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Sample records for coupling agent gamma-aminopropyltriethoxysilane

  1. Infrared analysis of the effect of composition of n-butyltriethoxysilane and gamma-aminopropyltriethoxysilane blends on tertiary amine-catalyzed anhydride-cured epoxy mixtures. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Tidrick, S.L.; Ishida, H.; Koenig, J.L.

    1991-05-01

    The enhancement in mechanical properties observed for silane-treated glass-reinforced epoxy materials is highly dependent on the structure of the coupling agent at the interphase. The effect of varying composition of nonhydrolyzed silane coupling agent blends of gamma aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) and butyltriethoxysilane (BTS) on the cure of benzyldimethylamine (BDMA)-catalyzed, nadic methyl anhydride (NMA)-cured diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy (BDGE) was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The silane blends perturbed the kinetics of the alternating anhydride-epoxy copolymerization reaction, with the perturbation being a nonlinear function of the relative amine concentration in the system.

  2. Test of carcinogenicity in mouse skin: Methylenedianiline,. gamma. glycidyloxytrimethyloxysilane,. gamma. aminopropyltriethoxysilane and a mixture of m-phenylenediamine, methylenedianiline, and diglycidylether of bisphenol-A

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, J.M.; Smith, L.H.; Frome, E.; Whitaker, M.J.; Gipson, L.C.; Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-06-01

    Application of graded concentrations of four test substances in acetone to the skin of C3H mice five times a week resulted in the following: ..gamma..aminopropyltriethoxysilane at concentration of 100 and 50 wt/vol % was a severe and mild skin irritant in female C3Hf/Bd respectively and in males a mild skin irritant. Methylenedianiline at a concentration of 10 wt/vol % in methanol killed 4/9 females and 1/9 males. When acetone was the solvent 3/10 females and 3/10 males died within 2 weeks. No mortality or skin damage occurred with ..gamma..glycidyloxytrimethyloxysilane or the mixture of m-phenylenediamine, methylenedianiline and diglycidylether of bisphenol A (MDA). A study of the effects of a two-year, three times a week, topical application of the four test materials revealed no significant increase in skin tumors. The incidence of liver tumors appeared to be increased by exposure to methylenedianiline and with the mixture (MDA). Significant and dose-dependent increases in mortality were found in male mice with MDA and increased mortality at the highest dose (10.8 mg/week) in females. In the case of methylenedianiline excess mortality was found in both sexes. The precise cause of excess mortality from dermal absorption of the materials applied over a two-year period was not established. 5 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Polymeric coupling agent for bonding polymers to aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, S.L.; Bell, J.P.

    1996-12-31

    A polymeric coupling agent, containing {beta}-dike tone and epoxy functional groups, is being evaluated as a potential adhesion enhancer and corrosion inhibitor to be utilized on adhesively bonded aluminum substrates. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy studies indicate chemical interaction of the coupling agent with the aluminum oxide surface. Modified tubular butt joints were utilized to evaluate the joint strengths and durabilities of coupling agent treated joints. Dry strengths of treated joints were comparable to untreated controls, however after 3 and 5 days immersion in 57{degrees}C water, the coupling agent treated joints displayed improved joint strengths as compared to the untreated controls. Comparisons of coupling agent treated and untreated aluminum substrates after 24 hours exposure to salt spray (ASTM B117) indicated improved corrosion resistance due to the coupling agent treatment.

  4. Silane coupling agent structures on carbon nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Palencia, Cristina; Rubio, Juan; Rubio, Fausto; Fierro, José Luis G; Oteo, José Luis

    2011-05-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are considered ideal materials for reinforcing polymers due to their excellent mechanical properties, among others. In order to obtain composites of optimal properties the clue is to enhance the interaction between reinforcement (CNFs) and polymer matrix. Surface modification of CNFs with silane coupling agents (SCAs) has revealed as one of the most interesting methods. The silanization process has been carried out mixing at room temperature and for one minute the hydrolysed silane with CNFs. We have use four different SCAs: 3-aminopropyltriethoxyxilane (APS), 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AMMO), N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-(aminopropyltrimethoxysilane) (DAMO), and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GLYMO), in order to elucidate the SCA-CNFs interaction and the silane structures formed on CNFs surface. XPS and FTIR-ATR techniques have pointed out that each silane adsorbs on CNFs surface through chemical bonding, forming multilayers. Silane nature determines the structure taken on CNFs surface. APS and AMO silanes adsorb taking vertical structures on CNFs surface, while DMO and GMO adsorb on CNFs taking horizontal structures, stabilized by zwitterions formed through H-bonds with hydroxyl groups from CNFs surface. PMID:21780418

  5. Coordinated Learning for Loosely Coupled Agents with Sparse Interactions

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Minjie

    Coordinated Learning for Loosely Coupled Agents with Sparse Interactions Chao Yu, Minjie Zhang in this non- stationary learning environment to improve their performance. In many MASs, the interactions Learning for Loosely Coupled Agents with Sparse Interactions 393 how to coordinate their behaviours after

  6. Development of high temperature resistant graphite fiber coupling agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, R. N.

    1975-01-01

    Surface treatments were investigated as potential coupling agents to improve the elevated temperature shear strength retention of polyimide/graphite and polyphenylquinoxaline/graphite composites. The potential coupling agents were evaluated by fiber strand tensile tests, fiber and composite weight losses at 533 and 588K, and by interlaminar shear strength retention at 533 and 588K. The two surface treatments selected for more extensive evaluation were a coating of Ventromer T-1, a complex organometallic reaction product of titanium tetrachloride and trimethyl borate, and a polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) sizing which was pyrolyzed in nitrogen to form a carbonaceous layer on the fiber. Pyrolyzed polyphenylquinoxaline is a satisfactory coupling agent for polyimide/Thornel 300 graphite fiber composites. During 1000 hours aging at 588K such composites lose a little over half their transverse tensile strength, and suffer a slight loss in flexural modulus. No degradation of flexural strength or interlaminar shear strength occured during 1000 hours aging at 588K. None of the coupling agents examined had a markedly beneficial effect with polyphenylquinoxaline composites.

  7. Modification of Nanosilica Surface by Methyl Methacrylate Silane Coupling Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telegeev, Igor; Voronin, Evgenij; Pakhlov, Evgenij

    Composites based on silicas and methyl metacrylate silane coupling agents are advanced materials for sensor technologies. The purpose of the present research is to combine silica-organic compounds with inorganic constituents to tailor the binding properties. It deals with a new method of covering silica nanoparticles by methyl methacrylate silanes in a pseudo-liquid state. The adsorption process and the chemical reactions of metacrylate-containing silanes and the surface of nanosized silica were examined by means of infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The study confirmed the total modification of the silica surface with silanes.

  8. The effect of coupling agents on composite durability

    SciTech Connect

    Macturk, K.S.; Schultheisz, C.R.; Hunston, D.L.; Schutte, C.L.

    1996-12-31

    The relationship between fiber surface treatments and glass fiber/epoxy composite durability was investigated. The type of silane coupling agent deposited on the fiber surface was varied, and the single fiber fragmentation test was used to measure strengths of the fiber and the fiber-matrix interface. The samples were tested dry and after conditioned in 75{degrees}C distilled water for up to 10 weeks. With dry samples the interface strengths varied with the reactivity of the silane deposited on the surface. Moisture exposure produced little change in fiber strengths and, for samples containing silane treated fibers, little change in interface strength, even when the silane was unreactive with the epoxy. In contrast, samples containing unsized fibers exhibited significant losses in interface strengths.

  9. Surface modification of basalt with silane coupling agent on asphalt mixture moisture damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Yahong; Fang, Ying; Huang, Xiaojun; Zhu, Yinhui; Li, Wensheng; Yuan, Jianmin; Tan, Ligang; Wang, Shuangyin; Wu, Zhenjun

    2015-08-01

    A new silane coupling agent was synthesized based on ?-(methacryloyloxy) propyltrimethoxysilane (KH570). The surface of basalt rocks was modified by KH570 and the new silane coupling agent (NSCA), and the interfacial interaction between silane coupling agent and basalt was also studied. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed that the silane coupling agent molecule bound strongly with basalt rocks. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) observation showed that a thin layer of coupling agent was formed on the surface of modified basalt. The boiling test and immersion Marshall test confirmed that the moisture sensitivity of basalt modified with the new silane coupling agent increased more significantly than that untreated and treated with KH570. The Retained Marshall Strength of basalt modified with the new coupling agent increased from 71.74% to 87.79% compared with untreated basalt. The results indicated that the new silane coupling agent played an important role in improving the interfacial performance between basalt and asphalt.

  10. Modification of eucalyptus pulp fiber using silane coupling agents with aliphatic side chains of different length

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of three silane coupling agents with different aliphatic chain lengths on the hydrophobicity of eucalyptus pulp fiber. The three silanes coupling agents used (isobutyltrimethoxysilane, methyltrimethoxysilane, and n-octyltriethoxysilane [OTES]) we...

  11. Further development of high temperature-resistant graphite fiber coupling agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    Potential coupling agents for graphite fibers were screened by their effect on the weight losses of Thornel 300, HMS, and HTS fibers at 588K for 200 and 400 hours. Unidirectional laminates were made from HMS and HTS fibers, untreated, and treated with each of the seven coupling agents. The matrix of all laminates was PMR polyimide (PMR-PR). On the basis of the best overall retention of elevated temperature interlaminar shear strength after 200 hours at 588K, composite weight after 200 hours at 588K, and fiber weight after 400 hours at 588K, ventromer T-1 applied from aqueous solution and pyrolyzed PPQ were selected for further evaluation as coupling agents for HTS fiber while ventromer T-2 and pyrolyzed PPQ were selected as coupling agents for HMS fiber. It was shown that pyrolyzed PPQ as a coupling agent improves the oxidative stability of HTS/PMR-PI composites.

  12. Use of titanate coupling agents in Kevlar (trade name)/phenolic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, N.; Blum, F.D.; Dharani, L.R.

    1994-04-02

    Surface modification of Kevlar(R) fibers with titanate coupling agents for improved adhesion of the fiber and resin in Kevlar(R)/phenolic composites has been attempted to explore the possibility of enhancement in adhesion and bulk properties of composites for friction materials. Titanate coupling agents were used and flexural properties of the Kevlar(R)-fiber reinforced composites determined. A study of different amounts of the coupling agents at the fiber-matrix interface suggested that 2% by weight of fiber was the optimum amount, in terms of improvement in flexural properties. The composite samples with the coupling agents, showed an increase in flexural strength, over the untreated samples with the maximum increase being approx. 18% over the control. Water absorption studies were conducted on Kevlar(R)/phenolic composites treated with organotitanates to determine the effectiveness of these coupling agents in improving resistance to moisture attack. The treated Kevlar(R)/phenolic composite samples exhibited greater resistance to moisture-ingress over the untreated samples. The control samples showed a decrease of 17% in flexural strength. The largest decrease in strength was 14% for the treated samples containing coupling agent tetrakis(2-ethylhexyl)titanate (TYZOR TOT). Recovery in strength on reconditioning, was also greater for treated samples over control. A recovery in strength of ca. 94% was seen for some treated samples. Coupling agents, Composites, Kevlar, Interfaces, Mechanical properties.

  13. Decision making and cooperative interaction via coupling agents in organizationally distributed systems

    E-print Network

    Leon, Jorge

    1 Decision making and cooperative interaction via coupling agents in organizationally distributed systems In-Jae Jeong and V. Jorge Leon Department of Industrial Engineering Department of Engineering organizations. Global performance is achieved through cooperative interaction and partial information sharing

  14. Impact of biofibers and coupling agents on the weathering characteristics of composites polymer degradation and stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper explores the ultraviolet (UV) weathering performance of high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites with different biofiber fillers and coupling agent. Biofiber polymer composite (BFPC) material samples were prepared using oak, cotton burr and stem (CBS) or guayule bagasse as fiber source...

  15. WLS-based Partially Decentralized Adaptive Control for Coupled ARMAX Multi-agent Dynamical System

    E-print Network

    Ge, Shuzhi Sam

    , adaptive control of complex systems is a challenging research direction and few efforts are devoted. Noticing the above background and potential wide appli- cations of adaptive control for complex systemsWLS-based Partially Decentralized Adaptive Control for Coupled ARMAX Multi-agent Dynamical System

  16. Effect of Silane Coupling Agents on Rice Straw Fiber/Polymer Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, M. R.; Yassene, Ali A. M.; Abd El Bary, Hassan M. H.

    2012-06-01

    The effect of coupling agents and electron beam (EB) irradiation dose on the mechanical properties of composites made from rice straw fibers and polymers have been studied. Samples were made by hot pressing of mix composition at 130°C. The pressed samples were subjected to electron beam irradiation dose ranged from 10 to 50 kGy. Increasing the electron beam irradiation dose increased the value of flexural strength, modulus of elasticity and impact strength. It was also observed that, the properties of composites containing ?-aminopropyltrimethoxy silane (A-1100) are lower than those of composites containing N-(2aminoethyl)-3-amino propyltrimethoxy silane (A-700) coupling agents. These are attributed to a hydrogen bonding formation between the amine or protonated amine and the hydroxyl groups of rice straw fibers. The presence of coupling agents in the composites during the EB irradiation process produce a more free radicals which are enough to form a chemical bonding between the rice straw fiber and polymer. The thickness swelling and water absorption values decrease with increasing the EB irradiation dose with presence of coupling agents in the composite.

  17. Distributed allocation of the capacity of a single-facility using cooperative interaction via coupling agents

    E-print Network

    Leon, Jorge

    Distributed allocation of the capacity of a single-facility using cooperative interaction via coupling agents In-Jae Jeong and V. Jorge Leon Revised: June 13, 2002 Abstract This paper considers among organizations via the shared facility; i.e., cooperative interaction. The facility resolves

  18. A Single-Machine Distributed-Scheduling Methodology Using Cooperative-Interaction Via Coupling-Agents

    E-print Network

    Leon, Jorge

    A Single-Machine Distributed-Scheduling Methodology Using Cooperative-Interaction Via Coupling-Agents In-Jae Jeong*, V. Jorge Leon Department of Industrial Engineering* Department of Engineering-machine and must cooperate with each other to achieve a global goal of minimizing a linear function

  19. Adhesion enhancement of steel fibers to acrylic bone cement through a silane coupling agent.

    PubMed

    Kotha, S P; Lieberman, M; Vickers, A; Schmid, S R; Mason, J J

    2006-01-01

    The use of a silane coupling agent (methacryloxypropyl-trichlorosilane) to improve the mechanical properties of steel fiber-reinforced acrylic bone cements was assessed. Changes to the tensile and fracture properties of bone cements reinforced with silane-coated or uncoated 316L stainless steel fibers of different aspect ratios were studied. Contact-angle measurements indicated that the coupling agent coats the metal surface through room temperature treatments in a short time (within 2 h). Push-out tests indicated that the interfacial shear strength of silane-coated 316L stainless steel rods is 141% higher than the uncoated rods. The elastic moduli, ultimate stresses, and fracture toughness of the silane-coated, steel fiber-reinforced bone cements are significantly higher than the bone cements reinforced with uncoated steel fibers. There were no differences in the tensile mechanical properties of the silane-coated or uncoated, steel fiber-reinforced cements after aging in a physiological saline solution, indicating that the bonding effectiveness is decreased by the intrusion of water at the metal-polymer interface. Because of possible biocompatibility issues with leaching of the silane coupling agent and no long-term mechanical benefit in simulated aging experiments, the use of these agents is not recommended for in vivo use. PMID:16224777

  20. Laboratory evaluation of a chemical coupling agent to prevent debonding of asphalts from aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divito, J. A.

    1981-08-01

    Debonding of asphalt from mineral aggregates (stripping) was investigated. A silane coupling agent was compared with a well known, commercially available liquid antistrip (amine) in the immersion compression and double punch debonding tests on two Arizona mineral aggregate sources. The silane was used as a mineral aggregate pretreatment while the amine was added to the asphalt. It is indicated that the silane generally performed as well as the liquid antistrip or better.

  1. Agent-based Model for the Coupled Human-Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvoleff, A.; Werner, B.

    2006-12-01

    Integrated assessment models have been used to predict the outcome of coupled economic growth, resource use, greenhouse gas emissions and climate change, both for scientific and policy purposes. These models generally have employed significant simplifications that suppress nonlinearities and the possibility of multiple equilibria in both their economic (DeCanio, 2005) and climate (Schneider and Kuntz-Duriseti, 2002) components. As one step toward exploring general features of the nonlinear dynamics of the coupled system, we have developed a series of variations on the well studied RICE and DICE models, which employ different forms of agent-based market dynamics and "climate surprises." Markets are introduced through the replacement of the production function of the DICE/RICE models with an agent-based market modeling the interactions of producers, policymakers, and consumer agents. Technological change and population growth are treated endogenously. Climate surprises are representations of positive (for example, ice sheet collapse) or negative (for example, increased aerosols from desertification) feedbacks that are turned on with probability depending on warming. Initial results point toward the possibility of large amplitude instabilities in the coupled human-climate system owing to the mismatch between short outlook market dynamics and long term climate responses. Implications for predictability of future climate will be discussed. Supported by the Andrew W Mellon Foundation and the UC Academic Senate.

  2. Development of polypropylene/wood flour ecocomposites. Evaluation of silane as coupling agent

    SciTech Connect

    Bouza, R.; Barral, L.; Abad, M. J.; Montero, B.

