Sample records for coupling agent gamma-aminopropyltriethoxysilane

  1. Polymeric coupling agent for bonding polymers to aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, S.L.; Bell, J.P. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A polymeric coupling agent, containing {beta}-dike tone and epoxy functional groups, is being evaluated as a potential adhesion enhancer and corrosion inhibitor to be utilized on adhesively bonded aluminum substrates. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy studies indicate chemical interaction of the coupling agent with the aluminum oxide surface. Modified tubular butt joints were utilized to evaluate the joint strengths and durabilities of coupling agent treated joints. Dry strengths of treated joints were comparable to untreated controls, however after 3 and 5 days immersion in 57{degrees}C water, the coupling agent treated joints displayed improved joint strengths as compared to the untreated controls. Comparisons of coupling agent treated and untreated aluminum substrates after 24 hours exposure to salt spray (ASTM B117) indicated improved corrosion resistance due to the coupling agent treatment.

  2. Agent Collectives Coupled to Markovian Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolpert, David; Lawson, John

    2003-03-01

    The ``Collective Intelligence'' (COIN) framework concerns the design of collectives of agents so that as those agents strive to maximize their individual utility functions, their interaction causes a provided ``world'' utility function concerning the entire collective to be also maximized. Here we show how to extend that framework to scenarios having Markovian dynamics when no re-evolution of the system from counter-factual initial conditions (an often expensive calculation) is permitted. Our approach transforms the (time-extended) argument of each agent's utility function before evaluating that function. This transformation has benefits in scenarios not involving Markovian dynamics, in particular scenarios where not all of the arguments of an agent's utility function are observable. We investigate this transformation in simulations involving both linear and quadratic (nonlinear) dynamics. In addition, we find that a certain subset of these transformations, which result in utilities that have low ``opacity (analogous to having high signal to noise) but are not ``factored'' (analogous to not being incentive compatible), reliably improve performance over that arising with factored utilities. We also present a Taylor Series method for the fully general nonlinear case.

  3. Multifunctional nanoparticles as coupled contrast agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongdong Jin; Congxian Jia; Sheng-Wen Huang; Matthew O'Donnell; Xiaohu Gao

    2010-01-01

    Engineering compact imaging probes with highly integrated modalities is a key focus in bionanotechnology and will have profound impact on molecular diagnostics, imaging and therapeutics. However, combining multiple components on a nanometre scale to create new imaging modalities unavailable from individual components has proven to be challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate iron oxide and gold-coupled core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) with

  4. Development of high temperature resistant graphite fiber coupling agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, R. N.

    1975-01-01

    Surface treatments were investigated as potential coupling agents to improve the elevated temperature shear strength retention of polyimide/graphite and polyphenylquinoxaline/graphite composites. The potential coupling agents were evaluated by fiber strand tensile tests, fiber and composite weight losses at 533 and 588K, and by interlaminar shear strength retention at 533 and 588K. The two surface treatments selected for more extensive evaluation were a coating of Ventromer T-1, a complex organometallic reaction product of titanium tetrachloride and trimethyl borate, and a polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) sizing which was pyrolyzed in nitrogen to form a carbonaceous layer on the fiber. Pyrolyzed polyphenylquinoxaline is a satisfactory coupling agent for polyimide/Thornel 300 graphite fiber composites. During 1000 hours aging at 588K such composites lose a little over half their transverse tensile strength, and suffer a slight loss in flexural modulus. No degradation of flexural strength or interlaminar shear strength occured during 1000 hours aging at 588K. None of the coupling agents examined had a markedly beneficial effect with polyphenylquinoxaline composites.

  5. The effect of coupling agents on composite durability

    SciTech Connect

    Macturk, K.S.; Schultheisz, C.R.; Hunston, D.L.; Schutte, C.L. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The relationship between fiber surface treatments and glass fiber/epoxy composite durability was investigated. The type of silane coupling agent deposited on the fiber surface was varied, and the single fiber fragmentation test was used to measure strengths of the fiber and the fiber-matrix interface. The samples were tested dry and after conditioned in 75{degrees}C distilled water for up to 10 weeks. With dry samples the interface strengths varied with the reactivity of the silane deposited on the surface. Moisture exposure produced little change in fiber strengths and, for samples containing silane treated fibers, little change in interface strength, even when the silane was unreactive with the epoxy. In contrast, samples containing unsized fibers exhibited significant losses in interface strengths.

  6. Repair of Dielectric Interfaces with Chemistry Specific Coupling Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Michael W.; Roush, Abigail; Callahan, Stephen E.

    2009-06-01

    Low dielectric constant (low-k) materials are currently being incorporated into advanced microelectronic devices to improve or maintain performance. As the dielectric constant is reduced, so are its mechanical properties. These reduced properties have recently been related to chip-package interaction (CPI) failures. Significant effort has focused on eliminating CPI failures through engineering of copper crackstop structures. However, published data suggests that crackstop engineering needs to occur at each technology node to ensure CPI reliability. In this study, the focus is on repairing interfacial delaminations with chemistry specific coupling agents rather than attempting to stop them with a specially designed crackstop structure. Critical adhesion values and corrosion resistance of the repaired interfaces are compared to the original interface. The application of the repair chemistry in an integrated structure is discussed along with the potential impact on reliability.

  7. From One to Many: Planning for Loosely Coupled Multi-Agent Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronen I. Brafman; Carmel Domshlak

    2008-01-01

    Loosely coupled multi-agent systems are perceived as easier to plan for because they require less coordination between agent sub-plans. In this paper we set out to formalize this intuition. We establish an upper bound on the complexity of multi-agent planning problems that depends exponentially on two parameters quantifying the level of agents' coupling, and on these parameters only. The first

  8. Effect of silane coupling agents on mechanical and thermal properties of polyester resin concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Mani; A. K. Gupta; S. Krishnamoorthy

    1983-01-01

    Polyester resin-quartzite aggregate composites have been investigated for the effect of two silane coupling agents (?-aminopropyl triethoxy silane and?-methacryloxy propyl trimethoxy silane) on the mechanical and thermal properties. The integral blend additive method of application of the coupling agent was used in the preparation of the samples. Variation of the thermal stability and the compressive strength with the nature and

  9. Regulating Air Traffic Flow with Coupled Agents Adrian Agogino

    E-print Network

    Tumer, Kagan

    .g., different air- lines), limited resources (e.g., air traffic controllers) and very heavy traffic volume (e problems. This paper extends agent-based methods for controlling air traffic flow to more realistic domains an agent control structure that allows agents to control air traffic flow through one of three mechanisms

  10. Use of titanate coupling agents in Kevlar (trade name)/phenolic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, N.; Blum, F.D.; Dharani, L.R.

    1994-04-02

    Surface modification of Kevlar(R) fibers with titanate coupling agents for improved adhesion of the fiber and resin in Kevlar(R)/phenolic composites has been attempted to explore the possibility of enhancement in adhesion and bulk properties of composites for friction materials. Titanate coupling agents were used and flexural properties of the Kevlar(R)-fiber reinforced composites determined. A study of different amounts of the coupling agents at the fiber-matrix interface suggested that 2% by weight of fiber was the optimum amount, in terms of improvement in flexural properties. The composite samples with the coupling agents, showed an increase in flexural strength, over the untreated samples with the maximum increase being approx. 18% over the control. Water absorption studies were conducted on Kevlar(R)/phenolic composites treated with organotitanates to determine the effectiveness of these coupling agents in improving resistance to moisture attack. The treated Kevlar(R)/phenolic composite samples exhibited greater resistance to moisture-ingress over the untreated samples. The control samples showed a decrease of 17% in flexural strength. The largest decrease in strength was 14% for the treated samples containing coupling agent tetrakis(2-ethylhexyl)titanate (TYZOR TOT). Recovery in strength on reconditioning, was also greater for treated samples over control. A recovery in strength of ca. 94% was seen for some treated samples. Coupling agents, Composites, Kevlar, Interfaces, Mechanical properties.

  11. Improvement of the Properties of PC\\/LCP\\/MWCNT with or without Silane Coupling Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mukherjee; G. Nayak; S. Bose; C. K. Das

    2009-01-01

    Present study concentrates on the effect of silane coupling agent on the properties and dispersibility of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) in the Polycarbonate (PC)\\/Liquid Crystalline Polymer (LCP) system. Thermal stability of the PC\\/LCP\\/MWCNTs has been improved in an appreciable manner with the addition of silane coupling agents, as revealed from thermogravimetric analysis. Storage modulus also enhanced on addition of silane

  12. Effect of coupling agent on abrasive wear behaviour of chopped jute fibre-reinforced polypropylene composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Navin Chand; U. K. Dwivedi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, studies have been conducted to investigate the abrasive wear behaviour of jute fibre-reinforced polypropylene composites. Effect of addition of maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene (MA-g-PP)-coupling agent by two different approach, sliding distance and load on abrasive wear performance of jute fibre–PP composites has been determined by using a SUGA abrasion tester. Use of coupling agent gives better wear resistance

  13. Chain Extension of Polyamide 6 Using Bisoxazoline Coupling Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chengxiang Lu; Li Chen; Ronggen Ye; Xufu Cai

    2008-01-01

    The chain extension behaviors of 2,2?-(1,3-phenylene)bis(2-oxazoline) (MPBO) and 2,2?-bis(2-oxazoline) (BOZ) were studied to evaluate the coupling effect on polyamide 6 (PA6) in a Haake Rheocord mixer and an extruder. The coupling results showed that there existed an optimal dosage of chain extender, lack of which caused deficiency of chain extension and excess of which led to more blocking reaction. The

  14. Leader-following coordination of multi-agent systems with coupling time delays

    E-print Network

    Jiangping Hu; Yiguang Hong

    2007-05-03

    In this paper, we consider a leader-following consensus problem of a group of autonomous agents with time-varying coupling delays. Two different cases of coupling topologies are investigated. At first, a necessary and sufficient condition is proved in the case when the interconnection topology is fixed and directed. Then a sufficient condition is proposed in the case when the coupling topology is switched and balanced. Numerical examples are also given to illustrate our results.

  15. Recyclable Polystyrene-Supported Siloxane-Transfer Agent for Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The rational design, synthesis, and validation of a significantly improved insoluble polymer-supported siloxane-transfer agent has been achieved that permits efficient palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. The cross-linked polystyrene support facilitates product purification with excellent siloxane recycling. Drawbacks of a previous polymer-supported siloxane-transfer agent, relating to reaction efficiency and polymer stability after repeated cycles, have been addressed. PMID:24661113

  16. Bond strength between fiber posts and composite resin core: influence of temperature on silane coupling agents.

    PubMed

    Novais, Veridiana Resende; Simamotos Júnior, Paulo Cézar; Rontani, Regina Maria Puppin; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Soares, Carlos José

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of air drying temperature and different silane coupling agents on the bond strength between glass fiber posts and composite resin core. The post surface was cleaned with alcohol and treated with different silane coupling agents, being three prehydrolyzed silanes [Silano (Angelus), Prosil (FGM), RelyX Ceramic Primer (3M ESPE)] and one two-component silane [Silane Coupling Agent (Dentsply)]. Two post-silanization air drying temperatures, 23ºC and 60ºC, were applied. A cylindrical plastic matrix was placed around the silanized post and filled with composite resin. Each bonded post provided 7 slices for push-out testing. Each slice was loaded to failure under compression at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Scott-Knott tests (?=0.05). Dunnett's test was used to compare the mean of the control group with that of each experimental group. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the interface of the fractured slices. For the 23ºC air drying temperature, the use of RelyX Ceramic Primer resulted in significantly lower bond strength than the other silane coupling agents, while the bond strength with Silane Coupling Agent was the highest of all groups. Only with Silane Coupling Agent, the bond strength for the 23ºC air drying temperature was significantly higher than that for 60ºC air drying. In conclusion, the use of warm air drying after silane application produced no increase in the bond strength between the fiber-reinforced composite post and the composite core. The two-component silane produced higher bond strength than all prehydrolyzed silanes when it was used with air drying at room temperature. PMID:22460308

  17. Effect of silane coupling agents on the performance of RO membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nowon Kim; Dong Ho Shin; Yong Taek Lee

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of silane coupling agents on the performance of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes on the basis of sol–gel coating method. The surfaces of the RO membranes were chemically modified with four different alkoxysilanes in order to reduce their hydrophilicity. The objective of this study is to superpose hydrophobic polysiloxane layer on the surface of a polyamide

  18. Development and Evaluation of Novel Coupling Agents for Kenaf-Fiber-Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xiaofeng

    Natural fibers are gaining popularity as reinforcement materials for thermoset resins over the last two decades. Natural fibers are inexpensive, abundant, renewable and environmentally friendly. Kenaf fibers are one of the natural fibers that can potentially be used for reinforcing unsaturated polyester (UPE). As a polymer matrix, UPE enjoys a 40% market share of all the thermoset composites. This widespread application is due to many favorable characteristics including low cost, ease of cure at room temperature, ease of molding, a good balance of mechanical, electrical and chemical properties. One of the barriers for the full utilization of the kenaf fiber reinforced UPE composites, however, is the poor interfacial adhesion between the natural fibers and the UPE resins. The good interfacial adhesion between kenaf fibers and UPE matrix is essential for generating the desired properties of kenaf-UPE composites for most of the end applications. Use of a coupling agent is one of the most effective ways of improving the interfacial adhesion. In this study, six novel effective coupling agents were developed and investigated for kenaf-UPE composites: DIH-HEA, MFA, NMA, AESO-DIH, AESO-MDI, and AESO-PMDI. All the coupling agents were able to improve the interfacial adhesion between kanaf and UPE resins. The coupling agents were found to significantly enhance the flexural properties and water resistance of the kenaf-UPE composites. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed all the coupling agents were covalently bonded onto kenaf fibers. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the composites revealed the improved interfacial adhesion between kanaf fibers and UPE resins.

  19. Superhydrophobic cotton fabric coating based on a complex layer of silica nanoparticles and perfluorooctylated quaternary ammonium silane coupling agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minghua Yu; Guotuan Gu; Wei-Dong Meng; Feng-Ling Qing

    2007-01-01

    A superhydrophobic complex coating for cotton fabrics based on silica nanoparticles and perfluorooctylated quaternary ammonium silane coupling agent (PFSC) was reported in this article. The complex thin film was prepared through a sol–gel process using cotton fabrics as a substrate. Silica nanoparticles in the coating made the textile surface much rougher, and perfluorooctylated quaternary ammonium silane coupling agent on the

  20. Adhesion enhancement of steel fibers to acrylic bone cement through a silane coupling agent.

    PubMed

    Kotha, S P; Lieberman, M; Vickers, A; Schmid, S R; Mason, J J

    2006-01-01

    The use of a silane coupling agent (methacryloxypropyl-trichlorosilane) to improve the mechanical properties of steel fiber-reinforced acrylic bone cements was assessed. Changes to the tensile and fracture properties of bone cements reinforced with silane-coated or uncoated 316L stainless steel fibers of different aspect ratios were studied. Contact-angle measurements indicated that the coupling agent coats the metal surface through room temperature treatments in a short time (within 2 h). Push-out tests indicated that the interfacial shear strength of silane-coated 316L stainless steel rods is 141% higher than the uncoated rods. The elastic moduli, ultimate stresses, and fracture toughness of the silane-coated, steel fiber-reinforced bone cements are significantly higher than the bone cements reinforced with uncoated steel fibers. There were no differences in the tensile mechanical properties of the silane-coated or uncoated, steel fiber-reinforced cements after aging in a physiological saline solution, indicating that the bonding effectiveness is decreased by the intrusion of water at the metal-polymer interface. Because of possible biocompatibility issues with leaching of the silane coupling agent and no long-term mechanical benefit in simulated aging experiments, the use of these agents is not recommended for in vivo use. PMID:16224777

  1. Magnetostrictive properties of titanate coupling agent treated Terfenol-D composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xufeng; Qi, Min; Guan, Xinchun; Li, Jinhai; Ou, Jinping

    2012-03-01

    As a kind of composites, the bond strength between the polymer matrix and the Terfenol-D particles affects the performance of magnetostrictive composites. By observing the fracture morphologies, the bond strength of the magnetostrictive composites prepared with untreated Terfenol-D was proved weak. Titanate coupling agent was used for particles to improve the bond strength. Contact angle analysis indicates the work of adhesion of the epoxy resin to the treated Terfenol-D is larger than that to the untreated Terfenol-D. Different magnetostrictive composites with 20%, 35% and 50% particle volume fractions were prepared with treated and untreated Terfenol-D particles. Their static and dynamic magnetostriction was tested without pre-stress at room temperature. The results indicate titanate coupling agent treating increases the magnetostrictive properties of magnetostrictive composites, that is probably because the bond strength improves due to the particle treating.

  2. Biodegradable polymers\\/bamboo fiber biocomposite with bio-based coupling agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung-Hwan Lee; Siqun Wang

    2006-01-01

    Effects of lysine-based diisocyanate (LDI) as a coupling agent on the properties of biocomposite from poly (lactic acid) (PLA), poly (butylene succinate) (PBS) and bamboo fiber (BF) were investigated. Tensile properties, water resistance, and interfacial adhesion of both PLA\\/BF and PBS\\/BF composites were improved by the addition of LDI, whereas thermal flow became somewhat difficult due to cross-linking between polymer

  3. ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????? EFFECT OF COUPLING AGENT ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE FROM RECYCLED DRINKING WATER BOTTLES MIXED WITH BAGASSE FIBRES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atchara Sangthon; Nitat Jira-arun

    In this research, the effects of vinyltriethoxysilane coupling agent on mechanical properties of high density polyethylene from recycled drinking water bottles mixed with bagasse fibres as a reinforcing agent were studied. The size of bagasse fibres used was in the range of 14 - 18 mesh and their content was 15 percent by weight of polyethylene. The orientation of fibres

  4. Surface modification of Fe3O4@SiO2 microsphere by silane coupling agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahangaran, Fatemeh; Hassanzadeh, Ali; Nouri, Sirous

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell microspheres were prepared via two steps. First, Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation of Fe+3 and Fe+2 as reaction substrates and NaOH as precipitant. Second, the surface of Fe3O4 was coated with silica by hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate as the silica source. Subsequently, in order to reduce the amount of interaction and the agglomeration of Fe3O4@SiO2 microspheres, the silica shell of these particles was modified by vinyltriethoxysilane as the silane coupling agent. The structural properties of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. The results indicated that the average sizes of Fe3O4 and Fe3O4@SiO2 particles were about 50 and 500 nm, respectively. Also, the surface characterization of Fe3O4@SiO2 microspheres showed that the silane coupling agent was covalently coupled with the silica surface.

  5. Coupling of the antiviral agent zidovudine to polyaspartamide and in vitro drug release studies.

    PubMed

    Giammona, G; Cavallaro, G; Fontana, G; Pitarresi, G; Carlisi, B

    1998-08-14

    A macromolecular prodrug of the known antiretroviral agent zidovudine and alpha, beta-poly(N-2-hydroxyethyl)-DL-aspartamide (PHEA) was synthesized. A succinic spacer was present between the polymer and the drug, and 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole was used as the coupling agent. In vitro drug release studies at pH 1.1, 5.5 and 7.4 indicated that limited amounts of intact drug were released from the conjugate. At pH 1.1 and 7.4 succinylzidovudine was released, and this was hydrolysed to give free zidovudine. In the presence of alpha-chymotrypsin, zidovudine was released preferentially in comparison with the succinyl derivative. The amounts of released zidovudine and succinylzidovudine were greater in plasma than in aqueous buffer solutions. These results show that after i.v. administration this drug-polymer conjugate can release zidovudine into the blood circulation for prolonged periods. PMID:9766252

  6. Development of polypropylene/wood flour ecocomposites. Evaluation of silane as coupling agent

    SciTech Connect

    Bouza, R.; Barral, L.; Abad, M. J.; Montero, B. [Grupo de Polimeros, Dpto. de Fisica, E.U.P. Ferrol, Universidad de A Coruna, Avda. 19 de Febrero s/n, 15405 Ferrol (Spain)

    2010-06-02

    The effects of Pinus Sylvestris wood flour as filler in polypropylene matrix was evaluated. The mechanical properties and the morphology of different wood flour/polypropylene composites (WPC) were studied. The composites materials were prepared with several amounts of wood flour from 10 to 30% wt. Mechanical properties show that the wood flour incorporation increases the rigidity of the composites. Morphological analysis indicates that agglomerates are formed, with amounts exceeding 30% of wood flour. For the silane--treated composites, the dispersion of the filler into the polypropylene (PP) matrix improved. Shore D hardness of the composites is decreased with the addition of the coupling agent.

  7. Cytocompatibility and Mechanical Properties of Short Phosphate Glass Fibre Reinforced Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composites: Effect of Coupling Agent Mediated Interface

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Muhammad Sami; Ahmed, Ifty; Parsons, Andrew; Walker, Gavin; Scotchford, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In this study three chemical agents Amino-propyl-triethoxy-silane (APS), sorbitol ended PLA oligomer (SPLA) and Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) were identified to be used as coupling agents to react with the phosphate glass fibre (PGF) reinforcement and the polylactic acid (PLA) polymer matrix of the composite. Composites were prepared with short chopped strand fibres (l = 20 mm, ? = 20 µm) in a random arrangement within PLA matrix. Improved, initial composite flexural strength (~20 MPa) was observed for APS treated fibres, which was suggested to be due to enhanced bonding between the fibres and polymer matrix. Both APS and HDI treated fibres were suggested to be covalently linked with the PLA matrix. The hydrophobicity induced by these coupling agents (HDI, APS) helped to resist hydrolysis of the interface and thus retained their mechanical properties for an extended period of time as compared to non-treated control. Approximately 70% of initial strength and 65% of initial modulus was retained by HDI treated fibre composites in contrast to the control, where only ~50% of strength and modulus was retained after 28 days of immersion in PBS at 37 °C. All coupling agent treated and control composites demonstrated good cytocompatibility which was comparable to the tissue culture polystyrene (TCP) control, supporting the use of these materials as coupling agent’s within medical implant devices. PMID:24955744

  8. [Studies on porphyrin related compounds and tumor tissue affinities. I. Synthesis of a carrier for tumor imaging agent, bifunctional chelating agent coupled porphyrin (ATN-2)].

    PubMed

    Sakata, I; Takata, H; Ikeuchi, M; Hirata, N; Inui, H; Nakajima, S; Yamauchi, H; Koshimizu, K

    1990-12-01

    A carrier for a new tumor imaging agent, a bifunctional chelating agent (BCA)-coupled porphyrin (ATN-2), has been synthesized from protoporphyrin dimethyl ester in 4 steps. At first, the hydrobromination of protoporphyrin dimethyl ester is carried out to obtain a monobromo derivative. The derivative is treated with ethylene glycol. The resulting porphyrin has an ether group at the either 7- or 12-position of the ring. Metallation with GaCl3 of the porphyrin having a ethylene glycol residue affords Ga-metalloporphyrin. Final condensation of the metalloporphyrin with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DT-PA) gave BCA-coupled porphyrin (ATN-2). The chelation of ATN-2 with 111InCl3 easily afforded [111In]ATN-2. This agent was used for imaging transplantable pancreatic carcinoma in Syrian golden hamster at 72 h after postinjection. The efficacy of the new agent was compared with that of [67Ga]citrate. The images with [111In]ATN-2 were found to be clearer than those with [67Ga]citrate. Therefore, ATN-2, a carrier for 111InCl3, seems to be more useful for tumor imaging agents. PMID:2074537

  9. Effect of fibre and coupling agent contents on water absorption and flexural modulus of wood fibre polyethylene composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissandier, C.; Zhang, Y.; Rodrigue, D.

    2014-05-01

    In two previous studies, wood fiber-reinforced polymer composites (WPC) were prepared via melt processing. In particular, a response surface strategy of a 20 run optimal design for these three factors was adopted. It was found that for these WPC mixing torque, melt viscosity, Young's modulus and tensile stress at break were related to the type of wood used, as well as wood and coupling agent contents. In addition, thermal properties and strain at break were mainly affected by wood and coupling agent contents. Here, a more complete characterization of these WPC under extreme environmental conditions is performed. In particular, the effect of coupling agent content, wood fibre content and wood fibre type on water absorption and flexural modulus are reported under different water immersion time and temperature. The results show that water absorption is influenced by all the parameters studied, while flexural modulus is mainly influenced by wood content and immersion temperature.

  10. Surface modification of nano-TiN by using silane coupling agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Guojun; Luo, Jiaqi; Qian, Jiasheng; Miao, Jibin

    2014-06-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) nano-particles were subjected to graft modification by silane coupling agent (KH-570) via a direct blending method. The hydroxyl groups on the surface of TiN nano-particles can interact with silanol groups [-Si-OCH3] of KH-570 forming an organic coating layer. The covalent bonds (Ti-O-Si) formation was testified by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Through transmission electron micrograph (TEM) observations, it was found that KH-570 could improve the dispersibility of nano-TiN particles in ethyl acetate. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and contact angle measurements indicated that KH-570 molecules were adsorbed or anchored on the surface of nano-TiN particle and the net efficiency of it was 22.76 %, which facilitated to hinder the aggregation of nano-TiN particles.

  11. Effect of silane coupling agent chemistry on electrical breakdown across hybrid organic-inorganic insulating films.

    PubMed

    Diebold, Roger M; Gordon, Michael J; Clarke, David R

    2014-08-13

    Dielectric breakdown measurements were conducted on self-assembled monolayer (SAM)/native silicon oxide hybrid dielectrics using conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM). By depositing silane coupling agents (SCAs) through a diffusional barrier layer, SAM roughness was decoupled from chemistry to compare the chemical effects of exposed R-group functionality on dielectric breakdown. Using Weibull and current-voltage (I-V) analysis, the breakdown strength was observed to be independent of SCA R-group length, and the addition of a SAM was seen to improve the breakdown strength relative to native silicon oxide by up to 158%. Fluorinated SCAs were observed to suppress tunneling leakage and exhibited increased breakdown strength relative to their hydrocarbon analogs. Electron trapping, scattering, or attachment processes inherent to the fluorinated moieties are thought to be the origin of the improved breakdown properties. PMID:25010384

  12. The Compatibility Effect Of Coupling Agent On Rheological-Morphological Relationship Of Banana Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S. Y.; Shamsudin, Z. [Department of Engineering Materials, Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, 75450 Ayer Keroh, Melaka (Malaysia)

    2009-06-01

    The rheological properties of banana fibre reinforced polypropylene (PP/BF) composites at different composition were analysed using Shimadzu capillary rheometer. The effect of coupling agent concentration on the rheological properties was studied and followed by drawing a relationship of rheological-morphological properties of PP/BF composites. It was found that all composite system exhibits pseudoplasticity and incorporation of treated fibres consequents enhanced viscosity due to improved interfacial adhesion at fibre-matrix interface. However, it was observed that PP/BF composite with 2 wt% silane concentration does not yield further enhancement in the rheological properties when compared to that of 1 wt%. Composites with 1 wt% silane concentration were found to yield most promising compatibility effect with well-oriented and uniformly dispersed fibre morphology.

  13. Effects of the methyltrimethoxysilane coupling agent on phenolic and miscanthus composites containing calcium sulfite scrubber material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Sean

    The purpose of this research is to test the effects of methyltrimethoxysilane coupling agent on composite material containing calcium sulfite obtained from the Southern Illinois Power Co-operative. This scrubber material and the miscanthus plant are of interest due to their use in coal burning power plants to reduce toxic emission. When calcium sulfate is passed through coal fire gas emissions it absorbs mercury and sulfur. In these composites it is used as filler to reduce cost. Miscanthus is a source of both cellulose reinforcement and some natural resin. This plant has low care requirements, little mineral content, useful energy return, and positive environmental effects. Under investigation is whether a post-cure procedure or a silane coupling agent will positively impact the composite. Hot pressing alone may not be enough to fully cure the phenolic. It is hoped that the silane will increase the strength characteristics of the composite by enhancing adhesion between the calcium sulfite and phenolic resin. Possible effects on the miscanthus by the silane will also be tested. Phenolic is being utilized because of its recycling and biodegradable properties along with cost effectiveness in mass production. Composite mechanical performance was measured through 3-point bending to measure flexural strength and strain at breakage. A dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) was used to find thermomechanical properties. The post-cure was found to be effective, particularly on the final composite containing silane. When methyltrimethoxysilane was added to the miscanthus prior to fabrication, it was found to reduce flexural strength and density. However the addition of methyltrimethoxysilane to the calcium sulfite altered thermo-mechanical properties to a state more like pure phenolic, with added flexibility and thermal stability.

  14. Comparison of cure, mechanical, electric properties of EPDM filled with Sm 2O 3 treated by different coupling agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Su; Shuangjun Chen; Jun Zhang; Zhongzi Xu

    2009-01-01

    Composites based on ethylene–propylene–diene rubber (EPDM) were prepared. EPDM was reinforced with 100phr Sm2O3 treated with coupling agents: stearic acid (SA), isopropyl tri(dioctylphosphate) titanate (NDZ102), bis-[-3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl]tetrasulfide (KH845-4), and N-?-(aminoethyl)-?-aminopropylmethyldimethoxysilane (SG-Si602), respectively. Cure, mechanical and electrical properties of the composites were investigated. It was found that carboxyl in coupling agents could retard EPDM cure while amino groups, PO bonds and S

  15. Negotiation Support Agent Based on Fuzzy Decision Making by Genetic Programming with the Coupled Chaos System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Koki; Goto, Michihiko; Hamamatsu, Yoshio

    This paper describes a negotiation agent system based on the fuzzy decision making. The method of seeking appropriate membership functions and a reasonable agreement point was examined by means of the genetic programming technique with the coupled chaos system, which is an intelligent principle. The negotiation rule is based on the negotiation model expressed by the utility theory in the process of decision making. And the concession process was modified with the opponent’s movement and the persistence of each negotiator. In order to search for a membership function more efficiently, the dynamic state of symbiosis between individuals, which was caused by the coupled chaos system, was taken advantage of. Then the effectiveness of the technique was examined by applying it to a practical negotiation case which needs cooperative decision making. As a result, the following findings were obtained. This technique helps discover practicable membership functions in a vast search area, and achieve the solution search with high efficiency. This technique is also considered to be applied to the negotiation support easily.

  16. A Fundamental Study Into the Surface Functionalization of Soft Glass Microstructured Optical Fibers via Silane Coupling Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Debs; Heike Ebendorff-Heidepriem; Jamie S. Quinton; Tanya M. Monro

    2009-01-01

    A method for the functionalization of surfaces within soft glass microstructured optical fibers has been developed, using self assembled monolayers (SAMs) of silane coupling agents. We demonstrate the use of measurements of the fiber capillary fill rate, as a positive test for a functionalized internal surface. A simple theoretical model is used for comparison with measured fill rates. During this

  17. Influence of silane coupling agents on the rheological behavior of hemp fiber filled polyamide 1010 biomass composites in molten state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishitani, Yosuke; Hasumi, Megumi; Kitano, Takeshi

    2015-05-01

    In order to develop the new engineering materials such as structural materials and tribomaterials based on all plants-derived materials, the influence of silane coupling agent on the rheological properties of hemp fiber (HF) filled polyamide 1010 (PA1010) biomass composites in molten state was investigated for one step of the fabrication of these materials. PA1010 was made from sebacic acid and decamethylenediamine, which are obtained from plant-derived castor oil. Hemp fibers were surface-treated by two types of surface treatment: a) alkali treatment by NaOH solution and b) surface treatment by silane coupling agents with different concentrations. Three types of silane coupling agents: aminosilane, epoxysilane and ureidosilane were used for surface treatment. HF/PA1010 composites were extruded by a twin screw extruder and compression-molded. Rheological behavior in molten state were evaluated by oscillatory flow testing using a parallel plate type rheometer. It was found that the silane coupling agents remarkably influence on: 1) rheological properties such as storage modulus, loss modulus, loss tangent and complex viscosity in low angular frequency region in molten state, 2) temperature dependences of rheological properties, and 3) relationship between phase angle and complex modulus (van Gurp - Palmen plots). These rheological behavior were also strongly influenced by the type of silane coupling agents. The viscoelastic properties (both storage and loss moduli) of aminosilane and epoxysilane treated composites were lower, however, those of ureidosilane treated ones were higher than the moduli of only alkali treated composites. Ureidosilane treated composites were the least temperature sensitive in the surface treated composites investigated here.

  18. Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Second annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.J.

    1995-04-01

    {open_quotes}Investigation of Oil Recovery Improvement by Coupling an Interfacial Tension Agent and a Mobility Control Agent in Light Oil Reservoirs{close_quotes} is studying two major areas concerning co-injecting an interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent. The first area defines the interactions of alkaline agents, surfactants, and polymers on a fluid-fluid and a fluid-rock basis. The second area concerns the economic improvement of the combined technology. This report continues the fluid-fluid interaction evaluations and begins the fluid-rock studies. Fluid-fluid interfacial tension work determined that replacing sodium ion with either potassium or ammonium ion in solutions with interfacial tension reduction up to 19,600 fold was detrimental and had little or no effect on alkali-surfactant solutions with interfacial tension reduction of 100 to 200 fold. Reservoir brine increases interfacial tension between crude oil and alkaline-surfactant solutions. Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-surfactant solutions maintained ultra low and low interfacial tension values better than NaOH-surfactant solutions. The initial phase of the fluid-rock investigations was adsorption studies. Surfactant adsorption is reduced when co-dissolved with alkali. Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} are more efficient at reducing surfactant adsorption than NaOH. When polymer is added to the surfactant solution, surfactant adsorption is reduced as well. When both polymer and alkali are added, polymer is the dominate component, reducing the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and NaOH effect on adsorption. Substituting sodium ion with potassium or ammonium ion increased or decreased surfactant adsorption depending on surfactant structure with alkali having a less significant effect. No consistent change of surfactant adsorption with increasing salinity was observed in the presence or absence of alkali or polymer.

  19. Highly Efficient Arsenic Removal Using a Composite of Ultrafine Magnetite Nanoparticles Interlinked by Silane Coupling Agents

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shu-Chi; Yu, Yu-Han; Li, Cheng-Hao; Wu, Chin-Ching; Lei, Hao-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination in groundwater is a great environmental health concern and is often the result of contact between groundwater and arsenic-containing rocks or sediments and from variation of pH and redox potentials in the subsurface. In the past decade, magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) have been shown to have high adsorption activity towards As. Alerted by the reported cytotoxicity of 5–12 nm MNP, we studied the adsorption behavior of 1.15 nm MNP and a MNP composite (MNPC), MNPs interlinked by silane coupling agents. With an initial concentration of As at 25 mg L?1, MNPs exhibited high adsorption capacity for As(V) and As (III), 206.9 mg·g?1 and 168.6 mg·g?1 under anaerobic conditions, respectively, and 109.9 mg·g?1 and 108.6 mg·g?1 under aerobic conditions, respectively. Under aerobic conditions, MNPC achieved even higher adsorption capacity than MNP, 165.1 mg·g?1 on As(V) and 157.9 mg·g?1 on As(III). For As(V) at 50 mg L?1, MNPC achieved an adsorption capacity as high as 341.8 mg·g?1, the highest in the literature. A kinetic study indicated that this adsorption reaction can reach equilibrium within 15 min and the rate constant of As(V) is about 1.9 times higher than that of As(III). These results suggested that MNPC can serve as a highly effective adsorbent for fast removal of As. PMID:23202769

  20. Silane coupling agent for attaching fusion-bonded epoxy to steel.

    PubMed

    Tchoquessi Diodjo, Madeleine R; Belec, Lénaïk; Aragon, Emmanuel; Joliff, Yoann; Lanarde, Lise; Perrin, François-Xavier

    2013-07-24

    We describe the possibility of using ?-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (?-APS) to increase the durability of epoxy powder coating/steel joints. The curing temperature of epoxy powder coatings is frequently above 200 °C, which is seen so far as a major limitation for the use of the heat-sensitive aminosilane coupling agent. Despite this limitation, we demonstrate that aminosilane is a competitive alternative to traditional chromate conversion to enhance the durability of epoxy powder coatings/steel joints. Fourier-transform reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (FT-RAIRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to identify the silane deposition conditions that influence the adhesion of epoxy powder coatings on steel. We show that AFM analysis provides highly sensitive measurements of mechanical property development and, as such, the degree of condensation of the silane. The joint durability in water at 60 °C was lower when the pH of the ?-APS solution was controlled at 4.6 using formic acid, rather than that at natural pH (10.6). At the curing temperature of 220 °C, oxidation of the carbon adjacent to the amine headgroup of ?-APS gives amide species by a pseudofirst-order kinetics. However, a few amino functionalities remain to react with oxirane groups of epoxy resin and, thus, strengthen the epoxy/silane interphase. The formation of ammonium formate in the acidic silane inhibits the reaction between silane and epoxy, which consequently decreases the epoxy/silane interphase cohesion. We find that the nanoroughness of silane deposits increases with the cure temperature which is beneficial to the wet stability of the epoxy/steel joints, due to increased mechanical interlocking. PMID:23790122

  1. Superhydrophobic cotton fabric coating based on a complex layer of silica nanoparticles and perfluorooctylated quaternary ammonium silane coupling agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Minghua; Gu, Guotuan; Meng, Wei-Dong; Qing, Feng-Ling

    2007-01-01

    A superhydrophobic complex coating for cotton fabrics based on silica nanoparticles and perfluorooctylated quaternary ammonium silane coupling agent (PFSC) was reported in this article. The complex thin film was prepared through a sol-gel process using cotton fabrics as a substrate. Silica nanoparticles in the coating made the textile surface much rougher, and perfluorooctylated quaternary ammonium silane coupling agent on the top layer of the surface lowered the surface free energy. Textiles coated with this coating showed excellent water repellent property, and water contact angle (CA) increased from 133° on cotton fabrics treated with pure PFSC without silica sol pretreatment up to 145°. The oil repellency was also improved and the contact angle of CH 2I 2 droplet on the fabric surface reached to 131°. In contrast, the contact angle of CH 2I 2 on the fabric surface treated with pure PFSC was only 125°.

  2. Synthesis of New Silane Coupling Agents with a Trimellitic Anhydride Group and Application as Primers for Ceramics and Alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeaki KURATA; Kozo UMEMOTO

    2007-01-01

    With a view to improving the bond strength of resin to dental ceramics and alloys, new silane coupling agents, namely 4-tri- chlorosilylpropyl- and 4-trimethoxysilylpropyl-trimellitic anhydride (4-CSTA and 4-MSTA, respectively), were synthesized. In addition, silane mixtures of 4-CSTA with 3-methacryloyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (3-MPS) and 4-MSTA with 3-MPS were used as primers for adhesion of poly (methyl methacrylate) to glass, silver-palladium-gold alloy (Ag-Pd alloy),

  3. Improved adhesion between nickel–titanium shape memory alloy and a polymer matrix via silane coupling agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Smith; G. G. Antoun; A. B. Ellis; W. C. Crone

    2004-01-01

    NiTi wires were functionalized with silane coupling agents to improve interfacial adhesion between the inorganic constituent and a host matrix for composite applications. Surface derivatization was characterized by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and mechanical pullout tests were performed to quantify the increase in adhesion between the NiTi shape memory alloy wires and polymer matrix. Improvements of roughly 100% in the adhesion

  4. Attaching Biological Probes to Silica Optical Biosensors Using Silane Coupling Agents

    PubMed Central

    Soteropulos, Carol E.; Hunt, Heather K.

