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1

Hydrothermal Stability of Gamma-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane Coupling Agent on Ground Silicon Powder and E-Glass Fibers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (Drift) was used to study the hydrothermal stability of silane coupling agents on the surface of E-glass fibers and ground silicon powder. The coupling agent studied was gamma-aminopropyltriethox...

S. R. Culler H. Ishida J. L. Koenig

1983-01-01

2

Structure and Adsorption Characteristics of Silane Coupling Agents on Silica and E-glass Fiber; Dependence on pH.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to study the adsorption of silane coupling agents on silica and E-glass fiber surfaces. The structures of the adsorbed species of gamma-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (gamma-APS) coupling agent under various pr...

S. Naviroj S. Culler J. L. Koenig H. Ishida

1982-01-01

3

Density functional study of gamma-aminopropyltriethoxysilane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density functional theory calculations using Becke's three-parameter exchange functional in combination with the Lee-Young-Parr correlation functional (B3-LYP) and standard 6-311 + G(d,p) basis set were carried out to study the conformational stability and vibrational spectra of gamma-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. Calculations reveal the existence of two stable conformers trans and gauche. The calculated energy for the gauche conformation was found to be 608 cm-1 above the minimum energy of the trans conformation. Temperature dependence of Raman spectra of liquid APTES and DFT calculation enabled us to identify the vibrational bands characteristic for both conformers. It has been shown that there is an increase in the population of gauche conformer with increasing temperature.

Bistricic, L.; Volovsek, V.; Daani, V.; Leskovac, M.

2006-01-01

4

Electrochemical characteristics of corrosion behavior of organic\\/Dacromet composite systems pretreated with gamma-aminopropyltriethoxysilane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion behavior of four organic\\/Dacromet composite systems, namely three solvent-borne coatings, polyurethane, alkyd and fluorinated polymer as well as a water-borne coating, styrene-acrylate emulsion, was studied after pretreatment with gamma-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (?-APTS). Electrochemical experiment in 3.5% NaCl solution and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed. The results showed that: (1) ?-APTS treatment increased the polarization resistance but decreased the total

J. G. Liu; C. W. Yan

2006-01-01

5

Controlling silica surfaces using responsive coupling agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface chemistry of silica was modified using coupling agents capable of participating in oxidation or in the Diels-Alder (and retro Diels-Alder) reactions. The synthesis of the latter coupling agents, using trialkoxysilane groups linked to a cyclopentadiene structure, was achieved by the condensation of sodium cyclopentadienolide with 1-chlorodimethylsilyl-3-triethoxysilylpropane to give 1-cyclopentadienyldimethylsilyl-3-trialkoxysilylpropane. The cyclopentadiene ring in this structure was shown to

Frank J. LaRonde; Amro M. Ragheb; Michael A. Brook

2003-01-01

6

Maleated coupling agents for natural fibre composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maleated coupling agents are widely used to strengthen composites containing fillers and fibre reinforcements. The established role of MaPOs results from two main factors, economical manufacturing and the efficient interaction of maleic anhydride with the functional surface of fibre reinforcements. Peak performance was demonstrated in agrofibre polypropylene composites by selecting a maleated coupler that has the appropriate balance of molecular

T. J. Keener; R. K. Stuart; T. K. Brown

2004-01-01

7

Silane coupling agent structures on carbon nanofibers.  

PubMed

Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are considered ideal materials for reinforcing polymers due to their excellent mechanical properties, among others. In order to obtain composites of optimal properties the clue is to enhance the interaction between reinforcement (CNFs) and polymer matrix. Surface modification of CNFs with silane coupling agents (SCAs) has revealed as one of the most interesting methods. The silanization process has been carried out mixing at room temperature and for one minute the hydrolysed silane with CNFs. We have use four different SCAs: 3-aminopropyltriethoxyxilane (APS), 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AMMO), N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-(aminopropyltrimethoxysilane) (DAMO), and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GLYMO), in order to elucidate the SCA-CNFs interaction and the silane structures formed on CNFs surface. XPS and FTIR-ATR techniques have pointed out that each silane adsorbs on CNFs surface through chemical bonding, forming multilayers. Silane nature determines the structure taken on CNFs surface. APS and AMO silanes adsorb taking vertical structures on CNFs surface, while DMO and GMO adsorb on CNFs taking horizontal structures, stabilized by zwitterions formed through H-bonds with hydroxyl groups from CNFs surface. PMID:21780418

Palencia, Cristina; Rubio, Juan; Rubio, Fausto; Fierro, José Luis G; Oteo, José Luis

2011-05-01

8

Agent Collectives Coupled to Markovian Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ``Collective Intelligence'' (COIN) framework concerns the design of collectives of agents so that as those agents strive to maximize their individual utility functions, their interaction causes a provided ``world'' utility function concerning the entire collective to be also maximized. Here we show how to extend that framework to scenarios having Markovian dynamics when no re-evolution of the system from

David Wolpert; John Lawson

2003-01-01

9

Improved Adhesive Bond Permanence with Reactive Organosilane Coupling Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Five reactive organosilane coupling agents, (Dow Corning Z6020, Z6032, Z6040, Z6062 and Union Carbide Corp. A-1100) were evaluated as adhesion promoters to improve the adhesive bond strength of 2024T3, 6061T4 aluminum alloys and 302 stainless steel and to...

G. R. Sacco W. C. Tanner

1978-01-01

10

The influence of silane coupling agents on the polymer mortar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of silane coupling agents on the properties of vinylester resin and vinylester mortar. Research work is focused on two methods of modification: direct silane addition to the resin binder and the use of silane pre-treated silica flour as a filler. The results of such modification are described, taking into consideration

B. Chmielewska; L. Czarnecki; J. Sustersic; A. Zajc

2006-01-01

11

OLIGOMER COUPLING AGENTS IN PHOSPHATE BASED GLASS FIBRE\\/PLA COMPOSITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the manufacture and use of poly(lactic acid) oligomers as coupling agents in the production of bone implant composites. In this study these materials have been shown to produce phosphate based glass fibre\\/ PLA composites that exhibit higher interfacial shear strength than when either; (a) no coupling agent or (b) an un-optimised coupling agent is used in the

Ian A. Barker; J. Parsons; S. Walker; D. Rudd; D. J. Irvine

12

Agent-Based Modeling of Networks of Logistic Maps with Long-Range Coupling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present agent-based modeling (ABM) implementation of the model of the network of coupled map lattices (CML) with long-range coupling. We use Java version of the RePast ABM software package. Current report describes our preliminary results using the simplest network, namely 1D and 2D globally coupled logistic maps (GCM). Our agent-based model exhibits typical phenomena of the CML model, such

Anton Burykin; Balazs Adamcsek

13

Use of titanate coupling agents in Kevlar (trade name)/phenolic composites  

SciTech Connect

Surface modification of Kevlar(R) fibers with titanate coupling agents for improved adhesion of the fiber and resin in Kevlar(R)/phenolic composites has been attempted to explore the possibility of enhancement in adhesion and bulk properties of composites for friction materials. Titanate coupling agents were used and flexural properties of the Kevlar(R)-fiber reinforced composites determined. A study of different amounts of the coupling agents at the fiber-matrix interface suggested that 2% by weight of fiber was the optimum amount, in terms of improvement in flexural properties. The composite samples with the coupling agents, showed an increase in flexural strength, over the untreated samples with the maximum increase being approx. 18% over the control. Water absorption studies were conducted on Kevlar(R)/phenolic composites treated with organotitanates to determine the effectiveness of these coupling agents in improving resistance to moisture attack. The treated Kevlar(R)/phenolic composite samples exhibited greater resistance to moisture-ingress over the untreated samples. The control samples showed a decrease of 17% in flexural strength. The largest decrease in strength was 14% for the treated samples containing coupling agent tetrakis(2-ethylhexyl)titanate (TYZOR TOT). Recovery in strength on reconditioning, was also greater for treated samples over control. A recovery in strength of ca. 94% was seen for some treated samples. Coupling agents, Composites, Kevlar, Interfaces, Mechanical properties.

Menon, N.; Blum, F.D.; Dharani, L.R.

1994-04-02

14

Effect of acetylated wood flour or coupling agent on moisture, UV ...  

Treesearch

Coupling agents are known to promote bonding between the plastic and ... of decreasing moisture sorption and, consequently, fungal degradation in WPCs. ... were preconditioned before running a modified ASTM D 1413 soil block test either ...

15

Effect of Silane Coupling Agent on the Mechanical Properties of Clay Filled Styrene Butadiene Rubber  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of treatment of coupling agent [Bis (3-triethoxy-silyl-propyl) tetrasulphide] on mechanical properties of composites made from styrene butadiene rubber and clay is reported in this paper. The coupling agent in the form of solution (1.0%) was used for treatment of the filler. The treatment resulted in enhancement of mechanical properties of composites when compared with composites containing untreated clay.

Nabil A. N. Alkadasi; D. G. Hundiwale; U. R. Kapadi; S. Mishra

2005-01-01

16

Crosslinkable coupling agents: Synthesis and use for modification of interfaces in polymer blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel coupling agent containing 2-oxazoline and 2-oxazinone as well as hydrosilane moieties has been prepared by hydrosilylation of the corresponding allyl ether containing precursor with a methylhydrosiloxane–dimethylsiloxane copolymer. This hydrosiloxane containing coupling agent, termed as SCA, was characterized by 1H NMR and its crosslinkability was proven by DSC. SCA was used for the modification of the interfaces in heterogeneous

Jürgen Pionteck; Veera Bhadraiah Sadhu; Lothar Jakisch; Petra Pötschke; Liane Häu?ler; Andreas Janke

2005-01-01

17

Polymeric coupling agents for enhancing the adhesion of epoxy to steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work described in this dissertation involves the conceptualization, design, development and testing of new polymers for their efficiency as coupling agents to enhance the bonding of steel to epoxy. Two novel series of polymeric coupling agents have been tested viz., a quinone-amine polyurethane (QAP) series and a beta-diketone functionalized polymer (BFP) series. Several QAP and BFP polymers were synthesized and studied. These polymers were characterized using Infrared spectroscopy, thermal analyses (Thermogravimetric Analysis, Differential Scanning Calorimetry) and Gel Permeation Chromatography. The surfaces of QAP and BFP polymeric coupling agent treated steel coupons were analyzed using Infrared Reflection Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. These tests gave indications that the QAPs and BFPs interact with the steel surface chemically. The QAPs and BFPs were found to be very effective coupling agents for the steel-epoxy system. The coupling agent treated epoxy-steel torsional joints were tested (in dry and wet environments) in shear. The QAPs were compared with commercial silanes and demonstrated a 10-15% better strength retention and hot water durability. The QAP treated and epoxy resin topcoated steel coupons demonstrated excellent corrosion resistance when tested in a lab-scale salt-spray chamber. The process conditions (in the coupling agent based polymer coating process for steel described in this dissertation) are mild and process control is relatively simple. This organic coating process is more environmentally friendly than other conventionally used toxic processes for steel like Chrome Etching.

Vaideeswaran, Karthik

18

Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Annual report, October 1992September 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation of Oil Recovery Improvement by Coupling and Interfacial Tension Agent and a Mobility Control Agent in Light Oil Reservoirs will study two major areas concerning co-injecting an interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent. The first area defines the interactions of alkaline agent, surfactants, and polymers on a fluid-fluid and fluid-rock basis. The second area concerns the

Pitts

1994-01-01

19

An economic agent-based model of coupled housing and land markets (CHALMS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a spatially disaggregated, economic agent-based model of urban land use, which is named for its innovative feature of coupled housing and land markets (CHALMS). The three types of agents—consumer, farmer and developer—all make decisions based on underlying economic principles, and heterogeneity of both individuals and the landscape is represented. CHALMS simulates the conversion of farmland to housing

Nicholas Magliocca; Elena Safirova; Virginia McConnell; Margaret Walls

2011-01-01

20

Exploring robustness of biodiversity policy with a coupled metacommunity and agent-based model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports results using a coupled agent-based model of land-use change and species metacommunity model. We used the coupled model to explore various mechanisms for giving incentives to farmers to manage for better biodiversity, including activity-based, outcome-based and clustered incentives, in which farmers potentially benefit from the activities of neighbours. In so doing, we demonstrate the benefit of using

Alessandro Gimona; J. Gary Polhill

2011-01-01

21

Synthesis of novel bis(perfluorophenyl azides) coupling agents: Evaluation of their performance by crosslinking of poly(ethylene oxide)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel bis(perfluorophenyl azides) coupling agents, containing spacer arms from ethylene or ethylene glycol subunits, were successfully synthesized. Nitrenes photogenerated from these novel bis(PFPA) coupling agents were applied successfully to the cross-linking of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO10,000) in either aqueous medium or at the solid state, thus, we demonstrated the potential of these bis(PFPA) molecules as promising coupling agents in surface engineering.

Hakim Mehenni; Osman M. Bakr

2011-01-01

22

Effect of coupling agent on mechanical properties of hollow carbon microsphere\\/phenolic resin syntactic foam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various hollow carbon microspheres\\/phenolic resin syntactic foams were prepared by varying the content of hollow carbon microspheres. To improve the compressive and flexural strength and fracture toughness of syntactic foam, the hollow carbon microspheres were oxidized in nitric acid and followed by the treatment with a coupling agent of glutaric dialdehyde. Compression, flexural, and fracture toughness tests were performed to

Liying Zhang; J. Ma

2010-01-01

23

Interaction of some coupling agents and organic compounds with hydroxyapatite: hydrogen bonding, adsorption and adhesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adhesion to hydroxyapatite (which is the structural prototype of bone or tooth mineral) is a first step towards the efficacious application of restorative composites and bone cements to teeth and bones. The key medium to effect chemical adhesion between the mineralized substrate and a composite resin is a coupling agent. On the basis of many adsorption studies, primarily by the

D. N. Misra

1994-01-01

24

Influence of aluminate coupling agent on low-temperature rheological performance of asphalt mastic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the low-temperature rheological performance (LTRP) of asphalt mastic, aluminate coupling agent (ACA) and stearic acid synergist (SAS) were employed in this research. Three factors, which are the ratio of filler to asphalt (F\\/A), the dosage of ACA (percentage by weight of mineral filler) and the mass ratio between ACA and SAS, were considered, and the testing

Shutang Liu; Cheng Ma; Weidong Cao; Jianguo Fang

2010-01-01

25

Locating a silane coupling agent in silica-filled rubber composites by EFTEM.  

PubMed

A silane coupling agent (SA) was added to silica/rubber composites at different mixing temperatures and the formation of a coupling layer at the silica/rubber interface was investigated by energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy. Bis(triethoxysilypropyl)tetrasulfane (TESPT), which was used as the SA, reacted with the silanol groups on the silica surface and with styrene-butadiene rubber to form an interfacial coupling layer. The silicon and sulfur elemental distributions were analyzed by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and elemental mapping. The amount of TESPT trapped in the rubber matrix could be qualitatively estimated by EELS, and the in situ formed coupling layer could be characterized by elemental mapping. The result indicated that the formation of the coupling layer was affected by the mixing temperature. The technique described here will contribute to the study of interface-property relationships and the evaluation of the role of SAs in polymeric composites. PMID:17941652

Dohi, Hidehiko; Horiuchi, Shin

2007-10-17

26

INFLUENCE NETWORK AGENT EFFECTIVENESS IN PROMOTING COUPLES' HIV COUNSELING AND TESTING IN KIGALI, RWANDA  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify predictors of promotion of couples’ voluntary counseling and testing (CVCT) in Kigali, Rwanda Design Analysis of CVCT promotional agent (influential network leaders, INLs; influential network agents, INAs), and couple/invitation-level predictors of CVCT uptake. Methods Number of invitations and couples tested were evaluated by INL, INA, and couple/contextual factors. Multivariable logistic regression accounting for two-level clustering analyzed factors predictive of couples’ testing. Results 26 INLs recruited and mentored 118 INAs who delivered 24,991 invitations. 4,513 couples sought CVCT services after invitation. INAs distributed an average of 212 invitations resulting in an average of 38 couples tested/agent. Characteristics predictive of CVCT in multivariate analyses included the invitee and INA being socially acquainted (aOR=1.4;95%CI:1.2–1.6); invitations delivered after public endorsement (aOR=1.3;95%CI:1.1–1.5); and presence of a mobile testing unit (aOR=1.4;95%CI:1.0–2.0). In stratified analyses, predictors significant among cohabiting couples included invitation delivery to the couple (aOR=1.2;95%CI:1.0–1.4) in the home (aOR=1.3;95%CI:1.1–1.4), while among non-cohabiting couples predictors included invitations given by unemployed INAs (aOR=1.7;95%CI:1.1–2.7). Cohabiting couples with older men were more likely to test, while younger age was associated with testing among men in non-cohabiting unions. Conclusions Invitations distributed by influential people were successful in prompting couples to seek joint HIV testing, particularly if the invitation was given in the home to someone known to the INA, and accompanied by a public endorsement of CVCT. Mobile units also increased the number of couples tested. Country-specific strategies to promote CVCT programs are needed to reduce HIV transmission among those at highest risk for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.

Wall, Kristin; Karita, Etienne; Nizam, Azhar; Bekan, Brigitte; Sardar, Gurkiran; Casanova, Debbie; Joseph, Dvora; De Clercq, Freya; Kestelyn, Evelyne; Bayingana, Roger; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan

2013-01-01

27

The effects of a silane coupling agent on curing characteristics and mechanical properties of bamboo fibre filled natural rubber composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of a silane coupling agent on curing characteristics and mechanical properties of bamboo fibre filled natural rubber composites were studied. Scorch time, t2 and cure time, t90 of the composites decrease with increasing filler loading and with the presence of a silane coupling agent, Si69. Mooney viscosity also increases with increasing filler loading but at a similar filler

Hanafi Ismail; S Shuhelmy; M. R Edyham

2002-01-01

28

Superhydrophobic cotton fabric coating based on a complex layer of silica nanoparticles and perfluorooctylated quaternary ammonium silane coupling agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A superhydrophobic complex coating for cotton fabrics based on silica nanoparticles and perfluorooctylated quaternary ammonium silane coupling agent (PFSC) was reported in this article. The complex thin film was prepared through a sol–gel process using cotton fabrics as a substrate. Silica nanoparticles in the coating made the textile surface much rougher, and perfluorooctylated quaternary ammonium silane coupling agent on the

Minghua Yu; Guotuan Gu; Wei-Dong Meng; Feng-Ling Qing

2007-01-01

29

Use of coupling agents to enhance the interfacial interactions in starch-EVOH/hydroxylapatite composites.  

PubMed

Different zirconate, titanate and silane coupling agents were selected in an effort to improve the mechanical properties of starch and ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) hydroxylapatite (HA) composites, through the enhancement of the filler particles-polymer matrix interactions and the promotion of the interfacial adhesion between these two phases. The mechanical performance was assessed by tensile tests and discussed on the basis of the respective interfacial morphology (evaluated by scanning electron microscopy). The main relevant parameters were found to be the surface properties and reactivity of the filler (non-sintered HA) and the chemical nature (pH and type of metallic centre) of the added coupling agent. Significant improvements in the stiffness were achieved (about 30% increase in the modulus) when using the acidic zirconate coupling agents. The acidic zirconate combined the capability of crosslinking the polymer matrix with the establishment of donor-acceptor interactions and hydrogen bonding between it and the ceramic particles, leading to very good interfacial adhesion. The optimization of these coupling processes associated with the introduction of higher amounts of filler, may be an effective way to produce composites with mechanical properties analogous to those of the human cortical bone. PMID:11761182

Vaz, C M; Reis, R L; Cunha, A M

2002-01-01

30

Polycaprolactone-starch blends with corn-based coupling agent: physical properties and in vitro analysis.  

PubMed

In an attempt to improve properties of polycaprolcatone-starch blend, this study uses zein as coupling agent in preparing the blend through a single-step process. Zein, which has affinity to both polar and non-polar groups, is expected to improve miscibility between the blends' constituents and its overall biocompatibility. Mechanical properties of the blend were tested and further characterizations (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal properties) were performed to analyze the effect of zein as an addition to the blend's physical properties. The blend's biocompatibility was examined by indirect methods (contact angle and weight gain after immersion in simulated body fluid) and in vitro analysis. No significant effect on the blend's strength and stiffness was caused by adding zein. Hydrophilicity and cell affinity were improved when zein was added. Zein did not perform as a coupling agent that improved miscibility between polycaprolactone and starch, but its addition improved the blend's biocompatibility. PMID:23025170

Nor, Fethma M; Kurniawan, Denni; Seo, Young-Kwon; Park, Jung-Keug; Lee, Ho Yong; Lim, Joong Yeon

2012-09-01

31

Magnetostrictive properties of titanate coupling agent treated Terfenol-D composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a kind of composites, the bond strength between the polymer matrix and the Terfenol-D particles affects the performance of magnetostrictive composites. By observing the fracture morphologies, the bond strength of the magnetostrictive composites prepared with untreated Terfenol-D was proved weak. Titanate coupling agent was used for particles to improve the bond strength. Contact angle analysis indicates the work of adhesion of the epoxy resin to the treated Terfenol-D is larger than that to the untreated Terfenol-D. Different magnetostrictive composites with 20%, 35% and 50% particle volume fractions were prepared with treated and untreated Terfenol-D particles. Their static and dynamic magnetostriction was tested without pre-stress at room temperature. The results indicate titanate coupling agent treating increases the magnetostrictive properties of magnetostrictive composites, that is probably because the bond strength improves due to the particle treating.

Dong, Xufeng; Qi, Min; Guan, Xinchun; Li, Jinhai; Ou, Jinping

2012-03-01

32

Smooth, aggregate-free self-assembled monolayer deposition of silane coupling agents on silicon dioxide.  

PubMed

Silane coupling agents (SCAs) are notorious for aggregating during deposition on oxide substrates, leading to nonuniform surface morphologies. To ameliorate this problem, we describe a vapor-phase deposition technique for silane coupling agents employing a spin-coated perfluoropolyether (PFPE) diffusion barrier that facilitates the formation of smooth, aggregate-free self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Samples fabricated using PFPE barrier layers yielded SAMs exhibiting similar water contact angles, reduced water contact angle hysteresis, and a 2-fold reduction in rms roughness relative to those without a barrier. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms that the barrier layer can be completely removed after deposition, leaving behind a smooth monolayer. A basic analysis of the agglomerate separation ability of the barrier layers is discussed to understand the critical parameters involved. Generalized guidelines for selecting barrier materials are presented. PMID:23066941

Diebold, Roger M; Clarke, David R

2012-10-22

33

Strain Rate and Coupling Agent Effects in Discontinuous Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical tensile behaviour studies are reported for discontinuous glassfibers reinforced polypropylene matrix. Samples were prepared by varying fiber\\/matrix coupling agents. The influence of strain rate on mechanical properties was analyzed in low and moderate (10-sec-1 to 10 sec-1) strain rate ranges. It was found that (1) in the moderate strain rate range, optical extensometry is invaluable in determining the actual

A. Agbossou; P. Mele; N. Alberola

1994-01-01

34

The effect of silane coupling agent (Si69) on thermoxidative stability of butyl rubber compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal analysis and the ageing studies of butyl rubber (IIR) compounds have been carried out in order to assess the effect of a silane coupling agent, Bis-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)tetra sulphide (Si-69) on thermal and thermoxidative stability of IIR. The thermal stability of the raw rubber remained uneffected on adding Si-69, whereas the thermoxidative stability was enhanced. Similar behaviour, though to a lesser

A. Adhikary; R. Mukhopadhyay; A. S. Deuri

1995-01-01

35

Agent-based Model for the Coupled Human-Climate System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated assessment models have been used to predict the outcome of coupled economic growth, resource use, greenhouse gas emissions and climate change, both for scientific and policy purposes. These models generally have employed significant simplifications that suppress nonlinearities and the possibility of multiple equilibria in both their economic (DeCanio, 2005) and climate (Schneider and Kuntz-Duriseti, 2002) components. As one step toward exploring general features of the nonlinear dynamics of the coupled system, we have developed a series of variations on the well studied RICE and DICE models, which employ different forms of agent-based market dynamics and "climate surprises." Markets are introduced through the replacement of the production function of the DICE/RICE models with an agent-based market modeling the interactions of producers, policymakers, and consumer agents. Technological change and population growth are treated endogenously. Climate surprises are representations of positive (for example, ice sheet collapse) or negative (for example, increased aerosols from desertification) feedbacks that are turned on with probability depending on warming. Initial results point toward the possibility of large amplitude instabilities in the coupled human-climate system owing to the mismatch between short outlook market dynamics and long term climate responses. Implications for predictability of future climate will be discussed. Supported by the Andrew W Mellon Foundation and the UC Academic Senate.

Zvoleff, A.; Werner, B.

2006-12-01

36

Surface modification of Fe3O4@SiO2 microsphere by silane coupling agent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell microspheres were prepared via two steps. First, Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation of Fe+3 and Fe+2 as reaction substrates and NaOH as precipitant. Second, the surface of Fe3O4 was coated with silica by hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate as the silica source. Subsequently, in order to reduce the amount of interaction and the agglomeration of Fe3O4@SiO2 microspheres, the silica shell of these particles was modified by vinyltriethoxysilane as the silane coupling agent. The structural properties of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. The results indicated that the average sizes of Fe3O4 and Fe3O4@SiO2 particles were about 50 and 500 nm, respectively. Also, the surface characterization of Fe3O4@SiO2 microspheres showed that the silane coupling agent was covalently coupled with the silica surface.

Ahangaran, Fatemeh; Hassanzadeh, Ali; Nouri, Sirous

2013-04-01

37

The Effect of Ethylene Diamine Dilaurate and Silane Coupling Agent on Cure Characteristics, Mechanical, and Thermal Properties of Silica-Filled Natural Rubber Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of a new coupling agent, ethylene diamine dilaurate (EDD) and a commercial silane coupling agent, (Si-69) on the cure characteristics, mechanical and morphological properties of silica-filled natural rubber (NR) composites was studied. The results show that scorch time and cure time decreased with an increase in both coupling agents' content, but maximum and minimum torques exhibit the opposite

H. Ismail; Suryadiansyah; B. Azhari

2005-01-01

38

Development of polypropylene/wood flour ecocomposites. Evaluation of silane as coupling agent  

SciTech Connect

The effects of Pinus Sylvestris wood flour as filler in polypropylene matrix was evaluated. The mechanical properties and the morphology of different wood flour/polypropylene composites (WPC) were studied. The composites materials were prepared with several amounts of wood flour from 10 to 30% wt. Mechanical properties show that the wood flour incorporation increases the rigidity of the composites. Morphological analysis indicates that agglomerates are formed, with amounts exceeding 30% of wood flour. For the silane--treated composites, the dispersion of the filler into the polypropylene (PP) matrix improved. Shore D hardness of the composites is decreased with the addition of the coupling agent.

Bouza, R.; Barral, L.; Abad, M. J.; Montero, B. [Grupo de Polimeros, Dpto. de Fisica, E.U.P. Ferrol, Universidad de A Coruna, Avda. 19 de Febrero s/n, 15405 Ferrol (Spain)

2010-06-02

39

Effects of the methyltrimethoxysilane coupling agent on phenolic and miscanthus composites containing calcium sulfite scrubber material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research is to test the effects of methyltrimethoxysilane coupling agent on composite material containing calcium sulfite obtained from the Southern Illinois Power Co-operative. This scrubber material and the miscanthus plant are of interest due to their use in coal burning power plants to reduce toxic emission. When calcium sulfate is passed through coal fire gas emissions it absorbs mercury and sulfur. In these composites it is used as filler to reduce cost. Miscanthus is a source of both cellulose reinforcement and some natural resin. This plant has low care requirements, little mineral content, useful energy return, and positive environmental effects. Under investigation is whether a post-cure procedure or a silane coupling agent will positively impact the composite. Hot pressing alone may not be enough to fully cure the phenolic. It is hoped that the silane will increase the strength characteristics of the composite by enhancing adhesion between the calcium sulfite and phenolic resin. Possible effects on the miscanthus by the silane will also be tested. Phenolic is being utilized because of its recycling and biodegradable properties along with cost effectiveness in mass production. Composite mechanical performance was measured through 3-point bending to measure flexural strength and strain at breakage. A dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) was used to find thermomechanical properties. The post-cure was found to be effective, particularly on the final composite containing silane. When methyltrimethoxysilane was added to the miscanthus prior to fabrication, it was found to reduce flexural strength and density. However the addition of methyltrimethoxysilane to the calcium sulfite altered thermo-mechanical properties to a state more like pure phenolic, with added flexibility and thermal stability.

Jones, Sean

40

Detection of chemical warfare agent degradation products in foods using liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following work presents the exploration of three chromatographic separations in combination with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the analysis of chemical warfare agent degradation products (CWADPs). The robust ionization of ICP is virtually matrix independent thus enabling the examination of sample matrices generally considered too complicated for analysis by electrospray ionization (ESI) or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

Kevin M. Kubachka; Douglas D. Richardson; Douglas T. Heitkemper; Joseph A. Caruso

2008-01-01

41

Surface Modification of High Porosity Alumina Scaffold by Silane Coupling Agent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alumina is a bioceramic with improved mechanical properties in comparison to hydroxyapatite. It is also an inert biomaterial in the human body environment of good biocompatible characteristics. Silane coupling agents are capable to form a durable bond between organic and inorganic materials. However, formation of hydroxyl functional groups may enhance coupling of silane molecules on the scaffolds surface and improves the bioactivity of inert alumina. In this research, alumina scaffolds were immersed in H2O2/H2SO4 solution. The hydrated scaffolds were then immersed in different concentrations of ?-Methacryloxy propyl trimethoxy silane (MTMS)/methanol/distilled water solutions. X-ray diffraction pattern was used for evaluation of phase changes. The structural changes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Morphology of the resulting scaffolds was observed by scanning electron microscopy and showed a thin layer of MTMS were formed on the alumina scaffold. The results confirmed the surface modification of alumina scaffolds were performed successfully by MTMS. These scaffolds had properly interconnected porosities with appropriate pore size that can be useful for hard tissues regeneration.

Joughehdoust, Sedigheh; Behnamghader, Aliasghar; Imani, Mohammad; Daliri, Morteza; Jabbari, Esmaeil

2011-12-01

42

Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Annual report, October 1992--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

Investigation of Oil Recovery Improvement by Coupling and Interfacial Tension Agent and a Mobility Control Agent in Light Oil Reservoirs will study two major areas concerning co-injecting an interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent. The first area defines the interactions of alkaline agent, surfactants, and polymers on a fluid-fluid and fluid-rock basis. The second area concerns the economic improvement of the combined technology. This report examines the interactions of different alkaline agents, surfactants, and polymer combinations on a fluid-fluid basis. Alkali and surfactant combine to reduce the interfacial tension between a low acid number, 42 API gravity crude oil and the aqueous solution to values lower than either agent alone. Surfactant structure can vary from linear chain sulfonates to alkyl aryl sulfonates to produce low interfacial tension values when combined with alkali. However as a class, the alkyl aryl sulfonates were the most effective surfactants. Surfactant olefinic character appears to be critical in developing low interfacial tensions. For the 42 API gravity crude oil, surfactants with molecular weights ranging from 370 to 450 amu are more effective in lowering interfacial tension. Ultra low interfacial tensions were achieved with all of the alkaline agents evaluated when combined with appropriate surfactants. Different interfacial tension reduction characteristics with the various alkali types indicates alkali interacts synergistically with the surfactants to develop interfacial tension reduction. The solution pH is not a determining factor in lowering interfacial tension. Surfactant is the dominant agent for interfacial tension reduction.

Pitts, M.J.

1994-06-01

43

The Use of Organic Coupling Agents to Improve the Durability of Steel/epoxy Joints in the Presence of Moisture.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the unique combination of properties epoxy resins possess, their versatility for structural bonding of metal substrates has not been fully utilized. The use of epoxy resins (and in general all adhesives) has been limited to non-load bearing or low load bearing applications. One of the primary reasons is the bond sensitivity of these resins to water or to high humidity. Recognizing this limitation, this study was undertaken with the goal of developing organic coupling agents which will chemically bond to the surface of steel via a chelate bond. B-diketone coupling agents were synthesized and tested. The coupling agents were applied from organic solution to the surface of a modified napkin ring torsion joint. The joints were bonded with epoxy resin adhesives and water immersed. The bond durability of the adhesive system was determined by subjecting the joints to a shear load. An ammonium citrate pretreatment was developed for use with the B-diketone agents. Optimization studies of the citrate pretreatment and coupling agent concentration were undertaken. The B-diketone coupling agents significantly improved the bond durability of low temperature cured epoxy systems. Polyfunctional mercaptoester coupling agents were also synthesized and evaluated. The effect of functionality, ring size, citrate pretreatment, and atmosphere on bond durability were examined. The mercaptoesters were found to be far superior to the B-diketones in improving bond durability. Low temperature and high temperature cured resins were examined. XPS analysis of 1018 steel treated with the mercaptoesters indicates the formation of polymeric coupling agent layers, approximately 100 (ANGSTROM) thick, on the steel surface. The results also indicate chelate bonding to the steel surface. A two step strength decay curve is observed for the mercaptoester treated systems, irrespective of the mercaptoester or the curing agent used. Plasticization of the mercaptoester layer at the early stages of strength loss is proposed as an explanation of the linear loss of shear strength of the torsion joints with immersion time. Substrate corrosion is thought to be a controlling factor of strength loss at extended immersion times.

Denicola, Anthony John, Jr.

44

A Fundamental Study Into the Surface Functionalization of Soft Glass Microstructured Optical Fibers via Silane Coupling Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the functionalization of surfaces within soft glass microstructured optical fibers has been developed, using self assembled monolayers (SAMs) of silane coupling agents. We demonstrate the use of measurements of the fiber capillary fill rate, as a positive test for a functionalized internal surface. A simple theoretical model is used for comparison with measured fill rates. During this

John E. Debs; Heike Ebendorff-Heidepriem; Jamie S. Quinton; Tanya M. Monro

2009-01-01

45

Effect of silane-coupling agents on synthesis and character of core-shell SiO2 magnetic microspheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The core-shell SiO2 magnetic microspheres (MMS) were prepared through sol gel method. The transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were used to characterize the appearance, phase, functional groups on the surface and the magnetic character of the SiO2 MMS. The influence of silane-coupling agents on the preparation of SiO2 MMS was studied and the results show that the selection of silane-coupling agents and the coupling process are important to the preparation of SiO2 MMS. The SiO2 MMS obtained exhibit the excellent super-paramagnetism behavior and keep the good magnetic response.

Lou, Min-Yi; Wang, De-Ping; Huang, Wen-Hai; Chen, Dong; Liu, Bing

2006-10-01

46

Using silane coupling agents to prepare raspberry-shaped polyaniline hollow microspheres with tunable nanoshell thickness.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present the facile preparation of polyaniline (PANI) hollow spheres by using a silane coupling agent, N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl]aniline (PAPTMS), as a precursor. The PANI hollow spheres exhibit tunable shell thickness. PAPTMS was used to prepare aniline-modified silica microparticles, ~550 nm in diameter, by the Stöber process. PANI-coated silica core-shell microcapsules (SiO(2)@PANI) were subsequently obtained by performing chemically oxidative polymerization of a specific aniline monomer loading in the presence of the core-shell particles. PANI hollow spheres with tunable PANI shell thicknesses were eventually obtained by immersing the as-prepared core-shell particles in 5 wt% HF aqueous solutions to simultaneously remove the silica cores and further dope the PANI shells. The as-prepared core-shell particles and PANI hollow spheres were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and (29)Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. The surface morphologies of the core-shell particles and PANI hollow spheres were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrical conductivities and optical absorption spectra of the as-prepared core-shell microparticles and the PANI hollow spheres were measured using the standard four-point probe method and ultraviolet-visual (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy, respectively. PMID:23261336

Dai, Chung-Feng; Weng, Cheng-Jian; Chien, Chao-Ming; Chen, Ya-Lun; Yang, Shan-Yuan; Yeh, Jui-Ming

2012-11-29

47

Bifunctional Coupling Agents for Radiolabeling of Biomolecules and Target-Specific Delivery of Metallic Radionuclides  

PubMed Central

Receptor-based radiopharmaceuticals are of great current interest in early molecular imaging and radiotherapy of cancers, and provide a unique tool for target-specific delivery of radionuclides to the diseased tissues. In general, a target-specific radiopharmaceutical can be divided into four parts: targeting biomolecule (BM), pharmacokinetic modifying (PKM) linker, bifunctional coupling or chelating agent (BFC), and radionuclide. The targeting biomolecule serves as a “carrier” for specific delivery of the radionuclide. PKM linkers are used to modify radiotracer excretion kinetics. BFC is needed for radiolabeling of biomolecules with a metallic radionuclide. Different radiometals have significant difference in their coordination chemistry, and require BFCs with different donor atoms and chelator frameworks. Since the radiometal chelate can have a significant impact on physical and biological properties of the target-specific radiopharmaceutical, its excretion kinetics can be altered by modifying the coordination environment with various chelators or coligand, if needed. This review will focus on the design of BFCs and their coordination chemistry with technetium, copper, gallium, indium, yttrium and lanthanide radiometals.

Liu, Shuang

2008-01-01

48

Local residents trained as 'influence agents' most effective in persuading African couples on HIV counseling and testing.  

PubMed

Couples in sub-Saharan Africa are the largest group in the world at risk for HIV infection. Couples counseling and testing programs have been shown to reduce HIV transmission, but such programs remain rare in Africa. Before couples counseling and testing can become the norm, it is essential to increase demand for the services. We evaluated the effectiveness of several promotional strategies during a two-year program in Kitwe and Ndola, Zambia. The program attracted more than 7,600 couples through the use of radio broadcasts, billboards, and other strategies. The most effective recruiting technique was the use of local residents trained as "influence agents" to reach out to friends, neighbors, and others in their sphere of influence. PMID:21821565

Lambdin, Barrot Hopkins; Kanweka, William; Inambao, Mubiana; Mwananyanda, Lawrence; Shah, Heena Dinesh; Linton, Sabriya; Wong, Frank; Luisi, Nicole; Tichacek, Amanda; Kalowa, James; Chomba, Elwyn; Allen, Susan

2011-08-01

49

Silane coupling agent for attaching fusion-bonded epoxy to steel.  