    2010-06-02

    The effects of Pinus Sylvestris wood flour as filler in polypropylene matrix was evaluated. The mechanical properties and the morphology of different wood flour/polypropylene composites (WPC) were studied. The composites materials were prepared with several amounts of wood flour from 10 to 30% wt. Mechanical properties show that the wood flour incorporation increases the rigidity of the composites. Morphological analysis indicates that agglomerates are formed, with amounts exceeding 30% of wood flour. For the silane--treated composites, the dispersion of the filler into the polypropylene (PP) matrix improved. Shore D hardness of the composites is decreased with the addition of the coupling agent.

  3. Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Annual report, October 1992--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.J.

    1994-06-01

    Investigation of Oil Recovery Improvement by Coupling and Interfacial Tension Agent and a Mobility Control Agent in Light Oil Reservoirs will study two major areas concerning co-injecting an interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent. The first area defines the interactions of alkaline agent, surfactants, and polymers on a fluid-fluid and fluid-rock basis. The second area concerns the economic improvement of the combined technology. This report examines the interactions of different alkaline agents, surfactants, and polymer combinations on a fluid-fluid basis. Alkali and surfactant combine to reduce the interfacial tension between a low acid number, 42 API gravity crude oil and the aqueous solution to values lower than either agent alone. Surfactant structure can vary from linear chain sulfonates to alkyl aryl sulfonates to produce low interfacial tension values when combined with alkali. However as a class, the alkyl aryl sulfonates were the most effective surfactants. Surfactant olefinic character appears to be critical in developing low interfacial tensions. For the 42 API gravity crude oil, surfactants with molecular weights ranging from 370 to 450 amu are more effective in lowering interfacial tension. Ultra low interfacial tensions were achieved with all of the alkaline agents evaluated when combined with appropriate surfactants. Different interfacial tension reduction characteristics with the various alkali types indicates alkali interacts synergistically with the surfactants to develop interfacial tension reduction. The solution pH is not a determining factor in lowering interfacial tension. Surfactant is the dominant agent for interfacial tension reduction.

  4. Cytocompatibility and Mechanical Properties of Short Phosphate Glass Fibre Reinforced Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composites: Effect of Coupling Agent Mediated Interface

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Muhammad Sami; Ahmed, Ifty; Parsons, Andrew; Walker, Gavin; Scotchford, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In this study three chemical agents Amino-propyl-triethoxy-silane (APS), sorbitol ended PLA oligomer (SPLA) and Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) were identified to be used as coupling agents to react with the phosphate glass fibre (PGF) reinforcement and the polylactic acid (PLA) polymer matrix of the composite. Composites were prepared with short chopped strand fibres (l = 20 mm, ? = 20 µm) in a random arrangement within PLA matrix. Improved, initial composite flexural strength (~20 MPa) was observed for APS treated fibres, which was suggested to be due to enhanced bonding between the fibres and polymer matrix. Both APS and HDI treated fibres were suggested to be covalently linked with the PLA matrix. The hydrophobicity induced by these coupling agents (HDI, APS) helped to resist hydrolysis of the interface and thus retained their mechanical properties for an extended period of time as compared to non-treated control. Approximately 70% of initial strength and 65% of initial modulus was retained by HDI treated fibre composites in contrast to the control, where only ~50% of strength and modulus was retained after 28 days of immersion in PBS at 37 °C. All coupling agent treated and control composites demonstrated good cytocompatibility which was comparable to the tissue culture polystyrene (TCP) control, supporting the use of these materials as coupling agent’s within medical implant devices. PMID:24955744

  5. The effects of corn zein protein coupling agent on mechanical properties of flax fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitacre, Ryan John

    In the field of renewable materials, natural fiber composites demonstrate the capacity to be a viable structural material. When normalized by density, flax fiber mechanical properties are competitive with E-glass fibers. However, the hydrophilic nature of flax fibers reduces the interfacial bond strength with polymer thermosets, limiting composite mechanical properties. Corn zein protein was selected as a natural bio-based coupling agent because of its combination of hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties. Zein was deposited on the surface of flax, which was then processed into unidirectional composite. The mechanical properties of zein treated samples where measured and compared against commonly utilized synthetic treatments sodium hydroxide and silane which incorporate harsh chemicals. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, chemical analysis, and scanning electron microscopy were also used to determine analyze zein treatments. Results demonstrate the environmentally friendly zein treatment successfully increased tensile strength 8%, flexural strength 17%, and shear strength 30% compared to untreated samples.

  6. The effect of interstitial pressure on therapeutic agent transport: coupling with the tumor blood and lymphatic vascular systems

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Min; Frieboes, Hermann B.; Chaplain, Mark A.J.; McDougall, Steven R.; Cristini, Vittorio; Lowengrub, John

    2014-01-01

    Vascularized tumor growth is characterized by both abnormal interstitial fluid flow and the associated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP). Here, we study the effect that these conditions have on the transport of therapeutic agents during chemotherapy. We apply our recently developed vascular tumor growth model which couples a continuous growth component with a discrete angiogenesis model to show that hypertensive IFP is a physical barrier that may hinder vascular extravasation of agents through transvascular fluid flux convection, which drives the agents away from the tumor. This result is consistent with previous work using simpler models without blood flow or lymphatic drainage. We consider the vascular/interstitial/lymphatic fluid dynamics to show that tumors with larger lymphatic resistance increase the agent concentration more rapidly while also experiencing faster washout. In contrast, tumors with smaller lymphatic resistance accumulate less agents but are able to retain them for a longer time. The agent availability (area-under-the curve, or AUC) increases for less permeable agents as lymphatic resistance increases, and correspondingly decreases for more permeable agents. We also investigate the effect of vascular pathologies on agent transport. We show that elevated vascular hydraulic conductivity contributes to the highest AUC when the agent is less permeable, but leads to lower AUC when the agent is more permeable. We find that elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity contributes to low AUC in general regardless of the transvascular agent transport capability. We also couple the agent transport with the tumor dynamics to simulate chemotherapy with the same vascularized tumor under different vascular pathologies. We show that tumors with an elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity alone require the strongest dosage to shrink. We further show that tumors with elevated vascular hydraulic conductivity are more hypoxic during therapy and that the response slows down as the tumor shrinks due to the heterogeneity and low concentration of agents in the tumor interior compared with the cases where other pathological effects may combine to flatten the IFP and thus reduce the heterogeneity. We conclude that dual normalizations of the micronevironment - both the vasculature and the interstitium - are needed to maximize the effects of chemotherapy, while normalization of only one of these may be insufficient to overcome the physical resistance and thus leads to sub-optimal outcomes. PMID:24751927

  7. The effect of interstitial pressure on therapeutic agent transport: coupling with the tumor blood and lymphatic vascular systems.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Frieboes, Hermann B; Chaplain, Mark A J; McDougall, Steven R; Cristini, Vittorio; Lowengrub, John S

    2014-08-21

    Vascularized tumor growth is characterized by both abnormal interstitial fluid flow and the associated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP). Here, we study the effect that these conditions have on the transport of therapeutic agents during chemotherapy. We apply our recently developed vascular tumor growth model which couples a continuous growth component with a discrete angiogenesis model to show that hypertensive IFP is a physical barrier that may hinder vascular extravasation of agents through transvascular fluid flux convection, which drives the agents away from the tumor. This result is consistent with previous work using simpler models without blood flow or lymphatic drainage. We consider the vascular/interstitial/lymphatic fluid dynamics to show that tumors with larger lymphatic resistance increase the agent concentration more rapidly while also experiencing faster washout. In contrast, tumors with smaller lymphatic resistance accumulate less agents but are able to retain them for a longer time. The agent availability (area-under-the curve, or AUC) increases for less permeable agents as lymphatic resistance increases, and correspondingly decreases for more permeable agents. We also investigate the effect of vascular pathologies on agent transport. We show that elevated vascular hydraulic conductivity contributes to the highest AUC when the agent is less permeable, but to lower AUC when the agent is more permeable. We find that elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity contributes to low AUC in general regardless of the transvascular agent transport capability. We also couple the agent transport with the tumor dynamics to simulate chemotherapy with the same vascularized tumor under different vascular pathologies. We show that tumors with an elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity alone require the strongest dosage to shrink. We further show that tumors with elevated vascular hydraulic conductivity are more hypoxic during therapy and that the response slows down as the tumor shrinks due to the heterogeneity and low concentration of agents in the tumor interior compared with the cases where other pathological effects may combine to flatten the IFP and thus reduce the heterogeneity. We conclude that dual normalizations of the micronevironment - both the vasculature and the interstitium - are needed to maximize the effects of chemotherapy, while normalization of only one of these may be insufficient to overcome the physical resistance and may thus lead to sub-optimal outcomes. PMID:24751927

  8. Influence of silane coupling agents on the rheological behavior of hemp fiber filled polyamide 1010 biomass composites in molten state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishitani, Yosuke; Hasumi, Megumi; Kitano, Takeshi

    2015-05-01

    In order to develop the new engineering materials such as structural materials and tribomaterials based on all plants-derived materials, the influence of silane coupling agent on the rheological properties of hemp fiber (HF) filled polyamide 1010 (PA1010) biomass composites in molten state was investigated for one step of the fabrication of these materials. PA1010 was made from sebacic acid and decamethylenediamine, which are obtained from plant-derived castor oil. Hemp fibers were surface-treated by two types of surface treatment: a) alkali treatment by NaOH solution and b) surface treatment by silane coupling agents with different concentrations. Three types of silane coupling agents: aminosilane, epoxysilane and ureidosilane were used for surface treatment. HF/PA1010 composites were extruded by a twin screw extruder and compression-molded. Rheological behavior in molten state were evaluated by oscillatory flow testing using a parallel plate type rheometer. It was found that the silane coupling agents remarkably influence on: 1) rheological properties such as storage modulus, loss modulus, loss tangent and complex viscosity in low angular frequency region in molten state, 2) temperature dependences of rheological properties, and 3) relationship between phase angle and complex modulus (van Gurp - Palmen plots). These rheological behavior were also strongly influenced by the type of silane coupling agents. The viscoelastic properties (both storage and loss moduli) of aminosilane and epoxysilane treated composites were lower, however, those of ureidosilane treated ones were higher than the moduli of only alkali treated composites. Ureidosilane treated composites were the least temperature sensitive in the surface treated composites investigated here.

  9. Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Second annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.J.

    1995-04-01

    {open_quotes}Investigation of Oil Recovery Improvement by Coupling an Interfacial Tension Agent and a Mobility Control Agent in Light Oil Reservoirs{close_quotes} is studying two major areas concerning co-injecting an interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent. The first area defines the interactions of alkaline agents, surfactants, and polymers on a fluid-fluid and a fluid-rock basis. The second area concerns the economic improvement of the combined technology. This report continues the fluid-fluid interaction evaluations and begins the fluid-rock studies. Fluid-fluid interfacial tension work determined that replacing sodium ion with either potassium or ammonium ion in solutions with interfacial tension reduction up to 19,600 fold was detrimental and had little or no effect on alkali-surfactant solutions with interfacial tension reduction of 100 to 200 fold. Reservoir brine increases interfacial tension between crude oil and alkaline-surfactant solutions. Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-surfactant solutions maintained ultra low and low interfacial tension values better than NaOH-surfactant solutions. The initial phase of the fluid-rock investigations was adsorption studies. Surfactant adsorption is reduced when co-dissolved with alkali. Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} are more efficient at reducing surfactant adsorption than NaOH. When polymer is added to the surfactant solution, surfactant adsorption is reduced as well. When both polymer and alkali are added, polymer is the dominate component, reducing the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and NaOH effect on adsorption. Substituting sodium ion with potassium or ammonium ion increased or decreased surfactant adsorption depending on surfactant structure with alkali having a less significant effect. No consistent change of surfactant adsorption with increasing salinity was observed in the presence or absence of alkali or polymer.

  10. Bifunctional Coupling Agents for Radiolabeling of Biomolecules and Target-Specific Delivery of Metallic Radionuclides

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuang

    2008-01-01

    Receptor-based radiopharmaceuticals are of great current interest in early molecular imaging and radiotherapy of cancers, and provide a unique tool for target-specific delivery of radionuclides to the diseased tissues. In general, a target-specific radiopharmaceutical can be divided into four parts: targeting biomolecule (BM), pharmacokinetic modifying (PKM) linker, bifunctional coupling or chelating agent (BFC), and radionuclide. The targeting biomolecule serves as a “carrier” for specific delivery of the radionuclide. PKM linkers are used to modify radiotracer excretion kinetics. BFC is needed for radiolabeling of biomolecules with a metallic radionuclide. Different radiometals have significant difference in their coordination chemistry, and require BFCs with different donor atoms and chelator frameworks. Since the radiometal chelate can have a significant impact on physical and biological properties of the target-specific radiopharmaceutical, its excretion kinetics can be altered by modifying the coordination environment with various chelators or coligand, if needed. This review will focus on the design of BFCs and their coordination chemistry with technetium, copper, gallium, indium, yttrium and lanthanide radiometals. PMID:18538888

  11. Socio-Ecohydrologic Agents And Services: Integrating Human And Natural Components To Address Coupled System Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavao-zuckerman, M.; Pope, A.; Chan, D.; Curl, K.; Gimblett, H. R.; Hough, M.; House-Peters, L.; Lee, R.; Scott, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Riparian corridors in arid regions are highly valued for their relative scarcity, and because healthy riparian systems support high levels of biodiversity, can meet human demand for water and water-related resources and functions. Our team is taking a transdiciplinary social-ecological systems approach to assessing riparian corridor resilience in two watersheds (the San Pedro River in USA and Mexico, and the Rio San Miguel in Mexico) through a project funded by the NSF CNH program ("Strengthening Resilience of Arid Region Riparian Corridors"). Multiple perspectives are integrated in the project, including hydrology, ecology, institutional dynamics, and decision making (at the level of both policy and individual choice), as well as the perspectives of various stakeholder groups and individuals in the watersheds. Here we discuss initial findings that center around linking changes in ecohydrology and livelihoods related to decisions in response to climatic, ecological, and social change. The research team is implementing two approaches to integrate the disparate disciplines participating in the research (and the varied perspectives among the stakeholders in this binational riparian context): (1) ecosystem service assessment, and (2) agent based model simulation. We are developing an ecosystem service perspective that provides a bridge between ecological dynamics in the landscape and varied stakeholder perspectives on the implications of ecohydrology for well-being (economic, cultural, ecological). Services are linked on one hand to the spatial patterns of traits of individuals within species (allowing a more predictive application of ecosystem services as they vary with community change in time), and to stakeholder perspectives (facilitating integration of ecosystem services into our understanding of decision making processes) in a case study in the San Pedro River National Conservation Area. The agent- based model (ABM) approach incorporates the influence of human decision-making on spatially-explicit landscapes in a mechanistic way, taking into account social interaction, adaptation, and decision-making at different levels, allowing individual stakeholders to make decisions based on their unique perceptions of their environment, be it economic, social, or ecological awareness. Initial parameterization of the ABM proceeds from a case study centered in the town of Rayón, Sonora, Mexico, where semi-structured interviews were used to elicit perceptions by water resource users of CNH function, change, and solutions relating to livelihood changes in response to several drivers. In both case studies, we see the potential and limitations for an approach to adaptive management and decision support related to water resources that links ecosystem services and agent-based modeling. Methodologically, synthetic approaches such as these may allow coupling of systems for improved assessment and analysis, while at the same time lack a connection to the perspectives of water users and managers on the ground. There is thus potential for a either a loss of system resilience in the face of external change, or an opportunity to increase system resilience by building off perspectives already in place within these coupled socio-ecohydrologic systems.

  12. Dispersion of nonaqueous Co 2Z ferrite powders with titanate coupling agent and poly(vinyl butyral)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiang, Hsing-I.; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tsai, Jaw-Yue

    2005-05-01

    Co 2Z ferrite powders with the chemical composition 3Ba 0.5Sr 0.5O·2CoO·12Fe 2O 3 have superior high frequency magnetic properties. However, Co 2Z ferrite powders are difficult to apply to practical processes because of agglomeration induced by the strong magnetic attraction between particles. In this study, Co 2Z ferrite powders pretreatment using a titanate coupling agent - neopentyl(dially)oxy tri(dioctyl)pyrophosphate titanate (Lica 38) on the sedimentation and rheological behavior is investigated. The bonding mechanisms between ferrite powder, Lica 38, and poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) are studied using diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is used to explain the difference in the rheological and sedimentation behaviors of untreated and titanate coupling agent-modified ferrite powders. The affinity of Co 2Z ferrite and PVB could be substantially enhanced by coating a titanate coupling agent onto the ferrite surface. The coated layer could prevent particles from agglomeration induced by the magnetic interaction.

  13. Mechanical and dynamic characteristics of encapsulated microbubbles coupled by magnetic nanoparticles as multifunctional imaging and drug delivery agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Gepu; Lu, Lu; Yin, Leilei; Tu, Juan; Guo, Xiasheng; Wu, Junru; Xu, Di; Zhang, Dong

    2014-11-01

    Development of magnetic encapsulated microbubble agents that can integrate multiple diagnostic and therapeutic functions is a key focus in both biomedical engineering and nanotechnology and one which will have far-reaching impact on medical diagnosis and therapies. However, properly designing multifunctional agents that can satisfy particular diagnostic/therapeutic requirements has been recognized as rather challenging, because there is a lack of comprehensive understanding of how the integration of magnetic nanoparticles to microbubble encapsulating shells affects their mechanical properties and dynamic performance in ultrasound imaging and drug delivery. Here, a multifunctional imaging contrast and in-situ gene/drug delivery agent was synthesized by coupling super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) into albumin-shelled microbubbles. Systematical studies were performed to investigate the SPIO-concentration-dependence of microbubble mechanical properties, acoustic scattering response, inertial cavitation activity and ultrasound-facilitated gene transfection effect. These demonstrated that, with the increasing SPIO concentration, the microbubble mean diameter and shell stiffness increased and ultrasound scattering response and inertial cavitation activity could be significantly enhanced. However, an optimized ultrasound-facilitated vascular endothelial growth factor transfection outcome would be achieved by adopting magnetic albumin-shelled microbubbles with an appropriate SPIO concentration of 114.7?µg?ml-1. The current results would provide helpful guidance for future development of multifunctional agents and further optimization of their diagnostic/therapeutic performance in clinic.