    2012-01-01

    In order to interface with biological environments, biosensor platforms, such as the popular Biacore system (based on the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) technique), make use of various surface modification techniques, that can, for example, prevent surface fouling, tune the hydrophobicity / hydrophilicity of the surface, adapt to a variety of electronic environments, and most frequently, induce specificity towards a target of interest.1-5 These techniques extend the functionality of otherwise highly sensitive biosensors to real-world applications in complex environments, such as blood, urine, and wastewater analysis.2,6-7 While commercial biosensing platforms, such as Biacore, have well-understood, standard techniques for performing such surface modifications, these techniques have not been translated in a standardized fashion to other label-free biosensing platforms, such as Whispering Gallery Mode (WGM) optical resonators.8-9 WGM optical resonators represent a promising technology for performing label-free detection of a wide variety of species at ultra-low concentrations.6,10-12 The high sensitivity of these platforms is a result of their unique geometric optics: WGM optical resonators confine circulating light at specific, integral resonance frequencies.13 Like the SPR platforms, the optical field is not totally confined to the sensor device, but evanesces; this "evanescent tail" can then interact with species in the surrounding environment. This interaction causes the effective refractive index of the optical field to change, resulting in a slight, but detectable, shift in the resonance frequency of the device. Because the optical field circulates, it can interact many times with the environment, resulting in an inherent amplification of the signal, and very high sensitivities to minor changes in the environment.2,14-15 To perform targeted detection in complex environments, these platforms must be paired with a probe molecule (usually one half of a binding pair, e.g. antibodies / antigens) through surface modification.2 Although WGM optical resonators can be fabricated in several geometries from a variety of material systems, the silica microsphere is the most common. These microspheres are generally fabricated on the end of an optical fiber, which provides a "stem" by which the microspheres can be handled during functionalization and detection experiments. Silica surface chemistries may be applied to attach probe molecules to their surfaces; however, traditional techniques generated for planar substrates are often not adequate for these three-dimensional structures, as any changes to the surface of the microspheres (dust, contamination, surface defects, and uneven coatings) can have severe, negative consequences on their detection capabilities. Here, we demonstrate a facile approach for the surface functionalization of silica microsphere WGM optical resonators using silane coupling agents to bridge the inorganic surface and the biological environment, by attaching biotin to the silica surface.8,16 Although we use silica microsphere WGM resonators as the sensor system in this report, the protocols are general and can be used to functionalize the surface of any silica device with biotin. PMID:22588224

  5. Monomolecular layers and thin films of silane coupling agents by vapor-phase adsorption on oxidized aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Kurth, D.G.; Bein, T. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1992-08-06

    Thin films of tetraethoxysilane [TEOS], (3-bromopropyl)trimethoxysilane [BPS], trimethoxyvinylsilane [VS], and 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate [TPM] on oxidized aluminum surfaces have been investigated by reflection-absorption FTIR spectroscopy, ellipsometry, contact angle, and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements. Gravimetric measurements with the QCM can reveal quantitative aspects of adsorption and film formation, even for films as thin as monolayers. Adsorption of these silane coupling agents from solution typically produces multilayer films. Vapor-phase adsorption of TEOS and TPM at room temperature results in monomolecular layers. The coupling agents VS and BPS require additional heating after the vapor-phase adsorption to initiate the hydrolysis and condensation reactions necessary for the surface attachment, which produces one to three layers. For vapor adsorbed films a packing density of 4-7 molecules/nm{sup 2} was found. The data strongly suggest that the organic moieties in several of these films have a preferential orientation on the surface; they can be viewed as two-dimensional, oligomeric siloxane networks with oriented organic chains. Subsequent heating of TPM films results in structural rearrangements; heating of TEOS results in complete condensation to SiO{sub 2} films. 43 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.

    1995-12-01

    This research studied the oil recovery potential of flooding light oil reservoirs by combining interfacial tension reducing agent(s) with a mobility control agent. The specific objectives were: To define the mechanisms and limitations of co-injecting interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent to recover incremental oil. Specifically, the study focused on the fluid-fluid and fluid-rock interactions. To evaluate the economics of the combination technology and investigate methods to make the process more profitable. Specific areas of study were to evaluate different chemical concentration tapers and the volume of chemical injection required to give optimal oil recovery.

  7. The influence of coupling agents on mechanical property retention and long-term cytocompatibility of phosphate glass fibre reinforced PLA composites.

    PubMed

    Hasan, M S; Ahmed, I; Parsons, A J; Walker, G S; Scotchford, C A

    2013-12-01

    Completely resorbable composites are an attractive alternative for metallic bone-fracture fixation devices. However, failure of their interfacial integrity within aqueous environments, which can lead to a rapid loss of overall mechanical properties, has been reported in the literature. In this study coupling agents were investigated for phosphate glass fibre reinforced poly(lactic acid) composites. Three coupling agents with varying wettability were employed to improve initial mechanical properties and their retention in vitro via improvement of the interfacial bond between polymer matrix and fibres. Coupling agents were grafted onto the glass fibres by dip-coating in coupling agent solution at optimised concentrations. Three-aminopropyltriethoxy silane and sorbitol ended PLA oligomer treatments improved the initial flexural properties (27% strength with APS and 17% modulus via SPLA treatment) of the composites and 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) treatments also decreased the loss of flexural strength and modulus during degradation. HDI treated samples retained 57.2% and 64.7% of their initial strength and modulus, respectively compared to control where only 34% of initial strength and 52% of initial modulus was retained after 28 days of degradation in PBS solution. Initial improvements in flexural properties were associated with improved shear bond strength at the interface due to covalent bonding between the glass fibres and polymer matrix provided by the coupling agents. Delay in mechanical property loss with degradation was suggested to be due to the hydrophobicity at the interface, which could have hindered the interfacial integrity loss and consequently loss of mechanical integrity of the composites. All coupling agent treated and control composites were tested for cytocompatibility using a primary human osteoblast cell line. A comparable response to the control, in terms of cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation was observed supporting the use of these agents within implantable devices. PMID:23959231

  8. Metal chelators coupled with nanoparticles as potential therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gang; Men, Ping; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neuro-degenerative disorder characterized by the progressive and irreversible loss of memory followed by complete dementia. Despite the disease's high prevalence and great economic and social burden, an explicative etiology or viable cure is not available. Great effort has been made to better understand the disease's pathogenesis, and to develop more effective therapeutic agents. However, success is greatly hampered by the presence of the blood-brain barrier that limits a large number of potential therapeutics from entering the brain. Nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery is one of the few valuable tools for overcoming this impediment and its application as a potential AD treatment shows promise. In this review, the current studies on nanoparticle delivery of chelation agents as possible therapeutics for AD are discussed because several metals are found excessive in the AD brain and may play a role in the disease development. Specifically, a novel approach involving transport of iron chelation agents into and out of the brain by nanoparticles is highlighted. This approach may provide a safer and more effective means of simultaneously reducing several toxic metals in the AD brain. It may also provide insights into the mechanisms of AD pathophysiology, and prove useful in treating other iron-associated neurodegenerative diseases such as Friedreich's ataxia, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and Hallervorden-Spatz Syndrome. It is important to note that the use of nanoparticle-mediated transport to facilitate toxicant excretion from diseased sites in the body may advance nanoparticle technology, which is currently focused on targeted drug delivery for disease prevention and treatment. The application of nanoparticle-mediated drug transport in the treatment of AD is at its very early stages of development and, therefore, more studies are warranted. PMID:19936278

  9. Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Technical progress report, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    The study will investigate two major areas concerning co-injecting an interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent into petroleum reservoirs. The first will consist of defining the mechanisms of interaction of an alkaline agent, a surfactant, and a polymer on a fluid-fluid and a fluid-rock basis. The second is the improvement of the economics of the combined technology. This report examines the adsorption of alkali, surfactant, and polymer onto crushed Berea sandstone.

  10. Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Technical progress report, September--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.J.

    1993-12-31

    The study will investigate two major areas concerning co-injecting an interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent into petroleum reservoirs. The first will consist of defining the mechanisms of interaction of an alkaline agent, a surfactant, and a polymer on a fluid-fluid and a fluid-rock basis. The second is the improvement of the economics of the combined technology. This report examines the adsorption of alkali, surfactant, and polymer onto crushed Berea sandstone.

  11. Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Summary annual report, October 1994September 1995

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pitts

    1995-01-01

    The study will investigate two major areas concerning co-injecting an interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent into petroleum reservoirs. The first will consist of defining the mechanisms of interaction of an alkaline agent, a surfactant, and a polymer on a fluid-fluid and a fluid-rock basis. The second is the improvement of the economics of the combined technology.

  12. Modified coupling agents based on thiourea, immobilized onto silica. Thermodynamics of copper adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Fernando J. V. E.; da Silva Filho, Edson C.; Melo, Maurício A., Jr.; Airoldi, Claudio

    2009-07-01

    New silylating agents synthesized by incorporating the thiourea molecule into precursor agents containing increasing numbers of basic nitrogen atoms, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]-ethylenediamine and N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]diethylenetri-amine, through a solvent-free methodology were characterized before being successfully immobilized onto silica gel. The spectroscopic results support the elemental analysis, demonstrating that the thiourea molecule reacted in such a way as to maintain free amino groups. NMR data for carbon and silicon nuclei eflucidated the structural features associated with the incorporated chains and their bonds to the silica skeleton, with formation of covalent silicon-carbon bonds. Thermogravimetric data correlated with the degree of functionalization, which was also obtained from elemental analysis. The available basic nitrogen and sulfur atoms attached to the incorporated pendant chains have the ability to coordinate copper to give 1.10, 0.47 and 1.25 mmol g -1 as maximum adsorption capacities for the samples prepared with the silanes containing one, two and three nitrogen atoms on their structures. The thermodynamic data for copper/basic center interactions at the solid/liquid interface were determined through calorimetric titration, and the set of data demonstrated favorable systems for all three newly synthesized derivatized silicas, as shown by exothermic enthalpic data, which yield negative Gibbs free energies for removal of this cation from aqueous solutions by all the newly synthesized materials.

  13. Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Technical progress report, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.J.

    1993-12-01

    The study will investigate two major areas concerning co-injecting an interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent into petroleum reservoirs. The first will consist of defining the mechanisms of interaction of an alkaline agent, a surfactant, and a polymer on a fluid-fluid and a fluid-rock basis. The second is the improvement of the economics of the combined technology. This report examines the effect of polymer addition to different combinations of alkaline agents and surfactants. Xanthan gum and polyacrylamide polymers were evaluated. In addition, the effect of alkali and polymer on the critical micelle concentration of different surfactant types was investigated.

  14. Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Technical progress report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.J.

    1993-10-01

    The study will investigate two major areas concerning co-injecting on interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent into petroleum reservoirs. The first will consist of defining the mechanisms of interaction of an alkaline agent, a surfactant, and a polymer on a fluid-fluid and fluid-rock basis. The second is the improvement of the economic of the combined technology. This report examines the effect of polymer addition to different combinations of alkaline agents and surfactants. Xanthan gum and polyacrylamide polymers were evaluated. In addition, the effect of alkali and polymer on the critical micelle concentration of different surfactant types was investigated.

  15. Understanding coupled natural and human systems on fire prone landscapes: integrating wildfire simulation into an agent based planning system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, Ana; Ager, Alan; Preisler, Haiganoush; Day, Michelle; Spies, Tom; Bolte, John

    2015-04-01

    Agent-based models (ABM) allow users to examine the long-term effects of agent decisions in complex systems where multiple agents and processes interact. This framework has potential application to study the dynamics of coupled natural and human systems where multiple stimuli determine trajectories over both space and time. We used Envision, a landscape based ABM, to analyze long-term wildfire dynamics in a heterogeneous, multi-owner landscape in Oregon, USA. Landscape dynamics are affected by land management policies, actors decisions, and autonomous processes such as vegetation succession, wildfire, or at a broader scale, climate change. Key questions include: 1) How are landscape dynamics influenced by policies and institutions, and 2) How do land management policies and actor decisions interact to produce intended and unintended consequences with respect to wildfire on fire-prone landscapes. Applying Envision to address these questions required the development of a wildfire module that could accurately simulate wildfires on the heterogeneous landscapes within the study area in terms of replicating historical fire size distribution, spatial distribution and fire intensity. In this paper we describe the development and testing of a mechanistic fire simulation system within Envision and application of the model on a 3.2 million fire prone landscape in central Oregon USA. The core fire spread equations use the Minimum Travel Time algorithm developed by M Finney. The model operates on a daily time step and uses a fire prediction system based on the relationship between energy release component and historical fires. Specifically, daily wildfire probabilities and sizes are generated from statistical analyses of historical fires in relation to daily ERC values. The MTT was coupled with the vegetation dynamics module in Envision to allow communication between the respective subsystem and effectively model fire effects and vegetation dynamics after a wildfire. Canopy and surface fuels are modeled in a state and transition framework that accounts for succession, fire effects, and fuels management. Fire effects are modeled using simulated fire intensity (flame length) to calculate expected vegetation impacts for each vegetation state. This talk will describe the mechanics of the simulation system along with initial results of Envision simulations for the Central Oregon study area that explore the dynamics of wildfire, fuel management, and succession over time.

  16. Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Technical progress report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The study will investigate two major areas concerning co-injecting an interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent into petroleum reservoirs. The first will consist of defining the mechanisms of interaction of an alkaline agent, a surfactant, and a polymer on a fluid-fluid and a fluid-rock basis. The second is the improvement of the economics of the combined technology. This report examines effect of rock type on oil recovery by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. This report also begins a series of evaluations to improve the economics of alkaline-surfactant-polymer oil recovery.

  17. A Multiplex PCR-coupled Liquid Bead Array for the Simultaneous Detection of Four Biothreat Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W J; Erler, A M; Nasarabadi, S L; Skowronski, E W; McCready, P M

    2004-02-04

    We have developed a 10-plexed PCR assay coupled to a 12-plexed liquid bead array to rapidly screen environmental samples for B. anthracis, Y. pestis, F. tularensis, and B. melitensis. Highly validated species -specific primer sets were used to simultaneously amplify multiple diagnostic regions unique to each individual pathogen. Resolution of the mix of amplified products was achieved by PCR product hybridization to corresponding probe sequences, attached to unique sets of fluorescent beads. The hybridized beads were processed through a flow cytometer, which detected presence and quantity of each PCR product. The assay was optimized to allow for maximum sensitivity in a multiplexed format. A high- throughput demonstration was performed where 384 simulated environmental samples were spiked with different amounts of B. thuringensis spores and pathogen DNA. The samples were robotically processed to extract DNA and arrayed for multiplexed PCR-liquid bead detection. The assay correctly identified the presence or absence of each pathogen and collected over 3,000 individual data points within a single 8-hour shift for approximately $1.20 per sample in a 10-plexed assay.

  18. Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Technical progress report, July 1995--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.J.

    1995-10-01

    This study will investigate two major areas concerning co-injection and interfacial tension reduction agents and a mobility control agent into petroleum reservoirs. The first will consist of defining the mechanisms of interaction of an alkaline agent, a surfactant, and a polymer on a fluid-fluid and a fluid-rock basis. The second is the improvement of the economics of the combined technology. This report examines altering the concentration of alkali and polymer on the oil recovery economics of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution.

  19. Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Technical progress report, April--June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.J.; Casteel, J.

    1994-09-01

    The study will investigate two major areas concerning co-injecting an interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent into petroleum reservoirs. The first will consist of defining the mechanisms of interaction of an alkaline agent, a surfactant, and a polymer on a fluid-fluid and a fluid-rock basis. The second is the improvement of the economics of the combined technology. This report examines the changes in the relative permeability characteristics with addition of alkali, surfactant, and polymer to the injected solution, the effect of matrix type on relative permeability characteristics with alkali-surfactant-polymer and the effect of different polymer concentrations on oil recovery by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution.

  20. Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Summary annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    The study will investigate two major areas concerning co-injecting an interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent into petroleum reservoirs. The first will consist of defining the mechanisms of interaction of an alkaline agent, a surfactant, and a polymer on a fluid-fluid and a fluid-rock basis. The second is the improvement of the economics of the combined technology. The third year of the study finished the oil recovery coreflood studies and evaluated different techniques to improve alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution economics. The final series of corefloods compared the oil recovery efficiency of the alkali gradient in Berea sandstone and J Sand sandstone. Oil recovery efficiency was essentially the same in both types of core, 13 to 15% PV of oil. Cost of chemical per incremental barrel of oil with 30% pore volume of alkaline-surfactant- polymer solution injected were $3.20 for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}- Petrostep B-100-Flopaam 3330S solution in both types of core.

  1. Analyzing several chelating agents and their effect on elemental composition of Lolium perenne and two growth media by capillary zone electrophoresis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pirkko-Leena Hakkarainen; Rose Matilainen

    2009-01-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) along with ICP-OES was used for the determination of several chelating agents in clay\\u000a and black soil, and in plants (Lolium perenne) grown in these matrices. Elemental levels in all the samples (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Pb, S and Zn) were investigated\\u000a by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Compared

  2. Effect of acidic pretreatment combined with a silane coupling agent on bonding durability to silicon oxide ceramic.

    PubMed

    Foxton, Richard M; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Tagami, Junji; Miura, Hiroyuki

    2005-04-01

    This study examined the effect of different acidic treatments and the role of a phosphate monomer in a silane coupling agent on the durability of the dual-cure resin cement/silicon oxide bond. Ceramic blocks (Vita Celay Blanks) were cut into multiple 3 mm-thick slices and polished using 600 grit SiC paper. Two pairs were left untreated [controls (CTRL)], two pairs were treated with 40% phosphoric acid and rinsed with water for 30 s (PA), and another two pairs treated with 20% hydrofluoric acid followed by 30 s water rinsing (HF). Half the specimens were silanated with Tokuso Ceramics Primer (TCP) (Tokuyama) and the other half with TCP formulated without phosphate monomer (TCP-NoPM). All the pairs were bonded with Bistite II dual-cure resin cement (Tokuyama) and light cured. After 24 h water storage at 37 degrees C, 0.7 mm-thick slabs were serially sectioned. Immediately, after 6 months and after 1 year of water storage, two slabs were randomly selected from each subgroup, and sliced into beams (6 x 0.7 x 0.7 mm) for the microtensile bond strength (muTBS) test. The muTBS data were statistically analyzed using multiple Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests (p < 0.05). Failure modes were determined using a confocal laser-scanning microscope. Ceramic surface morphology after the different acidic treatments was examined using an SEM. After 1 day, in the case of silane treatment with TCP, there were no significant differences in muTBS between the control and acid-treated groups (p > 0.05), whereas with TCP-NoPM, the muTBS of the control was significantly lower than the acid-treated groups (p < 0.05). All the TCP and acid-treated TCP-NoPM groups exhibited significant reductions in muTBS after 6 months (p < 0.05). After 1 year, the muTBS of the acid-treated TCP groups were not significantly different from the control TCP group (p > 0.05). There was also no significant difference between the HF-treated TCP and TCP-NoPM groups (p > 0.05) after 1 year, all exhibiting greater than 10 MPa tensile bond strength. It is suggested that acidic pretreatment of the ceramic surface does not improve the durability of the dual-cure resin cement/silicon oxide ceramic bond when an acidic phosphate monomer is present as an activator in a ceramic primer. PMID:15625674

  3. Cloud point extraction with/without chelating agent on-line coupled with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry for the determination of trace rare earth elements in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingjie; Hu, Bin

    2010-02-15

    The on-line incorporation of cloud point extraction (CPE) with/without 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-Ox) as chelating agent into flow injection analysis associated with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) for determining trace rare earth elements (REEs) is presented and evaluated. The significant parameters affecting on-line cloud point extraction of REEs such as sample pH, flow rate, 8-Ox concentration, Triton X-114 concentration were systematically studied. Under the optimized conditions, with the consumption of 3.0 mL sample solution, the limits of detection (3 sigma) were ranged from 41.4 pg mL(-1) (Yb) to 448 pg mL(-1) (Gd) with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.0% (Eu)-5.9% (Sm) for on-line CPE-ICP-OES with 8-Ox as chelating agent, and 69.0 pg mL(-1) (Sc) to 509.5 pg mL(-1) (Sm) with RSDs of 2.9% (Yb)-7.5% (Ho) for on-line CPE-ICP-OES without 8-Ox as chelating agent, respectively. The sample throughput of 17samples h(-1) was obtained for both systems. The developed methods of on-line CPE-ICP-OES were validated by the analysis of certified reference material (GBW07605, tea leaves) and real biological samples of pig liver, Auricularia auricula and mushroom. PMID:19815341

  4. Indium-zinc-oxide electric-double-layer thin-film transistors gated by silane coupling agents 3-triethoxysilylpropylamine–graphene oxide solid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Liqiang; Huang, Yukai; Shi, Yangyang; Cheng, Guanggui; Ding, Jianning

    2015-07-01

    Silane coupling agents 3-triethoxysilylpropyla-mine-graphene oxide (KH550-GO) solid electrolyte are prepared by spin coating process. A high proton conductivity of ~1.2???×???10?3 Scm?1 is obtained at room temperature. A strong electric-double-layer (EDL) effect is observed due to the accumulation of protons at KH550-GO/IZO interface. Indium-Zinc-Oxide thin film transistors gated by KH550-GO solid electrolyte are self-assembled on ITO glass substrates. Good electrical performances are obtained, such as a low subthreshold swing of ~140?mV/dec., a high current on/off ratio of ~2.9???×???107 and a high field-effect mobility of ~13.2?cm2 V?1 S?1, respectively.

  5. Portable solid phase micro-extraction coupled with ion mobility spectrometry system for on-site analysis of chemical warfare agents and simulants in water samples.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Han, Qiang; Cao, Shuya; Yang, Jie; Yang, Junchao; Ding, Mingyu

    2014-01-01

    On-site analysis is an efficient approach to facilitate analysis at the location of the system under investigation as it can result in more accurate, more precise and quickly available analytical data. In our work, a novel self-made thermal desorption based interface was fabricated to couple solid-phase microextraction with ion mobility spectrometry for on-site water analysis. The portable interface can be connected with the front-end of an ion mobility spectrometer directly without other modifications. The analytical performance was evaluated via the extraction of chemical warfare agents and simulants in water samples. Several parameters including ionic strength and extraction time have been investigated in detail. The application of the developed method afforded satisfactory recoveries ranging from 72.9% to 114.4% when applied to the analysis of real water samples. PMID:25384006

  6. Production of Galactooligosaccharides Using ?-Galactosidase Immobilized on Chitosan-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles with Tris(hydroxymethyl)phosphine as an Optional Coupling Agent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su-Ching; Duan, Kow-Jen

    2015-01-01

    ?-Galactosidase was immobilized on chitosan-coated magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles and was used to produce galactooligosaccharides (GOS) from lactose. Immobilized enzyme was prepared with or without the coupling agent, tris(hydroxymethyl)phosphine (THP). The two immobilized systems and the free enzyme achieved their maximum activity at pH 6.0 with an optimal temperature of 50 °C. The immobilized enzymes showed higher activities at a wider range of temperatures and pH. Furthermore, the immobilized enzyme coupled with THP showed higher thermal stability than that without THP. However, activity retention of batchwise reactions was similar for both immobilized systems. All the three enzyme systems produced GOS compound with similar concentration profiles, with a maximum GOS yield of 50.5% from 36% (w·v-1) lactose on a dry weight basis. The chitosan-coated magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles can be regenerated using a desorption/re-adsorption process described in this study. PMID:26047337

  7. Production of Galactooligosaccharides Using ?-Galactosidase Immobilized on Chitosan-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles with Tris(hydroxymethyl)phosphine as an Optional Coupling Agent

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Su-Ching; Duan, Kow-Jen

    2015-01-01

    ?-Galactosidase was immobilized on chitosan-coated magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles and was used to produce galactooligosaccharides (GOS) from lactose. Immobilized enzyme was prepared with or without the coupling agent, tris(hydroxymethyl)phosphine (THP). The two immobilized systems and the free enzyme achieved their maximum activity at pH 6.0 with an optimal temperature of 50 °C. The immobilized enzymes showed higher activities at a wider range of temperatures and pH. Furthermore, the immobilized enzyme coupled with THP showed higher thermal stability than that without THP. However, activity retention of batchwise reactions was similar for both immobilized systems. All the three enzyme systems produced GOS compound with similar concentration profiles, with a maximum GOS yield of 50.5% from 36% (w·v?1) lactose on a dry weight basis. The chitosan-coated magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles can be regenerated using a desorption/re-adsorption process described in this study. PMID:26047337

  8. New use of cyanosilane coupling agent for direct binding of antibodies to silica supports. Physicochemical characterization of molecularly bioengineered layers.

    PubMed

    Falipou, S; Chovelon, J M; Martelet, C; Margonari, J; Cathignol, D

    1999-01-01

    A simple protocol to fix biological species to silica-based surfaces (silica microbeads and glass slides), using a bifunctional silane reagent (3-cyanopropyl dimethyl chlorosilane), is presented. This silane reagent was used without further derivatization. This system led to strong, but not covalent, linkage of antibodies through their glycosylated regions (OH groups) to solid supports. The use of a microsized sample revealed that the coupling process depends not only on physicochemical interactions but also on steric phenomena, and in this case, it was shown that a molecule acting as a spacer was required for more efficient cell fixation. Here, monoclonal mouse antibodies against the CD45 molecule expressed on rat lymphocytes (MAR anti CD45 Ab) were linked to lymphocytes, and as spacers, sheep anti-mouse antibodies (SAM Ab) were immobilized on silica surfaces, allowing the cells to stick to the floating hollow silica microbeads by simple incubation. Under such conditions, a single microbead can fix several cells. The potential of this hollow, low-density support is in ultrasound applications, for the destruction by cavitation phenomena of cells selectively fixed onto such a support. Such a study can serve as a basic model for various microbiosystems involving cell manipulation. PMID:10346863

  9. Merging concepts - coupling an agent-based model of hematopoietic stem cells with an ODE model of granulopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hematopoiesis is a complex process involving different cell types and feedback mechanisms mediated by cytokines. This complexity stimulated various models with different scopes and applications. A combination of complementary models promises to provide their mutual confirmation and to explain a broader range of scenarios. Here we propose a combination of an ordinary differential equation (ODE) model of human granulopoiesis and an agent-based model (ABM) of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) organization. The first describes the dynamics of bone marrow cell stages and circulating cells under various perturbations such as G-CSF treatment or chemotherapy. In contrast to the ODE model describing cell numbers, our ABM focuses on the organization of individual cells in the stem population. Results We combined the two models by replacing the HSC compartment of the ODE model by a difference equation formulation of the ABM. In this hybrid model, regulatory mechanisms and parameters of the original models were kept unchanged except for a few specific improvements: (i) Effect of chemotherapy was restricted to proliferating HSC and (ii) HSC regulation in the ODE model was replaced by the intrinsic regulation of the ABM. Model simulations of bleeding, chronic irradiation and stem cell transplantation revealed that the dynamics of hybrid and ODE model differ markedly in scenarios with stem cell damage. Despite these differences in response to stem cell damage, both models explain clinical data of leukocyte dynamics under four chemotherapy regimens. Conclusions ABM and ODE model proved to be compatible and were combined without altering the structure of both models. The new hybrid model introduces model improvements by considering the proliferative state of stem cells and enabling a cell cycle-dependent effect of chemotherapy. We demonstrated that it is able to explain and predict granulopoietic dynamics for a large variety of scenarios such as irradiation, bone marrow transplantation, chemotherapy and growth factor applications. Therefore, it promises to serve as a valuable tool for studies in a broader range of clinical applications, in particular where stem cell activation and proliferation are involved. PMID:24180697

  10. Simulating the effects of native vegetation configurations on water quality using a multi-agent system coupled to a distributed hydrological process model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, J. G.; McAlpine, C. A.; Ludwig, J. A.

    2004-12-01

    Within Australia, excessive clearing of native vegetation has resulted in many landscapes becoming increasingly dysfunctional with respect to the retention of water and nutrients, and the maintenance of biodiversity. This problem is being addressed by the National Action Plan for Salinity and Water Quality, which promotes the management of vegetation cover at the farm and catchment scale to: stabilize soils; regulate groundwater to control dryland salinity; minimize chemical residues, nutrients, and sediment run-off to streams and waterways; as well as the maintenance of environmental flows for healthy waterways. However, the performance of potential landscape designs for the retention of water, nutrients and sediments, such as the reestablishment of tree belts and riparian vegetation, must be socially and economically feasible as well as improving landscape function. The implementation of alternative design strategies occurs at the farm-scale, but also must be applicable at the hill-slope and catchment scales, as well as incorporating temporal variability, and be practical to implement where data is limiting. A method is presented based upon a coupled multi-agent system (MAS) simulation and distributed parameter hydrological process model to optimize the integration of native vegetation within agroecosystems, in order to maintain desired outcomes for sustainable landscape function.

  11. Actions of novel agonists, antagonists and antipsychotic agents at recombinant rat 5-HT6 receptors: a comparative study of coupling to G alpha s.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, Delphine S; Mannoury la Cour, Clotilde; Chaput, Christine; Verrièle, Laurence; Lavielle, Gilbert; Millan, Mark J

    2008-07-01

    Though 5-HT6 receptors are targets for the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders, the influence of drugs upon signal transduction has not been extensively characterized. Herein, we employed a Scintillation Proximity Assay (SPA)/antibody-immunocapture procedure of coupling to G alpha s to evaluate the interaction of a broad range of novel agonists, antagonists and antipsychotics at rat 5-HT(6) receptors stably expressed in HEK293 cells. Serotonin (pEC(50), 7.7) increased [35S]GTP gamma S binding to G alpha s by ca 2-fold without affecting binding to Gi/o or Gq. LSD (9.2), 5-MeODMT (7.9), 5-CT (7.0) and tryptamine (6.1) were likewise full agonists. In contrast, the novel sulfonyl derivatives, WAY181,187 (9.1) and WAY208,466 (7.8), behaved as partial agonists and attenuated the actions of 5-HT. SB271,046 and SB258,585 abolished activation of G alpha s by 5-HT with pKb values of 10.2 and 9.9, respectively, actions mimicked by the novel antagonist, SB399,885 (10.9). SB271,046 likewise blocked partial agonist properties of WAY181,187 and WAY208,466 with pKb values of 9.8 and 9.0, respectively. 5-HT-stimulated [35S]GTP gamma S binding to G alpha s was antagonised by various antipsychotics including olanzapine (7.8), asenapine (9.1) and SB737,050 (7.8), whereas aripiprazole and bifeprunox were inactive. Further, antagonist properties of clozapine (8.0) were mimicked by its major metabolite, N-desmethylclozapine (7.9). In conclusion, the novel ligands, WAY208,466 and WAY181,187, behaved as partial agonists at 5-HT6 receptors coupled to G alpha s, while SB399,885 was a potent antagonist. Though 5-HT6 receptor blockade is not indispensable for therapeutic efficacy, it may well play a role in the functional actions of certain antipsychotic agents. PMID:18511034

  12. Rapid determination of X-ray contrast agent iomeprol in human plasma by on-line solid-phase extraction coupled with phase optimized liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tingting; Tao, Yun; Pu, Yabing; Morello, Rosa; Mei, Surong; Boos, Karl-Siegfried

    2015-06-15

    Phase optimized liquid chromatography (POPLC) allows for the optimized combination of column segments of any length and stationary phases with different functionalities. In this study, a simple and rapid method using POPLC coupled with on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) for the analysis of X-ray contrast media agent iomeprol (IOM) in human plasma was developed. Because the phenyl (PH) stationary phase has strong hydrophobic and ?-? interactions with IOM and iopromide (IOP, internal standard), the best separation efficiency was achieved with a 250mm×3mm homogenous PH POPLC-column. Different kinds of on-line SPE sorbents were studied, including restricted access material-alkyl diol silica (ADS), LiChrolut EN with excellent absorption capacity and hydrophilic-lipophilic-balanced Oasis HLB. The most efficient on-line sample clean-up was carried out using a fast-flow on-line purification approach with an Oasis HLB pre-column ((20mm×2mm, 30?m). This pre-column showed excellent durability and reproducibility. At least 400 samples could be analyzed with one pre-column. Each plasma sample was directly injected and analyzed within 15min. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 10-1000?g/mL. The limit of quantitation was 2.26?g/mL. The inter-day precision of this method was excellent and less than 1.44%, and the intra-day precision was less than 4.44%. The inter-day and intra-day accuracy ranged from 94.33% to 104.36% and 94.60% to 101.71%, respectively. This validated method is expected to be useful in the analysis of human plasma samples for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurements and assessment of kidney function. PMID:25939093

  13. Facile synthesis of 1-alkoxy-1H-benzo- and 7-azabenzotriazoles from peptide coupling agents, mechanistic studies, and synthetic applications.

    PubMed

    Lakshman, Mahesh K; Singh, Manish K; Kumar, Mukesh; Chamala, Raghu Ram; Yedulla, Vijayender R; Wagner, Domenick; Leung, Evan; Yang, Lijia; Matin, Asha; Ahmad, Sadia

    2014-01-01

    (1H-Benzo[d][1,2,3]triazol-1-yloxy)tris(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate (BOP), 1H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazol-1-yl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate (Bt-OTs), and 3H-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-b]pyridine-3-yl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate (At-OTs) are classically utilized in peptide synthesis for amide-bond formation. However, a previously undescribed reaction of these compounds with alcohols in the presence of a base, leads to 1-alkoxy-1H-benzo- (Bt-OR) and 7-azabenzotriazoles (At-OR). Although BOP undergoes reactions with alcohols to furnish 1-alkoxy-1H-benzotriazoles, Bt-OTs proved to be superior. Both, primary and secondary alcohols undergo reaction under generally mild reaction conditions. Correspondingly, 1-alkoxy-1H-7-azabenzotriazoles were synthesized from At-OTs. Mechanistically, there are three pathways by which these peptide-coupling agents can react with alcohols. From (31)P{(1)H}, [(18)O]-labeling, and other chemical experiments, phosphonium and tosylate derivatives of alcohols seem to be intermediates. These then react with BtO(-) and AtO(-) produced in situ. In order to demonstrate broader utility, this novel reaction has been used to prepare a series of acyclic nucleoside-like compounds. Because BtO(-) is a nucleofuge, several Bt-OCH2Ar substrates have been evaluated in nucleophilic substitution reactions. Finally, the possible formation of Pd ?-allyl complexes by departure of BtO(-) has been queried. Thus, alpha-allylation of three cyclic ketones was evaluated with 1-(cinnamyloxy)-1H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole, via in situ formation of pyrrolidine enamines and Pd catalysis. PMID:25246951

  14. Facile synthesis of 1-alkoxy-1H-benzo- and 7-azabenzotriazoles from peptide coupling agents, mechanistic studies, and synthetic applications

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manish K; Kumar, Mukesh; Chamala, Raghu Ram; Yedulla, Vijayender R; Wagner, Domenick; Leung, Evan; Yang, Lijia; Matin, Asha; Ahmad, Sadia

    2014-01-01

    Summary (1H-Benzo[d][1,2,3]triazol-1-yloxy)tris(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate (BOP), 1H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazol-1-yl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate (Bt-OTs), and 3H-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-b]pyridine-3-yl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate (At-OTs) are classically utilized in peptide synthesis for amide-bond formation. However, a previously undescribed reaction of these compounds with alcohols in the presence of a base, leads to 1-alkoxy-1H-benzo- (Bt-OR) and 7-azabenzotriazoles (At-OR). Although BOP undergoes reactions with alcohols to furnish 1-alkoxy-1H-benzotriazoles, Bt-OTs proved to be superior. Both, primary and secondary alcohols undergo reaction under generally mild reaction conditions. Correspondingly, 1-alkoxy-1H-7-azabenzotriazoles were synthesized from At-OTs. Mechanistically, there are three pathways by which these peptide-coupling agents can react with alcohols. From 31P{1H}, [18O]-labeling, and other chemical experiments, phosphonium and tosylate derivatives of alcohols seem to be intermediates. These then react with BtO? and AtO? produced in situ. In order to demonstrate broader utility, this novel reaction has been used to prepare a series of acyclic nucleoside-like compounds. Because BtO? is a nucleofuge, several Bt-OCH2Ar substrates have been evaluated in nucleophilic substitution reactions. Finally, the possible formation of Pd ?–allyl complexes by departure of BtO? has been queried. Thus, alpha-allylation of three cyclic ketones was evaluated with 1-(cinnamyloxy)-1H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole, via in situ formation of pyrrolidine enamines and Pd catalysis. PMID:25246951

  15. Biological Agents

    MedlinePLUS

    Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and their associated toxins. They have the ability to ... about some of the most virulent and prevalent biological agents. Anthrax . Anthrax is an acute infectious disease ...

  16. Ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry for screening of doping agents. I: Investigation of mobile phase and MS conditions.