PubMed

We describe the possibility of using ?-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (?-APS) to increase the durability of epoxy powder coating/steel joints. The curing temperature of epoxy powder coatings is frequently above 200 °C, which is seen so far as a major limitation for the use of the heat-sensitive aminosilane coupling agent. Despite this limitation, we demonstrate that aminosilane is a competitive alternative to traditional chromate conversion to enhance the durability of epoxy powder coatings/steel joints. Fourier-transform reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (FT-RAIRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to identify the silane deposition conditions that influence the adhesion of epoxy powder coatings on steel. We show that AFM analysis provides highly sensitive measurements of mechanical property development and, as such, the degree of condensation of the silane. The joint durability in water at 60 °C was lower when the pH of the ?-APS solution was controlled at 4.6 using formic acid, rather than that at natural pH (10.6). At the curing temperature of 220 °C, oxidation of the carbon adjacent to the amine headgroup of ?-APS gives amide species by a pseudofirst-order kinetics. However, a few amino functionalities remain to react with oxirane groups of epoxy resin and, thus, strengthen the epoxy/silane interphase. The formation of ammonium formate in the acidic silane inhibits the reaction between silane and epoxy, which consequently decreases the epoxy/silane interphase cohesion. We find that the nanoroughness of silane deposits increases with the cure temperature which is beneficial to the wet stability of the epoxy/steel joints, due to increased mechanical interlocking. PMID:23790122

Tchoquessi Diodjo, Madeleine R; Belec, Lénaïk; Aragon, Emmanuel; Joliff, Yoann; Lanarde, Lise; Perrin, François-Xavier

2013-07-03

50

Superhydrophobic cotton fabric coating based on a complex layer of silica nanoparticles and perfluorooctylated quaternary ammonium silane coupling agent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A superhydrophobic complex coating for cotton fabrics based on silica nanoparticles and perfluorooctylated quaternary ammonium silane coupling agent (PFSC) was reported in this article. The complex thin film was prepared through a sol-gel process using cotton fabrics as a substrate. Silica nanoparticles in the coating made the textile surface much rougher, and perfluorooctylated quaternary ammonium silane coupling agent on the top layer of the surface lowered the surface free energy. Textiles coated with this coating showed excellent water repellent property, and water contact angle (CA) increased from 133° on cotton fabrics treated with pure PFSC without silica sol pretreatment up to 145°. The oil repellency was also improved and the contact angle of CH 2I 2 droplet on the fabric surface reached to 131°. In contrast, the contact angle of CH 2I 2 on the fabric surface treated with pure PFSC was only 125°.

Yu, Minghua; Gu, Guotuan; Meng, Wei-Dong; Qing, Feng-Ling

2007-01-01

51

Effects of titanate coupling agent on the dielectric properties of NiZn ferrite powders–epoxy resin coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

During ferrite powder–polymer resin slurry preparation, the ferrite particles tend to hold together, forming agglomerates, which lead to the formation of micro-structural defects in the ferrite powder–polymer coatings. These defects affect the quality of magnetic devices. In this study, the titanate coupling agent effects on the NiZn ferrites powder dispersion in an epoxy resin and solvent system and the electromagnetic

Wei-Sheng Chen; Yu-Lun Chang; Hsing-I Hsiang; Fu-Chi Hsu; Fu-Su Yen

2011-01-01

52

Surface modification of Kevlar® fiber by a combination of plasma treatment and coupling agent treatment for silicone rubber composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the adhesion between poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide), PPTA, fiber and silicone rubber, the surface modification of PPTA was investigated. Combining plasma treatment and coupling agent treatment with the silicone adhesive was found to be effective in improving adhesion. The combination process made the pull-out force of the PPTA yarn\\/silicone rubber composite 2.5 times higher, compared with the plasma treatment or

N. Inagaki; S. Tasaka; H. Kawai

1992-01-01

53

Agents.  

PubMed

Although health care is inherently an economic activity, it is inadequately described as a market process. An alternative, grounded in organizational economic theory, is to view professionals and many others as agents, contracted to advance the best interests of their principals (patients). This view untangles some of the ethical conflicts in dentistry. It also helps identify major controllable costs in dentistry and suggests that dentists can act as a group to increase or decrease agency costs, primarily by controlling the bad actors who damage the value of all dentists. PMID:12132261

Chambers, David W

2002-01-01

54

Attaching biological probes to silica optical biosensors using silane coupling agents.  

PubMed

In order to interface with biological environments, biosensor platforms, such as the popular Biacore system (based on the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) technique), make use of various surface modification techniques, that can, for example, prevent surface fouling, tune the hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity of the surface, adapt to a variety of electronic environments, and most frequently, induce specificity towards a target of interest. These techniques extend the functionality of otherwise highly sensitive biosensors to real-world applications in complex environments, such as blood, urine, and wastewater analysis. While commercial biosensing platforms, such as Biacore, have well-understood, standard techniques for performing such surface modifications, these techniques have not been translated in a standardized fashion to other label-free biosensing platforms, such as Whispering Gallery Mode (WGM) optical resonators. WGM optical resonators represent a promising technology for performing label-free detection of a wide variety of species at ultra-low concentrations. The high sensitivity of these platforms is a result of their unique geometric optics: WGM optical resonators confine circulating light at specific, integral resonance frequencies. Like the SPR platforms, the optical field is not totally confined to the sensor device, but evanesces; this "evanescent tail" can then interact with species in the surrounding environment. This interaction causes the effective refractive index of the optical field to change, resulting in a slight, but detectable, shift in the resonance frequency of the device. Because the optical field circulates, it can interact many times with the environment, resulting in an inherent amplification of the signal, and very high sensitivities to minor changes in the environment. To perform targeted detection in complex environments, these platforms must be paired with a probe molecule (usually one half of a binding pair, e.g. antibodies/antigens) through surface modification. Although WGM optical resonators can be fabricated in several geometries from a variety of material systems, the silica microsphere is the most common. These microspheres are generally fabricated on the end of an optical fiber, which provides a "stem" by which the microspheres can be handled during functionalization and detection experiments. Silica surface chemistries may be applied to attach probe molecules to their surfaces; however, traditional techniques generated for planar substrates are often not adequate for these three-dimensional structures, as any changes to the surface of the microspheres (dust, contamination, surface defects, and uneven coatings) can have severe, negative consequences on their detection capabilities. Here, we demonstrate a facile approach for the surface functionalization of silica microsphere WGM optical resonators using silane coupling agents to bridge the inorganic surface and the biological environment, by attaching biotin to the silica surface. Although we use silica microsphere WGM resonators as the sensor system in this report, the protocols are general and can be used to functionalize the surface of any silica device with biotin. PMID:22588224

Soteropulos, Carol E; Hunt, Heather K

2012-05-01

55

Coupling multi-agent model and GIS to simulate pine wood nematode disease spread in ZheJiang Province, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A coupled method based on multi-agent model, remote sensing and GIS is described to simulate the forest disease spread. The coupled model focuses on the temporal dynamics of the Bursaphelenchus xylophilus population at the landscape scale. Each individual is modeled as an autonomous agent who behaves according to a set of rules including spreading in the landscape, feeding on Pinus massoniana, sheltering in forest edges and dying, constrained by terrain, land cover and other variables. The model parameters are derived from remote sensing data and field measurements. Ten factors, including damage degree of Pinus Massoniana, altitude and slope, are helped to build the transfer rules. The main outputs are the dynamic disease distribution maps and survived pine population. Our method is applied and validated in DingHai distinct, Zhou Shan city of Zhejiang Province. Three Landsat TM images from the year 1991 to 2006 are used for the pine information extraction. The extracted pine distribution map is used to compare with the simulated surviving pine map. The results show that the coupled model can produce reasonable results and be used as a virtual experiment tool. However, it is difficult to simulate the human activities to help or prevent disease spread and the long fly behavior of insect vectors. Therefore, there still exists some difference between the simulated results and the real data. At the next step, those factors will be considered.

Huang, Huaguo; Wang, Lei; Zhang, XiaoLi; Luo, YouQing; Zhao, Liqiong

2008-11-01

56

The effect of five silane coupling agents on the bond strength of a luting cement to a silica-coated titanium  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe adhesive performance of five silane coupling agents in adhering resin composite cement (3M ESPE) to silica-coated titanium was evaluated. Titanium was tribochemically silica-coated by using the Rocatec™ system.

Jukka P. Matinlinna; Lippo V. J. Lassila; Pekka K. Vallittu

2007-01-01

57

Controlled Interphases in Glass Fiber and Particulate Reinforced Polymers: Structure of Silane Coupling Agents in Solutions and on Substrates. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The structure of silane coupling agents in solution and on solid substrate is reviewed with special emphasis on the fundamentals of structural development. Factors affecting the molecular weight, adsorption behavior, and chemical bond formation are discus...

H. Ishida

1993-01-01

58

Promotion of couples' voluntary HIV counselling and testing in Lusaka, Zambia by influence network leaders and agents  

PubMed Central

Objectives Hypothesising that couples’ voluntary counselling and testing (CVCT) promotions can increase CVCT uptake, this study identified predictors of successful CVCT promotion in Lusaka, Zambia. Design Cohort study. Setting Lusaka, Zambia. Participants 68 influential network leaders (INLs) identified 320 agents (INAs) who delivered 29?119 CVCT invitations to heterosexual couples. Intervention The CVCT promotional model used INLs who identified INAs, who in turn conducted community-based promotion and distribution of CVCT invitations in two neighbourhoods over 18?months, with a mobile unit in one neighbourhood crossing over to the other mid-way through. Primary outcome The primary outcome of interest was couple testing (yes/no) after receipt of a CVCT invitation. INA, couple and invitation characteristics predictive of couples’ testing were evaluated accounting for two-level clustering. Results INAs delivered invitations resulting in 1727 couples testing (6% success rate). In multivariate analyses, INA characteristics significantly predictive of CVCT uptake included promoting in community-based (adjusted OR (aOR)=1.3; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.8) or health (aOR=1.5; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.0) networks versus private networks; being employed in the sales/service industry (aOR=1.5; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.1) versus unskilled manual labour; owning a home (aOR=0.7; 95% CI 0.6 to 0.9) versus not; and having tested for HIV with a partner (aOR=1.4; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.7) or alone (aOR=1.3; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.6) versus never having tested. Cohabiting couples were more likely to test (aOR=1.4; 95% CI 1.2 to 1.6) than non-cohabiting couples. Context characteristics predictive of CVCT uptake included inviting couples (aOR=1.2; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.4) versus individuals; the woman (aOR=1.6; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.2) or couple (aOR=1.4; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.8) initiating contact versus the INA; the couple being socially acquainted with the INA (aOR=1.6; 95% CI 1.4 to 1.9) versus having just met; home invitation delivery (aOR=1.3; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.5) versus elsewhere; and easy invitation delivery (aOR=1.8; 95% CI 1.4 to 2.2) versus difficult as reported by the INA. Conclusions This study demonstrated the ability of influential people to promote CVCT and identified agent, couple and context-level factors associated with CVCT uptake in Lusaka, Zambia. We encourage the development of CVCT promotions in other sub-Saharan African countries to support sustained CVCT dissemination.

Wall, Kristin M; Kilembe, William; Nizam, Azhar; Vwalika, Cheswa; Kautzman, Michelle; Chomba, Elwyn; Tichacek, Amanda; Sardar, Gurkiran; Casanova, Deborah; Henderson, Faith; Mulenga, Joseph; Kleinbaum, David; Allen, Susan

2012-01-01

59

Nickel hydroxide "stacks of pancakes" obtained by the coupled effect of ammonia and template agent.  

PubMed

The coupled effect of a homemade nickel di-dodecyl sulfate precursor and a complexing base leads to beta-Ni(OH)(2) "stack of pancakes" morphology. The mean diameter and thickness of the stacks are around 300 and 200 nm, respectively. Moreover, the amount of ammonia not only monitors crystalline structure but also the size and the shape of particles. PMID:16851667

Coudun, Corinne; Hochepied, Jean-François

2005-04-01

60

Evaluation of coupling agents to manufacture hybrid hardboard made from industrial waste fiberglass and wood fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every day, tons of fibrous material are landfilled that could otherwise be used for structural panel products. In this study, we looked at combining fibers from industrial fiberglass insulation trim waste with commercial hardboard fibers and with recycled cor- rugated container fibers to improve the properties of a structural hardboard-like panel. This study also investigated the effectiveness of two coupling

John F. Hunt; Charles B. Vick

61

Wood Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene Composites: Effect of Fibre Geometry and Coupling Agent on Physico-Mechanical Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wood fibre reinforced polypropylene composites at fibre content 50% by weight have been prepared and different types of wood fibres (hard wood fibre, soft wood fibre, long wood fibre and wood chips) were treated with coupling agent (MAH-PP) to increase the interfacial adhesion with the matrix to improve the dispersion of the particles and to decrease the water sorption properties of the final composite. The present study investigated the tensile, flexural, charpy impact and impact properties of wood fibre reinforced polypropylene composites as a function of coupling agent and fibre length and structure. From the results it is observed that wood chips-PP composites showed better tensile and flexural properties comparative with the other wood fibre-PP composites with the addition of 5%MAH-PP, which is around 65% and 50% for tensile strength and flexural strength respectively. Hard wood fibre-PP composites showed better impact characteristic values comparative to other wood fibre-PP composites with the addition of 5%MAH-PP and damping index decreased about to 60%. Charpy impact strength also increased up to 60% with the addition of 5%MAH-PP for long wood fibre-PP composites. Water absorption and scanning electron microscopy of the composites are also investigated.

Bledzki, Andrzej K.; Faruk, Omar

2003-11-01

62

Monomolecular layers and thin films of silane coupling agents by vapor-phase adsorption on oxidized aluminum  

SciTech Connect

Thin films of tetraethoxysilane [TEOS], (3-bromopropyl)trimethoxysilane [BPS], trimethoxyvinylsilane [VS], and 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate [TPM] on oxidized aluminum surfaces have been investigated by reflection-absorption FTIR spectroscopy, ellipsometry, contact angle, and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements. Gravimetric measurements with the QCM can reveal quantitative aspects of adsorption and film formation, even for films as thin as monolayers. Adsorption of these silane coupling agents from solution typically produces multilayer films. Vapor-phase adsorption of TEOS and TPM at room temperature results in monomolecular layers. The coupling agents VS and BPS require additional heating after the vapor-phase adsorption to initiate the hydrolysis and condensation reactions necessary for the surface attachment, which produces one to three layers. For vapor adsorbed films a packing density of 4-7 molecules/nm{sup 2} was found. The data strongly suggest that the organic moieties in several of these films have a preferential orientation on the surface; they can be viewed as two-dimensional, oligomeric siloxane networks with oriented organic chains. Subsequent heating of TPM films results in structural rearrangements; heating of TEOS results in complete condensation to SiO{sub 2} films. 43 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Kurth, D.G.; Bein, T. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

1992-08-06

63

Food contamination by hydrocarbons from lubricating oils and release agents: Determination by coupled LC?GC  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have found that many foods are contaminated with mineral oil products used as lubricating oils\\/greases or as release agents. The mineral oil base of such products usually consists of branched alkanes ranging between C17and C35. It forms a broad ‘hump’ of unresolved compounds in the gas chromatogram. Examples of such products are described; contamination is shown for a sample

Konrad Grob; Anna Artho; Maurus Biedermann; Jnes Egli

1991-01-01

64

Optimization of food waste hydrolysis in leach bed coupled with methanogenic reactor: effect of pH and bulking agent.  

PubMed

The effects of pH and bulking agents on hydrolysis/acidogenesis of food waste were studied using leach bed reactor (LBR) coupled with methanogenic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The hydrolysis rate under regulated pH (6.0) was studied and compared with unregulated one during initial experiment. Then, the efficacies of five different bulking agents, i.e. plastic full particles, plastic hollow sphere, bottom ash, wood chip and saw dust were experimented under the regulated pH condition. Leachate recirculation with 50% water replacement was practiced throughout the experiment. Results proved that the daily leachate recirculation with pH control (6.0) accelerated the hydrolysis rate (59% higher volatile fatty acids) and methane production (up to 88%) compared to that of control without pH control. Furthermore, bottom ash improved the reactor alkalinity, which internally buffered the system that improved the methane production rate (0.182 l CH(4)/g VS(added)) than other bulking agents. PMID:21195606

Xu, Su Yun; Lam, Hoi Pui; Karthikeyan, O Parthiba; Wong, Jonathan W C

2010-11-26

65

Food contamination by hydrocarbons from lubricating oils and release agents: determination by coupled LC-GC.  

PubMed

We have found that many foods are contaminated with mineral oil products used as lubricating oils/greases or as release agents. The mineral oil base of such products usually consists of branched alkanes ranging between C17 and C35. It forms a broad 'hump' of unresolved compounds in the gas chromatogram. Examples of such products are described; contamination is shown for a sample of bread, bonbon, and chocolate, respectively. The results suggest that contamination of foodstuffs with mineral oils does not always receive the required attention. However, there is also a lack of guidelines. PMID:1806392

Grob, K; Artho, A; Biedermann, M; Egli, J

66

Importance of water sorption and solubility studies for couple bonding agent--resin-based filling material.  

PubMed

This study investigated the water sorption and solubility of two light-cured resin composites (Filtek P60 and Solitaire 2), one compomer (Compoglass F), one ormocer (Admira) and the associated bonding agents (Scotchbond 1 [Scotchbond 1 = Scotchbond Single Bond in USA], Gluma One Bond, Excite and Admira Bond, respectively) and of a RMGIC (Fuji II LC). Five disks of each product type were subjected to water sorption and solubility tests based on ISO 4049 requirements. The data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis and non-parametric multiple-comparison tests using ranked sums at 95% confidence interval. Fuji II LC showed the highest water sorption (167.5 microg/mm(-3)). Fuji II LC and Compoglass F had higher solubility values (8.3 and 10.0 microg/mm(-3), respectively) than the other materials. Bonding agents have very high water sorption and solubility values (between 77.4 and 355.4 microg/mm(-3) and between 75.9 and 144.9 microg/mm(-3), respectively) compared to the restorative materials. Gluma One Bond and Admira Bond showed lower sorption and solubility than Excite and Scotchbond 1. PMID:15646223

Mortier, Eric; Gerdolle, David Alain; Jacquot, Bruno; Panighi, Marc M

67

Surface modification of organic polymers with bioactive titanium oxide without the aid of a silane-coupling agent.  

PubMed

Polyethylene (PE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH), and poly(epsilon-caprolactam) (Nylon 6) were successfully modified with a thin crystalline titanium oxide layer on their surfaces by a simple dipping into a titanium alkoxide solution and a subsequent soak in hot HCl solution, without the aid of a silane-coupling agent. The surface modified polymers formed a bone-like apatite layer in a simulated body fluid (SBF) within a period of 2 days. PE, PET, and Nylon 6 formed an apatite layer faster and had a higher adhesive strength to the apatite. Three-dimensional fabrics with open spaces in various sizes containing such surface modified polymer fibers are expected to be useful as bone substitutes, since they may be able to form apatite on their constituent fibers in the living body, and thus, integrate with living bone. PMID:17277978

Balas, F; Kokubo, T; Kawashita, M; Nakamura, T

2007-02-03

68

Formation of bone-like apatite on organic polymers treated with a silane-coupling agent and a titania solution.  

PubMed

Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) and Nylon 6 in plate form were treated with silane-coupling agents, a titanium alkoxide-alcohol solution and a hot HCl solution to form a thin crystalline titanium oxide layer. When placed in a simulated body fluid with ion concentrations nearly equal to those of the human blood plasma, nanosized bone-like apatite formed uniformly on the surfaces of these treated polymers: within 2 days for PET and Nylon 6, and 7 days for EVOH. This indicates that such titania-modified polymers might form bone-like apatite in the living body, and bond to living bone through this apatite layer. Three-dimensional fabrics of these polymer fibers, with open spaces in various sizes, are expected to be useful as bone substitutes, as they will be integrated with the natural bone. PMID:16257050

Balas, Francisco; Kawashita, Masakazu; Nakamura, Takashi; Kokubo, Tadashi

2005-10-27

69

Bonelike apatite formation on ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer modified with silane coupling agent and calcium silicate solutions.  

PubMed

An ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) was treated with a silane coupling agent and calcium silicate solutions, and then soaked in a simulated body fluid (SBF) with ion concentrations approximately equal to those of human blood plasma. A smooth and uniform bonelike apatite layer was successfully formed on both the EVOH plate and the EVOH-knitted fibers in SBF within 2 days. Part of the structure of the resulting apatite-EVOH fiber composite was similar to that of natural bone. If this kind of composite can be fabricated into a three-dimensional structure similar to natural bone, the resultant composite is expected to exhibit both mechanical properties analogous to those of natural bone and bone-bonding ability. Hence, it has great potential as a bone substitute. PMID:12593954

Oyane, Ayako; Kawashita, Masakazu; Nakanishi, Kazuki; Kokubo, Tadashi; Minoda, Masahiko; Miyamoto, Takeaki; Nakamura, Takashi

2003-05-01

70

Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This research studied the oil recovery potential of flooding light oil reservoirs by combining interfacial tension reducing agent(s) with a mobility control agent. The specific objectives were: To define the mechanisms and limitations of co-injecting interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent to recover incremental oil. Specifically, the study focused on the fluid-fluid and fluid-rock interactions. To evaluate the economics of the combination technology and investigate methods to make the process more profitable. Specific areas of study were to evaluate different chemical concentration tapers and the volume of chemical injection required to give optimal oil recovery.

Pitts, M.

1995-12-01

71

Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Summary annual report, October 1994September 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study will investigate two major areas concerning co-injecting an interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent into petroleum reservoirs. The first will consist of defining the mechanisms of interaction of an alkaline agent, a surfactant, and a polymer on a fluid-fluid and a fluid-rock basis. The second is the improvement of the economics of the combined technology.

Pitts

1995-01-01

72

Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Technical progress report, September--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

The study will investigate two major areas concerning co-injecting an interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent into petroleum reservoirs. The first will consist of defining the mechanisms of interaction of an alkaline agent, a surfactant, and a polymer on a fluid-fluid and a fluid-rock basis. The second is the improvement of the economics of the combined technology. This report examines the adsorption of alkali, surfactant, and polymer onto crushed Berea sandstone.

Pitts, M.J.

1993-12-31

73

Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Technical progress report, January--March 1994  

SciTech Connect

The study will investigate two major areas concerning co-injecting an interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent into petroleum reservoirs. The first will consist of defining the mechanisms of interaction of an alkaline agent, a surfactant, and a polymer on a fluid-fluid and a fluid-rock basis. The second is the improvement of the economics of the combined technology. This report examines the adsorption of alkali, surfactant, and polymer onto crushed Berea sandstone.

Pitts, M.J.

1994-12-31

74

Decentralized ??ström-Wittenmark Self-Tuning Regulator of a Multi-agent Uncertain Coupled ARMAX System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptive control for a multi-agent uncertain dynamical system is studied in this paper. The system studied has the following characteristics: (i) there are many agents in this system and the state of each agent dynamically evolves with time; (ii) for each agent, its state evolves like an ARMAX model with unknown coefficients; (iii) each agent is locally intervened by neighborhood

Hongbin Ma; Kai-Yew Lum; S. S. Ge

2007-01-01

75

Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Technical progress report, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

The study will investigate two major areas concerning co-injecting on interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent into petroleum reservoirs. The first will consist of defining the mechanisms of interaction of an alkaline agent, a surfactant, and a polymer on a fluid-fluid and fluid-rock basis. The second is the improvement of the economic of the combined technology. This report examines the effect of polymer addition to different combinations of alkaline agents and surfactants. Xanthan gum and polyacrylamide polymers were evaluated. In addition, the effect of alkali and polymer on the critical micelle concentration of different surfactant types was investigated.

Pitts, M.J.

1993-10-01

76

Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Technical progress report, July--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

The study will investigate two major areas concerning co-injecting an interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent into petroleum reservoirs. The first will consist of defining the mechanisms of interaction of an alkaline agent, a surfactant, and a polymer on a fluid-fluid and a fluid-rock basis. The second is the improvement of the economics of the combined technology. This report examines the effect of polymer addition to different combinations of alkaline agents and surfactants. Xanthan gum and polyacrylamide polymers were evaluated. In addition, the effect of alkali and polymer on the critical micelle concentration of different surfactant types was investigated.

Pitts, M.J.

1993-12-01

77

Exfoliated graphite nanoplatelet-filled impact modified polypropylene nanocomposites: influence of particle diameter, filler loading, and coupling agent on the mechanical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets (xGnP)-filled impact-modified polypropylene (IMPP) composites were prepared at 2, 4, 6, and 8 wt % xGnP with and without the addition of a coupling agent and manufactured using melt mixing followed by injection molding. The coupling agent used in this study was polypropylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA). The nanoparticles used were xGnP with three different sizes: xGnP5 has an average thickness of 10 nm, and an average platelet diameter of 5 ?m, whereas xGnP15 and xGnP25 have the same thickness but average diameters are 15 and 25 ?m, respectively. Test results show that nanocomposites with smaller xGnP diameter exhibited better flexural and tensile properties for both neat and compatibilized composites. For composites containing a coupling agent, tensile and flexural modulus and strength increased with the addition of xGnP. In the case of neat composites, both tensile and flexural modulus and strength decreased at higher filler loading levels. Increasing xGnP loading resulted in reduction of elongation at break for both neat and composites containing coupling agent. Explanation of this brittle behavior in a nanoplatelet-filled IMPP is presented using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.

Duguay, Alex J.; Nader, Jacques W.; Kiziltas, Alper; Gardner, Douglas J.; Dagher, Habib J.

2013-03-01

78

A general protocol to coat titania shell on carbon-based composite cores using carbon as coupling agent  

SciTech Connect

We present herein a general protocol to coat titania shell on carbon-based composite cores via the hydrolysis of titanium tetrabutoxide in a mixed solvent with the catalysis of ammonia. As coupling agent, their carbonaceous component can adsorb counter-charged NH{sub 4}{sup +}, and then the negatively charged ident toTiO{sup -} species are adsorbed via electrostatic interaction to form TiO{sub 2} shell. Various carbon-based cores with different functional components, such as Ag/C core/shell spheres, Ag/C nanocables, as well as magnetic (C-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) hollow spheres can be coated with titania shell to form corresponding core/shell composites. Their optical or magnetic property is also investigated. Finally, anatase-phase titania shell with rough surface can be generated via hydrothermal treatment of aforementioned titania coated composites, which can further introduce the properties of anatase-phase titania to the composites. - Graphical abstract: A general protocol was developed to coat titania shell on carbon-based composite cores based on the carbonaceous surface. Typically, Ag/C/TiO{sub 2} core/shell spheres were formed via this method.

Zheng Rongbo [Laboratory of Controllable Preparation and Application of Nanomaterials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Meng Xianwei [Laboratory of Controllable Preparation and Application of Nanomaterials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Tang Fangqiong, E-mail: tangfq@mail.ipc.ac.c [Laboratory of Controllable Preparation and Application of Nanomaterials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2009-05-15

79

Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Summary annual report, October 1994--September 1995  

SciTech Connect

The study will investigate two major areas concerning co-injecting an interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent into petroleum reservoirs. The first will consist of defining the mechanisms of interaction of an alkaline agent, a surfactant, and a polymer on a fluid-fluid and a fluid-rock basis. The second is the improvement of the economics of the combined technology. The third year of the study finished the oil recovery coreflood studies and evaluated different techniques to improve alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution economics. The final series of corefloods compared the oil recovery efficiency of the alkali gradient in Berea sandstone and J Sand sandstone. Oil recovery efficiency was essentially the same in both types of core, 13 to 15% PV of oil. Cost of chemical per incremental barrel of oil with 30% pore volume of alkaline-surfactant- polymer solution injected were $3.20 for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}- Petrostep B-100-Flopaam 3330S solution in both types of core.

Pitts, M.J.

1995-12-31

80

Influence of storage time and temperature and silane coupling agent on bound rubber formation in filled styrene–butadiene rubber compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bound rubber reflects the filler–polymer interactions involving physical adsorption, chemisorption, and mechanical interaction. For silica-filled rubber compounds, silane coupling agent is used to improve the filler dispersion. In the present work, variation of the bound rubber content with the storage time was studied using styrene–butadiene rubber (SBR) compounds filled with silica or carbon black. Influence of the silane content on

Sung-Seen Choi

2002-01-01

81

Effect of silane coupling agent on vulcanization, network structure, polymer-filler interaction, physical properties and failure mode of mica-filled styrene-butadiene rubber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical properties of composites from mica and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) have been studied with special reference to the effect of silane coupling agent (A-174) in the compound. Tensile and tear properties increase with the addition of mica. The increase of tensile properties in more pronounced in the case of silane-treated mica. Silane treatment also raises the volume fraction of rubber

S. Debnath; S. K. De; D. Khastgir

1987-01-01

82

Dynamic mechanical properties of multi-functional epoxy resin cured with diamine and filled with pitch-based carbon short fibers treated with coupling agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been conducting research on the development of heat-resistant composite materials filled with functional short fibers in multi-functional epoxy resin. As part of such effort, the filling effects of pitch-based carbon short fibers were investigated. In addition, the effects of treatment of coupling agents were studied by filling treated fibers into matrices cured with acid anhydride taking the large

Katsutoshi Tanaka; Muneaki Yamaguchi

1995-01-01

83

Bostrycin, a novel coupling agent for protein immobilization and prevention of biomaterial-centered infection produced by Nigrospora sp. No. 407.  

PubMed

Bostrycin, a red antibacterial agent with tetrahydroanthraquinone structure, has been isolated from Nigrospora sp. No. 407. This study investigated the potential antibacterial and multifunctional properties of matrixes through immobilization of bostrycin on their surface for immobilization of protein and prevention of bacterial growth. Bostrycin was immobilized on nonwoven polypropylene (PP) fabric by a technique using glutaraldehyde and polyethyleneimine for the activation of the surface. Glucose oxidase immobilized on bostrycin-treated nonwoven PP fabric showed high activity. The immobilization process improved thermal stability of the enzymes. During repeated assay for 30 cycles, the enzyme activity dropped to only 70% of the initial activity. Both bostrycin-treated nonwoven PP fabric sample and subsequently immobilized glucose oxidase sample on the surface also still exhibited a bacteriostatic effect. This is the first study to show that bostrycin is a promising coupling agent for surface modification on matrix and its potential applications in protein immobilization and biomaterial-centered infection. PMID:22500894

Yang, Wen-Jen; Yang, Chih-Sheng; Huang, Chen-Ji; Chen, Ko-Shao; Lin, Shuen-Fuh

2012-02-22

84

Surface Functionalization with Phosphazenes: Part 6. Modification of Polyethylene Co -Polyvinylalcohol Copolymer Surface Plates with Fluorinated Alcohols and Azobenzene Derivatives Using Chlorinated Phosphazenes as Coupling Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a two-step surface modification process of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) by exploiting hexachlorocyclophosphazene and poly(dichlorophosphazene) as coupling agents. Part of the P–Cl\\u000a groups of the chlorophosphazenes is first reacted with the surface hydroxylic groups of the substrate to form covalent P–O–C\\u000a bonds, the remaining being utilized for successive substitution reactions with different nucleophiles (i.e. 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol,\\u000a heptadecafluorononanol and

Roberto Milani; Mario Gleria; Silvia Gross; Roger De Jaeger; Ahmed Mazzah; Leon Gengembre; Martine Frere; Charafeddine Jama

2008-01-01

85

Sensitive quantification of gadolinium-based magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents in surface waters using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The application of gadolinium(Gd)-based contrast agents to support medical examinations by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results in a large input of Gd into the environment. The long-term effects of the anthropogenic Gd anomaly, especially on aqueous ecosystems, are mostly unknown. The identification and quantification of Gd-based contrast agents in the aquatic environment requires the use of powerful methods of speciation analysis. Therefore, a method employing the hyphenation of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) with sample introduction as dry aerosol generated by desolvation was developed. The desolvation resulted in improved limits of detection for the predominantly used contrast agents well below 0.10nmol/L. This method was subsequently used for the analysis of Gd species in surface waters. Samples from a nature reserve in the city of Münster (Germany), into which the effluent from the city's main wastewater treatment plant enters the environment, were examined. The contrast agents Gd-DTPA, Gd-DOTA and Gd-BT-DO3A were identified and quantified in constant ratios in those samples. The concentrations were found in a range from 0.59nmol/L for Gd-DOTA up to 3.55nmol/L for Gd-BT-DO3A. As a result of mass balancing, the contrast agent concentration was found to account for 74-89% of total Gd concentrations, possibly indicating the presence of further Gd species. Nevertheless, there was no direct indication of species transformation by transmetallation reactions resulting in such Gd species. The determination of REE patterns by means of ICP-MS confirmed the results of speciation analysis showing significant Gd anomalies. PMID:23958698

Birka, Marvin; Wehe, Christoph A; Telgmann, Lena; Sperling, Michael; Karst, Uwe

2013-08-08

86

Coupling agent-based models of subsistence farming with individual-based forest models and dynamic models of water distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsistence farming communities are dependent on the landscape to provide the resource base upon which their societies can be built. A key component of this is the role of climate and the feedback between rainfall, crop growth, land clearance and their coupling to the hydrological cycle. Temporal fluctuations in rainfall alter the spatial distribution of water availability, which in turn

Mike Bithell; James Brasington

2009-01-01

87

Ultrastructural localization of a neutron capture agent utilizing electron energy loss spectroscopy coupled with electron spectroscopic imaging  

SciTech Connect

Neutron capture therapy (NCT) is a binary therapeutic modality with significant potential for the treatment of localized tumors in humans. The NCT relies on selective uptake and/or retention within tumor of a nontoxic neutron capture agent (NCA) containing a neutron capture element such as {sup 10}B and irradiation of the tumor with an appropriate-energy neutron beam. The development of tumor-affinative capture agents is requisite for efficacious NCT, particularly those NCAs that specifically localize to vital organelles such as mitochondria and nuclei. Various methods have been utilized to determine tumor and normal tissue boron levels. Few, however, have successfully localized neutron capture elements, in vivo, at the ultrastructural level, which is crucial for determination of radiation microdosimetry. This paper describes experimental results of NCT on gliosarcomas in rats.

Autry, S.A.; Gandour-Edwards, R.; Boggan, J.E. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

88

Quantitative imaging of the tissue contrast agent [Gd(DTPA)]²? in articular cartilage by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is an emerging analytical technique in the generation of quantitative images of MR contrast agent distribution in thin tissue sections of articular cartilage. An analytical protocol is described that includes sample preparation by cryo-cutting of tissue sections, mass spectrometric measurements by LA-ICP-MS and quantification of gadolinium images by one-point calibration, standard addition method (employing matrix-matched laboratory standards) and isotope dilution analysis using highly enriched stable Gd-155 isotope (abundance 92 vs 14.8% in the [Gd(DTPA)]²? contrast agent). The tissue contrast agent concentrations of [Gd(DTPA)]²? in cartilage measured in this work are in agreement with findings obtained by magnetic resonance imaging and other analytical methodologies. The LA-ICP-MS imaging data also confirm the observation that the spatial distribution of [Gd(DTPA)]²? in the near-equilibrium state is highly inhomogeneous across cartilage thickness with the highest concentration measured in superficial cartilage and a strong decrease toward the subchondral bone. In the present work, it is shown for the first time that LA-ICP-MS can be applied to validate the results from quantitative gadolinium-enhanced MRI technique of articular cartilage. PMID:23281293

Sussulini, Alessandra; Wiener, Edzard; Marnitz, Tim; Wu, Bei; Müller, Berit; Hamm, Bernd; Sabine Becker, J

89

Newbouldiaquinone A: A naphthoquinone-anthraquinone ether coupled pigment, as a potential antimicrobial and antimalarial agent from Newbouldia laevis.  

PubMed

The study of the chemical constituents of the roots of Newbouldia laevis (Bignoniaceae) has resulted in the isolation and characterization of a naphthoquinone-anthraquinone coupled pigment named newbouldiaquinone A (1) together with 14 known compounds: apigenin, chrysoeriol, newbouldiaquinone, lapachol, 2-methylanthraquinone, 2-acetylfuro-1,4-naphthoquinone, 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone, oleanolic acid, canthic acid, 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl triacontanoate, newbouldiamide, 5,7-dihydroxydehydroiso-alpha-lapachone, beta-sitosterol, and beta-sitosterol glucopyranoside. The structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was established based on spectroscopic studies, notably of the 2D NMR spectra. The antimalarial activity of compound (1) against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro shows moderate chemo suppression of parasitic growth. Its antimicrobial activity against a wide range of microorganisms was 13- and 24-fold more active against Candida gabrata and Enterobacter aerogens than the reference antibiotics nystatin and gentamycin. PMID:16442576

Eyong, Kenneth Oben; Folefoc, Gabriel Ngosong; Kuete, Victor; Beng, Veronique Penlap; Krohn, Karsten; Hussain, Hidayat; Nkengfack, Augustin Ephram; Saeftel, Michael; Sarite, Salem Ramadan; Hoerauf, Achim

2006-01-26

90

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of bond structure between polyvinyl alcohol and a titanate cross-coupling agent  

SciTech Connect

Chemical interactions between polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and triethanol amine titanate chelate were studied using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The titanate chelate cross coupled the PVA solution and produced a viscous gel. The gel had a three- dimensional network structure containing --C{sub PVA}--O--Ti--O--C{sub PVA}--organic complexes. A new C(1{ital s}) signature at 285.7 eV and an O(1{ital s}) signature at 531.25 eV were associated with the formation of these complexes. The water of the PVA solution was physically retained in the gelled structure and was readily available for chemical reactions. The removal of this entrapped water was irreversible and lead to a collapsed film of Ti-cross-linked PVA.

Guelguen, M.A.; Popoola, O.O.; Kriven, W.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 105 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

1995-06-01

91

Influence of the nature of coupling agents on insulin adsorption on supports grafted with sialic acid for high-performance affinity chromatography.  

PubMed

Porous silica exhibits excellent mechanical properties for use as a stationary phase for high-performance liquid chromatography. However, negative surface charges make it unusable in its native state. For this reason, silica beads are coated with dextran polymers carrying a calculated amount of diethylaminoethyl groups. Both the minimization of non-specific interactions and the hydrophilic character of such supports allow their functionalization with biospecific ligands and finally their use in high-performance affinity chromatography of biological products. The use of these modified supports in high-performance affinity chromatography requires a better understanding of various characteristics of stationary phases. For this purpose, several techniques were utilized, in particular, size-exclusion chromatography and adsorption of radiolabelled albumin. These methods provided complementary information on the structure of these supports. Coated silica-based supports were functionalized with sialic acid by means of different coupling agents. The affinity of these supports for insulin was determined by the establishment of adsorption isotherms and by high-performance affinity chromatography, to evidence the relationships between structural characteristics of the supports and their separation properties. The study of interactions between these supports and insulin allowed us to show the importance of the coupling method on the performances of supports in affinity chromatography. PMID:9544805

Lakhiari, H; Jozefonvicz, J; Muller, D

1998-02-27

92

(29)Si solid state NMR studies of the effect of composition of amine and alkyl silane blends in tertiary amine-catalyzed anhydride-cured epoxy mixtures. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

Silane coupling agent blends of gamma-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) and butyltriethoxysilane (BTS) of varying composition were added to an epoxy matrix made of a benzyldimethylamine (BDMA)-catalyzed, nadic methyl anhydride. NMR was utilized in order to determine the effect of composition of the silane coupling agent blend on the mobility of the various portions of the siloxane network. It was found that hydrolysis caused an increase in the rigidity of the highly condensed structures, but decreased the rigidity of the silicon atoms bonded to only one or two oxygen atoms. This phase separation could possibly lead to stress concentration within the network structure. Increasing amine concentration caused only slight increases in rigidity. Although ETS gave consistently lower rigidity values than BTS, these values were not statistically significant.

