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1

Multifunctional nanoparticles as coupled contrast agents.  

PubMed

Engineering compact imaging probes with highly integrated modalities is a key focus in bionanotechnology and will have profound impact on molecular diagnostics, imaging and therapeutics. However, combining multiple components on a nanometre scale to create new imaging modalities unavailable from individual components has proven to be challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate iron oxide and gold-coupled core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) with well-defined structural characteristics (for example, size, shell thickness and core-shell separation) and physical properties (for example, electronic, magnetic, optical, thermal and acoustic). The resulting multifunctional nanoprobes not only offer contrast for electron microscopy, magnetic resonance imaging and scattering-based imaging but, more importantly, enable a new imaging mode, magnetomotive photoacoustic imaging, with remarkable contrast enhancement compared with photoacoustic images using conventional NP contrast agents. PMID:20975706

Jin, Yongdong; Jia, Congxian; Huang, Sheng-Wen; O'Donnell, Matthew; Gao, Xiaohu

2010-01-01

2

One-bottle silane coupling agent containing 4-META.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of commercial and experimental silane coupling agents was evaluated by measuring their shear bond strengths to a ceramic disk. Experimental one-bottle silane coupling agents were prepared using 3-MPTS, 4-META, and resin monomers. The surfaces of two ceramic disks (IPS e-max, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Lichtenstein) were treated by a silane coupling agent to bond them to each other; this bonding was mediated by a commercial flowable resin composite (Clearfil Majesty LV, Kuraray, Tokyo, Japan). A commercial silane coupling agent (Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator, Kuraray, Tokyo, Japan) modified by adding 4-META exhibited a significantly higher bond strength than the unmodified commercial one-bottle silane coupling agent. Among the tested materials, two experimental one-bottle silane coupling agents composed of 5% 4-META, 45% 3-MPTS, and 50% resin monomers exhibited statistically highest bond strengths. PMID:23719001

Kitahara, Nobuya; Itoh, Kazuo; Kusunoki, Mizuho; Oikawa, Misa; Miyazaki, Takashi

2013-01-01

3

Wood-Fiber/High-Density-Polyethylene Composites: Coupling Agent Performance  

E-print Network

Wood-Fiber/High-Density-Polyethylene Composites: Coupling Agent Performance John Z. Lu,1 Qinglin Wu mechanical properties of the resultant wood fiber/high-density polyeth- ylene (HDPE) composites was mainly Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 96: 93­102, 2005 Key words: composites; coupling efficiency; fibers; thermo

4

Coupling unstable agents in biological control.  

PubMed

It has long been a goal of farm policy to manage production in such a way that expensive off-farm inputs and negative environmental consequences can be simultaneously minimized. One generalized philosophy that has gained currency in recent years is autonomous pest control, in which complex ecological interactions are encouraged to maintain the ecosystem in a state of permanence with the pest below economic thresholds. Early experience with biological control was hampered significantly by the inherent instability of many of the control agents, suggesting that pursuit of the autonomous strategy could be difficult. Here we show that combining two unstable two-dimensional systems (pest-predator and pest-pathogen) produces a stable three-dimensional system (pest-predator-pathogen) that is robust to perturbations in initial conditions. Contrary to expectations, the inclusion of negative interactions, which are arguably a necessary consequence of increased complexity, can stabilize unstable conditions and rescue biological control of simpler, ineffective pest management systems. PMID:25601561

Ong, Theresa Wei Ying; Vandermeer, John H

2015-01-01

5

Development of high temperature resistant graphite fiber coupling agents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface treatments were investigated as potential coupling agents to improve the elevated temperature shear strength retention of polyimide/graphite and polyphenylquinoxaline/graphite composites. The potential coupling agents were evaluated by fiber strand tensile tests, fiber and composite weight losses at 533 and 588K, and by interlaminar shear strength retention at 533 and 588K. The two surface treatments selected for more extensive evaluation were a coating of Ventromer T-1, a complex organometallic reaction product of titanium tetrachloride and trimethyl borate, and a polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) sizing which was pyrolyzed in nitrogen to form a carbonaceous layer on the fiber. Pyrolyzed polyphenylquinoxaline is a satisfactory coupling agent for polyimide/Thornel 300 graphite fiber composites. During 1000 hours aging at 588K such composites lose a little over half their transverse tensile strength, and suffer a slight loss in flexural modulus. No degradation of flexural strength or interlaminar shear strength occured during 1000 hours aging at 588K. None of the coupling agents examined had a markedly beneficial effect with polyphenylquinoxaline composites.

Griffin, R. N.

1975-01-01

6

Coherent Pattern Prediction in Swarms of Delay-Coupled Agents  

PubMed Central

We consider a general swarm model of self-propelling agents interacting through a pairwise potential in the presence of noise and communication time delay. Previous work has shown that a communication time delay in the swarm induces a pattern bifurcation that depends on the size of the coupling amplitude. We extend these results by completely unfolding the bifurcation structure of the mean field approximation. Our analysis reveals a direct correspondence between the different dynamical behaviors found in different regions of the coupling-time delay plane with the different classes of simulated coherent swarm patterns. We derive the spatiotemporal scales of the swarm structures, as well as demonstrate how the complicated interplay of coupling strength, time delay, noise intensity, and choice of initial conditions can affect the swarm. In particular, our studies show that for sufficiently large values of the coupling strength and/or the time delay, there is a noise intensity threshold that forces a transition of the swarm from a misaligned state into an aligned state. We show that this alignment transition exhibits hysteresis when the noise intensity is taken to be time dependent. PMID:24255625

Mier-y-Teran-Romero, Luis; Forgoston, Eric; Schwartz, Ira B.

2013-01-01

7

Regulating Air Traffic Flow with Coupled Agents Adrian Agogino  

E-print Network

.g., different air- lines), limited resources (e.g., air traffic controllers) and very heavy traffic volume (e problems. This paper extends agent-based methods for controlling air traffic flow to more realistic domains an agent control structure that allows agents to control air traffic flow through one of three mechanisms

Tumer, Kagan

8

Polymeric coupling agents for enhancing the adhesion of epoxy to steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work described in this dissertation involves the conceptualization, design, development and testing of new polymers for their efficiency as coupling agents to enhance the bonding of steel to epoxy. Two novel series of polymeric coupling agents have been tested viz., a quinone-amine polyurethane (QAP) series and a beta-diketone functionalized polymer (BFP) series. Several QAP and BFP polymers were synthesized and studied. These polymers were characterized using Infrared spectroscopy, thermal analyses (Thermogravimetric Analysis, Differential Scanning Calorimetry) and Gel Permeation Chromatography. The surfaces of QAP and BFP polymeric coupling agent treated steel coupons were analyzed using Infrared Reflection Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. These tests gave indications that the QAPs and BFPs interact with the steel surface chemically. The QAPs and BFPs were found to be very effective coupling agents for the steel-epoxy system. The coupling agent treated epoxy-steel torsional joints were tested (in dry and wet environments) in shear. The QAPs were compared with commercial silanes and demonstrated a 10-15% better strength retention and hot water durability. The QAP treated and epoxy resin topcoated steel coupons demonstrated excellent corrosion resistance when tested in a lab-scale salt-spray chamber. The process conditions (in the coupling agent based polymer coating process for steel described in this dissertation) are mild and process control is relatively simple. This organic coating process is more environmentally friendly than other conventionally used toxic processes for steel like Chrome Etching.

Vaideeswaran, Karthik

9

Rebonding performance of different ceramic brackets conditioned with a new silane coupling agent.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the rebonding effect of a new silane coupling agent on various ceramic brackets bonded to ceramic specimen. Different ceramic brackets (Fascination 2, Clarity SL, and In-OvationC) were assigned to three groups: rebonding with new silane coupling agent, rebonding with conventional silane coupling agent, or regular bonding as control (n = 16). Bracket adhesion was calculated with a shear test in a universal testing machine. The bracket-composite-ceramic interface was evaluated using the adhesive remnant index score. One-way analysis of variance was applied for inferential statistics. Rebonding with the new silane coupling agent resulted in high shear bond strengths (SBSs; mean values: 37.44-41.24 MPa) and ceramic specimen fractures. Rebonding with the conventional silane coupling agent resulted in significantly (P < 0.001) lower clinically adequate SBS (mean values: 20.20-29.92 MPa) with the least ceramic specimen fractures. Regularly bonded ceramic brackets resulted in clinically adequate to high SBS (mean values: 17.06-41.56 MPa) depending on their bracket base design. Rebonded ceramic brackets showed sufficient SBS to ceramic specimen surfaces. However, increased bracket adhesion was associated with a risk of ceramic specimen surface damage. Therefore, ceramic brackets rebonded with the new silane coupling should be debonded cautiously using alternative debonding methods. PMID:21926314

Falkensammer, Frank; Jonke, Erwin; Bertl, Michael; Freudenthaler, Josef; Bantleon, Hans Peter

2013-02-01

10

Development and Evaluation of Novel Coupling Agents for Kenaf-Fiber-Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural fibers are gaining popularity as reinforcement materials for thermoset resins over the last two decades. Natural fibers are inexpensive, abundant, renewable and environmentally friendly. Kenaf fibers are one of the natural fibers that can potentially be used for reinforcing unsaturated polyester (UPE). As a polymer matrix, UPE enjoys a 40% market share of all the thermoset composites. This widespread application is due to many favorable characteristics including low cost, ease of cure at room temperature, ease of molding, a good balance of mechanical, electrical and chemical properties. One of the barriers for the full utilization of the kenaf fiber reinforced UPE composites, however, is the poor interfacial adhesion between the natural fibers and the UPE resins. The good interfacial adhesion between kenaf fibers and UPE matrix is essential for generating the desired properties of kenaf-UPE composites for most of the end applications. Use of a coupling agent is one of the most effective ways of improving the interfacial adhesion. In this study, six novel effective coupling agents were developed and investigated for kenaf-UPE composites: DIH-HEA, MFA, NMA, AESO-DIH, AESO-MDI, and AESO-PMDI. All the coupling agents were able to improve the interfacial adhesion between kanaf and UPE resins. The coupling agents were found to significantly enhance the flexural properties and water resistance of the kenaf-UPE composites. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed all the coupling agents were covalently bonded onto kenaf fibers. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the composites revealed the improved interfacial adhesion between kanaf fibers and UPE resins.

Ren, Xiaofeng

11

6-Hydrazinonicotinamide Derivatives as Bifunctional Coupling Agents for 99m Tc-Labeling of Small Biomolecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

99mTc-labeled small biomolecules are a class of receptor-based, target specific radiopharmaceuticals for the detection of various diseases, such as cancer, thrombosis, infection and inflammation. To label a small biomolecule with 99mTc, a bifunctional coupling agent (BFC) is needed so that the 99mTc can be tightly attached to the biomolecule and can localize at the site of the diseased tissue. For

Shuang Liu

12

Synthesis of UV-curable silane-coupling agent as an adhesion promoter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In color filter industry, a problem was found that the adhesion strength between glass substrate and black matrix was largely decreased after ITO sputtering process. In order to solve this problem, a new UV-curable silane-coupling agent (UV-SCA) was synthesized to be an adhesion promoter, which was synthesized by the reaction between the hydroxyl group of bisphenol A epoxy diacrylate and

Kuo-Huai Kuo; Wen-Yen Chiu; Kuo-Huang Hsieh

2009-01-01

13

Agent-based Model for the Coupled Human-Climate System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated assessment models have been used to predict the outcome of coupled economic growth, resource use, greenhouse gas emissions and climate change, both for scientific and policy purposes. These models generally have employed significant simplifications that suppress nonlinearities and the possibility of multiple equilibria in both their economic (DeCanio, 2005) and climate (Schneider and Kuntz-Duriseti, 2002) components. As one step toward exploring general features of the nonlinear dynamics of the coupled system, we have developed a series of variations on the well studied RICE and DICE models, which employ different forms of agent-based market dynamics and "climate surprises." Markets are introduced through the replacement of the production function of the DICE/RICE models with an agent-based market modeling the interactions of producers, policymakers, and consumer agents. Technological change and population growth are treated endogenously. Climate surprises are representations of positive (for example, ice sheet collapse) or negative (for example, increased aerosols from desertification) feedbacks that are turned on with probability depending on warming. Initial results point toward the possibility of large amplitude instabilities in the coupled human-climate system owing to the mismatch between short outlook market dynamics and long term climate responses. Implications for predictability of future climate will be discussed. Supported by the Andrew W Mellon Foundation and the UC Academic Senate.

Zvoleff, A.; Werner, B.

2006-12-01

14

Soft magnetic composites of iron-phenolic and the influence of silane coupling agent on the magnetic properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effect of silane coupling agent on the magnetic properties of iron-phenolic soft magnetic composite materials at operating frequencies between 50Hz and 1000kHz. Coupling agents, cause a better wetting and a uniform coating distribution between the iron powders and the phenolic coating. The magnetic properties of the samples were measured by an LCR meter. The phase identification

A. H. Taghvaei; H. Shokrollahi; A. Ebrahimi; K. Janghorban

2009-01-01

15

End-functional silicone coupling agent modified PEO\\/P(VDF-HFP)\\/SiO2 nanocomposite polymer electrolyte DSSC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The end-functional silicone coupling agent (dodecyl-trimethoxysilane, DTMS for short) was used to modify the PEO\\/P(VDF-HFP)\\/SiO2 nanocomposite polymer electrolyte (CPE) and the different amounts of DTMS modification effects were studied. The experiments showed the silicone coupling agent with hydrophobic alkyl chains (-C12H25) chemically engineered on the SiO2 nanoparticles, and formed a Si-O-Si cross-linked network in the new nanocomposite polymer electrolyte. Proper

Jing Zhang; Ying Yang; Sujuan Wu; Sheng Xu; Conghua Zhou; Hao Hu; Bolei Chen; Xiaodong Xiong; Bobby Sebo; Hongwei Han; Xingzhong Zhao

2008-01-01

16

Development of polypropylene/wood flour ecocomposites. Evaluation of silane as coupling agent  

SciTech Connect

The effects of Pinus Sylvestris wood flour as filler in polypropylene matrix was evaluated. The mechanical properties and the morphology of different wood flour/polypropylene composites (WPC) were studied. The composites materials were prepared with several amounts of wood flour from 10 to 30% wt. Mechanical properties show that the wood flour incorporation increases the rigidity of the composites. Morphological analysis indicates that agglomerates are formed, with amounts exceeding 30% of wood flour. For the silane--treated composites, the dispersion of the filler into the polypropylene (PP) matrix improved. Shore D hardness of the composites is decreased with the addition of the coupling agent.

Bouza, R.; Barral, L.; Abad, M. J.; Montero, B. [Grupo de Polimeros, Dpto. de Fisica, E.U.P. Ferrol, Universidad de A Coruna, Avda. 19 de Febrero s/n, 15405 Ferrol (Spain)

2010-06-02

17

Investigating the use of coupling agents to improve the interfacial properties between a resorbable phosphate glass and polylactic acid matrix.  

PubMed

Eight different chemicals were investigated as potential candidate coupling agents for phosphate glass fibre reinforced polylactic acid composites. Evidence of reaction of the coupling agents with phosphate glass and their effect on surface wettability and glass degradation were studied along with their principle role of improving the interface between glass reinforcement and polymer matrix. It was found that, with an optimal amount of coupling agent on the surface of the glass/polymer, interfacial shear strength improved by a factor of 5. Evidence of covalent bonding between agent and glass was found for three of the coupling agents investigated, namely: 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane; etidronic acid and hexamethylene diisocyanate. These three coupling agents also improved the interfacial shear strength and increased the hydrophobicity of the glass surface. It is expected that this would provide an improvement in the macroscopic properties of full-scale composites fabricated from the same materials which may also help to retain these properties for the desired length of time by retarding the breakdown of the fibre/matrix interface within these composites. PMID:22781920

Hasan, Muhammad Sami; Ahmed, Ifty; Parsons, Andrew J; Rudd, Chris D; Walker, Gavin S; Scotchford, Colin A

2013-09-01

18

ZnO nanowire-based glucose biosensors with different coupling agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ZnO-nanowire-based glucose biosensors were fabricated by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) onto a linker attached to ZnO nanowires. Different coupling agents were used, namely (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS), (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), and (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane (APS), to increase the affinity of GOx binding to ZnO nanowires. The amount of GOx immobilized on the ZnO nanowires, the performance, sensitivity, and Michaelis-Menten constant of each biosensor, and the electron transfer resistance through the biosensor were all measured in order to investigate the effect of the coupling agent on the ZnO nanowire-based biosensor. Among the different biosensors, the APS-treated biosensor had the highest sensitivity (17.72 ?A cm-2 mM-1) and the lowest Michaelis-Menten constant (1.37 mM). Since APS-treated ZnO nanowires showed the largest number of Csbnd N groups and the lowest electron transfer resistance through the biosensor, we concluded that these properties were the key factors in the performance of APS-treated glucose biosensors.

Jung, Juneui; Lim, Sangwoo

2013-01-01

19

Cytocompatibility and Mechanical Properties of Short Phosphate Glass Fibre Reinforced Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composites: Effect of Coupling Agent Mediated Interface  

PubMed Central

In this study three chemical agents Amino-propyl-triethoxy-silane (APS), sorbitol ended PLA oligomer (SPLA) and Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) were identified to be used as coupling agents to react with the phosphate glass fibre (PGF) reinforcement and the polylactic acid (PLA) polymer matrix of the composite. Composites were prepared with short chopped strand fibres (l = 20 mm, ? = 20 µm) in a random arrangement within PLA matrix. Improved, initial composite flexural strength (~20 MPa) was observed for APS treated fibres, which was suggested to be due to enhanced bonding between the fibres and polymer matrix. Both APS and HDI treated fibres were suggested to be covalently linked with the PLA matrix. The hydrophobicity induced by these coupling agents (HDI, APS) helped to resist hydrolysis of the interface and thus retained their mechanical properties for an extended period of time as compared to non-treated control. Approximately 70% of initial strength and 65% of initial modulus was retained by HDI treated fibre composites in contrast to the control, where only ~50% of strength and modulus was retained after 28 days of immersion in PBS at 37 °C. All coupling agent treated and control composites demonstrated good cytocompatibility which was comparable to the tissue culture polystyrene (TCP) control, supporting the use of these materials as coupling agent’s within medical implant devices. PMID:24955744

Hasan, Muhammad Sami; Ahmed, Ifty; Parsons, Andrew; Walker, Gavin; Scotchford, Colin

2012-01-01

20

Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Annual report, October 1992--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

Investigation of Oil Recovery Improvement by Coupling and Interfacial Tension Agent and a Mobility Control Agent in Light Oil Reservoirs will study two major areas concerning co-injecting an interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent. The first area defines the interactions of alkaline agent, surfactants, and polymers on a fluid-fluid and fluid-rock basis. The second area concerns the economic improvement of the combined technology. This report examines the interactions of different alkaline agents, surfactants, and polymer combinations on a fluid-fluid basis. Alkali and surfactant combine to reduce the interfacial tension between a low acid number, 42 API gravity crude oil and the aqueous solution to values lower than either agent alone. Surfactant structure can vary from linear chain sulfonates to alkyl aryl sulfonates to produce low interfacial tension values when combined with alkali. However as a class, the alkyl aryl sulfonates were the most effective surfactants. Surfactant olefinic character appears to be critical in developing low interfacial tensions. For the 42 API gravity crude oil, surfactants with molecular weights ranging from 370 to 450 amu are more effective in lowering interfacial tension. Ultra low interfacial tensions were achieved with all of the alkaline agents evaluated when combined with appropriate surfactants. Different interfacial tension reduction characteristics with the various alkali types indicates alkali interacts synergistically with the surfactants to develop interfacial tension reduction. The solution pH is not a determining factor in lowering interfacial tension. Surfactant is the dominant agent for interfacial tension reduction.

Pitts, M.J.

1994-06-01

21

Surface modification of nano-TiN by using silane coupling agent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium nitride (TiN) nano-particles were subjected to graft modification by silane coupling agent (KH-570) via a direct blending method. The hydroxyl groups on the surface of TiN nano-particles can interact with silanol groups [-Si-OCH3] of KH-570 forming an organic coating layer. The covalent bonds (Ti-O-Si) formation was testified by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Through transmission electron micrograph (TEM) observations, it was found that KH-570 could improve the dispersibility of nano-TiN particles in ethyl acetate. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and contact angle measurements indicated that KH-570 molecules were adsorbed or anchored on the surface of nano-TiN particle and the net efficiency of it was 22.76 %, which facilitated to hinder the aggregation of nano-TiN particles.

Cheng, Guojun; Luo, Jiaqi; Qian, Jiasheng; Miao, Jibin

2014-06-01

22

Improved mechanical properties of HDPE/nano-alumina composite through silane coupling agent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of silane coupling agent to mechanical properties of HDPE/nano-alumina composite was investigated. Nano-alumina used in this study was produced by using sol-gel method. The shape and size of nano-alumina were determined by using TEM. Prior to the usage of nano alumina as a filler in the polymer matrix, (3-methacryloxypropyl) trimethoxysilane (MPS) was used to functionalize the nanoparticles due to its bifunctional nature: hydrolysable group (-Si(OCH3)3) and unsaturated carbon-carbon double bond. The XRD result shows diffraction spectrum of the synthesized nano-alumina. In order to improve the mechanical properties of the composite, nanoalumina was treated with (3-methacryloxypropyl) trimethoxysilane (MPS). A high tensile strength, is achieved at 4 wt% of MPS.

Akmil, N.; Luqman, C. A.; Ahmad, M.; Zaman, K.

2012-11-01

23

Effect of silane coupling agent chemistry on electrical breakdown across hybrid organic-inorganic insulating films.  

PubMed

Dielectric breakdown measurements were conducted on self-assembled monolayer (SAM)/native silicon oxide hybrid dielectrics using conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM). By depositing silane coupling agents (SCAs) through a diffusional barrier layer, SAM roughness was decoupled from chemistry to compare the chemical effects of exposed R-group functionality on dielectric breakdown. Using Weibull and current-voltage (I-V) analysis, the breakdown strength was observed to be independent of SCA R-group length, and the addition of a SAM was seen to improve the breakdown strength relative to native silicon oxide by up to 158%. Fluorinated SCAs were observed to suppress tunneling leakage and exhibited increased breakdown strength relative to their hydrocarbon analogs. Electron trapping, scattering, or attachment processes inherent to the fluorinated moieties are thought to be the origin of the improved breakdown properties. PMID:25010384

Diebold, Roger M; Gordon, Michael J; Clarke, David R

2014-08-13

24

Effects of the methyltrimethoxysilane coupling agent on phenolic and miscanthus composites containing calcium sulfite scrubber material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research is to test the effects of methyltrimethoxysilane coupling agent on composite material containing calcium sulfite obtained from the Southern Illinois Power Co-operative. This scrubber material and the miscanthus plant are of interest due to their use in coal burning power plants to reduce toxic emission. When calcium sulfate is passed through coal fire gas emissions it absorbs mercury and sulfur. In these composites it is used as filler to reduce cost. Miscanthus is a source of both cellulose reinforcement and some natural resin. This plant has low care requirements, little mineral content, useful energy return, and positive environmental effects. Under investigation is whether a post-cure procedure or a silane coupling agent will positively impact the composite. Hot pressing alone may not be enough to fully cure the phenolic. It is hoped that the silane will increase the strength characteristics of the composite by enhancing adhesion between the calcium sulfite and phenolic resin. Possible effects on the miscanthus by the silane will also be tested. Phenolic is being utilized because of its recycling and biodegradable properties along with cost effectiveness in mass production. Composite mechanical performance was measured through 3-point bending to measure flexural strength and strain at breakage. A dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) was used to find thermomechanical properties. The post-cure was found to be effective, particularly on the final composite containing silane. When methyltrimethoxysilane was added to the miscanthus prior to fabrication, it was found to reduce flexural strength and density. However the addition of methyltrimethoxysilane to the calcium sulfite altered thermo-mechanical properties to a state more like pure phenolic, with added flexibility and thermal stability.

Jones, Sean

25

Surface Modification of High Porosity Alumina Scaffold by Silane Coupling Agent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alumina is a bioceramic with improved mechanical properties in comparison to hydroxyapatite. It is also an inert biomaterial in the human body environment of good biocompatible characteristics. Silane coupling agents are capable to form a durable bond between organic and inorganic materials. However, formation of hydroxyl functional groups may enhance coupling of silane molecules on the scaffolds surface and improves the bioactivity of inert alumina. In this research, alumina scaffolds were immersed in H2O2/H2SO4 solution. The hydrated scaffolds were then immersed in different concentrations of ?-Methacryloxy propyl trimethoxy silane (MTMS)/methanol/distilled water solutions. X-ray diffraction pattern was used for evaluation of phase changes. The structural changes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Morphology of the resulting scaffolds was observed by scanning electron microscopy and showed a thin layer of MTMS were formed on the alumina scaffold. The results confirmed the surface modification of alumina scaffolds were performed successfully by MTMS. These scaffolds had properly interconnected porosities with appropriate pore size that can be useful for hard tissues regeneration.

Joughehdoust, Sedigheh; Behnamghader, Aliasghar; Imani, Mohammad; Daliri, Morteza; Jabbari, Esmaeil

2011-12-01

26

Bifunctional Coupling Agents for Radiolabeling of Biomolecules and Target-Specific Delivery of Metallic Radionuclides  

PubMed Central

Receptor-based radiopharmaceuticals are of great current interest in early molecular imaging and radiotherapy of cancers, and provide a unique tool for target-specific delivery of radionuclides to the diseased tissues. In general, a target-specific radiopharmaceutical can be divided into four parts: targeting biomolecule (BM), pharmacokinetic modifying (PKM) linker, bifunctional coupling or chelating agent (BFC), and radionuclide. The targeting biomolecule serves as a “carrier” for specific delivery of the radionuclide. PKM linkers are used to modify radiotracer excretion kinetics. BFC is needed for radiolabeling of biomolecules with a metallic radionuclide. Different radiometals have significant difference in their coordination chemistry, and require BFCs with different donor atoms and chelator frameworks. Since the radiometal chelate can have a significant impact on physical and biological properties of the target-specific radiopharmaceutical, its excretion kinetics can be altered by modifying the coordination environment with various chelators or coligand, if needed. This review will focus on the design of BFCs and their coordination chemistry with technetium, copper, gallium, indium, yttrium and lanthanide radiometals. PMID:18538888

Liu, Shuang

2008-01-01

27

Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Second annual report, October 1993--September 1994  

SciTech Connect

{open_quotes}Investigation of Oil Recovery Improvement by Coupling an Interfacial Tension Agent and a Mobility Control Agent in Light Oil Reservoirs{close_quotes} is studying two major areas concerning co-injecting an interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent. The first area defines the interactions of alkaline agents, surfactants, and polymers on a fluid-fluid and a fluid-rock basis. The second area concerns the economic improvement of the combined technology. This report continues the fluid-fluid interaction evaluations and begins the fluid-rock studies. Fluid-fluid interfacial tension work determined that replacing sodium ion with either potassium or ammonium ion in solutions with interfacial tension reduction up to 19,600 fold was detrimental and had little or no effect on alkali-surfactant solutions with interfacial tension reduction of 100 to 200 fold. Reservoir brine increases interfacial tension between crude oil and alkaline-surfactant solutions. Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-surfactant solutions maintained ultra low and low interfacial tension values better than NaOH-surfactant solutions. The initial phase of the fluid-rock investigations was adsorption studies. Surfactant adsorption is reduced when co-dissolved with alkali. Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} are more efficient at reducing surfactant adsorption than NaOH. When polymer is added to the surfactant solution, surfactant adsorption is reduced as well. When both polymer and alkali are added, polymer is the dominate component, reducing the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and NaOH effect on adsorption. Substituting sodium ion with potassium or ammonium ion increased or decreased surfactant adsorption depending on surfactant structure with alkali having a less significant effect. No consistent change of surfactant adsorption with increasing salinity was observed in the presence or absence of alkali or polymer.

Pitts, M.J.

1995-04-01

28

Local residents trained as 'influence agents' most effective in persuading African couples on HIV counseling and testing.  

PubMed

Couples in sub-Saharan Africa are the largest group in the world at risk for HIV infection. Couples counseling and testing programs have been shown to reduce HIV transmission, but such programs remain rare in Africa. Before couples counseling and testing can become the norm, it is essential to increase demand for the services. We evaluated the effectiveness of several promotional strategies during a two-year program in Kitwe and Ndola, Zambia. The program attracted more than 7,600 couples through the use of radio broadcasts, billboards, and other strategies. The most effective recruiting technique was the use of local residents trained as "influence agents" to reach out to friends, neighbors, and others in their sphere of influence. PMID:21821565

Lambdin, Barrot Hopkins; Kanweka, William; Inambao, Mubiana; Mwananyanda, Lawrence; Shah, Heena Dinesh; Linton, Sabriya; Wong, Frank; Luisi, Nicole; Tichacek, Amanda; Kalowa, James; Chomba, Elwyn; Allen, Susan

2011-08-01

29

Highly Efficient Arsenic Removal Using a Composite of Ultrafine Magnetite Nanoparticles Interlinked by Silane Coupling Agents  

PubMed Central

Arsenic (As) contamination in groundwater is a great environmental health concern and is often the result of contact between groundwater and arsenic-containing rocks or sediments and from variation of pH and redox potentials in the subsurface. In the past decade, magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) have been shown to have high adsorption activity towards As. Alerted by the reported cytotoxicity of 5–12 nm MNP, we studied the adsorption behavior of 1.15 nm MNP and a MNP composite (MNPC), MNPs interlinked by silane coupling agents. With an initial concentration of As at 25 mg L?1, MNPs exhibited high adsorption capacity for As(V) and As (III), 206.9 mg·g?1 and 168.6 mg·g?1 under anaerobic conditions, respectively, and 109.9 mg·g?1 and 108.6 mg·g?1 under aerobic conditions, respectively. Under aerobic conditions, MNPC achieved even higher adsorption capacity than MNP, 165.1 mg·g?1 on As(V) and 157.9 mg·g?1 on As(III). For As(V) at 50 mg L?1, MNPC achieved an adsorption capacity as high as 341.8 mg·g?1, the highest in the literature. A kinetic study indicated that this adsorption reaction can reach equilibrium within 15 min and the rate constant of As(V) is about 1.9 times higher than that of As(III). These results suggested that MNPC can serve as a highly effective adsorbent for fast removal of As. PMID:23202769

Chang, Shu-Chi; Yu, Yu-Han; Li, Cheng-Hao; Wu, Chin-Ching; Lei, Hao-Yun

2012-01-01

30

A novel method for the assessment of methyl parathion by using coupling agents in environmental and commercial samples.  

PubMed

A sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric method for the determination of reduced methyl parathion (=O,O-dimethyl O-(4-nitrophenyl) phosphorothioate) is described. The method is based on the interaction of diazotized reduced methyl parathion with 8-hydroxyquinoline (=quinolin-8-ol; 8-HQ) and 3-aminophenol (3-AP) as new coupling agents. Absorbances of the resulting chromophores are measured at 430 and 440 nm, respectively, and colored products were stable for at least 2 days. Beer's law is obeyed over the methyl parathion concentration range 0.2-5.5 microg ml(-1) for 8-HQ and 0.5-6.0 microg ml(-1) for 3-AP. From the data, it was confirmed that the two coupling agents can be effectively applied for the determination of methyl parathion in environmental and commercial samples. PMID:17256738

Nagaraja, Padmarajaiah; Bhaskara, Besagarahally L

2007-01-01

31

Gathering Agents on a Lattice by Coupling Reaction-Diusion and Chemotaxis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the question as to which are the minimal ingredients to ob- tain a decentralised gathering of agents that move on a lattice. The agents and their environment are described with a stochastic model inspired from biology: the aggregation of the Dictyostelium discoideum cellular slime mold. The environment is an active lattice, which cells transmit infor- mation according to

Nazim Fates

32

Mechanical and dynamic characteristics of encapsulated microbubbles coupled by magnetic nanoparticles as multifunctional imaging and drug delivery agents.  

PubMed

Development of magnetic encapsulated microbubble agents that can integrate multiple diagnostic and therapeutic functions is a key focus in both biomedical engineering and nanotechnology and one which will have far-reaching impact on medical diagnosis and therapies. However, properly designing multifunctional agents that can satisfy particular diagnostic/therapeutic requirements has been recognized as rather challenging, because there is a lack of comprehensive understanding of how the integration of magnetic nanoparticles to microbubble encapsulating shells affects their mechanical properties and dynamic performance in ultrasound imaging and drug delivery. Here, a multifunctional imaging contrast and in-situ gene/drug delivery agent was synthesized by coupling super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) into albumin-shelled microbubbles. Systematical studies were performed to investigate the SPIO-concentration-dependence of microbubble mechanical properties, acoustic scattering response, inertial cavitation activity and ultrasound-facilitated gene transfection effect. These demonstrated that, with the increasing SPIO concentration, the microbubble mean diameter and shell stiffness increased and ultrasound scattering response and inertial cavitation activity could be significantly enhanced. However, an optimized ultrasound-facilitated vascular endothelial growth factor transfection outcome would be achieved by adopting magnetic albumin-shelled microbubbles with an appropriate SPIO concentration of 114.7?µg?ml(-1). The current results would provide helpful guidance for future development of multifunctional agents and further optimization of their diagnostic/therapeutic performance in clinic. PMID:25327566

Guo, Gepu; Lu, Lu; Yin, Leilei; Tu, Juan; Guo, Xiasheng; Wu, Junru; Xu, Di; Zhang, Dong

2014-11-21

33

Coupling multi-agent model and GIS to simulate pine wood nematode disease spread in ZheJiang Province, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A coupled method based on multi-agent model, remote sensing and GIS is described to simulate the forest disease spread. The coupled model focuses on the temporal dynamics of the Bursaphelenchus xylophilus population at the landscape scale. Each individual is modeled as an autonomous agent who behaves according to a set of rules including spreading in the landscape, feeding on Pinus massoniana, sheltering in forest edges and dying, constrained by terrain, land cover and other variables. The model parameters are derived from remote sensing data and field measurements. Ten factors, including damage degree of Pinus Massoniana, altitude and slope, are helped to build the transfer rules. The main outputs are the dynamic disease distribution maps and survived pine population. Our method is applied and validated in DingHai distinct, Zhou Shan city of Zhejiang Province. Three Landsat TM images from the year 1991 to 2006 are used for the pine information extraction. The extracted pine distribution map is used to compare with the simulated surviving pine map. The results show that the coupled model can produce reasonable results and be used as a virtual experiment tool. However, it is difficult to simulate the human activities to help or prevent disease spread and the long fly behavior of insect vectors. Therefore, there still exists some difference between the simulated results and the real data. At the next step, those factors will be considered.

Huang, Huaguo; Wang, Lei; Zhang, XiaoLi; Luo, YouQing; Zhao, Liqiong

2008-10-01

34

Amide coupling reaction for the synthesis of bispyridine-based ligands and their complexation to platinum as dinuclear anticancer agents.  

PubMed

Amide coupling reactions can be used to synthesize bispyridine-based ligands for use as bridging linkers in multinuclear platinum anticancer drugs. Isonicotinic acid, or its derivatives, are coupled to variable length diaminoalkane chains under an inert atmosphere in anhydrous DMF or DMSO with the use of a weak base, triethylamine, and a coupling agent, 1-propylphosphonic anhydride. The products precipitate from solution upon formation or can be precipitated by the addition of water. If desired, the ligands can be further purified by recrystallization from hot water. Dinuclear platinum complex synthesis using the bispyridine ligands is done in hot water using transplatin. The most informative of the chemical characterization techniques to determine the structure and gross purity of both the bispyridine ligands and the final platinum complexes is (1)H NMR with particular analysis of the aromatic region of the spectra (7-9 ppm). The platinum complexes have potential application as anticancer agents and the synthesis method can be modified to produce trinuclear and other multinuclear complexes with different hydrogen bonding functionality in the bridging ligand. PMID:24893964

Apps, Michael G; Johnson, Ben W; Sutcliffe, Oliver B; Brown, Sarah D; Wheate, Nial J

2014-01-01

35

Toward a coupling between GIS and agent simulation: USM, an OrbisGIS extension to model urban evolution at a large scale  

E-print Network

Toward a coupling between GIS and agent simulation: USM, an OrbisGIS extension to model urban LIENSS, **Atelier SIG-IRSTV Keywords: urban environment, simulation, agent-based modeling, spatial exciting fields in urban studies research. The interest of such a model lies more in the past than

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

36

Photocatalytic thin films coupled with polymeric microcapsules for the controlled-release of volatile agents upon solar activation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reportson the application of solar-activated photocatalytic thin films that allow the controlled-release of volatile agents (e.g., insecticides, repellents) from the interior of adsorbedpolymericmicrocapsules. In order to standardize the tests, a quantification of the inherent controlled-release of a particular volatile agent is determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy, so that an application can be offered to a wide range of supports from various industrial sectors, such as in textiles (clothing, curtains, mosquito nets). This technology takes advantage of the established photocatalytic property of titanium dioxide (TiO2) for the use as an active surface/site to promote the controlled-release of a specific vapor (volatile agentfrom within the aforementioned microcapsules.

Oliveira, L. F.; Marques, J.; Coutinho, P. J. G.; Parpot, P.; Tavares, C. J.

2013-06-01

37

Theory of contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging: coupling of spin relaxation and transport.  

PubMed

The role of diffusive transport on the enhancement of nuclear spin relaxation through NMR contrast agents is described by means of diffusion-Bloch equations. These equations are solved in the mean relaxation time approximation [W. Nadler and K. Schulten, J. Chem. Phys. 82, 151-160 (1985)]. A model presented considers relaxation enhancement in tissue in which contrast agents confined to intravascular spaces affect nuclear spin in the extravascular volume. We show how the mean relaxation time depends on capillary density, on permeability, and on diffusion. A second model describes enhanced phase relaxation of liver tissue in the presence of magnetic particles in Kupffer cells. The relationship between relaxation rate and density of Kupffer cells is investigated. The diagnostic value of enhanced nuclear relaxation in the presence of contrast agents is discussed on the basis of the systematic mathematical results obtained. PMID:1625562

Bauer, W R; Schulten, K

1992-07-01

38

Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This research studied the oil recovery potential of flooding light oil reservoirs by combining interfacial tension reducing agent(s) with a mobility control agent. The specific objectives were: To define the mechanisms and limitations of co-injecting interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent to recover incremental oil. Specifically, the study focused on the fluid-fluid and fluid-rock interactions. To evaluate the economics of the combination technology and investigate methods to make the process more profitable. Specific areas of study were to evaluate different chemical concentration tapers and the volume of chemical injection required to give optimal oil recovery.

Pitts, M.

1995-12-01

39

The influence of coupling agents on mechanical property retention and long-term cytocompatibility of phosphate glass fibre reinforced PLA composites.  

PubMed

Completely resorbable composites are an attractive alternative for metallic bone-fracture fixation devices. However, failure of their interfacial integrity within aqueous environments, which can lead to a rapid loss of overall mechanical properties, has been reported in the literature. In this study coupling agents were investigated for phosphate glass fibre reinforced poly(lactic acid) composites. Three coupling agents with varying wettability were employed to improve initial mechanical properties and their retention in vitro via improvement of the interfacial bond between polymer matrix and fibres. Coupling agents were grafted onto the glass fibres by dip-coating in coupling agent solution at optimised concentrations. Three-aminopropyltriethoxy silane and sorbitol ended PLA oligomer treatments improved the initial flexural properties (27% strength with APS and 17% modulus via SPLA treatment) of the composites and 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) treatments also decreased the loss of flexural strength and modulus during degradation. HDI treated samples retained 57.2% and 64.7% of their initial strength and modulus, respectively compared to control where only 34% of initial strength and 52% of initial modulus was retained after 28 days of degradation in PBS solution. Initial improvements in flexural properties were associated with improved shear bond strength at the interface due to covalent bonding between the glass fibres and polymer matrix provided by the coupling agents. Delay in mechanical property loss with degradation was suggested to be due to the hydrophobicity at the interface, which could have hindered the interfacial integrity loss and consequently loss of mechanical integrity of the composites. All coupling agent treated and control composites were tested for cytocompatibility using a primary human osteoblast cell line. A comparable response to the control, in terms of cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation was observed supporting the use of these agents within implantable devices. PMID:23959231

Hasan, M S; Ahmed, I; Parsons, A J; Walker, G S; Scotchford, C A

2013-12-01

40

Iron-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. A scalable synthesis of the immunosuppressive agent FTY720.  

