed to an external inductance. A junction oscillator displays period doubling, Hopf figuracions to quasi-periodicity, entrainment horns and breakup of the invariant torus. Calculated and measured data are compared, with favorable results, by means of Poincare' sections, bifurcation diagrams and parameter phase space diagrams for the drive voltage and frequency. Fractal dimensions 2.03 and 2.33 are expressed in Poincare' sections to illustrate the behavior of single and dual coupled resonators which experience a breakup of the strange attractor.

  18. Spiral wave chimeras in locally coupled oscillator systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bing-Wei; Dierckx, Hans

    2016-02-01

    The recently discovered chimera state involves the coexistence of synchronized and desynchronized states for a group of identical oscillators. In this work, we show the existence of (inwardly) rotating spiral wave chimeras in the three-component reaction-diffusion systems where each element is locally coupled by diffusion. A transition from spiral waves with the smooth core to spiral wave chimeras is found as we change the local dynamics of the system or as we gradually increase the diffusion coefficient of the activator. Our findings on the spiral wave chimera in the reaction-diffusion systems suggest that spiral chimera states may be found in chemical and biological systems that can be modeled by a large population of oscillators indirectly coupled via a diffusive environment.

  19. Partially coherent twisted states in arrays of coupled phase oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Omel'chenko, Oleh E.; Wolfrum, Matthias; Laing, Carlo R.

    2014-06-15

    We consider a one-dimensional array of phase oscillators with non-local coupling and a Lorentzian distribution of natural frequencies. The primary objects of interest are partially coherent states that are uniformly “twisted” in space. To analyze these, we take the continuum limit, perform an Ott/Antonsen reduction, integrate over the natural frequencies, and study the resulting spatio-temporal system on an unbounded domain. We show that these twisted states and their stability can be calculated explicitly. We find that stable twisted states with different wave numbers appear for increasing coupling strength in the well-known Eckhaus scenario. Simulations of finite arrays of oscillators show good agreement with results of the analysis of the infinite system.

  20. Time-Dependent Coupled Harmonic Oscillators: Classical and Quantum Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedo, Diego Ximenes; Guedes, Ilde

    2015-10-01

    In this work we present the classical and quantum solutions for an arbitrary system of time-dependent coupled harmonic oscillators, where the masses (m), frequencies (ω) and coupling parameter (k) are functions of time. To obtain the classical solutions we use a coordinate and momentum transformations along with a canonical transformation to write the original Hamiltonian as the sum of two Hamiltonians of uncoupled harmonic oscillators with modified time-dependent frequencies and unitary masses. To obtain the exact quantum solutions we use a unitary transformation and the Lewis and Riesenfeld invariant method. The exact wave functions are obtained by solving the respective Milne-Pinney equation for each system. We obtain the solutions for the system with m1 = m2 = m0eγt, ω1 = ω01e-γt/2, ω2 = ω02e-γt/2 and k = k0.

  1. Time-dependent coupled harmonic oscillators: Classical and quantum solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedo, D. X.; Guedes, I.

    2014-08-01

    In this work we present the classical and quantum solutions for an arbitrary system of time-dependent coupled harmonic oscillators, where the masses (m), frequencies (ω) and coupling parameter (k) are functions of time. To obtain the classical solutions, we use a coordinate and momentum transformations along with a canonical transformation to write the original Hamiltonian as the sum of two Hamiltonians of uncoupled harmonic oscillators with modified time-dependent frequencies and unitary masses. To obtain the exact quantum solutions we use a unitary transformation and the Lewis and Riesenfeld (LR) invariant method. The exact wave functions are obtained by solving the respective Milne-Pinney (MP) equation for each system. We obtain the solutions for the system with m1 = m2 = m0eγt, ω1 = ω01e-γt/2, ω2 = ω02e-γt/2 and k = k0.

  2. Fractional dynamics of coupled oscillators with long-range interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasov, Vasily E.; Zaslavsky, George M.

    2006-06-15

    We consider a one-dimensional chain of coupled linear and nonlinear oscillators with long-range powerwise interaction. The corresponding term in dynamical equations is proportional to 1/|n-m|{sup {alpha}}{sup +1}. It is shown that the equation of motion in the infrared limit can be transformed into the medium equation with the Riesz fractional derivative of order {alpha}, when 0<{alpha}<2. We consider a few models of coupled oscillators and show how their synchronization can appear as a result of bifurcation, and how the corresponding solutions depend on {alpha}. The presence of a fractional derivative also leads to the occurrence of localized structures. Particular solutions for fractional time-dependent complex Ginzburg-Landau (or nonlinear Schroedinger) equation are derived. These solutions are interpreted as synchronized states and localized structures of the oscillatory medium.

  3. Synchronization of Cross-Well Chaos in Coupled Duffing Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, U. E.; Njah, A. N.; Akinlade, O.; Solarin, A. R. T.

    Numerical simulations have been used to investigate the synchronization behavior of a unidirectionally coupled pair of double-well duffing oscillators (DDOs). The DDOs were simulated in their structurally stable chaotic zone and their state variables were found to completely synchronized. The essential feature of the transition to the synchronous state is shown to correspond to a boundary crisis in which the cross-well chaotic attractor is destroyed.

  4. Integrable order parameter dynamics of globally coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritula, G. M.; Prytula, V. I.; Usatenko, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    We study the nonlinear dynamics of globally coupled nonidentical oscillators in the framework of two order parameter (mean field and amplitude-frequency correlator) reduction. The main result of the paper is the exact solution of a corresponding nonlinear system on a two-dimensional invariant manifold. We present a complete classification of phase portraits and bifurcations, obtain explicit expressions for invariant manifolds (a limit cycle among them) and derive analytical solutions for arbitrary initial data and different regimes.

  5. Environmental coupling in ecosystems: From oscillation quenching to rhythmogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumugam, Ramesh; Dutta, Partha Sharathi; Banerjee, Tanmoy

    2016-08-01

    How landscape fragmentation affects ecosystems diversity and stability is an important and complex question in ecology with no simple answer, as spatially separated habitats where species live are highly dynamic rather than just static. Taking into account the species dispersal among nearby connected habitats (or patches) through a common dynamic environment, we model the consumer-resource interactions with a ring type coupled network. By characterizing the dynamics of consumer-resource interactions in a coupled ecological system with three fundamental mechanisms such as the interaction within the patch, the interaction between the patches, and the interaction through a common dynamic environment, we report the occurrence of various collective behaviors. We show that the interplay between the dynamic environment and the dispersal among connected patches exhibits the mechanism of generation of oscillations, i.e., rhythmogenesis, as well as suppression of oscillations, i.e., amplitude death and oscillation death. Also, the transition from homogeneous steady state to inhomogeneous steady state occurs through a codimension-2 bifurcation. Emphasizing a network of a spatially extended system, the coupled model exposes the collective behavior of a synchrony-stability relationship with various synchronization occurrences such as in-phase and out-of-phase.

  6. Intercommunity resonances in multifrequency ensembles of coupled oscillators.

    PubMed

    Komarov, Maxim; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2015-07-01

    We generalize the Kuramoto model of globally coupled oscillators to multifrequency communities. A situation when mean frequencies of two subpopulations are close to the resonance 2:1 is considered in detail. We construct uniformly rotating solutions describing synchronization inside communities and between them. Remarkably, cross coupling across the frequencies can promote synchrony even when ensembles are separately asynchronous. We also show that the transition to synchrony due to the cross coupling is accompanied by a huge multiplicity of distinct synchronous solutions, which is directly related to a multibranch entrainment. On the other hand, for synchronous populations, the cross-frequency coupling can destroy phase locking and lead to chaos of mean fields. PMID:26274246

  7. Dynamics of the Phase Oscillators with Plastic Couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasatkin, D. V.; Nekorkin, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    We study the dynamical regimes in the system of two identical interacting phase oscillators with plastic couplings. The joint evolution of the states of the elements and the interelement couplings is a feature of the system studied. It is shown that the introduction of plastic couplings leads to a multistable behavior of the system and emergence of the asynchronous regimes which are not observed for the considered parameter values in the case of static couplings. The parameter plane is divided into regions with different dynamic regimes of the system. In particular, the regions in which the system demonstrates bistable synchronous behavior and the region in which the coexistence of many various asynchronous regimes is observed are singled out.

  8. Tune Determination of Strongly Coupled Betatron Oscillations in a Fast-Ramping Synchrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Alexahin, Y.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Marsh, W; Triplett, K.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Tune identification -- i.e. attribution of the spectral peak to a particular normal de of oscillations -- can present a significant difficulty in the presence of strong transverse coupling when the normal mode with a lower damping rate dominates spectra of Turn-by-Turn oscillations in both planes. The introduced earlier phased sum algorithm helped to recover the weaker normal mode signal from the noise, but by itself proved to be insufficient for automatic peak identification in the case of close phase advance distribution in both planes. To resolve this difficulty we modified the algorithm by taking and analyzing Turn-by-Turn data for two different ramps with the beam oscillation excited in each plane in turn. Comparison of relative amplitudes of Fourier components allows for correct automatic tune identification. The proposed algorithm was implemented in the Fermilab Booster B38 console application and successfully used for tune, coupling and chromaticity measurements.

  9. High efficiency UHF oscillator for portable battery-powered applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessendorf, K. O.

    There is a growing demand for high-frequency circuit designs which are capable of being used in portable battery-powered applications. This type of environment typically requires circuits designed for small size and minimum dc current draw. A transponder design at Sandia National Laboratories required a 430 MHz oscillator (crystal controlled) which could run off a 3 V lithium battery and have an output power of approximately 0 dbm and draw the least possible dc current (less than 4 mA was desired). Physically the oscillator height has to be less than 0.1 sq in. and occupy less than 1 sq in. surface area. Another requirement, for the first engineering prototype, was that the oscillator be made out of inexpensive, standard parts. The design was integrated onto a circuit board with the associated transponder circuitry. This paper describes a technique to make a high-efficiency 430 MHz oscillator which demonstrates efficiencies in the 10 to 12 percent range for an output of approximately 0 dbm. Data will show the frequency spectrum of the oscillator waveform and the performance of the oscillator over temperature and power supply voltage. To meet the requirements and make the design as simple as possible a 107.5 MHz (R(sub m) less than 70 ohms) Statek AT-Strip resonator was chosen. This resonator was chosen because of its small size, surface mountability, and good electrical performance. This resonator was used at series resonance in an oscillator multiplier circuit which would provide a (4X) multiplication in an efficient manner. The oscillator (first stage) is a Butler Oscillator-Multiplier (2X) which is direct coupled to a buffer transistor (second stage) and harmonic generating (2X) transistor which share bias current. The final design delivers 1 dbm at 3 V with 3.33 mA current draw. All harmonics and subharmonics are greater than 20 db down from the desired frequency.

  10. Multiphysics Application Coupling Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Michael T.

    2013-12-02

    This particular consortium implementation of the software integration infrastructure will, in large part, refactor portions of the Rocstar multiphysics infrastructure. Development of this infrastructure originated at the University of Illinois DOE ASCI Center for Simulation of Advanced Rockets (CSAR) to support the center's massively parallel multiphysics simulation application, Rocstar, and has continued at IllinoisRocstar, a small company formed near the end of the University-based program. IllinoisRocstar is now licensing these new developments as free, open source, in hopes to help improve their own and others' access to infrastructure which can be readily utilized in developing coupled or composite software systems; with particular attention to more rapid production and utilization of multiphysics applications in the HPC environment. There are two major pieces to the consortium implementation, the Application Component Toolkit (ACT), and the Multiphysics Application Coupling Toolkit (MPACT). The current development focus is the ACT, which is (will be) the substrate for MPACT. The ACT itself is built up from the components described in the technical approach. In particular, the ACT has the following major components: 1.The Component Object Manager (COM): The COM package provides encapsulation of user applications, and their data. COM also provides the inter-component function call mechanism. 2.The System Integration Manager (SIM): The SIM package provides constructs and mechanisms for orchestrating composite systems of multiply integrated pieces.

  11. Multiphysics Application Coupling Toolkit

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-12-02

    This particular consortium implementation of the software integration infrastructure will, in large part, refactor portions of the Rocstar multiphysics infrastructure. Development of this infrastructure originated at the University of Illinois DOE ASCI Center for Simulation of Advanced Rockets (CSAR) to support the center's massively parallel multiphysics simulation application, Rocstar, and has continued at IllinoisRocstar, a small company formed near the end of the University-based program. IllinoisRocstar is now licensing these new developments as free, openmore » source, in hopes to help improve their own and others' access to infrastructure which can be readily utilized in developing coupled or composite software systems; with particular attention to more rapid production and utilization of multiphysics applications in the HPC environment. There are two major pieces to the consortium implementation, the Application Component Toolkit (ACT), and the Multiphysics Application Coupling Toolkit (MPACT). The current development focus is the ACT, which is (will be) the substrate for MPACT. The ACT itself is built up from the components described in the technical approach. In particular, the ACT has the following major components: 1.The Component Object Manager (COM): The COM package provides encapsulation of user applications, and their data. COM also provides the inter-component function call mechanism. 2.The System Integration Manager (SIM): The SIM package provides constructs and mechanisms for orchestrating composite systems of multiply integrated pieces.« less

  12. Chimera and phase-cluster states in populations of coupled chemical oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinsley, Mark R.; Nkomo, Simbarashe; Showalter, Kenneth

    2012-09-01

    Populations of coupled oscillators may exhibit two coexisting subpopulations, one with synchronized oscillations and the other with unsynchronized oscillations, even though all of the oscillators are coupled to each other in an equivalent manner. This phenomenon, discovered about ten years ago in theoretical studies, was then further characterized and named the chimera state after the Greek mythological creature made up of different animals. The highly counterintuitive coexistence of coherent and incoherent oscillations in populations of identical oscillators, each with an equivalent coupling structure, inspired great interest and a flurry of theoretical activity. Here we report on experimental studies of chimera states and their relation to other synchronization states in populations of coupled chemical oscillators. Our experiments with coupled Belousov-Zhabotinsky oscillators and corresponding simulations reveal chimera behaviour that differs significantly from the behaviour found in theoretical studies of phase-oscillator models.

  13. Different kinds of chimera death states in nonlocally coupled oscillators.

    PubMed

    Premalatha, K; Chandrasekar, V K; Senthilvelan, M; Lakshmanan, M

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the significance of nonisochronicity parameter in a network of nonlocally coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators with symmetry breaking form. We observe that the presence of nonisochronicity parameter leads to structural changes in the chimera death region while varying the strength of the interaction. This gives rise to the existence of different types of chimera death states such as multichimera death state, type I periodic chimera death (PCD) state, and type II periodic chimera death state. We also find that the number of periodic domains in both types of PCD states decreases exponentially with an increase of coupling range and obeys a power law under nonlocal coupling. Additionally, we also analyze the structural changes of chimera death states by reducing the system of dynamical equations to a phase model through the phase reduction. We also briefly study the role of nonisochronicity parameter on chimera states, where the existence of a multichimera state with respect to the coupling range is pointed out. Moreover, we also analyze the robustness of the chimera death state to perturbations in the natural frequencies of the oscillators. PMID:27300886

  14. Synchronization of phase oscillators with frequency-weighted coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Can; Sun, Yuting; Gao, Jian; Qiu, Tian; Zheng, Zhigang; Guan, Shuguang

    2016-02-01

    Recently, the first-order synchronization transition has been studied in systems of coupled phase oscillators. In this paper, we propose a framework to investigate the synchronization in the frequency-weighted Kuramoto model with all-to-all couplings. A rigorous mean-field analysis is implemented to predict the possible steady states. Furthermore, a detailed linear stability analysis proves that the incoherent state is only neutrally stable below the synchronization threshold. Nevertheless, interestingly, the amplitude of the order parameter decays exponentially (at least for short time) in this regime, resembling the Landau damping effect in plasma physics. Moreover, the explicit expression for the critical coupling strength is determined by both the mean-field method and linear operator theory. The mechanism of bifurcation for the incoherent state near the critical point is further revealed by the amplitude expansion theory, which shows that the oscillating standing wave state could also occur in this model for certain frequency distributions. Our theoretical analysis and numerical results are consistent with each other, which can help us understand the synchronization transition in general networks with heterogenous couplings.

  15. Synchronization of phase oscillators with frequency-weighted coupling.

    PubMed

    Xu, Can; Sun, Yuting; Gao, Jian; Qiu, Tian; Zheng, Zhigang; Guan, Shuguang

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the first-order synchronization transition has been studied in systems of coupled phase oscillators. In this paper, we propose a framework to investigate the synchronization in the frequency-weighted Kuramoto model with all-to-all couplings. A rigorous mean-field analysis is implemented to predict the possible steady states. Furthermore, a detailed linear stability analysis proves that the incoherent state is only neutrally stable below the synchronization threshold. Nevertheless, interestingly, the amplitude of the order parameter decays exponentially (at least for short time) in this regime, resembling the Landau damping effect in plasma physics. Moreover, the explicit expression for the critical coupling strength is determined by both the mean-field method and linear operator theory. The mechanism of bifurcation for the incoherent state near the critical point is further revealed by the amplitude expansion theory, which shows that the oscillating standing wave state could also occur in this model for certain frequency distributions. Our theoretical analysis and numerical results are consistent with each other, which can help us understand the synchronization transition in general networks with heterogeneous couplings. PMID:26903110

  16. Synchronization of phase oscillators with frequency-weighted coupling

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Can; Sun, Yuting; Gao, Jian; Qiu, Tian; Zheng, Zhigang; Guan, Shuguang

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the first-order synchronization transition has been studied in systems of coupled phase oscillators. In this paper, we propose a framework to investigate the synchronization in the frequency-weighted Kuramoto model with all-to-all couplings. A rigorous mean-field analysis is implemented to predict the possible steady states. Furthermore, a detailed linear stability analysis proves that the incoherent state is only neutrally stable below the synchronization threshold. Nevertheless, interestingly, the amplitude of the order parameter decays exponentially (at least for short time) in this regime, resembling the Landau damping effect in plasma physics. Moreover, the explicit expression for the critical coupling strength is determined by both the mean-field method and linear operator theory. The mechanism of bifurcation for the incoherent state near the critical point is further revealed by the amplitude expansion theory, which shows that the oscillating standing wave state could also occur in this model for certain frequency distributions. Our theoretical analysis and numerical results are consistent with each other, which can help us understand the synchronization transition in general networks with heterogenous couplings. PMID:26903110

  17. Different kinds of chimera death states in nonlocally coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premalatha, K.; Chandrasekar, V. K.; Senthilvelan, M.; Lakshmanan, M.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the significance of nonisochronicity parameter in a network of nonlocally coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators with symmetry breaking form. We observe that the presence of nonisochronicity parameter leads to structural changes in the chimera death region while varying the strength of the interaction. This gives rise to the existence of different types of chimera death states such as multichimera death state, type I periodic chimera death (PCD) state, and type II periodic chimera death state. We also find that the number of periodic domains in both types of PCD states decreases exponentially with an increase of coupling range and obeys a power law under nonlocal coupling. Additionally, we also analyze the structural changes of chimera death states by reducing the system of dynamical equations to a phase model through the phase reduction. We also briefly study the role of nonisochronicity parameter on chimera states, where the existence of a multichimera state with respect to the coupling range is pointed out. Moreover, we also analyze the robustness of the chimera death state to perturbations in the natural frequencies of the oscillators.

  18. Tunable, continuous-wave single-resonant optical parametric oscillator with output coupling for resonant wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong-Hua, Zheng; Bao-Fu, Zhang; Zhong-Xing, Jiao; Biao, Wang

    2016-01-01

    We present a continuous-wave singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator with 1.5% output coupling of the resonant signal wave, based on an angle-polished MgO-doped periodically poled lithium niobate (MgO:PPLN), pumped by a commercial Nd:YVO4 laser at 1064 nm. The output-coupled optical parametric oscillator delivers a maximum total output power of 4.19 W with 42.8% extraction efficiency, across a tuning range of 1717 nm in the near- and mid-infrared region. This indicates improvements of 1.87 W in output power, 19.1% in extraction efficiency and 213 nm in tuning range extension in comparison with the optical parametric oscillator with no output coupling, while at the expense of increasing the oscillation threshold by a factor of ˜ 2. Moreover, it is confirmed that the finite output coupling also contributes to the reduction of the thermal effects in crystal. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61308056, 11204044, 11232015, and 11072271), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant Nos. 20120171110005 and 20130171130003), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. 14lgpy07), and the Opening Project of Science and Technology on Reliability Physics and Application Technology of Electronic Component Laboratory, China (Grant No. ZHD201203).

  19. Coupled Oscillator Based Agile Beam Transmitters and Receivers: A Review of Work at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pogorzelski, Ronald J.

    2006-01-01

    This is a review of the work done at Caltech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory during the past decade on development of the coupled oscillator technology in phased array applications to spacecraft telecommunications. First, some historical background is provided to set the work in context. However, this is by no means intended to be a comprehensive review of all work in this area. Rather, the focus is on the JPL contribution with some mention of other work which provided either insight or motivation. In the mid 1990's, R. A. York, and collaborators proposed that an array of mutually injection locked electronic oscillators could provide appropriately phased signals to the radiating elements of an array antenna such that the radiated beam could be steered merely by tuning the end or perimeter oscillators of the array. York, et al. also proposed a receiving system based on such oscillator arrays in which the oscillators provide properly phased local oscillator signals to be mixed with the signals received by the array elements to remove the phase due to angle of arrival of the incident wave. These concepts were viewed as a promising simplification of the beam steering control system that could result in significant cost, mass, and prime power reduction and were therefore attractive for possible space application.

  20. Impact of symmetry breaking in networks of globally coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premalatha, K.; Chandrasekar, V. K.; Senthilvelan, M.; Lakshmanan, M.

    2015-05-01

    We analyze the consequences of symmetry breaking in the coupling in a network of globally coupled identical Stuart-Landau oscillators. We observe that symmetry breaking leads to increased disorderliness in the dynamical behavior of oscillatory states and consequently results in a rich variety of dynamical states. Depending on the strength of the nonisochronicity parameter, we find various dynamical states such as amplitude chimera, amplitude cluster, frequency chimera, and frequency cluster states. In addition we also find disparate transition routes to recently observed chimera death states in the presence of symmetry breaking even with global coupling. We also analytically verify the chimera death region, which corroborates the numerical results. These results are compared with that of the symmetry-preserving case as well.

  1. Synchronization of period-doubling oscillations in vascular coupled nephrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laugesen, J. L.; Mosekilde, E.; Holstein-Rathlou, N.-H.

    2011-09-01

    The mechanisms by which the individual functional unit (nephron) of the kidney regulates the incoming blood flow give rise to a number of nonlinear dynamic phenomena, including period-doubling bifurcations and intra-nephron synchronization between two different oscillatory modes. Interaction between the nephrons produces complicated and time-dependent inter-nephron synchronization patterns. In order to understand the processes by which a pair of vascular coupled nephrons synchronize, the paper presents a detailed analysis of the bifurcations that occur at the threshold of synchronization. We show that, besides infinite cascades of saddle-node bifurcations, these transitions involve mutually connected cascades of torus and homoclinic bifurcations. To illustrate the broader range of occurrence of this bifurcation structure for coupled period-doubling systems, we show that a similar structure arises in a system of two coupled, non-identical Rössler oscillators.

  2. Cavity Optomechanics: Coherent Coupling of Light and Mechanical Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kippenberg, Tobias J.

    2012-06-01

    The mutual coupling of optical and mechanical degrees of freedom via radiation pressure has been a subject of interest in the context of quantum limited displacements measurements for Gravity Wave Detection for many decades, however light forces have remained experimentally unexplored in such systems. Recent advances in nano- and micro-mechanical oscillators have for the first time allowed the observation of radiation pressure phenomena in an experimental setting and constitute the expanding research field of cavity optomechanics [1]. These advances have allowed achieving to enter the quantum regime of mechanical systems, which are now becoming a third quantum technology after atoms, ions and molecules in a first and electronic circuits in a second wave. In this talk I will review these advances. Using on-chip micro-cavities that combine both optical and mechanical degrees of freedom in one and the same device [2], radiation pressure back-action of photons is shown to lead to effective cooling [3-6]) of the mechanical oscillator mode using dynamical backaction, which has been predicted by Braginsky as early as 1969 [4]. This back-action cooling exhibits many close analogies to atomic laser cooling. With this novel technique the quantum mechanical ground state of a micromechanical oscillator has been prepared with high probability using both microwave and optical fields. In our research this is reached using cryogenic precooling to ca. 800 mK in conjunction with laser cooling, allowing cooling of micromechanical oscillator to only motional 1.7 quanta, implying that the mechanical oscillator spends about 40% of its time in the quantum ground state. Moreover it is possible in this regime to observe quantum coherent coupling in which the mechanical and optical mode hybridize and the coupling rate exceeds the mechanical and optical decoherence rate [7]. This accomplishment enables a range of quantum optical experiments, including state transfer from light to mechanics

  3. Emerging dynamics in neuronal networks of diffusively coupled hard oscillators.

    PubMed

    Ponta, L; Lanza, V; Bonnin, M; Corinto, F

    2011-06-01

    Oscillatory networks are a special class of neural networks where each neuron exhibits time periodic behavior. They represent bio-inspired architectures which can be exploited to model biological processes such as the binding problem and selective attention. In this paper we investigate the dynamics of networks whose neurons are hard oscillators, namely they exhibit the coexistence of different stable attractors. We consider a constant external stimulus applied to each neuron, which influences the neuron's own natural frequency. We show that, due to the interaction between different kinds of attractors, as well as between attractors and repellors, new interesting dynamics arises, in the form of synchronous oscillations of various amplitudes. We also show that neurons subject to different stimuli are able to synchronize if their couplings are strong enough. PMID:21411276

  4. Submillimeter local oscillators for spaceborne heterodyne applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petuchowski, S. J.; Durachta, J.

    1985-01-01

    Existing and prospective submillimeter local oscillator technologies are surveyed and compared with respect to criteria of suitability for application in spaceborne submillimeter heterodyne receivers as those proposed for the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR). Solid-state and plasma devices are considered in terms of fundamental limitations.

  5. Coupled chaotic oscillators and their relation to a central pattern generator for artificial quadrupeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellini, Horacio; Yudiarsah, Efta; Romanelli, Lilia; Cerdeira, Hilda A.

    2005-04-01

    Animal locomotion employs different periodic patterns known as animal gaits. In 1993, Collins and Stewart recognized that gaits possessed certain symmetries and characterized the gaits of quadrupeds and bipeds using permutation symmetry groups, which impose constraints on the locomotion center called the central pattern generator (CPG) in the animal brain. They modeled the CPG by coupling four nonlinear oscillators and found that it was possible to reproduce all symmetries of the gaits by changing the coupling strength. Here we propose to extend this idea using coupled chaotic oscillators synchronized using the Pyragas method in order to characterize the CPG symmetries. We also evaluate the time series behavior when the foot is in contact with the ground: this has potential robotic applications.

  6. Coupled Pendulums: A Classical Depiction of Laser Oscillation, Phase Diffusion and Laser Line-width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordoloi, Rajib; Bordoloi, Ranjana Bora; Buruah, Gauranga Dhar

    2016-08-01

    In this work we have presented an analogy between the coupled vibrations of two classical oscillators and the oscillations that take place in a laser cavity. Our aim is to understand classically the causes that lead to the phase diffusion in a system of coupled classical oscillators and to explore possibilities of any relationship between phase fluctuation and the frequency difference. The equations of motion for the classical oscillators have been derived and solved, for different values of coupling coefficients, to obtain the expressions for the mode frequencies1.The solutions, while plotted graphically have led us to the conclusion that in classical oscillators the mode frequencies of the oscillators are far apart if their oscillation is heavily coupling dependent and consequently the phase relationship of the oscillators fluctuate vigorously and frequently, which is the converse of what happens in a laser cavity consisting atomic oscillators.

  7. GENERAL: Bistability in Coupled Oscillators Exhibiting Synchronized Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olusola, O. I.; Vincent, U. E.; Njah, A. N.; Olowofela, J. A.

    2010-05-01

    We report some new results associated with the synchronization behavior of two coupled double-well Duffing oscillators (DDOs). Some sufficient algebraic criteria for global chaos synchronization of the drive and response DDOs via linear state error feedback control are obtained by means of Lyapunov stability theory. The synchronization is achieved through a bistable state in which a periodic attractor co-exists with a chaotic attractor. Using the linear perturbation analysis, the prevalence of attractors in parameter space and the associated bifurcations are examined. Subcritical and supercritical Hopf bifurcations and abundance of Arnold tongues — a signature of mode locking phenomenon are found.

  8. Testing the global flow reconstruction method on coupled chaotic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plachy, Emese; Kolláth, Zoltán

    2010-03-01

    Irregular behaviour of pulsating variable stars may occur due to low dimensional chaos. To determine the quantitative properties of the dynamics in such systems, we apply a suitable time series analysis, the global flow reconstruction method. The robustness of the reconstruction can be tested through the resultant quantities, like Lyapunov dimension and Fourier frequencies. The latter is specially important as it is directly derivable from the observed light curves. We have performed tests using coupled Rossler oscillators to investigate the possible connection between those quantities. In this paper we present our test results.

  9. Out-of-unison resonance in weakly nonlinear coupled oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Hill, T. L.; Cammarano, A.; Neild, S. A.; Wagg, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    Resonance is an important phenomenon in vibrating systems and, in systems of nonlinear coupled oscillators, resonant interactions can occur between constituent parts of the system. In this paper, out-of-unison resonance is defined as a solution in which components of the response are 90° out-of-phase, in contrast to the in-unison responses that are normally considered. A well-known physical example of this is whirling, which can occur in a taut cable. Here, we use a normal form technique to obtain time-independent functions known as backbone curves. Considering a model of a cable, this approach is used to identify out-of-unison resonance and it is demonstrated that this corresponds to whirling. We then show how out-of-unison resonance can occur in other two degree-of-freedom nonlinear oscillators. Specifically, an in-line oscillator consisting of two masses connected by nonlinear springs—a type of system where out-of-unison resonance has not previously been identified—is shown to have specific parameter regions where out-of-unison resonance can occur. Finally, we demonstrate how the backbone curve analysis can be used to predict the responses of forced systems. PMID:25568619

  10. Analytical Insights on Theta-Gamma Coupled Neural Oscillators

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the dynamics of a quadratic integrate-and-fire neuron, spiking in the gamma (30–100 Hz) range, coupled to a delta/theta frequency (1–8 Hz) neural oscillator. Using analytical and semianalytical methods, we were able to derive characteristic spiking times for the system in two distinct regimes (depending on parameter values): one regime where the gamma neuron is intrinsically oscillating in the absence of theta input, and a second one in which gamma spiking is directly gated by theta input, i.e., windows of gamma activity alternate with silence periods depending on the underlying theta phase. In the former case, we transform the equations such that the system becomes analogous to the Mathieu differential equation. By solving this equation, we can compute numerically the time to the first gamma spike, and then use singular perturbation theory to find successive spike times. On the other hand, in the excitable condition, we make direct use of singular perturbation theory to obtain an approximation of the time to first gamma spike, and then extend the result to calculate ensuing gamma spikes in a recursive fashion. We thereby give explicit formulas for the onset and offset of gamma spike burst during a theta cycle, and provide an estimation of the total number of spikes per theta cycle both for excitable and oscillator regimes. PMID:23945442

  11. Plastic bottle oscillator as an on-off-type oscillator: experiments, modeling, and stability analyses of single and coupled systems.

    PubMed

    Kohira, Masahiro I; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Magome, Nobuyuki; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2012-02-01

    An oscillatory system called a plastic bottle oscillator is studied, in which the downflow of water and upflow of air alternate periodically in an upside-down plastic bottle containing water. It is demonstrated that a coupled two-bottle system exhibits in- and antiphase synchronization according to the nature of coupling. A simple ordinary differential equation is deduced to interpret the characteristics of a single oscillator. This model is also extended to coupled oscillators, and the model reproduces the essential features of the experimental observations. PMID:22463297

  12. Plastic bottle oscillator as an on-off-type oscillator: Experiments, modeling, and stability analyses of single and coupled systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohira, Masahiro I.; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Magome, Nobuyuki; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2012-02-01

    An oscillatory system called a plastic bottle oscillator is studied, in which the downflow of water and upflow of air alternate periodically in an upside-down plastic bottle containing water. It is demonstrated that a coupled two-bottle system exhibits in- and antiphase synchronization according to the nature of coupling. A simple ordinary differential equation is deduced to interpret the characteristics of a single oscillator. This model is also extended to coupled oscillators, and the model reproduces the essential features of the experimental observations.

  13. Coupled nonlinear oscillation and stability evolution of viscoelastic dielectric elastomers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junshi; Chen, Hualing; Li, Bo; McCoul, David; Pei, Qibing

    2015-10-14

    This article describes the development of an analytical model to study the coupled nonlinear oscillation and stability evolution of viscoelastic dielectric elastomers (DEs) under non-equibiaxial tensile forces by utilizing the method of virtual work. Numerically calculated results are employed to predict this nonlinear dynamic behavior. The resonant frequency (where the amplitude-frequency response curve peaks) and the amplitude-frequency response of the deformation in both in-plane directions are tuned by varying the values of tensile force. The oscillation response in the two in-plane directions exhibits strong nonlinearity and coupling with each other, and is tuned by the changing tensile forces under a specific excitation frequency. By varying the values of tensile forces, the dynamic viscoelastic creep in a certain in-plane direction can be eliminated. Phase diagrams and Poincaré maps under several values of tensile forces are utilized to study the stability evolution of the DE system under non-equibiaxial tensile forces. PMID:26287474

  14. EDFA-based coupled opto-electronic oscillator and its phase noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salik, Ertan; Yu, Nan; Tu, Meirong; Maleki, Lute

    2004-01-01

    EDFA-based coupled opto-electronic oscillator (COEO), an integrated optical and microwave oscillator that can generate picosecond optical pulses, is presented. the phase noise measurements of COEO show better performance than synthesizer-driven mode-locked laser.

  15. Synchronization of pairwise-coupled, identical, relaxation oscillators based on metal-insulator phase transition devices: A model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parihar, Abhinav; Shukla, Nikhil; Datta, Suman; Raychowdhury, Arijit

    2015-02-01

    Computing with networks of synchronous oscillators has attracted wide-spread attention as novel materials and device topologies have enabled realization of compact, scalable and low-power coupled oscillatory systems. Of particular interest are compact and low-power relaxation oscillators that have been recently demonstrated using MIT (metal-insulator-transition) devices using properties of correlated oxides. Further the computational capability of pairwise coupled relaxation oscillators has also been shown to outperform traditional Boolean digital logic circuits. This paper presents an analysis of the dynamics and synchronization of a system of two such identical coupled relaxation oscillators implemented with MIT devices. We focus on two implementations of the oscillator: (a) a D-D configuration where complementary MIT devices (D) are connected in series to provide oscillations and (b) a D-R configuration where it is composed of a resistor (R) in series with a voltage-triggered state changing MIT device (D). The MIT device acts like a hysteresis resistor with different resistances in the two different states. The synchronization dynamics of such a system has been analyzed with purely charge based coupling using a resistive (RC) and a capacitive (CC) element in parallel. It is shown that in a D-D configuration symmetric, identical and capacitively coupled relaxation oscillator system synchronizes to an anti-phase locking state, whereas when coupled resistively the system locks in phase. Further, we demonstrate that for certain range of values of RC and CC, a bistable system is possible which can have potential applications in associative computing. In D-R configuration, we demonstrate the existence of rich dynamics including non-monotonic flows and complex phase relationship governed by the ratios of the coupling impedance. Finally, the developed theoretical formulations have been shown to explain experimentally measured waveforms of such pairwise coupled

  16. Multifrequency synthesis using two coupled nonlinear oscillator arrays.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Antonio; Carretero-González, Ricardo; Longhini, Patrick; Renz, Norbert; In, Visarath; Kho, Andy; Neff, Joseph D; Meadows, Brian K; Bulsara, Adi R

    2005-08-01

    We illustrate a scheme that exploits the theory of symmetry-breaking bifurcations for generating a spatio-temporal pattern in which one of two interconnected arrays, each with N Van der Pol oscillators, oscillates at N times the frequency of the other. A bifurcation analysis demonstrates that this type of frequency generation cannot be realized without the mutual interaction between the two arrays. It is also demonstrated that the mechanism for generating these frequencies between the two arrays is different from that of a master-slave interaction, a synchronization effect, or that of subharmonic and ultraharmonic solutions generated by forced systems. This kind of frequency generation scheme can find applications in the developed field of nonlinear antenna and radar systems. PMID:16196688

  17. Spatiotemporal Symmetry in Rings of Coupled Biological Oscillators of Physarum Plasmodial Slime Mold

    SciTech Connect

    Takamatsu, Atsuko; Tanaka, Reiko; Yamada, Hiroyasu; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Teruo; Endo, Isao

    2001-08-13

    Spatiotemporal patterns in rings of coupled biological oscillators of the plasmodial slime mold, Physarum polycephalum, were investigated by comparing with results analyzed by the symmetric Hopf bifurcation theory based on group theory. In three-, four-, and five-oscillator systems, all types of oscillation modes predicted by the theory were observed including a novel oscillation mode, a half period oscillation, which has not been reported anywhere in practical systems. Our results support the effectiveness of the symmetric Hopf bifurcation theory in practical systems.

  18. Spatiotemporal Symmetry in Rings of Coupled Biological Oscillators of Physarum Plasmodial Slime Mold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamatsu, Atsuko; Tanaka, Reiko; Yamada, Hiroyasu; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Teruo; Endo, Isao

    2001-08-01

    Spatiotemporal patterns in rings of coupled biological oscillators of the plasmodial slime mold, Physarum polycephalum, were investigated by comparing with results analyzed by the symmetric Hopf bifurcation theory based on group theory. In three-, four-, and five-oscillator systems, all types of oscillation modes predicted by the theory were observed including a novel oscillation mode, a half period oscillation, which has not been reported anywhere in practical systems. Our results support the effectiveness of the symmetric Hopf bifurcation theory in practical systems.

  19. Ground-state cooling of a dispersively coupled optomechanical system in the unresolved sideband regime via a dissipatively coupled oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-Xiang; Wu, Shengjun; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Shikano, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    In the optomechanical cooling of a dispersively coupled oscillator, it is only possible to reach the oscillator ground state in the resolved sideband regime, where the cavity-mode linewidth is smaller than the resonant frequency of the mechanical oscillator being cooled. In this paper, we show that the dispersively coupled system can be cooled to the ground state in the unresolved sideband regime using an ancillary oscillator, which has a high quality factor and is coupled to the same optical mode via dissipative interaction. The ancillary oscillator has a resonant frequency close to that of the target oscillator; thus, the ancillary oscillator is also in the unresolved sideband regime. We require only a single blue-detuned laser mode to drive the cavity.

  20. Theory of mode coupling in spin torque oscillators coupled to a thermal bath of magnons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Shulei; Li, Dong; Heinonen, Olle

    Recently, numerous experimental investigations have shown that the dynamics of a single spin torque oscillator (STO) exhibits complex behavior stemming from interactions between two or more modes of the oscillator. Examples are the observed mode-hopping and mode coexistence. There has been some initial work indicating how the theory for a single-mode (macro-spin) spin torque oscillator should be generalized to include several modes and the interactions between them. In this work, we rigorously derive such a theory starting with the generalized Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation in the presence of the current-driven spin transfer torques. We will first show, in general, that how a linear mode coupling would arise through the coupling of the system to a thermal bath of magnons, which implies that the manifold of orbits and fixed points may shift with temperature. We then apply our theory to two experimentally interesting systems: 1) a STO patterned into nano-pillar with circular or elliptical cross-sections and 2) a nano-contact STO. For both cases, we found that in order to get mode coupling, it would be necessary to have either a finite in-plane component of the external field or an Oersted field. We will also discuss the temperature dependence of the linear mode coupling. Y. Zhou acknowledges the support by the Seed Funding Program for Basic Research from the University of Hong Kong, and University Grants Committee of Hong Kong (Contract No. AoE/P-04/08).

  1. Mode-coupling mechanisms in nanocontact spin-torque oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacocca, Ezio; Dürrenfeld, Philipp; Heinonen, Olle; Åkerman, Johan; Dumas, Randy K.

    2015-03-01

    Spin-torque oscillators (STOs) are devices that allow for the excitation of a variety of magnetodynamical modes at the nanoscale. Depending on both external conditions and intrinsic magnetic properties, STOs can exhibit regimes of mode hopping and even mode coexistence. Whereas mode hopping has been extensively studied in STOs patterned as nanopillars, coexistence has been only recently observed for localized modes in nanocontact STOs (NC-STOs), where the current is confined to flow through a NC fabricated on an extended pseudo spin valve. By means of electrical characterization and a multimode STO theory, we investigate the physical origin of the mode-coupling mechanisms favoring coexistence. Two coupling mechanisms are identified: (i) magnon-mediated scattering and (ii) intermode interactions. These mechanisms can be physically disentangled by fabricating devices where the NCs have an elliptical cross section. The generation power and linewidth from such devices are found to be in good qualitative agreement with the theoretical predictions, as well as provide evidence of the dominant mode-coupling mechanisms.

  2. COUPLED ALFVEN AND KINK OSCILLATIONS IN CORONAL LOOPS

    SciTech Connect

    Pascoe, D. J.; Wright, A. N.; De Moortel, I.

    2010-03-10

    Observations have revealed ubiquitous transverse velocity perturbation waves propagating in the solar corona. However, there is ongoing discussion regarding their interpretation as kink or Alfven waves. To investigate the nature of transverse waves propagating in the solar corona and their potential for use as a coronal diagnostic in MHD seismology, we perform three-dimensional numerical simulations of footpoint-driven transverse waves propagating in a low beta plasma. We consider the cases of both a uniform medium and one with loop-like density structure and perform a parametric study for our structuring parameters. When density structuring is present, resonant absorption in inhomogeneous layers leads to the coupling of the kink mode to the Alfven mode. The decay of the propagating kink wave as energy is transferred to the local Alfven mode is in good agreement with a modified interpretation of the analysis of Ruderman and Roberts for standing kink modes. Numerical simulations support the most general interpretation of the observed loop oscillations as a coupling of the kink and Alfven modes. This coupling may account for the observed predominance of outward wave power in longer coronal loops since the observed damping length is comparable to our estimate based on an assumption of resonant absorption as the damping mechanism.

  3. Elementary modes of coupled oscillators as whispering-gallery microresonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Rabin; Mukherjee, Pradip

    2015-10-01

    We obtain the elementary modes of a system of parity-time reversal (PT)-symmetric coupled oscillators with balanced loss and gain. These modes are used to give a physical picture of the phase transition recently reported [C. M. Bender, M. Gianfreda, B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir and L. Yang, Phys. Rev. A 88, 062111 (2013); L. Yang, S. K. Özdemir and B. Peng, 12th Int. Workshop and Conf. Pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians in Quantum Physics, Istanbul, Turkey, July 2013; B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender and L. Yang, Nat. Phys. 10, 394 (2014)] in experiments with whispering-gallery microresonators.

  4. Properties of Coupled Oscillator Model for Bidirectional Associative Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we consider the stationary state and dynamical properties of a coupled oscillator model for bidirectional associative memory. For the stationary state, we apply the replica method to obtain self-consistent order parameter equations. The theoretical results for the storage capacity and overlap agree well with the numerical simulation. For the retrieval process, we apply statistical neurodynamics to include temporal noise correlations. For the successful retrieval process, the theoretical result obtained with the fourth-order approximation qualitatively agrees with the numerical simulation. However, for the unsuccessful retrieval process, higher-order noise correlations suppress severely; therefore, the maximum value of the overlap and the relaxation time are smaller than those of the numerical simulation. The reasons for the discrepancies between the theoretical result and numerical simulation, and the validity of our analysis are discussed.

  5. Coupled-oscillator theory of dispersion and Casimir-Polder interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, P. R.; Ford, G. W.; Milonni, P. W.

    2014-10-28

    We address the question of the applicability of the argument theorem (of complex variable theory) to the calculation of two distinct energies: (i) the first-order dispersion interaction energy of two separated oscillators, when one of the oscillators is excited initially and (ii) the Casimir-Polder interaction of a ground-state quantum oscillator near a perfectly conducting plane. We show that the argument theorem can be used to obtain the generally accepted equation for the first-order dispersion interaction energy, which is oscillatory and varies as the inverse power of the separation r of the oscillators for separations much greater than an optical wavelength. However, for such separations, the interaction energy cannot be transformed into an integral over the positive imaginary axis. If the argument theorem is used incorrectly to relate the interaction energy to an integral over the positive imaginary axis, the interaction energy is non-oscillatory and varies as r{sup −4}, a result found by several authors. Rather remarkably, this incorrect expression for the dispersion energy actually corresponds to the nonperturbative Casimir-Polder energy for a ground-state quantum oscillator near a perfectly conducting wall, as we show using the so-called “remarkable formula” for the free energy of an oscillator coupled to a heat bath [G. W. Ford, J. T. Lewis, and R. F. O’Connell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2273 (1985)]. A derivation of that formula from basic results of statistical mechanics and the independent oscillator model of a heat bath is presented.

  6. Low Voltage Low Power Quadrature LC Oscillator Based on Back-gate Superharmonic Capacitive Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Minglin; Li, Zhijun

    2013-09-01

    This work introduces a new low voltage low power superharmonic capacitive coupling quadrature LC oscillator (QLCO) made by coupling two identical cross-connected LC oscillators without tail transistor. In each of the core oscillators, the back-gate nodes of the cross-coupled NMOS pair and PMOS pair, acting as common mode nodes, have been connected directly. Then the core oscillators are coupled together via capacitive coupling of the PMOS common mode node in one of the core oscillators to the NMOS common mode node in the other core oscillator, and vice versa. Only capacitors are used for coupling of the two core oscillators and therefore no extra noise sources are imposed on the circuit. Operation of the proposed QLCO was investigated with simulation using a commercial 0.18 µm RF CMOS technology: it shows a power dissipation of 5.2 mW from a 0.6 V supply voltage. Since the proposed core oscillator has Complementary NMOS and PMOS cross coupled pairs, and capacitive coupling method will not introduce extra phase noise, so this circuit can operate with a low phase noise as low as -126.8 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset from center oscillation frequency of 2.4 GHz, as confirmed with simulation.