  14. Coupling multi-agent model and GIS to simulate pine wood nematode disease spread in ZheJiang Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huaguo; Wang, Lei; Zhang, XiaoLi; Luo, YouQing; Zhao, Liqiong

    2008-10-01

    A coupled method based on multi-agent model, remote sensing and GIS is described to simulate the forest disease spread. The coupled model focuses on the temporal dynamics of the Bursaphelenchus xylophilus population at the landscape scale. Each individual is modeled as an autonomous agent who behaves according to a set of rules including spreading in the landscape, feeding on Pinus massoniana, sheltering in forest edges and dying, constrained by terrain, land cover and other variables. The model parameters are derived from remote sensing data and field measurements. Ten factors, including damage degree of Pinus Massoniana, altitude and slope, are helped to build the transfer rules. The main outputs are the dynamic disease distribution maps and survived pine population. Our method is applied and validated in DingHai distinct, Zhou Shan city of Zhejiang Province. Three Landsat TM images from the year 1991 to 2006 are used for the pine information extraction. The extracted pine distribution map is used to compare with the simulated surviving pine map. The results show that the coupled model can produce reasonable results and be used as a virtual experiment tool. However, it is difficult to simulate the human activities to help or prevent disease spread and the long fly behavior of insect vectors. Therefore, there still exists some difference between the simulated results and the real data. At the next step, those factors will be considered.

  15. The design, synthesis and validation of recoverable and readily reusable siloxane transfer agents for Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Solorio, Dionicio; Hoye, Adam T; Nguyen, Minh H; Smith, Amos B

    2013-05-17

    The development of competent, recoverable and reusable 1-oxa-2-silacyclopentene (siloxane) transfer agents for Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions (CCRs) of organolithium reagents with aryl and alkenyl iodides has been achieved. Drawbacks of the first-generation siloxane-transfer agent (1), relating to facile recovery for potential recycling, have been addressed. PMID:23627729

  16. Photocatalytic thin films coupled with polymeric microcapsules for the controlled-release of volatile agents upon solar activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, L. F.; Marques, J.; Coutinho, P. J. G.; Parpot, P.; Tavares, C. J.

    2013-06-01

    This work reportson the application of solar-activated photocatalytic thin films that allow the controlled-release of volatile agents (e.g., insecticides, repellents) from the interior of adsorbedpolymericmicrocapsules. In order to standardize the tests, a quantification of the inherent controlled-release of a particular volatile agent is determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy, so that an application can be offered to a wide range of supports from various industrial sectors, such as in textiles (clothing, curtains, mosquito nets). This technology takes advantage of the established photocatalytic property of titanium dioxide (TiO2) for the use as an active surface/site to promote the controlled-release of a specific vapor (volatile agentfrom within the aforementioned microcapsules.

  17. Effect of coupling agent on nano-ZnO modification and antibacterial activity of ZnO/HDPE nanocomposite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. N.; Xu, W. M.; Zhang, G. Q.

    2015-07-01

    Commercial zinc oxide nanoparticles were modified by silane coupling agent of KH550 and KH560, respectively. The obtained nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and apparent sedimentation stability (Sapp). Then, nano-ZnO/high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composite films were prepared via melt blending and a hot compression-molding process. The antibacterial testing of the films against E. coli and S. aureus was carried out via plate counting. SEM, TGA and Sapp suggest the modifier of silane changed the surface hydrophilicity and effectively broke the agglomerations of nanoparticles. Antibacterial testing results indicated the antibacterial rate of the films increased with increasing nano-ZnO content. At a low doped content of 0.2 wt%, the types of coupling agent influenced the antibacterial property with that of KH560-modified nano-ZnO/HDPE KH550-modified nano-ZnO/HDPE unmodified nano-ZnO/HDPE films. When the dosage nano-ZnO was over 0.2 wt%, the differences of antibacterial activity resulted by modification was concealed by the strong antibacterial activity with near 100% of the nano- ZnO/HDPE composite films.

  18. Optimization of food waste hydrolysis in leach bed coupled with methanogenic reactor: effect of pH and bulking agent.

    PubMed

    Xu, Su Yun; Lam, Hoi Pui; Karthikeyan, O Parthiba; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2011-02-01

    The effects of pH and bulking agents on hydrolysis/acidogenesis of food waste were studied using leach bed reactor (LBR) coupled with methanogenic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The hydrolysis rate under regulated pH (6.0) was studied and compared with unregulated one during initial experiment. Then, the efficacies of five different bulking agents, i.e. plastic full particles, plastic hollow sphere, bottom ash, wood chip and saw dust were experimented under the regulated pH condition. Leachate recirculation with 50% water replacement was practiced throughout the experiment. Results proved that the daily leachate recirculation with pH control (6.0) accelerated the hydrolysis rate (59% higher volatile fatty acids) and methane production (up to 88%) compared to that of control without pH control. Furthermore, bottom ash improved the reactor alkalinity, which internally buffered the system that improved the methane production rate (0.182 l CH(4)/g VS(added)) than other bulking agents. PMID:21195606

  19. Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.

    1995-12-01

    This research studied the oil recovery potential of flooding light oil reservoirs by combining interfacial tension reducing agent(s) with a mobility control agent. The specific objectives were: To define the mechanisms and limitations of co-injecting interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent to recover incremental oil. Specifically, the study focused on the fluid-fluid and fluid-rock interactions. To evaluate the economics of the combination technology and investigate methods to make the process more profitable. Specific areas of study were to evaluate different chemical concentration tapers and the volume of chemical injection required to give optimal oil recovery.

  20. Modified coupling agents based on thiourea, immobilized onto silica. Thermodynamics of copper adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Fernando J. V. E.; da Silva Filho, Edson C.; Melo, Maurício A., Jr.; Airoldi, Claudio

    2009-07-01

    New silylating agents synthesized by incorporating the thiourea molecule into precursor agents containing increasing numbers of basic nitrogen atoms, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]-ethylenediamine and N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]diethylenetri-amine, through a solvent-free methodology were characterized before being successfully immobilized onto silica gel. The spectroscopic results support the elemental analysis, demonstrating that the thiourea molecule reacted in such a way as to maintain free amino groups. NMR data for carbon and silicon nuclei eflucidated the structural features associated with the incorporated chains and their bonds to the silica skeleton, with formation of covalent silicon-carbon bonds. Thermogravimetric data correlated with the degree of functionalization, which was also obtained from elemental analysis. The available basic nitrogen and sulfur atoms attached to the incorporated pendant chains have the ability to coordinate copper to give 1.10, 0.47 and 1.25 mmol g -1 as maximum adsorption capacities for the samples prepared with the silanes containing one, two and three nitrogen atoms on their structures. The thermodynamic data for copper/basic center interactions at the solid/liquid interface were determined through calorimetric titration, and the set of data demonstrated favorable systems for all three newly synthesized derivatized silicas, as shown by exothermic enthalpic data, which yield negative Gibbs free energies for removal of this cation from aqueous solutions by all the newly synthesized materials.

  1. Unique Separation Behavior of a C60 Fullerene-Bonded Silica Monolith Prepared by an Effective Thermal Coupling Agent.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Takuya; Murakami, Yoshiki; Tsuzuki, Madoka; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Naito, Toyohiro; Sano, Tomoharu; Yan, Mingdi; Otsuka, Koji

    2015-12-01

    Herein, we report a newly developed C60 fullerene-bonded silica monolith in a capillary with unique retention behavior due to the structure of C60 fullerene. N-Hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-conjugated C60 fullerene was successfully synthesized by a thermal coupling agent, perfluorophenyl azide (PFPA), and assigned by spectroscopic analyses. Then, NHS-PFPA-C60 fullerene was attached onto the surface of a silica monolith in a capillary. The capillary provided specific separation ability for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in liquid chromatography by an effective ?-? interaction. Furthermore, corannulene, which has a hemispherical structure, was selectively retained in the capillary based on the specific structural recognition due to the spherical C60 fullerene. This is the first report revealing the spherical recognition ability by C60 fullerene in liquid chromatographic separation. PMID:26493764

  2. On the use, characterization and performance of silane coupling agents between organic coatings and metallic or ceramic substrates

    SciTech Connect

    van Ooij, W.J.; Zhang, B.C.; Conners, K.D.; Hoernstroem, S.

    1996-01-01

    Examples are given of the use of organofunctional silane coupling agents for promoting bonding between organic coatings and metallic or ceramic (i.e. oxide) substrates. The orientation of the silane molecules and the type of bonding with the metal oxide can be determined successfully by Time-of-Flight SIMS. Oriented films of aminosilanes are demonstrated to be unstable in air. A prerinse with an inorganic silicate is introduced as a suitable method for masking the ubiquitous carbonaceous contamination at the metal surface, thus promoting the proper orientation and covalent bonding. Some practical applications are described, such as the pretreatment of Galvalume{sup {sq_bullet}} surfaces as a replacement of existing chromate treatments in coil coating applications. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is shown to be a powerful tool for studying the performance of the silane treatment under a paint. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. On the use, characterization and performance of silane coupling agents between organic coatings and metallic or ceramic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ooij, W. J.; Zhang, B. C.; Conners, K. D.; Hörnström, S.-E.

    1996-01-01

    Examples are given of the use of organofunctional silane coupling agents for promoting bonding between organic coatings and metallic or ceramic (i.e. oxide) substrates. The orientation of the silane molecules and the type of bonding with the metal oxide can be determined successfully by Time-of-Flight SIMS. Oriented films of aminosilanes are demonstrated to be unstable in air. A prerinse with an inorganic silicate is introduced as a suitable method for masking the ubiquitous carbonaceous contamination at the metal surface, thus promoting the proper orientation and covalent bonding. Some practical applications are described, such as the pretreatment of Galvalume? surfaces as a replacement of existing chromate treatments in coil coating applications. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is shown to be a powerful tool for studying the performance of the silane treatment under a paint.

  4. Effects of surface treatment with coupling agents of PVDF-HFP fibers on the improvement of the adhesion characteristics on PDMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, O. M.; See, S. J.; Kim, S. S.; Hwang, H. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Surface treatment of polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP) fibers was conducted with coupling agents such as epoxy silane, amino silane, and titanate to improve the adhesion characteristics of PVDF-HFP fibers and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The adhesion strength was largest when 4 wt% amino silane was used for surface treatment, showing a 250% improvement compared to the untreated case. Surface roughening and shrinking of the PVDF-HFP fibers were observed after surface treatment, but no chemical bonding occurred between the PVDF-HFP fibers and the coupling agents. It was thus concluded that the improvement of the adhesion characteristics of the PVDF-HFP fibers and PDMS was caused by the physical bonding between them due to the surface treatment with coupling agents. In addition, for the surface roughening mechanism, amino silane infiltration into the PVDF-HFP fibers during the surface treatment, followed by extraction during the drying process, was suggested.

  5. Understanding coupled natural and human systems on fire prone landscapes: integrating wildfire simulation into an agent based planning system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, Ana; Ager, Alan; Preisler, Haiganoush; Day, Michelle; Spies, Tom; Bolte, John

    2015-04-01

    Agent-based models (ABM) allow users to examine the long-term effects of agent decisions in complex systems where multiple agents and processes interact. This framework has potential application to study the dynamics of coupled natural and human systems where multiple stimuli determine trajectories over both space and time. We used Envision, a landscape based ABM, to analyze long-term wildfire dynamics in a heterogeneous, multi-owner landscape in Oregon, USA. Landscape dynamics are affected by land management policies, actors decisions, and autonomous processes such as vegetation succession, wildfire, or at a broader scale, climate change. Key questions include: 1) How are landscape dynamics influenced by policies and institutions, and 2) How do land management policies and actor decisions interact to produce intended and unintended consequences with respect to wildfire on fire-prone landscapes. Applying Envision to address these questions required the development of a wildfire module that could accurately simulate wildfires on the heterogeneous landscapes within the study area in terms of replicating historical fire size distribution, spatial distribution and fire intensity. In this paper we describe the development and testing of a mechanistic fire simulation system within Envision and application of the model on a 3.2 million fire prone landscape in central Oregon USA. The core fire spread equations use the Minimum Travel Time algorithm developed by M Finney. The model operates on a daily time step and uses a fire prediction system based on the relationship between energy release component and historical fires. Specifically, daily wildfire probabilities and sizes are generated from statistical analyses of historical fires in relation to daily ERC values. The MTT was coupled with the vegetation dynamics module in Envision to allow communication between the respective subsystem and effectively model fire effects and vegetation dynamics after a wildfire. Canopy and surface fuels are modeled in a state and transition framework that accounts for succession, fire effects, and fuels management. Fire effects are modeled using simulated fire intensity (flame length) to calculate expected vegetation impacts for each vegetation state. This talk will describe the mechanics of the simulation system along with initial results of Envision simulations for the Central Oregon study area that explore the dynamics of wildfire, fuel management, and succession over time.

  6. Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Technical progress report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The study will investigate two major areas concerning co-injecting an interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent into petroleum reservoirs. The first will consist of defining the mechanisms of interaction of an alkaline agent, a surfactant, and a polymer on a fluid-fluid and a fluid-rock basis. The second is the improvement of the economics of the combined technology. This report examines effect of rock type on oil recovery by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. This report also begins a series of evaluations to improve the economics of alkaline-surfactant-polymer oil recovery.

  7. Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Technical progress report, July 1995--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.J.

    1995-10-01

    This study will investigate two major areas concerning co-injection and interfacial tension reduction agents and a mobility control agent into petroleum reservoirs. The first will consist of defining the mechanisms of interaction of an alkaline agent, a surfactant, and a polymer on a fluid-fluid and a fluid-rock basis. The second is the improvement of the economics of the combined technology. This report examines altering the concentration of alkali and polymer on the oil recovery economics of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution.

  8. Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Technical progress report, April--June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.J.; Casteel, J.

    1994-09-01

    The study will investigate two major areas concerning co-injecting an interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent into petroleum reservoirs. The first will consist of defining the mechanisms of interaction of an alkaline agent, a surfactant, and a polymer on a fluid-fluid and a fluid-rock basis. The second is the improvement of the economics of the combined technology. This report examines the changes in the relative permeability characteristics with addition of alkali, surfactant, and polymer to the injected solution, the effect of matrix type on relative permeability characteristics with alkali-surfactant-polymer and the effect of different polymer concentrations on oil recovery by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution.

  9. Effect of a silane coupling agent on the optical and the mechanical characteristics of nanodiamond/acrylic resin composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Min-Gun; Chun, Yoon-Soo; Lim, Dae-Soon; Kim, Jung Youl

    2014-10-01

    Nanodiamond (ND) is a good candidate for a filler material to fabricate transparent films. This study explores a characterization of the optical and the mechanical properties of ND dispersed polymer films. An attrition milling method was adapted to break ND aggregates, and a silane coupling agent (3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane) was used to modify the ND surfaces and stabilize the dispersion. Dipentaerylthritol hexaacrylate and pentaerythritol tetraacrylate were used in the polymer matrix, and up to 3 wt.% of ND was added to improve the mechanical properties. Fabricated composites were analyzed and tested using UV-visible spectroscopy for the optical properties and a Micro-Vickers hardness tester and ball-on-disktype friction tester for the mechanical properties. Results show that the transmittance of the ND-added composite increased with decreasing aggregate size. Through the addition of small amounts of NDs, the mechanical properties were greatly improved, the material became 3.5 times as hard, and the wear rate were greatly decreased. Possible mechanisms responsible for the enhancement of the mechanical and the optical properties are discussed.

  10. Surface modification of pyrophyllite with amino silane coupling agent for the removal of 4-nitrophenol from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Sayilkan, H; Erdemo?lu, S; Sener, S; Sayilkan, F; Akarsu, M; Erdemo?lu, M

    2004-07-15

    The surface of naturally hydrophobic mineral pyrophyllite was modified to hydrophilic by treatment with prehydrolyzed N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APEO) coupling agent to prepare a novel and effective adsorbent for the removal of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) from aqueous solutions. XRD, FTIR, and SEM analyses were used to characterize the surface modification. It was found that after the grafting procedure, heat treatment at 110 degrees C results in condensation reaction between the OH groups of the APEO molecule and the hydroxyl groups and/or oxygen atoms on the pyrophyllite surface and the adsorption of 4-NP by APEO-modified pyrophyllite involves interactions between dissociated 4-NP molecules and protonated amine groups of APEO molecules attached to the mineral surface. Adsorption equilibrium data for 4-NP adsorption on APEO-treated and untreated pyrophyllite were most satisfactorily fitted using the Freundlich adsorption isotherm and adsorption capacity was found to be 0.268 mg/g for modified pyrophyllite whereas it was only 0.105 mg/g for untreated pyrophyllite. PMID:15178283

  11. Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Summary annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    The study will investigate two major areas concerning co-injecting an interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent into petroleum reservoirs. The first will consist of defining the mechanisms of interaction of an alkaline agent, a surfactant, and a polymer on a fluid-fluid and a fluid-rock basis. The second is the improvement of the economics of the combined technology. The third year of the study finished the oil recovery coreflood studies and evaluated different techniques to improve alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution economics. The final series of corefloods compared the oil recovery efficiency of the alkali gradient in Berea sandstone and J Sand sandstone. Oil recovery efficiency was essentially the same in both types of core, 13 to 15% PV of oil. Cost of chemical per incremental barrel of oil with 30% pore volume of alkaline-surfactant- polymer solution injected were $3.20 for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}- Petrostep B-100-Flopaam 3330S solution in both types of core.