PubMed

A chemo- and regioselective cross-coupling reaction of the functionalized aryl triflate 5 with octylmagnesium bromide catalyzed by cheap, nontoxic, and environmentally benign Fe(acac)(3) sets the basis for a practical and scaleable synthesis of the octylbenzene derivative 6, which serves as a key building block for the preparation of FTY720 (1). This 2-amino-1,3-propanediol derivative shows highly promising immunosuppressive properties and is currently in human clinical phase III trials. PMID:15153030

Seidel, Günter; Laurich, Daniel; Fürstner, Alois

2004-05-28

41

Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Summary annual report, October 1994September 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study will investigate two major areas concerning co-injecting an interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent into petroleum reservoirs. The first will consist of defining the mechanisms of interaction of an alkaline agent, a surfactant, and a polymer on a fluid-fluid and a fluid-rock basis. The second is the improvement of the economics of the combined technology.

Pitts

1995-01-01

42

Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Technical progress report, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

The study will investigate two major areas concerning co-injecting on interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent into petroleum reservoirs. The first will consist of defining the mechanisms of interaction of an alkaline agent, a surfactant, and a polymer on a fluid-fluid and fluid-rock basis. The second is the improvement of the economic of the combined technology. This report examines the effect of polymer addition to different combinations of alkaline agents and surfactants. Xanthan gum and polyacrylamide polymers were evaluated. In addition, the effect of alkali and polymer on the critical micelle concentration of different surfactant types was investigated.

Pitts, M.J.

1993-10-01

43

Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Technical progress report, July--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

The study will investigate two major areas concerning co-injecting an interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent into petroleum reservoirs. The first will consist of defining the mechanisms of interaction of an alkaline agent, a surfactant, and a polymer on a fluid-fluid and a fluid-rock basis. The second is the improvement of the economics of the combined technology. This report examines the effect of polymer addition to different combinations of alkaline agents and surfactants. Xanthan gum and polyacrylamide polymers were evaluated. In addition, the effect of alkali and polymer on the critical micelle concentration of different surfactant types was investigated.

Pitts, M.J.

1993-12-01

44

Effects of surface treatment with coupling agents of PVDF-HFP fibers on the improvement of the adhesion characteristics on PDMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface treatment of polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP) fibers was conducted with coupling agents such as epoxy silane, amino silane, and titanate to improve the adhesion characteristics of PVDF-HFP fibers and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The adhesion strength was largest when 4 wt% amino silane was used for surface treatment, showing a 250% improvement compared to the untreated case. Surface roughening and shrinking of the PVDF-HFP fibers were observed after surface treatment, but no chemical bonding occurred between the PVDF-HFP fibers and the coupling agents. It was thus concluded that the improvement of the adhesion characteristics of the PVDF-HFP fibers and PDMS was caused by the physical bonding between them due to the surface treatment with coupling agents. In addition, for the surface roughening mechanism, amino silane infiltration into the PVDF-HFP fibers during the surface treatment, followed by extraction during the drying process, was suggested.

Kwon, O. M.; See, S. J.; Kim, S. S.; Hwang, H. Y.

2014-12-01

45

3-Aminophenol as a novel coupling agent for the spectrophotometric determination of sulfonamide derivatives.  

PubMed

A rapid, simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of some sulfa drugs is described. The method is based on the formation of orange yellow colored azo product by the diazotization of sulfonamides, viz., dapsone (DAP), sulfathiazole (SFT), sulfadiazine (SFD), sulfacetamide (SFA), sulfamethoxazole (SFMx), sulfamerazine (SFMr), sulfaguanidine (SFG) and sulfadimidine (SFDd) followed by a coupling reaction with 3-aminophenol in aqueous medium. Absorbance of the resulting orange yellow product is measured at 460 nm and is stable for 6 days at 27 degrees C. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 0.05-8.0 microg/ml at the wavelength of maximum absorption. The method is successfully employed for the determination of sulfonamides in various pharmaceutical preparations and common excipients used as additives in pharmaceuticals do not interfere in the proposed method. Plausible reaction mechanism is proposed for the formation of the azo product. PMID:14630242

Nagaraja, P; Yathirajan, H S; Raju, C R; Vasantha, R A; Nagendra, P; Hemantha Kumar, M S

2003-12-01

46

The toxicity of anti-VEGF agents when coupled with standard chemotherapeutics.  

PubMed

Bevacizumab (Avastin®, Genentech, CA) was granted accelerated approval by the FDA for metastatic breast cancer in 2008. This occurred after the initial clinical trial, E2100, demonstrated an improvement in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) with the addition of bevacizumab to a standard chemotherapy. Unfortunately, the approval was rescinded in 2011 when two subsequent trials, AVADO and RIBBON-1, failed to show survival benefit. We compare and analyze the landmark trials E2100, AVADO and RIBBON-1, and suggest that the present-day clinical trial model may not be suited for the investigation of targeted therapies such as bevacizumab. The existing clinical trial model does not allow for modification of chemotherapeutic doses in a manner that maximizes the effect of biologic response modifiers and does not account for its "chemosensitizing" effect. The E2100, AVADO, and RIBBON-1 trials differed in the type and dose of chemotherapy, the dose and frequency of bevacizumab, and in the trial design, making it difficult to effectively compare and evaluate the results. The efficacy of combining bevacizumab with a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of chemotherapy is also discussed in view of the observation that increased tumor response did not translate to an increase in survival. We suggest that even though angiogenesis inhibitors are non-toxic as monotherapies, they increase the toxicity of standard chemotherapy, and consequently a re-design of the now classic clinical trial model should be considered. Modifying the existing clinical trial model will lead to a more accurate evaluation of the safety and efficacy of bevacizumab and other biological agents in treating metastatic cancer. PMID:25449430

Afranie-Sakyi, Jennifer A; Klement, Giannoula Lakka

2015-02-01

47

Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Technical progress report, October--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

The study will investigate two major areas concerning co-injecting an interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent into petroleum reservoirs. The first will consist of defining the mechanisms of interaction of an alkaline agent, a surfactant, and a polymer on a fluid-fluid and a fluid-rock basis. The second is the improvement of the economics of the combined technology. This report examines effect of rock type on oil recovery by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. This report also begins a series of evaluations to improve the economics of alkaline-surfactant-polymer oil recovery.

Pitts, M.J.

1994-01-01

48

Modeling Human Decisions in Coupled Human and Natural Systems: Review of Agent-Based Models1 RH: Review of modeling human decision in CHANS5  

E-print Network

1 Modeling Human Decisions in Coupled Human and Natural Systems: Review of Agent-Based Models1 2 Li An1,* 3 4 RH: Review of modeling human decision in CHANS5 6 12,010 words7 8 1 Department of Geography correspondence may be addressed:12 Email: lan@mail.sdsu.edu13 14 15 16 17 18 #12;2 Abstract19 Coupled human

An, Li

49

Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Technical progress report, July 1995--September 1995  

SciTech Connect

This study will investigate two major areas concerning co-injection and interfacial tension reduction agents and a mobility control agent into petroleum reservoirs. The first will consist of defining the mechanisms of interaction of an alkaline agent, a surfactant, and a polymer on a fluid-fluid and a fluid-rock basis. The second is the improvement of the economics of the combined technology. This report examines altering the concentration of alkali and polymer on the oil recovery economics of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution.

Pitts, M.J.

1995-10-01

50

Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Technical progress report, April--June 1994  

SciTech Connect

The study will investigate two major areas concerning co-injecting an interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent into petroleum reservoirs. The first will consist of defining the mechanisms of interaction of an alkaline agent, a surfactant, and a polymer on a fluid-fluid and a fluid-rock basis. The second is the improvement of the economics of the combined technology. This report examines the changes in the relative permeability characteristics with addition of alkali, surfactant, and polymer to the injected solution, the effect of matrix type on relative permeability characteristics with alkali-surfactant-polymer and the effect of different polymer concentrations on oil recovery by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution.

Pitts, M.J.; Casteel, J.

1994-09-01

51

A high efficient method for introducing reactive amines onto carbon fiber surfaces using hexachlorocyclophosphazene as a new coupling agent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve the interfacial properties of carbon fiber (CF) reinforced composites, an innovative and simple functionalized strategy has been proposed by grafting 4,4?-oxydianiline (ODA) onto carbon fiber surface using hexachlorocyclophosphazene (HCCP) as a novel coupling agent at mild reaction conditions. The chemical composition of the CF surface was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). The surface topography and surface energy of CF were examined by atomic force microscope (AFM) and dynamic contact angle tests (DCA), respectively. The interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of CF reinforced composites was studied by microbond test. The tensile strength of CF was measured by single filament tensile test. After functionalization treatment, the grafted amine groups on the fiber surface enhanced the surface wettability of modified CF and formed strong chemical bonding between fiber and matrix, improving the interfacial adhesion strength of composites. The interfacial shear strength of modified CF reinforced composites increased by 71.2% compared with that of desized CF. The interfacial enhancement mechanism was also discussed in detail. Moreover, the modified CF almost kept the original mechanical properties after functionalization.

Xu, Haibing; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Liu, Dong; Chun, Yan; Fan, Xinyu

2014-11-01

52

Effect of a silane coupling agent on the optical and the mechanical characteristics of nanodiamond/acrylic resin composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanodiamond (ND) is a good candidate for a filler material to fabricate transparent films. This study explores a characterization of the optical and the mechanical properties of ND dispersed polymer films. An attrition milling method was adapted to break ND aggregates, and a silane coupling agent (3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane) was used to modify the ND surfaces and stabilize the dispersion. Dipentaerylthritol hexaacrylate and pentaerythritol tetraacrylate were used in the polymer matrix, and up to 3 wt.% of ND was added to improve the mechanical properties. Fabricated composites were analyzed and tested using UV-visible spectroscopy for the optical properties and a Micro-Vickers hardness tester and ball-on-disktype friction tester for the mechanical properties. Results show that the transmittance of the ND-added composite increased with decreasing aggregate size. Through the addition of small amounts of NDs, the mechanical properties were greatly improved, the material became 3.5 times as hard, and the wear rate were greatly decreased. Possible mechanisms responsible for the enhancement of the mechanical and the optical properties are discussed.

Jeong, Min-Gun; Chun, Yoon-Soo; Lim, Dae-Soon; Kim, Jung Youl

2014-10-01

53

The surface modification of TiN nano-particles using macromolecular coupling agents, and their resulting dispersibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium nitride (TiN) nano-particles were modified by the grafting of a random copolymerization functionalized macromolecular coupling agent (F-MCA) via a direct blending method. The hydroxyl groups on the surface of the nano-TiN particles interact with the silanol groups [SiOCH3] of the F-MCA to form an organic coating layer. The formation of covalent bonds [TiOSi] was verified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. An X-ray diffraction analysis suggests that the presence of the F-MCA inhibited the growth of the crystal plane but did not change the crystal structure of the TiN. Thermogravimetric analysis and contact angle measurement indicated that the F-MCA molecules were adsorbed or anchored to the surface of the nano-TiN particles, which hindered their aggregation. Pristine nano-TiN particles are poorly dispersed in ethyl acetate. Compared with the pristine TiN particles, the modified TiN particles show good dispersibility and form a stable colloidal dispersion in ethyl acetate. The surface hydrophobicity of the modified TiN increases, and the F-MCA molecules are anchored on the surface of the TiN particles. TiN particles modified by a F-MCA can be used in polymer blends, thermoplastic elastomers and polymer nanocomposites that have a better performance and longer life cycle.

Cheng, Guojun; Qian, Jiasheng; Miao, Jibin; Yang, Bin; Xia, Ru; Chen, Peng

2014-05-01

54

Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Summary annual report, October 1994--September 1995  

SciTech Connect

The study will investigate two major areas concerning co-injecting an interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent into petroleum reservoirs. The first will consist of defining the mechanisms of interaction of an alkaline agent, a surfactant, and a polymer on a fluid-fluid and a fluid-rock basis. The second is the improvement of the economics of the combined technology. The third year of the study finished the oil recovery coreflood studies and evaluated different techniques to improve alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution economics. The final series of corefloods compared the oil recovery efficiency of the alkali gradient in Berea sandstone and J Sand sandstone. Oil recovery efficiency was essentially the same in both types of core, 13 to 15% PV of oil. Cost of chemical per incremental barrel of oil with 30% pore volume of alkaline-surfactant- polymer solution injected were $3.20 for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}- Petrostep B-100-Flopaam 3330S solution in both types of core.

Pitts, M.J.

1995-12-31

55

Improve the Strength of PLA/HA Composite Through the Use of Surface Initiated Polymerization and Phosphonic Acid Coupling Agent  

PubMed Central

Bioresorbable composite made from degradable polymers, e.g., polylactide (PLA), and bioactive calcium phosphates, e.g., hydroxyapatite (HA), are clinically desirable for bone fixation, repair and tissue engineering because they do not need to be removed by surgery after the bone heals. However, preparation of PLA/HA composite from non-modified HA usually results in mechanical strength reductions due to a weak interface between PLA and HA. In this study, a calcium-phosphate/phosphonate hybrid shell was developed to introduce a greater amount of reactive hydroxyl groups onto the HA particles. Then, PLA was successfully grafted on HA by surface-initiated polymerization through the non-ionic surface hydroxyl groups. Thermogravimetric analysis indiated that the amount of grafted PLA on HA can be up to 7 %, which is about 50 % greater than that from the literature. PLA grafted HA shows significantly different pH dependent ?-potential and particle size profiles from those of uncoated HA. By combining the phosphonic acid coupling agent and surface initiated polymerization, PLA could directly link to HA through covalent bond so that the interfacial interaction in the PLA/HA composite can be significantly improved. The diametral tensile strength of PLA/HA composite prepared from PLA-grafted HA was found to be over twice that of the composite prepared from the non-modified HA. Moreover, the tensile strength of the improved composite was 23 % higher than that of PLA alone. By varying additional variables, this approach has the potential to produce bioresorbable composites with improved mechanical properties that are in the range of natural bones, and can have wide applications for bone fixation and repair in load-bearing areas. PMID:22399838

Wang, Tongxin; Chow, Laurence C.; Frukhtbeyn, Stanislav A.; Ting, Andy Hai; Dong, Quanxiao; Yang, Mingshu; Mitchell, James W.

2012-01-01

56

Analysis of Gadolinium-based contrast agents in tap water with a new hydrophilic interaction chromatography (ZIC-cHILIC) hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were optimised for the direct determination of gadolinium-based contrast agents in tap water. In comparison to our previous work, a new developed zwitterionic HILIC column (ZIC-cHILIC) was used for speciation of Gd-containing contrast agents. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for the five contrast agents Gd-BOPTA, Gd-DPTA-BMA, Gd-BT-DO3A, Gd-DOTA and Gd-DTPA are in the range of 5-12 ng Gd per litre. Additionally, a new internal standard, Pr-DOTA, was investigated to correct intensity drifts, minor and major changes in the sample volumes and possible matrix effects. With the speciation method described, tap water samples from the area of Berlin were analysed and for the first time, three Gd species, Gd-BT-DO3A, Gd-DOTA and Gd-BOPTA, were found in tap water samples at concentrations of about 10-20 ng Gd per litre. These are the same Gd species which have been previously detected predominantly in surface waters of the Berlin area. PMID:25486924

Lindner, Uwe; Lingott, Jana; Richter, Silke; Jiang, Wen; Jakubowski, Norbert; Panne, Ulrich

2014-12-01

57

Please cite this article in press as: An, L., Modeling human decisions in coupled human and natural systems: Review of agent-based models. Ecol. Model. (2011), doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2011.07.010  

E-print Network

corresponding ecosystem), or as natural systems subject to human19 disturbance. This chasm between naturalPlease cite this article in press as: An, L., Modeling human decisions in coupled human and natural Modeling human decisions in coupled human and natural systems: Review of agent-based models 1 2 Li An 3

An, Li

58

Portable Solid Phase Micro-Extraction Coupled with Ion Mobility Spectrometry System for On-Site Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents and Simulants in Water Samples  

PubMed Central

On-site analysis is an efficient approach to facilitate analysis at the location of the system under investigation as it can result in more accurate, more precise and quickly available analytical data. In our work, a novel self-made thermal desorption based interface was fabricated to couple solid-phase microextraction with ion mobility spectrometry for on-site water analysis. The portable interface can be connected with the front-end of an ion mobility spectrometer directly without other modifications. The analytical performance was evaluated via the extraction of chemical warfare agents and simulants in water samples. Several parameters including ionic strength and extraction time have been investigated in detail. The application of the developed method afforded satisfactory recoveries ranging from 72.9% to 114.4% when applied to the analysis of real water samples. PMID:25384006

Yang, Liu; Han, Qiang; Cao, Shuya; Yang, Jie; Yang, Junchao; Ding, Mingyu

2014-01-01

59

Portable solid phase micro-extraction coupled with ion mobility spectrometry system for on-site analysis of chemical warfare agents and simulants in water samples.  

PubMed

On-site analysis is an efficient approach to facilitate analysis at the location of the system under investigation as it can result in more accurate, more precise and quickly available analytical data. In our work, a novel self-made thermal desorption based interface was fabricated to couple solid-phase microextraction with ion mobility spectrometry for on-site water analysis. The portable interface can be connected with the front-end of an ion mobility spectrometer directly without other modifications. The analytical performance was evaluated via the extraction of chemical warfare agents and simulants in water samples. Several parameters including ionic strength and extraction time have been investigated in detail. The application of the developed method afforded satisfactory recoveries ranging from 72.9% to 114.4% when applied to the analysis of real water samples. PMID:25384006

Yang, Liu; Han, Qiang; Cao, Shuya; Yang, Jie; Yang, Junchao; Ding, Mingyu

2014-01-01

60

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of bond structure between polyvinyl alcohol and a titanate cross-coupling agent  

SciTech Connect

Chemical interactions between polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and triethanol amine titanate chelate were studied using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The titanate chelate cross coupled the PVA solution and produced a viscous gel. The gel had a three- dimensional network structure containing --C{sub PVA}--O--Ti--O--C{sub PVA}--organic complexes. A new C(1{ital s}) signature at 285.7 eV and an O(1{ital s}) signature at 531.25 eV were associated with the formation of these complexes. The water of the PVA solution was physically retained in the gelled structure and was readily available for chemical reactions. The removal of this entrapped water was irreversible and lead to a collapsed film of Ti-cross-linked PVA.

Guelguen, M.A.; Popoola, O.O.; Kriven, W.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 105 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

1995-06-01

61

Agents, AgentsAgents, Agents Everywhere...Everywhere...  

E-print Network

AgentsArtificial Life Agents An "individualist view of the social world" (O'Sullivan andAn "individualistAgents, AgentsAgents, Agents Everywhere...Everywhere... RajaRaja SenguptaSengupta and Renand of Science SearchAn ISI Web of Science Search (Topic = Intelligent Agent* OR Software Agent* OR Multi Agent

Sengupta, Raja

62

Solcoseryl, a tissue respiration stimulating agent, significantly enhances the effect of capacitively coupled electric field on the promotion of bone formation around dental implants.  

PubMed

In the present study we examined the combined effect of application of a capacitively coupled electric field (CCEF) and the tissue respiration stimulating agent, Solcoseryl, on the promotion of bone formation around dental implants histologically and mechanically. After a dental implant was inserted into each femur of Japanese white rabbits, Solcoseryl (2 ml/kg) was administered intravenously in the ear vein and a CCEF was applied for 4 h per day for 14 days. The degree of bone formation on microscopic observation, bone contact ratio, bone surface area ratio, and the level of removal torque of the implant in the Solcoseryl- and CCEF-treated group were significantly higher than the respective value in the control group, which had not been treated with Solcoseryl nor CCEF. Thus, the combination of CCEF stimulation and Solcoseryl effectively promoted the formation of new bone. It is suggested that the clinical use of a combination of CCEF stimulation and Solcoseryl for dental implants promotes osseointegration. PMID:12755779

Ochi, Morio; Wang, Pao-Li; Ohura, Kiyoshi; Takashima, Shigenori; Kagami, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Yukito; Kaku, Tohru; Sakaguchi, Kunihiko

2003-06-01

63

Facile synthesis of 1-alkoxy-1H-benzo- and 7-azabenzotriazoles from peptide coupling agents, mechanistic studies, and synthetic applications  

PubMed Central

Summary (1H-Benzo[d][1,2,3]triazol-1-yloxy)tris(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate (BOP), 1H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazol-1-yl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate (Bt-OTs), and 3H-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-b]pyridine-3-yl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate (At-OTs) are classically utilized in peptide synthesis for amide-bond formation. However, a previously undescribed reaction of these compounds with alcohols in the presence of a base, leads to 1-alkoxy-1H-benzo- (Bt-OR) and 7-azabenzotriazoles (At-OR). Although BOP undergoes reactions with alcohols to furnish 1-alkoxy-1H-benzotriazoles, Bt-OTs proved to be superior. Both, primary and secondary alcohols undergo reaction under generally mild reaction conditions. Correspondingly, 1-alkoxy-1H-7-azabenzotriazoles were synthesized from At-OTs. Mechanistically, there are three pathways by which these peptide-coupling agents can react with alcohols. From 31P{1H}, [18O]-labeling, and other chemical experiments, phosphonium and tosylate derivatives of alcohols seem to be intermediates. These then react with BtO? and AtO? produced in situ. In order to demonstrate broader utility, this novel reaction has been used to prepare a series of acyclic nucleoside-like compounds. Because BtO? is a nucleofuge, several Bt-OCH2Ar substrates have been evaluated in nucleophilic substitution reactions. Finally, the possible formation of Pd ?–allyl complexes by departure of BtO? has been queried. Thus, alpha-allylation of three cyclic ketones was evaluated with 1-(cinnamyloxy)-1H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole, via in situ formation of pyrrolidine enamines and Pd catalysis. PMID:25246951

Singh, Manish K; Kumar, Mukesh; Chamala, Raghu Ram; Yedulla, Vijayender R; Wagner, Domenick; Leung, Evan; Yang, Lijia; Matin, Asha; Ahmad, Sadia

2014-01-01

64

Containing agents : contexts, projections, and agents.  

SciTech Connect

Agent-based models have historically maintained a tight coupling between individuals, their behaviors, and the space in which they interact. As a result, many models have been designed in a way that limits their ability to express behaviors and interactions. In this paper, we propose a new approach toward designing simulations that builds upon the experiences of developing and working with several agent-based toolkits. This approach encourages flexibility and reusability of components and models. A preliminary implementation is the core structure of the upcoming Repast Simphony agent-based modeling and simulation toolkit. By creating a 'proto-space' called a Context, we provide model designers with a container that can maintain a localized state for agents. A Context's state can maintain multiple interaction spaces called Projections, as well as more typical state information. Projections are designed such that they can be used to represent a wide range of abstract spaces, from graphs to grids to realistic geographic spaces. Importantly, projections and agents or individuals are independent of one another. Agents can be agnostic toward the type of projection in which they are interacting, and projections can be agnostic toward the type of agents whose relationships they maintain. Finally, the context provides a logical location to maintain agent behaviors that are dependent on localized agent interactions and environment.

Howe, T. R.; Collier, N. T.; North, M. J.; Parker, M. T.; Vos, J. R. (Decision and Information Sciences); (PantaRei Corp.); (Univ. of Chicago); (Univ. of Illinois at Urbana)

2006-01-01

65

Biological Agents  

MedlinePLUS

... Statistics Training Publications Newsroom Small Business Anti-Retaliation Biological Agents Safety and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and ...

66

Preparation and characterization of d 6 tungsten compounds with amino acid derivatized diimine ligands and preparation of dipeptide derivatives using peptide coupling agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to prepare dipeptide compounds from organometallic N-substituted amino acids are reported. Condensation of pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, ?-amino acids (H-l-Ala-OH or H-l-Asp-OH) and W(CO)4(pip)2 leads to formation of W(CO)4(pyca-Et) (1) (pyca refers to the ?-diimine fragment, C5H4NCHN) following decarboxylation of one or two equivalents of CO2. This decarboxylation does not occur for ?-alanine or GABA (?-aminobutyric acid). Coupling of [Hpip][W(CO)4(pyca-?-Ala-O)] (2) or

Richard S. Herrick; Julie Dupont; Iwona Wrona; Julia Pilloni; Matthew Beaver; Mark Benotti; Frank Powers; Christopher J. Ziegler

2007-01-01

67

Software agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper, we discuss these questions and describe someemerging technologies that provide answers. In the final section, we mention some additionalissues and summarize the key points of the paper. (For more information onagent-based software engineering, see [Genesereth 1989] and [Genesereth 1992]. See also[Shoham 1993] for a description of a variation of agent-based software engineering knownas "agent-oriented programming".)2. Agent Communication Language

Michael R. Genesereth; Steven P. Ketchpel

1994-01-01

68

Synthesis of a 3-(?-Styryl)benzo[b]-thiophene Library via Bromocyclization of Alkynes and Palladium-Catalyzed Tosylhydrazones Cross-Couplings: Evaluation as Antitubulin Agents.  

PubMed

A library of functionalized 3-(?-styryl)-benzo[b]thiophenes, endowed with a high level of molecular diversity, was efficiently synthesized by applying a synthetic sequence that allowed introduction of various substituents on aromatic A, B, and C-rings. The strategy developed involves the synthesis of 3-bromobenzo[b]thiophene derivatives through a bromocyclization step of methylthio-containing alkynes using N-methylpyrrolidin-2-one hydrotribromide reagent (MPHT). Further coupling of 3-bromobenzothiophenes under palladium-catalysis with N-tosylhydrazones efficiently furnished 2-aryl-3-(?-styryl)benzo[b]thiophene derivatives. The antiproliferative properties of target compounds were studied. Among them, compound 5m has demonstrated submicromolar cytotoxic activity against HCT-116 cell line, and inhibited the polymerization of tubulin at micromolar level comparable to that of CA-4. PMID:25229390

Tréguier, Bret; Lawson, Marie; Bernadat, Guillaume; Bignon, Jérôme; Dubois, Joëlle; Brion, Jean-Daniel; Alami, Mouad; Hamze, Abdallah

2014-12-01

69

[Antitubulin agents].  

PubMed

Microtubules are dynamic filamentous cytoskeletal proteins that are an important therapeutic target in patients with tumors. Microtubule binding agents have been part of the pharmacopoeia of cancer for decades, and until the advent of targeted therapy microtubules represented the only alternative to DNA as a therapeutic target in cancer. There are currently a variety of available vinca alkaloids and taxanes and other agents, such as ixabepilone and eribulin, have also been approved. Maytansinoids have been used for the production of immunoconjugates, monoclonal antibodies covalently bound to antimitotic molecules. The screening of a variety of botanical species and marine organisms continues to yield promising new antitubulin agents with novel properties. Enhanced tumor specificity, reduced neurotoxicity, and insensitivity to chemoresistance mechanisms are the three main objectives in the current search for novel microtubule binding agents. PMID:22023745

Dumontet, Charles

2011-11-01

70

Sunscreening Agents  

PubMed Central

The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

2013-01-01

71

Application of high performance liquid chromatography coupled to on-line solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the analysis of degradation products of V-class nerve agents and nitrogen mustard.  

PubMed

The detection and identification of the degradation products of nitrogen mustard and nerve agent VX by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to on-line solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HPLC-UV-SPE-NMR) were demonstrated. The analytes selected for the study were N,N-dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE), N,N-diethylaminoethanol (DEAE), N,N-diisopropylaminoethanol (DIAE) and triethanolamine (TEA). Offline solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by derivatization was applied to eliminate the interferents and make the analytes amenable for UV detection. Thereafter, chromatographically separated derivatives were trapped on on-line SPE cartridges. They were subsequently eluted and 1H NMR and COSY spectra were obtained. The overall detection limits of the LC-UV-SPE-NMR method for the mentioned analytes were found to be 18, 23, 25, and 32 mg/L respectively. Applicability of the method to real samples was demonstrated by the analysis of samples provided during the 22nd OPCW official proficiency test. The method gave reproducible NMR spectra devoid of intense background signals. PMID:20303089

Mazumder, Avik; Kumar, Ajeet; Purohit, Ajay K; Dubey, Devendra K

2010-04-23

72

Dynamic Agents of Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

VISIONS sounding rocket mission (VISualizing Ion Outflow via Neutral atom imaging during a Substorm) has been awarded to NASA/GSFC (PI Rowland) in order to provide the first combined remote sensing and in situ measurements of the regions where ion acceleration to above 5 e V is occurring, and of the sources of free energy and acceleration mechanisms that accelerate the ions. The key science question of VISIONS is how, when, and where, are ions accelerated to escape velocities in the auroral zone below 1000 km, following substorm onset? Sources of free energy that power this ion acceleration process include (but not limited) electron precipitation, field-aligned currents, velocity shears, and Alfvenic Poynting flux. The combine effect of all these processes on ionospheric ion outflows will be investigated in a framework of the kinetic model that has been developed by Khazanov et al. in order to study the polar wind transport in the presence of photoelectrons.

Khazanov, George V.; Rowland, Douglas E.; Moore, Thomas E.; Collier, Michael

2011-01-01

73

Magnetized Silane-Coupling Agent KH-570 Based Solid-Phase Extraction Followed by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection to Determine Venlafaxine in Human Hair and Aqueous Environmental Samples.  

PubMed

In the present study, a novel adsorbent, Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) functionalized by silane-coupling agent KH-570, was successfully synthesized. The prepared MNPs were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It was applied as functionalized magnetic nano-adsorbent for magnetic solid-phase extraction of trace levels of venlafaxine using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector. This method was developed and optimized for use in analysis of venlafaxine in human hair and aqueous environmental samples. The main factors influencing the extraction efficiency including pH of sample, amount of the MNPs, adsorption time, volume of sample, and desorption conditions such as volume of solvent and desorption time were studied and optimized. Under the optimized experimental conditions, good linearity was observed in the range of 1-1,000 µg L(-1) for aqueous environmental samples with correlation coefficients (R (2)) 0.996. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.1 and 0.5 ?g L(-1), respectively. Good reproducibility with the relative standard deviations (n = 5) 3.21 % was obtained. The developed method was successfully applied to the extraction of venlafaxine from spiked human hair, river water, and surface water samples and the relative recoveries of 89.36, 93.43, and 94.99 % were obtained, respectively. The results indicated that Fe3O4/KH-570 MNPs have a satisfying extraction efficiency and can be served as a sensitive, inexpensive, and reliable method for analysis of antidepressant drugs such as venlafaxine in biological and aqueous environmental samples. PMID:25367213

Ebrahimi, Mahmoud; Ebrahimitalab, Abdolhossein; Es'haghi, Zarrin; Mohammadinejad, Arash

2015-02-01

74

Agent Exoplanet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astronomers at Las Cumbres Observatory are investigating exoplanets - planets which orbit stars other than our Sun - and you can too. Joining Agent Exoplanet you will study known exoplanets using images taken by LCOGTâs telescopes. You'll measure the brightness of a star while a planet moves between it and our viewpoint. You can examine as many images, from as many exoplanet transit events, as you like and contribute to understanding the properties of each exoplanet.

Network, Las C.

75

Operational Semantics for Agents by Iterated Refinement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we evaluate transition systems as a tool for providing a rule-based specification of the operational aspects of au- tonomous agents. By our technique, different aspects of an agent can be analyzed and designed in a loosely coupled way, enabling the possibility of studying their properties in isolation. We take as a use case the ParADE framework for

Federico Bergenti; Giovanni Rimassa; Mirko Viroli

2003-01-01

76

Antifungal agents.  

PubMed

The four main classes of antifungal drugs are the polyenes, azoles, allylamines and echinocandins. Clinically useful "older" agents include topical azole formulations (for superficial yeast and dermatophyte infections), first-generation triazoles (fluconazole and itraconazole, for a range of superficial and invasive fungal infections), amphotericin B formulations (for a broad range of invasive fungal infections) and terbinafine (for dermatophyte infections). Clinically important "newer" agents include members of the echinocandin class (eg, caspofungin) and second-generation triazoles (eg, voriconazole and posaconazole). Voriconazole and posaconazole have broad-spectrum activity against yeasts and moulds, including Aspergillus species. Posaconazole is the only azole drug with activity against zygomycete fungi. Caspofungin and the other echinocandins are effective in treating Candida and Aspergillus infections. The azoles are relatively safe, but clinicians should be aware of drug-drug interactions and adverse effects, including visual disturbances (with voriconazole), elevations in liver transaminase levels, and skin rashes. Caspofungin has minimal adverse effects. Combination antifungal therapy may be appropriate in selected patients with invasive fungal infections, but is empiric and driven by individual physician practice. PMID:17908006

Chen, Sharon C A; Sorrell, Tania C

2007-10-01

77

UMBC AgentWeb: Intelligent Software Agents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, sponsored and maintained by the University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) Laboratory for Advanced Information Technology (LAIT), focuses on intelligent agents, known alternatively as software agents, knowbots, infobots or intentional agents. The site is divided into several parts, some of which are annotated and some of which contain only links to resources. Annotated resources include a bibliography titled Introduction to Agents (under Introductory Material), a list of research projects involving agent technology, and abstracts of and links to articles on a variety of topics such as Agents and Security and Agents in Manufacturing.

78

How to Build a Multi-Multi-Agent System: The Agent.Enterprise Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maturity of technical foundations for multi-agent systems and the support by development tools, infra- structure services, and a number of development methodologies leads to an increasing number of existing multi-agent systems. A more and more networked environment drives the demand for coupling these het- erogeneous systems to large multi-multi-agent systems. Unfortunately, the design and implementation steps necessary in this

Tim Stockheim; Jens Nimis; Thorsten Scholz; Marcel Stehli

2004-01-01

79

AgentWeb Gateway integration of FIPA Multi Agent System and W3C Web Service System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to develop an information system having capabilities of Web services, Grid computing and Multi Agent Systems. Web Services to support loosely coupled, implementation neutral and heterogeneous resources, Grid computing to support coordinated resource sharing among dynamic virtual organizations and Multi Agent Systems to support autonomous behavior, semantic interoperability among different entities i.e. Software Agents. Web Services and Grid

M. Omair Shafiq; Arshad Ali; Hiroki Suguri; H. Farooq Ahmad

80

Relational Agents Page 1 Relational Agents for  

E-print Network

Relational Agents Page 1 Relational Agents for Antipsychotic Medication Adherence Timothy Bickmore, and medication adherence to antipsychotic treatments within this population is typically around 50%, leading system developed to promote antipsychotic medication adherence for patients with Schizophrenia

Bickmore, Timothy

81

Virtual auditing agents: the EDGAR Agent challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent agents can be used as agents of organizational change. This potential exists in the domain of accounting audit, where much of what is currently done manually in batch mode could be done continuously and on-line. We discuss the use of intelligent Internet agents as a way of changing and expanding audit practices in the virtual world. A quality\\/service framework

Kay M. Nelson; Alexander Kogan; Rajendra P. Srivastava; Miklos A. Vasarhelyi; Hai Lu

2000-01-01

82

Virtual Auditing Agents: The Edgar Agent Example  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses the use of intelligent Internet agents as a way of expanding audit practices in the virtual world. A quality\\/service framework is presented that suggests ways that accounting firms can evolve in this era of online opportunities. The Edgar Agent is presented as an example of an intelligent Internet agent that gathers financial information. This information can be

Kay M. Nelson; Alexander Kogan; Rajendra P. Srivastava; Miklos A. Vasarhelyi

1998-01-01

83

Preparing Change Agents for Change Agent Roles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seventy-seven Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking agricultural change agents from developing Central and South American countries responded to a questionnaire which sought perceptions of the roles in which the change agents felt they were involved and the roles for which they felt they were being trained. The agents were participating in training…

Sedlacek, James R.

84

Remote Agent Demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe the computer demonstration of the Remote Agent Experiment (RAX). The Remote Agent is a high-level, model-based, autonomous control agent being validated on the NASA Deep Space 1 spacecraft.

Dorais, Gregory A.; Kurien, James; Rajan, Kanna

1999-01-01

85

Biological warfare agents.  

PubMed

Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents. PMID:20358696

Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil

2010-01-01

86

Spacecraft sanitation agent development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of an effective sanitizing agent that is compatible with the spacecraft environment and the human occupant is discussed. Experimental results show that two sanitation agents must be used to satisfy mission requirements: one agent for personal hygiene and one for equipment maintenance. It was also recommended that a water rinse be used with the agents for best results, and that consideration be given to using the agents pressure packed or in aerosol formulations.

1972-01-01

87

Decentralized Task Allocation with Coupled Constraints in Complex Missions  

E-print Network

This paper presents a decentralized algorithm that creates feasible assignments for a network of autonomous agents in the presence of coupled constraints. The coupled constraints address complex mission characteristics ...

Whitten, Andrew K.

88

Designing Intelligent Agents Tutorial 1: Java Agent Package  

E-print Network

G54DIA: Designing Intelligent Agents Tutorial 1: Java Agent Package Brian Logan School of Computer package(s) · agent toolkits · uk.ac.nott.cs.g54dia Java agent packages ­library package ­demo package © Brian Logan 2013 G54DIA Tutorial 1: Java Agent Package 2 #12;Implementing your agent · many agent

Logan, Brian

89

Static Diffusive Couplings in Heterogeneous Linear Networks  

E-print Network

of linear systems. A major chal- lenge is synchronization in heterogeneous linear networks, i.e., multi-agent of control theory. Of particular interest are so-called multi-agent systems consisting of individualStatic Diffusive Couplings in Heterogeneous Linear Networks Georg S. Seyboth Dimos V. Dimarogonas

Johansson, Karl Henrik

90

Agent Oriented Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoham, Y., Agent-oriented programming, Artificial Intelligence 60 (1993) 51-92. A new computational framework is presented, called agent-oriented programming (AOP), which can be viewed as a specialization of object-oriented programming. The state of an agent consists of components such as beliefs, decisions, capabilities, and obligations; for this reason the state of an agent is called its mental state. The mental state

Yoav Shoham

1992-01-01

91

Hydroxypyridonate chelating agents  

SciTech Connect

Chelating agents are disclosed having 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (HOPO) and related moieties incorporated within their structures, including polydentate HOPO-substituted polyamines such as spermidine and spermine, and HOPO-substituted desferrioxamine. The chelating agents are useful in selectively removing certain cations from solution, and are particularly useful as ferric ion and actinide chelators. Novel syntheses of the chelating agents are provided.

Raymond, K.N.; Scarrow, R.C.; White, D.L.

1987-10-06

92

Hydroxypyridonate chelating agents  

DOEpatents

Chelating agents having 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (HOPO) and related moieties incorporated within their structures, including polydentate HOPO-substituted polyamines such as spermidine and spermine, and HOPO-substituted desferrioxamine. The chelating agents are useful in selectively removing certain cations from solution, and are particularly useful as ferric ion and actinide chelators. Novel syntheses of the chelating agents are provided.