  7. Fractional derivation stabilizing virtue-induced quenching phenomena in coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngueuteu, G. S. M.; Yamapi, R.; Woafo, P.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate quenching oscillations phenomena in a system of two diffusively and mutually coupled identical fractional-order Stuart-Landau oscillators. We first consider the uncoupled unit and find that the stabilizing virtue of the fractional derivative yields suppression of oscillations via a Hopf bifurcation. The oscillatory solutions of the fractional-order Stuart-Landau equation are provided as well. Quenching phenomena are then investigated in the coupled system. It is found that the fractional derivatives enhance oscillation death by widening its domain of existence in coupling strength space and initial conditions space, leading to oscillation death dominance. A region of stable homogeneous steady state appears where the uncoupled oscillators are resting and not oscillating as usually accepted for the realization of amplitude death.

  8. Delay-induced patterns in a two-dimensional lattice of coupled oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Kantner, Markus; Schöll, Eckehard; Yanchuk, Serhiy

    2015-01-01

    We show how a variety of stable spatio-temporal periodic patterns can be created in 2D-lattices of coupled oscillators with non-homogeneous coupling delays. The results are illustrated using the FitzHugh-Nagumo coupled neurons as well as coupled limit cycle (Stuart-Landau) oscillators. A “hybrid dispersion relation” is introduced, which describes the stability of the patterns in spatially extended systems with large time-delay. PMID:25687789

  9. Delay-induced patterns in a two-dimensional lattice of coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantner, Markus; Schöll, Eckehard; Yanchuk, Serhiy

    2015-02-01

    We show how a variety of stable spatio-temporal periodic patterns can be created in 2D-lattices of coupled oscillators with non-homogeneous coupling delays. The results are illustrated using the FitzHugh-Nagumo coupled neurons as well as coupled limit cycle (Stuart-Landau) oscillators. A ``hybrid dispersion relation'' is introduced, which describes the stability of the patterns in spatially extended systems with large time-delay.

  10. Eliminating amplitude death by the asymmetry coupling and process delay in coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Chenggui; Zhao, Qi; Zou, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Coupling mode plays a key role in determining the dynamical behavior and realizing certain system's rhythm and function in the complex systems. In this work, the effects of the asymmetry and process delay in the coupling on the dynamical behavior are investigated. We find that both the asymmetry and process delay effectively reduce the region of the frequency-mismatch-induced amplitude death in the parameter space, and make the system to recover oscillation in the amplitude death regime so as to retain sustained system's rhythm function. Furthermore, we show the asymmetry and process delay can destroy synchronization. Our results suggest that the asymmetry coupling and process delay are of crucial importance in controlling amplitude death and synchronization, and hence that their considerations are vital for modeling real life problems.

  11. Coupled inductors-based chaotic Colpitts oscillators: Mathematical modeling and synchronization issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamdoum Tamba, V.; Fotsin, H. B.; Kengne, J.; Kapche Tagne, F.; Talla, P. K.

    2015-07-01

    This paper deals with the mathematical modelling and synchronization of a new controlled Colpitts oscillator. The new electronic oscillator is constructed by considering standard/classical Colpitts oscillator with two further elements (coupled inductors and variable resistor). An accurate mathematical model is provided. The dynamics of the new controlled Colpitts oscillator is investigated theoretically and experimentally by examining dissipativity, equilibrium point, stability, bifurcation and Lyapunov exponent. It is found that the oscillator moves from the limit cycle motion to chaos via the usual paths of period-doubling, intermittency and interior crisis routes as the control resistor R L is monitored. The electronic circuit of the oscillator is implemented, and a very good qualitative agreement is obtained between the theoretical and experimental results. Furthermore, the problem of synchronization is investigated, in order to promote chaos-based synchronization designs of this type of oscillators. Firstly, we design a coupling function for unidirectional coupling in identical and mismatched controlled Colpitts oscillators to realize a modified function projective synchronization through the open-plus-closed-loop (OPCL) method. Secondly, two different coupling configurations, namely, coupled collector nodes (C-C) and coupled emitter nodes (E-E) of controlled Colpitts oscillators, are studied. Numerical simulations and experimental results are performed to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control schemes.

  12. Controlling and synchronizing the spatiotemporal chaos of photorefractive ring oscillators with coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoxiao; Feng, Xiuqin; Tian, Zuolin; Yao, Zhihai

    2016-06-01

    We present the control and synchronization of spatiotemporal chaos in the photo-refractive ring oscillator systems with coupling technology. First, we realize the synchronization of spatiotemporal chaos in the two photorefractive ring oscillator systems via mutual coupling by choosing a suitable coupling strength. With the mutual coupling strength enlarging, the two mutual coupling photorefractive ring oscillator systems are controlled into periodic state, period number differs on account of the coupling strength and lattice coordinates. By increasing the coupling strength, the photorefractive ring oscillator is converted into period 8, subsequently it is converted into periods 4 and 2, periodic synchronization of the photorefractive ring oscillator systems is achieved at the same time. Calculation results show that period 1 is impossible by mutual coupling technology. Then, we investigate the influence of noise and parameter deviation on chaotic synchronization. We find that mutual coupling chaotic synchronization method can synchronize two chaotic systems with the weak noise and parameter deviation and has very good robustness. Given that the weak noise and parameter deviation have a slight effect on synchronization. Furthermore, we investigate two dimension control and synchronization of spatiotemporal chaos in the photorefractive ring osillator systems with coupling technology and get successful results. Mutual coupling technology is suitable in practical photorefractive ring oscillator systems.

  13. Coherent oscillations between two weakly coupled Bose-Einstein condensates: Josephson effects, π oscillations, and macroscopic quantum self-trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, S.; Smerzi, A.; Fantoni, S.; Shenoy, S. R.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the coherent atomic oscillations between two weakly coupled Bose-Einstein condensates. The weak link is provided by a laser barrier in a (possibly asymmetric) double-well trap or by Raman coupling between two condensates in different hyperfine levels. The boson Josephson junction (BJJ) dynamics is described by the two-mode nonlinear Gross-Pitaevskii equation that is solved analytically in terms of elliptic functions. The BJJ, being a neutral, isolated system, allows the investigations of dynamical regimes for the phase difference across the junction and for the population imbalance that are not accessible with superconductor Josephson junctions (SJJ's). These include oscillations with either or both of the following properties: (i) the time-averaged value of the phase is equal to π (π-phase oscillations); (ii) the average population imbalance is nonzero, in states with macroscopic quantum self-trapping. The (nonsinusoidal) generalization of the SJJ ac and plasma oscillations and the Shapiro resonance can also be observed. We predict the collapse of experimental data (corresponding to different trap geometries and the total number of condensate atoms) onto a single universal curve for the inverse period of oscillations. Analogies with Josephson oscillations between two weakly coupled reservoirs of 3He-B and the internal Josephson effect in 3He-A are also discussed.

  14. Resonant Coupling of a Bose-Einstein Condensate to a Micromechanical Oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Hunger, David; Camerer, Stephan; Haensch, Theodor W.; Treutlein, Philipp; Koenig, Daniel; Kotthaus, Joerg P.; Reichel, Jakob

    2010-04-09

    We report experiments in which the vibrations of a micromechanical oscillator are coupled to the motion of Bose-condensed atoms in a trap. The interaction relies on surface forces experienced by the atoms at about 1 {mu}m distance from the mechanical structure. We observe resonant coupling to several well-resolved mechanical modes of the condensate. Coupling via surface forces does not require magnets, electrodes, or mirrors on the oscillator and could thus be employed to couple atoms to molecular-scale oscillators such as carbon nanotubes.

  15. An efficient method for simulation of noisy coupled multi-dimensional oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinchcombe, Adam R.; Forger, Daniel B.

    2016-09-01

    We present an efficient computational method for the study of populations of noisy coupled oscillators. By taking a population density approach in which the probability density of observing an oscillator at a point of state space is the primary variable instead of the states of all of the oscillators, we are able to seamlessly account for intrinsic noise within the oscillators and global coupling within the population. The population is assumed to consist of a large number of oscillators so that the noise process is well sampled over the population. Our numerical method is able to solve the governing equation even in the challenging case of limit cycle oscillators with a large number of state variables. Instead of simulating a prohibitive number of oscillators, our particle method simulates relatively few particles allowing for the efficient solution of the governing equation.

  16. Teaching the Physics of a String-Coupled Pendulum Oscillator: Not Just for Seniors Anymore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Ki

    2012-10-01

    Coupled oscillators are an example of resonant energy exchange that is an interesting topic for many students in various majors, such as physics, chemistry, and electrical and mechanical engineering. However, this subject matter is considered too advanced for freshmen and sophomores, usually because of the level of mathematics involved. Mathematical treatment of the coupled oscillator problem leads to a steady-state solution of motion, which is expressed by the superposition of the normal modes. Therefore, this paper presents a simple explanation to help freshmen and sophomore students grasp the underlying physics of the coupled oscillator problem. Among the various coupled pendulum problems,1-3 a string-coupled pendulum oscillator made using a light string, as shown in Fig. 1, is one of the easiest to construct and analyze. In addition, when compared with other coupled oscillator problems,1-3 the string-coupled pendulum oscillator problem makes it easier to understand the physical meaning of the two normal mode frequencies and how these two normal mode solutions can be superposed to yield the desired steady-state solution sfor a coupled oscillator.

  17. Sampled-data synchronisation of coupled harmonic oscillators with communication and input delays subject to controller failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liyun; Zhou, Jin; Wu, Quanjun

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the sampled-data synchronisation problems of coupled harmonic oscillators with communication and input delays subject to controller failure. A synchronisation protocol is proposed for such oscillator systems over directed network topology, and then some general algebraic criteria on exponential convergence for the proposed protocol are established. The main features of the present investigation include: (1) both the communication and input delays are simultaneously addressed, and the directed network topology is firstly considered and (2) the effects of time delays on synchronisation performance are theoretically and numerically investigated. It is shown that in the absence of communication delays, coupled harmonic oscillators can achieve synchronisation oscillatory motion. Whereas if communication delays are nonzero at infinite multiple sampled-data instants, its synchronisation (or consensus) state is zero. This conclusion can be used as an effective control strategy to stabilise coupled harmonic oscillators in practical applications. Furthermore, it is interesting to find that increasing either communication or input delays will enhance the synchronisation performance of coupled harmonic oscillators. Subsequently, numerical examples illustrate and visualise theoretical results.

  18. Nontrivial Bloch oscillation and Zener tunneling frequencies in helicoidal molecules due to spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caetano, R. A.

    2014-05-01

    Bloch oscillation and Zener tunneling are investigated in helicoidal molecules, with DNA as the representative example, in the presence of spin-orbit coupling induced by electrical charges accumulated along the structure of the molecule. We show that the presence of the spin-orbit coupling does not destroy the Bloch oscillations and, further, it induces the appearance of nontrivial Bloch oscillation frequencies associated with resonances among Wannier-Stark states. The Zener tunneling between the spin states is also studied here by looking at the time evolution of the polarization of the wave packet. The results show that the polarization also oscillates with nontrivial well-determined frequencies.

  19. Spin–orbit coupling induced magnetoresistance oscillation in a dc biased two-dimensional electron system.

    PubMed

    Wang, C M; Lei, X L

    2014-06-11

    We study dc-current effects on the magnetoresistance oscillation in a two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, using the balance-equation approach to nonlinear magnetotransport. In the weak current limit the magnetoresistance exhibits periodical Shubnikov-de Haas oscillation with changing Rashba coupling strength for a fixed magnetic field. At finite dc bias, the period of the oscillation halves when the interbranch contribution to resistivity dominates. With further increasing current density, the oscillatory resistivity exhibits phase inversion, i.e., magnetoresistivity minima (maxima) invert to maxima (minima) at certain values of the dc bias, which is due to the current-induced magnetoresistance oscillation. PMID:25932474

  20. Clinical Application of the Forced Oscillation Technique.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Toshihiro; Kurosawa, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is a noninvasive method with which to measure respiratory system resistance and reactance during tidal breathing. Recently, its clinical application has spread worldwide with the expansion of commercially available broadband frequency FOT devices, including MostGraph and Impulse Oscillometry. An increasing number of reports have supported the usefulness of the FOT in the management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the FOT is not a surrogate test for spirometry, but should be used complementarily. Furthermore, reference values are not necessarily available and the interpretation of some measured data is controversial. There is a need to update the international statement for not only technical aspects but also the clinical use of the FOT. In this review, we summarize the previously published studies and discuss how to use the FOT in a clinical setting. PMID:26984069

  1. Universal control of an oscillator with dispersive coupling to a qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krastanov, Stefan; Heeres, Reinier; Reinhold, Philip; Albert, Victor V.; Shen, Chao; Zou, Chang-Ling; Vlastakis, Brian; Schoelkopf, Robert; Jiang, Liang

    2016-05-01

    We investigate quantum control of an oscillator mode that dispersively couples to an ancillary qubit. In the strong dispersive regime, we may drive the qubit conditioned on the selected number states of the oscillator, which enables selective number-dependent arbitrary phase (SNAP) operation and universal control of the oscillator. We provide explicit constructions for arbitrary state preparation and arbitrary unitary operation of the oscillator. Moreover, using optimal control techniques, we develop fast and efficient pulse sequences to achieve high fidelity unitary gates. This universal control scheme of the oscillator can readily be implemented using superconducting circuits. Supported by ARO, AFOSR MURI, Sloan Foundation, and Packard Foundation.

  2. Optical parametric oscillators for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloster, Lawrie A. W.; Golding, Paul S.; King, Terence A.

    1996-04-01

    In recent years optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) have undergone a renaissance largely due to the discovery of new nonlinear materials capable of wide continuous tuning ranges spanning from the UV to the near-infrared spectral regions. To date, however, OPOs have not been exploited in the medical field despite their advantages over the dye laser in terms of tuning range and solid state structure. We consider the development of an OPO based on barium borate (BBO) which can be tailored to suit applications in medicine. Converting the maximum number of pump photons to tunable signal and idler photons is of great importance to secure high-fluence radiation necessary for many treatments. With this in mind, we report on an all- solid-state system using BBO which has been optimized by computer modeling with the potential of delivering amplification factors of typically up to 20 over a continuous tuning range of 700 nm to 1000 nm. As an example of its biomedical application, we describe the selective excitation of biomolecules and chromophores for cell destruction using malachite green isothiocyanate labelled bacteria. The potential for development is reviewed towards other medical applications such as diagnostic sensing and phototherapy.

  3. Chaotic weak chimeras and their persistence in coupled populations of phase oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bick, Christian; Ashwin, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Nontrivial collective behavior may emerge from the interactive dynamics of many oscillatory units. Chimera states are chaotic patterns of spatially localized coherent and incoherent oscillations. The recently-introduced notion of a weak chimera gives a rigorously testable characterization of chimera states for finite-dimensional phase oscillator networks. In this paper we give some persistence results for dynamically invariant sets under perturbations and apply them to coupled populations of phase oscillators with generalized coupling. In contrast to the weak chimeras with nonpositive maximal Lyapunov exponents constructed so far, we show that weak chimeras that are chaotic can exist in the limit of vanishing coupling between coupled populations of phase oscillators. We present numerical evidence that positive Lyapunov exponents can persist for a positive measure set of this inter-population coupling strength.

  4. Time-shifted synchronization of chaotic oscillator chains without explicit coupling delays.

    PubMed

    Blakely, Jonathan N; Stahl, Mark T; Corron, Ned J

    2009-12-01

    We examine chains of unidirectionally coupled oscillators in which time-shifted synchronization occurs without explicit delays in the coupling. In numerical simulations and in an experimental system of electronic oscillators, we examine the time shift and the degree of distortion (primarily in the form of attenuation) of the waveforms of the oscillators located far from the drive oscillator. Surprisingly, under weak coupling we observe minimal attenuation in spite of a significant total time shift. In contrast, at higher coupling strengths the observed attenuation increases dramatically and approaches the value predicted by an analytically derived estimate. In this regime, we verify directly that generalized synchronization is maintained over the entire chain length despite severe attenuation. These results suggest that weak coupling generally may produce higher quality synchronization in systems for which truly identical synchronization is not possible. PMID:20059213

  5. An experimental study on synchronization of nonlinear oscillators with Huygens' coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Ramírez, J.; Fey, R. H. B.; Nijmeijer, H.

    In this experimental study, phase synchronization is studied in pairs of nonlinear oscillators coupled through a movable support. In particular, the dynamics of two discontinuous mass-spring-damper oscillators and the dynamics of the classical Huygens' pendulum clocks are considered. In both systems the individual oscillators are self-sustained. It is shown that in both cases, the oscillators exhibit in-phase and anti-phase synchronization. All experiments are executed on a new experimental setup consisting of two controllable mass-spring-damper oscillators coupled through an elastically supported rigid bar. The results suggest, that the synchronized motion observed by Christiaan Huygens around 1650 in a pair of pendulum clocks mounted on a flexible support, in many cases can also be observed when the pendulum clocks are replaced by other self-sustained nonlinear oscillators.

  6. Cross-frequency coupling of brain oscillations in studying motivation and emotion.

    PubMed

    Schutter, Dennis J L G; Knyazev, Gennady G

    2012-03-01

    Research has shown that brain functions are realized by simultaneous oscillations in various frequency bands. In addition to examining oscillations in pre-specified bands, interactions and relations between the different frequency bandwidths is another important aspect that needs to be considered in unraveling the workings of the human brain and its functions. In this review we provide evidence that studying interdependencies between brain oscillations may be a valuable approach to study the electrophysiological processes associated with motivation and emotional states. Studies will be presented showing that amplitude-amplitude coupling between delta-alpha and delta-beta oscillations varies as a function of state anxiety and approach-avoidance-related motivation, and that changes in the association between delta-beta oscillations can be observed following successful psychotherapy. Together these studies suggest that cross-frequency coupling of brain oscillations may contribute to expanding our understanding of the neural processes underlying motivation and emotion. PMID:22448078

  7. Transverse mode coupling and supermode establishment in a free-electron laser oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Pinhasi, Y.; Gover, A.

    1995-12-31

    A three-dimensional study of transverse mode evolution in a free-electron laser (FEL) oscillator is presented. The total electromagnetic field circulating in the resonator is represented as a superposition of transverse modes of the cavity. Coupled-mode theory is employed to derive a generalized 3-D steady-state oscillation criterion, from which the oscillator supermode is found analytically. The oscillator supermode keeps its transverse features after each round-trip, and it is the eigenmode solution of the oscillator at steady-state. Relations between the oscillator supermode and the amplifier supermode are discussed. It is shown that they are identical only when the feedback process is entirely non-disperssive and non-discriminating. We employ a 3-D, non-linear simulation code to demonstrate the evolvement of transverse modes in the oscillator towards formation of a supermode. The simulation shows that the resulted supermode is identical to that predicted by the analytical approach.

  8. Coupling mechanism in the gate and oscillator model of the SCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Liu, Zengrong

    2016-09-01

    In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is considered as the master circadian pacemaker. The SCN is divided into two subgroups of gate and oscillator cells: the ventrolateral (VL) neurons, which receive the periodic light-dark (LD) signal, and the dorsomedial (DM) neurons, which are coupled to the VL cells. The fundamental question is how the individual cellular oscillators, expressing a wide range of periods, interact and assemble to create an integrated pacemaker that can govern behavioral and physiological rhythmicity and be reset by environmental light. The key is that the heterogeneous network formed by the cellular clocks within the SCN must synchronize to maintain timekeeping activity. Based on the structural and functional heterogeneity of the SCN, the authors bring forward a mathematical model including gate cells and oscillator cells with a wide range of periods. The gate neurons offer daily injection to oscillator neurons and the activation of gate is determined by the output of the oscillator neurons. In this model, the authors consider two kinds of coupling: interior coupling among the oscillator cells and exterior coupling from the gate cells to the oscillator cells. The authors mainly analyze the combined effects of these two kinds of coupling on the entrainment of the oscillator cells in the DM part. It is found that the interior coupling is conducive to entrainment, but a stronger coupling is not beneficial to entrainment. The gate mechanism in exterior coupling is more propitious to entrainment than continuous coupling. This study helps to understand collective circadian rhythm in the mammals.

  9. Analysis of chaotic oscillations induced in two coupled Wilson-Cowan models.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Yuya; Kakimoto, Yuta; Araki, Osamu

    2014-06-01

    Although it is known that two coupled Wilson-Cowan models with reciprocal connections induce aperiodic oscillations, little attention has been paid to the dynamical mechanism for such oscillations so far. In this study, we aim to elucidate the fundamental mechanism to induce the aperiodic oscillations in the coupled model. First, aperiodic oscillations observed are investigated for the case when the connections are unidirectional and when the input signal is a periodic oscillation. By the phase portrait analysis, we determine that the aperiodic oscillations are caused by periodically forced state transitions between a stable equilibrium and a stable limit cycle attractors around the saddle-node and saddle separatrix loop bifurcation points. It is revealed that the dynamical mechanism where the state crosses over the saddle-node and saddle separatrix loop bifurcations significantly contributes to the occurrence of chaotic oscillations forced by a periodic input. In addition, this mechanism can also give rise to chaotic oscillations in reciprocally connected Wilson-Cowan models. These results suggest that the dynamic attractor transition underlies chaotic behaviors in two coupled Wilson-Cowan oscillators. PMID:24789794

  10. Clausius inequality beyond the weak-coupling limit: the quantum Brownian oscillator.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ilki; Mahler, Günter

    2010-01-01

    We consider a quantum linear oscillator coupled at an arbitrary strength to a bath at an arbitrary temperature. We find an exact closed expression for the oscillator density operator. This state is noncanonical but can be shown to be equivalent to that of an uncoupled linear oscillator at an effective temperature T*(eff) with an effective mass and an effective spring constant. We derive an effective Clausius inequality deltaQ*(eff)< or =T*(eff)dS , where deltaQ*(eff) is the heat exchanged between the effective (weakly coupled) oscillator and the bath, and S represents a thermal entropy of the effective oscillator, being identical to the von-Neumann entropy of the coupled oscillator. Using this inequality (for a cyclic process in terms of a variation of the coupling strength) we confirm the validity of the second law. For a fixed coupling strength this inequality can also be tested for a process in terms of a variation of either the oscillator mass or its spring constant. Then it is never violated. The properly defined Clausius inequality is thus more robust than assumed previously. PMID:20365317

  11. Symmetric bifurcation analysis of synchronous states of time-delayed coupled Phase-Locked Loop oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferruzzo Correa, Diego Paolo; Wulff, Claudia; Piqueira, José Roberto Castilho

    2015-05-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in studying time-delayed coupled networks of oscillators since these occur in many real life applications. In many cases symmetry patterns can emerge in these networks, as a consequence a part of the system might repeat itself, and properties of this subsystem are representative of the dynamics on the whole phase space. In this paper an analysis of the second order N-node time-delay fully connected network is presented which is based on previous work: synchronous states in time-delay coupled periodic oscillators: a stability criterion. Correa and Piqueira (2013), for a 2-node network. This study is carried out using symmetry groups. We show the existence of multiple eigenvalues forced by symmetry, as well as the existence of Hopf bifurcations. Three different models are used to analyze the network dynamics, namely, the full-phase, the phase, and the phase-difference model. We determine a finite set of frequencies ω , that might correspond to Hopf bifurcations in each case for critical values of the delay. The Sn map is used to actually find Hopf bifurcations along with numerical calculations using the Lambert W function. Numerical simulations are used in order to confirm the analytical results. Although we restrict attention to second order nodes, the results could be extended to higher order networks provided the time-delay in the connections between nodes remains equal.

  12. Synchronization and phase redistribution in self-replicating populations of coupled oscillators and excitable elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wen; Wood, Kevin B.

    2015-06-01

    We study the dynamics of phase synchronization in growing populations of discrete phase oscillatory systems when the division process is coupled to the distribution of oscillator phases. Using mean-field theory, linear-stability analysis, and numerical simulations, we demonstrate that coupling between population growth and synchrony can lead to a wide range of dynamical behavior, including extinction of synchronized oscillations, the emergence of asynchronous states with unequal state (phase) distributions, bistability between oscillatory and asynchronous states or between two asynchronous states, a switch between continuous (supercritical) and discontinuous (subcritical) transitions, and modulation of the frequency of bulk oscillations.

  13. Finite-size-induced transitions to synchrony in oscillator ensembles with nonlinear global coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarov, Maxim; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2015-08-01

    We report on finite-sized-induced transitions to synchrony in a population of phase oscillators coupled via a nonlinear mean field, which microscopically is equivalent to a hypernetwork organization of interactions. Using a self-consistent approach and direct numerical simulations, we argue that a transition to synchrony occurs only for finite-size ensembles and disappears in the thermodynamic limit. For all considered setups, which include purely deterministic oscillators with or without heterogeneity in natural oscillatory frequencies, and an ensemble of noise-driven identical oscillators, we establish scaling relations describing the order parameter as a function of the coupling constant and the system size.

  14. Sequential nonideal measurements of quantum oscillators: Statistical characterization with and without environmental coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matta, Vincenzo; Pierro, Vincenzo

    2015-11-01

    A one-dimensional quantum oscillator is monitored by taking repeated position measurements. As a first contribution, it is shown that, under a quantum nondemolition measurement scheme applied to a system initially at the ground state, (i) the observed sequence of measurements (quantum tracks) corresponding to a single experiment converges to a limit point, and that (ii) the limit point is random over the ensemble of the experiments, being distributed as a zero-mean Gaussian random variable with a variance at most equal to the ground-state variance. As a second contribution, the richer scenario where the oscillator is coupled with a frozen (i.e., at the ground state) ensemble of independent quantum oscillators is considered. A sharply different behavior emerges: under the same measurement scheme, here we observe that the measurement sequences are essentially divergent. Such a rigorous statistical analysis of the sequential measurement process might be useful for characterizing the main quantities that are currently used for inference, manipulation, and monitoring of many quantum systems. Several interesting properties of the quantum tracks evolution, as well as of the associated (quantum) threshold crossing times, are discussed and the dependence upon the main system parameters (e.g., the choice of the measurement sampling time, the degree of interaction with the environment, the measurement device accuracy) is elucidated. At a more fundamental level, it is seen that, as an application of basic quantum mechanics principles, a sharp difference exists between the intrinsic randomness unavoidably present in any quantum system, and the extrinsic randomness arising from the environmental coupling, i.e., the randomness induced by an external source of disturbance.

  15. Pain Related Cortical Oscillations: Methodological Advances and Potential Applications

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Weiwei; Tang, Dandan

    2016-01-01

    Alongside the time-locked event-related potentials (ERPs), nociceptive somatosensory inputs can induce modulations of ongoing oscillations, appeared as event-related synchronization or desynchronization (ERS/ERD) in different frequency bands. These ERD/ERS activities are suggested to reflect various aspects of pain perception, including the representation, encoding, assessment, and integration of the nociceptive sensory inputs, as well as behavioral responses to pain, even the precise details of their roles remain unclear. Previous studies investigating the functional relevance of ERD/ERS activities in pain perception were normally done by assessing their latencies, frequencies, magnitudes, and scalp distributions, which would be then correlated with subjective pain perception or stimulus intensity. Nevertheless, these temporal, spectral, and spatial profiles of stimulus induced ERD/ERS could only partly reveal the dynamics of brain oscillatory activities. Indeed, additional parameters, including but not limited to, phase, neural generator, and cross frequency couplings, should be paid attention to comprehensively and systemically evaluate the dynamics of oscillatory activities associated with pain perception and behavior. This would be crucial in exploring the psychophysiological mechanisms of neural oscillation, and in understanding the neural functions of cortical oscillations involved in pain perception and behavior. Notably, some chronic pain (e.g., neurogenic pain and complex regional pain syndrome) patients are often associated with the occurrence of abnormal synchronized oscillatory brain activities, and selectively modulating cortical oscillatory activities has been showed to be a potential therapy strategy to relieve pain with the application of neurostimulation techniques, e.g., repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS). Thus, the investigation of the oscillatory activities proceeding from

  16. Pain Related Cortical Oscillations: Methodological Advances and Potential Applications.

    PubMed

    Peng, Weiwei; Tang, Dandan

    2016-01-01

    Alongside the time-locked event-related potentials (ERPs), nociceptive somatosensory inputs can induce modulations of ongoing oscillations, appeared as event-related synchronization or desynchronization (ERS/ERD) in different frequency bands. These ERD/ERS activities are suggested to reflect various aspects of pain perception, including the representation, encoding, assessment, and integration of the nociceptive sensory inputs, as well as behavioral responses to pain, even the precise details of their roles remain unclear. Previous studies investigating the functional relevance of ERD/ERS activities in pain perception were normally done by assessing their latencies, frequencies, magnitudes, and scalp distributions, which would be then correlated with subjective pain perception or stimulus intensity. Nevertheless, these temporal, spectral, and spatial profiles of stimulus induced ERD/ERS could only partly reveal the dynamics of brain oscillatory activities. Indeed, additional parameters, including but not limited to, phase, neural generator, and cross frequency couplings, should be paid attention to comprehensively and systemically evaluate the dynamics of oscillatory activities associated with pain perception and behavior. This would be crucial in exploring the psychophysiological mechanisms of neural oscillation, and in understanding the neural functions of cortical oscillations involved in pain perception and behavior. Notably, some chronic pain (e.g., neurogenic pain and complex regional pain syndrome) patients are often associated with the occurrence of abnormal synchronized oscillatory brain activities, and selectively modulating cortical oscillatory activities has been showed to be a potential therapy strategy to relieve pain with the application of neurostimulation techniques, e.g., repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS). Thus, the investigation of the oscillatory activities proceeding from

  17. A mathematical framework for amplitude and phase noise analysis of coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnin, M.; Corinto, F.; Lanza, V.

    2016-02-01

    Synchronization of coupled oscillators is a paradigm for complexity in many areas of science and engineering. Any realistic network model should include noise effects. We present a description in terms of phase and amplitude deviation for nonlinear oscillators coupled together through noisy interactions. In particular, the coupling is assumed to be modulated by white Gaussian noise. The equations derived for the amplitude deviation and the phase are rigorous, and their validity is not limited to the weak noise limit. We show that using Floquet theory, a partial decoupling between the amplitude and the phase is obtained. The decoupling can be exploited to describe the oscillator's dynamics solely by the phase variable. We discuss to what extent the reduced model is appropriate and some implications on the role of noise on the frequency of the oscillators.

  18. Transition from homogeneous to inhomogeneous steady states in oscillators under cyclic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Bidesh K.; Hens, Chittaranjan; Bhowmick, Sourav K.; Pal, Pinaki; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2016-01-01

    We report a transition from homogeneous steady state to inhomogeneous steady state in coupled oscillators, both limit cycle and chaotic, under cyclic coupling and diffusive coupling as well when an asymmetry is introduced in terms of a negative parameter mismatch. Such a transition appears in limit cycle systems via pitchfork bifurcation as usual. Especially, when we focus on chaotic systems, the transition follows a transcritical bifurcation for cyclic coupling while it is a pitchfork bifurcation for the conventional diffusive coupling. We use the paradigmatic Van der Pol oscillator as the limit cycle system and a Sprott system as a chaotic system. We verified our results analytically for cyclic coupling and numerically check all results including diffusive coupling for both the limit cycle and chaotic systems.

  19. Multi-scale energy exchanges between a nonlinear oscillator of Bouc-Wen type and another coupled nonlinear system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamarque, C.-H.; Ture Savadkoohi, A.; Naudan, M.

    2013-09-01

    The concept of energy exchange between coupled oscillators can be endowed for wide variety of applications such as control and energy harvesting. It has been proved that by coupling an essential nonlinear oscillator (cubic nonlinearity) to a main system (mostly linear), the latter system can be controlled in a one way and almost irreversible manner. The phenomenon is called energy pumping and the coupled nonlinear system is named as nonlinear energy sink (NES). The process of energy transfer from the main system to the nonlinear smooth or non-smooth attachment at different scales of time can present several scenarios: It can be attracted to periodic behaviors which present low or high energy levels for the main system and/or to quasi-periodic responses of two oscillators by persistent bifurcations between their stable zones. In this paper we analyze multi-scale dynamics of two attached oscillators: a Bouc-Wen type in general (in particular: a Dahl type and a modified hysteresis system) and a NES (nonsmooth and cubic). The system behavior at fast and first slow times scales by detecting its invariant manifold, its fixed points and singularities will be analyzed. Analytical developments will be accompanied by some numerical examples for systems that present quasi-periodic responses. The endowed Bouc-Wen models correspond to the hysteretic behavior of materials or structures. This paper is clearly connected with the dynamics of systems with hysteresis and nonlinear dynamics based energy harvesting.

  20. Coupled frequency-doubling optoelectronic oscillator based on polarization modulation and polarization multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Shuhong; Pan, Shilong; Zhu, Dan; Tang, Zhenzhou; Zhou, Pei; Chen, Xiangfei

    2012-03-01

    A coupled frequency-doubling optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, which is constructed based on the perfect combination of polarization modulation and polarization multiplexing. A fundamental microwave signal at 9.95 GHz or a frequency-doubled microwave signal at 19.9 GHz is generated with a wavelength-independent sidemode-suppression ratio (SMSR) as high as 78 dB obtained. The phase noise of the generated 19.9-GHz signal is - 103.45 dBc/Hz at 10-kHz frequency offset, indicating a good short-term stability. The proposed scheme is simple and flexible, which can find applications in radars and wireless communications.

  1. Nonreciprocal wave scattering on nonlinear string-coupled oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Lepri, Stefano; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2014-12-01

    We study scattering of a periodic wave in a string on two lumped oscillators attached to it. The equations can be represented as a driven (by the incident wave) dissipative (due to radiation losses) system of delay differential equations of neutral type. Nonlinearity of oscillators makes the scattering non-reciprocal: The same wave is transmitted differently in two directions. Periodic regimes of scattering are analyzed approximately, using amplitude equation approach. We show that this setup can act as a nonreciprocal modulator via Hopf bifurcations of the steady solutions. Numerical simulations of the full system reveal nontrivial regimes of quasiperiodic and chaotic scattering. Moreover, a regime of a “chaotic diode,” where transmission is periodic in one direction and chaotic in the opposite one, is reported.

  2. Using Coupled Harmonic Oscillators to Model Some Greenhouse Gas Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Go, Clark Kendrick C.; Maquiling, Joel T.

    2010-07-28

    Common greenhouse gas molecules SF{sub 6}, NO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} are modeled as harmonic oscillators whose potential and kinetic energies are derived. Using the Euler-Lagrange equation, their equations of motion are derived and their phase portraits are plotted. The authors use these data to attempt to explain the lifespan of these gases in the atmosphere.

  3. Ultracold atoms coupled to micro- and nanomechanical oscillators: towards hybrid quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treutlein, Philipp

    2009-05-01

    Micro- and nanomechanical oscillators are presently approaching the quantum regime, driven by the continuous improvement of techniques to read out and cool mechanical motion. For trapped ultracold atoms, a rich toolbox of quantum control techniques already exists. By coupling mechanical oscillators to ultracold atoms, hybrid quantum systems could be formed, in which the atoms are used to cool, read out, and coherently manipulate the oscillators' state. In our work, we investigate different coupling mechanisms between ultracold atoms and mechanical oscillators. In a first experiment, we use atom-surface forces to couple the vibrations of a mechanical cantilever to the motion of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a magnetic microtrap on a chip. The atoms are trapped at sub-micrometer distance from the cantilever surface. We make use of the coupling to read out the cantilever vibrations with the atoms. Coupling via surface forces could be employed to couple atoms to molecular-scale oscillators such as carbon nanotubes. In a second experiment, we investigate coupling via a 1D optical lattice that is formed by a laser beam retroreflected from the cantilever tip. The optical lattice serves as a transfer rod which couples vibrations of the cantilever to the atoms and vice versa. Finally, we investigate magnetic coupling between the spin of ultracold atoms and the vibrations of a nanoscale cantilever with a magnetic tip. Theoretical investigations show that at low temperatures, the backaction of the atoms onto the cantilever is significant and the system represents a mechanical analog of cavity quantum electrodynamics in the strong coupling regime.

  4. How to induce multiple delays in coupled chaotic oscillators?

    SciTech Connect

    Bhowmick, Sourav K.; Ghosh, Dibakar; Roy, Prodyot K.; Kurths, Jürgen; Dana, Syamal K.

    2013-12-15

    Lag synchronization is a basic phenomenon in mismatched coupled systems, delay coupled systems, and time-delayed systems. It is characterized by a lag configuration that identifies a unique time shift between all pairs of similar state variables of the coupled systems. In this report, an attempt is made how to induce multiple lag configurations in coupled systems when different pairs of state variables attain different time shift. A design of coupling is presented to realize this multiple lag synchronization. Numerical illustration is given using examples of the Rössler system and the slow-fast Hindmarsh-Rose neuron model. The multiple lag scenario is physically realized in an electronic circuit of two Sprott systems.

  5. How to induce multiple delays in coupled chaotic oscillators?

    PubMed

    Bhowmick, Sourav K; Ghosh, Dibakar; Roy, Prodyot K; Kurths, Jürgen; Dana, Syamal K

    2013-12-01

    Lag synchronization is a basic phenomenon in mismatched coupled systems, delay coupled systems, and time-delayed systems. It is characterized by a lag configuration that identifies a unique time shift between all pairs of similar state variables of the coupled systems. In this report, an attempt is made how to induce multiple lag configurations in coupled systems when different pairs of state variables attain different time shift. A design of coupling is presented to realize this multiple lag synchronization. Numerical illustration is given using examples of the Rössler system and the slow-fast Hindmarsh-Rose neuron model. The multiple lag scenario is physically realized in an electronic circuit of two Sprott systems. PMID:24387554

  6. Double resonance surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates: an intuitive coupled oscillator model.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yizhuo; Wang, Dongxing; Zhu, Wenqi; Crozier, Kenneth B

    2011-08-01

    The strong coupling between localized surface plasmons and surface plasmon polaritons in a double resonance surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate is described by a classical coupled oscillator model. The effects of the particle density, the particle size and the SiO2 spacer thickness on the coupling strength are experimentally investigated. We demonstrate that by tuning the geometrical parameters of the double resonance substrate, we can readily control the resonance frequencies and tailor the SERS enhancement spectrum. PMID:21934853

  7. Insights into collective cell behaviour from populations of coupled chemical oscillators.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Annette F; Tinsley, Mark R; Showalter, Kenneth

    2015-08-21

    Biological systems such as yeast show coordinated activity driven by chemical communication between cells. Here, we show how experiments with coupled chemical oscillators can provide insights into collective behaviour in cellular systems. Two methods of coupling the oscillators are described: exchange of chemical species with the surrounding solution and computer-controlled illumination of a light-sensitive catalyst. The collective behaviour observed includes synchronisation, dynamical quorum sensing (a density dependent transition to population-wide oscillations), and chimera states, where oscillators spontaneously split into coherent and incoherent groups. At the core of the different types of behaviour lies an intracellular autocatalytic signal and an intercellular communication mechanism that influences the autocatalytic growth. PMID:26195263

  8. Phase synchronization of diffusively coupled Rössler oscillators with funnel attractors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H. L.

    2001-08-01

    Recently, an antiphase phase-synchronized state in a system of diffusively coupled Rössler oscillators has been reported [Gang Hu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3377 (2000)]. In the current paper this antiphase state is explored in detail. Our interests are concentrated on the comparison with the normal in-phase phase-synchronized state for phase-coherent oscillators and the effect of the lattice size. Our main results are that (i) this antiphase synchronization is only for funnel Rössler attractors and cannot be observed in a system of coupled phase-coherent oscillators; (ii) it can be observed only for intermediate values of the lattice size while it disappears for quite low or large values of the lattice size; and (iii) it is different from the in-phase phase-synchronized state of phase-coherent oscillators in many respects.

  9. Emergent Behaviors of Quantum Lohe Oscillators with All-to-All Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sun-Ho; Ha, Seung-Yeal

    2015-12-01

    We study an emergent synchronous behavior for an ensemble of Lohe qubit oscillators whose quantum states are described by 2× 2 unitary matrices. The quantum Lohe model can be regarded as a non-abelian and quantum generalization of the Kuramoto model for classical oscillators. For the interacting qubit system, the Lohe model can be recast as a coupled ODE system. We provide several explicit sufficient conditions for the complete synchronization of Lohe qubit oscillators in terms of the initial condition and coupling strength. We also show that for identical qubit oscillators, the Lohe model for interacting qubits satisfies an asymptotic completeness property. Our analytical results confirm the numerical results from Lohe (J Phys A Math Theor 43:465301, 2010).

  10. Pattern phase diagram for two-dimensional arrays of coupled limit-cycle oscillators.

    PubMed

    Lauter, Roland; Brendel, Christian; Habraken, Steven J M; Marquardt, Florian

    2015-07-01

    Arrays of coupled limit-cycle oscillators represent a paradigmatic example for studying synchronization and pattern formation. We find that the full dynamical equations for the phase dynamics of a limit-cycle oscillator array go beyond previously studied Kuramoto-type equations. We analyze the evolution of the phase field in a two-dimensional array and obtain a "phase diagram" for the resulting stationary and nonstationary patterns. Our results are of direct relevance in the context of currently emerging experiments on nano- and optomechanical oscillator arrays, as well as for any array of coupled limit-cycle oscillators that have undergone a Hopf bifurcation. The possible observation in optomechanical arrays is discussed briefly. PMID:26274242

  11. Tight Coupling of Metabolic Oscillations and Intracellular Water Dynamics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Thoke, Henrik Seir; Tobiesen, Asger; Brewer, Jonathan; Hansen, Per Lyngs; Stock, Roberto P.; Olsen, Lars F.; Bagatolli, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    We detected very strong coupling between the oscillating concentration of ATP and the dynamics of intracellular water during glycolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results indicate that: i) dipolar relaxation of intracellular water is heterogeneous within the cell and different from dilute conditions, ii) water dipolar relaxation oscillates with glycolysis and in phase with ATP concentration, iii) this phenomenon is scale-invariant from the subcellular to the ensemble of synchronized cells and, iv) the periodicity of both glycolytic oscillations and dipolar relaxation are equally affected by D2O in a dose-dependent manner. These results offer a new insight into the coupling of an emergent intensive physicochemical property of the cell, i.e. cell-wide water dipolar relaxation, and a central metabolite (ATP) produced by a robustly oscillating metabolic process. PMID:25705902

  12. Two-Dimensional Array Beam Scanning Via Externally and Mutually Injection Locked Coupled Oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pogorzelski, Ronald J.

    2000-01-01

    Some years ago, Stephan proposed an approach to one dimensional (linear) phased array beam steering which requires only a single phase shifter. This involves the use of a linear array of voltage-controlled electronic oscillators coupled to nearest neighbors. The oscillators are mutually injection locked by controlling their coupling and tuning appropriately. Stephan's approach consists of deriving two signals from a master oscillator, one signal phase shifted with respect to the other by means of a single phase shifter. These two signals are injected into the end oscillators of the array. The result is a linear phase progression across the oscillator array. Thus, if radiating elements are connected to each oscillator and spaced uniformly along a line, they will radiate a beam at an angle to that line determined by the phase gradient which is, in turn, determined by the phase difference between the injection signals.The beam direction is therefore controlled by adjusting this phase difference. Recently, Pogorzelski and York presented a formulation which facilitates theoretical analysis of the above beam steering technique. This was subsequently applied by Pogorzelski in analysis of two dimensional beam steering using perimeter detuning of a coupled oscillator array. The formulation is based on a continuum model in which the oscillator phases are represented by a continuous function satisfying a partial differential equation of diffusion type. This equation can be solved via the Laplace transform and the resulting solution exhibits the dynamic behavior of the array as the beam is steered. Stephan's beam steering technique can be similarly generalized to two-dimensional arrays in which the beam control signals are applied to the oscillators on the perimeter of the array. In this paper the continuum model for this two-dimensional case is developed and the dynamic solution for the corresponding aperture phase function is obtained. The corresponding behavior of the

  13. Gβ Regulates Coupling between Actin Oscillators for Cell Polarity and Directional Migration

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Huaqing; Sun, Yaohui; Huang, Chuan-Hsiang; Freyre, Mariel; Zhao, Min; Devreotes, Peter N.; Weiner, Orion D.

    2016-01-01

    For directional movement, eukaryotic cells depend on the proper organization of their actin cytoskeleton. This engine of motility is made up of highly dynamic nonequilibrium actin structures such as flashes, oscillations, and traveling waves. In Dictyostelium, oscillatory actin foci interact with signals such as Ras and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) to form protrusions. However, how signaling cues tame actin dynamics to produce a pseudopod and guide cellular motility is a critical open question in eukaryotic chemotaxis. Here, we demonstrate that the strength of coupling between individual actin oscillators controls cell polarization and directional movement. We implement an inducible sequestration system to inactivate the heterotrimeric G protein subunit Gβ and find that this acute perturbation triggers persistent, high-amplitude cortical oscillations of F-actin. Actin oscillators that are normally weakly coupled to one another in wild-type cells become strongly synchronized following acute inactivation of Gβ. This global coupling impairs sensing of internal cues during spontaneous polarization and sensing of external cues during directional motility. A simple mathematical model of coupled actin oscillators reveals the importance of appropriate coupling strength for chemotaxis: moderate coupling can increase sensitivity to noisy inputs. Taken together, our data suggest that Gβ regulates the strength of coupling between actin oscillators for efficient polarity and directional migration. As these observations are only possible following acute inhibition of Gβ and are masked by slow compensation in genetic knockouts, our work also shows that acute loss-of-function approaches can complement and extend the reach of classical genetics in Dictyostelium and likely other systems as well. PMID:26890004

  14. Gβ Regulates Coupling between Actin Oscillators for Cell Polarity and Directional Migration.

    PubMed

    Hoeller, Oliver; Toettcher, Jared E; Cai, Huaqing; Sun, Yaohui; Huang, Chuan-Hsiang; Freyre, Mariel; Zhao, Min; Devreotes, Peter N; Weiner, Orion D

    2016-02-01

    For directional movement, eukaryotic cells depend on the proper organization of their actin cytoskeleton. This engine of motility is made up of highly dynamic nonequilibrium actin structures such as flashes, oscillations, and traveling waves. In Dictyostelium, oscillatory actin foci interact with signals such as Ras and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) to form protrusions. However, how signaling cues tame actin dynamics to produce a pseudopod and guide cellular motility is a critical open question in eukaryotic chemotaxis. Here, we demonstrate that the strength of coupling between individual actin oscillators controls cell polarization and directional movement. We implement an inducible sequestration system to inactivate the heterotrimeric G protein subunit Gβ and find that this acute perturbation triggers persistent, high-amplitude cortical oscillations of F-actin. Actin oscillators that are normally weakly coupled to one another in wild-type cells become strongly synchronized following acute inactivation of Gβ. This global coupling impairs sensing of internal cues during spontaneous polarization and sensing of external cues during directional motility. A simple mathematical model of coupled actin oscillators reveals the importance of appropriate coupling strength for chemotaxis: moderate coupling can increase sensitivity to noisy inputs. Taken together, our data suggest that Gβ regulates the strength of coupling between actin oscillators for efficient polarity and directional migration. As these observations are only possible following acute inhibition of Gβ and are masked by slow compensation in genetic knockouts, our work also shows that acute loss-of-function approaches can complement and extend the reach of classical genetics in Dictyostelium and likely other systems as well. PMID:26890004

  15. Signatures of the A2 term in ultrastrongly coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tufarelli, Tommaso; McEnery, K. R.; Maier, S. A.; Kim, M. S.