Tidrick, S.L.; Ishida, H.; Koenig, J.L.

1991-05-01

93

Land Use Dynamic Simulator (LUDAS): A multi-agent system model for simulating spatio-temporal dynamics of coupled human-landscape system: 2. Scenario-based application for impact assessment of land-use policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of future socio-ecological consequences of land-use policies is useful for supporting decisions about what and where to invest for the best overall environmental and developmental outcomes. However, the task faces a great challenge due to the inherent complexity of coupled human–landscape systems and the long-term perspective required for sustainability assessment. Multi-agent system models have been recognized to be well

Quang Bao Le; Soo Jin Park; Paul L. G. Vlek

2010-01-01

94

Gadolinium(III) DO3A macrocycles and polyethylene glycol coupled to dendrimers Effect of molecular weight on physical and biological properties of macromolecular magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The macrocycle 1-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)amido-4,7,10-triacetic acid-tetraazacyclododecane (DO3A-bz-NCS) was synthesized and coupled to the terminal amine sites of a series of different generations (Gn) of polyamidoamine or starburst dendrimers (n-SBDs) creating macromolecular polychelates. Gadolinium ion was added to the dendrimer polychelates for evaluating the parameters needed to create magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents that have long blood circulation times. The resulting water

Lawrence D. Margerum; Brian K. Campion; Mike Koo; Narinder Shargill; Jan-Ji Lai; Alan Marumoto; Per Christian Sontum

1997-01-01

95

Application of high performance liquid chromatography coupled to on-line solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the analysis of degradation products of V-class nerve agents and nitrogen mustard  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection and identification of the degradation products of nitrogen mustard and nerve agent VX by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to on-line solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HPLC-UV-SPE-NMR) were demonstrated. The analytes selected for the study were N,N-dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE), N,N-diethylaminoethanol (DEAE), N,N-diisopropylaminoethanol (DIAE) and triethanolamine (TEA). Offline solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by derivatization was applied to eliminate the interferents

Avik Mazumder; Ajeet Kumar; Ajay K. Purohit; Devendra K. Dubey

2010-01-01

96

Hyperfine Coupling Constants on Inner-Sphere Water Molecules of a Triazacyclononane-based Mn(II) Complex and Related Systems Relevant as MRI Contrast Agents.  

PubMed

We report the synthesis of the ligand H2MeNO2A (1,4-bis(carboxymethyl)-7-methyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane) and a detailed experimental and computational study of the hyperfine coupling constants (HFCCs) on the inner-sphere water molecules of [Mn(MeNO2A)] and related Mn(2+) complexes relevant as potential contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) profiles, (17)O NMR chemical shifts, and transverse relaxation rates of aqueous solutions of [Mn(MeNO2A)] were recorded to determine the parameters governing the relaxivity in this complex and the (17)O and (1)H HFCCs. DFT calculations (TPSSh model) performed in aqueous solution (PCM model) on the [Mn(MeNO2A)(H2O)]·xH2O and [Mn(EDTA)(H2O)](2-)·xH2O (x = 0-4) systems were used to determine theoretically the (17)O and (1)H HFCCs responsible for the (17)O NMR chemical shifts and the scalar contributions to (17)O and (1)H NMR relaxation rates. The use of a mixed cluster/continuum approach with the explicit inclusion of a few second-sphere water molecules is critical for an accurate calculation of HFCCs of coordinated water molecules. The impact of complex dynamics on the calculated HFCCs was evaluated with the use of molecular dynamics simulations within the atom-centered density matrix propagation (ADMP) approach. The (17)O and (1)H HFCCs calculated for these complexes and related systems show an excellent agreement with the experimental data. Both the (1)H and (17)O HFCCs (Aiso values) are dominated by the spin delocalization mechanism. The Aiso values are significantly affected by the distance between the oxygen atom of the coordinated water molecule and the Mn(2+) ion, as well as by the orientation of the water molecule plane with respect to the Mn-O vector. PMID:24070368

Patinec, Véronique; Rolla, Gabriele A; Botta, Mauro; Tripier, Raphaël; Esteban-Gómez, David; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos

2013-09-26

97

Containing agents : contexts, projections, and agents.  

SciTech Connect

Agent-based models have historically maintained a tight coupling between individuals, their behaviors, and the space in which they interact. As a result, many models have been designed in a way that limits their ability to express behaviors and interactions. In this paper, we propose a new approach toward designing simulations that builds upon the experiences of developing and working with several agent-based toolkits. This approach encourages flexibility and reusability of components and models. A preliminary implementation is the core structure of the upcoming Repast Simphony agent-based modeling and simulation toolkit. By creating a 'proto-space' called a Context, we provide model designers with a container that can maintain a localized state for agents. A Context's state can maintain multiple interaction spaces called Projections, as well as more typical state information. Projections are designed such that they can be used to represent a wide range of abstract spaces, from graphs to grids to realistic geographic spaces. Importantly, projections and agents or individuals are independent of one another. Agents can be agnostic toward the type of projection in which they are interacting, and projections can be agnostic toward the type of agents whose relationships they maintain. Finally, the context provides a logical location to maintain agent behaviors that are dependent on localized agent interactions and environment.

Howe, T. R.; Collier, N. T.; North, M. J.; Parker, M. T.; Vos, J. R. (Decision and Information Sciences); (PantaRei Corp.); (Univ. of Chicago); (Univ. of Illinois at Urbana)

2006-01-01

98

Biochemically Coupled Membrane Electrode.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coupling a biological probe to a microelectrode offers great potential for direct, rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of a wide range of toxins, infective agents, chemicals, and biochemicals. The critical components consist of an ion channel membran...

G. D. Case J. F. Worley B. K. Krueger

1988-01-01

99

Application of the McMurry Coupling Reaction in the Synthesis of Tri- and Tetra-arylethylene Analogues as Potential Cancer Chemotherapeutic Agents  

PubMed Central

Structural redesign of selected non-steroidal estrogen receptor binding compounds has previously been successful in the discovery of new inhibitors of tubulin assembly. Accordingly, tetra-substituted alkene analogues (21-30) were designed based in part on combinations of the structural and electronic components of tamoxifen and combretastatin A-4 (CA4). The McMurry coupling reaction was used as the key synthetic step in the preparation of these tri- and tetra-arylethylene analogues. The structural assignment of E, Z isomers was determined on the basis of 2D-NOESY experiments. The ability of these compounds to inhibit tubulin polymerization and cell growth in selected human cancer cell lines was evaluated. Although the compounds were found to be less potent than CA4, these analogues significantly advance the known structure activity relationship associated with the colchicine binding site on ?-tubulin.

Tanpure, Rajendra P.; Harkrider, Amanda R.; Strecker, Tracy E.; Hamel, Ernest; Trawick, Mary Lynn; Pinney, Kevin G.

2010-01-01

100

Analysis of Inorganic Antimicrobial Agents in Antimicrobial Products: Evaluation of a Screening Method by X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry and the Measurement of Metals by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial agents used in antimicrobial products are classified into inorganic, organic, and natural organic compounds. Inorganic agents, such as Cu, Zn, and Ag compounds, are known to be relatively safe, and these agents are used in many kinds of products. Patients with metal allergy and infants should avoid coming in contact with products in which inorganic agents are used at

Harunobu Nakashima; Tomoko Ooshima

2007-01-01

101

Software agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper, we discuss these questions and describe someemerging technologies that provide answers. In the final section, we mention some additionalissues and summarize the key points of the paper. (For more information onagent-based software engineering, see [Genesereth 1989] and [Genesereth 1992]. See also[Shoham 1993] for a description of a variation of agent-based software engineering knownas "agent-oriented programming".)2. Agent Communication Language

Michael R. Genesereth; Steven P. Ketchpel

1994-01-01

102

Organizing cooperative search among heterogeneous expert agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present negotiated search, a paradigm for cooperative search and conflict res- olution among loosely-coupled expert agents. The paradigm is realized in TEAM, a framework that provides a flexible environment for agent integration. TEAM enables agents with heterogeneous characteristics and capabilities to work together coopera- tively. Experimental results from a design application program implemented in TEAM are presented. These results

S. E. Lander; V. R. Lesser

1993-01-01

103

Silane coupling agents for corrosion protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organofunctional silanes have retained special attention of the adhesion world for a long time. The current work attempts to expand the areas of application of silanes into corrosion control of metals and alloys. Studies of selected functional and non-functional silane films formed on iron substrates showed that there is interaction between the amine functional group of gamma-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (gamma-APS) and the iron substrate, the result of which is no improvement in corrosion protection. A non-functional silane, Bis-triethoxysilyl ethane (BTSE), on the other hand, formed more number of oxane bonds with the substrate, when applied from acidic pH range. This results in improved corrosion protection. A two-step silane treatment consisting of a non-functional first silane layer and a functional silane second layer is proposed, which can provide corrosion protection and adhesion enhancement. Several alloy systems and bis-silanes are investigated and the two step silane treatment is shown to improve both adhesion and corrosion performance. The selection of the silane application pH is shown to be related to the stability of the metal or oxide surface present. The roles of the first and second layer of the silane are corrosion protection and adhesion improvement with the top-coat respectively. Concentration of BTSE in the coating solution is shown to affect the properties of the protective film formed on AL 2024. The thickness of the silane film increases proportional to the concentration. Thinner films of BTSE reduce only the cathodic reaction rates at the metal surface, whereas thicker films substantially reduce both anodic and cathodic reaction rates. These results also match several performance tests including ASTM B-117 salt spray. On Al 1050, the oxide layer on the surface is shown to have little effect on the electrical properties of the BTSE film formed. Preheating the surface and curing of the deposited film strongly influence the electrical properties. The condensation reaction occurring during the curing process results in a hydrophobic silane film. This results in the emergence of a second relaxation in the impedance behavior, which is directly related to the resistance offered by the silane film towards corrosive attack.

Subramanian, Vijay

2000-10-01

104

Anabolic agents.  

PubMed

This article provides a comprehensive but practical discussion of four anabolic agents used by athletes. Anabolic-androgenic steroids, dehydroepiandrosterone, human growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor are discussed. A thorough review of available literature on the basic chemistry and physiology, epidemiology, reasons for use, and performance and side effects of each agent are also presented. PMID:9580841

Sturmi, J E; Diorio, D J

1998-04-01

105

Anthropoid agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the study of agents on the Internet, we often ascribe to them human qualities, such as beliefs and intentions. These qualities are best understood as metaphors that give developers a way to talk about and design the capabilities and applications of agents. Despite all the progress in computing, users have been slow to accept the technology. They have often

Michael N. Huhns; Munindar P. Singh

1998-01-01

106

Broad agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oz project at Carnegie Mellon is developing technology for dramatic virtual worlds. One requirement of such worlds is the presence of broad, though perhaps shallow, agents. To support our needs, we are developing an agent architecture that provides goals and goal directed reactive behavior, emotional state and its effects on behavior, some natural language abilities (especially pragmatics based language

Joseph Bates; Bryan Loyall; W. Scott Reilly

1991-01-01

107

Chemical Agents  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... FDA has cleared for use by the US military a liquid decontamination lotion intended to remove or neutralize chemical warfare agents and T-2 fungal ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/emergencypreparedness/bioterrorismanddrugpreparedness

108

An agent framework for dynamic agent retraining: Agent academy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agent Academy (AA) aims to develop a multi-agent society that can train new agents for specific or general tasks, while constantly retraining existing agents in a recursive mode. The system is based on collecting information both from the environment and the behaviors of the acting agents and their related successes\\/failures to generate a body of data, stored in the Agent

Pericles A. Mitkas; Andreas L. Symeonidis; Dionisis Kehagias; Ioannis N. Athanasiadis; Gokce Laleci; Gokhan Kurt; Yildiray Kabak; Aybar C. Acar; Asuman Dogac

2004-01-01

109

Sunscreening Agents  

PubMed Central

The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents.

Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

2013-01-01

110

A Dynamical Systems Perspective on Agent-Environment Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the language of dynamical systems theory, a general theoretical framework for the synthesis and analysis of autonomous agents is sketched. In this framework, an agent and its environment are modeled as two coupled dynamical systems whose mutual interaction is in general jointly responsible for the agent's behavior. In addition, the adaptive fit between an agent and its environment is

Randall D. Beer

1995-01-01

111

Framework for Dynamic Agent Retraining: Agent Academy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agent Academy (AA) aims to develop a multi-agent society that can train new agents for specific or general tasks, while constantly retraining existing agents in a recursive mode. The system is based on collecting information both from the environment and the behaviors of the acting agents and their related successes\\/failures to generate a body of data, stored in the Agent

P. Mitkas; A. Symeonidis; D. Kechagias; I. Athanasiadis; G. Laleci; G. Kurt; Y. Kabak; A. Acar; A. Dogac

112

Agent based spin model for financial markets on regular lattices and complex networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study an agent based microscopic model for price formation in financial markets on various topologies motivated by the dynamics of agents. The model consists of interacting agents (spins) with localand global couplings. The local interaction denotes the tendency of agents to make the same decision with their interacting partners. On the other hand, the global coupling to the self-generating

Hong-Joo Kim; Soon-Hyung Yook; Yup Kim

2008-01-01

113

Antidiabetic agents.  

PubMed

Although either insulin or oral hypoglycemics may be used in conjunction with diet and exercise in the management of type II diabetes, drug therapy for type I diabetes involves only insulin. C-peptide levels can be tested to assess whether the patient has remaining pancreatic endocrine function. Patients being started on insulin for the first time should receive a single injection of an intermediate-acting insulin of "human" origin at a dose of approximately 0.5 U/kg. Thereafter, fasting, mid-morning, mid-afternoon, bedtime, and possibly early morning blood sugars should be examined periodically to determine if the insulin dose needs to be increased, decreased, split, or if the patient needs to be on a two-insulin regimen. Intensive insulin therapy has become commonplace to control plasma glucose levels in the majority of patients receiving insulin therapy. Proper patient education regarding the insulin regimen, injection techniques, blood glucose monitoring, as well as diet, exercise, and foot care are essential if the patient's diabetes is to be controlled adequately. Guidelines for "adequate" glycemic control are outlined in Table 6. Recent evidence suggests that tight control of plasma glucose levels may decrease the macrovascular complications of diabetes. Although there is also evidence to suggest that the onset of microvascular complications might be delayed with strict glycemic control, the data are conflicting. The benefits of strict control must be weighted against the problems of hypoglycemia experienced by many patients who attempt tight control of their blood glucose levels. Biguanide compounds are available in Europe, but the sulfonylureas comprise the only class of oral agents in the United States commercially available for the treatment of type II diabetes. The two generations of these drugs reflect their potency and possible side-effect profiles. Of the first-generation agents, tolbutamide and chlorpropamide are the most widely prescribed. Tolbutamide is the weakest of the sulfonylureas, possibly making it a good drug for initiating oral therapy in the elderly. Chlorpropamide is becoming a less popular agent because of its long duration of action and its increased incidence of side effects. Of the second-generation agents, glyburide offers a better dosing schedule (once daily compared with twice daily for glipizide); however, glyburide may produce a greater incidence of hypoglycemia, particularly in the elderly or in patients with significant renal impairment. There are few good studies comparing these two drugs so that recommending one over the other is difficult. Drug interactions are numerous with the first-generation drugs, but less so with the newer second-generation agents.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2236334

Francisco, G E

1990-09-01

114

Thrombolytic agents.  

PubMed

Thrombolytic agents are plasminogen activators that convert the zymogen plasminogen to the active enzyme plasmin, which degrades fibrin. Elucidation of the molecular mechanism of physiological fibrinolysis opened up a new era of fibrin-specific thrombolysis. Fibrin-specific plasminogen activators, including tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (scu-PA) and staphylokinase (Sak), preferentially activate fibrin-associated plasminogen. Generated plasmin remains associated with fibrin, where it is protected from rapid inhibition and can efficiently degrade fibrin, avoiding systemic activation of the fibrinolytic system. Following a decade of clinical investigation t-PA and variants thereof are routinely used for treatment of patients with thromboembolic disease. PMID:15841305

Collen, Désiré; Lijnen, H Roger

2005-04-01

115

Multi-Agent Autonomic Architecture based Agent-Web Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web services framework has evolved as an emerging distributed middleware technology that uses a simple XML-based protocol to allow heterogeneous applications to exchange data across the Web. It provides a loose coupled and implementation neutral infrastructure for distributed applications. On the other hand, multi-agent autonomic architectures have evolved to provide self-management in the software system by using specialized reusable software

Ankit Kumar; A. Ankur Tayal; Senthil Kumar; B. S. Bindhumadhava

2008-01-01

116

Agent Design for Agent-Based Modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

To build an agent-based computational model of a specific socioenvironmental system requires that answers be found to several important questions including: what social actors and contextual entities are to be modelled as software agents? With what mental functions must these software agents be equipped? What standard design or designs should be used to create the software agents? This paper concentrates

Jim Doran

117

Evolution of Agent Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agent architectures provide the blueprints for the design and development of individual agents. The purpose of agent architecture is to define modes and modules of agent's interaction in the world as well as connections among internal components of an agent. An agent can be understood in terms of its architectural description of its perceptual, deliberation, and acting capabilities. Architectures have

Henry Hexmoor

2002-01-01

118

Dynamic Prioritization of Complex Agents in Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooperative distributed problem solving (CDPS) loosely-coupled agents can be effectively modeled as a distributed constraint satisfaction problem (DCSP) where each agent has multiple local variables. DCSP protocols typically impose (partial) orders on agents ensure systematic exploration of the search space, but the ordering decisions can have a dramatic effect on the overall problem-solving effort. In this paper, we examine several

Aaron A. Armstrong; Edmund H. Durfee

1997-01-01

119

Detecting agents.  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews a recent set of behavioural studies that examine the scope and nature of the representational system underlying theory-of-mind development. Studies with typically developing infants, adults and children with autism all converge on the claim that there is a specialized input system that uses not only morphological cues, but also behavioural cues to categorize novel objects as agents. Evidence is reviewed in which 12- to 15-month-old infants treat certain non-human objects as if they have perceptual/attentional abilities, communicative abilities and goal-directed behaviour. They will follow the attentional orientation of an amorphously shaped novel object if it interacts contingently with them or with another person. They also seem to use a novel object's environmentally directed behaviour to determine its perceptual/attentional orientation and object-oriented goals. Results from adults and children with autism are strikingly similar, despite adults' contradictory beliefs about the objects in question and the failure of children with autism to ultimately develop more advanced theory-of-mind reasoning. The implications for a general theory-of-mind development are discussed.

Johnson, Susan C

2003-01-01

120

Optical coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes contributions to the CMBpol Technology Study Workshop concerning optical coupling structures. These are structures in or near the focal plane which convert the free space wave to a superconducting microstrip on a SI wafer, or to the waveguide input to a HEMT receiver. In addition to an introduction and conclusions by the editor, this paper includes independent contributions by Bock on 'Planar Antenna-Coupled Bolometers for CMB Polarimetry', by Gunderson and Wollack on 'Millimeter-Wave Platlet Feeds', and by Lee on 'Multi-band Dual-Polarization Lens-coupled Planar Antennas for Bolometric CMB polarimetry.'

Bock, J. J.; Gundersen, J.; Lee, A. T.; Richards, P. L.; Wollack, E.

2009-03-01

121

Chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Chemical warfare agents are compounds of different chemical structures. Simple molecules such as chlorine as well as complex\\u000a structures such as ricin belong to this group. Nerve agents, vesicants, incapacitating agents, blood agents, lung-damaging\\u000a agents, riot-control agents and several toxins are among chemical warfare agents. Although the use of these compounds is strictly\\u000a prohibited, the possible misuse by terrorist groups

Kamil Ku?a; Miroslav Pohanka

122

Axion Couplings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pedagogical derivation of the couplings of the axion to quarks, leptons, photons, gluons and nucleons is given. The effective Lagrangian method is used throughout. The results are applicable to all axion models. (ERA citation 12:021526)

P. Sikivie

1986-01-01

123

Security enhanced mobile agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a security model for mobile agent based systems. The model defines the notion of a security-enhanced agent and outlines security management components in agent platform bases and considers secure migration of agents from one base to another. The security enhanced agent carries a passport that contains its security credentials and some related security code. Then we describe

Vijay Varadharajan

2000-01-01

124

Preparing Change Agents for Change Agent Roles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seventy-seven Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking agricultural change agents from developing Central and South American countries responded to a questionnaire which sought perceptions of the roles in which the change agents felt they were involved and the roles for which they felt they were being trained. The agents were participating in training…

Sedlacek, James R.

125

Towards User Centred Multi-Agent Systems : Illustration on Cooperative Agricultural Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports first trials to include the User aspect into Multi- Agent Systems, which is a basic need if Multi-Agent Systems want to contribute to environments where the User is tightly coupled with decentralised systems, such as pervasive computing. The paper first outlines how Multi-Agent Systems have developed from Agent Centred Multi-Agent Systems to Organisation Cen- tred Multi-Agent Systems.

Jakob Appel; Kurt Nielsen; Yves Demazeau

126

Lesbian Couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the qualitative descriptions of love by 10 lesbian couples, together for 10 to 24 years. The researcher approached the phenomenological and ethnographic study from a feminist perspective, and attended to contextual meaning, culture, and language. Four key themes of love emerged from this qualitative research project: foundation, expression, ritualization, and revitalization. This article provides examples of

Colleen M. Connolly

2004-01-01

127

Model of Therapeutic Ultrasound Contrast Agent Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Targeted drug and gene delivery are rapidly emerging applications for ultrasound contrast agents since this could reduce potential deleterious side effects to healthy tissue and minimize the overall dose needed. Therapeutic ultrasound contrast agents are encapsulated microbubbles usually composed of a high molecular weight gas core and a highly viscous thick liquid shell. Development of new contrast agents requires a good understanding of the stability and breakup mechanisms of the liquid shell when subjected to ultrasonic acoustic waves. A novel numerical code, which enables one to investigate the dynamics of thick-shelled contrast agents and the interaction between multiple agents and with nearby boundaries has been developed by coupling a Boundary Element Method solver and a finite-volume Navier-Stokes solver. We have applied the coupled code to examine shell breakup mechanisms for contrast agents near a solid wall. We found that the shell thickness varies significantly from location to location due to non-spherical deformations and that the contrast agent may break up due to local shell thinning and stretching as the non-spherical deformation is significant.

Hsiao, Chao-Tsung; Lu, Xiaozhen; Chahine, Georges

2007-11-01

128

Application of Multi-agent for Travel Management Decision Support System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a multi-agent framework for travel management decision support system that targets improved decision making, parallels human problem solving processes, and supports the major phases of decision making. A multi-agent system is a loosely coupled network of agents that work together to solve problems that are beyond the individual capabilities and knowledge of each agent. In travel management

Li Yan

2009-01-01

129

Towards Seamless Agent Middleware  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the current evolution of agent middleware, supporting and promoting an autonomous agent component model. We first assess the current state of agent technology, then we make a case for increased integration between agents and their environment, composed by entities with different models. We notice that this integration trend emerged more and more in the last few years,

Andrea Omicini; Giovanni Rimassa

2004-01-01

130

Software agents: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agent software is a rapidly developing area of research. However, the overuse of the word 'agent' has tended to mask the fact that, in reality, there is a truly heterogeneous body of research being carried out under this banner. This overview paper presents a typology of agents. Next, it places agents in context, defines them and then goes on, inter

Hyacinth S. Nwana

1996-01-01

131

A Coupled \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Band-pass filters employing tuned coupled circuits are used to advantage at low frequencies and, because they have good electrical characteristics, it may be desirable to adapt them to the very-high frequencies. However, at frequencies bordering on the microwave region, it is no longer possible to treat such circuit elements in the usual low-frequency fashion, the distributed character of the parameters

J. J. Karakash; D. E. Mode

1950-01-01

132

Bioterrorism: agents of concern.  

PubMed

The intentional dispersal of biological agents by terrorists is a potential problem that increasingly concerns the intelligence, law enforcement, medical, and public health communities. Terrorists might choose biological agents over conventional and chemical weapons for multiple reasons, although it is difficult to predict, with certainty, which biological agents might prove attractive to terrorists. One can more confidently, however, derive a list of those few agents which, if used, would be of greatest public health consequence. It is these agents which will require the most robust countermeasures. We discuss the derivation of this short list of agents and the specific diseases involved. PMID:10977609

Cieslak, T J; Eitzen, E M

2000-07-01

133

Agents Technology Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides a comprehensive description of three separate efforts pursued by the agents technology research group. The efforts were focused on: state abstraction methods for reinforcement learning, the multi- agent credit assignment problem, and ...

J. Hudack N. Gemelli R. Wright S. Loscalzo T. K. Lue

2010-01-01

134

Agent Oriented Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoham, Y., Agent-oriented programming, Artificial Intelligence 60 (1993) 51-92. A new computational framework is presented, called agent-oriented programming (AOP), which can be viewed as a specialization of object-oriented programming. The state of an agent consists of components such as beliefs, decisions, capabilities, and obligations; for this reason the state of an agent is called its mental state. The mental state

Yoav Shoham

1992-01-01

135

Biological warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military\\u000a or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical\\u000a aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological\\u000a warfare agents and epidemiology of

Miroslav Pohanka; Kamil Ku?a

136

Agent-enhanced Workflow  

Microsoft Academic Search

In agent-enhanced workflow, a community of intelligent, distributed and autonomous software agents is used to improve the management of business processes under the control of a workflow management system. These improvements are achieved by allowing the software agents to negotiate with each other to establish contracts that govern the distribution of work across a number of processing centres. Furthermore, the

Donald Judge; Brian Odgers; John Shepherdson; Zhan Cui

1998-01-01

137

Robust Agent Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We believe that intelligent information agents will represent their users interest in electronic marketplaces and other forums to trade, exchange, share, identify, and locate goods and services. Such informa- tion worlds will present unforeseen opportunities as well as challenges that can be best addressed by robust, self-sustaining agent communi- ties. An agent community is a stable, adaptive group of self-interested

Sandip Sen; Sabyasachi Saha; Stéphane Airiau; Teddy Candale; Dipyaman Banerjee; Doran Chakraborty; Partha Mukherjee; Anil Gursel

2007-01-01

138

Agents for the masses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is it possible to make development of sophisticated agents simple enough to be practical? This article discusses the authors' theoretical and tool-creation efforts to answer that question in the affirmative. Building sophisticated agent-based systems of the future will require research advances on at least three fronts: we must continue work on agent theory so that many currently unanswered questions about

Jeffrey M. Bradshaw; Mark Greaves; Heather Holmback; Tom Karygiannis; Wayne Jansen; B. G. Silverman; N. Suri; A. Wong

1999-01-01

139

Characteristics of Nerve Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are three types of nerve agents currently stored in chemical stockpiles in the United States: VX, GB and GA. All three nerve agents are members of the organophosphate family. Nerve agent VX, a clear, odorless and tasteless liquid, has an appearance ...

2007-01-01

140

Thermoacoustic couple  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for determining acoustic power density level and its direction in a fluid using a single sensor are disclosed. The preferred embodiment of the apparatus, which is termed a thermoacoustic couple, consists of a stack of thin, spaced apart polymeric plates, selected ones of which include multiple bimetallic thermocouple junctions positioned along opposite end edges thereof. The thermocouple junctions are connected in series in the nature of a thermopile, and are arranged so as to be responsive to small temperature differences between the opposite edges of the plates. The magnitude of the temperature difference, as represented by the magnitude of the electrical potential difference generated by the thermopile, is found to be directly related to the level of acoustic power density in the gas.

Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

1983-10-04

141

Nerve Agents: A Comprehensive Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nerve agents are perhaps the most feared of potential agents of chemical attack. The authors review the history, physical characteristics, pharmacology, clinical effects, and treatment of these agents.

Sage W. Wiener; Robert S. Hoffman

2004-01-01

142

Ligand-guided pathway selection in nickel-catalyzed couplings of enals and alkynes.  

PubMed

Nickel-catalyzed couplings of enals and alkynes utilizing triethylborane as the reducing agent illustrate a significant dependence on ligand structure. Simple variation of monodentate phosphines allows selective access to alkylative couplings or reductive cycloadditions, while further variation of reaction conditions provides clean access to reductive couplings and redox-neutral couplings. PMID:22159624

Li, Wei; Montgomery, John

2011-12-12

143

Emotions and Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The encounter between emotion research and agent-based technology is multifaceted. One the one hand, results from emotion\\u000a research start to serve as role model from nature, providing inspirations for technical design criteria for individual agents\\u000a at the micro level and agent groups and societies at the macro level as well as the sophisticated linkages in between them.\\u000a On the other

Paolo Petta; Robert Trappl

2001-01-01

144

Reasoning about agent deliberation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a family of sound and complete logics for reasoning about deliberation strategies for SimpleAPL programs. SimpleAPL\\u000a is a fragment of the agent programming language 3APL designed for the implementation of cognitive agents with beliefs, goals\\u000a and plans. The logics are variants of PDL, and allow us to prove safety and liveness properties of SimpleAPL agent programs\\u000a under different

Natasha Alechina; Mehdi Dastani; Brian Logan; John-Jules Ch. Meyer

2011-01-01

145

Architectures for Agents that Track Other Agents in Multi-Agent Worlds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In multi-agent environments, an intelligent agent often needs to interact with other individuals or groups of agents to achieve its goals. Agent tracking is one key capability required for intelligent interaction. It involves monitoring the observable act...

M. Tambe P. S. Rosenbloom

1996-01-01

146

Joint chemical agent detector (JCAD): the future of chemical agent detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Joint Chemical Agent Detector (JCAD) has continued development through 2002. The JCAD has completed Contractor Validation Testing (CVT) that included chemical warfare agent testing, environmental testing, electromagnetic interferent testing, and platform integration validation. The JCAD provides state of the art chemical warfare agent detection capability to military and homeland security operators. Intelligence sources estimate that over twenty countries have active chemical weapons programs. The spread of weapons of mass destruction (and the industrial capability for manufacture of these weapons) to third world nations and terrorist organizations has greatly increased the chemical agent threat to U.S. interests. Coupled with the potential for U.S. involvement in localized conflicts in an operational or support capacity, increases the probability that the military Joint Services may encounter chemical agents anywhere in the world. The JCAD is a small (45 in3), lightweight (2 lb.) chemical agent detector for vehicle interiors, aircraft, individual personnel, shipboard, and fixed site locations. The system provides a common detection component across multi-service platforms. This common detector system will allow the Joint Services to use the same operational and support concept for more efficient utilization of resources. The JCAD detects, identifies, quantifies, and warns of the presence of chemical agents prior to onset of miosis. Upon detection of chemical agents, the detector provides local and remote audible and visual alarms to the operators. Advance warning will provide the vehicle crew and other personnel in the local area with the time necessary to protect themselves from the lethal effects of chemical agents. The JCAD is capable of being upgraded to protect against future chemical agent threats. The JCAD provides the operator with the warning necessary to survive and fight in a chemical warfare agent threat environment.

Laljer, Charles E.

2003-08-01

147

Calcium-sensing receptor and calcimimetic agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium-sensing receptor and calcimimetic agents. Recognizing the role of the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) in mineral metabolism greatly improves our understanding of calcium homeostasis. The biology of the low affinity, G-protein-coupled CaR and the effects of its activation in various tissues are reviewed. Physiological roles include regulation of parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion by small changes in ionized calcium (Ca2+) and

Jack W. Coburn; Loganathan Elangovan; William G. Goodman; Joaõ M Frazaõ

1999-01-01

148

The calcimimetic agents: Perspectives for treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calcimimetic agents: Perspectives for treatment. Recognition of the role of the extracellular calcium sensing receptor (CaR) in mineral metabolism has greatly improved our understanding of calcium homeostasis. The biology of the low affinity, G-protein-coupled CaR and the effects of its activation in various tissues are reviewed. Physiological roles include regulation of parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion by small changes in

João M Frazão; Patrícia Martins; Jack W. Coburn

2002-01-01

149

Programming Satan's Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Mobile agent security is still a young discipline and most naturally, the focus up to the timeof writing was on inventing new cryptographic protocols for securing various aspects ofmobile agents. However, past experience shows that protocols can be flawed, and flawsin protocols can remain unnoticed for a long period of time. The game of breaking andfixing protocols is a

Volker Roth

2001-01-01

150

Chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical warfare agents (CWA's) are defined as any chemical substance whose toxic properties are utilised to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy in warfare and associated military operations. Chemical agents have been used in war since times immemorial, but their use reached a peak during World War I. During World War II only the Germans used them in the infamous

S. Chauhan; R. D’Cruz; S. Faruqi; K. K. Singh; S. Varma; M. Singh; V. Karthik

2008-01-01

151

Detecting Biological Warfare Agents  

PubMed Central

We developed a fiber-optic, microsphere-based, high-density array composed of 18 species-specific probe microsensors to identify biological warfare agents. We simultaneously identified multiple biological warfare agents in environmental samples by looking at specific probe responses after hybridization and response patterns of the multiplexed array.

Song, Linan; Ahn, Soohyoun

2005-01-01

152

Delegating to software agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary There is currently a great deal of interest in the development of intelligent agents. While there is little agreement on exactly what constitutes an intelligent agent, many definitions embody a user interface model that differs from the traditional one where users perform tasks with the help of computer-based \\

Allen E. Milewski; Steven H. Lewis

1997-01-01

153

Travel agents’ destination recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Travel agents’ recommendations can strongly influence clientel’s satisfaction and the success of touristic businesses, attractions, and destinations. But little is known about their recommendation process. This article presents a conceptual model of this process and empirically examines the impact on agents’ destination recommendations of two factors from the model: trip type and origin, which create important differences in destination recommendations.

David B Klenosky; Richard E Gitelson

1998-01-01

154

Change Agent Survival Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

Dunbar, Folwell L.

2011-01-01

155

Chemical Agent Detector Kits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

TOP 8-2-555 establishes general procedures and guidance for determining the technical performance and safety aspects of chemical agent detector kits that are designed to detect the presence of chemical agents in the atmosphere, on the surfaces of various ...

1989-01-01

156

Socially Intelligent Tutor Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions and personality have received quite a lot of attention the last few years in research on embodied conversational agents. Attention is also increasingly being paid to matters of social psychology and interpersonal aspects (see (3), for example, and (11), for work of our group). Given the nature of an embodied conversational agent's main activity: \\

Dirk Heylen; Anton Nijholt; Rieks Op Den Akker; Maarten Vissers; R. Aylett; D. Ballin; T. Rist

2003-01-01

157

Evolutionary intelligent agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary intelligent agents (EIA) are intelligent agents provided with a genotype that controls their capabilities to carry out various tasks, i.e., their phenotype. EIA are a cognitive and genetically controlled version of ants and bees, with links to both artificial intelligence and neural networks. The evolution of the population is task dependent and favors the predominance of the individuals best

Paul CRISTEA; Aurel ARSENE; Bogdan NITULESCU

2000-01-01

158

Emotionally Expressive Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to express emotions is important for creating believable interactive characters. To simulate emotional expressions in an interactive environment, an intelligent agent needs both an adaptive model for generating believ- able responses, and a visualization model for mapping emo- tions into facial expressions. Recent advances in intelligent agents and in facial modeling have produced effective al- gorithms for these

Magy Seif El-nasr; Thomas R. Ioerger; John Yen; Donald H. House; Frederic I. Parke

1999-01-01

159

Shadow agent: a new type of virtual agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shadow agent is a new type of intelligent virtual agent exploiting the metaphor of the shadow as a medium. The core of the shadow agent is a behavioral architecture inspired by the BDI (Belief, Desire and Intention) cognitive agent model. The shadow agent perceives the world through two video cameras and a microphone. Advanced computer graphics techniques are used

Philippe Pasquier; Eunjung Han; Kirak Kim; Keechul Jung

2008-01-01

160

Joint Chemical Agent Detector (JCAD): the future of chemical agent detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Joint Chemical Agent Detector (JCAD) will provide state of the art chemical warfare agent detection capability to ground vehicle operators. Intelligence sources estimate that over twenty counties have active chemical weapons programs. The spread of chemical weapons to third world nations, coupled with the potential for US involvement in these areas in an operational or support capacity, increases the probability that the Joint Services may encounter chemical agents and toxic industrial materials anywhere in the world. Currently, fielded chemical agent detectors are bulky, labor intensive, and subject to false readings. No legacy detector is sensitive enough to provide detection and warning of the low dose hazards associated with miosis contamination. The JCAD will provide a small, lightweight chemical agent detector for vehicle interiors, aircraft, individual personnel, shipboard, and fixed site locations. The system provides a common detection components across multi-service platforms. This common detector system will allow the Joint Services to use the same operational and support concept for more efficient utilization of resources. The JCAD will detect, identify, quantify, and warn of the presence of chemical agents prior to onset of miosis. Upon detection of chemical agents, the detector will provide local and remote audible and visual alarms to the operators. Advance warning will provide the vehicle crew with the time necessary to protect themselves from the lethal effects of chemical agents. The JCAD will also be capable of being upgraded to protect against future chemical agent threats. The JCAD will provide the vehicle operators with the warning necessary to survive and fight in a chemical warfare agent threat environment.

Laljer, Charles E.; Owen, Jeffery L.

2002-06-01

161

Biological warfare agents  

PubMed Central

The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

2010-01-01

162

Biaryl isoxazolinone antibacterial agents.  