Raymond, Kenneth N. (Berkeley, CA); Scarrow, Robert C. (Minneapolis, MN); White, David L. (Oakland, CA)

1987-01-01

93

Total Synthesis of Bryostatin 16 using a Pd-Catalyzed Diyne-Coupling as Macrocyclization Method and Synthesis of C20-epi-Bryostatin 7 as a Potent Anticancer Agent  

PubMed Central

Asymmetric total synthesis of bryostatin 16 was achieved in 26 steps in the longest linear sequence/39 total steps from aldehyde 10. A Pd-catalyzed alkyne-alkyne coupling was employed for the first-time as a macrocyclization method in a natural product synthesis. A route to convert bryostatin 16 to a new family of bryostatin analogues was developed. Toward the end, 20-epi-bryostatin 7, was synthesized from a bryostatin 16-like intermediate; and the key step involves a Re-catalyzed epoxidation/ring-opening reaction. Preliminary biological studies indicated that this new analogue exhibits nanomolar anti-cancer activity against several cancer cell lines. PMID:21043491

Trost, Barry M.; Dong, Guangbin

2010-01-01

94

Proceedings of the Agent 2002 Conference on Social Agents : Ecology, Exchange, and Evolution  

SciTech Connect

Welcome to the ''Proceedings'' of the third in a series of agent simulation conferences cosponsored by Argonne National Laboratory and The University of Chicago. The theme of this year's conference, ''Social Agents: Ecology, Exchange and Evolution'', was selected to foster the exchange of ideas on some of the most important social processes addressed by agent simulation models, namely: (1) The translation of ecology and ecological constraints into social dynamics; (2) The role of exchange processes, including the peer dependencies they create; and (3) The dynamics by which, and the attractor states toward which, social processes evolve. As stated in the ''Call for Papers'', throughout the social sciences, the simulation of social agents has emerged as an innovative and powerful research methodology. The promise of this approach, however, is accompanied by many challenges. First, modeling complexity in agents, environments, and interactions is non-trivial, and these representations must be explored and assessed systematically. Second, strategies used to represent complexities are differentially applicable to any particular problem space. Finally, to achieve sufficient generality, the design and experimentation inherent in agent simulation must be coupled with social and behavioral theory. Agent 2002 provides a forum for reviewing the current state of agent simulation scholarship, including research designed to address such outstanding issues. This year's conference introduces an extensive range of domains, models, and issues--from pre-literacy to future projections, from ecology to oligopolistic markets, and from design to validation. Four invited speakers highlighted major themes emerging from social agent simulation.

Macal, C., ed.; Sallach, D., ed.

2003-04-10

95

Agents on the Web Agent Societies  

E-print Network

of machine guns will make sure the appropriate boxes of ammunition get on the same truck going to the right agents to decide which products a customer is most likely to want and to make sure that buy- ing

Huhns, Michael N.

96

Agents modeling agents in information economies  

SciTech Connect

Our goal is to design and build agents that act intelligently when placed in an agent-based information economy, where agents buy and sell services (e.g. thesaurus, search, task planning services, etc.). The economy we are working in is the University of Michigan Digital Library (UMDL), a large scale multidisciplinary effort to build an infrastructure for the delivery of library services. In contrast with a typical economy, an information economy deals in goods and services that are often derived from unique sources (authors, analysts, etc.), so that many goods and services are not interchangeable. Also, the cost of replicating and transporting goods is usually negligible, and the quality of goods and services is difficult to measure objectively: even two sources with essentially the same information might appeal to different audiences. Thus, each agent has its own assessment of the quality of goods and services delivered.

Vidal, J.M.; Durfee, E.H. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1996-12-31

97

Multi-agent autonomous system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-agent autonomous system for exploration of hazardous or inaccessible locations. The multi-agent autonomous system includes simple surface-based agents or craft controlled by an airborne tracking and command system. The airborne tracking and command system includes an instrument suite used to image an operational area and any craft deployed within the operational area. The image data is used to identify the craft, targets for exploration, and obstacles in the operational area. The tracking and command system determines paths for the surface-based craft using the identified targets and obstacles and commands the craft using simple movement commands to move through the operational area to the targets while avoiding the obstacles. Each craft includes its own instrument suite to collect information about the operational area that is transmitted back to the tracking and command system. The tracking and command system may be further coupled to a satellite system to provide additional image information about the operational area and provide operational and location commands to the tracking and command system.

Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

98

Helix coupling  

DOEpatents

A coupling for connecting helix members in series, which consists of a pair of U-shaped elements, one of which is attached to each helix end with the "U" sections of the elements interlocked. The coupling is particularly beneficial for interconnecting helical Nitinol elements utilized in thermal actuators or engines. Each coupling half is attached to the associated helix at two points, thereby providing axial load while being easily removed from the helix, and reusable.

Ginell, W.S.

1989-04-25

99

IM Free Agent Sign Up 1 Wanted! Intramurals Free Agents!  

E-print Network

IM Free Agent Sign Up 1 Wanted! Intramurals Free Agents! Individuals who do not have a full team a "Free Agent". Within the UNLV Intramural Sports program there are multiple ways to improve a Free Agent will not force any team to accept a Free Agent participant. History and research has shown that Free Agents

Hemmers, Oliver

100

The development and validation of a rapid method for the determination of antimicrobial agent residues in milk and meat using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole - Orbitrap mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A new multi-class method has been developed for the identification and quantification of the residues of 26 antibiotics from different classes (sulfonamides, macrolides, tetracyclines, penicillins, and quinolones) in milk and meat by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid quadrupole - high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UPLC-qOrbitrap). The sample preparation included extraction of two analytical portions with acetonitrile and 5% trichloroacetic acid, respectively, followed by centrifugation and filtration. The method was validated over three days at 50% of MRL (maximum residue limit) set in the European Union. Experiments on spiked meat and milk samples showed that the average recovery of the antibiotics ranged from 83% to 112%, and the coefficients of variation were between 8.9% and 39%. PMID:25282600

Cepurnieks, Guntis; Rjabova, Jekaterina; Zacs, Dzintars; Bartkevics, Vadims

2015-01-01

101

DCTD — Featured Agents  

Cancer.gov

The “Featured Agents” portion of the DCTD Website provides information for researchers involved in drug discovery and development. Any public preclinical and clinical data that DCTD has on a particular agent are presented here. New agents will be added periodically to the current list. DCTD Website visitors may subscribe to the Listserv on this page to be notified when additions to the list are made.

102

Deals Among Rational Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A formal framework is presented that models commu­ nication and promises in multi-agent interactions. This framework generalizes previous work on cooperation with­ out communication, and shows the ability of communi­ cation to resolve conflicts among agents having disparate goals. Using a deal-making mechanism, agents are able to coordinate and cooperate more easily than in the commu­ nication-free model. In addition,

Jeffrey S. Rosenschein; Michael R. Genesereth

1985-01-01

103

Global Lyapunov functions and a hierarchical control scheme for networks of robotic agents  

E-print Network

for large-scale, heterogeneous multi-agent networks with nonlinear dynamics. We illustrate the power control of multi-agent systems has generated a wealth of research into stable formation control of hierarchically coupled multi-agent systems by demonstrating the existence of a global Lyapunov function. We

Li, Michael

104

Change Agent Survival Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

Dunbar, Folwell L.

2011-01-01

105

DCTD — Featured Agents  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Click here to view the Site Map Home | Sitemap | Contact DCTD Search this site Featured Agents Agents NCI Experimental Therapeutics (NExT) Program Drug Development Primer FDA-Approved Cancer Drugs DCTD Programs Cancer Diagnosis Program Cancer

106

Safety of Ultrasonographic Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbubble contrast agents for ultrasound have gained increasing interest in recent years (\\u000a Quaia 2007). It is generally considered that ultrasound contrast agents approved for clinical use are well tolerated and serious\\u000a adverse reactions are rarely observed. In this chapter, the evidence supporting this impression is reviewed.

Raymond Oyen

107

Chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increased risk that civilian populations will be targets of domestic terrorism. Release of chemical warfare agents in these populations can cause a large number of casualties, with children being disproportionately affected. Chemical agents pose a significant risk to unprepared medical providers. Emergency medical personnel must be able to diagnose and manage victims of toxic exposures. This article

Rohit Shenoi

2002-01-01

108

Travel Agent Course Outline.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

109

Pediatric Antifungal Agents  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review In immunocompromised hosts, invasive fungal infections are common and fatal. In the past decade, the antifungal armamentarium against invasive mycoses has expanded greatly. The purpose of this report is to review the most recent literature addressing the use of antifungal agents in children. Recent findings Most studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of antifungal agents are limited to adults. However, important progress has been made in describing the pharmacokinetics and safety of newer antifungal agents in children, including the echinocandins. Summary Dosage guidelines for newer antifungal agents are currently based on adult and limited pediatric data. Because important developmental pharmacology changes occur throughout childhood impacting the pharmacokinetics of these agents, antifungal studies specifically designed for children are necessary. PMID:19741525

Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Moran, Cassandra; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P Brian

2009-01-01

110

Moral actor, selfish agent.  

PubMed

People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature. PMID:24749822

Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

2014-05-01

111

Joint Chemical Agent Detector (JCAD): the future of chemical agent detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Joint Chemical Agent Detector (JCAD) will provide state of the art chemical warfare agent detection capability to ground vehicle operators. Intelligence sources estimate that over twenty counties have active chemical weapons programs. The spread of chemical weapons to third world nations, coupled with the potential for US involvement in these areas in an operational or support capacity, increases the probability that the Joint Services may encounter chemical agents and toxic industrial materials anywhere in the world. Currently, fielded chemical agent detectors are bulky, labor intensive, and subject to false readings. No legacy detector is sensitive enough to provide detection and warning of the low dose hazards associated with miosis contamination. The JCAD will provide a small, lightweight chemical agent detector for vehicle interiors, aircraft, individual personnel, shipboard, and fixed site locations. The system provides a common detection components across multi-service platforms. This common detector system will allow the Joint Services to use the same operational and support concept for more efficient utilization of resources. The JCAD will detect, identify, quantify, and warn of the presence of chemical agents prior to onset of miosis. Upon detection of chemical agents, the detector will provide local and remote audible and visual alarms to the operators. Advance warning will provide the vehicle crew with the time necessary to protect themselves from the lethal effects of chemical agents. The JCAD will also be capable of being upgraded to protect against future chemical agent threats. The JCAD will provide the vehicle operators with the warning necessary to survive and fight in a chemical warfare agent threat environment.

Laljer, Charles E.; Owen, Jeffery L.

2002-06-01

112

Biological warfare agents.  

PubMed

The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

2010-07-01

113

Biological warfare agents  

PubMed Central

The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

2010-01-01

114

Current topics in ultrasound contrast agent application and design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasound contrast agents are bubbles, 1-10 microns in radius, encapsulated by a lipid, protein, polymer or fluid shell. The agents have been used to distinguish the acoustic scattering signatures of blood from those of the surrounding tissue. This is possible due to the nonlinear response of the agent, which is similar to that of a free gas bubble. Upon sufficient forcing the agents will oscillate nonlinearly about their equilibrium radius, and for specific conditions, produce nonlinear resonance responses which are integer multiples of the primary resonance. Ultrasound tissue perfusion studies have been developed which are based on the destruction of contract agents coupled to the measurement of blood flow. Nevertheless, many outstanding issues remain in contrast agent design especially with respect to emerging applications. Even with the use of higher order harmonics there is a lack of an acoustic signature or destruction mechanism at frequencies above approximately 5.0 MHz with conventional agents. The design and use of a high frequency contrast agent is addressed by exploiting the multiple scattering response of agents modled as spherical elastic shells. Also considered is the nonlinear response of elastic-shelled agents. The considerations of shells modeled as linear and nonlinear elastic materials are discussed. The use of contrast agents for targeted drug delivery has recently received much attention. More specifically, the ImaRx Corporation (Tucson, Arizona) has developed thick fluid shelled agents, which release suspended taxol-based drugs from their shells upon destruction. Shape instabilities and surface waves correspond with the fragmentation and destruction of the agents. Finally, the interaction of multiple contrast agents has received little attention with respect to these emerging applications.

Allen, John S.; Kruse, Dustin E.; May, Donovan J.

2001-05-01

115

Computing with strategic agents  

E-print Network

This dissertation studies mechanism design for various combinatorial problems in the presence of strategic agents. A mechanism is an algorithm for allocating a resource among a group of participants, each of which has a ...

Immorlica, Nicole, 1978-

2005-01-01

116

Agent and environment  

E-print Network

This paper is about how agents learn. There is a picture of learning that is very influential in epistemology; I call it 'the Classical Picture'. As influential as it is, it is a flawed picture of learning, and epistemology ...

Rochford, Damien (Damien Joseph)

2013-01-01

117

Healthcare Agents: Being One  

MedlinePLUS

... Preparing Your Advance Directives Storing Your Advance Directives Healthcare Agents: Being One Advocating for your loved one ... will be to communicate with your loved ones healthcare providers to ensure your loved ones wishes are ...

118

MAGE: multi-agent environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent agent technology has been raised as the primary technology in the intelligent Internet and mobile computing. In this paper, MAGE (multi-agent environment) is introduced which is an environment for rapidly developing distributed, heterogeneous multi-agent systems. Agent model, agent architecture, MAGE platforms, comparison between MAGE and other multi-agent framework is presented in the paper. This paper illustrates two application systems,

Zhongzhi Shi; Haijun Zhang; Mingkai Dong; Zhikung Zhao; Qiujian Sheng; Yuncheng Jiang; Yong Cheng

2003-01-01

119

Radiographic imaging agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A composition useful in the preparation of technetium-99m-based imaging agents is described comprising: (a) a metal selected from the groups consisting of tin and tin-containing alloys, the metal being employed in an amount effective to reduce the technetium to be added to form an imaging agent; and (b) a stabilizing amount of stabilizer selected from the group consisting of gentisate,

J. E. Bugaj; T. W. Grogg

1987-01-01

120

Agent amplified communication  

SciTech Connect

We propose an agent-based framework for assisting and simplifying person-to-person communication for information gathering tasks. As an example, we focus on locating experts for any specified topic. In our approach, the informal person-to-person networks that exist within an organization are used to {open_quotes}referral chain{close_quotes} requests for expertise. User-agents help automate this process. The agents generate referrals by analyzing records of e-mail communication patterns. Simulation results show that the higher responsiveness of an agent-based system can be effectively traded for the higher accuracy of a completely manual approach. Furthermore, preliminary experience with a group of users on a prototype system has shown that useful automatic referrals can be found in practice. Our experience with actual users has also shown that privacy concerns are central to the successful deployment of personal agents: an advanced agent-based system will therefore need to reason about issues involving trust and authority.

Kautz, H.; Selman, B.; Milewski, A. [AT& T Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

1996-12-31

121

Agent independent task planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

Davis, William S.

1990-01-01

122

Evaluation of thrombolytic agents.  

PubMed

The mechanism of action of currently available thrombolytic agents, such as streptokinase, urokinase, alteplase (recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator; rt-PA) and anistreplase (anisoylated plasminogen streptokinase activator complex; APSAC), involves conversion of inactive plasminogen to plasmin, a potent fibrinolytic. However, the relatively weak substrate specificity of first generation agents (streptokinase and urokinase) can result in a state of systemic fibrinolysis and associated bleeding complications. The second generation drugs such as alteplase were developed in an attempt to enhance fibrin specificity, so that only enzymatic conversion of fibrin-complexed plasminogen would take place, thus avoiding systemic fibrinolysis. Results from large clinical trials have failed to consistently show any significant differences between first and second generation thrombolytic agents in the incidence of bleeding. In the clinical setting, thrombolytic agents have been evaluated primarily in patients with acute myocardial infarction and have been shown to significantly reduce morbidity and mortality compared with conservative treatment. The focus of current and future research is to investigate these agents in patients with other vaso-occlusive or ischaemic conditions (e.g. stroke), and also to evaluate different drug administration regimens and the use of adjunctive therapies such as aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and heparin. PMID:9360848

Bell, W R

1997-01-01

123

Model Checking Normative Agent Organisations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the integration of a normative programming language in the MCAPL framework for model checking multi-agent systems. The result is a framework facilitating the implementation and verification of multi-agent systems coordinated via a normative organisation. The organisation can be programmed in the normative language while the constituent agents may be implemented in a number of (BDI) agent programming languages.

Dennis, Louise; Tinnemeier, Nick; Meyer, John-Jules

124

13 CFR 108.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Functions of agents, including Central Registration...Certificates (âtcsâ) § 108.1620 Functions of agents, including Central Registration...to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market and service...

2011-01-01

125

13 CFR 108.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functions of agents, including Central Registration...Certificates (âtcsâ) § 108.1620 Functions of agents, including Central Registration...to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market and service...

2010-01-01

126

7 CFR 4290.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Functions of agents, including Central Registration...Certificates (âtcsâ) § 4290.1620 Functions of agents, including Central Registration...to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market and service...

2011-01-01

127

7 CFR 4290.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functions of agents, including Central Registration...Certificates (âtcsâ) § 4290.1620 Functions of agents, including Central Registration...to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market and service...

2010-01-01

128

13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functions of agents, including Central Registration...Certificates (âtcsâ) § 107.1620 Functions of agents, including Central Registration...to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market and service...

2010-01-01

129

13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Functions of agents, including Central Registration...Certificates (âtcsâ) § 107.1620 Functions of agents, including Central Registration...to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market and service...

2011-01-01

130

Optimal Agents Nicholas James Hay  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 8.1 Possible futures, and the expected utility of an agent given a fixed history 41 8.2 Identities of the expected utility of an agent given a fixed history . . . . . 42 8.3 Expectimax agents are optimal agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 3 #12;9 Appendix: Odds and Ends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 9

Goodman, James R.

131

Novel Phenylethynyl Imide Silanes as Coupling Agents for Titanium Alloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The durability of titanium (Ti) alloys bonded with high temperature adhesives such as polyimides has failed to attain the level of performance required for many applications. The problem to a large part is attributed to the instability of the surface treatment on the Ti substrate. Although Ti alloy adhesive specimens with surface treatments such as chromic acid anodization, Pasa-Jell, Turco, etc. have provided high initial mechanical properties, these properties have decreased as a function of aging at ambient temperature and faster, when aged at elevated temperatures or in a hot-wet environment. As part of the High Speed Civil Transport program where Ti honeycomb sandwich structure must perform for 60,000 hours at 177 C, work was directed to the development of environmentally safe, durable Ti alloy surface treatments.

Park, C.; Lowther, S. E.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Conell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; SaintClair, T. L.

2004-01-01

132

Radiographic imaging agents  

SciTech Connect

A composition useful in the preparation of technetium-99m-based imaging agents is described comprising: (a) a metal selected from the groups consisting of tin and tin-containing alloys, the metal being employed in an amount effective to reduce the technetium to be added to form an imaging agent; and (b) a stabilizing amount of stabilizer selected from the group consisting of gentisate, ascorbate, and reductate compounds, and mixtures thereof. A composition useful in the preparation of technetium-99m-based imaging agents is described comprising: (a) a stabilizer selected from the group consisting of gentisate, ascorbate and reductate compounds, and mixtures thereof; dissolved in (b) an oxidized pertechnetate solution; and (c) a metal selected from the group consisting of tin and tin-containing alloys.

Bugaj, J.E.; Grogg, T.W.

1987-11-17

133

Tubular Coupling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system for coupling a vascular overflow graft or cannula to a heart pump. A pump pipe outlet is provided with an external tapered surface which receives the end of a compressible connula. An annular compression ring with a tapered internal bore surface is arranged about the cannula with the tapered internal surface in a facing relationship to the external tapered surface. The angle of inclination of the tapered surfaces is converging such that the spacing between the tapered surfaces decreases from one end of the external tapered surface to the other end thereby providing a clamping action of the tapered surface on a cannula which increases as a function of the length of cannula segment between the tapered surfaces. The annular compression ring is disposed within a tubular locking nut which threadedly couples to the pump and provides a compression force for urging the annular ring onto the cannula between the tapered surfaces. The nut has a threaded connection to the pump body. The threaded coupling to the pump body provides a compression force for the annular ring. The annular ring has an annular enclosure space in which excess cannula material from the compression between the tapered surfaces to "bunch up" in the space and serve as an enlarged annular ring segment to assist holding the cannula in place. The clamped cannula provides a seamless joint connection to the pump pipe outlet where the clamping force is uniformly applied to the cannula because of self alignment of the tapered surfaces. The nut can be easily disconnected to replace the pump if necessary.

Rosenbaum, Bernard J. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

134

Sealing coupling  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a remotely operable releasable sealing coupling which provides fluid-tight joinder of upper and a lower conduit sections. Each conduit section has a concave conical sealing surface adjacent its end portion. A tubular sleeve having convex spherical ends is inserted between the conduit ends to form line contact with the concave conical end portions. An inwardly projecting lip located at one end of the sleeve cooperates with a retaining collar formed on the upper pipe end to provide swivel capture for the sleeve. The upper conduit section also includes a tapered lower end portion which engages the inside surface of the sleeve to limit misalignment of the connected conduit sections.

Pardini, John A. (Brookfield, IL); Brubaker, Robert C. (Naperville, IL); Rusnak, John J. (Orland Park, IL)

1985-01-01

135

Magnetic contrast agents for optical coherence tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magneto-mechanical effect is exploited as a means of producing background-free contrast in optical coherence tomography (OCT). Contrast agents consisting of iron-oxide particles and protein microspheres encapsulating colloidal iron-oxide have a sufficiently high magnetic susceptibility to be detected by modulation of a magnetic field gradient using a small solenoid coil. The externally-applied magnetic field mechanically rotates or translates these highly scattering contrast agents within the sample at the modulation frequency, which is subsequently detected as amplitude modulation of the OCT signal. Pairs of sequential axial scans (A-lines) are acquired with the magnetic field on and off, allowing one to build up a pair of images corresponding to the "on" and "off" states of the magnetic field. These image pairs are differenced to look for magnetic-specific effects, allowing one to distinguish the magnetic contrast agents from non-magnetic structures within the sample with a signal-to-background ratio of ~23dB. This technique has the potential to be very powerful when coupled with targeting for in vivo molecular imaging. To evaluate this potential we demonstrate in vitro imaging of magnetically-labeled macrophage cells embedded in a 3D tissue phantom, in vitro tissue doped with contrast agents, and in vivo imaging of Xenopus laevis (African frog) tadpoles.

Oldenburg, Amy L.; Gunther, Jillian R.; Toublan, Farah J.; Marks, Daniel L.; Suslick, Kenneth S.; Boppart, Stephen A.

2004-07-01

136

Agent Amplified Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an agent-based framework for assisting and simplifying person-to-person communication for informa- tion gathering tasks. As an example, we focus on expertise location within a large organization. In our approach, the informal person-to-person networks that exist within an or- ganization are used to \\

Henry A. Kautz; Bart Selman; Al Milewski

1996-01-01

137

Remote Agent Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote Agent (RA) is a model-based, reusable artificial intelligence (At) software system that enables goal-based spacecraft commanding and robust fault recovery. RA was flight validated during an experiment on board of DS1 between May 17th and May 21th, 1999.

Benard, Doug; Dorais, Gregory A.; Gamble, Ed; Kanefsky, Bob; Kurien, James; Millar, William; Muscettola, Nicola; Nayak, Pandu; Rouquette, Nicolas; Rajan, Kanna; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

138

Beyond bevacizumab: antiangiogenic agents.  

PubMed

Angiogenesis is a rational target for the treatment of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the E4599 trial, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeted antibody bevacizumab combined with carboplatin/paclitaxel improved both progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) compared with chemotherapy alone. However responses to bevacizumab are usually transient and resistance inevitably develops. Thus other targets should be considered for future antiangiogenic strategies. A number of antiangiogenic agents with a variety of targets are in clinical development for NSCLC. Several multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as sorafenib, cediranib, and BIBF 1120, with activity against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and other proangiogenic pathways (eg, fibroblast growth factor [FGF] and platelet-derived growth factor [PDGF] pathways) are in clinical development for NSCLC. Many of these TKIs have shown clinical activity in early trials, both alone and in combination with chemotherapy. Other promising agents in development include inhibitors of the angiopoietin/TIE2 pathway, integrin-targeted agents, vascular disrupting agents, and delta-like ligand-4/Notch pathway inhibitors. PMID:22297207

Rogosin, Shane; Sandler, Alan B

2012-09-01

139

Space Travel Agent  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You are in charge of creating a travel brochure to a planet in our solar system. Travel Agent for the Solar System Introduction You are in charge of the new ?Travel the Solar System? account at Universe Travel Agency.

Ms. Williams

2010-11-29

140

Mobility control agent  

SciTech Connect

Polymer mobility control agents useful in supplemental oil recovery processes, which give improved reciprocal relative mobilities, are prepared by initiating the polymerization of a monomer containing a vinyl group with a catalyst comprising a persulfate and ferrous ammonium sulfate. The vinyl monomer is an acrylyl, a vinyl cyanide, a styryl and water soluble salts thereof.

Argabright, P.A.; Phillips, B.L.; Rhudy, J.S.

1983-05-17

141

Agents of Infection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collaborative lesson design by Lori Kern and Dawn Barone. This lesson focuses on infectious agents (fungus, bacteria, virus and parasites). Students will be able experience a hands-on activity to reinforce the concepts addressed in this benchmark.

Michelle Ferro

2012-06-15

142

A theoretical investigation of photoacoustic contrast agents.  

PubMed

Photoacoustic imaging offers significant potential as a biomedical imaging modality. For some applications, however, there is a need for contrast enhancement. In this paper, a theoretical comparison is presented of the efficacy of three different designs for photoacoustic contrast agents (PACAs), specifically, a droplet of dye, a bubble filled with gas coated by a dye loaded shell, and a droplet of volatile dye. For each case, the governing equations describing the dynamics of a single PACA in a homogenous incompressible fluid are derived. The coupled sets of equations describing the bubble oscillation and resulting radiated pressure, the photo-acoustic energy equation, and the equation of state are then solved numerically. The numerical results predict a stronger radiated acoustic signal for the same optical source energy density in the case of the volatile dye droplet by a factor of up to two orders of magnitude compared with the other two types of agent. PMID:23742340

Firouzi, K; Stride, E; Saffari, N

2013-06-01

143

Agent design patterns: elements of agent application design  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. ABSTRACT Agent technology is an emerging field and agent-based application design is still a pi o- neering discipline. We are all pioneers, i n- venting and re-inventing sometimes smart but perhaps more not-so-smart solutions to recur- rent problems. It is here that agent design pat- terns can help by capturing good solutions to common problems in agent design. No

Yariv Aridor; Danny B. Lange

1998-01-01

144

Thermoacoustic couple  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for determining acoustic power density level and its direction in a fluid using a single sensor are disclosed. The preferred embodiment of the apparatus, which is termed a thermoacoustic couple, consists of a stack of thin, spaced apart polymeric plates, selected ones of which include multiple bimetallic thermocouple junctions positioned along opposite end edges thereof. The thermocouple junctions are connected in series in the nature of a thermopile, and are arranged so as to be responsive to small temperature differences between the opposite edges of the plates. The magnitude of the temperature difference, as represented by the magnitude of the electrical potential difference generated by the thermopile, is found to be directly related to the level of acoustic power density in the gas.

Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

1983-10-04

145

Dark coupling  

SciTech Connect

The two dark sectors of the universe—dark matter and dark energy—may interact with each other. Background and linear density perturbation evolution equations are developed for a generic coupling. We then establish the general conditions necessary to obtain models free from non-adiabatic instabilities. As an application, we consider a viable universe in which the interaction strength is proportional to the dark energy density. The scenario does not exhibit ''phantom crossing'' and is free from instabilities, including early ones. A sizeable interaction strength is compatible with combined WMAP, HST, SN, LSS and H(z) data. Neutrino mass and/or cosmic curvature are allowed to be larger than in non-interacting models. Our analysis sheds light as well on unstable scenarios previously proposed.

Gavela, M.B.; Hernández, D.; Honorez, L. Lopez [Departamento de Física Teórica and Instituto de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Mena, O. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular, IFIC, CSIC and Universidad de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Rigolin, S., E-mail: belen.gavela@uam.es, E-mail: d.hernandez@uam.es, E-mail: laura.lopez@uam.es, E-mail: omena@ific.uv.es, E-mail: stefano.rigolin@pd.infn.it [Dipartimento d Fisica ''Galileo Galilei'', Universitá di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

2009-07-01

146

Distributed Agents for Autonomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Distributed Agents for Autonomy (DAFA) Study has been performed for ESA by SciSys UK Ltd, Vega GmbH and Politecnico di Milano. An analysis of past, present and future space missions has been conducted, structured around a set of three pre-defined mission scenarios: Formation Flying, Earth Observation and Planetary Exploration. This analysis led to the definition of a framework of use cases where the application of distributed autonomy seems necessary or appropriate, and a set of metrics that may be used to assess such deployments. Agent technology and architectures were extensively surveyed and the results used to elaborate each of the mission scenarios to the point where a software prototype could be constructed. Such a prototype was developed for a scenario based on the ExoMars mission and this has been used to highlight the advantages of a DAFA approach to the mission architecture.

Blake, R.; Amigoni, F.; Brambilla, A.; de la Rosa Steinz, S.; Lavagna, M.; le Duc, I.; Page, J.; Page, O.; Steel, R.; Wijnands, Q.

2010-08-01

147

Rigid bifunctional chelating agents  

DOEpatents

Bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

Sweet, Mark P. (Coram, NY); Mease, Ronnie C. (Fairfax, VA); Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY)

2000-02-08

148

Inactivation studies on BSE agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmissible degenerative encephalopathy agents are relatively resistant to standard decontamination procedures. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent was inactivated by sodium hypochlorite but not sodium dichloroisocyanurate; 1M or 2M sodium hydroxide was unreliable for BSE and scrapie agents. BSE infectivity survived a two-year exposure to formol saline. Porous-load autoclaving at 134-138°C was ineffective with BSE and scrapie agents, and resistance to

David M. Taylor

1996-01-01

149

Intention Reconciliation by Collaborative Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on resource-bounded agents has established that rational agents need to be able to revise their commitments in the light of new opportunities. In the context of collabo- rative activities, rational agents must be able to reconcile their intentions to do team-related actions with other, con- flicting intentions. The SPIRE experimental system allows the process of intention reconciliation in team

David G. Sullivan; Barbara J. Grosz; Sarit Kraus

2000-01-01

150

Trends in Agent Communication Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agent technology is an exciting and important new way to create complex software systems. Agents blend many of the traditional properties of AI programs - knowledge-level reasoning, flexibil- ity, pro-activeness, goal-directedness, and so forth - with insights gained from distributed software engineering, machine learning, negotiation and teamwork theory, and the social sciences. An im- portant part of the agent approach

Brahim Chaib-draa; Frank Dignum

2002-01-01

151

The value of less connected agents in Boolean networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In multiagent systems, agents often face binary decisions where one seeks to take either the minority or the majority side. Examples are minority and congestion games in general, i.e., situations that require coordination among the agents in order to depict efficient decisions. In minority games such as the El Farol Bar Problem, previous works have shown that agents may reach appropriate levels of coordination, mostly by looking at the history of past decisions. Not many works consider any kind of structure of the social network, i.e., how agents are connected. Moreover, when structure is indeed considered, it assumes some kind of random network with a given, fixed connectivity degree. The present paper departs from the conventional approach in some ways. First, it considers more realistic network topologies, based on preferential attachments. This is especially useful in social networks. Second, the formalism of random Boolean networks is used to help agents to make decisions given their attachments (for example acquaintances). This is coupled with a reinforcement learning mechanism that allows agents to select strategies that are locally and globally efficient. Third, we use agent-based modeling and simulation, a microscopic approach, which allows us to draw conclusions about individuals and/or classes of individuals. Finally, for the sake of illustration we use two different scenarios, namely the El Farol Bar Problem and a binary route choice scenario. With this approach we target systems that adapt dynamically to changes in the environment, including other adaptive decision-makers. Our results using preferential attachments and random Boolean networks are threefold. First we show that an efficient equilibrium can be achieved, provided agents do experimentation. Second, microscopic analysis show that influential agents tend to consider few inputs in their Boolean functions. Third, we have also conducted measurements related to network clustering and centrality that help to see how agents are organized.

Epstein, Daniel; Bazzan, Ana L. C.

2013-11-01

152

Learning models of intelligent agents  

SciTech Connect

Agents that operate in a multi-agent system need an efficient strategy to handle their encounters with other agents involved. Searching for an optimal interactive strategy is a hard problem because it depends mostly on the behavior of the others. In this work, interaction among agents is represented as a repeated two-player game, where the agents` objective is to look for a strategy that maximizes their expected sum of rewards in the game. We assume that agents` strategies can be modeled as finite automata. A model-based approach is presented as a possible method for learning an effective interactive strategy. First, we describe how an agent should find an optimal strategy against a given model. Second, we present an unsupervised algorithm that infers a model of the opponent`s automaton from its input/output behavior. A set of experiments that show the potential merit of the algorithm is reported as well.

Carmel, D.; Markovitch, S. [Computer Science Dept., Haifa (Israel)

1996-12-31

153

Flexible, secure agent development framework  

DOEpatents

While an agent generator is generating an intelligent agent, it can also evaluate the data processing platform on which it is executing, in order to assess a risk factor associated with operation of the agent generator on the data processing platform. The agent generator can retrieve from a location external to the data processing platform an open site that is configurable by the user, and load the open site into an agent substrate, thereby creating a development agent with code development capabilities. While an intelligent agent is executing a functional program on a data processing platform, it can also evaluate the data processing platform to assess a risk factor associated with performing the data processing function on the data processing platform.

Goldsmith; Steven Y. (Rochester, MN)

2009-04-07

154

Diastereoselective pinacol coupling of alkyl aryl ketones with rare earth metals in the presence of chlorosilanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rare earth metals (Ln) are found to act as useful reducing agents for the pinacol coupling reaction of alkyl aryl ketones in the presence of chlorosilanes. Although the hitherto known pinacol coupling reaction using rare earth reducing agents generally exhibits very low diastereoselectivities, the present pinacol coupling by use of a LnR3SiCl system usually indicates higher diastereoselectivities. In particular, a

Akiya Ogawa; Hiroki Takeuchi; Toshikazu Hirao

1999-01-01

155

DCTD — Featured Agents  

Cancer.gov

Tandutinib (MLN518), previously known as CT53518, is a small-molecule inhibitor of the type III receptor tyrosine kinases, including the Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 receptor (FLT3), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), and c-Kit receptor tyrosine kinase. Tandutinib is relatively selective, having no appreciable activity against EGFR, FGFR, KDR, or several non-receptor kinases. FLT3, c-Kit, and ßPDGFR are equally inhibited by tandutinib, while the agent is much less active against CSF-1R (in vitro IC50 of 3.4 µM).

156

Chemical warfare agents  

PubMed Central

Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

2010-01-01

157

Chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

Ganesan, K; Raza, S K; Vijayaraghavan, R

2010-07-01

158

Sophorolipids as antibacterial agents.  

PubMed

Sophorolipids (SLs), glycolipids produced by yeasts, have been reported to have immunomodulating activity and to reduce the mortality rate in animal models of sepsis. In the present study, the antibacterial activities of SLs and several derivatives were tested against a selection of standard bacterial isolates using the broth microdilution method. The SL derivatives tested did not show any significant antibacterial activity in vitro when tested at clinically relevant concentrations. Most likely the reported decrease of mortality rate in the rat septic shock model was not secondary to antibacterial activity of SLs. The SLs may be used as anti-inflammatory agents or immunomodulators without affecting the host's bacterial flora. PMID:19201743

Sleiman, Joseph N; Kohlhoff, Stephan A; Roblin, Patricia M; Wallner, Sabine; Gross, Richard; Hammerschlag, Margaret R; Zenilman, Michael E; Bluth, Martin H

2009-01-01

159

Holograms as Teaching Agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1947 introduction of basic holographic principles, but it was not until the invention of the laser in 1960 that research scientists, physicians, technologists and the general public began to seriously consider the interdisciplinary potentiality of holography. Questions around whether and when Three-Dimensional (3-D) images and systems would impact American entertainment and the arts would be answered before educators, instructional designers and students would discover how much Three-Dimensional Hologram Technology (3DHT) would affect teaching practices and learning environments. In the following International Symposium on Display Holograms (ISDH) poster presentation, the author features a traditional board game as well as a reflection hologram to illustrate conventional and evolving Three-Dimensional representations and technology for education. Using elements from the American children's toy Operation® (Hasbro, 2005) as well as a reflection hologram of a human brain (Ko, 1998), this poster design highlights the pedagogical effects of 3-D images, games and systems on learning science. As teaching agents, holograms can be considered substitutes for real objects, (human beings, organs, and animated characters) as well as agents (pedagogical, avatars, reflective) in various learning environments using many systems (direct, emergent, augmented reality) and electronic tools (cellphones, computers, tablets, television). In order to understand the particular importance of utilizing holography in school, clinical and public settings, the author identifies advantages and benefits of using 3-D images and technology as instructional tools.

Walker, Robin A.

2013-02-01

160

Designing Social Agents with Empathic Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the design of an agent model for a social agent capable of understanding other agents in an empathic way. The model describes how the empathic agent deals with another agent's mental states and the associated feelings, thus not only understanding the other agent's mental state but at the same time feeling the accompanying emotion of the other

Zulfiqar A. Memon; Jan Treur

2009-01-01

161

AREA OVERVIEW----Agent & Data Mining Interaction  

E-print Network

AREA OVERVIEW---- Agent & Data Mining Interaction (ADMI) Longbing Cao Faculty of Information in a Multiple Agent Environment", EWSL91, 1991 Agent-based data mining & knowledge discovery by Davies, W., 1994 Research topics Agent driven data mining Data mining driven agents & multi- agent systems Mutual issues

Cao, Longbing

162

Social Automata Agent-based models  

E-print Network

Social Automata · Agent-based models ­ Contrast to global descriptive models ­ Local interactions by agents · Assumptions ­ Agents are autonomous: bottom-up control of system ­ Agents are interdependent ­ Agents follow simple rules ­ Agents adapt, but are not optimal #12;Schelling's Segregation Model · Mild

Indiana University

163

Agent-based enterprise integration  

SciTech Connect

The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. Their enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; intelligently locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of their effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses their planned future work.

N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

1999-05-01

164

Agent-based enterprise integration  

SciTech Connect

The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. The enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of the effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses the planned future work.

N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

1998-12-01

165

Collaborating Fuzzy Reinforcement Learning Agents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earlier, we introduced GARIC-Q, a new method for doing incremental Dynamic Programming using a society of intelligent agents which are controlled at the top level by Fuzzy Relearning and at the local level, each agent learns and operates based on ANTARCTIC, a technique for fuzzy reinforcement learning. In this paper, we show that it is possible for these agents to compete in order to affect the selected control policy but at the same time, they can collaborate while investigating the state space. In this model, the evaluator or the critic learns by observing all the agents behaviors but the control policy changes only based on the behavior of the winning agent also known as the super agent.

Berenji, Hamid R.

1997-01-01

166

Bioresponsive, Cell-Penetrating and Multimeric MR Contrast Agents  

PubMed Central

Conspectus Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become increasingly popular in molecular imaging and clinical radiology because it is non-invasive and capable of producing three-dimensional representations of opaque organisms with high spatial and temporal resolution. While approximately 35% of all clinical MR scans utilize contrast media, a primary limitation of MR imaging is the low sensitivity to detect contrast agents requiring high concentrations of agent for enhanced signal intensity (0.1-0.6 mM).1 A number of strategies have been employed to amplify the observed in vivo signal of MR contrast agents. Approaches include attachment of Gd(III) chelates to polymers, proteins and particles, encapsulation into micelles and caged structures, and targeting to receptors. While each of these approaches has yielded significant increases in the relaxivity of MR contrast agents (and therefore sensitivity), all of these classes of complexes possess intrinsic background signal and function solely as anatomical reporters due to their constitutive activity. In order to reduce the background signal and simultaneously create probes that are modulated by biochemical events, caged complexes were designed to coordinatively saturate the paramagnetic ion. Coupled with amplification strategies, these agents represent a means to selectively modulate the observed MR signal and function as in vivo biochemical reporters. For example, to create an in vivo MR assay of enzymatic activities and secondary messengers, agents have been designed and synthesized with removable protection groups that largely prevent access of water to a paramagnetic center. By limiting the access of bulk water (q-modulation) the unprocessed agent is designed to be an ineffective contrast agent, and hence serves as a reliable marker for regions of enzyme activity or secondary messengers. In this Account we describe our results toward designing new classes of MR agents that are i. responsive to in vivo physiological or biochemical events ii. cell-permeable to increase local concentration, and iii. attached to large molecules or are synthesized with multiply labeled conjugates for signal amplification. PMID:19537782

Major, Jody L.; Meade, Thomas J.