  12. Enhanced heat transfer through filler-polymer interface by surface-coupling agent in heat-dissipation material: A non-equilibrium molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Kouichi; Ogata, Shuji; Kobayashi, Ryo; Tamura, Tomoyuki; Kitsunezuka, Masashi; Shinma, Atsushi

    2013-11-21

    Developing a composite material of polymers and micrometer-sized fillers with higher heat conductance is crucial to realize modular packaging of electronic components at higher densities. Enhancement mechanisms of the heat conductance of the polymer-filler interfaces by adding the surface-coupling agent in such a polymer composite material are investigated through the non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. A simulation system is composed of ?-alumina as the filler, bisphenol-A epoxy molecules as the polymers, and model molecules for the surface-coupling agent. The inter-atomic potential between the ?-alumina and surface-coupling molecule, which is essential in the present MD simulation, is constructed to reproduce the calculated energies with the electronic density-functional theory. Through the non-equilibrium MD simulation runs, we find that the thermal resistance at the interface decreases significantly by increasing either number or lengths of the surface-coupling molecules and that the effective thermal conductivity of the system approaches to the theoretical value corresponding to zero thermal-resistance at the interface. Detailed analyses about the atomic configurations and local temperatures around the interface are performed to identify heat-transfer routes through the interface.

  13. Novel One-pot Fabrication of Lab-on-a-Bubble@Ag Substrate without Coupling-agent for Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jizhou; Ou-Yang, Lei; Zhu, Lihua; Zou, Jing; Tang, Heqing

    2014-02-01

    Through in-situ reduction of silver nitrate without using any coupling-agent, a substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was prepared by coating silver on hollow buoyant silica microspheres as a lab on a bubble (LoB). The silver coated LoBs (LoBs@Ag) floated on surface of a solution could provide a very convenient platform for the detection of target molecules in the solution. The LoBs@Ag substrate not only immobilized well-distributed Ag nanoparticles on the surface LoBs, but excluded the interference of coupling agents. This yielded high-resolution SERS spectra with excellent reproducibility. The adsorption of crystal violet (CV) on the LoBs@Ag substrate was investigated by means of SERS combined with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The LoBs@Ag substrate exhibited a remarkable Raman enhancement effect for CV with an enhancement factor of 6.9 × 108 and wide adaptability from dye, pesticide to bio-molecules. On the basis of this substrate, a simple and sensitive SERS method was proposed for the determination of trace organic pollutants or bio-molecules.

  14. Ultrastructural localization of a neutron capture agent utilizing electron energy loss spectroscopy coupled with electron spectroscopic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Autry, S.A.; Gandour-Edwards, R.; Boggan, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    Neutron capture therapy (NCT) is a binary therapeutic modality with significant potential for the treatment of localized tumors in humans. The NCT relies on selective uptake and/or retention within tumor of a nontoxic neutron capture agent (NCA) containing a neutron capture element such as {sup 10}B and irradiation of the tumor with an appropriate-energy neutron beam. The development of tumor-affinative capture agents is requisite for efficacious NCT, particularly those NCAs that specifically localize to vital organelles such as mitochondria and nuclei. Various methods have been utilized to determine tumor and normal tissue boron levels. Few, however, have successfully localized neutron capture elements, in vivo, at the ultrastructural level, which is crucial for determination of radiation microdosimetry. This paper describes experimental results of NCT on gliosarcomas in rats.

  15. Cloud point extraction with/without chelating agent on-line coupled with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry for the determination of trace rare earth elements in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingjie; Hu, Bin

    2010-02-15

    The on-line incorporation of cloud point extraction (CPE) with/without 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-Ox) as chelating agent into flow injection analysis associated with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) for determining trace rare earth elements (REEs) is presented and evaluated. The significant parameters affecting on-line cloud point extraction of REEs such as sample pH, flow rate, 8-Ox concentration, Triton X-114 concentration were systematically studied. Under the optimized conditions, with the consumption of 3.0 mL sample solution, the limits of detection (3 sigma) were ranged from 41.4 pg mL(-1) (Yb) to 448 pg mL(-1) (Gd) with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.0% (Eu)-5.9% (Sm) for on-line CPE-ICP-OES with 8-Ox as chelating agent, and 69.0 pg mL(-1) (Sc) to 509.5 pg mL(-1) (Sm) with RSDs of 2.9% (Yb)-7.5% (Ho) for on-line CPE-ICP-OES without 8-Ox as chelating agent, respectively. The sample throughput of 17samples h(-1) was obtained for both systems. The developed methods of on-line CPE-ICP-OES were validated by the analysis of certified reference material (GBW07605, tea leaves) and real biological samples of pig liver, Auricularia auricula and mushroom. PMID:19815341

  16. TiO2 nanoparticles functionalized monolithic capillary microextraction online coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the analysis of Gd ion and gd-based contrast agents in human urine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaolan; Chen, Beibei; Zhang, Lin; Song, Shiyao; Cai, Yabing; He, Man; Hu, Bin

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a novel method of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) functionalized monolithic capillary microextraction (CME) online coupling with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) was developed for the sequential determination of Gd(3+) and Gd-based contrast agents in human urine samples. The monolithic capillary was prepared by embedding anatase TiO2 NPS in the poly(methacrylic acid-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (MAA-EDMA) framework. The Gd(3+) and Gd-based contrast agents (such as gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) and Gd-DTPA-bismethylamide (Gd-DTPA-BMA)) display different adsorption behaviors on the prepared monolithic capillary which possesses the adsorption properties of both anatase TiO2 NPS and poly(MAA-EDMA) monolith. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) were found to be 3.6, 3.2, and 4.5 ng L(-1) for Gd(3+), Gd-DTPA, and Gd-DTPA-BMA, respectively, which are the lowest up to date. The enrichment factor was 25-fold with the sample throughput of 5 h(-1). The proposed method was validated by the analysis of Gd(3+) and Gd-DTPA in the healthy human urine samples as well as Gd(3+) and Gd-DTPA-BMA in patient urine samples. It was found that only a small amount of the free Gd(3+) was released from Gd-DTPA-BMA, and accurate results could be obtained since no oxidation/reduction or subtraction is involved in this method. This method is simple, sensitive, and rapid and provides a very attractive nonchromatography strategy for the speciation of Gd(3+) and Gd-based contrast agents in urine samples. PMID:26239367

  17. Portable Solid Phase Micro-Extraction Coupled with Ion Mobility Spectrometry System for On-Site Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents and Simulants in Water Samples

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liu; Han, Qiang; Cao, Shuya; Yang, Jie; Yang, Junchao; Ding, Mingyu

    2014-01-01

    On-site analysis is an efficient approach to facilitate analysis at the location of the system under investigation as it can result in more accurate, more precise and quickly available analytical data. In our work, a novel self-made thermal desorption based interface was fabricated to couple solid-phase microextraction with ion mobility spectrometry for on-site water analysis. The portable interface can be connected with the front-end of an ion mobility spectrometer directly without other modifications. The analytical performance was evaluated via the extraction of chemical warfare agents and simulants in water samples. Several parameters including ionic strength and extraction time have been investigated in detail. The application of the developed method afforded satisfactory recoveries ranging from 72.9% to 114.4% when applied to the analysis of real water samples. PMID:25384006

  18. Indium-zinc-oxide electric-double-layer thin-film transistors gated by silane coupling agents 3-triethoxysilylpropylamine-graphene oxide solid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Liqiang; Huang, Yukai; Shi, Yangyang; Cheng, Guanggui; Ding, Jianning

    2015-07-01

    Silane coupling agents 3-triethoxysilylpropyla-mine-graphene oxide (KH550-GO) solid electrolyte are prepared by spin coating process. A high proton conductivity of ~1.2???×???10-3 Scm-1 is obtained at room temperature. A strong electric-double-layer (EDL) effect is observed due to the accumulation of protons at KH550-GO/IZO interface. Indium-Zinc-Oxide thin film transistors gated by KH550-GO solid electrolyte are self-assembled on ITO glass substrates. Good electrical performances are obtained, such as a low subthreshold swing of ~140?mV/dec., a high current on/off ratio of ~2.9???×???107 and a high field-effect mobility of ~13.2?cm2 V-1 S-1, respectively.

  19. Portable solid phase micro-extraction coupled with ion mobility spectrometry system for on-site analysis of chemical warfare agents and simulants in water samples.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Han, Qiang; Cao, Shuya; Yang, Jie; Yang, Junchao; Ding, Mingyu

    2014-01-01

    On-site analysis is an efficient approach to facilitate analysis at the location of the system under investigation as it can result in more accurate, more precise and quickly available analytical data. In our work, a novel self-made thermal desorption based interface was fabricated to couple solid-phase microextraction with ion mobility spectrometry for on-site water analysis. The portable interface can be connected with the front-end of an ion mobility spectrometer directly without other modifications. The analytical performance was evaluated via the extraction of chemical warfare agents and simulants in water samples. Several parameters including ionic strength and extraction time have been investigated in detail. The application of the developed method afforded satisfactory recoveries ranging from 72.9% to 114.4% when applied to the analysis of real water samples. PMID:25384006

  20. Infrared analysis of the effect of composition of silane blends of amino and alkyl silane blends in tertiary amine-catalyzed anhydride-cured epoxy mixtures. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Tidrick, S.L.; Ishida, H.; Koenig, J.L.

    1991-05-01

    The property enhancement caused by silane coupling agents in glass-reinforced epoxy matrices is a function of the structure and composition of the silane. The effect of hydrolyzed and nonhydrolyzed of various compositions of silane coupling agent blends of gamma aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) and either butyltriethoxysilane (BTS) or ethyltriethoxysilane (ETS) on the cure of a benzyldimethylamine (BDMA)-catalyzed, nadic methyl anhydride (NMA) cured diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A type epoxy were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The presence of the amine group perturbs the alternating copolymerization of the anhydride and epoxy groups by initiating and catalyzing the reaction. Hydrolysis also promoted the reaction rate. Samples containing ETS cured more rapidly than those containing BTS at the same composition. Imide formation was not significant in the presence of the alkyl-ended silanes. A very simple mathematical simulation was invoked to justify assumptions made during data analysis.

  1. Newbouldiaquinone A: A naphthoquinone-anthraquinone ether coupled pigment, as a potential antimicrobial and antimalarial agent from Newbouldia laevis.

    PubMed

    Eyong, Kenneth Oben; Folefoc, Gabriel Ngosong; Kuete, Victor; Beng, Veronique Penlap; Krohn, Karsten; Hussain, Hidayat; Nkengfack, Augustin Ephram; Saeftel, Michael; Sarite, Salem Ramadan; Hoerauf, Achim

    2006-03-01

    The study of the chemical constituents of the roots of Newbouldia laevis (Bignoniaceae) has resulted in the isolation and characterization of a naphthoquinone-anthraquinone coupled pigment named newbouldiaquinone A (1) together with 14 known compounds: apigenin, chrysoeriol, newbouldiaquinone, lapachol, 2-methylanthraquinone, 2-acetylfuro-1,4-naphthoquinone, 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone, oleanolic acid, canthic acid, 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl triacontanoate, newbouldiamide, 5,7-dihydroxydehydroiso-alpha-lapachone, beta-sitosterol, and beta-sitosterol glucopyranoside. The structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was established based on spectroscopic studies, notably of the 2D NMR spectra. The antimalarial activity of compound (1) against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro shows moderate chemo suppression of parasitic growth. Its antimicrobial activity against a wide range of microorganisms was 13- and 24-fold more active against Candida gabrata and Enterobacter aerogens than the reference antibiotics nystatin and gentamycin. PMID:16442576

  2. Production of Galactooligosaccharides Using ?-Galactosidase Immobilized on Chitosan-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles with Tris(hydroxymethyl)phosphine as an Optional Coupling Agent

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Su-Ching; Duan, Kow-Jen

    2015-01-01

    ?-Galactosidase was immobilized on chitosan-coated magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles and was used to produce galactooligosaccharides (GOS) from lactose. Immobilized enzyme was prepared with or without the coupling agent, tris(hydroxymethyl)phosphine (THP). The two immobilized systems and the free enzyme achieved their maximum activity at pH 6.0 with an optimal temperature of 50 °C. The immobilized enzymes showed higher activities at a wider range of temperatures and pH. Furthermore, the immobilized enzyme coupled with THP showed higher thermal stability than that without THP. However, activity retention of batchwise reactions was similar for both immobilized systems. All the three enzyme systems produced GOS compound with similar concentration profiles, with a maximum GOS yield of 50.5% from 36% (w·v?1) lactose on a dry weight basis. The chitosan-coated magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles can be regenerated using a desorption/re-adsorption process described in this study. PMID:26047337

  3. Simulating the effects of native vegetation configurations on water quality using a multi-agent system coupled to a distributed hydrological process model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, J. G.; McAlpine, C. A.; Ludwig, J. A.

    2004-12-01

    Within Australia, excessive clearing of native vegetation has resulted in many landscapes becoming increasingly dysfunctional with respect to the retention of water and nutrients, and the maintenance of biodiversity. This problem is being addressed by the National Action Plan for Salinity and Water Quality, which promotes the management of vegetation cover at the farm and catchment scale to: stabilize soils; regulate groundwater to control dryland salinity; minimize chemical residues, nutrients, and sediment run-off to streams and waterways; as well as the maintenance of environmental flows for healthy waterways. However, the performance of potential landscape designs for the retention of water, nutrients and sediments, such as the reestablishment of tree belts and riparian vegetation, must be socially and economically feasible as well as improving landscape function. The implementation of alternative design strategies occurs at the farm-scale, but also must be applicable at the hill-slope and catchment scales, as well as incorporating temporal variability, and be practical to implement where data is limiting. A method is presented based upon a coupled multi-agent system (MAS) simulation and distributed parameter hydrological process model to optimize the integration of native vegetation within agroecosystems, in order to maintain desired outcomes for sustainable landscape function.

  4. Rapid determination of X-ray contrast agent iomeprol in human plasma by on-line solid-phase extraction coupled with phase optimized liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tingting; Tao, Yun; Pu, Yabing; Morello, Rosa; Mei, Surong; Boos, Karl-Siegfried

    2015-06-15

    Phase optimized liquid chromatography (POPLC) allows for the optimized combination of column segments of any length and stationary phases with different functionalities. In this study, a simple and rapid method using POPLC coupled with on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) for the analysis of X-ray contrast media agent iomeprol (IOM) in human plasma was developed. Because the phenyl (PH) stationary phase has strong hydrophobic and ?-? interactions with IOM and iopromide (IOP, internal standard), the best separation efficiency was achieved with a 250mm×3mm homogenous PH POPLC-column. Different kinds of on-line SPE sorbents were studied, including restricted access material-alkyl diol silica (ADS), LiChrolut EN with excellent absorption capacity and hydrophilic-lipophilic-balanced Oasis HLB. The most efficient on-line sample clean-up was carried out using a fast-flow on-line purification approach with an Oasis HLB pre-column ((20mm×2mm, 30?m). This pre-column showed excellent durability and reproducibility. At least 400 samples could be analyzed with one pre-column. Each plasma sample was directly injected and analyzed within 15min. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 10-1000?g/mL. The limit of quantitation was 2.26?g/mL. The inter-day precision of this method was excellent and less than 1.44%, and the intra-day precision was less than 4.44%. The inter-day and intra-day accuracy ranged from 94.33% to 104.36% and 94.60% to 101.71%, respectively. This validated method is expected to be useful in the analysis of human plasma samples for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurements and assessment of kidney function. PMID:25939093

  5. Biological Agents

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Statistics Training Publications Newsroom Small Business Anti-Retaliation Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and ...

  6. Intelligence Artificielle Agents Intelligents

    E-print Network

    Bouzy, Bruno

    Intelligence Artificielle Agents Intelligents Bruno Bouzy http Descartes #12;Agents intelligents Agents intelligents Agents et environnement Rationalit´e PEAS Types d'environnement Structure des agents Conclusion 2 / 21 Intelligence artificielle #12;Agents intelligents Agents intelligents

  7. Sunscreening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  8. Applying Agent Technology Applying Agent Technology

    E-print Network

    Woolridge, Mike

    Kingdom N.R.Jennings@qmw.ac.uk M.Wooldridge@doc.mmu.ac.uk 1. Intelligent Agents and Multi­Agent Systems The term ``agent'', (and hence ``agent based computing'', ``agent based system'', ``multi­agent system entities. These entities range from relatively simple systems, (such as Microsoft's TIP WIZARD, which

  9. Antidiabetic Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antidiabetic agents is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  10. Dynamic Agents of Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, George V.; Rowland, Douglas E.; Moore, Thomas E.; Collier, Michael

    2011-01-01

    VISIONS sounding rocket mission (VISualizing Ion Outflow via Neutral atom imaging during a Substorm) has been awarded to NASA/GSFC (PI Rowland) in order to provide the first combined remote sensing and in situ measurements of the regions where ion acceleration to above 5 e V is occurring, and of the sources of free energy and acceleration mechanisms that accelerate the ions. The key science question of VISIONS is how, when, and where, are ions accelerated to escape velocities in the auroral zone below 1000 km, following substorm onset? Sources of free energy that power this ion acceleration process include (but not limited) electron precipitation, field-aligned currents, velocity shears, and Alfvenic Poynting flux. The combine effect of all these processes on ionospheric ion outflows will be investigated in a framework of the kinetic model that has been developed by Khazanov et al. in order to study the polar wind transport in the presence of photoelectrons.