PubMed

In an era of increasing resistance to classical antibacterial agents, the synthetic oxazolidinone series of antibiotics has attracted much interest. Zyvoxtrade mark was the first oxazolidinone to be approved for clinical use against infections caused by multi-drug resistant Gram-positive bacteria. In the course of studies directed toward the discovery of novel antibacterial agents, a new series of synthetic phenyl-isoxazolinone agents that displayed potent activity against Gram-positive bacterial strains was recently discovered at Bristol-Myers Squibb. Extensive investigation of various substitutions on the phenyl ring was then undertaken. We report here, the synthesis and antibacterial activity of a series of biaryl isoxazolinone compounds. PMID:15869878

Quesnelle, Claude A; Gill, Patrice; Roy, Stephan; Dodier, Marco; Marinier, Anne; Martel, Alain; Snyder, Lawrence B; D'Andrea, Stanley V; Bronson, Joanne J; Frosco, Marybeth; Beaulieu, Danielle; Warr, Glen A; Denbleyker, Ken L; Stickle, Terry M; Yang, Hyekyung; Chaniewski, Susan E; Ferraro, Cheryl A; Taylor, Dennis; Russell, John W; Santone, Kenneth S; Clarke, Junius; Drain, Rebecca L; Knipe, Jay O; Mosure, Kathleen; Barrett, John F

2005-06-01

163

The human agent virtual environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a multi-agent simulation called the Human Agent Virtual Environment (or HAVE). HAVE is a test bed to explore agent-environment interaction in multi- agent simulation for defence applications. The primary re- search driver in the development of HAVE is to explore representations of virtual environments in which both hu- mans and agents are situated, perceive these

Michael Papasimeon; Adrian R. Pearce; Simon Goss

2007-01-01

164

Development of Hemostatic Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To translate investigational hemostatic agents developed in the rat model to swine models of lethal groin injury and liver laceration. This objective evaluated the efficacy of patch and granule formulations of capsaicin (CP-305) in normal and coagulopathi...

B. M. Moore

2008-01-01

165

Agents for absorption machines  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention proposes adding an alkaline solution or a mixture of two or more alkaline solutions to the agent system of absorption machines operating with ammonia or methylamine as the agent and water as the solvent. This addition of an alkaline solution or an alkaline solution mixture has a number of advantageous effects. These are, i.a. 1. The dissolving respectively expelling heat of the agent is reduced, raising the output figure. 2. The agent vapor generated is very pure. A dephlegmator is obviated. 3. The alkaline solution makes steel surfaces inert when sealed from air and in a high vaccum, thereby obviating corrosion inhibitors. 4. The viscosity of the solvent is reduced, decreasing pump operation.

1998-03-10

166

Healthcare Agents: Being One  

MedlinePLUS

... Preparing Your Advance Directives Storing Your Advance Directives Healthcare Agents: Being One Advocating for your loved one ... will be to communicate with your loved ones healthcare providers to ensure your loved ones wishes are ...

167

Riot Control Agents  

MedlinePLUS

... to riot control agent, you should remove your clothing, rapidly wash your entire body with soap and ... medical care as quickly as possible. Removing your clothing: Quickly take off clothing that may have riot ...

168

New antithrombotic agents.  

PubMed

The main clinical indications for anticoagulant agents are treatment and prophylaxis of venous and arterial thromboembolism and acute coronary syndromes. For decades, two anticoagulants, heparin and warfarin, have been the principal drugs available. Dicumaroid agents have serious limitations due to their narrow therapeutic range, needing close monitoring. The interaction with food and drugs and the numerous interindividual variations result in unstable effects on coagulation parameters. On the other side, heparins have an exclusive parenteral use and a risk of immunological adverse reactions. Heparin induced thrombocytopenia is the most serious complication. The limitations of existing oral and parenteral anticoagulant agents have prompted the search for alternative anticoagulant drugs. This paper reviews new anticoagulant agents describing their pharmacological and clinical properties. It focuses on the target of their anticoagulant action inside the coagulation pathway, and analyzes the clinical trials providing indications for new clinical anticoagulation strategies. Agents currently under study include direct thrombin inhibitors, indirect activated factor X inhibitors, and inhibitors of tissue factor and activated factor VII. The new anticoagulant agents may demonstrate improvements in effectiveness, safety convenience and cost-effectiveness compared with current anticoagulants. PMID:17215797

Castelli, R; Porro, F; Savo, D; Cassinerio, E

2006-12-01

169

13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pursuant to this part. (1) Selling Agent. As a condition...each Licensee to appoint a Selling Agent to perform functions...Monitor the performance of the Selling Agent, Poolers, CRA, and...documentation as SBA shall direct by written...

2009-01-01

170

13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pursuant to this part. (1) Selling Agent. As a condition...each Licensee to appoint a Selling Agent to perform functions...Monitor the performance of the Selling Agent, Poolers, CRA, and...documentation as SBA shall direct by written...

2010-01-01

171

13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...pursuant to this part. (1) Selling Agent. As a condition...each Licensee to appoint a Selling Agent to perform functions...Monitor the performance of the Selling Agent, Poolers, CRA, and...documentation as SBA shall direct by written...

2013-01-01

172

Agent-based infrastructure modeling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) can be applied to investigate complex infrastructures and infrastructure interdependencies. The CAS model agents within the Spot Market Agent Research Tool (SMART) and Flexible Agent Simulation Toolkit (FAST) allow investiga...

M. J. North

2000-01-01

173

Methodologies for Designing Agent Societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Todaypsilas complex systems can be addressed by exploiting software agents, and in particular sets of interacting agents. Agent societies represent a powerful means to design organization-oriented agent-based systems, in particular those where agents belonging to different users meet and interact. To effectively exploit them, developers must be supported by appropriate methodologies. In this paper we present a survey of agent-based

Giacomo Cabri; Letizia Leonardi; Mariachiara Puviani

2008-01-01

174

P&G Agent Distribution  

Cancer.gov

Pharmaceutical Management Branch Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program, DCTD, NCI Policy and Guidelines for INVESTIGATIONAL AGENT DISTRIBUTION Policy: The Pharmaceutical Management Branch (PMB) provides investigational agents for use

175

Diastereoselective pinacol coupling of alkyl aryl ketones with rare earth metals in the presence of chlorosilanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rare earth metals (Ln) are found to act as useful reducing agents for the pinacol coupling reaction of alkyl aryl ketones in the presence of chlorosilanes. Although the hitherto known pinacol coupling reaction using rare earth reducing agents generally exhibits very low diastereoselectivities, the present pinacol coupling by use of a LnR3SiCl system usually indicates higher diastereoselectivities. In particular, a

Akiya Ogawa; Hiroki Takeuchi; Toshikazu Hirao

1999-01-01

176

Agent-based spin model for financial markets on complex networks: Emergence of two-phase phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study a microscopic model for financial markets on complex networks, motivated by the dynamics of agents and their structure of interaction. The model consists of interacting agents (spins) with local ferromagnetic coupling and global antiferromagnetic coupling. In order to incorporate more realistic situations, we also introduce an external field which changes in time. From numerical simulations, we find that

Yup Kim; Hong-Joo Kim; Soon-Hyung Yook

2008-01-01

177

Agent Server Architecture for the Ajanta Mobile-Agent System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of Ajanta, aJava-based mobile-agent system, and focuses in particularon the architecture of the agent server --the process which hosts agents and enables them toaccess resources, communicate, migrate etc. Theagent server's main components include an agentexecution environment, an agent transfer protocol,a resource access protocol, and an agent monitoringservice. Security is a major concern in the designof

Neeran M. Karnik; Anand R. Tripathi

1998-01-01

178

Autonomous Behavior of Computational Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an architecture for decision making of software agents that allows the agent to be-have autonomously. Our target area is computational agents — encapsulating various neural networks, genetic algorithms, and similar methods — that are expected to solve problems of different nature within an environment of a hybrid computational multi-agent system. The architecture is based on

Roman Vaculín; Roman Neruda

179

GOAL-BASED INTELLIGENT AGENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agents are distinguished for their autonomous and goal oriented characters. To model the complex goals of agents, this paper proposes an agent goal model, namely, composite state goal model, based on Petri Net theory and Object-Oriented methodology. The proposed model not only enables the agent to manage the composite goals, sub goals but also provides the quantitative measurement of partial

Zhiqi Shen; Robert Gay; Xuehong Tao

180

Agent Based GPU, a Real-time 3D Simulation and Interactive Visualisation Framework for Massive Agent Based Modelling on the GPU  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional Agent Based Modelling (ABM) applications and frameworks lack the close coupling between the simulation behaviour and its visualisation that is required to achieve real time interactive performance with populations above a couple of thousand. The Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) offers an ideal solution to simulate and visualise the behaviour of high population ABM. The parallel nature of processing offers

Paul Richmond

181

Portable Coupled Field CAD.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coyote Systems has developed a coupled CAD tool for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), called AutoMEMS, which accurately simulates the coupled fields in large, realistic MEMS devices with minimal user input. AutoMEMS generates a three dimensional (3D)...

P. Liung

2000-01-01

182

E-Learning Agents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the advantages of using intelligent agents to facilitate the location and customization of appropriate e-learning resources and to foster collaboration in e-learning environments. Design/methodology/approach: This paper proposes an e-learning environment that can be used to provide customized…

Gregg, Dawn G.

2007-01-01

183

Embodied mobile agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The move in many societies toward individuals having multiple networked computational devices - workstations, notebooks computers, mobile phones, PDAs - radically changes the ways in which people engage those devices. However, we lack interaction paradigms that enable a coherent experience across these technologies. One possible approach to this problem involves the use of embodied mobile agents (EMAs), that is, graphically

Bill Tomlinson; Man Lok Yau; Eric Baumer

2006-01-01

184

Space Travel Agent  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You are in charge of creating a travel brochure to a planet in our solar system. Travel Agent for the Solar System Introduction You are in charge of the new ?Travel the Solar System? account at Universe Travel Agency.

Williams, Ms.

2010-11-29

185

Dicarbamoylsulfonate Tanning Agent.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to a method of tanning hides and skins and also to a method of retanning hides and skins. More specifically it relates to the use of a certain dicarbamoylsulfonate as a novel tanning and retanning agent for hides and skins.

B. Milligan P. R. Buechler S. H. Feairheller

1983-01-01

186

Agent Amplified Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an agent-based framework for assisting and simplifying person-to-person communication for informa- tion gathering tasks. As an example, we focus on expertise location within a large organization. In our approach, the informal person-to-person networks that exist within an or- ganization are used to \\

Henry A. Kautz; Bart Selman; Al Milewski

1996-01-01

187

Simulation with learning agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose that learning agents (LAs) be incorporated into simulation environments in order to model the adaptive behavior of humans. These LAs adapt to specific circumstances and events during the simulation run. They would select tasks to be accomplished among a given set of tasks as the simulation progresses, or synthesize tasks for themselves based on their observations of the

Erol Gelenbe; Esin Seref; Zhiguang Xu

2001-01-01

188

Mobility control agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by means of steam drive, for heavier crudes, and COâ flooding, for lighter, mobilizes oil left behind by more conventional methods and displaces it to producing wells. In higher mobility, fingering, and flow of the drive or flood substance through low permeability paths, reduces the efficiency of EOR. Mobility control agents block these permeable paths. Five

E. C. Hammershaimb; V. A. KuugKraa

1983-01-01

189

Hydraulic fracturing propping agent  

SciTech Connect

A high strength propping agent for use in hydraulic fracturing of subterranean formations comprising solid, spherical particles having an alumina content of between 40 and 60%, a density of less than 3.0 gm/cc and an ambient temperature permeability of 100,000 or more millidarcies at 10,000 psi.

Lunghofer, E. P.

1985-06-11

190

Hydraulic fracturing propping agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high strength propping agent for use in hydraulic fracturing of subterranean formations comprising solid, spherical particles having an alumina content of between 40 and 60%, a density of less than 3.0 gm\\/cc and an ambient temperature permeability of 100,000 or more millidarcies at 10,000 psi.

Lunghofer

1985-01-01

191

Improvisational Multi-Agent Organization: Using Director Agent to Coordinate Improvisational Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coordination is an important characteristic in the development of agents organizations, allowing agents to understand the existent relationships among agents that compose an specific organization. This paper proposes an improvisational multi-agent organization which incorporate a new model of coordination, named improvised direction. The organization is based on the ideas of improvisational theatre, and improvised direction represents the kind of coordination

Márcia Cristina Moraes; Antônio Carlos Da Rocha Costa

2005-01-01

192

Surface preparation and coupling in plastic scintillator dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

One way to improve the performance of scintillation dosimeters is to increase the light-collection efficiency at the coupling interfaces of the detector system. We performed a detailed study of surface preparation of scintillating fibers and their coupling with clear optical fibers to minimize light loss and increase the amount of light collected. We analyzed fiber-surface polishing with aluminum oxide sheets, coating fibers with magnesium oxide, and the use of eight different coupling agents (air, three optical gels, an optical curing agent, ultraviolet light, cyanoacrylate glue, and acetone). We prepared 10 scintillating fiber and clear optical fiber light guide samples to test different coupling methods. To test the coupling, we first cut both the scintillating fiber and the clear optical fiber. Then, we cleaned and polished both ends of both fibers. Finally, we coupled the scintillating fiber with the clear optical fiber in either a polyethylene jacket or a V-grooved support depending on the coupling agent used. To produce more light, we used an ultraviolet lamp to stimulate scintillation. A typical series of similar couplings showed a standard deviation in light-collection efficiency of 10%. This can be explained by differences in the surface preparation quality and alignment of the scintillating fiber with the clear optical fiber. Absence of surface polishing reduced the light collection by approximately 40%, and application of magnesium oxide on the proximal end of the scintillating fiber increased the amount of light collected from the optical fiber by approximately 39%. Of the coupling agents, we obtained the best results using one of the optical gels. Because a large amount of the light produced inside a scintillator is usually lost, better light-collection efficiency will result in improved sensitivity.

Ayotte, Guylaine; Archambault, Louis; Gingras, Luc; Lacroix, Frederic; Beddar, A. Sam; Beaulieu, Luc [Departement de physique, de genie physique et d'optique, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, G1K7P4 (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec, G1R2J6 (Canada); Departement de physique, de genie physique et d'optique, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, G1K7P4 (Canada) and Department de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec, G1R2J6 (Canada) and Department of Radiation Physics, Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department de physique, de genie physique et d'optique, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, G1K7P4 (Canada) and Department de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec, G1R2J6 (Canada); Department of Radiation Physics, Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department de physique, de genie physique et d'optique, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, G1K7P4 (Canada) and Department de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec, G1R2J6 (Canada)

2006-09-15

193

Surface preparation and coupling in plastic scintillator dosimetry.  

PubMed

One way to improve the performance of scintillation dosimeters is to increase the light-collection efficiency at the coupling interfaces of the detector system. We performed a detailed study of surface preparation of scintillating fibers and their coupling with clear optical fibers to minimize light loss and increase the amount of light collected. We analyzed fiber-surface polishing with aluminum oxide sheets, coating fibers with magnesium oxide, and the use of eight different coupling agents (air, three optical gels, an optical curing agent, ultraviolet light, cyanoacrylate glue, and acetone). We prepared 10 scintillating fiber and clear optical fiber light guide samples to test different coupling methods. To test the coupling, we first cut both the scintillating fiber and the clear optical fiber. Then, we cleaned and polished both ends of both fibers. Finally, we coupled the scintillating fiber with the clear optical fiber in either a polyethylene jacket or a V-grooved support depending on the coupling agent used. To produce more light, we used an ultraviolet lamp to stimulate scintillation. A typical series of similar couplings showed a standard deviation in light-collection efficiency of 10%. This can be explained by differences in the surface preparation quality and alignment of the scintillating fiber with the clear optical fiber. Absence of surface polishing reduced the light collection by approximately 40%, and application of magnesium oxide on the proximal end of the scintillating fiber increased the amount of light collected from the optical fiber by approximately 39%. Of the coupling agents, we obtained the best results using one of the optical gels. Because a large amount of the light produced inside a scintillator is usually lost, better light-collection efficiency will result in improved sensitivity. PMID:17022248

Ayotte, Guylaine; Archambault, Louis; Gingras, Luc; Lacroix, Frédéric; Beddar, A Sam; Beaulieu, Luc

2006-09-01

194

Ubiquitous Intelligence in Agent Mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agent mining, namely the interaction and integration of multi-agent and data mining, has emerged as a very promising research area. While many mutual issues exist in both multi-agent and data mining areas, most of them can be described in terms of or related to ubiquitous intelligence. It is certainly very important to define, specify, represent, analyze and utilize ubiquitous intelligence in agents, data mining, and agent mining. This paper presents a novel but preliminary investigation of ubiquitous intelligence in these areas. We specify five types of ubiquitous intelligence: data intelligence, human intelligence, domain intelligence, network and web intelligence, organizational intelligence, and social intelligence. We define and illustrate them, and discuss techniques for involving them into agents, data mining, and agent mining for complex problem-solving. Further investigation on involving and synthesizing ubiquitous intelligence into agents, data mining, and agent mining will lead to a disciplinary upgrade from methodological, technical and practical perspectives.

Cao, Longbing; Luo, Dan; Zhang, Chengqi

195

Pharmacology of antiplatelet agents.  

PubMed

Pharmacotherapies with agents that inhibit platelet function have proven to be effective in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes, and in the prevention of complications during and after percutaneous coronary intervention. Because of multiple synergetic pathways of platelet activation and their close interplay with coagulation, current treatment strategies are based not only on platelet inhibition, but also on the attenuation of procoagulant activity, inhibition of thrombin generation, and enhancement of clot dissolution. Current strategies can be broadly categorized as anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, and fibrinolytics. This review focuses on the pharmacology of current antiplatelet therapy primarily targeting the inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase 1, the P2Y12 receptor, the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor, and protease-activated receptor 1. PMID:24142550

Kalra, Kiran; Franzese, Christopher J; Gesheff, Martin G; Lev, Eli I; Pandya, Shachi; Bliden, Kevin P; Tantry, Udaya S; Gurbel, Paul A

2013-12-01

196

Palladacycles as antimicrobial agents.  

PubMed

This review article deals with the structure activity relationship (SAR) for a variety of palladacycles in biomedical applications. Moreover, the types of antibacterial, antifungal, antimycobacterial and antiprotozoal (antiamoebic and antitrypanosomal) activities will vary considerably from one country to another. Therefore, all efforts will be required to face such a vast diversity of problems. This study gives an up to date overview of the antibacterial, antifungal, antimycobacterial and antiprotozoal chemistry of the palladium group elements with an emphasis on the new strategies used in the development of new antibacterial agents. Methodologies for application of bulky aromatic or aliphatic nitrogen ligands, chiral organic moieties, chelates containing other donor atoms than nitrogen, and biologically active ligands in the design of agents analogous to palladacycles are presented. Therefore, the use of palladacycles in medicinal chemistry is interesting as potential application in the biological properties with less toxic drugs compounds.. PMID:22612708

Elgazwy, A-S S H; Ismail, N S M; Atta-Allah, S R; Sarg, M T; Soliman, D H S; Zaki, M Y; Elgamas, M A

2012-01-01

197

Distributed Agents for Autonomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Distributed Agents for Autonomy (DAFA) Study has been performed for ESA by SciSys UK Ltd, Vega GmbH and Politecnico di Milano. An analysis of past, present and future space missions has been conducted, structured around a set of three pre-defined mission scenarios: Formation Flying, Earth Observation and Planetary Exploration. This analysis led to the definition of a framework of use cases where the application of distributed autonomy seems necessary or appropriate, and a set of metrics that may be used to assess such deployments. Agent technology and architectures were extensively surveyed and the results used to elaborate each of the mission scenarios to the point where a software prototype could be constructed. Such a prototype was developed for a scenario based on the ExoMars mission and this has been used to highlight the advantages of a DAFA approach to the mission architecture.

Blake, R.; Amigoni, F.; Brambilla, A.; de la Rosa Steinz, S.; Lavagna, M.; le Duc, I.; Page, J.; Page, O.; Steel, R.; Wijnands, Q.

2010-08-01

198

Oral hypoglycemic agent update.  

PubMed

The treatment of diabetes is still a problem more than a half-century after the discovery of insulin. Patients are now living significantly longer but until the development of oral hypoglycemic agents, the only direct treatment modalities were exercise, diet, and insulin. Before evaluating the effectiveness of treatment, a therapeutic goal must be determined. While there are no absolutely "hard" facts proving that "good control" is beneficial in preventing chronic complications of diabetes, increasing accumulation of "soft" data strongly suggests that normal blood glucose levels are most desirable, when possible, but not at the cost of severe or disabling hypoglycemic reactions. The development of the oral agents was a great public health advance in that many persons with early diabetes, but fearful of insulin injections, had less dread of "the pills" and sought treatment. The oral agents simplified care but this very simplification process often undermined the need for proper diet and good fundamental care. This often led to mediocre diabetes care. While useful, the oral agents have marked limitations and in some are effective only temporarily. The presently available oral agents are sulfonylureas and require a viable beta-cell system for success. This limits the number of diabetics responsive to such treatment. The general indications for tolbutamide, chlorpropamide, acetohexamide and tolazamide are in maturity-onset diabetics, generally beyond the age of 40 with diabetes of less than 10 years. They are contraindicated in juvenile-onset diabetics, in pregnant women, and usually in patients undergoing major surgery, and can become ineffective during periods of extreme stress or during severe infection. They can lower blood glucose levels if used in proper doses in properly selected patients. Contrary to several decades of documentation, it has become popular to suggest that the oral agents are not effective. They can be effective but for many reasons apparently were not in their use by the U.G.D.P. researchers. This might not be the fault of the oral agent used. If ineffective, they should be discontinued. Many, but not all, patients may respond to diet therapy, which is then the treatment of choice. Obviously insulin, though difficult to use for many persons and in itself able to induce several severe reactions if not used properly, is the only treatment (with diet) for the severe diabetic. There is a large spectrum of patients inbetween in whom the oral agents may be useful. The use of phenformin (phenethyl-biguanide) has been effectively curtailed because of many reported cases of lactic acidosis, and while it is doubtful that phenformin alone, in the absence of complicating factors, is the causative factor, it is capable of being an augmenting influence when other conditions, such as decreased kidney function, prevail... PMID:98675

Krall, L P; Chabot, V A

1978-07-01

199

Surface polymerization agents  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a 1-year, Laboratory-Directed R&D project at LANL. A joint technical demonstration was proposed between US Army Missile Command (Redstone Arsenal) and LANL. Objective was to demonstrate that an unmanned vehicle or missile could be used as a platform to deliver a surface polymerization agent in such a manner as to obstruct the filters of an air-breathing mechanism, resulting in operational failure.

Taylor, C.; Wilkerson, C.

1996-12-01

200

Agents for Traffic Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicular traffic is a classical example of a multi-agent system in which autonomous drivers operate in a shared environment. The article provides an overview of the state-of-the-art in microscopic traffic modeling and the implications for simulation techniques. We focus on the short-time dynamics of car-following models which describe continuous feedback control tasks (acceleration and braking) and models for discrete-choice tasks

Arne Kesting; Martin Treiber; Dirk Helbing

2008-01-01

201

ACACIA: an agent-based program for simulating behavior to reach long-term goals.  

PubMed

We present ACACIA, an agent-based program implemented in Java StarLogo 2.0 that simulates a two-dimensional microworld populated by agents, obstacles and goals. Our program simulates how agents can reach long-term goals by following sensorial-motor couplings (SMCs) that control how the agents interact with their environment and other agents through a process of local categorization. Thus, while acting in accordance with this set of SMCs, the agents reach their goals through the emergence of global behaviors. This agent-based simulation program would allow us to understand some psychological processes such as planning behavior from the point of view that the complexity of these processes is the result of agent-environment interaction. PMID:18956217

Beltran, Francesc S; Quera, Vicenç; Zibetti, Elisabetta; Tijus, Charles; Miñano, Meritxell

2008-10-28

202

[Antimicrobial agents in eyedrops].  

PubMed

Microbial contamination of ophthalmic drops means a risk of serious injury to the eye. Ophthalmic drops must therefore comply with sterility requirements. Protection of multiple-dose drops against secondary contamination is ensured by an addition of an antimicrobial agent. Selection of a suitable antimicrobial agent is conditioned by many factors, such as the spectrum of effect, properties of the preparation, compatibility with the components of the preparation and the container, and the technology of manufacture. Although the added antimicrobial substance ensures the safety of the preparation, on the other hand it can produce a number of negative effects in the eye tissue. The present paper summarizes pharmacopoeial requirements for microbial quality of ophthalmic drops, outlining the properties and efficacy of antimicrobial substances commonly used in ophthalmic drops (benzalkonium chloride BAC, cetrimide CTM, phenyl mercuric salts PHg, thiomersal TM, chlorobutanol ChB, benzyl alcohol BA, phenyl ethyl alcohol PEA, chlorohexidin ChX, parabens PB), their typical concentrations and combinations, including the parameters of formulation and the interactions which affect their activity. It deals with the toxicity of these antimicrobial substances, side effects on the eye tissue, and alternatives to the use of antimicrobial agents. PMID:15218731

Sklubalová, Z

2004-05-01

203

The Anticancer Agent Adriamycin Can be Actively Cytotoxic without Entering Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The antineoplastic agent adriamycin was coupled to an insoluble agarose support. This material was actively cytotoxic to L1210 cells in culture under conditions in which no free adriamycin could enter the cell. It is concluded that an agent whose principal target was previously thought to be DNA can exert its cytotoxic action solely by interaction at the cell surface.

Tritton, Thomas R.; Yee, Gene

1982-07-01

204

Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning: Independent versus Cooperative Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent human agents exist in a cooperativesocial environment that facilitateslearning. They learn not only by trialand-error, but also through cooperation bysharing instantaneous information, episodicexperience, and learned knowledge. Thekey investigations of this paper are, "Giventhe same number of reinforcement learningagents, will cooperative agents outperformindependent agents who do not communicateduring learning?" and "What is the pricefor such cooperation?" Using...

Ming Tan

1993-01-01

205

On designing economic agents that behave like human agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the idea of constructing theoretical economic agents that behave like actual human agents and using them in neoclassical economic models. It does this in a repeated-choice setting by postulating artificial agents who use a learning algorithm calibrated against human learning data from psychological experiments. The resulting calibrated algorithm appears to replicate human learning behavior to a high

W. Brian Arthur

1993-01-01

206

The First International Trading Agent Competition: Autonomous Bidding Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes the bidding algorithms developed for the on-line Trading Agent Competition held in July, 2000 in Boston. At its heart, the article describes 12 of the 22 agent strategies in terms of (i) bidding strategy, (ii) allocation strategy, (iii) special approaches, and (iv) team motivations. The common and distinctive features of these agent strategies are highlighted. In addition,

Peter Stone; Amy R. Greenwald

2005-01-01

207

The Role of Agent-Modeling in Agent Robustness  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key challenge in using intelligent systems in complex, dynamic, multi-agent environments is the attainment of robustness in face of uncertainty. In such environments the combinatorial nature of state-space complexity inhibits any designer's ability to anticipate all possible states that the agent might find itself in. Therefore, agents will fail in such environments, as the designer cannot supply them with

Gal A. Kaminka; Milind Tambe; Chahira M. Hopper

208

Preparation and characteristics of nano-CaCO 3 supported ?-nucleating agent of polypropylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, nano-CaCO3 supported ?-nucleating agent for polypropylene (PP) was prepared by supporting pimelic acid on nano-CaCO3 with two methods. The thermal properties of pimelic acid and nano-CaCO3 supported ?-nucleating agent were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The results indicated that the formation of ?-nucleating agent supported on nano-CaCO3 was attributed

Zishou Zhang; Youji Tao; Zhugen Yang; Kancheng Mai

2008-01-01

209

Liposome encapsulation of chelating agents  

DOEpatents

A method for transferring a chelating agent across a cellular membrane by encapsulating the charged chelating agent within liposomes and carrying the liposome-encapsulated chelating agent to the cellular membrane where the liposomes containing the chelating agent will be taken up by the cells, thereby transferring the chelating agent across the cellular membrane. A chelating agent can be introduced into the interior of a cell of a living organism wherein the liposomes will be decomposed, releasing the chelating agent to the interior of the cell. The released chelating agent will complex intracellularly deposited toxic heavy metals, permitting the more soluble metal complex to transfer across the cellular membrane from the cell and subsequently be removed from the living organism.

Rahman, Yueh Erh (Downers Grove, IL)

1976-01-13

210

Response reactions: equilibrium coupling.  

PubMed

It is pointed out and illustrated in the present paper that if a homogeneous multiple equilibrium system containing k components and q species is composed of the reactants actually taken and their reactions contain only k + 1 species, then we have a unique representation with (q - k) stoichiometrically independent reactions (SIRs). We define these as coupling reactions. All the other possible combinations with k + 1 species are the coupled reactions that are in equilibrium when the (q - k) SIRs are in equilibrium. The response of the equilibrium state for perturbation is determined by the coupling and coupled equilibria. Depending on the circumstances and the actual thermodynamic data, the effect of coupled equilibria may overtake the effect of the coupling ones, leading to phenomena that are in apparent contradiction with Le Chatelier's principle. PMID:16722770

Hoffmann, Eufrozina A; Nagypal, Istvan

2006-06-01

211

Reflective Agents in Metalogic Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a representation of agents by means of theories, and a communication among agents based on reflection, within the metalogic programming paradigm. The semantics of these features is shown to be the classical semantics of Horn clauses. The primitives for agents representation and inter-agent communication are very simple, and non-committal w.r.t. any predefined cognitive model or linguistic modality. Yet,

Stefania Costantini; Pierangelo Dell'acqua; Gaetano Aurelio Lanzarone

1992-01-01

212

Improved coupling for aperture coupled microstrip antennas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An aperture shape that gives significantly improved coupling for an aperture coupled microstrip antenna is described. This 'dogbone' aperture consists of the usual rectangular slot, augmented with loading slots at each end. Measured data show an increase of more than three for the resonant input impedance of an antenna using the dogbone-shaped aperture, as compared with the input impedance of the same antenna with a rectangular slot of the same overall length. The field distributions of both slots are also measured, and compared.

Pozar, D. M.; Targonski, S. D.

1991-06-01

213

Shape Charge Agent Disposing Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A system and method of disseminating lethal and non-lethal agent within a target to cause respiratory and ocular irritation to animals therein by the use of an agent carrying shaped charge munition. Agent is located in a disposer of special truncated cone...

J. R. Krauch T. W. Tranberg

1979-01-01

214

Mobile Agents in Wireless Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The networks that connect handheld wireless devices such as cell phones and PDAs suffer from low bandwidth and a high incidence of network errors. By employing mobile agents, such devices could provide a reliable technology for message transport over wireless links. Mobile agents are inherently distributed software entities that reduce the load on the network when they move. Mobile agents

Luminita Vasiu; Qusay H. Mahmoud

2004-01-01

215

Aborting tasks in BDI agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent agents that are intended to work in dynamic environ- ments must be able to gracefully handle unsuccessful tasks and plans. In addition, such agents should be able to make rational de- cisions about an appropriate course of action, which may include aborting a task or plan, either as a result of the agent's own deliber- ations, or potentially at

John Thangarajah; James Harland; David Morley; Neil Yorke-smith

2007-01-01

216

Intention Reconciliation by Collaborative Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on resource-bounded agents has established that rational agents need to be able to revise their commitments in the light of new opportunities. In the context of collabo- rative activities, rational agents must be able to reconcile their intentions to do team-related actions with other, con- flicting intentions. The SPIRE experimental system allows the process of intention reconciliation in team

David G. Sullivan; Barbara J. Grosz; Sarit Kraus

2000-01-01

217

13 CFR 108.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pursuant to this part. (1) Selling Agent. As a condition...each NMVC Company to appoint a Selling Agent to perform functions...Monitor the performance of the Selling Agent, Poolers, CRA, and...documentation as SBA shall direct by written...

2010-01-01

218

7 CFR 4290.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pursuant to this part. (1) Selling Agent. As a condition of...cause each RBIC to appoint a Selling Agent to perform functions...Monitor the performance of the Selling Agent, Poolers, CRA, and...documentation as the Secretary shall direct by written...

2010-01-01

219

7 CFR 4290.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pursuant to this part. (1) Selling Agent. As a condition of...cause each RBIC to appoint a Selling Agent to perform functions...Monitor the performance of the Selling Agent, Poolers, CRA, and...documentation as the Secretary shall direct by written...

2009-01-01

220

7 CFR 4290.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...pursuant to this part. (1) Selling Agent. As a condition of...cause each RBIC to appoint a Selling Agent to perform functions...Monitor the performance of the Selling Agent, Poolers, CRA, and...documentation as the Secretary shall direct by written...

2013-01-01

221

13 CFR 108.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...pursuant to this part. (1) Selling Agent. As a condition...each NMVC Company to appoint a Selling Agent to perform functions...Monitor the performance of the Selling Agent, Poolers, CRA, and...documentation as SBA shall direct by written...

2013-01-01

222

13 CFR 108.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pursuant to this part. (1) Selling Agent. As a condition...each NMVC Company to appoint a Selling Agent to perform functions...Monitor the performance of the Selling Agent, Poolers, CRA, and...documentation as SBA shall direct by written...

2009-01-01

223

Compositional modelling of reflective agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a compositional model for reflective agents is proposed within which reasoning about observation, assumption making and communication; an agent's own information state and reasoning processes; other agents' information stat es and reasoning processes, and combinations of these types of reflective reasoning are explicitly modelled. The types of knowledge needed to detect, analyse and resolve conflicts that arise

Frances M. T. Brazier; Jan Treur

1999-01-01

224

Fracturing method and propping agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a method of fracturing a formation and creating fractures of high fluid-flow capacity in a well. It is an advantage to inject propping agents along with the hydraulic fracturing fluid, during fracturing operations. These propping agents enter the fractures and hold the fissures open after the pressure is released. The propping agents described consist of an inert core

J. L. Huitt; J. Papaila

1966-01-01

225

Software Agent Technology: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter provides an overview of the rapidly evolving area of software agents and presents the basic aspects of applying the agent technology to virtual enterprises (VE). As the field of software agents can appear chaotic, this chapter briefly introduces the key issues rather than present an in-depth analysis and critique of the field. In addition to, this chapter investigates

Chrysanthi E. Georgakarakou; Anastasios A. Economides

226

Nonlinearity induced critical coupling.  

PubMed

We study a critically coupled system [Opt. Lett.32, 1483 (2007)] with a Kerr nonlinear spacer layer. Nonlinearity is shown to inhibit null scattering in a critically coupled system at low powers. However, a system detuned from critical coupling can exhibit near-complete suppression of scattering by means of nonlinearity-induced changes in refractive index. Our studies reveal clearly an important aspect of critical coupling as a delicate balance in both the amplitude and the phase relations, while a nonlinear resonance in dispersive bistability concerns only the phase. PMID:23939099

Nireekshan Reddy, K; Gopal, Achanta Venu; Dutta Gupta, S

2013-07-15

227

Chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

Ganesan, K; Raza, S K; Vijayaraghavan, R

2010-07-01

228

Chemical warfare agents  

PubMed Central

Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided.

Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

2010-01-01

229

Sophorolipids as antibacterial agents.  

PubMed

Sophorolipids (SLs), glycolipids produced by yeasts, have been reported to have immunomodulating activity and to reduce the mortality rate in animal models of sepsis. In the present study, the antibacterial activities of SLs and several derivatives were tested against a selection of standard bacterial isolates using the broth microdilution method. The SL derivatives tested did not show any significant antibacterial activity in vitro when tested at clinically relevant concentrations. Most likely the reported decrease of mortality rate in the rat septic shock model was not secondary to antibacterial activity of SLs. The SLs may be used as anti-inflammatory agents or immunomodulators without affecting the host's bacterial flora. PMID:19201743

Sleiman, Joseph N; Kohlhoff, Stephan A; Roblin, Patricia M; Wallner, Sabine; Gross, Richard; Hammerschlag, Margaret R; Zenilman, Michael E; Bluth, Martin H

2009-01-01

230

Coupling Integrable Couplings of an Equation Hierarchy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on a kind of Lie algebra G proposed by Zhang, one isospectral problem is designed. Under the framework of zero curvature equation, a new kind of integrable coupling of an equation hierarchy is generated using the methods proposed by Ma and Gao. With the help of variational identity, we get the Hamiltonian structure of the hierarchy.

Wang, Hui; Xia, Tie-Cheng

2013-04-01

231

The value of less connected agents in Boolean networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In multiagent systems, agents often face binary decisions where one seeks to take either the minority or the majority side. Examples are minority and congestion games in general, i.e., situations that require coordination among the agents in order to depict efficient decisions. In minority games such as the El Farol Bar Problem, previous works have shown that agents may reach appropriate levels of coordination, mostly by looking at the history of past decisions. Not many works consider any kind of structure of the social network, i.e., how agents are connected. Moreover, when structure is indeed considered, it assumes some kind of random network with a given, fixed connectivity degree. The present paper departs from the conventional approach in some ways. First, it considers more realistic network topologies, based on preferential attachments. This is especially useful in social networks. Second, the formalism of random Boolean networks is used to help agents to make decisions given their attachments (for example acquaintances). This is coupled with a reinforcement learning mechanism that allows agents to select strategies that are locally and globally efficient. Third, we use agent-based modeling and simulation, a microscopic approach, which allows us to draw conclusions about individuals and/or classes of individuals. Finally, for the sake of illustration we use two different scenarios, namely the El Farol Bar Problem and a binary route choice scenario. With this approach we target systems that adapt dynamically to changes in the environment, including other adaptive decision-makers. Our results using preferential attachments and random Boolean networks are threefold. First we show that an efficient equilibrium can be achieved, provided agents do experimentation. Second, microscopic analysis show that influential agents tend to consider few inputs in their Boolean functions. Third, we have also conducted measurements related to network clustering and centrality that help to see how agents are organized.

Epstein, Daniel; Bazzan, Ana L. C.

2013-11-01

232

Immunoassay of infectious agents.  

PubMed

Immunoassays have evolved for a broad range of applications since the pioneering work of Yalow and Berson who developed the first competitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) for human insulin in 1959. Immunoassay detection of specific antigens and host-produced antibodies directed against such antigens consitutes one of the most widely used and successful methods for diagnosing infectious diseases (IDs). The number and variety of new assay systems that are continually being developed reflect the increasing demand for immunoassays possessing greater sensitivity, speed, and ease of use. This trend has been driven, in part, by the need for improved immunodiagnostic systems to perform rapid testing and counter emerging IDs and biothreat (BT) agents. Another factor driving this trend is the need to integrate immunoassays with more sensitive nucleic acid-based methods for a comprehensive approach. Here we examine the development of immunoassays, some of the key formats used for the detection and identification of BT/ID agents, and the application of these technologies under different scenarios. PMID:14579751

Andreotti, Peter E; Ludwig, George V; Peruski, Anne Harwood; Tuite, James J; Morse, Stephen S; Peruski, Leonard F

2003-10-01

233

Coupled nano-plasmons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple model of coupled plasmons arising in two neighbouring nano-particles is presented. The coupled oscillations and the corresponding eigenfrequencies are computed. It is shown that the plasmons may be periodically transferred between the two particles. For larger separation distances between the two particles the retardation is included. The oscillation eigenmodes are the polaritons in this case. There are distances for which the particles do not couple to each other, i.e. the polaritonic coupling gets damped. The van der Waals-London-Casimir force is estimated for the two particles; it is shown that for large distances the force is repulsive. We compute also the polarizabilities of the two coupled nano-particles and their cross-section under the action of an external monochromatic plane wave, which exhibit resonances indicative of light trapping and field enhancement. A resonant force is also identified, acting upon the particles both on behalf of the external field and of each other.