2009-01-01

167

Peptide Antimicrobial Agents  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial host defense peptides are produced by all complex organisms as well as some microbes and have diverse and complex antimicrobial activities. Collectively these peptides demonstrate a broad range of antiviral and antibacterial activities and modes of action, and it is important to distinguish between direct microbicidal and indirect activities against such pathogens. The structural requirements of peptides for antiviral and antibacterial activities are evaluated in light of the diverse set of primary and secondary structures described for host defense peptides. Peptides with antifungal and antiparasitic activities are discussed in less detail, although the broad-spectrum activities of such peptides indicate that they are important host defense molecules. Knowledge regarding the relationship between peptide structure and function as well as their mechanism of action is being applied in the design of antimicrobial peptide variants as potential novel therapeutic agents. PMID:16847082

Jenssen, Håvard; Hamill, Pamela; Hancock, Robert E. W.

2006-01-01

168

Agent Factory: Towards Social Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper advocates the application of multi-agent techniques in the realisation of social robotic behaviour. We present the Social Robot Architecture, which integrates the key elements of agent-hood and robotics in a coherent and systematic manner. This architecture seamlessly integrates, real world robots, multi-agent development tools, and VRML visualisation tools into a coherent whole. Using these elements, we deliver a

Gregory M. P. O'hare; Brian R. Duffy; Rem W. Collier; Colm Rooney; R. P. S. O'donoghue

1999-01-01

169

[Unconventional antidiabetic agents].  

PubMed

The current pharmacological therapy of type 2 diabetes reduces the risk of diabetic complications, but is not able to achieve a long-lasting normalization of the metabolic disorder. Thus diabetic patients in increasing numbers are taking dietary supplements and herbs from which they expect additional health benefits. These unconventional antidiabetic agents consist mainly in trace metals like chromium, vanadium and zinc and a heterogeneous group of traditionally used antidiabetic herbs (e. g. Momordica charantia, Gymnema sylvestre, Trigonella foenum-graecum) often derived from the ayurvedic medicine. In this overview the current evidence for the antidiabetic effect is presented. The trace elements chromium and vanadium have a number of potentially antidiabetic actions in vitro, however, the results obtained with diabetic patients are not convincing so far. Similarly, the available data on the therapeutic use of herbs suggest that in principle a number of them possess a blood glucose-lowering effect, but at present no firm conclusions as to their efficacy and safety can be made. To set up reliable dose-effect relationships requires the identification of the relevant antidiabetic molecules as was apparently achieved by isolating 4-hydroxyisoleucine from the seeds of T. foenum-graecum. This requirement is also valid in the case of the antidiabetic action of cinnamon. Coffee and a moderate alcohol consumption were found to be surprisingly effective in lowering the risk of type 2 diabetes manifestation, their effect being roughly equal to that of conventional drugs used in diabetes prevention trials. Diabetic patients should inform their physician about the use of unconventional agents and should be warned against uncontrolled starting or stopping their use. PMID:17484443

Rustenbeck, Ingo

2007-04-01

170

Agent Tcl: A flexible and secure mobile-agent system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mobile agent is an autonomous program that can migrate under its own control from machine to machine in a heterogeneous network. In other words, the program can suspend its execution at an arbitrary point, transport itself to another machine, and then resume execution from the point of suspension. Mobile agents have the potential to provide a single, general framework

Robert S. Gray

1997-01-01

171

Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

172

Agent Model Development for Assessing Climate-Induced Geopolitical Instability.  

SciTech Connect

We present the initial stages of development of new agent-based computational methods to generate and test hypotheses about linkages between environmental change and international instability. This report summarizes the first year's effort of an originally proposed three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project. The preliminary work focused on a set of simple agent-based models and benefited from lessons learned in previous related projects and case studies of human response to climate change and environmental scarcity. Our approach was to define a qualitative model using extremely simple cellular agent models akin to Lovelock's Daisyworld and Schelling's segregation model. Such models do not require significant computing resources, and users can modify behavior rules to gain insights. One of the difficulties in agent-based modeling is finding the right balance between model simplicity and real-world representation. Our approach was to keep agent behaviors as simple as possible during the development stage (described herein) and to ground them with a realistic geospatial Earth system model in subsequent years. This work is directed toward incorporating projected climate data--including various C02 scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Third Assessment Report--and ultimately toward coupling a useful agent-based model to a general circulation model.3

Boslough, Mark B.; Backus, George A.

2005-12-01

173

Agents Capable of Dynamic Negotiations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Support for negotiation is one of the more important research issues when developing agent systems utilized in e-commerce. While, depending on the type of the transaction, different negotiation procedures need to be utilized, only very few proposed frameworks are generic and flexible enough to handle multiple scenarios. This note presents negotiating agents, which can change their negotiation strategy depending on

Garima Parakh; Sandhya Rani; Marcin Paprzycki; Ajith Abraham; Johnson Thomas

174

Cooperating Air Traffic Control Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key aim of cooperating air traffic control agents (CAT CA) was to comparatively analyze and evaluate the success of a multiagent system (MAS) and a single agent system (SAS) at addressing a given set of goals in a problem domain amenable to the utilization of either a MAS or SAS. The problem domain selected was air traffic control (AT

Geoff Nitschke

2001-01-01

175

Safety of ultrasound contrast agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of ultrasound contrast agents has increased over recent years. The Contrast Media Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) decided to review the safety of ultrasound contrast agents in humans and to draw up guidelines. A comprehensive literature search and review was carried out. The resulting report was discussed by the CMSC of ESUR

Jarl Å. Jakobsen; Raymond Oyen; Henrik S. Thomsen; Sameh K. Morcos

2005-01-01

176

The Optimal Agent Application & Evaluation  

E-print Network

Agent Application & Evaluation What We Want Choosing Agents Explicit Form What We Want Toy example Toy example: utility function for a pet finding robot. e U(e) P(e|a1) P(e|a2) Turtle 10 0.60 0 Cat 5 0 0

Goodman, James R.

177

Intelligent Agents: Theory and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of an agent has become important in both Artificial Intelligence (AI) and mainstream computer science. Our aim in this paper is to point the reader at what we perceive to be the most important theoretical and practical issues associated with the design and construction of intelligent agents. For convenience, we divide these issues into three areas (though as

Michael Wooldridge; Nicholas R. Jennings

1995-01-01

178

Language Support for Mobile Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile agents are code-containing objects that may be transmitted between communicatingparticipants in a distributed system. As opposed to systems that onlyallow the exchange of nonexecutable data, systems incorporating mobile agentscan achieve significant gains in performance and functionality.A programming language for mobile agents must be able to express theirconstruction, transmission, receipt, and subsequent execution. Its implementationmust handle architectural heterogeneity...

Frederick Colville Knabe

1995-01-01

179

SOCIALLY INTELLIGENT AGENTS Creating Relationships  

E-print Network

SOCIALLY INTELLIGENT AGENTS Creating Relationships with Computers and Robots Edited by KERSTIN DAUTENHAHN University of Hertfordshire ALAN H. BOND California Institute of Technology LOLA CAÃ?AMERO Boston/Dordrecht/London #12;Contents Contributing Authors ix 1 Socially Intelligent Agents: Creating

Cañamero, Lola

180

EXPLORING THE SOCIALLY ADEPT AGENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imagine an agent who is charged with seeking information from around the globe. It is the task of this agent to visit different sites, to search for information, and to report back to its 'superior' (which may or may not be human). In the course of this search, it will interact with others, human or otherwise. It will make decisions

Stephen Marsh

1995-01-01

181

Gelled Anti-icing Agents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pectin added to antifreeze/water mixture. Formulations include water with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as deicer and pectin as gel former. Without gelling agent, deicer runs off vertical surfaces. Without pectin solution will completely evaporate in far less time. Agents developed have wide potential for ice prevention on runways, highways, bridges and sidewalks.

Markles, O. F.; Sperber, H. H.

1983-01-01

182

Research Report Understanding Animate Agents  

E-print Network

Research Report Understanding Animate Agents Distinct Roles for the Social Network and Mirror Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland ABSTRACT--How people understand the actions of animate agents is achieved via action simulation, and the social-network hypothesis proposes that such understanding

Baker, Chris I.

183

Transdermal delivery of therapeutic agent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device for the transdermal delivery of a therapeutic agent to a biological subject that includes a first electrode comprising a first array of electrically conductive microprojections for providing electrical communication through a skin portion of the subject to a second electrode comprising a second array of electrically conductive microprojections. Additionally, a reservoir for holding the therapeutic agent surrounding the first electrode and a pulse generator for providing an exponential decay pulse between the first and second electrodes may be provided. A method includes the steps of piercing a stratum corneum layer of skin with two arrays of conductive microprojections, encapsulating the therapeutic agent into biocompatible charged carriers, surrounding the conductive microprojections with the therapeutic agent, generating an exponential decay pulse between the two arrays of conductive microprojections to create a non-uniform electrical field and electrokinetically driving the therapeutic agent through the stratum corneum layer of skin.

Kwiatkowski, Krzysztof C. (Inventor); Hayes, Ryan T. (Inventor); Magnuson, James W. (Inventor); Giletto, Anthony (Inventor)

2008-01-01

184

Markov Tracking for Agent Coordination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) axe an attractive representation for representing agent behavior, since they capture uncertainty in both the agent's state and its actions. However, finding an optimal policy for POMDPs in general is computationally difficult. In this paper we present Markov Tracking, a restricted problem of coordinating actions with an agent or process represented as a POMDP Because the actions coordinate with the agent rather than influence its behavior, the optimal solution to this problem can be computed locally and quickly. We also demonstrate the use of the technique on sequential POMDPs, which can be used to model a behavior that follows a linear, acyclic trajectory through a series of states. By imposing a "windowing" restriction that restricts the number of possible alternatives considered at any moment to a fixed size, a coordinating action can be calculated in constant time, making this amenable to coordination with complex agents.

Washington, Richard; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

185

Directions for Agent Model Checking*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this chapter we provide a perspective on current and future work in the area of agent model-checking. In particular, we describe our approach, which was the first to provide comprehensive verification of practical agent programming languages. It provides a library of general agent concepts that has been formally defined and implemented in Java, upon which interpreters for various agent programming languages can be succinctly programmed. The Java library has been prepared so that it can be efficiently used with an existing Java model checker, thus facilitating the verification of (heterogeneous) multi-agent programs. Besides giving an overview of our approach, in this chapter we identify its current shortfalls and discuss where we aim to target future development.

Bordini, R. H.; Dennis, L. A.; Farwer, B.; Fisher, M.

186

Adaptive networks of trading agents  

E-print Network

Multi-agent models have been used in many contexts to study generic collective behavior. Similarly, complex networks have become very popular because of the diversity of growth rules giving rise to scale-free behavior. Here we study adaptive networks where the agents trade ``wealth'' when they are linked together while links can appear and disappear according to the wealth of the corresponding agents; thus the agents influence the network dynamics and vice-versa. Our framework generalizes a multi-agent model of Bouchand and Mezard, and leads to a steady state with fluctuating connectivities. The system spontaneously self-organizes into a critical state where the wealth distribution has a fat tail and the network is scale-free; in addition, network heterogeneities lead to enhanced wealth condensation.

Burda, Z; Martin, O C

2008-01-01

187

Phytonutrients as therapeutic agents.  

PubMed

Nutrients present in various foods plays an important role in maintaining the normal functions of the human body. The major nutrients present in foods include carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals. Besides these, there are some bioactive food components known as "phytonutrients" that play an important role in human health. They have tremendous impact on the health care system and may provide medical health benefits including the prevention and/or treatment of disease and various physiological disorders. Phytonutrients play a positive role by maintaining and modulating immune function to prevent specific diseases. Being natural products, they hold a great promise in clinical therapy as they possess no side effects that are usually associated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. They are also comparatively cheap and thus significantly reduce health care cost. Phytonutrients are the plant nutrients with specific biological activities that support human health. Some of the important bioactive phytonutrients include polyphenols, terpenoids, resveratrol, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, carotenoids, limonoids, glucosinolates, phytoestrogens, phytosterols, anthocyanins, ?-3 fatty acids, and probiotics. They play specific pharmacological effects in human health such as anti-microbial, anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, anti-spasmodic, anti-cancer, anti-aging, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, neuroprotective, hypotensive, diabetes, osteoporosis, CNS stimulant, analgesic, protection from UVB-induced carcinogenesis, immuno-modulator, and carminative. This mini-review attempts to summarize the major important types of phytonutrients and their role in promoting human health and as therapeutic agents along with the current market trend and commercialization. PMID:25051278

Gupta, Charu; Prakash, Dhan

2014-09-01

188

COUPLING INTERFACE CONNECTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jon R. Mancuso is Director of Engineer- ing with Kop-Flex Inc., Emerson Power Transmission Corporation, in Baltimore, Maryland. He has more than 30 years experience in the coupling field and is author of many papers on couplings for various publications, societies, and sym- posia. Mr. Mancuso is also author of a book on couplings, Coupling and Joints: Design, Selection, and

Jon R. Mancuso; Roger Jones; Engineer Shell

189

Knowledge focus via software agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The essence of military Command and Control (C2) is making knowledge intensive decisions in a limited amount of time using uncertain, incorrect, or outdated information. It is essential to provide tools to decision-makers that provide: * Management of friendly forces by treating the "friendly resources as a system". * Rapid assessment of effects of military actions againt the "enemy as a system". * Assessment of how an enemy should, can, and could react to friendly military activities. Software agents in the form of mission agents, target agents, maintenance agents, and logistics agents can meet this information challenge. The role of each agent is to know all the details about its assigned mission, target, maintenance, or logistics entity. The Mission Agent would fight for mission resources based on the mission priority and analyze the effect that a proposed mission's results would have on the enemy. The Target Agent (TA) communicates with other targets to determine its role in the system of targets. A system of TAs would be able to inform a planner or analyst of the status of a system of targets, the effect of that status, adn the effect of attacks on that system. The system of TAs would also be able to analyze possible enemy reactions to attack by determining ways to minimize the effect of attack, such as rerouting traffic or using deception. The Maintenance Agent would scheudle maintenance events and notify the maintenance unit. The Logistics Agent would manage shipment and delivery of supplies to maintain appropriate levels of weapons, fuel and spare parts. The central idea underlying this case of software agents is knowledge focus. Software agents are createad automatically to focus their attention on individual real-world entities (e.g., missions, targets) and view the world from that entities perspective. The agent autonomously monitors the entity, identifies problems/opportunities, formulates solutions, and informs the decision-maker. The agent must be able to communicate to receive and disseminate information and provide the decision-maker with assistance via focused knowledge. THe agent must also be able to monitor the state of its own environment and make decisions necessary to carry out its delegated tasks. Agents bring three elements to the C2 domain that offer to improve decision-making. First, they provide higher-quality feedback and provide it more often. In doing so, the feedback loop becomes nearly continuous, reducing or eliminating delays in situation updates to decision-makers. Working with the most current information possible improves the control process, thus enabling effects based operations. Second, the agents accept delegation of actions and perform those actions following an established process. Agents' consistent actions reduce the variability of human input and stabilize the control process. Third, through the delegation of actions, agents ensure 100 percent consideration of plan details.

Henager, Donald E.

2001-09-01

190

Surface preparation and coupling in plastic scintillator dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

One way to improve the performance of scintillation dosimeters is to increase the light-collection efficiency at the coupling interfaces of the detector system. We performed a detailed study of surface preparation of scintillating fibers and their coupling with clear optical fibers to minimize light loss and increase the amount of light collected. We analyzed fiber-surface polishing with aluminum oxide sheets, coating fibers with magnesium oxide, and the use of eight different coupling agents (air, three optical gels, an optical curing agent, ultraviolet light, cyanoacrylate glue, and acetone). We prepared 10 scintillating fiber and clear optical fiber light guide samples to test different coupling methods. To test the coupling, we first cut both the scintillating fiber and the clear optical fiber. Then, we cleaned and polished both ends of both fibers. Finally, we coupled the scintillating fiber with the clear optical fiber in either a polyethylene jacket or a V-grooved support depending on the coupling agent used. To produce more light, we used an ultraviolet lamp to stimulate scintillation. A typical series of similar couplings showed a standard deviation in light-collection efficiency of 10%. This can be explained by differences in the surface preparation quality and alignment of the scintillating fiber with the clear optical fiber. Absence of surface polishing reduced the light collection by approximately 40%, and application of magnesium oxide on the proximal end of the scintillating fiber increased the amount of light collected from the optical fiber by approximately 39%. Of the coupling agents, we obtained the best results using one of the optical gels. Because a large amount of the light produced inside a scintillator is usually lost, better light-collection efficiency will result in improved sensitivity.

Ayotte, Guylaine; Archambault, Louis; Gingras, Luc; Lacroix, Frederic; Beddar, A. Sam; Beaulieu, Luc [Departement de physique, de genie physique et d'optique, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, G1K7P4 (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec, G1R2J6 (Canada); Departement de physique, de genie physique et d'optique, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, G1K7P4 (Canada) and Department de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec, G1R2J6 (Canada) and Department of Radiation Physics, Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department de physique, de genie physique et d'optique, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, G1K7P4 (Canada) and Department de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec, G1R2J6 (Canada); Department of Radiation Physics, Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department de physique, de genie physique et d'optique, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, G1K7P4 (Canada) and Department de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec, G1R2J6 (Canada)

2006-09-15

191

Path Coupling and Aggregate Path Coupling  

E-print Network

In this survey paper, we describe and characterize an extension to the classical path coupling method applied statistical mechanical models, referred to as aggregate path coupling. In conjunction with large deviations estimates, we use this aggregate path coupling method to prove rapid mixing of Glauber dynamics for a large class of statistical mechanical models, including models that exhibit discontinuous phase transitions which have traditionally been more difficult to analyze rigorously. The parameter region for rapid mixing for the generalized Curie-Weiss-Potts model is derived as a new application of the aggregate path coupling method.

Kovchegov, Yevgeniy

2015-01-01

192

Pharmacological agents and bone healing  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis is the most common alteration of bone metabolism. It derives from an increase in bone resorption with respect to bone formation and is characterized by microarchitectural alterations, decreased bone mass and increased risk of fracture. The coupling between bone formation and resorption is a fundamental concept in skeletal metabolism, and it explains how a certain amount of removed tissue can be replaced by the same amount of new bone. Various substances used to treat osteoporosis may also be used for orthopaedic conditions such as fracture healing, implant fixation, bone grafts and osteonecrosis. Fracture healing consists in the replacement of the lost bone by a tissue that has the same biomechanical properties as those preceding the fracture. The repair process is triggered by the local response to the tissue injury that damaged the continuity of bone. The duration of each phase of the healing process can vary significantly, depending on the site and characteristics of the fracture, on patient related factors and on the treatment choice. While most of the fractures heal with conventional treatment, they can also cause permanent damage and complications, especially in a certain kind of patients. Osteoporosis and old age may contribute in delaying or impairing the reparative process. In animal models the healing process is slower in older and/or ovariectomized animals. Biomechanical tests have also shown that bone strength is compromised in human osteoporotic cadaver bone. The same problems were highlighted in the surgical treatment of fractures in osteoporotic patients. Mainly in the treatment of hip fractures there is an increased risk of cut-out, re-fractures and implant failure in patients with osteoporosis. Preclinical studies have shown that certain pharmacological agents (bisphosphonates, strontium ranelate, teriparatide) may enhance osseointegration and stimulate reparative processes. They may be administered systemically and/or used locally at the fracture site on the implant surface. The aim of fracture treatment is to restore bone biomechanical properties and to allow restoring normal function at the affected site. If the new pharmacological approaches could be translated into clinical benefit and offered to patients with osteoporosis or other factors that put at risk the process of healing (subjects with severe loss of substance or fractures at high risk of complications), they could represent a valuable aid in the treatment of fractures. PMID:22461164

Tarantino, Umberto; Cerocchi, Irene; Celi, Monica; Scialdoni, Alessandro; Saturnino, Luca; Gasbarra, Elena

2009-01-01

193

Emergent Behavior and Mobile Agents Bernard Pagurek  

E-print Network

in the communications domain. Keywords: mobile agents, agent coordination, agent collaboration, swarm intelligence 1 of such mobile agents are found at all levels of evolutionary complexity, from bacteria to ants and beyond communication is local; no single agent has a global view of the world. Communication is also achieved using

White, Tony

194

User focus management in agent worlds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction Emerging distributed agent systems, smart buildings, grid computing and many other architectures leave the user lost between a big heap of agents. The popular 'yellow-pages' solution to agent discovery will brake down when multiple highly-specialized agents are needed for even the simplest actions. On the other hand, a personal agent knowing exactly what the user wants and negotiating with

W. Pasman

2003-01-01

195

Novel agents in indolent lymphomas  

PubMed Central

Indolent non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (iNHLs) include follicular lymphomas (FL), marginal-zone lymphoma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenström macroglobulinemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma. First-line standard therapy in advanced, symptomatic iNHL consists of rituximab-based immunochemotherapy. The recent rediscovery of the ‘old’ chemotherapeutic agent bendamustine, an alkylating agent with a peculiar mechanism of action, has added a new effective and well-tolerated option to the therapeutic armamentarium in iNHL, increasing response rates and duration. However, patients invariably relapse and subsequent active and well-tolerated agents are needed. In recent years a large number of new targeted agents have been tested in preclinical and clinical experimentation in FL and indolent nonfollicular lymphoma (iNFL), including the new monoclonal antibodies binding CD20 or other surface antigens, immunoconjugates and bispecific antibodies. Moreover novel agents directed against intracellular processes such as proteasome inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors and agents that target the tumour microenvironment, notably the immunomodulatory agent lenalidomide, are under active clinical investigation. The development of these new drugs may change in the near future the approach to iNHL patients, leading to better tolerated and effective therapy regimens. PMID:23610620

Merli, Michele; Ferrario, Andrea; Basilico, Claudia; Maffioli, Margherita; Caramazza, Domenica; Appio, Lorena; Arcaini, Luca

2013-01-01

196

Novel agents in indolent lymphomas.  

PubMed

Indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (iNHLs) include follicular lymphomas (FL), marginal-zone lymphoma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenström macroglobulinemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma. First-line standard therapy in advanced, symptomatic iNHL consists of rituximab-based immunochemotherapy. The recent rediscovery of the 'old' chemotherapeutic agent bendamustine, an alkylating agent with a peculiar mechanism of action, has added a new effective and well-tolerated option to the therapeutic armamentarium in iNHL, increasing response rates and duration. However, patients invariably relapse and subsequent active and well-tolerated agents are needed. In recent years a large number of new targeted agents have been tested in preclinical and clinical experimentation in FL and indolent nonfollicular lymphoma (iNFL), including the new monoclonal antibodies binding CD20 or other surface antigens, immunoconjugates and bispecific antibodies. Moreover novel agents directed against intracellular processes such as proteasome inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors and agents that target the tumour microenvironment, notably the immunomodulatory agent lenalidomide, are under active clinical investigation. The development of these new drugs may change in the near future the approach to iNHL patients, leading to better tolerated and effective therapy regimens. PMID:23610620

Merli, Michele; Ferrario, Andrea; Basilico, Claudia; Maffioli, Margherita; Caramazza, Domenica; Appio, Lorena; Arcaini, Luca; Passamonti, Francesco

2013-04-01

197

Agent Communications using Distributed Metaobjects  

SciTech Connect

There are currently two proposed standards for agent communication languages, namely, KQML (Finin, Lobrou, and Mayfield 1994) and the FIPA ACL. Neither standard has yet achieved primacy, and neither has been evaluated extensively in an open environment such as the Internet. It seems prudent therefore to design a general-purpose agent communications facility for new agent architectures that is flexible yet provides an architecture that accepts many different specializations. In this paper we exhibit the salient features of an agent communications architecture based on distributed metaobjects. This architecture captures design commitments at a metaobject level, leaving the base-level design and implementation up to the agent developer. The scope of the metamodel is broad enough to accommodate many different communication protocols, interaction protocols, and knowledge sharing regimes through extensions to the metaobject framework. We conclude that with a powerful distributed object substrate that supports metaobject communications, a general framework can be developed that will effectively enable different approaches to agent communications in the same agent system. We have implemented a KQML-based communications protocol and have several special-purpose interaction protocols under development.

Goldsmith, Steven Y.; Spires, Shannon V.

1999-06-10

198

Consenting Agents: Negotiation Mechanisms for MultiAgent Systems  

E-print Network

partially supported by the Israeli Ministry of Science and Technology (Grant 032­8284). (PDAs of intelligent databases relies on sophisticated interactions among autonomous software agents. A user's request

Rosenschein, Jeff

199

JACK Intelligent Agents - Components for Intelligent Agents in Java  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is organised as follows.Section 2 introduces JACK IntelligentAgents, presenting the approach taken byAOS to its design and outlining its majorengineering characteristics. The BDImodel is discussed briefly in Section 3.Section 4 gives an outline of how to buildan application with JACK IntelligentAgents. Finally, in Section 5 we discusshow the use of this framework can bebeneficial to both engineers and

Paolo Busetta; Ralph Rönnquist; Andrew Hodgson; Andrew Lucas

1999-01-01

200

Requirements Modeling with Agent Programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agent-oriented conceptual modeling notations are highly effective in representing requirements from an intentional stance and answering questions such as what goals exist, how key actors depend on each other, and what alternatives must be considered. In this chapter, we review an approach to executing i* models by translating these into set of interacting agents implemented in the CASO language and suggest how we can perform reasoning with requirements modeled (both functional and non-functional) using i* models. In this chapter we particularly incorporate deliberation into the agent design. This allows us to benefit from the complementary representational capabilities of the two frameworks.

Dasgupta, Aniruddha; Krishna, Aneesh; Ghose, Aditya K.

201

Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents  

DOEpatents

A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC{sub 16}H{sub 14}N{sub 6}. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques. 10 figs.

Smith, P.H.; Brainard, J.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

1997-12-30

202

Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents  

DOEpatents

A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC.sub.16 H.sub.14 N.sub.6. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques.

Smith, Paul H. (Los Alamos, NM); Brainard, James R. (Los Alamos, NM); Jarvinen, Gordon D. (Los Alamos, NM); Ryan, Robert R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01

203

76 FR 2617 - User Fees Relating to Enrolled Agents and Enrolled Retirement Plan Agents; Hearing Cancellation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...1545-BJ65 User Fees Relating to Enrolled Agents and Enrolled Retirement Plan Agents; Hearing Cancellation AGENCY: Internal Revenue...the imposition of user fees for enrolled agents and enrolled retirement plan agents. DATES: The public hearing, originally...

2011-01-14

204

Optimal agent cooperation with local information  

E-print Network

Multi-agent systems are in general believed to be more efficient, robust, and versatile than their single-agent equivalents. However, it is not an easy task to design strategies that fully exploit the multi-agent benefits, ...

De Mot, Jan

2005-01-01

205

Designing Culturally Authentic Pedagogical Agents Yolanda Rankin  

E-print Network

Designing Culturally Authentic Pedagogical Agents Yolanda Rankin Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, USA Ethnicity has been defined primarily by the physical appearance of pedagogical agents of pedagogical agents are the most authentic representations. As designers of educational technology, pedagogical

Cassell, Justine

206

Ni(II) Salts and 2-Propanol Effect Catalytic Reductive Coupling of Epoxides and Alkynes  

E-print Network

A Ni-catalyzed reductive coupling of alkynes and epoxides using Ni(II) salts and simple alcohol reducing agents is described. Whereas previously reported conditions relied on Ni(cod)2 and Et3B, this system has several ...

Beaver, Matthew G.

207

Game Couplings: Learning Dynamics and Applications Maria-Florina Balcan ninamf@cc.gatech.edu  

E-print Network

Game Couplings: Learning Dynamics and Applications Maria-Florina Balcan ninamf, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 Abstract Games encode complex strategic interactions involving numerous agents. Specific game properties, such as the existence of a potential function (Monderer

Shamma, Jeff S.

208

Agent-based forward analysis  

SciTech Connect

We propose software agent-based "forward analysis" for efficient information retrieval in a network of sensing devices. In our approach, processing is pushed to the data at the edge of the network via intelligent software agents rather than pulling data to a central facility for processing. The agents are deployed with a specific query and perform varying levels of analysis of the data, communicating with each other and sending only relevant information back across the network. We demonstrate our concept in the context of face recognition using a wireless test bed comprised of PDA cell phones and laptops. We show that agent-based forward analysis can provide a significant increase in retrieval speed while decreasing bandwidth usage and information overload at the central facility. n

Kerekes, Ryan A [ORNL; Jiao, Yu [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL; Lusk, Rick M [ORNL

2008-01-01

209

Diamine curing agents for polyurethanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three aromatic diamines have properties that make them promising candidates as curing agents for converting isocyanates to polyurethanes with higher adhesive strengths, higher softening temperatures, better toughness, and improved abrasion resistance.

Bell, V. L.; St. Clair, T. L.

1975-01-01

210

Tissue penetration of antifungal agents.  

PubMed

Understanding the tissue penetration of systemically administered antifungal agents is critical for a proper appreciation of their antifungal efficacy in animals and humans. Both the time course of an antifungal drug and its absolute concentrations within tissues may differ significantly from those observed in the bloodstream. In addition, tissue concentrations must also be interpreted within the context of the pathogenesis of the various invasive fungal infections, which differ significantly. There are major technical obstacles to the estimation of concentrations of antifungal agents in various tissue subcompartments, yet these agents, even those within the same class, may exhibit markedly different tissue distributions. This review explores these issues and provides a summary of tissue concentrations of 11 currently licensed systemic antifungal agents. It also explores the therapeutic implications of their distribution at various sites of infection. PMID:24396137

Felton, Timothy; Troke, Peter F; Hope, William W

2014-01-01

211

Tissue Penetration of Antifungal Agents  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Understanding the tissue penetration of systemically administered antifungal agents is critical for a proper appreciation of their antifungal efficacy in animals and humans. Both the time course of an antifungal drug and its absolute concentrations within tissues may differ significantly from those observed in the bloodstream. In addition, tissue concentrations must also be interpreted within the context of the pathogenesis of the various invasive fungal infections, which differ significantly. There are major technical obstacles to the estimation of concentrations of antifungal agents in various tissue subcompartments, yet these agents, even those within the same class, may exhibit markedly different tissue distributions. This review explores these issues and provides a summary of tissue concentrations of 11 currently licensed systemic antifungal agents. It also explores the therapeutic implications of their distribution at various sites of infection. PMID:24396137

Felton, Timothy; Troke, Peter F.

2014-01-01

212

Learning in multi-agent systems  

SciTech Connect

Learning agents acting in a multi agent environment can improve their performance. These agents might decide upon their course of action by learning about other agents with whom they interact. The learning agents can learn about the others information and rules of behavior. The agents will not need to plan their actions beforehand, each time they are asked to solve the same problem they have already solved or when dealing with similar problems.

Goldman, C.V. [The Hebrew Univ., Givat Ram, Jerusalem (Israel)

1996-12-31

213

Automated Verification of Multi-Agent Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we show that the flexible model- checking of multi-agent systems, implemented using agent- oriented programming languages, is viable thus paving the way for the construction of verifiably correct applications of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems. Model checking experiments were carried out on AJPF (Agent JPF), our ex- tension of Java PathFinder that incorporates the Agent Infras- tructure

Rafael H. Bordini; Louise A. Dennis; Berndt Farwer; Michael Fisher

2008-01-01

214

Animated Pedagogical Agents in Multimedia Educational Environments: Effects of Agent Properties, Picture Features, and Redundancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments explored the integration of animated agents into multimedia environments in the context of R. E. Mayer’s (2001) cognitive theory of multimedia learning. Experiment 1 was a 3 (agent properties: agent only, agent with gesture, no agent) × 3 (picture features: static picture, sudden onset, animation) design. Agent properties produced no significant effects. Both sudden onset and animation conditions

Scotty D. Craig; Barry Gholson; David M. Driscoll

2002-01-01

215

Design of Agent Service System to Manage Services among Heterogeneous Multi-agent Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agent systems can register, deregister and search the information of agent and services. Amount of the agent systems and the information according to agent and service are existed. The differences of the information specification make not easy to the relevancy about them. Thus, we propose the agent service system (ASS) to find the relevancy among the agents information and

Yoe-Jin Yoon; Geon-Ha Lee; Kee-Hyun Choi; Dong-Ryeol Shin

2008-01-01

216

Targeting for cardioplegia: arresting agents and their safety.  

PubMed

Elective temporary cardiac arrest (cardioplegia) is often required during cardiac surgery. In the 1970 s, the development of hyperkalaemic cardioplegic solutions revolutionised cardiac surgery by offering effective chemically-induced cardiac arrest and myocardial protection during global ischaemia. Despite remaining the most widely-used cardioplegic technique, hyperkalaemia can have detrimental effects due to the Na and Ca loading of the cardiac cell induced by depolarisation of the cell membrane. Efforts over the last two decades to establish better cardioplegic agents have mainly remained limited to animal experiments. The failure of these approaches to progress to clinical trials may be due to a lack of clear criteria that a cardioplegic agent should meet at a cellular level and, more importantly, at a system level. In this review we attempt to define the criteria for the optimal cardioplegic agent. We also assess the suitability and clinical potential of previously-studied cardioplegic agents and suggest cellular targets, particularly those involved in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling, that may prove to be attractive options for the development of new cardioplegic drugs. Finally, we propose a multicellular target approach using a combination of pharmacological agents in order to offer better cardioplegic solutions. PMID:19492439

Fallouh, Hazem B; Kentish, Jonathan C; Chambers, David J

2009-04-01

217

Logic-Based Hybrid Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid agents integrate different styles of reactive, deliberative, and cooperative problem solving in a modular fashion.\\u000a They are the prime device of (Distributed) Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science for realising a broad spectrum of\\u000a simultaneous functionalities in application domains such as Artificial Life, (Tele-)Robotics, Flexible Manufacturing, and\\u000a Automated Transportation. This article presents a design methodology for hybrid agents which combines

Christoph G. Jung; Klaus Fischer

2002-01-01

218

Hybrid Multi-Agent Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hybrid systems have grown tremendously in the past few years due to their abilities to offset the demerits of one technique\\u000a by the merits of another. This chapter presents a number of computational intelligence techniques which are useful in the\\u000a implementation of hybrid multi-agent systems. A brief review of the applications of the hybrid multi-agent systems is presented.

D. Srinivasan; M. Choy

219

Novel agents in Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia  

PubMed Central

Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia (WM) is a B-cell disorder characterized by the infiltration of the bone marrow (BM) with lymphoplasmacytic cells, as well as detection of an IgM monoclonal gammopathy in the serum. WM is considered an incurable disease, with an overall median survival of only 5-6 years. The success of targeted therapy in multiple myeloma (MM) has led to the development and investigation of more than 30 new compounds in this disease and in other plasma cell dyscrasias WM, both in the preclinical settings and as part of clinical trials. Among therapeutical options, first-line therapies have been based on single-agent or combination regimens with alkylator agents, nucleoside analogues, and the monoclonal antibody anti-CD20. Based on the understanding of the complex interaction between tumor cells and bone marrow microenvironment and the signaling pathways that are deregulated in WM pathogenesis, a number of novel therapeutic agents are now available; and demonstrated significant efficacy in WM. The range of the ORR to these novel agents is between 25-80%. Ongoing and planned future clinical trials include those using PKC inhibitors such as enzastaurin, new proteasome inhibitors such as carfilzomib, histone deacetylase inhibitors such as LBH589, humanized CD20 antibodies such as Ofatumumab, and additional alkylating agents such as bendamustine. These agents, when compared to traditional chemotherapeutic agents, may lead in the future to higher responses, longer remissions and better quality of life for patients with WM. This review will mainly focus on those novel agent that entered clinical trial for the treatment of WM. PMID:22844582

Sacco, Antonio; Leleu, Xavier; Rossi, Giuseppe; Ghobrial, Irene M.; Roccaro, Aldo M.

2011-01-01

220

Mixed-Status Couples  

MedlinePLUS

... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Having Children Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... safe sex and HIV. Friends and Family Dating & Marriage Having Children Mixed-Status Couples Related Topics on ...

221

Computational Voting Theory: Of the Agents, By the Agents, For the Agents  

E-print Network

; the outcome is then decided by a social choice function. The field of Multi-Agent Systems is much younger, barely two decades old, and is concerned with systems occupied by multiple heterogeneous, autonomous

Procaccia, Ariel

222

Spatial process and data models : toward integration of agent-based models and GIS.  

SciTech Connect

The use of object-orientation for both spatial data and spatial process models facilitates their integration, which can allow exploration and explanation of spatial-temporal phenomena. In order to better understand how tight coupling might proceed and to evaluate the possible functional and efficiency gains from such a tight coupling, we identify four key relationships affecting how geographic data (fields and objects) and agent-based process models can interact: identity, causal, temporal and topological. We discuss approaches to implementing tight integration, focusing on a middleware approach that links existing GIS and ABM development platforms, and illustrate the need and approaches with example agent-based models.

Brown, D. G.; North, M. J.; Robinson, D. T.; Riolo, R.; Rand, W.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Michigan

2007-10-01

223

Investigational Antimicrobial Agents of 2013  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY New antimicrobial agents are always needed to counteract the resistant pathogens that continue to be selected by current therapeutic regimens. This review provides a survey of known antimicrobial agents that were currently in clinical development in the fall of 2012 and spring of 2013. Data were collected from published literature primarily from 2010 to 2012, meeting abstracts (2011 to 2012), government websites, and company websites when appropriate. Compared to what was reported in previous surveys, a surprising number of new agents are currently in company pipelines, particularly in phase 3 clinical development. Familiar antibacterial classes of the quinolones, tetracyclines, oxazolidinones, glycopeptides, and cephalosporins are represented by entities with enhanced antimicrobial or pharmacological properties. More importantly, compounds of novel chemical structures targeting bacterial pathways not previously exploited are under development. Some of the most promising compounds include novel ?-lactamase inhibitor combinations that target many multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, a critical medical need. Although new antimicrobial agents will continue to be needed to address increasing antibiotic resistance, there are novel agents in development to tackle at least some of the more worrisome pathogens in the current nosocomial setting. PMID:24092856

Pucci, Michael J.

2013-01-01

224

Theory of agent-based market models with controlled levels of greed and anxiety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use generating functional analysis to study minority-game-type market models with generalized strategy valuation updates that control the psychology of agents' actions. The agents' choice between trend-following and contrarian trading, and their vigor in each, depends on the overall state of the market. Even in 'fake history' models, the theory now involves an effective overall bid process (coupled to the effective agent process) which can exhibit profound remanence effects and new phase transitions. For some models the bid process can be solved directly, others require Maxwell-construction-type approximations.

Papadopoulos, P.; Coolen, A. C. C.

2010-01-01

225

Self-Organising Agent Organisations Ramachandra Kota  

E-print Network

797 Self-Organising Agent Organisations Ramachandra Kota School of Electronics and Computer Science 1BJ, UK nrj@ecs.soton.ac.uk ABSTRACT Self-organising multi-agent systems provide a suitable parad solving agent organisations. Based on self-organisation principles, our method enables the agents

Allan, Vicki H.

226

Identity Management in Agent Systems1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agent technology is a promising and enabling technology in open distributed environments. Agents are autonomous entities that interact with each other and with (web-) services, for which digital identity management (DIDM) is a prerequisite: the rights and obligations of all entities in an agent system need to be secured. A framework for evaluation of DIDM in agent systems is proposed.