    PubMed

    Nováková, Lucie; Grand-Guillaume Perrenoud, Alexandre; Nicoli, Raul; Saugy, Martial; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Guillarme, Davy

    2015-01-01

    The conditions for the analysis of selected doping substances by UHPSFC-MS/MS were optimized to ensure suitable peak shapes and maximized MS responses. A representative mixture of 31 acidic and basic doping agents was analyzed, in both ESI+ and ESI- modes. The best compromise for all compounds in terms of MS sensitivity and chromatographic performance was obtained when adding 2% water and 10mM ammonium formate in the CO2/MeOH mobile phase. Beside mobile phase, the nature of the make-up solvent added for interfacing UHPSFC with MS was also evaluated. Ethanol was found to be the best candidate as it was able to compensate for the negative effect of 2% water addition in ESI- mode and provided a suitable MS response for all doping agents. Sensitivity of the optimized UHPSFC-MS/MS method was finally assessed and compared to the results obtained in conventional UHPLC-MS/MS. Sensitivity was improved by 5-100-fold in UHPSFC-MS/MS vs. UHPLC-MS/MS for 56% of compounds, while only one compound (bumetanide) offered a significantly higher MS response (4-fold) under UHPLC-MS/MS conditions. In the second paper of this series, the optimal conditions for UHPSFC-MS/MS analysis will be employed to screen >100 doping agents in urine matrix and results will be compared to those obtained by conventional UHPLC-MS/MS. PMID:25467513

  17. Gadolinium determination in tissue samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry in evaluation of the action of magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Frame, E M; Uzgiris, E E

    1998-04-01

    The quantitative determination of Gd-containing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents in animal tissues is performed by both ICP-AES and ICP-MS. While ICP-AES has been used to determine Gd-containing contrast agents by other workers, no published methodology has been found. An accurate and precise method using nitric acid and microwave digestion for sample preparation is described. Dosed rat tissue, blood and plasma were measured by both ICP-AES and ICP-MS. The ICP-AES method is excellent for screening Gd levels and quantitative determination of concentrations above 400 ng ml-1, but it lacks the sensitivity to measure agent concentrations in low dose MRI studies. This work demonstrates that ICP-MS has the needed sensitivity to replace radiotracer methods currently used for low dose studies, while maintaining the accuracy and precision of results obtained by ICP-AES. Gadolinium detection limits in tissue were 0.04 mumol of Gd per kg of tissue, an order of magnitude lower than studies using radiotracer techniques. PMID:9684400

  18. Comparative studies of the preparation of immunoliposomes with the use of two bifunctional coupling agents and investigation of in vitro immunoliposome-target cell binding by cytofluorometry and electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Schwendener, R A; Trüb, T; Schott, H; Langhals, H; Barth, R F; Groscurth, P; Hengartner, H

    1990-07-01

    The two coupling agents SPDP (N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionate) and SATA (N-succinimidyl-S-acetylthioacetate) were compared in their efficiency and feasibility to couple monoclonal antibodies (Abs) via thioether linkage to liposomes functionalized by various lipophilic maleimide compounds like N-(3-maleimidopropionyl)-N2-palmitoyl-L-lysine methyl ester (MP-PL), N-(3-maleimidopropionyl)phosphatidylethanolamide (MP-PE), N6-(6-maleimidocaproyl)-N2-palmitoyl-L-lysine methyl ester (EMC-PL), and N-(6-maleimidocaproyl)phosphatidylethanolamine (EMC-PE). The composition of the liposomes was soy phosphatidylcholine (SPC), cholesterol, maleimide compounds and alpha-tocopherol (1:0.2:0.02:0.01, mol parts), plus N4-oleylcytosine arabinoside (NOAC) as cytostatic prodrug (0.2 mol parts) and a new, lipophilic and highly fluorescent dye N,N'-bis(1-hexylhfetyl)-3,4:9,10-perylenebis(dicarboximid ) (BHPD, 0.006 mol parts). From the maleimide derivatives MP-PL was the most effective in terms of preservation of the coupling activity in dependence of liposome storage. The coupling of the monoclonal A B8-24.3 (mouse IgG2b, MHC class I, anti H-2kb) and IB16-6 (rat IgG2a, anti B16 mouse melanoma) to the drug carrying liposomes was more effective and easier to accomplish with SATA as compared to SPDP. Coupling rates of 60-65% were obtained with SATA at molar ratios of 12 SATA:1 Ab:40 maleimide spacer groups on the surface of one liposome. The highest coupling rates with SPDP were obtained at the ratio of 24 SPDP:1 Ab:40 liposomal maleimide groups, with an Ab binding efficiency of only 20-25%. The optimal in vitro binding conditions to specific target cells (EL4 for B8-24.3-liposomes and B16-F10 for IB16-6-liposomes) were determined by cytofluorometric measurement of the liposomal BHPD fluorescence with SATA linked Abs. Optimal immunoliposome binding to specific epitopes on the target cells was achieved with 1-2 Ab molecules coupled to one liposome, with immunoliposome concentrations of 20-130 nM and with a small incubation volume of 0.3-0.4 ml. The specificity of the binding of B8-24.3-liposomes to EL4 target cells was visualized by scanning electron microscopy. Antibody mediated endocytic uptake of immunoliposomes could be demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy. PMID:2378882

  19. High-performance liquid chromatography of selenium compounds utilizing perfluorinated carboxylic acid ion-pairing agents and inductively coupled plasma and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mihály Kotrebai; Julian F. Tyson; Eric Block; Peter C. Uden

    2000-01-01

    Increasing speciation demands in clinical chemistry, toxicology and nutrition have made the determination of the total elements in a sample inadequate; the amount of an element and the chemical forms in which it is present need to be known. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used after high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation, as was electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS).

  20. Software agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael R. Genesereth; Steven P. Ketchpel

    1994-01-01

    this paper, we discuss these questions and describe someemerging technologies that provide answers. In the final section, we mention some additionalissues and summarize the key points of the paper. (For more information onagent-based software engineering, see [Genesereth 1989] and [Genesereth 1992]. See also[Shoham 1993] for a description of a variation of agent-based software engineering knownas "agent-oriented programming".)2. Agent Communication Language

  1. Antimicrobial agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Bush; Anuwat Keerasuntonpong; B Zabriskie; Chitsanu Pancharoen; Terapong Tantawichien

    1997-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents active against multi-resistant Gram-positive bacteria are considered to be of major commercial potential. Commercially viable agents that have been included in recent successful trials include the streptogramins, novel glycopeptides, oxazolidinones and potent quinolones. Cationic peptides have generated much interest, but their utility as successful drug candidates remains questionable. Novel compound classes for possible exploitation include non-?-lactam ?-lactamaseinhibitors, inhibitors

  2. Sunscreening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  3. Antidiabetic Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antidiabetic agents is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  4. Antiparasitic agents.

    PubMed

    Wilby, R

    1998-12-01

    Parasitic diseases predominantly affect the developing world because of poor sanitation, poor living conditions, and lack of medical care. The relative insulation of the developed countries has been protective until recently, when several factors have made populations worldwide potentially at risk of infection by any transmissible agent. Emigration, forced migration of refugees, increasing and rapid world travel, and increased susceptibility of immunocompromised populations, have been methods by which parasites, and quite often their associated vectors, have been imported into and have taken hold in regions previously unaffected. Health officials, clinicians, blood banks and pathologists who have not routinely encountered such diseases are, however, at the forefront in efforts to control these diseases. With regard to antiparasitic agents, the emphasis at this meeting was placed on their current increasing importance. Accompanying the greater incidence and disease spread are the withdrawal of prevention measures and vaccines, the resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and lack of awareness and vigilance in medical communities to the threats of resurgent and emerging diseases. A snapshot of these diseases was presented at the symposia. This report highlights the discovery, re-emergence, epidemiology, transmission, diagnosis and therapy of parasitic diseases. A common theme to the presentations was the emergence or re-emergence of organisms previously thought to be under control. Modern biotechnology and biochemical methods are being applied to the problems of causative agent identification and characterization. With better surveillance methods, no doubt the detection of more diseases will continue. No tremendous breakthroughs in parasite prevention, chemotherapy, or successes of antiparasitic agents in clinical trials were reported and are unlikely to be forthcoming in the near future unless greater changes are made in the research community, including the pharmaceutical industry. It was of note that no symposia were devoted wholly to parasites as such, but were directed towards the exposition of emerging pathogens, of which parasites comprise only a segment of the spectrum of causative organisms. PMID:16196468

  5. Thrombopoietic agents.

    PubMed

    Stasi, Roberto; Bosworth, Jenny; Rhodes, Elizabeth; Shannon, Muriel S; Willis, Fenella; Gordon-Smith, Edward C

    2010-01-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is the key cytokine involved in thrombopoiesis, and is the endogenous ligand for the thrombopoietin receptor that is expressed on the surface of platelets, megakaryocytes, and megakaryocytic precursors. First-generation thrombopoietic agents were recombinant forms of human TPO, and their development was discontinued after prolonged thrombocytopenia due to neutralizing auto-antibodies cross-reacting with endogenous TPO was observed. Second-generation thrombopoiesis-stimulating molecules are now available, which have unique pharmacological properties and no sequence homology to endogenous TPO. Two of these new agents, romiplostim and eltrombopag, have already completed phase III trials in primary immune thrombocytopenia and have been granted marketing authorization for use in this disease. Phase II and III trials with these novel drugs are ongoing in other conditions characterized by thrombocytopenia, such as chemotherapy, chronic liver disease, and the myelodysplastic syndromes. Most of the other second-generation thrombopoietic growth factors are in early phase clinical development. PMID:20493600

  6. Colloidal ceramic coatings with silane coupling agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Michael William

    Hybrid nanocomposite coatings were made using a suspension of colloidal silica mixed with glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPS). 29Si-NMR was used to calculate the hydrolysis and dimerization rate constants, showing a pH dependence. Dimerization increased in the presence of silica, which may result from surface catalysis or from creation of a reaction environment in the electrostatic double layer around the silica colloids which encourages dimerization. 29Si-NMR was used to show that while in suspension, GPS adsorbed up to ˜2 GPS/nm2 of silica surface after stirring for one day. Further adsorption appeared to occur upon drying, as observed by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy. Coatings consisted of randomly packed, unaggregated spherical colloids. Gaps between the colloids were responsible for the porosity. GPS addition reduced porosity by forming a siloxane matrix material that filled in pores, and also may have allowed closer packing of colloids. LTV and amine curing additives were used with the intent of giving the colloidal structure strength to resist the compressive drying forces. UV curing failed to achieve thicker porous coatings, but amine curing succeeded by causing colloidal aggregation through a pH increase. Abrasion resistance generally improved from GPS addition, but excessive GPS amounts lowered abrasion resistance. Improvement from GPS addition may be attributed to better coating toughness, hardness, and adhesion. Better curing by higher temperatures, UV, or amine curing also increased abrasion resistance. Coating stresses were quantified for drying coatings using a cantilever deflection stress measuring apparatus. Coatings reached a stress of ˜25 MPa, unless GPS completely filled in coating porosity, resulting in a stress of ˜1.3 Mpa. GPS improved the critical cracking thickness (CCT) by lowering stress, rather than by increasing coating toughness. The coating stress and CCT were used to calculate the fracture toughness, showing values of 20.2--21.6 kPa.m1/2. Coatings showed a mudcrack pattern, and the crack spacing was quantified, showing a thickness dependence. Current crack spacing models were inadequate for these coatings. An appropriate analysis must consider the coating's fracture toughness, delamination, and biaxial stress.

  7. Magnetized silane-coupling agent KH-570 based solid-phase extraction followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection to determine venlafaxine in human hair and aqueous environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Mahmoud; Ebrahimitalab, Abdolhossein; Es'haghi, Zarrin; Mohammadinejad, Arash

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, a novel adsorbent, Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) functionalized by silane-coupling agent KH-570, was successfully synthesized. The prepared MNPs were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It was applied as functionalized magnetic nano-adsorbent for magnetic solid-phase extraction of trace levels of venlafaxine using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector. This method was developed and optimized for use in analysis of venlafaxine in human hair and aqueous environmental samples. The main factors influencing the extraction efficiency including pH of sample, amount of the MNPs, adsorption time, volume of sample, and desorption conditions such as volume of solvent and desorption time were studied and optimized. Under the optimized experimental conditions, good linearity was observed in the range of 1-1,000 µg L(-1) for aqueous environmental samples with correlation coefficients (R (2)) 0.996. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.1 and 0.5 ?g L(-1), respectively. Good reproducibility with the relative standard deviations (n = 5) 3.21 % was obtained. The developed method was successfully applied to the extraction of venlafaxine from spiked human hair, river water, and surface water samples and the relative recoveries of 89.36, 93.43, and 94.99 % were obtained, respectively. The results indicated that Fe3O4/KH-570 MNPs have a satisfying extraction efficiency and can be served as a sensitive, inexpensive, and reliable method for analysis of antidepressant drugs such as venlafaxine in biological and aqueous environmental samples. PMID:25367213

  8. UMBC AgentWeb: Intelligent Software Agents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site, sponsored and maintained by the University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) Laboratory for Advanced Information Technology (LAIT), focuses on intelligent agents, known alternatively as software agents, knowbots, infobots or intentional agents. The site is divided into several parts, some of which are annotated and some of which contain only links to resources. Annotated resources include a bibliography titled Introduction to Agents (under Introductory Material), a list of research projects involving agent technology, and abstracts of and links to articles on a variety of topics such as Agents and Security and Agents in Manufacturing.

  9. Agent-based resource discovery architecture for environmental emergency management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin F. R. Liu

    2004-01-01

    An agent-based environmental emergency management framework is introduced as a loosely coupled collection of agents that can cooperate to prepare for and response to environmental emergency situations. In this framework, resources play a critical role because they are the foundation for taking action in environmental emergencies. Therefore, an agent-based resource discovery architecture is then proposed to search for the relevant

  10. Detecting agents.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Susan C

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews a recent set of behavioural studies that examine the scope and nature of the representational system underlying theory-of-mind development. Studies with typically developing infants, adults and children with autism all converge on the claim that there is a specialized input system that uses not only morphological cues, but also behavioural cues to categorize novel objects as agents. Evidence is reviewed in which 12- to 15-month-old infants treat certain non-human objects as if they have perceptual/attentional abilities, communicative abilities and goal-directed behaviour. They will follow the attentional orientation of an amorphously shaped novel object if it interacts contingently with them or with another person. They also seem to use a novel object's environmentally directed behaviour to determine its perceptual/attentional orientation and object-oriented goals. Results from adults and children with autism are strikingly similar, despite adults' contradictory beliefs about the objects in question and the failure of children with autism to ultimately develop more advanced theory-of-mind reasoning. The implications for a general theory-of-mind development are discussed. PMID:12689380

  11. Intelligence artificielle Agents intelligents

    E-print Network

    Bonzon, Elise

    Intelligence artificielle Agents intelligents Elise Bonzon http://web.mi.parisdescartes.fr/ bonzon´e Paris Descartes 1 / 21 Intelligence artificielle #12;Agents intelligents Agents intelligents Agents et environnement Rationalit´e PEAS Types d'environnement Structure des agents Conclusion 2 / 21 Intelligence

  12. Remote Agent Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorais, Gregory A.; Kurien, James; Rajan, Kanna

    1999-01-01

    We describe the computer demonstration of the Remote Agent Experiment (RAX). The Remote Agent is a high-level, model-based, autonomous control agent being validated on the NASA Deep Space 1 spacecraft.

  13. Agent-user etiquette

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Schiaffino; A. Amandi

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the agent-user etiquette. The areas of personal agents and human-computer interaction are the two main contributions. First, it increases understanding of personalization in user-agent interaction. Second, our approach enhances a personal agent's capabilities since it enables developers to build personal agents that will certainly gain higher acceptance among users than traditional personal agents because they take into

  14. Please cite this article in press as: An, L., Modeling human decisions in coupled human and natural systems: Review of agent-based models. Ecol. Model. (2011), doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2011.07.010

    E-print Network

    An, Li

    2011-01-01

    and its application in CHANS, this paper reviews various decision models used in agent based simulations and social sciences, along20 with such unidirectional connections between natural and human21 systems, has systems"). Complex systems usually encompass heterogeneous 48 subsystems or autonomous entities, which

  15. Artificial Intelligence Logical Agents

    E-print Network

    Voris, Jonathan

    on slides by Sal Stolfo) #12;The Big Idea · Humans know stuff · We use the stuff we know to help us do things #12;The Big Idea · Do our agents know stuff? #12;The Big Idea · Do our agents know stuff? ­ Well, kind of... #12;The Big Idea · Do our agents know stuff? ­ Well, kind of... · Knowledge encoded in agent

  16. Evolving Agents Adil Qureshi

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    behaviour arising from the interaction of a society of agents. As a consequence, the problem of programming agents. The latter work on the principle that complex intelligent behaviour can emerge from the interaction of a collection of very simple agents. These agents obtain knowledge about actions and behaviours

  17. Software agents: an overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyacinth S. Nwana

    1996-01-01

    Agent software is a rapidly developing area of research. However, the overuse of the word 'agent' has tended to mask the fact that, in reality, there is a truly heterogeneous body of research being carried out under this banner. This overview paper presents a typology of agents. Next, it places agents in context, defines them and then goes on, inter

  18. Spacecraft sanitation agent development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of an effective sanitizing agent that is compatible with the spacecraft environment and the human occupant is discussed. Experimental results show that two sanitation agents must be used to satisfy mission requirements: one agent for personal hygiene and one for equipment maintenance. It was also recommended that a water rinse be used with the agents for best results, and that consideration be given to using the agents pressure packed or in aerosol formulations.

  19. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brigitte Burgemeestre; Joris Hulstijn; Yao-Hua Tan

    2009-01-01

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assump- tions about thecognitive architectureof theagents. Forexample, aprinciple-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this pa- per we present several cognitive agent architectures

  20. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carles Sierra

    Throughout the last decade there has been a marked increase in the interest shown by the academic and industrial world in the agent-based programming paradigm (Bradshaw 1997), though many IT engineers are still either unaware of it or confuse it with the object oriented paradigm. In this article I will try to introduce the agent-based programming paradigm in some of

  1. Agent Oriented Programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoav Shoham

    1992-01-01

    Shoham, Y., Agent-oriented programming, Artificial Intelligence 60 (1993) 51-92. A new computational framework is presented, called agent-oriented programming (AOP), which can be viewed as a specialization of object-oriented programming. The state of an agent consists of components such as beliefs, decisions, capabilities, and obligations; for this reason the state of an agent is called its mental state. The mental state

  2. Agent Cooperation and Collaboration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christos Sioutis; Jeffrey Tweedale

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a This paper describes preliminary work performed to gain an understanding of how to implement collaboration between intelligent\\u000a agents in a multi-agent system and\\/or humans. The paper builds on previous research where an agent-development software framework\\u000a was implemented based on a cognitive hybrid reasoning and learning model. Agent relationships are formed using a three-layer\\u000a process involving communication, negotiation and trust. Cooperation

  3. Robust Agent Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandip Sen; Sabyasachi Saha; Stéphane Airiau; Teddy Candale; Dipyaman Banerjee; Doran Chakraborty; Partha Mukherjee; Anil Gursel

    2007-01-01

    We believe that intelligent information agents will represent their users interest in electronic marketplaces and other forums to trade, exchange, share, identify, and locate goods and services. Such informa- tion worlds will present unforeseen opportunities as well as challenges that can be best addressed by robust, self-sustaining agent communi- ties. An agent community is a stable, adaptive group of self-interested

  4. Polite Personal Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia N. Schiaffino; Analía Amandi

    2006-01-01

    Personal agents are computer programs that learn users' interests, preferences, and habits and give them proactive, personalized assistance with a computer application. Such agents are analogous to personal assistants in the real-world work environment. Both agents and assistants gradually learn a target individual's preferences and habits to enhance collaboration and productivity.

  5. Artificial Intelligence Intelligent Agents

    E-print Network

    Voris, Jonathan

    · Actuators: Screen display (questions, tests, diagnoses, treatments, referrals) · Sensors: Keyboard (entry, Environment, Actuators, Sensors) · Environment types · Agent types #12;Agents · An agent is anything that can be viewed as perceiving its environment through sensors and acting upon that environment through actuators

  6. Modeling Adaptive Autonomous Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pattie Maes

    1993-01-01

    One category of research in Artificial Life is concerned with modeling and building so-called adaptive autonomous agents, which are systems that inhabit a dynamic, unpredictable environment in which they try to satisfy a set of time-dependent goals or motivations. Agents are said to be adaptive if they improve their competence at dealing with these goals based on experience. Autonomous agents

  7. Nerve Agents: A Comprehensive Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sage W. Wiener; Robert S. Hoffman

    2004-01-01

    Nerve agents are perhaps the most feared of potential agents of chemical attack. The authors review the history, physical characteristics, pharmacology, clinical effects, and treatment of these agents.

  8. Xface open source project and smil-agent scripting language for creating and animating embodied conversational agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koray Balci; Massimo Zancanaro; Fabio Pianesi

    2007-01-01

    Xface is a set of open source tools for creation of embodied conversational agents (ECAs) using MPEG4 and keyframe based rendering driven by SMIL-Agent scripting language. Xface Toolkit, coupled with SMIL-Agent scripting serves as a full 3D facial animation authoring package. Xface project is initiated by Cognitive and Communication Technologies (TCC) division of FBK-irst (formerly ITC-irst). The toolkit is written

  9. Effect of coupled oscillations on microbubble behavior.

    PubMed

    Allen, John S; Kruse, Dustin E; Dayton, Paul A; Ferrara, Katherine W

    2003-09-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents are encapsulated microbubbles whose nonlinear acoustic scattering signatures have been the foundation of their use in diagnostic imaging. The coupled oscillations of microbubbles along their lines of center are investigated theoretically using radial equations in the monopole approximation and an energy balance, which is obtained for the system. Coupled microbubble pairs of different initial radii are investigated numerically relative to the normal modes for the linearized system. For microbubble pairs of different size bubbles driven below the mode of the smaller bubble and above the mode of the larger bubble, it is shown that oscillations of the smaller agent are affected substantially more by the coupling than those of the larger one. For separation distances of 10 and 500 microns, a difference of approximately 10 dB occurs in the second harmonic output of a 1.0-micron radius agent coupled with a 2.2-micron radius agent forced at 2.0 MHz and 0.3 MPa. The subharmonic spectral peak is shown to decrease approximately 19 dB for the coupling of 1.5- and 2.2-micron radius agents at 10- and 500-micron distances under the same acoustic forcing conditions. These coupling effects on the radiated pressure and its spectral power are highlighted for contrast agent imaging applications. PMID:14514221

  10. Agents modeling agents in information economies

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, J.M.; Durfee, E.H. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Our goal is to design and build agents that act intelligently when placed in an agent-based information economy, where agents buy and sell services (e.g. thesaurus, search, task planning services, etc.). The economy we are working in is the University of Michigan Digital Library (UMDL), a large scale multidisciplinary effort to build an infrastructure for the delivery of library services. In contrast with a typical economy, an information economy deals in goods and services that are often derived from unique sources (authors, analysts, etc.), so that many goods and services are not interchangeable. Also, the cost of replicating and transporting goods is usually negligible, and the quality of goods and services is difficult to measure objectively: even two sources with essentially the same information might appeal to different audiences. Thus, each agent has its own assessment of the quality of goods and services delivered.

  11. IM Free Agent Sign Up 1 Wanted! Intramurals Free Agents!

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    IM Free Agent Sign Up 1 Wanted! Intramurals Free Agents! Individuals who do not have a full team a "Free Agent". Within the UNLV Intramural Sports program there are multiple ways to improve a Free Agent will not force any team to accept a Free Agent participant. History and research has shown that Free Agents

  12. Multi-agent autonomous system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A multi-agent autonomous system for exploration of hazardous or inaccessible locations. The multi-agent autonomous system includes simple surface-based agents or craft controlled by an airborne tracking and command system. The airborne tracking and command system includes an instrument suite used to image an operational area and any craft deployed within the operational area. The image data is used to identify the craft, targets for exploration, and obstacles in the operational area. The tracking and command system determines paths for the surface-based craft using the identified targets and obstacles and commands the craft using simple movement commands to move through the operational area to the targets while avoiding the obstacles. Each craft includes its own instrument suite to collect information about the operational area that is transmitted back to the tracking and command system. The tracking and command system may be further coupled to a satellite system to provide additional image information about the operational area and provide operational and location commands to the tracking and command system.

  13. Total synthesis of bryostatin 16 using a Pd-catalyzed diyne coupling as macrocyclization method and synthesis of C20-epi-bryostatin 7 as a potent anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Trost, Barry M; Dong, Guangbin

    2010-11-24

    Asymmetric total synthesis of bryostatin 16 was achieved in 26 steps in the longest linear sequence and in 39 total steps from aldehyde 10. A Pd-catalyzed alkyne-alkyne coupling was employed for the first time as a macrocyclization method in a natural product synthesis. A route to convert bryostatin 16 to a new family of bryostatin analogues was developed. Toward this end, 20-epi-bryostatin 7 was synthesized from a bryostatin 16-like intermediate; the key step involves a Re-catalyzed epoxidation/ring-opening reaction. Preliminary biological studies indicated that this new analogue exhibits nanomolar anti-cancer activity against several cancer cell lines. PMID:21043491

  14. Total Synthesis of Bryostatin 16 using a Pd-Catalyzed Diyne-Coupling as Macrocyclization Method and Synthesis of C20-epi-Bryostatin 7 as a Potent Anticancer Agent

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Barry M.; Dong, Guangbin

    2010-01-01

    Asymmetric total synthesis of bryostatin 16 was achieved in 26 steps in the longest linear sequence/39 total steps from aldehyde 10. A Pd-catalyzed alkyne-alkyne coupling was employed for the first-time as a macrocyclization method in a natural product synthesis. A route to convert bryostatin 16 to a new family of bryostatin analogues was developed. Toward the end, 20-epi-bryostatin 7, was synthesized from a bryostatin 16-like intermediate; and the key step involves a Re-catalyzed epoxidation/ring-opening reaction. Preliminary biological studies indicated that this new analogue exhibits nanomolar anti-cancer activity against several cancer cell lines. PMID:21043491

  15. Monitoring deployed agent teams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gal A. Kaminka; David V. Pynadath; Milind Tambe

    2001-01-01

    Recent years are seeing an increasing need for on-line monitoring of deployed distributed teams of cooperating agents, e.g., for visualization, or performance tracking. However, in deployed systems, we often cannot rely on the agents to communicate their state to the monitoring system: (a) we rarely can change the behavior of already-deployed agents to communicate the required information (e.g., in legacy

  16. DCTD — Featured Agents

    Cancer.gov

    DNA damaging agents are among the most successful treatments for cancer. The enzyme Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (abbreviated PARP) can facilitate repair of DNA damage caused by insult from chemotherapeutic agents and radiation. Increased PARP activity is associated with survival of some cancer cells. ABT-888, an orally bioavailable PARP-inhibitor developed by Abbott Laboratories, significantly enhanced the antitumor activity of DNA-damaging agents and radiation in preclinical models. Further development of this compound is ongoing.

  17. Machine Learning and Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piotr J?drzejowicz

    \\u000a The paper reviews current research results integrating machine learning and agent technologies. Although complementary solutions\\u000a from both fields are discussed the focus is on using agent technology in the field of machine learning with a particular interest\\u000a on applying agent-based solutions to supervised learning. The paper contains a short review of applications, in which machine\\u000a learning methods have been used

  18. Extending UML for Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Odell; H. Van Dyke Parunak; Bernhard Bauer

    2000-01-01

    Gaining wide acceptance for the use of agents in industry requires both relating it to the nearest antecedent technology (object-oriented software development) and using artifacts to support the development environment throughout the full system lifecycle. We address both of these requirements in this paper by describing some of the most common requirements for modeling agents and agent-based systems—using a set

  19. Asymmetrically Coupled Directed Percolation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Jae Dong; Park, Hyunggyu

    2005-04-01

    We introduce a dynamical model of coupled directed percolation systems with two particle species. The two species A and B are coupled asymmetrically in that A particles branch B particles, whereas B particles prey on A particles. This model may describe epidemic spreading controlled by reactive immunization agents. We study nonequilibrium phase transitions with attention focused on the multicritical point where both species undergo the absorbing phase transition simultaneously. In one dimension, we find that the inhibitory coupling from B to A is irrelevant and the model belongs to the unidirectionally coupled directed percolation class. On the contrary, a mean-field analysis predicts that the inhibitory coupling is relevant and a new universality appears with a variable dynamic exponent. Numerical simulations on small-world networks confirm our predictions.

  20. Neuromuscular blocking agents and reversal agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian J Pollard

    2005-01-01

    The neuromuscular blocking agents in routine clinical use may be classed as depolarizing or nondepolarizing. Suxamethonium is the only example of the depolarizing group and is an agonist at the neuromuscular receptor. It has the most rapid onset and the shortest duration of action, though it has a number of important unwanted side-effects. Its duration is prolonged by deficiency or

  1. Relational Agents Page 1 Relational Agents for

    E-print Network

    Bickmore, Timothy

    promotion, one with young adults [3] and one with geriatrics patients [1], both of which demonstrated medication adherence among adults with Schizophrenia. The system runs on a laptop computer as a stand in general and relational agents in particular. Schizophrenia affects 1% of the population worldwide

  2. Agents on the Web Making Agents

    E-print Network

    Huhns, Michael N.

    around for ages. In the 16th century, for instance, Venetian mer- chants used poison and bribery to gain the large amount of information available over the Web -- a task that is beyond human processing power -- but this enhanced processing power can be a dou- ble-edged sword. Because malicious users and their agents can

  3. Helix coupling

    DOEpatents

    Ginell, W.S.

    1989-04-25

    A coupling for connecting helix members in series, which consists of a pair of U-shaped elements, one of which is attached to each helix end with the "U" sections of the elements interlocked. The coupling is particularly beneficial for interconnecting helical Nitinol elements utilized in thermal actuators or engines. Each coupling half is attached to the associated helix at two points, thereby providing axial load while being easily removed from the helix, and reusable.

  4. Helix coupling

    DOEpatents

    Ginell, W.S.

    1982-03-17

    A coupling for connecting helix members in series, which consists of a pair of U-shaped elements, one of which is attached to each helix end with the U sections of the elements interlocked. The coupling is particularly beneficial for interconnecting helical Nitinol elements utilized in thermal actuators or engines. Each coupling half is attached to the associated helix at two points, thereby providing axial load while being easily removed from the helix, and reusable.

  5. DCTD — Featured Agents

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Content Click here to view the Site Map Home | Sitemap | Contact DCTD Search this site Featured Agents Agents NCI Experimental Therapeutics (NExT) Program Drug Development Primer FDA-Approved Cancer Drugs DCTD Programs Cancer Diagnosis Program Cancer

  6. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  7. Emotionally Expressive Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magy Seif El-nasr; Thomas R. Ioerger; John Yen; Donald H. House; Frederic I. Parke

    1999-01-01

    The ability to express emotions is important for creating believable interactive characters. To simulate emotional expressions in an interactive environment, an intelligent agent needs both an adaptive model for generating believ- able responses, and a visualization model for mapping emo- tions into facial expressions. Recent advances in intelligent agents and in facial modeling have produced effective al- gorithms for these

  8. Change Agent Survival Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Folwell L.

    2011-01-01

    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  9. Distributed information fusion agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don Perugini; Dale Lambert; Leon Sterling; Adrian Pearce

    2003-01-01

    Information fusion is typically data driven and applied to adversarial contexts. Advantages of a goal driven fusion process are emerging. An agent approach to fusion applied to friendly contexts, such as logistics, is presented. Agents are suitable for fusion because they can represent autonomous fusion eritities by modelling their capabilities, expertise and intentions. This paper promotes a level 3 centric

  10. Chemical warfare agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rohit Shenoi

    2002-01-01

    There is an increased risk that civilian populations will be targets of domestic terrorism. Release of chemical warfare agents in these populations can cause a large number of casualties, with children being disproportionately affected. Chemical agents pose a significant risk to unprepared medical providers. Emergency medical personnel must be able to diagnose and manage victims of toxic exposures. This article

  11. Activated MR contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Mark P

    2004-12-01

    The relative non-specificity of the first generation MR contrast agents has meant that a new approach to their design is required. This review focuses on a new class of more specific or functional agents. These are the so-called "activated", "smart" or "responsive" contrast agents. The relaxivity of an activated contrast agent is responsive to (or can be modulated by) a particular in vivo stimulus such as a change in biological environment or activity. More specifically, a "switching on" of contrast in response to an event such as a change in physiological pH, metal ion concentration, enzyme activity or partial pressure of oxygen is sought. The current generation of activated MR contrast agents is discussed herein. PMID:15579041

  12. Pediatric Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Moran, Cassandra; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P Brian

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review In immunocompromised hosts, invasive fungal infections are common and fatal. In the past decade, the antifungal armamentarium against invasive mycoses has expanded greatly. The purpose of this report is to review the most recent literature addressing the use of antifungal agents in children. Recent findings Most studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of antifungal agents are limited to adults. However, important progress has been made in describing the pharmacokinetics and safety of newer antifungal agents in children, including the echinocandins. Summary Dosage guidelines for newer antifungal agents are currently based on adult and limited pediatric data. Because important developmental pharmacology changes occur throughout childhood impacting the pharmacokinetics of these agents, antifungal studies specifically designed for children are necessary. PMID:19741525

  13. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    PubMed

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature. PMID:24749822

  14. Couples Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen J. Bergman; Janet L. Surrey

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we describe the application of the relational model to couples therapy. The model emphasizes the importance of holding awareness of self, other, and the relationship. The therapist's primary work is to help each member of the couple hold this relational awareness. The discussion of gender differences and the introduction of the language of connection, disconnection, and reconnection

  15. Biological warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  16. DAMAGING AGENTS AND PROTECTION

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    limit the longevity of individual oaks. People who manage oak trees or woodlands are concerned of the ecological relationships between oaks and damaging agents. Oaks evolved under the challenge of various

  17. Agent oriented programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoham, Yoav

    1994-01-01

    The goal of our research is a methodology for creating robust software in distributed and dynamic environments. The approach taken is to endow software objects with explicit information about one another, to have them interact through a commitment mechanism, and to equip them with a speech-acty communication language. System-level applications include software interoperation and compositionality. A government application of specific interest is an infrastructure for coordination among multiple planners. Daily activity applications include personal software assistants, such as programmable email, scheduling, and new group agents. Research topics include definition of mental state of agents, design of agent languages as well as interpreters for those languages, and mechanisms for coordination within agent societies such as artificial social laws and conventions.

  18. Healthcare Agents: Being One

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Directives Storing Your Advance Directives Healthcare Agents: Being One Advocating for your loved one can be a difficult task. You should ensure ... responsibility and have ongoing conversations with your loved ones about their wishes for end-of-life care. ...

  19. Agent Server Architecture for the Ajanta MobileAgent System

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    . Keywords: Mobile agents, Distributed computing, Java, Security 1 Introduction Mobile agent and upgrades on remote machines. Security and robustness are the primary con­ cerns in deploying mobile agent. Thus, security mecha­ nisms are necessary. Robustness concerns also require that an agent application

  20. Improving Design with Agents, Improving Agents by Design

    E-print Network

    Brown, David C.

    DCB 1 WPI Improving Design with Agents, or, Improving Agents by Design David C. Brown AI in Design ASSUMPTION Ã? Assume that the design environment is built using agents. i.e., situated, autonomous, flexible Ã?'s future design and synthesis environment will be built as a real multi-agent system. In what follows, we

  1. Communicating Virtual Agents Nicole Krmer

    E-print Network

    Moeller, Ralf

    interfaces ¢ Processing of combined verbal and nonverbal user input · Communicating virtual agents Kopp1 KI3 Communicating Virtual Agents Nicole Krämer nicole.kraemer@uni-koeln.de University of Cologne Kopp & Krämer KI3: Communicating virtual agents Meet a communicating virtual agent... Kopp & Krämer KI3

  2. Intelligent Agents Generating Personal Newspapers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Cordero; P. Roldan; S. Schiafino; Analía Amandi

    1999-01-01

    NewsAgent i s an intelligent t ype of agent t hat has the capability of generating personal newspapers from particular user preferences extracted by observation and feedback. This agent generates personal newspapers using static word analysis for extracting a global classification and case-based reasoning for dynamic sub- classification. The agent observes users by an applet with capabilities of detecting changes

  3. An Introduction to Agent Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyacinth S. Nwana; Divine T. Ndumu

    1997-01-01

    Intelligent agent technology is a rapidly developing area of research. However, in reality, there is a truly heterogeneous body of work being carried out under the agent banner. In this paper, software agent technology is introduced by briefly overviewing the various agent types currently under investigation by researchers.

  4. Optimal Agents Nicholas James Hay

    E-print Network

    Goodman, James R.

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 8.1 Possible futures, and the expected utility of an agent given a fixed history 41 8.2 Identities of the expected utility of an agent given a fixed history . . . . . 42 8.3 Expectimax agents are optimal agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 3 #12;9 Appendix: Odds and Ends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 9

  5. Natural antimutagenic agents.

    PubMed

    Mitscher, L A; Telikepalli, H; McGhee, E; Shankel, D M

    1996-02-19

    Following a brief review of recent discoveries in the field of natural antimutagenic and tumor chemopreventive agents, contemporary findings in the author's laboratories employing the direct acting mutagen, ethyl methanesulfonate, in modified Ames tests and eukaryotic murine FM3A mammary tumor cells modified to be subject to thymidine-less death are described to illustrate the underlying principles. The EMS studies are illustrated with the isolation of the novel antimutagen, plicatin B, from the medicinal plants, Psoralea juncaea and P. plicata. The FM3A studies are carried out with extracts of Styrax asiatica, a plant previously studied extensively with the EMS system. The FM3A findings closely parallel the earlier work with EMS showing that the responsible agents, cinnamic acid, cinnamoyl ricinoleate and cinnamoyl cinnamate are effective both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic tests and that the new FM3A assay system has useful properties for screening and assay of novel antimutagenic agents. PMID:8657175

  6. Surface reactions on thin layers of silane coupling agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dirk G. Kurth; Thomas Bein

    1993-01-01

    The reactivity of immobilized functional groups in thin layers of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APS), (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane, (3-bromopropyl)trimethoxysilane, and (8-bromooctyl)trimethoxysilane on oxidized aluminum substrates was studied with reflection-adsorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIR), optical ellipsometry and contact-angle measurements. Mass changes on the surface associated with the surface-confined reactions were measured with the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Single layers of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane on oxidized aluminum react with chlorodimethylsilane

  7. Mobility control agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. C. Hammershaimb; V. A. KuugKraa

    1983-01-01

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by means of steam drive, for heavier crudes, and COâ flooding, for lighter, mobilizes oil left behind by more conventional methods and displaces it to producing wells. In higher mobility, fingering, and flow of the drive or flood substance through low permeability paths, reduces the efficiency of EOR. Mobility control agents block these permeable paths. Five

  8. Autonomous Forex Trading Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui Pedro Barbosa; Orlando Belo

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe an infrastructure for implementing hybrid intelligent agents with the ability to trade in the Forex Market without requiring human supervision. This infrastructure is composed of three modules. The “Intuition Module”, implemented using an Ensemble Model, is responsible for performing pattern recognition and predicting the direction of the exchange rate. The “A Posteriori Knowledge Module”, implemented

  9. Space Travel Agent

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Williams

    2010-11-29

    You are in charge of creating a travel brochure to a planet in our solar system. Travel Agent for the Solar System Introduction You are in charge of the new ?Travel the Solar System? account at Universe Travel Agency.

  10. Mobility control agent

    SciTech Connect

    Argabright, P.A.; Phillips, B.L.; Rhudy, J.S.

    1983-05-17

    Polymer mobility control agents useful in supplemental oil recovery processes, which give improved reciprocal relative mobilities, are prepared by initiating the polymerization of a monomer containing a vinyl group with a catalyst comprising a persulfate and ferrous ammonium sulfate. The vinyl monomer is an acrylyl, a vinyl cyanide, a styryl and water soluble salts thereof.

  11. REMOTE BIOSENSOR FOR IN SITU MONITORING OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE NERVE AGENTS. (R823663)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A remote electrochemical biosensor for field monitoring of organophosphate nerve agents is described. The new sensor relies on the coupling of the effective biocatalytic action of organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) with a submersible amperometric probe design. This combination resu...

  12. Effect of time delays on agents' interaction dynamics LTCI/TSI, Telecom-ParisTech/CNRS,

    E-print Network

    Pelachaud, Catherine

    , such as processing of video and audio signals, delays appear within the interaction loop and disrupt this coupling. XXX­XXX. Copyright c 2011, International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (www

  13. Dark coupling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Gavela; D. Hernandez; L. Lopez Honorez; O. Mena; S. Rigolin

    2009-01-01

    The two dark sectors of the universe - dark matter and dark energy - may\\u000ainteract with each other. Background and linear density perturbation evolution\\u000aequations are developed for a generic coupling. We then establish the general\\u000aconditions necessary to obtain models free from early time non-adiabatic\\u000ainstabilities. As an application, we consider a viable universe in which the\\u000ainteraction

  14. Every agent a web server, every agent community an intranet…

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marshall Brinn; Todd M. Carrico; Nathan Combs

    2001-01-01

    The research community is struggling with the right approach to integrate emerging agent technology with the exploding web page- based Internet. This paper presents the approach used in Cognitive Agent Architecture (Cougaar) under DARPAs Advanced Logistics Project (ALP). In this effort, each agent was constructed with a build- in web server, supported by specialized API for easy creation of modular

  15. Designing Intelligent Agents Tutorial 1: Java Agent Package

    E-print Network

    Logan, Brian

    built using the core library © Brian Logan 2013 G54DIA Tutorial 1: Java Agent Package 6 #12;Java Javadoc documentation for the core library and the demo code © Brian Logan 2013 G54DIA Tutorial 1: JavaG54DIA: Designing Intelligent Agents Tutorial 1: Java Agent Package Brian Logan School of Computer

  16. Agent Verification Protocol in Agent-Based IDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LuqmanulHakim Mohd Nasir; Kamaruzzaman Seman; Madihah Mohd Saudi

    2008-01-01

    Agent-based IDS is a powerful technique used by network administrator to monitor traffic activities in their network. However, the widespread network coverage has introduced a possibility of a hacker installing unauthorized agents or fake agents secretly within the network. This is considered as a very serious threat to the network security. This paper proposes a protocol that is used to

  17. Cross-Platform Generative Agent Migration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In some agent applications agents need to move between locations to perform their tasks. Agent migration, however, is often complicated by the heterogeneous nature of the agent environment. For example, the platform from which an agent migrates (source-platform) may not be compatible with the platform to which the agent migrates (destination platform). Different solutions for cross-platform agent migration are possible.