  11. Silane coupling agents for corrosion protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Vijay

    2000-10-01

    Organofunctional silanes have retained special attention of the adhesion world for a long time. The current work attempts to expand the areas of application of silanes into corrosion control of metals and alloys. Studies of selected functional and non-functional silane films formed on iron substrates showed that there is interaction between the amine functional group of gamma-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (gamma-APS) and the iron substrate, the result of which is no improvement in corrosion protection. A non-functional silane, Bis-triethoxysilyl ethane (BTSE), on the other hand, formed more number of oxane bonds with the substrate, when applied from acidic pH range. This results in improved corrosion protection. A two-step silane treatment consisting of a non-functional first silane layer and a functional silane second layer is proposed, which can provide corrosion protection and adhesion enhancement. Several alloy systems and bis-silanes are investigated and the two step silane treatment is shown to improve both adhesion and corrosion performance. The selection of the silane application pH is shown to be related to the stability of the metal or oxide surface present. The roles of the first and second layer of the silane are corrosion protection and adhesion improvement with the top-coat respectively. Concentration of BTSE in the coating solution is shown to affect the properties of the protective film formed on AL 2024. The thickness of the silane film increases proportional to the concentration. Thinner films of BTSE reduce only the cathodic reaction rates at the metal surface, whereas thicker films substantially reduce both anodic and cathodic reaction rates. These results also match several performance tests including ASTM B-117 salt spray. On Al 1050, the oxide layer on the surface is shown to have little effect on the electrical properties of the BTSE film formed. Preheating the surface and curing of the deposited film strongly influence the electrical properties. The condensation reaction occurring during the curing process results in a hydrophobic silane film. This results in the emergence of a second relaxation in the impedance behavior, which is directly related to the resistance offered by the silane film towards corrosive attack.

  12. [Antiplatelet agents].

    PubMed

    Steg, Gabriel

    2013-02-01

    Atherothrombosis is a major global public health problem. Chronic atherosclerotic disease is often clinically silent and coexists across multiple vascular beds but, when complicated by thrombosis, it can result in an acute coronary syndrome, stroke, transient ischemic attack, and critical limb ischemia. Platelets play a role in the development of chronic atherosclerotic disease and are a key mediator of clinical events in atherothrombosis. Numerous clinical trials have tested antiplatelet agents for primary and secondary prevention, and several new antiplatelet drugs are under development. There is evidence of clear benefit of single and, in some cases, dual antiplatelet therapy in the prevention of recurrent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications. Dual antiplatelet therapy has emerged as the standard of care for acute coronary syndromes, with aspirin typically being used in combination with clopidogrel or one of the newer more potent ADP receptor antagonists (ticagrelor or prasugrel). Conversely, in chronic stable coronary disease, no benefit of dual antiplatelet therapy has yet been convincingly demonstrated Evidence supporting routine use of aspirin or any other antiplatelet agent for primary prevention is mixed, and this strategy should only be considered for individual high-risk patients in whom the thrombotic risk outweighs the risk of major bleeding complications. PMID:24919367

  13. Agent Building Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    AgentBuilder is a software component developed under an SBIR contract between Reticular Systems, Inc., and Goddard Space Flight Center. AgentBuilder allows software developers without experience in intelligent agent technologies to easily build software applications using intelligent agents. Agents are components of software that will perform tasks automatically, with no intervention or command from a user. AgentBuilder reduces the time and cost of developing agent systems and provides a simple mechanism for implementing high-performance agent systems.

  14. Languagedriven nonverbal communication in a bilingual conversational agent

    E-print Network

    Knott, Alistair

    Language­driven nonverbal communication in a bilingual conversational agent Scott A. King, Alistair with a linguistically motivated human­machine dialogue system. The agent has a range of nonverbal behaviors, which. The system's architecture couples the agent's non­ verbal communicative processes very tightly to its model

  15. Language-driven nonverbal communication in a bilingual conversational agent

    E-print Network

    Knott, Alistair

    Language-driven nonverbal communication in a bilingual conversational agent Scott A. King, Alistair with a linguistically motivated human-machine dialogue system. The agent has a range of nonverbal behaviors, which. The system's architecture couples the agent's non- verbal communicative processes very tightly to its model

  16. Detecting agents.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Susan C

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews a recent set of behavioural studies that examine the scope and nature of the representational system underlying theory-of-mind development. Studies with typically developing infants, adults and children with autism all converge on the claim that there is a specialized input system that uses not only morphological cues, but also behavioural cues to categorize novel objects as agents. Evidence is reviewed in which 12- to 15-month-old infants treat certain non-human objects as if they have perceptual/attentional abilities, communicative abilities and goal-directed behaviour. They will follow the attentional orientation of an amorphously shaped novel object if it interacts contingently with them or with another person. They also seem to use a novel object's environmentally directed behaviour to determine its perceptual/attentional orientation and object-oriented goals. Results from adults and children with autism are strikingly similar, despite adults' contradictory beliefs about the objects in question and the failure of children with autism to ultimately develop more advanced theory-of-mind reasoning. The implications for a general theory-of-mind development are discussed. PMID:12689380

  17. Remote Agent Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorais, Gregory A.; Kurien, James; Rajan, Kanna

    1999-01-01

    We describe the computer demonstration of the Remote Agent Experiment (RAX). The Remote Agent is a high-level, model-based, autonomous control agent being validated on the NASA Deep Space 1 spacecraft.

  18. Preparing Change Agents for Change Agent Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlacek, James R.

    Seventy-seven Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking agricultural change agents from developing Central and South American countries responded to a questionnaire which sought perceptions of the roles in which the change agents felt they were involved and the roles for which they felt they were being trained. The agents were participating in training…

  19. Query Answering Driven by Collaborating Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    We assume that there is a group of collaborating agents where each agent is defined as an Information System coupled with a Query Answering System (QAS). Values of attributes in an information system S form atomic expressions of a language used by the agent associated with S to communicate with other agents. Collaboration among agents is initiated when one of the agent's, say the one associated with S and called a client, is asked by user to resolve a query containing nonlocal attributes for S. Then, the client will ask for help other agents to have that query answered. As the result of this request, knowledge in the form of defnitions of locally foreign attribute values for S is extracted at information systems representing other agents and sent to the client. The outcome of this step is a knowledge-base KB created at the client site and used to answer the query. In this paper we present a method of identifying which agents are semantically the closest to S and show that the precision and recall of QAS is getting increased when only these agents are ask for help by the client.

  20. Spacecraft sanitation agent development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of an effective sanitizing agent that is compatible with the spacecraft environment and the human occupant is discussed. Experimental results show that two sanitation agents must be used to satisfy mission requirements: one agent for personal hygiene and one for equipment maintenance. It was also recommended that a water rinse be used with the agents for best results, and that consideration be given to using the agents pressure packed or in aerosol formulations.

  1. Chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Kuca, Kamil; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents are compounds of different chemical structures. Simple molecules such as chlorine as well as complex structures such as ricin belong to this group. Nerve agents, vesicants, incapacitating agents, blood agents, lung-damaging agents, riot-control agents and several toxins are among chemical warfare agents. Although the use of these compounds is strictly prohibited, the possible misuse by terrorist groups is a reality nowadays. Owing to this fact, knowledge of the basic properties of these substances is of a high importance. This chapter briefly introduces the separate groups of chemical warfare agents together with their members and the potential therapy that should be applied in case someone is intoxicated by these agents. PMID:20358695

  2. Agents on the Web Making Agents

    E-print Network

    Huhns, Michael N.

    Agents on the Web Making Agents Secure on the Semantic Web A re you one of those people who never shops on the Web for fear of fraud? Does the thought of online banking make you antsy? Do you get -- some of your concerns are indeed well founded. With the rapid development of Web technologies

  3. Decentralized Task Allocation with Coupled Constraints in Complex Missions

    E-print Network

    Whitten, Andrew K.

    This paper presents a decentralized algorithm that creates feasible assignments for a network of autonomous agents in the presence of coupled constraints. The coupled constraints address complex mission characteristics ...

  4. Transfer Investigational Agent Form

    Cancer.gov

    10/02 Transfer Investigational Agent Form This form is to be used for an intra-institutional transfer, one transfer/form. Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute National Institutes of Health TRANSFER FROM: Investigator transferring agent:

  5. Artificial Intelligence Intelligent Agents

    E-print Network

    Voris, Jonathan

    CS W4701 Artificial Intelligence Fall 2013 Chapter 2: Intelligent Agents Jonathan Voris (based · Performance measure: Healthy patient, minimize costs, lawsuits · Environment: Patient, hospital, staff of symptoms, findings, patient's answers) #12;Environments · Agent: Part-picking robot · Performance measure

  6. BIOLOGICAL AND SYNTHETIC AGENTS

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    #12;INSECT CONTROL BIOLOGICAL AND SYNTHETIC AGENTS #12;This page intentionally left blank #12;INSECT CONTROL BIOLOGICAL AND SYNTHETIC AGENTS EDITED BY LAWRENCE I. GILBERT SARJEET S. GILL Amsterdam://www.elsevier.com/locate/permissions). Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Insect control : biological and synthetic agents

  7. Mobile Agents Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Rosane Maria; Chaves, Magali Ribeiro; Pirmez, Luci; Rust da Costa Carmo, Luiz Fernando

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need to filter and retrieval relevant information from the Internet focuses on the use of mobile agents, specific software components which are based on distributed artificial intelligence and integrated systems. Surveys agent technology and discusses the agent building package used to develop two applications using IBM's Aglet…

  8. Proceedings of the Agent 2002 Conference on Social Agents : Ecology, Exchange, and Evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Macal, C., ed.; Sallach, D., ed.

    2003-04-10

    Welcome to the ''Proceedings'' of the third in a series of agent simulation conferences cosponsored by Argonne National Laboratory and The University of Chicago. The theme of this year's conference, ''Social Agents: Ecology, Exchange and Evolution'', was selected to foster the exchange of ideas on some of the most important social processes addressed by agent simulation models, namely: (1) The translation of ecology and ecological constraints into social dynamics; (2) The role of exchange processes, including the peer dependencies they create; and (3) The dynamics by which, and the attractor states toward which, social processes evolve. As stated in the ''Call for Papers'', throughout the social sciences, the simulation of social agents has emerged as an innovative and powerful research methodology. The promise of this approach, however, is accompanied by many challenges. First, modeling complexity in agents, environments, and interactions is non-trivial, and these representations must be explored and assessed systematically. Second, strategies used to represent complexities are differentially applicable to any particular problem space. Finally, to achieve sufficient generality, the design and experimentation inherent in agent simulation must be coupled with social and behavioral theory. Agent 2002 provides a forum for reviewing the current state of agent simulation scholarship, including research designed to address such outstanding issues. This year's conference introduces an extensive range of domains, models, and issues--from pre-literacy to future projections, from ecology to oligopolistic markets, and from design to validation. Four invited speakers highlighted major themes emerging from social agent simulation.

  9. Agents on the Web Agent Societies

    E-print Network

    Huhns, Michael N.

    of machine guns will make sure the appropriate boxes of ammunition get on the same truck going to the right agents to decide which products a customer is most likely to want and to make sure that buy- ing

  10. Standard Agent Framework 1

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-04-06

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4)more »Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.« less

  11. IM Free Agent Sign Up 1 Wanted! Intramurals Free Agents!

    E-print Network

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    IM Free Agent Sign Up 1 Wanted! Intramurals Free Agents! Individuals who do not have a full team a "Free Agent". Within the UNLV Intramural Sports program there are multiple ways to improve a Free Agent will not force any team to accept a Free Agent participant. History and research has shown that Free Agents

  12. Multi-agent autonomous system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A multi-agent autonomous system for exploration of hazardous or inaccessible locations. The multi-agent autonomous system includes simple surface-based agents or craft controlled by an airborne tracking and command system. The airborne tracking and command system includes an instrument suite used to image an operational area and any craft deployed within the operational area. The image data is used to identify the craft, targets for exploration, and obstacles in the operational area. The tracking and command system determines paths for the surface-based craft using the identified targets and obstacles and commands the craft using simple movement commands to move through the operational area to the targets while avoiding the obstacles. Each craft includes its own instrument suite to collect information about the operational area that is transmitted back to the tracking and command system. The tracking and command system may be further coupled to a satellite system to provide additional image information about the operational area and provide operational and location commands to the tracking and command system.

  13. Crystallization and tile separation in the multi-agent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collet, Jacques Henri; Fanchon, Jean

    2015-10-01

    This paper deals with the self-organization of simple mobile agents confined in a two-dimension rectangular area. Each agent interacts with its neighbors inside an interaction disk and moves following various types of force-driven couplings (e.g. repulsion or attraction). The agents do not know their absolute position, do not exchange messages, have no memory, and no learning capabilities. We first study the self-organization appearing in systems made-up with one sole type of agents, initially generated at random in the terrain. By changing the agent-agent repulsive interaction, we observe five different population reorganizations, namely, grouping, diffusion (that is classical), but especially interesting, crystallization (i.e., the agents group together on the vertices a regular hexagonal lattice), alignment along straight lines, and vortex dynamics. Then, we consider reorganization in systems made-up from two to five types of agents, where each pair of agent types has specific interaction parameters. The main result of this work is to show that, by only changing the agent-agent repulsion rules, one can generate hexagonal or rectangular multi-agent crystals or on the contrary, induce complete separation in regular hexagonal tiles.

  14. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  15. DCTD — Featured Agents

    Cancer.gov

    DNA damaging agents are among the most successful treatments for cancer. The enzyme Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (abbreviated PARP) can facilitate repair of DNA damage caused by insult from chemotherapeutic agents and radiation. Increased PARP activity is associated with survival of some cancer cells. ABT-888, an orally bioavailable PARP-inhibitor developed by Abbott Laboratories, significantly enhanced the antitumor activity of DNA-damaging agents and radiation in preclinical models. Further development of this compound is ongoing.

  16. DCTD — Featured Agents

    Cancer.gov

    The “Featured Agents” portion of the DCTD Website provides information for researchers involved in drug discovery and development. Any public preclinical and clinical data that DCTD has on a particular agent are presented here. New agents will be added periodically to the current list. DCTD Website visitors may subscribe to the Listserv on this page to be notified when additions to the list are made.

  17. Interactive agent generated architecture

    E-print Network

    Krause, Jeffrey Charles Stanley

    1996-01-01

    The thesis explores architectural form generation through two behavior based artificial intelligence approaches: the communication of agents in an unpredictable simulation system, and the codification of information within ...

  18. Advances in HIV Prevention for Serodiscordant Couples

    PubMed Central

    Muessig, Kathryn E.; Cohen, Myron S.

    2014-01-01

    Serodiscordant couples play an important role in maintaining the global HIV epidemic. This review summarizes biobehavioral and biomedical HIV prevention options for serodiscordant couples focusing on advances in 2013 and 2014, including World Health Organization guidelines and best-evidence for couples counseling, couples-based interventions, and the use of antiviral agents for prevention. In the past few years marked advances have been made in HIV prevention for serodiscordant couples and numerous ongoing studies are continuously expanding HIV prevention tools, especially in the area of pre-exposure prophylaxis. Uptake and adherence to antiviral therapy remains a key challenge. Additional research is needed to develop evidence-based interventions for couples, and especially for male-male couples. Randomized trials have demonstrated the prevention benefits of antiretroviral-based approaches among serodiscordant couples; however, residual transmission observed in recognized serodiscordant couples represents an important and resolvable challenge in HIV prevention. PMID:25145645

  19. Helix coupling

    DOEpatents

    Ginell, W.S.

    1989-04-25

    A coupling for connecting helix members in series, which consists of a pair of U-shaped elements, one of which is attached to each helix end with the "U" sections of the elements interlocked. The coupling is particularly beneficial for interconnecting helical Nitinol elements utilized in thermal actuators or engines. Each coupling half is attached to the associated helix at two points, thereby providing axial load while being easily removed from the helix, and reusable.

  20. DCTD — Featured Agents

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Content Click here to view the Site Map Home | Sitemap | Contact DCTD Search this site Featured Agents Agents NCI Experimental Therapeutics (NExT) Program Drug Development Primer FDA-Approved Cancer Drugs DCTD Programs Cancer Diagnosis Program Cancer

  1. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  2. Change Agent Survival Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Folwell L.

    2011-01-01

    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  3. How do agents represent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Alex

    Representation is inherent to the concept of an agent, but its importance in complex systems has not yet been widely recognised. In this paper I introduce Peirce's theory of signs, which facilitates a definition of representation in general. In summary, representation means that for some agent, a model is used to stand in for another entity in a way that shapes the behaviour of the agent with respect to that entity. Representation in general is then related to the theories of representation that have developed within different disciplines. I compare theories of representation from metaphysics, military theory and systems theory. Additional complications arise in explaining the special case of mental representations, which is the focus of cognitive science. I consider the dominant theory of cognition — that the brain is a representational device — as well as the sceptical anti-representational response. Finally, I argue that representation distinguishes agents from non-representational objects: agents are objects capable of representation.