David R. A. de Groot; Frances M. T. Brazier

227

Empirical-rational semantics of agent communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The missing of an appropriate semantics of agent communication languages is one of the most challenging issues of contemporary AI. Although several approaches to this problem exist, none of them is really suitable for dealing with agent autonomy, which is a decisive property of artificial agents. This paper introduces an observation-based approach to the semantics of agent communication, which combines

Matthias Nickles; Michael Rovatsos; G. Weiss

2004-01-01

228

Response Fusion in Multi-Agent Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi agent environment are often complex, while each member of agent community has vision about only a part of the environment. In such environment, information fusion of agent community is vital to attain a better accuracy or quality of information. Agents have different ability and can access to information sources with different degree of credibility. As a result, information which

Fereshteh-Azadi Parand; Nasrollah Moghaddam Charkari; Sara Afrasyabian

2009-01-01

229

Beliefs, Stereotypes and Dynamic Agent Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many domains (such as dialogue participation and multi-agent cooperative planning) it is often necessary that the system maintains complex models of the beliefe of agents with whom it is interacting. In particular, it is normally the case that models of the beliefs of agents about another agent's beliefs must be modeled. While in limited domains it is possible to

Afzal Ballim; Yorick Wilks

1991-01-01

230

Agents That Reason and Negotiate by Arguing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for negotiation in multi-agent systems stems from the requirement for agents to solve the problems posed by their interdependence upon one another. Negotiation provides a solution to these problems by giving the agents the means to resolve their conflicting objectives, correct inconsistencies in their knowledge of other agents' world views, and coordinate a joint approach to domain tasks

Simon Parsons; Carles Sierra; Nicholas R. Jennings

1998-01-01

231

Organizationally Adept Agents Daniel D. Corkill,1  

E-print Network

and their (social-centric) willing- ness to perform activities requested by other agents. Agent organizations that balances organizational, social, and agent-centric interests and can adjust this balance when appropriateOrganizationally Adept Agents Daniel D. Corkill,1 Edmund H. Durfee,2 Victor R. Lesser,1 Huzaifa

Durfee, Edmund H.

232

Analyzing How Social Agents Influence Interpersonal Communication  

E-print Network

Analyzing How Social Agents Influence Interpersonal Communication Hideyuki Nakanishi1 , Satoshi, takanasi@crl.go.jp Abstract: We conducted two experiments to analyze the influence of our social agent' sentiment toward the agent, and their relations. Keywords: Social agents, interpersonal communication

Nakanishi, Hideyuki

233

Multi-Agent Programming Contest 2011 Edition  

E-print Network

heterogeneous multi-agent systems with both com- petitive and cooperative agent interaction. On top of that, newMulti-Agent Programming Contest 2011 Edition Evaluation and Team Descriptions Tristan Behrens (Theoretical Foundations of Computer Science) #12;Multi-Agent Programming Contest 2011 Edition Evaluation

Zachmann, Gabriel

234

Adaptive networks of trading agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiagent models have been used in many contexts to study generic collective behavior. Similarly, complex networks have become very popular because of the diversity of growth rules giving rise to scale-free behavior. Here we study adaptive networks where the agents trade “wealth” when they are linked together while links can appear and disappear according to the wealth of the corresponding agents; thus the agents influence the network dynamics and vice versa. Our framework generalizes a multiagent model of Bouchaud and Mézard [Physica A 282, 536 (2000)], and leads to a steady state with fluctuating connectivities. The system spontaneously self-organizes into a critical state where the wealth distribution has a fat tail and the network is scale free; in addition, network heterogeneities lead to enhanced wealth condensation.

Burda, Z.; Krzywicki, A.; Martin, O. C.

2008-10-01

235

Adaptive networks of trading agents.  

PubMed

Multiagent models have been used in many contexts to study generic collective behavior. Similarly, complex networks have become very popular because of the diversity of growth rules giving rise to scale-free behavior. Here we study adaptive networks where the agents trade "wealth" when they are linked together while links can appear and disappear according to the wealth of the corresponding agents; thus the agents influence the network dynamics and vice versa. Our framework generalizes a multiagent model of Bouchaud and Mézard [Physica A 282, 536 (2000)], and leads to a steady state with fluctuating connectivities. The system spontaneously self-organizes into a critical state where the wealth distribution has a fat tail and the network is scale free; in addition, network heterogeneities lead to enhanced wealth condensation. PMID:18999492

Burda, Z; Krzywicki, A; Martin, O C

2008-10-01

236

[Anti-influenza virus agent].  

PubMed

The necessity of newly anti-influenza agents is increasing rapidly after the prevalence of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009. In addition to the existing anti-influenza drugs, novel neuraminidase inhibitors such as peramivir (a first intravenous anti-influenza agent) and laninamivir (long acting inhaled anti-influenza agent) can be available. Moreover favipiravir, which shows a novel anti-influenza mechanism acting as RNA polymerase inhibitor, has been developing. These drugs are expected to improve the prognosis of severe cases caused by not only seasonal influenza but pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus and H5N1 avian influenza, and also treat oseltamivir-resistant influenza effectively. PMID:22568136

Nakamura, Shigeki; Kohno, Shigeru

2012-04-01

237

Agent review phase one report.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the findings for phase one of the agent review and discusses the review methods and results. The phase one review identified a short list of agent systems that would prove most useful in the service architecture of an information management, analysis, and retrieval system. Reviewers evaluated open-source and commercial multi-agent systems and scored them based upon viability, uniqueness, ease of development, ease of deployment, and ease of integration with other products. Based on these criteria, reviewers identified the ten most appropriate systems. The report also mentions several systems that reviewers deemed noteworthy for the ideas they implement, even if those systems are not the best choices for information management purposes.

Zubelewicz, Alex Tadeusz; Davis, Christopher Edward; Bauer, Travis LaDell

2009-12-01

238

Thyroid Dysfunction from Antineoplastic Agents  

PubMed Central

Unlike cytotoxic agents that indiscriminately affect rapidly dividing cells, newer antineoplastic agents such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies are associated with thyroid dysfunction. These include tyrosine kinase inhibitors, bexarotene, radioiodine-based cancer therapies, denileukin diftitox, alemtuzumab, interferon-?, interleukin-2, ipilimumab, tremelimumab, thalidomide, and lenalidomide. Primary hypothyroidism is the most common side effect, although thyrotoxicosis and effects on thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion and thyroid hormone metabolism have also been described. Most agents cause thyroid dysfunction in 20%–50% of patients, although some have even higher rates. Despite this, physicians may overlook drug-induced thyroid dysfunction because of the complexity of the clinical picture in the cancer patient. Symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as fatigue, weakness, depression, memory loss, cold intolerance, and cardiovascular effects, may be incorrectly attributed to the primary disease or to the antineoplastic agent. Underdiagnosis of thyroid dysfunction can have important consequences for cancer patient management. At a minimum, the symptoms will adversely affect the patient’s quality of life. Alternatively, such symptoms can lead to dose reductions of potentially life-saving therapies. Hypothyroidism can also alter the kinetics and clearance of medications, which may lead to undesirable side effects. Thyrotoxicosis can be mistaken for sepsis or a nonendocrinologic drug side effect. In some patients, thyroid disease may indicate a higher likelihood of tumor response to the agent. Both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis are easily diagnosed with inexpensive and specific tests. In many patients, particularly those with hypothyroidism, the treatment is straightforward. We therefore recommend routine testing for thyroid abnormalities in patients receiving these antineoplastic agents. PMID:22010182

Larsen, P. Reed; Marqusee, Ellen

2011-01-01

239

Investigating Interactions Between Agent Conversations and Agent Control Components \\Lambday  

E-print Network

for the purpose of coordinating \\Lambda Effort sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA, either expressed or implied, of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Air Force Research agents are engaged in mul­ tiple conversations concurrently, and asynchronously, what

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

240

Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

Osadciw, Lisa A.

2004-04-01

241

Antimicrobials for bacterial bioterrorism agents.  

PubMed

The limitations of current antimicrobials for highly virulent pathogens considered as potential bioterrorism agents drives the requirement for new antimicrobials that are suitable for use in populations in the event of a deliberate release. Strategies targeting bacterial virulence offer the potential for new countermeasures to combat bacterial bioterrorism agents, including those active against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Although early in the development of antivirulence approaches, inhibitors of bacterial type III secretion systems and cell division mechanisms show promise for the future. PMID:21707313

Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Atkins, Helen S

2011-06-01

242

Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

Bohnert, G.W.; Carter, R.D.; Hand, T.E.; Powers, M.T.

1997-10-21

243

Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene or terpineol cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

Bohnert, G.W.; Carter, R.D.; Hand, T.E.; Powers, M.T.

1996-05-07

244

Limonene and tetrahydrofurfurly alcohol cleaning agent  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Carter, Richard D. (Lee's Summit, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); Powers, Michael T. (Santa Rosa, CA)

1997-10-21

245

Evolutionary dynamics of multi-agent formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To probe into the internal mechanism of multi-agent formation, game theory is used to model the interaction between agents and win-stay-lose-shift strategy to instruct agents' action. Equations are introduced to formulate how agents update their positions. The win-stay-lose-shift strategy along with the update equations depicts the dynamics of multi-agent formation. And simulations are designed and performed to observe the development

Jin Qin; Xiaojuan Ban; Xin Li

2009-01-01

246

Magnetic resonance contrast agents in neuroimaging. New agents and applications.  

PubMed

Of the four gadolinium chelates in clinical use worldwide, only three are available in the United States: gadoteridol, gadodiamide, and gadopentetate dimeglumine. Although gadopentetate dimeglumine is still administered in many clinical practices, a consequence of being the first agent developed (1988) and until recently the only agent available, gadoteridol demonstrates a higher index of safety--at least on theoretical grounds. With linear chelates such as gadopentetate dimeglumine and gadodiamide, greater release of free gadolinium ion occurs in vivo owing to lower thermodynamic and kinetic stability. The concern with respect to demetallation and resultant increased chronic deposition of gadolinium ion in marrow and liver is greater with gadodiamide. Drug safety appears not to be an issue at high dose for gadoteridol, the only agent approved in this regards. The safety of the other chelates at high dose has yet to be established. The nonionic character of the two newer agents (gadoteridol and gadodiamide) is not of great importance in current clinical practice, in which most examinations are still performed with a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg given as a slow infusion. The non-ionic nature of the newer MR contrast agents may become clinically important in the future, with more common application of bolus injection and high dose. High contrast dose (0.3 mmol/kg) is advocated in routine MR clinical practice for the evaluation of intracranial metastatic disease. Only with prior evidence for multiple metastases and in patients for whom the detection of additional lesions would not influence therapy can the use of standard dose (0.1 mmol/kg) be justified.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8130948

Runge, V M; Kirsch, J E; Wells, J W; Dunworth, J N; Awh, M H; Bittner, D F

1994-02-01

247

A cognitive-map-based approach to the coordination of distributed cooperative agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A partial taxonomy for cognitive maps is provided. The notions of NPN (negative-positive-neural) logic, NPN relations, coupled-type neurons, and coupled-type neural networks are introduced and used as a framework for cognitive map modeling. D-POOL a cognitive-map-based architecture for the coordination of distributed cooperative agents, is presented. D-POOL consists of a collection of distributed nodes. Each node is a cognitive-map-based metalevel

Wen-Ran Zhang; Su-Shing Chen; Wenhua Wang; Ronald S. King

1992-01-01

248

The Interoperability Problem: Bringing together Mobile Agents and Agent Communication Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interoperability is a central issue for both the mobile agents community and the wider agents community. Unfor- tunately, the interoperability concerns are different between the two communities. As a result, inter-agent communica- tion is an issue that has been addressed in a limited man- ner by the mobile agents community. Agent communication languages (ACLs) have been developed as tools with

Yannis Labrou; Timothy W. Finin; Yun Peng

1999-01-01

249

Is it an agent or just a program?: A taxonomy for autonomous agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The advent of software agents gave rise to much discussion of just what such an agent is, and of how they differ from programs in general. Here we propose a formal definition of an autonomous agent which clearly distinguishes a software agent from just any program. We also offer the beginnings of a natural kinds taxonomyo f autonomous agents,

Stan Franklin

1997-01-01

250

Is it an Agent, or Just a Program?: A Taxonomy for Autonomous Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of software agents gave rise to much discussion of just what such an agent is, and of how they differ from programs in general. Here we propose a formal definition of an autonomous agent which clearly distinguishes a software agent from just any program. We also offer the beginnings of a natural kinds taxonomy of autonomous agents, and

Stan Franklin; Arthur C. Graesser

1996-01-01

251

WHY AGENTS? ON THE VARIED MOTIVATIONS FOR AGENT COMPUTING IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES  

E-print Network

WHY AGENTS? ON THE VARIED MOTIVATIONS FOR AGENT COMPUTING IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES Robert Axtell for employing agent-based computation in the social sciences are reviewed. It is argued that there exist three://www.brook.edu/es/dynamics. #12;1 WHY AGENTS? ON THE VARIED MOTIVATIONS FOR AGENT COMPUTING IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES Robert L

Tesfatsion, Leigh

252

Software for Automation of Real-Time Agents, Version 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Version 2 of Closed Loop Execution and Recovery (CLEaR) has been developed. CLEaR is an artificial intelligence computer program for use in planning and execution of actions of autonomous agents, including, for example, Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna ground stations, robotic exploratory ground vehicles (rovers), robotic aircraft (UAVs), and robotic spacecraft. CLEaR automates the generation and execution of command sequences, monitoring the sequence execution, and modifying the command sequence in response to execution deviations and failures as well as new goals for the agent to achieve. The development of CLEaR has focused on the unification of planning and execution to increase the ability of the autonomous agent to perform under tight resource and time constraints coupled with uncertainty in how much of resources and time will be required to perform a task. This unification is realized by extending the traditional three-tier robotic control architecture by increasing the interaction between the software components that perform deliberation and reactive functions. The increase in interaction reduces the need to replan, enables earlier detection of the need to replan, and enables replanning to occur before an agent enters a state of failure.

Fisher, Forest; Estlin, Tara; Gaines, Daniel; Schaffer, Steve; Chouinard, Caroline; Engelhardt, Barbara; Wilklow, Colette; Mutz, Darren; Knight, Russell; Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David

2005-01-01

253

How can irrational agents survive?  

Microsoft Academic Search

When we use the agent-based simulation, we have two aims. One is to find the most effective (rational) strategies for the stochastic situation, and the other is to describe the human behaviour. As we know, it is not always true that mathematically rational solution is equal to human behaviour. Most of early studies did the paper questioner based experiment and

Fumihiko HASHIMOTO

254

The Power Trading Agent Competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff contracts, and must then serve those customers by trading in a wholesale market. Brokers are challenged to maximize

Wolfgang Ketter; John Collins; Prashant Reddy; Christoph Flath; Mathijs Weerdt

2011-01-01

255

Agent collaboration and social networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report on preliminary results for evaluating preferences for collaboration among a group of agents who located in a social network. We have implemented a game of boxes that are pushed into holes in a two dimensional world. We vary rations of boxes and holes as well as individuals awareness and information sharing. Our results corroborate intuitive

R. Sean Bowman; Henry Hexmoor

2005-01-01

256

Agents and the Semantic Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article offers a few pointers to this emerging area and shows how the ontology languages of the Semantic Web can lead directly to more powerful agent-based approaches---that is, to the realization of my colleague's "science fiction " vision.

James A. Hendler

2001-01-01

257

Action Evolution for Intelligent Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces an alternative method of reinforcement learning for intelligent agents. The aim with this method is to closer emulate the natural thought processes of problem solving. This paper only provides a conceptual description of this method. However, it puts forward realistic implementations with exciting new implications, using proven techniques. After a brief discussion of reinforcement learning, the newly

Morné Neser; Rodney E. Tessendorf; George van Schoor

2005-01-01

258

Nucleotide cleaving agents and method  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a unique series of nucleotide cleaving agents and a method for cleaving a nucleotide sequence, whether single-stranded or double-stranded DNA or RNA, using and a cationic metal complex having at least one polydentate ligand to cleave the nucleotide sequence phosphate backbone to yield a hydroxyl end and a phosphate end.

Que, Jr., Lawrence (Roseville, MN); Hanson, Richard S. (Falcon Heights, MN); Schnaith, Leah M. T. (Redwing, MN)

2000-01-01

259

Agents assisted software project management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The market opportunities for the field of software engineering have been on the rise for the last three decades. This field of engineering is relatively new and the management of projects in this field, though experiencing greater degrees of assistance from tools, still requires improvements. We present here details of our experiments on how the multi-agent technology can be used

Arun Sethuraman; Krishna Kumar Yalla; Ankur Sarin; Ravi Prakash Gorthi

2008-01-01

260

Nonlinearity induced critical coupling.  

PubMed

We study a critically coupled system [Opt. Lett. 32, 1483 (2007)] with a Kerr nonlinear spacer layer. Nonlinearity is shown to inhibit null scattering in a critically coupled system at low powers. However, a system detuned from critical coupling can exhibit near-complete suppression of scattering by means of nonlinearity-induced changes in refractive index. Our studies reveal clearly an important aspect of critical coupling as a delicate balance in both the amplitude and the phase relations, while a nonlinear resonance in dispersive bistability concerns only the phase. PMID:23939099

Nireekshan Reddy, K; Gopal, Achanta Venu; Dutta Gupta, S

2013-07-15

261

Nonlinearity Induced Critical Coupling  

E-print Network

We study a critically coupled system (Opt. Lett., \\textbf{32}, 1483 (2007)) with a Kerr-nonlinear spacer layer. Nonlinearity is shown to inhibit null-scattering in a critically coupled system at low powers. However, a system detuned from critical coupling can exhibit near-complete suppression of scattering by means of nonlinearity-induced changes in refractive index. Our studies reveal clearly an important aspect of critical coupling as a delicate balance in both the amplitude and the phase relations, while a nonlinear resonance in dispersive bistability concerns only the phase.

Reddy, K Nireekshan; Gupta, S Dutta

2013-01-01

262

Swarm autonomic agents with self-destruct capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments an autonomic entity manages a system by generating one or more stay alive signals based on the functioning status and operating state of the system. In some embodiments, an evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy. The evolvable neural interface receives and generates heartbeat monitor signals and pulse monitor signals that are used to generate a stay alive signal that is used to manage the operations of the synthetic neural system. In another embodiment an asynchronous Alice signal (Autonomic license) requiring valid credentials of an anonymous autonomous agent is initiated. An unsatisfactory Alice exchange may lead to self-destruction of the anonymous autonomous agent for self-protection.

Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)

2011-01-01

263

Swarm autonomic agents with self-destruct capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments an autonomic entity manages a system by generating one or more stay alive signals based on the functioning status and operating state of the system. In some embodiments, an evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy. The evolvable neural interface receives and generates heartbeat monitor signals and pulse monitor signals that are used to generate a stay alive signal that is used to manage the operations of the synthetic neural system. In another embodiment an asynchronous Alice signal (Autonomic license) requiring valid credentials of an anonymous autonomous agent is initiated. An unsatisfactory Alice exchange may lead to self-destruction of the anonymous autonomous agent for self-protection.

Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)

2009-01-01

264

Impact of hypoglycemic agents on myocardial ischemic preconditioning  

PubMed Central

Murry et al in 1986 discovered the intrinsic mechanism of profound protection called ischemic preconditioning. The complex cellular signaling cascades underlying this phenomenon remain controversial and are only partially understood. However, evidence suggests that adenosine, released during the initial ischemic insult, activates a variety of G protein-coupled agonists, such as opioids, bradykinin, and catecholamines, resulting in the activation of protein kinases, especially protein kinase C (PKC). This leads to the translocation of PKC from the cytoplasm to the sarcolemma, where it stimulates the opening of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel, which confers resistance to ischemia. It is known that a range of different hypoglycemic agents that activate the same signaling cascades at various cellular levels can interfere with protection from ischemic preconditioning. This review examines the effects of several hypoglycemic agents on myocardial ischemic preconditioning in animal studies and clinical trials. PMID:24936247

Rahmi Garcia, Rosa Maria; Rezende, Paulo Cury; Hueb, Whady

2014-01-01

265

From actors to agents in socio-ecological systems models  

PubMed Central

The ecosystem service concept has emphasized the role of people within socio-ecological systems (SESs). In this paper, we review and discuss alternative ways of representing people, their behaviour and decision-making processes in SES models using an agent-based modelling (ABM) approach. We also explore how ABM can be empirically grounded using information from social survey. The capacity for ABM to be generalized beyond case studies represents a crucial next step in modelling SESs, although this comes with considerable intellectual challenges. We propose the notion of human functional types, as an analogy of plant functional types, to support the expansion (scaling) of ABM to larger areas. The expansion of scope also implies the need to represent institutional agents in SES models in order to account for alternative governance structures and policy feedbacks. Further development in the coupling of human-environment systems would contribute considerably to better application and use of the ecosystem service concept. PMID:22144388

Rounsevell, M. D. A.; Robinson, D. T.; Murray-Rust, D.

2012-01-01

266

Impact of hypoglycemic agents on myocardial ischemic preconditioning.  

PubMed

Murry et al in 1986 discovered the intrinsic mechanism of profound protection called ischemic preconditioning. The complex cellular signaling cascades underlying this phenomenon remain controversial and are only partially understood. However, evidence suggests that adenosine, released during the initial ischemic insult, activates a variety of G protein-coupled agonists, such as opioids, bradykinin, and catecholamines, resulting in the activation of protein kinases, especially protein kinase C (PKC). This leads to the translocation of PKC from the cytoplasm to the sarcolemma, where it stimulates the opening of the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel, which confers resistance to ischemia. It is known that a range of different hypoglycemic agents that activate the same signaling cascades at various cellular levels can interfere with protection from ischemic preconditioning. This review examines the effects of several hypoglycemic agents on myocardial ischemic preconditioning in animal studies and clinical trials. PMID:24936247

Rahmi Garcia, Rosa Maria; Rezende, Paulo Cury; Hueb, Whady

2014-06-15

267

A Practical and Catalytic Reductive Olefin Coupling  

PubMed Central

A redox-economic method for the direct coupling of olefins that uses an inexpensive iron catalyst and a silane reducing agent is reported. Thus, unactivated olefins can be joined directly to electron-deficient olefins in both intra- and intermolecular settings to generate hindered bicyclic systems, vicinal quaternary centers, and even cyclopropanes in good yield. The reaction is not sensitive to oxygen or moisture and has been performed on gram-scale. Most importantly, it allows access to many compounds that would be difficult or perhaps impossible to access using other methods. PMID:24428607

2015-01-01

268

Agent planning in AgScala  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agent-oriented programming languages are designed to simplify the development of software agents, especially those that exhibit complex, intelligent behavior. This paper presents recent improvements of AgScala, an agent-oriented programming language based on Scala. AgScala includes declarative constructs for managing beliefs, actions and goals of intelligent agents. Combined with object-oriented and functional programming paradigms offered by Scala, it aims to be an efficient framework for developing both purely reactive, and more complex, deliberate agents. Instead of the Prolog back-end used initially, the new version of AgScala relies on Agent Planning Package, a more advanced system for automated planning and reasoning.

Toši?, Saša; Mitrovi?, Dejan; Ivanovi?, Mirjana

2013-10-01

269

Stability of Coupling Algorithms  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION AND MOTIVATION : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1 A. Approaches to solving a coupled system . . . . . . . . . . . 3 B. Common terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 C. Classi cation of coupling algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.... Stability criterion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 III REPRESENTATIVE NUMERICAL EXAMPLES : : : : : : : : 16 A. Split SDOF: rst order system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 1. CSS implementation and stability of a rst order system 18...

Akkasale, Abhineeth

2012-07-16

270

Translation-coupling systems  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

2013-11-05

271

Neuroprotective "agents" in surgery. Secret "agent" man, or common "agent" machine?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The search for clinically-effective neuroprotective agents has received enormous support in recent years--an estimated $200 million by pharmaceutical companies on clinical trials for traumatic brain injury alone. At the same time, the pathophysiology of brain injury has proved increasingly complex, rendering the likelihood of a single agent "magic bullet" even more remote. On the other hand, great progress continues with technology that makes surgery less invasive and less risky. One example is the application of endovascular techniques to treat coronary artery stenosis, where both the invasiveness of sternotomy and the significant neurological complication rate (due to microemboli showering the cerebral vasculature) can be eliminated. In this paper we review aspects of intraoperative neuroprotection both present and future. Explanations for the slow progress on pharmacologic neuroprotection during surgery are presented. Examples of technical advances that have had great impact on neuroprotection during surgery are given both from coronary artery stenosis surgery and from surgery for Parkinson's disease. To date, the progress in neuroprotection resulting from such technical advances is an order of magnitude greater than that resulting from pharmacologic agents used during surgery. The progress over the last 20 years in guidance during surgery (CT and MRI image-guidance) and in surgical access (endoscopic and endovascular techniques) will soon be complemented by advances in our ability to evaluate biological tissue intraoperatively in real-time. As an example of such technology, the NASA Smart Probe project is considered. In the long run (i.e., in 10 years or more), pharmacologic "agents" aimed at the complex pathophysiology of nervous system injury in man will be the key to true intraoperative neuroprotection. In the near term, however, it is more likely that mundane "agents" based on computers, microsensors, and microeffectors will be the major impetus to improved intraoperative neuroprotection.

Andrews, R. J.

1999-01-01

272

Fostering Multimedia Learning of Science: Exploring the Role of an Animated Agent's Image  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests that students learn better when studying a picture coupled with narration rather than on-screen text in a computer-based multimedia learning environment. Moreover, combining narration with the visual presence of an animated pedagogical agent may also encourage students to process information deeper than narration or on-screen…

Dunsworth, Qi; Atkinson, Robert K.

2007-01-01

273

Agile assembly architecture: an agent based approach to modular precision assembly systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents our initial thoughts on the design of an architecture for highly flexible, modular, and distributed precision assembly systems. Through the use of a unified design, simulation, programming, and monitoring environment coupled with self-representing cooperative agents, this architecture will significantly simplify the process of factory design and deployment. Our demonstration of this architecture takes the form of a

Alfred A. Rizzi; Jay Gowdy; Ralph L. Hollis

1997-01-01

274

Exponentially modified QCD coupling  

SciTech Connect

We present a specific class of models for an infrared-finite analytic QCD coupling, such that at large spacelike energy scales the coupling differs from the perturbative one by less than any inverse power of the energy scale. This condition is motivated by the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics operator product expansion philosophy. Allowed by the ambiguity in the analytization of the perturbative coupling, the proposed class of couplings has three parameters. In the intermediate energy region, the proposed coupling has low loop-level and renormalization scheme dependence. The present modification of perturbative QCD must be considered as a phenomenological attempt, with the aim of enlarging the applicability range of the theory of the strong interactions at low energies.

Cvetic, Gorazd [Department of Physics, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile); Center of Subatomic Studies, UTFSM, Valparaiso (Chile); Valenzuela, Cristian [Department of Physics, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile)

2008-04-01

275

Solubilization of Therapeutic Agents in Micellar Nanomedicines  

PubMed Central

We use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to reveal the binding mechanisms of therapeutic agents in PEG-ylated micellar nanocarriers (SSM). In our experiments, SSM in buffer solutions can solubilize either ? 11 small bexarotene molecules or ? 6 (2 in low ionic strength buffer) human vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) molecules. Free energy calculations reveal that molecules of the poorly water soluble drug bexarotene can reside at the micellar ionic interface of the PEG corona, with their polar ends pointing out. Alternatively, they can reside in the alkane core center, where several bexarotene molecules can self-stabilize by forming a cluster held together by a network of hydrogen bonds. We also show that highly charged molecules, such as VIP, can be stabilized at the SSM ionic interface by Coulombic coupling between their positively charged residues and the negatively charged phosphate head-groups of the lipids. The obtained results illustrate that atomistic simulations can reveal drug solubilization character in nanocarriers and be used in efficient optimization of novel nanomedicines. PMID:24283508

Vukovi?, Lela; Madriaga, Antonett; Kuzmis, Antonina; Banerjee, Amrita; Tang, Alan; Tao, Kevin; Shah, Neil; Král, Petr; Onyuksel, Hayat

2014-01-01

276

Coevolutionary networks of reinforcement-learning agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a model of network formation in repeated games where the players adapt their strategies and network ties simultaneously using a simple reinforcement-learning scheme. It is demonstrated that the coevolutionary dynamics of such systems can be described via coupled replicator equations. We provide a comprehensive analysis for three-player two-action games, which is the minimum system size with nontrivial structural dynamics. In particular, we characterize the Nash equilibria (NE) in such games and examine the local stability of the rest points corresponding to those equilibria. We also study general n-player networks via both simulations and analytical methods and find that, in the absence of exploration, the stable equilibria consist of star motifs as the main building blocks of the network. Furthermore, in all stable equilibria the agents play pure strategies, even when the game allows mixed NE. Finally, we study the impact of exploration on learning outcomes and observe that there is a critical exploration rate above which the symmetric and uniformly connected network topology becomes stable.

Kianercy, Ardeshir; Galstyan, Aram

2013-07-01

277

Mucocutaneous reactions to antineoplastic agents.  

PubMed

Mucocutaneous reaction patterns in patients receiving cancer therapy are not only variable, but in many instances identical patterns are produced by different pathologic mechanisms. For example, patients with leukemia or lymphoma may present with nodular skin lesions that may represent malignant infiltration, septic emboli, vasculitis, or a drug eruption. The most banal skin eruption may signal an impending or ongoing catastrophe. If one is able to make some clinical evaluation regarding the likelihood of a drug being responsible for the mucocutaneous eruption, it may help avoid further clinical or laboratory investigation and patient discomfort. Unfortunately, only a few antineoplastic agents have "characteristic" skin manifestations. If, however, these are kept in mind they may be helpful in the diffential diagnosis of mucocutaneous eruptions occurring in patients treated with cancer chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:6769553

Adrian, R M; Hood, A F; Skarin, A T

1980-01-01

278

Software Documentation with Animated Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show how a formal model of interaction can be employed to generate documentation on how to use an application, in the form of an Animated Agent. The formal model we employ is XDM (Context-Sensitive Dialog Modeling), an extension of Coloured Petri Nets that enables representing user-adapted interfaces, simulating their behaviour in different contexts and making semaiutomatic pre-empirical evaluations of

Fiorella de Rosis; Berardina De Carolis; Sebastiano Pizzutilo

1999-01-01

279

Quantum mechanism helps agents combat \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum strategies have been successfully applied to game theory for years.\\u000aHowever, as a reverse problem of game theory, the theory of mechanism design is\\u000aignored by physicists. In this paper, the theory of mechanism design is\\u000ageneralized to a quantum domain. The main result is that by virtue of a quantum\\u000amechanism, agents who satisfy a certain condition can

Haoyang Wu

2010-01-01

280

Autonomous agents and social norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present concepts and their relations that are necessary for mod-\\u000aeling autonomous agents in an environment that is governed by some (social) norms.\\u000aWe divide the norms over three levels: the private level the contract level and the\\u000aconvention level. We show how deontic logic can be used to model the concepts and\\u000ahow the theory

F. P. M. Dignum

1996-01-01

281

Etiologic role of infectious agents.  

PubMed

A consensus statement found in most peer-reviewed literature on sarcoidosis is that the etiology of sarcoidosis is unknown. It is timely to review whether this statement should be revised. Many infectious agents meet the basic requirements of inducing granulomatous inflammation and immunologic responses consistent with sarcoidosis including oligoclonal expansion of CD4+ T cells, polarized Th1 and possibly Th17 responses, and dysregulated regulatory T-cell function. Studies over the past decade provide increasing and complementary data to implicate a role for infectious agents in sarcoidosis etiology. These studies used different methodologies such as polymerase chain reaction and mass spectrometry to document microbial nucleic acids and proteins in sarcoidosis tissues. Multiple studies report antigen-specific immune responses to specific microbial proteins in sarcoidosis. In aggregate, these studies provide compelling evidence that mycobacteria play a major etiologic role in sarcoidosis in the United States and Europe. Studies from Japan support a role for Propionibacteria as a major etiologic agent in the country. There is controversy over how these (or other) infectious agents cause sarcoidosis. The hypothesis that chronic sarcoidosis is caused by a viable, replicating mycobacterial or other infection has no direct pathologic, microbiologic, or clinical evidence. A novel hypothesis links microbial triggers to a sarcoidosis outcome from the accumulation of aggregated proinflammatory serum amyloid A within granulomas, providing a mechanism for chronic disease in the absence of any viable tissue infection. Further studies are needed to provide more definitive evidence for these competing hypotheses before the statement that the etiology of sarcoidosis is unknown becomes obsolete. PMID:25007081

Chen, Edward S; Moller, David R

2014-06-01

282

Intraperitoneal contrast agents for computed tomography  

SciTech Connect

Intraperitoneal contrast agents have been used to diagnose mass lesions, adhesions, and hernias using conventional radiographic techniques. The use of intraperitoneal contrast agents in conjunction with computed tomography (CT) has been limited and is the subject of this report.

Stork, J.

1985-08-01

283

Learning other agents` preferences in multiagent negotiation  

SciTech Connect

In multiagent systems, an agent does not usually have complete information about the preferences and decision making processes of other agents. This might prevent the agents from making coordinated choices, purely due to their ignorance of what others want. This paper describes the integration of a learning module into a communication-intensive negotiating agent architecture. The learning module gives the agents the ability to learn about other agents` preferences via past interactions. Over time, the agents can incrementally update their models of other agents` preferences and use them to make better coordinated decisions. Combining both communication and learning, as two complement knowledge acquisition methods, helps to reduce the amount of communication needed on average, and is justified in situations where communication is computationally costly or simply not desirable (e.g. to preserve the individual privacy).

Bui, H.H.; Kieronska, D.; Venkatesh, S. [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Perth, WA (Australia)

1996-12-31

284

an xml framework forAgent-based  

E-print Network

(HTML), making it understandable only through human eyes. Software agents and search engines have dif that increase their purchas- ing clout. Agent-based shop- ping by consumers is just the tip of the e-com- merce

Glushko, Robert J.

285

Depression: The Differing Narratives of Couples in Couple Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How does the spouse of a person with depression take part in constructing narratives of depression in couple therapy? In this study we examined couples' ways of co-constructing narratives of depression in couple therapy. Three couple therapy processes were chosen for the study, one spouse in each couple having been referred to an outpatient clinic…

Rautiainen, Eija-Liisa; Aaltonen, Jukka

2010-01-01

286

Investigating biocomplexity through the agent-based paradigm.  

PubMed

Capturing the dynamism that pervades biological systems requires a computational approach that can accommodate both the continuous features of the system environment as well as the flexible and heterogeneous nature of component interactions. This presents a serious challenge for the more traditional mathematical approaches that assume component homogeneity to relate system observables using mathematical equations. While the homogeneity condition does not lead to loss of accuracy while simulating various continua, it fails to offer detailed solutions when applied to systems with dynamically interacting heterogeneous components. As the functionality and architecture of most biological systems is a product of multi-faceted individual interactions at the sub-system level, continuum models rarely offer much beyond qualitative similarity. Agent-based modelling is a class of algorithmic computational approaches that rely on interactions between Turing-complete finite-state machines-or agents-to simulate, from the bottom-up, macroscopic properties of a system. In recognizing the heterogeneity condition, they offer suitable ontologies to the system components being modelled, thereby succeeding where their continuum counterparts tend to struggle. Furthermore, being inherently hierarchical, they are quite amenable to coupling with other computational paradigms. The integration of any agent-based framework with continuum models is arguably the most elegant and precise way of representing biological systems. Although in its nascence, agent-based modelling has been utilized to model biological complexity across a broad range of biological scales (from cells to societies). In this article, we explore the reasons that make agent-based modelling the most precise approach to model biological systems that tend to be non-linear and complex. PMID:24227161

Kaul, Himanshu; Ventikos, Yiannis

2015-01-01

287

Investigating biocomplexity through the agent-based paradigm  

PubMed Central

Capturing the dynamism that pervades biological systems requires a computational approach that can accommodate both the continuous features of the system environment as well as the flexible and heterogeneous nature of component interactions. This presents a serious challenge for the more traditional mathematical approaches that assume component homogeneity to relate system observables using mathematical equations. While the homogeneity condition does not lead to loss of accuracy while simulating various continua, it fails to offer detailed solutions when applied to systems with dynamically interacting heterogeneous components. As the functionality and architecture of most biological systems is a product of multi-faceted individual interactions at the sub-system level, continuum models rarely offer much beyond qualitative similarity. Agent-based modelling is a class of algorithmic computational approaches that rely on interactions between Turing-complete finite-state machines—or agents—to simulate, from the bottom-up, macroscopic properties of a system. In recognizing the heterogeneity condition, they offer suitable ontologies to the system components being modelled, thereby succeeding where their continuum counterparts tend to struggle. Furthermore, being inherently hierarchical, they are quite amenable to coupling with other computational paradigms. The integration of any agent-based framework with continuum models is arguably the most elegant and precise way of representing biological systems. Although in its nascence, agent-based modelling has been utilized to model biological complexity across a broad range of biological scales (from cells to societies). In this article, we explore the reasons that make agent-based modelling the most precise approach to model biological systems that tend to be non-linear and complex. PMID:24227161

Kaul, Himanshu

2015-01-01

288

Multi-agent Reinforcement Learning: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Multi-agent systems can be used to address problems in a variety of domains, including robotics, distributed control, telecommunications,\\u000a and economics. The complexity of many tasks arising in these domains makes them difficult to solve with preprogrammed agent\\u000a behaviors. The agents must instead discover a solution on their own, using learning. A significant part of the research on\\u000a multi-agent learning concerns

Lucian Bu?oniu; Robert Babuška; Bart De Schutter

289

Designing and Building a Negotiating Automated Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negotiations are very important in a multi-agent environment, particularly, in anenvironment where there are conflicts between the agents, and cooperation would bebeneficial.We have developed a general structure for a Negotiating Automated Agent thatconsists of five modules: a Prime Minister, a Ministry of Defense, a Foreign Office, aHeadquarters and Intelligence. These modules are implemented using a dynamic setof local-agents belonging to

Sarit Kraus; Daniel J. Lehmann

1995-01-01

290

Aspectizing Multi-agent Systems: From Architecture to Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agent architectures have to cope with a number of internal properties (concerns), such as autonomy, learning, and mobility. As the agent complexity increases, these agent properties crosscut each other and the agent's basic functionality. In addition, multi-agent systems encompass multiple agent types with heterogeneous architectures. Each of these agent types has different properties, which need to be composed in different

Alessandro F. Garcia; Uirá Kulesza; Carlos José Pereira De Lucena

2004-01-01

291

Mobile Agents: An Introduction Gian Pietro Picco  

E-print Network

1 Mobile Agents: An Introduction Gian Pietro Picco Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Politecnico di Milano, Italy picco@elet.polimi.it Abstract| Mobile agents are enjoying a lot of popularity to the related research #12;eld by showing evidence of the bene#12;ts mobile agents can potentially achieve

Picco, Gian Pietro

292

Agent Autonomy: Social Integrity and Social Independence  

Microsoft Academic Search

As interactions between agents become more common, it will become very important to be able to characterize and perhaps even guarantee an agent's level of autonomy. We will both want agents to perform tasks on their own while at the same time both remaining controllable by ourselves and secure from control and manipulation by others. Most intuitions of autonomy seem

Marcus J. Huber

2007-01-01

293

Letizia: An Agent That Assists Web Browsing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Letizia is a user interface agent that assists a user browsing the World Wide Web. As the user operates a conventional Web browser such as Netscape, the agent tracks user behavior and attempts to anticipate items of interest by doing concurrent, autonomous exploration of links from the user's current position. The agent automates a browsing strategy consisting of a best-first

Henry Lieberman

1995-01-01

294

7 CFR 906.59 - Agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agents. 906.59 Section 906...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER...Miscellaneous Provisions § 906.59 Agents. The Secretary may...Agriculture, to act as his agent or representative in...

2010-01-01

295

7 CFR 905.86 - Agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agents. 905.86 Section 905...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES...Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.86 Agents. The Secretary may...Agriculture, to act as his agent or representative in...