  18. Open Reflective Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvain Giroux

    1995-01-01

    We started this work with the deep conviction that systems and agents have to be designed as open information systems (OIS) and should behave as envi-ronment sensitive creatures evolving in close accordance with their environment. From this stance, adaptation soon emerged as the central issue, and interoperabil-ity revealed quickly as an adaptive process. To tackle adaptation in OIS, we de-veloped

  19. Rigid bifunctional chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Sweet, Mark P. (Coram, NY); Mease, Ronnie C. (Fairfax, VA); Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY)

    2000-02-08

    Bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

  20. Rigid bifunctional chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Sweet, M.P.; Mease, R.C.; Srivastava, S.C.

    1998-07-21

    Bicyclo[2.2.2] octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N`,N`-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo[2.2.1] heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N`,N`-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

  1. Rigid bifunctional chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Sweet, Mark P. (Coram, NY); Mease, Ronnie C. (Fairfax, VA); Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY)

    1998-07-21

    Bicyclo›2.2.2! octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo›2.2.1! heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

  2. Robust Multiplexed Model Predictive Control for agent-based conflict resolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elilini Siva; Jan M. Maciejowski; Keck-Voon Ling

    2010-01-01

    Multiplexed Model Predictive Control (MMPC) was originally developed for a multi-input system as a strategy to reduce online computation. In this paper, we demonstrate how distributed control of a system of agents can be posed as a Multiplexed Model Predictive Control problem. Specifically, we consider using robust multiplexed MPC for controlling a system of agents in the presence of coupling

  3. ANALYSIS OF VAPOR DENSITY EFFECTS ON HOLD TIMES FOR TOTAL FLOODING CLEAN EXTINGUISHING AGENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick W. Mowrer

    Methods to determine leakage rates and agent concentration hold times for clean agent fire suppression systems are addressed in design standards for these systems (e.g., Annex C of NFPA 2001 and Annex E of ISO DIS 14520). These methods are based on well-established theory related to hydrostatic pressure profiles and orifice flow, coupled with fan pressurization measurements and \\

  4. A Hybrid Artificial Immune and Mobile Agent Intrusion Detection Based Model for Computer Network Operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renato B. Machado; Azzedine Boukerche; João Bosco M. Sobral; Kathia Regina L. Jucá; Mirela Sechi Moretti Annoni Notare

    2005-01-01

    Agent Based Models are the natural extension of the Ising or Cellular Automata-like models which have been used in the past decades to simulate various physical phenomena. By taking advantages of the main features of such models, coupled with nature based models such as artificial immune systems we present a novel artificial immune and agent based intrusion detection model for

  5. Agent Based GPU, a Real-time 3D Simulation and Interactive Visualisation Framework for

    E-print Network

    Romano, Daniela

    ). Keywords Agent Based Modelling (ABM), Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), GPGPU, Real-time SimulationAgent Based GPU, a Real-time 3D Simulation and Interactive Visualisation Framework for Massive to achieve real time interactive performance with populations above a couple of thousand. The Graphics

  6. [New thrombolytic agents].

    PubMed

    Nguyen, G; Samama, M

    1987-01-01

    Tissue Plasminogen Activator (t-PA), Single Chain Urokinase Plasminogen Activator or pro-Urokinase (scu-PA or pro-UK) and acyl enzymes are new thrombolytic agents, characterized by a high fibrin affinity, so that they provoke only mild systemic fibrinolytic effect. Their infusion would allie good thrombolytic activity and reduced hemorragic risks, usually related to fibrinogen and others coagulation factors degradation t-PA and scu-PA are natural, physiological substances, obtained by recombinant DNA technology. t-PA infusion in acute myocardial infusion (AMI) has been shown to be at least as efficient than intracoronary Streptokinase (SK) administration, but fibrinogenolysis was much lower as compared to SK. In vitro studies have shown that scu-PA was an efficient thrombolytic agent and has a relative fibrin specificity, at least as similar to t-PA, but much superior to classical Urokinase. The acyl-enzyme APSAC or Eminase is a SK-plasminogen complex in which the proteolytic site has been inactivated with an anisoic-acid. This acyl enzyme has a longer half-life than t-PA and scu-PA, and can be injected as a bolus. Its administration in AMI have shown that APSAC is as effective as SK, but can also provoke severe fibrinogenolysis. These 3 agents seem to have similar thrombolytic activities on coronary thrombi. However, further studies are required to evaluate the bleeding incidence and coronary reocclusion rates associated with their utilisation. PMID:3113300

  7. Launch commit criteria monitoring agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn S. Semmel; Steven R. Davis; Kurt W. Leucht; Daniel A. Rowe; Andrew O. Kelly; Ladislau Bölöni

    2005-01-01

    The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed a software agent to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent, increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during Shuttle launch countdown. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream, automatically alerts system engineers when

  8. Personalizing user-agent interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia N. Schiaffino; Analía Amandi

    2006-01-01

    Interface agents are computer programs that provide personalized assistance to users with their computer-based tasks. The interface agents developed so far have focused their attention on learning a user's preferences in a given application domain and on assisting him according to them. However, in order to personalize the interaction with users, interface agents should also learn how to best interact

  9. Comic Actors Representing Software Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Knut Manske; Rimbert Rudisch

    1998-01-01

    A growing amount of tasks are expected to be delegated to software agents by human users. Such agents carry personal data of the user and act on his behalf. If mobile software agents leave the users' host, the users are left with an uncomfortable lack of knowledge about and control over “what's going on”. The authors believe that an important

  10. Emergent Behavior and Mobile Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony White; Bernard Pagurek

    1999-01-01

    Naturally occurring multi-agent systems exhibit remarkable problem solving capabilities even in the absence of centralized planning. These syst ems exhibit complex, emergent behavior that is robust with respect to the failure of indi vidual agents. Such systems are usually characterized by the interaction of a large n umber of simple agents that sense and change their environment locally. In this

  11. CATS-based Air Traffic Controller Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes intelligent agents that function as air traffic controllers. Each agent controls traffic in a single sector in real time; agents controlling traffic in adjoining sectors can coordinate to manage an arrival flow across a given meter fix. The purpose of this research is threefold. First, it seeks to study the design of agents for controlling complex systems. In particular, it investigates agent planning and reactive control functionality in a dynamic environment in which a variety perceptual and decision making skills play a central role. It examines how heuristic rules can be applied to model planning and decision making skills, rather than attempting to apply optimization methods. Thus, the research attempts to develop intelligent agents that provide an approximation of human air traffic controller behavior that, while not based on an explicit cognitive model, does produce task performance consistent with the way human air traffic controllers operate. Second, this research sought to extend previous research on using the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) as the basis for intelligent agents. The agents use a high-level model of air traffic controller activities to structure the control task. To execute an activity in the CATS model, according to the current task context, the agents reference a 'skill library' and 'control rules' that in turn execute the pattern recognition, planning, and decision-making required to perform the activity. Applying the skills enables the agents to modify their representation of the current control situation (i.e., the 'flick' or 'picture'). The updated representation supports the next activity in a cycle of action that, taken as a whole, simulates air traffic controller behavior. A third, practical motivation for this research is to use intelligent agents to support evaluation of new air traffic control (ATC) methods to support new Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts. Current approaches that use large, human-in-the-loop simulations are unquestionably valuable for this purpose, but pose considerable logistical, fiscal, and experimental control problems. First, data analysis is extremely complicated, owing simply to the large number of participants and data sources in such simulations. In addition, experienced human air traffic controllers working adjacent sectors tend to flexibly adapt to the evolving control problem - potentially shifting to other strategies than those under investigation. In addition, their performance is tightly coupled to the control interface, which in the development phase may support some concepts and supporting strategies better than others. A simple shift in strategy by one controller can change the character of a particular traffic scenario dramatically, which makes experimental comparison of ATC performance under different traffic scenarios difficult. Training a given team of controllers on operations under a new ATM concept for a sufficient period of time could avert such difficulties, but instituting an adequate training program is expensive and logistically difficult.

  12. Chemical warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  13. Analyzing How Social Agents Influence Interpersonal Communication

    E-print Network

    Nakanishi, Hideyuki

    Analyzing How Social Agents Influence Interpersonal Communication Hideyuki Nakanishi1 , Satoshi on interpersonal communication. In the first experiment, the agent supported cross-cultural communication' sentiment toward the agent, and their relations. Keywords: Social agents, interpersonal communication

  14. Diastereoselective pinacol coupling of alkyl aryl ketones with rare earth metals in the presence of chlorosilanes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akiya Ogawa; Hiroki Takeuchi; Toshikazu Hirao

    1999-01-01

    Rare earth metals (Ln) are found to act as useful reducing agents for the pinacol coupling reaction of alkyl aryl ketones in the presence of chlorosilanes. Although the hitherto known pinacol coupling reaction using rare earth reducing agents generally exhibits very low diastereoselectivities, the present pinacol coupling by use of a LnR3SiCl system usually indicates higher diastereoselectivities. In particular, a

  15. Evaluating Competing Agent Strategies for a Voice Email Agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilyn A. Walker; Donald Hindle; Jeanne Fromer; Giuseppe Di Fabbrizio; Craig Mestel

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports experimental results comparing a mixed-initiative to a system-initiative dialog strategy i n the context of a personal voice email agent. To independently test the effects of dialog strategy and user expertise, user s in- teract with either the system-initiative or the mixed-init iative agent to perform three successive tasks which are identical for both agents. We report

  16. Antisocial Behavior of Agents in Scheduling Mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nandan Garg; Daniel Grosu; Vipin Chaudhary

    2007-01-01

    Truthful task scheduling mechanisms are designed to cope with the selfishness of the participating agents. They assume that the agents are selfish; each agent's goal is to maximize its own profit. However, this is not always the case; an agent may want to cause losses to the other agents besides maximizing its profit. Such an agent is said to be

  17. Developing Multi-agent Systems with JADE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Bellifemine; Agostino Poggi; Giovanni Rimassa

    2000-01-01

    JADE (Java Agent Development Framework) is a software framework to make easy the development of multi-agent applications in compliance with the FIPA specifications. JADE can then be considered a middle-ware that implements an efficient agent platform and supports the development of multi agent systems. JADE agent platform tries to keep high the performance of a distributed agent system implemented with

  18. Agent-based autonomous Examination Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Gawali; B. B. Meshram

    2009-01-01

    Online computerized examination systems is developed using software agent technology. Multi-agent system containing main agent, mobile agent and stationery agent is developed to support the functionality of examination systems in Aglet environment. All these agents in the system communicate with each other to process the operations requested by the user. Authentication of the examinee for valid user name and password

  19. AREA OVERVIEW----Agent & Data Mining Interaction

    E-print Network

    Cao, Longbing

    AREA OVERVIEW---- Agent & Data Mining Interaction (ADMI) Longbing Cao Faculty of Information in a Multiple Agent Environment", EWSL91, 1991 Agent-based data mining & knowledge discovery by Davies, W., 1994 Research topics Agent driven data mining Data mining driven agents & multi- agent systems Mutual issues

  20. Distributed multi-agent system approach for sheet metal forming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Durmus Karayel; Sinan Serdar Ozkan

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a distributed multi-agent system (DMAS) for sheet metal forming is proposed. The system consists of functional agents such as die design agent, knowledge management agent, validation and verification agent, product description agent, operation planning agent, calculating and dimensioning agent, artificial intelligence agent, assembly and disassembly agent. Also there is a design mediator. Each of the functional agents

  1. Programacin de Agentes y Sistemas Multi-Agentes

    E-print Network

    Guerra Hernández, Alejandro

    -Hernández Departamento de Inteligencia Artificial Universidad Veracruzana Facultad de Física e Inteligencia Artificial, defina los planes necesarios para obtener un agente bajo compromiso ciego, racional y emocional. [25

  2. Agent based spin model for financial markets on regular lattices and complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hong-Joo; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Yup

    2008-03-01

    We study an agent based microscopic model for price formation in financial markets on various topologies motivated by the dynamics of agents. The model consists of interacting agents (spins) with localand global couplings. The local interaction denotes the tendency of agents to make the same decision with their interacting partners. On the other hand, the global coupling to the self-generating field represents the process which maximizes the profit of each agent. In order to incorporate more realistic situations, we also introduce an external field which changes in time. This time-varying external field represents any internal or external interference in the dynamics of the market. For the proper choice of model parameters, the competition between the interactions causes an intermittency dynamics and we find that the distribution of logarithmic return of price follows a power-law.

  3. Agent-based enterprise integration

    SciTech Connect

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

    1998-12-01

    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. The enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of the effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses the planned future work.

  4. Agent-based enterprise integration

    SciTech Connect

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

    1999-05-01

    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. Their enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; intelligently locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of their effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses their planned future work.

  5. Collaborating Fuzzy Reinforcement Learning Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.

    1997-01-01

    Earlier, we introduced GARIC-Q, a new method for doing incremental Dynamic Programming using a society of intelligent agents which are controlled at the top level by Fuzzy Relearning and at the local level, each agent learns and operates based on ANTARCTIC, a technique for fuzzy reinforcement learning. In this paper, we show that it is possible for these agents to compete in order to affect the selected control policy but at the same time, they can collaborate while investigating the state space. In this model, the evaluator or the critic learns by observing all the agents behaviors but the control policy changes only based on the behavior of the winning agent also known as the super agent.

  6. Fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfson, J S; Hooper, D C

    1989-01-01

    The fluoroquinolones, a new class of potent orally absorbed antimicrobial agents, are reviewed, considering structure, mechanisms of action and resistance, spectrum, variables affecting activity in vitro, pharmacokinetic properties, clinical efficacy, emergence of resistance, and tolerability. The primary bacterial target is the enzyme deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase. Bacterial resistance occurs by chromosomal mutations altering deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase and decreasing drug permeation. The drugs are bactericidal and potent in vitro against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus spp., and Neisseria spp., have good activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococci, and (with several exceptions) are less potent against streptococci and have fair to poor activity against anaerobic species. Potency in vitro decreases in the presence of low pH, magnesium ions, or urine but is little affected by different media, increased inoculum, or serum. The effects of the drugs in combination with a beta-lactam or aminoglycoside are often additive, occasionally synergistic, and rarely antagonistic. The agents are orally absorbed, require at most twice-daily dosing, and achieve high concentrations in urine, feces, and kidney and good concentrations in lung, bone, prostate, and other tissues. The drugs are efficacious in treatment of a variety of bacterial infections, including uncomplicated and complicated urinary tract infections, bacterial gastroenteritis, and gonorrhea, and show promise for therapy of prostatitis, respiratory tract infections, osteomyelitis, and cutaneous infections, particularly when caused by aerobic gram-negative bacilli. Fluoroquinolones have also proved to be efficacious for prophylaxis against travelers' diarrhea and infection with gram-negative bacilli in neutropenic patients. The drugs are effective in eliminating carriage of Neisseria meningitidis. Patient tolerability appears acceptable, with gastrointestinal or central nervous system toxicities occurring most commonly, but only rarely necessitating discontinuance of therapy. In 17 of 18 prospective, randomized, double-blind comparisons with another agent or placebo, fluoroquinolones were tolerated as well as or better than the comparison regimen. Bacterial resistance has been uncommonly documented but occurs, most notably with P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and occasionally other species for which the therapeutic ratio is less favorable. Fluoroquinolones offer an efficacious, well-tolerated, and cost-effective alternative to parenteral therapies of selected infections. PMID:2680058

  7. Radioprotective agents in medicine.

    PubMed

    Durakovi?, A

    1993-12-01

    The diminished probability of strategic nuclear confrontation alleviates some of the global concerns about large numbers of radiation casualties in the event of a nuclear war. As a result of the protection of the environment, the management of smaller numbers of radiation casualties assumes a more predictable and more specific role confined to accidents in nuclear energy projects, industry, technology and science. Recent experience of the consequences of accidents in nuclear power plants, in the field of radiotherapy and in the disposal of radioactive waste and spent fuel, present the medical and scientific communities with formidable problems if such events are to lead to minimal adverse effects on the biosphere. Whereas it is not possible to predict a nuclear or radiation accident, radioprotection is hardly an issue of health science alone, but rather an issue of the strictest quality assurance in all aspects of the utilization of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. Thus, the medical community concerned with radioprotection will have to confine its emphasis on the management of radiation-induced alterations of the human organism from acute radiation syndromes to the stochastic concepts of chronic alterations of radiosensitive organic systems. Current multidisciplinary research in the field of radioprotection involves all aspects of basic and clinical research ranging from the subatomic mechanisms of free radical formation, macromolecular and intracellular radiation-induced alterations, biochemical and physiological homeostatic mechanisms and organ level manifestations to the clinical management of radiation casualties in a controlled hospital environment. Radioprotective agents, although widely studied in the past four decades and including several thousand agents, have not reached the level of providing the field of medicine with an agent that conforms to all criteria of an optimal radioprotectant, including effectiveness, toxicity, availability, specificity and tolerance. This article discusses the current state of radioprotection in medical therapy, and emphasizes a need for continued research in the area of medical management of radiation casualties from the viewpoint of a realistic probability of nuclear incidents or accidents in the nuclear energy-dependent world at the end of the millennium. PMID:8192608

  8. Efficiency of JADE agent platform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krzysztof Chmiel; Maciej Gawinecki; Pawel Kaczmarek; Michal Szymczak; Marcin Paprzycki

    2005-01-01

    Abstract. Agent oriented programming,is often claimed to become,the next breakthrough in development,and implementation,of large-scale complex software systems. At the same time it is rather difficult to find successful applications of agent technology, in particular when,large-scale systems are considered. The aim of this paper is to investigate if one of the possible limits could be the scalability of existing agent environments.

  9. Mobility control agents

    SciTech Connect

    Hammershaimb, E.C.; KuugKraa, V.A.

    1983-06-01

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by means of steam drive, for heavier crudes, and CO/sub 2/ flooding, for lighter, mobilizes oil left behind by more conventional methods and displaces it to producing wells. In higher mobility, fingering, and flow of the drive or flood substance through low permeability paths, reduces the efficiency of EOR. Mobility control agents block these permeable paths. Five tests, two at Santa Fe Energy's Midway-Sunset field, one at Conoco's Cat Canyon, and two at Texaco's San Ardo field, are made to address the excessive channelling of steam through ''theif'' zones, and the progressive increase in steam flow through oil depleted, already swept zones. The success of the tests demonstrates the viability of the process by diverting steam, increasing oil recovery, increasing oil-steam ratio, and improving the water cut.

  10. Broad-spectrum antiviral agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jun-Da; Meng, Wen; Wang, Xiao-Jia; Wang, Hwa-Chain R.

    2015-01-01

    Development of highly effective, broad-spectrum antiviral agents is the major objective shared by the fields of virology and pharmaceutics. Antiviral drug development has focused on targeting viral entry and replication, as well as modulating cellular defense system. High throughput screening of molecules, genetic engineering of peptides, and functional screening of agents have identified promising candidates for development of optimal broad-spectrum antiviral agents to intervene in viral infection and control viral epidemics. This review discusses current knowledge, prospective applications, opportunities, and challenges in the development of broad-spectrum antiviral agents.

  11. The problem of coupling in dry-head lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pishchalnikov, Yuri A.; McAteer, James A.; Neucks, Joshua S.; Pishchalnikova, Irina V.; Williams, James C.

    2007-04-01

    Recent in vitro studies have shown that air pockets can get trapped at the coupling interface of the treatment head in dry-head lithotripsy, and this can pose a significant barrier to transmission of shock wave energy to the focal zone. Breakage of model stones is very sensitive to the presence of air pockets at the coupling interface. The quality of routine coupling is highly variable, and it seems quite feasible that the way in which the coupling gel is applied may have a significant effect on the quality of coupling. Therefore, attempts to find the best coupling regime may be valuable to perform, and preliminary results of in vitro tests are presented in this report. Experiments were conducted using gel or castor oil as coupling agents. The test tank was coupled through a transparent Mylar membrane to the water-filled cushion of the treatment head, so that pockets of air trapped between the two coupling surfaces could be observed and photographed. It is shown that the quality of coupling can be improved by applying an excessive amount of gel to just the water cushion of the lithotripter, while applying gel to both the water cushion and the Mylar membrane typically gives poor coupling. Repeat decoupling and re-coupling substantially degraded the quality of coupling, reducing shock wave energy density at the target by ˜80%. It was also observed that using castor oil as a coupling medium does not guarantee air-free coupling.

  12. Building an expert travel agent as a software agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia N. Schiaffino; Analía Amandi

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we present an expert software agent, named Traveller, that assists users in the tourism and travel domain. This agent combines collaborative filtering with content-based recommendations and demographic information about customers to suggest package holidays and tours. The combination of techniques in this hybrid approach takes advantage of the positive aspects of each technique and overcomes the difficulties

  13. Concept features in Re:Agent, an intelligent Email agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Boone

    1998-01-01

    An important issue in the application of machine learningtechniques to information management tasks is the natureof features extracted from textual information. We have createdan intelligent email agent that can learn actions suchas filtering, prioritizing, downloading to palmtops, and forwardingemail to voicemail using automatic feature extraction.Our agent's new feature extraction approach is basedon first learning concepts present within the mail, then

  14. Agent Model Development for Assessing Climate-Induced Geopolitical Instability.

    SciTech Connect

    Boslough, Mark B.; Backus, George A.

    2005-12-01

    We present the initial stages of development of new agent-based computational methods to generate and test hypotheses about linkages between environmental change and international instability. This report summarizes the first year's effort of an originally proposed three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project. The preliminary work focused on a set of simple agent-based models and benefited from lessons learned in previous related projects and case studies of human response to climate change and environmental scarcity. Our approach was to define a qualitative model using extremely simple cellular agent models akin to Lovelock's Daisyworld and Schelling's segregation model. Such models do not require significant computing resources, and users can modify behavior rules to gain insights. One of the difficulties in agent-based modeling is finding the right balance between model simplicity and real-world representation. Our approach was to keep agent behaviors as simple as possible during the development stage (described herein) and to ground them with a realistic geospatial Earth system model in subsequent years. This work is directed toward incorporating projected climate data--including various C02 scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Third Assessment Report--and ultimately toward coupling a useful agent-based model to a general circulation model.3

  15. Intelligent Agents: Theory and Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Wooldridge; Nicholas R. Jennings

    1995-01-01

    The concept of an agent has become important in both Artificial Intelligence (AI) and mainstream computer science. Our aim in this paper is to point the reader at what we perceive to be the most important theoretical and practical issues associated with the design and construction of intelligent agents. For convenience, we divide these issues into three areas (though as

  16. Forward Kinematics for Virtual Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Benitez; Daniel Vallejo

    2007-01-01

    Realistic motion and natural-looking simulations require a thorough understanding of hu- man movement control strategies. This work presents an initial developed on virtual agents. We describe how the agent was built searching an humanoid repre- sentation through a geometric model. Although this research is based on the work of Pettre et al. (16), we are building a solid platform to

  17. Cooperating Air Traffic Control Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoff Nitschke

    2001-01-01

    The key aim of cooperating air traffic control agents (CAT CA) was to comparatively analyze and evaluate the success of a multiagent system (MAS) and a single agent system (SAS) at addressing a given set of goals in a problem domain amenable to the utilization of either a MAS or SAS. The problem domain selected was air traffic control (AT

  18. Pharmacology of Systemic Antifungal Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth S. Dodds Ashley; Russell Lewis; James S. Lewis; Craig Martin; David Andes

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, many invasive fungal infections were associated with a poor prognosis, because effective ther- apeutic options were limited. The recent development of new antifungal agents has significantly contributed to the successful treatment of fungal diseases. These drugs offer novel mechanisms of action and expanded spectrums of activity over traditional treatment options. However, with these new agents comes the need for

  19. The QueryGuesser agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia N. Schiaffino; Analía Amandi

    Querying a database via different kinds of Internet and Intranet access is generally a repetitive and time-consuming task. QueryGuesser is an intelligent agent with the capability of generating personalized queries to a database system, according to a particular user's interests. This agent observes a user behavior while he is querying a database and builds a model of his preferences with

  20. Multimodal communication between synthetic agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Pelachaud; Isabella Poggi

    1998-01-01

    Dialoging with a synthetic agent is a vast research topic to enhance user-interface friendliness. We present in this paper an on-going project on the simulation of a dialog situation between two synthetic agents. More particularly we focus our interest on finding the appropriate facial expressions of a speaker addressing to different types of listeners (tourist, employee, child, and so on)

  1. Impact for Agents Michael Luck

    E-print Network

    Luck, Michael

    Impact for Agents Tom Wagner ¡ Les Gasser ¢ Michael Luck £ James Odell ¤ Todd Carrico ¥ 1 for agents from their particu- lar vantage point. Sections range from those that are very ap- plied, e.g or help to articulate issues of interest. 2. Motivating Investment ­ Tom Wagner Tom Wagner is currently

  2. Inotropic Agents and Immune Modulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigetake Sasayama

    2002-01-01

    Since depression of myocardial contractility forms the basis for the development of heart failure, many attempts have been made to enhance the inotropic state of the failing heart by cardiotonic agent as the therapeutic modality. However, large scale clinical trials conducted in the Western societies revealed excess mortality in patients with heart failure received long-term treatment with inotropic agent. Therefore,

  3. Indications for Couple Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malcolm M. MacFarlane; Paul S. Links; Michelle Stockwell

    2005-01-01

    Couple therapy for individuals with severe personality disorders is beginning to be recognized as a valuable therapeutic approach that could meaningfully impact the individuals' personality pathology. This paper highlights the potential role of couple therapy with couples with histrionic\\/obsessive-compulsive personality disorders and introduces the “paradox” of couples with “healthier” personality features. In spite of healthier personality styles, these couples are

  4. Allowing autonomous agents freedom.

    PubMed

    Cronin, A J

    2008-03-01

    Living-donor kidney transplantation is the "gold standard" treatment for many individuals with end-stage renal failure. Superior outcomes for the graft and the transplant recipient have prompted the implementation of new strategies promoting living-donor kidney transplantation, and the number of such transplants has increased considerably over recent years. Living donors are undoubtedly exposed to risk. In his editorial "underestimating the risk in living kidney donation", Walter Glannon suggests that more data on long-term outcomes for living donors are needed to determine whether this risk is permissible and the extent to which physicians and transplant surgeons should promote living-donor kidney transplantation. In this paper I argue that it is not clear that medical professionals have underestimated this risk, nor is it clear that more data on long-term outcomes are needed in order to determine whether it is permissible for individual autonomous agents to expose themselves to this or, indeed, any risk. The global shortage of organs available for transplantation ultimately means that every year thousands of individuals who value their life die needlessly. This is an unacceptable loss of human life. Saving life is one of the most wonderful things an individual can do for another. Promoting any strategy that will assist in saving life and preventing human suffering within acceptable moral limits is legitimate. PMID:18316449

  5. 1. The jessInJADE Package We call "Jess agents" those agents that are JADE agents, since they extend the JADE "Agent"

    E-print Network

    Mascardi, Viviana

    1. The jessInJADE Package We call "Jess agents" those agents that are JADE agents, since they extend the JADE "Agent" class, but whose initial beliefs and behaviour are defined in the Jess language that is read by the Java stub of the agent (the JavaStubSkeleton code), and is executed by it. The jessInJADE

  6. Interacting Agent Based Systems Dean Petters

    E-print Network

    Bullinaria, John

    . Emailing agents 4. Computer games 5. Robotics 6. Sociological simulations 7. Psychological simulations #12 is or is not an agent. This talk takes the view that agents are not just: distributed/concurrent systems such as java threads Agents are: autonomous, for example synchronisation occurs at run time and agents are self

  7. JADE - A FIPA-compliant agent framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Bellifemine; Agostino Poggi; Giovanni Rimassa

    1999-01-01

    JADE is a software framework to develop agent applications in compliance with the FIPA specifications for interoperable intelligent multi-agent systems. The goal is to simplify development while ensuring standard compliance through a comprehensive set of system services and agents. JADE can then be considered an agent middle-ware that implements an Agent Platform and a development framework. It deals with all

  8. Pharmacological agents and bone healing

    PubMed Central

    Tarantino, Umberto; Cerocchi, Irene; Celi, Monica; Scialdoni, Alessandro; Saturnino, Luca; Gasbarra, Elena

    2009-01-01

    Osteoporosis is the most common alteration of bone metabolism. It derives from an increase in bone resorption with respect to bone formation and is characterized by microarchitectural alterations, decreased bone mass and increased risk of fracture. The coupling between bone formation and resorption is a fundamental concept in skeletal metabolism, and it explains how a certain amount of removed tissue can be replaced by the same amount of new bone. Various substances used to treat osteoporosis may also be used for orthopaedic conditions such as fracture healing, implant fixation, bone grafts and osteonecrosis. Fracture healing consists in the replacement of the lost bone by a tissue that has the same biomechanical properties as those preceding the fracture. The repair process is triggered by the local response to the tissue injury that damaged the continuity of bone. The duration of each phase of the healing process can vary significantly, depending on the site and characteristics of the fracture, on patient related factors and on the treatment choice. While most of the fractures heal with conventional treatment, they can also cause permanent damage and complications, especially in a certain kind of patients. Osteoporosis and old age may contribute in delaying or impairing the reparative process. In animal models the healing process is slower in older and/or ovariectomized animals. Biomechanical tests have also shown that bone strength is compromised in human osteoporotic cadaver bone. The same problems were highlighted in the surgical treatment of fractures in osteoporotic patients. Mainly in the treatment of hip fractures there is an increased risk of cut-out, re-fractures and implant failure in patients with osteoporosis. Preclinical studies have shown that certain pharmacological agents (bisphosphonates, strontium ranelate, teriparatide) may enhance osseointegration and stimulate reparative processes. They may be administered systemically and/or used locally at the fracture site on the implant surface. The aim of fracture treatment is to restore bone biomechanical properties and to allow restoring normal function at the affected site. If the new pharmacological approaches could be translated into clinical benefit and offered to patients with osteoporosis or other factors that put at risk the process of healing (subjects with severe loss of substance or fractures at high risk of complications), they could represent a valuable aid in the treatment of fractures. PMID:22461164

  9. Novel agents in indolent lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Merli, Michele; Ferrario, Andrea; Basilico, Claudia; Maffioli, Margherita; Caramazza, Domenica; Appio, Lorena; Arcaini, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Indolent non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (iNHLs) include follicular lymphomas (FL), marginal-zone lymphoma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenström macroglobulinemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma. First-line standard therapy in advanced, symptomatic iNHL consists of rituximab-based immunochemotherapy. The recent rediscovery of the ‘old’ chemotherapeutic agent bendamustine, an alkylating agent with a peculiar mechanism of action, has added a new effective and well-tolerated option to the therapeutic armamentarium in iNHL, increasing response rates and duration. However, patients invariably relapse and subsequent active and well-tolerated agents are needed. In recent years a large number of new targeted agents have been tested in preclinical and clinical experimentation in FL and indolent nonfollicular lymphoma (iNFL), including the new monoclonal antibodies binding CD20 or other surface antigens, immunoconjugates and bispecific antibodies. Moreover novel agents directed against intracellular processes such as proteasome inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors and agents that target the tumour microenvironment, notably the immunomodulatory agent lenalidomide, are under active clinical investigation. The development of these new drugs may change in the near future the approach to iNHL patients, leading to better tolerated and effective therapy regimens. PMID:23610620

  10. Novel agents in indolent lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Merli, Michele; Ferrario, Andrea; Basilico, Claudia; Maffioli, Margherita; Caramazza, Domenica; Appio, Lorena; Arcaini, Luca; Passamonti, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    Indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (iNHLs) include follicular lymphomas (FL), marginal-zone lymphoma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenström macroglobulinemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma. First-line standard therapy in advanced, symptomatic iNHL consists of rituximab-based immunochemotherapy. The recent rediscovery of the 'old' chemotherapeutic agent bendamustine, an alkylating agent with a peculiar mechanism of action, has added a new effective and well-tolerated option to the therapeutic armamentarium in iNHL, increasing response rates and duration. However, patients invariably relapse and subsequent active and well-tolerated agents are needed. In recent years a large number of new targeted agents have been tested in preclinical and clinical experimentation in FL and indolent nonfollicular lymphoma (iNFL), including the new monoclonal antibodies binding CD20 or other surface antigens, immunoconjugates and bispecific antibodies. Moreover novel agents directed against intracellular processes such as proteasome inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors and agents that target the tumour microenvironment, notably the immunomodulatory agent lenalidomide, are under active clinical investigation. The development of these new drugs may change in the near future the approach to iNHL patients, leading to better tolerated and effective therapy regimens. PMID:23610620

  11. JACK Intelligent Agents - Components for Intelligent Agents in Java

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Busetta; Ralph Rönnquist; Andrew Hodgson; Andrew Lucas

    1999-01-01

    This paper is organised as follows.Section 2 introduces JACK IntelligentAgents, presenting the approach taken byAOS to its design and outlining its majorengineering characteristics. The BDImodel is discussed briefly in Section 3.Section 4 gives an outline of how to buildan application with JACK IntelligentAgents. Finally, in Section 5 we discusshow the use of this framework can bebeneficial to both engineers and

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, P.H.; Brainard, J.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

    1997-12-30

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC{sub 16}H{sub 14}N{sub 6}. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques. 10 figs.

  13. Course Agent Adaptive Online Course Recommendation System

    E-print Network

    Brusilovsky, Peter

    Course Agent Adaptive Online Course Recommendation System Sciences of the Adaptive Online Course Recommendation System. It is specially to Course Agent Course Agent is the new implementation at the School of Information

  14. Interactions of Fluoroquinolone Antibacterial Agents with Aqueous

    E-print Network

    Huang, Ching-Hua

    Interactions of Fluoroquinolone Antibacterial Agents with Aqueous Chlorine: Reaction Kinetics extensively investigated to elucidate the behavior of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents during water of antibacterial agents worldwide, on the basis of annual global sales and therapeutic versatility (1

  15. Oxidative Transformation of Fluoroquinolone Antibacterial Agents

    E-print Network

    Huang, Ching-Hua

    Oxidative Transformation of Fluoroquinolone Antibacterial Agents and Structurally Related Amines in the abiotic degradation of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents in the environment. Introduction Fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents (FQs) are a group of potent synthetic antibiotics that are widely used

  16. Optimal agent cooperation with local information

    E-print Network

    De Mot, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Multi-agent systems are in general believed to be more efficient, robust, and versatile than their single-agent equivalents. However, it is not an easy task to design strategies that fully exploit the multi-agent benefits, ...

  17. Surface preparation and coupling in plastic scintillator dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Ayotte, Guylaine; Archambault, Louis; Gingras, Luc; Lacroix, Frederic; Beddar, A. Sam; Beaulieu, Luc [Departement de physique, de genie physique et d'optique, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, G1K7P4 (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec, G1R2J6 (Canada); Departement de physique, de genie physique et d'optique, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, G1K7P4 (Canada) and Department de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec, G1R2J6 (Canada) and Department of Radiation Physics, Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department de physique, de genie physique et d'optique, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, G1K7P4 (Canada) and Department de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec, G1R2J6 (Canada); Department of Radiation Physics, Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department de physique, de genie physique et d'optique, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, G1K7P4 (Canada) and Department de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec, G1R2J6 (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    One way to improve the performance of scintillation dosimeters is to increase the light-collection efficiency at the coupling interfaces of the detector system. We performed a detailed study of surface preparation of scintillating fibers and their coupling with clear optical fibers to minimize light loss and increase the amount of light collected. We analyzed fiber-surface polishing with aluminum oxide sheets, coating fibers with magnesium oxide, and the use of eight different coupling agents (air, three optical gels, an optical curing agent, ultraviolet light, cyanoacrylate glue, and acetone). We prepared 10 scintillating fiber and clear optical fiber light guide samples to test different coupling methods. To test the coupling, we first cut both the scintillating fiber and the clear optical fiber. Then, we cleaned and polished both ends of both fibers. Finally, we coupled the scintillating fiber with the clear optical fiber in either a polyethylene jacket or a V-grooved support depending on the coupling agent used. To produce more light, we used an ultraviolet lamp to stimulate scintillation. A typical series of similar couplings showed a standard deviation in light-collection efficiency of 10%. This can be explained by differences in the surface preparation quality and alignment of the scintillating fiber with the clear optical fiber. Absence of surface polishing reduced the light collection by approximately 40%, and application of magnesium oxide on the proximal end of the scintillating fiber increased the amount of light collected from the optical fiber by approximately 39%. Of the coupling agents, we obtained the best results using one of the optical gels. Because a large amount of the light produced inside a scintillator is usually lost, better light-collection efficiency will result in improved sensitivity.

  18. Classification of Intelligent Agent Network Topologies and a New Topological Description Language for Agent Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao Lan Zhang; Clement H. C. Leung; Gitesh K. Raikundalia

    2006-01-01

    Topological theory of intelligent agent networks provides crucial information about the structure of agent distribution over a network. Agent network topologies not only take agent distribution into consideration but also consider agent mobility and intelligence in a network. Current research in the agent network topology area adopts topological theory from the distributed system and computing network fields without considering mobility

  19. Triggered pore-forming agents

    DOEpatents

    Bayley, Hagan (Grafton, MA); Walker, Barbara J. (Auburn, MA); Chang, Chung-yu (Worcester, MA); Niblack, Brett (Nashville, TN); Panchal, Rekha (Shrewsbury, MA)

    1998-01-01

    An inactive pore-forming agent which is activated to lytic function by a condition such as pH, light, heat, reducing potential, or metal ion concentration, or substance such as a protease, at the surface of a cell.

  20. Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Kelly, Andrew O.; Boeloeni, Ladislau

    2005-01-01

    The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed a software agent to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent, increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during Shuttle launch countdown. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream, automatically alerts system engineers when predefined criteria have been met, identifies limit warnings and violations of launch commit criteria, aids Shuttle engineers through troubleshooting procedures, and provides additional insight to verify appropriate troubleshooting of problems by contractors. The agent has successfully detected launch commit criteria warnings and violations on a simulated playback data stream. Efficiency and safety are improved through increased automation.

  1. Dynamic Economy with Heterogeneous Agents

    E-print Network

    Peng, Yulei

    2013-08-06

    ) = (cit; yHit ; y l it; xit; Iit), here i = H; h and t = 1; 2; 3. Besides the feasible conditions in every period just as the equation (2.8), (2.9), (2.10), the social planner uses the incentive-compatibility conditions to distinguish agents with di... erent types, and the government recognizes a given agent?s ability at the beginning of period. In third period, the incentive-compatibility condition for high ability agent: U(cH3; LH3) = u(cH3) + v(1 ylH3 HH3 ) u(ch3) + v(1 ylH3 HH3 ): (2...