    2015-06-01

    We study a bosonic matter excitation coupled to a single-mode cavity field via electric dipole. Counter-rotating and A2 terms are included in the interaction model, A being the vector potential of the cavity field. In the ultrastrong coupling regime the vacuum of the bare modes is no longer the ground state of the Hamiltonian and contains a nonzero population of polaritons, the true normal modes of the system. If the parameters of the model satisfy the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule, we find that the two polaritons are always equally populated. We show how this prediction could be tested in a quenching experiment, by rapidly switching on the coupling and analyzing the radiation emitted by the cavity. A refinement of the model based on a microscopic minimal coupling Hamiltonian is also provided, and its consequences on our results are characterized analytically.

  16. Does hyperbolicity impede emergence of chimera states in networks of nonlocally coupled chaotic oscillators?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenova, N.; Zakharova, A.; Schöll, E.; Anishchenko, V.

    2015-11-01

    We analyze nonlocally coupled networks of identical chaotic oscillators with either time-discrete or time-continuous dynamics (Henon map, Lozi map, Lorenz system). We hypothesize that chimera states, in which spatial domains of coherent (synchronous) and incoherent (desynchronized) dynamics coexist, can be obtained only in networks of oscillators with nonhyperbolic chaotic attractors and cannot be found in networks of systems with hyperbolic chaotic attractors. This hypothesis is supported by analytical results and numerical simulations for hyperbolic and nonhyperbolic cases.

  17. Synchronization of coupled van der pole and Kislov-Dmitriev self-oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emel'Yanova, Yu. P.; Kuznetsov, A. P.

    2011-04-01

    The problem of interaction of self-oscillating elements of different origin is considered for a coupled van der Pole oscillator and Kislov-Dmitriev generator. Domains with different types of dynamics in the space of parameters are indicated taking into account the possibility of broadband synchronization of the systems. The case of essentially different control parameters is considered. Chaos stabilization effects and the opposite effect (initiated chaos) are detected in the system under investigation for various values of parameters.

  18. Average dynamics of a finite set of coupled phase oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Dima, Germán C. Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2014-06-15

    We study the solutions of a dynamical system describing the average activity of an infinitely large set of driven coupled excitable units. We compared their topological organization with that reconstructed from the numerical integration of finite sets. In this way, we present a strategy to establish the pertinence of approximating the dynamics of finite sets of coupled nonlinear units by the dynamics of its infinitely large surrogate.

  19. Linear stability and the Braess paradox in coupled-oscillator networks and electric power grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletta, Tommaso; Jacquod, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the influence that adding a new coupling has on the linear stability of the synchronous state in coupled-oscillator networks. Using a simple model, we show that, depending on its location, the new coupling can lead to enhanced or reduced stability. We extend these results to electric power grids where a new line can lead to four different scenarios corresponding to enhanced or reduced grid stability as well as increased or decreased power flows. Our analysis shows that the Braess paradox may occur in any complex coupled system, where the synchronous state may be weakened and sometimes even destroyed by additional couplings.

  20. Self-excited nonlinear plasma series resonance oscillations in geometrically symmetric capacitively coupled radio frequency discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Donko, Z.; Schulze, J.; Czarnetzki, U.; Luggenhoelscher, D.

    2009-03-30

    At low pressures, nonlinear self-excited plasma series resonance (PSR) oscillations are known to drastically enhance electron heating in geometrically asymmetric capacitively coupled radio frequency discharges by nonlinear electron resonance heating (NERH). Here we demonstrate via particle-in-cell simulations that high-frequency PSR oscillations can also be excited in geometrically symmetric discharges if the driving voltage waveform makes the discharge electrically asymmetric. This can be achieved by a dual-frequency (f+2f) excitation, when PSR oscillations and NERH are turned on and off depending on the electrical discharge asymmetry, controlled by the phase difference of the driving frequencies.

  1. The role of electrical coupling in generating and modulating oscillations in a neuronal network.

    PubMed

    Mouser, Christina; Bose, Amitabha; Nadim, Farzan

    2016-08-01

    A simplified model of the crustacean gastric mill network is considered. Rhythmic activity in this network has largely been attributed to half center oscillations driven by mutual inhibition. We use mathematical modeling and dynamical systems theory to show that rhythmic oscillations in this network may also depend on, or even arise from, a voltage-dependent electrical coupling between one of the cells in the half-center network and a projection neuron that lies outside of the network. This finding uncovers a potentially new mechanism for the generation of oscillations in neuronal networks. PMID:27188714

  2. Thermal energies of classical and quantum damped oscillators coupled to reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philbin, T. G.; Anders, J.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the global thermal state of classical and quantum harmonic oscillators that interact with a reservoir. Ohmic damping of the oscillator can be exactly treated with a 1D scalar field reservoir, whereas general non-Ohmic damping is conveniently treated with a continuum reservoir of harmonic oscillators. Using the diagonalized Hamiltonian of the total system, we calculate a number of thermodynamic quantities for the damped oscillator: the mean force internal energy, mean force free energy, and another internal energy based on the free-oscillator Hamiltonian. The classical mean force energy is equal to that of a free oscillator, for both Ohmic and non-Ohmic damping no matter how strong the coupling to the reservoir. In contrast, the quantum mean force energy depends on the details of the damping and diverges for strictly Ohmic damping. These results give additional insight into the steady-state thermodynamics of open systems with arbitrarily strong coupling to a reservoir, complementing results for energies derived within dynamical approaches (e.g. master equations) in the weak-coupling regime.

  3. Achieving synchronization with active hybrid materials: Coupling self-oscillating gels and piezoelectric films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashin, Victor V.; Levitan, Steven P.; Balazs, Anna C.

    2015-06-01

    Lightweight, deformable materials that can sense and respond to human touch and motion can be the basis of future wearable computers, where the material itself will be capable of performing computations. To facilitate the creation of “materials that compute”, we draw from two emerging modalities for computation: chemical computing, which relies on reaction-diffusion mechanisms to perform operations, and oscillatory computing, which performs pattern recognition through synchronization of coupled oscillators. Chemical computing systems, however, suffer from the fact that the reacting species are coupled only locally; the coupling is limited by diffusion as the chemical waves propagate throughout the system. Additionally, oscillatory computing systems have not utilized a potentially wearable material. To address both these limitations, we develop the first model for coupling self-oscillating polymer gels to a piezoelectric (PZ) micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS). The resulting transduction between chemo-mechanical and electrical energy creates signals that can be propagated quickly over long distances and thus, permits remote, non-diffusively coupled oscillators to communicate and synchronize. Moreover, the oscillators can be organized into arbitrary topologies because the electrical connections lift the limitations of diffusive coupling. Using our model, we predict the synchronization behavior that can be used for computational tasks, ultimately enabling “materials that compute”.

  4. Achieving synchronization with active hybrid materials: Coupling self-oscillating gels and piezoelectric films

    PubMed Central

    Yashin, Victor V.; Levitan, Steven P.; Balazs, Anna C.

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight, deformable materials that can sense and respond to human touch and motion can be the basis of future wearable computers, where the material itself will be capable of performing computations. To facilitate the creation of “materials that compute”, we draw from two emerging modalities for computation: chemical computing, which relies on reaction-diffusion mechanisms to perform operations, and oscillatory computing, which performs pattern recognition through synchronization of coupled oscillators. Chemical computing systems, however, suffer from the fact that the reacting species are coupled only locally; the coupling is limited by diffusion as the chemical waves propagate throughout the system. Additionally, oscillatory computing systems have not utilized a potentially wearable material. To address both these limitations, we develop the first model for coupling self-oscillating polymer gels to a piezoelectric (PZ) micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS). The resulting transduction between chemo-mechanical and electrical energy creates signals that can be propagated quickly over long distances and thus, permits remote, non-diffusively coupled oscillators to communicate and synchronize. Moreover, the oscillators can be organized into arbitrary topologies because the electrical connections lift the limitations of diffusive coupling. Using our model, we predict the synchronization behavior that can be used for computational tasks, ultimately enabling “materials that compute”. PMID:26105979

  5. Synchronization in a network of phase-coupled oscillators: the role of learning and time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timms, Liam; English, Lars

    2013-03-01

    We investigate numerically the interplay of network ``learning'' and finite signal speed in one and two-dimensional arrays of coupled Kuramoto oscillators. The finite signal speed is introduced into the dynamical system via a time-delay in the coupling. The network structures we examine include various one and two-dimensional arrays with both long and short-range connectivity; the structure of these arrays is imposed via a time delay and a connection matrix. The learning is governed by the Hebbian learning rule which allows the coupling strengths between pairs of oscillators to vary dynamically. It corresponds to a neurological type of learning in which the synapses between neural oscillators increase in strength when they fire action potentials together. We explore the coherent spatio-temporal patterns that can emerge as a function of model parameters such as learning rate and signal speed.

  6. Order parameter analysis for low-dimensional behaviors of coupled phase-oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jian; Xu, Can; Sun, Yuting; Zheng, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    Coupled phase-oscillators are important models related to synchronization. Recently, Ott-Antonsen(OA) ansatz is developed and used to get low-dimensional collective behaviors in coupled oscillator systems. In this paper, we develop a simple and concise approach based on equations of order parameters, namely, order parameter analysis, with which we point out that OA ansatz is rooted in the dynamical symmetry of order parameters. With our approach the scope of OA ansatz is identified as two conditions, i.e., the limit of infinitely many oscillators and only three nonzero Fourier coefficients of the coupling function. Coinciding with each of the conditions, a distinctive system out of the scope is taken into account and discussed with the order parameter analysis. Two approximation methods are introduced respectively, namely the expectation assumption and the dominating-term assumption. PMID:27443639

  7. Coherent dynamics of a flux qubit coupled to a harmonic oscillator.

    PubMed

    Chiorescu, I; Bertet, P; Semba, K; Nakamura, Y; Harmans, C J P M; Mooij, J E

    2004-09-01

    In the emerging field of quantum computation and quantum information, superconducting devices are promising candidates for the implementation of solid-state quantum bits (qubits). Single-qubit operations, direct coupling between two qubits and the realization of a quantum gate have been reported. However, complex manipulation of entangled states-such as the coupling of a two-level system to a quantum harmonic oscillator, as demonstrated in ion/atom-trap experiments and cavity quantum electrodynamics-has yet to be achieved for superconducting devices. Here we demonstrate entanglement between a superconducting flux qubit (a two-level system) and a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The latter provides the measurement system for detecting the quantum states; it is also an effective inductance that, in parallel with an external shunt capacitance, acts as a harmonic oscillator. We achieve generation and control of the entangled state by performing microwave spectroscopy and detecting the resultant Rabi oscillations of the coupled system. PMID:15356624

  8. Analysis and design of coupled-oscillator arrays for microwave systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussounda, Renaud

    The concept of synchronized nonlinear coupled oscillators is applied to microwave and antenna engineering for the analysis and design of wireless communication and sensing systems operating at the microwave and/or millimeter (mm)-wave frequencies. The significance of such approach is justified from the potential gain in efficiency, weight, cost and functionality although technical challenges stand in the way. Unlike typical phased array systems, which are currently used to construct such systems, coupled-oscillator systems present additional challenges that mainly arise from maintaining stability and synchronization as the the coupled nonlinear system is operated. Linear systems do not present such stability issues and are consequently faster since they do not rely on any gradual synchronization mechanism in order to function. However, at significantly higher frequencies in the quasi-optical domain, coupled-oscillator systems can make up for the speed difference and present significant efficiency advantages over typical phased array architectures. In addition, coupled nonlinear systems possess inherent analog properties that can be used for a multitude of functions. This dissertation advances the topic of coupled-oscillator arrays by 1) developing an alternative set of techniques for designing the oscillating unit cells called active integrated antennas (AIAs) at microwave or mm-wave frequencies, 2) developing a more accurate description of the dynamics of the array, 3) developing and implementing a new topology for a coupling network that is able to extend stability, 4) implementing a fully non-reciprocally coupled array able to produce large scan angle without loss of stability, 5) proposing an architecture based on a single phase-locked loop (PLL) and containing a self-calibration mechanism, and finally 6) implementing a phase-boosting mechanism using simple circuits to amplify the phase difference between adjacent radiating antennas in order to increase

  9. Intercellular delay regulates the collective period of repressively coupled gene regulatory oscillator networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongqiang; Hori, Yutaka; Hara, Shinji; Doyle, Francis J.

    2013-01-01

    Most biological rhythms are generated by a population of cellular oscillators coupled through intercellular signaling. Recent experimental evidence shows that the collective period may differ significantly from the autonomous period in the presence of intercellular delays. The phenomenon has been investigated using delay-coupled phase oscillators, but the proposed phase model contains no direct biological mechanism, which may weaken the model's reliability in unraveling biophysical principles. Based on a published gene regulatory oscillator model, we analyze the collective period of delay-coupled biological oscillators using the multivariable harmonic balance technique. We prove that, in contradiction to the common intuition that the collective period increases linearly with the coupling delay, the collective period turns out to be a periodic function of the intercellular delay. More surprisingly, the collective period may even decrease with the intercellular delay when the delay resides in certain regions. The collective period is given in a closed-form in terms of biochemical reaction constants and thus provides biological insights as well as guidance in synthetic-biological-oscillator design. Simulation results are given based on a segmentation clock model to confirm the theoretical predictions. PMID:25346544

  10. PT-symmetric dimer of coupled nonlinear oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas, Jesús; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Saxena, Avadh; Khare, Avinash

    2013-09-01

    We provide a systematic analysis of a prototypical nonlinear oscillator system respecting PT symmetry i.e., one of them has gain and the other an equal and opposite amount of loss. Starting from the linear limit of the system, we extend considerations to the nonlinear case for both soft and hard cubic nonlinearities identifying symmetric and antisymmetric breather solutions, as well as symmetry-breaking variants thereof. We propose a reduction of the system to a Schrödinger-type PT-symmetric dimer, whose detailed earlier understanding can explain many of the phenomena observed herein, including the PT phase transition. Nevertheless, there are also significant parametric as well as phenomenological potential differences between the two models and we discuss where these arise and where they are most pronounced. Finally, we also provide examples of the evolution dynamics of the different states in their regimes of instability.

  11. Entrainment of a Synthetic Oscillator through Queueing Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochendoner, Philip; Mather, William; Butzin, Nicholas; Ogle, Curtis

    2014-03-01

    Many biological systems naturally exhibit (often noisy) oscillatory patterns that are capable of being entrained by external stimuli, though the mechanism of entrainment is typically obscured by the complexity of native networks. A synthetic biology approach, where genetic programs are wired ``by hand,'' has proven useful in this regard. In the present study, we use a synthetic oscillator in Escherichia coli to demonstrate a novel and potentially widespread mechanism for biological entrainment: competition of proteins for degradation by common pathway, i.e. a entrainment by a bottleneck. To faithfully represent the discrete and stochastic nature of this bottleneck, we leverage results from a recent biological queueing theory, where in particular, the queueing theoretic concept of workload is discovered to simplify the analysis. NSF Award 1330180.

  12. Variety of alternative stable phase-locking in networks of electrically coupled relaxation oscillators.

    PubMed

    Meyrand, Pierre; Bem, Tiaza

    2014-01-01

    We studied the dynamics of a large-scale model network comprised of oscillating electrically coupled neurons. Cells are modeled as relaxation oscillators with short duty cycle, so they can be considered either as models of pacemaker cells, spiking cells with fast regenerative and slow recovery variables or firing rate models of excitatory cells with synaptic depression or cellular adaptation. It was already shown that electrically coupled relaxation oscillators exhibit not only synchrony but also anti-phase behavior if electrical coupling is weak. We show that a much wider spectrum of spatiotemporal patterns of activity can emerge in a network of electrically coupled cells as a result of switching from synchrony, produced by short external signals of different spatial profiles. The variety of patterns increases with decreasing rate of neuronal firing (or duty cycle) and with decreasing strength of electrical coupling. We study also the effect of network topology--from all-to-all--to pure ring connectivity, where only the closest neighbors are coupled. We show that the ring topology promotes anti-phase behavior as compared to all-to-all coupling. It also gives rise to a hierarchical organization of activity: during each of the main phases of a given pattern cells fire in a particular sequence determined by the local connectivity. We have analyzed the behavior of the network using geometric phase plane methods and we give heuristic explanations of our findings. Our results show that complex spatiotemporal activity patterns can emerge due to the action of stochastic or sensory stimuli in neural networks without chemical synapses, where each cell is equally coupled to others via gap junctions. This suggests that in developing nervous systems where only electrical coupling is present such a mechanism can lead to the establishment of proto-networks generating premature multiphase oscillations whereas the subsequent emergence of chemical synapses would later stabilize

  13. Patterns of patterns of synchronization: Noise induced attractor switching in rings of coupled nonlinear oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emenheiser, Jeffrey; Chapman, Airlie; Pósfai, Márton; Crutchfield, James P.; Mesbahi, Mehran; D'Souza, Raissa M.

    2016-09-01

    Following the long-lived qualitative-dynamics tradition of explaining behavior in complex systems via the architecture of their attractors and basins, we investigate the patterns of switching between distinct trajectories in a network of synchronized oscillators. Our system, consisting of nonlinear amplitude-phase oscillators arranged in a ring topology with reactive nearest-neighbor coupling, is simple and connects directly to experimental realizations. We seek to understand how the multiple stable synchronized states connect to each other in state space by applying Gaussian white noise to each of the oscillators' phases. To do this, we first analytically identify a set of locally stable limit cycles at any given coupling strength. For each of these attracting states, we analyze the effect of weak noise via the covariance matrix of deviations around those attractors. We then explore the noise-induced attractor switching behavior via numerical investigations. For a ring of three oscillators, we find that an attractor-switching event is always accompanied by the crossing of two adjacent oscillators' phases. For larger numbers of oscillators, we find that the distribution of times required to stochastically leave a given state falls off exponentially, and we build an attractor switching network out of the destination states as a coarse-grained description of the high-dimensional attractor-basin architecture.

  14. Robustness of chimera states for coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omelchenko, Iryna; Provata, Astero; Hizanidis, Johanne; Schöll, Eckehard; Hövel, Philipp

    2015-02-01

    Chimera states are complex spatio-temporal patterns that consist of coexisting domains of spatially coherent and incoherent dynamics. This counterintuitive phenomenon was first observed in systems of identical oscillators with symmetric coupling topology. Can one overcome these limitations? To address this question, we discuss the robustness of chimera states in networks of FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators. Considering networks of inhomogeneous elements with regular coupling topology, and networks of identical elements with irregular coupling topologies, we demonstrate that chimera states are robust with respect to these perturbations and analyze their properties as the inhomogeneities increase. We find that modifications of coupling topologies cause qualitative changes of chimera states: additional random links induce a shift of the stability regions in the system parameter plane, gaps in the connectivity matrix result in a change of the multiplicity of incoherent regions of the chimera state, and hierarchical geometry in the connectivity matrix induces nested coherent and incoherent regions.

  15. Spoof surface plasmon polaritons in terahertz transmission through subwavelength hole arrays analyzed by coupled oscillator model

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shan; Lu, Xinchao; Xu, Ningning; Wang, Shuang; E., Yiwen; Pan, Xuecong; Xu, Xinlong; Liu, Hongyao; Chen, Lu; Zhang, Weili; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Both the localized resonance and excitation of spoof surface plasmon polaritons are observed in the terahertz transmission spectra of periodic subwavelength hole arrays. Analyzing with the coupled oscillator model, we find that the terahertz transmission is actually facilitated by three successive processes: the incident terahertz field first initiates the localized oscillation around each hole, and then the spoof surface plasmon polaritons are excited by the localized resonance, and finally the two resonances couple and contribute to the transmission. Tailoring the localized resonance by hole size, the coupling strength between spoof surface plasmon polaritons and localized resonances is quantitatively extracted. The hole size dependent transmittance and the coupling mechanism are further confirmed by fitting the measured spectra to a modified multi-order Fano model. PMID:26548493

  16. Coupling between the 45 Hz Horizontal-Branch Oscillation and the Normal-Branch Oscillation in Scorpius X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wenfei

    2007-04-01

    The observations of the bright persistent neutron star low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Sco X-1 performed with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) show a ~6 Hz normal-branch oscillation (NBO), a ~45 Hz horizontal-branch oscillation (HBO), and twin kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations (kHz QPOs) on its normal branch simultaneously. We have found that the fractional amplitude of the HBO corresponding to the NBO phase of high flux is 1.1%, while that of the NBO phase of low flux is undetectable, with a 3 σ upper limit of 0.4%, implying that the HBO strength varies with the NBO phase in a manner opposite that of the lower kHz QPO previously found, and suggests that the condition for the generation of the HBO is met when the NBO flux is high. The 6 Hz NBO in Sco X-1 connects the 45 Hz HBO and the twin kHz QPO together, showing a unique picture indicating a coupling between the QPOs, which has never been observed in other neutron star LMXBs. We discuss the implications for current models of the 45 Hz HBO, the 6 Hz NBO, and the twin kHz QPOs.

  17. Permanent Rabi oscillations in coupled exciton-photon systems with PT -symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Chestnov, Igor Yu.; Demirchyan, Sevak S.; Alodjants, Alexander P.; Rubo, Yuri G.; Kavokin, Alexey V.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a physical mechanism which enables permanent Rabi oscillations in driven-dissipative condensates of exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities subjected to external magnetic fields. The method is based on stimulated scattering of excitons from the incoherent reservoir. We demonstrate that permanent non-decaying oscillations may appear due to the parity-time symmetry of the coupled exciton-photon system realized in a specific regime of pumping to the exciton state and depletion of the reservoir. At non-zero exciton-photon detuning, robust permanent Rabi oscillations occur with unequal amplitudes of exciton and photon components. Our predictions pave way to realization of integrated circuits based on exciton-polariton Rabi oscillators. PMID:26790534

  18. Permanent Rabi oscillations in coupled exciton-photon systems with PT-symmetry.

    PubMed

    Chestnov, Igor Yu; Demirchyan, Sevak S; Alodjants, Alexander P; Rubo, Yuri G; Kavokin, Alexey V

    2016-01-01

    We propose a physical mechanism which enables permanent Rabi oscillations in driven-dissipative condensates of exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities subjected to external magnetic fields. The method is based on stimulated scattering of excitons from the incoherent reservoir. We demonstrate that permanent non-decaying oscillations may appear due to the parity-time symmetry of the coupled exciton-photon system realized in a specific regime of pumping to the exciton state and depletion of the reservoir. At non-zero exciton-photon detuning, robust permanent Rabi oscillations occur with unequal amplitudes of exciton and photon components. Our predictions pave way to realization of integrated circuits based on exciton-polariton Rabi oscillators. PMID:26790534

  19. Dynamics of Freely Oscillating and Coupled Hair Cell Bundles under Mechanical Deflection

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson-Hemsing, Lea; Strimbu, C. Elliott; Roongthumskul, Yuttana; Bozovic, Dolores

    2012-01-01

    In vitro, attachment to the overlying membrane was found to affect the resting position of the hair cell bundles of the bullfrog sacculus. To assess the effects of such a deflection on mechanically decoupled hair bundles, comparable offsets were imposed on decoupled spontaneously oscillating bundles. Strong modulation was observed in their dynamic state under deflection, with qualitative changes in the oscillation profile, amplitude, and characteristic frequency of oscillation seen in response to stimulus. Large offsets were found to arrest spontaneous oscillation, with subsequent recovery upon reversal of the stimulus. The dynamic state of the hair bundle displayed hysteresis and a dependence on the direction of the imposed offset. The coupled system of hair bundles, with the overlying membrane left on top of the preparation, also exhibited a dependence on offset position, with an increase in the linear response function observed under deflections in the inhibitory direction. PMID:22768934

  20. Dynamics of freely oscillating and coupled hair cell bundles under mechanical deflection.

    PubMed

    Fredrickson-Hemsing, Lea; Strimbu, C Elliott; Roongthumskul, Yuttana; Bozovic, Dolores

    2012-04-18

    In vitro, attachment to the overlying membrane was found to affect the resting position of the hair cell bundles of the bullfrog sacculus. To assess the effects of such a deflection on mechanically decoupled hair bundles, comparable offsets were imposed on decoupled spontaneously oscillating bundles. Strong modulation was observed in their dynamic state under deflection, with qualitative changes in the oscillation profile, amplitude, and characteristic frequency of oscillation seen in response to stimulus. Large offsets were found to arrest spontaneous oscillation, with subsequent recovery upon reversal of the stimulus. The dynamic state of the hair bundle displayed hysteresis and a dependence on the direction of the imposed offset. The coupled system of hair bundles, with the overlying membrane left on top of the preparation, also exhibited a dependence on offset position, with an increase in the linear response function observed under deflections in the inhibitory direction. PMID:22768934

  1. Achieving synchronization with active hybrid materials: Coupling self-oscillating gels and piezoelectric films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashin, Victor V.; Levitan, Steven P.; Balazs, Anna C.

    Our goal is to develop materials that compute by using non-linear oscillating chemical reactions to perform spatio-temporal recognition tasks. The material of choice is a polymer gel undergoing the oscillatory Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. The novelty of our approach is in employing hybrid gel-piezoelectric micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) to couple local chemo-mechanical oscillations over long distances by electrical connection. Our modeling revealed that (1) interaction between the MEMS units is sufficiently strong for synchronization; (2) the mode of synchronization depends on the number of units, type of circuit connection (serial of parallel), and polarity of the units; (3) each mode has a distinctive pattern in phase of oscillations and generated voltage. The results indicate feasibility of using the hybrid gel-piezoelectric MEMS for oscillator based unconventional computing.

  2. Frequency stabilization of spin-torque-driven oscillations by coupling with a magnetic nonlinear resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Kudo, Kiwamu Suto, Hirofumi; Nagasawa, Tazumi; Mizushima, Koichi; Sato, Rie

    2014-10-28

    The fundamental function of any oscillator is to produce a waveform with a stable frequency. Here, we show a method of frequency stabilization for spin-torque nano-oscillators (STNOs) that relies on coupling with an adjacent nanomagnet through the magnetic dipole–dipole interaction. It is numerically demonstrated that highly stable oscillations occur as a result of mutual feedback between an STNO and a nanomagnet. The nanomagnet acts as a nonlinear resonator for the STNO. This method is based on the nonlinear behavior of the resonator and can be considered as a magnetic analogue of an optimization scheme in nanoelectromechanical systems. The oscillation frequency is most stabilized when the nanomagnet is driven at a special feedback point at which the feedback noise between the STNO and resonator is completely eliminated.

  3. Addressing two-level systems variably coupled to an oscillating field.

    PubMed

    Navon, Nir; Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Almog, Ido; Ozeri, Roee

    2013-08-16

    We propose a simple method to spectrally resolve an array of identical two-level systems coupled to an inhomogeneous oscillating field. The addressing protocol uses a dressing field with a spatially dependent coupling to the atoms. We validate this scheme experimentally by realizing single-spin addressing of a linear chain of trapped ions that are separated by ~3 μm, dressed by a laser field that is resonant with the micromotion sideband of a narrow optical transition. PMID:23992060

  4. Chimeras in globally coupled oscillatory systems: From ensembles of oscillators to spatially continuous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Lennart; Krischer, Katharina

    2015-06-01

    We study an oscillatory medium with a nonlinear global coupling that gives rise to a harmonic mean-field oscillation with constant amplitude and frequency. Two types of cluster states are found, each undergoing a symmetry-breaking transition towards a related chimera state. We demonstrate that the diffusional coupling is non-essential for these complex dynamics. Furthermore, we investigate localized turbulence and discuss whether it can be categorized as a chimera state.

  5. Resonance Assisted Synchronization of Coupled Oscillators: Frequency Locking without Phase Locking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thévenin, J.; Romanelli, M.; Vallet, M.; Brunel, M.; Erneux, T.

    2011-09-01

    Frequency locking without phase locking of two coupled nonlinear oscillators is experimentally demonstrated. This synchronization regime is found for two coupled laser modes, beyond the phase-locking range fixed by Adler’s equation, because of a resonance mechanism. Specifically, we show that the amplitudes of the two modes exhibit strong fluctuations that produce average frequency synchronization, even if the instantaneous phases are unlocked. The experimental results are in good agreement with a theoretical model.

  6. Addressing Two-Level Systems Variably Coupled to an Oscillating Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navon, Nir; Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Almog, Ido; Ozeri, Roee

    2013-08-01

    We propose a simple method to spectrally resolve an array of identical two-level systems coupled to an inhomogeneous oscillating field. The addressing protocol uses a dressing field with a spatially dependent coupling to the atoms. We validate this scheme experimentally by realizing single-spin addressing of a linear chain of trapped ions that are separated by ˜3μm, dressed by a laser field that is resonant with the micromotion sideband of a narrow optical transition.

  7. Thermodynamics of trajectories of a quantum harmonic oscillator coupled to N baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigeon, Simon; Fusco, Lorenzo; Xuereb, André; De Chiara, Gabriele; Paternostro, Mauro

    2015-07-01

    We undertake a thorough analysis of the thermodynamics of the trajectories followed by a quantum harmonic oscillator coupled to N dissipative baths by using an approach to large-deviation theory inspired by phase-space quantum optics. As an illustrative example, we study the archetypal case of a harmonic oscillator coupled to two thermal baths, allowing for a comparison with the analogous classical result. In the low-temperature limit, we find a significant quantum suppression in the rate of work exchanged between the system and each bath. We further show how the presented method is capable of giving analytical results even for the case of a driven harmonic oscillator. Based on that result, we analyze the laser cooling of the motion of a trapped ion or optomechanical system, illustrating how the emission statistics can be controllably altered by the driving force.

  8. Decoherence and dissipation of a quantum harmonic oscillator coupled to two-level systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schlosshauer, Maximilian; Hines, A. P.; Milburn, G. J.

    2008-02-15

    We derive and analyze the Born-Markov master equation for a quantum harmonic oscillator interacting with a bath of independent two-level systems. This hitherto virtually unexplored model plays a fundamental role as one of the four 'canonical' system-environment models for decoherence and dissipation. To investigate the influence of further couplings of the environmental spins to a dissipative bath, we also derive the master equation for a harmonic oscillator interacting with a single spin coupled to a bosonic bath. Our models are experimentally motivated by quantum-electromechanical systems and micron-scale ion traps. Decoherence and dissipation rates are found to exhibit temperature dependencies significantly different from those in quantum Brownian motion. In particular, the systematic dissipation rate for the central oscillator decreases with increasing temperature and goes to zero at zero temperature, but there also exists a temperature-independent momentum-diffusion (heating) rate.

  9. Lasing and transport in a multilevel double quantum dot system coupled to a microwave oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlewski, Christian; Heimes, Andreas; Schön, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    We study a system of two quantum dots, each with several discrete levels, which are coherently coupled to a microwave oscillator. They are attached to electronic leads and coupled to a phonon bath, both leading to inelastic processes. For a simpler system with a single level in each dot it has been shown that a population inversion can be created by electron tunneling, which in a resonance situation leads to lasing-type properties of the oscillator. In the multilevel system several resonance situations may arise, some of them relying on a sequence of tunneling processes which also involve nonresonant, inelastic transitions. The resulting photon number in the oscillator and the current-voltage characteristic are highly sensitive to these properties and accordingly can serve as a probe for microscopic details.

  10. Synchronization and spatiotemporal patterns in coupled phase oscillators on a weighted planar network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, Yuki; Takamatsu, Atsuko

    2009-04-01

    To reveal the relation between network structures found in two-dimensional biological systems, such as protoplasmic tube networks in the plasmodium of true slime mold, and spatiotemporal oscillation patterns emerged on the networks, we constructed coupled phase oscillators on weighted planar networks and investigated their dynamics. Results showed that the distribution of edge weights in the networks strongly affects (i) the propensity for global synchronization and (ii) emerging ratios of oscillation patterns, such as traveling and concentric waves, even if the total weight is fixed. In-phase locking, traveling wave, and concentric wave patterns were, respectively, observed most frequently in uniformly weighted, center weighted treelike, and periphery weighted ring-shaped networks. Controlling the global spatiotemporal patterns with the weight distribution given by the local weighting (coupling) rules might be useful in biological network systems including the plasmodial networks and neural networks in the brain.

  11. Spin Number Coherent States and the Problem of Two Coupled Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojeda-Guillén, D.; Mota, R. D.; Granados, V. D.

    2015-07-01

    From the definition of the standard Perelomov coherent states we introduce the Perelomov number coherent states for any su(2) Lie algebra. With the displacement operator we apply a similarity transformation to the su(2) generators and construct a new set of operators which also close the su(2) Lie algebra, being the Perelomov number coherent states the new basis for its unitary irreducible representation. We apply our results to obtain the energy spectrum, the eigenstates and the partition function of two coupled oscillators. We show that the eigenstates of two coupled oscillators are the SU(2) Perelomov number coherent states of the two-dimensional harmonic oscillator with an appropriate choice of the coherent state parameters. Supported by SNI-México, COFAA-IPN, EDD-IPN, EDI-IPN, SIP-IPN Project No. 20150935

  12. Frequency multiplying optoelectronic oscillator based on nonlinearly-coupled double loops.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Jin, Tao; Chi, Hao

    2013-12-30

    We propose and demonstrate a frequency multiplying optoelectronic oscillator with nonlinearly-coupled double loops based on two cascaded Mach-Zehnder modulators, to generate high frequency microwave signals using only low-frequency devices. We find the final oscillation modes are only determined by the length of the master oscillation loop. Frequency multiplying signals are generated via nonlinearly-coupled double loops, the output of one loop being used to modulate the other. In the experiments, microwave signals at 10 GHz with -121 dBc/Hz phase noise at 10 kHz offset and 20 GHz with -112.8 dBc/Hz phase noise at 10 kHz offset are generated. Meanwhile, their side-mode suppression ratios are also evaluated and the maximum ratio of 70 dB is obtained. PMID:24514845

  13. Demonstrating Energy Migration in Coupled Oscillators: A Central Concept in the Theory of Unimolecular Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotte, Ronald E.

    2005-01-01

    This physical chemistry lecture demonstration is designed to aid the understanding of intramolecular energy transfer processes as part of the presentation of the theory of unimolecular reaction rates. Coupled pendulums are used to show the rate of migration of energy between oscillators under resonant and nonresonant conditions with varying…

  14. Teaching the Physics of a String-Coupled Pendulum Oscillator: Not Just for Seniors Anymore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Young-Ki

    2012-01-01

    Coupled oscillators are an example of resonant energy exchange that is an interesting topic for many students in various majors, such as physics, chemistry, and electrical and mechanical engineering. However, this subject matter is considered too advanced for freshmen and sophomores, usually because of the level of mathematics involved.…

  15. Second-quantized molecular time scale generalized Langevin equation theory: Coupled oscillator model

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, H.K.

    1986-11-15

    A second-quantized, coupled oscillator model is presented which explicitly displays the structure of a second-quantized MTGLE theory. The Adelman ansatz (J. Chem Phys. 75, 5837 (1981)) for a quantum MTGLE response function is shown to generate the correct response function for the model. This result paves the way for the development of a general second-quantized MTGLE theory.

  16. Multichannel applications of double relaxation oscillation SQUIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong-Ho; Kwon, Hyukchan; Kim, Jin-Mok; Park, Yong-Ki

    2001-12-01

    Double relaxation oscillation SQUIDs (DROSs) provided high flux-to-voltage transfers of larger than 1 mV Φ0-1 and simple flux-locked loop circuits were used for SQUID operation. We constructed two multichannel systems based on DROSs. The first system is a 40-channel planar gradiometer system consisting of integrated first-order pickup coils. average noise level of the 40 channels is 1 fT cm-1 Hz-1/2 at 100 Hz, corresponding to a field noise of 4 fT Hz-1/2, operating inside a magnetically shielded room. The second one is a 37-channel magnetometer system with 37 integrated magnetometers distributed on a spherical surface and measures field component normal to the head surface. The average noise of the magnetometers is 3 fT Hz-1/2 at 100 Hz. The two systems were applied to measure neuromagnetic fields.

  17. Soliton Properties of Coupled g-Mode Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, Charles L.

    2007-01-01

    Several features typical of solitons are also exhibited by stellar g-modes when coupled into "sets" that have unique rotation rates relative to the star. Enhanced nuclear burning due to weakly nonlinear amplitudes in a small portion of the stellar core holds each set together against dispersion. As the nonlinear regions of each set rotate past each other they have a complex interaction (shown in a video), yet emerge from this with their original wave forms. Other similarities with solitons we mentioned, including the physical origin of a phase shift. in longitude due to the interaction. These similarities suggest that a fully nonlinear derivation of g-mode sets may be able to show that their large amplitude regions approach true solitons.

  18. Towards a proper estimation of phase-amplitude coupling in neural oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, Dino; Fenton, André A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) between distinct neural oscillations is critical to brain functions that include cross-scale organization, selection of attention, routing the flow of information through neural circuits, memory processing and information coding. Several methods for PAC estimation have been proposed but the limitations of PAC estimation as well as the assumptions about the data for accurate PAC estimation are unclear. New Method We define boundary conditions for standard PAC algorithms and propose “oscillation-triggered coupling” (OTC), a parameter-free, data-driven algorithm for unbiased estimation of PAC. OTC establishes a unified framework that treats individual oscillations as discrete events for estimating PAC from a set of oscillations and for characterizing events from time windows as short as a single modulating oscillation. Results For accurate PAC estimation, standard PAC algorithms require amplitude filters with a bandwidth at least twice the modulatory frequency. The phase filters must be moderately narrow-band, especially when the modulatory rhythm is non-sinusoidal. The minimally appropriate analysis window is ~10 seconds. We then demonstrate that OTC can characterize PAC by treating neural oscillations as discrete events rather than continuous phase and amplitude time series. Comparison with existing methods These findings show that in addition to providing the same information about PAC as the standard approach, OTC facilitates characterization of single oscillations and their sequences, in addition to explaining the role of individual oscillations in generating PAC patterns. Conclusions OTC allows PAC analysis at the level of individual oscillations and therefore enables investigation of PAC at the time scales of cognitive phenomena. PMID:24447842

  19. Effect of bidirectional mechanoelectrical coupling on spontaneous oscillations and sensitivity in a model of hair cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amro, Rami M.; Neiman, Alexander B.

    2014-11-01

    Sensory hair cells of amphibians exhibit spontaneous activity in their hair bundles and membrane potentials, reflecting two distinct active amplification mechanisms employed in these peripheral mechanosensors. We use a two-compartment model of the bullfrog's saccular hair cell to study how the interaction between its mechanical and electrical compartments affects the emergence of distinct dynamical regimes, and the role of this interaction in shaping the response of the hair cell to weak mechanical stimuli. The model employs a Hodgkin-Huxley-type system for the basolateral electrical compartment and a nonlinear hair bundle oscillator for the mechanical compartment, which are coupled bidirectionally. In the model, forward coupling is provided by the mechanoelectrical transduction current, flowing from the hair bundle to the cell soma. Backward coupling is due to reverse electromechanical transduction, whereby variations of the membrane potential affect adaptation processes in the hair bundle. We isolate oscillation regions in the parameter space of the model and show that bidirectional coupling affects significantly the dynamics of the cell. In particular, self-sustained oscillations of the hair bundles and membrane potential can result from bidirectional coupling, and the coherence of spontaneous oscillations can be maximized by tuning the coupling strength. Consistent with previous experimental work, the model demonstrates that dynamical regimes of the hair bundle change in response to variations in the conductances of basolateral ion channels. We show that sensitivity of the hair cell to weak mechanical stimuli can be maximized by varying coupling strength, and that stochasticity of the hair bundle compartment is a limiting factor of the sensitivity.

  20. Vibrational spectroscopy and relaxation of an anharmonic oscillator coupled to harmonic bath.

    PubMed

    Joutsuka, Tatsuya; Ando, Koji

    2011-05-28

    The vibrational spectroscopy and relaxation of an anharmonic oscillator coupled to a harmonic bath are examined to assess the applicability of the time correlation function (TCF), the response function, and the semiclassical frequency modulation (SFM) model to the calculation of infrared (IR) spectra. These three approaches are often used in connection with the molecular dynamics simulations but have not been compared in detail. We also analyze the vibrational energy relaxation (VER), which determines the line shape and is itself a pivotal process in energy transport. The IR spectra and VER are calculated using the generalized Langevin equation (GLE), the Gaussian wavepacket (GWP) method, and the quantum master equation (QME). By calculating the vibrational frequency TCF, a detailed analysis of the frequency fluctuation and correlation time of the model is provided. The peak amplitude and width in the IR spectra calculated by the GLE with the harmonic quantum correction are shown to agree well with those by the QME though the vibrational frequency is generally overestimated. The GWP method improves the peak position by considering the zero-point energy and the anharmonicity although the red-shift slightly overshoots the QME reference. The GWP also yields an extra peak in the higher-frequency region than the fundamental transition arising from the difference frequency of the center and width oscillations of a wavepacket. The SFM approach underestimates the peak amplitude of the IR spectra but well reproduces the peak width. Further, the dependence of the VER rate on the strength of an excitation pulse is discussed. PMID:21639460

  1. The role of asymmetrical and repulsive coupling in the dynamics of two coupled van der Pol oscillators.

    PubMed

    Astakhov, Sergey; Gulai, Artem; Fujiwara, Naoya; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    A system of two asymmetrically coupled van der Pol oscillators has been studied. We show that the introduction of a small asymmetry in coupling leads to the appearance of a "wideband synchronization channel" in the bifurcational structure of the parameter space. An increase of asymmetry and transition to repulsive interaction leads to the formation of multistability. As the result, the tip of the Arnold's tongue widens due to the formation of folds defined by saddle-node bifurcation curves for the limit cycles on the torus. PMID:26931583

  2. The role of asymmetrical and repulsive coupling in the dynamics of two coupled van der Pol oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astakhov, Sergey; Gulai, Artem; Fujiwara, Naoya; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    A system of two asymmetrically coupled van der Pol oscillators has been studied. We show that the introduction of a small asymmetry in coupling leads to the appearance of a "wideband synchronization channel" in the bifurcational structure of the parameter space. An increase of asymmetry and transition to repulsive interaction leads to the formation of multistability. As the result, the tip of the Arnold's tongue widens due to the formation of folds defined by saddle-node bifurcation curves for the limit cycles on the torus.

  3. Chimera states in coupled Kuramoto oscillators with inertia.

    PubMed

    Olmi, Simona

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of two symmetrically coupled populations of rotators is studied for different values of the inertia. The system is characterized by different types of solutions, which all coexist with the fully synchronized state. At small inertia, the system is no more chaotic and one observes mainly quasi-periodic chimeras, while the usual (stationary) chimera state is not anymore observable. At large inertia, one observes two different kind of chaotic solutions with broken symmetry: the intermittent chaotic chimera, characterized by a synchronized population and a population displaying a turbulent behaviour, and a second state where the two populations are both chaotic but whose dynamics adhere to two different macroscopic attractors. The intermittent chaotic chimeras are characterized by a finite life-time, whose duration increases as a power-law with the system size and the inertia value. Moreover, the chaotic population exhibits clear intermittent behavior, displaying a laminar phase where the two populations tend to synchronize, and a turbulent phase where the macroscopic motion of one population is definitely erratic. In the thermodynamic limit, these states survive for infinite time and the laminar regimes tends to disappear, thus giving rise to stationary chaotic solutions with broken symmetry contrary to what observed for chaotic chimeras on a ring geometry. PMID:26723164

  4. Chimera states in coupled Kuramoto oscillators with inertia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmi, Simona

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of two symmetrically coupled populations of rotators is studied for different values of the inertia. The system is characterized by different types of solutions, which all coexist with the fully synchronized state. At small inertia, the system is no more chaotic and one observes mainly quasi-periodic chimeras, while the usual (stationary) chimera state is not anymore observable. At large inertia, one observes two different kind of chaotic solutions with broken symmetry: the intermittent chaotic chimera, characterized by a synchronized population and a population displaying a turbulent behaviour, and a second state where the two populations are both chaotic but whose dynamics adhere to two different macroscopic attractors. The intermittent chaotic chimeras are characterized by a finite life-time, whose duration increases as a power-law with the system size and the inertia value. Moreover, the chaotic population exhibits clear intermittent behavior, displaying a laminar phase where the two populations tend to synchronize, and a turbulent phase where the macroscopic motion of one population is definitely erratic. In the thermodynamic limit, these states survive for infinite time and the laminar regimes tends to disappear, thus giving rise to stationary chaotic solutions with broken symmetry contrary to what observed for chaotic chimeras on a ring geometry.

  5. Chimera states in coupled Kuramoto oscillators with inertia

    SciTech Connect

    Olmi, Simona

    2015-12-15

    The dynamics of two symmetrically coupled populations of rotators is studied for different values of the inertia. The system is characterized by different types of solutions, which all coexist with the fully synchronized state. At small inertia, the system is no more chaotic and one observes mainly quasi-periodic chimeras, while the usual (stationary) chimera state is not anymore observable. At large inertia, one observes two different kind of chaotic solutions with broken symmetry: the intermittent chaotic chimera, characterized by a synchronized population and a population displaying a turbulent behaviour, and a second state where the two populations are both chaotic but whose dynamics adhere to two different macroscopic attractors. The intermittent chaotic chimeras are characterized by a finite life-time, whose duration increases as a power-law with the system size and the inertia value. Moreover, the chaotic population exhibits clear intermittent behavior, displaying a laminar phase where the two populations tend to synchronize, and a turbulent phase where the macroscopic motion of one population is definitely erratic. In the thermodynamic limit, these states survive for infinite time and the laminar regimes tends to disappear, thus giving rise to stationary chaotic solutions with broken symmetry contrary to what observed for chaotic chimeras on a ring geometry.