  4. Pediatric Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Moran, Cassandra; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P Brian

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review In immunocompromised hosts, invasive fungal infections are common and fatal. In the past decade, the antifungal armamentarium against invasive mycoses has expanded greatly. The purpose of this report is to review the most recent literature addressing the use of antifungal agents in children. Recent findings Most studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of antifungal agents are limited to adults. However, important progress has been made in describing the pharmacokinetics and safety of newer antifungal agents in children, including the echinocandins. Summary Dosage guidelines for newer antifungal agents are currently based on adult and limited pediatric data. Because important developmental pharmacology changes occur throughout childhood impacting the pharmacokinetics of these agents, antifungal studies specifically designed for children are necessary. PMID:19741525

  5. Fluorescence imaging agents in cancerology

    PubMed Central

    Paganin-Gioanni, Aurélie; Bellard, Elisabeth; Paquereau, Laurent; Ecochard, Vincent; Golzio, Muriel; Teissié, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Background One of the major challenges in cancer therapy is to improve early detection and prevention using novel targeted cancer diagnostics. Detection requests specific recognition. Tumor markers have to be ideally present on the surface of cancer cells. Their targeting with ligands coupled to imaging agents make them visible/detectable. Conclusions Fluorescence imaging is a newly emerging technology which is becoming a complementary medical method for cancer diagnosis. It allows detection with a high spatio-temporal resolution of tumor markers in small animals and in clinical studies. In this review, we focus on the recent outcome of basic studies in the design of new approaches (probes and devices) used to detect tumor cells by fluorescence imaging. PMID:22933906

  6. Biological warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  7. Dioxin, agent orange

    SciTech Connect

    Gough, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: dioxin, a prevalent problem; nobody wanted dioxin; agent organe and Vietnam; what we know about and may learn about agent orange and Veterans' health; agent organe and birth defects; dioxin in Missouri; 2, 4, 5-T: the U.S.' disappearing herbicide; Seveso: high-level environmental exposure; the nitro explosion; industrial exposures to dioxin; company behavior in the face of dioxin exposures; dioxin and specific cancers; animal tests of dioxin toxicity; dioxin decions; the present and the future.

  8. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the following tests: Anti-delta agent antibody Liver biopsy Liver enzymes (blood test) ... against hepatitis B. Adults who are at high risk for hepatitis B ... If you do not get Hepatitis B, you cannot get Hepatitis D.

  9. Agent oriented programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoham, Yoav

    1994-01-01

    The goal of our research is a methodology for creating robust software in distributed and dynamic environments. The approach taken is to endow software objects with explicit information about one another, to have them interact through a commitment mechanism, and to equip them with a speech-acty communication language. System-level applications include software interoperation and compositionality. A government application of specific interest is an infrastructure for coordination among multiple planners. Daily activity applications include personal software assistants, such as programmable email, scheduling, and new group agents. Research topics include definition of mental state of agents, design of agent languages as well as interpreters for those languages, and mechanisms for coordination within agent societies such as artificial social laws and conventions.

  10. Cardiovascular and related agents.

    PubMed

    Mátyus, P

    2001-10-01

    Research activities of the Hungarian Institute of Drug Research in the field of cardiovascular agents are reviewed. Many promising drug candidates were found including a compound already marketed. Novel concepts for drug research were developed as well. PMID:11686092

  11. Coordinating Autonomous Planning Agents

    E-print Network

    Kuzmanov, Georgi

    the Collective Agent Based Systems (CABS) research group -- I won't need more than a month or two to write my in the planning of its tasks, we require that planning and coordination be separated. In the literature on multi-agent. Witteveen ir. H.J.A.M Geers ir. J.M. Valk #12;#12;Preface Sooner or later, but probably sooner, every

  12. Agent amplified communication

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, H.; Selman, B.; Milewski, A.

    1996-12-31

    We propose an agent-based framework for assisting and simplifying person-to-person communication for information gathering tasks. As an example, we focus on locating experts for any specified topic. In our approach, the informal person-to-person networks that exist within an organization are used to {open_quotes}referral chain{close_quotes} requests for expertise. User-agents help automate this process. The agents generate referrals by analyzing records of e-mail communication patterns. Simulation results show that the higher responsiveness of an agent-based system can be effectively traded for the higher accuracy of a completely manual approach. Furthermore, preliminary experience with a group of users on a prototype system has shown that useful automatic referrals can be found in practice. Our experience with actual users has also shown that privacy concerns are central to the successful deployment of personal agents: an advanced agent-based system will therefore need to reason about issues involving trust and authority.

  13. Decoupling Coupled Constraints Through Utility Design

    SciTech Connect

    Li, N; Marden, JR

    2014-08-01

    Several multiagent systems exemplify the need for establishing distributed control laws that ensure the resulting agents' collective behavior satisfies a given coupled constraint. This technical note focuses on the design of such control laws through a game-theoretic framework. In particular, this technical note provides two systematic methodologies for the design of local agent objective functions that guarantee all resulting Nash equilibria optimize the system level objective while also satisfying a given coupled constraint. Furthermore, the designed local agent objective functions fit into the framework of state based potential games. Consequently, one can appeal to existing results in game-theoretic learning to derive a distributed process that guarantees the agents will reach such an equilibrium.

  14. Improving Design with Agents, Improving Agents by Design

    E-print Network

    Brown, David C.

    DCB 1 WPI Improving Design with Agents, or, Improving Agents by Design David C. Brown AI in Design ASSUMPTION Ã? Assume that the design environment is built using agents. i.e., situated, autonomous, flexible Ã?'s future design and synthesis environment will be built as a real multi-agent system. In what follows, we

  15. The Information Agent: An Infrastructure Agent Supporting Collaborative Enterprise Architectures

    E-print Network

    Fox, Mark S.

    The Information Agent: An Infrastructure Agent Supporting Collaborative Enterprise Architectures Mihai Barbuceanu and Mark S. Fox Enterprise Integration Laboratory, Department of Industrial Engineering of the Informa- tion Agent, describe an architecture based on an Agent Program and a Knowledge Management System

  16. Prosthesis coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reswick, J. B.; Mooney, V.; Bright, C. W.; Owens, L. J. (inventors)

    1979-01-01

    A coupling for use in an apparatus for connecting a prosthesis to the bone of a stump of an amputated limb is described which permits a bio-compatible carbon sleeve forming a part of the prosthesis connector to float so as to prevent disturbing the skin seal around the carbon sleeve. The coupling includes a flexible member interposed between a socket that is inserted within an intermedullary cavity of the bone and the sleeve. A lock pin is carried by the prosthesis and has a stem portion which is adapted to be coaxially disposed and slideably within the tubular female socket for securing the prosthesis to the stump. The skin around the percutaneous carbon sleeve is able to move as a result of the flexing coupling so as to reduce stresses caused by changes in the stump shape and/or movement between the bone and the flesh portion of the stump.

  17. MpcAgent

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-11-29

    MpcAgent software is a module for the VolltronLite platform from PNNL that regulates the operation of rooftop air conditioning units in small to medium commercial buildings for the purpose of reducing peak power consumption. The MpcAgent accomplishes this by restricting the number of units that may operate simultaneously and using a model predictive control strategy to select which units to operate in each control period. The outcome of this control is effective control of themore »building air temperature at the user specified set point while avoiding expensive peak demand charges that result from running all HVAC units simultaneously.« less

  18. Surface reactions on thin layers of silane coupling agents

    SciTech Connect

    Kurth, D.G.; Bein, T. )

    1993-11-01

    The reactivity of immobilized functional groups in thin layers of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APS), (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane, (3-bromopropyl)trimethoxysilane, and (8-bromooctyl)trimethoxysilane on oxidized aluminum substrates was studied with reflection-adsorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIR), optical ellipsometry and contact-angle measurements. Mass changes on the surface associated with the surface-confined reactions were measured with the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Single layers of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane on oxidized aluminum react with chlorodimethylsilane to give [(-O)[sub 3]Si(CH[sub 2])[sub 3]NH[sub 2][sup +]SiMe[sub 2]H]Cl[sup [minus

  19. Novel Phenylethynyl Imide Silanes as Coupling Agents for Titanium Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.; Lowther, S. E.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Conell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; SaintClair, T. L.

    2004-01-01

    The durability of titanium (Ti) alloys bonded with high temperature adhesives such as polyimides has failed to attain the level of performance required for many applications. The problem to a large part is attributed to the instability of the surface treatment on the Ti substrate. Although Ti alloy adhesive specimens with surface treatments such as chromic acid anodization, Pasa-Jell, Turco, etc. have provided high initial mechanical properties, these properties have decreased as a function of aging at ambient temperature and faster, when aged at elevated temperatures or in a hot-wet environment. As part of the High Speed Civil Transport program where Ti honeycomb sandwich structure must perform for 60,000 hours at 177 C, work was directed to the development of environmentally safe, durable Ti alloy surface treatments.

  20. Regulating Air Traffic Flow with Coupled Agents Adrian Agogino

    E-print Network

    Tumer, Kagan

    Mailstop 269-3 Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA Adrian.K.Agogino@nasa.gov Kagan Tumer Oregon State University 204 Rogers Hall Corvallis, OR 97331, USA kagan.tumer@oregonstate.edu ABSTRACT The ability to provide

  1. Remote Agent Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benard, Doug; Dorais, Gregory A.; Gamble, Ed; Kanefsky, Bob; Kurien, James; Millar, William; Muscettola, Nicola; Nayak, Pandu; Rouquette, Nicolas; Rajan, Kanna; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Remote Agent (RA) is a model-based, reusable artificial intelligence (At) software system that enables goal-based spacecraft commanding and robust fault recovery. RA was flight validated during an experiment on board of DS1 between May 17th and May 21th, 1999.

  2. Situation Agents: Agent-based Externalized Steering Logic

    E-print Network

    Faloutsos, Petros

    Situation Agents: Agent-based Externalized Steering Logic Matthew Schuerman Shawn Singh Mubbasir planning, architec- ture, and law enforcement. One of the most challenging aspects of crowd simulations approaches result in polluting agents with additional computation and storage costs in order to deal

  3. REMOTE BIOSENSOR FOR IN SITU MONITORING OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE NERVE AGENTS. (R823663)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A remote electrochemical biosensor for field monitoring of organophosphate nerve agents is described. The new sensor relies on the coupling of the effective biocatalytic action of organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) with a submersible amperometric probe design. This combination resu...

  4. Rigid bifunctional chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Sweet, M.P.; Mease, R.C.; Srivastava, S.C.

    1998-07-21

    Bicyclo[2.2.2] octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N`,N`-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo[2.2.1] heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N`,N`-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

  5. Rigid bifunctional chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Sweet, Mark P. (Coram, NY); Mease, Ronnie C. (Fairfax, VA); Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY)

    1998-07-21

    Bicyclo›2.2.2! octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo›2.2.1! heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

  6. Rigid bifunctional chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Sweet, Mark P. (Coram, NY); Mease, Ronnie C. (Fairfax, VA); Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY)

    2000-02-08

    Bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

  7. Surface polymerization agents

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.; Wilkerson, C.

    1996-12-01

    This is the final report of a 1-year, Laboratory-Directed R&D project at LANL. A joint technical demonstration was proposed between US Army Missile Command (Redstone Arsenal) and LANL. Objective was to demonstrate that an unmanned vehicle or missile could be used as a platform to deliver a surface polymerization agent in such a manner as to obstruct the filters of an air-breathing mechanism, resulting in operational failure.

  8. Waterproofing Agents for Silica Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakano, H. N.; Izu, Y. D.; Yoshioka, E. N.

    1985-01-01

    Waterproofing agent methyltrimethoxysilane applied to silica thermal insulation tiles in simple vapor-deposition process. Other waterproofing agents in same series include methylsiloxane and hexamethyldisilazane. Originally developed for insulating tiles for spacecraft, agents also find uses in roofing tiles, insulation for buildings or solar-energy systems, or solar reflectors.

  9. Hydroxypyridonate and hydroxypyrimidinone chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Doble, Daniel M.; Sunderland, Christopher J.; Thompson, Marlon

    2005-01-25

    The present invention provides hydroxypyridinone and hydroxypyrimidone chelating agents. Also provides are Gd(III) complexes of these agents, which are useful as contrast enhancing agents for magnetic resonance imaging. The invention also provides methods of preparing the compounds of the invention, as well as methods of using the compounds in magnetic resonance imaging applications.

  10. CATS-based Air Traffic Controller Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes intelligent agents that function as air traffic controllers. Each agent controls traffic in a single sector in real time; agents controlling traffic in adjoining sectors can coordinate to manage an arrival flow across a given meter fix. The purpose of this research is threefold. First, it seeks to study the design of agents for controlling complex systems. In particular, it investigates agent planning and reactive control functionality in a dynamic environment in which a variety perceptual and decision making skills play a central role. It examines how heuristic rules can be applied to model planning and decision making skills, rather than attempting to apply optimization methods. Thus, the research attempts to develop intelligent agents that provide an approximation of human air traffic controller behavior that, while not based on an explicit cognitive model, does produce task performance consistent with the way human air traffic controllers operate. Second, this research sought to extend previous research on using the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) as the basis for intelligent agents. The agents use a high-level model of air traffic controller activities to structure the control task. To execute an activity in the CATS model, according to the current task context, the agents reference a 'skill library' and 'control rules' that in turn execute the pattern recognition, planning, and decision-making required to perform the activity. Applying the skills enables the agents to modify their representation of the current control situation (i.e., the 'flick' or 'picture'). The updated representation supports the next activity in a cycle of action that, taken as a whole, simulates air traffic controller behavior. A third, practical motivation for this research is to use intelligent agents to support evaluation of new air traffic control (ATC) methods to support new Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts. Current approaches that use large, human-in-the-loop simulations are unquestionably valuable for this purpose, but pose considerable logistical, fiscal, and experimental control problems. First, data analysis is extremely complicated, owing simply to the large number of participants and data sources in such simulations. In addition, experienced human air traffic controllers working adjacent sectors tend to flexibly adapt to the evolving control problem - potentially shifting to other strategies than those under investigation. In addition, their performance is tightly coupled to the control interface, which in the development phase may support some concepts and supporting strategies better than others. A simple shift in strategy by one controller can change the character of a particular traffic scenario dramatically, which makes experimental comparison of ATC performance under different traffic scenarios difficult. Training a given team of controllers on operations under a new ATM concept for a sufficient period of time could avert such difficulties, but instituting an adequate training program is expensive and logistically difficult.

  11. Learning models of intelligent agents

    SciTech Connect

    Carmel, D.; Markovitch, S.

    1996-12-31

    Agents that operate in a multi-agent system need an efficient strategy to handle their encounters with other agents involved. Searching for an optimal interactive strategy is a hard problem because it depends mostly on the behavior of the others. In this work, interaction among agents is represented as a repeated two-player game, where the agents` objective is to look for a strategy that maximizes their expected sum of rewards in the game. We assume that agents` strategies can be modeled as finite automata. A model-based approach is presented as a possible method for learning an effective interactive strategy. First, we describe how an agent should find an optimal strategy against a given model. Second, we present an unsupervised algorithm that infers a model of the opponent`s automaton from its input/output behavior. A set of experiments that show the potential merit of the algorithm is reported as well.

  12. Flexible, secure agent development framework

    DOEpatents

    Goldsmith; Steven Y. (Rochester, MN)

    2009-04-07

    While an agent generator is generating an intelligent agent, it can also evaluate the data processing platform on which it is executing, in order to assess a risk factor associated with operation of the agent generator on the data processing platform. The agent generator can retrieve from a location external to the data processing platform an open site that is configurable by the user, and load the open site into an agent substrate, thereby creating a development agent with code development capabilities. While an intelligent agent is executing a functional program on a data processing platform, it can also evaluate the data processing platform to assess a risk factor associated with performing the data processing function on the data processing platform.

  13. DCTD — Featured Agents

    Cancer.gov

    Tandutinib (MLN518), previously known as CT53518, is a small-molecule inhibitor of the type III receptor tyrosine kinases, including the Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 receptor (FLT3), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), and c-Kit receptor tyrosine kinase. Tandutinib is relatively selective, having no appreciable activity against EGFR, FGFR, KDR, or several non-receptor kinases. FLT3, c-Kit, and ßPDGFR are equally inhibited by tandutinib, while the agent is much less active against CSF-1R (in vitro IC50 of 3.4 µM).

  14. Chemical warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  15. Thermoacoustic couple

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1983-10-04

    An apparatus and method for determining acoustic power density level and its direction in a fluid using a single sensor are disclosed. The preferred embodiment of the apparatus, which is termed a thermoacoustic couple, consists of a stack of thin, spaced apart polymeric plates, selected ones of which include multiple bimetallic thermocouple junctions positioned along opposite end edges thereof. The thermocouple junctions are connected in series in the nature of a thermopile, and are arranged so as to be responsive to small temperature differences between the opposite edges of the plates. The magnitude of the temperature difference, as represented by the magnitude of the electrical potential difference generated by the thermopile, is found to be directly related to the level of acoustic power density in the gas.

  16. Dark coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Gavela, M.B.; Hernández, D.; Honorez, L. Lopez; Mena, O.; Rigolin, S. E-mail: d.hernandez@uam.es E-mail: omena@ific.uv.es

    2009-07-01

    The two dark sectors of the universe—dark matter and dark energy—may interact with each other. Background and linear density perturbation evolution equations are developed for a generic coupling. We then establish the general conditions necessary to obtain models free from non-adiabatic instabilities. As an application, we consider a viable universe in which the interaction strength is proportional to the dark energy density. The scenario does not exhibit ''phantom crossing'' and is free from instabilities, including early ones. A sizeable interaction strength is compatible with combined WMAP, HST, SN, LSS and H(z) data. Neutrino mass and/or cosmic curvature are allowed to be larger than in non-interacting models. Our analysis sheds light as well on unstable scenarios previously proposed.