  2. Family as Economic Socialization Agent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rettig, Kathryn Dalbey

    1983-01-01

    The family operates as an economic socialization agent through the provision of (1) economic information networks, (2) grants and exchanges of resources, (3) economic role models, and (4) an environment for the development of individual human resource attributes. (SK)

  3. Agent-based forward analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kerekes, Ryan A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jiao, Yu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shankar, Mallikarjun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Potok, Thomas E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lusk, Rick M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2008-01-01

    We propose software agent-based "forward analysis" for efficient information retrieval in a network of sensing devices. In our approach, processing is pushed to the data at the edge of the network via intelligent software agents rather than pulling data to a central facility for processing. The agents are deployed with a specific query and perform varying levels of analysis of the data, communicating with each other and sending only relevant information back across the network. We demonstrate our concept in the context of face recognition using a wireless test bed comprised of PDA cell phones and laptops. We show that agent-based forward analysis can provide a significant increase in retrieval speed while decreasing bandwidth usage and information overload at the central facility. n

  4. A amphoteric copolymer profile modification agent

    SciTech Connect

    Wang HongGuan; Yu LianCheng; Tian HongKun [Scientific Research Inst. of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing (China)

    1995-11-01

    This report provides a new gel profile modification agent prepared by an amphoteric copolymer (FT-213) and a novel crosslinking agent (BY), and introduces the preparations of the amphoteric polymer, the crosslinking agent and the profile modification agent, the action mechanism, the test conditions and the evaluations of the performance of the agent. The 45 well treatments in oilfields demonstrate that the agent can be prepared conveniently, the agent has better compatibility and application performances, and the treatment life is longer with the use of the agent. 80,000 tons incremental oil and 60,000 m{sup 3} decreasing water production have been achieved.

  5. Intelligent agents: theory and practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Woolridge; N. Jennings

    1995-01-01

    Abstract The concept of an agent has become,important in both Artificial Intelligence (AI) and mainstream,computer,science. Our aim in this paper is to point the reader at what we perceive to be the most important theoretical and practical issues as sociated with the design and construction of intelligent agents. For convenience, we divide these issues into three areas (though as the

  6. Agent-based software engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Wooldridge

    1997-01-01

    The technology of intelligent agents and multi-agent systems seems set to radicallyalter the way in which complex, distributed, open systems are conceptualized and implemented.The purpose of this paper is to consider the problem of building a multi-agentsystem as a software engineering enterprise. The article focuses on three issues: (i) howagents might be specified; (ii) how these specifications might be refined

  7. Hybrid Multi-Agent Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Srinivasan; M. Choy

    \\u000a Hybrid systems have grown tremendously in the past few years due to their abilities to offset the demerits of one technique\\u000a by the merits of another. This chapter presents a number of computational intelligence techniques which are useful in the\\u000a implementation of hybrid multi-agent systems. A brief review of the applications of the hybrid multi-agent systems is presented.

  8. Plan recognition for interface agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcelo Gabriel Armentano; Analía Amandi

    2007-01-01

    Interface agents are computer programs that provide personalized assistance to a user dealing with computer based applications.\\u000a By understanding the tasks the user performs in a software application an interface agent could be aware of the context that\\u000a represents the user’s focus of attention at each particular moment. With this purpose, plan recognition aims at identifying\\u000a the plans or goals

  9. Coupled principal component analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf Möller; Axel Konies

    2004-01-01

    A framework for a class of coupled principal component learning rules is presented. In coupled rules, eigenvectors and eigenvalues of a covariance matrix are simultaneously estimated in coupled equations. Coupled rules can mitigate the stability-speed problem affecting noncoupled learning rules, since the convergence speed in all eigendirections of the Jacobian becomes widely independent of the eigenvalues of the covariance matrix.

  10. Ni(II) Salts and 2-Propanol Effect Catalytic Reductive Coupling of Epoxides and Alkynes

    E-print Network

    Beaver, Matthew G.

    A Ni-catalyzed reductive coupling of alkynes and epoxides using Ni(II) salts and simple alcohol reducing agents is described. Whereas previously reported conditions relied on Ni(cod)2 and Et3B, this system has several ...

  11. Game Couplings: Learning Dynamics and Applications Maria-Florina Balcan ninamf@cc.gatech.edu

    E-print Network

    Shamma, Jeff S.

    Game Couplings: Learning Dynamics and Applications Maria-Florina Balcan ninamf, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 Abstract Games encode complex strategic interactions involving numerous agents. Specific game properties, such as the existence of a potential function (Monderer

  12. Forecasting 3-D fish movement behavior using a Eulerian–Lagrangian–agent method (ELAM)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Andrew Goodwin; John M. Nestler; James J. Anderson; Larry J. Weber; Daniel P. Loucks

    2006-01-01

    We describe a Eulerian–Lagrangian–agent method (ELAM) for mechanistically decoding and forecasting 3-D movement patterns of individual fish responding to abiotic stimuli. A ELAM model is an individual-based model (IBM) coupling a (1) Eulerian framework to govern the physical, hydrodynamic, and water quality domains, (2) Lagrangian framework to govern the sensory perception and movement trajectories of individual fish, and (3) agent

  13. Asymmetric interpersonal coupling in a cyclic sports-related movement task.

    PubMed

    Meerhoff, L Rens A; De Poel, Harjo J

    2014-06-01

    In interactive sports, teammates and/or opponents mutually tune their behavior. Expert performance thus implies certain interactive abilities, which critically depend on perceptual coupling. To illustrate this assertion, we examined the coordination dynamics with asymmetric interaction of dyads performing a sports-related cyclical movement task. In pairs, basketball players performed lateral defensive slides in in-phase, until a cue prompted them to switch to antiphase coordination. We assessed how these switches were mediated by phase adaptations of each agent under bidirectional (i.e., agents facing one another) and unidirectional (i.e., one agent facing the back of the other) visual interaction conditions. This imposed asymmetry in visual coupling exemplified an imbalance in the interaction (or 'interact-ability') between two agents. The results concurred the asymmetric coupling: during the switch the agent facing the other adapted his phasing more than the other agent. Furthermore, also in the bidirectional condition the coupling revealed dyad-intrinsic asymmetries (e.g., related to implicit follower-leader strategies). Together, this illustrates that interpersonal coordination is characterized by asymmetric coupling between the agents, and highlights how mutual perception of pertinent information mediates interpersonal coordination. This study offered a first step towards analyzing interpersonal coordination dynamics in relation to 'interact-ability'. PMID:24835161

  14. Partner switching promotes cooperation among myopic agents on a geographical plane.

    PubMed

    Li, Yixiao; Min, Yong; Zhu, Xiaodong; Cao, Jie

    2013-02-01

    We study the coupling dynamics between the evolution of cooperation and the evolution of partnership network on a geographical plane. While agents play networked prisoner's dilemma games, they can dynamically adjust their partnerships based on local information about reputation. We incorporate geographical features into the process of the agent's partner switching and investigate the corresponding effects. At each time step of the coevolution, a random agent can either update his strategy by imitation or adjust his partnership by switching from the lowest reputation partner to the highest reputation one among his neighbors. We differentiate two types of neighbors: geographical neighbors (i.e., the set of agents who are close to the focal agent in terms of geographical distance) and connectivity neighbors (i.e., the set of agents who are close to the focal agent in the partnership network in terms of geodesic distance). We find that switching to either geographical neighbors or connectivity neighbors enhances cooperation greatly in a wide parameter range. Cooperation can be favored in a much stricter condition when agents switch to connectivity neighbors more frequently. However, an increasing tendency of reconnecting to geographical neighbors shortens the geographical distance between a pair of partners on average. When agents consider the cost of geographical distance in adjusting the partnership, they are prone to reconnect to geographical neighbors. PMID:23496584

  15. The Work-Centered Couple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Len; Carlson, Jon

    1991-01-01

    Sketches taxonomy of work-centered couple. Briefly describes five couple types: the dual-career couple, the commuting couple, the military couple, the executive couple, and the family business couple. Notes that issues of work and career can greatly impact the lives of these couples. Encourages family psychology to further explore this area of…

  16. Spatial process and data models : toward integration of agent-based models and GIS.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D. G.; North, M. J.; Robinson, D. T.; Riolo, R.; Rand, W.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Michigan

    2007-10-01

    The use of object-orientation for both spatial data and spatial process models facilitates their integration, which can allow exploration and explanation of spatial-temporal phenomena. In order to better understand how tight coupling might proceed and to evaluate the possible functional and efficiency gains from such a tight coupling, we identify four key relationships affecting how geographic data (fields and objects) and agent-based process models can interact: identity, causal, temporal and topological. We discuss approaches to implementing tight integration, focusing on a middleware approach that links existing GIS and ABM development platforms, and illustrate the need and approaches with example agent-based models.

  17. Quick connect coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprague, Benny B. (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A coupling device has a transversely arranged, open-end groove in a flange attached to a pipe end. The groove in the flange receives a circumferentially arranged locking flange element on the other coupling member and permits alignment of the bores of the coupling members when the locking flange element is in the open end groove. Upon alignment of the bores of the coupling members, a trigger member is activated to automatically release a spring biased tubular member in one of the coupling members. The tubular member has a conical end which is displaced into the other coupling member to lock the coupling members to one another. A tensioning nut is threadedly movable on a coupling member so as to be moved into tightening engagement with the other coupling member.

  18. A Reflexive, not Impulsive Agent Catherine Pelachaud

    E-print Network

    Pelachaud, Catherine

    an Agent capable of communicative and expressive behavior. The Agent should be able to express its emotions is an agent who thinks it over before displaying one's emotions, that is, one who, when feeling an emotion of an emotion. 1. INTRODUCTION Up to now, Artificial Agents are not yet endowed with the capacity of feeling

  19. Design patterns for multi-agent simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Boronea; Florin Leon; Mihai Horia Zaharia; Gabriela M. Atanasiu

    2009-01-01

    The advent of mobile agent technology has brought along a few difficulties in designing a stable, efficient and scalable system for a certain problem. Agent-based simulations prove to be powerful tools for economic analyses. In this paper we aim at describing a set of design patterns which were specifically built for agents and multi-agent systems. The details of each design

  20. Simulating Instructional Roles through Pedagogical Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy L. Baylor; Yanghee Kim

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the design and empirical validation of three distinct pedagogical agent roles (Expert, Motivator, and Mentor) for college students within the MIMIC (Multiple Intelligent Mentors Instructing Collaboratively) agent-based research environment. The pedagogical agent roles were operationalized by image, animation, affect, voice and script, and were developed in Poser 4 and implemented via Microsoft Agent. Two controlled experiments validated

  1. Engineering JADE Agents with the Gaia Methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavlos Moraïtis; Eleftheria Petraki; Nikolaos I. Spanoudakis

    2002-01-01

    Agent Oriented Software Engineering (AOSE) is one of the fields of the agent domain with a continuous growing interest. The reason is that the pos- sibility to easily specify and implement agent-based systems is of a great im- portance for the recognition of the add-value of the agent technology in many application fields. In this paper we present an attempt

  2. JADE - A Java Agent Development Framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Bellifemine; Federico Bergenti; Giovanni Caire; Agostino Poggi

    2005-01-01

    JADE (Java Agent Development Framework) is a software environment to build agent systems for the management of networked information resources in compliance with the FIPA specifications for interoperable multi-agent systems. JADE provides a middleware for the development and execution of agent-based applications which can seamless work and interoperate both in wired and wireless environment. Moreover, JADE supports the development of

  3. Agents That Reason and Negotiate by Arguing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Parsons; Carles Sierra; Nicholas R. Jennings

    1998-01-01

    The need for negotiation in multi-agent systems stems from the requirement for agents to solve the problems posed by their interdependence upon one another. Negotiation provides a solution to these problems by giving the agents the means to resolve their conflicting objectives, correct inconsistencies in their knowledge of other agents' world views, and coordinate a joint approach to domain tasks

  4. Nerve Agents ATSDR ? General Information 1

    E-print Network

    Baloh, Bob

    Nerve Agents ATSDR ? General Information 1 Nerve Agents Tabun (GA) CAS 77-81-6; Sarin (GB) CAS 107-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate ? Persons whose skin or clothing is contaminated with nerve agent can contaminate rescuers by direct contact orthrough off-gassing vapor. Persons whose skin is exposed only to nerve agent vapor pose

  5. Connecting web applications with interface agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Analía Amandi; Marcelo Armentano

    2004-01-01

    Interface agents are one of the most relevant applications of agent technology to assist humans in using computer software. However, the development of agents assisting users working on the web, using multiple applications to browse information, represents a challenging task. Particularly, when these agents need to act on standard web applications whose source code is not available, developers have one

  6. Integrative Negotiation Among Agents Situated in Organizations

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Xiaoqin

    enables agents to dynamically select a negotiation attitude based on the degree of external directedness that there are situations in which it is better for the organization if agents are partially externally- directed these two extreme cases. When an agent is negotiating with other agents over task performance and

  7. Just-in-time information retrieval agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradley J. Rhodes; Pattie Maes

    2000-01-01

    A just-in-time information retrieval agent (JITIR agent) is software that proactively retrieves and presents information based on a person's local context in an easily accessible yet nonintrusive manner. This paper describes three implemented JITIR agents: the Remembrance Agent, Margin Notes, and Jimminy. Theory and design lessons learned from these implementations are presented, drawing from behavioral psychology, information retrieval, and interface

  8. Separation of Concerns in Mobile Agent Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoyasu Ubayashi; Tetsuo Tamai

    2001-01-01

    Using mobile agent systems, cooperative distributed appli- cations that run over the Internet can be constructed flexibly. How- ever, there are some problems: it is difficult to understand collabora- tions among agents and travels of individual agents as a whole because mobility\\/collaboration functions tend to be intertwined in the code; it is difficult to define behaviors of agents explicitly because

  9. Automata for Agent Low Level Language Interpretation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frantisek Zboril jr.; Pavel Spacil

    2009-01-01

    Agent platforms are usually strongly bounded with the hardware on which the agent works. Although the FIPA specifications declare what all should be part of such a platform, in some situation the agents are considered to be at bit lower level than the usual artificial agents are. In this text we present architecture of a system that works with an

  10. Connection Management using Adaptive Mobile Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony White; Bernard Pagurek; Franz Oppacher

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes how adaptive mobile agents can be used to solve connection management problems in Telecommunications using a parallel, distributed process. These agents have behavior that is inspired by the foraging activities of ants, with each agent capable of simple actions. Problem solving is distributed and arises as a consequence of the self-organization of a collection of agents, or

  11. Modeling Virtual Gardens by Autonomous Procedural Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bedrich Benes; Javier Abdul Cordóba; Juan Miguel Soto

    2003-01-01

    A cultivated virtual plant ecosystems modeling by means of simple memoryless procedural agents is presented. The ecosystem growth is a dynamic process with a tendency to chaos. An agent can move in the ecosystem and perform certain actions defined by users in the agent description file. Agents can seed new plants, pull out weeds, water plants, and communicate by message

  12. Preemptive mobile code protection using spy agents

    E-print Network

    Sheldon, Nathan D.

    Preemptive mobile code protection using spy agents Georgios Kalogridis Information Security Group: 2 #12;Abstract This thesis introduces `spy agents' as a new security paradigm for evaluating trust in remote hosts in mobile code scenarios. In this security paradigm, a spy agent, i.e. a mobile agent which

  13. Innovations in multi-agent systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Tweedale; Nikhil Ichalkaranje; Christos Sioutis; B. Jarvis; Angela Consoli; Gloria E. Phillips-wren

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines an abridged history of agents as a guide for the reader to understand the trends and directions of future agent design. This description includes how agent technologies have developed using increasingly sophisticated techniques. It also indicates the transition of formal programming languages into object-oriented programming and how this transition facilitated a corresponding shift from scripted agents (bots)

  14. A Brace of Agent Simulation Scenarios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martyn Fletcher; Pavel Vrba

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a pair of agent simulation scenarios from the defense and manufacturing domains using COTS agent simulation products from Agent Oriented Software and Rockwell Automation. These scenarios highlight the requirements for exploring how the agents should behave autonomously and interact socially to ensure the overall simulation plays out coherently

  15. How do Autonomous Agents Solve Social Dilemmas?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Ito

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the problem of cooperation of autonomous agents. Why it is important for autonomous agents to solve social dilemma problems is explained. They must be solved in a way that does not restrict the autonomy of agents. For that purpose, a social sanction by the disclosure of information is proposed. Agents were made to play the Prisoner's Dilemma

  16. Novel agents for managing dyslipidaemia.

    PubMed

    Best, J D; Jenkins, A J

    2001-11-01

    An elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level is a strong predictor of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Over the past seven years, equally strong evidence has accumulated that lowering LDL cholesterol with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors or statins reduces CHD risk and there is now widespread use of these agents for the primary and secondary prevention of CHD. Treatment issues remain regarding the appropriate degree of LDL cholesterol reduction and whether, in people with very high levels, it would be preferable to achieve the LDL cholesterol goal with a powerful statin alone or combined with an agent that lowers LDL cholesterol by a different mechanism. The main focus in the development of novel agents is the patient with low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, usually associated with hypertriglyceridaemia. Already prevalent as a risk factor for CHD, this abnormality has been linked with insulin resistance, which is likely to increase greatly over the next decade, along with increasing obesity and diabetes. Agents that have potent HDL cholesterol raising capacity include cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors, retinoid X receptor (RXR) selective agonists, specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists and oestrogen-like compounds. Another area of development involves agents that will lower both cholesterol and triglyceride levels, such as partial inhibitors of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) and perhaps squalene synthase inhibitors and agonists of AMP kinase. Future emphasis will be on correcting all lipid abnormalities for the prevention of CHD, not just lowering LDL cholesterol. PMID:11772294

  17. Next Generation Remote Agent Planner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonsson, Ari K.; Muscettola, Nicola; Morris, Paul H.; Rajan, Kanna

    1999-01-01

    In May 1999, as part of a unique technology validation experiment onboard the Deep Space One spacecraft, the Remote Agent became the first complete autonomous spacecraft control architecture to run as flight software onboard an active spacecraft. As one of the three components of the architecture, the Remote Agent Planner had the task of laying out the course of action to be taken, which included activities such as turning, thrusting, data gathering, and communicating. Building on the successful approach developed for the Remote Agent Planner, the Next Generation Remote Agent Planner is a completely redesigned and reimplemented version of the planner. The new system provides all the key capabilities of the original planner, while adding functionality, improving performance and providing a modular and extendible implementation. The goal of this ongoing project is to develop a system that provides both a basis for future applications and a framework for further research in the area of autonomous planning for spacecraft. In this article, we present an introductory overview of the Next Generation Remote Agent Planner. We present a new and simplified definition of the planning problem, describe the basics of the planning process, lay out the new system design and examine the functionality of the core reasoning module.

  18. Investigational Antimicrobial Agents of 2013

    PubMed Central

    Pucci, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY New antimicrobial agents are always needed to counteract the resistant pathogens that continue to be selected by current therapeutic regimens. This review provides a survey of known antimicrobial agents that were currently in clinical development in the fall of 2012 and spring of 2013. Data were collected from published literature primarily from 2010 to 2012, meeting abstracts (2011 to 2012), government websites, and company websites when appropriate. Compared to what was reported in previous surveys, a surprising number of new agents are currently in company pipelines, particularly in phase 3 clinical development. Familiar antibacterial classes of the quinolones, tetracyclines, oxazolidinones, glycopeptides, and cephalosporins are represented by entities with enhanced antimicrobial or pharmacological properties. More importantly, compounds of novel chemical structures targeting bacterial pathways not previously exploited are under development. Some of the most promising compounds include novel ?-lactamase inhibitor combinations that target many multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, a critical medical need. Although new antimicrobial agents will continue to be needed to address increasing antibiotic resistance, there are novel agents in development to tackle at least some of the more worrisome pathogens in the current nosocomial setting. PMID:24092856

  19. Therapy with religious couples.

    PubMed

    Duba, Jill D; Watts, Richard E

    2009-02-01

    Although 95% of married couples identify with a particular religion, there is great variation in how couples rely on their religion to define or structure their relationship. Various denominations will imply particular "rules" or will shape how the couple deals with interpersonal and family challenges, such as sexuality, parenting, and power. In this article, we review couple relationships within a religious context and advance several treatment principles for treating religious couples. We present a clinical case to illustrate marital therapy with a religious couple, with an Adlerian context. PMID:19123233

  20. [Anti-influenza virus agent].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shigeki; Kohno, Shigeru

    2012-04-01

    The necessity of newly anti-influenza agents is increasing rapidly after the prevalence of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009. In addition to the existing anti-influenza drugs, novel neuraminidase inhibitors such as peramivir (a first intravenous anti-influenza agent) and laninamivir (long acting inhaled anti-influenza agent) can be available. Moreover favipiravir, which shows a novel anti-influenza mechanism acting as RNA polymerase inhibitor, has been developing. These drugs are expected to improve the prognosis of severe cases caused by not only seasonal influenza but pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus and H5N1 avian influenza, and also treat oseltamivir-resistant influenza effectively. PMID:22568136

  1. Agent review phase one report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zubelewicz, Alex Tadeusz; Davis, Christopher Edward; Bauer, Travis LaDell

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings for phase one of the agent review and discusses the review methods and results. The phase one review identified a short list of agent systems that would prove most useful in the service architecture of an information management, analysis, and retrieval system. Reviewers evaluated open-source and commercial multi-agent systems and scored them based upon viability, uniqueness, ease of development, ease of deployment, and ease of integration with other products. Based on these criteria, reviewers identified the ten most appropriate systems. The report also mentions several systems that reviewers deemed noteworthy for the ideas they implement, even if those systems are not the best choices for information management purposes.

  2. Dual Rationality and Deliberative Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debenham, John; Sierra, Carles

    Human agents deliberate using models based on reason for only a minute proportion of the decisions that they make. In stark contrast, the deliberation of artificial agents is heavily dominated by formal models based on reason such as game theory, decision theory and logic—despite that fact that formal reasoning will not necessarily lead to superior real-world decisions. Further the Nobel Laureate Friedrich Hayek warns us of the ‘fatal conceit’ in controlling deliberative systems using models based on reason as the particular model chosen will then shape the system’s future and either impede, or eventually destroy, the subtle evolutionary processes that are an integral part of human systems and institutions, and are crucial to their evolution and long-term survival. We describe an architecture for artificial agents that is founded on Hayek’s two rationalities and supports the two forms of deliberation used by mankind.

  3. Environmentally responsive MRI contrast agents

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Gemma-Louise; Kramberger, Iris; Davis, Jason J.

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical imaging techniques can provide a vast amount of anatomical information, enabling diagnosis and the monitoring of disease and treatment profile. MRI uniquely offers convenient, non-invasive, high resolution tomographic imaging. A considerable amount of effort has been invested, across several decades, in the design of non toxic paramagnetic contrast agents capable of enhancing positive MRI signal contrast. Recently, focus has shifted towards the development of agents capable of specifically reporting on their local biochemical environment, where a switch in image contrast is triggered by a specific stimulus/biochemical variable. Such an ability would not only strengthen diagnosis but also provide unique disease-specific biochemical insight. This feature article focuses on recent progress in the development of MRI contrast switching with molecular, macromolecular and nanoparticle-based agents. PMID:24040650

  4. Middle-Agents for the Internet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Decker; Katia P. Sycara; Mike Williamson

    1997-01-01

    Like middle-men in physical commerce, middle-agents support the flow of information in electronic commerce, assisting in locating and connecting the ultimate information provider with the ultimate information requester. Many different types of middle-agents will be useful in realistic, large, distributed, open multi-agent problem solving systems. These include matchmakers or yellow page agents that process advertisements, blackboard agents that collect requests,

  5. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfurly alcohol cleaning agent

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Carter, Richard D. (Lee's Summit, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); Powers, Michael T. (Santa Rosa, CA)

    1997-10-21

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  6. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, G.W.; Carter, R.D.; Hand, T.E.; Powers, M.T.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  7. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Carter, Richard D. (Lee's Summit, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); Powers, Michael T. (Santa Rosa, CA)

    1996-05-07

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene or terpineol cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  8. Object Frameworks for Agent System Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Y. Goldsmith; Shannon V. Spires; Laurence R. Phillips

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we present and analyze an instance of a mutli- agent development system we call the standard agent system that enables the construction of distributed agent-based software systems for R&D, industrial, and government applications. The standard-agent system is implemented as an extensible object framework that provides a means for constructing and customizing agent objects through specialization of standard

  9. High temperature profile modification agents and methods for using same

    SciTech Connect

    Ryles, R.G.; Robustelli, A.G.; Clechiello, J.V.

    1989-05-02

    This patent describes a method for altering the permeability of at least a portion of a subterranean formation penetrated by at least one wellbore comprising the steps of passing a fluid gelable composition into the formation to a preselected location and gelling the composition to modify the liquid flow profile of the portion of the formation. The improvement consists of using, as the fluid gellable composition, a composition comprising: (a) water; (b) a water-thickening and cross-linkable amount of a water-dispersible polymer consisting essentially of: from about 30 to about 99 mol % of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid units or salts thereof and from about 70 to 1 mol % of acrylic acid units or salts thereof and (c) an amount of a polyvalent metal capable of cross-linking the polymer to form a stable gel, wherein the polyvalent metal in component (c) is provided in the form of a redox couple, the redox couple comprising (iii) at least one oxidizing agent comprising a water-soluble compound of the polyvalent metal in its highest valence state and being capable of being reduced to a lower valence state and being selected from the group consisting of hexavalent chromium compounds and permanganates and (iv) a reducing agent effective to reduce the higher valence metal in oxidizing agent (iii) to a lower polyvalent valence state.

  10. Implementing Agent Teams in Dynamic Multi-agent Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milind Tambe

    1997-01-01

    Teamwork is becoming increasingly critical in multi-agent environments ranging from virtual environments for training and education, to inform ation integration on the internet, to potential multi-robotic space missions. Teamwork in such complex, dynamic environments is more than a simple union of simultaneous individual activity, even if supplemented with preplanned coordination. Indeed in these dynamic environments, unanticipated events can easily cause

  11. The New Agent: A Qualitative Study to Strategically Adapt New Agent Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Lauri M.; Hadley, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative study reported here assessed the needs of agents related to new agent professional development to improve the current model. Agents who participated in new agent professional development within the last 5 years were selected to participate in focus groups to determine concerns and continued needs. Agents enjoyed networking and…

  12. Is it an Agent, or Just a Program?: A Taxonomy for Autonomous Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stan Franklin; Arthur C. Graesser

    1996-01-01

    The advent of software agents gave rise to much discussion of just what such an agent is, and of how they differ from programs in general. Here we propose a formal definition of an autonomous agent which clearly distinguishes a software agent from just any program. We also offer the beginnings of a natural kinds taxonomy of autonomous agents, and

  13. Is it an agent or just a program?: A taxonomy for autonomous agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stan Franklin

    1997-01-01

    Abstract The advent of software agents gave rise to much discussion of just what such an agent is, and of how they differ from programs in general. Here we propose a formal definition of an autonomous agent which clearly distinguishes a software agent from just any program. We also offer the beginnings of a natural kinds taxonomyo f autonomous agents,

  14. Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2004-04-01

    Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

  15. Teratogenesis associated with antibipolar agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ha T. T. Nguyen; Verinder Sharma; Roger S. McIntyre

    2009-01-01

    Objective  To review the teratogenic effects associated with the use of Food and Drug Administration-approved agents for bipolar disorder.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A PubMed search of all English language articles published from January 1966 to December 2008 was conducted. The key search\\u000a terms included all major bipolar agents, cross-referenced with: teratogenicity, teratogen, safety, pregnancy, fetus, bipolar\\u000a disorder, and malformation. The search was augmented with

  16. Antimicrobials for bacterial bioterrorism agents.

    PubMed

    Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Atkins, Helen S

    2011-06-01

    The limitations of current antimicrobials for highly virulent pathogens considered as potential bioterrorism agents drives the requirement for new antimicrobials that are suitable for use in populations in the event of a deliberate release. Strategies targeting bacterial virulence offer the potential for new countermeasures to combat bacterial bioterrorism agents, including those active against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Although early in the development of antivirulence approaches, inhibitors of bacterial type III secretion systems and cell division mechanisms show promise for the future. PMID:21707313

  17. Software for Automation of Real-Time Agents, Version 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Forest; Estlin, Tara; Gaines, Daniel; Schaffer, Steve; Chouinard, Caroline; Engelhardt, Barbara; Wilklow, Colette; Mutz, Darren; Knight, Russell; Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David

    2005-01-01

    Version 2 of Closed Loop Execution and Recovery (CLEaR) has been developed. CLEaR is an artificial intelligence computer program for use in planning and execution of actions of autonomous agents, including, for example, Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna ground stations, robotic exploratory ground vehicles (rovers), robotic aircraft (UAVs), and robotic spacecraft. CLEaR automates the generation and execution of command sequences, monitoring the sequence execution, and modifying the command sequence in response to execution deviations and failures as well as new goals for the agent to achieve. The development of CLEaR has focused on the unification of planning and execution to increase the ability of the autonomous agent to perform under tight resource and time constraints coupled with uncertainty in how much of resources and time will be required to perform a task. This unification is realized by extending the traditional three-tier robotic control architecture by increasing the interaction between the software components that perform deliberation and reactive functions. The increase in interaction reduces the need to replan, enables earlier detection of the need to replan, and enables replanning to occur before an agent enters a state of failure.

  18. CONTEXTUALLY EMBODIED AGENTS Catherine Pelachaud

    E-print Network

    Pelachaud, Catherine

    and nonverbal signals. Our planner takes as input a communicative goal and output a multimodal discourse where capable of planning what to communicate as well as deciding with which verbal and nonverbal signals of Rome "La Sapienza", Rome, Italy Key words: embodied agent, face-to-face communication, communicative

  19. Intelligent Agents in Computer Games

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Van Lent; John E. Laird; Josh Buckman; Joe Hartford; Steve Houchard; Kurt Steinkraus; Russ Tedrake

    1999-01-01

    As computer games become more complex and consumers demand more sophisticated computer controlled opponents, game developers are required to place a greater emphasis on the artificial intelligence aspects of their games. Our experience developing intelligent air combat agents for DARPA (Laird and Jones 1998, Jones at al. 1999) has suggested a number of areas of AI research that are applicable

  20. Other Viruses and Viruslike Agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diseases reported under 'Virus and Virus-like Agents' in the first volume of this compendium, with the exception of Cherry rasp leaf virus and Rubus chinese seed-borne virus, should be considered oddities since there are no known type isolates available for these reported viruses. Without a po...

  1. Endophytic Actinomycetes: Attractive Biocontrol Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hitoshi KUNOH

    2002-01-01

    In modern agriculture, application of agrochemicals is still an invaluable and effective method to control plant diseases. However, since use of agrochemicals has been fallen into disfavor because of environmental pollution and detrimental effects on a variety of nontarget organisms, potential use of microbe-based biocontrol agents as replacements or supplements for agrochemicals has increased in agricultural importance. The success of

  2. Exposure to toxic environmental agents.

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    : Reducing exposure to toxic environmental agents is a critical area of intervention for obstetricians, gynecologists, and other reproductive health care professionals. Patient exposure to toxic environmental chemicals and other stressors is ubiquitous, and preconception and prenatal exposure to toxic environmental agents can have a profound and lasting effect on reproductive health across the life course. Prenatal exposure to certain chemicals has been documented to increase the risk of cancer in childhood; adult male exposure to pesticides is linked to altered semen quality, sterility, and prostate cancer; and postnatal exposure to some pesticides can interfere with all developmental stages of reproductive function in adult females, including puberty, menstruation and ovulation, fertility and fecundity, and menopause. Many environmental factors harmful to reproductive health disproportionately affect vulnerable and underserved populations, which leaves some populations, including underserved women, more vulnerable to adverse reproductive health effects than other populations. The evidence that links exposure to toxic environmental agents and adverse reproductive and developmental health outcomes is sufficiently robust, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine join leading scientists and other clinical practitioners in calling for timely action to identify and reduce exposure to toxic environmental agents while addressing the consequences of such exposure. PMID:24084567

  3. Exposure to toxic environmental agents.

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    Reducing exposure to toxic environmental agents is a critical area of intervention for obstetricians, gynecologists, and other reproductive health care professionals. Patient exposure to toxic environmental chemicals and other stressors is ubiquitous, and preconception and prenatal exposure to toxic environmental agents can have a profound and lasting effect on reproductive health across the life course.Prenatal exposure to certain chemicals has been documented to increase the risk of cancer in childhood; adult male exposure to pesticides is linked to altered semen quality, sterility, and prostate cancer; and postnatal exposure to some pesticides can interfere with all developmental stages of reproductive function in adult females, including puberty, menstruation and ovulation, fertility and fecundity, and menopause. Many environmental factors harmful to reproductive health disproportionately affect vulnerable and underserved populations,which leaves some populations, including underserved women, more vulnerable to adverse reproductive health effects than other populations. The evidence that links exposure to toxic environmental agents and adverse reproductive and developmental health outcomes is sufficiently robust, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine join leading scientists and other clinical practitioners in calling for timely action to identify and reduce exposure to toxic environmental agents while addressing the consequences of such exposure. PMID:24070500

  4. Detection of chemical agent aerosols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay A. Fox; Jeffrey L. Ahl; Francis M. D'Amico; Richard G. Vanderbeek; Raphael Moon; Cynthia R. Swim

    1999-01-01

    One of the major threats presented by a chemical agent attack is that of a munition exploding overhead and 'raining' aerosols which can contaminate surfaces when they impact. Since contact with these surfaces can be fatal, it is imperative to know when such an attack has taken place and the likely threat density and location. We present the results of

  5. THE LAYERED AGENT PATTERN LANGUAGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Kendall; Margaret T. Malkoun; C. Harvey Jiang

    1997-01-01

    • Upon logging into your computer, you are presented with a list of news group items, sorted into order of importance by your agent- based personal digital assistant (PDA). The assistant draws your attention to one article, which describes new work in your area. After discussion with other PDAs, yours obtains a relevant technical report for you from an FTP

  6. Agents and the Semantic Web

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Hendler

    2001-01-01

    This article offers a few pointers to this emerging area and shows how the ontology languages of the Semantic Web can lead directly to more powerful agent-based approaches---that is, to the realization of my colleague's "science fiction " vision.

  7. SEM: A Cultural Change Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Bradley; Bourke, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The authors advance the concept that institutional culture is a purposeful framework by which to view SEM's utility, particularly as a cultural change agent. Through the connection of seemingly independent functions of performance and behavior, implications emerge that deepen the understanding of the influence of culture on performance outcomes…

  8. Intrusion detection using autonomous agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene H. Spafford; Diego Zamboni

    2000-01-01

    AAFID is a distributed intrusion detection architecture and system, developed in CERIAS at Purdue University. AAFID was the first architecture that proposed the use of autonomous agents for doing intrusion detection. With its prototype implementation, it constitutes a useful framework for the research and testing of intrusion detection algo- rithms and mechanisms. We describe the AAFID architecture and the existing

  9. Object-Agent Oriented Programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Analía Amandi; Ramiro Iturregui; Alejandro Zunino

    1997-01-01

    Object-oriented p rogramming has been u sed for building intelligent agents, with the limitation it cannot represent complex mental attitudes. With logic programming it is possible to represent and infer r elationships among mental attitudes such as intentions, goals and beliefs, with limitations in the usage of capabilities of action. This paper presents two alternatives for integrating object- oriented with

  10. Intelligent Agents for Distance Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Analía Amandi; Marcelo Campo; Marcelo Armentano; Luis Berdún

    2003-01-01

    Distance learning involves a lot of work of human assistants. These assistants need to be connected for answering student doubts and questions. Intelligent agents can do part of this repe- titive work because they can observe students interacting with educational courses, detect learning troubles of these students, and then suggest them some way for overcoming those troubles. How- ever, a

  11. Travel Agent. Occupational Simulation Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Wayne

    This career exploration instructional booklet on the travel agent's occupation is one of several resulting from the rural southwestern Colorado CEPAC Project (Career Education Process of Attitude Change). Based on a job analysis and utilizing a programed instructional format, the following content is included: A brief description of what a travel…

  12. RCS: An Intelligent Agent Architecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim Albus; Tony Barbera; Craig Schlenoff

    RCS (Real-time Control System) is an intelligent agent architecture designed to enable any level of intelligent behavior, up to and including human levels of performance. RCS was inspired 30 years ago by a theoretical model of the cerebellum, the portion of the brain responsible for fine motor coordination and control of conscious motions. It was originally designed for sensory-interactive goal-

  13. An autonomous spacecraft agent prototype

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barney Pell; Douglas E. Bernard; Steve A. Chien; Erann Gat; Nicola Muscettola; P. Pandurang Nayak; Michael D. Wagner; Brian C. Williams

    1997-01-01

    . This paper describes the New Millennium Remote Agent (NMRA) architecture for autonomousspacecraft control systems. The architecture supports challenging requirements of the autonomousspacecraft domain not usually addressed in mobile robot architectures, including highly reliableautonomous operations over extended time periods in the presence of tight resource constraints, harddeadlines, limited observability, and concurrent activity. A hybrid architecture, NMRA integrates traditional...

  14. An Autonomous Spacecraft Agent Prototype

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barney Pell; Douglas E. Bernard; Steve A. Chien; Erann Gat; Nicola Muscettola; P. Pandurang Nayak; Michael D. Wagner; Brian C. Williams

    1998-01-01

    . This paper describes the New Millennium Remote Agent (NMRA) architecture for autonomous spacecraft control systems. The architecture supports challenging requirements of the autonomous spacecraft domain not usually addressed in mobile robot architectures, including highly reliable autonomous operations over extended time periods in the presence of tight resource constraints, hard deadlines, limited observability, and concurrent activity. A hybrid architecture, NMRA

  15. Chicken anaemia agent: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. McNulty

    1991-01-01

    Chicken anaemia agent (CAA) is a small, unclassified, icosahedral DNA virus with a single?stranded, circular genome. It seems to have a worldwide distribution. Only one serotype of CAA has been found, and all isolates investigated so far are pathogenic for young chicks.CAA causes a syndrome in chickens characterised by increased mortality, anaemia associated with atrophy of the haematopoietic tissues in

  16. Mechanisms of contrast agent destruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Chomas; Paul Dayton; John Allen; Karcn Morgan; Katherinc W. Ferrara

    2001-01-01

    Various applications of contrast-assisted ultrasound, including blood vessel detection, perfusion estimation, and drug delivery, require controlled destruction of contrast agent microbubbles. The lifetime of a bubble depends on properties of the bubble shell, the gas core, and the acoustic waveform impinging on the bubble. Three mechanisms of microbubble destruction are considered: fragmentation, acoustically driven diffusion, and static diffusion. Fragmentation is

  17. Agent based Control for Microgrids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Dimeas; N. D. Hatziargyriou

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a general framework for the control of distributed energy resources organized in microgrids. The proposed architecture is based on the agent technology and aims to integrate several functionalities, as well to be adaptable to the complexity and the size of the microgrid. To achieve this, the idea of layered learning is used, where the various controls and

  18. CATS-based Agents That Err

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes preliminary research on intelligent agents that make errors. Such agents are crucial to the development of novel agent-based techniques for assessing system safety. The agents extend an agent architecture derived from the Crew Activity Tracking System that has been used as the basis for air traffic controller agents. The report first reviews several error taxonomies. Next, it presents an overview of the air traffic controller agents, then details several mechanisms for causing the agents to err in realistic ways. The report presents a performance assessment of the error-generating agents, and identifies directions for further research. The research was supported by the System-Wide Accident Prevention element of the FAA/NASA Aviation Safety Program.