  6. Partial Synchronization in Pulse-Coupled Oscillator Networks I: Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrecht, Jan; Chen, Bolun; Mirollo, Renato

    We study N identical integrate and fire model neurons coupled in an all to all network through α-function pulses, weighted by a parameter K. Studies of the dynamics of this system often focus on the stability of the fully synchronous and the fully asynchronous splay states, that naturally depend on the sign of K, i.e. excitation vs inhibition. We find that for finite N there is a rich set of other partially synchronized attractors, such as (N - 1 , 1) fixed states and partially synchronized splay states. Our framework exploits the neutrality of the dynamics for K = 0 which allows us to implement a dimensional reduction strategy that replaces the discrete pulses with a continuous flow, with the sign of K determining the flow direction. This framework naturally incorporates a hierarchy of partially synchronized subspaces in which the new states lie. For N = 2 , 3 , 4 , we completely describe the sequence of bifurcations and the stability of all fixed points and limit cycles. Work Supported by NSF DMS 1413020.

  7. Synchronization and plateau splitting of coupled oscillators with long-range power-law interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Huan-Yu; Wu, Kuo-An

    2015-12-01

    We investigate synchronization and plateau splitting of coupled oscillators on a one-dimensional lattice with long-range interactions that decay over distance as a power law. We show that in the thermodynamic limit the dynamics of systems of coupled oscillators with power-law exponent α ≤1 is identical to that of the all-to-all coupling case. For α >1 , oscillatory behavior of the phase coherence appears as a result of single plateau splitting into multiple plateaus. A coarse-graining method is used to investigate the onset of plateau splitting. We analyze a simple oscillatory state formed by two plateaus in detail and propose a systematic approach to predict the onset of plateau splitting. The prediction of breaking points of plateau splitting is in quantitatively good agreement with numerical simulations.

  8. Time delay induced different synchronization patterns in repulsively coupled chaotic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Chenggui; Yi, Ming; Shuai, Jianwei

    2013-09-01

    Time delayed coupling plays a crucial role in determining the system's dynamics. We here report that the time delay induces transition from the asynchronous state to the complete synchronization (CS) state in the repulsively coupled chaotic oscillators. In particular, by changing the coupling strength or time delay, various types of synchronous patterns, including CS, antiphase CS, antiphase synchronization (ANS), and phase synchronization, can be generated. In the transition regions between different synchronous patterns, bistable synchronous oscillators can be observed. Furthermore, we show that the time-delay-induced phase flip bifurcation is of key importance for the emergence of CS. All these findings may light on our understanding of neuronal synchronization and information processing in the brain.

  9. Intrinsic oscillation of coupled domain walls in a perpendicularly magnetized nanowire system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xin; Lu, Zhihong; Yuan, Cheng; Guo, Fang; Xiong, Rui; Shi, Jing

    2016-06-01

    The dynamics of two domain walls (DWs) in a system of two nanowires with perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy (PMA) was investigated by micromagnetic simulation. It was found that without applied current, the motion mode of DWs is translational motion plus oscillation. Different from its in-plane counterpart, in a two-PMA-nanowire system, the oscillation of DWs before encountering is quite intrinsic—the frequency and the amplitude only depend on the separation between nanowires and the material of the nanowires, and have no relationship with applied current and the distance between two DWs. When applying proper currents, the coupled DWs will only oscillate without performing translational motion. The oscillation frequency can reach several GHz. Besides being tuned in a large range by varying the nanowire separation, the oscillation frequency can also be slightly modified by adjusting the magnetic anisotropy (K) or magnetization (Ms) of the nanowire. This finding may be of great importance for the design of microwave oscillator with stable and accurate frequency.

  10. The fundamental organization of cardiac mitochondria as a network of coupled oscillators.

    PubMed

    Aon, Miguel Antonio; Cortassa, Sonia; O'Rourke, Brian

    2006-12-01

    Mitochondria can behave as individual oscillators whose dynamics may obey collective, network properties. We have shown that cardiomyocytes exhibit high-amplitude, self-sustained, and synchronous oscillations of bioenergetic parameters when the mitochondrial network is stressed to a critical state. Computational studies suggested that additional low-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations were also possible. Herein, employing power spectral analysis, we show that the temporal behavior of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) in cardiomyocytes under physiological conditions is oscillatory and characterized by a broad frequency distribution that obeys a homogeneous power law (1/f(beta)) with a spectral exponent, beta = 1.74. Additionally, relative dispersional analysis shows that mitochondrial oscillatory dynamics exhibits long-term memory, characterized by an inverse power law that scales with a fractal dimension (D(f)) of 1.008, distinct from random behavior (D(f) = 1.5), over at least three orders of magnitude. Analysis of a computational model of the mitochondrial oscillator suggests that the mechanistic origin of the power law behavior is based on the inverse dependence of amplitude versus frequency of oscillation related to the balance between reactive oxygen species production and scavenging. The results demonstrate that cardiac mitochondria behave as a network of coupled oscillators under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. PMID:16980364

  11. Ultralow-noise mode-locked laser with coupled optoelectronic oscillator configuration.

    PubMed

    Yu, Nan; Salik, Ertan; Maleki, Lute

    2005-05-15

    We describe simultaneous generation of ultralow-noise optical pulses and microwave signal with a mode-locked fiber laser in a coupled optoelectronic oscillator configuration. We demonstrate 9.2-GHz optical and microwave signals with the measured phase noise of -140 dBc/Hz at 10-kHz offset frequency. We show that the mode-locked laser in the photonic oscillator serves as a high-Q filter and is responsible for the observed low phase noise. PMID:15943318

  12. Kerr-lens-mediated dynamics of two nonlinearly coupled mode-locked laser oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Song; Smith, Sandra L.; Fork, Richard L.

    1992-02-01

    The dynamics of two nonlinearly coupled femtosecond oscillators are investigated for the case where two distinct nonlinear mechanisms are balanced to determine the temporal relationship and properties of the pulses in the two oscillators. In the time domain the shared bleaching of a common absorber creates an attractive mechanism for the pulses, while interactive Kerr lens deflections create a repulsive mechanism. The interplay of these two mechanisms causes a variety of dynamical behaviors, including pulse synchronization, pulse duration switching, and a latching type of amplitude bistability.

  13. Synchronization of Coupled Oscillators on Newman Watts Small-World Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Jian-Yue; Xu, Xin-Jian; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Wang, Ying-Hai

    2006-06-01

    We investigate the collection behaviour of coupled phase oscillators on Newman-Watts small-world networks in one and two dimensions. Each component of the network is assumed as an oscillator and each interacts with the others following the Kuramoto model. We then study the onset of global synchronization of phases and frequencies based on dynamic simulations and finite-size scaling. Both the phase and frequency synchronization are observed to emerge in the presence of a tiny fraction of shortcuts and enhanced with the increases of nearest neighbours and lattice dimensions.

  14. Quantum entanglement in coupled harmonic oscillator systems: from micro to macro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Jhih-Yuan; Chou, Chung-Hsien

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the entanglement dynamics of several models of coupled harmonic oscillators, whereby a number of properties concerning entanglement have been scrutinized, such as how the environment affects entanglement of a system, and death and revival of entanglement. Among them, there are two models for which we are able to vary their particle numbers easily by assuming identicalness, thereby examining how the particle number affects entanglement. We have found that the upper bound of entanglement between identical oscillators is approximately inversely proportional to the particle number.

  15. Chimera states: coexistence of coherence and incoherence in networks of coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panaggio, Mark J.; Abrams, Daniel M.

    2015-03-01

    A chimera state is a spatio-temporal pattern in a network of identical coupled oscillators in which synchronous and asynchronous oscillation coexist. This state of broken symmetry, which usually coexists with a stable spatially symmetric state, has intrigued the nonlinear dynamics community since its discovery in the early 2000s. Recent experiments have led to increasing interest in the origin and dynamics of these states. Here we review the history of research on chimera states and highlight major advances in understanding their behaviour.

  16. Revisiting an old concept: the coupled oscillator model for VCD. Part 2: implications of the generalised coupled oscillator mechanism for the VCD robustness concept.

    PubMed

    Nicu, Valentin Paul

    2016-08-01

    Using two illustrative examples it is shown that the generalised coupled oscillator (GCO) mechanism implies that the stability of the VCD sign computed for a given normal mode is not reflected by the magnitude of the ratio ζ between the rotational strength and dipole strength of the respective mode, i.e., the VCD robustness criterium proposed by Góbi and Magyarfalvi. The performed VCD GCO analysis brings further insight into the GCO mechanism and also into the VCD robustness concept. First, it shows that the GCO mechanism can be interpreted as a VCD resonance enhancement mechanism, i.e. very large VCD signals can be observed when the interacting molecular fragments are in favourable orientation. Second, it shows that the uncertainties observed in the computed VCD signs are associated to uncertainties in the relative orientation of the coupled oscillator fragments and/or to uncertainties in the predicted nuclear displacement vectors, i.e. not uncertainties in the computed magnetic dipole transition moments as was originally assumed. Since it is able to identify such situations easily, the VCD GCO analysis can be used as a VCD robustness analysis. PMID:27453052

  17. Tailoring the multiple electrically resonant transparency through bi-layered metamaterial-induced coupling oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jiaxin; Han, Song; Lin, Hai; Yang, Helin

    2015-11-01

    Metamaterials (MMs) can be tailored to support electromagnetic interference, which is the kernel for the material-based electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) phenomena, alternatively transparency based on electric interference can be deemed as electrically resonant transparency (ERT). Here, we experimentally and theoretically demonstrate two kinds of bi-layered MMs. The C3-C6 hybrid MM exhibits triple-mode ERT with transmission peaks of 0.84 at 9.6 GHz, 0.92 at 10.4 GHz, and 0.93 at 11.5 GHz for the horizontally polarized wave, and dual-mode ERT with transmission peaks of 0.84 at 8.8 GHz and 0.91 at 10.2 GHz for the vertically polarized wave. However, the C4-C8 hybrid MM, with two stable transparent peaks of 0.92 and 0.88 at 10.46 GHz and 11.61 GHz, is proven to be polarization independent. The measured results show excellent agreement with numerical simulations. A coupled oscillator model is employed to theoretically study the near field interference between the induced dipoles on the transmission properties. The results presented here will find their application value for multi-mode slow light devices, filters and attenuators, and so on.

  18. Assessing Aircraft Susceptibility to Nonlinear Aircraft-Pilot Coupling/Pilot-Induced Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R.A.; Stout, P. W.

    1997-01-01

    A unified approach for assessing aircraft susceptibility to aircraft-pilot coupling (or pilot-induced oscillations) which was previously reported in the literature and applied to linear systems is extended to nonlinear systems, with emphasis upon vehicles with actuator rate saturation. The linear methodology provided a tool for predicting: (1) handling qualities levels, (2) pilot-induced oscillation rating levels and (3) a frequency range in which pilot-induced oscillations are likely to occur. The extension to nonlinear systems provides a methodology for predicting the latter two quantities. Eight examples are presented to illustrate the use of the technique. The dearth of experimental flight-test data involving systematic variation and assessment of the effects of actuator rate limits presently prevents a more thorough evaluation of the methodology.

  19. Regular and irregular patterns of self-localized excitation in arrays of coupled phase oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfrum, Matthias; Omel'chenko, Oleh E.; Sieber, Jan

    2015-05-01

    We study a system of phase oscillators with nonlocal coupling in a ring that supports self-organized patterns of coherence and incoherence, called chimera states. Introducing a global feedback loop, connecting the phase lag to the order parameter, we can observe chimera states also for systems with a small number of oscillators. Numerical simulations show a huge variety of regular and irregular patterns composed of localized phase slipping events of single oscillators. Using methods of classical finite dimensional chaos and bifurcation theory, we can identify the emergence of chaotic chimera states as a result of transitions to chaos via period doubling cascades, torus breakup, and intermittency. We can explain the observed phenomena by a mechanism of self-modulated excitability in a discrete excitable medium.

  20. Regular and irregular patterns of self-localized excitation in arrays of coupled phase oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfrum, Matthias; Omel'chenko, Oleh E.; Sieber, Jan

    2015-05-15

    We study a system of phase oscillators with nonlocal coupling in a ring that supports self-organized patterns of coherence and incoherence, called chimera states. Introducing a global feedback loop, connecting the phase lag to the order parameter, we can observe chimera states also for systems with a small number of oscillators. Numerical simulations show a huge variety of regular and irregular patterns composed of localized phase slipping events of single oscillators. Using methods of classical finite dimensional chaos and bifurcation theory, we can identify the emergence of chaotic chimera states as a result of transitions to chaos via period doubling cascades, torus breakup, and intermittency. We can explain the observed phenomena by a mechanism of self-modulated excitability in a discrete excitable medium.

  1. Regular and irregular patterns of self-localized excitation in arrays of coupled phase oscillators.

    PubMed

    Wolfrum, Matthias; Omel'chenko, Oleh E; Sieber, Jan

    2015-05-01

    We study a system of phase oscillators with nonlocal coupling in a ring that supports self-organized patterns of coherence and incoherence, called chimera states. Introducing a global feedback loop, connecting the phase lag to the order parameter, we can observe chimera states also for systems with a small number of oscillators. Numerical simulations show a huge variety of regular and irregular patterns composed of localized phase slipping events of single oscillators. Using methods of classical finite dimensional chaos and bifurcation theory, we can identify the emergence of chaotic chimera states as a result of transitions to chaos via period doubling cascades, torus breakup, and intermittency. We can explain the observed phenomena by a mechanism of self-modulated excitability in a discrete excitable medium. PMID:26026325

  2. Chimera states in systems of nonlocal nonidentical phase-coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jianbo; Kao, Hsien-Ching; Knobloch, Edgar

    2015-03-01

    Chimera states consisting of domains of coherently and incoherently oscillating nonlocally coupled phase oscillators in systems with spatial inhomogeneity are studied. The inhomogeneity is introduced through the dependence of the oscillator frequency on its location. Two types of spatial inhomogeneity, localized and spatially periodic, are considered and their effects on the existence and properties of multicluster and traveling chimera states are explored. The inhomogeneity is found to break up splay states, to pin the chimera states to specific locations, and to trap traveling chimeras. Many of these states can be studied by constructing an evolution equation for a complex order parameter. Solutions of this equation are in good agreement with the results of numerical simulations.

  3. Computer simulation of spatial coupling in chemical oscillations of CO oxidation on two Pd(110) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, I. J.; Woo, S. I.

    1993-09-01

    Gas-phase coupling between two Pd(110) single crystals in a UHV CO oxidation reaction in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) has been simulated by solving gas-phase mass balance equations with kinetic rate equations. This work was motivated by the experimental results which show that the frequency of partial pressure change in carbon monoxide is the same as the frequency of the work function change in the oscillation region and that the coupling between the two crystals occurred entirely via CO partial pressure. The computer simulation described here gives qualitative agreement with the experimental results. The change in the oscillatory region originating from the coupling of chemical oscillators which are slightly different to each other is successfully demonstrated by this model. The coupling of two oscillators having a simple periodic oscillation to produce mixed-mode oscillation was also successfully simulated.

  4. Applications of chaotic oscillator in machinery fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chongsheng; Qu, Liangsheng

    2007-01-01

    The forward detecting method is used to detect weak periodic signals by identifying the transformation of the chaotic oscillator from the chaotic state to the large-scale periodic state when a weak external periodic signal is applied. Based on the method above, in this paper, a similar method, which is devised in a reverse way, is presented. The method detects the change of a weak signal by identifying the transformation of the chaotic oscillator from the large-scale periodic state to the chaotic state when a weak external signal is applied. This paper discusses and summarizes the features and scopes of both methods in their application in the field of machinery fault diagnosis. Satisfactory results have been achieved when using both of them in the fault diagnosis of rolling bearings and automobile gearboxes. The paper also presents how to use symbol sequence statistics to automatically identify the state transformation of the chaotic oscillator.

  5. Influence of Coupling Delay on Noise Induced Coherent Oscillations in Excitable Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burić, Nikola; Grozdanović, Ines; Todorović, Kristina; Vasović, Nebojša

    2011-10-01

    Influence of small time-delays in coupling between noisy excitable systems on the coherence resonance and self-induced stochastic resonance is studied. Parameters of delayed coupled deterministic excitable units are chosen such that the system has only one attractor, namely the stationary state, for any value of the coupling and the time-lag. Addition of white noise induces qualitatively different types of coherent oscillations, and we analyzed the influence of coupling time-delay on the properties of these coherent oscillations. The main conclusion is that time-lag τ≥1, but still smaller than the refractory period, and sufficiently strong coupling drastically change signal to noise ratio in the quantitative and qualitative way. An interval of noise values implies quite large signal to noise ratio and different types of noise induced coherence are greatly enhanced. We also observed coincident spiking for small noise intensity and time-lag proportional to the inter-spike interval of the coherent spike trains. On the other hand, time-lags τ<1 and/or weak coupling induce negligible changes in the properties of the stochastic coherence.

  6. Antiresonant ring output-coupled continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Devi, Kavita; Kumar, S Chaitanya; Esteban-Martin, A; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M

    2012-08-13

    We demonstrate the successful deployment of an antiresonant ring (ARR) interferometer for the attainment of optimum output coupling in a continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The cw OPO, configured as a singly-resonant oscillator (SRO), is based on a 50-mm-long MgO:PPLN crystal and pumped by cw Ytterbium-fiber laser at 1064 nm, with the ARR interferometer integrated into one arm of the standing-wave cavity. By fine adjustment of the ARR transmission, a continuously variable signal output coupling from 0.8% to 7.3% has been achieved, providing optimum output coupling for signal and optimum power extraction for the idler, at different input pumping levels. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations for conventional output-coupled cw SRO, and the study shows that by reducing the insertion loss of the ARR elements, the performance of the ARR-coupled cw SRO can be further enhanced. We also show that the use of the ARR does not lead to any degradation in the cw SRO output beam quality. The proof-of-principle demonstration confirms the effectiveness of the technique for continuous, in situ, and fine control of output coupling in cw OPOs to achieve maximum output power at any arbitrary pumping level above threshold. PMID:23038573

  7. The use of maps in the analysis of networks of coupled neuronal oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Pranay

    In this thesis we study aspects of periodic activity in model mutually-coupled oscillators inspired by the nervous system. We define and use maps describing the timing of activity on successive cycles. The central theme here is to examine emergent behavior in networks through the properties of the individual oscillators. In the first chapter, we describe Phase Response Curves (PRCs), which map the changes in the period of an oscillator to perturbations at different phases along the cycle. We consider various networks of oscillators, pulse-coupled through their PRCs: rings, chains, arrays, and global coupling. We study conditions under which stable patterns, such as synchrony and waves, may be found. In the second and third chapters, we model beta (12--30 Hz) and gamma (30--80 Hz) rhythms in the nervous system in reduced networks of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. We look at the intriguing results of experiments that show increases in beta band activity in human MEGs upon taking the sedative Diapam. We show that the model network is able to mimic the experimental data. The model then clarifies the inhibitory action of the drug in tissue. We look at another experiment that finds disruption of long-range synchrony of gamma oscillations in transgenic mice with altered excitatory kinetics. We study this behavior in a reduced network that encodes for conduction delays across spatially distal sites. The model provides an explanation of this phenomenon in terms of the properties of the cells involved in generating the rhythm. In our analyses, we use maps to study stability of the patterns of activity.

  8. Bursting phenomena as well as the bifurcation mechanism in a coupled BVP oscillator with periodic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaofang, Zhang; Lei, Wu; Qinsheng, Bi

    2016-07-01

    We explore the complicated bursting oscillations as well as the mechanism in a high-dimensional dynamical system. By introducing a periodically changed electrical power source in a coupled BVP oscillator, a fifth-order vector field with two scales in frequency domain is established when an order gap exists between the natural frequency and the exciting frequency. Upon the analysis of the generalized autonomous system, bifurcation sets are derived, which divide the parameter space into several regions associated with different types of dynamical behaviors. Two typical cases are focused on as examples, in which different types of bursting oscillations such as subHopf/subHopf burster, subHopf/fold-cycle burster, and double-fold/fold burster can be observed. By employing the transformed phase portraits, the bifurcation mechanism of the bursting oscillations is presented, which reveals that different bifurcations occurring at the transition between the quiescent states (QSs) and the repetitive spiking states (SPs) may result in different forms of bursting oscillations. Furthermore, because of the inertia of the movement, delay may exist between the locations of the bifurcation points on the trajectory and the bifurcation points obtained theoretically. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 21276115).

  9. Transonic Shock Oscillations and Wing Flutter Calculated with an Interactive Boundary Layer Coupling Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, John W.

    1996-01-01

    A viscous-inviscid interactive coupling method is used for the computation of unsteady transonic flows involving separation and reattachment. A lag-entrainment integral boundary layer method is used with the transonic small disturbance potential equation in the CAP-TSDV (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code. Efficient and robust computations of steady and unsteady separated flows, including steady separation bubbles and self-excited shock-induced oscillations are presented. The buffet onset boundary for the NACA 0012 airfoil is accurately predicted and shown computationally to be a Hopf bifurcation. Shock-induced oscillations are also presented for the 18 percent circular arc airfoil. The oscillation onset boundaries and frequencies are accurately predicted, as is the experimentally observed hysteresis of the oscillations with Mach number. This latter stability boundary is identified as a jump phenomenon. Transonic wing flutter boundaries are also shown for a thin swept wing and for a typical business jet wing, illustrating viscous effects on flutter and the effect of separation onset on the wing response at flutter. Calculations for both wings show limit cycle oscillations at transonic speeds in the vicinity of minimum flutter speed indices.

  10. Phase Selective Oscillations in Two Noise Driven Synaptically Coupled Spiking Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokin, Ilya; Tyukin, Ivan; Kazantsev, Victor

    2015-06-01

    The work investigates the influence of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) mechanisms on the dynamics of two synaptically coupled neurons driven by additive external noise. In this setting, the noise signal models synaptic inputs that the pair receives from other neurons in a larger network. We show that in the absence of STDP feedbacks the pair of neurons exhibit oscillations and intermittent synchronization. When the synapse connecting the neurons is supplied with a phase selective feedback mechanism simulating STDP, induced dynamics of spikes in the coupled system resembles a phase locked mode with time lags between spikes oscillating about a specific value. This value, as we show by extensive numerical simulations, can be set arbitrary within a broad interval by tuning parameters of the STDP feedback.

  11. Strong effects of network architecture in the entrainment of coupled oscillator systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kori, Hiroshi; Mikhailov, Alexander S.

    2006-12-01

    Random networks of coupled phase oscillators, representing an approximation for systems of coupled limit-cycle oscillators, are considered. Entrainment of such networks by periodic external forcing applied to a subset of their elements is numerically and analytically investigated. For a large class of interaction functions, we find that the entrainment window with a tongue shape becomes exponentially narrow for networks with higher hierarchical organization. However, the entrainment is significantly facilitated if the networks are directionally biased—i.e., closer to the feedforward networks. Furthermore, we show that the networks with high entrainment ability can be constructed by evolutionary optimization processes. The neural network structure of the master clock of the circadian rhythm in mammals is discussed from the viewpoint of our results.

  12. Synchronization of Stochastically Coupled Oscillators: Dynamical Phase Transitions and Large Deviations Theory (or Birds and Frogs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorescu, Razvan

    2009-10-01

    Systems of oscillators coupled non-linearly (stochastically or not) are ubiquitous in nature and can explain many complex phenomena: coupled Josephson junction arrays, cardiac pacemaker cells, swarms or flocks of insects and birds, etc. They are know to have a non-trivial phase diagram, which includes chaotic, partially synchronized, and fully synchronized phases. A traditional model for this class of problems is the Kuramoto system of oscillators, which has been studied extensively for the last three decades. The model is a canonical example for non-equilibrium, dynamical phase transitions, so little understood in physics. From a stochastic analysis point of view, the transition is described by the large deviations principle, which offers little information on the scaling behavior near the critical point. I will discuss a special case of the model, which allows a rigorous analysis of the critical properties of the model, and reveals a new, anomalous scaling behavior in the vicinity of the critical point.

  13. Deterministic escape dynamics of two-dimensional coupled nonlinear oscillator chains.

    PubMed

    Fugmann, S; Hennig, D; Schimansky-Geier, L; Hänggi, P

    2008-06-01

    We consider the deterministic escape dynamics of a chain of coupled oscillators under microcanonical conditions from a metastable state over a cubic potential barrier. The underlying dynamics is conservative and noise free. We introduce a two-dimensional chain model and assume that neighboring units are coupled by Morse springs. It is found that, starting from a homogeneous lattice state, due to the nonlinearity of the external potential the system self-promotes an instability of its initial preparation and initiates complex lattice dynamics leading to the formation of localized large amplitude breathers, evolving in the direction of barrier crossing, accompanied by global oscillations of the chain transverse to the barrier. A few chain units accumulate locally sufficient energy to cross the barrier. Eventually the metastable state is left and either these particles dissociate or pull the remaining chain over the barrier. We show this escape for both linear rodlike and coil-like configurations of the chain in two dimensions. PMID:18643245

  14. Analysis on Patterns of Globally Coupled Phase Oscillators with Attractive and Repulsive Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng-Fei; Ruan, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Zhong-Bin; Fu, Xin

    2015-11-01

    The Hong-Strogatz (HS) model of globally coupled phase oscillators with attractive and repulsive interactions reflects the fact that each individual (oscillator) has its own attitude (attractive or repulsive) to the same environment (mean field). Previous studies on HS model focused mainly on the stable states on Ott-Antonsen (OA) manifold. In this paper, the eigenvalues of the Jacobi matrix of each fixed point in HS model are explicitly derived, with the aim to understand the local dynamics around each fixed point. Phase transitions are described according to relative population and coupling strength. Besides, the dynamics off OA manifold is studied. Supported by the National Basic Research Program of China under Grant No. 2015CB057301, the Applied Research Project of Public Welfare Technology of Zhejiang Province under Grant No. 201SC31109 and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under Grant No. 2014M560483

  15. Mixed quantum-classical versus full quantum dynamics: Coupled quasiparticle-oscillator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanz, Holger; Esser, Bernd

    1997-05-01

    The relation between the dynamical properties of a coupled quasiparticle-oscillator system in the mixed quantum-classical and fully quantized descriptions is investigated. The system is considered as a model for applying a stepwise quantization. Features of the nonlinear dynamics in the mixed description such as the presence of a separatrix structure or regular and chaotic motion are shown to be reflected in the evolu- tion of the quantum state vector of the fully quantized system. In particular, it is demonstrated how wave packets propagate along the separatrix structure of the mixed description, and that chaotic dynamics leads to a strongly entangled quantum state vector. Special emphasis is given to viewing the system from a dyn- amical Born-Oppenheimer approximation defining integrable reference oscillators, and elucidating the role of the nonadiabatic couplings which complement this approximation into a rigorous quantization scheme.

  16. Assessing cross-partner associations in physiological responses via coupled oscillator models.

    PubMed

    Helm, Jonathan L; Sbarra, David; Ferrer, Emilio

    2012-08-01

    A host of theoretical frameworks suggest associations of physiological signals between two individuals within a romantic relationship. However, few studies have provided empirical evidence of such associations using physiological reactivity from both partners in the dyad. In this study we use measures of respiration and heart rate from romantic partners recorded across three laboratory tasks. We examine the interrelations of each measure between both dyad members using coupled linear oscillators (Boker & Nesselroade, 2002). These models were used to capture oscillations in respiration and heart rate, and to examine interdependence in the physiological signals between both partners. Results show that associations were detectable within all three tasks, with different patterns of coupling within each task. Discussion centers on ways to investigate the synchrony of physiological responses across within relationships, including the promises of and obstacles for doing so. PMID:21910541

  17. Experimental investigation of chimera states with quiescent and synchronous domains in coupled electronic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambuzza, Lucia Valentina; Buscarino, Arturo; Chessari, Sergio; Fortuna, Luigi; Meucci, Riccardo; Frasca, Mattia

    2014-09-01

    Chimera states, that is, dynamical regimes characterized by the existence of a symmetry-broken solution where a coherent domain and an incoherent one coexist, have been theoretically demonstrated and numerically found in networks of homogeneously coupled identical oscillators. In this work we experimentally investigate the behavior of a closed and an open chain of electronic circuits with neuron-like spiking dynamics and first neighbor connections. Experimental results show the onset of a regime that we call chimera states with quiescent and synchronous domains, where synchronization coexists with spatially patterned oscillation death. The whole experimental bifurcation scenario, showing how disordered states, synchronization, chimera states with quiescent and synchronous domains, and oscillatory death states emerge as coupling is varied, is presented.

  18. A hybrid system of a membrane oscillator coupled to ultracold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampschulte, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    The control over micro- and nanomechanical oscillators has recently made impressive progress. First experiments demonstrated ground-state cooling and single-phonon control of high-frequency oscillators using cryogenic cooling and techniques of cavity optomechanics. Coupling engineered mechanical structures to microscopic quantum system with good coherence properties offers new possibilities for quantum control of mechanical vibrations, precision sensing and quantum-level signal transduction. Ultracold atoms are an attractive choice for such hybrid systems: Mechanical can either be coupled to the motional state of trapped atoms, which can routinely be ground-state cooled, or to the internal states, for which a toolbox of coherent manipulation and detection exists. Furthermore, atomic collective states with non-classical properties can be exploited to infer the mechanical motion with reduced quantum noise. Here we use trapped ultracold atoms to sympathetically cool the fundamental vibrational mode of a Si3N4 membrane. The coupling of membrane and atomic motion is mediated by laser light over a macroscopic distance and enhanced by an optical cavity around the membrane. The observed cooling of the membrane from room temperature to 650 +/- 230 mK shows that our hybrid mechanical-atomic system operates at a large cooperativity. Our scheme could provide ground-state cooling and quantum control of low-frequency oscillators such as levitated nanoparticles, in a regime where purely optomechanical techniques cannot reach the ground state. Furthermore, we will present a scheme where an optomechanical system is coupled to internal states of ultracold atoms. The mechanical motion is translated into a polarization rotation which drives Raman transitions between atomic ground states. Compared to the motional-state coupling, the new scheme enables to couple atoms to high-frequency structures such as optomechanical crystals.

  19. Impact of hyperbolicity on chimera states in ensembles of nonlocally coupled chaotic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenova, N.; Zakharova, A.; Schöll, E.; Anishchenko, V.

    2016-06-01

    In this work we analyse nonlocally coupled networks of identical chaotic oscillators. We study both time-discrete and time-continuous systems (Henon map, Lozi map, Lorenz system). We hypothesize that chimera states, in which spatial domains of coherent (synchronous) and incoherent (desynchronized) dynamics coexist, can be obtained only in networks of chaotic non-hyperbolic systems and cannot be found in networks of hyperbolic systems. This hypothesis is supported by numerical simulations for hyperbolic and non-hyperbolic cases.

  20. Memcapacitor model and its application in a chaotic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guang-Yi, Wang; Bo-Zhen, Cai; Pei-Pei, Jin; Ti-Ling, Hu

    2016-01-01

    A memcapacitor is a new type of memory capacitor. Before the advent of practical memcapacitor, the prospective studies on its models and potential applications are of importance. For this purpose, we establish a mathematical memcapacitor model and a corresponding circuit model. As a potential application, based on the model, a memcapacitor oscillator is designed, with its basic dynamic characteristics analyzed theoretically and experimentally. Some circuit variables such as charge, flux, and integral of charge, which are difficult to measure, are observed and measured via simulations and experiments. Analysis results show that besides the typical period-doubling bifurcations and period-3 windows, sustained chaos with constant Lyapunov exponents occurs. Moreover, this oscillator also exhibits abrupt chaos and some novel bifurcations. In addition, based on the digital signal processing (DSP) technology, a scheme of digitally realizing this memcapacitor oscillator is provided. Then the statistical properties of the chaotic sequences generated from the oscillator are tested by using the test suit of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The tested randomness definitely reaches the standards of NIST, and is better than that of the well-known Lorenz system. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61271064, 61401134, and 60971046), the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant Nos. LZ12F01001 and LQ14F010008), and the Program for Zhejiang Leading Team of S&T Innovation, China (Grant No. 2010R50010).

  1. Emergence of a super-synchronized mobbing state in a large population of coupled chemical oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoshal, Gourab; Muñuzuri, Alberto P.; Pérez-Mercader, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory phenomena are ubiquitous in Nature. The ability of a large population of coupled oscillators to synchronize constitutes an important mechanism to express information and establish communication among members. To understand such phenomena, models and experimental realizations of globally coupled oscillators have proven to be invaluable in settings as varied as chemical, biological and physical systems. A variety of rich dynamical behavior has been uncovered, although usually in the context of a single state of synchronization or lack thereof. Through the experimental and numerical study of a large population of discrete chemical oscillators, here we report on the unexpected discovery of a new phenomenon revealing the existence of dynamically distinct synchronized states reflecting different degrees of communication. Specifically, we discover a novel large-amplitude super-synchronized state separated from the conventionally reported synchronized and quiescent states through an unusual sharp jump transition when sampling the strong coupling limit. Our results assume significance for further elucidating globally coherent phenomena, such as in neuropathologies, bacterial cell colonies, social systems and semiconductor lasers.

  2. Robust synchronization of coupled circadian and cell cycle oscillators in single mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Bieler, Jonathan; Cannavo, Rosamaria; Gustafson, Kyle; Gobet, Cedric; Gatfield, David; Naef, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Circadian cycles and cell cycles are two fundamental periodic processes with a period in the range of 1 day. Consequently, coupling between such cycles can lead to synchronization. Here, we estimated the mutual interactions between the two oscillators by time-lapse imaging of single mammalian NIH3T3 fibroblasts during several days. The analysis of thousands of circadian cycles in dividing cells clearly indicated that both oscillators tick in a 1:1 mode-locked state, with cell divisions occurring tightly 5 h before the peak in circadian Rev-Erbα-YFP reporter expression. In principle, such synchrony may be caused by either unidirectional or bidirectional coupling. While gating of cell division by the circadian cycle has been most studied, our data combined with stochastic modeling unambiguously show that the reverse coupling is predominant in NIH3T3 cells. Moreover, temperature, genetic, and pharmacological perturbations showed that the two interacting cellular oscillators adopt a synchronized state that is highly robust over a wide range of parameters. These findings have implications for circadian function in proliferative tissues, including epidermis, immune cells, and cancer. PMID:25028488

  3. Emergence of a super-synchronized mobbing state in a large population of coupled chemical oscillators.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Gourab; Muñuzuri, Alberto P; Pérez-Mercader, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory phenomena are ubiquitous in Nature. The ability of a large population of coupled oscillators to synchronize constitutes an important mechanism to express information and establish communication among members. To understand such phenomena, models and experimental realizations of globally coupled oscillators have proven to be invaluable in settings as varied as chemical, biological and physical systems. A variety of rich dynamical behavior has been uncovered, although usually in the context of a single state of synchronization or lack thereof. Through the experimental and numerical study of a large population of discrete chemical oscillators, here we report on the unexpected discovery of a new phenomenon revealing the existence of dynamically distinct synchronized states reflecting different degrees of communication. Specifically, we discover a novel large-amplitude super-synchronized state separated from the conventionally reported synchronized and quiescent states through an unusual sharp jump transition when sampling the strong coupling limit. Our results assume significance for further elucidating globally coherent phenomena, such as in neuropathologies, bacterial cell colonies, social systems and semiconductor lasers. PMID:26753772

  4. Emergence of a super-synchronized mobbing state in a large population of coupled chemical oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, Gourab; Muñuzuri, Alberto P.; Pérez-Mercader, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory phenomena are ubiquitous in Nature. The ability of a large population of coupled oscillators to synchronize constitutes an important mechanism to express information and establish communication among members. To understand such phenomena, models and experimental realizations of globally coupled oscillators have proven to be invaluable in settings as varied as chemical, biological and physical systems. A variety of rich dynamical behavior has been uncovered, although usually in the context of a single state of synchronization or lack thereof. Through the experimental and numerical study of a large population of discrete chemical oscillators, here we report on the unexpected discovery of a new phenomenon revealing the existence of dynamically distinct synchronized states reflecting different degrees of communication. Specifically, we discover a novel large-amplitude super-synchronized state separated from the conventionally reported synchronized and quiescent states through an unusual sharp jump transition when sampling the strong coupling limit. Our results assume significance for further elucidating globally coherent phenomena, such as in neuropathologies, bacterial cell colonies, social systems and semiconductor lasers. PMID:26753772

  5. Coupled Oscillations in a 1D Emulsion of Belousov-Zhabotinsky Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraden, Seth; Delgado, Jorge; Li, Ning; Leda, Marcin; Gonzalez-Ochoa, Hector; Epstein, Irving

    2011-03-01

    We experimentally and computationally study the dynamics of interacting oscillating Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) droplets of ~ 120 μ m diameter separated by perfluorinated oil and arranged in a one-dimensional array (1D). The coupling between BZ droplets is dominated by inhibition and is strongest at low concentrations of malonic acid (MA) and small droplet separations. A microfluidic chip is used for mixing the BZ reactants, forming monodisperse droplets by flow-focusing and directing them into a hydrophobized 100 μ m diameter capillary. For samples composed of many drops and in the absence of well defined initial conditions, the anti-phase attractor, in which adjacent droplets oscillate 180 r out of phase, is observed for strong coupling. When the coupling strength is reduced the initial transients in the phase difference between neighboring droplets persist until the BZ reactants are exhausted. In order to make quantitative comparison with theory, we use photosensitive Ru(bipy)3 2 + -catalyzed BZ droplets and set both boundary and initial conditions of arrays of small numbers of oscillating BZ droplets with a programmable illumination source. In these small collections of droplets, transient patterns decay rapidly and we observe several more complex attractors, including ones in which some adjacent droplets are in-phase. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (CHE-0615507 and MRSEC DMR-0820492).

  6. Robust synchronization of coupled circadian and cell cycle oscillators in single mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Bieler, Jonathan; Cannavo, Rosamaria; Gustafson, Kyle; Gobet, Cedric; Gatfield, David; Naef, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Circadian cycles and cell cycles are two fundamental periodic processes with a period in the range of 1 day. Consequently, coupling between such cycles can lead to synchronization. Here, we estimated the mutual interactions between the two oscillators by time-lapse imaging of single mammalian NIH3T3 fibroblasts during several days. The analysis of thousands of circadian cycles in dividing cells clearly indicated that both oscillators tick in a 1:1 mode-locked state, with cell divisions occurring tightly 5 h before the peak in circadian Rev-Erbα-YFP reporter expression. In principle, such synchrony may be caused by either unidirectional or bidirectional coupling. While gating of cell division by the circadian cycle has been most studied, our data combined with stochastic modeling unambiguously show that the reverse coupling is predominant in NIH3T3 cells. Moreover, temperature, genetic, and pharmacological perturbations showed that the two interacting cellular oscillators adopt a synchronized state that is highly robust over a wide range of parameters. These findings have implications for circadian function in proliferative tissues, including epidermis, immune cells, and cancer. PMID:25028488

  7. Containment control for coupled harmonic oscillators with multiple leaders under directed topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chengjie; Zheng, Ying; Su, Housheng; Wang, Hua O.

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates the problem of containment control for coupled harmonic oscillators with multiple leaders under directed topology. Using tools from matrix, graph and stability theories, necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for coupled harmonic oscillators under continuous-time and sampled-data-based protocols, respectively. When the continuous-time protocol is used, it is proved that every follower will ultimately converge to the convex hull spanned by the leaders if and only if there exists at least one leader that has a directed path to that follower at any time. When the sampled-data-based protocol is used, it is shown that the containment can be achieved if and only if: (1) an appropriate sampling period is chosen and (2) for every follower, there exists at least one leader that has a directed path to that follower at any time. And we also give the containment conditions for coupled harmonic oscillators under undirected topology as a special case. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the theoretical findings.

  8. Coupled Oscillator Model of the Business Cycle withFluctuating Goods Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Y.; Aoyama, H.; Fujiwara, Y.; Iyetomi, H.; Ogimoto, K.; Souma, W.; Yoshikawa, H.

    The sectoral synchronization observed for the Japanese business cycle in the Indices of Industrial Production data is an example of synchronization. The stability of this synchronization under a shock, e.g., fluctuation of supply or demand, is a matter of interest in physics and economics. We consider an economic system made up of industry sectors and goods markets in order to analyze the sectoral synchronization observed for the Japanese business cycle. A coupled oscillator model that exhibits synchronization is developed based on the Kuramoto model with inertia by adding goods markets, and analytic solutions of the stationary state and the coupling strength are obtained. We simulate the effects on synchronization of a sectoral shock for systems with different price elasticities and the coupling strengths. Synchronization is reproduced as an equilibrium solution in a nearest neighbor graph. Analysis of the order parameters shows that the synchronization is stable for a finite elasticity, whereas the synchronization is broken and the oscillators behave like a giant oscillator with a certain frequency additional to the common frequency for zero elasticity.

  9. Nonclassical properties of coherent light in a pair of coupled anharmonic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Nasir; Mandal, Swapan

    2016-01-01

    The Hamiltonian and hence the equations of motion involving the field operators of two anharmonic oscillators coupled through a linear one is framed. It is found that these equations of motion involving the non-commuting field operators are nonlinear and are coupled to each other and hence pose a great problem for getting the solutions. In order to investigate the dynamics and hence the nonclassical properties of the radiation fields, we obtain approximate analytical solutions of these coupled nonlinear differential equations involving the non-commuting field operators up to the second orders in anharmonic and coupling constants. These solutions are found useful for investigating the squeezing of pure and mixed modes, amplitude squared squeezing, principal squeezing, and the photon antibunching of the input coherent radiation field. With the suitable choice of the parameters (photon number in various field modes, anharmonic, and coupling constants, etc.), we calculate the second order variances of field quadratures of various modes and hence the squeezing, amplitude squared, and mixed mode squeezing of the input coherent light. In the absence of anharmonicities, it is found that these nonlinear nonclassical phenomena (squeezing of pure and mixed modes, amplitude squared squeezing and photon antibunching) are completely absent. The percentage of squeezing, mixed mode squeezing, amplitude squared squeezing increase with the increase of photon number and the dimensionless interaction time. The collapse and revival phenomena in squeezing, mixed mode squeezing and amplitude squared squeezing are exhibited. With the increase of the interaction time, the monotonic increasing nature of the squeezing effects reveal the presence of unwanted secular terms. It is established that the mere coupling of two oscillators through a third one does not produces the squeezing effects of input coherent light. However, the pure nonclassical phenomena of antibunching of photons in vacuum

  10. El Nino-southern oscillation: A coupled response to the greenhouse effect?

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, De-Zheng

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this article to elucidate the link between the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and radiative forcing (of which the greenhouse effect is a major part). A unified theory for the tropical Pacific climate is developed by considering the response of the coupled ocean-atmosphere to a changing radiative forcing. The hypothesis is that both the zonal surface sea temperature (SST) gradients and ENSO are a coupled response to the strong radiative heating or the tropical warmth. Owing to ocean-atmosphere interaction, the stronger the radiative heating, the larger the zonal SST gradients. When the SST gradients exceed a critical value, however, the ocean-atmosphere interaction in the cold-tongue region is too strong for the coupled system to hold steady. Consequently, the coupled system enters an oscillatory state. These coupled dynamics are examined in a simple mathematical model whose behavior is consistent with the hypothesis. With a linear temperature profile throughout the depth of subsurface ocean, the model predicts that both the magnitude and period of the oscillation increase with increases in radiative forcing or the greenhouse effect. The increase in the magnitude of the oscillation largely comes from an enhancement of the magnitude of the cold anomalies, while the increase in the period mostly comes from a prolonged duration of the warm events. With a profile in which the lapse rate decreases with depth, the sensitivity is more moderate. The simplicity of the model prevents a quantitative simulation of the sensitivity of ENSO to increases in the greenhouse effect, but qualitatively the model results support the empirical interpretation of the prolonged duration of the 1990-1995 ENSO event. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  11. The Design of Monolithic AC-coupled 1-Dimensional Voltage-Controlled-Oscillators (VCOs) Phased-array Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lie, Donald Y. C.; Lopez, J.

    2011-04-01

    A fully monolithic 1-Dimensional (1-D) AC-coupled Voltage-Controlled-Oscillators (VCOs) phased-array network design will be presented in this paper. This radio-frequency (RF) VCO array integrates on-chip inductors, varactors and bias current sources and it contains an odd number of VCOs AC-coupled through on-chip switchable resistor networks using MOSFETs. The measured results and SPICE simulated performance of the monolithic unit cell VCO agree reasonably well. Realistic circuit simulations in IBM 7HP 0.18 um BiCMOS design kit indicate promising results of the 1-D coupled-VCO array by showing the design can control the phasing of this on-chip VCO-array by means of tuning the edge elements and/or by varying the coupling strength via different resistor values using the on-chip MOSFET switches. Simulation data shows that it can offer high directivity and a possible element-to-element phase tuning arrangement that allows a ˜±20-30° degree coverage from broadside without the need for phase shifters or additional circuitry complexity. This AC-coupled 1-D VCO array, therefore, shows great potential for RF active antennas applications to perform wide angle beam steering for the highly used S-band.

  12. Low-noise RF-amplifier-free slab-coupled optical waveguide coupled optoelectronic oscillators: physics and operation.

    PubMed

    Loh, William; Yegnanarayanan, Siva; Plant, Jason J; O'Donnell, Frederick J; Grein, Matthew E; Klamkin, Jonathan; Duff, Shannon M; Juodawlkis, Paul W

    2012-08-13

    We demonstrate a 10-GHz RF-amplifier-free slab-coupled optical waveguide coupled optoelectronic oscillator (SCOW-COEO) system operating with low phase-noise (<-115 dBc/Hz at 1 kHz offset) and large sidemode suppression (>70 dB measurement-limited). The optical pulses generated by the SCOW-COEO exhibit 26.8-ps pulse width (post compression) with a corresponding spectral bandwidth of 0.25 nm (1.8X transform-limited). We also investigate the mechanisms that limit the performance of the COEO. Our measurements indicate that degradation in the quality factor (Q) of the optical cavity significantly impacts COEO phase-noise through increases in the optical amplifier relative intensity noise (RIN). PMID:23038585

  13. Enzyme oscillation can enhance the thermodynamic efficiency of cellular metabolism: consequence of anti-phase coupling between reaction flux and affinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himeoka, Yusuke; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2016-04-01

    Cells generally convert nutrient resources to products via energy transduction. Accordingly, the thermodynamic efficiency of this conversion process is one of the most essential characteristics of living organisms. However, although these processes occur under conditions of dynamic metabolism, most studies of cellular thermodynamic efficiency have been restricted to examining steady states; thus, the relevance of dynamics to this efficiency has not yet been elucidated. Here, we develop a simple model of metabolic reactions with anabolism–catabolism coupling catalyzed by enzymes. Through application of external oscillation in the enzyme abundances, the thermodynamic efficiency of metabolism was found to be improved. This result is in strong contrast with that observed in the oscillatory input, in which the efficiency always decreased with oscillation. This improvement was effectively achieved by separating the anabolic and catabolic reactions, which tend to disequilibrate each other, and taking advantage of the temporal oscillations so that each of the antagonistic reactions could progress near equilibrium. In this case, anti-phase oscillation between the reaction flux and chemical affinity through oscillation of enzyme abundances is essential. This improvement was also confirmed in a model capable of generating autonomous oscillations in enzyme abundances. Finally, the possible relevance of the improvement in thermodynamic efficiency is discussed with respect to the potential for manipulation of metabolic oscillations in microorganisms.