2010-01-01

296

An Overview of Mobile Agent Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile agents are code-containing objects that may be transmitted be- tween communicating participants in a distributed system. Compared to systems that only allow the exchange of nonexecutable data, those incorporating mobile agents can achieve significant gains in performance and func tionality. Languages with first-class functions provide a good startin g point for agent pro- gramming, as they make it easy

Frederick Knabe

1996-01-01

297

Embodied contextual agent in information delivering application  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aim at building a new human-computer interface for Information Delivering applications: the conversational agent that we have developed is a multimodal believable agent able to converse with the User by exhibiting a synchronized and coherent verbal and nonverbal behavior. The agent is provided with a personality and a social role, that allows her to show her emotion or to

Catherine Pelachaud; Valeria Carofiglio; Berardina De Carolis; Fiorella de Rosis; Isabella Poggi

2002-01-01

298

Defining new markets for intelligent agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most agent applications are fairly straightforward: access a Web site, fetch material; in short, perform a simple fixed mission. Others do more personalized tasks such as filtering e-mail or updating legacy systems. From a programming viewpoint, agents are simply active objects that have been defined to simulate parts of a model. Agent based modeling and simulation then become a natural

Massoud Amin; Dan Ballard

2000-01-01

299

Truthful Mechanisms for One-Parameter Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we show how to design truthful (dominant strategy) mechanisms for several combinatorial problems where each agent's secret data is naturally expressed by a single positive real number. The goal of the mechanisms we consider is to allocate loads placed on the agents, and an agent's secret data is the cost she incurs per unit load. We give

Aaron Archer; Éva Tardos

2001-01-01

300

The Ontogenesis of Agent: Linguistic Expression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some of the findings of a longitudinal study of three infants between their 11th and 22nd months to document development of linguistic expression of the agent concept indicated that first vocalizations were inconsistently associated with nonverbal agentive behaviors and later mature utterances coded agent-action-recipient events. (MC)

Olswang, Lesley Barrett; Carpenter, Robert L.

1982-01-01

301

Infants Attribute to Agents Goals and Dispositions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This commentary article is to be published alongside: Hernik, M., & Southgate, V. (2012). What do infants know about agents' goals? The authors see this issue consisting of two closely related questions. First, what is an agent to infants? Second, how do infants attribute goals to agents? Hernik and Southgage (H&S) focused on the second question.…

Luo, Yuyan; Choi, You-jung

2012-01-01

302

Beyond Butlers: Intelligent Agents as Mentors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses pedagogical issues for intelligent agents to successfully serve as mentors for educational purposes. Examines broader issues about the nature or persona necessary for an intelligent agent as mentor, incorporating usability and human-computer interaction issues such as the anthropomorphic qualities of the agent and the social relationship…

Baylor, Amy

2000-01-01

303

Agent-based Marketplaces for Electronic Commerce  

Microsoft Academic Search

We transfer the common notion of market- places as locations for trading to infrastructures for electronic commerce. Then, we argue that multi-agent systems are a promising technology to realise such electronic marketplaces because of the autonomous, task-oriented, and interactive capabilities of agents in dynamic and distributed environments. We present the agent toolkit JIAC IV and describe its special features that

Ralf Sesseler; Sahin Albayrak

304

Screening of natural products for antimicrobial agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial research is geared toward the discovery and development of novel chemical structures such as therapeutic antimicrobial agents. The continuing problem of development of resistance to existing antibacterial agents and the dearth of good antifungal agents motivates this effort toward innovation. Selection of possible new enzyme targets for antibiotic inhibition may be made on theoretical grounds, but it appears premature

L. Silver; K. Bostian

1990-01-01

305

Enhancing Knowledge Management Systems with Cognitive Agents  

E-print Network

processes in both their social, organizational and individual dimension. Keywords. Cognitive agents dimensions sociales, organisationelles et individuelles. Mots clefs . Agents cognitifs artificiels; gestion1 Enhancing Knowledge Management Systems with Cognitive Agents (Améliorer les Systèmes de Gestion

Corran, Ruth

306

Emergence of Interaction Among Adaptive Agents  

E-print Network

, we study the inter- action of two homeokinetic agents. We show that this paradigm also produces quasi-social interactions among artificial agents. The results suggest that homeokinetic learning generates social behaviorEmergence of Interaction Among Adaptive Agents Georg Martius1,2,3 , Stefano Nolfi4 , and J. Michael

Der, Ralf

307

Modelling Social Agents: Towards Deliberate Communication  

E-print Network

Modelling Social Agents: Towards Deliberate Communication Frank Dignum Faculty of Mathematics.van.linder@nl.abnamro.com July 22, 1999 Abstract In this paper we present a formal framework for social agents. The social agents component, the motivational component (where goals, intentions, etc. play a role) and the social component

Dignum, Frank

308

Economic Agents and Markets as Emergent Phenomena  

E-print Network

, financial institutions,...) and agents representing various other social and environmental phenomena (eEconomic Agents and Markets as Emergent Phenomena LEIGH TESFATSION Department of Economics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011-1070 3 December 2001 ABSTRACT An overview of recent work in agent

Tesfatsion, Leigh

309

Hydroxypyridonate chelating agents and synthesis thereof  

DOEpatents

Chelating agents having 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (HOPO) and related moieties incorporated within their structures, including polydentate HOPO-substituted polyamines such as spermidine and spermine, and HOPO-substituted desferrioxamine. The chelating agents are useful in selectively removing certain cations from solution, and are particularly useful as ferric ion and actinide chelators. Novel syntheses of the chelating agents are provided. 4 tabs.

Raymond, K.N.; Scarrow, R.C.; White, D.L.

1985-11-12

310

DRIVEN and COUPLED OSCILLATORS  

E-print Network

Compostela II Coupled oscillators Resonance tongues Huygens's synchronisation III Coupled cell system's synchronisation in 1 : 1-tongue 12 #12;3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 1/100 1/9 1/8 1/7 1/6 1/5 2/9 1/4 2/7 3/10 1/3 3/8 2/5 3 for his 60th birthday, pp. 1-61. Bristol and Philadelphia IOP, 2001 14 #12;Symmetric coupled cell system

Broer, H.W.

311

THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELING OF THE DYNAMICS OF THERAPEUTIC ULTRASOUND CONTRAST AGENTS  

PubMed Central

A 3-D thick-shell contrast agent dynamics model was developed by coupling a finite volume Navier-Stokes solver and a potential boundary element method flow solver to simulate the dynamics of thick-shelled contrast agents subjected to pressure waves. The 3-D model was validated using a spherical thick-shell model validated by experimental observations. We then used this model to study shell break-up during nonspherical deformations resulting from multiple contrast agent interaction or the presence of a nearby solid wall. Our simulations indicate that the thick viscous shell resists the contrast agent from forming a re-entrant jet, as normally observed for an air bubble oscillating near a solid wall. Instead, the shell thickness varies significantly from location to location during the dynamics, and this could lead to shell break-up caused by local shell thinning and stretching. PMID:20950929

Hsiao, Chao-Tsung; Lu, Xiaozhen; Chahine, Georges

2010-01-01

312

Enhancing Embodied Conversational Agents with Social and Emotional Capabilities  

E-print Network

Enhancing Embodied Conversational Agents with Social and Emotional Capabilities Bart van Straalen and realization of conversational behavior. Keywords: Embodied Conversational Agents, Social Agents, Bad News

Theune, Mariët

313

30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Blasting agents; special provisions. (a) Sensitized ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior...Circular 8179, “Safety Recommendations for Sensitized Ammonium Nitrate Blasting Agents,” or subsequent...

2010-07-01

314

30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Blasting agents; special provisions. (a) Sensitized ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior...Circular 8179, “Safety Recommendations for Sensitized Ammonium Nitrate Blasting Agents,” or subsequent...

2012-07-01

315

30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Blasting agents; special provisions. (a) Sensitized ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior...Circular 8179, “Safety Recommendations for Sensitized Ammonium Nitrate Blasting Agents,” or subsequent...

2014-07-01

316

30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Blasting agents; special provisions. (a) Sensitized ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior...Circular 8179, “Safety Recommendations for Sensitized Ammonium Nitrate Blasting Agents,” or subsequent...

2011-07-01

317

30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Blasting agents; special provisions. (a) Sensitized ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior...Circular 8179, “Safety Recommendations for Sensitized Ammonium Nitrate Blasting Agents,” or subsequent...

2013-07-01

318

MDE and Mobile agents: another reflection on the agent migration Tahar GHERBI  

E-print Network

MDE and Mobile agents: another reflection on the agent migration Tahar GHERBI Computer science code. Mobile agents are a very interesting technology to develop applications for mobile and distributed environments. A mobile agent is essentially a computer program that acts autonomously on behalf

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

319

Agent-based health care management An Agent-based Approach to Health Care Management  

E-print Network

Agent-based health care management 1 An Agent-based Approach to Health Care Management Jun Huang1, London WC2A 3PX, UK. Abbreviated title: Agent-based health care management Complete Mailing Address. London E1 4NS UK #12;Agent-based health care management 2 Abstract The provision of medical care

Mascardi, Viviana

320

Multi-Agent Based Clustering: Towards Generic Multi-Agent Data Mining  

E-print Network

Multi-Agent Based Clustering: Towards Generic Multi-Agent Data Mining Santhana Chaimontree, Katie.Chaimontree, katie, Coenen}@liverpool.ac.uk Abstract. A framework for Multi Agent Data Mining (MADM) is de- scribed. The framework comprises a collection of agents cooperating to address given data mining tasks. The fundamental

Atkinson, Katie

321

Multi-Agent Based Clustering: Towards Generic Multi-Agent Data Mining  

E-print Network

Multi-Agent Based Clustering: Towards Generic Multi-Agent Data Mining Santhana Chaimontree, Katie.Chaimontree,katie,Coenen}@liverpool.ac.uk Abstract. A framework for Multi Agent Data Mining (MADM) is de- scribed. The framework comprises a collection of agents cooperating to address given data mining tasks. The fundamental concept underpinning

Coenen, Frans

322

Animated Agents in K-12 Outreach: Preferred Agent Characteristics Across Developmental Levels  

E-print Network

. School of Social and Family Dynamics Arizona State University Abstract Animated agents have been found1 Animated Agents in K-12 Outreach: Preferred Agent Characteristics Across Developmental Levels Amy on the agent characteristics preferred by K-12 students. The main purpose of this study was to examine student

Reisslein, Martin

323

Coupling in the Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

The performance of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at the commencement of run Ib was far below expectations. After a frustrating period of several months, a low-{beta} quad downstream of the interaction point at B0 was found to be rolled. This rolled quadrupole coupled the horizontal and vertical motion of the Tevatron beams. It also made matching the beam from the Main Ring to the Tevatron impossible, resulting in emittance blow up on injection. The net result of the roll was a significant reduction in the Tevatron luminosity. When the roll in the quadrupole was corrected the performance of the Tevatron improved dramatically. This note will discuss the experimental data indicating the presence of coupling and subsequent calculations which show how coupling an affect the luminosity. It is not intended to exhaust a discussion of coupling, which hopefully will be understood well enough to be discussed in a subsequent note.

Gelfand, N.M.

1994-12-01

324

The coupling of engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report examines the idea of coupling numerous engines together to turn a single propeller, which the author feels would free aircraft design from the problems of multi-engine and propeller design.

Boccaccio, Paul

1921-01-01

325

Negative-coupling resonances in pump-coupled lasers  

E-print Network

We consider coupled lasers, where the intensity deviations from the steady state, modulate the pump of the other lasers. Most of our results are for two lasers where the coupling constants are of opposite sign. This leads to a Hopf bifurcation to periodic output for weak coupling. As the magnitude of the coupling constants is increased (negatively) we observe novel amplitude effects such as a weak coupling resonance peak and, strong coupling subharmonic resonances and chaos. In the weak coupling regime the output is predicted by a set of slow evolution amplitude equations. Pulsating solutions in the strong coupling limit are described by discrete map derived from the original model.

T. W. Carr; M. L. Taylor; I. B. Schwartz

2005-10-28

326

Coupled transverse motion  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic field in an accelerator or a storage ring is usually so designed that the horizontal (x) and the vertical (y) motions of an ion are uncoupled. However, because of imperfections in construction and alignment, some small coupling is unavoidable. In this lecture, we discuss in a general way what is known about the behaviors of coupled motions in two degrees-of-freedom. 11 refs., 6 figs.

Teng, L.C.

1989-01-01

327

Dynamics of coupled human-landscape systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A preliminary dynamical analysis of landscapes and humans as hierarchical complex systems suggests that strong coupling between the two that spreads to become regionally or globally pervasive should be focused at multi-year to decadal time scales. At these scales, landscape dynamics is dominated by water, sediment and biological routing mediated by fluvial, oceanic, atmospheric processes and human dynamics is dominated by simplifying, profit-maximizing market forces and political action based on projection of economic effect. Also at these scales, landscapes impact humans through patterns of natural disasters and trends such as sea level rise; humans impact landscapes by the effect of economic activity and changes meant to mitigate natural disasters and longer term trends. Based on this analysis, human-landscape coupled systems can be modeled using heterogeneous agents employing prediction models to determine actions to represent the nonlinear behavior of economic and political systems and rule-based routing algorithms to represent landscape processes. A cellular model for the development of New Orleans illustrates this approach, with routing algorithms for river and hurricane-storm surge determining flood extent, five markets (home, labor, hotel, tourism and port services) connecting seven types of economic agents (home buyers/laborers, home developers, hotel owners/ employers, hotel developers, tourists, port services developer and port services owners/employers), building of levees or a river spillway by political agents and damage to homes, hotels or port services within cells determined by the passage or depth of flood waters. The model reproduces historical aspects of New Orleans economic development and levee construction and the filtering of frequent small-scale floods at the expense of large disasters.

Werner, B. T.; McNamara, D. E.

2007-11-01

328

Honey - A Novel Antidiabetic Agent  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus remains a burden worldwide in spite of the availability of numerous antidiabetic drugs. Honey is a natural substance produced by bees from nectar. Several evidence-based health benefits have been ascribed to honey in the recent years. In this review article, we highlight findings which demonstrate the beneficial or potential effects of honey in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), on the gut microbiota, in the liver, in the pancreas and how these effects could improve glycemic control and metabolic derangements. In healthy subjects or patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus, various studies revealed that honey reduced blood glucose or was more tolerable than most common sugars or sweeteners. Pre-clinical studies provided more convincing evidence in support of honey as a potential antidiabetic agent than clinical studies did. The not-too-impressive clinical data could mainly be attributed to poor study designs or due to the fact that the clinical studies were preliminary. Based on the key constituents of honey, the possible mechanisms of action of antidiabetic effect of honey are proposed. The paper also highlights the potential impacts and future perspectives on the use of honey as an antidiabetic agent. It makes recommendations for further clinical studies on the potential antidiabetic effect of honey. This review provides insight on the potential use of honey, especially as a complementary agent, in the management of diabetes mellitus. Hence, it is very important to have well-designed, randomized controlled clinical trials that investigate the reproducibility (or otherwise) of these experimental data in diabetic human subjects. PMID:22811614

Erejuwa, Omotayo O.; Sulaiman, Siti A.; Wahab, Mohd S. Ab

2012-01-01

329

Dual-frequency transducer for nonlinear contrast agent imaging.  

PubMed

Detection of high-order nonlinear components issued from microbubbles has emerged as a sensitive method for contrast agent imaging. Nevertheless, the detection of these high-frequency components, including the third, fourth, and fifth harmonics, remains challenging because of the lack of transducer sensitivity and bandwidth. In this context, we propose a new design of imaging transducer based on a simple fabrication process for high-frequency nonlinear imaging. The transducer is composed of two elements: the outer low-frequency (LF) element was centered at 4 MHz and used in transmit mode, whereas the inner high-frequency (HF) element centered at 14 MHz was used in receive mode. The center element was pad-printed using a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) paste. The outer element was molded using a commercial PZT, and curved porous unpoled PZT was used as backing. Each piezoelectric element was characterized to determine the electromechanical performance with thickness coupling factor around 45%. After the assembly of the two transducer elements, hydrophone measurements (electroacoustic responses and radiation patterns) were carried out and demonstrated a large bandwidth (70% at -3 dB) of the HF transducer. Finally, the transducer was evaluated for contrast agent imaging using contrast agent microbubbles. The results showed that harmonic components (up to the sixth harmonic) of the microbubbles were successfully detected. Moreover, images from a flow phantom were acquired and demonstrated the potential of the transducer for high-frequency nonlinear contrast imaging. PMID:24297028

Guiroy, Axel; Novell, Anthony; Ringgaard, Erling; Lou-Moeller, Rasmus; Grégoire, Jean-Marc; Abellard, André-Pierre; Zawada, Tomasz; Bouakaz, Ayache; Levassort, Franck

2013-12-01

330

An agent-based microsimulation of critical infrastructure systems  

SciTech Connect

US infrastructures provide essential services that support the economic prosperity and quality of life. Today, the latest threat to these infrastructures is the increasing complexity and interconnectedness of the system. On balance, added connectivity will improve economic efficiency; however, increased coupling could also result in situations where a disturbance in an isolated infrastructure unexpectedly cascades across diverse infrastructures. An understanding of the behavior of complex systems can be critical to understanding and predicting infrastructure responses to unexpected perturbation. Sandia National Laboratories has developed an agent-based model of critical US infrastructures using time-dependent Monte Carlo methods and a genetic algorithm learning classifier system to control decision making. The model is currently under development and contains agents that represent the several areas within the interconnected infrastructures, including electric power and fuel supply. Previous work shows that agent-based simulations models have the potential to improve the accuracy of complex system forecasting and to provide new insights into the factors that are the primary drivers of emergent behaviors in interdependent systems. Simulation results can be examined both computationally and analytically, offering new ways of theorizing about the impact of perturbations to an infrastructure network.

BARTON,DIANNE C.; STAMBER,KEVIN L.

2000-03-29

331

Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing (CARACaS) is a recent product of a continuing effort to develop architectures for controlling either a single autonomous robotic vehicle or multiple cooperating but otherwise autonomous robotic vehicles. CARACaS is potentially applicable to diverse robotic systems that could include aircraft, spacecraft, ground vehicles, surface water vessels, and/or underwater vessels. CARACaS incudes an integral combination of three coupled agents: a dynamic planning engine, a behavior engine, and a perception engine. The perception and dynamic planning en - gines are also coupled with a memory in the form of a world model. CARACaS is intended to satisfy the need for two major capabilities essential for proper functioning of an autonomous robotic system: a capability for deterministic reaction to unanticipated occurrences and a capability for re-planning in the face of changing goals, conditions, or resources. The behavior engine incorporates the multi-agent control architecture, called CAMPOUT, described in An Architecture for Controlling Multiple Robots (NPO-30345), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 65. CAMPOUT is used to develop behavior-composition and -coordination mechanisms. Real-time process algebra operators are used to compose a behavior network for any given mission scenario. These operators afford a capability for producing a formally correct kernel of behaviors that guarantee predictable performance. By use of a method based on multi-objective decision theory (MODT), recommendations from multiple behaviors are combined to form a set of control actions that represents their consensus. In this approach, all behaviors contribute simultaneously to the control of the robotic system in a cooperative rather than a competitive manner. This approach guarantees a solution that is good enough with respect to resolution of complex, possibly conflicting goals within the constraints of the mission to be accomplished by the vehicle(s).

Huntsberger, Terrance; Aghazarian, Hrand; Estlin, Tara; Gaines, Daniel

2008-01-01

332

Nanoparticle-based theranostic agents  

PubMed Central

Theranostic nanomedicine is emerging as a promising therapeutic paradigm. It takes advantage of the high capacity of nanoplatforms to ferry cargo and loads onto them both imaging and therapeutic functions. The resulting nanosystems, capable of diagnosis, drug delivery and monitoring of therapeutic response, are expected to play a significant role in the dawning era of personalized medicine, and much research effort has been devoted toward that goal. A convenience in constructing such function-integrated agents is that many nanoplatforms are already, themselves, imaging agents. Their well developed surface chemistry makes it easy to load them with pharmaceutics and promote them to be theranostic nanosystems. Iron oxide nanoparticles, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles and silica nanoparticles, have been previously well investigated in the imaging setting and are candidate nanoplatforms for building up nanoparticle-based theranostics. In the current article, we will outline the progress along this line, organized by the category of the core materials. We will focus on construction strategies and will discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with this emerging technology. PMID:20691229

Xie, Jin; Lee, Seulki; Chen, Xiaoyuan

2010-01-01

333

Imiquimod as an antiangiogenic agent.  

PubMed

Imiquimod (imidazoquinoline 5%) is a topical immune response modifier agent that inhibits angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels. In addition to its stimulation of cell-mediated immunity, imiquimod's antiangiogenic activity contributes to its clinical efficacy by interfering with pathological neovascularization that promotes disease progression. The antiangiogenic mechanisms of imiquimod are due to its: 1) induction of cytokines that themselves inhibit angiogenesis (interferons, IL-10, IL-12); 2) local up-regulation of endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors (TIMP, TSP-1); 3) local down-regulation of pro-angiogenic factors (bFGF, MMP-9); and 4) promotion of endothelial cell apoptosis. This report discusses these mechanisms and the rationale for imiquimod's use as an antiangiogenic agent. Key principles of antiangiogenic therapy are presented to describe how imiquimod may be applied in a well-tolerated fashion to treat a broad range of angiogenesis-dependent dermatological conditions, including actinic keratosis (AK), basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), lentigo maligna, hemangiomas, Kaposi's sarcoma, pyogenic granuloma, and external genital warts. PMID:16302556

Li, Vincent W; Li, William W; Talcott, Katherine E; Zhai, Amy W

2005-01-01

334

Multi-Agent Information Classification Using Dynamic Acquaintance Lists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of automated information services focuses on information classification and collaborative agents, i.e. intelligent computer programs. Highlights include multi-agent systems; distributed artificial intelligence; thesauri; document representation and classification; agent modeling; acquaintances, or remote agents discovered through…

Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis; Peng, Shengquan; Raje, Rajeev; Palakal, Mathew; Mostafa, Javed

2003-01-01

335

Emergent Behavior of Coupled Barrier Island - Resort Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barrier islands are attractive sites for resorts. Natural barrier islands experience beach erosion and island overwash during storms, beach accretion and dune building during inter-storm periods, and migration up the continental shelf as sea level rises. Beach replenishment, artificial dune building, seawalls, jetties and groins have been somewhat effective in protecting resorts against erosion and overwash during storms, but it is unknown how the coupled system will respond to long-term sea level rise. We investigate coupled barrier island - resort systems using an agent-based model with three components: natural barrier islands divided into a series of alongshore cells; resorts controlled by markets for tourism and hotel purchases; and coupling via storm damage to resorts and resort protection by government agents. Modeled barrier islands change by beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms. In the resort hotel market, developer agents build hotels and hotel owning agents purchase them using predictions of future revenue and property appreciation, with the goal of maximizing discounted utility. In the tourism market, hotel owning agents set room rental prices to maximize profit and tourist agents choose vacation destinations maximizing a utility based on beach width, price and word-of-mouth. Government agents build seawalls, groins and jetties, and widen the beach and build up dunes by adding sand to protect resorts from storms, enhance beach quality, and maximize resort revenue. Results indicate that barrier islands and resorts evolve in a coupled manner to resort size saturation, with resorts protected against small-to-intermediate-scale storms under fairly stable sea level. Under extended, rapidly rising sea level, protection measures enhance the effect of large storms, leading to emergent behavior in the form of limit cycles or barrier submergence, depending on the relative rates of resort recovery from storms and sea level rise. The model is applied to Ocean City, Maryland and neighboring undeveloped Assateague Island National Seashore. Supported by the National Science Foundation, Geology and Paleontology Program, and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation

McNamara, D. E.; Werner, B. T.

2004-12-01

336

Serotonin Regulates Electrical Coupling via Modulation of Extrajunctional Conductance: H-current  

PubMed Central

Synaptic strength can be highly variable from animal to animal within a species or over time within an individual. The process of synaptic plasticity induced by neuromodulatory agents might be unpredictable when the underlying circuits subject to modulation are themselves inherently variable. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptomine; 5HT) and serotonergic signaling pathways are important regulators of animal behavior and are pharmacological targets in a wide range of neurological disorders. We have examined the effect of 5HT on electrical synapses possessing variable coupling strengths. While 5HT decreased electrical coupling at synapses with weak electrical connectivity, synapses with strong electrical coupling were less affected by 5HT treatment, as follows from the equations used for calculating coupling coefficients. The fact that the modulatory effect of 5HT on electrical connections was negatively correlated with the strength of electrical coupling suggests that the degree of electrical coupling within a neural network impacts subsequent neuromodulation of those synapses. Biophysical studies indicated that these effects were primarily due to 5HT-induced modulation of membrane currents that indirectly affect junctional coupling at synaptic contacts. In support of these experimental analyses, we created a simple model of coupled neurons to demonstrate that modulation of electrical coupling could be due solely to 5HT effects on H-channel conductance. Therefore, variability in the strength of electrical coupling in neural circuits can determine the pharmacological effect of this neuromodulatory agent. PMID:20599836

Szabo, Theresa M.; Caplan, Jonathan S.; Zoran, Mark J.

2010-01-01

337

Agent Reward Shaping for Alleviating Traffic Congestion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Traffic congestion problems provide a unique environment to study how multi-agent systems promote desired system level behavior. What is particularly interesting in this class of problems is that no individual action is intrinsically "bad" for the system but that combinations of actions among agents lead to undesirable outcomes, As a consequence, agents need to learn how to coordinate their actions with those of other agents, rather than learn a particular set of "good" actions. This problem is ubiquitous in various traffic problems, including selecting departure times for commuters, routes for airlines, and paths for data routers. In this paper we present a multi-agent approach to two traffic problems, where far each driver, an agent selects the most suitable action using reinforcement learning. The agent rewards are based on concepts from collectives and aim to provide the agents with rewards that are both easy to learn and that if learned, lead to good system level behavior. In the first problem, we study how agents learn the best departure times of drivers in a daily commuting environment and how following those departure times alleviates congestion. In the second problem, we study how agents learn to select desirable routes to improve traffic flow and minimize delays for. all drivers.. In both sets of experiments,. agents using collective-based rewards produced near optimal performance (93-96% of optimal) whereas agents using system rewards (63-68%) barely outperformed random action selection (62-64%) and agents using local rewards (48-72%) performed worse than random in some instances.

Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian

2006-01-01

338

Top quark tensor couplings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the real and imaginary parts of the one-loop electroweak contributions to the left and right tensorial anomalous couplings of the tbW vertex in the Standard Model (SM). For both tensorial couplings we find that the real part of the electroweak SM correction is close to 10% of the leading contribution given by the QCD gluon exchange. We also find that the electroweak real and imaginary parts for the anomalous right coupling are almost of the same order of magnitude. The one loop SM prediction for the real part of the left coupling is close to the 3 ? discovery limit derived from b ? s?. Besides, taking into account that the predictions of new physics interactions are also at the level of a few percents when compared with the one loop QCD gluon exchange, these electroweak corrections should be taken into account in order to disentangle new physics effects from the standard ones. These anomalous tensorial couplings of the top quark will be investigated at the LHC in the near future where sensitivity to these contributions may be achieved.

González-Sprinberg, Gabriel A.; Martinez, Roberto; Vidal, Jorge

2011-07-01

339

Performance-Oriented Implementation Strategies for a Mobile Agent Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. The use of larger and more complex,mobile agents in distributed applications has created a need for agent programming,systems that deliver better performance. The implementation of Extended Facile, a mobile agent language, uses several strategies to boost performance. We review fou r main techniques: allowing agents to use different transmissible representati ons, optimistically transmitting machine code with agents, stripping agents

Frederick Knabe

1996-01-01

340

Considerations in detecting CDC select agents under field conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) has become a widely accepted technique for real-time detection of interactions between receptor molecules and ligands. Antibody may serve as receptor and can be attached to the gold surface of the SPR device, while candidate analyte fluids contact the detecting antibody. Minute, but detectable, changes in refractive indices (RI) indicate that analyte has bound to the antibody. A decade ago, an inexpensive, robust, miniature and fully integrated SPR chip, called SPREETA, was developed. University of Washington (UW) researchers subsequently developed a portable, temperature-regulated instrument, called SPIRIT, to simultaneously use eight of these three-channel SPREETA chips. A SPIRIT prototype instrument was tested in the field, coupled to a remote reporting system on a surrogate unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Two target protein analytes were released sequentially as aerosols with low analyte concentration during each of three flights and were successfully detected and verified. Laboratory experimentation with a more advanced SPIRIT instrument demonstrated detection of very low levels of several select biological agents that might be employed by bioterrorists. Agent detection under field-like conditions is more challenging, especially as analyte concentrations are reduced and complex matricies are introduced. Two different sample preconditioning protocols have been developed for select agents in complex matrices. Use of these preconditioning techniques has allowed laboratory detection in spiked heavy mud of Francisella tularensis at 10 3 CFU/ml, Bacillus anthracis spores at 10 3 CFU/ml, Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) at 1 ng/ml, and Vaccinia virus (a smallpox simulant) at 10 5 PFU/ml. Ongoing experiments are aimed at simultaneous detection of multiple agents in spiked heavy mud, using a multiplex preconditioning protocol.

Spinelli, Charles; Soelberg, Scott; Swanson, Nathaneal; Furlong, Clement; Baker, Paul

2008-04-01

341

Coupled Transport Protein Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of animated lessons provides examples of how transport proteins interact in coupled systems to produce physiologic effects. The gastric pumps animation depicts the secretion of hydrochloric acid into the gastric lumen. The animation called glucose absorption depicts glucose absorption by intestinal epithelial cells. The CFTR animation explains how the cystic fibrosis conductance transmembrane regulator (CFTR) functions as a key component of a coupled system of transport proteins that clears the pulmonary system of mucus and inhaled particulates. These animations serve as valuable resources for any collegiate-level course that describes these processes. Courses that might use them include introductory biology, biochemistry, biophysics, cell biology, pharmacology, and physiology.

Jack D. Thatcher (Lewisburg; West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine REV)

2013-04-16

342

The Refinement of Multi-Agent Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter introduces an encompassing theory of refinement which supports a top-down methodology for designing multi-agent systems. We present a general modelling framework where we identify different abstraction levels of BDI agents. On the one hand, at a higher level of abstraction we introduce the language BUnity as a way to specify “what” an agent can do. On the other hand, at a more concrete layer we introduce the language BUpL as implementing not only what an agent can do but also “when” the agent can do. At this stage of individual agent design, refinement is understood as trace inclusion. Having the traces of an implementation included in the traces of a given specification means that the implementation is correct with respect to the specification.

A?tef?noaei, L.; de Boer, F. S.

343

Pharmacology and toxicology of chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

Toxic chemicals have been used as weapons of war and also as means of terrorist attacks on civilian populations. The main classes of chemical weapons are: a) nerve agents, b) vesicant agents and c) blood agents. If an exposure to nerve agents is anticipated, prophylactic pyridostigmine may be used. Once exposure has occurred, the management strategy is to reduce cholinergic activity through the use of atropine as well as to attempt to regenerate acetylcholinesterase with pralidoxime. Convulsions may be managed using diazepam. Exposure to vesicant agents may be reduced through the use of protective gear, but once exposure has occurred, no specific treatment is available. Treatment remains symptomatic and supportive. Lethal atmospheric concentrations of hydrogen cyanide gas, a blood agent, is seldom achieved except in enclosed spaces. Sub-lethal exposure to hydrogen cyanide may be managed using sodium nitrite, sodium thiosulphate and VitB12. PMID:9140586

Lee, E J

1997-01-01

344

Effect of coupling treatment of carbon fiber surface on mechanical properties of carbon fiber reinforced carbon composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced carbon composites (C\\/C composites) were prepared from a high modulus-type carbon fiber, treated with either silane or titanate coupling agents, and a furanic resin matrix precursor. Regardless of coupling treatments of fibers, a preferentially oriented region parallel to the fiber surface was observed at the interphase in the carbon matrix derived from furanic resin. The matrix

Norio Iwashita; Eleni Psomiadou; Yoshihiro Sawada

1998-01-01

345

[Contrast agents in radiology: current agents approved, recommendations, and safety aspects].  

PubMed

The manuscript summarizes current approved contrast media and their indications. Contrast agents that are discussed include iodinated contrast agents, magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents, and ultrasound contrast agents. Allergic and non-allergic renal adverse events are described. The clinical issue of metformin and the administration of contrast agents are updated. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is discussed and safety issues of available MR contrast agents are analyzed. The most recent changes in European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) guidelines are also presented. PMID:23340684

Reimer, P; Vosshenrich, R

2013-02-01

346

Distressed Couples and Marriage Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professionals generally believe that couples who choose to attend marriage education programs are not as distressed as are clinical couples and that distressed couples are not good candidates for marriage education. We examined these assumptions in 129 married couples who enrolled in a PAIRS, Practical Application of Intimate Relationship Skills…

DeMaria, Rita M.

2005-01-01

347

Host modulation by therapeutic agents  

PubMed Central

Periodontal disease susceptible group present advanced periodontal breakdown even though they achieve a high standard of oral hygiene. Various destructive enzymes and inflammatory mediators are involved in destruction. These are elevated in case of periodontal destruction. Host modulation aims at bringing these enzymes and mediators to normal level. Doxycycline, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), bisphosphonates, nitrous oxide (NO) synthase inhibitors, recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11), omega-3 fatty acid, mouse anti-human interleukin-6 receptor antibody (MRA), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kb) inhibitors, osteoprotegerin, and tumor necrosis factor antagonist (TNF-?) are some of the therapeutic agents that have host modulation properties. PMID:23066265

Elavarasu, Sugumari; Sekar, Santhosh; Murugan, Thamaraiselvan

2012-01-01

348

Fucoidans: pro- or antiangiogenic agents?  

PubMed

Sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae (fucoidans) attract great attention due to their high and strongly diversified biological activity. This review summarizes recent data on the structural variability of these polysaccharides and reports their anti- and proangiogenic properties. Recent publications have revealed that fucoidans isolated from different algal species may differ considerably in the structures of their backbones and branches, in both monosaccharide composition and sulfate content. It was found that the degree of sulfation significantly influences the biological properties of fucoidans. Additionally, fucoidan action in angiogenesis is highly dependent on molecular weight: antiangiogenic activity is connected with the high-molecular weight of polysaccharide molecules, whereas the low-molecular-weight fractions may act as proangiogenic agents. The influence of other fine structural details of fucoidans on angiogenesis remains to be established. PMID:24973252

Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E; Bilan, Maria I; Ushakova, Natalia A; Usov, Anatolii I; Kiselevskiy, Mikhail V; Nifantiev, Nikolay E

2014-12-01

349

[Use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents].  

PubMed

Anemia is fairly common in lung neoplasms and adequate management can influence both the prognosis and the quality of life of patients. Anemia can stem from diverse mechanisms, and its management must include the search for correctable causes (iron deficiency, inflammation, disease- or treatment-related), and their subsequent treatment. Use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents, namely recombinant erythropoietin, results in hemoglobin increase, fewer blood transfusions, and better quality of life. However, there is also a significant increase in thromboembolic risk associated with this treatment, and their effect on overall survival is still debated. Thus, their use must be restricted to patients treated with palliative intent, receiving chemotherapy but no radiotherapy, with a baseline hemoglobin level under 100 g/L, and target hemoglobin level must not exceed 120 g/L. PMID:24602683

Lapierre, A; Souquet, P-J

2014-02-01

350

Massive Multi-Agent Systems Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to build massive multi-agent systems, considered as complex and dynamic systems, one needs a method to analyze and control the system. We suggest an approach using morphology to represent and control the state of large organizations composed of a great number of light software agents. Morphology is understood as representing the state of the multi-agent system as shapes in an abstract geometrical space, this notion is close to the notion of phase space in physics.

Campagne, Jean-Charles; Gardon, Alain; Collomb, Etienne; Nishida, Toyoaki

2004-01-01

351

Inferring agent dynamics from social communication network  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a machine learning approach to discovering the agent dynamics or micro-laws that drives the evolution of the social groups in a community. We set up the problem by introducing a parameterized probabilistic model for the agent dynamics: the acts of an agent are determined by micro-laws with unknown parameters. Our approach is to identify the appropriate micro-laws which

Malik Magdon-Ismail; Mark Goldberg; William A. Wallace

2007-01-01

352

Moral Conflicts between Groups of Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two groups of agents, G1 and G2, face a moral conflict if G1 has a moral obligation and G2 has a moral obligation, such that these obligations cannot both be fulfilled. We study moral conflicts using a multi-agen t deontic logic devised to represent reasoning about sentences like 'In the interest of group F of agents, group G of agents

Barteld Kooi; Allard Tamminga

2007-01-01

353

Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning: A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Multi-agent systems are rapidly finding applications in a variety of domains, including robotics, distributed control, telecommunications, economics. Many tasks arising in these domains,require that the agents learn behaviors online. A significant part of the research on multi-agent learning concerns reinforcement learning techniques. However, due to different viewpoints on central issues, such as the formal statement of the learning goal, a

Lucian Busoniu; Robert Babuska; Bart De Schutter

2006-01-01

354

Multi-agent-based agile scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multi-agent systems paradigm represents one of the most promising approaches to the development of agile scheduling systems in manufacturing. Innovative and balanced perspectives of multi-agent approaches to agile scheduling are discussed in this paper, and several achieved results and current developments are described. The description of the multi-agent framework emphasizes the use of negotiation mechanism to improve the scheduling

Ricardo J. Rabelo; Luis M. Camarinha-matos; Hamideh Afsarmanesh

1999-01-01

355

Bottoms up: improvisational micro-agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes our current approach in implementing computational improvisational micro-agents, agents that perform one specific aspect of our findings from the Digital Improv Project. This approach is intended to foster bottom-up research to better understand how to build more complex agent behaviors in a theatrical improvisational setting. The Digital Improv Project is a multi-year study at the Georgia Institute

Brian Magerko; Casey Fiesler; Allan Baumer; Daniel Fuller

2010-01-01

356

The Extended Mind: Coupling Environment and Brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes embodiment and cognitive extension as examples of strong anticipation as defined by Dubois. Clark and Chalmers formulated a thesis which states that parts of the environment, if coupled successfully, can become part of the extended mind. This coupling, be it deliberate or unintentional, shifts the observer-world boundary outwards when the observer encompasses parts of his environment. The resulting extended observer forms a new systemic whole, which consists of both the assimilated context and the recalibrated version of the original observer. Recalibration occurs when conditioning and adaptation lead to corresponding changes on the neural level, for instance, when an agent compensates for delays in a control loop. Plasticity is a prerequisite for any successful incorporation of external structures. However, uncoupled parts of the observer must remain inviolate in order to preserve the boundary. Neither the extended mind nor the core observer are absolute concepts. Depending on whether we focus on local-scale interactions or on large-scale behaviour, boundaries are formed at different interfacial cuts, which lead to either an endo- or an exo-perspective or endo- or exo-anticipation, respectively. For biological extended agents which undergo a transition from exo- to endo-states, a tell-tale sign of a successful exo-endo transition is invisibility. This invisibility occurs when the agent is no longer aware of the delay originally introduced into the control loop by the assimilated part of the environment. Explaining the world in terms of effective causality is not sufficient to account for extended minds. The latter require explanations in terms of final causation. For extended minds, this ordering principle comes in the shape of nested hierarchical layers. The interfaces of these layers may have merged for an endo-observer, whereas an exo-observer can make out the detailed structure, including artificially introduced delays. A sufficient condition for an endo-observer to turn into an extended mind is the formation of a new systemic whole as a result of shifting the interfacial cut between exo-and endo-world outwards. However, this is only a necessary condition for an extended agent with strong anticipatory properties. It is invisibility which is a sufficient condition for strong or endo-anticipation.