Apostol, M.; Ilie, S.; Petrut, A.; Savu, M.; Toba, S.

2013-10-01

234

The model coupling toolkit.  

SciTech Connect

The advent of coupled earth system models has raised an important question in parallel computing: What is the most effective method for coupling many parallel models to form a high-performance coupled modeling system? We present our solution to this problem--The Model Coupling Toolkit (MCT). We explain how our effort to construct the Next-Generation Coupler for NCAR Community Climate System Model motivated us to create this toolkit. We describe in detail the conceptual design of the MCT and explain its usage in constructing parallel coupled models. We present preliminary performance results for the toolkit's parallel data transfer facilities. Finally, we outline an agenda for future development of the MCT.

Larson, J. W.; Jacob, R. L.; Foster, I.; Guo, J.

2001-04-13

235

Radioprotective agents in medicine.  

PubMed

The diminished probability of strategic nuclear confrontation alleviates some of the global concerns about large numbers of radiation casualties in the event of a nuclear war. As a result of the protection of the environment, the management of smaller numbers of radiation casualties assumes a more predictable and more specific role confined to accidents in nuclear energy projects, industry, technology and science. Recent experience of the consequences of accidents in nuclear power plants, in the field of radiotherapy and in the disposal of radioactive waste and spent fuel, present the medical and scientific communities with formidable problems if such events are to lead to minimal adverse effects on the biosphere. Whereas it is not possible to predict a nuclear or radiation accident, radioprotection is hardly an issue of health science alone, but rather an issue of the strictest quality assurance in all aspects of the utilization of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. Thus, the medical community concerned with radioprotection will have to confine its emphasis on the management of radiation-induced alterations of the human organism from acute radiation syndromes to the stochastic concepts of chronic alterations of radiosensitive organic systems. Current multidisciplinary research in the field of radioprotection involves all aspects of basic and clinical research ranging from the subatomic mechanisms of free radical formation, macromolecular and intracellular radiation-induced alterations, biochemical and physiological homeostatic mechanisms and organ level manifestations to the clinical management of radiation casualties in a controlled hospital environment. Radioprotective agents, although widely studied in the past four decades and including several thousand agents, have not reached the level of providing the field of medicine with an agent that conforms to all criteria of an optimal radioprotectant, including effectiveness, toxicity, availability, specificity and tolerance. This article discusses the current state of radioprotection in medical therapy, and emphasizes a need for continued research in the area of medical management of radiation casualties from the viewpoint of a realistic probability of nuclear incidents or accidents in the nuclear energy-dependent world at the end of the millennium. PMID:8192608

Durakovi?, A

1993-12-01

236

Depression: The Differing Narratives of Couples in Couple Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How does the spouse of a person with depression take part in constructing narratives of depression in couple therapy? In this study we examined couples' ways of co-constructing narratives of depression in couple therapy. Three couple therapy processes were chosen for the study, one spouse in each couple having been referred to an outpatient…

Rautiainen, Eija-Liisa; Aaltonen, Jukka

2010-01-01

237

Evaluating Competing Agent Strategies for a Voice Email Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports experimental results comparing a mixed-initiative to a system-initiative dialog strategy i n the context of a personal voice email agent. To independently test the effects of dialog strategy and user expertise, user s in- teract with either the system-initiative or the mixed-init iative agent to perform three successive tasks which are identical for both agents. We report

Marilyn A. Walker; Donald Hindle; Jeanne Fromer; Giuseppe Di Fabbrizio; Craig Mestel

1997-01-01

238

Peptide Antimicrobial Agents  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial host defense peptides are produced by all complex organisms as well as some microbes and have diverse and complex antimicrobial activities. Collectively these peptides demonstrate a broad range of antiviral and antibacterial activities and modes of action, and it is important to distinguish between direct microbicidal and indirect activities against such pathogens. The structural requirements of peptides for antiviral and antibacterial activities are evaluated in light of the diverse set of primary and secondary structures described for host defense peptides. Peptides with antifungal and antiparasitic activities are discussed in less detail, although the broad-spectrum activities of such peptides indicate that they are important host defense molecules. Knowledge regarding the relationship between peptide structure and function as well as their mechanism of action is being applied in the design of antimicrobial peptide variants as potential novel therapeutic agents.

Jenssen, Havard; Hamill, Pamela; Hancock, Robert E. W.

2006-01-01

239

Mobility control agents  

SciTech Connect

Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by means of steam drive, for heavier crudes, and CO/sub 2/ flooding, for lighter, mobilizes oil left behind by more conventional methods and displaces it to producing wells. In higher mobility, fingering, and flow of the drive or flood substance through low permeability paths, reduces the efficiency of EOR. Mobility control agents block these permeable paths. Five tests, two at Santa Fe Energy's Midway-Sunset field, one at Conoco's Cat Canyon, and two at Texaco's San Ardo field, are made to address the excessive channelling of steam through ''theif'' zones, and the progressive increase in steam flow through oil depleted, already swept zones. The success of the tests demonstrates the viability of the process by diverting steam, increasing oil recovery, increasing oil-steam ratio, and improving the water cut.

Hammershaimb, E.C.; KuugKraa, V.A.

1983-06-01

240

Agent based spin model for financial markets on regular lattices and complex networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study an agent based microscopic model for price formation in financial markets on various topologies motivated by the dynamics of agents. The model consists of interacting agents (spins) with localand global couplings. The local interaction denotes the tendency of agents to make the same decision with their interacting partners. On the other hand, the global coupling to the self-generating field represents the process which maximizes the profit of each agent. In order to incorporate more realistic situations, we also introduce an external field which changes in time. This time-varying external field represents any internal or external interference in the dynamics of the market. For the proper choice of model parameters, the competition between the interactions causes an intermittency dynamics and we find that the distribution of logarithmic return of price follows a power-law.

Kim, Hong-Joo; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Yup

2008-03-01

241

Impact: a platform for collaborating agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses the Impact platform (Interactive Maryland Platform) for collaborative agents. Impact agents consist of software code with an associated wrapper that agentizes the code. A set of specialized servers facilitate agent interoperability in an application-independent manner

Khaled A. Arisha; Fatma Ozcan; Robert Ross; V. S. Subrahmanian; T. Eiter; S. Kraus

1999-01-01

242

Agent-based enterprise integration  

SciTech Connect

The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. The enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of the effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses the planned future work.

N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

1998-12-01

243

Agent-based enterprise integration  

SciTech Connect

The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. Their enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; intelligently locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of their effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses their planned future work.

N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

1999-05-01

244

Bioresponsive, Cell-Penetrating and Multimeric MR Contrast Agents  

PubMed Central

Conspectus Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become increasingly popular in molecular imaging and clinical radiology because it is non-invasive and capable of producing three-dimensional representations of opaque organisms with high spatial and temporal resolution. While approximately 35% of all clinical MR scans utilize contrast media, a primary limitation of MR imaging is the low sensitivity to detect contrast agents requiring high concentrations of agent for enhanced signal intensity (0.1-0.6 mM).1 A number of strategies have been employed to amplify the observed in vivo signal of MR contrast agents. Approaches include attachment of Gd(III) chelates to polymers, proteins and particles, encapsulation into micelles and caged structures, and targeting to receptors. While each of these approaches has yielded significant increases in the relaxivity of MR contrast agents (and therefore sensitivity), all of these classes of complexes possess intrinsic background signal and function solely as anatomical reporters due to their constitutive activity. In order to reduce the background signal and simultaneously create probes that are modulated by biochemical events, caged complexes were designed to coordinatively saturate the paramagnetic ion. Coupled with amplification strategies, these agents represent a means to selectively modulate the observed MR signal and function as in vivo biochemical reporters. For example, to create an in vivo MR assay of enzymatic activities and secondary messengers, agents have been designed and synthesized with removable protection groups that largely prevent access of water to a paramagnetic center. By limiting the access of bulk water (q-modulation) the unprocessed agent is designed to be an ineffective contrast agent, and hence serves as a reliable marker for regions of enzyme activity or secondary messengers. In this Account we describe our results toward designing new classes of MR agents that are i. responsive to in vivo physiological or biochemical events ii. cell-permeable to increase local concentration, and iii. attached to large molecules or are synthesized with multiply labeled conjugates for signal amplification.

Major, Jody L.; Meade, Thomas J.

2009-01-01

245

Agent-based computational economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Agent-based computational,economics,(ACE) is the computational study of economies modeled as evolving systems of autonomous interacting agents. Starting from initial conditions, specified by the modeler, the computational economy evolves over time as its constituent agents repeatedly interact with each other and learn from these interactions. ACE is therefore a bottom-up culture-dish approach,to the study of economic,systems. This chapter,discusses the key

Leigh Tesfatsion

2007-01-01

246

Communicative Actions for Artificial Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper considers,the semantics,of the agent com- munication,language,KQML. By using,this language for communication, agents will be able to request and provide services. Indeed, numerous projects have shown,how the language,can profitably,support,in- teroperation among distributed agents. However, he- fore becoming a widely-accepted standard, it would be worthwhile to examine the language in detail, espe-

Philip R. Cohen; Hector J. Levesque

1995-01-01

247

Ubiquitous Intelligence in Agent Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agent mining, namely the interaction and integration of multi-agent and data mining, has emerged as a very promising research\\u000a area. While many mutual issues exist in both multi-agent and data mining areas, most of them can be described in terms of\\u000a or related to ubiquitous intelligence. It is certainly very important to define, specify, represent, analyze and utilize ubiquitous\\u000a intelligence

Longbing Cao; Dan Luo; Chengqi Zhang

2009-01-01

248

Evolutionary Computing and Negotiating Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated negotiation has been of particular interest due to the relevant role that negotiation plays among trading agents.\\u000a This paper presents two types of agent architecture: Case-Based and Fuzzy, tomodel an agent negotiation strategy. At each step of the negotiation process these architectures fix the weighted combination\\u000a of tactics to employ and the parameter values related to these tactics. When

Noyda Matos; Carles Sierra

1998-01-01

249

Agent Based Distributed Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents an agent-based distributed data mining approach dealing with heterogeneous databases located at different\\u000a sites. It introduces a modified decision tree algorithm on an agent based framework, which produces an accurate global model\\u000a without transferring data between agents. The novel approach is evaluated over a test bed of texture feature data of 184 aerial\\u000a photograph images. The experimental

Sung Wook Baik; Jerzy W. Bala; Ju Sang Cho

2004-01-01

250

Therapy for nerve agent poisoning.  

PubMed

Neurologists need to familiarize themselves with nerve agents, the most toxic of the chemical warfare agents. Their mode of action lies within the nervous system, and nonneurologists will look to neurologists for expert advice on therapy. These agents cause rapid-onset cholinergic crisis amenable to prompt treatment with specific antidotes. Experience on the battlefield and in terrorist attacks demonstrates that therapy saves lives. PMID:15148139

Newmark, Jonathan

2004-05-01

251

Coupled Analytic Maps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We consider a lattice of weakly coupled expanding circle maps. We construct, via a cluster expansion of the Perron-Frobenius operator, an invariant measure for these infinite dimensional dynamical systems which exhibits space-time chaos.

J. Bricmont A. Kupiainen

1994-01-01

252

Coupling in the Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

The performance of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at the commencement of run Ib was far below expectations. After a frustrating period of several months, a low-{beta} quad downstream of the interaction point at B0 was found to be rolled. This rolled quadrupole coupled the horizontal and vertical motion of the Tevatron beams. It also made matching the beam from the Main Ring to the Tevatron impossible, resulting in emittance blow up on injection. The net result of the roll was a significant reduction in the Tevatron luminosity. When the roll in the quadrupole was corrected the performance of the Tevatron improved dramatically. This note will discuss the experimental data indicating the presence of coupling and subsequent calculations which show how coupling an affect the luminosity. It is not intended to exhaust a discussion of coupling, which hopefully will be understood well enough to be discussed in a subsequent note.

Gelfand, N.M.

1994-12-01

253

Extrospection: Agents Reasoning About the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current practices for agent-infrastructure interaction en- force agent designers to hard code the name and the use of the infrastructure components in the agent. Therefore, agents can only function within an environment which is a priori known to the agent designer. Even in these en- vironments, agents are not robust against the modification or failure of the infrastructures that may

Daghan L. Acay; Philippe Pasquier; Liz Sonenberg

254

Developing Multi-agent Systems with JADE  

Microsoft Academic Search

JADE (Java Agent Development Framework) is a software framework to make easy the development of multi-agent applications in compliance with the FIPA specifications. JADE can then be considered a middle-ware that implements an efficient agent platform and supports the development of multi agent systems. JADE agent platform tries to keep high the performance of a distributed agent system implemented with

Fabio Bellifemine; Agostino Poggi; Giovanni Rimassa

2000-01-01

255

Module coupling and predictability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successive coupling of several nonlinear submodules seems to be the implicit master strategy of the current world-wide modelling endeavour. The process of coupling is investigated by using different methods of examining low order coupled atmosphere-ocean systems. As a first step, a coupled atmosphere-ocean system, based on the Lorenz84 atmosphere is considered, operated in a forced versus the truly coupled mode. In [1] it is shown that forcing cannot emulate the fully coupled system, yet quite the contrary, generates time series of intermittently high predictability ("locking"). Standard linear stability analysis is incapable to explain the locking phenomenon. While regions of linear asymptotic stability can be evaluated, it turns out that this criterion is too conservative and does not explain the standard locking situation, as the trajectory periodically leaves the region of stability during a locking phase. We therefore propose that the locking phenomenon needs to be analysed in the framework of non-linear dynamics. Preliminary analysis of the statistic of locking-periods displays a similarity to type III intermittency. Bifurcation diagrams obtained from the continuation software AUTO indicate a rich phase space structure which makes the interpretation of the locking phenomenon intricate. Systematic variation of coupling constants appears to be a promising task as the key effects could be followed into parameter regimes of more transparent phase space structure. begin{thebibliography}{0} bibitem{Wittenberg98}A. T. Wittenberg, J. L. Anderson. Dynamical implications of prescribing part of a coupled system: Results from a low order model. Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 5: 167-179, 1998.

Knopf, B.; Held, H.

2003-04-01

256

Multiphysics Coupling of Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the coupling of codes for the solution of multi{component multi{phase ow problems in the subsurface. The coupled codes simulate the owand transport in a porous reservoir which can be decomposed into several parts,based on the number and type of uids which ow there. Each part is associatedwith a physical model which comprises a set of conservation equations, constitutivelaws

Malgorzata Peszynska; Qin Lu; Mary F. Wheeler

2000-01-01

257

Coupled transverse motion  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic field in an accelerator or a storage ring is usually so designed that the horizontal (x) and the vertical (y) motions of an ion are uncoupled. However, because of imperfections in construction and alignment, some small coupling is unavoidable. In this lecture, we discuss in a general way what is known about the behaviors of coupled motions in two degrees-of-freedom. 11 refs., 6 figs.

Teng, L.C.

1989-01-01

258

Concept features in Re:Agent, an intelligent Email agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important issue in the application of machine learningtechniques to information management tasks is the natureof features extracted from textual information. We have createdan intelligent email agent that can learn actions suchas filtering, prioritizing, downloading to palmtops, and forwardingemail to voicemail using automatic feature extraction.Our agent's new feature extraction approach is basedon first learning concepts present within the mail, then

Gary Boone

1998-01-01

259

Agent based process management: applying intelligent agents to workflow  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an Agent-based Process Management System (APMS) architecture that combines recent developments in autonomous agent technology and distributed computing platforms. It argues that a service-oriented view is required in order to meet the requirements of open distributed enterprises, now and in the future. This approach embraces and fully supports the decentralisation of responsibility and local autonomy, within and

P. D. O'BRIEN; W. E. Wiegand

1998-01-01

260

Autonomous Bidding Agents in the Trading Agent Competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an overview of strategies developed for the Trading Agent Competition held in July, 2000 in Boston. Highlighted are the common aspects and the distinct features of the four top-scoring agents in terms of (i) bidding strategy, (ii) allocation strategy, (iii) special approaches, and (iv) team motivations. Following the discussion of strategies, we offer suggestions based on the

Amy R. Greenwald; Peter Stone

2001-01-01

261

Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

262

Agent Assignment for Process Management: Agent Performance Evaluation Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convergence of data mining and process management is ideal - but still limited. An example of such a convergence is presented in the form of APE Framework that addresses the problem of static-agent-assignment-strategies in Workflow Management Systems (WfMS) - one cause of poor business process performance since all eligible agents may be assigned to a task instead of only assigning

Ramzan Talib; Bernhard Volz; Stefan Jablonski

2010-01-01

263

Agent Mining: The Synergy of Agents and Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous agents and multiagent systems (or agents) and data mining and knowledge discovery (or data mining) are two of the most active areas in information technology. Ongoing research has revealed a number of intrinsic challenges and problems facing each area, which can't be addressed solely within the confines of the respective discipline. A profound insight of bringing these two communities

Longbing Cao; Vladimir Gorodetsky; Pericles A. Mitkas

2009-01-01

264

Coupling of iodotyrosine catalyzed by human thyroid peroxidase in vitro.  

PubMed

The coupling of iodotyrosine (coupling reaction) is one of the least studied in the formation of thyroid hormone, particularly in human thyroid diseases. This paper describes a method of measuring iodotyrosine coupling catalyzed by human thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in vitro. There were two important requirements to demonstrate the coupling reaction: 1) thyroglobulin with a low thyroid hormone content, and 2) partially purified TPO. Thyroglobulin with low thyroid hormone content was obtained from Grave's and follicular adenoma tissues after propylthiouracil (PTU) therapy and L-T4 therapy, respectively. TPO was prepared from Graves' thyroid by solubilizing the 100,000 X g pellet of thyroid homogenate with sodium deoxycholate and trypsin, followed by Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration. Before the coupling reaction, thyroglobulin was iodinated with chloramine-T and potassium iodide, followed by dialysis. The coupling reaction was carried out by incubating newly iodinated thyroglobulin with TPO, diiodotyrosine, a coupling stimulator, and a H2O2-generating system (glucose and glucose oxidase) for 20 min at 37 C. After thyroglobulin was digested with Pronase, the thyroid hormone content of the thyroid digest was measured by RIA. Coupling activity was measured by the amount of newly formed T3 (nanograms of T3 per mg thyroglobulin). The time course of coupling reaction showed a progressive increase in coupling activity up to 30 min, and the reaction was temperature and pH dependent, with a pH optimum of 7.0. Coupling activity in the presence of H2O2 and TPO was 43 +/- 5.0 ng T3/mg thyroglobulin (mean +/- SD of triplicate samples), and addition of diiodotyrosine to the H2O2-TPO system caused a nearly 3-fold increase in coupling activity. This method has potential utilization for measurement of peroxidase coupling activity, since there was a linear relationship between the measured coupling activity and the amount of added TPO when the TPO concentration was over 3 micrograms/300 microliter. Methimazole (MMI) and PTU had similar potencies in inhibiting the TPO-catalyzed coupling reaction, whereas MMI was distinctly more potent than PTU as an inhibitor of TPO-mediated iodination in vitro. The different potencies of MMI in the two reactions suggest that different inhibitory mechanisms may be involved in iodination and coupling. The reducing agent, sodium metabisulfite, was also found to be a more potent inhibitor of the TPO-mediated coupling reaction than of the TPO-mediated iodination reaction. The method of iodotyrosine coupling described here may be useful to investigate the coupling step of thyroid hormone formation in human thyroid diseases. PMID:3838997

Sugawara, M

1985-06-01

265

Contrast agents for MRI.  

PubMed

Contrast agents are divided into two categories. The first one is paramagnetic compounds, including lanthanides like gadolinium, which mainly reduce the longitudinal (T1) relaxation property and result in a brighter signal. The second class consists of super-paramagnetic magnetic nanoparticles (SPMNPs) such as iron oxides, which have a strong effect on the transversal (T2) relaxation properties. SPMNPs have the potential to be utilized as excellent probes for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For instance, clinically benign iron oxide and engineered ferrite nanoparticles provide a good MRI probing capability for clinical applications. Furthermore, the limited magnetic property and inability to escape from the reticuloendothelial system (RES) of the used nanoparticles impede their further advancement. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the engineered magnetic nanoparticle probes for the next-generation molecular MRI. Considering the importance of MRI in diagnosing diseases, this paper presents an overview of recent scientific achievements in the development of new synthetic SPMNP probes whereby the sensitive and target-specific observation of biological events at the molecular and cellular levels is feasible. PMID:24094150

Shokrollahi, H

2013-07-18

266

A Verification Logic for GOAL Agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although there has been a growing body of literature on verification of agents programs, it has been difficult to design a verification logic for agent programs that fully characterizes such programs and to connect agent programs to agent theory. The challenge is to define an agent programming language that defines a computational framework but also allows for a logical characterization useful for verification. The agent programming language GOAL has been originally designed to connect agent programming to agent theory and we present additional results here that GOAL agents can be fully represented by a logical theory. GOAL agents can thus be said to execute the corresponding logical theory.

Hindriks, K. V.

267

Empathic Touch by Relational Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a series of experiments with an agent designed to model human conversational touch-capable of physically touching users in synchrony with speech and other nonverbal communicative behavior-and its use in expressing empathy to users in distress. The agent is composed of an animated human face that is displayed on a monitor affixed to the top of a human mannequin,

Timothy W. Bickmore; Rukmal Fernando; Lazlo Ring; Daniel Schulman

2010-01-01

268

Agent-Based Literacy Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this theoretical essay is to explore the limits of traditional conceptualizations of reader and text and to propose a more general theory based on the concept of a literacy agent. The proposed theoretical perspective subsumes concepts from traditional theory and aims to account for literacy online. The agent-based literacy theory…

McEneaney, John E.

2006-01-01

269

Hypothesis Testing for Complex Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

As agents approach animal-like complexity, evaluat- ing them becomes as difficult as evaluating animals. This paper describes the application of techniques for characterizing animal behavior to the evaluation of com- plex agents. We describe the conditions that lead to the behavioral variability that requires experimental meth- ods. We then review the state of the art in psychologi- cal experimental design

Joanna Bryson; Will Lowey; Lynn Andrea Stein

2000-01-01

270

Insurance Agents: Licensing and Regulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In many respects the insurance agent is the most important person in the insurance transaction. In most cases he represents the public's only contact with the insurance company. The insured depends upon the competence of the agent to provide insurance to ...

G. A. Freedman

1977-01-01

271

The 2001 trading agent competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2001 Trading Agent Competition was the second in a series of events aiming to shed light on research issues in automating trading strategies. Based on a challenging market scenario in the domain of travel shopping, the competition presents agents with difficult issues in bidding strategy, market prediction, and resource allocation. Entrants in 2001 demonstrated substantial progress over the prior

Michael P. Wellman; Amy Greenwald; Peter Stone; Peter R. Wurman

272

The 2001 Trading Agent Competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2001 Trading Agent Competition was the second in a series of events aiming to shed light on research issues in automating trading strategies. Based on a challenging market scenario in the domain of travel shopping, the competition presents agents with difficult issues in bidding strategy, market prediction, and resource allocation. Entrants in 2001 demonstrated substantial progress over the prior

Michael P. Wellman; Amy R. Greenwald; Peter Stone; Peter R. Wurman

2002-01-01

273

Itinerant agents for mobile computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes a framework for itinerant agents that can be used to implement secure, remote applications in large, public networks such as the Internet or the IBM Global Network. Itinerant agents are programs, dispatched from a source computer, that roam among a set of networked servers until they accomplish their task. This is an extension to the client\\/server model in which

David Chess; Benjamin Grosof; Colin Harrison; David Levine; Colin Parris; Gene Tsudik

1995-01-01

274

Thalis: An Autonomous Trading Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of the Internet, trading in electronic mar- ket places has become common practice for an increasing number of businesses and individuals. The Trading Agent Competition (TAC) is an open-invitation forum designed to encourage research into electronic markets and trading agents. The emphasis of TAC-02 and previous com- petitions has been on developing a successful strategy for maximizing

Maria Fasli; Nikolaos Poursanidis

275

Nerve Agent Sensing Biopolymer Wipe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research and development project entitled 'Nerve Agent Sensing Biopolymer Wipe' is directed at developing a simple-to-use enzyme-containing sensor for detecting nerve agent contamination at surfaces, in air and in solution, and to provide a tool for ...

M. Erbeldinger K. LeJeune

2003-01-01

276

Cross-media agent platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a general purpose use and modular architecture of an embodied conversational agent (ECA). Our agent is able to communicate using verbal and nonverbal channels like gaze, facial expressions, and gestures. Our architecture follows the SAIBA framework that sets 3-step process and communication protocols. In our implementation of SAIBA architecture we focus on flexibility and we introduce different

Rados?aw Niewiadomski; Mohammad Obaid; Elisabetta Bevacqua; Julian Looser; Le Quoc Anh; Catherine Pelachaud

2011-01-01

277

Macroeconomic Policies and Agent Heterogeneity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis contributes to the understanding of macroeconomic policies’ impact on the distribution of wealth. It belongs to the strand of literature that departs from the representative agent assumption and perceives agent heterogeneity and the induced disparities in wealth accumulation, as an important dimension of economic policy-making. Within such economic environment, this thesis analyses the impact of three macroeconomic policies,

Charles GOTTLIEB

2012-01-01

278

Belief Generalization for Intelligent Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the important characteristics for intelligent agents is to be able to assess their environments in order to generate correct beliefs to make right decisions. It is always difficult to do so because many factors including uncertain information, knowledge and bounded time will affect intelligent agents to perceive their environments. In this paper, we propose a procedure descriptive framework

Yuefeng Li; Binh Pham

279

Towards Socially Sophisticated BDI Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an approach to social reasoning that inte- grates prior work on norms and obligations with the BDI approach to agent architectures. Norms and obligations can be used to increase the eficiency of agent reasoning, and their explicit representation supports reasoning abou t a wide range of behaviour types in a single framework. We propose a modified BDI interpreter

Frank Dignum; David Morley; Liz Sonenberg; Lawrence Cavedon

2000-01-01

280

Antifungal agents: mechanisms of action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical needs for novel antifungal agents have altered steadily with the rise and fall of AIDS-related mycoses, and the change in spectrum of fatal disseminated fungal infections that has accompanied changes in therapeutic immunosuppressive therapies. The search for new molecular targets for antifungals has generated considerable research using modern genomic approaches, so far without generating new agents for clinical use.

Frank C. Odds; Alistair J. P. Brown; Neil A. R. Gow

2003-01-01

281

Facilitating Human Collaboration with Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ad hoc cross-agency teams are often needed to deal with actual, imminent, or potential crises that involve multiple geographic or political jurisdictions or require coordinated expertise from organizations with different responsibilities. Many of these teams are wholly or partially virtual. We have implemented an initial set of personal and organizational agents, agent-based work flows, and Web services that facilitates the

James E. Just; Mark R. Cornwell; Michael N. Huhns

2005-01-01

282

Collective Intelligence of Networked Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

repeatedly play the games with three strategies. We show that networked agents collectively evolve efficient rules that realize a Pareto-efficient outcome of the underlying games. The essential point is that desirable behavioral rules are emerged spontaneously at the collective level from the pair-wise interactions of networked agents.

Akira Namatame

2007-01-01

283

Sophisticated Players and Sophisticated Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sophisticated player is an individual who takes the action of the opponents, in a strategic situation, as determined by decision of rational opponents, and acts accordingly. A sophisticated agent is rational in the choice of his action, but ignores the fact that he is part of a strategic situation. We discuss a notion of equilibrium with sophisticated agents, we

A. Rustichini

1998-01-01

284

Directions for Agent Model Checking*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this chapter we provide a perspective on current and future work in the area of agent model-checking. In particular, we describe our approach, which was the first to provide comprehensive verification of practical agent programming languages. It provides a library of general agent concepts that has been formally defined and implemented in Java, upon which interpreters for various agent programming languages can be succinctly programmed. The Java library has been prepared so that it can be efficiently used with an existing Java model checker, thus facilitating the verification of (heterogeneous) multi-agent programs. Besides giving an overview of our approach, in this chapter we identify its current shortfalls and discuss where we aim to target future development.

Bordini, R. H.; Dennis, L. A.; Farwer, B.; Fisher, M.

285

Intelligent Agents in Physics Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intelligent Agents are being applied in a wide range of processes and everyday applications. Their development is not new, in recent years they have had an increased attention and design; like learning and mentoring tools. In this work we discuss the definition of what an intelligent agent is; how they are applied; how they look like; recent implementations of agents; agents as support in the learning process, more precisely intelligent tutors; their state in Latin-American countries and future developments and trends that will permit a better communication between people and agents. Also we present an Intelligent Tutor applied as a tool for improving high-school students' skills and reasoning for the first five topics of Mechanics curricula.

Sánchez-Guzmán, D.; Mora, César

2010-07-01

286

Photodynamic Agents with Anti-metastatic Activities.  

PubMed

A new concept in multifunctional anticancer agents is demonstrated. Tetrakis-(diisopropyl-guanidino) zinc phthalocyanine (Zn-DIGP) exhibits excellent properties as a photodynamic therapy (PDT) agent, as well as potential anti-metastatic activities in vivo. Zn-DIGP exhibits good cellular uptake and low toxicity in the dark (EC50 > 80 ?M) and is well tolerated upon its intravenous injection into mice at 8 mg/kg. Upon photoexcitation with red laser light (660 nm), Zn-DIGP exhibits a high quantum yield for singlet oxygen formation (? ? 0.51) that results in potent phototoxicity to cell cultures (EC50 ? 0.16 ?M). Zn-DIGP is also capable of inhibiting the formation of tumor colonies in the lungs of C57BL/6 mice injected with B16F10 cells. Zn-DIGP therefore inhibits cancer growth by both light-dependent and light-independent pathways. The anti-metastatic activities of Zn-DIGP possibly result from its ability to interfere with the signaling between chemokine CXCL10 and the G protein-coupled receptor CXCR3. Zn-DIGP is a competitive inhibitor of CXCR3 activation (IC50 = 3.8 ?M) and selectively inhibits downstream events such as CXCL10-activated cell migration. Consistent with the presence of feedback regulation between CXCR3 binding and CXCL10 expression, Zn-DIGP causes overexpression of CXCL10. Interestingly, Zn-DIGP binds to CXCR3 without activating the receptor yet is able to cause endocytosis and degradation of this GPCR. To the best of our knowledge, Zn-DIGP is the first PDT agent that can facilitate the photodynamic treatment of primary tumors while simultaneously inhibiting the formation of metastatic tumor colonies by a light-independent mode of action. PMID:23672401

Vummidi, Balayeshwanth R; Noreen, Faiza; Alzeer, Jawad; Moelling, Karin; Luedtke, Nathan W

2013-05-28

287

Employment Decisions Supporting Organizations of Autonomous Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key aspect of organization is that one or more agents perform tasks at the direction of another, supervising, agent. We model a set of individual actors using intelligent agents. These agents self-interestedly choose products to produce and to consume. Our initially-identical autonomous agents self-interestedly form organizations, with the employing and employed agents performing separate value computations. Use of agents,

Foster Mcgeary; Keith Decker

2003-01-01

288

Palladium catalysis in the synthesis of medicinal agents.  

PubMed

Palladium-catalyzed reactions are having a great impact on the synthesis of medicinal agents due to their ability to form carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds effectively. Quite often the palladium-catalyzed step(s) in a synthesis is key to the overall strategy for preparing a drug candidate. The diversity of the coupling processes is being broadened by the availability of new functionalities for the oxidative addition and transmetalation steps. In addition, the development of new ligands, or the application of existing ligands, is playing a large role in expanding the choices of coupling partners. Traditionally, palladium reactions have constructed achiral systems, however, the number of successful asymmetric syntheses with palladium chemistry is growing. This review will cover the variety of coupling reactions that have been applied to drug synthesis, with representative examples highlighted from the recent literature. PMID:19649833

Larsen, R D

1999-11-01

289

EMP coupling to ships  

SciTech Connect

Scale-model tests were conducted to establish the adequacy and limitations of model measurements as tools for predicting electromagnetic pulse (EMP) coupling voltages and currents to the critical antennas, cables, and metallic structures on ships. The scale-model predictions are compared with the results of the full-scale EMP simulation test of the Canadian ASW ship, HMCS Huron. (The EMP coupling predictions in this report were made without prior knowledge of the results of the data from the HMCS Huron tests.) This report establishes that the scale-model tests in conjunction with the data base from EMP coupling modules provides the necessary information for source model development and permits effective, low-cost study of particular system configurations. 184 figures, 9 tables.

Deadrick, F.J.; Cabayan, H.S.; Kunz, K.F.; Bevensee, R.M.; Martin, L.C.; Egbert, R.W.

1980-01-01

290

Effects of biocontrol agents on lipid and protein composition of Indian mustard seeds from plants infected with Alternaria species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were carried out with Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Cv RLM 1359) to investigate the influence of biocontrol agents on seeds from plants infected with Alternaria blight. The biocontrol agents viz, Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis were applied as seed treatment\\/seed treatment coupled with spray on 30 and 60 days after sowing of seeds in experimental

Sucheta Sharma; Jagjit Singh; Gurcharan D. Munshi; Satish K. Munshi

2010-01-01

291

Agent Communications using Distributed Metaobjects  

SciTech Connect

There are currently two proposed standards for agent communication languages, namely, KQML (Finin, Lobrou, and Mayfield 1994) and the FIPA ACL. Neither standard has yet achieved primacy, and neither has been evaluated extensively in an open environment such as the Internet. It seems prudent therefore to design a general-purpose agent communications facility for new agent architectures that is flexible yet provides an architecture that accepts many different specializations. In this paper we exhibit the salient features of an agent communications architecture based on distributed metaobjects. This architecture captures design commitments at a metaobject level, leaving the base-level design and implementation up to the agent developer. The scope of the metamodel is broad enough to accommodate many different communication protocols, interaction protocols, and knowledge sharing regimes through extensions to the metaobject framework. We conclude that with a powerful distributed object substrate that supports metaobject communications, a general framework can be developed that will effectively enable different approaches to agent communications in the same agent system. We have implemented a KQML-based communications protocol and have several special-purpose interaction protocols under development.

Goldsmith, Steven Y.; Spires, Shannon V.

1999-06-10

292

Stochastic coupled cluster theory.  

PubMed

We describe a stochastic coupled cluster theory which represents excitation amplitudes as discrete excitors in the space of excitation amplitudes. Reexpressing the coupled cluster (CC) equations as the dynamics of excitors in this space, we show that a simple set of rules suffices to evolve a distribution of excitors to sample the CC solution and correctly evaluate the CC energy. These rules are not truncation specific and this method can calculate CC solutions to an arbitrary level of truncation. We present results of calculation on the neon atom, and nitrogen and water molecules showing the ability to recover both truncated and full CC results. PMID:21231654

Thom, Alex J W

2010-12-28

293

Coupled Transport Protein Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of animated lessons provides examples of how transport proteins interact in coupled systems to produce physiologic effects. The gastric pumps animation depicts the secretion of hydrochloric acid into the gastric lumen. The animation called glucose absorption depicts glucose absorption by intestinal epithelial cells. The CFTR animation explains how the cystic fibrosis conductance transmembrane regulator (CFTR) functions as a key component of a coupled system of transport proteins that clears the pulmonary system of mucus and inhaled particulates. These animations serve as valuable resources for any collegiate-level course that describes these processes. Courses that might use them include introductory biology, biochemistry, biophysics, cell biology, pharmacology, and physiology.

Jack D. Thatcher (Lewisburg;West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine REV)

2013-04-16

294

Quantitative analysis of system coupling  

Microsoft Academic Search

To solve the problem that it is difficult to calculate system coupling in the field of systems science and software engineering, this article discussed quantitative analysis of system coupling. It is difficult to calculate system coupling in the field of system science and software engineering. Consequently, this paper discussed quantitative analysis of system coupling to solve this problem. According to

Yin Zhang; Hua Zhou; Qing Duan; Yun Liao; Junhui Liu; Zhenli He

2011-01-01

295

Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents  

DOEpatents

A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC{sub 16}H{sub 14}N{sub 6}. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques. 10 figs.

Smith, P.H.; Brainard, J.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

1997-12-30

296

Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents  

DOEpatents

A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC.sub.16 H.sub.14 N.sub.6. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques.

Smith, Paul H. (Los Alamos, NM); Brainard, James R. (Los Alamos, NM); Jarvinen, Gordon D. (Los Alamos, NM); Ryan, Robert R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01

297

On the Frozen QCD Coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frozen QCD coupling is a parameter often used as an effective fixed coupling. It is supposed to mimic both the running coupling effects and the lack of knowledge of ?s in the infrared region. Usually the value of the frozen coupling is fixed from the analysis of the experimental data. A novel way to define such coupling(s) independently of the experiments is presented. We argue that there are different frozen couplings which are used in the double-logarithmic (DL) and single-logarithmic (SL) approximations. They also differ for space- and time-like arguments. Our estimates are in a good agreement with the results available in the literature.

Ermolaev, B. I.; Greco, M.; Troyan, S. I.

2013-08-01

298

Using Agent to Coordinate Web Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, agent and web service are two separate research areas. We figure that, through agent communication, agent is suitable to coordinate web services. However, there exist agent communication problems due to the lack of uniform, cross-platform vocabulary. Fortunately, ontology defines a vocabulary. We thus propose a new agent communication layer and present the web ontology language (OWL)-based operational ontologies that

C. H. Liu; Y. F. Lin; Jason J. Y. Chen

2009-01-01

299

Adapting Agent Expertise Based on Future Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a domain where each agent is an expert in a particular task type and can ask other, expert agents, to perform tasks for which it is not an expert. Agents are self-interested and respond favorably to requests for help only if the requesting agent is estimated to provide recip- rocal benefits. It has been shown that self-interested agents

Dipyaman Banerjee; Sabyasachi Saha; Sandip Sen

2004-01-01

300

Predicting agent strategy mix of evolving populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study agent societies where self-interested agents interact repeatedly over extended time periods. In particular, we are interested in environments where agents can form mutually beneficial relationships by exchanging help but an agent would rather receive help than give it. Evolutionary tournaments with competing help-giving strategies can model scenarios where agents periodically adopt strategies that are outperforming others in the

Sabyasachi Saha; Sandip Sen

2005-01-01

301

A Multiagents System to Create Control Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal of this work is the development of a multiagents system that would allow the creation of control agents for the intelligent distributed control system based on agents (SCDIA), including the creation of an agent's source code, its compilation, and incorporation to the SCDIA. The SCDIA has a control agents community consisting of five agents that resemble the

J. Aguilar; W. Zayas

2010-01-01

302

Coupled resonator vertical cavity laser  

SciTech Connect

The monolithic integration of coupled resonators within a vertical cavity laser opens up new possibilities due to the unique ability to tailor the interaction between the cavities. The authors report the first electrically injected coupled resonator vertical-cavity laser diode and demonstrate novel characteristics arising from the cavity coupling, including methods for external modulation of the laser. A coupled mode theory is used model the output modulation of the coupled resonator vertical cavity laser.