  17. Holograms as Teaching Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Robin A.

    2013-02-01

    Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1947 introduction of basic holographic principles, but it was not until the invention of the laser in 1960 that research scientists, physicians, technologists and the general public began to seriously consider the interdisciplinary potentiality of holography. Questions around whether and when Three-Dimensional (3-D) images and systems would impact American entertainment and the arts would be answered before educators, instructional designers and students would discover how much Three-Dimensional Hologram Technology (3DHT) would affect teaching practices and learning environments. In the following International Symposium on Display Holograms (ISDH) poster presentation, the author features a traditional board game as well as a reflection hologram to illustrate conventional and evolving Three-Dimensional representations and technology for education. Using elements from the American children's toy Operation® (Hasbro, 2005) as well as a reflection hologram of a human brain (Ko, 1998), this poster design highlights the pedagogical effects of 3-D images, games and systems on learning science. As teaching agents, holograms can be considered substitutes for real objects, (human beings, organs, and animated characters) as well as agents (pedagogical, avatars, reflective) in various learning environments using many systems (direct, emergent, augmented reality) and electronic tools (cellphones, computers, tablets, television). In order to understand the particular importance of utilizing holography in school, clinical and public settings, the author identifies advantages and benefits of using 3-D images and technology as instructional tools.

  18. Model Checking Agent Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentahar, J.; Meyer, J.-J. Ch.; Wan, W.

    Model checking is a formal and automatic technique used to verify computational systems (e.g. communication protocols) against given properties. The purpose of this chapter is to describe a model checking algorithm to verify communication protocols used by autonomous agents interacting using dialogue games, which are governed by a set of logical rules. We use a variant of Extended Computation Tree Logic CTL* for specifying these dialogue games and the properties to be checked. This logic, called ACTL*, extends CTL* by allowing formulae to constrain actions as well as states. The verification method uses an on-the-fly efficient algorithm. It is based on translating formulae into a variant of alternating tree automata called Alternating Büchi Tableau Automata (ABTA). We present a tableau-based version of this algorithm and provide the soundness, completeness, termination and complexity results. Two case studies are discussed along with their respective implementations to illustrate the proposed approach. The first one is about an agent-based negotiation protocol and the second one considers a modified version of the NetBill protocol.

  19. Agent Assignment for Process Management: Pattern Based Agent Performance Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, Stefan; Talib, Ramzan

    In almost all workflow management system the role concept is determined once at the introduction of workflow application and is not reevaluated to observe how successfully certain processes are performed by the authorized agents. This paper describes an approach which evaluates how agents are working successfully and feed this information back for future agent assignment to achieve maximum business benefit for the enterprise. The approach is called Pattern based Agent Performance Evaluation (PAPE) and is based on machine learning technique combined with post processing technique. We report on the result of our experiments and discuss issues and improvement of our approach.

  20. AREA OVERVIEW----Agent & Data Mining Interaction

    E-print Network

    Cao, Longbing

    AREA OVERVIEW---- Agent & Data Mining Interaction (ADMI) Longbing Cao Faculty of Information in a Multiple Agent Environment", EWSL91, 1991 Agent-based data mining & knowledge discovery by Davies, W., 1994 Research topics Agent driven data mining Data mining driven agents & multi- agent systems Mutual issues

  1. Fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfson, J S; Hooper, D C

    1989-01-01

    The fluoroquinolones, a new class of potent orally absorbed antimicrobial agents, are reviewed, considering structure, mechanisms of action and resistance, spectrum, variables affecting activity in vitro, pharmacokinetic properties, clinical efficacy, emergence of resistance, and tolerability. The primary bacterial target is the enzyme deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase. Bacterial resistance occurs by chromosomal mutations altering deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase and decreasing drug permeation. The drugs are bactericidal and potent in vitro against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus spp., and Neisseria spp., have good activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococci, and (with several exceptions) are less potent against streptococci and have fair to poor activity against anaerobic species. Potency in vitro decreases in the presence of low pH, magnesium ions, or urine but is little affected by different media, increased inoculum, or serum. The effects of the drugs in combination with a beta-lactam or aminoglycoside are often additive, occasionally synergistic, and rarely antagonistic. The agents are orally absorbed, require at most twice-daily dosing, and achieve high concentrations in urine, feces, and kidney and good concentrations in lung, bone, prostate, and other tissues. The drugs are efficacious in treatment of a variety of bacterial infections, including uncomplicated and complicated urinary tract infections, bacterial gastroenteritis, and gonorrhea, and show promise for therapy of prostatitis, respiratory tract infections, osteomyelitis, and cutaneous infections, particularly when caused by aerobic gram-negative bacilli. Fluoroquinolones have also proved to be efficacious for prophylaxis against travelers' diarrhea and infection with gram-negative bacilli in neutropenic patients. The drugs are effective in eliminating carriage of Neisseria meningitidis. Patient tolerability appears acceptable, with gastrointestinal or central nervous system toxicities occurring most commonly, but only rarely necessitating discontinuance of therapy. In 17 of 18 prospective, randomized, double-blind comparisons with another agent or placebo, fluoroquinolones were tolerated as well as or better than the comparison regimen. Bacterial resistance has been uncommonly documented but occurs, most notably with P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and occasionally other species for which the therapeutic ratio is less favorable. Fluoroquinolones offer an efficacious, well-tolerated, and cost-effective alternative to parenteral therapies of selected infections. PMID:2680058

  2. Agent-based enterprise integration

    SciTech Connect

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

    1998-12-01

    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. The enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of the effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses the planned future work.

  3. Agent-based enterprise integration

    SciTech Connect

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

    1999-05-01

    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. Their enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; intelligently locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of their effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses their planned future work.

  4. Collaborating Fuzzy Reinforcement Learning Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.

    1997-01-01

    Earlier, we introduced GARIC-Q, a new method for doing incremental Dynamic Programming using a society of intelligent agents which are controlled at the top level by Fuzzy Relearning and at the local level, each agent learns and operates based on ANTARCTIC, a technique for fuzzy reinforcement learning. In this paper, we show that it is possible for these agents to compete in order to affect the selected control policy but at the same time, they can collaborate while investigating the state space. In this model, the evaluator or the critic learns by observing all the agents behaviors but the control policy changes only based on the behavior of the winning agent also known as the super agent.

  5. Causal agents of yusho.

    PubMed

    Kunita, N; Kashimoto, T; Miyata, H; Fukushima, S; Hori, S; Obana, H

    1984-01-01

    Through the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated quaterphenyls ( PCQs ), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans ( PCDFs ) retained in the blood of Japanese and Taiwanese patients who had been poisoned by ingesting contaminated cooking oils, in the blood of workers occupationally exposed to PCBs, and in the blood of unexposed individuals, it was strongly suggested that PCDFs might be the responsible compounds for the development of yusho disease. To confirm this, animal experiments were done. The dermal signs resembling those of yusho were observed among the cynomolgus monkeys that received a PCDF mixture consisting of PCDF components similar to those in the yusho oils. In addition, significant thymic atrophy and decreased body weight gain were noted in the rats fed PCDFs . However, the administration of PCBs of PCQs alone failed to cause such signs in the monkeys or rats. As a result, it became clear that PCDFs were the main causative agents in the pathogenesis of yusho disease. PMID:6425853

  6. Peptide Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Håvard; Hamill, Pamela; Hancock, Robert E. W.

    2006-01-01

    Antimicrobial host defense peptides are produced by all complex organisms as well as some microbes and have diverse and complex antimicrobial activities. Collectively these peptides demonstrate a broad range of antiviral and antibacterial activities and modes of action, and it is important to distinguish between direct microbicidal and indirect activities against such pathogens. The structural requirements of peptides for antiviral and antibacterial activities are evaluated in light of the diverse set of primary and secondary structures described for host defense peptides. Peptides with antifungal and antiparasitic activities are discussed in less detail, although the broad-spectrum activities of such peptides indicate that they are important host defense molecules. Knowledge regarding the relationship between peptide structure and function as well as their mechanism of action is being applied in the design of antimicrobial peptide variants as potential novel therapeutic agents. PMID:16847082

  7. Hepatocytes as Immunological Agents.

    PubMed

    Crispe, Ian N

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocytes are targeted for infection by a number of major human pathogens, including hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and malaria. However, hepatocytes are also immunological agents in their own right. In systemic immunity, they are central in the acute-phase response, which floods the circulation with defensive proteins during diverse stresses, including ischemia, physical trauma, and sepsis. Hepatocytes express a variety of innate immune receptors and, when challenged with pathogen- or damage-associated molecular patterns, can deliver cell-autonomous innate immune responses that may result in host defense or in immunopathology. Important human pathogens have evolved mechanisms to subvert these responses. Finally, hepatocytes talk directly to T cells, resulting in a bias toward immune tolerance. PMID:26685314

  8. New agents for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, N; Di Lorenzo, G; Sonpavde, G; Bellmunt, J

    2014-09-01

    The therapeutic landscape of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) has been revolutionized by the arrival of multiple novel agents in the past 2 years. Immunotherapy in the form of sipuleucel-T, androgen axis inhibitors, including abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide, a chemotherapeutic agent, cabazitaxel, and a radiopharmaceutical, radium-223, have all yielded incremental extensions of survival and have been recently approved. A number of other agents appear promising in early studies, suggesting that the armamentarium against castrate-resistant prostate cancer is likely to continue to expand. Emerging androgen pathway inhibitors include androgen synthesis inhibitors (TAK700), androgen receptor inhibitors (ARN-509, ODM-201), AR DNA binding domain inhibitors (EPI-001), selective AR downregulators or SARDs (AZD-3514), and agents that inhibit both androgen synthesis and receptor binding (TOK-001/galeterone). Promising immunotherapeutic agents include poxvirus vaccines and CTLA-4 inhibitor (ipilimumab). Biologic agents targeting the molecular drivers of disease are also being investigated as single agents, including cabozantinib (Met and VEGFR2 inhibitor) and tasquinimod (angiogenesis and immune modulatory agent). Despite the disappointing results seen from studies evaluating docetaxel in combination with other agents, including GVAX, anti-angiogentic agents (bevacizumab, aflibercept, lenalinomide), a SRC kinase inhibitor (dasatinib), endothelin receptor antagonists (atrasentan, zibotentan), and high-dose calcitriol (DN-101), the results from the trial evaluating docetaxel in combination with the clusterin antagonist, custirsen, are eagerly awaited. New therapeutic hurdles consist of discovering new targets, understanding resistance mechanisms, the optimal sequencing and combinations of available agents, as well as biomarkers predictive for benefit. Novel agents targeting bone metastases are being developed following the success of zoledronic acid and denosumab. Finally, all of these modalities do not appear curative, suggesting that clinical trial enrollment and a better understanding of biology remain of paramount importance. PMID:24658665

  9. Broad-spectrum antiviral agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jun-Da; Meng, Wen; Wang, Xiao-Jia; Wang, Hwa-Chain R.

    2015-01-01

    Development of highly effective, broad-spectrum antiviral agents is the major objective shared by the fields of virology and pharmaceutics. Antiviral drug development has focused on targeting viral entry and replication, as well as modulating cellular defense system. High throughput screening of molecules, genetic engineering of peptides, and functional screening of agents have identified promising candidates for development of optimal broad-spectrum antiviral agents to intervene in viral infection and control viral epidemics. This review discusses current knowledge, prospective applications, opportunities, and challenges in the development of broad-spectrum antiviral agents. PMID:26052325

  10. Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

    Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

  11. The problem of coupling in dry-head lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pishchalnikov, Yuri A.; McAteer, James A.; Neucks, Joshua S.; Pishchalnikova, Irina V.; Williams, James C.

    2007-04-01

    Recent in vitro studies have shown that air pockets can get trapped at the coupling interface of the treatment head in dry-head lithotripsy, and this can pose a significant barrier to transmission of shock wave energy to the focal zone. Breakage of model stones is very sensitive to the presence of air pockets at the coupling interface. The quality of routine coupling is highly variable, and it seems quite feasible that the way in which the coupling gel is applied may have a significant effect on the quality of coupling. Therefore, attempts to find the best coupling regime may be valuable to perform, and preliminary results of in vitro tests are presented in this report. Experiments were conducted using gel or castor oil as coupling agents. The test tank was coupled through a transparent Mylar membrane to the water-filled cushion of the treatment head, so that pockets of air trapped between the two coupling surfaces could be observed and photographed. It is shown that the quality of coupling can be improved by applying an excessive amount of gel to just the water cushion of the lithotripter, while applying gel to both the water cushion and the Mylar membrane typically gives poor coupling. Repeat decoupling and re-coupling substantially degraded the quality of coupling, reducing shock wave energy density at the target by ˜80%. It was also observed that using castor oil as a coupling medium does not guarantee air-free coupling.

  12. Engineering upconverting nanophosphors as biosensors and biotherapeutic agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Shuang Fang

    2012-02-01

    Contrast agents play an important role in the study of biological tissues and whole organisms, since they enable visualization of functional structures. Fluorescent contrast agents also enable specific targeting in therapeutic approaches. Developing optimized contrast agents is central to optimizing the performance of both imaging and therapy. Upconversion nanophosphors (UCNPs) are a class of nanoparticles which enable efficient 2-photon fluorescence. Their intrinsic properties of low toxicity, low excitation intensity, narrow fluorescence line width, multiplexing capability, zero fluorescent background, and absence of bleaching and blinking make them strong candidates as a contrast agent with wide applicability. I am working to develop these nanomaterials with biological significance as contrast agents in biolabels , in biosensors and as therapeutic agents in photodynamic therapy. This will be combined with the enhancement of brightness of the UCNPs through coupling to resonant gold nanofeatures. The study is necessary in order to bring about a break through in upconversion luminescence enhancement, particularly at ever decreasing nanoparticle sizes necessary for biological applications.

  13. Agent Model Development for Assessing Climate-Induced Geopolitical Instability.

    SciTech Connect

    Boslough, Mark B.; Backus, George A.

    2005-12-01

    We present the initial stages of development of new agent-based computational methods to generate and test hypotheses about linkages between environmental change and international instability. This report summarizes the first year's effort of an originally proposed three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project. The preliminary work focused on a set of simple agent-based models and benefited from lessons learned in previous related projects and case studies of human response to climate change and environmental scarcity. Our approach was to define a qualitative model using extremely simple cellular agent models akin to Lovelock's Daisyworld and Schelling's segregation model. Such models do not require significant computing resources, and users can modify behavior rules to gain insights. One of the difficulties in agent-based modeling is finding the right balance between model simplicity and real-world representation. Our approach was to keep agent behaviors as simple as possible during the development stage (described herein) and to ground them with a realistic geospatial Earth system model in subsequent years. This work is directed toward incorporating projected climate data--including various C02 scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Third Assessment Report--and ultimately toward coupling a useful agent-based model to a general circulation model.3

  14. AGENT-BASED SOFTWARE ENGINEERING

    E-print Network

    Woolridge, Mike

    . Introduce Shoham's agent-oriented programming (AOP) proposal. 2. Is AOP a good idea in principle? 3 problems (tentative). Wooldridge & Fisher 1 Agent-Based Software Engineering 1 The AOP Proposal · Yoav-Based Software Engineering 1.1 Specifics · Shoham proposed that a complete AOP system would have three components

  15. Gelled Anti-icing Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markles, O. F.; Sperber, H. H.

    1983-01-01

    Pectin added to antifreeze/water mixture. Formulations include water with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as deicer and pectin as gel former. Without gelling agent, deicer runs off vertical surfaces. Without pectin solution will completely evaporate in far less time. Agents developed have wide potential for ice prevention on runways, highways, bridges and sidewalks.

  16. CONTEXTUALLY EMBODIED AGENTS Catherine Pelachaud

    E-print Network

    Pelachaud, Catherine

    behaviors while building an embodied agent. The agent must have the capacity to decide which facial., 1997). The model uses a pseudo-muscular approach (Pasquariello, 2000). The muscle contractions corresponds to skin muscle attachment. The deformation is performed in a zone of influence that has

  17. Programming Satan's Agents Volker Roth

    E-print Network

    Roth, Volker

    Programming Satan's Agents Volker Roth Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics Dept. Security Satan's Computer" [1], which was published in 1995. A version of its abstract serves us as introduction from programming Satan's agents [computer] may be helpful in tackling the more common problem

  18. Implementing Lego Agents Using Jason

    E-print Network

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    2010-01-01

    Since many of the currently available multi-agent frameworks are generally mostly intended for research, it can be difficult to built multi-agent systems using physical robots. In this report I describe a way to combine the multi-agent framework Jason, an extended version of the agent-oriented programming language AgentSpeak, with Lego robots to address this problem. By extending parts of the Jason reasoning cycle I show how Lego robots are able to complete tasks such as following lines on a floor and communicating to be able to avoid obstacles with minimal amount of coding. The final implementation is a functional extension that is able to built multi-agent systems using Lego agents, however there are some issues that have not been addressed. If the agents are highly dependent on percepts from their sensors, they are required to move quite slowly, because there currently is a high delay in the reasoning cycle, when it is combined with a robot. Overall the system is quite robust and can be used to make simple...

  19. 13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Debentures, Participating Securities, or TCs pursuant to this part. (1) Selling Agent. As a condition of guaranteeing a Debenture or Participating Security, SBA shall cause each Licensee to appoint a Selling Agent to... or Trust assemblers (“Poolers”). (ii) Receiving guaranteed Debentures and Participating Securities...