  14. The Intercellular Synchronization of Ca2+ Oscillations Evaluates Cx36-Dependent Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Bavamian, Sabine; Pontes, Helena; Cancela, José; Charollais, Anne; Startchik, Sergei; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Meda, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Connexin36 (Cx36) plays an important role in insulin secretion by controlling the intercellular synchronization of Ca2+ transients induced during stimulation. The lack of drugs acting on Cx36 channels is a major limitation in further unraveling the molecular mechanism underlying this effect. To screen for such drugs, we have developed an assay allowing for a semi-automatic, fluorimetric quantification of Ca2+ transients in large populations of MIN6 cells. Here, we show that (1) compared to control cells, MIN6 cells with reduced Cx36 expression or function showed decreased synchrony of glucose-induced Ca2+ oscillations; (2) glibenclamide, a sulphonylurea which promotes Cx36 junctions and coupling, increased the number of synchronous MIN6 cells, whereas quinine, an antimalarial drug which inhibits Cx36-dependent coupling, decreased this proportion; (3) several drugs were identified that altered the intercellular Ca2+ synchronization, cell coupling and distribution of Cx36; (4) some of them also affected insulin content. The data indicate that the intercellular synchronization of Ca2+ oscillations provides a reliable and non-invasive measurement of Cx36-dependent coupling, which is useful to identify novel drugs affecting the function of β-cells, neurons, and neuron-related cells that express Cx36. PMID:22848521

  15. Driving Potential and Noise Level Determine the Synchronization State of Hydrodynamically Coupled Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruot, Nicolas; Kotar, Jurij; de Lillo, Filippo; Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco; Cicuta, Pietro

    2012-10-01

    Motile cilia are highly conserved structures in the evolution of organisms, generating the transport of fluid by periodic beating, through remarkably organized behavior in space and time. It is not known how these spatiotemporal patterns emerge and what sets their properties. Individual cilia are nonequilibrium systems with many degrees of freedom. However, their description can be represented by simpler effective force laws that drive oscillations, and paralleled with nonlinear phase oscillators studied in physics. Here a synthetic model of two phase oscillators, where colloidal particles are driven by optical traps, proves the role of the average force profile in establishing the type and strength of synchronization. We find that highly curved potentials are required for synchronization in the presence of noise. The applicability of this approach to biological data is also illustrated by successfully mapping the behavior of cilia in the alga Chlamydomonas onto the coarse-grained model.

  16. Floquet topological system based on frequency-modulated classical coupled harmonic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salerno, Grazia; Ozawa, Tomoki; Price, Hannah M.; Carusotto, Iacopo

    2016-02-01

    We theoretically propose how to observe topological effects in a generic classical system of coupled harmonic oscillators, such as classical pendula or lumped-element electric circuits, whose oscillation frequency is modulated fast in time. Making use of Floquet theory in the high-frequency limit, we identify a regime in which the system is accurately described by a Harper-Hofstadter model where the synthetic magnetic field can be externally tuned via the phase of the frequency modulation of the different oscillators. We illustrate how the topologically protected chiral edge states, as well as the Hofstadter butterfly of bulk bands, can be observed in the driven-dissipative steady state under a monochromatic drive. In analogy with the integer quantum Hall effect, we show how the topological Chern numbers of the bands can be extracted from the mean transverse shift of the steady-state oscillation amplitude distribution. Finally, we discuss the regime where the analogy with the Harper-Hofstadter model breaks down.

  17. Development of Sensory Gamma Oscillations and Cross-Frequency Coupling from Childhood to Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Raymond Y.; Walker, Christopher P.; Polizzotto, Nicola R.; Wozny, Thomas A.; Fissell, Catherine; Chen, Chi-Ming A.; Lewis, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of gamma oscillations in normal and disturbed cognition, there has been growing interest in their developmental trajectory. In the current study, age-related changes in sensory cortical gamma were studied using the auditory steady-state response (ASSR), indexing cortical activity entrained to a periodic auditory stimulus. A large sample (n = 188) aged 8–22 years had electroencephalography recording of ASSR during 20-, 30-, and 40-Hz click trains, analyzed for evoked amplitude, phase-locking factor (PLF) and cross-frequency coupling (CFC) with lower frequency oscillations. Both 40-Hz evoked power and PLF increased monotonically from 8 through 16 years, and subsequently decreased toward ages 20–22 years. CFC followed a similar pattern, with strongest age-related modulation of 40-Hz amplitude by the phase of delta oscillations. In contrast, the evoked power, PLF and CFC for the 20- and 30-Hz stimulation were distinct from the 40-Hz condition, with flat or decreasing profiles from childhood to early adulthood. The inverted U-shaped developmental trajectory of gamma oscillations may be consistent with interacting maturational processes—such as increasing fast GABA inhibition that enhances gamma activity and synaptic pruning that decreases gamma activity—that may continue from childhood through to adulthood. PMID:24334917

  18. Two generalized algorithms measuring phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling in neuronal oscillations network.

    PubMed

    Li, Qun; Zheng, Chen-Guang; Cheng, Ning; Wang, Yi-Yi; Yin, Tao; Zhang, Tao

    2016-06-01

    An increasing number of studies pays attention to cross-frequency coupling in neuronal oscillations network, as it is considered to play an important role in exchanging and integrating of information. In this study, two generalized algorithms, phase-amplitude coupling-evolution map approach and phase-amplitude coupling-conditional mutual information which have been developed and applied originally in an identical rhythm, are generalized to measure cross-frequency coupling. The effectiveness of quantitatively distinguishing the changes of coupling strength from the measurement of phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) is demonstrated based on simulation data. The data suggest that the generalized algorithms are able to effectively evaluate the strength of PAC, which are consistent with those traditional approaches, such as PAC-PLV and PAC-MI. Experimental data, which are local field potentials obtained from anaesthetized SD rats, have also been analyzed by these two generalized approaches. The data show that the theta-low gamma PAC in the hippocampal CA3-CA1 network is significantly decreased in the glioma group compared to that in the control group. The results, obtained from either simulation data or real experimental signals, are consistent with that of those traditional approaches PAC-MI and PAC-PLV. It may be considered as a proper indicator for the cross frequency coupling in sub-network, such as the hippocampal CA3 and CA1. PMID:27275379

  19. Coupled slow and fast surface dynamics in an electrocatalytic oscillator: Model and simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Nascimento, Melke A.; Nagao, Raphael; Eiswirth, Markus; Varela, Hamilton

    2014-12-21

    The co-existence of disparate time scales is pervasive in many systems. In particular for surface reactions, it has been shown that the long-term evolution of the core oscillator is decisively influenced by slow surface changes, such as progressing deactivation. Here we present an in-depth numerical investigation of the coupled slow and fast surface dynamics in an electrocatalytic oscillator. The model consists of four nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations, investigated over a wide parameter range. Besides the conventional bifurcation analysis, the system was studied by means of high-resolution period and Lyapunov diagrams. It was observed that the bifurcation diagram changes considerably as the irreversible surface poisoning evolves, and the oscillatory region shrinks. The qualitative dynamics changes accordingly and the chaotic oscillations are dramatically suppressed. Nevertheless, periodic cascades are preserved in a confined region of the resistance vs. voltage diagram. Numerical results are compared to experiments published earlier and the latter reinterpreted. Finally, the comprehensive description of the time-evolution in the period and Lyapunov diagrams suggests further experimental studies correlating the evolution of the system's dynamics with changes of the catalyst structure.

  20. Phase locking and multiple oscillating attractors for the coupled mammalian clock and cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Feillet, Céline; Krusche, Peter; Tamanini, Filippo; Janssens, Roel C; Downey, Mike J; Martin, Patrick; Teboul, Michèle; Saito, Shoko; Lévi, Francis A; Bretschneider, Till; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T J; Delaunay, Franck; Rand, David A

    2014-07-01

    Daily synchronous rhythms of cell division at the tissue or organism level are observed in many species and suggest that the circadian clock and cell cycle oscillators are coupled. For mammals, despite known mechanistic interactions, the effect of such coupling on clock and cell cycle progression, and hence its biological relevance, is not understood. In particular, we do not know how the temporal organization of cell division at the single-cell level produces this daily rhythm at the tissue level. Here we use multispectral imaging of single live cells, computational methods, and mathematical modeling to address this question in proliferating mouse fibroblasts. We show that in unsynchronized cells the cell cycle and circadian clock robustly phase lock each other in a 1:1 fashion so that in an expanding cell population the two oscillators oscillate in a synchronized way with a common frequency. Dexamethasone-induced synchronization reveals additional clock states. As well as the low-period phase-locked state there are distinct coexisting states with a significantly higher period clock. Cells transition to these states after dexamethasone synchronization. The temporal coordination of cell division by phase locking to the clock at a single-cell level has significant implications because disordered circadian function is increasingly being linked to the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancer. PMID:24958884

  1. Partial synchronization in networks of non-linearly coupled oscillators: The Deserter Hubs Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Celso; Macau, Elbert; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2015-04-01

    We study the Deserter Hubs Model: a Kuramoto-like model of coupled identical phase oscillators on a network, where attractive and repulsive couplings are balanced dynamically due to nonlinearity of interactions. Under weak force, an oscillator tends to follow the phase of its neighbors, but if an oscillator is compelled to follow its peers by a sufficient large number of cohesive neighbors, then it actually starts to act in the opposite manner, i.e., in anti-phase with the majority. Analytic results yield that if the repulsion parameter is small enough in comparison with the degree of the maximum hub, then the full synchronization state is locally stable. Numerical experiments are performed to explore the model beyond this threshold, where the overall cohesion is lost. We report in detail partially synchronous dynamical regimes, like stationary phase-locking, multistability, periodic and chaotic states. Via statistical analysis of different network organizations like tree, scale-free, and random ones, we found a measure allowing one to predict relative abundance of partially synchronous stationary states in comparison to time-dependent ones.

  2. Phase locking and multiple oscillating attractors for the coupled mammalian clock and cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Feillet, Céline; Krusche, Peter; Tamanini, Filippo; Janssens, Roel C.; Downey, Mike J.; Martin, Patrick; Teboul, Michèle; Saito, Shoko; Lévi, Francis A.; Bretschneider, Till; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T. J.; Delaunay, Franck; Rand, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Daily synchronous rhythms of cell division at the tissue or organism level are observed in many species and suggest that the circadian clock and cell cycle oscillators are coupled. For mammals, despite known mechanistic interactions, the effect of such coupling on clock and cell cycle progression, and hence its biological relevance, is not understood. In particular, we do not know how the temporal organization of cell division at the single-cell level produces this daily rhythm at the tissue level. Here we use multispectral imaging of single live cells, computational methods, and mathematical modeling to address this question in proliferating mouse fibroblasts. We show that in unsynchronized cells the cell cycle and circadian clock robustly phase lock each other in a 1:1 fashion so that in an expanding cell population the two oscillators oscillate in a synchronized way with a common frequency. Dexamethasone-induced synchronization reveals additional clock states. As well as the low-period phase-locked state there are distinct coexisting states with a significantly higher period clock. Cells transition to these states after dexamethasone synchronization. The temporal coordination of cell division by phase locking to the clock at a single-cell level has significant implications because disordered circadian function is increasingly being linked to the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancer. PMID:24958884

  3. Coupled slow and fast surface dynamics in an electrocatalytic oscillator: Model and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, Melke A.; Nagao, Raphael; Eiswirth, Markus; Varela, Hamilton

    2014-12-01

    The co-existence of disparate time scales is pervasive in many systems. In particular for surface reactions, it has been shown that the long-term evolution of the core oscillator is decisively influenced by slow surface changes, such as progressing deactivation. Here we present an in-depth numerical investigation of the coupled slow and fast surface dynamics in an electrocatalytic oscillator. The model consists of four nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations, investigated over a wide parameter range. Besides the conventional bifurcation analysis, the system was studied by means of high-resolution period and Lyapunov diagrams. It was observed that the bifurcation diagram changes considerably as the irreversible surface poisoning evolves, and the oscillatory region shrinks. The qualitative dynamics changes accordingly and the chaotic oscillations are dramatically suppressed. Nevertheless, periodic cascades are preserved in a confined region of the resistance vs. voltage diagram. Numerical results are compared to experiments published earlier and the latter reinterpreted. Finally, the comprehensive description of the time-evolution in the period and Lyapunov diagrams suggests further experimental studies correlating the evolution of the system's dynamics with changes of the catalyst structure.

  4. Inferring the connectivity of coupled oscillators from time-series statistical similarity analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tirabassi, Giulio; Sevilla-Escoboza, Ricardo; Buldú, Javier M.; Masoller, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    A system composed by interacting dynamical elements can be represented by a network, where the nodes represent the elements that constitute the system, and the links account for their interactions, which arise due to a variety of mechanisms, and which are often unknown. A popular method for inferring the system connectivity (i.e., the set of links among pairs of nodes) is by performing a statistical similarity analysis of the time-series collected from the dynamics of the nodes. Here, by considering two systems of coupled oscillators (Kuramoto phase oscillators and Rössler chaotic electronic oscillators) with known and controllable coupling conditions, we aim at testing the performance of this inference method, by using linear and non linear statistical similarity measures. We find that, under adequate conditions, the network links can be perfectly inferred, i.e., no mistakes are made regarding the presence or absence of links. These conditions for perfect inference require: i) an appropriated choice of the observed variable to be analysed, ii) an appropriated interaction strength, and iii) an adequate thresholding of the similarity matrix. For the dynamical units considered here we find that the linear statistical similarity measure performs, in general, better than the non-linear ones. PMID:26042395

  5. Partial synchronization in networks of non-linearly coupled oscillators: The Deserter Hubs Model

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, Celso Macau, Elbert; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2015-04-15

    We study the Deserter Hubs Model: a Kuramoto-like model of coupled identical phase oscillators on a network, where attractive and repulsive couplings are balanced dynamically due to nonlinearity of interactions. Under weak force, an oscillator tends to follow the phase of its neighbors, but if an oscillator is compelled to follow its peers by a sufficient large number of cohesive neighbors, then it actually starts to act in the opposite manner, i.e., in anti-phase with the majority. Analytic results yield that if the repulsion parameter is small enough in comparison with the degree of the maximum hub, then the full synchronization state is locally stable. Numerical experiments are performed to explore the model beyond this threshold, where the overall cohesion is lost. We report in detail partially synchronous dynamical regimes, like stationary phase-locking, multistability, periodic and chaotic states. Via statistical analysis of different network organizations like tree, scale-free, and random ones, we found a measure allowing one to predict relative abundance of partially synchronous stationary states in comparison to time-dependent ones.

  6. Neuronal Oscillations with Non-sinusoidal Morphology Produce Spurious Phase-to-Amplitude Coupling and Directionality.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Soldevilla, Diego; Ter Huurne, Niels; Oostenveld, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal oscillations support cognitive processing. Modern views suggest that neuronal oscillations do not only reflect coordinated activity in spatially distributed networks, but also that there is interaction between the oscillations at different frequencies. For example, invasive recordings in animals and humans have found that the amplitude of fast oscillations (>40 Hz) occur non-uniformly within the phase of slower oscillations, forming the so-called cross-frequency coupling (CFC). However, the CFC patterns might be influenced by features in the signal that do not relate to underlying physiological interactions. For example, CFC estimates may be sensitive to spectral correlations due to non-sinusoidal properties of the alpha band wave morphology. To investigate this issue, we performed CFC analysis using experimental and synthetic data. The former consisted in a double-blind magnetoencephalography pharmacological study in which participants received either placebo, 0.5 or 1.5 mg of lorazepam (LZP; GABAergic enhancer) in different experimental sessions. By recording oscillatory brain activity with during rest and working memory (WM), we were able to demonstrate that posterior alpha (8-12 Hz) phase was coupled to beta-low gamma band (20-45 Hz) amplitude envelope during all sessions. Importantly, bicoherence values around the harmonics of the alpha frequency were similar both in magnitude and topographic distribution to the cross-frequency coherence (CFCoh) values observed in the alpha-phase to beta-low gamma coupling. In addition, despite the large CFCoh we found no significant cross-frequency directionality (CFD). Critically, simulations demonstrated that a sizable part of our empirical CFCoh between alpha and beta-low gamma coupling and the lack of CFD could be explained by two-three harmonics aligned in zero phase-lag produced by the physiologically characteristic alpha asymmetry in the amplitude of the peaks relative to the troughs. Furthermore, we showed

  7. Neuronal Oscillations with Non-sinusoidal Morphology Produce Spurious Phase-to-Amplitude Coupling and Directionality

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Soldevilla, Diego; ter Huurne, Niels; Oostenveld, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal oscillations support cognitive processing. Modern views suggest that neuronal oscillations do not only reflect coordinated activity in spatially distributed networks, but also that there is interaction between the oscillations at different frequencies. For example, invasive recordings in animals and humans have found that the amplitude of fast oscillations (>40 Hz) occur non-uniformly within the phase of slower oscillations, forming the so-called cross-frequency coupling (CFC). However, the CFC patterns might be influenced by features in the signal that do not relate to underlying physiological interactions. For example, CFC estimates may be sensitive to spectral correlations due to non-sinusoidal properties of the alpha band wave morphology. To investigate this issue, we performed CFC analysis using experimental and synthetic data. The former consisted in a double-blind magnetoencephalography pharmacological study in which participants received either placebo, 0.5 or 1.5 mg of lorazepam (LZP; GABAergic enhancer) in different experimental sessions. By recording oscillatory brain activity with during rest and working memory (WM), we were able to demonstrate that posterior alpha (8–12 Hz) phase was coupled to beta-low gamma band (20–45 Hz) amplitude envelope during all sessions. Importantly, bicoherence values around the harmonics of the alpha frequency were similar both in magnitude and topographic distribution to the cross-frequency coherence (CFCoh) values observed in the alpha-phase to beta-low gamma coupling. In addition, despite the large CFCoh we found no significant cross-frequency directionality (CFD). Critically, simulations demonstrated that a sizable part of our empirical CFCoh between alpha and beta-low gamma coupling and the lack of CFD could be explained by two-three harmonics aligned in zero phase-lag produced by the physiologically characteristic alpha asymmetry in the amplitude of the peaks relative to the troughs. Furthermore, we

  8. Damping performance of two simple oscillators coupled by a visco-elastic connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattulli, Vincenzo; Potenza, Francesco; Lepidi, Marco

    2013-12-01

    A simple dynamic system composed of two linear oscillators is employed to analyze the passive control performance that can be achieved through a visco-elastic damper connecting two adjacent free-standing structures. By extension, the model may also describe the energy dissipation which can be obtained by an internal coupling between two quasi-independent sub-systems composing a single complex structure. Two alternatives are evaluated for the linear coupling by considering either the serial or the parallel spring-dashpot arrangement known as the Kelvin-Voigt and the Maxwell damper model, which may synthetically reproduce the constitutive behavior of different industrial devices. The complex eigenvalues of the coupled system are parametrically analyzed to determine the potential benefits realized by different combinations of the coupling stiffness and damping coefficient. A design strategy to assess these parameters is outlined, driven by the relevant observation that a perfect tuning of the natural frequencies always corresponds, in the parameter space, to the maximum modal damping for one of the resonant modes, independent of the damper model. The effectiveness of the proposed strategy is discussed for different classes of the controlled system, depending on the mass and stiffness ratio of the component oscillators. As a major result, different design parameter charts for the two damper models are carried out and compared to each other. Performance indexes are introduced to quantitatively evaluate the passive control performance with respect to the mitigation of the system forced response under harmonic and seismic ground excitation. The analyses confirm the validity of the design strategy for a well-balanced mitigation of the displacement and acceleration response in both the oscillators.

  9. Experimental synchronization of chaos in a large ring of mutually coupled single-transistor oscillators: Phase, amplitude, and clustering effects

    SciTech Connect

    Minati, Ludovico E-mail: ludovico.minati@unitn.it

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, experimental evidence of multiple synchronization phenomena in a large (n = 30) ring of chaotic oscillators is presented. Each node consists of an elementary circuit, generating spikes of irregular amplitude and comprising one bipolar junction transistor, one capacitor, two inductors, and one biasing resistor. The nodes are mutually coupled to their neighbours via additional variable resistors. As coupling resistance is decreased, phase synchronization followed by complete synchronization is observed, and onset of synchronization is associated with partial synchronization, i.e., emergence of communities (clusters). While component tolerances affect community structure, the general synchronization properties are maintained across three prototypes and in numerical simulations. The clusters are destroyed by adding long distance connections with distant notes, but are otherwise relatively stable with respect to structural connectivity changes. The study provides evidence that several fundamental synchronization phenomena can be reliably observed in a network of elementary single-transistor oscillators, demonstrating their generative potential and opening way to potential applications of this undemanding setup in experimental modelling of the relationship between network structure, synchronization, and dynamical properties.

  10. The universe dominated by oscillating scalar with non-minimal derivative coupling to gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Jinno, Ryusuke; Mukaida, Kyohei; Nakayama, Kazunori E-mail: mukaida@hep-th.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-01-01

    We study the expansion law of the universe dominated by the oscillating scalar field with non-minimal derivative coupling to gravity as G{sup μν}∂{sub μ}φ∂{sub ν}φ. In this system the Hubble parameter oscillates with a frequency of the effective mass of the scalar field, which formerly caused a difficulty in analyzing how the universe expands. We find an analytical solution for power law potentials and interpret the solution in an intuitive way by using a new invariant of the system. As a result, we find marginally accelerated expansion for the quadratic potential and no accelerated expansion for the potential with higher power.

  11. Nonstationary energy localization vs conventional stationary localization in weakly coupled nonlinear oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manevitch, Leonid I.; Kovaleva, Agnessa; Sigalov, Grigori

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we study the effect of nonstationary energy localization in a nonlinear conservative resonant system of two weakly coupled oscillators. This effect is alternative to the well-known stationary energy localization associated with the existence of localized normal modes and resulting from a local topological transformation of the phase portraits of the system. In this work we show that nonstationary energy localization results from a global transformation of the phase portrait. A key to solving the problem is the introduction of the concept of limiting phase trajectories (LPTs) corresponding to maximum possible energy exchange between the oscillators. We present two scenarios of nonstationary energy localization under the condition of 1:1 resonance. It is demonstrated that the conditions of nonstationary localization determine the conditions of efficient targeted energy transfer in a generating dynamical system. A possible extension to multi-particle systems is briefly discussed.

  12. Effect of asymmetry parameter on the dynamical states of nonlocally coupled nonlinear oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, R.; Chandrasekar, V. K.; Senthilkumar, D. V.; Venkatesan, A.; Lakshmanan, M.

    2015-06-01

    We show that coexisting domains of coherent and incoherent oscillations can be induced in an ensemble of any identical nonlinear dynamical systems using nonlocal rotational matrix coupling with an asymmetry parameter. Further, a chimera is shown to emerge in a wide range of the asymmetry parameter in contrast to near π/2 values of it employed in earlier works. We have also corroborated our results using the strength of incoherence in the frequency domain (Sω) and in the amplitude domain (S ), thereby distinguishing the frequency and amplitude chimeras. The robust nature of the asymmetry parameter in inducing chimeras in any generic dynamical system is established using ensembles of identical Rössler oscillators, Lorenz systems, and Hindmarsh-Rose neurons in their chaotic regimes.

  13. Consecutive transitions from localized to delocalized transport states in the anharmonic chain of three coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kislovsky, V.; Kovaleva, M.; Jayaprakash, K. R.; Starosvetsky, Y.

    2016-07-01

    In the present paper, we study the mechanism of formation and bifurcations of highly nonstationary regimes manifested by different energy transport intensities, emerging in an anharmonic trimer model. The basic model under investigation comprises a chain of three coupled anharmonic oscillators subject to localized excitation, where the initial energy is imparted to the first oscillator only. We report the formation of three basic nonstationary transport states traversed by locally excited regimes. These states differ by spatial energy distribution, as well as by the intensity of energy transport along the chain. In the current study, we focus on numerical and analytical investigation of the intricate resonant mechanism governing the inter-state transitions of locally excited regimes. Results of the analytical study are in good agreement with the numerical simulations of the trimer model.

  14. Three-dimensional simulation of a hole-coupled FEL oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnagopal, S.; Xie, M.; Kim, K.J.; Sessler, A.

    1991-08-01

    The performance of a two-mirror resonator with holes for out-coupling has been examined in a previous study in which the FEL gain was neglected, but the geometrical effect of the wiggler aperture was included in the optical calculation. The phenomenon of mode degeneracy was found to occur, that has serious implications for the stability of performance when the FEL gain is included. We have developed a FEL oscillator code based on TDA'', a three-dimensional FEL amplifier code, to study the mode characteristics in the presence of an FEL. We find that the interaction of the radiation and the FEL has an important, and positive, impact on the mode-profile and related cavity performance parameters. In particular, mode degeneracy is not expected to be a serious problem for reasonable FEL oscillator designs. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Reconfigurable optoelectronic oscillator incorporating a double-coupling recirculating delay line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng-Xin; Chen, Fu-Shen; Zhang, Jia-Hong

    2014-07-01

    A reconfigurable optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) based on a double-coupling recirculating delay line (DC-RDL) is analyzed and experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed OEO, an incoherent two-tap microwave photonic filter is formed by an amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source, a Mach-Zehnder modulator, a DC-RDL, and a polarization beam splitter (PBS) to realize selection of the oscillation mode. Specifically, the incoherence is implemented using an ASE broadband laser source and a DC-RDL, and the high sidemode suppression performance can be achieved by employing the dual-loops system between the dual output of the DC-RDL and the PBS. A detailed theoretical analysis is provided and is verified by the experiment. The single-sideband phase noise, the frequency tunability, and the long-term stability of the generated microwave signal are investigated. In addition, the frequency independent of the phase noise is also experimentally observed.

  16. Identical phase oscillators with global sinusoidal coupling evolve by Möbius group action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, Seth A.; Mirollo, Renato E.; Strogatz, Steven H.

    2009-12-01

    Systems of N identical phase oscillators with global sinusoidal coupling are known to display low-dimensional dynamics. Although this phenomenon was first observed about 20 years ago, its underlying cause has remained a puzzle. Here we expose the structure working behind the scenes of these systems by proving that the governing equations are generated by the action of the Möbius group, a three-parameter subgroup of fractional linear transformations that map the unit disk to itself. When there are no auxiliary state variables, the group action partitions the N-dimensional state space into three-dimensional invariant manifolds (the group orbits). The N -3 constants of motion associated with this foliation are the N -3 functionally independent cross ratios of the oscillator phases. No further reduction is possible, in general; numerical experiments on models of Josephson junction arrays suggest that the invariant manifolds often contain three-dimensional regions of neutrally stable chaos.

  17. A Realtime Active Feedback Control System For Coupled Nonlinear Chemical Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompkins, Nathan; Fraden, Seth

    2012-02-01

    We study the manipulation and control of oscillatory networks. As a model system we use an emulsion of Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) oscillators packed on a hexagonal lattice. Each drop is observed and perturbed by a Programmable Illumination Microscope (PIM). The PIM allows us to track individual BZ oscillators, calculate the phase and order parameters of every drop, and selectively perturb specific drops with photo illumination, all in realtime. To date we have determined the native attractor patterns for drops in 1D arrays and 2D hexagonal packing as a function of coupling strength as well as determined methods to move the system from one attractor basin to another. Current work involves implementing these attractor control methods with our experimental system and future work will likely include implementing a model neural network for use with photo controllable BZ emulsions.

  18. Synchrony suppression in ensembles of coupled oscillators via adaptive vanishing feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaseri, Ghazal; Javad Yazdanpanah, Mohammad; Pikovsky, Arkady; Rosenblum, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Synchronization and emergence of a collective mode is a general phenomenon, frequently observed in ensembles of coupled self-sustained oscillators of various natures. In several circumstances, in particular in cases of neurological pathologies, this state of the active medium is undesirable. Destruction of this state by a specially designed stimulation is a challenge of high clinical relevance. Typically, the precise effect of an external action on the ensemble is unknown, since the microscopic description of the oscillators and their interactions are not available. We show that, desynchronization in case of a large degree of uncertainty about important features of the system is nevertheless possible; it can be achieved by virtue of a feedback loop with an additional adaptation of parameters. The adaptation also ensures desynchronization of ensembles with non-stationary, time-varying parameters. We perform the stability analysis of the feedback-controlled system and demonstrate efficient destruction of synchrony for several models, including those of spiking and bursting neurons.

  19. Ground state of an ultrastrongly coupled qubit-oscillator system with broken inversion symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Li-Tuo; Yang, Zhen-Biao; Wu, Huai-Zhi; Zheng, Shi-Biao

    2016-06-01

    We study the effect of inversion symmetry breaking on properties of the ground state of a qubit-oscillator system within the ultrastrong-coupling regime. We obtain the solution of the ground state through the approximate analytical approach, which, under the near-resonance condition, agrees well with the numerical simulation. We demonstrate that, due to the inversion symmetry breaking, the ground state becomes asymmetric and the qubit-oscillator entanglement entropy strongly depends on the mean dipole moments. Furthermore, we find that the attainable maximum entanglement entropy undergoes a sharp change across a critical point and the minimum value of the Wigner function has a quadratic dependence on the mean dipole moments.

  20. Self-starting ultralow-jitter pulse source based on coupled optoelectronic oscillators with an intracavity fiber parametric amplifier.

    PubMed

    Dahan, David; Shumakher, Evgeny; Eisenstein, Gadi

    2005-07-01

    A self-starting optical pulse source based on mutually coupled optoelectronic oscillators is described. The system employs a phototransistor-based microwave oscillator that is coupled to a fiber cavity optoelectronic oscillator with an intracavity fiber parametric amplifier. It self-starts and exhibits 3 ps pulses at a rate of 10 GHz with extremely low jitter of 30, 29, and 40 fs (for integration bandwidths of 100 Hz-15 kHz, 500 Hz-1 MHz, and 100 Hz-1 MHz, respectively). PMID:16075517

  1. Master stability islands for amplitude death in networks of delay-coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huddy, Stanley R.; Sun, Jie

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a master stability function (MSF) approach for analyzing the stability of amplitude death (AD) in networks of delay-coupled oscillators. Unlike the familiar MSFs for instantaneously coupled networks, which typically have a single input encoding for the effects of the eigenvalues of the network Laplacian matrix, for delay-coupled networks we show that such MSFs generally require two additional inputs: the time delay and the coupling strength. To utilize the MSF for determining the stability of AD of general networks for a chosen nonlinear system (node dynamics) and coupling function, we introduce the concept of master stability islands (MSIs), which are two-dimensional stability islands of the delay-coupling parameter space together with a third dimension ("altitude") encoding for eigenvalues that result in stable AD. We numerically compute the MSFs and visualize the corresponding MSIs for several common chaotic systems including the Rössler, the Lorenz, and Chen's system and find that it is generally possible to achieve AD and that a nonzero time delay is necessary for the stabilization of the AD states.

  2. Low-Dimensional Dynamics of Populations of Pulse-Coupled Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazó, Diego; Montbrió, Ernest

    2014-01-01

    Large communities of biological oscillators show a prevalent tendency to self-organize in time. This cooperative phenomenon inspired Winfree to formulate a mathematical model that originated the theory of macroscopic synchronization. Despite its fundamental importance, a complete mathematical analysis of the model proposed by Winfree—consisting of a large population of all-to-all pulse-coupled oscillators—is still missing. Here, we show that the dynamics of the Winfree model evolves into the so-called Ott-Antonsen manifold. This important property allows for an exact description of this high-dimensional system in terms of a few macroscopic variables, and also allows for the full investigation of its dynamics. We find that brief pulses are capable of synchronizing heterogeneous ensembles that fail to synchronize with broad pulses, especially for certain phase-response curves. Finally, to further illustrate the potential of our results, we investigate the possibility of "chimera" states in populations of identical pulse-coupled oscillators. Chimeras are self-organized states in which the symmetry of a population is broken into a synchronous and an asynchronous part. Here, we derive three ordinary differential equations describing two coupled populations and uncover a variety of chimera states, including a new class with chaotic dynamics.

  3. Robust synchronization of coupled neural oscillators using the derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter.

    PubMed

    Rigatos, Gerasimos

    2014-12-01

    A synchronizing control scheme for coupled neural oscillators of the FitzHugh-Nagumo type is proposed. Using differential flatness theory the dynamical model of two coupled neural oscillators is transformed into an equivalent model in the linear canonical (Brunovsky) form. A similar linearized description is succeeded using differential geometry methods and the computation of Lie derivatives. For such a model it becomes possible to design a state feedback controller that assures the synchronization of the membrane's voltage variations for the two neurons. To compensate for disturbances that affect the neurons' model as well as for parametric uncertainties and variations a disturbance observer is designed based on Kalman Filtering. This consists of implementation of the standard Kalman Filter recursion on the linearized equivalent model of the coupled neurons and computation of state and disturbance estimates using the diffeomorphism (relations about state variables transformation) provided by differential flatness theory. After estimating the disturbance terms in the neurons' model their compensation becomes possible. The performance of the synchronization control loop is tested through simulation experiments. PMID:26396646

  4. The Dielectric and Electric Characteristics of Piezoelectric Ceramics for Ultrasonic Oscillator Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Su-Ho; Yoo, Ju-Hyun; Yoon, Kwang-Hee; Sug, Joung-Young; Rue, Gi-Hong; Sin, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Hong, Jae-Il

    2002-11-01

    The application of the ultrasonic nozzle has been extended because it can atomize liquid material. In this study, the characteristics of the ultrasonic nozzle and ceramic oscillator were investigated. The oscillator for the ultrasonic nozzle is made of piezoelectric ceramic of Pb[(Sb1/2Nb1/2)0.035, (Mn1/3Nb2/3)0.065, (ZrxTi1-x)0.90O3 The electromechanical coupling factor (kp) and mechanical quality factor (Qm) were 0.555 and 1,214, respectively, when the Zr/Ti ratio was 49/51. Moreover, this oscillator will have temperature stability because its curie temperature is 322. The driving current of the ultrasonic nozzle was 80 mA, when the driving time was 10 min. Also, the surface temperature of the ceramic oscillator was 80 at a driving time of 10 min. We discovered that the ultrasonic nozzle will be subjected to stable driving after 10 min.

  5. Quadratic coupling between a classical nanomechanical oscillator and a single spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhingra, Shonali

    Though the motions of macroscopic objects must ultimately be governed by quantum mechanics, the distinctive features of quantum mechanics can be hidden or washed out by thermal excitations and coupling to the environment. For the work of this thesis, we tried to develop a hybrid system consisting a classical and a quantum component, which can be used to probe the quantum nature of both these components. This hybrid system quadratically coupled a nanomechanical oscillator (NMO) with a single spin in presence of a uniform external magnetic field. The NMO was fabricated out of single-layer graphene, grown using Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and patterned using various lithography and etching techniques. The NMO was driven electrically and detected optically. The NMO's resonant frequencies, and their stabilities were studied. The spin originated from a nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in a diamond nanocrystal which is positioned on the NMO. In presence of an external magnetic field, we show that the NV centers are excellen theta2 sensors. Their sensitivity is shown to increase much faster than linearly with the external magnetic field and diverges as the external field approaches an internally-defined limit. Both these components of the hybrid system get coupled by physical placement of NVcontaining diamond nanocrystals on top of NMO undergoing torsional mode of oscillation, in presence of an external magnetic field. The capability of the NV centers to detect the quadratic behavior of the oscillation angle of the NMO with excellent sensitivity, ensures quantum non-demolition (QND) measurement of both components of the hybrid system. This enables a bridge between the quantum and classical worlds for a simple readout of the NV center spin and observation of the discrete states of the NMO. This system could become the building block for a wide range of quantum nanomechanical devices.

  6. Oscillation quenching mechanisms: Amplitude vs. oscillation death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koseska, Aneta; Volkov, Evgeny; Kurths, Jürgen

    2013-10-01

    Oscillation quenching constitutes a fundamental emergent phenomenon in systems of coupled nonlinear oscillators. Its importance for various natural and man-made systems, ranging from climate, lasers, chemistry and a wide range of biological oscillators can be projected from two main aspects: (i) suppression of oscillations as a regulator of certain pathological cases and (ii) a general control mechanism for technical systems. We distinguish two structurally distinct oscillation quenching types: oscillation (OD) and amplitude death (AD) phenomena. In this review we aim to set clear boundaries between these two very different oscillation quenching manifestations and demonstrate the importance for their correct identification from the aspect of theory as well as of applications. Moreover, we pay special attention to the physiological interpretation of OD and AD in a large class of biological systems, further underlying their different properties. Several open issues and challenges that await further resolving are also highlighted.

  7. Landau-Zener transitions in a two-level system that is coupled to a finite-temperature harmonic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashhab, Sahel

    2015-03-01

    The Landau-Zener (LZ) problem is a standard paradigm for studying energy transfer and adiabatic passage protocols. We consider the LZ problem for a two level system when this system interacts with one harmonic oscillator mode that is initially set to a finite-temperature thermal equilibrium state. The oscillator could represent an external mode that is strongly coupled to the system, e.g. an ionic oscillation mode in a molecule, or it could represent a prototypical uncontrolled environment. We analyze the system's occupation probabilities at the final time in a number of different regimes, varying the system and oscillator frequencies, their coupling strength and the temperature. In particular we find some surprising non-monotonic dependence on the coupling strength and temperature.

  8. Algebraic relaxation of an order parameter in randomly coupled limit-cycle oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daido, Hiroaki

    2000-02-01

    In their recent paper [Phys. Rev. E 58, 1789 (1998)], Stiller and Radons (SR) study, following our earlier work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1073 (1992)], the behavior of globally and randomly coupled phase oscillators with distributed intrinsic frequencies. They claim that their simulation results do not confirm the power-law behavior of an order parameter found numerically by the author, attributing its cause to the poor precision of the author's integration scheme. Here demonstrated is that the power law survives even for a scheme better than SR's, provided that finite-size effects are properly taken into account, as was done in our previous work.

  9. Geometry of classical periodic orbits and quantum coherent states in coupled oscillators with SU(2) transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. F.

    2011-03-01

    The geometry of classical dynamics in coupled oscillators with SU(2) transformations is explored and found to be relevant to a family of continuous-transformation orbits between Lissajous and trochoidal curves. The quantum wave-packet coherent states are derived analytically to correspond exactly to the transformation geometry of classical dynamics. By using the quantum wave-packet coherent states derived herein, stationary coherent states are constructed and are shown to possess spatial patterns identical to the transformation geometry between Lissajous and trochoidal orbits.

  10. Atmosphere-ocean coupled processes in the Madden-Julian oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMott, Charlotte A.; Klingaman, Nicholas P.; Woolnough, Steven J.

    2015-12-01

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is a convectively coupled 30-70 day (intraseasonal) tropical atmospheric mode that drives variations in global weather but which is poorly simulated in most atmospheric general circulation models. Over the past two decades, field campaigns and modeling experiments have suggested that tropical atmosphere-ocean interactions may sustain or amplify the pattern of enhanced and suppressed atmospheric convection that defines the MJO and encourage its eastward propagation through the Indian and Pacific Oceans. New observations collected during the past decade have advanced our understanding of the ocean response to atmospheric MJO forcing and the resulting intraseasonal sea surface temperature fluctuations. Numerous modeling studies have revealed a considerable impact of the mean state on MJO ocean-atmosphere coupled processes, as well as the importance of resolving the diurnal cycle of atmosphere-upper ocean interactions. New diagnostic methods provide insight to atmospheric variability and physical processes associated with the MJO but offer limited insight on the role of ocean feedbacks. Consequently, uncertainty remains concerning the role of the ocean in MJO theory. Our understanding of how atmosphere-ocean coupled processes affect the MJO can be improved by collecting observations in poorly sampled regions of MJO activity, assessing oceanic and atmospheric drivers of surface fluxes, improving the representation of upper ocean mixing in coupled model simulations, designing model experiments that minimize mean state differences, and developing diagnostic tools to evaluate the nature and role of coupled ocean-atmosphere processes over the MJO cycle.

  11. Turbulence in the Ott-Antonsen equation for arrays of coupled phase oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfrum, M.; Gurevich, S. V.; Omel'chenko, O. E.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we study the transition to synchrony in an one-dimensional array of oscillators with non-local coupling. For its description in the continuum limit of a large number of phase oscillators, we use a corresponding Ott-Antonsen equation, which is an integro-differential equation for the evolution of the macroscopic profiles of the local mean field. Recently, it was reported that in the spatially extended case at the synchronisation threshold there appear partially coherent plane waves with different wave numbers, which are organised in the well-known Eckhaus scenario. In this paper, we show that for Kuramoto-Sakaguchi phase oscillators the phase lag parameter in the interaction function can induce a Benjamin-Feir-type instability of the partially coherent plane waves. The emerging collective macroscopic chaos appears as an intermediate stage between complete incoherence and stable partially coherent plane waves. We give an analytic treatment of the Benjamin-Feir instability and its onset in a codimension-two bifurcation in the Ott-Antonsen equation as well as a numerical study of the transition from phase turbulence to amplitude turbulence inside the Benjamin-Feir unstable region.

  12. A novel distributed swarm control strategy based on coupled signal oscillators.

    PubMed

    Hartbauer, Manfred; Römer, Heiner

    2007-09-01

    The miniaturization of microrobots is accompanied by limitations of signaling, sensing and agility. Control of a swarm of simple microrobots has to cope with such constraints in a way which still guarantees the accomplishment of a task. A recently proposed communication method, which is based on the coupling of signal oscillators of individual agents [13], may provide a basis for a distributed control of a simulated swarm of simple microrobots (similar to I-Swarm microrobots) engaged in a cleaning scenario. This self-organized communication method was biologically inspired from males of chorusing insects which are known for the rapid synchronization of their acoustic signals in a chorus. Signal oscillator properties were used to generate waves of synchronized signaling (s-waves) among a swarm of agents. In a simulation of a cleaning scenario, agents on the dump initiated concentrically spreading s-waves by shortening their intrinsic signal period. Dirt-carrying agents localized the dump by heading against the wave front. After optimization of certain control parameters the properties of this distributed control strategy were investigated in different variants of a cleaning scenario. These include a second dump, obstacles, different agent densities, agent drop-out and a second signal oscillator. PMID:17848790

  13. Kraus representation of a damped harmonic oscillator and its application

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yuxi; Oezdemir, Sahin K.; Miranowicz, Adam; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2004-10-01

    By definition, the Kraus representation of a harmonic oscillator suffering from the environment effect, modeled as the amplitude damping or the phase damping, is directly given by a simple operator algebra solution. As examples and applications, we first give a Kraus representation of a single qubit whose computational basis states are defined as bosonic vacuum and single particle number states. We further discuss the environment effect on qubits whose computational basis states are defined as the bosonic odd and even coherent states. The environment effects on entangled qubits defined by two different kinds of computational basis are compared with the use of fidelity.

  14. Desynchronization in an ensemble of globally coupled chaotic bursting neuronal oscillators by dynamic delayed feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Yanqiu; Yang, Tingting; Li, Ruixue; Li, Huiyan; Han, Chunxiao; Wang, Jiang; Wei, Xile

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a dynamic delayed feedback control approach or desynchronization of chaotic-bursting synchronous activities in an ensemble of globally coupled neuronal oscillators. We demonstrate that the difference signal between an ensemble's mean field and its time delayed state, filtered and fed back to the ensemble, can suppress the self-synchronization in the ensemble. These individual units are decoupled and stabilized at the desired desynchronized states while the stimulation signal reduces to the noise level. The effectiveness of the method is illustrated by examples of two different populations of globally coupled chaotic-bursting neurons. The proposed method has potential for mild, effective and demand-controlled therapy of neurological diseases characterized by pathological synchronization.

  15. State diagram of magnetostatic coupling phase-locked spin-torque oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Mengwei; Wang, Longze; Wei, Dan; Gao, Kai-Zhong

    2015-05-07

    The state diagram of magnetostatic coupling phase-locked spin torque oscillator (STO) with perpendicular reference layer and planar field generation layer (FGL) is studied by the macrospin model and the micromagnetic model. The state diagrams of current densities are calculated under various external fields. The simulation shows that there are two phase-lock current density regions. In the phase-locked STOs in low current region I, the spin configuration of FGL is uniform; in high current region II, the spin configuration of FGL is highly nonuniform. In addition, the results with different STOs separation L{sub s} are compared, and the coupling between two STOs is largely decreased when L{sub s} is increased from 40 nm to 60 nm.

  16. Vibrational spectroscopy of a harmonic oscillator system nonlinearly coupled to a heat bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Tsuyoshi; Tanimura, Yoshitaka

    2002-10-01

    Vibrational relaxation of a harmonic oscillator nonlinearly coupled to a heat bath is investigated by the Gaussian-Markovian quantum Fokker-Planck equation approach. The system-bath interaction is assumed to be linear in the bath coordinate, but linear plus square in the system coordinate modeling the elastic and inelastic relaxation mechanisms. Interplay of the two relaxation processes induced by the linear-linear and square-linear interactions in Raman or infrared spectra is discussed for various system-bath couplings, temperatures, and correlation times for the bath fluctuations. The one-quantum coherence state created through the interaction with the pump laser pulse relaxes through different pathways in accordance with the mechanisms of the system-bath interactions. Relations between the present theory, Redfield theory, and stochastic theory are also discussed.

  17. Periodic Forcing of a 555-IC Based Electronic Oscillator in the Strong Coupling Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santillán, Moisés

    We designed and developed a master-slave electronic oscillatory system (based on the 555-timer IC working in the astable mode), and investigated its dynamic behavior regarding synchronization. For that purpose, we measured the rotation numbers corresponding to the phase-locking rhythms achieved in a large set of values of the normalized forcing frequency (NFF) and of the coupling strength between the master and the slave oscillators. In particular, we were interested in the system behavior in the strong-coupling limit, because such problem has not been extensively studied from an experimental perspective. Our results indicate that, in such a limit, a degenerate codimension-2 bifurcation point at NFF = 2 exists, in which all the phase-locking regions converge. These findings were corroborated by means of a mathematical model developed to that end, as well as by ad hoc further experiments.