Choquette, K.D.; Chow, W.W.; Hou, H.Q.; Geib, K.M.; Hammons, B.E.

1998-01-01

303

Coupling effects in dielectric microcavities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scope and method of study. The simple four-mirror ring cavity model of microsphere resonances is extended to include internal polarization coupling and dual-cavity coupling. This model is extended into the time domain allowing measurement of the cavity quality factor and coupling regime using phase sensitive cavity ringdown. Coupled-mode theory is numerically employed to characterize the strength of dualcavity coupling and

Elijah Brandon Dale

2010-01-01

304

Momentum Coupling to NEO's  

Microsoft Academic Search

We considered the coupling of momentum to near-Earth objects (NEO's) for the purposes of collision avoidance or collision damage mitigation through trajectory modification. The momentum sources considered were pulsed lasers, kinetic energy impactors, and nuclear (or conventional) explosives, detonated above or below the surface of the NEO by the nonnuclear and nuclear momentum sources listed above. We did not address

B. P. Shafer; M. D. Garcia; R. A. Managan; John L. Remo; C. E. Rosenkilde; R. J. Scammon; C. M. Snell; R. F. Stellingwerf

1997-01-01

305

Dual Career Academic Couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Academic couples face great difficulty in locating jobs within reasonable geographic proximity in a depressed and widely dispersed academic job market. This is, in part, because academic institutions hold to recruiting policies appropriate to families where only on member is an academic. Given that the percentage of women on higher educational faculties is increasing and that many of these women

Elizabeth Monk-Turner; Charlie G. Turner

1986-01-01

306

The Pregnant Couple.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports some of the preliminary findings of an investigation of the ways in which married couples experience pregnancy. Demographic, historical, personal, and marital information was gathered through individual interviews with each prospective parent. The 57 variables measured were combined to make six clusters: (1) experience of…

Soule, A. Bradley, III

307

Coupled Cluster Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief overview concerning the motivations and the development of the coupled cluster approach to the many-electron correlation problem for both closed and open shell systems is given. The basic characteristics and applications of this approach are briefly summarized as well as its relationship to other approaches.

J. Cizek; J. Paldus

1980-01-01

308

Coupled spring equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coupled spring equations for modelling the motion of two springs with weights attached, hung in series from the ceiling are described. For the linear model using Hooke's Law, the motion of each weight is described by a fourth-order linear differential equation. A nonlinear model is also described and damping and external forcing are considered. The model has many features that

Temple H. Fay; Sarah Duncan Graham

2003-01-01

309

Coupled distributed arithmetic coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel scheme of coupled distributed arithmetic coding to overcome the de-synchronization problem caused by causal decoding in existing distributed arithmetic coding system. Simulation results show that decoding performance is significantly improved and longer sequences outperform shorter sequences using this approach.

Xi Chen; David S. Taubman

2011-01-01

310

Couples in palliative care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of a life-threatening illness such as cancer brings huge losses, both actual and potential, not only for the individual but also for the partner and family. When one person is seriously ill, the dynamics within a couple are altered. Adjustment is required as they negotiate the range of challenges that progressive illness brings. How people express themselves in

Elizabeth Cort; Barbara Monroe; David Oliviere

2004-01-01

311

Coupled Resonant Pendulums  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover that two pendulums suspended from a common support will swing back and forth in intriguing patterns, if the support allows the motion of one pendulum to influence the motion of the other. Learners are encouraged to experiment with different wire lengths and string tensions to produce stronger or weaker interdependent coupled pendulums.

Exploratorium, The

2012-01-30

312

Exception handling in agent systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical challenge to creating effective agent-based systems is allowing them to operate effectively when the operating environment is complex, dynamic, and error-prone. In this paper we will review the limitations of current \\

Mark Klein; Chrysanthos Dellarocas

1999-01-01

313

Dynamics of coupled human-landscape systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A preliminary dynamical analysis of landscapes and humans as hierarchical complex systems suggests that strong coupling between the two that spreads to become regionally or globally pervasive should be focused at multi-year to decadal time scales. At these scales, landscape dynamics is dominated by water, sediment and biological routing mediated by fluvial, oceanic, atmospheric processes and human dynamics is dominated by simplifying, profit-maximizing market forces and political action based on projection of economic effect. Also at these scales, landscapes impact humans through patterns of natural disasters and trends such as sea level rise; humans impact landscapes by the effect of economic activity and changes meant to mitigate natural disasters and longer term trends. Based on this analysis, human-landscape coupled systems can be modeled using heterogeneous agents employing prediction models to determine actions to represent the nonlinear behavior of economic and political systems and rule-based routing algorithms to represent landscape processes. A cellular model for the development of New Orleans illustrates this approach, with routing algorithms for river and hurricane-storm surge determining flood extent, five markets (home, labor, hotel, tourism and port services) connecting seven types of economic agents (home buyers/laborers, home developers, hotel owners/ employers, hotel developers, tourists, port services developer and port services owners/employers), building of levees or a river spillway by political agents and damage to homes, hotels or port services within cells determined by the passage or depth of flood waters. The model reproduces historical aspects of New Orleans economic development and levee construction and the filtering of frequent small-scale floods at the expense of large disasters.

Werner, B. T.; McNamara, D. E.

2007-11-01

314

Nonsteroid immunosuppressive agents and bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immunosuppressive agents introduced to enhance the action of glucocorticoids and to prevent organ rejection had a dramatic\\u000a impact on reducing the incidence of organ rejection, enhancing donor organ, and hence patient survival following transplantation.\\u000a However, these agents, cyclosporine and tacrolimus, termed calcineurin inhibitors (CIs) also have side effects, including the promotion of rapid and severe bone loss in vivo

Solomon Epstein; Angela M. Inzerillo

2004-01-01

315

Determination of chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethylarsine dichloride was used during WW I as a chemical warfare agent. Residues of this chemical warfare agent and its metabolites\\u000a are still present today and continue to contaminate soil and water.\\u000a \\u000a A gas Chromatographic method for the detection and determination of ethylarsine dichloride is shown. Six dithiols were tested\\u000a as possible derivatization reagents for ethylarsine dichloride. With selection of

Rainer Haas

1998-01-01

316

Thalis: A Flexible Trading Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of the Internet, trading in electronic mar- ket places has become common practice for an increasing number of businesses and individuals. The Trading Agent Competition (TAC) is an open-invitation forum designed to encourage research into electronic markets and trading agents. The emphasis of TAC-02 and previous competitions has been on developing a successful strategy for maximizing pro…t

Maria Fasli; Nikolaos Poursanidis

317

[The generalist and immunosuppressive agents].  

PubMed

The general practioneer is frequently concerned by the follow-up of patients receiving immunosuppressive agents for auto-immune diseases or for the prevention of graft rejection. We here review the side effects of the most frequently used immunosuppressive drugs: glucocorticoids, azathioprine, cyclophophamide, cyclosporine and methotrexate. Important drug interactions are also mentioned. We also discuss the adult vaccine schedule for patients treated with immunosuppressive agents. Finally, the consequences of immunosuppressive drugs on fertility and pregnancy are developed. PMID:11068499

Cogan, E

2000-09-01

318

Hybrid Multi-Agent Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hybrid systems have grown tremendously in the past few years due to their abilities to offset the demerits of one technique\\u000a by the merits of another. This chapter presents a number of computational intelligence techniques which are useful in the\\u000a implementation of hybrid multi-agent systems. A brief review of the applications of the hybrid multi-agent systems is presented.

D. Srinivasan; M. Choy

319

Making Agents Acceptable to People  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because ever more powerful intelligent agents will interact with people in increasingly sophisticated and important ways,\\u000a greater attention must be given to the technical and social aspects of how to make agents acceptable to people [4], p. 51]. The technical challenge is to devise a computational structure that guarantees that from the technical standpoint\\u000a all is under control. We want

Jeffrey M. Bradshaw; Patrick Beautement; Maggie R. Breedy; Larry Bunch; Sergey V. Drakunov; Paul J. Feltovich; Robert R. Hoffman; Renia Jeffers; Matthew Johnson; Shriniwas Kulkarnt; James Lott; Anil K. Raj; Niranjan Suri; Andrzej Uszok

320

The birth of nerve agent warfare: lessons from Syed Abbas Foroutan.  

PubMed

The author reviewed Farsi-language articles published recently by Dr. Syed Abbas Foroutan, which constitute the only firsthand clinical descriptions of battlefield nerve agent casualties in the world literature, and the author compares his comments with US and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) chemical casualty care doctrine. Foroutan's lessons learned reassure us that a robust medical evacuation system, coupled with timely and appropriate medical care of nerve agent poisoning, will save many more lives on future battlefields. PMID:15136687

Newmark, Jonathan

2004-05-11

321

Partner switching promotes cooperation among myopic agents on a geographical plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the coupling dynamics between the evolution of cooperation and the evolution of partnership network on a geographical plane. While agents play networked prisoner’s dilemma games, they can dynamically adjust their partnerships based on local information about reputation. We incorporate geographical features into the process of the agent’s partner switching and investigate the corresponding effects. At each time step of the coevolution, a random agent can either update his strategy by imitation or adjust his partnership by switching from the lowest reputation partner to the highest reputation one among his neighbors. We differentiate two types of neighbors: geographical neighbors (i.e., the set of agents who are close to the focal agent in terms of geographical distance) and connectivity neighbors (i.e., the set of agents who are close to the focal agent in the partnership network in terms of geodesic distance). We find that switching to either geographical neighbors or connectivity neighbors enhances cooperation greatly in a wide parameter range. Cooperation can be favored in a much stricter condition when agents switch to connectivity neighbors more frequently. However, an increasing tendency of reconnecting to geographical neighbors shortens the geographical distance between a pair of partners on average. When agents consider the cost of geographical distance in adjusting the partnership, they are prone to reconnect to geographical neighbors.

Li, Yixiao; Min, Yong; Zhu, Xiaodong; Cao, Jie

2013-02-01

322

Spatial process and data models : toward integration of agent-based models and GIS.  

SciTech Connect

The use of object-orientation for both spatial data and spatial process models facilitates their integration, which can allow exploration and explanation of spatial-temporal phenomena. In order to better understand how tight coupling might proceed and to evaluate the possible functional and efficiency gains from such a tight coupling, we identify four key relationships affecting how geographic data (fields and objects) and agent-based process models can interact: identity, causal, temporal and topological. We discuss approaches to implementing tight integration, focusing on a middleware approach that links existing GIS and ABM development platforms, and illustrate the need and approaches with example agent-based models.

Brown, D. G.; North, M. J.; Robinson, D. T.; Riolo, R.; Rand, W.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Michigan

2007-10-01

323

Studies of Waterborne Agents of Viral Gastroenteritis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The etiologic agent of a large outbreak of waterborne viral gastroenteritis was detected employing immune electron microscopy (IEM) and a newly developed solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA). This agent, referred to as the Snow Mountain Agent (SMA), is 27-3...

R. Dolin

1983-01-01

324

New agents for cancer chemoprevention.  

PubMed

Clinical chemoprevention trials of more than 30 agents and agent combinations are now in progress or being planned. The most advanced agents are well known and are in large Phase III chemoprevention intervention trials or epidemiological studies. These drugs include several retinoids [e.g., retinol, retinyl palmitate, all-trans-retinoic acid, and 13-cis-retinoic acid], calcium, Beta carotene, vitamin E, tamoxifen, and finasteride. Other newer agents are currently being evaluated in or being considered for Phase II and early Phase III chemoprevention trials. Prominent in this group are all-trans-N-(4-hydroxy phenyl)retinamide (4-HPR) (alone and in combination with tamoxifen), 2-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (aspirin, piroxicam, sulindac), oltipraz, and dehydroepiandrostenedione (DHEA). A third group is new agents showing chemopreventive activity in animal models, epidemiological studies, or in pilot clinical intervention studies. They are now in preclinical toxicology testing or Phase I safety and pharmacokinetics trials preparatory to chemoprevention efficacy trials. These agents include S-allyl-l-cysteine, curcumin, DHEA analog 8354 (fluasterone), genistein, ibuprofen, indole-3-carbinol, perillyl alcohol, phenethyl isothiocyanate, 9-cis-retinoic acid, sulindac sulfone, tea extracts, ursodiol, vitamin D analogs, and p-xylyl selenocyanate. A new generation of agents and agent combinations will soon enter clinical chemoprevention studies based primarily on promising chemopreventive activity in animal models and in mechanistic studies. Among these agents are more efficacious analogs of known chemopreventive drugs including novel carotenoids (e.g., alpha-carotene and lutein). Also included are safer analogs which retain the chemopreventive efficacy of the parent drug such as vitamin D3 analogs. Other agents of high interest are aromatase inhibitors (e.g., (+)-vorozole), and protease inhibitors (e.g., Bowman-Birk soybean trypsin inhibitor). Combinations are also being considered, such as vitamin E with l-selenomethionine. Analysis of signal transduction pathways is beginning to yield classes of potentially active and selective chemopreventive drugs. Examples are ras isoprenylation and epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors. PMID:9154166

Kelloff, G J; Boone, C W; Crowell, J A; Steele, V E; Lubet, R A; Doody, L A; Malone, W F; Hawk, E T; Sigman, C C

1996-01-01

325

Caring for Agents and Agents that Care: Building Empathic Relations with Synthetic Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

When building agents and synthetic characters, and in order to achieve believability, we must consider the emotional relations established between users and characters, that is, we must consider the issue of \\

Ana Paiva; Joao Dias; Daniel Sobral; Ruth Aylett; Polly Sobreperez; Sarah Woods; Carsten Zoll; Lynne E. Hall

2004-01-01

326

Increasing gap junctional coupling: a tool for dissecting the role of gap junctions.  

PubMed

Much of our current knowledge about the physiological and pathophysiological role of gap junctions is based on experiments where coupling has been reduced by either chemical agents or genetic modification. This has brought evidence that gap junctions are important in many physiological processes. In a number of cases, gap junctions have been implicated in the initiation and progress of disease, and experimental uncoupling has been used to investigate the exact role of coupling. The inverse approach, i.e., to increase coupling, has become possible in recent years and represents a new way of testing the role of gap junctions. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge obtained with agents that selectively increase gap junctional intercellular coupling. Two approaches will be reviewed: increasing coupling by the use of antiarrhythmic peptide and its synthetic analogs and by interfering with the gating of gap junctional channels. PMID:17568971

Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Haugan, Ketil; Stahlhut, Martin; Kjølbye, Anne-Louise; Hennan, James K; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Petersen, Jørgen Søberg; Nielsen, Morten Schak

2007-06-14

327

Colitis associated with biological agents  

PubMed Central

In the past, there has been considerable focus on a host of drugs and chemicals that may produce colonic toxicity. Now, a variety of new biological monoclonal antibody agents, usually administered by infusion, have appeared in the clinical realm over the last decade or so to treat different chronic inflammatory or malignant disorders.For some of these agents, adverse effects have been documented, including apparently new forms of immune-mediated inflammatory bowel disease. In some, only limited symptoms have been recorded, but in others, severe colitis with serious complications, such as bowel perforation has been recorded. In others, adverse effects may have a direct vascular or ischemic basis, while other intestinal effects may be related to a superimposed infection. Some new onset cases of ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease may also be attributed to the same agents used to treat these diseases, or be responsible for disease exacerbation. Dramatic and well documented side effects have been observed with ipilimumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody developed to reduce and overcome cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4, a key negative feedback regulator of the T-cell anti-tumor response. This agent has frequently been used in the treatment of different malignancies, notably, malignant melanoma. Side effects with this agent occur in up to 40% and these are believed to be largely immune-mediated. One of these is a form of enterocolitis that may be severe, and occasionally, fatal. Other agents include rituximab (an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody), bevacizumab (a monoclonal antibody against the vascular endothelial growth factor) and anti-tumor necrosis factor agents, including infliximab, adalimumab and etanercept.

Freeman, Hugh James

2012-01-01

328

Hydrodynamically coupled rigid bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers a finite number of rigid bodies moving in potential flow. The dynamics of the solid--fluid system is described in terms of the solid variables only using Kirchhoff potentials. The equations of motion are first derived for the problem of two submerged bodies where one is forced into periodic oscillations. The hydrodynamic coupling causes the free body to drift away from or towards the oscillating body. The method of multiple scales is used to separate the slow drift from the fast response. Interestingly, the free body, when attracted towards the forced one, starts to drift away after it reaches certain separation distance. This suggests that the hydrodynamic coupling helps in preventing collisions. The fluid's role in collision avoidance and motion coordination is examined further through examples. In particular, we show that a free body can coordinate its motion with that of its neighbours, which may be relevant to understanding the coordinated motion in fish schooling.

Nair, Sujit; Kanso, Eva

329

Couple therapy for depression.  

PubMed

Relationship problems and depression often influence one another in a bidirectional, recursive fashion. Results from several clinical trials have demonstrated that couple therapy is effective in improving depression and reducing relationship problems. In this article, we describe an approach to working with depression in partnered individuals who are also unhappy in their relationship. This cognitive-behavior approach strives to (a) eliminate major stressors and reestablish positive activities in the relationship, (b) improve communication and problem solving in the relationship, and (c) solidify gains made in therapy and prevent relapse. The typical course of therapy is described and demonstrated in a case illustration. Couple therapy is a promising treatment for depressed individuals in distressed relationships. PMID:22499085

Whisman, Mark A; Beach, Steven R H

2012-04-12

330

Capacitively Coupled Multichip Modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a radically new method for interconnecting electronic packages electrically and mechanically. It applies to Levels 0-3 inclusive, including die-to-die (Level 0 - Level 0), die-to- substrate (0-1), substrate-to-substrate (1-l), module-to- module (2-2), and substrate to cable or backplane (1-3). Pulse signals are used to signal among semiconductor wafers, dies, modules, or other ensembles of components. Capacitive coupling

David B. Salzman; T. F. Knight

1994-01-01

331

Momentum Coupling to NEO's  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We considered the coupling of momentum to near-Earth objects (NEO's) for the purposes of collision avoidance or collision damage mitigation through trajectory modification. The momentum sources considered were pulsed lasers, kinetic energy impactors, and nuclear (or conventional) explosives, detonated above or below the surface of the NEO by the nonnuclear and nuclear momentum sources listed above. We did not address the system tradeoffs or the environmental implications of momentum source delivery.

Shafer, B. P.; Garcia, M. D.; Managan, R. A.; Remo, John L.; Rosenkilde, C. E.; Scammon, R. J.; Snell, C. M.; Stellingwerf, R. F.

1997-05-01

332

Feminism and couple therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

I began this paper as a fairly innocuous statement of gender issues in couple therapy, from the point of view of a psychiatrist\\/family therapist working in private practice. Two factors began to influence the writing. Firstly, much of the material I felt to be appropriate to the subject has already been written well by others e.g. Hare-Mustin (1978), Goldner (1985)

Lois Achimovich

1990-01-01

333

Electronegativity and Coupling Constants  

Microsoft Academic Search

0.00 +0.04 0.08 0.12 0.16 8c FIG. 1. Partial charge on carbon atom obtained from coupling­ constant data plotted vs that obtained from orbital electronega­ tivity calculations. The calculated charge for methane, -0.041, was used to establish a reference point for both scales. The line was obtained by a least-squares fit of the solid circles only (25% s character). The

James E. Huheey

1966-01-01

334

Object relations couple therapy.  

PubMed

The authors describe Fairbairn's view of the personality as a system of parts of self and object in dynamic relation, formed in the context of dependent early relationships and replayed in the intensely intimate and physical relationship of marriage. Through Klein's concept of projective identification, a spouse finds lost parts of the self in the partner, where they may flourish and be reintegrated into the self or they may be held hostage. Marriage is an opportunity for reworking the dynamic relation of parts of the self as they are modified through mutual unconscious interaction with the spouse, but it may become a closed system that inhibits growth of the individual partners. Object relations couple therapy aims to breach the closed system of the unhappy marriage, and offers an enlarged space for understanding that encourages the spouses to provide a better holding environment for each other. Not directive, didactic or symptom-focused, object relations therapy values affect, silence, body language, fantasy, dreams, and transference phenomena as necessary for reaching the unconscious in order to achieve insight. The object relations therapist interprets defenses against anxieties that underlie repetitive patterns of unhelpful behavior, and works toward understanding. As the clinical vignettes show, therapists use countertransference to understand the couple's shared transference from inside their experience. The engine of therapeutic change in this model is the therapist's self. The process of therapy improves the couple's capacity for containing each other's projections instead of refusing to resonate with them or being overtaken by them to the detriment of the self. A cycle of regression and progression in the couple's ability for containment is found as therapy proceeds. The goal of therapy is to enable the projective and introjective identificatory system of the marriage to function with greater concern for the other and respect for the self. PMID:9196784

Scharff, J S; Scharff, D E

1997-01-01

335

Magnetic coupling device  

DOEpatents

A quick connect/disconnect coupling apparatus is provided in which a base member is engaged by a locking housing through a series of interengagement pins. The pins maintain the shaft in a locked position. Upon exposure to an appropriately positioned magnetic field, pins are removed a sufficient distance such that the shaft may be withdrawn from the locking housing. The ability to lock and unlock the connector assembly requires no additional tools or parts apart from a magnetic key.

Nance, Thomas A. (Aiken, SC)

2009-08-18

336

Coupled quantum Otto cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the one-dimensional isotropic Heisenberg model of two spin-1\\/2 systems as a quantum heat engine. The engine undergoes a four-step Otto cycle where the two adiabatic branches involve changing the external magnetic field at a fixed value of the coupling constant. We find conditions for the engine efficiency to be higher than in the uncoupled model; in particular, we

George Thomas; Ramandeep S. Johal

2011-01-01

337

Universally coupled massive gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive Einstein’s equations from a linear theory in flat space-time using free-field gauge invariance and universal coupling. The gravitational potential can be either covariant or contravariant and of almost any density weight. We adapt these results to yield universally coupled massive variants of Einstein’s equations, yielding two one-parameter families of distinct theories with spin 2 and spin 0. The Freund-Maheshwari-Schonberg theory is therefore not the unique universally coupled massive generalization of Einstein’s theory, although it is privileged in some respects. The theories we derive are a subset of those found by Ogievetsky and Polubarinov by other means. The question of positive energy, which continues to be discussed, might be addressed numerically in spherical symmetry. We briefly comment on the issue of causality with two observable metrics and the need for gauge freedom and address some criticisms by Padmanabhan of field derivations of Einstein-like equations along the way.

Pitts, J. B.; Schieve, W. C.

2007-05-01

338

Effect of capacitive coupling on inductively coupled fluorocarbon plasma processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes results obtained using various plasma and surface diagnostics in a study of inductively coupled fluorocarbon plasmas in which the amount of capacitive coupling was systematically varied. It is found that the plasma density decreases while the electron temperature increases as the amount of capacitive coupling is increased at a constant source power level. The rate at which

M. Schaepkens; N. R. Rueger; J. J. Beulens; X. Li; T. E. F. M. Standaert; P. J. Matsuo; G. S. Oehrlein

1999-01-01

339

Theory of agent-based market models with controlled levels of greed and anxiety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use generating functional analysis to study minority-game-type market models with generalized strategy valuation updates that control the psychology of agents' actions. The agents' choice between trend-following and contrarian trading, and their vigor in each, depends on the overall state of the market. Even in 'fake history' models, the theory now involves an effective overall bid process (coupled to the effective agent process) which can exhibit profound remanence effects and new phase transitions. For some models the bid process can be solved directly, others require Maxwell-construction-type approximations.

Papadopoulos, P.; Coolen, A. C. C.

2010-01-01

340

Inhalational exposure to nerve agents.  

PubMed

The respiratory system plays a major role in the pathogenesis of nerve agent toxicity. It is the major route of entry and absorption of nerve agent vapor, and respiratory failure is the most common cause of death follow-ing exposure. Respiratory symptoms are mediated by chemical irritation,muscarinic and nicotinic receptor overstimulation, and central nervous system effects. Recent attacks have demonstrated that most patients with an isolated vapor exposure developed respiratory symptoms almost immediately. Most patients had only mild and transient respiratory effects, and those that did develop significant respiratory compromise did so rapidly. These observations have significant ramifications on triage of patients in a mass-casualty situation, because patients with mild-to-moderate exposure to nerve agent vapor alone do not require decontamination and are less likely to develop progressive symptoms following initial antidote therapy. Limited data do not demonstrate significant long-term respiratory effects following nerve agent exposure and treatment. Provisions for effective respiratory protection against nerve agents is a vital consideration in any emergency preparedness or health care response plan against a chemical attack. PMID:15062227

Niven, Alexander S; Roop, Stuart A

2004-03-01

341

Investigational antimicrobial agents of 2013.  

PubMed

SUMMARY New antimicrobial agents are always needed to counteract the resistant pathogens that continue to be selected by current therapeutic regimens. This review provides a survey of known antimicrobial agents that were currently in clinical development in the fall of 2012 and spring of 2013. Data were collected from published literature primarily from 2010 to 2012, meeting abstracts (2011 to 2012), government websites, and company websites when appropriate. Compared to what was reported in previous surveys, a surprising number of new agents are currently in company pipelines, particularly in phase 3 clinical development. Familiar antibacterial classes of the quinolones, tetracyclines, oxazolidinones, glycopeptides, and cephalosporins are represented by entities with enhanced antimicrobial or pharmacological properties. More importantly, compounds of novel chemical structures targeting bacterial pathways not previously exploited are under development. Some of the most promising compounds include novel ?-lactamase inhibitor combinations that target many multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, a critical medical need. Although new antimicrobial agents will continue to be needed to address increasing antibiotic resistance, there are novel agents in development to tackle at least some of the more worrisome pathogens in the current nosocomial setting. PMID:24092856

Pucci, Michael J; Bush, Karen

2013-10-01

342

Quick Connect Intervehicle Coupling System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper covers the design, fabrication and operational testing of an electronically controlled, hydraulically powered, articulated intervehicle coupling joint which permits rapid vehicle coupling without external assistance and with substantial interve...

I. O. Kamm G. Wray J. Nazalewicz

1984-01-01

343

Linear analysis of coupled lattices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A formalism for describing the coupled two-dimensional motion of high energy particle beams in a storage ring is developed and extended to circumstances where the coupling is very strong, such as for the Möbius twist accelerator.

D. Sagan; D. Rubin

1999-01-01

344

Coupled caloric effects in multiferroics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a conception – coupled caloric effect where the enhanced caloric effects originate from the coupling among magnetic, ferroelectric, and structural degrees of freedom. Specifically, as the magneto-electric case, the magnitude of the coupled caloric effect was evaluated for a ferromagnetic–ferroelectric system using a phenomenological calculation based on Landau phase transition theory. The isothermal entropy change is greatly enhanced by increasing the magneto-electric coupling strength. This work indicates that the caloric effect in a ferromagnetic–ferroelectric coupled system consists of pure magnetic entropy change (?SM), pure ferroelectric one (?SE), and coupled one (?SME) that plays a significant part. The counterpart of the last one in magneto-structural coupled system was usually neglected. Our study provides a route to energy-efficient refrigeration via realization of coupling among various ferroic orders.

Meng, Hui; Li, Bing; Ren, Weijun; Zhang, Zhidong

2013-02-01

345

Hyperbolic-secant mode coupling  

SciTech Connect

This work presents a new solution of the coupled mode equations for a hyperbolic secant spatial variation of the coupling between two modes. An analytic expression is given for the transmission coefficient for arbitrary complex differential propagation constant and coupling strength. The expression is particularly simple in the case when the differential attenuation between the modes is negligible. Design curves are presented in terms of normalized parameters. The hyperbolic secant coupling may be truncated and still yield virtually the same transmission as for infinite coupling length. The required coupling length is indicated by a comparison of the ideal expression with the results of numerical integration of the coupled mode equations. Hyperbolic secant coupling can be particularly useful for the design of low-loss bends and twists in overmoded waveguide.

Doane, J.L.

1982-07-01

346

Relational agents in clinical psychiatry.  

PubMed

Relational agents are computational artifacts, such as animated, screen-based characters or social robots, that are designed to establish a sense of rapport, trust, and even therapeutic alliance with patients, using ideal therapeutic relationships between human counselors and patients as role models. We describe the development and evaluation of several such agents designed for health counseling and behavioral-change interventions, in which a therapeutic alliance is established with patients in order to enhance the efficacy of the intervention. We also discuss the promise of using such agents as adjuncts to clinical psychiatry, a range of possible applications, and some of the challenges and ethical issues in developing and fielding them in psychiatric interventions. PMID:20235777

Bickmore, Timothy; Gruber, Amanda

347

Dual Rationality and Deliberative Agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human agents deliberate using models based on reason for only a minute proportion of the decisions that they make. In stark contrast, the deliberation of artificial agents is heavily dominated by formal models based on reason such as game theory, decision theory and logic—despite that fact that formal reasoning will not necessarily lead to superior real-world decisions. Further the Nobel Laureate Friedrich Hayek warns us of the ‘fatal conceit’ in controlling deliberative systems using models based on reason as the particular model chosen will then shape the system’s future and either impede, or eventually destroy, the subtle evolutionary processes that are an integral part of human systems and institutions, and are crucial to their evolution and long-term survival. We describe an architecture for artificial agents that is founded on Hayek’s two rationalities and supports the two forms of deliberation used by mankind.

Debenham, John; Sierra, Carles

348

Haloprogin: a Topical Antifungal Agent  

PubMed Central

Haloprogin was shown to be a highly effective agent for the treatment of experimentally induced topical mycotic infections in guinea pigs. Its in vitro spectrum of activity also includes yeasts, yeastlike fungi (Candida species), and certain gram-positive bacteria. The in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of haloprogin against dermatophytes was equal to that observed with tolnaftate. The striking differences between the two agents were the marked antimonilial and selective antibacterial activities shown by haloprogin, contrasted with the negligible activities found with tolnaftate. Addition of serum decreased the in vitro antifungal activity of haloprogin to a greater extent than that of tolnaftate; however, diminished antifungal activity was not observed when haloprogin was applied topically to experimental dermatophytic infections. Based on its broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, haloprogin may prove to be a superior topical agent in the treatment of dermatophytic and monilial infections in man.

Harrison, E. F.; Zwadyk, P.; Bequette, R. J.; Hamlow, E. E.; Tavormina, P. A.; Zygmunt, W. A.

1970-01-01

349

Haloprogin: a topical antifungal agent.  

PubMed

Haloprogin was shown to be a highly effective agent for the treatment of experimentally induced topical mycotic infections in guinea pigs. Its in vitro spectrum of activity also includes yeasts, yeastlike fungi (Candida species), and certain gram-positive bacteria. The in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of haloprogin against dermatophytes was equal to that observed with tolnaftate. The striking differences between the two agents were the marked antimonilial and selective antibacterial activities shown by haloprogin, contrasted with the negligible activities found with tolnaftate. Addition of serum decreased the in vitro antifungal activity of haloprogin to a greater extent than that of tolnaftate; however, diminished antifungal activity was not observed when haloprogin was applied topically to experimental dermatophytic infections. Based on its broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, haloprogin may prove to be a superior topical agent in the treatment of dermatophytic and monilial infections in man. PMID:5422306

Harrison, E F; Zwadyk, P; Bequette, R J; Hamlow, E E; Tavormina, P A; Zygmunt, W A

1970-05-01

350

Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to the field of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, also known simply as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). MRI and MRS are particularly useful in medical research and diagnosis. MRI may be used in addition to x-ray imaging. This invention concerns a family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC{sub 16}H{sub 14}N{sub 6}. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques. 2 figs.

Smith, P.H.; Brainard, J.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

1989-01-24

351

Environmentally responsive MRI contrast agents.  

PubMed

Biomedical imaging techniques can provide a vast amount of anatomical information, enabling diagnosis and the monitoring of disease and treatment profile. MRI uniquely offers convenient, non-invasive, high resolution tomographic imaging. A considerable amount of effort has been invested, across several decades, in the design of non toxic paramagnetic contrast agents capable of enhancing positive MRI signal contrast. Recently, focus has shifted towards the development of agents capable of specifically reporting on their local biochemical environment, where a switch in image contrast is triggered by a specific stimulus/biochemical variable. Such an ability would not only strengthen diagnosis but also provide unique disease-specific biochemical insight. This feature article focuses on recent progress in the development of MRI contrast switching with molecular, macromolecular and nanoparticle-based agents. PMID:24040650

Davies, Gemma-Louise; Kramberger, Iris; Davis, Jason J

2013-09-26

352

Adaptive networks of trading agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiagent models have been used in many contexts to study generic collective behavior. Similarly, complex networks have become very popular because of the diversity of growth rules giving rise to scale-free behavior. Here we study adaptive networks where the agents trade “wealth” when they are linked together while links can appear and disappear according to the wealth of the corresponding agents; thus the agents influence the network dynamics and vice versa. Our framework generalizes a multiagent model of Bouchaud and Mézard [Physica A 282, 536 (2000)], and leads to a steady state with fluctuating connectivities. The system spontaneously self-organizes into a critical state where the wealth distribution has a fat tail and the network is scale free; in addition, network heterogeneities lead to enhanced wealth condensation.

Burda, Z.; Krzywicki, A.; Martin, O. C.

2008-10-01

353

Learning Agents in Automated Negotiations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In bilateral multi-issue negotiations involving two-sided information uncertainty, selfish agents participating in a distributed search of the solution space need to learn the opponent’s preferences from the on-going negotiation interactions and utilize such knowledge to construct future proposals in order to hope to arrive at efficient outcomes. Besides, negotiation support systems that inhibit strategic misrepresentation of information need to be in place in order to assist the protagonists to obtain truly efficient solutions. To this end, this work suggests an automated negotiation procedure that while protecting the information privacy of the participating agents encourages truthful revelation of information through successive proposals. Further we present an algorithm for proposal construction in the case of two continuous issues. When both the negotiating agents implement the algorithm the negotiation trace shall be confined to the Pareto frontier. The Pareto-optimal deal close to the Nash solution shall be located whenever such a deal exists.

Chandrashekhar, Hemalatha; Bhasker, Bharat

354

Thyroid dysfunction from antineoplastic agents.  

PubMed

Unlike cytotoxic agents that indiscriminately affect rapidly dividing cells, newer antineoplastic agents such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies are associated with thyroid dysfunction. These include tyrosine kinase inhibitors, bexarotene, radioiodine-based cancer therapies, denileukin diftitox, alemtuzumab, interferon-?, interleukin-2, ipilimumab, tremelimumab, thalidomide, and lenalidomide. Primary hypothyroidism is the most common side effect, although thyrotoxicosis and effects on thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion and thyroid hormone metabolism have also been described. Most agents cause thyroid dysfunction in 20%-50% of patients, although some have even higher rates. Despite this, physicians may overlook drug-induced thyroid dysfunction because of the complexity of the clinical picture in the cancer patient. Symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as fatigue, weakness, depression, memory loss, cold intolerance, and cardiovascular effects, may be incorrectly attributed to the primary disease or to the antineoplastic agent. Underdiagnosis of thyroid dysfunction can have important consequences for cancer patient management. At a minimum, the symptoms will adversely affect the patient's quality of life. Alternatively, such symptoms can lead to dose reductions of potentially life-saving therapies. Hypothyroidism can also alter the kinetics and clearance of medications, which may lead to undesirable side effects. Thyrotoxicosis can be mistaken for sepsis or a nonendocrinologic drug side effect. In some patients, thyroid disease may indicate a higher likelihood of tumor response to the agent. Both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis are easily diagnosed with inexpensive and specific tests. In many patients, particularly those with hypothyroidism, the treatment is straightforward. We therefore recommend routine testing for thyroid abnormalities in patients receiving these antineoplastic agents. PMID:22010182

Hamnvik, Ole-Petter Riksfjord; Larsen, P Reed; Marqusee, Ellen

2011-10-18

355

Erythropoietic Agents and the Elderly  

PubMed Central

Erythropoietin is a peptide hormone that stimulates erythropoiesis. There are several agents in clinical use and in development, which either act as ligands for the cell surface receptors of erythropoietin or promote erythropoietin production that stimulates erythropoiesis. These are known as erythropoietic agents. The agents already in use include epoetin alfa, epoetin beta, and darbepoetin alfa. Newer agents stimulating erythropoiesis (such as continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA) or proline hydroxylase inhibitors that increase HIF-1 thereby stimulating erythropoietin production and iron availability and supply) are under active investigation. Erythropoietic agents have been shown to promote neuronal regeneration and to decrease post-stroke infarct size in mouse models. They have also been reported to shorten survival when used to treat anemia in many cancer patients and to increase thromboembolism. In contrast, rapid decrease of erythropoietin levels as observed in astronauts and high-altitude dwellers upon rapid descent to sea level leads to the decrease of erythroid mass, a phenomenon known as neocytolysis. The relative decrease in the serum erythropoietin level is known to occur in some subjects with otherwise unexplained anemia of aging. Anemia by itself is a predictor of poor physical function in the elderly and is a significant economic burden on society. One out of every five persons in the United States will be elderly by 2050. Erythropoietic agents, by preventing and treating otherwise unexplained anemias of the elderly and anemia associated with other disease conditions of the elderly, have the potential to improve the functional capacity and to decrease the morbidity and mortality in the elderly, thereby alleviating the overall burden of medical care in society.

Agarwal, Neeraj; Prchal, Josef T.