Vrobel, Susie

2010-11-01

357

Reinforcement Learning Multi-Agent Modeling of Decision-Making Agents for the Study of Transboundary Surface Water Conflicts with Application to the Syr Darya River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most economics--driven approaches to optimizing water use at the river basin scale, the system is modelled deterministically with the goal of maximizing overall benefits. However, actual operation and allocation decisions must be made under hydrologic and economic uncertainty. In addition, river basins often cross political boundaries, and different states may not be motivated to cooperate so as to maximize basin- scale benefits. Even within states, competing agents such as irrigation districts, municipal water agencies, and large industrial users may not have incentives to cooperate to realize efficiency gains identified in basin- level studies. More traditional simulation--optimization approaches assume pre-commitment by individual agents and stakeholders and unconditional compliance on each side. While this can help determine attainable gains and tradeoffs from efficient management, such hardwired policies do not account for dynamic feedback between agents themselves or between agents and their environments (e.g. due to climate change etc.). In reality however, we are dealing with an out-of-equilibrium multi-agent system, where there is neither global knowledge nor global control, but rather continuous strategic interaction between decision making agents. Based on the theory of stochastic games, we present a computational framework that allows for studying the dynamic feedback between decision--making agents themselves and an inherently uncertain environment in a spatially and temporally distributed manner. Agents with decision-making control over water allocation such as countries, irrigation districts, and municipalities are represented by reinforcement learning agents and coupled to a detailed hydrologic--economic model. This approach emphasizes learning by agents from their continuous interaction with other agents and the environment. It provides a convenient framework for the solution of the problem of dynamic decision-making in a mixed cooperative / non-cooperative environment with which different institutional setups and incentive systems can be studied so to identify reasonable ways to reach desirable, Pareto--optimal allocation outcomes. Preliminary results from an application to the Syr Darya river basin in Central Asia will be presented and discussed. The Syr Darya River is a classic example of a transboundary river basin in which basin-wide efficiency gains identified in optimization studies have not been sufficient to induce cooperative management of the river by the riparian states.

Riegels, N.; Siegfried, T.; Pereira Cardenal, S. J.; Jensen, R. A.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.

2008-12-01

358

Signature Generation method, Agent Signature Verification method.  

E-print Network

Abstract—This paper presents a novel method that allows an agent host to delegate its signing power to an anonymous mobile agent in such away that the mobile agent does not reveal any information about its host’s identity and, at the same time, can be authenticated by the service host, hence, ensuring fairness of service provision. The solution introduces a verification server to verify the signature generated by the mobile agent in such a way that even if colluding with the service host, both parties will not get more information than what they already have. The solution incorporates

Omaima Bamasak

359

Design considerations for targeted optical contrast agents  

PubMed Central

Optical fluorescence imaging with the right combination of imaging modality and targeted contrast agents offers tremendous improvement in intraoperative imaging and clinical output (i.e., image-guided cancer surgery). Therefore, it is of paramount importance to gain an in-depth knowledge in the design of targeted contrast agents to meet clinical requirements. Currently, there are several clinically approved contrast agents available; however, none perform optimally in vivo by providing optimum sensitivity, stability, specificity, and safety for target imaging, diagnosis, and therapy. In this review, we discuss basic design considerations for targeted contrast agents in terms of optical and physicochemical properties, biological and physiological interactions, and biodistribution and targeting. PMID:23289086

Lee, Jeong Heon; Park, Gwangli; Hong, Gloria H.; Choi, Jungmun

2012-01-01

360

The Pharmacodynamics of Antifungal Agents Against Aspergillus.  

E-print Network

??Background: Voriconazole is a first line agent for the treatment for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. There are increasing reports of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates with reduced susceptibility… (more)

Jeans, Adam Rupert

2013-01-01

361

[Sexual dysfunction associated with antidepressant agents.  

PubMed

Sexual dysfunction is a common adverse effect of antidepressant treatment and a main reason for non-compliance with treatment. Different antidepressant agents are associated with different degrees of dysfunction, which is thought to depend on the agent's pharmacological profile. Agents with serotonergic activity, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and venlafaxine, yield the highest rate of sexual dysfunction. Non-SSRI agents such as duloxetine, reboxetine and mirtazapine have fewer sexual side effects than SSRI and venlafaxine. Agomelatine and bupropion are similar to placebo. PMID:25352006

Bergh, Sara Johanna; Giraldi, Annamaria

2014-05-26

362

Rapid, Cell-Based Toxicity Screen of Potentially Therapeutic Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing Agents  

PubMed Central

Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) agents such as antisense, ribozymes and RNA interference (RNAi) have great potential as therapeutics for a variety of eye diseases including retinal and macular degenerations, glaucoma, corneal degenerations, inflammatory and viral conditions. Despite their great potential and over thirty years of academic and corporate research only a single PTGS agent is currently approved for human therapy for a single disease. Substantial challenges exist to achieving both efficacious and safe PTGS agents. Efficacy, as measured in specific target mRNA and protein knockdown, depends upon a number of complex factors including the identification of rare regions of target mRNA accessibility, cellular colocalization of the PTGS agent in sufficient concentration with the target mRNA, and stability of the PTGS agent in the target cells in which it is delivered or expressed. Safety is commonly measured by lack of cytotoxicity or other deleterious cellular responses in cells in which the PTGS agent is delivered or expressed. To relieve major bottlenecks in RNA drug discovery novel, efficient, inexpensive, and rapid tools are needed to facilitate lead identification of the most efficacious PTGS agent, rational optimization of efficacy of the lead agent, and lead agent safety determinations. We have developed a technological platform using cell culture expression systems that permits lead identification and efficacy optimization of PTGS agents against arbitrary disease target mRNAs under relatively high throughput conditions. Here, we extend the technology platform to include PTGS safety determinations in cultured human cells that are expected to represent the common cellular housekeeping microenvironment. We developed a high throughput screening (HTS) cytotoxicity assay in 96-well plate format based around the SYTOX Green dye which is excluded from healthy viable cells and becomes substantially fluorescent only after entering cells and binding to nuclear DNA. In this format we can test a number of PTGS agents for cellular toxicity relative to control elements. We also developed a HTS 96-well plate assay that allows us to assess the impact of any given PTGS agent on stimulating a variety of common cellular stress signaling pathways (e.g. CRE, SRE, AP-1, NF?B, Myc, and NFAT) that could indicate possible deleterious effects of PTGS agents either dependent or independent of base pairing complementarity with target mRNAs. To this end we exploited the secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) Pathway Profiling System where the expression of the secreted reporter protein is coupled to transcriptional activation of a variety of promoter elements involved in common cell signaling pathways. We found that a variety of lead hammerhead ribozyme (hhRz) and short hairpin (shRNA) expression constructs did not exert cytotoxicity in human cells when driven by highly active RNA Pol-III promoters. We also found that most of the cell signaling pathways tested (CRE, SRE, Myc, and NFAT) did not significantly couple through upregulation to expression of the set of PTGS agents tested. AP-1 and NF?B upregulation both appear to couple to the expression of some PTGS agents which likely reflect the known properties of these pathways to be stimulated by abundant small structured RNAs. PMID:21256844

Kolniak, Tiffany A.; Sullivan, Jack M.

2011-01-01

363

Graphene Coating Coupled Emission  

E-print Network

Graphene Coating Coupled Emission A COMSET, A single sheet of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms, called of graphene and its unique properties, I will present amplification of surface graphene-Ag hybrid films which when graphene is used as the spacer layer in a conventional Ag- harnessed the nonlinear properties

Shyamasundar, R.K.

364

Strong Coupling Holography  

E-print Network

We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the scale at which the scalar polarization of an effective 4D-graviton becomes strongly coupled is again set by the bulk holographic scale. The effect persist in the gravity decoupling limit, when the full theory reduces to a 4D system in which the only memory about the high-dimensional holography is encoded in the strong coupling scale. The observed intrinsic connection between the high-dimensional flat space holography and 4D strong coupling suggests a possible guideline for generalization of AdS/CFT duality to other systems.

Gia Dvali; Cesar Gomez

2009-07-18

365

31 CFR 10.4 - Eligibility for enrollment as enrolled agent or enrolled retirement plan agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...an enrolled agent to an applicant who demonstrates special competence in tax matters by written examination administered by...retirement plan agent to an applicant who demonstrates special competence in qualified retirement plan matters by written...

2010-07-01

366

Progress in Nanotechnology Based Approaches to Enhance the Potential of Chemopreventive Agents  

PubMed Central

Cancer chemoprevention is defined as the use of natural agents to suppress, reverse or prevent the carcinogenic process from turning into aggressive cancer. Over the last two decades, multiple natural dietary compounds with diverse chemical structures such flavonoids, tannins, curcumins and polyphenols have been proposed as chemopreventive agents. These agents have proven excellent anticancer potential in the laboratory setting, however, the observed effects in vitro do not translate in clinic where they fail to live up to their expectations. Among the various reasons for this discrepancy include inefficient systemic delivery and robust bioavailability. To overcome this barrier, researchers have focused towards coupling these agents with nano based encapsulation technology that in principle will enhance bioavailability and ultimately benefit clinical outcome. The last decade has witnessed rapid advancement in the development of nanochemopreventive technology with emergence of many nano encapsulated formulations of different dietary anticancer agents. This review summarizes the most up-to-date knowledge on the studies performed in nanochemoprevention, their proposed use in the clinic and future directions in which this field is heading. As the knowledge of the dynamics of nano encapsulation evolves, it is expected that researchers will bring forward newer and far more superior nanochemopreventive agents that may become standard drugs for different cancers. PMID:24212623

Muqbil, Irfana; Masood, Ashiq; Sarkar, Fazlul H.; Mohammad, Ramzi M.; Azmi, Asfar S.

2011-01-01

367

Valorization of titanium metal wastes as tanning agent used in leather industry.  

PubMed

The development of new tanning agents and new technologies in the leather sector is required to cope with the increasingly higher environmental pressure on the current tanning materials and processes such as tanning with chromium salts. In this paper, the use of titanium wastes (cuttings) resulting from the process of obtaining highly pure titanium (ingots), for the synthesis of new tanning agent and tanning bovine hides with new tanning agent, as alternative to tanning with chromium salts are investigated. For this purpose, Ti waste and Ti-based tanning agent were characterized for metal content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and chemical analysis; the tanned leather (wet white leather) was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive Using X-ray (Analysis). SEM/EDX analysis for metal content; Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), Micro-Hot-Table and standard shrinkage temperature showing a hydrothermal stability (ranged from 75.3 to 77°C) and chemical analysis showing the leather is tanned and can be processed through the subsequent mechanical operations (splitting, shaving). On the other hand, an analysis of major minor trace substances from Ti-end waste (especially vanadium content) in new tanning agent and wet white leather (not detected) and residue stream was performed and showed that leachability of vanadium is acceptable. The results obtained show that new tanning agent obtained from Ti end waste can be used for tanning bovine hides, as eco-friendly alternative for chrome tanning. PMID:24507977

Crudu, Marian; Deselnicu, Viorica; Deselnicu, Dana Corina; Albu, Luminita

2014-10-01

368

The AARIA Agent Architecture: From Manufacturing Requirements to Agent-Based System Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designs for real-world agent-based systems must reflect both domain requirements and technical capabilities. We illustrate some of the requirements for agents in manufacturing scheduling and an architecture that addresses them with a case study of AARIA (Autonomous Agents for Rock Island Arsenal), an industrial-strength agent-based shop-floor control and scheduling architecture being developed for an Army manufacturing facility. A review of

H. Van Dyke Parunak; Albert D. Baker; Steven J. Clark

1998-01-01

369

Safe motion planning for mobile agents: A model of reactive planning for multiple mobile agents  

SciTech Connect

The problem of motion planning for multiple mobile agents is studied. Each planning agent independently plans its own action based on its map which contains a limited information about the environment. In an environment where more than one mobile agent interacts, the motions of the robots are uncertain and dynamic. A model for reactive agents is described and simulation results are presented to show their behavior patterns. 18 refs., 2 figs.

Fujimura, Kikuo.

1990-01-01

370

Assuring Interoperability between Heterogeneous Multi-Agent Systems with a Gateway Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, we address the problem of a lack of communications between heterogeneous multi-agent systems. For example, the KQML-based agent cannot talk to the FIPA-based agent and vice versa. We have identified three main reasons why different multi-agent systems are not interoperable, which we call architectural elements: (1) inconsistent mental state structures; (2) different syntax and semantics of the

Hiroki Suguri; Eiichiro Kodama; Masatoshi Miyazaki; Isao Kaji

2002-01-01

371

Departments as Agents of Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Higher education is changing because it has no choice. And, for the most part, outside influences are dictating the processes of change. The more fortunate institutions have had a flat budget during this period, but most have been forced to deal with a declining revenue stream as well. Legislators seem bent on micromanaging state-supported institutions, even as they cut their support. Regulators demand greater institutional accountability. Students and their parents expect more service at lower prices and increased flexibility. Technological advances have dramatically affected the availability and accessibility of extant knowledge. It is no longer a question of whether institutions will change, but rather, who will control the change. Most institutions possess long-standing academic traditions, but these are placed at risk in an increasingly competitive market that holds little sympathy for such traditions and may even see them as obstacles or barriers. As a result, the change agents will undoubtedly have a profound effect on the very nature of academic institutions. From the academic point of view, it would seem prudent to attempt to manage the changes that will inevitably occur. A number of concerned observers, notably the Pew Higher Education Roundtable and the American Association for Higher Education, argue persuasively that the academic department is the logical focus for responding to the current winds of change. Using a marketing metaphor, the academic department has been likened to a "producers' cooperative" of services that consumers seek. Thus, the department should be held accountable for the quality of teaching delivered by its members, for the coherence of its major, for its contributions to the general education curriculum, and for supervising and rewarding its individual faculty members. If departments are to be held accountable, it is surely in their best interest to act in such a way that they are accountable. Expecting academic departments to be the principal agents for recasting American higher education might appear to some like putting a fox in charge of the chicken coop. For many observers, departments epitomize everything that is wrong with higher education. Departments have come to be viewed as the agents of a discipline that draw faculty attention away from their home institution, and seek to sustain individual privilege at the expense of initiatives designed to enhance learning and teaching. Departments have been portrayed as clans of arrogant experts accountable only to their own personal agendas and to their disciplines. From this rather harsh point of view, departments have become privatized as they and their institutions strive to enhance their reputations through the faculty they hire, often at the expense of undergraduate teaching. Faculty define their interests in increasingly narrow terms, which in turn is often reflected in the courses they teach. As individual courses come to represent the increasingly specialized views of their faculty-owners, the curriculum begins to lose focus and coherence. Thus, the privatization of faculty effort has far-reaching effects on an institution's educational mission. In spite of its apparent flaws, the department, more than any other unit, stands the best chance of providing the basis of change that can renew higher education. Although individual faculty members may find their greatest rewards elsewhere, a department can only be rewarded on the basis of the combined efforts and accomplishments of its collective faculty. This fact alone makes departments an obvious vehicle for change. Furthermore, institutional support for a discipline is focused in the department, as is the institution's responsibility for teaching undergraduates. For a department to compete effectively in the new marketplace, it must ensure that its members remain active scholars who are not only expert in their primary fields, but also open to inter- and cross-disciplinary opportunities. New developments and intellectual opportunities will continue to occur at the interfac

Lagowski, J. J.

1996-07-01

372

Radioiodine: the classic theranostic agent.  

PubMed

Radioiodine has the distinction of being the first theranostic agent in our armamentarium. Millennia were required to discover that the agent in orally administered seaweed and its extracts, which had been shown to cure neck swelling due to thyromegaly, was iodine, first demonstrated to be a new element in 1813. Treatment of goiter with iodine began at once, but its prophylactic value to prevent a common form of goiter took another century. After Enrico Fermi produced the first radioiodine, (128)I, in 1934, active experimentation in the United States and France delineated the crucial role of iodine in thyroid metabolism and disease. (130)I and (131)I were first employed to treat thyrotoxicosis by 1941, and thyroid cancer in 1943. After World War II, (131)I became widely available at a reasonable price for diagnostic testing and therapy. The rectilinear scanner of Cassen and Curtis (Science 1949;110:94-95), and a dedicated gamma camera invented by Anger (Nature 1952;170:200-201), finally permitted the diagnostic imaging of thyroid disease, with (131)I again the radioisotope of choice, although there were short-lived attempts to employ (125)I and (132)I for this purpose. (123)I was first produced in 1949 but did not become widely available until about 1982, 10 years after a production technique eliminated high-energy (124)I contamination. I continues to be the radioiodine of choice for the diagnosis of benign thyroid disease, whereas (123)I and (131)I are employed in the staging and detection of functioning thyroid cancer. (124)I, a positron emitter, can produce excellent anatomically correlated images employing positron emission tomography/computed tomography equipment and has the potential to enhance heretofore imperfect dosimetric studies in determining the appropriate administered activity to ablate/treat thyroid cancer. Issues of acceptable measuring error in thyroid cancer dosimetry and the role in (131)I therapy of tumor heterogeneity, tumor hypoxia, and kinetics must be overcome, and long-term outcome studies following (131)I given based on this new dosimetry must be completed before the nuclear medicine community will be able to predictably cure our thyroid cancer patients with this technology. PMID:22475425

Silberstein, Edward B

2012-05-01

373

Group Abstraction for Large-Scale Agent-Based Social Diffusion Models with Unaffected Agents  

E-print Network

Group Abstraction for Large-Scale Agent-Based Social Diffusion Models with Unaffected Agents Alexei}@few.vu.nl Abstract. In this paper an approach is proposed to handle complex dynamics of large-scale multi-agents systems modelling social diffusion processes. A particular type of systems is considered, in which some

Treur, Jan

374

On Designing Migrating Agents: From Autonomous Virtual Agents to Intelligent Robotic Systems  

E-print Network

On Designing Migrating Agents: From Autonomous Virtual Agents to Intelligent Robotic Systems Kaveh.0 [Artificial Intelligence]: General­Cognitive simulation; I.2.11 [Artificial Intelligence]: Distributed Artificial Intelligence­Intelligent agents; I.2.4 [Artificial Intelligence]: Problem Solving, Control Methods

Lee, WonSook

375

Evolving Expert Agent Parameters for Capture the Flag Agent in Xpilot  

E-print Network

that control an agent playing a game of Xpilot. It provides a reasonable environment for testing learning systems for autonomous agents, both video game agents and robots. In previous work, a wide range; genetic algorithm I. INTRODUCTION Video games are popular for entertainment and many can be used to test

Parker, Gary B.

376

The agent visualization system: a graphical and textual representation for multi-agent systems  

E-print Network

thorough understanding of real-world phenomena, the need for a simulation environment that facilitates-agent-based simulation (MABS). A MABS usually involves agents of different types. Each type represents a class of entities in the real-life system and captures its relevant attributes and behaviors. Any number of agents

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

377

A Multi-agent Model for Emotion Contagion Spirals Integrated within a Supporting Ambient Agent Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses an agent-based approach to formalize and simulate emotion contagion spirals within groups. The computational multi-agent model is integrated within an intelligent ambient agent to monitor and predict group emotion levels over time and propose group support actions based on that.

Tibor Bosse; Rob Duell; Zulfiqar A. Memon; Jan Treur; C. Natalie Van Der Wal

2009-01-01

378

Infectious Agent Identification Cards Infectious agent identification cards contain information on pathogens that are used in  

E-print Network

Infectious Agent Identification Cards Infectious agent identification cards contain information on pathogens that are used in research facilities on campus. These cards are meant to aid medical personnel. As such they should be carried on the person of all personnel who work with these agents. Each card contains pertinent

Rose, Michael R.

379

Jensen & Lesser 2002 AAAI Spring Symposium on Safe Learning Agents 1 Social Pathologies of Adaptive Agents  

E-print Network

Jensen & Lesser 2002 AAAI Spring Symposium on Safe Learning Agents 1 Social Pathologies of Adaptive agents will lead to system-wide performance improvements. Below, we define social pathologies and analyze) or social traps (Etcheson 1989). #12;Jensen & Lesser 2002 AAAI Spring Symposium on Safe Learning Agents 2

Jensen, David

380

Coalition Agents Experiment: Multi-Agent Co-operation in an International Coalition Setting  

E-print Network

Coalition Agents Experiment: Multi-Agent Co-operation in an International Coalition Setting David N to show that multi-agent systems are an effective way of dealing with the complexity of real-world problems, such as agile and robust Coalition operations and enabling interoperability between heterogeneous

Durfee, Edmund H.

381

Single step coupling for multi-responsive water-based chitin/chitosan magnetic nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Coupling of chitin whisker (CTWK) or water-soluble chitosan (WSCS) with magnetic nanoparticles (MAG) via a covalent linkage by using a silane coupling agent in an aqueous system is proposed. The use of the silane coupling agent glycidoxypropyltrimethoxy, having a trimethoxy silane as well as an epoxide functionality, allows one step coupling between CTWK or WSCS and MAG. The MAG derivatives obtained are well dispersed and their colloidal aqueous solutions can be stabilized for days. An external magnetic field initiates alignment of nano-rod structured CTWK-MAG in the direction of the magnetic field. The uniqueness of these two materials is that CTWK-MAG shows solvent polarity responsiveness whereas WSCS-MAG performs pH responsiveness. A model application study on DNA extraction confirms that WSCS-MAG with positively charged at pH 7 and with high surface area performs more Escherichia coli extraction ability for two times as compared to CTWK-MAG. PMID:23911469

Chatrabhuti, Sutima; Chirachanchai, Suwabun

2013-09-12

382

Network security management with intelligent agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-agent systems technology can be useful for efficiently designing and maintaining secure networks. Indeed, networks evolve at a rapid pace in terms of the number and type of components and user access queries as well as intrusion possibilities. Features such as autonomy, adaptability and flexibility of the “intelligent” agent paradigm allow the managing of network evolution in a controlled way.

Karima Boudaoud; H. Labiod; Raouf Boutaba; Zahia Guessoum

2000-01-01

383

Dynamically Loaded Reasoning Models in Negotiating Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past decade the agent paradigm has been gaining popularity, particularly in applications of mobile agents in e-commerce. Here, support for negotiation is one of the more important research issues. Depending on the type of the transaction, different types of negotiations need to be utilized. Currently, very few frameworks are generic and flexible enough to handle multiple scenarios. This

Garima Parakh; Marcin Paprzycki; Cristina Elena Nistor

384

Implementing Agents Capable of Dynamic Negotiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Support for negotiation is one of the more important research issues when developing agent systems utilized in e-commerce. While, de- pending on the type of the transaction, different negotiation procedures need to be utilized, only very few proposed frameworks are generic and flexible enough to handle multiple scenarios. This paper presents nego- tiating agents, which can change their negotiation protocol

Marcin Paprzycki; Amalia P; S. C. Softexpert

385

A Survey of Agent-Oriented Methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces the current agent-oriented methodologies. It Discusses what approacheshave been followed (mainly extending\\u000a existing objectoriented and knowledge engineering methodologies), the suitability of these approaches for agent modelling,\\u000a and some conclusions drawn from the survey.

Carlos A. Iglesias; Mercedes Garijo; José González

386

How Minds Work Minds, Agents, Senses, Actions  

E-print Network

1 How Minds Work Minds, Agents, Senses, Actions Stan Franklin Computer Science Division & Institute for Intelligent Systems The University of Memphis #12;HMW: Minds, Agents, Senses, Actions 2 Two Burning Questions for Me · How do minds work? ­ Human minds ­ Animal minds ­ Artificial Minds · How

Memphis, University of

387

Visual Emotive Communication in Lifelike Pedagogical Agents  

E-print Network

Visual Emotive Communication in Lifelike Pedagogical Agents Stuart G. Towns1, Patrick J. Fitz characters. Engaging lifelike pedagogical agents that are visually expressive could clearly communicate the visual channel to more ef- fectively communicate with learners. To address these issues, this paper

Young, R. Michael

388

Trust Enhanced Security for Mobile Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach for mobile agent security - trust enhanced security and develops mobile trust - a novel trust management architecture to support the trust enhanced security solutions for mobile agent applications. In this new approach we go beyond traditional security mechanism based architectural design by incorporating a trust model into the underlying security architecture. A prototype

Ching Lin; Vijay Varadharajan; Yan Wang; Vineet Pruthi

2005-01-01

389

Planning for Interactions among Autonomous Agents  

E-print Network

plan: a sequence of actions move21, take, load, move12 This requires the world to be » Static with the things they might do c a b #12;5 Planning How to Interact with Other Agents I'll discuss two cases: (1 results: Hunter-Prey problems (2) Generate plans that are likely to work well if the other agents behave

Nau, Dana S.

390

Heterogeneous Agent Models in Economics and Finance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys work on dynamic heterogeneous agent models (HAMs) in economics and finance. Emphasis is given to simple models that, at least to some extent, are tractable by analytic methods in combination with computational tools. Most of these models are behavioral models with boundedly rational agents using different heuristics or rule of thumb strategies that may not be perfect,

Cars H. Hommes

2005-01-01

391

Anonymity and software agents: An interdisciplinary challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software agents are involved in Internet applications such as E-commerce and E-government may contain identificatory information about their human user such as credit cards and bank accounts. This paper discusses whether human users and software agents are allowed to be anonymous under the relevant legal regimes and whether an adequate interaction and balnce between law and anonymity can be technically

Frances M. T. Brazier; Anja Oskamp; Corien Prins; Maurice Schellekens; Niek J. E. Wijngaards

2004-01-01

392

AN EMBODIED CONVERSATIONAL AGENT WITH ASPERGER SYNDROME  

E-print Network

AN EMBODIED CONVERSATIONAL AGENT WITH ASPERGER SYNDROME Lynette van Zijl, Wessel Venter Department with Asperger-like communi- cation skills. The agent was developed for use in educational software in a virtual and social context. A 3D demonstration shows the typical output to conform to Asperger-like answers

van Zijl, Lynette

393

Validating Complex Agent Behavior Scott A. Wallace  

E-print Network

Validating Complex Agent Behavior by Scott A. Wallace A dissertation submitted in partial Behavior by Scott A. Wallace Chair: John E. Laird Developing software agents that replicate human behavior. #12;c Scott A. Wallace All Rights Reserved 2003 #12;For Jen, who makes even the dreariest of times

Wallace, Scott

394

Adolescents as Socialization Agents to Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the process of socialization that takes place in the parent, with the child and adolescent as the socialization agent. Results show adolescents to be effective agents of socialization to their parents in both attitude and behavior in such areas as sports, leisure, minority groups, youth, drug use, and sexuality. (Author/BL)

Peters, John F.

1985-01-01

395

Internet Worm Attacks and Stochastic Agent Models  

E-print Network

Project: Internet Worm Attacks and Stochastic Agent Models Jeremy Bradley Email: jb;Presentation Internet worms at work! A formal agent description Our existing techniques Other solutions methods JTB [08/2004] ­ p.3/21 #12;Lifecycle of an Internet Worm Sequence of events: 1. Malicious person

Bradley, Jeremy

396

CAST: Collaborative Agents for Simulating Teamwork  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological studies on teamwork have shown that an effective team often can anticipate information needs of teammates based on a shared mental model. Existing multi-agent models for teamwork are limited in their ability to support proactive information exchange among teammates. To address this issue, we have developed and implemented a multi-agent architecture called CAST that simulates teamwork and supports proactive

John Yen; Jianwen Yin; Thomas R. Ioerger; Michael S. Miller; Dianxiang Xu; Richard A. Volz

2001-01-01

397

Assurance in Agent-Based Systems  

SciTech Connect

Our vision of the future of information systems is one that includes engineered collectives of software agents which are situated in an environment over years and which increasingly improve the performance of the overall system of which they are a part. At a minimum, the movement of agent and multi-agent technology into National Security applications, including their use in information assurance, is apparent today. The use of deliberative, autonomous agents in high-consequence/high-security applications will require a commensurate level of protection and confidence in the predictability of system-level behavior. At Sandia National Laboratories, we have defined and are addressing a research agenda that integrates the surety (safety, security, and reliability) into agent-based systems at a deep level. Surety is addressed at multiple levels: The integrity of individual agents must be protected by addressing potential failure modes and vulnerabilities to malevolent threats. Providing for the surety of the collective requires attention to communications surety issues and mechanisms for identifying and working with trusted collaborators. At the highest level, using agent-based collectives within a large-scale distributed system requires the development of principled design methods to deliver the desired emergent performance or surety characteristics. This position paper will outline the research directions underway at Sandia, will discuss relevant work being performed elsewhere, and will report progress to date toward assurance in agent-based systems.

Gilliom, Laura R.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

1999-05-10

398

Agent Guidelines for Modified Meal Plans  

E-print Network

of Guidelines As scientists become more aware of the relationship between diet and health, more meal planA. Agent Guidelines for Modified Meal Plans #12;Reference Guide HANDOUT Agent Guidelines respond to the increasing numbers of people who are modifying their meal plans to meet special dietary

399

Understanding socially intelligent agents - a multilayered phenomenon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate purpose with socially intelligent agent (SIA) technology is not to simulate social intelligence per se, but to let an agent give an impression of social intelligence. Such user-centred SIA technology, must consider the everyday knowledge and expectations by which users make sense of real, fictive, or artificial social beings. This folk-theoretical understanding of other social beings involves several,

Per Persson; Jarmo Laaksolahti; Peter Lönnqvist

2001-01-01

400

Agent Program Planning Information Master of Memory  

E-print Network

are increased by factors such as inattention, anxiety, or depression. Living alone, stress, illness, adapting to the loss of relationships, and the negative stereotypes of society all may affect the older person conditions, and exercise for the body and mind. Agent Training Check the Agent Training Calendar

401

Commitment and Effectiveness of Situated Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research in real-time Artificial Intelligence has focussed upon the design ofsituated agents and, in particular, how to achieve effective and robust behaviour withlimited computational resources. A range of architectures and design principles has beenproposed to solve this problem. This has led to the development of simulated worlds thatcan serve as testbeds in which the effectiveness of different agents can

David Kinny; Michael P. Georgeff

1991-01-01

402

Agent Theories, Architectures, and Languages: A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of an agent has recently become important in Artificial Intelligence (AI), and its relatively youthful subfield, Distributed AI (DAI). Our aim in this paper is to point the reader at what we perceive to be the most important theoretical and practical issues associated with the design and construction of intelligent agents. For convenience, we divide the area into

Michael Wooldridge; Nicholas R. Jennings

1994-01-01

403

On agent-based software engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agent-based computing represents an exciting new synthesis both for Artificial Intelligence (AI) and, more generally, Computer Science. It has the potential to significantly improve the theory and the practice of modeling, designing, and implementing computer systems. Yet, to date, there has been little systematic analysis of what makes the agent-based approach such an appealing and powerful computational model. Moreover, even

Nicholas R. Jennings

2000-01-01

404

Agent Modeling for Integrated Power Systems  

E-print Network

implement a retail electricity market to encourage customer participation. Although valuable experience hasAgent Modeling for Integrated Power Systems Final Project Report Power Systems Engineering Research;Power Systems Engineering Research Center Agent Modeling for Integrated Power Systems Final Project

405

The current landscape of Agent Communication Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the substantial number of multi-agent systems that use an Agent Communication Language (ACL) the dust has not settled yet over the landscape of ACLs. The se- mantic specification issues have monopolized the debate at the expense of other important pragmatic issues that must be adequately resolved in the immediate future if ACLs are going to support the development of

Yannis Labrou; Tim Finin; Yun Peng

1999-01-01

406

Natural Language Control of Agent Systems, or \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we outline a general framework and architecture for the development of natural language interfaces to agent systems. We consider agent systems, which perform actions and thus achieve a certain world state or change of world state, acting in a virtual or a physical world. The aim of this research is to allow a control of and communication

Christel Kemke

407

KQML as an agent communication language  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the defining characteristics of an information agent is its ability for flexible interaction and interoperation with other, similar software agents. This focus on interoperability has been the foundation of the approach of the Knowledge Sharing Effort (KSE) in developing a basic framework for intelligent systems. We present KSE approach and the solutions suggested for the subproblems identified by

Tim Finin; Yannis Labrou; James Mayfield

1995-01-01

408

A Logical Model for Agent Communication Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current ACL proposals show some shortcomings with respect to the definition of their semantics. Our paper aims at tackling those issues by defining an ACL semantics as a specification of the analytical effects of agent communicative acts. We analyze agent communication in terms of concepts taken from Speech Act Theory, as several researchers have already done, but move away

Mario Verdicchio; Marco Colombetti

2004-01-01

409

Improving Disability Awareness among Extension Agents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing prevalence rates and legislative mandates imply that educators, parents, and Extension agents will need better tools and resources to meet the needs of special populations. The Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service addresses this issue by using e-learning tools. Extension agents can take advantage of these courses to gain critical…

Mahadevan, Lakshmi; Peterson, Rick L.; Grenwelge, Cheryl

2014-01-01

410

Police Agents for Enforcing Internet Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile Agentshave promised much as an Internet programming technology, but well pub- licized security problems are hampering their acceptance. This paper argues that mobile agents are a vital component of any Internet security solution. For instance, agents can move computations to safe areas, and can replace out-dated security mechanisms that adapt poorly to the Internet. To underline this argument, the

Ciaran Bryce

1999-01-01

411

Small cylindrical display for anthropomorphic agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a small cylindrical display for an anthropomorphic agent that communicates with users in a three-dimensional (3D) environment. Conventional displays for anthropomorphic agents are designed for a single user or a fixed viewing direction. We suggest a new small cylindrical display that is visible from the outside in any direction. Image data for the projector is calculated by

T. Kawanishi; M. Tsuchida; S. Takagi; H. Murase

2003-01-01

412

Designing Control Laws for Cooperative Agent Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of the control laws governing the behavior of individual agents is crucial for the successful development of cooperative agent teams. These control laws utilize a combination of local and\\/or global knowledge to achieve the resulting group behavior. A key difficulty in this development is determining the appropriate balance between the use of global information and the use of

Lynne E. Parker

1993-01-01

413

Formal Specification of Interaction in Agent Societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Agent Society framework that we have developed distinguishes between the mechanisms though which the structure and global behavior of the model is described and coordinated, and the aims and behavior of the service- providers (agents) that populate the model. In this framework contracts are used to integrate the top-down specification o f organizational structures with the a utonomy of

Virginia Dignum; John-jules Ch. Meyer; Frank Dignum; Hans Weigand

2002-01-01

414

Agent Communication Inside an Internet Search Engine  

E-print Network

to the web. i-Bot is provided with an agent-based architecture, which is best explained in terms of its to other search engines and by providing some conclusions. Figure 1: iBot (Web search engine) Architecture as bots, that are dedicated to download HTML pages from the Web. Bots are not mobile agents (that migrate

López-Sánchez, Maite

415

Agent Communication within a Search Engine Architecture  

E-print Network

, a search engine dedicated to the web. i-Bot is provided with an agent-based architecture, which is best the information about the web and provides the bots with URL's (Uniform Resource Locator) to retrieve. · Filtering to download HTML pages from the Web. Bots are not mobile agents (that migrate from machine to machine exec #12

López-Sánchez, Maite

416

Mobile Agents with Java: The Aglet API  

Microsoft Academic Search

Java, the language that changed the Web overnight, offers some unique capabilities that are fueling the development of mobile agent systems. In this article we will show what exactly it is that makes Java such a powerful tool for mobile agent development. We will also draw attention to some shortcomings in Java language systems that have implications for the conceptual

Danny B. Lange; Mitsuru Oshima

1998-01-01

417

Extravasation of Antineoplastic Agents: Prevention and Treatments  

PubMed Central

The extravasation of antineoplastic agents is an unwanted and distressing situation that can easily occur. It may cause severe and irreversible local injuries. Left untreated, vesicant chemotherapy extravasation can potentially cause tissue necrosis, functional impairment and permanent disfigurement. This article provides a review of current literature regarding recommendations on the prevention and treatment of extravasation of antineoplastic agents. PMID:25396033

Boschi, Rita; Rostagno, Elena

2012-01-01

418

Normative Communication Models for Agent Error Messages  

E-print Network

. An agent message is an attempted action upon the information state of the receiver that, if successful, would cause the receiver to move to a new information state. A model of normative com- munication can of a strongly typed agent communication language (ACL) is often driven by a need to have strong peer

Elio, Renée

419

Artificially intelligent conversational agents in libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Conversational agents are natural language interaction interfaces designed to simulate conversation with a real person. This paper seeks to investigate current development and applications of these systems worldwide, while focusing on their availability in Canadian libraries. It aims to argue that it is both timely and conceivable for Canadian libraries to consider adopting conversational agents to enhance –

Victoria L. Rubin; Yimin Chen; Lynne Marie Thorimbert

2010-01-01

420

Coalition Formation among Bounded Rational Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes coalition formation among self-interested agents that need to solve combi­ natorial optimization problems to operate effi­ ciently in the world. By colluding (coordinat­ ing their actions by solving a joint optimization problem), the agents can sometimes save costs compared to operating individually. A model of bounded rationality is adopted, where com­ putation resources are costly. It is

Tuomas Sandholm; Victor R. Lesser

1995-01-01

421

Pseudo-peptides as novel antileptospiral agents: Synthesis and spectral characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we describe the synthesis of novel class of pseudo-peptides derived by coupling an amino acid with a heterocyclic moiety containing free amine group using suitable coupling agents. The synthesized compounds were characterized using spectral (1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS) techniques. Preliminary pharmacological assays for Leptospirosis were studied by test tube dilution (TDT) and micro dilution technique (MDT). In particular, all the analyses led to the conclusion that the synthesized compound inhibiting the Leptospira a causal organism of Leptospirosis.

Shivamallu, Chandan; Sharanaiah, Umesha; Kollur, Shiva Prasad; Mallesh, Naveen Kumar R.; Hosakere, Revanasiddappa D.; Balamurugan, V.

2014-01-01

422

Pseudo-peptides as novel antileptospiral agents: synthesis and spectral characterization.  

PubMed

In this paper, we describe the synthesis of novel class of pseudo-peptides derived by coupling an amino acid with a heterocyclic moiety containing free amine group using suitable coupling agents. The synthesized compounds were characterized using spectral ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MS) techniques. Preliminary pharmacological assays for Leptospirosis were studied by test tube dilution (TDT) and micro dilution technique (MDT). In particular, all the analyses led to the conclusion that the synthesized compound inhibiting the Leptospira a causal organism of Leptospirosis. PMID:24184586

Shivamallu, Chandan; Sharanaiah, Umesha; Kollur, Shiva Prasad; Mallesh, Naveen Kumar R; Hosakere, Revanasiddappa D; Balamurugan, V

2014-01-24

423

Trust method for multi-agent consensus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The consensus problem in multi-agent systems often assumes that all agents are equally trustworthy to seek agreement. But for multi-agent military applications - particularly those that deal with sensor fusion or multi-robot formation control - this assumption may create the potential for compromised network security or poor cooperative performance. As such, we present a trust-based solution for the discrete-time multi-agent consensus problem and prove its asymptotic convergence in strongly connected digraphs. The novelty of the paper is a new trust algorithm called RoboTrust, which is used to calculate trustworthiness in agents using observations and statistical inferences from various historical perspectives. The performance of RoboTrust is evaluated within the trust-based consensus protocol under different conditions of tolerance and confirmation.

Mikulski, Dariusz G.; Lewis, Frank L.; Gu, Edward Y.; Hudas, Greg R.

2012-06-01

424

Ecology Based Decentralized Agent Management System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of maintaining a desired number of mobile agents on a network is not trivial, especially if we want a completely decentralized solution. Decentralized control makes a system more r e bust and less susceptible to partial failures. The problem is exacerbated on wireless ad hoc networks where host mobility can result in significant changes in the network size and topology. In this paper we propose an ecology-inspired approach to the management of the number of agents. The approach associates agents with living organisms and tasks with food. Agents procreate or die based on the abundance of uncompleted tasks (food). We performed a series of experiments investigating properties of such systems and analyzed their stability under various conditions. We concluded that the ecology based metaphor can be successfully applied to the management of agent populations on wireless ad hoc networks.

Peysakhov, Maxim D.; Cicirello, Vincent A.; Regli, William C.