  19. Altruism and Agents: An Argumentation Based Approach to Designing Agent Decision Mechanisms

    E-print Network

    McBurney, Peter

    Altruism and Agents: An Argumentation Based Approach to Designing Agent Decision Mechanisms Trevor the players receive the amountsCite as: Altruism and Agents: An Argumentation Based Approach to De- signing

  20. Improving access to novel agents for childhood leukemia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weili; Gaynon, Paul S; Sposto, Richard; Wayne, Alan S

    2015-06-15

    Leukemia is the most common pediatric cancer. Despite great progress in the development of curative therapy, leukemia remains a leading cause of death from disease in childhood, and survivors are at life-long risk of complications of treatment. New agents are needed to further increase cure rates and decrease treatment-associated toxicities. The complex biology and aggressive nature of childhood leukemia, coupled with the relatively small patient population available for study, pose specific challenges to the development of new therapies. In this review, the authors discuss strategies and initiatives designed to improve access to new agents in the treatment of pediatric leukemia. Cancer 2015;121:1927-1936. © 2015 American Cancer Society. PMID:25678105

  1. From actors to agents in socio-ecological systems models

    PubMed Central

    Rounsevell, M. D. A.; Robinson, D. T.; Murray-Rust, D.

    2012-01-01

    The ecosystem service concept has emphasized the role of people within socio-ecological systems (SESs). In this paper, we review and discuss alternative ways of representing people, their behaviour and decision-making processes in SES models using an agent-based modelling (ABM) approach. We also explore how ABM can be empirically grounded using information from social survey. The capacity for ABM to be generalized beyond case studies represents a crucial next step in modelling SESs, although this comes with considerable intellectual challenges. We propose the notion of human functional types, as an analogy of plant functional types, to support the expansion (scaling) of ABM to larger areas. The expansion of scope also implies the need to represent institutional agents in SES models in order to account for alternative governance structures and policy feedbacks. Further development in the coupling of human-environment systems would contribute considerably to better application and use of the ecosystem service concept. PMID:22144388

  2. Dynamic Agent Allocation for Large-Scale Multi-Agent Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myeong-Wuk Jang; Gul Agha

    2004-01-01

    Although distributed computing is necessary to execute large- scale multi-agent applications, the distribution of agents is challenging especially when the communication pattern among agents is continuously changing. This paper proposes two dynamic agent allocation mechanisms for large-scale multi-agent applications. The aim of one mechanism is to minimize agent communication cost, while that of the other mechanism is to prevent overloaded

  3. Peptide-based protein capture agents with high affinity, selectivity, and stability as antibody replacements in biodetection assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppock, Matthew B.; Farrow, Blake; Warner, Candice; Finch, Amethist S.; Lai, Bert; Sarkes, Deborah A.; Heath, James R.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra

    2014-05-01

    Current biodetection assays that employ monoclonal antibodies as primary capture agents exhibit limited fieldability, shelf life, and performance due to batch-to-batch production variability and restricted thermal stability. In order to improve upon the detection of biological threats in fieldable assays and systems for the Army, we are investigating protein catalyzed capture (PCC) agents as drop-in replacements for the existing antibody technology through iterative in situ click chemistry. The PCC agent oligopeptides are developed against known protein epitopes and can be mass produced using robotic methods. In this work, a PCC agent under development will be discussed. The performance, including affinity, selectivity, and stability of the capture agent technology, is analyzed by immunoprecipitation, western blotting, and ELISA experiments. The oligopeptide demonstrates superb selectivity coupled with high affinity through multi-ligand design, and improved thermal, chemical, and biochemical stability due to non-natural amino acid PCC agent design.

  4. Linking MODFLOW with an Agent-Based Land-Use Model to Support Decision Making

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    improve water resources management by illustrating the nonlinear behavior of the coupled system (Pahl. Ultimately, this integrated simulator will be used as a means to organize information, illustrate potential-6584.2010.00677.x health-policy analysis, and urbanization studies. Agent- based modeling (ABM) is one analytical

  5. Multi-agent approach and stochastic optimization: random events in manufacturing systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GERARD FLEURY; JEAN-YVES GOUJON; MICHEL GOURGAND; PHILIPPE LACOMME

    1999-01-01

    We propose a method to solve industrial problems and to take into account random events. It is called the triple coupling. It is based on stochastic algorithms, a simulation model and the multi-agents model of artificial intelligence. The method we propose is easy to use and allows us to take into account most of the constraints found in manufacturing systems.

  6. Software Agents for Dynamic Supply Chain Management Tom Wagner and Valerie Guralnik Honeywell Laboratories

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Thomas

    Software Agents for Dynamic Supply Chain Management Tom Wagner and Valerie Guralnik Honeywell Laboratories 3660 Technology Drive, MN65-2600 Minneapolis, MN 55418¡ wagner tom, guralnik valerie, phelps john on coordinating the activities of loosely coupled distributed entities, e.g., raw material suppliers, shippers

  7. Polypropylene–clay nanocomposites: effect of compatibilizing agents on clay dispersion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Garc??a-López; O. Picazo; J. C. Merino; J. M. Pastor

    2003-01-01

    In this work, polypropylene–clay nanocomposites are obtained and studied by using two different coupling agents, diethyl maleate and maleic anhydride. Two different clays, a commercial montmorillonite (Nanomer I30.TC) and a sodium bentonite purified and modified with octadecylammonium ions have also been used. The relative influence of each factor, matrix and clay modification, can be observed from structural analysis (SAXS, TEM)

  8. Solubilization of Therapeutic Agents in Micellar Nanomedicines

    PubMed Central

    Vukovi?, Lela; Madriaga, Antonett; Kuzmis, Antonina; Banerjee, Amrita; Tang, Alan; Tao, Kevin; Shah, Neil; Král, Petr; Onyuksel, Hayat

    2014-01-01

    We use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to reveal the binding mechanisms of therapeutic agents in PEG-ylated micellar nanocarriers (SSM). In our experiments, SSM in buffer solutions can solubilize either ? 11 small bexarotene molecules or ? 6 (2 in low ionic strength buffer) human vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) molecules. Free energy calculations reveal that molecules of the poorly water soluble drug bexarotene can reside at the micellar ionic interface of the PEG corona, with their polar ends pointing out. Alternatively, they can reside in the alkane core center, where several bexarotene molecules can self-stabilize by forming a cluster held together by a network of hydrogen bonds. We also show that highly charged molecules, such as VIP, can be stabilized at the SSM ionic interface by Coulombic coupling between their positively charged residues and the negatively charged phosphate head-groups of the lipids. The obtained results illustrate that atomistic simulations can reveal drug solubilization character in nanocarriers and be used in efficient optimization of novel nanomedicines. PMID:24283508

  9. Solubilization of therapeutic agents in micellar nanomedicines.

    PubMed

    Vukovi?, Lela; Madriaga, Antonett; Kuzmis, Antonina; Banerjee, Amrita; Tang, Alan; Tao, Kevin; Shah, Neil; Král, Petr; Onyuksel, Hayat

    2013-12-23

    We use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to reveal the binding mechanisms of therapeutic agents in PEG-ylated micellar nanocarriers (SSM). In our experiments, SSM in buffer solutions can solubilize either ?11 small bexarotene molecules or ?6 (2 in low ionic strength buffer) human vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) molecules. Free energy calculations reveal that molecules of the poorly water-soluble drug bexarotene can reside at the micellar ionic interface of the PEG corona, with their polar ends pointing out. Alternatively, they can reside in the alkane core center, where several bexarotene molecules can self-stabilize by forming a cluster held together by a network of hydrogen bonds. We also show that highly charged molecules, such as VIP, can be stabilized at the SSM ionic interface by Coulombic coupling between their positively charged residues and the negatively charged phosphate headgroups of the lipids. The obtained results illustrate that atomistic simulations can reveal drug solubilization character in nanocarriers and be used in efficient optimization of novel nanomedicines. PMID:24283508

  10. Coevolutionary networks of reinforcement-learning agents.

    PubMed

    Kianercy, Ardeshir; Galstyan, Aram

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a model of network formation in repeated games where the players adapt their strategies and network ties simultaneously using a simple reinforcement-learning scheme. It is demonstrated that the coevolutionary dynamics of such systems can be described via coupled replicator equations. We provide a comprehensive analysis for three-player two-action games, which is the minimum system size with nontrivial structural dynamics. In particular, we characterize the Nash equilibria (NE) in such games and examine the local stability of the rest points corresponding to those equilibria. We also study general n-player networks via both simulations and analytical methods and find that, in the absence of exploration, the stable equilibria consist of star motifs as the main building blocks of the network. Furthermore, in all stable equilibria the agents play pure strategies, even when the game allows mixed NE. Finally, we study the impact of exploration on learning outcomes and observe that there is a critical exploration rate above which the symmetric and uniformly connected network topology becomes stable. PMID:23944526

  11. Coupled-Mode Analysis of Nonuniform Coupled Transmission Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Adair; G. I. Haddad

    1969-01-01

    The transmission-line equations describing propagation along coupled transmission lines are cast in coupled-mode form so that the roles of the different coupling coefficients and the impedance variation are more directly observable. Restrictions on the various parameters for obtaining directional coupling with nonuniform lines are then discussed and exact solutions for the coupling response of two nonuniform coupled lines with particular

  12. Intelligent Agents as Cognitive Tools for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylor, Amy

    1999-01-01

    Examines the educational potential for intelligent agents as cognitive tools. Discusses the role of intelligent agents: managing large amounts of information (information overload), serving as a pedagogical expert, and creating programming environments for the learner. (AEF)

  13. Intelligent Agent Architectures: Reactive Planning Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenschein, Stanley J.; Kahn, Philip

    1993-01-01

    An Integrated Agent Architecture (IAA) is a framework or paradigm for constructing intelligent agents. Intelligent agents are collections of sensors, computers, and effectors that interact with their environments in real time in goal-directed ways. Because of the complexity involved in designing intelligent agents, it has been found useful to approach the construction of agents with some organizing principle, theory, or paradigm that gives shape to the agent's components and structures their relationships. Given the wide variety of approaches being taken in the field, the question naturally arises: Is there a way to compare and evaluate these approaches? The purpose of the present work is to develop common benchmark tasks and evaluation metrics to which intelligent agents, including complex robotic agents, constructed using various architectural approaches can be subjected.

  14. Approximation algorithms for distributed and selfish agents

    E-print Network

    Mirrokni, Vahab S

    2005-01-01

    Many real-world systems involve distributed and selfish agents who optimize their own objective function. In these systems, we need to design efficient mechanisms so that system-wide objective is optimized despite agents ...

  15. Modeling emotion dynamics in intelligent agents

    E-print Network

    Seif El-Nasr, Magy

    1998-01-01

    Emotions were shown to have a leading role in the human decision-making process, and thus they play an important role in human intelligence. Intelligent agents' research produced many models of emotional agents. However, most of these models focused...

  16. 31 CFR 339.6 - Fiscal agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Fiscal agents. 339.6 Section 339.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating...EXCHANGE OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES H § 339.6 Fiscal agents. Federal Reserve Banks and...

  17. 31 CFR 339.6 - Fiscal agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Fiscal agents. 339.6 Section 339.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating...EXCHANGE OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES H § 339.6 Fiscal agents. Federal Reserve Banks and...

  18. 31 CFR 339.6 - Fiscal agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Fiscal agents. 339.6 Section 339.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating...EXCHANGE OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES H § 339.6 Fiscal agents. Federal Reserve Banks and...

  19. 31 CFR 339.6 - Fiscal agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Fiscal agents. 339.6 Section 339.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating...EXCHANGE OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES H § 339.6 Fiscal agents. Federal Reserve Banks and...

  20. 31 CFR 339.6 - Fiscal agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Fiscal agents. 339.6 Section 339.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating...EXCHANGE OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES H § 339.6 Fiscal agents. Federal Reserve Banks and...

  1. Security Measures to Protect Mobile Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadhich, Piyanka; Govil, M. C.; Dutta, Kamlesh

    2010-11-01

    The security issues of mobile agent systems have embarrassed its widespread implementation. Mobile agents that move around the network are not safe because the remote hosts that accommodate the agents initiates all kinds of attacks. These hosts try to analyze the agent's decision logic and their accumulated data. So, mobile agent security is the most challenging unsolved problems. The paper analyzes various security measures deeply. Security especially the attacks performed by hosts to the visiting mobile agent (the malicious hosts problem) is a major obstacle that prevents mobile agent technology from being widely adopted. Being the running environment for mobile agent, the host has full control over them and could easily perform many kinds of attacks against them.

  2. Intraperitoneal contrast agents for computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, J.

    1985-08-01

    Intraperitoneal contrast agents have been used to diagnose mass lesions, adhesions, and hernias using conventional radiographic techniques. The use of intraperitoneal contrast agents in conjunction with computed tomography (CT) has been limited and is the subject of this report.

  3. Novel Antiangiogenic Agents in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Berrios, Ricardo L.; Arbiser, Jack L.

    2011-01-01

    Because angiogenesis underlies the pathogenesis of numerous conditions (cancer, psoriasis, macular degeneration), there is a pressing need for continued investigations into angiogenic signaling and potential drug targets. Antiangiogenic agents can be classified as either direct or indirect. Direct antiangiogenics act on untransformed endothelial cells to prevent differentiation and proliferation; indirect antiangiogenics act to inhibit factors involved in proangiogenic signaling. Agents currently available with dermatologic indications are few, while several established and novel biologics targeting various proangiogenic factors are currently being investigated for potential dermatologic uses, but the jury is still out on their efficacy and safety. In this review, we highlight our experience with a group of existing and novel, small molecules that combine several modes of action against angiogenesis in addition to other properties – triarylmethane dyes and fulvene derivatives. PMID:21172300

  4. Oral agents in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lorefice, L; Fenu, G; Frau, J; Coghe, G C; Marrosu, M G; Cocco, E

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Diseasemodifying drugs licensed for MS treatment have been developed to reduce relapse rates and halt disease progression. The majority of current MS drugs involve regular, parenteral administration, affecting long-term adherence and thus reducing treatment efficacy. Over the last two decades great progress has been made towards developing new MS therapies with different modes of action and biologic effects. In particular, oral drugs have generated much interest because of their convenience and positive impact on medication adherence. Fingolimod was the first launched oral treatment for relapsing-remitting MS; recently, Teriflunomide and Dimethyl fumarate have also been approved as oral disease-modifying agents. In this review, we summarize and discuss the history, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and safety of oral agents that have been approved or are under development for the selective treatment of MS. PMID:25924620

  5. Selective oxidations by nitrosating agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. C. Marziano; L. Ronchin; C. Tortato; S. Ronchin; A. Vavasori

    2005-01-01

    The reactivity of a nitrosating agent (N2O3) on oxidations of alcohols and the methyl group of acetophenone were tested. Active electrophylic surface nitrosonium ions (NO+) was detected on H2SO4\\/SiO2 catalysts by Raman spectroscopy, suggesting a surface ionic mechanism of oxidation in agreement with the one proposed in acid aqueous solutions. Alcohols are selectively oxidized to ketones and aldehydes in high

  6. Proarrhythmic Potential of Antimicrobial Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Simkó; A. Csilek; J. Karászi; I. L?rincz

    2008-01-01

    Several antiarrhythmic and non-cardiovascular drug therapies including antimicrobial agents have been implicated as the causes\\u000a for QT interval prolongation, torsades de pointes (TdP) ventricular tachycardia and sudden cardiac death. Most of the drugs\\u000a that have been associated with the lengthening of the QT interval or development of TdP can also block the rapidly activating\\u000a component of the delayed rectifier potassium

  7. Etiologic role of infectious agents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Edward S; Moller, David R

    2014-06-01

    A consensus statement found in most peer-reviewed literature on sarcoidosis is that the etiology of sarcoidosis is unknown. It is timely to review whether this statement should be revised. Many infectious agents meet the basic requirements of inducing granulomatous inflammation and immunologic responses consistent with sarcoidosis including oligoclonal expansion of CD4+ T cells, polarized Th1 and possibly Th17 responses, and dysregulated regulatory T-cell function. Studies over the past decade provide increasing and complementary data to implicate a role for infectious agents in sarcoidosis etiology. These studies used different methodologies such as polymerase chain reaction and mass spectrometry to document microbial nucleic acids and proteins in sarcoidosis tissues. Multiple studies report antigen-specific immune responses to specific microbial proteins in sarcoidosis. In aggregate, these studies provide compelling evidence that mycobacteria play a major etiologic role in sarcoidosis in the United States and Europe. Studies from Japan support a role for Propionibacteria as a major etiologic agent in the country. There is controversy over how these (or other) infectious agents cause sarcoidosis. The hypothesis that chronic sarcoidosis is caused by a viable, replicating mycobacterial or other infection has no direct pathologic, microbiologic, or clinical evidence. A novel hypothesis links microbial triggers to a sarcoidosis outcome from the accumulation of aggregated proinflammatory serum amyloid A within granulomas, providing a mechanism for chronic disease in the absence of any viable tissue infection. Further studies are needed to provide more definitive evidence for these competing hypotheses before the statement that the etiology of sarcoidosis is unknown becomes obsolete. PMID:25007081

  8. Linezolid: an oxazolidinone antimicrobial agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horatio B. Fung; Harold L. Kirschenbaum; Babatunde O. Ojofeitimi

    2001-01-01

    Background: Linezolid is the first oxazolidinone anti-infective agent marketed in the United States. It is indicated for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia, complicated skin and skin-structure infections caused by methicillin-sensitive or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and other susceptible organisms, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium infections. It also is indicated for the treatment of uncomplicated skin and skin-structure infections caused by methicillin-sensitive S

  9. Coordination in Software Agent Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyacinth Nwana; Lyndon Lee; Nick Jennings

    1996-01-01

    this paper is to examine the crucial area of co-ordination in multi-agent systems. It does not attempt toprovide a comprehensive overview of the co-ordination literature; rather, it highlights the necessity for co-ordination inagent systems and overviews briefly various co-ordination techniques. It critiques these techniques and presents someconclusions and challenges drawn from this literature.1. IntroductionThe scope of this paper is limited

  10. Agent Migration and Communication in WSNs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Conor Muldoon; Gregory M. P. O'hare; Michael J. O'grady; Richard Tynan

    2008-01-01

    Intelligent agents offer a viable paradigm for enabling AmI applications and services. As WSN technologies are anticipated to provide an indispensable component in many application domains, the need for enabling the agent paradigm to encompass such technologies becomes more urgent. The resource-constrained ad-hoc nature of WSNs poses significant challenges to conventional agent frame- works. In particular, the implications for agent

  11. A Review of Imaging Agent Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric D. Agdeppa; Mary E. Spilker

    2009-01-01

    This educational review highlights the processes, opportunities, and challenges encountered in the discovery and development\\u000a of imaging agents, mainly positron emission tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography tracers. While the development\\u000a of imaging agents parallels the drug development process, unique criteria are needed to identify opportunities for new agents.\\u000a Imaging agent development has the flexibility to pursue functional or nonfunctional

  12. Decontamination of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuo SETO

    2009-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister a- gents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, pro- teinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and bio- logical terrorism, speedy

  13. Testing in Multi-Agent Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cu D. Nguyen; Anna Perini; Carole Bernon; Juan Pavón; John Thangarajah

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a Testing software agents and Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) needs suitable techniques to evaluate agent’s autonomous behaviours\\u000a as well as distribution, social and deliberative properties, which are particular to these systems. This paper reviews testing\\u000a methods and techniques with respect to the MAS properties they are able to address. For this purpose, we provide a reference\\u000a framework that provides a classification of

  14. Individualism and Collectivism in Trade Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gert Jan Hofstede; Catholijn M. Jonker; Tim Verwaart

    2008-01-01

    Agent-Based Modeling can contribute to the understanding of international trade processes. Models for the effects of culture\\u000a and cultural differences on agent behavior are required for realistic agent-based simulation of international trade. This\\u000a paper makes a step toward modeling of culture in agents. The focus is one of the five dimensions of culture according to Hofstede:\\u000a individualism versus collectivism. The

  15. Electrochemical cells having hydrogen gas absorbing agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. E. Parsen; T. T. Yatabe

    1982-01-01

    An agent which absorbs hydrogen gas for electrochemical cells is made from an oxide of manganese and nickel, cobalt or iron. At temperatures above about 40°C., the oxide of manganese can be replaced by lead oxide. Hydrophobic binders can be added to the agent or the agent can be microencapsulated in water-impermeable but hydrogen-gas-permeable materials. The agent is preferably added

  16. SMASH: Modular Security for Mobile Agents

    E-print Network

    Julien, Christine

    application that could benefit from secure mobile agents focuses on collecting and comparing eventsSMASH: Modular Security for Mobile Agents TR-UTEDGE-2006-007 Adam Pridgen Christine Julien © Copyright 2006 The University of Texas at Austin #12;SMASH: Modular Security for Mobile Agents Adam Pridgen

  17. Requirements for Multi-Agent Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carla T. L. L. Silva; Jaelson Castro; Patricia Azevedo Tedesco

    2003-01-01

    Autonomous agents are beginning to be used as a software paradigm, because of their potential to build more powerful and flexible complex systems. To achieve such benefits a standard definition of is agenthood is necessary. In doing so, agent-oriented software engineering will not only be able to develop standardised processes for building agent-based systems but also be able to bet-

  18. Agent-based modeling of complex infrastructures

    SciTech Connect

    North, M. J.

    2001-06-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) can be applied to investigate complex infrastructures and infrastructure interdependencies. The CAS model agents within the Spot Market Agent Research Tool (SMART) and Flexible Agent Simulation Toolkit (FAST) allow investigation of the electric power infrastructure, the natural gas infrastructure and their interdependencies.

  19. Studienarbeit An Agent-oriented Architecture

    E-print Network

    Moeller, Ralf

    of Software, Technology & Systems (STS) Technical University Hamburg-Harburg Hamburg, Germany January 2008 #12-agent System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.6 Agents as a Software Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 5.2.1 Interesting Extensions for Agent-oriented Systems . . 20 5.2.2 Proposal for the Simulation

  20. International Insurance Traffic with Software Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Van Aart; Kris Van Marcke; Ruurd Pels; Jan Smulders

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a business case on digital cross- border information flo w within a European network of insur- ance companies. Underlying the business case is the multi-agent paradigm. The paper explores a structured approach for designing agent behavior based on the 5 Capabilities (5C) agent model. The central value of the 5C model is the conceptual separation of con-

  1. Agent Based Power System Transient Stability Enhancement

    E-print Network

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    . Hossain and H. R. Pota Abstract--This paper describes an intelligent agent approach to power system fault, various tie lines, large number of electrical devices, etc. So the recent researches indicate a more-agent technology. Index Terms--Multi-agent system, electric power system, fault diagnosis, transient stability

  2. Letizia: An Agent That Assists Web Browsing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Lieberman

    1995-01-01

    Letizia is a user interface agent that assists a user browsing the World Wide Web. As the user operates a conventional Web browser such as Netscape, the agent tracks user behavior and attempts to anticipate items of interest by doing concurrent, autonomous exploration of links from the user's current position. The agent automates a browsing strategy consisting of a best-first

  3. User - interface agent interaction: personalization issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia N. Schiaffino; Anal??a Amandi

    2004-01-01

    Interface agents are computer programs that provide personalized assistance to users with their computer-based tasks. Most interface agents achieve personalization by learning a user's preferences in a given application domain and assisting him according to them. In this work we adopt a different approach to personalization: how to personalize the interaction between interface agents and users in a mixed-initiative interaction

  4. Programming and simulation of quantum search agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Klusch; René Schubotz

    2007-01-01

    The extension of classical agents by the ability to perform quantum computation and communication provides an efficient and secure solution to applications such as information search and service matchmaking. In this paper, we propose a hybrid architecture for quantum computational agents, and demonstrate its principles by means of a simple type-I quantum search agent based on quantum pattern matching. Finally,

  5. FIPA agent based network distributed control system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Gyurjyan; D. Abbott; G. Heyes; E. Jastrzembski; C. Timmer; E. Wolin

    2003-01-01

    A control system with the capabilities to combine heteregeneous control systems or processes into a uniform homogeneous environment is discussed. This dynamically extensible system is an example of the software system at the agent level of abstraction. This level of abstraction considers agents as atomic entities that communicate to implement the functionality of the control system. Agents engineering aspects are

  6. An agent network for microburst detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandy Dance

    2000-01-01

    Meteorological data provides a rich source of imagery which is well suited to the growing field of agent networks based image processing. We discuss one such system which analyses Doppler and reflectivity radar volumes to detect microbursts (windshear events). The system employs a network of agents, each performing a subtask of the detection, with message passing between agents. The various

  7. STUDIES OF WATERBORNE AGENTS OF VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The etiologic agent of a large outbreak of waterborne viral gastroenteritis was detected employing immune electron microscopy (IEM) and a newly developed solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA). This agent, referred to as the Snow Mountain Agent (SMA), is 27-32 nm. in diameter, has cu...

  8. Poaching and Distraction in Asynchronous Agent Activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike H. Chia; Daniel E. Neiman; Victor R. Lesser

    1998-01-01

    We investigate coordination issues in a distributed jobshop scheduling system in which agents schedule potentially contentious activities asynchronously in parallel. Agents in such a system will in general have a limited view of the global state of resources and must exchange appropriate state information with other agents in order to schedule effectively. However, even given perfect instantaneous knowledge of other

  9. A New Understanding of Chemical Agent Release

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Nakafuji; R Greenman; T Theofanous

    2002-01-01

    The evolution of thickened chemical agent released at supersonic velocities, due to a missile defense intercept or a properly functioning warhead, has been misunderstood. Current and historical experimental and modeling efforts have attributed agent breakup to a variety of droplet breakup mechanisms. According to this model, drops of agent fragment into subsequent generations of smaller drops until a stable drop

  10. Agent Program Planning Information Maintain No Gain

    E-print Network

    Agent Program Planning Information Maintain No Gain Relevance In South Texas (Texas Department is a community and worksite wellness program created by the Cardiovascular Health and Wellness Program A model plan will be available for agents in the TExAS system. Agents wishing to implement the Maintain

  11. Intelligent Agents And Distributed Models For

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, Richard

    via single interface controlled by agent; all agents interface with each other #12;The Generic Agent Model Task environment monitor Useraction monitor Communications controller Interface controller.Warwick]@reading.ac.uk #12;Introduction EPSRC / National Grid project done by Rak Began as investigation of interface issues

  12. Course Agent Adaptive Online Course Recommendation System

    E-print Network

    Brusilovsky, Peter

    Course Agent Adaptive Online Course Recommendation System Independent Study Report 2970 Fall 2012 is a new implementation at the School of Information Sciences of the Adaptive Online Course Recommendation Author: Lei Lei Supervisors: Dr. Peter Brusilovshy #12;Part I. Introduction to Course Agent Course Agent

  13. Artificial societies and psychological agents Stuart Watt

    E-print Network

    Artificial societies and psychological agents Stuart Watt KMI-TR-33 September 1996 A revised Agents, Autumn 1996 #12;Artificial societies and psychological agents Stuart Watt Knowledge Media Institute and Department of Psychology Open University Walton Hall Milton Keynes. MK7 6AA. Email: S

  14. Technology Diffusion: the Case of Agent Technologies

    E-print Network

    Atkinson, Katie

    Technology Diffusion: the Case of Agent Technologies Jez McKean , Hayden Shorter , Michael Luck , Peter McBurney§ and Steven Willmott¶ August 7, 2007 Abstract Despite several examples of deployed agent systems, there remain barriers to the large-scale adoption of agent technologies. In order to understand

  15. Expressing Quality of Service in Agent Communication

    E-print Network

    Rhode Island, University of

    supported by the U.S. Office of Naval Research grant N000140010060 Abstract This paper presents extensions applications, it is not enough for one agent to let another agent know that it wants some information. For example, consider a system in which multiple agents communicate to provide stock market information

  16. A perspective on software agents research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HYACINTH S. NWANA; DIVINE T. NDUMU

    1999-01-01

    This paper sets out, ambitiously, to present a brief reappraisal of software agents research. Evidently, software agent technology has promised much. However some five years after the word 'agent' came into vogue in the popular computing press, it is perhaps time the efforts in this fledgling area are thoroughly evaluated with a view to refocusing future efforts. We do not

  17. Infants Attribute to Agents Goals and Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Yuyan; Choi, You-jung

    2012-01-01

    This commentary article is to be published alongside: Hernik, M., & Southgate, V. (2012). What do infants know about agents' goals? The authors see this issue consisting of two closely related questions. First, what is an agent to infants? Second, how do infants attribute goals to agents? Hernik and Southgage (H&S) focused on the second question.…

  18. A logic based language for networked agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dianxiang Xu

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a logic based language, SAFIN, for developing networked software agents. It integrates agent-oriented programming, KQML and basic mobile techniques to support intelligent behaviors, software interoperatablity and code transportability. As prototype based logic objects, agents are composed of network connections, knowledge bases (facts and beliefs), databases, behaviors, constraints, services, goals and KQML performatives. An approach to non-monotonic inheritance

  19. THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELING OF THE DYNAMICS OF THERAPEUTIC ULTRASOUND CONTRAST AGENTS

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chao-Tsung; Lu, Xiaozhen; Chahine, Georges

    2010-01-01

    A 3-D thick-shell contrast agent dynamics model was developed by coupling a finite volume Navier-Stokes solver and a potential boundary element method flow solver to simulate the dynamics of thick-shelled contrast agents subjected to pressure waves. The 3-D model was validated using a spherical thick-shell model validated by experimental observations. We then used this model to study shell break-up during nonspherical deformations resulting from multiple contrast agent interaction or the presence of a nearby solid wall. Our simulations indicate that the thick viscous shell resists the contrast agent from forming a re-entrant jet, as normally observed for an air bubble oscillating near a solid wall. Instead, the shell thickness varies significantly from location to location during the dynamics, and this could lead to shell break-up caused by local shell thinning and stretching. PMID:20950929

  20. Peptidyl Molecular Imaging Contrast Agents Using a New Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Byunghee; Pagel, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    A versatile method is disclosed for solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) of molecular imaging contrast agents. A DO3A moiety was derivatized to introduce a CBZ-protected amino group and then coupled to a polymeric support. CBZ cleavage with Et2AlCl/thioanisole was optimized for SPPS. Amino acids were then coupled to the aminoDOTA loaded resin using conventional step-wise Fmoc SPPS to create a product with DOTA coupled to the C-terminus of the peptide. In a second study, the DO3A moiety was coupled to a glycine-loaded polymeric support, and amino acids were then coupled to the amino-DOTA-peptide loaded resin using SPPS, to incorporate DOTA within the peptide sequence. The peptide-(Tm3+-DOTA) amide showed a PARAmagnetic Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (PARACEST) effect, which demonstrated the utility of this contrast agent for molecular imaging. These results demonstrate the advantages of exploiting SPPS methodologies through the development of unique DOTA derivatives to create peptide-based molecular imaging contrast agents. PMID:17330953

  1. Visual Agent Programming (VAP): An Interactive System to Program Animated Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamran Khowaja; Sumanta Guha

    2007-01-01

    An interactive system in which the user can program animated agents visually is introduced: the Visual Agent Programming (VAP) software provides a GUI to program life-like agents. VAP is superior to currently available systems to program such agents in that it has a richer set of features including automatic compilation, generation, commenting and formatting of code, amongst others. Moreover, a

  2. Agent-based health care management An Agent-based Approach to Health Care Management

    E-print Network

    Mascardi, Viviana

    Agent-based health care management 1 An Agent-based Approach to Health Care Management Jun Huang1, London WC2A 3PX, UK. Abbreviated title: Agent-based health care management Complete Mailing Address. London E1 4NS UK #12;Agent-based health care management 2 Abstract The provision of medical care

  3. Pushing the limits of rational agents: the Trading Agent Competition for Supply Chain

    E-print Network

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    Pushing the limits of rational agents: the Trading Agent Competition for Supply Chain Management describe one such competition, the Trading Agent Competition for Supply Chain Management (TAC SCM). We engendered over the past six years. TAC SCM requires autonomous supply chain entities, modeled as agents

  4. Animated Agents in K-12 Outreach: Preferred Agent Characteristics Across Developmental Levels

    E-print Network

    Reisslein, Martin

    1 Animated Agents in K-12 Outreach: Preferred Agent Characteristics Across Developmental Levels Amy. School of Social and Family Dynamics Arizona State University Abstract Animated agents have been found. Four engineering disciplines were introduced by four animated agents: a young female, young male, old

  5. Agent-Based Simulation of Complex Aviation Incidents by Integrating Different Cognitive Agent Models

    E-print Network

    Treur, Jan

    Agent-Based Simulation of Complex Aviation Incidents by Integrating Different Cognitive Agent. Aviation incidents often have a complex character in the sense that a number of different aspects of human. Keywords: aviation, agent-based simulation, agent model, situation awareness, operator functional state

  6. Developing multi-agent systems with a FIPA-compliant agent framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Bellifemine; Agostino Poggi; Giovanni Rimassa

    2001-01-01

    SUMMARY To ease large-scale realization of agent applications there is an urgent need for frameworks, methodologies and toolkits that support the effective development of agent systems. Moreover, since one of the main tasks for which agent systems were invented is the integration between heterogeneous software, independently developed agents should be able to interact successfully. In this paper, we present JADE

  7. ACE inhibitors: review of four new agents.

    PubMed

    Binder, S B

    1993-10-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are effective in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure. Within the past two years, four new agents in this class-benazepril, fosinopril, quinapril and ramipril--have been approved in the United States for use in the treatment of hypertension. These agents have been shown to be as effective as the older angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in treating hypertension and, in limited trials, congestive heart failure. The side effect profiles of the new agents are similar to those of other agents in this class that do not contain a sulfhydryl group. Fosinopril has a unique route of elimination that may make it the preferred agent in patients with renal failure. Otherwise, the new angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors have no proven clinical advantages over other available agents. However, at moderate to high doses, the new agents may be substantially less expensive. PMID:8213415

  8. Deaths due to Unknown Foodborne Agents

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    This study reviews the available evidence on unknown pathogenic agents transmitted in food and examines the methods that have been used to estimate that such agents cause 3,400 deaths per year in the United States. The estimate of deaths was derived from hospital discharge and death certificate data on deaths attributed to gastroenteritis of unknown cause. Fatal illnesses due to unknown foodborne agents do not always involve gastroenteritis, and gastroenteritis may not be accurately diagnosed or reported on hospital charts or death certificates. The death estimate consequently omitted deaths from unknown foodborne agents that do not cause gastroenteritis and likely overstated the number of deaths from agents that cause gastroenteritis. Although the number of deaths from unknown foodborne agents is uncertain, the possible economic cost of these deaths is so large that increased efforts to identify the causal agents are warranted. PMID:15498153

  9. Stability of Coupling Algorithms

    E-print Network

    Akkasale, Abhineeth

    2012-07-16

    INTRODUCTION AND MOTIVATION : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1 A. Approaches to solving a coupled system . . . . . . . . . . . 3 B. Common terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 C. Classi cation of coupling algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.... Stability criterion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 III REPRESENTATIVE NUMERICAL EXAMPLES : : : : : : : : 16 A. Split SDOF: rst order system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 1. CSS implementation and stability of a rst order system 18...

  10. Spin-Gravity Coupling

    E-print Network

    Bahram Mashhoon

    2008-01-14

    Mathisson's spin-gravity coupling and its Larmor-equivalent interaction, namely, the spin-rotation coupling are discussed. The study of the latter leads to a critical examination of the basic role of locality in relativistic physics. The nonlocal theory of accelerated systems is outlined and some of its implications are described.

  11. Electrohydrodynamically coupled film boiling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. B. Jones

    1976-01-01

    A strong nonuniform electric field is known to have a significant effect on convective, nucleate, and film boiling heat transfer. The principal electrohydrodynamic coupling mechanism in the film boiling regime of pool boiling is an interfacial mechanism which alters the surface wave dispersion. A theoretical model for this coupling is favorably compared to experiment for the insulating liquid, a-c electric

  12. Pathogenic agents in freshwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geldreich, Edwin E.

    1996-02-01

    Numerous pathogenic agents have been found in freshwaters used as sources for water supplies, recreational bathing and irrigation. These agents include bacterial pathogens, enteric viruses, several protozoans and parasitic worms more common to tropical waters. Although infected humans are a major source of pathogens, farm animals (cattle, sheep, pigs), animal pets (dogs, cats) and wildlife serve as significant reservoirs and should not be ignored. The range of infected individuals within a given warm-blooded animal group (humans included) may range from 1 to 25%. Survival times for pathogens in the water environment may range from a few days to as much as a year (Ascaris, Taenia eggs), with infective dose levels varying from one viable cell for several primary pathogenic agents to many thousands of cells for a given opportunistic pathogen.As pathogen detection in water is complex and not readily incorporated into routine monitoring, a surrogate is necessary. In general, indicators of faecal contamination provide a positive correlation with intestinal pathogen occurrences only when appropriate sample volumes are examined by sensitive methodology.Pathways by which pathogens reach susceptible water users include ingestion of contaminated water, body contact with polluted recreational waters and consumption of salad crops irrigated by polluted freshwaters. Major contributors to the spread of various water-borne pathogens are sewage, polluted surface waters and stormwater runoff. All of these contributions are intensified during periods of major floods. Several water-borne case histories are cited as examples of breakdowns in public health protection related to water supply, recreational waters and the consumption of contaminated salad crops. In the long term, water resource management must focus on pollution prevention from point sources of waste discharges and the spread of pathogens in watershed stormwater runoff.

  13. The Coupling Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) relies on the well-known phenomenon of coupling between neuronal activity and brain blood flow. For nearly a century, the presumption was that hemodynamics were coupled to neuronal activity via energy demand and oxidative metabolism. Early 15O positron-emission tomographic (PET) studies challenged this theory, demonstrating a physiological “uncoupling” between brain blood flow and oxygen metabolism. These PET observations played a pivotal role in guiding the development of fMRI, by demonstrating which physiological parameters were most closely coupled to neuronal activity and by presaging the BOLD-contrast effect. Subsequent PET studies were crucial for constraining theories concerning the physiological mechanisms underlying hemodynamic/neuronal coupling and, thereby, guiding the development of models for quantification of oxygen metabolic rate %? from fMRI. A first-person account of the PET “coupling” studies and their influence on the development of fMRI is provided. PMID:22306802

  14. The model coupling toolkit.

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, J. W.; Jacob, R. L.; Foster, I.; Guo, J.

    2001-04-13

    The advent of coupled earth system models has raised an important question in parallel computing: What is the most effective method for coupling many parallel models to form a high-performance coupled modeling system? We present our solution to this problem--The Model Coupling Toolkit (MCT). We explain how our effort to construct the Next-Generation Coupler for NCAR Community Climate System Model motivated us to create this toolkit. We describe in detail the conceptual design of the MCT and explain its usage in constructing parallel coupled models. We present preliminary performance results for the toolkit's parallel data transfer facilities. Finally, we outline an agenda for future development of the MCT.