2008-01-01

356

Thyroid Dysfunction from Antineoplastic Agents  

PubMed Central

Unlike cytotoxic agents that indiscriminately affect rapidly dividing cells, newer antineoplastic agents such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies are associated with thyroid dysfunction. These include tyrosine kinase inhibitors, bexarotene, radioiodine-based cancer therapies, denileukin diftitox, alemtuzumab, interferon-?, interleukin-2, ipilimumab, tremelimumab, thalidomide, and lenalidomide. Primary hypothyroidism is the most common side effect, although thyrotoxicosis and effects on thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion and thyroid hormone metabolism have also been described. Most agents cause thyroid dysfunction in 20%–50% of patients, although some have even higher rates. Despite this, physicians may overlook drug-induced thyroid dysfunction because of the complexity of the clinical picture in the cancer patient. Symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as fatigue, weakness, depression, memory loss, cold intolerance, and cardiovascular effects, may be incorrectly attributed to the primary disease or to the antineoplastic agent. Underdiagnosis of thyroid dysfunction can have important consequences for cancer patient management. At a minimum, the symptoms will adversely affect the patient’s quality of life. Alternatively, such symptoms can lead to dose reductions of potentially life-saving therapies. Hypothyroidism can also alter the kinetics and clearance of medications, which may lead to undesirable side effects. Thyrotoxicosis can be mistaken for sepsis or a nonendocrinologic drug side effect. In some patients, thyroid disease may indicate a higher likelihood of tumor response to the agent. Both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis are easily diagnosed with inexpensive and specific tests. In many patients, particularly those with hypothyroidism, the treatment is straightforward. We therefore recommend routine testing for thyroid abnormalities in patients receiving these antineoplastic agents.

Larsen, P. Reed; Marqusee, Ellen

2011-01-01

357

Implementing Agent Teams in Dynamic Multi-agent Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teamwork is becoming increasingly critical in multi-agent environments ranging from virtual environments for training and education, to inform ation integration on the internet, to potential multi-robotic space missions. Teamwork in such complex, dynamic environments is more than a simple union of simultaneous individual activity, even if supplemented with preplanned coordination. Indeed in these dynamic environments, unanticipated events can easily cause

Milind Tambe

1997-01-01

358

Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decision making has since long been an area of interest to scholars from all kinds of disciplines: psychology, sociology, economics and more recently, computer science. A lot of research focuses on finding, isolating and formalizing the factors that are involved in decision making processes of both humans and software agents. The Colored Trails (CT) framework (2) is designed to aid

Bart Kamphorst; Arlette Van Wissen; Virginia Dignum

2009-01-01

359

The Extended Mind: Coupling Environment and Brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes embodiment and cognitive extension as examples of strong anticipation as defined by Dubois. Clark and Chalmers formulated a thesis which states that parts of the environment, if coupled successfully, can become part of the extended mind. This coupling, be it deliberate or unintentional, shifts the observer-world boundary outwards when the observer encompasses parts of his environment. The resulting extended observer forms a new systemic whole, which consists of both the assimilated context and the recalibrated version of the original observer. Recalibration occurs when conditioning and adaptation lead to corresponding changes on the neural level, for instance, when an agent compensates for delays in a control loop. Plasticity is a prerequisite for any successful incorporation of external structures. However, uncoupled parts of the observer must remain inviolate in order to preserve the boundary. Neither the extended mind nor the core observer are absolute concepts. Depending on whether we focus on local-scale interactions or on large-scale behaviour, boundaries are formed at different interfacial cuts, which lead to either an endo- or an exo-perspective or endo- or exo-anticipation, respectively. For biological extended agents which undergo a transition from exo- to endo-states, a tell-tale sign of a successful exo-endo transition is invisibility. This invisibility occurs when the agent is no longer aware of the delay originally introduced into the control loop by the assimilated part of the environment. Explaining the world in terms of effective causality is not sufficient to account for extended minds. The latter require explanations in terms of final causation. For extended minds, this ordering principle comes in the shape of nested hierarchical layers. The interfaces of these layers may have merged for an endo-observer, whereas an exo-observer can make out the detailed structure, including artificially introduced delays. A sufficient condition for an endo-observer to turn into an extended mind is the formation of a new systemic whole as a result of shifting the interfacial cut between exo-and endo-world outwards. However, this is only a necessary condition for an extended agent with strong anticipatory properties. It is invisibility which is a sufficient condition for strong or endo-anticipation.

Vrobel, Susie

2010-11-01

360

Amplifier Principles - Coupling, Pt 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Explains the direct coupling of amplifier stages. Gives the limitations and the main advantage of direct coupling. Discusses rc coupling, showing the schematic and explaining the purpose of the components. Traces the path of an ac signal through the rc co...

1994-01-01

361

Vibrations of weakly coupled nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vibrations of a coupled pair of isotropic silver spheres are investigated and compared with the vibrations of the single isolated spheres. Situations of both strong coupling and also weak coupling are investigated using continuum elasticity and perturbation theory. The numerical calculation of the eigenmodes of such dimers is augmented with a symmetry analysis. This checks the convergence and applicability

Lucien Saviot; Daniel B. Murray

2010-01-01

362

Teratogenesis associated with antibipolar agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To review the teratogenic effects associated with the use of Food and Drug Administration-approved agents for bipolar disorder.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A PubMed search of all English language articles published from January 1966 to December 2008 was conducted. The key search\\u000a terms included all major bipolar agents, cross-referenced with: teratogenicity, teratogen, safety, pregnancy, fetus, bipolar\\u000a disorder, and malformation. The search was augmented with

Ha T. T. Nguyen; Verinder Sharma; Roger S. McIntyre

2009-01-01

363

Antimicrobials for bacterial bioterrorism agents.  

PubMed

The limitations of current antimicrobials for highly virulent pathogens considered as potential bioterrorism agents drives the requirement for new antimicrobials that are suitable for use in populations in the event of a deliberate release. Strategies targeting bacterial virulence offer the potential for new countermeasures to combat bacterial bioterrorism agents, including those active against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Although early in the development of antivirulence approaches, inhibitors of bacterial type III secretion systems and cell division mechanisms show promise for the future. PMID:21707313

Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Atkins, Helen S

2011-06-01

364

Partner switching promotes cooperation among myopic agents on a geographical plane.  

PubMed

We study the coupling dynamics between the evolution of cooperation and the evolution of partnership network on a geographical plane. While agents play networked prisoner's dilemma games, they can dynamically adjust their partnerships based on local information about reputation. We incorporate geographical features into the process of the agent's partner switching and investigate the corresponding effects. At each time step of the coevolution, a random agent can either update his strategy by imitation or adjust his partnership by switching from the lowest reputation partner to the highest reputation one among his neighbors. We differentiate two types of neighbors: geographical neighbors (i.e., the set of agents who are close to the focal agent in terms of geographical distance) and connectivity neighbors (i.e., the set of agents who are close to the focal agent in the partnership network in terms of geodesic distance). We find that switching to either geographical neighbors or connectivity neighbors enhances cooperation greatly in a wide parameter range. Cooperation can be favored in a much stricter condition when agents switch to connectivity neighbors more frequently. However, an increasing tendency of reconnecting to geographical neighbors shortens the geographical distance between a pair of partners on average. When agents consider the cost of geographical distance in adjusting the partnership, they are prone to reconnect to geographical neighbors. PMID:23496584

Li, Yixiao; Min, Yong; Zhu, Xiaodong; Cao, Jie

2013-02-28

365

Magnetic resonance contrast agents in neuroimaging. New agents and applications.  

PubMed

Of the four gadolinium chelates in clinical use worldwide, only three are available in the United States: gadoteridol, gadodiamide, and gadopentetate dimeglumine. Although gadopentetate dimeglumine is still administered in many clinical practices, a consequence of being the first agent developed (1988) and until recently the only agent available, gadoteridol demonstrates a higher index of safety--at least on theoretical grounds. With linear chelates such as gadopentetate dimeglumine and gadodiamide, greater release of free gadolinium ion occurs in vivo owing to lower thermodynamic and kinetic stability. The concern with respect to demetallation and resultant increased chronic deposition of gadolinium ion in marrow and liver is greater with gadodiamide. Drug safety appears not to be an issue at high dose for gadoteridol, the only agent approved in this regards. The safety of the other chelates at high dose has yet to be established. The nonionic character of the two newer agents (gadoteridol and gadodiamide) is not of great importance in current clinical practice, in which most examinations are still performed with a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg given as a slow infusion. The non-ionic nature of the newer MR contrast agents may become clinically important in the future, with more common application of bolus injection and high dose. High contrast dose (0.3 mmol/kg) is advocated in routine MR clinical practice for the evaluation of intracranial metastatic disease. Only with prior evidence for multiple metastases and in patients for whom the detection of additional lesions would not influence therapy can the use of standard dose (0.1 mmol/kg) be justified.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8130948

Runge, V M; Kirsch, J E; Wells, J W; Dunworth, J N; Awh, M H; Bittner, D F

1994-02-01

366

Design issues in mobile agent programming systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article discusses system-level issues and agent programming requirements that arise in the design of mobile agent systems. The authors describe several mobile agent systems to illustrate different approaches designers have taken in addressing these challenges. The following areas are discussed: agent mobility, naming, security issues, privacy and integrity, authentication, authorization and access control, metering and charging mechanisms, programming primitives,

Neeran M. Karnik; Anand R. Tripathi

1998-01-01

367

Beliefs, Stereotypes and Dynamic Agent Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many domains (such as dialogue participation and multi-agent cooperative planning) it is often necessary that the system maintains complex models of the beliefe of agents with whom it is interacting. In particular, it is normally the case that models of the beliefs of agents about another agent's beliefs must be modeled. While in limited domains it is possible to

Afzal Ballim; Yorick Wilks

1991-01-01

368

Reactive Web Agents with Open Constraint Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new programming system for writing web applications with reactive agents, i.e. the agents can have complex responses which depend on how the environment changes. Our prototype system is based on the Open Constraint Programming framework using the Constraint Logic Programming language CLP( ). The benefit of reactive web agents is that activities of agents can be

Kenny Qili Zhu; Wee-yeh Tan; Andrew E. Santosa; Roland H. C. Yap

2001-01-01

369

Building collaborative intelligent agents: revealing main pillars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software agents are persistent, knowledgeable, autonomous, collaborative, and learnable entities. One important feature of software agents is the ability to interact and communicate as a team to achieve more than they could individually. Although the belief-desire-intention (BDI) agent model is possibly the best known and used model of practical reasoning agent; nevertheless, this model does not address the key concept

Nora Houari; Behrouz Homayoun Far

2005-01-01

370

A methodology for building information agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information agents are increasingly being used for efficient and precise information retrieval from the Internet. Most of t hem are handcrafted from scratch and can not easily be adapted to o ther search domains. Targeting on agents for searching semi-structured data, we propose a knowledge- based methodology for easy generation and adaptation of i nformation agents. Agents can be built

Xiaoying Gao; Leon Sterling

1998-01-01

371

Simulating Affective Communication with Animated Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a model of interaction between users and animated agents as well as inter-agent interaction that supports basic features of affective communication. As essential requirements for animated agents' capability to engage in and exhibit affective communication we motivate reasoning about emotions and emotion expression, personality, and social role awareness. Our implemented, entirely web-based system demonstrates animated agents based

Helmut Prendinger; Mitsuru Ishizuka

2001-01-01

372

Predicting Agent Strategy Mix in Heterogeneous Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research has identified agent behaviors or strate- gies that can develop and sustain mutually beneficial co- operative relationships with like-minded agents and can re - sist exploitation from selfish agents. Evolutionary tourna - ments with different strategies can model scenarios where agents periodically adopt strategies that are outperformi ng others in the population. However, such experiments can be computationally

Sabyasachi Saha; Sandip Sen

373

Just-in-time information retrieval agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A just-in-time information retrieval agent (JITIR agent) is software that proactively retrieves and presents information based on a person's local context in an easily accessible yet nonintrusive manner. This paper describes three implemented JITIR agents: the Remembrance Agent, Margin Notes, and Jimminy. Theory and design lessons learned from these implementations are presented, drawing from behavioral psychology, information retrieval, and interface

Bradley J. Rhodes; Pattie Maes

2000-01-01

374

Multi-agent framework for remote diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-agent framework to remote diagnostics with the emphasis on automotive vehicles is discussed. An overview of existing work on intelligent agents is given, and key features of the multi-agent framework are listed. Two real-world illustrations of the proposed multi-agent system are provided.

Danil V. Prokhorov

2010-01-01

375

Simulating Instructional Roles through Pedagogical Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design and empirical validation of three distinct pedagogical agent roles (Expert, Motivator, and Mentor) for college students within the MIMIC (Multiple Intelligent Mentors Instructing Collaboratively) agent-based research environment. The pedagogical agent roles were operationalized by image, animation, affect, voice and script, and were developed in Poser 4 and implemented via Microsoft Agent. Two controlled experiments validated

Amy L. Baylor; Yanghee Kim

2005-01-01

376

Agent behaviors in virtual negotiation environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computational prototype of negotiation behavior is presented where the following occurs: (1) agents employ different concession matching tactics; (2) agents are unaware of opponent preferences; (3) agents incur a cost for delaying settlements; (4) agents vary in terms of goal difficulty and initial offer magnitude; and (5) demands and counter-offers are made and evaluated based on the opponent's degree

Ravindra Krovi; Arthur C. Graesser; William E. Pracht

1999-01-01

377

13 CFR 120.951 - Selling agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Selling agent. 120.951 Section...Service Agents § 120.951 Selling agent. The CDC, with SBA approval, shall appoint a Selling Agent to select underwriters...with the underwriters, and direct and coordinate Debenture...

2012-01-01

378

13 CFR 120.951 - Selling agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Selling agent. 120.951 Section...Service Agents § 120.951 Selling agent. The CDC, with SBA approval, shall appoint a Selling Agent to select underwriters...with the underwriters, and direct and coordinate Debenture...

2010-01-01

379

13 CFR 120.951 - Selling agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Selling agent. 120.951 Section...Service Agents § 120.951 Selling agent. The CDC, with SBA approval, shall appoint a Selling Agent to select underwriters...with the underwriters, and direct and coordinate Debenture...

2013-01-01

380

A COGNITIVE AGENT ARCHITECTURE OPTIMIZED FOR ADAPTIVITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Engine for Composable Logical Agents with Intuitive Reorganization (ECLAIR) is a cognitive agent architecture that allows an agent to quickly adapt its behavior to new environments. ECLAIR addresses two problems in agent learning: generalizing the process of adaptation and detecting when adaptation is required. ECLAIR incorporates the main mechanisms from Piaget's Cognitive-Stage Theory of Development (10), and it uses

ANNA L. BUCZAK; KSHANTI GREENE; DAVID G. COOPER; MICHAEL CZAJKOWSKI; MARTIN O. HOFMANN

381

Artificial Agents and the Art of Persuasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of an experiment in support of our position that communication between Humans and Artificial Agents will only succeed when agents follow the unwritten rules of human social interaction. We have examined two situations of simulated human-agent interaction, where the agent interrupts with sensible but unsolicited suggestions. Our examination of the humans' reactions show the importance of

Paul Rudman; Mary Zajicek

2006-01-01

382

The Epistemological Foundations of Artificial Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A situated agent is one which operates within an environment. In most cases, the environment in which the agent exists will be more complex than the agent itself. This means that an agent, human or artificial, which wishes to carry out non-trivial operations in its environment must use techniques which allow an unbounded world to be represented within a cognitively

N. J. Lacey; M. H. Lee

2003-01-01

383

Normative Pragmatics for Agent Communication Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to communicate is one of the crucial properties of agents. In this paper a normative approach to the pragmatics of Agent Communication Languages (ACLs) is proposed. In an open environment, like the Internet, in which agents are designed in many different ways, it is important to clearly es- tablish the meaning of a standard language for artificial agents.

Rodrigo Agerri; Eduardo Alonso

2005-01-01

384

Modeling Virtual Gardens by Autonomous Procedural Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cultivated virtual plant ecosystems modeling by means of simple memoryless procedural agents is presented. The ecosystem growth is a dynamic process with a tendency to chaos. An agent can move in the ecosystem and perform certain actions defined by users in the agent description file. Agents can seed new plants, pull out weeds, water plants, and communicate by message

Bedrich Benes; Javier Abdul Cordóba; Juan Miguel Soto

2003-01-01

385

Agent and Multi-Entity Systems Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method for studying the functional and temporal performance of systems controlled by distributed autonomous agents through simulation of the agents within larger systems. There are many challenges to developing successful agent systems. Although there are multiple agent architectures or approaches for a given application, it is difficult to predict which is best. The behavior of complex

C. Hein; H. Zebrowitz

1999-01-01

386

Distribution of propping agents in vertical fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study has been made of the distribution of propping agents in vertical fractures. The results indicate that propping agent distribution may be described by 2 parameters: equilibrium velocity, which represents the velocity necessary to maintain the propping agents suspended in the fracturing fluid, and the bank build-up constant, which describes the rate of propping agent deposition when the

R. E. Babcock; C. L. Prokop; R. O. Kehle

1967-01-01

387

Ontological Intelligent Agent for Impulse Noise Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an ontological intelligent agent to remove impulse noise from highly corrupted images. It contains an image noise ontology to represent the image noise knowledge for the agent, a fuzzy inference mechanism for noise detection and removal, and an intelligent learning process for automatically generating the fuzzy numbers of the agent. The working environment for the intelligent agent

Chang-Shing Lee; Mei-Hui Wang; Chin-Yuan Hsu

2007-01-01

388

Mole – Concepts of a mobile agent system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to its salient properties, mobile agent technology has received a rapidly growing attention over the last few years. Many developments of mobile agent systems are under way in both academic and industrial environments. In addition, there are already various efforts to standardize mobile agent facilities and architectures. Mole is the first mobile agent system that has been developed in

J. Baumann; F. Hohl; K. Rothermel; M. Straßer

1998-01-01

389

Identification of Directional Couplings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important piece of information, which can be extracted from parameters of empirical models, is quantitative characteristics of couplings between processes under study. The problem of coupling detection is encountered in multiple fields including physics (Bezruchko et al., 2003), geophysics (Maraun and Kurths, 2005; Mokhov and Smirnov, 2006, 2008; Mosedale et al., 2006; Palus and Novotna, 2006; Verdes, 2005; Wang et al., 2004), cardiology (Rosenblum et al., 2002; Palus and Stefanovska, 2003) and neurophysiology (Arnhold et al., 1999; Brea et al., 2006; Faes et al., 2008; Friston et al., 2003; Kreuz et al., 2007; Kiemel et al., 2003; Le Van Quyen et al., 1999; Mormann et al., 2000; Osterhage et al., 2007; Pereda et al., 2005; Prusseit and Lehnertz, 2008; Smirnov et al., 2005; Romano et al., 2007; Schelter et al., 2006; Schiff et al., 1996; Sitnikova et al., 2008; Smirnov et al., 2008, Staniek and Lehnertz, 2008; Tass, 1999; Tass et al., 2003). Numerous investigations are devoted to synchronisation, which is an effect of interaction between non-linear oscillatory systems (see, e.g., Balanov et al., 2008; Boccaletti et al., 2002; Hramov and Koronovskii, 2004; Kreuz et al., 2007; Maraun and Kurths, 2005; Mormann et al., 2000; Mosekilde et al., 2002; Osipov et al., 2007; Palus and Novotna, 2006; Pikovsky et al., 2001; Prokhorov et al., 2003; Tass et al., 2003). In the last decade, more careful attention is paid to directional coupling analysis. Such characteristics might help, e.g., to localise an epileptic focus (a pathologic area) in the brain from electroencephalogram (EEG) or magnetoencephalogram (MEG) recordings: hypothetically, an increasing influence of an epileptic focus on adjacent areas leads to the seizure onset for some kinds of epilepsy.

Bezruchko, Boris P.; Smirnov, Dmitry A.

390

D'Agents: Security in a Multiple-Language, Mobile-Agent System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile-agent systems must address three security issues: pro- tecting an individual machine, protecting a group of machines, and pro- tecting an agent. In this chapter, we discuss these three issues in the context of D'Agents, a mobile-agent system whose agents can be writ- ten in Tcl, Java and Scheme. (D'Agents was formerly known as Agent Tcl.) First we discuss mechanisms

Robert S. Gray; David Kotz; George Cybenko; Daniela Rus

1998-01-01

391

Leptonic dynamical Yukawa couplings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dynamical origin of the Yukawa couplings is a promising scenario to explain the flavour puzzle. The focus of this letter is set on the role of the neutrino Majorana character: when an O(2)N flavour symmetry acts on the right-handed neutrino sector, the minimum of the scalar potential allows for large mixing angles -in contrast to the simplest quark case- and predicts a maximal Majorana phase. This leads to a strong correlation between neutrino mass hierarchy and mixing pattern. Realistic solutions point to the existence of three heavy right-handed neutrinos.

Alonso, R.; Gavela, M. B.; Hernández, D.; Merlo, L.; Rigolin, S.

2013-08-01

392

Two career couple  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over 150 members of AGU attended a panel session on “The Two Career Couple: Balancing Personal and Professional Life” at the 1983 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco. The panel was sponsored by the Education and Human Resources Committee and was chaired by Constance Sancetta. On the panel were Alice Newman, of The Aerospace Corporation; Mark Zoback and Mary Lou Zoback of U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park; and Judith Moody of ONWI-Battelle and her husband, Thomas Worsley of Ohio University. The audience included many students but was composed primarily of professionals 30-40, with men and women equally represented.

Sancetta, Constance

1984-04-01

393

From actors to agents in socio-ecological systems models  

PubMed Central

The ecosystem service concept has emphasized the role of people within socio-ecological systems (SESs). In this paper, we review and discuss alternative ways of representing people, their behaviour and decision-making processes in SES models using an agent-based modelling (ABM) approach. We also explore how ABM can be empirically grounded using information from social survey. The capacity for ABM to be generalized beyond case studies represents a crucial next step in modelling SESs, although this comes with considerable intellectual challenges. We propose the notion of human functional types, as an analogy of plant functional types, to support the expansion (scaling) of ABM to larger areas. The expansion of scope also implies the need to represent institutional agents in SES models in order to account for alternative governance structures and policy feedbacks. Further development in the coupling of human-environment systems would contribute considerably to better application and use of the ecosystem service concept.

Rounsevell, M. D. A.; Robinson, D. T.; Murray-Rust, D.

2012-01-01

394

Rapid biological agent identification by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chemical Weapons Convention prohibits the development, production, stockpiling, and use of warfare agents (chemical and biological), and requires their destruction. Yet their use persists and has been included in the terrorist's arsenal. Currently, a number of analytical methods are being developed to perform rapid measurements of trace agents to ensure treaty compliance, as well as safe environments for military personal and the public at large. We have been investigating the ability of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to detect bacterial nucleic acid-base pairs with sufficient sensitivity and selectivity to eliminate the need for enumeration used in polymerase chain reactions and culture growth, required by other measurement techniques. The design of a small volume, fiber optic coupled, electrolytic sample cell is presented along with analysis of DNA and RNA separated from non-toxic bacteria.

Farquharson, Stuart; Smith, Wayne W.; Elliott, Susan; Sperry, Jay F.

1999-11-01

395

Parameters in the construction of an immobilized dual enzyme catalyst.  

PubMed

The glucose oxidase and catalase activities immobilized to the gamma-aminopropyltriethoxysilane derivative of nickel-impregnated silica alumina was controlled by several factors. The most important of these was enzyme concentration. In constructing the dual immobilized enzyme catalyst, competition between the two enzymes for available binding sites was observed. The order of addition of the various reactants during immobilization was also important. Higher glucose oxidase activities were immobilized when glutaraldehyde was added concurrently with enzyme, while maximal coupling of catalase occurred if glutaraldehyde was first added to react with the amino derivative of the silica alumina support, excess reagent washed away, and then the catalase added. Bovine serum albumin, which aids in the crosslinking of glucose oxidase, hindered the coupling of the enzyme to the support particles. PMID:175863

Bouin, J C; Atallah, M T; Hultin, H O

1976-02-01

396

The Agent-based Programming Language: APL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agent-based programming has been emerged as a new programming paradigm for the near future. There have been many research work in agent computing. However, the software engineering methodology and programming languages for agent computing are not yet sufficient and practical.This paper proposes a new programming language concept based on the BDI-agent model. The new concept has been prototyped by Agent-based

Chang-Hyun Jo; Allen J. Arnold

2002-01-01

397

A seamless approach to the agent development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a seamless approach to the agent-based software development. We have developed Agent-based Modeling Technique (AMT) to support a seamless development from modeling to implementation of agent-based software. The idea of AMT is realized b y its modeling language - Agent-based Modeling Language (AML) and p rogramming language - Agent- based Programming Language (APL). In this

Chang-Hyun Jo

2001-01-01

398

Learning Communication for Multi-agent Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze a general model of multi-agent communication in which all agents communicate simultaneously to a message board. A ge- netic algorithm is used to learn multi-agent languages for the predator agents in a version of the predator-prey problem. The resulting evolved behavior of the communicating multi-agent system is equivalent to that of a Mealy machine whose states are determined

C. Lee Giles; Kam-chuen Jim

2002-01-01

399

Inter-agent Communication in IMAGO Prolog  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A mobile agent application often involves a collection of agents working together for a common task. For cooperation among\\u000a agents to succeed, an effective inter-agent communication framework is required. This paper describes the design of the communication\\u000a mechanism in IMAGO Prolog. IMAGO Prolog is a variant of Prolog with an extended API for intelligent mobile agent applications.\\u000a It deploys mobile

Xining Li; Guillaume Autran

2004-01-01

400

The Psi Calculus: An Algebraic Agent Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

? is a novel algebraic language for the specification of agents, such as BDI agents, which employ a sense-compute-act computation\\u000a cycle and stored plan execution as the basis of agent behaviour. It generalizes and extends agent architectures such as PRS\\u000a and dMARS in several ways, and possesses a complete operational semantics covering all aspects of agent computation from intention\\u000a step

David Kinny

2001-01-01

401

Automating Belief Revision for AgentSpeak  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AgentSpeak agent-oriented programming language has recently been extended with various new features, such as speech-act based communica- tion, internal belief additions, and support for reasoning with ontological knowl- edge, which imply the need for belief revision within an AgentSpeak agent. In this paper, we show how a polynomial-time belief-revision algorithm can be incorpo- rated into the Jason AgentSpeak interpreter

Natasha Alechina; Rafael H. Bordini; Jomi Fred Hübner; Mark Jago; Brian Logan

2006-01-01

402

Predictive modeling of interacting agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for characterizing communications behaviors has been generalized to a probabilistic model for intentional behavior. Responsive actions are decomposed into measurement, inference, planning and control components) and are predicted as a function of the estimated capability, opportunity and intent of given agents to perform such component actions. This representational scheme enables the generation of process models for predicting capabilities

Alan Steinberg

2007-01-01

403

Representing and Parameterizing Agent Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last few years have seen great maturation in un- derstanding how to use computer graphics technol- ogy to portray 3D embodied characters or virtual hu- mans. Unlike the off-line, animator-intensive methods used in the special effects industry, real-time embodied agents are expected to exist and interact with us \\

Norman I. Badler; Jan M. Allbeck; Liwei Zhao; Meeran Byun

2002-01-01

404

Cooperating Agents for Information Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the vast number of information resourcesavailable today, a critical problem is how to locate,retrieve and process information. It wouldbe impractical to build a single unified systemthat combines all of these information resources.A more promising approach is to build specializedinformation retrieval agents that provide accessto a subset of the information resourcesand can send requests to other information retrievalagents when appropriate.

Craig A. Knoblock; Yigal Arens; Chun-nan Hsu

1994-01-01

405

Coordination in Mobile Agent Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper addresses the issue of coordination in distributed app lications based on mobile agents. The presence of mobile active computational entities makes traditional coordination models based on message-passing, such a s the c lient-server one, not effective, from both the performance and the usability points of view. Indirect coordination models suit better the mobile scenario: interactions occur via blackboards

Giacomo Cabri; Letizia Leonardi; Franco Zambonelli

1997-01-01

406

Toxicity of new spinal agents.  

PubMed Central

The clinical success of perispinal administration of opiates for pain relief has demonstrated the power of manipulating the neurochemistry of the spinal cord. This article briefly discussed reasons for increased interest in new spinal agents and some of the issues associated with determining their clinical safety.

Collins, J. G.

1993-01-01

407

Phosphonium lipocations as antiparasitic agents  

PubMed Central

Phosphonium lipocations were synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of the development of Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma cruzi, etiological agents of malaria and Chagas disease, respectively. Optimal phthalimides and 1,4-naphthoquinone-based lipocations were active in vitro at mid-high nM concentrations against P. falciparum and low ?M concentrations against T. cruzi.

Long, Timothy E.; Lu, Xiao; Galizzi, Melina; Docampo, Roberto; Gut, Jiri; Rosenthal, Philip J.

2012-01-01

408

Gaze-based infotainment agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an infotainment presentation system that relies on eye gaze as an intuitive and unobtrusive input modal- ity. The system analyzes eye movements in real-time to in- fer users' attention, visual interest, and preference regarding interface objects. The application consists of a virtual show- room where a team of two highly realistic 3D agents presents product items in an

Helmut Prendinger; Tobias Eichner; Elisabeth André; Mitsuru Ishizuka

2007-01-01

409

Decaborane as an Oxidizing Agent.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Decaborane, which has not previously been known to act as an oxidizing agent reacts with py4FeBr2(dibromo-tetrakis(pyridine) iron) in benzene to give a compound which, on treatment with tetrahydrofuran yields the high-spin tetrahedral iron(III) complex by...

N. N. Greenwood H. Schick

1969-01-01

410

Nucleotide cleaving agents and method  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a unique series of nucleotide cleaving agents and a method for cleaving a nucleotide sequence, whether single-stranded or double-stranded DNA or RNA, using and a cationic metal complex having at least one polydentate ligand to cleave the nucleotide sequence phosphate backbone to yield a hydroxyl end and a phosphate end.

Que, Jr., Lawrence (Roseville, MN); Hanson, Richard S. (Falcon Heights, MN); Schnaith, Leah M. T. (Redwing, MN)

2000-01-01

411

Heterogeneous agents in financial markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the previous decades, evidence against the efficient market hypothesis has been mounting. As a result, the behavioral finance literature has emerged, which embeds psychological influences in financial economics. The current thesis fits within the behavioral finance literature, and is focused on the fact that bounded rationality also implies heterogeneity between investors. Heterogeneous agents models describe the behavior of individuals

Remco C. J. Zwinkels

2009-01-01

412

Sequential resource allocation utilizing agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many manufacturing systems allocate resources, such as machines, sequentially. Sequential allocation of resources can be viewed as a digraph where each vertex represents resources forming nodes in a distributed system and the arcs represent the allocation. The allocation of such resources can be considered to be a distributed problem. Agents are a distributed artificial intelligence paradigm applicable to distributed problems

Andrew Wallace

2003-01-01

413

Antimalarial agents from plant sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

source of new antimalarial drugs in view of the su ccess with the two important chemotherapeutic agents, quinine and artemisinin, both of which are de rived from plants. This article gives a critical account of crude extracts, e sse- ntial oil and active constituents with diverse chemical structures from higher plants possessing significant ant i- malarial activity, reported during last

Sudhanshu Saxena; Neerja Pant; D. C. Jain; R. S. Bhakuni

414

An Introduction to Software Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

ince the beginning of recorded history, people have been fascinated with the idea of non-human agencies.1 Popular notions about androids, hu- manoids, robots, cyborgs, and science fiction creatures permeate our cul- ture, forming the unconscious backdrop against which software agents are per- ceived. The word \\

Jeffrey M. Bradshaw

1997-01-01

415

Intelligent Agents in Computer Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

As computer games become more complex and consumers demand more sophisticated computer controlled opponents, game developers are required to place a greater emphasis on the artificial intelligence aspects of their games. Our experience developing intelligent air combat agents for DARPA (Laird and Jones 1998, Jones at al. 1999) has suggested a number of areas of AI research that are applicable

Michael Van Lent; John E. Laird; Josh Buckman; Joe Hartford; Steve Houchard; Kurt Steinkraus; Russ Tedrake

1999-01-01

416

Agent-Mediated Internet Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

After fewer than three years as an industry, Internet advertising has grown rapidly and is expected to command an even larger portion of advertisers' media budgets with the next decade. From the points of view of Internet advertisers, it will be very advantageous if Internet advertising can be automatically carried out. Software agent technology offers a new paradigm for advertising

David Siew; Xun Yi

2000-01-01

417

Improving agents using reliable communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in introspective modalities and linear time symmetries do not necessarily obviate the need for web browsers [1]. In our research, we disprove the exploration of agents, which embodies the appropriate principles of electrical engineering. Here we demonstrate that even though semaphores and XML [1] are mostly incompatible, randomized algorithms and write-back caches are mostly incompatible.

Zheng, Jinbin

2013-10-01

418

Oral hypoglycemic agents in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Multiple studies have been published illustrating the use of oral hypoglycemic agents in pregnancy. Glyburide and metformin have been shown to be as effective as insulin for the treatment of gestational diabetes. Both are safe with breastfeeding. Although both glyburide and metformin appear safe for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, more studies are needed to support this practice. PMID:21575798

Refuerzo, Jerrie S

2011-06-01

419

Agent based Control for Microgrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a general framework for the control of distributed energy resources organized in microgrids. The proposed architecture is based on the agent technology and aims to integrate several functionalities, as well to be adaptable to the complexity and the size of the microgrid. To achieve this, the idea of layered learning is used, where the various controls and

A. L. Dimeas; N. D. Hatziargyriou

2007-01-01

420

Agent Simulation of Chain Bankruptcy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have conducted an agent-based simulation of chain bankruptcy. The propagation of credit risk on a network, i.e., chain bankruptcy, is the key to nderstanding largesized bankruptcies. In our model, decrease of revenue by the loss of accounts payable is modeled by an interaction term, and bankruptcy is defined as a capital deficit. Model parameters were estimated using financial data

Yuichi Ikeda; Yoshi Fujiwara; Wataru Souma; Hideaki Aoyama; Hiroshi Iyetomi

2007-01-01

421

Chicken anaemia agent: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chicken anaemia agent (CAA) is a small, unclassified, icosahedral DNA virus with a single?stranded, circular genome. It seems to have a worldwide distribution. Only one serotype of CAA has been found, and all isolates investigated so far are pathogenic for young chicks.CAA causes a syndrome in chickens characterised by increased mortality, anaemia associated with atrophy of the haematopoietic tissues in

M. S. McNulty

1991-01-01

422

Sucker rod coupling  

SciTech Connect

An anti-friction sucker rod coupling is described for connecting a pair of sucker rods and centralizing them in a tubing string, comprising: an elongate, rigid, substantially cylindrical body member, each end of the body member forming means for threadably connecting the body member with a sucker rod. The body member further forms a transversely extending, substantially diametric, generally vertical slot extending therethrough. The body member further forms a pin bore, such pin bore extending transversely through the body member so as to intersect the slot substantially perpendicularly; a wheel member positioned within the slot to rotate in a generally vertical plane. The wheel member has a portion thereof extending beyond the periphery of the body member to engage the inner surface of the tubing string and centralize the coupling; and a pin mounted in the pin bore and supporting member thereon, whereby the wheel member is rotatable within the slot; the wheel member having sufficient clearance between its side surfaces and the wall surfaces of the slot, when the wheel member is centered in the slot on the pin, whereby the wheel member may shift along the pin to assist in ejecting sand and oil from the slot.

Klyne, A.A.

1986-11-11

423

Nonminimally coupled hybrid inflation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the hybrid inflation model where the inflaton field is nonminimally coupled to gravity. In the Jordan frame, the potential contains ?4 term as well as terms in the original hybrid inflation model. In our model, inflation can be classified into the type (I) and the type (II). In the type (I), inflation is terminated by the tachyonic instability of the waterfall field, while in the type (II) by the violation of slow-roll conditions. In our model, the reheating takes place only at the true minimum and even in the case (II) finally the tachyonic instability occurs after the termination of inflation. For a negative nonminimal coupling, inflation takes place in the vacuum-dominated region, in the large field region, or near the local minimum/maximum. Inflation in the vacuum-dominated region becomes either the type (I) or (II), resulting in a blue or red spectrum of the curvature perturbations, respectively. Inflation around the local maximum can be either the type (I) or the type (II), which results in the red spectrum of the curvature perturbations, while around the local minimum it must be the type (I), which results in the blue spectrum. In the large field region, to terminate inflation, potential in the Einstein frame must be positively tilted, always resulting in the red spectrum. We then numerically solve the equations of motion to investigate the whole dynamics of inflaton and confirm that the spectrum of curvature perturbations changes from red to blue ones as scales become smaller.

Koh, Seoktae; Minamitsuji, Masato

2011-02-01

424

Two Integrable Coupled Nonlinear Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by Hirota and Satsuma's results on their coupled KdV equation, twointegrable coupled nonlinear systems are considered. One of them is a coupled Ito system. It is shown that the coupled Ito system is a special case of the (6,2)-reduction of the two component BKP hierarchy while the other coupled system can be obtained from the (5,1)-reduction of the two component BKP hierarchy. By using MATHEMATICA, we obtain the 3- and 4-soliton solutions of the coupled Ito system. In addition, starting from bilinear equations of the other coupled system, a Bäcklund transformation is found and nonlinear superposition formulae are established. Soliton solutions and rational solutions are also derived from these results.

Tam, Hon-Wah; Hu, Xing-Biao; Wang, Dao-Liu

1999-02-01

425

Constructing and implementing an agent-based model of residential segregation through vector GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a geographically explicit agent-based model, loosely coupled with vector GIS, which explicitly captures and uses geometrical data and socio economic attributes in the simulation process. The ability to represent the urban environment as a series of points, line and polygons not only allows one to represent a range of different sized features such as houses

Andrew T Crooks

2010-01-01

426

Synthesis of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and 2-mercaptobenzimidazole derivatives condensed with carbohydrates as a potential antimicrobial agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thiazole and imidazole nucleus, as well as carbohydrates are important classes of compounds found in many natural and synthetic products with a wide range of biological activities. Due to the importance of these classes of compounds as antimicrobial agents, the present article reports the synthesis of a new series of nine compounds based on the coupling of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and

Mauro V. De Almeida; Sílvia H. Cardoso; João V. De Assis; Marcus V. N. De Souza

2007-01-01

427

Efficient Synthesis of a Novel Resorcyclide as Anticancer Agent Based on Hsp90 Inhibition  

PubMed Central

The highly efficient synthesis of a novel heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90)-based anticancer agent, triazole-cycloproparadicicol (5), is described. The key step involves a fragment coupling using “click chemistry.” The preliminary biological evaluation of triazole-cycloproparadicicol is also reported.

Lei, Xiaoguang; Danishefsky, Samuel J.

2011-01-01

428

Coevolutionary networks of reinforcement-learning agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a model of network formation in repeated games where the players adapt their strategies and network ties simultaneously using a simple reinforcement-learning scheme. It is demonstrated that the coevolutionary dynamics of such systems can be described via coupled replicator equations. We provide a comprehensive analysis for three-player two-action games, which is the minimum system size with nontrivial structural dynamics. In particular, we characterize the Nash equilibria (NE) in such games and examine the local stability of the rest points corresponding to those equilibria. We also study general n-player networks via both simulations and analytical methods and find that, in the absence of exploration, the stable equilibria consist of star motifs as the main building blocks of the network. Furthermore, in all stable equilibria the agents play pure strategies, even when the game allows mixed NE. Finally, we study the impact of exploration on learning outcomes and observe that there is a critical exploration rate above which the symmetric and uniformly connected network topology becomes stable.