2004-01-01

425

Anti-Inflammatory Agents for Cancer Therapy  

PubMed Central

Inflammation is closely linked to cancer, and many anti-cancer agents are also used to treat inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. Moreover, chronic inflammation increases the risk for various cancers, indicating that eliminating inflammation may represent a valid strategy for cancer prevention and therapy. This article explores the relationship between inflammation and cancer with an emphasis on epidemiological evidence, summarizes the current use of anti-inflammatory agents for cancer prevention and therapy, and describes the mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer effects of anti-inflammatory agents. Since monotherapy is generally insufficient for treating cancer, the combined use of anti-inflammatory agents and conventional cancer therapy is also a focal point in discussion. In addition, we also briefly describe future directions that should be explored for anti-cancer anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:20333321

Rayburn, Elizabeth R.; Ezell, Scharri J.; Zhang, Ruiwen

2010-01-01

426

Erythropoietin and erythropoiesis stimulating agents.  

PubMed

Erythropoietin (EPO) is the main hormonal regulator of red blood cell production. Recombinant EPO has become the leading drug for treatment of anaemia from a variety of causes; however, it is sometimes misused in sport with the aim of improving performance and endurance. This paper presents an introductory overview of EPO, its receptor, and a variety of recombinant human EPOs/erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) available on the market (e.g. epoetins and their long acting analogs--darbepoetin alfa and continuous erythropoiesis receptor activator). Recent efforts to improve on EPO's pharmaceutical properties and to develop novel replacement products are also presented. In most cases, these efforts have emphasized a reduction in frequency of injections or complete elimination of intravenous or subcutaneous injections of the hormone (biosimilars, EPO mimetic peptides, fusion proteins, endogenous EPO gene activators and gene doping). Isoelectric focusing (IEF) combined with double immunoblotting can detect the subtle differences in glycosylation/sialylation, enabling differentiation among endogenous and recombinant EPO analogues. This method, using the highly sensitive anti-EPO monoclonal antibody AE7A5, has been accepted internationally as one of the methods for detecting misuse of ESAs in sport. PMID:22508651

Debeljak, Nataša; Sytkowski, Arthur J

2012-11-01

427

Strongly Coupled Cosmologies  

E-print Network

Models including an energy transfer from CDM to DE are widely considered in the literature, namely to allow DE a significant high-z density. Strongly Coupled cosmologies assume a much larger coupling between DE and CDM, together with the presence of an uncoupled warm DM component, as the role of CDM is mostly restricted to radiative eras. This allows us to preserve small scale fluctuations even if the warm particle, possibly a sterile neutrino, is quite light, O(100 eV). Linear theory and numerical simulations show that these cosmologies agree with LCDM on supergalactic scales; e.g., CMB spectra are substantially identical. Simultaneously, simulations show that they significantly ease problems related to the properties of MW satellites and cores in dwarfs. SC cosmologies also open new perspectives on early black hole formation, and possibly lead towards unificating DE and inflationary scalar fields.

Bonometto, S A; Musco, I; Mainini, R; Maccio', A V

2014-01-01

428

Anomalous Higgs Yukawa couplings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the standard model, the Higgs boson h couples to the quarks and charged leptons according to the well-known formula (m_\\psi/v) h \\bar{\\psi}\\psi , where \\psi =\\text{quark }(q) or lepton (l) and v = 246 \\text{GeV} is its vacuum expectation value. Suppose m_\\psi is of radiative origin instead, then the effective h \\bar{\\psi} \\psi Yukawa coupling will not be exactly m_\\psi/v . We show for the first time quantitatively how this may shift the observed branching fractions of h \\to \\bar{b} b and h \\to ?+ ?- upward or downward. Thus, the precision measurements of the Higgs decay to fermions at the Large Hadron Collider, due to the resume operation in 2015, could be the key to possible new physics.

Fraser, Sean; Ma, Ernest

2014-10-01

429

Thermal coupling measurement method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat flow from an embedded heated wire responds to a change in the ambient environment. The wire is part of a self-balancing bridge system, and heat flow is measured directly in watts. Steady-state and transient thermal coupling can be measured directly and is an indication of the thermal resistance and diffusivity for the system under study. The method is applied to an aerospace electroexplosive component.

Rosenthal, L. A.; Menichelli, V. J.

1974-01-01

430

Magnetic coupling device  

DOEpatents

A quick connect/disconnect coupling apparatus is provided in which a base member is engaged by a locking housing through a series of interengagement pins. The pins maintain the shaft in a locked position. Upon exposure to an appropriately positioned magnetic field, pins are removed a sufficient distance such that the shaft may be withdrawn from the locking housing. The ability to lock and unlock the connector assembly requires no additional tools or parts apart from a magnetic key.

Nance, Thomas A. (Aiken, SC)

2009-08-18

431

Resistor coupled Josephson logic  

SciTech Connect

A resistor coupled Josephson logic (RCJL) family, composed of OR, AND, and 2/3 majority gates, is proposed. The RCJL family consists of multiple Josephson junctions and resistors, and employs current injected switching. OR gates have I-O isolation capability with high input sensitivity and wide operating current margin. In the AND gate, current margin as wide as the CIL AND gate and higher input sensitivity can be achieved without inductors. Experimental verification of the RCJL family operation is also described.

Sone, J.; Yoshida, T.; Abe, H.

1982-04-15

432

Minimal Coupling and Attractors  

E-print Network

The effects of minimally coupling a gravity to matter on a flat Robertson-Walker geometry are explored. Particular attention is paid to the evolution of the symplectic structure and the Liouville measure it defines. We show that the rescaling freedom introduced by choice of fiducial cell leads to a symmetry between dynamical trajectories, which together with the Liouville measure provides a natural volume weighting explanation for the generic existence of attractors.

David Sloan

2014-07-15

433

Minimal coupling and attractors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of minimally coupling a gravity to matter on a flat Robertson–Walker geometry are explored. Particular attention is paid to the evolution of the symplectic structure and the Liouville measure it defines. We show that the rescaling freedom introduced by choice of fiducial cell leads to a symmetry between dynamical trajectories, which together with the Liouville measure provides a natural volume weighting explanation for the generic existence of attractors.

Sloan, David

2014-12-01

434

On the role of additives in alkyl-alkyl Negishi cross-couplings.  

PubMed

An additives study for the alkyl-alkyl Negishi reaction using an NHC-Pd catalyst revealed that bromide salts promote coupling while the cation is mechanistically benign. A double titration revealed that the cross-coupling begins at a 1 : 1 ratio of LiBr : (n)BuZnBr, suggesting that a higher-order zincate, presumably Li(m)Zn((n)Bu)Br(3)((2-m)-), is the active transmetalating agent. PMID:20520876

Achonduh, George T; Hadei, Niloufar; Valente, Cory; Avola, Stephanie; O'Brien, Christopher J; Organ, Michael G

2010-06-21

435

Mirage gauge coupling unification  

E-print Network

We use compact D=4, N=1, Type IIB orientifolds as a testing ground for recent ideas about precocious gauge coupling unification and a low energy string scale. We find that certain such orientifolds have the interesting property that gauge couplings receive moduli-dependent corrections which mimic the effect of field theoretical logarithmic running. The effective cut-off scale for the logarithmic correction is not $M_{string}$ but rather $M_X=\\sqrt{\\alpha}M_{Planck}M_c/M_{string}$, where $M_c$ is the compactification scale. Thus there is just normal logarithmic running up to $M_{string}$ and extra moduli dependent corrections which behave as if there was further running to a higher virtual scale $M_X$. In this mechanism a prominent role is played by anomalous U(1)'s with moduli dependent Fayet-Iliopoulos terms. A vanishing FI-term fixes the modulus dependence of the corrected gauge coupling. We discuss possible ways to implement this mechanism in the context of a simple extension of the MSSM.

Luis E. Ibanez

1999-05-14

436

Comprehensive survey of chemical libraries yielding enzyme inhibitors, receptor agonists and antagonists, and other biologically active agents: 1992 through 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review is a historical accounting of chemical libraries from which biologically active agents have been obtained. The comprehensive tabulation includes citations as early as 1992, when the first descriptions of biologically active libraries were disclosed, and continues through 1997. Four tables are provided listing libraries screened against (1) proteolytic enzymes, (2) non-proteolytic enzymes, (3) G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and

Roland E. Dolle

1997-01-01

437

Self-referential dynamics with situated observation in collective agent systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

For realization of collective autonomous system, the self-referential coupling structure of a self-organizing process is considered to be fundamental. Since the self-referential process is closed, the description of collective behavior has to be performed through the internal viewpoint. However, there is a substantial gap in recognition between the global observer and agent embedded in a group. This paper describes how

Kosuke SEKIYAMA

1999-01-01

438

A user-system interface agent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Agent-based technologies answer to several challenges posed by additional information processing requirements in today's computing environments. In particular, (1) users desire interaction with computing devices in a mode which is similar to that used between people, (2) the efficiency and successful completion of information processing tasks often require a high-level of expertise in complex and multiple domains, (3) information processing tasks often require handling of large volumes of data and, therefore, continuous and endless processing activities. The concept of an agent is an attempt to address these new challenges by introducing information processing environments in which (1) users can communicate with a system in a natural way, (2) an agent is a specialist and a self-learner and, therefore, it qualifies to be trusted to perform tasks independent of the human user, and (3) an agent is an entity that is continuously active performing tasks that are either delegated to it or self-imposed. The work described in this paper focuses on the development of an interface agent for users of a complex information processing environment (IPE). This activity is part of an on-going effort to build a model for developing agent-based information systems. Such systems will be highly applicable to environments which require a high degree of automation, such as, flight control operations and/or processing of large volumes of data in complex domains, such as the EOSDIS environment and other multidisciplinary, scientific data systems. The concept of an agent as an information processing entity is fully described with emphasis on characteristics of special interest to the User-System Interface Agent (USIA). Issues such as agent 'existence' and 'qualification' are discussed in this paper. Based on a definition of an agent and its main characteristics, we propose an architecture for the development of interface agents for users of an IPE that is agent-oriented and whose resources are likely to be distributed and heterogeneous in nature. The architecture of USIA is outlined in two main components: (1) the user interface which is concerned with issues as user dialog and interaction, user modeling, and adaptation to user profile, and (2) the system interface part which deals with identification of IPE capabilities, task understanding and feasibility assessment, and task delegation and coordination of assistant agents.

Wakim, Nagi T.; Srivastava, Sadanand; Bousaidi, Mehdi; Goh, Gin-Hua

1995-01-01

439

Methods for Task Allocation via Agent Coalition Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Task execution in multi-agent environments may require cooperation among agents. Given a set of agents and a set of tasks which they have to satisfy, we consider situations where each task should be attached to a group of agents that will perform the task. Task allocation to groups of agents is necessary when tasks cannot be performed by a single

Onn Shehory; Sarit Kraus

1998-01-01

440

Web Search Agents: "One-Stop Shopping" for Researchers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains Web search agents as tools that apply intelligent agent software technology for the purpose of automating, improving, and speeding up online search operations. Topics include intelligent desktop agents; search agent marketplace; comparing Web search agents; subjective evaluations; and use by researchers. (LRW)

Perez, Ernest

2002-01-01

441

Compositional Formal Specification of Multi-Agent Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper it is investigated how multi-agent systems with complex agents can be designed and formally specified based on the notion of a compositional architecture. After identifying the types of knowledge required for an agent we formally define a general multi-agent system. Moreover, a specific type of agent with various capabilities of reasoning and acting is given. Some essential

Barbara Dunin-Keplicz I; Jan Treur

1994-01-01

442

Agent-Based Computational Economics: Modelling Economies as  

E-print Network

. These agents in- clude both economic agents and agents representing various other social and environmentalAgent-Based Computational Economics: Modelling Economies as Complex Adaptive Systems Leigh://www.econ.iastate.edu/tesfatsi/ tesfatsi@iastate.edu Abstract Agent-based computational economics (ACE) is the computational study

Tesfatsion, Leigh

443

Some Issues on Agent Ownership1 Alexander Yip & Jim Cunningham  

E-print Network

of the social and legal ramifications of software agents and highlight areas where agent ownership, agent ownership introduces many new social and legal challenges. In this paper we discuss some of the social and legal ramifications of software agents and highlight areas where agent ownership

Cunningham, Jim

444

1. Designing Scenarios for Social Agents Toru Ishida1  

E-print Network

1. Designing Scenarios for Social Agents Toru Ishida1 and Hideyuki Nakanishi1 1 Department challenge is to extend agent technologies to ensure the social acceptance of social agents in Web and social psychological experiments. Keywords: Interactive agent, multi-agent system, scenario, interaction

Nakanishi, Hideyuki

445

Verifying protocol conformance for logic-based communicating agents  

E-print Network

bound to its complexity is given. 1 Introduction Multi-agent systems (MASs) often comprise heterogeneous,baroglio,mrt,patti,schi}@di.unito.it Abstract. Communication plays a fundamental role in multi-agents systems. One of the main issues, individual agents, set in a multi-agent framework. We do this by working on a specific agent programming

Torino, Università di

446

Linear analysis of coupled lattices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A formalism for describing the coupled two-dimensional motion of high energy particle beams in a storage ring is developed and extended to circumstances where the coupling is very strong, such as for the Möbius twist accelerator.

D. Sagan; D. Rubin

1999-01-01

447

Designing Agent Utilities for Coordinated, Scalable and Robust Multi-Agent Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coordinating the behavior of a large number of agents to achieve a system level goal poses unique design challenges. In particular, problems of scaling (number of agents in the thousands to tens of thousands), observability (agents have limited sensing capabilities), and robustness (the agents are unreliable) make it impossible to simply apply methods developed for small multi-agent systems composed of reliable agents. To address these problems, we present an approach based on deriving agent goals that are aligned with the overall system goal, and can be computed using information readily available to the agents. Then, each agent uses a simple reinforcement learning algorithm to pursue its own goals. Because of the way in which those goals are derived, there is no need to use difficult to scale external mechanisms to force collaboration or coordination among the agents, or to ensure that agents actively attempt to appropriate the tasks of agents that suffered failures. To present these results in a concrete setting, we focus on the problem of finding the sub-set of a set of imperfect devices that results in the best aggregate device. This is a large distributed agent coordination problem where each agent (e.g., device) needs to determine whether to be part of the aggregate device. Our results show that the approach proposed in this work provides improvements of over an order of magnitude over both traditional search methods and traditional multi-agent methods. Furthermore, the results show that even in extreme cases of agent failures (i.e., half the agents failed midway through the simulation) the system's performance degrades gracefully and still outperforms a failure-free and centralized search algorithm. The results also show that the gains increase as the size of the system (e.g., number of agents) increases. This latter result is particularly encouraging and suggests that this method is ideally suited for domains where the number of agents is currently in the thousands and will reach tens or hundreds of thousands in the near future.

Tumer, Kagan

2005-01-01

448

Electrostatically coupled micromechanical beam filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new electrical coupling technique for implementation of high-order narrow-bandwidth programmable bandpass filters using micromechanical resonators. The concept of electrostatic coupling of closely-spaced microresonators for filter synthesis is introduced and its electromechanical modeling is presented. The electrostatic coupling approach eliminates the need for any physical coupling element in between the resonators and provides the highest degree of

Siavash Pourkamali; Reza Abdolvand; Gavin K. Ho; F. Ayazi

2004-01-01

449

Agent-Supported Mission Operations Teamwork  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the development of software agents to support of mission operations teamwork. The goals of the work was to make automation by agents easy to use, supervise and direct, manage information and communication to decrease distraction, interruptions, workload and errors, reduce mission impact of off-nominal situations and increase morale and decrease turnover. The accomplishments or the project are: 1. Collaborative agents - mixed initiative and creation of instructions for mediating agent 2. Methods for prototyping, evaluating and evolving socio-technical systems 3. Technology infusion: teamwork tools in mISSIons 4. Demonstrations in simulation testbed An example of the use of agent is given, the use of an agent to monitor a N2 tank leak. An incomplete instruction to the agent is handled with mediating assistants, or Intelligent Briefing and Response Assistant (IBRA). The IBRA Engine also watches data stream for triggers and executes Act-Whenever actions. There is also a Briefing and Response Instruction (BRI) which is easy for a discipline specialist to create through a BRI editor.

Malin, Jane T.

2003-01-01

450

Metareasoning and Social Evaluations in Cognitive Agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reputation mechanisms have been recognized one of the key technologies when designing multi-agent systems. They are specially relevant in complex open environments, becoming a non-centralized mechanism to control interactions among agents. Cognitive agents tackling such complex societies must use reputation information not only for selecting partners to interact with, but also in metareasoning processes to change reasoning rules. This is the focus of this paper. We argue about the necessity to allow, as a cognitive systems designers, certain degree of freedom in the reasoning rules of the agents. We also describes cognitive approaches of agency that support this idea. Furthermore, taking as a base the computational reputation model Repage, and its integration in a BDI architecture, we use the previous ideas to specify metarules and processes to modify at run-time the reasoning paths of the agent. In concrete we propose a metarule to update the link between Repage and the belief base, and a metarule and a process to update an axiom incorporated in the belief logic of the agent. Regarding this last issue we also provide empirical results that show the evolution of agents that use it.

Pinyol, Isaac; Sabater-Mir, Jordi

451

Novel immunosuppressive agents in kidney transplantation  

PubMed Central

Excellent outcomes have been achieved in the field of renal transplantation. A significant reduction in acute rejection has been attained at many renal transplant centers using contemporary immunosuppressive, consisting of an induction agent, a calcineurin inhibitor, an antiproliferative agent plus or minus a corticosteroid. Despite improvements with these regimens, chronic allograft injury and adverse events still persist. The perfect immunosuppressive regimen would limit or eliminate calcineurin inhibitors and/or corticosteroid toxicity while providing enhanced allograft outcomes. Potential improvements to the calcineurin inhibitor class include a prolonged release tacrolimus formulation and voclosporin, a cyclosporine analog. Belatacept has shown promise as an agent to replace calcineurin inhibitors. A novel, fully-human anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody, ASKP1240, is currently enrolling patients in phase 2 trials with calcineurin minimization and avoidance regimens. Another future goal of transplant immunosuppression is effective and safe treatment of allograft rejection. Novel treatments for antibody mediated rejection include bortezomib and eculizumab. Several investigational agents are no longer being pursed in transplantation including the induction agents, efalizumab and alefacept, and maintenance agents, sotrastaurin and tofacitinib. The purpose of this review is to consolidate the published evidence of the effectiveness and safety of investigational immunosuppressive agents in renal transplant recipients. PMID:24392311

Hardinger, Karen L; Brennan, Daniel C

2013-01-01

452

Brahms Mobile Agents: Architecture and Field Tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have developed a model-based, distributed architecture that integrates diverse components in a system designed for lunar and planetary surface operations: an astronaut's space suit, cameras, rover/All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV), robotic assistant, other personnel in a local habitat, and a remote mission support team (with time delay). Software processes, called agents, implemented in the Brahms language, run on multiple, mobile platforms. These mobile agents interpret and transform available data to help people and robotic systems coordinate their actions to make operations more safe and efficient. The Brahms-based mobile agent architecture (MAA) uses a novel combination of agent types so the software agents may understand and facilitate communications between people and between system components. A state-of-the-art spoken dialogue interface is integrated with Brahms models, supporting a speech-driven field observation record and rover command system (e.g., return here later and bring this back to the habitat ). This combination of agents, rover, and model-based spoken dialogue interface constitutes a personal assistant. An important aspect of the methodology involves first simulating the entire system in Brahms, then configuring the agents into a run-time system.

Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Kaskiris, Charis; vanHoof, Ron

2002-01-01

453

Natural chelating agents for radionuclide decorporation  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to the production of metal-binding compounds useful for the therapy of heavy metal poisoning, for biological mining and for decorporation of radionuclides. The present invention deals with an orderly and effective method of producing new therapeutically effective chelating agents. This method uses challenge biosynthesis for the production of chelating agents that are specific for a particular metal. In this approach, the desired chelating agents are prepared from microorganisms challenged by the metal that the chelating agent is designed to detoxify. This challenge induces the formation of specific or highly selective chelating agents. The present invention involves the use of the challenge biosynthetic method to produce new complexing/chelating agents that are therapeutically useful to detoxify uranium, plutonium, thorium and other toxic metals. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa family of organisms is the referred family of microorganisms to be used in the present invention to produce the new chelating agent because this family is known to elaborate strains resistant to toxic metals.

Premuzic, E.T.

1985-06-11

454

Couples' conflicts: A territorial perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Couples in psychological difficulties suffer from the fact that they miss a useful, change-provoking conceptualization of their problems. The Human Territorial model helps to see reality different and to get grip on specific problems and conflicts. It is also a model and a language that the therapist can teach the couples. Couples' problems are seen as territorial conflicts and relational

Jose Orathinkal; Alfons Vansteenwegen

2006-01-01

455

Aging Couple across the Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aging Couple Across the Curriculum is a unique program designed around a couple who "age" a decade with each year of medical school. In these half-day sessions, students encounter the aging couple through a standardized patient experience. Interactive breakout sessions conducted by multidisciplinary professionals enhance student learning and…

Rull, Gary M.; Rosher, Richard B.; McCann-Stone, Nancy; Robinson, Sherry B.

2009-01-01

456

EMP coupling to shielded cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic coupling to shielded cables is analyzed in terms of two electromagnetically coupled transmission lines excited by distributed sources. This analysis results in two traveling waves on the shield and four traveling waves in the core of the cable. Transient waveforms are reported from EMP coupling on an overhead RG-58 cable.

Agouridis, D. C.

457

Pharmacologic agents for mucus clearance in bronchiectasis.  

PubMed

There are no approved pharmacologic agents to enhance mucus clearance in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. Evidence supports the use of hyperosmolar agents in CF, and studies with inhaled mannitol and hypertonic saline are ongoing in bronchiectasis. N-acetylcysteine may act more as an antioxidant than a mucolytic in other lung diseases. Dornase ? is beneficial to patients with CF, but is not useful in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. Mucokinetic agents such as ?-agonists have the potential to improve mucociliary clearance in normals and many disease states, but have not been adequately studied in patients with bronchiectasis. PMID:22640851

Nair, Girish B; Ilowite, Jonathan S

2012-06-01

458

New microtubular agents in pediatric oncology.  

PubMed

The taxanes are a new group of anticancer agents with a novel mechanism of action. They promote microtubule assembly and stabilize the microtubules. Paclitaxel (Taxol), the first agent in this group in clinical trials was isolated from the Pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia in 1971. Both in preclinical and clinical studies, paclitaxel and its semisynthetic analog docetaxel exhibit significant antitumor activity. This review will provide an overview of the clinical experience with the group of anti-microtubular agents, the taxanes in pediatric oncology. PMID:8880393

Seibel, N L; Reaman, G H

1996-01-01

459

Acoustic response from adherent targeted contrast agents  

PubMed Central

In ultrasonic molecular imaging, encapsulated micron-sized gas bubbles are tethered to a blood vessel wall by targeting ligands. A challenging problem is to detect the echoes from adherent microbubbles and distinguish them from echoes from non-adherent agents and tissue. Echoes from adherent contrast agents are observed to include a high amplitude at the fundamental frequency, and significantly different spectral shape compared with free agents (p < 0.0003). Mechanisms for the observed acoustical difference and potential techniques to utilize these differences for molecular imaging are proposed. PMID:17225437

Zhao, Shukui; Kruse, Dustin E.; Ferrara, Katherine W.; Dayton, Paul A.

2006-01-01

460

Steganographic Routing in Multi Agent System Environment  

E-print Network

In this paper we present an idea of trusted communication platform for Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) called TrustMAS. Based on analysis of routing protocols suitable for MAS we have designed a new proactive hidden routing. Proposed steg-agents discovery procedure, as well as further routes updates and hidden communication, are cryptographically independent. Steganographic exchange can cover heterogeneous and geographically outlying environments using available cross-layer covert channels. Finally we have specified rules that agents have to follow to benefit the TrustMAS distributed router platform.

Szczypiorski, Krzysztof; Mazurczyk, Wojciech

2008-01-01

461

Sealing coupling. [LMFBR  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a remotely operable releasable sealing coupling which provides fluid-tight joinder of upper and a lower conduit sections. Each conduit section has a concave conical sealing surface adjacent its end portion. A tubular sleeve having convex spherical ends is inserted between the conduit ends to form line contact with the concave conical end portions. An inwardly projecting lip located at one end of the sleeve cooperates with a retaining collar formed on the upper pipe end to provide swivel capture for the sleeve. The upper conduit section also includes a tapered lower end portion which engages the inside surface of the sleeve to limit misalignment of the connected conduit sections.

Pardini, J.A.; Brubaker, R.C.; Rusnak, J.J.

1982-09-20

462

Minimum cost subset selection with two competing agents  

E-print Network

Keywords: Multi-agent optimization, Combinatorial game theory, Pareto ... In this paper we study a multi-agent problem motivated by certain organizational processes in clerical ... We assume complete information, i.e. both agents know.

2010-11-10

463

7 CFR 983.86 - Agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.86 Agents. The Secretary...

2010-01-01

464

7 CFR 983.86 - Agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.86 Agents. The Secretary...

2014-01-01

465

7 CFR 983.86 - Agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.86 Agents. The Secretary...

2013-01-01

466

7 CFR 983.86 - Agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.86 Agents. The Secretary...

2011-01-01

467

7 CFR 983.86 - Agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.86 Agents. The Secretary...

2012-01-01

468

Agent-based Models of Language  

E-print Network

) Existence proof (self-reproducing automata) 3) Exploratory (language acquisition and evolution) #12;Outline and evolution that does not require its agents to have a `wired in' grammar? [The models described

Schweik, Charles M.

469

Off-label use of contrast agents.  

PubMed

When contrast agents are approved, the label describes the approved indications and particular circumstances of use such as age, organ function or pregnancy. The use of contrast agents outside their labelled indications is increasing, namely with contrast agents used for MRI. The aim of this paper is to improve the knowledge about this topic. The basis for off-label use is the physician's prerogative, which finds its basis in the "Declaration of Helsinki". Off-label use is allowed under special conditions and might be even the medical state of the art. The necessity for off-label use will continue to increase for MR-contrast agents, as the regulatory requirements for approval of new indications continuously increase, and clinical trials for registration purposes are quite costly and time consuming. As a consequence, manufacturers will concentrate on clinical studies for the essential indications. PMID:18274752

Reimer, P; Vosshenrich, R

2008-06-01

470

the Science of Human-Agent  

E-print Network

ORCHID Developing the Science of Human-Agent Collectives THIRD ANNUAL REPORT www.orchid.ac.uk #12;#12;ORCHID Third Annual Report 2013 Table of Contents INTRODUCTION Management Data ...............................................................34 #12;ORCHID Third Annual

Southampton, University of

471

the Science of Human-Agent  

E-print Network

ORCHID Developing the Science of Human-Agent Collectives ANNUAL REPORT 2012 www.orchid.ac.uk #12;2 #12;ORCHID End of Year Report 2012 1 Table of Contents INTRODUCTION ­ Project Management Data ...............................................................35 #12;ORCHID End

Southampton, University of

472

Monoclonal antibodies against the aster yellows agent.  

PubMed

Hybridoma clones secreting specific monoclonal antibodies against the aster yellows agent, a mycoplasma-like organism, were produced by using partially purified salivary gland preparations from infected leafhopper vectors as the immunogen. After 3947 hybridomas from 20 independent fusions were screened for specific antibody against the aster yellows agent, two table clones were obtained. With these monoclonal antibodies the aster yellows agent in diseased lettuce, periwinkles, and inoculative insects was specifically identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The aster yellows agent was serologically differentiated from the mycoplasma-like organisms associated with ash yellows, loofah witches'-broom, paulownia witches'-broom, sweet potato witches'-broom, peanut rosette, maize bushy stunt, and elm phloem necrosis. PMID:17757867

Lin, C P; An Chen, T

1985-03-01

473

Opportunistic Behavior in Motivated Learning Agents.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the novel motivated learning (ML) scheme and opportunistic behavior of an intelligent agent. It extends previously developed ML to opportunistic behavior in a multitask situation. Our paper describes the virtual world implementation of autonomous opportunistic agents learning in a dynamically changing environment, creating abstract goals, and taking advantage of arising opportunities to improve their performance. An opportunistic agent achieves better results than an agent based on ML only. It does so by minimizing the average value of all need signals rather than a dominating need. This paper applies to the design of autonomous embodied systems (robots) learning in real-time how to operate in a complex environment. PMID:25291798

Graham, James; Starzyk, Janusz A; Jachyra, Daniel

2014-09-30

474

7 CFR 906.59 - Agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 906.59 Agents. The Secretary may, by designation in...

2012-01-01

475

7 CFR 958.84 - Agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 958.84 Agents. The...

2014-01-01

476

Engineering Agent Organisations in a Business Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by demands from the commercial world for software systems that can assist in the reorganisation of processes for the purpose of reducing business complexity, we discuss the benefits and challenges of the multi-agent approach. We concentrate on the engineering aspects of large scale multi-agent systems and begin our exploration by focusing on a real world example from the call centre industry. The critical call routing process seems appropriate and useful in presenting our ideas and provides a good starting point for the development of agent organisations capable of self-management and coordination. The main contributions of this work can be summarised as the demonstration of the value of agent organisational models that do not replicate the typical hierarchical structures observed in human organisations and that a quite basic peer-to-peer structure produces very similar performance indicators to a mature simulator that uses conventional techniques, suggesting further improvements may readily be realized.

Traskas, Dimitris; Padget, Julian

477

Learning in engineered multi-agent systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consider the problem of maximizing the total power produced by a wind farm. Due to aerodynamic interactions between wind turbines, each turbine maximizing its individual power---as is the case in present-day wind farms---does not lead to optimal farm-level power capture. Further, there are no good models to capture the said aerodynamic interactions, rendering model based optimization techniques ineffective. Thus, model-free distributed algorithms are needed that help turbines adapt their power production on-line so as to maximize farm-level power capture. Motivated by such problems, the main focus of this dissertation is a distributed model-free optimization problem in the context of multi-agent systems. The set-up comprises of a fixed number of agents, each of which can pick an action and observe the value of its individual utility function. An individual's utility function may depend on the collective action taken by all agents. The exact functional form (or model) of the agent utility functions, however, are unknown; an agent can only measure the numeric value of its utility. The objective of the multi-agent system is to optimize the welfare function (i.e. sum of the individual utility functions). Such a collaborative task requires communications between agents and we allow for the possibility of such inter-agent communications. We also pay attention to the role played by the pattern of such information exchange on certain aspects of performance. We develop two algorithms to solve this problem. The first one, engineered Interactive Trial and Error Learning (eITEL) algorithm, is based on a line of work in the Learning in Games literature and applies when agent actions are drawn from finite sets. While in a model-free setting, we introduce a novel qualitative graph-theoretic framework to encode known directed interactions of the form "which agents' action affect which others' payoff" (interaction graph). We encode explicit inter-agent communications in a directed graph (communication graph) and, under certain conditions, prove convergence of agent joint action (under eITEL) to the welfare optimizing set. The main condition requires that the union of interaction and communication graphs be strongly connected; thus the algorithm combines an implicit form of communication (via interactions through utility functions) with explicit inter-agent communications to achieve the given collaborative goal. This work has kinship with certain evolutionary computation techniques such as Simulated Annealing; the algorithm steps are carefully designed such that it describes an ergodic Markov chain with a stationary distribution that has support over states where agent joint actions optimize the welfare function. The main analysis tool is perturbed Markov chains and results of broader interest regarding these are derived as well. The other algorithm, Collaborative Extremum Seeking (CES), uses techniques from extremum seeking control to solve the problem when agent actions are drawn from the set of real numbers. In this case, under the assumption of existence of a local minimizer for the welfare function and a connected undirected communication graph between agents, a result regarding convergence of joint action to a small neighborhood of a local optimizer of the welfare function is proved. Since extremum seeking control uses a simultaneous gradient estimation-descent scheme, gradient information available in the continuous action space formulation is exploited by the CES algorithm to yield improved convergence speeds. The effectiveness of this algorithm for the wind farm power maximization problem is evaluated via simulations. Lastly, we turn to a different question regarding role of the information exchange pattern on performance of distributed control systems by means of a case study for the vehicle platooning problem. In the vehicle platoon control problem, the objective is to design distributed control laws for individual vehicles in a platoon (or a road-train) that regulate inter-vehicle distances at a specified safe value

Menon, Anup

478

Chemical Agents: Facts about Sheltering in Place  

MedlinePLUS

... Index Chemical Agents: Facts About Sheltering in Place Language: English Español (Spanish) Format: Select one PDF [99 KB] ... international organizations. Format: Select one PDF [99 KB] Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

479

7 CFR 932.72 - Agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 932.72 Agents. The Secretary may,...

2011-01-01

480

7 CFR 932.72 - Agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 932.72 Agents. The Secretary may,...

2010-01-01

481

7 CFR 932.72 - Agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 932.72 Agents. The Secretary may,...

2013-01-01

482

7 CFR 932.72 - Agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 932.72 Agents. The Secretary may,...

2014-01-01

483

7 CFR 932.72 - Agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 932.72 Agents. The Secretary may,...

2012-01-01

484

Optical bonding agents for severe environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test results and applications of elastors (General Electric RTV 665, Dow Corning (DC) XR-63-488, DC 93-500, DC 182, and DC 184) considered for use as optical bonding agents in aerospace environments are presented.

Pellicori, S. F.

1972-01-01

485

Competing intelligent search agents in global optimization  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present a new search methodology that we view as a development of intelligent agent approach to the analysis of complex system. The main idea is to consider search process as a competition mechanism between concurrent adaptive intelligent agents. Agents cooperate in achieving a common search goal and at the same time compete with each other for computational resources. We propose a statistical selection approach to resource allocation between agents that leads to simple and efficient on average index allocation policies. We use global optimization as the most general setting that encompasses many types of search problems, and show how proposed selection policies can be used to improve and combine various global optimization methods.

Streltsov, S.; Vakili, P. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Muchnik, I. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

1996-12-31

486

Binding agent for molding ceramic items  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention refers to the fabrication of ceramic items by the molding method. It can be used to produce items of complicated configuration, in particular composition of binding agent for electroceramic items.

Beshentsev, B. D.; Vityuk, N. P.; Volkov, A. V.; Yevdokimov, A. I.; Novikov, M. N.; Piskunov, Y. G.; Pobortsev, E. P.; Sadovnichaya, L. M.

1983-01-01

487

7 CFR 930.87 - Agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.87 Agents. The...

2010-01-01

488

Emergent Aerospace Designs Using Negotiating Autonomous Agents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a distributed design methodology where designs emerge as a result of the negotiations between different stake holders in the process, such as cost, performance, reliability, etc. The proposed methodology uses autonomous agents to represent design decision makers. Each agent influences specific design parameters in order to maximize their utility. Since the design parameters depend on the aggregate demand of all the agents in the system, design agents need to negotiate with others in the market economy in order to reach an acceptable utility value. This paper addresses several interesting research issues related to distributed design architectures. First, we present a flexible framework which facilitates decomposition of the design problem. Second, we present overview of a market mechanism for generating acceptable design configurations. Finally, we integrate learning mechanisms in the design process to reduce the computational overhead.

Deshmukh, Abhijit; Middelkoop, Timothy; Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu; Smith, Charles

2000-01-01

489

7 CFR 984.88 - Agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 984.88 Agents. The Secretary may,...

2010-01-01

490

Scam Alert: Beware of Bogus FDA Agents  

MedlinePLUS

... Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Scam Alert: Beware of Bogus FDA Agents Search the Consumer ... or via telephone, you may also want to alert your credit card company and make sure that ...

491

Cutaneous photosensitivity diseases induced by exogenous agents.  

PubMed

Cutaneous photosensitivity diseases may be idiopathic, produced by endogenous photosensitizers, or associated with exogenous photosensitizers. Those caused by exogenous agents include phototoxicity, photoallergy, and the exacerbation or induction of systemic disorders in which photosensitivity is a prominent clinical manifestation. Phototoxic disorders have a high incidence, whereas photoallergic reactions are much less frequent. The action spectra for most phototoxins and photoallergens lie in the UVA range. Phototoxic and photoallergic reactions can be distinguished on the basis of pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and management. Drugs capable of causing phototoxic reactions include psoralens, porphyrins, coal tar, antibiotics, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents. Drugs capable of causing photoallergic reactions include topical antimicrobial agents, fragrances, sunscreens, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents, plants, and psychiatric medications. Drug-induced systemic diseases in which photosensitivity is a prominent component include drug-induced lupus erythematosus, porphyria, and pellagra. PMID:7673488

Gould, J W; Mercurio, M G; Elmets, C A

1995-10-01

492

Compositional evaluation of asphalt binder recycling agents  

E-print Network

Several experiments were performed to determine how recycling agent composition affects the high, intermediate, and low temperature properties as well as long term oxidative aging characteristics of recycled asphalt blends. Specifically, several...

Madrid, Richard Charles

1997-01-01

493

For whom will the Bayesian agents vote?  

E-print Network

Within an agent-based model where moral classifications are socially learned, we ask if a population of agents behaves in a way that may be compared with conservative or liberal positions in the real political spectrum. We assume that agents first experience a formative period, in which they adjust their learning style acting as supervised Bayesian adaptive learners. The formative phase is followed by a period of social influence by reinforcement learning. By comparing data generated by the agents with data from a sample of 15000 Moral Foundation questionnaires we found the following. 1. The number of information exchanges in the formative phase correlates positively with statistics identifying liberals in the social influence phase. This is consistent with recent evidence that connects the dopamine receptor D4-7R gene, political orientation and early age social clique size. 2. The learning algorithms that result from the formative phase vary in the way they treat novelty and corroborative information with mo...

Caticha, Nestor; Vicente, Renato

2015-01-01

494

Managing personality influences in dialogical agents  

E-print Network

OCC Scherer, Ortony et al Mental states: moods, basic emotions RDMP PERSONALITY stable AGENT WORLD Descriptive TRAITS & TYPES Humanistic Maslow NEEDS Sociocognitive Mishel,Shoda dynamics Psychocognitive Intrinsic / Interpersonal lazy / talkative Static traits / Dyn. moods ambitious / angry Fantasy Aesthetics

Sansonnet, Jean-Paul

495

7 CFR 920.67 - Agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.67 Agents. The Secretary may, by designation in writing,...

2012-01-01

496

7 CFR 920.67 - Agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.67 Agents. The Secretary may, by designation in writing,...

2014-01-01

497

7 CFR 920.67 - Agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.67 Agents. The Secretary may, by designation in writing,...

2013-01-01

498

7 CFR 920.67 - Agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.67 Agents. The Secretary may, by designation in writing,...

2011-01-01

499

Natural compounds as anticancer agents: Experimental evidence  

PubMed Central

Cancer prevention research has drawn much attention worldwide. It is believed that some types of cancer can be prevented by following a healthy life style. Cancer chemoprevention by either natural or synthetic agents is a promising route towards lowering cancer incidence. In recent years, the concept of cancer chemoprevention has evolved greatly. Experimental studies in animal models demonstrate that the reversal or suppression of premalignant lesions by chemopreventive agents is achievable. Natural occurring agents such as dietary phytochemicals, tea polyphenols and resveratrol show chemopreventive activity in animal models. Moreover, clinical trials for testing the safety and efficacy of a variety of natural agents in preventing or treating human malignancy have been ongoing. Here, we summarize experimental data on the chemopreventive or tumor suppressive effects of several natural compounds including curcumin, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, resveratrol, indole-3-carbinol, and vitamin D. PMID:24520533

Wang, Jiao; Jiang, Yang-Fu

2012-01-01

500

Exploring the Kuramoto model of coupled oscillators in minimally cognitive evolutionary robotics tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is the first attempt to investigate the neural dynamics of a simulated robotic agent engaged in minimally cognitive tasks by employing evolved instances of the Kuramoto model of coupled oscillators as its nervous system. The main objectives are to shed new light into the role of neuronal synchronisation and phase towards the generation of cognitive behaviours and to

Renan C. Moioli; Patrícia Amâncio Vargas; Phil Husbands

2010-01-01