  15. Ambient Intelligence Through Agile Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory M. P. O'hare; Michael J. O'grady; Rem W. Collier; Stephen Keegan; Donal O'kane; Richard Tynan; David Marsh

    2004-01-01

    \\u000a The vision of ambient intelligence is one where the populas is supported in the conductance of their everyday lives through\\u000a the pro-active, opportunistic support of non-intrusive computing devices offering intuitive interaction modalities.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a This chapter advocates the adoption of mobile intentional agents as a key enabler in the delivery of ambient intelligence.\\u000a Ambient computing, as an ideal, demands levels of functional

  16. Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance; Aghazarian, Hrand; Estlin, Tara; Gaines, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing (CARACaS) is a recent product of a continuing effort to develop architectures for controlling either a single autonomous robotic vehicle or multiple cooperating but otherwise autonomous robotic vehicles. CARACaS is potentially applicable to diverse robotic systems that could include aircraft, spacecraft, ground vehicles, surface water vessels, and/or underwater vessels. CARACaS incudes an integral combination of three coupled agents: a dynamic planning engine, a behavior engine, and a perception engine. The perception and dynamic planning en - gines are also coupled with a memory in the form of a world model. CARACaS is intended to satisfy the need for two major capabilities essential for proper functioning of an autonomous robotic system: a capability for deterministic reaction to unanticipated occurrences and a capability for re-planning in the face of changing goals, conditions, or resources. The behavior engine incorporates the multi-agent control architecture, called CAMPOUT, described in An Architecture for Controlling Multiple Robots (NPO-30345), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 65. CAMPOUT is used to develop behavior-composition and -coordination mechanisms. Real-time process algebra operators are used to compose a behavior network for any given mission scenario. These operators afford a capability for producing a formally correct kernel of behaviors that guarantee predictable performance. By use of a method based on multi-objective decision theory (MODT), recommendations from multiple behaviors are combined to form a set of control actions that represents their consensus. In this approach, all behaviors contribute simultaneously to the control of the robotic system in a cooperative rather than a competitive manner. This approach guarantees a solution that is good enough with respect to resolution of complex, possibly conflicting goals within the constraints of the mission to be accomplished by the vehicle(s).

  17. Wound dressings and topical agents.

    PubMed

    Higgins, K R; Ashry, H R

    1995-01-01

    Topical treatment of wounds is an important aspect of wound care, although secondary to surgical and systemic care. Dressing materials come in many forms to suit wound types and preferences. No hard evidence exists to place any one approach above another. All wounds deserve individualized attention and care plans. Likewise, a plethora of solutions exist to augment dressing materials in cleansing, antibiosis, and débridement. Traditional agents, including hydrogen peroxide, Dakin's solution, and povidone-iodine, are more tissue toxic than their common usage would indicate. We prefer frequent dressing changes with natural fiber gauze and nontoxic solutions such as saline. The scalpel, curette, and rongeur are, in our experience, much preferred to enzymatic agents when débridement is needed. We encourage scrutiny of commercial products based on clinical merit and effectiveness as documented in the medical literature. Platelet derived growth factors are an effective adjunct to wound healing and are primarily indicated when the condition of patients and their wounds has otherwise been optimized. PMID:7720031

  18. Nanoparticle-based theranostic agents

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jin; Lee, Seulki; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2010-01-01

    Theranostic nanomedicine is emerging as a promising therapeutic paradigm. It takes advantage of the high capacity of nanoplatforms to ferry cargo and loads onto them both imaging and therapeutic functions. The resulting nanosystems, capable of diagnosis, drug delivery and monitoring of therapeutic response, are expected to play a significant role in the dawning era of personalized medicine, and much research effort has been devoted toward that goal. A convenience in constructing such function-integrated agents is that many nanoplatforms are already, themselves, imaging agents. Their well developed surface chemistry makes it easy to load them with pharmaceutics and promote them to be theranostic nanosystems. Iron oxide nanoparticles, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles and silica nanoparticles, have been previously well investigated in the imaging setting and are candidate nanoplatforms for building up nanoparticle-based theranostics. In the current article, we will outline the progress along this line, organized by the category of the core materials. We will focus on construction strategies and will discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with this emerging technology. PMID:20691229

  19. Jadex: Implementing a BDI-Infrastructure for JADE Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Braubach; W. Lamersdorf; A. Pokahr

    2003-01-01

    INTELLIGENT AGENTS ARE A MODELLING PARADIGM, BASED ON THE NOTION OF AGENTS WITH MENTAL STATES. THE AGENT METAPHOR IS NOWADAYS USED IN MANY RESEARCH AND INDUSTRY PROJECTS, AND SEVERAL GENERIC AGENT PLATFORMS ARE AVAILABLE. NEVERTHELESS, THERE IS A GAP BETWEEN PLATFORMS CONCENTRATING ON AGENT COMMUNI- CATION INFRASTRUCTURE AND PLATFORMS CONCERNED WITH THE REPRESENTATION OF INTERNAL AGENT CONCEPTS. THIS ARTICLE PRESENTS

  20. Contactless Rotary Electrical Couplings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumagai, Hiroyuki

    2003-01-01

    Rotary electrical couplings based on induction (transformer action) rather than conduction between rotating and stationary circuitry have been invented. These couplings provide an alternative to slip rings and contact brushes. Mechanical imperfections of slip-ring and brush contact surfaces and/or dust particles trapped between these surfaces tend to cause momentary interruptions in electrical contact and thereby give rise to electrical noise. This source of noise can be eliminated in the inductive rotary couplings because no direct contact is necessary for transformer action.

  1. Coupled Behavior Analysis with Applications

    E-print Network

    Cao, Longbing

    Coupled Behavior Analysis with Applications Professor Longbing Cao () Director, Advanced Analytics behaviors? · What is behavior? · What are coupled behaviors? · What is coupled behavior analysis (CBA · Coupled Hidden Markov Model-based abnormal behavior analysis · Open issues and prospects #12;Why Coupled

  2. Considerations in detecting CDC select agents under field conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Charles; Soelberg, Scott; Swanson, Nathaneal; Furlong, Clement; Baker, Paul

    2008-04-01

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) has become a widely accepted technique for real-time detection of interactions between receptor molecules and ligands. Antibody may serve as receptor and can be attached to the gold surface of the SPR device, while candidate analyte fluids contact the detecting antibody. Minute, but detectable, changes in refractive indices (RI) indicate that analyte has bound to the antibody. A decade ago, an inexpensive, robust, miniature and fully integrated SPR chip, called SPREETA, was developed. University of Washington (UW) researchers subsequently developed a portable, temperature-regulated instrument, called SPIRIT, to simultaneously use eight of these three-channel SPREETA chips. A SPIRIT prototype instrument was tested in the field, coupled to a remote reporting system on a surrogate unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Two target protein analytes were released sequentially as aerosols with low analyte concentration during each of three flights and were successfully detected and verified. Laboratory experimentation with a more advanced SPIRIT instrument demonstrated detection of very low levels of several select biological agents that might be employed by bioterrorists. Agent detection under field-like conditions is more challenging, especially as analyte concentrations are reduced and complex matricies are introduced. Two different sample preconditioning protocols have been developed for select agents in complex matrices. Use of these preconditioning techniques has allowed laboratory detection in spiked heavy mud of Francisella tularensis at 10 3 CFU/ml, Bacillus anthracis spores at 10 3 CFU/ml, Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) at 1 ng/ml, and Vaccinia virus (a smallpox simulant) at 10 5 PFU/ml. Ongoing experiments are aimed at simultaneous detection of multiple agents in spiked heavy mud, using a multiplex preconditioning protocol.

  3. Macromolecular Imaging Agents Containing Lanthanides: Can Conceptual Promise Lead to Clinical Potential?

    PubMed Central

    Bryson, Joshua; Reineke, Jeffrey W.; Reineke, Theresa M.

    2012-01-01

    Macromolecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents are increasingly being used to improve the resolution of this noninvasive diagnostic technique. All clinically-approved T1 contrast agents are small molecule chelates of gadolinium [Gd(III)] that affect bound water proton relaxivity. Both the small size and monomeric nature of these agents ultimately limits the image resolution enhancement that can be achieved for both contrast enhancement and pharmacokinetic/biodistribution reasons. The multimeric nature of macromolecules, such as polymers, dendrimers, and noncovalent complexes of small molecule agents with proteins, have been shown to significantly increase the image contrast and resolution due to their large size and ability to incorporate multiple Gd(III) chlelation sites. Also, macromolecular agents are advantageous as they have the ability to be designed to be nontoxic, hydrophilic, easily purified, aggregation-resistant, and have controllable three-dimensional macromolecular structure housing the multiple lanthanide chelation sites. For these reasons, large molecule diagnostics have the ability to significantly increase the relaxivity of water protons within the targeted tissues and thus the image resolution for many diagnostic applications. The FDA approval of a contrast agent that consists of a reversible, non-covalent coupling of a small Gd(III) chelate with serum albumin for blood pool imaging (marketed under the trade names of Vasovist and Ablivar) proved to be one of the first diagnostic agent to capitalize on these benefits from macromolecular association in humans. However, much research and development is necessary to optimize the safety of these unique agents for in vivo use and potential clinical development. To this end, recent work in the field of polymer, dendrimer, and noncovalent complex-based imaging agents are reviewed herein and the future outlook of this field is discussed. PMID:23467737

  4. Systemic use of non-biologic agents in orofacial diseases: other immunomodulatory agents.

    PubMed

    Georgakopoulou, E A; Scully, C

    2015-04-01

    Systemic non-biologic agents have long been in clinical use in medicine--often with considerable efficacy, albeit with some adverse effects--as with all medications. With the advent of biologic agents, all of which currently are restricted to systemic use, there is a growing need to ensure which agents have the better therapeutic ratio. The non-biologic agents (NBAs) include a range of agents, most importantly the corticosteroids (steroids). Previous articles by us in this series have discussed systemic use of corticosteroids and purine synthesis inhibitors; the other immunomodulating agents (calcineurin inhibitors, thalidomide, dapsone, colchicine and cyclophosphamide) are reviewed in this final article. PMID:24028818

  5. Coupling in the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Gelfand, N.M.

    1994-12-01

    The performance of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at the commencement of run Ib was far below expectations. After a frustrating period of several months, a low-{beta} quad downstream of the interaction point at B0 was found to be rolled. This rolled quadrupole coupled the horizontal and vertical motion of the Tevatron beams. It also made matching the beam from the Main Ring to the Tevatron impossible, resulting in emittance blow up on injection. The net result of the roll was a significant reduction in the Tevatron luminosity. When the roll in the quadrupole was corrected the performance of the Tevatron improved dramatically. This note will discuss the experimental data indicating the presence of coupling and subsequent calculations which show how coupling an affect the luminosity. It is not intended to exhaust a discussion of coupling, which hopefully will be understood well enough to be discussed in a subsequent note.

  6. Negative-coupling resonances in pump-coupled lasers

    E-print Network

    T. W. Carr; M. L. Taylor; I. B. Schwartz

    2005-10-28

    We consider coupled lasers, where the intensity deviations from the steady state, modulate the pump of the other lasers. Most of our results are for two lasers where the coupling constants are of opposite sign. This leads to a Hopf bifurcation to periodic output for weak coupling. As the magnitude of the coupling constants is increased (negatively) we observe novel amplitude effects such as a weak coupling resonance peak and, strong coupling subharmonic resonances and chaos. In the weak coupling regime the output is predicted by a set of slow evolution amplitude equations. Pulsating solutions in the strong coupling limit are described by discrete map derived from the original model.

  7. The EO-1 Autonomous Science Agent Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Rob; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Rabideau, Gregg; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Lee, Rachel; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; Hengemihle, Jerry; D'Agostino, Jeff; Shulman, Seth; Ungar, Stephen; Brakke, Thomas; Boyer, Darrell; Van Gaasbeck, Jim; Greeley, Ronald; Doggett, Thomas; Baker, Victor; Dohm, James; Ip, Felipe

    2004-01-01

    An Autonomous Science Agent is currently flying onboard the Earth Observing One Spacecraft. This software enables the spacecraft to autonomously detect and respond to science events occurring on the Earth. The package includes software systems that perform science data analysis, deliberative planning, and run-time robust execution. Because of the deployment to a remote spacecraft, this Autonomous Science Agent has stringent constraints of autonomy, reliability, and limited computing resources. We describe these constraints and how they are reflected in our agent architecture.

  8. On Agent-Mediated Electronic Commerce

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minghua He; Nicholas R. Jennings; Ho-fung Leung

    2003-01-01

    This paper surveys and analyses the state of the art of agent-mediated electronic commerce (e-commerce),concentrating particularly on the business-to-consumer (B2C) and business-to-business (B2B) aspects.From the consumer buying behaviour perspective, agents are being used in the following activities: needidentification, product brokering, buyer coalition formation, merchant brokering and negotiation. Theroles of agents in B2B e-commerce are discussed through the business-to-business...

  9. Specifying communicative multi-agent systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Shapiro; Yves Lespérance; Hector J. Levesque

    In this paper, we describe a framework for specifying communicative multi-agent systems, using a theory of action based on\\u000a the situation calculus to describe the effects of actions on the world and on the mental states of agents; and the concurrent,\\u000a logic programming language ConGolog to specify the actions performed by each agent. Since ConGolog has a well-defined semantics,\\u000a the

  10. Interface for Multi-Agent Platform Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Ponci; A. Deshmukh; A. Monti; L. Cristaldi; R. Ottoboni

    2005-01-01

    An agency-agent based framework for monitoring industrial systems may comprise agents with a different tasks, (e.g. strictly measurement, computation, decision making, simulation), each implemented in a dedicated environment (e.g. LabVIEW, Matlab, custom simulators). The focus of this work is a heterogeneous agent-based monitoring system; aim of this work is to provide this complex environment with the interaction and proactiveness capabilities

  11. An Agent Task Force for Stock Trading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui Pedro Barbosa; Orlando Belo

    2011-01-01

    \\u000a In this article the authors present the simulated trading results of a system consisting of 60 intelligent agents, each being\\u000a responsible for day trading a stock listed on the NYSE or the NASDAQ stock exchange. These agents were implemented according\\u000a to an architecture that was previously applied to currency trading with interesting results. The performance of the stock\\u000a trading agents,

  12. Evolutionary Learning in Principal\\/Agent Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jasmina Arifovic; Alex Karaivanov

    2006-01-01

    We introduce learning based on genetic algorithms in a principal-agent model of optimal contracting under moral hazard. Applications corresponding to this setting abound in finance (credit under moral hazard), public finance (optimal taxation, information-constrained insurance), development (sharecropping), mechanism design, etc. It is well known that optimal contracts in principal-agent problems with risk averse agents, unobserved labor effort and stochastic technology

  13. Believable Agents, Engagement, and Health Interventions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine L. Lisetti

    \\u000a In this article we review some of the main contributions that the believable agents community has brought about and we review some of the main believable agent architectures existing to date. We also discuss\\u000a the enormous potential that believable agents can bring in the domain of health, including health communication, health promotion,\\u000a health counseling and psychotherapy. We discuss some of

  14. Moral Conflicts between Groups of Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barteld Kooi; Allard Tamminga

    2007-01-01

    Two groups of agents, G1 and G2, face a moral conflict if G1 has a moral obligation and G2 has a moral obligation, such that these obligations cannot both be fulfilled. We study moral conflicts using a multi-agen t deontic logic devised to represent reasoning about sentences like 'In the interest of group F of agents, group G of agents

  15. Massive Multi-Agent Systems Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campagne, Jean-Charles; Gardon, Alain; Collomb, Etienne; Nishida, Toyoaki

    2004-01-01

    In order to build massive multi-agent systems, considered as complex and dynamic systems, one needs a method to analyze and control the system. We suggest an approach using morphology to represent and control the state of large organizations composed of a great number of light software agents. Morphology is understood as representing the state of the multi-agent system as shapes in an abstract geometrical space, this notion is close to the notion of phase space in physics.

  16. Cognitive Hybrid Reasoning Intelligent Agent System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christos Sioutis; Nikhil Ichalkaranje

    2005-01-01

    \\u000a This paper presents a novel approach for implementing reasoning and learning systems based on Intelligent Agents. It is particularly\\u000a suited for agent systems working in complex and cooperative dynamic environments. This approach was developed to overcome\\u000a limitations confronted while researching the use of agents in such environments. A brief background of the underlying conceptual\\u000a reasoning model is described, followed by

  17. Using cognitive agents in social simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Caballero; Juan Botía; Antonio Gómez-Skarmeta

    2011-01-01

    Multi-Agent-Based Social Simulation (MABS) is a paradigm devoted to using agents as the modelling metaphor to simulate autonomous entities in a social world composed of a number of independent and interacting entities. Such models try to reproduce real environments and situations of interest within such environments. Most MABS platforms used today (e.g. MASON, Repast, NetLogo) see agents as very simple

  18. Serotonin Regulates Electrical Coupling via Modulation of Extrajunctional Conductance: H-current

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Theresa M.; Caplan, Jonathan S.; Zoran, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Synaptic strength can be highly variable from animal to animal within a species or over time within an individual. The process of synaptic plasticity induced by neuromodulatory agents might be unpredictable when the underlying circuits subject to modulation are themselves inherently variable. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptomine; 5HT) and serotonergic signaling pathways are important regulators of animal behavior and are pharmacological targets in a wide range of neurological disorders. We have examined the effect of 5HT on electrical synapses possessing variable coupling strengths. While 5HT decreased electrical coupling at synapses with weak electrical connectivity, synapses with strong electrical coupling were less affected by 5HT treatment, as follows from the equations used for calculating coupling coefficients. The fact that the modulatory effect of 5HT on electrical connections was negatively correlated with the strength of electrical coupling suggests that the degree of electrical coupling within a neural network impacts subsequent neuromodulation of those synapses. Biophysical studies indicated that these effects were primarily due to 5HT-induced modulation of membrane currents that indirectly affect junctional coupling at synaptic contacts. In support of these experimental analyses, we created a simple model of coupled neurons to demonstrate that modulation of electrical coupling could be due solely to 5HT effects on H-channel conductance. Therefore, variability in the strength of electrical coupling in neural circuits can determine the pharmacological effect of this neuromodulatory agent. PMID:20599836

  19. Coupled transverse motion

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    The magnetic field in an accelerator or a storage ring is usually so designed that the horizontal (x) and the vertical (y) motions of an ion are uncoupled. However, because of imperfections in construction and alignment, some small coupling is unavoidable. In this lecture, we discuss in a general way what is known about the behaviors of coupled motions in two degrees-of-freedom. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Sirtuin inhibitors as anticancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jing; Jing, Hui; Lin, Hening

    2015-01-01

    Sirtuins are a class of enzymes with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent protein lysine deacylase function. By deacylating various substrate proteins, including histones, transcription factors, and metabolic enzymes, sirtuins regulate various biological processes, such as transcription, cell survival, DNA damage and repair, and longevity. Small molecules that can inhibit sirtuins have been developed and many of them have shown anti-cancer activity. Here we summarize the major biological findings that connect sirtuins to cancer and the different types of sirtuin inhibitors developed. Interestingly, biological data suggest that sirtuins have both tumor-suppressing and tumor-promoting roles. However, most pharmacological studies with small molecule inhibitors suggest that inhibiting sirtuin is a promising anti-cancer strategy. We discuss possible explanations for this discrepancy and suggest possible future directions to further establish sirtuin inhibitors as anticancer agents. PMID:24962284

  1. Characterization of chemical agent transport in paints.

    PubMed

    Willis, Matthew P; Gordon, Wesley; Lalain, Teri; Mantooth, Brent

    2013-09-15

    A combination of vacuum-based vapor emission measurements with a mass transport model was employed to determine the interaction of chemical warfare agents with various materials, including transport parameters of agents in paints. Accurate determination of mass transport parameters enables the simulation of the chemical agent distribution in a material for decontaminant performance modeling. The evaluation was performed with the chemical warfare agents bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide (distilled mustard, known as the chemical warfare blister agent HD) and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX), an organophosphate nerve agent, deposited on to two different types of polyurethane paint coatings. The results demonstrated alignment between the experimentally measured vapor emission flux and the predicted vapor flux. Mass transport modeling demonstrated rapid transport of VX into the coatings; VX penetrated through the aliphatic polyurethane-based coating (100 ?m) within approximately 107 min. By comparison, while HD was more soluble in the coatings, the penetration depth in the coatings was approximately 2× lower than VX. Applications of mass transport parameters include the ability to predict agent uptake, and subsequent long-term vapor emission or contact transfer where the agent could present exposure risks. Additionally, these parameters and model enable the ability to perform decontamination modeling to predict how decontaminants remove agent from these materials. PMID:23872337

  2. Efficient Agent-Based Cluster Ensembles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agogino, Adrian; Tumer, Kagan

    2006-01-01

    Numerous domains ranging from distributed data acquisition to knowledge reuse need to solve the cluster ensemble problem of combining multiple clusterings into a single unified clustering. Unfortunately current non-agent-based cluster combining methods do not work in a distributed environment, are not robust to corrupted clusterings and require centralized access to all original clusterings. Overcoming these issues will allow cluster ensembles to be used in fundamentally distributed and failure-prone domains such as data acquisition from satellite constellations, in addition to domains demanding confidentiality such as combining clusterings of user profiles. This paper proposes an efficient, distributed, agent-based clustering ensemble method that addresses these issues. In this approach each agent is assigned a small subset of the data and votes on which final cluster its data points should belong to. The final clustering is then evaluated by a global utility, computed in a distributed way. This clustering is also evaluated using an agent-specific utility that is shown to be easier for the agents to maximize. Results show that agents using the agent-specific utility can achieve better performance than traditional non-agent based methods and are effective even when up to 50% of the agents fail.

  3. Thermal agents in rehabilitation. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Michlovitz, S.L.; Davis, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    This text reviews the applications of thermal agents in rehabilitation to reduce pain, improve joint range of motion, and enhance healing. Expert contributors explore the uses of water, sound, electricity, and external pressure - any agent other than the hands themselves as employed in physical therapy. Heat and cold agents are described and their methods of application discussed, as well as the rationale for use of that modality. Also outlined are guidelines for safety given the limitations and conditions caused by particular dysfunctions, maintenance of equipment, and the current research on each agent. A list of manufacturers of thermal devices and a temperature conversion scale appear in the appendices.

  4. Copernic Agent Basic 6.1

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Copernic Agent Basic 6.1 is a powerful application that accesses over 90 information sources to return up to 300 results per search engine. This latest release of Copernic Agent includes country-based search categories (for refined searches), improved advanced result filtering features, and simplified installation process. Another nice aspect of the application is that it is available in English, French, German, or Spanish. For users seeking more information, the Copernic Agent Web site features a section that answers questions about installing the application, along with screen shots and information about previous versions. Copernic Agent Basic 6.1 is compatible with all systems running Windows 95 and higher.

  5. Systmes multi-agents et rseaux autonomes Des approches multi-agents pour le contrle

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Manuscrit auteur, publié dans "Atelier de travail "Futurama: le Futur des Agents et des Multi-Agents" Plateforme AFIA, 2011, Chambery : France (2011)" #12;Futurama 2011 vise à réduire les coûts de maintenance et

  6. Safe motion planning for mobile agents: A model of reactive planning for multiple mobile agents

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimura, Kikuo.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of motion planning for multiple mobile agents is studied. Each planning agent independently plans its own action based on its map which contains a limited information about the environment. In an environment where more than one mobile agent interacts, the motions of the robots are uncertain and dynamic. A model for reactive agents is described and simulation results are presented to show their behavior patterns. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Network security management with intelligent agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karima Boudaoud; H. Labiod; Raouf Boutaba; Zahia Guessoum

    2000-01-01

    Multi-agent systems technology can be useful for efficiently designing and maintaining secure networks. Indeed, networks evolve at a rapid pace in terms of the number and type of components and user access queries as well as intrusion possibilities. Features such as autonomy, adaptability and flexibility of the “intelligent” agent paradigm allow the managing of network evolution in a controlled way.

  8. Application Security Models for Mobile Agent Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Todd Mcdonald; Alec Yasinsac

    2006-01-01

    Mobile agents are a distributed computing paradigm based on mobile autonomous programs. Mobile applications must balance security requirements with available security mechanisms in order to meet application level security goals. We introduce a trust framework to reason about application security requirements, trust expression, and agent protection mechanisms. We develop application security models that capture initial trust relationships and consider their

  9. Maximizing the minimum load for selfish agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leah Epstein; Rob Van Stee

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of maximizing the minimum load (completion time) for machines that are controlled by selfish agents, who are only interested in maximizing their own profit. Unlike the classical load balancing problem, this problem has not been considered for selfish agents until now. The goal is to design a truthful mechanism, i.e., one in which all users have

  10. Affective Embodied Conversational Agents for Natural Interaction

    E-print Network

    Baldassarri, Sandra

    the communication skills of humans. One of these skills is the affective aspect of communication, which conversational agents, ECAs (Casell et al., 2000), are graphical interfaces capable of using verbal and non-verbal modes of communication to interact with users in computer- based environments. These agents

  11. Agent-based Mission Modeling and Simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maarten Sierhuis; J. Clancey; Chin Seah; Alessandro Acquisti; David Bushnell; Bruce Damer; Nancy Dorighi; Larry Edwards; Lisa Faithorn; Lorenzo Flueckiger; Ron van Hoof; Anand Nandkumar; Christian Neukom; Mike Scott; Michael Sims; Roxana Wales; Shin-Ywan Wang; James Wood

    2006-01-01

    A simulation environment for agents is presented, enabling agent-based modeling and simulation of people, systems and robots in space exploration missions. The environment allows the analysis and design of mission operation work procedures, communications and interactions between people and systems, co-located or distributed on Earth and in space. The MODAT (Mission Operations Design and Analysis Toolkit) is the integration of

  12. Space Shuttle Ground Processing with Monitoring Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn S. Semmel; Steven R. Davis; Kurt W. Leucht; Daniel A. Rowe; Kevin E. Smith; Ladislau Bölöni

    2006-01-01

    To ensure that all shuttle systems are ready for launch, KSC engineers monitor tens of thousands of telemetry measurements. This intense data monitoring occurs constantly during ground processing, peaking in the weeks leading up to launch. KSC engineers developed and deployed a software agent $the NASA Engineering Shuttle Telemetry Agent - to assist in this around-the-clock monitoring. NESTA acts as

  13. Intelligent agent for aircraft collision avoidance 

    E-print Network

    Shandy, Surya Utama

    2002-01-01

    instrument flight rules and choose their own flight path and speed in real time. One of the requirements to make the free flight environment feasible is an aircraft collision avoidance agent, also known as a traffic agent. One widely accepted concept...

  14. Dynamically Sequencing an Animated Pedagogical Agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian A. Stone; James C. Lester

    1996-01-01

    One of the most promising opportunities in- troduced by rapid advances in knowledge-based learning environments and multimedia technolo- gies is the possibility of creating animated peda- gogical agents. These agents should exhibit three properties: timely domain coverage (they should clearly communicate fundamental concepts and relationships within the allotted time); contextu- ality (they should provide explanations in appro- priate problem-solving contexts);

  15. INTERPRETIVE AGENTS: IDENTIFYING PRINCIPLES, DESIGNING MECHANISMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Sallach

    The present paper takes the position that social action inherently involves meaning and, thus, cannot be adequately modeled without representing the interpretive process among agents. The development of interpretive models is challenging, however, and quickly raises issues of computational tractability. A strategy is developed based on three assumptions (agent focus, continuity reduction and orientation fields) and three mechanisms (prototype inference,

  16. INTERPRETIVE AGENTS: A HEATBUG REFERENCE SIMULATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. SALLACH; V. S. MELLARKOD

    Interpretive heatbugs (IHB) is a reference application designed as the first implementation of the interpretive agents (IA) research program. As described in previous papers, the IA initiative identifies three mechanisms (prototype reasoning, situation definition, and orientation accounting) to create an interpretive architecture that supports agents whose actions are oriented by meaning. The reference application uses the familiar heatbugs environment, where

  17. Internet Worm Attacks and Stochastic Agent Models

    E-print Network

    Bradley, Jeremy

    Project: Internet Worm Attacks and Stochastic Agent Models Jeremy Bradley Email: jb@doc.ic.ac.uk Department of Computing, Imperial College London Produced with prosper and LATEX JTB [08/2004] ­ p.1/21 #12;Presentation Internet worms at work! A formal agent description Our existing techniques Other solutions methods

  18. Introducing the Tileworld: Experimentally Evaluating Agent Architectures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha E. Pollack; Marc Ringuette

    1990-01-01

    without regard to the amount of time it is taking or the changes meanwhile going on, is not likely to make ra.tional decisions. We describe a system called Tileworld, which con- sists of a simulated robot agent and a simulated environment which is both dynamic and unpre- dictable. Both the agent and the environment are highly parameterized, enabling one to

  19. Resolving Agent Ontology Dynamically Through Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivia March

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the possiblity of resolving agent ontology through communication by means of an implementation using 3APL. In addition to explore the current state of ontological resolution and it's foundation in relation to agent communicaton.

  20. Heterogeneous Agent Models in Economics and Finance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cars H. Hommes

    2005-01-01

    This paper surveys work on dynamic heterogeneous agent models (HAMs) in economics and finance. Emphasis is given to simple models that, at least to some extent, are tractable by analytic methods in combination with computational tools. Most of these models are behavioral models with boundedly rational agents using different heuristics or rule of thumb strategies that may not be perfect,

  1. CAST: Collaborative Agents for Simulating Teamwork

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Yen; Jianwen Yin; Thomas R. Ioerger; Michael S. Miller; Dianxiang Xu; Richard A. Volz

    2001-01-01

    Psychological studies on teamwork have shown that an effective team often can anticipate information needs of teammates based on a shared mental model. Existing multi-agent models for teamwork are limited in their ability to support proactive information exchange among teammates. To address this issue, we have developed and implemented a multi-agent architecture called CAST that simulates teamwork and supports proactive

  2. Bacterial detoxification of organophosphate nerve agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank M Raushel

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial enzymes have been isolated that catalyze the hydrolysis of organophosphate nerve agents with high-rate enhancements and broad substrate specificity. Mutant forms of these enzymes have been constructed through rational redesign of the active-site binding pockets and random mutagenesis to create protein variants that are optimized for the detoxification of agricultural insecticides and chemical warfare agents. In this review, the

  3. Intelligent Agents for Interactive Simulation Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milind Tambe; W. Lewis Johnson; Randolph M. Jones; Frank V. Koss; John E. Laird; Paul S. Rosenbloom; Karl Schwamb

    1995-01-01

    Interactive simulation environments constitute one of today's promising emerging technologies, with applications in areas such as education, manufacturing, entertainment and training. These environments are also rich domains for building and investigating intelligent automated agents, with requirements for the integration of a variety of agent capabilities, but without the costs and demands of low-level perceptual processing or robotic control. Our project

  4. Engineering Democracy in Open Agent Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Mcburney; Simon Parsons

    2003-01-01

    How should open agent societies be organized? Should they be democ- racies, and, if so, what types of democracy? We present three normative models of democracy from political philosophy and consider their relevance for the engi- neering of open multi-agent systems: democracy as wise rule by an elite; democ- racy as the exercise of rational consumer choices by voters; and

  5. Hemostatic Agents Derived from Chitin and Chitosan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyun Suk Whang; Wolff Kirsch; Yong H. Zhu; Cheng Z. Yang; Samuel M. Hudson

    2005-01-01

    A recent review detailing the role of new hemostatic agents for battlefield hemorrhage control describes the interest in and necessary specifications for such materials. As a consequence, the Defense Department authorized the development and use of three deployable and FDA approved hemostatic agents: Zeolite “Quikclot” and chitosanic “Hemcon” and the American Red Cross Fibrin Dressing. Although chitosan has a number

  6. Animated Human Agents with Motion Planning Capability

    E-print Network

    Badler, Norman I.

    Animated Human Agents with Motion Planning Capability for 3D-Space Postural Goals Moon-Ryul Jung. The human body model used in this study is anthropometrically realistic [31, 14, 19, 20, 21], and possesses In this paper, we present a method for an animated human agent to con- struct motion plans to achieve 3D

  7. Mobile agent based online examination system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moe Moe Aye; Mie Mie Thet Thwin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a case study namely mobile agent based online examination system and the roles of mobile agents used in the system. The system provides the infrastructure for conducting computer-based examination which the candidates may be spread over in large areas. The system aims to map the real world examination system and concentrates the full stage of the examination

  8. Bacterial Agents BSL Actinetobacter calceticus 2

    E-print Network

    Ford, James

    /3 Rochalimaea quintana 2 Rochalimaea vinsonii 2 Spotted Fever Group - other 2/3 Viral Agents BSL Adenoviruses 2) 2 Cache Valley Virus 2 Canine Hepatitis Virus 2 Canine Distemper Virus 2 Caprine Arthritis 2 Fever Agents* 2 Hepatitis A Virus, Hepatitis E Virus 2 Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, Hepatitis D

  9. KQML as an agent communication language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim Finin; Yannis Labrou; James Mayfield

    1995-01-01

    One of the defining characteristics of an information agent is its ability for flexible interaction and interoperation with other, similar software agents. This focus on interoperability has been the foundation of the approach of the Knowledge Sharing Effort (KSE) in developing a basic framework for intelligent systems. We present KSE approach and the solutions suggested for the subproblems identified by

  10. A Self Healing Action Composition Agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamad EL Falou; Maroua Bouzid; Abdel-Illah Mouaddib; Thierry Vidal

    2011-01-01

    The establishment of a self-healing agent has received much interest in multiple domains such as : Web services, production supply chain, transport systems, etc. This agent has a set of actions. Its role is to respond to user request with a plan of composed actions, to on-line diagnose the status of the plan execution and to automatically repair the plan

  11. Autonomous Cyber Agents: Rules For Collaboration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarosh N. Talukdar

    1998-01-01

    A cyber agent is any program, machine or person engaged in computer-enab led work. Thus, cyber agents can vary considerably in complexity and intelligence. Can they, despite their variety, be organized to collaborate effec- tively? Both empirical evidence and theory suggest that they can. Moreover, there seem to be simple rules for designing problem-solving organizations in which collabo- ration among

  12. Multi agent systems on military networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Hancock; Gary B. Lamont

    2011-01-01

    Trends in computing and networking, in terms of physical capability, attack surface, and attacker sophistication, call for automated, fault-tolerant response systems. Military net- works present such environments with unique authorities, critical systems, and threats. Within such environments, multi agent sys- tems may make special contributions regarding recognisance and attack scenarios. We survey three multi agent systems designed for cyber operations,

  13. ANIMATION OF TALKING AGENTS Jonas Beskow

    E-print Network

    Beskow, Jonas

    ANIMATION OF TALKING AGENTS Jonas Beskow Centre for Speech Technology KTH 10044 Stockholm, Sweden that autonomous software agents that can communicate using speech and gesture will soon be on everybody's computer screen. This paper describes an architecture that can be used to design and animate characters capable

  14. The Design of Motivational Agents and Avatars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylor, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    While the addition of an anthropomorphic interface agent to a learning system generally has little direct impact on learning, it potentially has a huge impact on learner motivation. As such agents become increasingly ubiquitous on the Internet, in virtual worlds, and as interfaces for learning and gaming systems, it is important to design them to…

  15. Socially Intelligent Agents in Educational Games

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristina Conati; Maria Klawe

    We describe preliminary research on devising intelligent agents that can improve the educational effectiveness of collaborative, educational computer games. We illustrate how these agents can overcome some of the shortcomings of educational games by explicitly monitoring how students interact with the games, by modeling both the students ’ cognitive and emotional states, and by generating calibrated interventions to trigger constructive

  16. Distributed Deadlock Detection in Mobile Agent Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce Ashfield; Dwight Deugo; Franz Oppacher; Tony White

    2002-01-01

    Mobile agent systems have unique properties and characteristics and represent a new application development paradigm. Existing solutions to distributed computing problems, such as deadlock avoidance algorithms, are not suited to environments where both clients and servers move freely through the network. This paper describes a distributed deadlock solution for use in mobile agent systems. The properties of this solution are

  17. Brownian agent-based technology forecasting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juneseuk Shin

    2009-01-01

    Today's innovation process is best characterized by nonlinearity and interaction. Agent-based models build on these concepts, but have not been useful in practice because they are either too complex or too simple to make a good match with reality. As a remedy, we employ a Brownian agent model with intermediate complexity to produce value-added technology forecasting. As an illustration with

  18. Biological agents: Weapons of warfare and bioterrorism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry A. Broussard

    2001-01-01

    The use of microorganisms as agents of biological warfare is considered inevitable for several reasons, including ease of production and dispersion, delayed onset, ability to cause high rates of morbidity and mortality, and difficulty in diagnosis. Biological agents that have been identified as posing the greatest threat are variola major (smallpox), Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), Yersinia pestis (plague), Clostridium botulinum toxin

  19. Proactive anomaly detection using distributed intelligent agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina Thottan; Chuanyi Ji

    1998-01-01

    Proactive network anomaly detection is crucial to provide quality of service guarantees for future networks. We characterize a set of proactively detectable anomalies in terms of the management information base variables. The time series data obtained from these variables are analyzed by an intelligent agent, which is a simple and lightweight signal processor. The agent provides real-time proactive alarms that

  20. MARCS Multi-agent Railway Control System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugo Proença; Eugenio Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    Previous research works have demonstrated that traffic control mod- els based on the comparison between an historical archive of information and current traffic conditions tend to produce better results, usually by improving the system's proactivity behavior. Based on this assumption, we present in this pa- per MARCS - Multi-Agent Railway Control System, a multi-agent system for communications based trains traffic

  1. Representing Agent Interaction Protocols in UML

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. Odell; H. Van Dyke Parunak; Bernhard Bauer

    2000-01-01

    Gaining wide acceptance for the use of agents in industry requires both relating it to the nearest antecedent technology (object- oriented software development) and using artifacts to support the development environment throughout the full system lifecycle. We address both of these requirements using AUML, the Agent UML (Unified Modeling Language)—a set of UML idioms and extensions. This paper illustrates the

  2. A toolkit for integrating experimental conversational agents

    E-print Network

    Sansonnet, Jean-Paul

    based on Javascript and JSPAjax technology DIVA provides fully DOMintegrated animated graphical Agents (WebLea 1.0) ... and for supporting Conversational Agents webbased research experimentations As such, DIVA will be freely available for research and teaching purposes Contents DIVA is a web toolkit

  3. SOFTWARE AGENTS FOR DIGITAL TELEVISION Joo Ascenso

    E-print Network

    da Silva, Alberto Rodrigues

    ). As the entertainment, medical and industrial industries join the digital revolution, most of the world's outputSOFTWARE AGENTS FOR DIGITAL TELEVISION João Ascenso IST / IT Lisbon ­ Portugal Joao. Keywords: Agents, Digital Television, Personalization, FIPA, Reference Model 1 INTRODUCTION Nowadays more

  4. Simultaneous Localization and Surveying with Multiple Agents

    E-print Network

    Roweis, Sam

    localization and surveying from sensor logs of mobile agents navigating in unknown environments. We show and surveying (SLAS) is distinct from the well known simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) problemSimultaneous Localization and Surveying with Multiple Agents Sam T. Roweis and Ruslan R

  5. Embodied Teachable Agents: Learning by Teaching Robots

    E-print Network

    Napp, Nils

    : educational technology, teachable agents, robotics in edu- cation 1 Introduction Intelligent autonomous robots relatively neglected, and in which robots are uniquely qualified to contribute, is that of education. Robotic teaching can be characterized and leveraged. I argue that robots as teachable agents for human education

  6. High char yield epoxy curing agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delvigs, P.; Serafini, T. T.; Vanucci, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    Class of imide-amine curing agents preserves structural integrity, prevents fiber release, and is fully compatible with conventional epoxy resins; agents do not detract from composite properties while greatly reducing char yield. Materials utilizing curing are used in aerospace, automotive, and other structural components where deterioration must be minimized and fiber release avoided in event of fire.