  18. Phase locking of spin-torque nano-oscillator pairs with magnetic dipolar coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao-Hsuan; Lee, Ching-Ming; Zhang, Zongzhi; Liu, Yaowen; Wu, Jong-Ching; Horng, Lance; Chang, Ching-Ray

    2016-06-01

    A spin-torque nanopillar oscillator (STNO) that combines a perpendicular-to-plane polarizer (PERP) with an in-plane magnetized free layer is a good candidate for phase locking, which opens a potential approach to enhancement of the output power of STNOs. In this paper, the magnetic dipolar coupling effect is used as the driving force to synchronize two STNOs. We develop an approximation theory for synchronizing two identical and nonidentical pairs of PERP STNOs, by which the critical current of synchronization, dipolar coupling strength, phase-locking transient time, and frequency can be analytically predicted. These predictions are further confirmed by macrospin and micromagnetic simulations. Finally, we show the phase diagrams of the phase locking as a function of applied current and separation between two STNOs.

  19. Efficiency at maximum power of a quantum heat engine based on two coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianhui; Ye, Zhuolin; Lai, Yiming; Li, Weisheng; He, Jizhou

    2015-06-01

    We propose and theoretically investigate a system of two coupled harmonic oscillators as a heat engine. We show how these two coupled oscillators within undamped regime can be controlled to realize an Otto cycle that consists of two adiabatic and two isochoric processes. During the two isochores the harmonic system is embedded in two heat reservoirs at constant temperatures Th and Tc(

  20. Simultaneous cooling of coupled mechanical oscillators using whispering gallery mode resonances.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying Lia; Millen, James; Barker, P F

    2016-01-25

    We demonstrate simultaneous center-of-mass cooling of two coupled oscillators, consisting of a microsphere-cantilever and a tapered optical fiber. Excitation of a whispering gallery mode (WGM) of the microsphere, via the evanescent field of the taper, provides a transduction signal that continuously monitors the relative motion between these two microgram objects with a sensitivity of 3 pm. The cavity enhanced optical dipole force is used to provide feedback damping on the motion of the micron-diameter taper, whereas a piezo stack is used to damp the motion of the much larger (up to 180 μm in diameter), heavier (up to 1.5 × 10(-7) kg) and stiffer microsphere-cantilever. In each feedback scheme multiple mechanical modes of each oscillator can be cooled, and mode temperatures below 10 K are reached for the dominant mode, consistent with limits determined by the measurement noise of our system. This represents stabilization on the picometer level and is the first demonstration of using WGM resonances to cool the mechanical modes of both the WGM resonator and its coupling waveguide. PMID:26832520

  1. Spin-orbit coupling and the production of misaligned hot Jupiters via Lidov-Kozai oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storch, Natalia I.; Anderson, Kassandra R.; Lai, Dong

    2015-12-01

    Many hot Jupiter systems exhibit misalignment between the orbital axis of the planet and the spin axis of its host star. While this misalignment could be primordial in nature, a large fraction of hot Jupiters are found in systems with distant stellar companions, and thus could have undergone Lidov-Kozai (LK) oscillations and acquired their misalignment dynamically. Here we present a study of the effect of spin-orbit coupling during LK oscillations, and the resulting spin-orbit misalignment angle distributions. We show that spin-orbit coupling induces complex, often chaotic, behavior in the spin axis of the host star, and that this behavior depends significantly on the mass of the planet and the properties of the host star (mass and spin history). We develop a semi-analytical framework that successfully explains most of the possible stellar spin behaviors. We then present a comprehensive population synthesis of hot Jupiters created via the LK mechanism, and discuss their possible observable signatures.

  2. Dynamics of dipoles and vortices in nonlinearly coupled three-dimensional field oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driben, R.; Konotop, V. V.; Malomed, B. A.; Meier, T.

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of a pair of harmonic oscillators represented by three-dimensional fields coupled with a repulsive cubic nonlinearity is investigated through direct simulations of the respective field equations and with the help of the finite-mode Galerkin approximation (GA), which represents the two interacting fields by a superposition of 3 +3 harmonic-oscillator p -wave eigenfunctions with orbital and magnetic quantum numbers l =1 and m =1 , 0, -1 . The system can be implemented in binary Bose-Einstein condensates, demonstrating the potential of the atomic condensates to emulate various complex modes predicted by classical field theories. First, the GA very accurately predicts a broadly degenerate set of the system's ground states in the p -wave manifold, in the form of complexes built of a dipole coaxial with another dipole or vortex, as well as complexes built of mutually orthogonal dipoles. Next, pairs of noncoaxial vortices and/or dipoles, including pairs of mutually perpendicular vortices, develop remarkably stable dynamical regimes, which feature periodic exchange of the angular momentum and periodic switching between dipoles and vortices. For a moderately strong nonlinearity, simulations of the coupled-field equations agree very well with results produced by the GA, demonstrating that the dynamics is accurately spanned by the set of six modes limited to l =1 .

  3. Dynamics of dipoles and vortices in nonlinearly coupled three-dimensional field oscillators.

    PubMed

    Driben, R; Konotop, V V; Malomed, B A; Meier, T

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of a pair of harmonic oscillators represented by three-dimensional fields coupled with a repulsive cubic nonlinearity is investigated through direct simulations of the respective field equations and with the help of the finite-mode Galerkin approximation (GA), which represents the two interacting fields by a superposition of 3+3 harmonic-oscillator p-wave eigenfunctions with orbital and magnetic quantum numbers l=1 and m=1, 0, -1. The system can be implemented in binary Bose-Einstein condensates, demonstrating the potential of the atomic condensates to emulate various complex modes predicted by classical field theories. First, the GA very accurately predicts a broadly degenerate set of the system's ground states in the p-wave manifold, in the form of complexes built of a dipole coaxial with another dipole or vortex, as well as complexes built of mutually orthogonal dipoles. Next, pairs of noncoaxial vortices and/or dipoles, including pairs of mutually perpendicular vortices, develop remarkably stable dynamical regimes, which feature periodic exchange of the angular momentum and periodic switching between dipoles and vortices. For a moderately strong nonlinearity, simulations of the coupled-field equations agree very well with results produced by the GA, demonstrating that the dynamics is accurately spanned by the set of six modes limited to l=1. PMID:27575123

  4. Efficiency at maximum power of a quantum heat engine based on two coupled oscillators.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhui; Ye, Zhuolin; Lai, Yiming; Li, Weisheng; He, Jizhou

    2015-06-01

    We propose and theoretically investigate a system of two coupled harmonic oscillators as a heat engine. We show how these two coupled oscillators within undamped regime can be controlled to realize an Otto cycle that consists of two adiabatic and two isochoric processes. During the two isochores the harmonic system is embedded in two heat reservoirs at constant temperatures T(h) and T(c)(

  5. Magnetic nanoparticles for applications in oscillating magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Peeraphatdit, Chorthip

    2009-01-01

    Enzymatic and thermochemical catalysis are both important industrial processes. However, the thermal requirements for each process often render them mutually exclusive: thermochemical catalysis requires high temperature that denatures enzymes. One of the long-term goals of this project is to design a thermocatalytic system that could be used with enzymatic systems in situ to catalyze reaction sequences in one pot; this system would be useful for numerous applications e.g. conversion of biomass to biofuel and other commodity products. The desired thermocatalytic system would need to supply enough thermal energy to catalyze thermochemical reactions, while keeping the enzymes from high temperature denaturation. Magnetic nanoparticles are known to generate heat in an oscillating magnetic field through mechanisms including hysteresis and relaxational losses. We envisioned using these magnetic nanoparticles as the local heat source embedded in sub-micron size mesoporous support to spatially separate the particles from the enzymes. In this study, we set out to find the magnetic materials and instrumental conditions that are sufficient for this purpose. Magnetite was chosen as the first model magnetic material in this study because of its high magnetization values, synthetic control over particle size, shape, functionalization and proven biocompatibility. Our experimental designs were guided by a series of theoretical calculations, which provided clues to the effects of particle size, size distribution, magnetic field, frequency and reaction medium. Materials of theoretically optimal size were synthesized, functionalized, and their effects in the oscillating magnetic field were subsequently investigated. Under our conditions, the materials that clustered e.g. silica-coated and PNIPAM-coated iron oxides exhibited the highest heat generation, while iron oxides embedded in MSNs and mesoporous iron oxides exhibited the least bulk heating. It is worth noting that the specific

  6. Globally coupled stochastic two-state oscillators: fluctuations due to finite numbers.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Italo'Ivo Lima Dias; Escaff, Daniel; Harbola, Upendra; Rosas, Alexandre; Lindenberg, Katja

    2014-05-01

    Infinite arrays of coupled two-state stochastic oscillators exhibit well-defined steady states. We study the fluctuations that occur when the number N of oscillators in the array is finite. We choose a particular form of global coupling that in the infinite array leads to a pitchfork bifurcation from a monostable to a bistable steady state, the latter with two equally probable stationary states. The control parameter for this bifurcation is the coupling strength. In finite arrays these states become metastable: The fluctuations lead to distributions around the most probable states, with one maximum in the monostable regime and two maxima in the bistable regime. In the latter regime, the fluctuations lead to transitions between the two peak regions of the distribution. Also, we find that the fluctuations break the symmetry in the bimodal regime, that is, one metastable state becomes more probable than the other, increasingly so with increasing array size. To arrive at these results, we start from microscopic dynamical evolution equations from which we derive a Langevin equation that exhibits an interesting multiplicative noise structure. We also present a master equation description of the dynamics. Both of these equations lead to the same Fokker-Planck equation, the master equation via a 1/N expansion and the Langevin equation via standard methods of Itô calculus for multiplicative noise. From the Fokker-Planck equation we obtain an effective potential that reflects the transition from the monomodal to the bimodal distribution as a function of a control parameter. We present a variety of numerical and analytic results that illustrate the strong effects of the fluctuations. We also show that the limits N → ∞ and t → ∞ (t is the time) do not commute. In fact, the two orders of implementation lead to drastically different results. PMID:25353775

  7. Entrainment and synchronization in networks of Rayleigh-van der Pol oscillators with diffusive and Haken-Kelso-Bunz couplings.

    PubMed

    Alderisio, Francesco; Bardy, Benoît G; di Bernardo, Mario

    2016-06-01

    We analyze a network of non-identical Rayleigh-van der Pol (RvdP) oscillators interconnected through either diffusive or nonlinear coupling functions. The work presented here extends existing results on the case of two nonlinearly coupled RvdP oscillators to the problem of considering a network of three or more of them. Specifically, we study synchronization and entrainment in networks of heterogeneous RvdP oscillators and contrast the effects of diffusive linear coupling strategies with the nonlinear Haken-Kelso-Bunz coupling, originally introduced to study human bimanual experiments. We show how convergence of the error among the nodes' trajectories toward a bounded region is possible with both linear and nonlinear coupling functions. Under the assumption that the network is connected, simple, and undirected, analytical results are obtained to prove boundedness of the error when the oscillators are coupled diffusively. All results are illustrated by way of numerical examples and compared with the experimental findings available in the literature on synchronization of people rocking chairs, confirming the effectiveness of the model we propose to capture some of the features of human group synchronization observed experimentally in the previous literature. PMID:27108135

  8. Qubit-oscillator systems in the ultrastrong-coupling regime and their potential for preparing nonclassical states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nori, Franco; Ashhab, Sahel

    2011-03-01

    We consider a system composed of a two-level system (i.e. a qubit) and a harmonic oscillator in the ultrastrong-coupling regime, where the coupling strength is comparable to the qubit and oscillator energy scales. We explore the possibility of preparing nonclassical states in this system, especially in the ground state of the combined system. The nonclassical states that we consider include squeezed states, Schrodinger-cat states and entangled states. We also analyze the nature of the change in the ground state as the coupling strength is increased, going from a separable ground state in the absence of coupling to a highly entangled ground state in the case of very strong coupling. Reference: S. Ashhab and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. A 81, 042311 (2010). We thank support from DARPA, AFOSR, NSA, LPS, ARO, NSF, MEXT, JSPS, FIRST, and JST.

  9. Multi-Scale Entrainment of Coupled Neuronal Oscillations in Primary Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, M. N.; Barczak, A.; Ross, D.; McGinnis, T.; Schroeder, C. E.; Lakatos, P.

    2015-01-01

    Earlier studies demonstrate that when the frequency of rhythmic tone sequences or streams is task relevant, ongoing excitability fluctuations (oscillations) of neuronal ensembles in primary auditory cortex (A1) entrain to stimulation in a frequency dependent way that sharpens frequency tuning. The phase distribution across A1 neuronal ensembles at time points when attended stimuli are predicted to occur reflects the focus of attention along the spectral attribute of auditory stimuli. This study examined how neuronal activity is modulated if only the temporal features of rhythmic stimulus streams are relevant. We presented macaques with auditory clicks arranged in 33 Hz (gamma timescale) quintets, repeated at a 1.6 Hz (delta timescale) rate. Such multi-scale, hierarchically organized temporal structure is characteristic of vocalizations and other natural stimuli. Monkeys were required to detect and respond to deviations in the temporal pattern of gamma quintets. As expected, engagement in the auditory task resulted in the multi-scale entrainment of delta- and gamma-band neuronal oscillations across all of A1. Surprisingly, however, the phase-alignment, and thus, the physiological impact of entrainment differed across the tonotopic map in A1. In the region of 11–16 kHz representation, entrainment most often aligned high excitability oscillatory phases with task-relevant events in the input stream and thus resulted in response enhancement. In the remainder of the A1 sites, entrainment generally resulted in response suppression. Our data indicate that the suppressive effects were due to low excitability phase delta oscillatory entrainment and the phase amplitude coupling of delta and gamma oscillations. Regardless of the phase or frequency, entrainment appeared stronger in left A1, indicative of the hemispheric lateralization of auditory function. PMID:26696866

  10. Multi-Scale Entrainment of Coupled Neuronal Oscillations in Primary Auditory Cortex.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, M N; Barczak, A; Ross, D; McGinnis, T; Schroeder, C E; Lakatos, P

    2015-01-01

    Earlier studies demonstrate that when the frequency of rhythmic tone sequences or streams is task relevant, ongoing excitability fluctuations (oscillations) of neuronal ensembles in primary auditory cortex (A1) entrain to stimulation in a frequency dependent way that sharpens frequency tuning. The phase distribution across A1 neuronal ensembles at time points when attended stimuli are predicted to occur reflects the focus of attention along the spectral attribute of auditory stimuli. This study examined how neuronal activity is modulated if only the temporal features of rhythmic stimulus streams are relevant. We presented macaques with auditory clicks arranged in 33 Hz (gamma timescale) quintets, repeated at a 1.6 Hz (delta timescale) rate. Such multi-scale, hierarchically organized temporal structure is characteristic of vocalizations and other natural stimuli. Monkeys were required to detect and respond to deviations in the temporal pattern of gamma quintets. As expected, engagement in the auditory task resulted in the multi-scale entrainment of delta- and gamma-band neuronal oscillations across all of A1. Surprisingly, however, the phase-alignment, and thus, the physiological impact of entrainment differed across the tonotopic map in A1. In the region of 11-16 kHz representation, entrainment most often aligned high excitability oscillatory phases with task-relevant events in the input stream and thus resulted in response enhancement. In the remainder of the A1 sites, entrainment generally resulted in response suppression. Our data indicate that the suppressive effects were due to low excitability phase delta oscillatory entrainment and the phase amplitude coupling of delta and gamma oscillations. Regardless of the phase or frequency, entrainment appeared stronger in left A1, indicative of the hemispheric lateralization of auditory function. PMID:26696866

  11. Independent Noise Can Synchronize Interacting Networks of Pulse-Coupled Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riecke, Hermann; Meng, John

    Structured networks comprised of subnetwork modules are ubiquitous. Motivated by the observation of rhythms and their interaction in different brain areas, we study a network consisting of two subnetworks of pulse-coupled integrate-fire neurons. Through mutual inhibition the neurons in the individual subnetworks can become synchronized and each subnetwork can exhibit coherent oscillatory dynamics, e.g. an ING-rhythm. In the absence of coupling between the networks the rhythms will in general have different frequencies. We investigate the interaction between these different rhythms. Strikingly, we find that increasing the noise level in the input to the individual neurons can synchronize the rhythms of the two networks, even though the inputs to different neurons are uncorrelated, sharing no common component. A heuristic phase model for the coupled networks shows that this synchronization hinges on the fact that only a fraction of the neurons may spike in a given cycle. Thus, the synchronization of the network rhythms differs qualitatively from that of individual oscillators. Supported by NSF-CMMI 1435358.

  12. Collective dynamics of identical phase oscillators with high-order coupling.

    PubMed

    Xu, Can; Xiang, Hairong; Gao, Jian; Zheng, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a framework to investigate the collective dynamics in ensembles of globally coupled phase oscillators when higher-order modes dominate the coupling. The spatiotemporal properties of the attractors in various regions of parameter space are analyzed. Furthermore, a detailed linear stability analysis proves that the stationary symmetric distribution is only neutrally stable in the marginal regime which stems from the generalized time-reversal symmetry. Moreover, the critical parameters of the transition among various regimes are determined analytically by both the Ott-Antonsen method and linear stability analysis, the transient dynamics are further revealed in terms of the characteristic curves method. Finally, for the more general initial condition the symmetric dynamics could be reduced to a rigorous three-dimensional manifold which shows that the neutrally stable chaos could also occur in this model for particular parameters. Our theoretical analysis and numerical results are consistent with each other, which can help us understand the dynamical properties in general systems with higher-order harmonics couplings. PMID:27491401

  13. Learning-rate-dependent clustering and self-development in a network of coupled phase oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niyogi, Ritwik K.; English, L. Q.

    2009-12-01

    We investigate the role of the learning rate in a Kuramoto Model of coupled phase oscillators in which the coupling coefficients dynamically vary according to a Hebbian learning rule. According to the Hebbian theory, a synapse between two neurons is strengthened if they are simultaneously coactive. Two stable synchronized clusters in antiphase emerge when the learning rate is larger than a critical value. In such a fast learning scenario, the network eventually constructs itself into an all-to-all coupled structure, regardless of initial conditions in connectivity. In contrast, when learning is slower than this critical value, only a single synchronized cluster can develop. Extending our analysis, we explore whether self-development of neuronal networks can be achieved through an interaction between spontaneous neural synchronization and Hebbian learning. We find that self-development of such neural systems is impossible if learning is too slow. Finally, we demonstrate that similar to the acquisition and consolidation of long-term memory, this network is capable of generating and remembering stable patterns.

  14. Master-slave synchronization of continuously and intermittently coupled sampled-data chaotic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Hoon; Kapila, Vikram; Porfiri, Maurizio; Panda, Anshuman

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of synchronizing a master-slave chaotic system in the sampled-data setting. We consider both the intermittent coupling and continuous coupling cases. We use an Euler approximation technique to discretize a continuous-time chaotic oscillator containing a continuous nonlinear function. Next, we formulate the problem of global asymptotic synchronization of the sampled-data master-slave chaotic system as equivalent to the states of a corresponding error system asymptotically converging to zero for arbitrary initial conditions. We begin by developing a pulse-based intermittent control strategy for chaos synchronization. Using the discrete-time Lyapunov stability theory and the linear matrix inequality (LMI) framework, we construct a state feedback periodic pulse control law which yields global asymptotic synchronization of the sampled-data master-slave chaotic system for arbitrary initial conditions. We obtain a continuously coupled sampled-data feedback control law as a special case of the pulse-based feedback control. Finally, we provide experimental validation of our results by implementing, on a set of microcontrollers endowed with RF communication capability, a sampled-data master-slave chaotic system based on Chua's circuit.

  15. Collective dynamics of identical phase oscillators with high-order coupling

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Can; Xiang, Hairong; Gao, Jian; Zheng, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a framework to investigate the collective dynamics in ensembles of globally coupled phase oscillators when higher-order modes dominate the coupling. The spatiotemporal properties of the attractors in various regions of parameter space are analyzed. Furthermore, a detailed linear stability analysis proves that the stationary symmetric distribution is only neutrally stable in the marginal regime which stems from the generalized time-reversal symmetry. Moreover, the critical parameters of the transition among various regimes are determined analytically by both the Ott-Antonsen method and linear stability analysis, the transient dynamics are further revealed in terms of the characteristic curves method. Finally, for the more general initial condition the symmetric dynamics could be reduced to a rigorous three-dimensional manifold which shows that the neutrally stable chaos could also occur in this model for particular parameters. Our theoretical analysis and numerical results are consistent with each other, which can help us understand the dynamical properties in general systems with higher-order harmonics couplings. PMID:27491401

  16. Collective dynamics of identical phase oscillators with high-order coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Can; Xiang, Hairong; Gao, Jian; Zheng, Zhigang

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a framework to investigate the collective dynamics in ensembles of globally coupled phase oscillators when higher-order modes dominate the coupling. The spatiotemporal properties of the attractors in various regions of parameter space are analyzed. Furthermore, a detailed linear stability analysis proves that the stationary symmetric distribution is only neutrally stable in the marginal regime which stems from the generalized time-reversal symmetry. Moreover, the critical parameters of the transition among various regimes are determined analytically by both the Ott-Antonsen method and linear stability analysis, the transient dynamics are further revealed in terms of the characteristic curves method. Finally, for the more general initial condition the symmetric dynamics could be reduced to a rigorous three-dimensional manifold which shows that the neutrally stable chaos could also occur in this model for particular parameters. Our theoretical analysis and numerical results are consistent with each other, which can help us understand the dynamical properties in general systems with higher-order harmonics couplings.

  17. Beat Keeping in a Sea Lion As Coupled Oscillation: Implications for Comparative Understanding of Human Rhythm.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Andrew A; Cook, Peter F; Large, Edward W; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Human capacity for entraining movement to external rhythms-i.e., beat keeping-is ubiquitous, but its evolutionary history and neural underpinnings remain a mystery. Recent findings of entrainment to simple and complex rhythms in non-human animals pave the way for a novel comparative approach to assess the origins and mechanisms of rhythmic behavior. The most reliable non-human beat keeper to date is a California sea lion, Ronan, who was trained to match head movements to isochronous repeating stimuli and showed spontaneous generalization of this ability to novel tempos and to the complex rhythms of music. Does Ronan's performance rely on the same neural mechanisms as human rhythmic behavior? In the current study, we presented Ronan with simple rhythmic stimuli at novel tempos. On some trials, we introduced "perturbations," altering either tempo or phase in the middle of a presentation. Ronan quickly adjusted her behavior following all perturbations, recovering her consistent phase and tempo relationships to the stimulus within a few beats. Ronan's performance was consistent with predictions of mathematical models describing coupled oscillation: a model relying solely on phase coupling strongly matched her behavior, and the model was further improved with the addition of period coupling. These findings are the clearest evidence yet for parity in human and non-human beat keeping and support the view that the human ability to perceive and move in time to rhythm may be rooted in broadly conserved neural mechanisms. PMID:27375418

  18. Beat Keeping in a Sea Lion As Coupled Oscillation: Implications for Comparative Understanding of Human Rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Rouse, Andrew A.; Cook, Peter F.; Large, Edward W.; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Human capacity for entraining movement to external rhythms—i.e., beat keeping—is ubiquitous, but its evolutionary history and neural underpinnings remain a mystery. Recent findings of entrainment to simple and complex rhythms in non-human animals pave the way for a novel comparative approach to assess the origins and mechanisms of rhythmic behavior. The most reliable non-human beat keeper to date is a California sea lion, Ronan, who was trained to match head movements to isochronous repeating stimuli and showed spontaneous generalization of this ability to novel tempos and to the complex rhythms of music. Does Ronan's performance rely on the same neural mechanisms as human rhythmic behavior? In the current study, we presented Ronan with simple rhythmic stimuli at novel tempos. On some trials, we introduced “perturbations,” altering either tempo or phase in the middle of a presentation. Ronan quickly adjusted her behavior following all perturbations, recovering her consistent phase and tempo relationships to the stimulus within a few beats. Ronan's performance was consistent with predictions of mathematical models describing coupled oscillation: a model relying solely on phase coupling strongly matched her behavior, and the model was further improved with the addition of period coupling. These findings are the clearest evidence yet for parity in human and non-human beat keeping and support the view that the human ability to perceive and move in time to rhythm may be rooted in broadly conserved neural mechanisms. PMID:27375418

  19. Strong dispersive coupling between a micromechanical oscillator and a high finesse optical cavity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Jack

    2008-03-01

    Very sensitive mechanical detectors spanning roughly seventeen orders of magnitude in size are rapidly approaching a regime in which either the mechanical device itself or its readout should demonstrate quantum behavior. One of the main technical barriers to actually reaching this regime has been the difficulty of integrating ultrasensitive micromechanical devices with high-finesse optical cavities. Recently we have developed a robust means for addressing this issue, and have integrated a 50 nm-thick membrane (with a quality factor > 1,000,000) into an optical cavity with a finesse ˜ 20,000. Although the membrane is nearly transparent, it couples to the optical cavity dispersively. This coupling is strong enough to laser-cool the membrane from room temperature to 7 mK. In addition, the dispersive nature of the optomechanical coupling allows us to realize a sensitive ``displacement squared'' readout of the membrane. Such a readout is a crucial requirement for measuring quantum jumps in a mechanical oscillator. We will describe these results, as well as our progress towards observing quantum effects in this system.

  20. Complex dynamics analysis of impulsively coupled Duffing oscillators with ring structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Li-Ping; Yu, Jian-Jiang

    2015-02-01

    Impulsively coupled systems are high-dimensional non-smooth systems that can exhibit rich and complex dynamics. This paper studies the complex dynamics of a non-smooth system which is unidirectionally impulsively coupled by three Duffing oscillators in a ring structure. By constructing a proper Poincaré map of the non-smooth system, an analytical expression of the Jacobian matrix of Poincaré map is given. Two-parameter Hopf bifurcation sets are obtained by combining the shooting method and the Runge-Kutta method. When the period is fixed and the coupling strength changes, the system undergoes stable, periodic, quasi-periodic, and hyper-chaotic solutions, etc. Floquet theory is used to study the stability of the periodic solutions of the system and their bifurcations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11402224, 11202180, 61273106, and 11171290), the Qing Lan Project of the Jiangsu Higher Educational Institutions of China, and the Jiangsu Overseas Research and Training Program for University Prominent Young and Middle-aged Teachers and Presidents.

  1. Space applications of superconductivity - Resonators for high stability oscillators and other applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, S. R.

    1980-01-01

    The potential applications of superconductivity in space are examined. It is shown that superconducting oscillators have achieved better frequency stability that any other device for averaging times of 10 s to 1000 s. Such a high stability results from the use of solid niobium resonators having Q factors greater that 10 to the 10th. Oscillators of this type have direct applications as clocks and spectrally pure sources. In addition, they may also be used for accurate measurements of many physical quantities and to perform a variety of experiments on fundamental constants, relativity, and gravity waves.

  2. Induced N2-cooperative phenomenon in an ensemble of the nonlinear coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tralle, I.; Ziȩba, P.

    2014-04-01

    In the article the cooperative N2-effect is considered, that is the radiation whose power is ˜N2, where N is the number of emitters which in this case is equal to the number of nonlinear coupled oscillators. They model the electrons moving in a semiconductor structure with grating (micro-undulator). The suggested effect is in a sense similar to Dicke superradiance, however it is not the spontaneous phase coherence arising in the ensemble of two-level atoms interacting via the emitted electromagnetic field, but rather, the result of interplay of two effects. The first one is the 'pumping wave' acting on the electrons and which is the result of undulator field, while the second is the backward effect of radiation which is produced by electrons moving within such micro-undulator. As a result, the specific phase coherence ('synchronization') develops in the ensemble of emitters and they start to generate as a single oscillating charge Ne, while the power of emitted radiation becomes ˜N2. It is very probable, that the effect can be used for the developing of a new semiconductor-based room temperature source of the GHz and THz-radiation.

  3. Coupled Dirac fermions and neutrino-like oscillations in twisted bilayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Xian, Lede; Wang, Z F; Chou, M Y

    2013-11-13

    The low-energy quasiparticles in graphene can be described by a Dirac-Weyl Hamiltonian for massless fermions, hence graphene has been proposed to be an effective medium to study exotic phenomena originally predicted for relativistic particle physics, such as Klein tunneling and Zitterbewegung. In this work, we show that another important particle-physics phenomenon, the neutrino oscillation, can be studied and observed in a particular graphene system, namely, twisted bilayer graphene. It has been found that graphene layers grown epitaxially on SiC or by the chemical vapor deposition method on metal substrates display a stacking pattern with adjacent layers rotated by an angle with respect to each other. The quasiparticle states in two distinct graphene layers act as neutrinos with two flavors, and the interlayer interaction between them induces an appreciable coupling between these two "flavors" of massless fermions, leading to neutrino-like oscillations. In addition, our calculation shows that anisotropic transport properties manifest in a specific energy window, which is accessible experimentally in twisted bilayer graphene. Combining two graphene layers enables us to probe the rich physics involving multiple interacting Dirac fermions. PMID:24079848

  4. Bifurcation analysis on the globally coupled Kuramoto oscillators with distributed time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Ben; Guo, Yuxiao

    2014-01-01

    Distributed delay interactions among a group of Kuramoto phase oscillators are studied from the viewpoint of bifurcation analysis. After restricting the system on the Ott-Antonsen manifold, a simplified model consisting of delay differential equations is obtained. Hopf bifurcation diagrams are drawn on some two-parameter planes around the incoherent state when delay follows Dirac, uniform, Gamma and normal distributions, respectively, and it is illustrated that stronger coupling is needed to achieve synchrony when increasing the variance of either natural frequency or time delay. With the aid of center manifold reduction and the normal form method, the direction of Hopf bifurcation and stability of bifurcating periodic solutions are investigated, and the existence of the hysteresis loop is explained theoretically.

  5. Driving-induced multistability in coupled chaotic oscillators: Symmetries and riddled basins.

    PubMed

    Ujjwal, Sangeeta Rani; Punetha, Nirmal; Ramaswamy, Ram; Agrawal, Manish; Prasad, Awadhesh

    2016-06-01

    We study the multistability that results when a chaotic response system that has an invariant symmetry is driven by another chaotic oscillator. We observe that there is a transition from a desynchronized state to a situation of multistability. In the case considered, there are three coexisting attractors, two of which are synchronized and one is desynchronized. For large coupling, the asynchronous attractor disappears, leaving the system bistable. We study the basins of attraction of the system in the regime of multistability. The three attractor basins are interwoven in a complex manner, with extensive riddling within a sizeable region of (but not the entire) phase space. A quantitative characterization of the riddling behavior is made via the so-called uncertainty exponent, as well as by evaluating the scaling behavior of tongue-like structures emanating from the synchronization manifold. PMID:27368776

  6. Amplifier-free slab-coupled optical waveguide optoelectronic oscillator systems.

    PubMed

    Loh, William; Yegnanarayanan, Siva; Klamkin, Jonathan; Duff, Shannon M; Plant, Jason J; O'Donnell, Frederick J; Juodawlkis, Paul W

    2012-08-13

    We demonstrate a free-running 3-GHz slab-coupled optical waveguide (SCOW) optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) with low phase-noise (<-120 dBc/Hz at 1-kHz offset) and ultra-low sidemode spurs. These sidemodes are indistinguishable from noise on a spectrum analyzer measurement (>88 dB down from carrier). The SCOW-OEO uses high-power low-noise SCOW components in a single-loop cavity employing 1.5-km delay. The noise properties of our SCOW external-cavity laser (SCOWECL) and SCOW photodiode (SCOWPD) are characterized and shown to be suitable for generation of high spectral purity microwave tones. Through comparisons made with SCOW-OEO topologies employing amplification, we observe the sidemode levels to be degraded by any amplifiers (optical or RF) introduced within the OEO cavity. PMID:23038600

  7. Statistical properties of multiphoton time-dependent three-boson coupled oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Abdalla, M. Sebawe; Perina, Jan; Krepelka, Jaromir

    2006-06-15

    We investigate the quantum statistics of three time-dependent coupled oscillators in the presence of multiphoton processes. The system is connected with the two-atom multiphoton Tavis-Cummings model. The solution of the Heisenberg equations of the motion is obtained in a compact form. We assume that the modes are initially prepared in coherent states, and we discuss nonclassical phenomena (squeezing and sub-Poissonian behavior). Further, we examine the joint quasi-distribution functions as well as photon-number distribution and its factorial moments. The system has shown that the nonclassical effect is apparent in compound modes (1,3) and (2,3). Moreover, the superstructure phenomenon is observed when the photon transition is increased.

  8. Effect of classical bifurcations on the quantum entanglement of two coupled quartic oscillators.

    PubMed

    Santhanam, M S; Sheorey, V B; Lakshminarayan, Arul

    2008-02-01

    We study entanglement in a system comprising two coupled quartic oscillators. It is shown that the entanglement, as measured by the von Neumann entropy, increases with the classical chaos parameter for generic chaotic eigenstates. We consider certain isolated periodic orbits whose bifurcation sequence affects a class of strongly scarred quantum eigenstates, called the channel localized states. For these states, the entanglement is a local minima in the vicinity of a pitchfork bifurcation but is a local maxima near an antipitchfork bifurcation. We place these results in the context of the close connections that may exist between entanglement measures and conventional measures of localization. We also point to an interesting near degeneracy that arises in the spectrum of reduced density matrices of certain states as an interplay between localization and symmetry. PMID:18352109

  9. An Excitable Signal Integrator Couples to an Idling Cytoskeletal Oscillator to Drive Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chuan-Hsiang; Tang, Ming; Shi, Changji; Iglesias, Pablo A.; Devreotes, Peter N.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally believed that cytoskeletal activities drive random cell migration while signal transduction events initiated by receptors regulate the cytoskeleton to guide cells. However, we find that the cytoskeletal network, involving Scar/Wave, Arp 2/3, and actin binding proteins, is only capable of generating rapid oscillations and undulations of the cell boundary. The signal transduction network, comprising multiple pathways that include Ras GTPases, PI3K, and Rac GTPases, is required to generate the sustained protrusions of migrating cells. The signal transduction network is excitable, displaying wave propagation, refractoriness, and maximal response to suprathreshold stimuli, even in the absence of the cytoskeleton. We suggest that cell motility results from coupling of “pacemaker” signal transduction and “idling motor” cytoskeletal networks, and various guidance cues that modulate the threshold for triggering signal transduction events are integrated to control the mode and direction of migration. PMID:24142103

  10. Coupling of Thalamocortical Sleep Oscillations Are Important for Memory Consolidation in Humans.

    PubMed

    Niknazar, Mohammad; Krishnan, Giri P; Bazhenov, Maxim; Mednick, Sara C

    2015-01-01

    Sleep, specifically non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, is thought to play a critical role in the consolidation of recent memories. Two main oscillatory activities observed during NREM, cortical slow oscillations (SO, 0.5-1.0 Hz) and thalamic spindles (12-15 Hz), have been shown to independently correlate with memory improvement. Yet, it is not known how these thalamocortical events interact, or the significance of this interaction, during the consolidation process. Here, we found that systemic administration of the GABAergic drug (zolpidem) increased both the phase-amplitude coupling between SO and spindles, and verbal memory improvement in humans. These results suggest that thalamic spindles that occur during transitions to the cortical SO Up state are optimal for memory consolidation. Our study predicts that the timely interactions between cortical and thalamic events during consolidation, contribute to memory improvement and is mediated by the level of inhibitory neurotransmission. PMID:26671283

  11. Traveling wave solutions in a chain of periodically forced coupled nonlinear oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duanmu, M.; Whitaker, N.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Vainchtein, A.; Rubin, J. E.

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by earlier studies of artificial perceptions of light called phosphenes, we analyze traveling wave solutions in a chain of periodically forced coupled nonlinear oscillators modeling this phenomenon. We examine the discrete model problem in its co-traveling frame and systematically obtain the corresponding traveling waves in one spatial dimension. Direct numerical simulations as well as linear stability analysis are employed to reveal the parameter regions where the traveling waves are stable, and these waves are, in turn, connected to the standing waves analyzed in earlier work. We also consider a two-dimensional extension of the model and demonstrate the robust evolution and stability of planar fronts. Our simulations also suggest the radial fronts tend to either annihilate or expand and flatten out, depending on the phase value inside and the parameter regime. Finally, we observe that solutions that initially feature two symmetric fronts with bulged centers evolve in qualitative agreement with experimental observations of phosphenes.

  12. Coupling of Thalamocortical Sleep Oscillations Are Important for Memory Consolidation in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Niknazar, Mohammad; Krishnan, Giri P.; Bazhenov, Maxim; Mednick, Sara C.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep, specifically non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, is thought to play a critical role in the consolidation of recent memories. Two main oscillatory activities observed during NREM, cortical slow oscillations (SO, 0.5–1.0Hz) and thalamic spindles (12–15Hz), have been shown to independently correlate with memory improvement. Yet, it is not known how these thalamocortical events interact, or the significance of this interaction, during the consolidation process. Here, we found that systemic administration of the GABAergic drug (zolpidem) increased both the phase-amplitude coupling between SO and spindles, and verbal memory improvement in humans. These results suggest that thalamic spindles that occur during transitions to the cortical SO Up state are optimal for memory consolidation. Our study predicts that the timely interactions between cortical and thalamic events during consolidation, contribute to memory improvement and is mediated by the level of inhibitory neurotransmission. PMID:26671283

  13. Suppression of mode-beating in a saturated hole-coupled FEL oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnagopal, S.; Xie, M.; Kim, K.J.

    1992-08-01

    In a hole-coupled resonator, either empty or loaded with a linear FEL gain medium, the phenomenon of mode-degeneracy and mode-beating have been studied. When the magnitudes of the eigenvalues, derived from a linear analysis, are equal for two or more dominant eigenmodes, the system cannot achieve a stable beam-profile. We investigate this phenomenon when a saturated FEL is present within the cavity, thus introducing non-linearity. We use a three-dimensional FEL oscillator code, based on the amplifier code TDA, and show that mode-beating is completely suppressed in the nonlinear saturated regime. We suggest a simple, qualitative model for the mechanism responsible for this suppression.

  14. Coronal loop seismology using damping of standing kink oscillations by mode coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoe, D. J.; Goddard, C. R.; Nisticò, G.; Anfinogentov, S.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Kink oscillations of solar coronal loops are frequently observed to be strongly damped. The damping can be explained by mode coupling on the condition that loops have a finite inhomogeneous layer between the higher density core and lower density background. The damping rate depends on the loop density contrast ratio and inhomogeneous layer width. Aims: The theoretical description for mode coupling of kink waves has been extended to include the initial Gaussian damping regime in addition to the exponential asymptotic state. Observation of these damping regimes would provide information about the structuring of the coronal loop and so provide a seismological tool. Methods: We consider three examples of standing kink oscillations observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) for which the general damping profile (Gaussian and exponential regimes) can be fitted. Determining the Gaussian and exponential damping times allows us to perform seismological inversions for the loop density contrast ratio and the inhomogeneous layer width normalised to the loop radius. The layer width and loop minor radius are found separately by comparing the observed loop intensity profile with forward modelling based on our seismological results. Results: The seismological method which allows the density contrast ratio and inhomogeneous layer width to be simultaneously determined from the kink mode damping profile has been applied to observational data for the first time. This allows the internal and external Alfvén speeds to be calculated, and estimates for the magnetic field strength can be dramatically improved using the given plasma density. Conclusions: The kink mode damping rate can be used as a powerful diagnostic tool to determine the coronal loop density profile. This information can be used for further calculations such as the magnetic field strength or phase mixing rate.

  15. Painlevé analysis, Lie symmetries, and integrability of coupled nonlinear oscillators of polynomial type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmanan, M.; Sahadevan, R.

    1993-03-01

    In recent investigations on nonlinear dynamics, the singularity structure analysis pioneered by Kovalevskaya, Painlevé and contempories, which stresses the meromorphic nature of the solutions of the equations of motion in the complex-time plane, is found to play an increasingly important role. Particularly, soliton equations have been found to be associated with the so-called Painlevé property, which implies that the solutions are free from movable critical points/manifolds. Finite-dimensional integrable dynamical systems have also been found to possess such a property. In this review, after briefly presenting the historical developments and various features of the Painlevé (P) method, we demonstrate how it provides an effective tool in the analysis of nonlinear dynamical systems, starting from simple examples. We apply this method to several important coupled nonlinear oscillators governed by generic Hamiltonians of polynomial type with two, three and arbitrary ( N) degrees of freedom and classify all the P-cases. Sufficient numbers of involutive integrals of motion for each of the P-cases are constructed by employing other direct methods. In particular, we examine the question of integrability from the viewpoint of symmetries, explicitly demonstrate the existence of nontrivial extended Lie symmetries for the P-cases, and obtain the required integrals of motion by direct integration of symmetries. Furthermore, we briefly explain how the singularity structure analysis can be used to understand some of the intrinsic properties of nonintegrability and chaos with special reference to the two-coupled quartic anharmonic oscillators and Henon-Heiles systems.

  16. The Lever oscillator for use in high resistance resonator applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wessendorf, K.O.

    1993-07-01

    The Lever oscillator has been specifically designed for use with quartz resonator sensors. The use of quartz resonators as sensors is of particular interest and depending on the sensing environment, e.g., liquid, the oscillator design is both critical and difficult due to the wide dynamic range of resonator resistance possible due to damping of the resonator. Standard oscillator designs do not work well as sensor oscillators. An oscillator design will be presented that allows both frequency and loss (R{sub m}) of the resonator to be determined over a wide dynamic range of resonator loss. The Lever oscillator uses negative feedback in a differential amplifier configuration to actively and variably divide (or leverage) the resonator impedance such that the oscillator can maintain the phase and gain of the loop over a wide range of resonator resistance.

  17. Imperfectly synchronized states and chimera states in two interacting populations of nonlocally coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators.

    PubMed

    Premalatha, K; Chandrasekar, V K; Senthilvelan, M; Lakshmanan, M

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the emergence of different kinds of imperfectly synchronized states and chimera states in two interacting populations of nonlocally coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators. We find that the complete synchronization in population I and existence of solitary oscillators which escape from the synchronized group in population II lead to imperfectly synchronized states for sufficiently small values of nonisochronicity parameter. Interestingly, upon increasing the strength of this parameter further there occurs an onset of mixed imperfectly synchronized states where the solitary oscillators occur from both the populations. Synchronized oscillators from both the populations are locked to a common average frequency. In both cases of imperfectly synchronized states, synchronized oscillators exhibit periodic motion while the solitary oscillators are quasiperiodic in nature. In this region, for spatially prepared initial conditions, we can observe the mixed chimera states where the coexistence of synchronized and desynchronized oscillations occur from both the populations. On the other hand, imperfectly synchronized states are not always stable, and they can drift aperiodically due to instability caused by an increase of nonisochronicity parameter. We observe that these states are robust to the introduction of frequency mismatch between the two populations. PMID:27575152

  18. Imperfectly synchronized states and chimera states in two interacting populations of nonlocally coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premalatha, K.; Chandrasekar, V. K.; Senthilvelan, M.; Lakshmanan, M.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the emergence of different kinds of imperfectly synchronized states and chimera states in two interacting populations of nonlocally coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators. We find that the complete synchronization in population I and existence of solitary oscillators which escape from the synchronized group in population II lead to imperfectly synchronized states for sufficiently small values of nonisochronicity parameter. Interestingly, upon increasing the strength of this parameter further there occurs an onset of mixed imperfectly synchronized states where the solitary oscillators occur from both the populations. Synchronized oscillators from both the populations are locked to a common average frequency. In both cases of imperfectly synchronized states, synchronized oscillators exhibit periodic motion while the solitary oscillators are quasiperiodic in nature. In this region, for spatially prepared initial conditions, we can observe the mixed chimera states where the coexistence of synchronized and desynchronized oscillations occur from both the populations. On the other hand, imperfectly synchronized states are not always stable, and they can drift aperiodically due to instability caused by an increase of nonisochronicity parameter. We observe that these states are robust to the introduction of frequency mismatch between the two populations.

  19. Stability switches and multistability coexistence in a delay-coupled neural oscillators system.

    PubMed

    Song, Zigen; Xu, Jian

    2012-11-21

    In this paper, we present a neural network system composed of two delay-coupled neural oscillators, where each of these can be regarded as the dynamical system describing the average activity of neural population. Analyzing the corresponding characteristic equation, the local stability of rest state is studied. The system exhibits the switch phenomenon between the rest state and periodic activity. Furthermore, the Hopf bifurcation is analyzed and the bifurcation curve is given in the parameters plane. The stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions and direction of the Hopf bifurcation are exhibited. Regarding time delay and coupled weight as the bifurcation parameters, the Fold-Hopf bifurcation is investigated in detail in terms of the central manifold reduction and normal form method. The neural system demonstrates the coexistence of the rest states and periodic activities in the different parameter regions. Employing the normal form of the original system, the coexistence regions are illustrated approximately near the Fold-Hopf singularity point. Finally, numerical simulations are performed to display more complex dynamics. The results illustrate that system may exhibit the rich coexistence of the different neuro-computational properties, such as the rest states, periodic activities, and quasi-periodic behavior. In particular, some periodic activities can evolve into the bursting-type behaviors with the varying time delay. It implies that the coexistence of the quasi-periodic activity and bursting-type behavior can be obtained if the suitable value of system parameter is chosen. PMID:22921877

  20. Coupling between the Circadian Clock and Cell Cycle Oscillators: Implication for Healthy Cells and Malignant Growth

    PubMed Central

    Feillet, Celine; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T. J.; Levi, Francis; Rand, David A.; Delaunay, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Uncontrolled cell proliferation is one of the key features leading to cancer. Seminal works in chronobiology have revealed that disruption of the circadian timing system in mice, either by surgical, genetic, or environmental manipulation, increased tumor development. In humans, shift work is a risk factor for cancer. Based on these observations, the link between the circadian clock and cell cycle has become intuitive. But despite identification of molecular connections between the two processes, the influence of the clock on the dynamics of the cell cycle has never been formally observed. Recently, two studies combining single live cell imaging with computational methods have shed light on robust coupling between clock and cell cycle oscillators. We recapitulate here these novel findings and integrate them with earlier results in both healthy and cancerous cells. Moreover, we propose that the cell cycle may be synchronized or slowed down through coupling with the circadian clock, which results in reduced tumor growth. More than ever, systems biology has become instrumental to understand the dynamic interaction between the circadian clock and cell cycle, which is critical in cellular coordination and for diseases such as cancer. PMID:26029155

  1. Time dependent quantum thermodynamics of a coupled quantum oscillator system in a small thermal environment

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, George L.; Kellman, Michael E.