Kianercy, Ardeshir; Galstyan, Aram

2013-07-01

429

A load balancing scheme for multi-agent systems based on agent state and load condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In ubiquitous environment intelligent and transparent services are provided to the users anytime and anywhere. Ubiquitous systems can be effectively implemented using the agent technology, while the agent platform supports efficient and stable interaction among the agents. In this paper we propose a load-balancing scheme which considers agent state for fair and efficient resource allocation to the agents. It is

Seung Yeop Shin; Hyun Chul Lee; Sung Keun Song; Hee Yong Youn

2009-01-01

430

The Interoperability Problem: Bringing together Mobile Agents and Agent Communication Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interoperability is a central issue for both the mobile agents community and the wider agents community. Unfor- tunately, the interoperability concerns are different between the two communities. As a result, inter-agent communica- tion is an issue that has been addressed in a limited man- ner by the mobile agents community. Agent communication languages (ACLs) have been developed as tools with

Yannis Labrou; Timothy W. Finin; Yun Peng

1999-01-01

431

Laser interrogation of surface agents (LISA) for chemical agent reconnaissance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser Interrogation of Surface Agents (LISA) is a new technique which exploits Raman scattering to provide standoff detection and identification of surface-deposited chemical agents. ITT Industries, Advanced Engineering and Sciences Division is developing the LISA technology under a cost-sharing arrangement with the US Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command for incorporation on the Army's future reconnaissance vehicles. A field-engineered prototype LISA-Recon system is being designed to demonstrate on-the- move measurements of chemical contaminants. In this article, we will describe the LISA technique, data form proof-of- concept measurements, the LISA-Recon design, and some of the future realizations envisioned for military sensing applications.

Higdon, N. S.; Chyba, Thomas H.; Richter, Dale A.; Ponsardin, Patrick L.; Armstrong, Wayne T.; Lobb, C. T.; Kelly, Brian T.; Babnick, Robert D.; Sedlacek, Arthur J.

2002-06-01

432

Effects of modularity in financial markets on an agent-based model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate an agent-based model of financial markets that is made up of numerous interacting agents with respect to local and global coupling and intrinsic randomness. The prices or return time series are constructed by using the essential mechanism of non-trivial interactions between agents. The characteristics that can describe a financial time series are the fat-tail distribution in the return time series and the long-term memory and clustering behavior in the volatility data. We find that for the proper parameter values, the probability distribution function of the return time series follows a power-law distribution with various scaling exponents that vary with the control parameter set. In particular, the local coupling strength considered as the modularity in financial markets plays an important role in terms of price formation.

Kim, Hongseok; Kim, Seunghwan; Oh, Gabjin

2012-02-01

433

Caring for agents and agents that care: building empathic relations with synthetic agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

When building agents and synthetic characters, and in order to achieve believability, we must consider the emotional relations established between users and characters, that is, we must consider the issue of ”empathy”. Defined in broad terms as ”An observer reacting emotionally because he perceives that another is experiencing or about to experience an emotion”, empathy is an important element to

Ana Paiva; J. Dias; D. Sobral; Ruth Aylett; Polly Sobreperez; Sarah Woods; Carsten Zoll; Lynne Hall

2004-01-01

434

Mesosphere-Thermosphere Coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mesosphere supplies energy, momentum and heat to the thermosphere via upward-propagating tides, gravity waves and planetary waves that originate at various levels in the atmosphere. These waves redistribute neutral and ionized constituents, and generate electric fields. Their relevance to thermosphere-ionosphere variability becomes particular evident during solar minimum, when effects due to solar particle and EUV radiation are subdued. In this paper, three aspects of the problem are elucidated: (1) The use of general circulation models to provide information on wave coupling into the thermosphere; (2) the use of Hough Mode Extensions to estimate total mass density variability consistent with wind or temperature observations measured near the mesopause; and (3) the combined use of measurements and theory to estimate the zonal mean winds and temperatures generated due to dissipation of upward-propagating tides.

Forbes, J. M.; Palo, S. E.; Svoboda, A.; Hagan, M. E.; Miyahara, S.; Yoshikawa, M.

2004-12-01

435

Coupled quantum Otto cycle.  

PubMed

We study the one-dimensional isotropic Heisenberg model of two spin-1/2 systems as a quantum heat engine. The engine undergoes a four-step Otto cycle where the two adiabatic branches involve changing the external magnetic field at a fixed value of the coupling constant. We find conditions for the engine efficiency to be higher than in the uncoupled model; in particular, we find an upper bound which is tighter than the Carnot bound. A domain of parameter values is pointed out which was not feasible in the interaction-free model. Locally, each spin seems to cause a flow of heat in a direction opposite to the global temperature gradient. This feature is explained by an analysis of the local effective temperature of the spins. PMID:21517482

Thomas, George; Johal, Ramandeep S

2011-03-29

436

Coupled toroidal solar collector  

SciTech Connect

A solar collector is formed by a stack of vehicular tires for absorbing solar radiant energy. A series of conduits intercepting the upper and lower sidewall of each tire at locations spaced about 180 degrees apart couple together the hollow interiors of the tires in an air path passing angularly through each tire in two paths of about 180 degrees in length and serially from tire to tire for heat exchange purposes. A thermal energy storage medium is provided in the center of the stack which medium may be porous and switchable dampers are provided to selectively set up either a recirculating air path through the tires and the medium to transfer heat from the tires to the medium or a recirculating air path between the medium and a living space to be heated.

Wasserman, K. J.

1981-02-03

437

Coupled quantum Otto cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the one-dimensional isotropic Heisenberg model of two spin-1/2 systems as a quantum heat engine. The engine undergoes a four-step Otto cycle where the two adiabatic branches involve changing the external magnetic field at a fixed value of the coupling constant. We find conditions for the engine efficiency to be higher than in the uncoupled model; in particular, we find an upper bound which is tighter than the Carnot bound. A domain of parameter values is pointed out which was not feasible in the interaction-free model. Locally, each spin seems to cause a flow of heat in a direction opposite to the global temperature gradient. This feature is explained by an analysis of the local effective temperature of the spins.

Thomas, George; Johal, Ramandeep S.

2011-03-01

438

Polymyalgia rheumatica in a married couple  

PubMed Central

The case of a married couple developing polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) consecutively is presented. The 55-year-old wife complained in June 2010 about pain in her neck. Case history, physical examination, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of 80 mm/hour led to the diagnosis of PMR. In May 2011, her 66-year old husband complained about pain in his neck, shoulders, buttocks, and thighs. Considering anamnesis, physical examination, and ESR of 56 mm/hour, the diagnosis of PMR was made. Both wife and husband responded to steroid treatment. When the steroid dose was gradually reduced, both patients relapsed. In order to lower the cumulative dose of glucocorticoid therapy, 10 mg methotrexate per week was added. In the literature, six cases of polymyalgia rheumatica in married couples have been described to date. In four cases, polymyalgia rheumatica occurred first in the wife. The interval of the diagnosis between the spouses ranged from 0 to 89 months. Although in most of the previous case reports a genetic disposition and an infectious agent have been discussed, this hypothesis must be questioned.

Rust, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Wermelinger, Felix

2012-01-01

439

STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS FOR LATHYROGENIC AGENTS  

PubMed Central

Using the chick embryo assay system, a series of organic compounds was tested for lathyrogenic activity; lathyrogenic compounds were shown to fall into 4 groups—nitriles, ureides, and 2 new groups—hydrazides and hydrazines, forming a spectrum of diminishing potency in their ability to produce solubility of collagen and skeletal deformities. Pyridoxal was seen to reverse to a great degree the effects on collagen solubility and skeletal deformity produced by the ureides and hydrazides, though not by the nitriles; its effect was considered to be due to the formation of a Schiff's complex between the aldehyde and the terminal amine of the lathyrogen. Evidence is presented to show that lathyrogens do not act as inhibitors of monoamine oxidases or as chelate-forming agents, nor, in the case of isoniazid, as an anti-nicotinamide agent.

Levene, C. I.

1961-01-01

440

Agent planning in AgScala  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agent-oriented programming languages are designed to simplify the development of software agents, especially those that exhibit complex, intelligent behavior. This paper presents recent improvements of AgScala, an agent-oriented programming language based on Scala. AgScala includes declarative constructs for managing beliefs, actions and goals of intelligent agents. Combined with object-oriented and functional programming paradigms offered by Scala, it aims to be an efficient framework for developing both purely reactive, and more complex, deliberate agents. Instead of the Prolog back-end used initially, the new version of AgScala relies on Agent Planning Package, a more advanced system for automated planning and reasoning.

Toši?, Saša; Mitrovi?, Dejan; Ivanovi?, Mirjana

2013-10-01

441

Coupling superconducting qubits and resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of superconducting qubits has evolved rapidly in recent years, with coherence times now often measured in tens of microseconds. This makes superconducting qubits a promising candidate for a scalable quantum computing architecture and for modeling quantum systems. To realize this potential, consideration must be given to coupling multiple qubits to a system of microwave resonators in a way that balances coherence times, control and readout times, crosstalk, and space constraints. We compare three methods of coupling qubits to resonators: inductive coupling through a shared kinetic inductance with the resonator, capacitive coupling to a voltage antinode, and coupling to a three-dimensional superconducting cavity. We will also present designs and measurements of samples incorporating both inductively and capacitively coupled qubits on the same coplanar resonator. Lastly, we discuss a three-qubit/two-resonator system with one qubit bridging the two resonators that could serve as the building block of a large-scale architecture.

Strand, Joel

2012-02-01

442

Adaptive Behavior in Autonomous Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of the bottom-up approach to artificial intelligence (AI), commonly referred to as behavior-oriented AI. The behavior-oriented approach, with its focus on the interaction between autonomous agents and their environments, is introduced by contrasting it with the traditional approach of knowledge-based AI. Different notions of autonomy are discussed, and key problems of generating adaptive and complex

Tom Ziemke

1998-01-01

443

Conceptual Foundations of Interrogative Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Reasoning by interrogation is one,of the,most ancient and experimented ways of reasoning. Originated by the Aristotelian elenchus, it has been used for many purposes, such as the resolution of mathematical and daily problems [25], [26], the discovery of new knowledge [19], [34], [36], the realization of questioning\\/answering processes [23]. In this paper we present the conceptual foundations of interrogative agents,

Vincenzo Deufemia; Giuseppe Polese; Genoveffa Tortora; Mario Vacca

2007-01-01

444

Proarrhythmic Potential of Antimicrobial Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several antiarrhythmic and non-cardiovascular drug therapies including antimicrobial agents have been implicated as the causes\\u000a for QT interval prolongation, torsades de pointes (TdP) ventricular tachycardia and sudden cardiac death. Most of the drugs\\u000a that have been associated with the lengthening of the QT interval or development of TdP can also block the rapidly activating\\u000a component of the delayed rectifier potassium

J. Simkó; A. Csilek; J. Karászi; I. L?rincz

2008-01-01

445

Interacting with Embodied Conversational Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The objective to develop more human-centred, personalized and at the same time more engaging speech-based interactive systems\\u000a immediately leads to the metaphor of an embodied conversational agent (ECA) that employs gestures, mimics and speech to communicate\\u000a with the human user. During the last decade research groups as well as a number of commercial software developers have started\\u000a to deploy embodied

Elisabeth André; Catherine Pelachaud

446

Calcimimetic agents: Review and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcimimetic agents: Review and perspectives.BackgroundRecognition of the role of the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) in mineral metabolism has greatly improved our understanding of calcium homeostasis. The activation of this receptor by small changes in the extracellular ionized calcium (ec(Ca2+)) regulates PTH, calcitonin secretion, urinary calcium excretion, and, ultimately, bone turnover.MethodsThe cloning of the CaR and the discovery of mutations that

Pablo Ureña; João M Frazão

2003-01-01

447

?-adrenoceptor blocking agents and lipolysis  

PubMed Central

1 The pharmacological characteristics of ?-adrenoceptor subtypes on adipocytes of various mammalian species, including man, are reviewed. 2 Rat adipocytes possess a homogeneous population of ?-adrenoceptors with properties that clearly distinguish them from `classic' ?1- and ?2-adrenoceptors, although they share certain features with both. Thus, rat adipocyte ?-adrenoceptors should be considered as non-?1-non-?2 receptors, like the atypical ?-adrenoceptors found on erythrocytes of turkey, chicken and frog. 3 Preliminary data suggest that adipocyte ?-adrenoceptors of guinea pig and swine are different from `classic' ?1- and ?2-adrenoceptors as well, whereas in the dog and possibly in the cat, a mixture of ?1- and ?2-receptors mediates catecholamine induced lipolysis. 4 Human adipocyte ?-adrenoceptors probably also consist of at least two subtypes. Insufficient data are available to decide if these ?-adrenoceptors are identical with `classic' ?1- and ?2-receptors, or share some hybrid characteristics with rat adipocyte ?-adrenoceptors. 5 In vivo studies in animals as well as in man, tend to corroborate in vitro results. Cardioselective ?-adrenoceptor blocking agents, like atenolol, metoprolol and practolol are not as effective in blocking catecholamine induced lipolysis as non-cardioselective agents like propranolol and pindolol. The relatively low potency of cardioselective ?-adrenoceptor blocking agents is found using either isoprenaline, adrenaline or exercise as the agonist, suggesting that ?2-adrenoceptors are involved. On the other hand, cardioselective agents, though less effective than non-cardioselective compounds, have a significant inhibitory effect on catecholamine induced lipolysis at doses that have only minimal effect on other ?2-adrenoceptor mediated responses, which argues for participation of ?1-adrenoceptors. 6 Thus, human in vitro and in vivo data are consistent with, but not proof of the hypothesis that a mixture of ?1- and ?2-adrenoceptors mediates lipolysis induced by sympathetic activation. 7 Species differences in ?-adrenoceptor subtype characteristics may complicate the interpretation of the relevance of animal data for the understanding of ?-adrenoceptor mediated effects in human adipocytes.

Harms, H. H.; De Vente, J.; Zaagsma, J.

1982-01-01

448

April - Agent PRocess Interaction Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce key features of a programming language for building DAI and othertypes of distributed applications requiring the transmission and manipulation of complex symbolicdata. The language is high-level and yet also offers a simple and smooth interface to other programminglanguages such as "C".April is oriented to the implementation of multi-agent systems. However, April is NOT a `multiagentapplications

Frank G. Mccabe; Keith L. Clark

1994-01-01

449

Development of new fibrinolytic agents.  

PubMed

Since the activation of coagulation system and platelets triggers the thrombosis, the agents possessing anticoagulation or anti-platelet function have been used for the antithrombotic procession actions. However, in the physiological condition, the fibrinolytic system serves as antithrombotic, which removes the thrombus from the circulation. The fibrinolytic system plays an important role in the dissolution of fibrin, which is the main component of thrombus. So that, the balance between the coagulation and fibrinolytic system regulates the formation of thrombus. Now, the new agents that activate the fibrinolytic system have been clinically applied for the thrombolytic therapy. The main factor in fibrinolytic system is the plasmin, which is activated from the plasminogen by the plasminogen activator (PA). The plasminogen activator is mainly used for the thrombolytic therapy. There are two types of PA. One is the non fibrin-specific PA such as streptokinase (SK) and two-chain urokinase-type PA (tcu-PA, urokinase), and another is the fibrin-specific PA such as tissue-type PA (t-PA) and single-chain urokinase-type PA (scu-PA). Recently, some derivatives of t-PA have been developed to obtain the longer half-life than native t-PA and allowed to administrate as the single-bolus. Further, the new fibrin-specific PA such as staphylokinase and bat-PA has been developed. Many attempts have been made to develop the agents that would induce the release of t-PA from endothelial cells. In this review, the development of new fibrinolytic agents is summarized. PMID:16515501

Ueshima, Shigeru; Matsuo, Osamu

2006-01-01

450

Caspofungin: An echinocandin antifungal agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The mainstays of treatment for nosocomial fungal infections have been amphotericin B and azole derivatives. Caspofungin acetate is a new echinocandin antifungal agent with a mechanism of action that targets a structural component of the fungal cell wall.Objective: This article describes the pharmacologic properties and potential clinical usefulness of caspofungin.Methods: Relevant information was identified through searches of MEDLINE (1966–September

Elizabeth A. Stone; Horatio B. Fung; Harold L. Kirschenbaum

2002-01-01

451

Chemotherapy and Dietary Phytochemical Agents  

PubMed Central

Chemotherapy has been used for cancer treatment already for almost 70 years by targeting the proliferation potential and metastasising ability of tumour cells. Despite the progress made in the development of potent chemotherapy drugs, their toxicity to normal tissues and adverse side effects in multiple organ systems as well as drug resistance have remained the major obstacles for the successful clinical use. Cytotoxic agents decrease considerably the quality of life of cancer patients manifesting as acute complaints and impacting the life of survivors also for years after the treatment. Toxicity often limits the usefulness of anticancer agents being also the reason why many patients discontinue the treatment. The nutritional approach may be the means of helping to raise cancer therapy to a new level of success as supplementing or supporting the body with natural phytochemicals cannot only reduce adverse side effects but improve also the effectiveness of chemotherapeutics. Various plant-derived compounds improve the efficiency of cytotoxic agents, decrease their resistance, lower and alleviate toxic side effects, reduce the risk of tumour lysis syndrome, and detoxify the body of chemotherapeutics. The personalised approach using various phytochemicals provides thus a new dimension to the standard cancer therapy for improving its outcome in a complex and complementary way.

Sak, Katrin

2012-01-01

452

Coupling of general Lagrangian systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is devoted to the coupling of two fluid models, such as two Euler systems in Lagrangian coordinates, at a fixed interface. We define coupling conditions which can be expressed in terms of continuity of some well chosen variables and then solve the coupled Riemann problem. In the present setting where the interface is characteristic, a particular choice of dependent variables which are transmitted ensures the overall conservativity.

Ambroso, A.; Chalons, C.; Coquel, F.; Godlewski, E.; Lagoutiere, F.; Raviart, P. A.; Seguin, N.

2008-06-01

453

Anomalous Couplings at LEP2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In its second phase, LEP has allowed to study four fermion processes never observed before. Results are presented on the charged triple gauge boson couplings (TGC) from the W-pair, Single W and Single ? production. The anomalous quartic gauge couplings (QGC) are constrained using production of WW?, ? bar ? ? ? and Z?? final states. Finally, limits on the neutral anomalous gauge couplings (NGC) using the Z? and ZZ production processes are also reported. All results are consistent with the Standard Model expectations.

Fayolle, D.

2003-02-01

454

Kumada cross-coupling reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Kumada cross-coupling reaction (also occasionally known as the Kharasch cross-coupling reaction) was originally reported\\u000a as the nickel-catalyzed crosscoupling of Grignard reagents with aryl-or alkenyl halides. It has subsequently been developed\\u000a to encompass the coupling of organolithium or organomagnesium compounds with aryl-, alkenyl or alkyl halides, catalyzed by\\u000a nickel or palladium. The Kumada cross-coupling reaction, as well as the Negishi,

Jie Jack Li

455

Penile Prosthesis Implantation and Couple’s Satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Implant surgery is the most acceptable curative choice for patients with erectile dysfunction and their partners, since the results are excellent with regard to the couple’s pleasure and the materials used are extremely manageable Materials and Methods: We performed 46 prosthesis implantations in patients with erectile dysfunction: in 22 patients we implanted soft prostheses; in 20 malleable prostheses; in

Massimo Porena; Luigi Mearini; Ettore Mearini; Marco Marzi; Alessandro Zucchi

1999-01-01

456

Governing couple-sexuality: publically funded couples' courses in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the construction of Norwegian couples' sexuality through the study of a publically financed and organised relationship course called Living Well Together (Godt Samliv). Established in 2005, this relationship course aimed at first-time parent couples is offered free of charge by municipal health centres. Scrutiny of national policy documents and political debate and of the course handbooks presented

Hilde Danielsen; Kari Ludvigsen; Wencke Mühleisen

2012-01-01

457

Determination of degradation products of chemical warfare agents in water using hollow fibre-protected liquid-phase microextraction with in-situ derivatisation followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hollow fibre-protected liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) together with gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry was investigated for the analysis of degradation products of chemical warfare agents in water samples. The degradation products studied were those of nerve and blister agents, and a psychotomimetic agent. Extractions were successfully performed coupled with in-situ derivatisation using a mixture of solvent and derivatising agent. The protection of the

Hoi Sim Nancy Lee; Mui Tiang Sng; Chanbasha Basheer; Hian Kee Lee

2007-01-01

458

Viral Gastroenteritis Agents and Waterborne Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The application of electron microscopic techniques in the study of human gastroenteritis led in the 1970's to the identification of new viral agents that had previously escaped detection by routine cell culture procedures. These agents have been the focus...

F. P. Williams

1987-01-01

459

44 CFR 62.3 - Servicing agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...discretion of the Federal Insurance Administrator. (b) National Con-Serv, Inc., whose offices are located in Rockville, Maryland, is the servicing agent for the Federal Insurance Administration. (c) The servicing agent will arrange for the...

2011-10-01

460

Agent-Supported Mission Operations Teamwork.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This slide presentation reviews the development of software agents to support of mission operations teamwork. The goals of the work was to make automation by agents easy to use, supervise and direct, manage information and communication to decrease distra...

J. T. Malin

2003-01-01

461

Hydroxypyridonate Chelating Agents and Synthesis Thereof.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chelating agents having 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (HOPO) and related moieties incorporated within their structures, including polydentate HOPO-substituted polyamines such as spermidine and spermine, and HOPO-substituted desferrioxamine. The chelating agents ...

K. N. Raymond R. C. Scarrow D. L. White

1985-01-01

462

Antineoplastic Agents: Occupational Hazards in Hospitals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Antineoplastic agents are widely used in cancer therapy because they can inhibit growth by disrupting cell division and killing actively growing cells. These agents can also cause health effects among health care workers who work with them. The purpose of...

2004-01-01

463

Information on Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Information on Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents. ... Regulatory History and Labeling from Drugs@FDA. Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents: ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

464

Non-halogenated alternative cleaning agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cleaning efficiency of five alternative cleaning agents have been evaluated as possible replacements chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and chlorohydrocarbon (CHC) solvents used in the manufacture of certain electronic components. These cleaning agents were eva...

P. J. Nigrey

1992-01-01

465

Social Agents: Ecology, Exchange, and Evolution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Welcome to the 'Proceedings' of the third in a series of agent simulation conferences cosponsored by Argonne National Laboratory and The University of Chicago. The theme of this year's conference, 'Social Agents: Ecology, Exchange and Evolution', was sele...

C. Macal D. Sallach

2002-01-01

466

Toward Agent Programs with Circuit Semantics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New ideas are presented for computing and organizing actions for autonomous agents in dynamic environments-environments in which the agent's current situation cannot always be accurately discerned and in which the effects of actions cannot always be relia...

N. J. Nilsson

1992-01-01

467

Decision Theoretic Approach for Interface Agent Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The complexity of current software applications is overwhelming users. The need exists for intelligent interface agents to address the problem of increasing taskload that is overwhelming the human user. Interface agents could help alleviate user taskload ...

S. M. Brown

1998-01-01

468

Coupled assimilation for an intermediated coupled ENSO prediction model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The value of coupled assimilation is discussed using an intermediate coupled model in which the wind stress is the only atmospheric state which is slavery to model sea surface temperature (SST). In the coupled assimilation analysis, based on the coupled wind-ocean state covariance calculated from the coupled state ensemble, the ocean state is adjusted by assimilating wind data using the ensemble Kalman filter. As revealed by a series of assimilation experiments using simulated observations, the coupled assimilation of wind observations yields better results than the assimilation of SST observations. Specifically, the coupled assimilation of wind observations can help to improve the accuracy of the surface and subsurface currents because the correlation between the wind and ocean currents is stronger than that between SST and ocean currents in the equatorial Pacific. Thus, the coupled assimilation of wind data can decrease the initial condition errors in the surface/subsurface currents that can significantly contribute to SST forecast errors. The value of the coupled assimilation of wind observations is further demonstrated by comparing the prediction skills of three 12-year (1997-2008) hindcast experiments initialized by the ocean-only assimilation scheme that assimilates SST observations, the coupled assimilation scheme that assimilates wind observations, and a nudging scheme that nudges the observed wind stress data, respectively. The prediction skills of two assimilation schemes are significantly better than those of the nudging scheme. The prediction skills of assimilating wind observations are better than assimilating SST observations. Assimilating wind observations for the 2007/2008 La Niña event triggers better predictions, while assimilating SST observations fails to provide an early warning for that event.

Zheng, Fei; Zhu, Jiang

2010-10-01

469

Generating distinctive behavior for Embodied Conversational Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe an algorithm for generating distinctive behavior for Embodied Conversational Agents. To this aim,\\u000a we introduce the concepts of agent’s general behavior tendency, named Baseline, and local behavior tendency, called in turn\\u000a Dynamicline. Depending on the communicative intentions of the agent, the Baseline is modulated. The obtained behavior tendency\\u000a corresponds to the Dynamicline which is then

Maurizio Mancini; Catherine Pelachaud

2009-01-01

470

Agent-based Modeling and Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agent-based modeling and simulation (ABMS) is a new approach to modeling systems comprised of autonomous, interacting agents. Computational advances have made possible a growing number of agent-based models across a variety of application domains. Applications range from modeling agent behavior in the stock market, supply chains, and consumer markets, to predicting the spread of epidemics, mitigating the threat of bio-warfare,

Charles M. Macal; Michael J. North

2009-01-01

471

Multi-agent Based Arabic Speech Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel agent-based design for Arabic speech recognition. We define the Arabic speech recognition as a multi-agent-system where each agent has a specific goal and deals with that goal only. Once all the small tasks are accomplished the big task is too. A number of agents are required in order to recast Arabic speech recognition, namely the

Muhammad Taha; Tarek Helmy; Reda Abo Alez

2007-01-01

472

Decontamination of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister a- gents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, pro- teinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and bio- logical terrorism, speedy

Yasuo SETO

2009-01-01

473

MAGE: Multi-Agent Graphical Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes our continuing research effort towards building a graphical development environment for rapidly creating, visualizing, and testing multi-agent software applications. Our system, Multi-Agent Graphical Environment (MAGE), addresses the need for enabling existing programs to be incorporated into agent-based software frameworks with minimal programming and the need for creating new agents and linking them to others. Users can create

Leen-Kiat Soh; Htiseyin Sevay; Costas Tsatsoulis

1999-01-01

474

Novel oral agents for multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1993, interferon ?-1b, the first clinically proven disease-modifying agent for multiple sclerosis, was approved, with several\\u000a comparable agents following close behind. These agents have been beneficial in reducing relapse events and MRI lesions, but\\u000a all require parenteral administration, leading some otherwise eligible patients to decline such therapies. Oral agents have\\u000a been studied for decades with mixed results, but a

Jodie M. Burton; Paul O’Connor

2007-01-01

475

Classifying Agent Behaviour through Relational Sequential Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In Multi-Agent System, observing other agents and modelling their behaviour represents an essential task: agents must be able\\u000a to quickly adapt to the environment and infer knowledge from other agents’ deportment. The observed data from this kind of\\u000a environments are inherently sequential. We present a relational model to characterise adversary teams based on its behaviour\\u000a using a set of relational

Grazia Bombini; Nicola Di Mauro; Stefano Ferilli; Floriana Esposito

2010-01-01

476

Elemental imaging of MRI contrast agents: benchmarking of LA-ICP-MS to MRI.  

PubMed

Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been used to map the spatial distribution of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents (Gd-based) in histological sections in order to explore synergies with in vivo MRI. Images from respective techniques are presented for two separate studies namely (1) convection enhanced delivery of a Gd nanocomplex (developmental therapeutic) into rat brain and (2) convection enhanced delivery, with co-infusion of Magnevist (commercial Gd contrast agent) and Carboplatin (chemotherapy drug), into pig brain. The LA technique was shown to be a powerful compliment to MRI not only in offering improved sensitivity, spatial resolution and signal quantitation but also in giving added value regarding the fate of administered agents (Gd and Pt agents). Furthermore simultaneous measurement of Fe enabled assignment of an anomalous contrast enhancement region in rat brain to haemorrhage at the infusion site. PMID:22526651

Pugh, J A T; Cox, A G; McLeod, C W; Bunch, J; Writer, M J; Hart, S L; Bienemann, A; White, E; Bell, J

2012-04-18

477

Pareto and Boltzmann Gibbs behaviors in a deterministic multi-agent system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A deterministic system of interacting agents is considered as a model for economic dynamics. The dynamics of the system is described by a coupled map lattice with nearest neighbor interactions. The evolution of each agent results from the competition between two factors: the agent’s own tendency to grow and the environmental influence that moderates this growth. Depending on the values of the parameters that control these factors, the system can display Pareto or Boltzmann Gibbs statistical behaviors in its asymptotic dynamical regime. The regions where these behaviors appear are calculated on the space of parameters of the system. Other statistical properties, such as the mean wealth, the standard deviation, and the Gini coefficient characterizing the degree of equity in the wealth distribution are also calculated.

González-Estévez, J.; Cosenza, M. G.; López-Ruiz, R.; Sánchez, J. R.

2008-07-01

478

Learning by Knowledge Exchange in Logical Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce a form of cooperation among agents based on exchanging sets of rules. In principle, the approach extends to agent societies a feature which is proper of human societies, i.e., the cultural transmission of abilities. However, acquiring knowledge from untrustworthy agents should be avoided, and the new knowledge should be evaluated according to its usefulness. After

Stefania Costantini; Arianna Tocchio

2005-01-01

479

Agent-based modeling of complex infrastructures  

SciTech Connect

Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) can be applied to investigate complex infrastructures and infrastructure interdependencies. The CAS model agents within the Spot Market Agent Research Tool (SMART) and Flexible Agent Simulation Toolkit (FAST) allow investigation of the electric power infrastructure, the natural gas infrastructure and their interdependencies.

North, M. J.

2001-06-01

480

The Agent-Based Hedge Fund  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we describe the implementation of a diversified investment strategy using 25 intelligent agents. Each agent utilizes several data mining models and other artificial intelligence techniques to autonomously day trade an American stock. The agents were individually tested with out-of-sample data corresponding to the period between February of 2006 and June of 2010, and most achieved an acceptable

Rui Pedro Barbosa; Orlando Belo

2010-01-01

481

Poaching and Distraction in Asynchronous Agent Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate coordination issues in a distributed jobshop scheduling system in which agents schedule potentially contentious activities asynchronously in parallel. Agents in such a system will in general have a limited view of the global state of resources and must exchange appropriate state information with other agents in order to schedule effectively. However, even given perfect instantaneous knowledge of other

Mike H. Chia; Daniel E. Neiman; Victor R. Lesser

1998-01-01

482

Evolutionary testing of autonomous software agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system built in terms of autonomous agents may require even greater correctness assurance than one which is merely reacting to the immediate control of its users. Agents make substantial decisions for themselves, so thorough testing is an important consideration. However, autonomy also makes testing harder; by their nature, autonomous agents may re- act in dierent ways to the same

Cu D. Nguyen; Anna Perini; Paolo Tonella; Simon Miles; Mark Harman; Michael Luck

2009-01-01

483

Construction and Evaluation of Animated Teachable Agents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes the design decisions, technical approach, and evaluation of the animation and interface components for an agent-based system that allows learners to learn by teaching. Students learn by teaching an animated agent using a visual representation. The agent can answer questions about what she has been taught and take quizzes.…

Bodenheimer, Bobby; Williams, Betsy; Kramer, Mattie Ruth; Viswanath, Karun; Balachandran, Ramya; Belynne, Kadira; Biswas, Gautam

2009-01-01

484

Scalable fault tolerant Agent Grooming Environment: SAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scalable fault tolerant Agent Grooming Environment (SAGE) is first open source initiative in South-Asia. It is a multi-agent system which has been developed according to FIPA (Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents) 2002 specifications. SAGE has been designed with a distributed and decentralized architecture to achieve fault tolerance and scalability as its key features. Due to these characteristics, SAGE is not

Hafiz Farooq Ahmad; Hiroki Suguri; Arshad Ali; Sarmad Malik; Muazzam Mugal; M. Omair Shafiq; Amina Tariq; Amna Basharat

2005-01-01

485

A Normative Agent System to Prevent Cyberbullying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated approaches to prevent the negative effects of cyberbullying mainly focus on affective agents that provide support for victims. The current paper takes a complementary approach, which attempts to minimise the amount of occurrences of cyberbullying in the first place. The approach consists of a system of normative agents, which are physically present in a virtual society. The agents, which

Tibor Bosse; Sven Stam

2011-01-01

486

REINFORCEMENT LEARNING FOR LIVE MUSICAL AGENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current research programmes in computer music may draw from developments in agent technology; music may provide an excellent test case for agent research. This paper describes the challenge of building agents for con- cert performance which allow close and rewarding inter- action with human musicians. This is easier said than done; the fantastic abilities of human musicians in fluidity of

Nick Collins

487

Aborting Goals and Plans in BDI Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent agents that are intended to work in dynamic environ- ments must be able to gracefully handle unsuccessful goals and plans. In addition, such agents should be able to make rational de- cisions about an appropriate course of action, which may include aborting a goal or plan, perhaps at the request of another agent, or as a result of the

John Thangarajah; James Harland; David Morley; Neil Yorke-Smith

488

A goal processing architecture for game agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer games are becoming increasingly popular as a research platform for agents research and applications. A key problem for game agents is responding in a timely and appropriate way to multiple, often conflicting goals in a complex, dynamic environment. In this paper we propose a novel goal processing archi- tecture for game agents. Building on the teleo-reactive programming framework originally

Elizabeth Gordon; Brian Logan

2003-01-01

489

Training agents to recognize text by example  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important function of an agent is to be "on the lookout" forbits of information that are interesting to its user, even if theseitems appear in the midst of a larger body of unstructuredinformation. But how to tell these agents which patterns aremeaningful and what to do with the result?Especially when agents are used to recognize text, they areusually driven

Henry Lieberman; Bonnie A. Nardi; David J. Wright

1999-01-01

490

Intelligent ontological agent for diabetic food recommendation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes is a chronic illness that food intake affects the bodypsilas needs and insulinpsilas ability to lower blood sugar. This paper proposes an intelligent agent, called the personal food recommendation agent, based on the ontology model for diabetic food recommendation. The agent can create a meal plan according to a personpsilas lifestyle and particular health needs. The required knowledge is

Chang-Shing Lee; Mei-Hui Wang; Huan-Chung Li; Wen-Hui Chen

2008-01-01

491

Affective and social behavior in animated agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a model of interaction between users and animated agents as well as inter-agent interaction that supports basic features of affective conversation and social interaction. As essential requirements for animated agents' capability to engage in and exhibit affective and social communication we introduce reasoning about emotions and emotion expression, personality, and social role awareness. The main contribution of

Helmut Prendinger; Mitsuru Ishizuka

2001-01-01

492

Screening of natural products for antimicrobial agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial research is geared toward the discovery and development of novel chemical structures such as therapeutic antimicrobial agents. The continuing problem of development of resistance to existing antibacterial agents and the dearth of good antifungal agents motivates this effort toward innovation. Selection of possible new enzyme targets for antibiotic inhibition may be made on theoretical grounds, but it appears premature

L. Silver; K. Bostian

1990-01-01

493

Agent-mediated electronic commerce: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software agents help automate a variety of tasks including those involved in buying and selling products over the Internet. This paper surveys several of these agent- mediated electronic commerce systems by describing their roles in the context of a Consumer Buying Behavior (CBB) model. The CBB model we present augments traditional marketing models with concepts from Software Agents research to

ROBERT H. GUTTMAN; ALEXANDROS G. MOUKAS; PATTIE MAES

1998-01-01

494

Evolutionary learning agents for shop floor control  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a novel approach for shop poor control combining a distributed multi-agent structure and computational intelligence techniques. Shop floor activities are controlled by a network of autonomous agents. Each agent makes its decision with a fuzzy algorithm evaluating all the alternative actions with multiple criteria based on real time measures of shop's conditions. A tuning mechanism of the decision

Bruno Maione; David Naso

1999-01-01

495

Contextualizing normative open multi-agent systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open MASs can be extremely dynamic due to heterogeneous agents that migrate among them to obtain resources or services not found locally. In order to prevent malicious actions and to ensure agent trust, open MAS should be enhanced with normative mechanisms. However, it is not reasonable to expect that foreign agents know in advance all the norms of the MAS

Carolina Howard Felicíssimo; Caroline Chopinaud; Jean-pierre Briot; Amal El Fallah-seghrouchni; Carlos José Pereira De Lucena

2008-01-01

496

Issues in Agent-Oriented Software Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In this paper, I will discuss the conceptual foundation of agent oriented software development by relating the fundamental elements of the agent oriented view to those of other, well established programming paradigms, espe cially the object - oriented approach Furthermore, I will motivate the concept of autonomy as the basic property of the agent velopment history of programming paradigms

Jürgen Lind

2000-01-01

497

Content based image retrieval using mobile agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a generic architecture for content based retrieval of images, which can be extended to the requirements of large distributed and heterogeneous collections. The system is modeled as a multi agent system where an autonomous search agent encapsulates independent image retrieval algorithms. An optimal team of agents is dynamically selected for every retrieval problem. A flexible protocol allows for

Chetan Arora; Paramjeet Nirankari; Hiranmay Ghosh; Santanu Chaudhury

1999-01-01

498

Private Computing with Beehive Organized Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consider the problem of using mobile agents within an e-commerce setting where the goal is to purchase a desired item for a user. The problem is that the mobile agents visit a collection of hosts which are untrustworthy and therefore could tamper with the correct execution of the agents. Our approach to the e-commerce problem prevents the hosts to retrieve

Bartek Gedrojc; Jan C. A. Van Der Lubbe; Martin Van Hensbergen

2007-01-01

499

Software agents in molecular computational biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress made in applying agent systems to molecular computational biology is reviewed and strategies by which to exploit agent technology to greater advantage are investigated. Communities of software agents could play an important role in helping genome scientists design reagents for future research. The advent of genome sequencing in cattle and swine increases the complexity of data analysis required to

John W. Keele; James E. Wray

2005-01-01

500

Using mobile agents for network performance management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile agent frameworks have attracted a lot of attention in recent years, seen as counterparts of static distributed object frameworks but allowing also for object or agent mobility. A lot of research is currently being carried out trying to assess their applicability to network management and control environments. In this paper, we present our experiences of using a mobile agent

Christos Bohoris; George Pavlou; H. Cruickshank

2000-01-01