  7. Synthesizing Coordination Requirements for Heterogeneous Autonomous Agents

    E-print Network

    ­ nity from the linguistics and discourse analysis literature. We show how, with a few key modifications]. Among the benefits of using agents is that they more naturally support the development of software different interests). These properties make agents ideally suited to applications in electronic commerce

  8. Synthesizing Coordination Requirements for Heterogeneous Autonomous Agents

    E-print Network

    to the multiagent systems commu- nity from the linguistics and discourse analysis literature. We show how]. Among the benefits of using agents is that they more naturally support the development of software different interests). These properties make agents ideally suited to applications in electronic commerce

  9. Multi-agent reinforcement learning for microgrids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Dimeas; N. D. Hatziargyriou

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a general framework for Microgrids control based on Multi Agent System Technology. The proposed architecture is capable to integrate several functionalities, adaptable to the complexity and the size of the Microgrid. To achieve this, the idea of layered learning is used, where the various controls and actions of the agents are grouped depending on their effect on

  10. Scenario description for multi-agent simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yohei Murakami; Toru Ishida; Tomoyuki Kawasoe; Reiko Hishiyama

    2003-01-01

    Making it easier to design interactions between agents and humans is essential for realizing multi-agent simulations of social phenomena such as group dynamics. To realize large-scale social simulations, we have developed the scenario description languages Q and IPC (Interaction Pattern Card); they enable experts in the application domain (often not computing professionals) to easily create complex scenarios. We have also

  11. Radioiodine: the classic theranostic agent.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Edward B

    2012-05-01

    Radioiodine has the distinction of being the first theranostic agent in our armamentarium. Millennia were required to discover that the agent in orally administered seaweed and its extracts, which had been shown to cure neck swelling due to thyromegaly, was iodine, first demonstrated to be a new element in 1813. Treatment of goiter with iodine began at once, but its prophylactic value to prevent a common form of goiter took another century. After Enrico Fermi produced the first radioiodine, (128)I, in 1934, active experimentation in the United States and France delineated the crucial role of iodine in thyroid metabolism and disease. (130)I and (131)I were first employed to treat thyrotoxicosis by 1941, and thyroid cancer in 1943. After World War II, (131)I became widely available at a reasonable price for diagnostic testing and therapy. The rectilinear scanner of Cassen and Curtis (Science 1949;110:94-95), and a dedicated gamma camera invented by Anger (Nature 1952;170:200-201), finally permitted the diagnostic imaging of thyroid disease, with (131)I again the radioisotope of choice, although there were short-lived attempts to employ (125)I and (132)I for this purpose. (123)I was first produced in 1949 but did not become widely available until about 1982, 10 years after a production technique eliminated high-energy (124)I contamination. I continues to be the radioiodine of choice for the diagnosis of benign thyroid disease, whereas (123)I and (131)I are employed in the staging and detection of functioning thyroid cancer. (124)I, a positron emitter, can produce excellent anatomically correlated images employing positron emission tomography/computed tomography equipment and has the potential to enhance heretofore imperfect dosimetric studies in determining the appropriate administered activity to ablate/treat thyroid cancer. Issues of acceptable measuring error in thyroid cancer dosimetry and the role in (131)I therapy of tumor heterogeneity, tumor hypoxia, and kinetics must be overcome, and long-term outcome studies following (131)I given based on this new dosimetry must be completed before the nuclear medicine community will be able to predictably cure our thyroid cancer patients with this technology. PMID:22475425

  12. Trust method for multi-agent consensus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulski, Dariusz G.; Lewis, Frank L.; Gu, Edward Y.; Hudas, Greg R.

    2012-06-01

    The consensus problem in multi-agent systems often assumes that all agents are equally trustworthy to seek agreement. But for multi-agent military applications - particularly those that deal with sensor fusion or multi-robot formation control - this assumption may create the potential for compromised network security or poor cooperative performance. As such, we present a trust-based solution for the discrete-time multi-agent consensus problem and prove its asymptotic convergence in strongly connected digraphs. The novelty of the paper is a new trust algorithm called RoboTrust, which is used to calculate trustworthiness in agents using observations and statistical inferences from various historical perspectives. The performance of RoboTrust is evaluated within the trust-based consensus protocol under different conditions of tolerance and confirmation.

  13. Anti-Inflammatory Agents for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rayburn, Elizabeth R.; Ezell, Scharri J.; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation is closely linked to cancer, and many anti-cancer agents are also used to treat inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. Moreover, chronic inflammation increases the risk for various cancers, indicating that eliminating inflammation may represent a valid strategy for cancer prevention and therapy. This article explores the relationship between inflammation and cancer with an emphasis on epidemiological evidence, summarizes the current use of anti-inflammatory agents for cancer prevention and therapy, and describes the mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer effects of anti-inflammatory agents. Since monotherapy is generally insufficient for treating cancer, the combined use of anti-inflammatory agents and conventional cancer therapy is also a focal point in discussion. In addition, we also briefly describe future directions that should be explored for anti-cancer anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:20333321

  14. Cartography applications for autonomous sensory agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doumit, Sarjoun; Minai, Ali

    This paper proposes a coverage scheme for the rapid mapping of an area's characteristics by a group of mobile and autonomous sensory agents. It is assumed that the agents utilize the wireless medium for communication, and have limited computational, storage and processing capabilities. These wireless sensory agents collaborate among each other in order to optimize their coverage tasks and communications. In this paper, we present a scheme that helps maximize the system's efficiency through an adaptive coverage algorithm, where agents share information and collectively build a spatio-temporal view of the activity patterns of the area. Our scheme is particularly useful in applications where the events of interest exhibit an oscillatory behavior. Relevant applications include distant scouting and exploratory missions where the size and number of the scouting agents are crucial to the success of the mission.

  15. Stochastic Coupled Cluster Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thom, Alex J. W.

    2013-03-01

    In an extension of the Full Configuration Interaction Monte Carlo method of Alavi et al., I describe a stochastic algorithm to perform Coupled Cluster Theory which represents excitation amplitudes as populations discrete excitation particles (excips) in the space of excitation operators (excitors). Re-expressing the Coupled Cluster equations as the dynamics of excips in this space, we show that a simple set of rules consisting of spawning, death, and annihilation steps suffice to evolve a distribution of in the space of excitors to sample the Coupled Cluster solution and correctly evaluate its energy. These rules are extremely simple to implement and not truncation-specific and thus this method can calculate solutions to an arbitrary level of truncation. I present results of CCSDTQ calculations on the neon atom with basis sets up to cc-pV6Z as well as calculations on the uniform electron gas beyond the capability of other present methods.

  16. Tube coupling device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, William N. (inventor); Hein, Leopold A. (inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A first annular ring of a tube coupling device has a keyed opening sized to fit around the nut region of a male coupling, and a second annular ring has a keyed opening sized to fit around the nut of a female coupling. Each ring has mating ratchet teeth and these rings are biased together, thereby engaging these teeth and preventing rotation of these rings. This in turn prevents the rotation of the male nut region with respect to the female nut. For tube-to-bulkhead locking, one facet of one ring is notched, and a pin is pressed into an opening in the bulkhead. This pin is sized to fit within one of the notches in the ring, thereby preventing rotation of this ring with respect to the bulkhead.

  17. EMP coupling to ships

    SciTech Connect

    Deadrick, F.J.; Cabayan, H.S.; Kunz, K.F.; Bevensee, R.M.; Martin, L.C.; Egbert, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Scale-model tests were conducted to establish the adequacy and limitations of model measurements as tools for predicting electromagnetic pulse (EMP) coupling voltages and currents to the critical antennas, cables, and metallic structures on ships. The scale-model predictions are compared with the results of the full-scale EMP simulation test of the Canadian ASW ship, HMCS Huron. (The EMP coupling predictions in this report were made without prior knowledge of the results of the data from the HMCS Huron tests.) This report establishes that the scale-model tests in conjunction with the data base from EMP coupling modules provides the necessary information for source model development and permits effective, low-cost study of particular system configurations. 184 figures, 9 tables.

  18. Income Tax Evasion Dynamics: Evidence from an Agent-based Econophysics Model

    E-print Network

    Pickhardt, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We analyze income tax evasion dynamics in a standard model of statistical mechanics, the Ising model of ferromagnetism. However, in contrast to previous research, we use an inhomogeneous multi-dimensional Ising model where the local degrees of freedom (agents) are subject to a specific social temperature and coupled to external fields which govern their social behavior. This new modeling frame allows for analyzing large societies of four different and interacting agent types. As a second novelty, our model may reproduce results from agent-based models that incorporate standard Allingham and Sandmo tax evasion features as well as results from existing two-dimensional Ising based tax evasion models. We then use our model for analyzing income tax evasion dynamics under different enforcement scenarios and point to some policy implications.

  19. Combining experiments with multi-cell agent-based modeling to study biological tissue patterning.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Bryan C; Bailey, Alexander M; Peirce, Shayn M

    2007-07-01

    Agent-based modeling (ABM), also termed 'Individual-based modeling (IBM)', is a computational approach that simulates the interactions of autonomous entities (agents, or individual cells) with each other and their local environment to predict higher level emergent patterns. A literature-derived rule set governs the actions of each individual agent. While this technique has been widely used in the ecological and social sciences, it has only recently been applied in biomedical research. The purpose of this review is to provide an introduction to ABM as it has been used to study complex multi-cell biological phenomena, underscore the importance of coupling models with experimental work, and outline future challenges for the ABM field and its application to biomedical research. We highlight a number of published examples of ABM, focusing on work that has combined experimental with ABM analyses and how this pairing produces new understanding. We conclude with suggestions for moving forward with this parallel approach. PMID:17584763

  20. Detection of chemical agent aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Jay A.; Ahl, Jeffrey L.; D'Amico, Francis M.; Vanderbeek, Richard G.; Moon, Raphael; Swim, Cynthia R.

    1999-05-01

    One of the major threats presented by a chemical agent attack is that of a munition exploding overhead and 'raining' aerosols which can contaminate surfaces when they impact. Since contact with these surfaces can be fatal, it is imperative to know when such an attack has taken place and the likely threat density and location. We present the results of an experiment designed to show the utility of a CO2 lidar in detecting such an attack. Testing occurred at Dugway Proving Grounds, Utah and involved the simulation of an explosive airburst chemical attack. Explosions occurred at a height of 30 m and liquid droplets from two chemicals, PEG-200 (polyethylene glycol 200) and TEP (triethylphosphate), were expelled and fell to the ground. The munition was the U.S. Army M9 Simulator, Projectile, Airburst, Liquid (SPAL) system that is designed for chemical warfare training exercises. The instrument that was used to detect the presence of the aerosols was the Laser Standoff Chemical Detector (LSCD) which is a light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system that utilizes a rapidly tunable, pulsed CO2 laser. The LIDAR scanned a horizontal path approximately 5 - 8 m above the ground in order to measure the concentration of liquid deposition. The LIDAR data were later correlated with card data to determine how well the system could predict the location and quantity of liquid deposition on the ground.

  1. Cold as a therapeutic agent.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Olivero, W; Wang, D; Lanzino, G

    2006-05-01

    The use of cold as a therapeutic agent has a long and colorful history. The Edwin Smith Papyrus, the most ancient medical text known, dated 3500 B.C., made numerous references to the use of cold as therapy. Baron de Larrey, a French army surgeon during Napoleon's Russian campaign, packed the limbs in ice prior to amputations to render the procedures painless. In the early twentieth century, a neurosurgeon, Temple Fay, pioneered "human refrigeration" as a treatment for malignancies and head injuries. In 1961, Irving Cooper developed the first closed cryoprobe system and ushered in the modern era of cryogenic surgery with his imperturbable convictions. Fay's early work fell victim to the disruptive sequel of the World War II. The Nazis confiscated his data (presented before the Third International Cancer Congress in 1939) forwarded to Belgium for publication and brutally applied his refrigeration techniques experimentally without any benefit of anesthesia in the concentration camps, especially Dachau. Hypothermia became associated in the public mind with the atrocities exposed at the war trials in Nürnberg. After lying dormant for decades, the interest was rekindled in the late 80s when mild hypothermia was shown to confer dramatic neuroprotection in a number of experimental models of brain injury. With several large multi-center clinical studies currently under way, hypothermia is receiving unprecedented attention from the medical and scientific communities. PMID:16489500

  2. Hazardous agents in anode manufacture.

    PubMed

    Jelini?, Jagoda Doko; Lasi?, Ivo; Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Zuskin, Eugenija; Rami?, Senad

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess to which extent the modernisation of an anode plant had reduced occupational chemical health hazards for jobs with the highest potential of exposure. Periodical measurements of dust and gases were performed at the same workplaces using the same methods, before and after modernisation. These measurements were compared with the recommended standards. Before modernisation the concentrations of total dust, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen fluoride, benzene, and phenol were above the recommended standards in 56.9 % (74/130) of the samples. After modernisation, only 12.3 % (21/171) of the samples were non-conforming. Before modernisation, workers were exposed to higher concentrations of all agents in all production sections. After modernisation, dust remained the primary pollutant in harmful concentrations in the anode baking furnace (GM=22.1 mg m-3) and in the anode rodding room (GM=22.1 mg m-3), hydrogen fluoride in the anode rodding room (GM=4.2 mg m-3), and sulphur dioxide in all production sections. As plant modernisation has not completely resolved the exposure issue, stringent compliance to safety rules and regular medical checkups are necessary. PMID:18573743

  3. Conformally coupled dark matter

    E-print Network

    Mark Israelit

    1996-08-15

    Dark matter is obtained from a scalar field coupled conformally to gravitation; the scalar being a relict of Dirac's gauge function. This conformally coupled dark matter includes a gas of very light ($m\\approx 2.25\\times 10^{-34} eV$) neutral bosons having spin 0, as well as a time-dependent global scalar field, both pervading all of the cosmic space. The time-development of this dark matter in the expanding F-R-W universe is investigated, and an acceptable cosmological behaviour is obtained.

  4. Coupled Transport Protein Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jack D. Thatcher (Lewisburg; West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine REV)

    2013-04-16

    This set of animated lessons provides examples of how transport proteins interact in coupled systems to produce physiologic effects. The gastric pumps animation depicts the secretion of hydrochloric acid into the gastric lumen. The animation called glucose absorption depicts glucose absorption by intestinal epithelial cells. The CFTR animation explains how the cystic fibrosis conductance transmembrane regulator (CFTR) functions as a key component of a coupled system of transport proteins that clears the pulmonary system of mucus and inhaled particulates. These animations serve as valuable resources for any collegiate-level course that describes these processes. Courses that might use them include introductory biology, biochemistry, biophysics, cell biology, pharmacology, and physiology.

  5. Learning-by-Teaching: Designing Teachable Agents with Intrinsic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Guopeng; Ailiya; Shen, Zhiqi

    2012-01-01

    Teachable agent is a type of pedagogical agent which instantiates Learning-by-Teaching theory through simulating a "naive" learner in order to motivate students to teach it. This paper discusses the limitation of existing teachable agents and incorporates intrinsic motivation to the agent model to enable teachable agents with initiative behaviors…

  6. Study of Vibration Field on Microcellular Foaming in Nucleating Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Bing; Zhou Nanqiao; Ming-Yi Wang; Ping Zhang

    2008-01-01

    A novel microcellular processing experimental setup was developed in which various nucleation agents were added to foaming material (Polystyrene). The effect of the nucleation agents on cell morphology of foam plastics was studied in the vibration field. The effects of the processing conditions such as nucleating agents, particle size of the nucleating agents, content of the nucleating agents, and the

  7. ERCIM News No. 51, October 2002 57 Trading Agents

    E-print Network

    Janson, Sverker

    ERCIM News No. 51, October 2002 57 EVENTS Trading Agents A trading agent is a computer program. In the trading agent competi- tion (TAC), agents are travel agents with the goal of assembling travel packages in a five-day period, from flight tickets, to hotel rooms, and event tickets. In a game (Figure 1), eight

  8. Management of Mobile Agent Systems using Social Insect Metaphors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony White; Bernard Pagurek; Dwight Deugo

    2002-01-01

    The management of mobile agent systems that solve problems in a network is an issue that must be addressed if mobile agents are to be deployed industrially. It is clear that insufficient or excessive numbers of agents can cause the problem solving capabilities of an agent-based system to be impaired. Also, agents being software entities are almost always flawed therefore

  9. Multiagent Infrastructure for Agent Interoperability in Open Computational

    E-print Network

    Requirements #12;Copyright Katia Sycara 6 Agents with Middle/Infrastructure Agents Intelligent Software Agent. Sycara School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA. 15213 http Infrastructure · Agent Discovery: ANS and Middle Agents · Semantic Markup and DAML-S · RETSINA Infrastructure

  10. Agent UML Class Diagrams Revisited Marc-Philippe Huget

    E-print Network

    Atkinson, Katie

    Agent UML Class Diagrams Revisited Marc-Philippe Huget Agent ART Group University of Liverpool Agent UML in order to represent the interaction protocols [8] [2]. Agent UML is a graphical modeling language based on UML. As UML, Agent UML provides sev- eral types of representation covering

  11. JADE: a FIPA2000 compliant agent development environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Bellifemine; Agostino Poggi; Giovanni Rimassa

    2001-01-01

    JADE (Java Agent Development Framework) is a software environment to build agent systems for the management of networked information resources in compliance with the FIPA2000 specifications for interoperable intelligent multi- agent systems. The goal of JADE is to simplify development while ensuring standard compliance through a comprehensive set of system services and agents. JADE offers an agent runtime system on

  12. Agents described in the Molecular Imaging and Contrast Agent Database for imaging carbonic anhydrase IX expression.

    PubMed

    Sneddon, Deborah; Poulsen, Sally-Ann

    2014-10-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is selectively expressed in a range of hypoxic tumours and is a validated endogenous hypoxia marker with prognostic significance; hence, CA IX is of great interest as a molecular imaging target in oncology. In this review, we present an overview of the different imaging agents and imaging modalities that have been applied for the in vivo detection of CA IX. The imaging agents reviewed are all entries in the Molecular Imaging and Contrast Agent Database (MICAD) and comprise antibody, antibody fragments and small molecule imaging agents. The effectiveness of these agents for imaging CA IX in vivo gave variable performance; however, a number of agents proved very capable. As molecular imaging has become indispensable in current medical practice we anticipate that the clinical significance of CA IX will see continued development and improvements in imaging agents for targeting this enzyme. PMID:24506208

  13. Flow injection amperometric detection of OP nerve agents based on an organophosphorus–hydrolase biosensor detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Wang; Robin Krause; Kirstin Block; Mustafa Musameh; Ashok Mulchandani; Michael J Schöning

    2003-01-01

    A flow-injection system with an organophosphorus–hydrolase (OPH)-biosensor detector has been developed and characterized for the rapid detection of organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents. The enzyme was immobilized onto a thin-film gold detector through a cystamine–glutaraldehyde coupling. Factors influencing the performance were optimized. The resulting flow system offered a fast, sensitive, selective, and stable response. The peak current increased linearly with the

  14. A Security Policy Model for Agent Based Service-Oriented Architectures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eckehard Hermann

    \\u000a During the last years service oriented architectures (SOA) have gained in importance, when looking at today’s implementation\\u000a of business processes. A SOA is a loosely coupled system of services, where a service is implemented by an agent. The protection\\u000a of information and data objects and their well-directed flow are essential for the success of enterprises, which also applies\\u000a to the

  15. The use of glufosinate as a selective agent in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of soybean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhanyuan Zhang; Aiqiu Xing; Paul Staswick; Thomas E. Clemente

    1999-01-01

    The soybean transformation procedure using the Agrobacterium-cotyledonary node transformation system and the bar gene as the selectable marker coupled with glufosinate as a selective agent is described. Soybean cotyledonary explants were derived from 5 day old seedlings and co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens for 3 days. Explants were cultured on Gamborg's B5 medium supplemented with 1.67 mg l-1 BAP and glufosinate

  16. A user-system interface agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakim, Nagi T.; Srivastava, Sadanand; Bousaidi, Mehdi; Goh, Gin-Hua

    1995-01-01

    Agent-based technologies answer to several challenges posed by additional information processing requirements in today's computing environments. In particular, (1) users desire interaction with computing devices in a mode which is similar to that used between people, (2) the efficiency and successful completion of information processing tasks often require a high-level of expertise in complex and multiple domains, (3) information processing tasks often require handling of large volumes of data and, therefore, continuous and endless processing activities. The concept of an agent is an attempt to address these new challenges by introducing information processing environments in which (1) users can communicate with a system in a natural way, (2) an agent is a specialist and a self-learner and, therefore, it qualifies to be trusted to perform tasks independent of the human user, and (3) an agent is an entity that is continuously active performing tasks that are either delegated to it or self-imposed. The work described in this paper focuses on the development of an interface agent for users of a complex information processing environment (IPE). This activity is part of an on-going effort to build a model for developing agent-based information systems. Such systems will be highly applicable to environments which require a high degree of automation, such as, flight control operations and/or processing of large volumes of data in complex domains, such as the EOSDIS environment and other multidisciplinary, scientific data systems. The concept of an agent as an information processing entity is fully described with emphasis on characteristics of special interest to the User-System Interface Agent (USIA). Issues such as agent 'existence' and 'qualification' are discussed in this paper. Based on a definition of an agent and its main characteristics, we propose an architecture for the development of interface agents for users of an IPE that is agent-oriented and whose resources are likely to be distributed and heterogeneous in nature. The architecture of USIA is outlined in two main components: (1) the user interface which is concerned with issues as user dialog and interaction, user modeling, and adaptation to user profile, and (2) the system interface part which deals with identification of IPE capabilities, task understanding and feasibility assessment, and task delegation and coordination of assistant agents.

  17. Single step coupling for multi-responsive water-based chitin/chitosan magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chatrabhuti, Sutima; Chirachanchai, Suwabun

    2013-09-12

    Coupling of chitin whisker (CTWK) or water-soluble chitosan (WSCS) with magnetic nanoparticles (MAG) via a covalent linkage by using a silane coupling agent in an aqueous system is proposed. The use of the silane coupling agent glycidoxypropyltrimethoxy, having a trimethoxy silane as well as an epoxide functionality, allows one step coupling between CTWK or WSCS and MAG. The MAG derivatives obtained are well dispersed and their colloidal aqueous solutions can be stabilized for days. An external magnetic field initiates alignment of nano-rod structured CTWK-MAG in the direction of the magnetic field. The uniqueness of these two materials is that CTWK-MAG shows solvent polarity responsiveness whereas WSCS-MAG performs pH responsiveness. A model application study on DNA extraction confirms that WSCS-MAG with positively charged at pH 7 and with high surface area performs more Escherichia coli extraction ability for two times as compared to CTWK-MAG. PMID:23911469

  18. Multi-agent-based Order Book Model of financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preis, T.; Golke, S.; Paul, W.; Schneider, J. J.

    2006-08-01

    We introduce a simple model for simulating financial markets, based on an order book, in which several agents trade one asset at a virtual exchange continuously. For a stationary market the structure of the model, the order flow rates of the different kinds of order types and the used price time priority matching algorithm produce only a diffusive price behavior. We show that a market trend, i.e. an asymmetric order flow of any type, leads to a non-trivial Hurst exponent for the price development, but not to "fat-tailed" return distributions. When one additionally couples the order entry depth to the prevailing trend, also the stylized empirical fact of "fat tails" can be reproduced by our Order Book Model.

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of myxochelin analogues as antimetastatic agents.

    PubMed

    Miyanaga, Satoshi; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Saiki, Ikuo; Onaka, Hiroyasu; Igarashi, Yasuhiro

    2009-04-01

    Myxochelin A (1) is an inhibitor of tumor cell invasion produced by the bacterium belonging to the genus Nonomuraea. In order to obtain more potent inhibitors, a series of myxochelin analogues [2 and (S)-3-17] were synthesized through the coupling of lysine or diaminoalkane derivatives and appropriately protected hydroxybenzoate, followed by modification of functional groups and deprotection. These compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against invasion of murine colon 26-L5 carcinoma cells. Among the synthetic analogues tested, compound (S)-6 which possesses carbamoyl group at C-1 was found to be the most potent antiinvasive agent and is considered to be a promising lead molecule for the antimetastasis. Compound (S)-6 was also shown to inhibit gelatinase activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and in vivo lung metastasis in mice. PMID:19282185

  20. Coupled resonator vertical cavity laser

    SciTech Connect

    Choquette, K.D.; Chow, W.W.; Hou, H.Q.; Geib, K.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1998-01-01

    The monolithic integration of coupled resonators within a vertical cavity laser opens up new possibilities due to the unique ability to tailor the interaction between the cavities. The authors report the first electrically injected coupled resonator vertical-cavity laser diode and demonstrate novel characteristics arising from the cavity coupling, including methods for external modulation of the laser. A coupled mode theory is used model the output modulation of the coupled resonator vertical cavity laser.

  1. Designing Agent Utilities for Coordinated, Scalable and Robust Multi-Agent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Kagan

    2005-01-01

    Coordinating the behavior of a large number of agents to achieve a system level goal poses unique design challenges. In particular, problems of scaling (number of agents in the thousands to tens of thousands), observability (agents have limited sensing capabilities), and robustness (the agents are unreliable) make it impossible to simply apply methods developed for small multi-agent systems composed of reliable agents. To address these problems, we present an approach based on deriving agent goals that are aligned with the overall system goal, and can be computed using information readily available to the agents. Then, each agent uses a simple reinforcement learning algorithm to pursue its own goals. Because of the way in which those goals are derived, there is no need to use difficult to scale external mechanisms to force collaboration or coordination among the agents, or to ensure that agents actively attempt to appropriate the tasks of agents that suffered failures. To present these results in a concrete setting, we focus on the problem of finding the sub-set of a set of imperfect devices that results in the best aggregate device. This is a large distributed agent coordination problem where each agent (e.g., device) needs to determine whether to be part of the aggregate device. Our results show that the approach proposed in this work provides improvements of over an order of magnitude over both traditional search methods and traditional multi-agent methods. Furthermore, the results show that even in extreme cases of agent failures (i.e., half the agents failed midway through the simulation) the system's performance degrades gracefully and still outperforms a failure-free and centralized search algorithm. The results also show that the gains increase as the size of the system (e.g., number of agents) increases. This latter result is particularly encouraging and suggests that this method is ideally suited for domains where the number of agents is currently in the thousands and will reach tens or hundreds of thousands in the near future.

  2. Graphene Coating Coupled Emission

    E-print Network

    Shyamasundar, R.K.

    Graphene Coating Coupled Emission A COMSET, A single sheet of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms, called of graphene and its unique properties, I will present amplification of surface graphene-Ag hybrid films which when graphene is used as the spacer layer in a conventional Ag- harnessed the nonlinear properties

  3. ESD indirect coupling modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graziano Cerri; Roberto De Leo; Valter Mariani Primiani

    1996-01-01

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) indirect coupling on electronic equipment is theoretically and experimentally investigated considering the effects for three typical structures: a coaxial cable, a multilayer PCB, and a metallic enclosure. The analytical approach is based on classical electromagnetic theory and is developed in a simple way that is easy to apply and accurate enough to give the designer a reliable

  4. Dynamic Coupled Component Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando De La Torre; Michael J. Black

    2001-01-01

    We present a method for simultaneously learning linear models of multiple high dimensional data sets and the dependencies between them. For example, we learn asymmetrically coupled linear models for the faces of two dierent people and show how these models can be used to animate one face given a video sequence of the other. We pose the problem as a

  5. Hydrodynamically coupled rigid bodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sujit Nair; Eva Kanso

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers a finite number of rigid bodies moving in potential flow. The dynamics of the solid--fluid system is described in terms of the solid variables only using Kirchhoff potentials. The equations of motion are first derived for the problem of two submerged bodies where one is forced into periodic oscillations. The hydrodynamic coupling causes the free body to

  6. Brahms Mobile Agents: Architecture and Field Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Kaskiris, Charis; vanHoof, Ron

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a model-based, distributed architecture that integrates diverse components in a system designed for lunar and planetary surface operations: an astronaut's space suit, cameras, rover/All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV), robotic assistant, other personnel in a local habitat, and a remote mission support team (with time delay). Software processes, called agents, implemented in the Brahms language, run on multiple, mobile platforms. These mobile agents interpret and transform available data to help people and robotic systems coordinate their actions to make operations more safe and efficient. The Brahms-based mobile agent architecture (MAA) uses a novel combination of agent types so the software agents may understand and facilitate communications between people and between system components. A state-of-the-art spoken dialogue interface is integrated with Brahms models, supporting a speech-driven field observation record and rover command system (e.g., return here later and bring this back to the habitat ). This combination of agents, rover, and model-based spoken dialogue interface constitutes a personal assistant. An important aspect of the methodology involves first simulating the entire system in Brahms, then configuring the agents into a run-time system.

  7. ProgrammingRationalAgents in GOAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindriks, Koen V.

    The agent programming language GOAL is a high-level programming language to program rational agents that derive their choice of action from their beliefsand goals. The language provides the basic building blocks to design and implementrationalagents by meansofa setofprogramming constructs. These programming constructs allow and facilitate the manipulation of an agent’sbeliefs and goals and to structure its decision-making. GOAL agents are called rational because they satisfy a numberof basic rationality constraints and because they decide to perform actions to further their goals based uponareasoning scheme derived from practical reasoning. The programming concepts of belief and goal incorporated into GOAL provide the basis for this form of reasoning and are similarto their common sense counterparts used everyday to explain the actions that we perform. In addition, GOAL provides the means for agents to focus their attention on specic goals and to communicate at the knowledge level. This provides an intuitive basis for writing high-level agent programs. At the same time these concepts and programming constructs have a well-dened, formal semantics. The formal semantics provides the basis for deninga verication framework for GOAL for verifying and reasoning about GOAL agents whichis similar to some of the wellknownagent logics introduced in the literature.

  8. Biological agents database in the armed forces.

    PubMed

    Niemcewicz, Marcin; Kocik, Janusz; Bielecka, Anna; Wierci?ski, Micha?

    2014-10-01

    Rapid detection and identification of the biological agent during both, natural or deliberate outbreak is crucial for implementation of appropriate control measures and procedures in order to mitigate the spread of disease. Determination of pathogen etiology may not only support epidemiological investigation and safety of human beings, but also enhance forensic efforts in pathogen tracing, collection of evidences and correct inference. The article presents objectives of the Biological Agents Database, which was developed for the purpose of the Ministry of National Defense of the Republic of Poland under the European Defence Agency frame. The Biological Agents Database is an electronic catalogue of genetic markers of highly dangerous pathogens and biological agents of weapon of mass destruction concern, which provides full identification of biological threats emerging in Poland and in locations of activity of Polish troops. The Biological Agents Database is a supportive tool used for tracing biological agents' origin as well as rapid identification of agent causing the disease of unknown etiology. It also provides support in diagnosis, analysis, response and exchange of information between institutions that use information contained in it. Therefore, it can be used not only for military purposes, but also in a civilian environment. PMID:25033774

  9. Biological agents as occupational hazards - selected issues.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Cisak, Ewa; Sroka, Jacek; Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zaj?c, Violetta

    2011-12-01

    There are two main groups of biological agents regarded as occupational hazards: allergenic and/or toxic agents forming bioaerosols, and agents causing zoonoses and other infectious diseases. Bioaerosols occurring in the agricultural work environments comprise: bacteria, fungi, high molecular polymers produced by bacteria (endotoxin) or by fungi (?-glucans), low molecular secondary metabolites of fungi (mycotoxins, volatile organic compounds) and various particles of plant and animal origin. All these agents could be a cause of allergic and/or immunotoxic occupational diseases of respiratory organ (airways inflammation, rhinitis, toxic pneumonitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and asthma), conjunctivitis and dermatitis in exposed workers. Very important among zoonotic agents causing occupational diseases are those causing tick-borne diseases: Lyme borreliosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis. Agricultural workers in tropical zones are exposed to mosquito bites causing malaria, the most prevalent vector-borne disease in the world. The group of agents causing other, basically not vector-borne zoonoses, comprises those evoking emerging or re-emerging diseases of global concern, such as: hantaviral diseases, avian and swine influenza, Q fever, leptospiroses, staphylococcal diseases caused by the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains, and diseases caused by parasitic protozoa. Among other infectious, non-zoonotic agents, the greatest hazard for health care workers pose the blood-borne human hepatitis and immunodeficiency viruses (HBV, HCV, HIV). Of interest are also bacteria causing legionellosis in people occupationally exposed to droplet aerosols, mainly from warm water. PMID:22216801

  10. [Decorporation agents for internal radioactive contamination].

    PubMed

    Ohmachi, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    When radionuclides are accidentally ingested or inhaled, blood circulation or tissue/organ deposition of the radionuclides causes systemic or local radiation effects. In such cases, decorporation therapy is used to reduce the health risks due to their intake. Decorporation therapy includes reduction and/or inhibition of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, isotopic dilution, and the use of diuretics, adsorbents, and chelating agents. For example, penicillamine is recommended as a chelating agent for copper contamination, and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid is approved for the treatment of internal contamination with plutonium. During chelation therapy, the removal effect of the drugs should be monitored using a whole-body counter and/or bioassay. Some authorities, such as the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and International Atomic Energy Agency, have reported recommended decorporation agents for each radionuclide. However, few drugs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and many are off-label-use agents. Because many decontamination agents are drugs that have been available for a long time and have limited efficacy, the development of new, higher-efficacy drugs has been carried out mainly in the USA and France. In this article, in addition to an outline of decorporation agents for internal radioactive contamination, an outline of our research on decorporation agents for actinide (uranium and plutonium) contamination and for radio-cesium contamination is also presented. PMID:25832835

  11. Your company's secret change agents.

    PubMed

    Pascale, Richard Tanner; Sternin, Jerry

    2005-05-01

    Organizational change has traditionally come about through top-down initiatives such as hiring experts or importing best-of-breed practices. Such methods usually result in companywide rollouts of templates mandated from on high. These do little to get people excited. But within every organization, there are a few individuals who find unique ways to look at problems that seem impossible to solve. Although these change agents start out with the same tools and access to resources as their peers, they are able to see solutions where others do not. They find a way to bridge the divide between what is happening and what is possible. These positive deviants are the key, the authors believe, to a better way of creating organizational change. Your company can make the most of their methods by following six steps. In Step 1, Make the group the guru, the members of the community are engaged in the process of their own evolution. Step 2, Reframe through facts, entails restating the problem in a way that opens minds to new possibilities. Step 3, Make it safe to learn, involves creating an environment that supports innovative ideas. In Step 4, Make the problem concrete, the community combats abstraction by stating uncomfortable truths. In Step 5, Leverage social proof, the community looks to the larger society for examples of solutions that have worked in parallel situations. In Step 6, Confound the immune defense response, solutions are introduced organically from within the group in a way that promotes acceptance. Throughout the steps, the leader must suspend his or her traditional role in favor of more facilitatory practices. The positive-deviance approach has unearthed solutions to such complicated and diverse problems as malnutrition in Mali and human trafficking in East Java. This methodology can help solve even the most extreme dilemmas. PMID:15929405

  12. Synthetic antiferromagnetic nanoparticles as potential contrast agents in MRI.

    PubMed

    Van Roosbroeck, Ruben; Van Roy, Willem; Stakenborg, Tim; Trekker, Jesse; D'Hollander, Antoine; Dresselaers, Tom; Himmelreich, Uwe; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Lagae, Liesbet

    2014-03-25

    We present the top-down synthesis of a novel type of MRI T2 contrast agent with great control over size and shape using a colloidal lithography technique. The resulting synthetic antiferromagnetic nanoparticles (SAF-NPs) yield improved relaxivities compared to superparamagnetic iron oxide alternatives (SPIONs). For T2 weighted imaging, the outer sphere relaxation theory has shown that the sensitivity of a T2 contrast agent is dependent on the particle size with an optimal size that exceeds the superparamagnetic limit of SPIONs. With the use of the interlayer exchange coupling effect, the SAF-NPs presented here do not suffer from this limit. Adjusting the outer sphere relaxation theory for spherical particles to SAF-NPs, we show both theoretically and experimentally that the SAF-NP size can be optimized to reach the r2 maximum. With measured r2 values up to 355 s(-1) mM(-1), our SAF-NPs show better performance than commercial alternatives and are competitive with the state-of-the-art. This performance is confirmed in an in vitro MRI study on SKOV3 cells. PMID:24483137

  13. The search for scrapie agent nucleic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, J M; Marsh, R F

    1990-01-01

    Despite decades of research, the identity of the scrapie agent has remained elusive. Recent studies have discovered much about the influence of the host genome upon scrapie infection, yet relatively little is known about the causative agent itself. The predominant hypothesis in the scrapie field (the prion hypothesis) argues that the disease is the result of an infectious protein and that nucleic acid is not required for infection. Biological studies of the scrapie agent, however, suggest that a nucleic acid may be involved in the disease. Sensitive molecular biology techniques have yet to identify this putative nucleic acid. PMID:2120561

  14. Cell culture model for antiulcerogenic agents.

    PubMed

    Terano, A; Hiraishi, H; Shimada, T; Takahashi, M; Yoshiura, K; Horie-Sakata, K

    2001-06-15

    To elucidate the mechanisms of antiulcerogenic agents, we established the cell culture model derived from rat gastric epithelium. The cultured cells were identified as mucus-producing cells by using histological analysis. This culture model is useful for investigating the untiulcer effect of various agents and to reveal the mechanisms of the drug action. In particular, the ulcer-healing model using the cultured monolayer is promising and convenient for the study of several growth factors such as HGF as well as antiulcerogenic agents. The effect of polaporezinc in the cultured model is introduced. PMID:11525256

  15. Implementing Explanation Ontology for Agent System Xiaomeng Su1

    E-print Network

    , the ontology is being integrated into a running agent platform ­ Agora to demonstrate the practical usefulness and across agent systems. We base our research on an agent platform, Agora. The Agora system is a multi

  16. SodaBot: A Software Agent Environment and Construction System

    E-print Network

    Coen, Michael H.

    1994-11-02

    This thesis presents SodaBot, a general-purpose software agent user-environment and construction system. Its primary component is the basic software agent --- a computational framework for building agents which is ...

  17. Detoxification of Organophosphate Nerve Agents by Immobilized Dual Functional

    E-print Network

    Chen, Wilfred

    Detoxification of Organophosphate Nerve Agents by Immobilized Dual Functional Biocatalysts of organophosphate nerve agents in bulk liquid phase. ß 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Keywords: pesticides; degradation; OPH; CBD; hollow fiber bioreactor; immobilized cells INTRODUCTION All nerve agents belong

  18. 20 CFR 655.8 - Requirements for agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 false Requirements for agents. 655.8 Section 655.8 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING...Registered Nursing in the United States (H-2B Workers) § 655.8 Requirements for agents. An agent filing...

  19. Simulating prediction markets that include human and automated agents

    E-print Network

    Chang, Wendy, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    In this work I study the interaction of sophisticated trading agents with simpler agents in a prediction market. The goal is to simulate markets with both human and computer agents, and investigate ways to maximize the ...

  20. A Novel Approach to Programming: Agent Based Software Engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dharmendra Sharma; Wanli Ma; Dat Tran; Mary Anderson

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a Agent (and multiagent system) technology originates from artificial intelligence. The continuous and autonomous nature of\\u000a agents and the communication among these agents also make them an excellent candidate for distributed computing and even general\\u000a software applications. Agent based software engineering advocates using the agent technology for typical software development.\\u000a Evolving from object oriented software engineering to agent based software engineering