    2013-12-07

    Simulations are performed of a small quantum system interacting with a quantum environment. The system consists of various initial states of two harmonic oscillators coupled to give normal modes. The environment is “designed” by its level pattern to have a thermodynamic temperature. A random coupling causes the system and environment to become entangled in the course of time evolution. The approach to a Boltzmann distribution is observed, and effective fitted temperatures close to the designed temperature are obtained. All initial pure states of the system are driven to equilibrium at very similar rates, with quick loss of memory of the initial state. The time evolution of the von Neumann entropy is calculated as a measure of equilibration and of quantum coherence. It is pointed out using spatial density distribution plots that quantum interference is eliminated only with maximal entropy, which corresponds thermally to infinite temperature. Implications of our results for the notion of “classicalizing” behavior in the approach to thermal equilibrium are briefly considered.

  2. Time dependent quantum thermodynamics of a coupled quantum oscillator system in a small thermal environment.

    PubMed

    Barnes, George L; Kellman, Michael E

    2013-12-01

    Simulations are performed of a small quantum system interacting with a quantum environment. The system consists of various initial states of two harmonic oscillators coupled to give normal modes. The environment is "designed" by its level pattern to have a thermodynamic temperature. A random coupling causes the system and environment to become entangled in the course of time evolution. The approach to a Boltzmann distribution is observed, and effective fitted temperatures close to the designed temperature are obtained. All initial pure states of the system are driven to equilibrium at very similar rates, with quick loss of memory of the initial state. The time evolution of the von Neumann entropy is calculated as a measure of equilibration and of quantum coherence. It is pointed out using spatial density distribution plots that quantum interference is eliminated only with maximal entropy, which corresponds thermally to infinite temperature. Implications of our results for the notion of "classicalizing" behavior in the approach to thermal equilibrium are briefly considered. PMID:24320365

  3. El Nino-southern oscillation simulated in an MRI atmosphere-ocean coupled general circulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, T.; Tokioka, T.; Endoh, M.; Kitamura, Y. )

    1992-11-01

    A coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (GCM) was time integrated for 30 years to study interannual variability in the tropics. The atmospheric component is a global GCM with 5 levels in the vertical and 4[degrees]latitude X 5[degrees] longitude grids in the horizontal including standard physical processes (e.g., interactive clouds). The oceanic component is a GCM for the Pacific with 19 levels in the vertical and 1[degrees]x 2.5[degrees] grids in the horizontal including seasonal varying solar radiation as forcing. The model succeeded in reproducing interannual variations that resemble the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) with realistic seasonal variations in the atmospheric and oceanic fields. The model ENSO cycle has a time scale of approximately 5 years and the model El Nino (warm) events are locked roughly in phase to the seasonal cycle. The cold events, however, are less evident in comparison with the El Nino events. The time scale of the model ENSO cycle is determined by propagation time of signals from the central-eastern Pacific to the western Pacific and back to the eastern Pacific. Seasonal timing is also important in the ENSO time scale: wind anomalies in the central-eastern Pacific occur in summer and the atmosphere ocean coupling in the western Pacific operates efficiently in the first half of the year.

  4. Experiments on the Southern Oscillation with CAM3 coupled to a Mixed Layer Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monier, E.; Sokolov, A. P.

    2010-12-01

    Recent modeling studies suggest that the atmospheric component plays a dominant role in the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. In particular, simulations in which an Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) is coupled to a mixed-layer ocean model can produce ‘ENSO-like’ variability with associated patterns in SST, precipitation, or atmospheric circulation similar to that of ENSO, and referred to as 'Atmospheric Walker Mode' (AWM). In the absence of Bjerknes feedback (no ocean dynamics), the AWM relies on ocean-to-atmosphere latent heat flux and cloud forcing feedback. To study the AWM, we perform a number of experiments using the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) version 3 coupled to a mixed-layer ocean, including varying the model resolution and the depth of the mixed layer. We investigate the possible climate change impacts on the AWM by carrying out a number of equilibrium climate change simulations for a doubled CO2 with different values of the model's climate sensitivity. Results show that both the magnitude and the periodicity of the simulated AWM are rather different. This study provides further insight into the ENSO response to increasing greenhouse gas—induced radiative forcing.

  5. Generation of mechanical oscillation applicable to vibratory rate gyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemkin, Mark A. (Inventor); Juneau, Thor N. (Inventor); Clark, William A. (Inventor); Roessig, Allen W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    To achieve a drive-axis oscillation with improved frequency and amplitude stability, additional feedback loops are used to adjust force-feedback loop parameters. An amplitude-control loop measures oscillation amplitude, compares this value to the desired level, and adjusts damping of the mechanical sense-element to grow or shrink oscillation amplitude as appropriate. A frequency-tuning loop measures the oscillation frequency, compares this value with a highly stable reference, and adjusts the gain in the force-feedback loop to keep the drive-axis oscillation frequency at the reference value. The combined topology simultaneously controls both amplitude and frequency. Advantages of the combined topology include improved stability, fast oscillation start-up, low power consumption, and excellent shock rejection.

  6. A coupled-oscillator model with a conservation law for the rhythmic amoeboid movements of plasmodial slime molds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tero, A.; Kobayashi, R.; Nakagaki, T.

    2005-06-01

    Experiments on the fusion and partial separation of plasmodia of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum are described, concentrating on the spatio-temporal phase patterns of rhythmic amoeboid movement. On the basis of these experimental results we introduce a new model of coupled oscillators with one conserved quantity. Simulations using the model equations reproduce the experimental results well.

  7. Frontal top-down signals increase coupling of auditory low-frequency oscillations to continuous speech in human listeners.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyojin; Ince, Robin A A; Schyns, Philippe G; Thut, Gregor; Gross, Joachim

    2015-06-15

    Humans show a remarkable ability to understand continuous speech even under adverse listening conditions. This ability critically relies on dynamically updated predictions of incoming sensory information, but exactly how top-down predictions improve speech processing is still unclear. Brain oscillations are a likely mechanism for these top-down predictions [1, 2]. Quasi-rhythmic components in speech are known to entrain low-frequency oscillations in auditory areas [3, 4], and this entrainment increases with intelligibility [5]. We hypothesize that top-down signals from frontal brain areas causally modulate the phase of brain oscillations in auditory cortex. We use magnetoencephalography (MEG) to monitor brain oscillations in 22 participants during continuous speech perception. We characterize prominent spectral components of speech-brain coupling in auditory cortex and use causal connectivity analysis (transfer entropy) to identify the top-down signals driving this coupling more strongly during intelligible speech than during unintelligible speech. We report three main findings. First, frontal and motor cortices significantly modulate the phase of speech-coupled low-frequency oscillations in auditory cortex, and this effect depends on intelligibility of speech. Second, top-down signals are significantly stronger for left auditory cortex than for right auditory cortex. Third, speech-auditory cortex coupling is enhanced as a function of stronger top-down signals. Together, our results suggest that low-frequency brain oscillations play a role in implementing predictive top-down control during continuous speech perception and that top-down control is largely directed at left auditory cortex. This suggests a close relationship between (left-lateralized) speech production areas and the implementation of top-down control in continuous speech perception. PMID:26028433

  8. El-Nino Southern Oscillation simulated and predicted in SNU coupled GCMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Yoo-Geun; Kang, In-Sik; Kim, Daehyun; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2012-06-01

    The characteristics of the El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) simulated in free integrations using two versions of the Seoul National University (SNU) ocean-atmosphere coupled global climate model (CGCM) are examined. A revised version of the SNU CGCM is developed by incorporating a reduced air-sea coupling interval (from 1 day to 2 h), a parameterization for cumulus momentum transport, a minimum entrainment rate threshold for convective plumes, and a shortened auto-conversion time scale of cloud water to raindrops. With the revised physical processes, lower tropospheric zonal wind anomalies associated with the ENSO-related sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) are represented with more realism than those in the original version. From too weak, the standard deviation of SST over the eastern Pacific becomes too strong in the revised version due to the enhanced air-sea coupling strength and intraseasonal variability associated with ENSO. From the oceanic side, the stronger stratification and the shallower-than-observed thermocline over the eastern Pacific also contribute to the excessive ENSO. The impacts of the revised physical processes on the seasonal predictability are investigated in two sets of the hindcast experiment performed using the two versions of CGCMs. The prediction skill measured by anomaly correlation coefficients of monthly-mean SSTA shows that the new version has a higher skill over the tropical Pacific regions compared to the old version. The better atmospheric responses to the ENSO-related SSTA in the revised version lead to the basin-wide SSTA maintained and developed in a manner that is closer to observations. The symptom of an excessively strong ENSO of the new version in the free integration is not prominent in the hindcast experiment because the thermocline depth over the eastern Pacific is maintained as initialized over the arc of time of the hindcast (7 months).

  9. Adaptive and phase selective spike timing dependent plasticity in synaptically coupled neuronal oscillators.

    PubMed

    Kazantsev, Victor; Tyukin, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    We consider and analyze the influence of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) on homeostatic states in synaptically coupled neuronal oscillators. In contrast to conventional models of STDP in which spike-timing affects weights of synaptic connections, we consider a model of STDP in which the time lags between pre- and/or post-synaptic spikes change internal state of pre- and/or post-synaptic neurons respectively. The analysis reveals that STDP processes of this type, modeled by a single ordinary differential equation, may ensure efficient, yet coarse, phase-locking of spikes in the system to a given reference phase. Precision of the phase locking, i.e. the amplitude of relative phase deviations from the reference, depends on the values of natural frequencies of oscillators and, additionally, on parameters of the STDP law. These deviations can be optimized by appropriate tuning of gains (i.e. sensitivity to spike-timing mismatches) of the STDP mechanism. However, as we demonstrate, such deviations can not be made arbitrarily small neither by mere tuning of STDP gains nor by adjusting synaptic weights. Thus if accurate phase-locking in the system is required then an additional tuning mechanism is generally needed. We found that adding a very simple adaptation dynamics in the form of slow fluctuations of the base line in the STDP mechanism enables accurate phase tuning in the system with arbitrary high precision. Adaptation operating at a slow time scale may be associated with extracellular matter such as matrix and glia. Thus the findings may suggest a possible role of the latter in regulating synaptic transmission in neuronal circuits. PMID:22412830

  10. Adaptive and Phase Selective Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity in Synaptically Coupled Neuronal Oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Kazantsev, Victor; Tyukin, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    We consider and analyze the influence of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) on homeostatic states in synaptically coupled neuronal oscillators. In contrast to conventional models of STDP in which spike-timing affects weights of synaptic connections, we consider a model of STDP in which the time lags between pre- and/or post-synaptic spikes change internal state of pre- and/or post-synaptic neurons respectively. The analysis reveals that STDP processes of this type, modeled by a single ordinary differential equation, may ensure efficient, yet coarse, phase-locking of spikes in the system to a given reference phase. Precision of the phase locking, i.e. the amplitude of relative phase deviations from the reference, depends on the values of natural frequencies of oscillators and, additionally, on parameters of the STDP law. These deviations can be optimized by appropriate tuning of gains (i.e. sensitivity to spike-timing mismatches) of the STDP mechanism. However, as we demonstrate, such deviations can not be made arbitrarily small neither by mere tuning of STDP gains nor by adjusting synaptic weights. Thus if accurate phase-locking in the system is required then an additional tuning mechanism is generally needed. We found that adding a very simple adaptation dynamics in the form of slow fluctuations of the base line in the STDP mechanism enables accurate phase tuning in the system with arbitrary high precision. Adaptation operating at a slow time scale may be associated with extracellular matter such as matrix and glia. Thus the findings may suggest a possible role of the latter in regulating synaptic transmission in neuronal circuits. PMID:22412830

  11. The Madden-Julian Oscillation in ECHAM4 Coupled and Uncoupled GCMs

    SciTech Connect

    Sperber, K R; Gualdi, S; Legutke, S; Gayler, V

    2004-10-13

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) dominates tropical variability on timescales of 30-70 days. During the boreal winter/spring it is manifested as an eastward propagating disturbance, with a strong convective signature over the eastern hemisphere. The space-time structure of the MJO is analyzed using simulations with the ECHAM4 atmospheric general circulation model run with observed monthly mean sea-surface temperatures, and coupled to three different ocean models. The coherence of the eastward propagation of MJO convection is sensitive to the ocean model to which ECHAM4 is coupled. For ECHAM4/OPYC and ECHO-G, models for which {approx}100 years of daily data is available, Monte Carlo sampling indicates that their metrics of eastward propagation are different at the 1% significance level. The flux-adjusted coupled simulations, ECHAM4/OPYC and ECHO-G, maintain a more realistic mean-state, and have a more realistic MJO simulation than the non-adjusted SINTEX coupled runs. The SINTEX model exhibits a cold bias in Indian Ocean and tropical West Pacific Ocean sea-surface temperature of {approx}0.5 C. This cold bias affects the distribution of time-mean convection over the tropical Eastern Hemisphere. Furthermore, the eastward propagation of MJO convection in this model is not as coherent as in the two models that used flux adjustment or compared to an integration of ECHAM4 with prescribed observed SST. This result suggests that simulating a realistic basic state is at least as important as air-sea interaction for organizing the MJO. While all of the coupled models simulate the warm (cold) SST anomalies that precede (succeed) the MJO convection, the interaction of the components of the net surface heat flux that lead to these anomalies are different over the Indian Ocean. The ECHAM4/OPYC model, in which the atmospheric model is run at a horizontal resolution of T42, has eastward propagating zonal wind anomalies and latent heat flux anomalies. However, the integrations

  12. The Madden-Julian oscillation in ECHAM4 coupled and uncoupled general circulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Sperber, Kenneth R.; Gualdi, Silvio; Legutke, Stephanie; Gayler, Veronika

    2005-06-29

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) dominates tropical variability on timescales of 30–70 days. During the boreal winter/spring, it is manifested as an eastward propagating disturbance, with a strong convective signature over the eastern hemisphere. The space–time structure of the MJO is analyzed using simulations with the ECHAM4 atmospheric general circulation model run with observed monthly mean sea-surface temperatures (SSTs), and coupled to three different ocean models. The coherence of the eastward propagation of MJO convection is sensitive to the ocean model to which ECHAM4 is coupled. For ECHAM4/OPYC and ECHO-G, models for which ~100 years of daily data is available, Monte Carlo sampling indicates that their metrics of eastward propagation are different at the 1% significance level. The flux-adjusted coupled simulations, ECHAM4/OPYC and ECHO-G, maintain a more realistic mean-state, and have a more realistic MJO simulation than the nonadjusted scale interaction experiment (SINTEX) coupled runs. The SINTEX model exhibits a cold bias in Indian Ocean and tropical West Pacific Ocean sea-surface temperature of ~0.5°C. This cold bias affects the distribution of time-mean convection over the tropical eastern hemisphere. Furthermore, the eastward propagation of MJO convection in this model is not as coherent as in the two models that used flux adjustment or when compared to an integration of ECHAM4 with prescribed observed SST. This result suggests that simulating a realistic basic state is at least as important as air–sea interaction for organizing the MJO. While all of the coupled models simulate the warm (cold) SST anomalies that precede (succeed) the MJO convection, the interaction of the components of the net surface heat flux that lead to these anomalies are different over the Indian Ocean. The ECHAM4/OPYC model in which the atmospheric model is run at a horizontal resolution of T42, has eastward propagating zonal wind anomalies and latent heat flux

  13. The Madden-Julian oscillation in ECHAM4 coupled and uncoupled general circulation models

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sperber, Kenneth R.; Gualdi, Silvio; Legutke, Stephanie; Gayler, Veronika

    2005-06-29

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) dominates tropical variability on timescales of 30–70 days. During the boreal winter/spring, it is manifested as an eastward propagating disturbance, with a strong convective signature over the eastern hemisphere. The space–time structure of the MJO is analyzed using simulations with the ECHAM4 atmospheric general circulation model run with observed monthly mean sea-surface temperatures (SSTs), and coupled to three different ocean models. The coherence of the eastward propagation of MJO convection is sensitive to the ocean model to which ECHAM4 is coupled. For ECHAM4/OPYC and ECHO-G, models for which ~100 years of daily data is available, Montemore » Carlo sampling indicates that their metrics of eastward propagation are different at the 1% significance level. The flux-adjusted coupled simulations, ECHAM4/OPYC and ECHO-G, maintain a more realistic mean-state, and have a more realistic MJO simulation than the nonadjusted scale interaction experiment (SINTEX) coupled runs. The SINTEX model exhibits a cold bias in Indian Ocean and tropical West Pacific Ocean sea-surface temperature of ~0.5°C. This cold bias affects the distribution of time-mean convection over the tropical eastern hemisphere. Furthermore, the eastward propagation of MJO convection in this model is not as coherent as in the two models that used flux adjustment or when compared to an integration of ECHAM4 with prescribed observed SST. This result suggests that simulating a realistic basic state is at least as important as air–sea interaction for organizing the MJO. While all of the coupled models simulate the warm (cold) SST anomalies that precede (succeed) the MJO convection, the interaction of the components of the net surface heat flux that lead to these anomalies are different over the Indian Ocean. The ECHAM4/OPYC model in which the atmospheric model is run at a horizontal resolution of T42, has eastward propagating zonal wind anomalies and latent heat

  14. Alterations in the coupling functions between cortical and cardio-respiratory oscillations due to anaesthesia with propofol and sevoflurane.

    PubMed

    Stankovski, Tomislav; Petkoski, Spase; Raeder, Johan; Smith, Andrew F; McClintock, Peter V E; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2016-05-13

    The precise mechanisms underlying general anaesthesia pose important and still open questions. To address them, we have studied anaesthesia induced by the widely used (intravenous) propofol and (inhalational) sevoflurane anaesthetics, computing cross-frequency coupling functions between neuronal, cardiac and respiratory oscillations in order to determine their mutual interactions. The phase domain coupling function reveals the form of the function defining the mechanism of an interaction, as well as its coupling strength. Using a method based on dynamical Bayesian inference, we have thus identified and analysed the coupling functions for six relationships. By quantitative assessment of the forms and strengths of the couplings, we have revealed how these relationships are altered by anaesthesia, also showing that some of them are differently affected by propofol and sevoflurane. These findings, together with the novel coupling function analysis, offer a new direction in the assessment of general anaesthesia and neurophysiological interactions, in general. PMID:27045000

  15. Alterations in the coupling functions between cortical and cardio-respiratory oscillations due to anaesthesia with propofol and sevoflurane

    PubMed Central

    Petkoski, Spase; Raeder, Johan; Smith, Andrew F.; McClintock, Peter V. E.; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2016-01-01

    The precise mechanisms underlying general anaesthesia pose important and still open questions. To address them, we have studied anaesthesia induced by the widely used (intravenous) propofol and (inhalational) sevoflurane anaesthetics, computing cross-frequency coupling functions between neuronal, cardiac and respiratory oscillations in order to determine their mutual interactions. The phase domain coupling function reveals the form of the function defining the mechanism of an interaction, as well as its coupling strength. Using a method based on dynamical Bayesian inference, we have thus identified and analysed the coupling functions for six relationships. By quantitative assessment of the forms and strengths of the couplings, we have revealed how these relationships are altered by anaesthesia, also showing that some of them are differently affected by propofol and sevoflurane. These findings, together with the novel coupling function analysis, offer a new direction in the assessment of general anaesthesia and neurophysiological interactions, in general. PMID:27045000

  16. An electronically tuned, stable 8415 MHz dielectric resonator FET oscillator for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mysoor, Narayan R.

    1990-01-01

    A voltage-controlled 8415-MHz FET oscillator stabilized by a dielectric resonator is described. The oscillator provides over 3.2-MHz linear electronic tuning range with a flat power output equal to +1.8 dBm (27 C, nominal), a single-sideband noise-to-carrier ratio of -68 dBc/Hz at 1 kHz off carrier, and a frequency-temperature coefficient of 0.54 parts per million/C over a -24 C to 75 C range. The oscillator withstood 150 Krads (Si) of gamma radiation with no significant performance degradation. The overall performance of the FET oscillator is far superior in many ways to that of an equivalent bipolar oscillator for space applications. For space applications, the FET dielectric resonator oscillator (DRO) is preferred over bipolar DRO because of its lower DC power consumption, better thermal frequency stability, linear electronic tunability, and higher RF output power capability.

  17. Coupled noisy spiking neurons as velocity-controlled oscillators in a model of grid cell spatial firing

    PubMed Central

    Zilli, Eric A; Hasselmo, Michael E

    2010-01-01

    One of the two primary classes of models of grid cell spatial firing uses interference between oscillators at dynamically modulated frequencies. Generally these models are presented in terms of idealized oscillators (modeled as sinusoids) which differ from biological oscillators in multiple, important ways. Here we show that two more realistic, noisy neural models (Izhikevich's simple model and a biophysical model of an entorhinal cortex stellate cell) can be successfully used as oscillators in a model of this type. When additive noise is included in the models such that uncoupled or sparsely-coupled cells show realistic interspike interval variance, both synaptic and gap-junction coupling can synchronize networks of cells to produce comparatively less variable network-level oscillations. We show that the frequency of these oscillatory networks can be controlled sufficiently well to produce stable grid cell spatial firing on the order of at least 2-5 minutes, despite the high noise level. Our results suggest that the basic principles of oscillatory interference models work with more realistic models of noisy neurons. Nevertheless, a number of simplifications were still made and future work should examine increasingly realistic models. PMID:20943925

  18. A 10 GHz Y-Ba-Cu-O/GaAs hybrid oscillator proximity coupled to a circular microstrip patch antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohrer, Norman J.; Richard, M. A.; Valco, George J.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    1993-01-01

    A 10 GHz hybrid Y-Ba-Cu-O / GaAs microwave oscillator proximity coupled to a circular microstrip antenna was designed, fabricated and characterized. The oscillator was a reflection mode type using a GaAs MESFET as the active element. The feedline, transmission lines, RF chokes, and bias lines were all fabricated from YBa2Cu3O(7-x) superconducting thin films on a 1 cm x 1 cm lanthanum aluminate substrate. The output feedline of the oscillator was wire bonded to a superconducting feedline on a second 1 cm x 1 cm lanthanum aluminate substrate, which was in turn proximity coupled to a circular microstrip patch antenna. Antenna patterns from this active patch antenna and the performance of the oscillator measured at 77 K are reported. The oscillator had a maximum output power of 11.5 dBm at 77 K, which corresponded to an efficiency of 10 percent. In addition, the efficiency of the microstrip patch antenna together with its high temperature superconducting feedline was measured from 85 K to 30 K and was found to be 71 percent at 77 4 increasing to a maximum of 87.4 percent at 30 K.

  19. A 10 GHz Y-Ba-Cu-O/GaAs hybrid oscillator proximity coupled to a circular microstrip patch antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohrer, Norman J.; Richard, M. A.; Valco, George J.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    1993-01-01

    A 10 GHz hybrid YBCO/GaAs microwave oscillator proximity coupled to a circular microstrip antenna has been designed, fabricated, and characterized. The oscillator was a reflection mode type using a GaAs MESFET as the active element. The feedline, transmission lines, RF chokes, and bias lines were all fabricated from YBCO superconducting thin films on a 1 cm x 1 cm lanthanum aluminate substrate. The output feedline of the oscillator was wire bonded to a superconducting feedline on a second 1 cm x 1 cm lanthanum aluminate substrate, which was in turn proximity coupled to a circular microstrip patch antenna. Antenna patterns from this active patch antenna and the performance of the oscillator measured at 77 K are reported. The oscillator had a maximum output power of 11.5 dBm at 77 K, which corresponded to an efficiency of 10 percent. In addition, the efficiency of the microstrip patch antenna together with its high temperature superconducting feedline was measured from 85 K to 30 K and was found to be 71 percent at 77 K, increasing to a maximum of 87.4 percent at 30 K.

  20. Phase synchrony facilitates binding and segmentation of natural images in a coupled neural oscillator network

    PubMed Central

    Finger, Holger; König, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Synchronization has been suggested as a mechanism of binding distributed feature representations facilitating segmentation of visual stimuli. Here we investigate this concept based on unsupervised learning using natural visual stimuli. We simulate dual-variable neural oscillators with separate activation and phase variables. The binding of a set of neurons is coded by synchronized phase variables. The network of tangential synchronizing connections learned from the induced activations exhibits small-world properties and allows binding even over larger distances. We evaluate the resulting dynamic phase maps using segmentation masks labeled by human experts. Our simulation results show a continuously increasing phase synchrony between neurons within the labeled segmentation masks. The evaluation of the network dynamics shows that the synchrony between network nodes establishes a relational coding of the natural image inputs. This demonstrates that the concept of binding by synchrony is applicable in the context of unsupervised learning using natural visual stimuli. PMID:24478685

  1. Phase synchrony facilitates binding and segmentation of natural images in a coupled neural oscillator network.

    PubMed

    Finger, Holger; König, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization has been suggested as a mechanism of binding distributed feature representations facilitating segmentation of visual stimuli. Here we investigate this concept based on unsupervised learning using natural visual stimuli. We simulate dual-variable neural oscillators with separate activation and phase variables. The binding of a set of neurons is coded by synchronized phase variables. The network of tangential synchronizing connections learned from the induced activations exhibits small-world properties and allows binding even over larger distances. We evaluate the resulting dynamic phase maps using segmentation masks labeled by human experts. Our simulation results show a continuously increasing phase synchrony between neurons within the labeled segmentation masks. The evaluation of the network dynamics shows that the synchrony between network nodes establishes a relational coding of the natural image inputs. This demonstrates that the concept of binding by synchrony is applicable in the context of unsupervised learning using natural visual stimuli. PMID:24478685

  2. Coupled oscillations of vortex cores confined in a ferromagnetic elliptical disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Hiroshi; Goto, Minori; Yamaguchi, Akinobu; Sato, Tomonori; Nakatani, Yoshinobu; Nozaki, Yukio

    2014-09-01

    By solving the Thiele equation with simultaneous application of a radio-frequency (rf) magnetic field (hrf) and an rf spin current (jsp), the dynamic susceptibility of exchange-coupled vortices in response to hrf and jsp was obtained. It was found that the four eigenmodes expected for two vortices trapped in a magnetic elliptical disk were coupled to different components of hrf and jsp. As a consequence, orthogonal hrf and jsp (which are simultaneously generated by the application of an rf current to an elliptical disk) can excite two modes with different eigenfrequencies. This result suggests that a fieldlike nonadiabatic torque caused by an rf spin current can be spectroscopically distinguished from the one caused by the rf magnetic field.

  3. NOS inhibition synchronizes calcium oscillations in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells by increasing gap-junctional coupling.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Heinrich; Sharifpanah, Fatemeh; Hatry, Myriam; Steffen, Paul; Bartsch, Caroline; Heller, Regine; Padmasekar, Manju; Howaldt, Hans-Peter; Bein, Gregor; Wartenberg, Maria

    2011-06-01

    Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) are a promising stem cell source for cell transplantation. We demonstrate that undifferentiated ASCs display robust oscillations of intracellular calcium [Ca(2+) ](i) which may be associated with stem cell maintenance since oscillations were absent in endothelial cell differentiation medium supplemented with FGF-2. [Ca(2+) ](i) oscillations were dependent on extracellular Ca(2+) and Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores since they were abolished in Ca(2+) -free medium and in the presence of the store-depleting agent thapsigargin. They were inhibited by the phospholipase C antagonist U73,122, the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3) ) receptor antagonist 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) as well as by the gap-junction uncouplers 1-heptanol and carbenoxolone, indicating regulation by the InsP(3) pathway and dependence on gap-junctional coupling. Cells endogenously generated nitric oxide (NO), expressed NO synthase 1 (NOS 1) and connexin 43 (Cx 43). The nitric oxide NOS inhibitors NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), 2-ethyl-2-thiopseudourea, and diphenylene iodonium as well as si-RNA-mediated down-regulation of NOS 1 synchronized [Ca(2+) ](i) oscillations between individual cells, whereas the NO-donors S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as well as the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) were without effects. The synchronization of [Ca(2+) ](i) oscillations was due to an improvement of intracellular coupling since fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) revealed increased reflow of fluorescent calcein into the bleached area in the presence of the NOS inhibitors DPI and L-NAME. In summary our data demonstrate that intracellular NO levels regulate synchronization of [Ca(2+) ](i) oscillations in undifferentiated ASCs by controlling gap-junctional coupling. PMID:21413022

  4. On the quantum phase fluctuations of coherent light in a chain of two anharmonic oscillators coupled through a linear one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Nasir; Mandal, Swapan

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the quantum phase fluctuations of input coherent light involving two quartic anharmonic oscillators coupled through a linear one. The analytical expressions for various phase fluctuation parameters due to Carruthers and Nieto are expressed as functions of coupling constant, anharmonic constant, initial excitation numbers, and the initial phase of the input coherent field. By using some numerical estimates of the analytical expressions, the effects of anharmonic and coupling constants are clearly indicated. In one of the two anharmonic modes (say mode a1), it is found that the presence of coupling causes the reduction of phase fluctuation parameters U1, and S1, compared to their counterparts at t=0. In sharp contrast to these results, the increase and the decrease (at least in the axis range of kt) of the phase fluctuation parameters U1, S1 and Q1 compared to their initial value counterpart are attributed by the strong field and hence the nonlinearity. We establish that the signature of anharmonicity (β ≠ 0) is realized only for intense field situations. It corroborates the fact that the nonlinearity of the medium is invoked only if the field strength is quite strong. Interestingly, for significantly strong field situation, the reduction of the phase fluctuation parameters compared to their initial values is exhibited for the harmonic mode. These reductions are attributed partly by the strong field and partly by the coupling between the oscillators. In spite of the modes corresponding to two anharmonic oscillators which are in vacuum, we report the generation of excitation for nonzero coupling constant with β=0. It may be attributed by the quantum state transfer through the chain of harmonic oscillators.

  5. LDRD final report on Bloch Oscillations in two-dimensional nanostructure arrays for high frequency applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Lyo, Sungkwun Kenneth; Pan, Wei; Reno, John Louis; Wendt, Joel Robert; Barton, Daniel Lee

    2008-09-01

    We have investigated the physics of Bloch oscillations (BO) of electrons, engineered in high mobility quantum wells patterned into lateral periodic arrays of nanostructures, i.e. two-dimensional (2D) quantum dot superlattices (QDSLs). A BO occurs when an electron moves out of the Brillouin zone (BZ) in response to a DC electric field, passing back into the BZ on the opposite side. This results in quantum oscillations of the electron--i.e., a high frequency AC current in response to a DC voltage. Thus, engineering a BO will yield continuously electrically tunable high-frequency sources (and detectors) for sensor applications, and be a physics tour-de-force. More than a decade ago, Bloch oscillation (BO) was observed in a quantum well superlattice (QWSL) in short-pulse optical experiments. However, its potential as electrically biased high frequency source and detector so far has not been realized. This is partially due to fast damping of BO in QWSLs. In this project, we have investigated the possibility of improving the stability of BO by fabricating lateral superlattices of periodic coupled nanostructures, such as metal grid, quantum (anti)dots arrays, in high quality GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As heterostructures. In these nanostructures, the lateral quantum confinement has been shown theoretically to suppress the optical-phonon scattering, believed to be the main mechanism for fast damping of BO in QWSLs. Over the last three years, we have made great progress toward demonstrating Bloch oscillations in QDSLs. In the first two years of this project, we studied the negative differential conductance and the Bloch radiation induced edge-magnetoplasmon resonance. Recently, in collaboration with Prof. Kono's group at Rice University, we investigated the time-domain THz magneto-spectroscopy measurements in QDSLs and two-dimensional electron systems. A surprising DC electrical field induced THz phase flip was observed. More measurements are planned to investigate this

  6. Utilizing coupled-oscillator photophysics to elaborate chromophores with exceptional molecular hyperpolarizabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyeda, H. T.; Miloradovic, Ivan R.; Zhao, Yuxia; Wostyn, Kurt; Asselberghs, Inge; Clays, Koen J.; Persoons, Andre P.; Therien, Michael J.

    2003-11-01

    The syntheses and electrooptic properties of a family of nonlinear optical chromophores are described. Typically, these species feature an ethyne-elaborated, highly polarizable porphyrinic component, and metal polypyridyl complexes that serve as integral donor and acceptor elements. The frequency dependence of the dynamic hyperpolarizability of a wide-range of these chromophores, that vary widely with respect to their electronic structure, was determined from hyper-Rayleigh light scattering (HRS) measurements carried out at fundamental incident irradiation wavelengths (λinc) of 830, 1064, and 1300 nm. These data show that: (i) Coupled oscillator photophysics and metal-mediated cross-coupling can be exploited to elaborate high βλ supermolecules that exhibit significant excited-state electronic communication between their respective pigment building blocks; (ii) High-stability metal polypyridyl compounds constitute an attractive alternative to electron releasing dialkyl- and diarylamino groups, the most commonly used donor moieties in a wide-range of established NLO dyes, and long-recognized to be the moiety that often limits the thermal stability of such compounds; (iii) This design strategy clearly enables ready elaboration of extraordinarily large βλ chromophores at telecommunication-relevant wavelengths; and (iv) Multiple charge-transfer (CT) transitions within a single chromophore can be designed to have transition dipole moments of the same or opposite sign; because the sign of the resonance enhancement factor is frequency dependent, appropriate engineering of the relative contributions of these CT states at a given wavelength provides a new means to regulate the magnitude of dynamic hyperpolarizabilities.

  7. Model of very fast (>75 Hz) network oscillations generated by electrical coupling between the proximal axons of cerebellar Purkinje cells

    PubMed Central

    Traub, Roger D; Middleton, Steven J; Knöpfel, Thomas; Whittington, Miles A

    2009-01-01

    Very fast oscillations (VFO, >75 Hz) occur transiently in vivo, in the cerebellum of mice genetically modified to model Angelman syndrome, and in a mouse model of fetal alcohol syndrome. We recently reported VFO in slices of mouse cerebellar cortex (Crus I and II of ansiform and paramedian lobules), either in association with gamma oscillations (~40 Hz, evoked by nicotine), or in isolation (evoked by nicotine in combination with GABAA receptor blockade). The experimental data suggest a role for electrical coupling between Purkinje cells (blockade of VFO by drugs reducing gap junction conductance, and spikelets in some Purkinje cells); and the data suggest the specific involvement of Purkinje cell axons (because of field oscillation maxima in the granular layer). We show here that a detailed network model (1,000 multicompartment Purkinje cells) replicates the experimental data, when gap junctions are located on the proximal axons of Purkinje cells, provided sufficient spontaneous firing is present. Unlike other VFO models, most somatic spikelets do not correspond to axonal spikes in the parent axon, but reflect spikes in electrically coupled axons. The model predicts gating of VFO frequency by gNa inactivation, and experiments prolonging this inactivation time constant, with β-pompilidotoxin, are consistent with this prediction. The model also predicts that cerebellar VFO can be explained as an electrically coupled system of axons which are not intrinsic oscillators: the electrically uncoupled cells do not individually oscillate (in the model), and axonal firing rates are much lower in the uncoupled state than in the coupled state. PMID:18973579

  8. Biomechanically Induced and Controller Coupled Oscillations Experienced on the F-16XL Aircraft During Rolling Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, John W.; Montgomery, Terry

    1996-01-01

    During rapid rolling maneuvers, the F-16 XL aircraft exhibits a 2.5 Hz lightly damped roll oscillation, perceived and described as 'roll ratcheting.' This phenomenon is common with fly-by-wire control systems, particularly when primary control is derived through a pedestal-mounted side-arm controller. Analytical studies have been conducted to model the nature of the integrated control characteristics. The analytical results complement the flight observations. A three-degree-of-freedom linearized set of aerodynamic matrices was assembled to simulate the aircraft plant. The lateral-directional control system was modeled as a linear system. A combination of two second-order transfer functions was derived to couple the lateral acceleration feed through effect of the operator's arm and controller to the roll stick force input. From the combined systems, open-loop frequency responses and a time history were derived, describing and predicting an analogous in-flight situation. This report describes the primary control, aircraft angular rate, and position time responses of the F-16 XL-2 aircraft during subsonic and high-dynamic-pressure rolling maneuvers. The analytical description of the pilot's arm and controller can be applied to other aircraft or simulations to assess roll ratcheting susceptibility.

  9. Traveling wave solutions in a chain of periodically forced coupled nonlinear oscillators

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Duanmu, M.; Whitaker, N.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Vainchtein, A.; Rubin, J. E.

    2016-02-27

    Artificial perceptions of light called phosphenes were motivated by earlier studies. We analyze traveling wave solutions in a chain of periodically forced coupled nonlinear oscillators modeling this phenomenon. We examine the discrete model problem in its co-traveling frame and systematically obtain the corresponding traveling waves in one spatial dimension. Direct numerical simulations as well as linear stability analysis are employed to reveal the parameter regions where the traveling waves are stable, and these waves are, in turn, connected to the standing waves analyzed in earlier work. We also consider a two-dimensional extension of the model and demonstrate the robust evolutionmore » and stability of planar fronts. Moreover, our simulations also suggest the radial fronts tend to either annihilate or expand and flatten out, depending on the phase value inside and the parameter regime. Finally, we observe that solutions that initially feature two symmetric fronts with bulged centers evolve in qualitative agreement with experimental observations of phosphenes.« less

  10. Thermodynamics based on the principle of least abbreviated action: Entropy production in a network of coupled oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Morales, Vladimir Pellicer, Julio; Manzanares, Jose A.

    2008-08-15

    We present some novel thermodynamic ideas based on the Maupertuis principle. By considering Hamiltonians written in terms of appropriate action-angle variables we show that thermal states can be characterized by the action variables and by their evolution in time when the system is nonintegrable. We propose dynamical definitions for the equilibrium temperature and entropy as well as an expression for the nonequilibrium entropy valid for isolated systems with many degrees of freedom. This entropy is shown to increase in the relaxation to equilibrium of macroscopic systems with short-range interactions, which constitutes a dynamical justification of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Several examples are worked out to show that this formalism yields the right microcanonical (equilibrium) quantities. The relevance of this approach to nonequilibrium situations is illustrated with an application to a network of coupled oscillators (Kuramoto model). We provide an expression for the entropy production in this system finding that its positive value is directly related to dissipation at the steady state in attaining order through synchronization.

  11. Shortwave feedbacks and El Nino-Southern Oscillation: Forced ocean coupled ocean-atmosphere experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waliser, Duane E.; Blanke, Bruno; Neelin, J. David; Gautier, C.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in tropical sea surface temperature (SST) can produce changes in cloudiness that modify incoming solar shortwave (SW) radiation, which in turn affects SST. The effects of this negative feedback on Pacific interannual variability are examined in forced ocean model and hybrid coupled ocean-atmosphere model simulations. Two empirical schemes are used to model the large-scale, low-frequency response of surface SW to SST anomalies. The first scheme attempts to account for the nonlocal nature of the atmospheric response to SST based patterns of covariability analyzed through singular value decomposition. In the observations the primary coupled mode of variability is composed of a SW anomaly in the central Pacific that covaries with anomalous SST in the eastern Pacific. This is applied in the model as a nonlocal feedback. The second scheme examines the effects of a purely local feedback with a spatially varying coefficient of magnitude chosen similar to the first scheme. In almost all cases the second scheme behaved similarly to the first, presumably because the correlation scale of SST is large enough for El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) dynamics that there is little sensitivity to the local approximation in the SW feedback. In simulations forced by time series of observed wind stress the SW feedback induced very minor SST damping. Results for a simpified heat budget analysis showed that while the SW feedback increased the local heat flux damping on SST, it also induced a mean shallowing of the mixed layer. The resulting changes in both the local mean vertical temperature gradient and the zonal velocity response to the wind stress acted to oppose the local heat flux damping effects. When the observed SW anomalies were applied to forced simulations, the simulated SST anomalies were modified as expected, and agreement with observed SST improved. In coupled simulations the SW feedbacks had greater impact than in the case of specified stress. The main effects were

  12. Ih Tunes Theta/Gamma Oscillations and Cross-Frequency Coupling In an In Silico CA3 Model

    PubMed Central

    Neymotin, Samuel A.; Hilscher, Markus M.; Moulin, Thiago C.; Skolnick, Yosef; Lazarewicz, Maciej T.; Lytton, William W.

    2013-01-01

    channels are uniquely positioned to act as neuromodulatory control points for tuning hippocampal theta (4–12 Hz) and gamma (25 Hz) oscillations, oscillations which are thought to have importance for organization of information flow. contributes to neuronal membrane resonance and resting membrane potential, and is modulated by second messengers. We investigated oscillatory control using a multiscale computer model of hippocampal CA3, where each cell class (pyramidal, basket, and oriens-lacunosum moleculare cells), contained type-appropriate isoforms of . Our model demonstrated that modulation of pyramidal and basket allows tuning theta and gamma oscillation frequency and amplitude. Pyramidal also controlled cross-frequency coupling (CFC) and allowed shifting gamma generation towards particular phases of the theta cycle, effected via 's ability to set pyramidal excitability. Our model predicts that in vivo neuromodulatory control of allows flexibly controlling CFC and the timing of gamma discharges at particular theta phases. PMID:24204609

  13. High-power PPMgLN-based optical parametric oscillator pumped by a linearly polarized, semi-fiber-coupled acousto-optic Q-switched fiber master oscillator power amplifier.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Jiang, Peipei; Yang, Dingzhong; Hu, Chengzhi; Wu, Bo; Shen, Yonghang

    2013-09-01

    We have experimentally demonstrated a periodically poled magnesium-oxide-doped lithium niobate (PPMgLN)-based, fiber-laser-pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) generating idler wavelength of 3.82 μm. The pump fiber laser was constructed with a linearly polarized, semi-fiber-coupled acousto-optic Q-switched fiber oscillator and a polarization-maintaining fiber amplifier with pulse duration of 190 ns at the highest output power. The OPO was specifically configured in single-pass, singly resonant linear cavity structure to avoid the damage risk of the pump fiber laser, which is always a serious issue in the fiber-laser-pumped, double-pass, singly oscillating structured OPOs. Under the highest pump power of 25 W, an idler average output power of 3.27 W with one-hour peak-to-peak instability of 5.2% was obtained. The measured M2 factors were 1.98 and 1.44 for horizontal and vertical axis, respectively. The high power stability and good beam quality demonstrated the suitability of such technology for practical application. PMID:24085093

  14. Identification of coupling direction: Application to cardiorespiratory interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenblum, Michael G.; Cimponeriu, Laura; Bezerianos, Anastasios; Patzak, Andreas; Mrowka, Ralf

    2002-04-01

    We consider the problem of experimental detection of directionality of weak coupling between two self-sustained oscillators from bivariate data. We further develop the method introduced by Rosenblum and Pikovsky [Phys. Rev. E 64, 045202 (2001)], suggesting an alternative approach. Next, we consider another framework for identification of directionality, based on the idea of mutual predictability. Our algorithms provide directionality index that shows whether the coupling between the oscillators is unidirectional or bidirectional, and quantifies the asymmetry of bidirectional coupling. We demonstrate the efficiency of three different algorithms in determination of directionality index from short and noisy data. These techniques are then applied to analysis of cardiorespiratory interaction in healthy infants. The results reveal that the direction of coupling between cardiovascular and respiratory systems varies with the age within the first 6 months of life. We find a tendency to change from nearly symmetric bidirectional interaction to nearly unidirectional one (from respiration to the cardiovascular system).

  15. Mixed-mode oscillations and slow manifolds in the self-coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desroches, Mathieu; Krauskopf, Bernd; Osinga, Hinke M.

    2008-03-01

    We investigate the organization of mixed-mode oscillations in the self-coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo system. These types of oscillations can be explained as a combination of relaxation oscillations and small-amplitude oscillations controlled by canard solutions that are associated with a folded singularity on a critical manifold. The self-coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo system has a cubic critical manifold for a range of parameters, and an associated folded singularity of node-type. Hence, there exist corresponding attracting and repelling slow manifolds that intersect in canard solutions. We present a general technique for the computation of two-dimensional slow manifolds (smooth surfaces). It is based on a boundary value problem approach where the manifolds are computed as one-parameter families of orbit segments. Visualization of the computed surfaces gives unprecedented insight into the geometry of the system. In particular, our techniques allow us to find and visualize canard solutions as the intersection curves of the attracting and repelling slow manifolds.

  16. Teleconnections of the Southern Oscillation in the tropical Atlantic sector in the OSU coupled upper ocean-atomosphere GCM

    SciTech Connect

    Hameed, S.; Meinster, A. ); Sperber, K.R. )

    1993-03-01

    The Oregon State University coupled upper ocean-atmosphere GCM has been shown to qualitatively simulate the Southern Oscillation. A composite analysis of the warm and cold events simulated in this 23-year integration has been performed. During the low phase of the Southern Oscillation, when warm anomalies occur in the eastern Pacific, the model simulates for the Atlantic region during March-May (1) a deficit of precipitation over the tropical South American continent, (2) Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico sea level pressure and sea surface temperature are in phase with the eastern Pacific anomalies, while those east of the Nordeste region are out of phase, and (3) northeast trade winds are anomalously weak and southwest trade winds are anomalously strong (as inferred from surface current anomalies). The anomalies in the oceanic processes are induced by perturbations in the atmospheric circulation over the Atlantic and are coupled to changes in the Walker circulation. During the high phase of the simulated Southern Oscillation, conditions in the atmosphere and ocean are essentially the reverse of the low phase. The model produces a response in the South American region during the opposing phases of the Southern Oscillation that is in general agreement with observations. The interannual variation of Nordeste rainfall is shown to be dominated by a few band-limited frequencies. These frequencies are found in the SST series of those regions of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans where strong correlations with Nordeste precipitation exist.

  17. Effects of Coupled Rolling and Pitching Oscillations on Transonic Shock-Induced Vortex-Breakdown Flow of a Delta Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Menzies, Margaret A.

    1996-01-01

    Unsteady, transonic vortex-breakdown flow over a 65 deg. sharp edged, cropped-delta wing of zero thickness undergoing forced coupled pitching and rolling oscillations is investigated computationally. The initial condition of the flow is characterized by a transverse terminating shock which induces of the leading edge vortex cores to breakdown. The computational investigation uses the time-accurate solution of the laminar, unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes equations with the implicit, upwind, Roe flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. The main focus is to analyze the effects of coupled motion on the wing response and vortex-breakdown flow by varying oscillation frequency and phase angle while keeping the maximum pitch and roll amplitude equal.

  18. Dynamical behavior and peak power reduction in a pair of energy storage oscillators coupled by delayed power price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukunaga, Tomohiro; Imasaka, Tomoaki; Ito, Akira; Sugitani, Yoshiki; Konishi, Keiji; Hara, Naoyuki

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates dynamics of a management system for controlling a pair of energy storages. The system involves the following two characteristics: each storage behaves in a manner that reduces the number of charge noncharge cycles and begins to be charged when the price of power is lower than a particular price threshold. The price is proportional to the past total power flow from a power grid to all storages. A peak of the total power flow occurs when these storages are charged simultaneously. From the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics, the energy storages can be considered as relaxation oscillators coupled by a delay connection. Our analytical results suggest that the peak can be reduced by inducing an antiphase synchronization in coupled oscillators. We confirm these analytical results through numerical simulations. In addition, we numerically investigate the dynamical behavior in 10 storages and find that time delay in the connection is important in reducing the peak.

  19. Coupled Rolling and Pitching Oscillation Effects on Transonic Shock-Induced Vortex-Breakdown Flow of a Delta Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Menzies, Margaret A.

    1996-01-01

    Unsteady, transonic vortex dominated flow over a 65 deg. sharp edged, cropped-delta wing of zero thickness undergoing forced coupled pitching and rolling oscillations is investigated computationally. The wing mean angle of attack is 20 deg. and the free stream Mach number and Reynolds number are 0.85 and 3.23 x 10(exp 6), respectively. The initial condition of the flow is characterized by a transverse terminating shock and vortex breakdown of the leading edge vortex cores. The computational investigation uses the time-accurate solution of the laminar, unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes equations with the implicit, upwind, Roe flux-difference splitting, finite volume scheme. The main focus is to analyze the effects of coupled motion on the wing response and vortex breakdown flow by varying oscillation frequency and phase angle while the maximum pitch and roll amplitude is kept constant at 4.0 deg. Four cases demonstrate the following: simultaneous motion at a frequency of 1(pi), motion with a 90 deg. phase lead in pitch, motion with a rolling frequency of twice the pitching frequency, and simultaneous motion at a frequency of 2(pi). Comparisons with single mode motion at these frequencies complete this study and illustrate the effects of coupling the oscillations.

  20. Spatial Noise in Coupling Strength and Natural Frequency within a Pacemaker Network; Consequences for Development of Intestinal Motor Patterns According to a Weakly Coupled Phase Oscillator Model

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Sean P.; Huizinga, Jan D.

    2016-01-01

    Pacemaker activities generated by networks of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), in conjunction with the enteric nervous system, orchestrate most motor patterns in the gastrointestinal tract. It was our objective to understand the role of network features of ICC associated with the myenteric plexus (ICC-MP) in the shaping of motor patterns of the small intestine. To that end, a model of weakly coupled oscillators (oscillators influence each other's phase but not amplitude) was created with most parameters derived from experimental data. The ICC network is a uniform two dimensional network coupled by gap junctions. All ICC generate pacemaker (slow wave) activity with a frequency gradient in mice from 50/min at the proximal end of the intestine to 40/min at the distal end. Key features of motor patterns, directly related to the underlying pacemaker activity, are frequency steps and dislocations. These were accurately mimicked by reduction of coupling strength at a point in the chain of oscillators. When coupling strength was expressed as a product of gap junction density and conductance, and gap junction density was varied randomly along the chain (i.e., spatial noise) with a long-tailed distribution, plateau steps occurred at pointsof low density. As gap junction conductance was decreased, the number of plateaus increased, mimicking the effect of the gap junction inhibitor carbenoxolone. When spatial noise was added to the natural interval gradient, as gap junction conductance decreased, the number of plateaus increased as before but in addition the phase waves frequently changed direction of apparent propagation, again mimicking the effect of carbenoxolone. In summary, key features of the motor patterns that are governed by pacemaker activity may be a direct consequence of biological noise, specifically spatial noise in gap junction coupling and pacemaker frequency. PMID:26869875

  1. Two-dimensional Raman and infrared vibrational spectroscopy for a harmonic oscillator system nonlinearly coupled with a colored noise bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Tsuyoshi; Tanimura, Yoshitaka

    2004-01-01

    Multidimensional vibrational response functions of a harmonic oscillator are reconsidered by assuming nonlinear system-bath couplings. In addition to a standard linear-linear (LL) system-bath interaction, we consider a square-linear (SL) interaction. The LL interaction causes the vibrational energy relaxation, while the SL interaction is mainly responsible for the vibrational phase relaxation. The dynamics of the relevant system are investigated by the numerical integration of the Gaussian-Markovian Fokker-Planck equation under the condition of strong couplings with a colored noise bath, where the conventional perturbative approach cannot be applied. The response functions for the fifth-order nonresonant Raman and the third-order infrared (or equivalently the second-order infrared and the seventh-order nonresonant Raman) spectra are calculated under the various combinations of the LL and the SL coupling strengths. Calculated two-dimensional response functions demonstrate that those spectroscopic techniques are very sensitive to the mechanism of the system-bath couplings and the correlation time of the bath fluctuation. We discuss the primary optical transition pathways involved to elucidate the corresponding spectroscopic features and to relate them to the microscopic sources of the vibrational nonlinearity induced by the system-bath interactions. Optical pathways for the fifth-order Raman spectroscopies from an "anisotropic" medium were newly found in this study, which were not predicted by the weak system-bath coupling theory or the standard Brownian harmonic oscillator model.

  2. Two-dimensional Raman and infrared vibrational spectroscopy for a harmonic oscillator system nonlinearly coupled with a colored noise bath.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tsuyoshi; Tanimura, Yoshitaka

    2004-01-01

    Multidimensional vibrational response functions of a harmonic oscillator are reconsidered by assuming nonlinear system-bath couplings. In addition to a standard linear-linear (LL) system-bath interaction, we consider a square-linear (SL) interaction. The LL interaction causes the vibrational energy relaxation, while the SL interaction is mainly responsible for the vibrational phase relaxation. The dynamics of the relevant system are investigated by the numerical integration of the Gaussian-Markovian Fokker-Planck equation under the condition of strong couplings with a colored noise bath, where the conventional perturbative approach cannot be applied. The response functions for the fifth-order nonresonant Raman and the third-order infrared (or equivalently the second-order infrared and the seventh-order nonresonant Raman) spectra are calculated under the various combinations of the LL and the SL coupling strengths. Calculated two-dimensional response functions demonstrate that those spectroscopic techniques are very sensitive to the mechanism of the system-bath couplings and the correlation time of the bath fluctuation. We discuss the primary optical transition pathways involved to elucidate the corresponding spectroscopic features and to relate them to the microscopic sources of the vibrational nonlinearity induced by the system-bath interactions. Optical pathways for the fifth-order Raman spectroscopies from an "anisotropic" medium were newly found in this study, which were not predicted by the weak system-bath coupling theory or the standard Brownian harmonic oscillator model. PMID:15267286

  3. Multi-kW cw fiber oscillator pumped by wavelength stabilized fiber coupled diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Frank; Neumann, Benjamin; Winkelmann, Lutz; Belke, Steffen; Ruppik, Stefan; Hefter, Ulrich; Köhler, Bernd; Wolf, Paul; Biesenbach, Jens

    2013-02-01

    High power Yb doped fiber laser sources are beside CO2- and disk lasers one of the working horses of industrial laser applications. Due to their inherently given robustness, scalability and high efficiency, fiber laser sources are best suited to fulfill the requirements of modern industrial laser applications in terms of power and beam quality. Pumping Yb doped single-mode fiber lasers at 976nm is very efficient. Thus, high power levels can be realized avoiding limiting nonlinear effects like SRS. However the absorption band of Yb doped glass around 976nm is very narrow. Therefore, one has to consider the wavelength shift of the diode lasers used for pumping. The output spectrum of passively cooled diode lasers is mainly defined by the applied current and by the heat sink temperature. Furthermore the overall emission line width of a high power pump source is dominated by the large number of needed diode laser emitters, each producing an individual spectrum. Even though it is possible to operate multi-kW cw single-mode fiber lasers with free running diode laser pumps, wavelength stabilizing techniques for diode lasers (e.g. volume holographic gratings, VHG) can be utilized in future fiber laser sources to increase the output power level while keeping the energy consumption constant. To clarify the benefits of wavelength stabilized diode lasers with integrated VHG for wavelength locking the performance of a dual side pumped fiber oscillator is discussed in this article. For comparison, different pumping configurations consisting of stabilized and free-running diode lasers are presented.

  4. An electronically tuned, stable 8415-MHz dielectric resonator FET oscillator for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakshminarayana, M.

    1988-01-01

    A voltage-controlled 8415 MHz FET oscillator stabilized by a dielectric resonator is described. The oscillator provides a linear electronic tuning range of over 3.2 MHz with a flat power output equal to +1.8 dBm (27 C nominal), a single-sideband noise to carrier ratio of -68 dBc/Hz at 1 kHz off carrier, and a frequency temperature coefficient of 0.54 part per million/C over a -24 to 75 C range. The oscillator withstood 150 krads(Si) of gamma radiation with no significant performance degradation. The overall performance of the oscillator is in many ways far superior to that of an equivalent bipolar oscillator for space applications.

  5. Damped population oscillation in a spontaneously decaying two-level atom coupled to a monochromatic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sun Kyung; Lee, Hai-Woong

    2006-12-01

    We investigate the time evolution of atomic population in a two-level atom driven by a monochromatic radiation field, taking spontaneous emission into account. The Rabi oscillation exhibits amplitude damping in time caused by spontaneous emission. We show that the semiclassical master equation leads in general to an overestimation of the damping rate and that a correct quantitative description of the damped Rabi oscillation can thus be obtained only with a full quantum mechanical theory.

  6. Coupling of radial and axial nonradial oscillations of compact stars: Gravitational waves from first-order differential rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Passamonti, Andrea; Bruni, Marco; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Sopuerta, Carlos F.

    2006-04-15

    We investigate the nonlinear coupling between radial and nonradial oscillations of static spherically-symmetric neutron stars as a possible mechanism for the generation of gravitational waves that may lead to observable signatures. In this paper we concentrate on the axial sector of the nonradial perturbations. By using a multiparameter perturbative framework we introduce a complete description of the nonlinear coupling between radial and axial nonradial oscillations; we study the gauge-invariant character of the associated perturbative variables and develop a computational scheme to evolve the nonlinear coupling perturbations in the time domain. We present results of simulations corresponding to different physical situations and discuss the dynamical behavior of this nonlinear coupling. Of particular interest is the occurrence of signal amplifications in the form of resonance phenomena when a frequency associated with the radial pulsations is close to a frequency associated with one of the axial w-modes of the star. Finally, we mention possible extensions of this work and improvements towards more astrophysically motivated scenarios.

  7. Coupling of Cellular Processes and Their Coordinated Oscillations under Continuous Light in Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142, a Diazotrophic Unicellular Cyanobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Vinh, Nguyen X.; Viswanathan, Ganesh A.; Chetty, Madhu; Wangikar, Pramod P.

    2015-01-01

    Unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria such as Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 (henceforth Cyanothece), temporally separate the oxygen sensitive nitrogen fixation from oxygen evolving photosynthesis not only under diurnal cycles (LD) but also in continuous light (LL). However, recent reports demonstrate that the oscillations in LL occur with a shorter cycle time of ~11 h. We find that indeed, majority of the genes oscillate in LL with this cycle time. Genes that are upregulated at a particular time of day under diurnal cycle also get upregulated at an equivalent metabolic phase under LL suggesting tight coupling of various cellular events with each other and with the cell’s metabolic status. A number of metabolic processes get upregulated in a coordinated fashion during the respiratory phase under LL including glycogen degradation, glycolysis, oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and tricarboxylic acid cycle. These precede nitrogen fixation apparently to ensure sufficient energy and anoxic environment needed for the nitrogenase enzyme. Photosynthetic phase sees upregulation of photosystem II, carbonate transport, carbon concentrating mechanism, RuBisCO, glycogen synthesis and light harvesting antenna pigment biosynthesis. In Synechococcus elongates PCC 7942, a non-nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria, expression of a relatively smaller fraction of genes oscillates under LL condition with the major periodicity being 24 h. In contrast, the entire cellular machinery of Cyanothece orchestrates coordinated oscillation in anticipation of the ensuing metabolic phase in both LD and LL. These results may have important implications in understanding the timing of various cellular events and in engineering cyanobacteria for biofuel production. PMID:25973856

  8. An application of integral inequality to second order nonlinear oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, Man Kam; Wong, James S. W.

    A simple result concerning integral inequalities enables us to give an alternative proof of Waltman's theorem: lim t → ∞ ∝ t0a( s) ds = ∞ implies oscillation of the second order nonlinear equation y″( t) + a( t) f( y( t)) = 0; to prove an analog of Wintner's theorem that relates the nonoscillation of the second order nonlinear equations to the existence of solutions of some integral equations, assuming that lim t → ∞ ∝ t0a( s) ds exists; and to give an alternative proof and to extend a result of Butler. An often used condition on the coefficient a( t) is given a more familiar equivalent form and an oscillation criterion involving this condition is established.

  9. Structure and predictability of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation phenomenon in a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Latif, M.; Sterl, A.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Junge, M.M. )

    1993-04-01

    The space-time structure and predictability of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon was investigated. Two comprehensive datasets were analyzed by means of an advanced statistical method, one based on observational data and other on data derived from an extended-range integration performed with a coupled ocean atmosphere general circulation model. It is shown that a considerable portion of the ENSO related low-frequency climate variability in both datasets is associated with a cycle implies the possibility of climate predictions in the tropics up to lead times of about one year. This is shown by conducting an ensemble of predictions with our coupled general circulation model. For the first time a coupled model of this type was successfully applied to ENSO predictions. 34 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Irregular macroscopic dynamics due to chimera states in small-world networks of pulse-coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothkegel, A.; Lehnertz, K.

    2014-05-01

    We study the collective dynamics of excitatory integrate-and-fire-like oscillators interacting via δ-pulses on a small-world network. The oscillators are endowed with refractory periods and time delays. For weak coupling strengths, the network self-organizes into synchronous and asynchronous regions. Such chimera states allow for two separate routes to synchrony/asynchrony. In addition to the loss of stability of either synchronous or asynchronous regions mediated by long-ranged connections, regions may grow or shrink mediated by the lattice structure. The interplay between these behaviors leads to controlled total sizes of asynchronous regions or to an alternation of synchronization and desynchronization phenomena with irregular macroscopic observables.

  11. Optical Properties and Biological Applications of Electromagnetically Coupled Metal Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikholeslami, Sassan Nathan

    The optical properties of metallic particles change dramatically as the size shrinks to the nanoscale. The familiar mirror-like sheen of bulk metals is replaced by the bright, sharp, colorful plasmonic resonances of nanoparticles. The resonances of plasmonic metal nanoparticles are highly tunable throughout the visible spectrum, depending on the size, shape, local dielectric environment, and proximity to other optical resonances. Fundamental and applied research in the nanoscience community in the past few decades has sought to understand and exploit these phenomena for biological applications. In this work, discrete nanoparticle assemblies were produced through biomolecular interactions and studied at the single particle level with darkfield spectroscopy. Pairs of gold nanoparticles tethered by DNA were utilized as molecular rulers to study the dynamics of DNA bending by the restriction enzyme EcoRV. These results substantiated that nanoparticle rulers, deemed "plasmon rulers", could measure the dynamics of single biomolecules with high throughput, long lifetime, and high temporal resolution. To extend these concepts for live cell studies, a plasmon ruler comprised of peptide-linked gold nanoparticle satellites around a core particle was synthesized and utilized to optically follow cell signaling pathways in vivo at the single molecule level. The signal provided by these plasmon rulers allowed continuous observation of caspase-3 activation at the single molecule level in living cells for over 2 hours, unambiguously identifying early stage activation of caspase-3 in apoptotic cells. In the last section of this dissertation, an experimental and theoretical study of electomagnetic coupling in asymmetric metal nanoparticle dimers is presented. A "heterodimer" composed of a silver particle and a gold particle is observed to have a novel coupling between a plasmon mode (free electron oscillations) and an inter-band absorption process (bound electron transitions). The

  12. Exchange-coupled nanocomposites: chemical synthesis, characterization and applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Hou, Yanglong; Gao, Song

    2014-12-01

    Nanocomposites containing soft and hard magnetic phases have attracted immense attention for energy-related and biomedical applications. With exchange coupling between nanoscale grains in the composites, magnetization of the soft magnetic phase can rotate coherently with that of the hard magnetic phase. In particular, good control of the soft and hard phases at the nanoscale in the composites is of great importance for effective exchange coupling, allowing us to make the best of the strengths of soft and hard magnetic phases and to optimize the magnetic properties for targeted applications. In this review, we present the recent progress in the chemical synthesis and applications of exchange-coupled nanocomposites. Firstly, the principle of nanomagnetism and exchange coupling is introduced. Secondly, the characterization of exchange-coupled nanocomposites is summarized. Thirdly, the chemical methods for the production of different exchange-coupled nanocomposites are presented. Finally, applications of exchange-coupled nanocomposites in magnetic energy storage and biomedicine are addressed. PMID:25130706

  13. Dynamical transitions in large systems of mean field-coupled Landau-Stuart oscillators: Extensive chaos and cluster states

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, Wai Lim; Girvan, Michelle; Ott, Edward

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, we study dynamical systems in which a large number N of identical Landau-Stuart oscillators are globally coupled via a mean-field. Previously, it has been observed that this type of system can exhibit a variety of different dynamical behaviors. These behaviors include time periodic cluster states in which each oscillator is in one of a small number of groups for which all oscillators in each group have the same state which is different from group to group, as well as a behavior in which all oscillators have different states and the macroscopic dynamics of the mean field is chaotic. We argue that this second type of behavior is “extensive” in the sense that the chaotic attractor in the full phase space of the system has a fractal dimension that scales linearly with N and that the number of positive Lyapunov exponents of the attractor also scales linearly with N. An important focus of this paper is the transition between cluster states and extensive chaos as the system is subjected to slow adiabatic parameter change. We observe discontinuous transitions between the cluster states (which correspond to low dimensional dynamics) and the extensively chaotic states. Furthermore, examining the cluster state, as the system approaches the discontinuous transition to extensive chaos, we find that the oscillator population distribution between the clusters continually evolves so that the cluster state is always marginally stable. This behavior is used to reveal the mechanism of the discontinuous transition. We also apply the Kaplan-Yorke formula to study the fractal structure of the extensively chaotic attractors.

  14. Continuum Modeling of the Dynamics of Externally Injection-locked Coupled Oscillator Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pogorzelski, Ronald J.; Maccarini, Paolo F.; York, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Mutually injection-locked arrays of electronic oscillators provide a novel means of controlling the aperture phase of a phased-array antenna, thus achieving the advantages of spatial power combining while retaining the ability to steer the radiated beam. In a number of design concepts, one or more of the oscillators are injection locked to a signal from an external master-oscillator. The behavior of such a system has been analyzed by numerical solution of a system of nonlinear differential equations which, due to its complexity, yields limited insight into the relationship between the injection signals and the aperture phase. In this paper, we develop a continuum model, which results in a single partial differential equation for the aperture phase as a function of time. Solution of the equation is effected by means of the Laplace transformation and yields detailed information concerning the dynamics of the array under the influence of the external injection signals.

  15. High power coupled midinfrared free-electron-laser oscillator scheme as a driver for up-frequency conversion processes in the x-ray region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tecimer, M.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper we present a high-gain free-electron-laser (FEL) oscillator scheme composed of two oscillators that are ideally coupled unidirectionally, with the coupled signal power flowing from the master to the amplifier oscillator. Electron bunches driving the oscillators are in perfect synchronization with the optical pulses building up within the respective cavities. The scheme is applied to a 100 MeV range superconducting energy recovery linac FEL. The computed mJ level, ultrashort pulse (<10cycles) output in the midinfrared region indicates the potential of the proposed FEL oscillator scheme in driving up-frequency conversion processes in the x-ray region, enabling tunable, high average brightness, attosecond scale coherent soft/hard x-ray sources.

  16. Self-oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Alejandro

    2013-04-01

    Physicists are very familiar with forced and parametric resonance, but usually not with self-oscillation, a property of certain dynamical systems that gives rise to a great variety of vibrations, both useful and destructive. In a self-oscillator, the driving force is controlled by the oscillation itself so that it acts in phase with the velocity, causing a negative damping that feeds energy into the vibration: no external rate needs to be adjusted to the resonant frequency. The famous collapse of the Tacoma Narrows bridge in 1940, often attributed by introductory physics texts to forced resonance, was actually a self-oscillation, as was the swaying of the London Millennium Footbridge in 2000. Clocks are self-oscillators, as are bowed and wind musical instruments. The heart is a “relaxation oscillator”, i.e., a non-sinusoidal self-oscillator whose period is determined by sudden, nonlinear switching at thresholds. We review the general criterion that determines whether a linear system can self-oscillate. We then describe the limiting cycles of the simplest nonlinear self-oscillators, as well as the ability of two or more coupled self-oscillators to become spontaneously synchronized (“entrained”). We characterize the operation of motors as self-oscillation and prove a theorem about their limit efficiency, of which Carnot’s theorem for heat engines appears as a special case. We briefly discuss how self-oscillation applies to servomechanisms, Cepheid variable stars, lasers, and the macroeconomic business cycle, among other applications. Our emphasis throughout is on the energetics of self-oscillation, often neglected by the literature on nonlinear dynamical systems.

  17. Self-induced oscillation of free surface coupled with the axisymmetric jet and structure

    SciTech Connect

    Someya, Satoshi; Okamoto, Koji; Madarame, Haruki

    1996-08-01

    New self-induced free-surface oscillations were discovered, which were caused by the interaction between a jet, a free surface and a structure. A submerged upward round jet was injected into a cylindrical tank from an inlet nozzle at the bottom center. The jet impinged on a cylindrical rod (UIS) which was set just beneath the free surface of the tank. Then, the jet turned its direction along UIS and reached the free surface making a swell around UIS. Under a certain condition of jet velocity and UIS depth, several kinds of self-induced free surface oscillation were observed, which were roughly classified into two modes with their surface shapes. One had no diametric node and two nodal circles, (0,2), and the other had one node in each direction, (1,1). The (0,2) mode oscillation was divided into two types with their flow pattern. In the (0,2) mode with outward surface velocity, (0,2){sub OUT}, its oscillating frequency decreased with increasing jet velocity. The swell of the free surface characterized (0,2){sub OUT} mode oscillation which was different from the theoretical (0,2) mode sloshing. In the (0,2) mode with inward surface velocity, (0,2){sub IN}, its frequency was independent of jet velocity. Its growth mechanism was thought to be similar to that of self-induced sloshing in the previous study. The (1,1) mode oscillation was also divided into two types with the appearance of the swell around UIS. The (1,1) mode with swelling of the free surface, (1,1){sub {alpha}}, was found to be the same as Jet-Flutter in a cylindrical tank without UIS. This is important to evaluate performance of LMFBR.

  18. Quantum noise and squeezing in optical parametric oscillator with arbitrary output coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Sudhakar

    1993-01-01

    The redistribution of intrinsic quantum noise in the quadratures of the field generated in a sub-threshold degenerate optical parametric oscillator exhibits interesting dependences on the individual output mirror transmittances, when they are included exactly. We present a physical picture of this problem, based on mirror boundary conditions, which is valid for arbitrary transmittances. Hence, our picture applies uniformly to all values of the cavity Q factor representing, in the opposite extremes, both perfect oscillator and amplifier configurations. Beginning with a classical second-harmonic pump, we shall generalize our analysis to the finite amplitude and phase fluctuations of the pump.

  19. Synchronization of chaotic and nonchaotic oscillators: Application to bipolar disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nono Dueyou Buckjohn, C.; Siewe Siewe, M.; Tchawoua, C.; Kofane, T. C.

    2010-08-01

    In this Letter, we use a synchronization scheme on two bipolar disorder models consisting of a strong nonlinear system with multiplicative excitation and a nonlinear oscillator without parametric harmonic forcing. The stability condition following our control function is analytically demonstrated using the Lyapunov theory and Routh-Hurwitz criteria, we then have the condition for the existence of a feedback gain matrix. A convenient demonstration of the accuracy of the method is complemented by the numerical simulations from which we illustrate the synchronized dynamics between the two non-identical bipolar disorder patients.

  20. Effects of gap junction inhibition on contraction waves in the murine small intestine in relation to coupled oscillator theory

    PubMed Central

    Huizinga, Jan D.

    2014-01-01

    Waves of contraction in the small intestine correlate with slow waves generated by the myenteric network of interstitial cells of Cajal. Coupled oscillator theory has been used to explain steplike gradients in the frequency (frequency plateaux) of contraction waves along the length of the small intestine. Inhibition of gap junction coupling between oscillators should lead to predictable effects on these plateaux and the wave dislocation (wave drop) phenomena associated with their boundaries. It is these predictions that we wished to test. We used a novel multicamera diameter-mapping system to measure contraction along 25- to 30-cm lengths of murine small intestine. There were typically two to three plateaux per length of intestine. Dislocations could be limited to the wavefronts immediately about the terminated wave, giving the appearance of a three-pronged fork, i.e., a fork dislocation; additionally, localized decreases in velocity developed across a number of wavefronts, ending with the terminated wave, which could appear as a fork, i.e., slip dislocations. The gap junction inhibitor carbenoxolone increased the number of plateaux and dislocations and decreased contraction wave velocity. In some cases, the usual frequency gradient was reversed, with a plateau at a higher frequency than its proximal neighbor; thus fork dislocations were inverted, and the direction of propagation was reversed. Heptanol had no effect on the frequency or velocity of contractions but did reduce their amplitude. To understand intestinal motor patterns, the pacemaker network of the interstitial cells of Cajal is best evaluated as a system of coupled oscillators. PMID:25501550

  1. A clear oscillation of the interlayer exchange coupling in Co2FeAl/Cr/Co2FeAl structure with MgO capping layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Jianli; Sha, Lei; Zhang, Delin; Jiang, Yong

    2012-10-01

    We have studied the interlayer exchange coupling in Co2FeAl (CFA)/Cr/CFA/MgO multilayers via both experiments and numerical simulation. Magnetization measurement on the films shows a clear oscillation attenuation behavior with the thickness (0.6 nm < t < 10 nm) of the Cr spacer layer, and the oscillation period is about 2.1 nm. The numerical simulation demonstrates that the interlayer exchange coupling between CFA layers is 90° coupling having an oscillation behavior, which is in good agreement with the experiments. MgO capping layer is supposed to be a key factor for the clear periodic oscillation behavior in CFA/Cr/CFA trilayers.

  2. An exact solution for the steady state phase distribution in an array of oscillators coupled on a hexagonal lattice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pogorzelski, Ronald J.

    2004-01-01

    When electronic oscillators are coupled to nearest neighbors to form an array on a hexagonal lattice, the planar phase distributions desired for excitation of a phased array antenna are not steady state solutions of the governing non-linear equations describing the system. Thus the steady state phase distribution deviates from planar. It is shown to be possible to obtain an exact solution for the steady state phase distribution and thus determine the deviation from the desired planar distribution as a function of beam steering angle.

  3. Coherent States for the Two-Dimensional Dirac-Moshinsky Oscillator Coupled to an External Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojeda-Guillén, D.; Mota, R. D.; Granados, V. D.

    2015-03-01

    We show that the (2+1)-dimensional Dirac-Moshinsky oscillator coupled to an external magnetic field can be treated algebraically with the SU(1,1) group theory and its group basis. We use the su(1,1) irreducible representation theory to find the energy spectrum and the eigenfunctions. Also, with the su(1,1) group basis we construct the relativistic coherent states in a closed form for this problem. Supported by SNI-México, COFAA-IPN, EDI-IPN, EDD-IPN, SIP-IPN project number 20140598

  4. Quantum thermodynamic functions for an oscillator coupled to a heat bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, G. W.; O'Connell, R. F.

    2007-04-01

    Small systems (of interest in the areas of nanophysics, quantum information, etc.) are particularly vulnerable to environmental effects. Thus, we determine various thermodynamic functions for an oscillator in an arbitrary heat bath at arbitrary temperatures. Explicit results are presented for the most commonly discussed heat bath models: Ohmic, single relaxation time, and blackbody radiation.

  5. Theta oscillation coupled spike latencies yield computational vigour in a mammalian sensory system

    PubMed Central

    Margrie, Troy W; Schaefer, Andreas T

    2003-01-01

    Theoretical work carried out almost a decade ago proposed that subthreshold oscillations in membrane potential could be used to convert synaptic current strength into a code reliant on action potential (AP) latencies. Using whole-cell recordings we present experimental evidence for the occurrence of prominent network-driven subthreshold theta oscillations in mitral cells of the mouse olfactory bulb. Activity induced by both injected current and sensory input was accurately reflected in initial AP latency from the beginning of each oscillation cycle. In a network model we found that an AP latency code rather than AP number or instantaneous firing rate provided computational speed and high resolution, and was easily implemented. This coding strategy was also found to be invariant to the total input current as long as the relative input intensities to glomeruli remained constant. However, it was highly sensitive to changes in the ratios of the input currents and improved by lateral inhibitory mechanisms. Since the AP latency-based coding scheme was dependent on the subthreshold oscillation we conclude that the theta rhythm serves a functional role in temporally reformatting the strengths and patterns of synaptic input in this sensory system. PMID:12527724

  6. Role of SST meridional structure in coupling the Kelvin and Rossby waves of the intraseasonal oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fei; Huang, Gang; Yan, Mi

    2015-08-01

    The intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) is one of the most important modes of the tropical atmosphere, which influences global livelihood of hundreds of millions of people. The meridional structure of sea surface temperature (SST) has been found to be important for the ISO simulation in general circulation models (GCMs). Using a theoretical frictional skeleton model for the ISO, we investigate the effects of different SST structures on the ISO in this study. The model results show that the observed Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), boreal summer ISO (BSISO) and quasi-biweekly oscillation can be simulated in this model with different SST structures. The Ekman pumping of the boundary layer associated with equatorially trapped SST favors the growth of eastward propagating Kelvin waves and prefers the fast eastward propagating signal. A broad SST provides a strong instability source for the Rossby waves, which will slow down the MJO. In the boreal summer, the high SST center in the off-equatorial region can trigger strong off-equatorial moisture pumping from the boundary layer, which enhances the Rossby waves and can simulate the northwest-southeast tilted rain band associated with the BSISO. When the Rossby component overwhelms the Kelvin component, the low-frequency westward component of the BSISO and the higher-frequency quasi-biweekly oscillation can be simulated.

  7. An exactly solvable model of an oscillator with nonlinear coupling and zeros of Bessel functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodonov, V. V.; Klimov, A. B.

    1993-01-01

    We consider an oscillator model with nonpolynomial interaction. The model admits exact solutions for two situations: for energy eigenvalues in terms of zeros of Bessel functions, that were considered as functions of the continuous index; and for the corresponding eigenstates in terms of Lommel polynomials.

  8. Pinning impulsive directed coupled delayed dynamical network and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chunnan; Wu, Quanjun; Xiang, Lan; Zhou, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the present paper is to further investigate pinning synchronisation of a complex delayed dynamical network with directionally coupling by a single impulsive controller. By developing the analysis procedure of pinning impulsive stability for undirected coupled dynamical network previously, some simple yet general criteria of pinning impulsive synchronisation for such directed coupled network are derived analytically. It is shown that a single impulsive controller can always pin a given directed coupled network to a desired homogenous solution, including an equilibrium point, a periodic orbit, or a chaotic orbit. Subsequently, the theoretical results are illustrated by a directed small-world complex network which is a cellular neural network (CNN) and a directed scale-free complex network with the well-known Hodgkin-Huxley neuron oscillators. Numerical simulations are finally given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control methodology.

  9. Kelvin waves and ozone Kelvin waves in the quasi-biennial oscillation and semiannual oscillation: A simulation by a high-resolution chemistry-coupled general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Shingo; Takahashi, Masaaki

    2005-09-01

    Equatorial Kelvin waves and ozone Kelvin waves were simulated by a T63L250 chemistry-coupled general circulation model with a high vertical resolution (300 m). The model produces a realistic quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and a semiannual oscillation (SAO) in the equatorial stratosphere. The QBO has a period slightly longer than 2 years, and the SAO shows rapid reversals from westerly to easterly regimes and gradual descents of westerlies. Results for the zonal wave number 1 slow and fast Kelvin waves are discussed. Structure of the waves and phase relationships between temperature and ozone perturbations coincide well with satellite observations made by LIMS, CLAES, and MLS. They are generally in phase (antiphase) in the lower (upper) stratosphere as theoretically expected. The fast Kelvin waves in the temperature and ozone are dominant in the upper stratosphere because the slow Kelvin waves are effectively filtered by the QBO westerly. In this simulation, the fast Kelvin waves encounter their critical levels in the upper stratosphere when zonal asymmetry of the SAO westerly is enhanced by an intrusion of the extratropical planetary waves. In addition to the critical level filtering effect, modulations of wave properties by background winds are evident near easterly and westerly shears associated with the QBO and SAO. Enhancement of wave amplitude in the QBO westerly shear is well coincident with radiosonde observations. Increase/decrease of vertical wavelength in the QBO easterly/westerly is obvious in this simulation, which is consistent with the linear wave theory. Shortening of wave period due to the descending QBO westerly shear zone is demonstrated for the first time. Moreover, dominant periods during the QBO westerly phase are longer than those during the QBO easterly phase for both the slow and fast Kelvin waves.

  10. Determination of local optical response functions of nanostructures with increasing complexity by using single and coupled Lorentzian oscillator models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aeschlimann, Martin; Brixner, Tobias; Fischer, Alexander; Hensen, Matthias; Huber, Bernhard; Kilbane, Deirdre; Kramer, Christian; Pfeiffer, Walter; Piecuch, Martin; Thielen, Philip

    2016-07-01

    We reconstruct the optical response of nanostructures of increasing complexity by fitting interferometric time-resolved photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) data from an ultrashort (21 fs) laser excitation source with different harmonic oscillator-based models. Due to its high spatial resolution of ~40 nm, PEEM is a true near-field imaging system and enables in normal incidence mode a mapping of plasmon polaritons and an intuitive interpretation of the plasmonic behaviour. Using an actively stabilized Mach-Zehnder interferometer, we record two-pulse correlation signals with 50 as time resolution that contain information about the temporal plasmon polariton evolution. Spectral amplitude and phase of excited plasmon polaritons are extracted from the recorded phase-resolved interferometric two-pulse correlation traces. We show that the optical response of a plasmon polariton generated at a gold nanoparticle can be reconstructed from the interferometric two-pulse correlation signal using a single harmonic oscillator model. In contrast, for a corrugated silver surface, a system with increased plasmonic complexity, in general an unambiguous reconstruction of the local optical response based on coupled and uncoupled harmonic oscillators, fails. Whereas for certain local responses different models can be discriminated, this is impossible for other positions. Multidimensional spectroscopy offers a possibility to overcome this limitation.

  11. Noninvasive Focused Ultrasound Stimulation Can Modulate Phase-Amplitude Coupling between Neuronal Oscillations in the Rat Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yi; Yan, Jiaqing; Ma, Zhitao; Li, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Noninvasive focused ultrasound stimulation (FUS) can be used to modulate neural activity with high spatial resolution. Phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) between neuronal oscillations is tightly associated with cognitive processes, including learning, attention, and memory. In this study, we investigated the effect of FUS on PAC between neuronal oscillations and established the relationship between the PAC index and ultrasonic intensity. The rat hippocampus was stimulated using focused ultrasound at different spatial-average pulse-average ultrasonic intensities (3.9, 9.6, and 19.2 W/cm2). The local field potentials (LFPs) in the rat hippocampus were recorded before and after FUS. Then, we analyzed PAC between neuronal oscillations using a PAC calculation algorithm. Our results showed that FUS significantly modulated PAC between the theta (4–8 Hz) and gamma (30–80 Hz) bands and between the alpha (9–13 Hz) and ripple (81–200 Hz) bands in the rat hippocampus, and PAC increased with incremental increases in ultrasonic intensity. PMID:27499733

  12. The underdamped Brownian oscillator model with Ohmic dissipation: Applicability to low-temperature optical spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toutounji, Mohamad M.; Small, Gerald J.

    2002-08-01

    The multimode Brownian oscillator (MBO) model with Ohmic dissipation has frequently been used to interpret photon echo and spectral data on solvation dynamics of chromophores in liquids at room temperature. We report on the applicability of this model to high-resolution linear electronic absorption spectra of chromophores in solid hosts at low temperatures, where the zero-phonon line (ZPL) is resolved from phonon sideband structure. The results are also relevant to frequency and time domain nonlinear spectra. In the MBO model, active BOs (phonons) are linearly coupled to bath modes. This coupling endows the bath modes with absorption intensity which, with Ohmic dissipation (white light spectrum for the bath modes), results in the bath modes contributing to absorption in the region of the ZPL. Experimental results for a multitude of molecular systems indicate that the ZPL profile is determined by electronic dephasing, which is not accounted for in the MBO model. Thus, it is important to assess the contribution of the MBO bath modes to the ZPL profile. To this end, closed-form, finite temperature expressions for the underdamped MBO (UMBO) model are derived for the linear response function, linear absorption spectrum, and width and Franck-Condon factor of the ZPL. It is proven formally that the UMBO ZPL width is zero at T=0 K. Results of calculations for model systems whose parameter values (BO damping constant, frequency and Huang-Rhys factor) are typical of real systems are presented. It is concluded that Ohmic dissipation leads to unphysically large ZPL widths as well as asymmetric ZPL profiles that appear not to have been observed. Moreover, the ZPL width adds to those of the multi-BO (phonon) transitions. Thus, use of the UMBO model with Ohmic dissipation to interpret data on relaxation dynamics of nuclear modes may result in erroneous conclusions. It is shown that Franck-Condon factors of the ZPL obtained with the UMBO model can differ significantly from those

  13. Coupled atmosphere-ocean model simulations of El Nino/Southern Oscillation with and without an active Indian Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, T.; Kitamura, Y.; Endoh, M.; Tokioka, T.

    1995-01-01

    An atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) was coupled with an ocean GCM covering the Pacific. This coupled model (PAC) was integrated over a 30-year period. The PAC model stimulates well the mean seasonally varying atmospheric and ocean fields and reproduces interannual variations corresponding to ENSO (El Nino/Southern Oscillation). The same atmospheric GCM was coupled with an ocean GCM covering the Indian Ocean and the tropical Pacific. This coupled model (IPC) was integrated over a 35-year period. The model climate in IPC is fairly reasonable, and its Pacific part is very similar to the Pacific climate of the PAC model. ENSO is the major interannual variability in the IPC model. The dynamics of ENSO in IPC are essentially the same as that in PAC. In the Pacific, the subsurface ocean heat content anomalies are formed by wind anomalies and show westward propagation centered off the equator. After they reach the western Pacific, they show eastward propagation along the equator. They produce changes in the thermocline structure in the eastern equatorial Pacific resulting in anomalies in SSTs. The SST anomalies provide wind anomalies, the sign of which is opposite to that of the wind anomalies in the first stage, so that this chain will continue. ENSO in the PAC and IPC models can be regarded as the {open_quotes}delayed oscillator{close_quotes} operating in the Pacific. Although the major interannual variability in the Indian Ocean is linked to ENSO in the Pacific, the Indian Ocean does not play any active role in the ENSO cycle in the IPC model. Interannual variability of monsoon activity in the IPC model is more reasonable than that in the PAC model. However, any definite mechanism for the relationship between monsoon activity and ENSO does not emerge in the present study. 31 refs., 14 figs.

  14. Selection of in-phase or out-of-phase synchronization in a model based on global coupling of cells undergoing metabolic oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonze, Didier; Markadieu, Nicolas; Goldbeter, Albert

    2008-09-01

    On the basis of experimental observations, it has been suggested that glycolytic oscillations underlie the pulsatile secretion of insulin by pancreatic β cells, with a periodicity of about 13min. If β cells within an islet are synchronized through gap junctions, the question arises as to how β cells located in different islets of Langerhans synchronize to produce oscillations in plasma levels of insulin. We address this question by means of a minimal model that incorporates the secretion of insulin by cells undergoing glycolytic oscillations. Global coupling and synchronization result from the inhibition exerted by insulin on the production of glucose, which serves as the substrate for metabolic oscillations. Glycolytic oscillations are described by a simple two-variable model centered on the product-activated reaction catalyzed by the allosteric enzyme phosphofructokinase. We obtain bifurcation diagrams for the cases in which insulin secretion is controlled solely by the product or by the substrate of the metabolic oscillator. Remarkably, we find that the oscillating cells in these conditions synchronize, respectively, in phase or out of phase. Numerical simulations show that in-phase and out-of-phase synchronization can sometimes coexist when insulin release is controlled by both the substrate and the product of the metabolic oscillator. The results provide an example of a system in which the selection of in-phase or out-of-phase synchronization is governed by the nature of the coupling between the intracellular oscillations and the secretion of the biochemical signal through which the oscillating cells are globally coupled.

  15. Magnetic vortex oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrkac, Gino; Keatley, Paul S.; Bryan, Matthew T.; Butler, Keith

    2015-11-01

    The magnetic vortex has sparked the interest of the academic and industrial communities over the last few decades. From their discovery in the 1970s for bubble memory devices to their modern application as radio frequency oscillators, magnetic vortices have been adopted to modern telecommunication and sensor applications. Basic properties of vortex structures in the static and dynamic regime, from a theoretical and experimental point of view, are presented as well as their application in spin torque driven nano-pillar and magnetic tunnel junction devices. Single vortex excitations and phase locking phenomena of coupled oscillators are discussed with an outlook of vortex oscillators in magnetic hybrid structures with imprinted domain confinement and dynamic encryption devices.

  16. Noise-enhanced coupling between two oscillators with long-term plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lücken, Leonhard; Popovych, Oleksandr V.; Tass, Peter A.; Yanchuk, Serhiy

    2016-03-01

    Spike timing-dependent plasticity is a fundamental adaptation mechanism of the nervous system. It induces structural changes of synaptic connectivity by regulation of coupling strengths between individual cells depending on their spiking behavior. As a biophysical process its functioning is constantly subjected to natural fluctuations. We study theoretically the influence of noise on a microscopic level by considering only two coupled neurons. Adopting a phase description for the neurons we derive a two-dimensional system which describes the averaged dynamics of the coupling strengths. We show that a multistability of several coupling configurations is possible, where some configurations are not found in systems without noise. Intriguingly, it is possible that a strong bidirectional coupling, which is not present in the noise-free situation, can be stabilized by the noise. This means that increased noise, which is normally expected to desynchronize the neurons, can be the reason for an antagonistic response of the system, which organizes itself into a state of stronger coupling and counteracts the impact of noise. This mechanism, as well as a high potential for multistability, is also demonstrated numerically for a coupled pair of Hodgkin-Huxley neurons.

  17. OSCILLATION MECHANICS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: APPLICATIONS TO LUNG DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Kaczka, David W.; Dellacá, Raffaele L.

    2011-01-01

    Since its introduction in the 1950s, the forced oscillation technique (FOT) and the measurement of respiratory impedance have evolved into powerful tools for the assessment of various mechanical phenomena in the mammalian lung during health and disease. In this review, we highlight the most recent developments in instrumentation, signal processing, and modeling relevant to FOT measurements. We demonstrate how FOT provides unparalleled information on the mechanical status of the respiratory system compared to more widely-used pulmonary function tests. The concept of mechanical impedance is reviewed, as well as the various measurement techniques used to acquire such data. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of lower, physiologic frequency ranges (typically less than 10 Hz) that are most sensitive to normal physical processes as well as pathologic structural alterations. Various inverse modeling approaches used to interpret alterations in impedance are also discussed, specifically in the context of three common respiratory diseases: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and acute lung injury. Finally, we speculate on the potential role for FOT in the clinical arena. PMID:22011237

  18. Responses to applied forces and the Jarzynski equality in classical oscillator systems coupled to finite baths: an exactly solvable nondissipative nonergodic model.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hideo

    2011-07-01

    Responses of small open oscillator systems to applied external forces have been studied with the use of an exactly solvable classical Caldeira-Leggett model in which a harmonic oscillator (system) is coupled to finite N-body oscillators (bath) with an identical frequency (ω(n) = ω(o) for n = 1 to N). We have derived exact expressions for positions, momenta, and energy of the system in nonequilibrium states and for work performed by applied forces. A detailed study has been made on an analytical method for canonical averages of physical quantities over the initial equilibrium state, which is much superior to numerical averages commonly adopted in simulations of small systems. The calculated energy of the system which is strongly coupled to a finite bath is fluctuating but nondissipative. It has been shown that the Jarzynski equality is valid in nondissipative nonergodic open oscillator systems regardless of the rate of applied ramp force. PMID:21867150

  19. Calcium Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Geneviève; Combettes, Laurent; Bird, Gary S.; Putney, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Calcium signaling results from a complex interplay between activation and inactivation of intracellular and extracellular calcium permeable channels. This complexity is obvious from the pattern of calcium signals observed with modest, physiological concentrations of calcium-mobilizing agonists, which typically present as sequential regenerative discharges of stored calcium, a process referred to as calcium oscillations. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the underlying mechanism of calcium oscillations through the power of mathematical modeling. We also summarize recent findings on the role of calcium entry through store-operated channels in sustaining calcium oscillations and in the mechanism by which calcium oscillations couple to downstream effectors. PMID:21421924

  20. PROPAGATING COUPLED ALFVEN AND KINK OSCILLATIONS IN AN ARBITRARY INHOMOGENEOUS CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Pascoe, D. J.; Wright, A. N.; De Moortel, I.

    2011-04-10

    Observations have revealed ubiquitous transverse velocity perturbation waves propagating in the solar corona. We perform three-dimensional numerical simulations of footpoint-driven transverse waves propagating in a low {beta} plasma. We consider the cases of distorted cylindrical flux tubes and a randomly generated inhomogeneous medium. When density structuring is present, mode coupling in inhomogeneous regions leads to the coupling of the kink mode to the Alfven mode. The decay of the propagating kink wave is observed as energy is transferred to the local Alfven mode. In all cases considered, modest changes in density were capable of efficiently converting energy from the driving footpoint motion to localized Alfven modes. We have demonstrated that mode coupling efficiently couples propagating kink perturbations to Alfven modes in an arbitrary inhomogeneous medium. This has the consequence that transverse footpoint motions at the base of the corona will deposit energy to Alfven modes in the corona.