  20. 13 CFR 108.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... service Debentures or TCs pursuant to this part. (1) Selling Agent. As a condition of guaranteeing a Debenture, SBA may cause each NMVC Company to appoint a Selling Agent to perform functions that include, but...”). (ii) Receiving guaranteed Debentures as well as negotiating the terms and conditions of sales...

  1. Transdermal delivery of therapeutic agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwiatkowski, Krzysztof C. (Inventor); Hayes, Ryan T. (Inventor); Magnuson, James W. (Inventor); Giletto, Anthony (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A device for the transdermal delivery of a therapeutic agent to a biological subject that includes a first electrode comprising a first array of electrically conductive microprojections for providing electrical communication through a skin portion of the subject to a second electrode comprising a second array of electrically conductive microprojections. Additionally, a reservoir for holding the therapeutic agent surrounding the first electrode and a pulse generator for providing an exponential decay pulse between the first and second electrodes may be provided. A method includes the steps of piercing a stratum corneum layer of skin with two arrays of conductive microprojections, encapsulating the therapeutic agent into biocompatible charged carriers, surrounding the conductive microprojections with the therapeutic agent, generating an exponential decay pulse between the two arrays of conductive microprojections to create a non-uniform electrical field and electrokinetically driving the therapeutic agent through the stratum corneum layer of skin.

  2. Intelligent Agents in Physics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Guzmán, D.; Mora, César

    2010-07-01

    Intelligent Agents are being applied in a wide range of processes and everyday applications. Their development is not new, in recent years they have had an increased attention and design; like learning and mentoring tools. In this work we discuss the definition of what an intelligent agent is; how they are applied; how they look like; recent implementations of agents; agents as support in the learning process, more precisely intelligent tutors; their state in Latin-American countries and future developments and trends that will permit a better communication between people and agents. Also we present an Intelligent Tutor applied as a tool for improving high-school students' skills and reasoning for the first five topics of Mechanics curricula.

  3. Markov Tracking for Agent Coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, Richard; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) axe an attractive representation for representing agent behavior, since they capture uncertainty in both the agent's state and its actions. However, finding an optimal policy for POMDPs in general is computationally difficult. In this paper we present Markov Tracking, a restricted problem of coordinating actions with an agent or process represented as a POMDP Because the actions coordinate with the agent rather than influence its behavior, the optimal solution to this problem can be computed locally and quickly. We also demonstrate the use of the technique on sequential POMDPs, which can be used to model a behavior that follows a linear, acyclic trajectory through a series of states. By imposing a "windowing" restriction that restricts the number of possible alternatives considered at any moment to a fixed size, a coordinating action can be calculated in constant time, making this amenable to coordination with complex agents.

  4. Phytonutrients as therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Charu; Prakash, Dhan

    2014-09-01

    Nutrients present in various foods plays an important role in maintaining the normal functions of the human body. The major nutrients present in foods include carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals. Besides these, there are some bioactive food components known as "phytonutrients" that play an important role in human health. They have tremendous impact on the health care system and may provide medical health benefits including the prevention and/or treatment of disease and various physiological disorders. Phytonutrients play a positive role by maintaining and modulating immune function to prevent specific diseases. Being natural products, they hold a great promise in clinical therapy as they possess no side effects that are usually associated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. They are also comparatively cheap and thus significantly reduce health care cost. Phytonutrients are the plant nutrients with specific biological activities that support human health. Some of the important bioactive phytonutrients include polyphenols, terpenoids, resveratrol, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, carotenoids, limonoids, glucosinolates, phytoestrogens, phytosterols, anthocyanins, ?-3 fatty acids, and probiotics. They play specific pharmacological effects in human health such as anti-microbial, anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, anti-spasmodic, anti-cancer, anti-aging, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, neuroprotective, hypotensive, diabetes, osteoporosis, CNS stimulant, analgesic, protection from UVB-induced carcinogenesis, immuno-modulator, and carminative. This mini-review attempts to summarize the major important types of phytonutrients and their role in promoting human health and as therapeutic agents along with the current market trend and commercialization. PMID:25051278

  5. Plasmids encoding therapeutic agents

    DOEpatents

    Keener, William K. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2007-08-07

    Plasmids encoding anti-HIV and anti-anthrax therapeutic agents are disclosed. Plasmid pWKK-500 encodes a fusion protein containing DP178 as a targeting moiety, the ricin A chain, an HIV protease cleavable linker, and a truncated ricin B chain. N-terminal extensions of the fusion protein include the maltose binding protein and a Factor Xa protease site. C-terminal extensions include a hydrophobic linker, an L domain motif peptide, a KDEL ER retention signal, another Factor Xa protease site, an out-of-frame buforin II coding sequence, the lacZ.alpha. peptide, and a polyhistidine tag. More than twenty derivatives of plasmid pWKK-500 are described. Plasmids pWKK-700 and pWKK-800 are similar to pWKK-500 wherein the DP178-encoding sequence is substituted by RANTES- and SDF-1-encoding sequences, respectively. Plasmid pWKK-900 is similar to pWKK-500 wherein the HIV protease cleavable linker is substituted by a lethal factor (LF) peptide-cleavable linker.

  6. Knowledge focus via software agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henager, Donald E.

    2001-09-01

    The essence of military Command and Control (C2) is making knowledge intensive decisions in a limited amount of time using uncertain, incorrect, or outdated information. It is essential to provide tools to decision-makers that provide: * Management of friendly forces by treating the "friendly resources as a system". * Rapid assessment of effects of military actions againt the "enemy as a system". * Assessment of how an enemy should, can, and could react to friendly military activities. Software agents in the form of mission agents, target agents, maintenance agents, and logistics agents can meet this information challenge. The role of each agent is to know all the details about its assigned mission, target, maintenance, or logistics entity. The Mission Agent would fight for mission resources based on the mission priority and analyze the effect that a proposed mission's results would have on the enemy. The Target Agent (TA) communicates with other targets to determine its role in the system of targets. A system of TAs would be able to inform a planner or analyst of the status of a system of targets, the effect of that status, adn the effect of attacks on that system. The system of TAs would also be able to analyze possible enemy reactions to attack by determining ways to minimize the effect of attack, such as rerouting traffic or using deception. The Maintenance Agent would scheudle maintenance events and notify the maintenance unit. The Logistics Agent would manage shipment and delivery of supplies to maintain appropriate levels of weapons, fuel and spare parts. The central idea underlying this case of software agents is knowledge focus. Software agents are createad automatically to focus their attention on individual real-world entities (e.g., missions, targets) and view the world from that entities perspective. The agent autonomously monitors the entity, identifies problems/opportunities, formulates solutions, and informs the decision-maker. The agent must be able to communicate to receive and disseminate information and provide the decision-maker with assistance via focused knowledge. THe agent must also be able to monitor the state of its own environment and make decisions necessary to carry out its delegated tasks. Agents bring three elements to the C2 domain that offer to improve decision-making. First, they provide higher-quality feedback and provide it more often. In doing so, the feedback loop becomes nearly continuous, reducing or eliminating delays in situation updates to decision-makers. Working with the most current information possible improves the control process, thus enabling effects based operations. Second, the agents accept delegation of actions and perform those actions following an established process. Agents' consistent actions reduce the variability of human input and stabilize the control process. Third, through the delegation of actions, agents ensure 100 percent consideration of plan details.

  7. Portrait of a Couple 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    Coupled line structures in inhomogeneous media are analyzed and applied in three circuits, a novel three-coupled line bandpass filter having sharp cutoff and two planar baluns composed of two sections of broadside-coupled lines. These are very...

  8. Agent Communications using Distributed Metaobjects

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.; Spires, Shannon V.

    1999-06-10

    There are currently two proposed standards for agent communication languages, namely, KQML (Finin, Lobrou, and Mayfield 1994) and the FIPA ACL. Neither standard has yet achieved primacy, and neither has been evaluated extensively in an open environment such as the Internet. It seems prudent therefore to design a general-purpose agent communications facility for new agent architectures that is flexible yet provides an architecture that accepts many different specializations. In this paper we exhibit the salient features of an agent communications architecture based on distributed metaobjects. This architecture captures design commitments at a metaobject level, leaving the base-level design and implementation up to the agent developer. The scope of the metamodel is broad enough to accommodate many different communication protocols, interaction protocols, and knowledge sharing regimes through extensions to the metaobject framework. We conclude that with a powerful distributed object substrate that supports metaobject communications, a general framework can be developed that will effectively enable different approaches to agent communications in the same agent system. We have implemented a KQML-based communications protocol and have several special-purpose interaction protocols under development.

  9. Symptom management for schizophrenic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Sengers, P.

    1996-12-31

    Behavior-based paradigms are a promising avenue towards creating full-blown integrated autonomous agents. However, until now they have had a major stumbling block: programmers can create robust, subtle, and expressive behaviors, but the agent`s overall behavior gradually falls apart as these behaviors are combined. For small numbers of behaviors, this disintegration can be managed by the programmer, but as more behaviors are combined their interactions become so complex that they become at least time-consuming and at worst impossible to manage.

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Paul H. (Los Alamos, NM); Brainard, James R. (Los Alamos, NM); Jarvinen, Gordon D. (Los Alamos, NM); Ryan, Robert R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC.sub.16 H.sub.14 N.sub.6. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques.

  11. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, P.H.; Brainard, J.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

    1997-12-30

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC{sub 16}H{sub 14}N{sub 6}. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques. 10 figs.

  12. Optimal agent cooperation with local information

    E-print Network

    De Mot, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Multi-agent systems are in general believed to be more efficient, robust, and versatile than their single-agent equivalents. However, it is not an easy task to design strategies that fully exploit the multi-agent benefits, ...

  13. Viroids: molecular infectious agents.

    PubMed

    Smarda, J

    1987-11-01

    In 1971, unique small RNA molecules, the viroids, were found to cause specific infectious diseases of plants. They are the smallest and simplest contagious agents known. Until now, 14 viroids have been described and 12 diseases of potatoes, tomatoes, citruses, chrysanthemums, cucumbers, hops, coconut palms avocado trees and burdock are known to be caused by viroids. The common symptoms of these diseases are: stunting of plants. discoloration of veins, epinasty, curling and distortions of leaves, chlorotic or necrotic spots etc., followed by death of the diseased plants. All viroids are ssRNAs of m.w. ranging from 1.1 x 10(5) to 1.7 x 10(5), corresponding to chains of just 246 to 371 ribonucleotides. For 10 viroids, complete nucleotide sequences are known PSTV, CSV, CEV, TPMV and TASV show 60%-80% homology with each other; in analogy, ASBV, HSV, CPFV. GV and CCCV are closely homologous to each other, too, but just distantly related to the PSTV group. Extensive intramolecular base pairing creates a characteristic secondary structure of the cyclic viroid RNA chain, native viroids appearing as quasi double-stranded, unbranched, very short rod-like structures with short single-stranded loops. (Thus PSTV forms rods about 50 nm long and 2 nm wide.) The stretch of nearly all viroids bears a common central conserved region of 19 bp. The "upper" part of this region is, presumably, the cleavage-ligation site of viroid oligomers during replication. Viroids are located and replicated in nuclei of infected cells, in association with their nucleoli. Their replication is directed by host DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II using cRNA oligomers as templates according to the rolling circle model. Viroid RNA has no mRNA function. The virulence of viroids is coded by their virulence modulating region in the "left hand" part of their molecules: a single nucleotide substitution between nucleotides 43 and 56 within this region alters the virulence. Most probably, viroids have originated by the circularization of spliced-out transcripts of eucaryotic introns. A stable complex may be created between the 5' end of U1 snRNA and nucleotides 257 to 279 of PSTV cRNA strand; thus the pathogenic effects of viroids seem to be a result of their interference with pre-mRNA processing. PMID:2449812

  14. Learning in multi-agent systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, C.V.

    1996-12-31

    Learning agents acting in a multi agent environment can improve their performance. These agents might decide upon their course of action by learning about other agents with whom they interact. The learning agents can learn about the others information and rules of behavior. The agents will not need to plan their actions beforehand, each time they are asked to solve the same problem they have already solved or when dealing with similar problems.

  15. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange VA presumes Veterans' early-onset ... percent disabling by VA's rating regulations. About peripheral neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy is a condition of the peripheral ...

  16. Triggered pore-forming agents

    DOEpatents

    Bayley, Hagan (Grafton, MA); Walker, Barbara J. (Auburn, MA); Chang, Chung-yu (Worcester, MA); Niblack, Brett (Nashville, TN); Panchal, Rekha (Shrewsbury, MA)

    1998-01-01

    An inactive pore-forming agent which is activated to lytic function by a condition such as pH, light, heat, reducing potential, or metal ion concentration, or substance such as a protease, at the surface of a cell.

  17. Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Kelly, Andrew O.; Boeloeni, Ladislau

    2005-01-01

    The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed a software agent to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent, increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during Shuttle launch countdown. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream, automatically alerts system engineers when predefined criteria have been met, identifies limit warnings and violations of launch commit criteria, aids Shuttle engineers through troubleshooting procedures, and provides additional insight to verify appropriate troubleshooting of problems by contractors. The agent has successfully detected launch commit criteria warnings and violations on a simulated playback data stream. Efficiency and safety are improved through increased automation.

  18. Agent-based forward analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kerekes, Ryan A.; Jiao, Yu; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Potok, Thomas E.; Lusk, Rick M.

    2008-01-01

    We propose software agent-based "forward analysis" for efficient information retrieval in a network of sensing devices. In our approach, processing is pushed to the data at the edge of the network via intelligent software agents rather than pulling data to a central facility for processing. The agents are deployed with a specific query and perform varying levels of analysis of the data, communicating with each other and sending only relevant information back across the network. We demonstrate our concept in the context of face recognition using a wireless test bed comprised of PDA cell phones and laptops. We show that agent-based forward analysis can provide a significant increase in retrieval speed while decreasing bandwidth usage and information overload at the central facility. n

  19. Chemical Agents: Facts about Evacuation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Emergency Response Guide Reaching At-Risk Populations Chemical Agents: Facts About Evacuation Format: Select one PDF [ ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some kinds of chemical accidents or attacks, such as a train derailment ...

  20. Surface preparation and coupling in plastic scintillator dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Ayotte, Guylaine; Archambault, Louis; Gingras, Luc; Lacroix, Frederic; Beddar, A. Sam; Beaulieu, Luc

    2006-09-15

    One way to improve the performance of scintillation dosimeters is to increase the light-collection efficiency at the coupling interfaces of the detector system. We performed a detailed study of surface preparation of scintillating fibers and their coupling with clear optical fibers to minimize light loss and increase the amount of light collected. We analyzed fiber-surface polishing with aluminum oxide sheets, coating fibers with magnesium oxide, and the use of eight different coupling agents (air, three optical gels, an optical curing agent, ultraviolet light, cyanoacrylate glue, and acetone). We prepared 10 scintillating fiber and clear optical fiber light guide samples to test different coupling methods. To test the coupling, we first cut both the scintillating fiber and the clear optical fiber. Then, we cleaned and polished both ends of both fibers. Finally, we coupled the scintillating fiber with the clear optical fiber in either a polyethylene jacket or a V-grooved support depending on the coupling agent used. To produce more light, we used an ultraviolet lamp to stimulate scintillation. A typical series of similar couplings showed a standard deviation in light-collection efficiency of 10%. This can be explained by differences in the surface preparation quality and alignment of the scintillating fiber with the clear optical fiber. Absence of surface polishing reduced the light collection by approximately 40%, and application of magnesium oxide on the proximal end of the scintillating fiber increased the amount of light collected from the optical fiber by approximately 39%. Of the coupling agents, we obtained the best results using one of the optical gels. Because a large amount of the light produced inside a scintillator is usually lost, better light-collection efficiency will result in improved sensitivity.

  1. Multiagent Learning of Coordination in Loosely Coupled Multiagent Systems.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Zhang, Minjie; Ren, Fenghui; Tan, Guozhen

    2015-12-01

    Multiagent learning (MAL) is a promising technique for agents to learn efficient coordinated behaviors in multiagent systems (MASs). In MAL, concurrent multiple distributed learning processes can make the learning environment nonstationary for each individual learner. Developing an efficient learning approach to coordinate agents' behaviors in this dynamic environment is a difficult problem, especially when agents do not know the domain structure and have only local observability of the environment. In this paper, a coordinated MAL approach is proposed to enable agents to learn efficient coordinated behaviors by exploiting agent independence in loosely coupled MASs. The main feature of the proposed approach is to explicitly quantify and dynamically adapt agent independence during learning so that agents can make a trade-off between a single-agent learning process and a coordinated learning process for an efficient decision making. The proposed approach is employed to solve two-robot navigation problems in different scales of domains. Experimental results show that agents using the proposed approach can learn to act in concert or independently in different areas of the environment, which results in great computational savings and near optimal performance. PMID:25594993

  2. A amphoteric copolymer profile modification agent

    SciTech Connect

    Wang HongGuan; Yu LianCheng; Tian HongKun

    1995-11-01

    This report provides a new gel profile modification agent prepared by an amphoteric copolymer (FT-213) and a novel crosslinking agent (BY), and introduces the preparations of the amphoteric polymer, the crosslinking agent and the profile modification agent, the action mechanism, the test conditions and the evaluations of the performance of the agent. The 45 well treatments in oilfields demonstrate that the agent can be prepared conveniently, the agent has better compatibility and application performances, and the treatment life is longer with the use of the agent. 80,000 tons incremental oil and 60,000 m{sup 3} decreasing water production have been achieved.

  3. Path Coupling and Aggregate Path Coupling

    E-print Network

    Yevgeniy Kovchegov; Peter T. Otto

    2015-01-13

    In this survey paper, we describe and characterize an extension to the classical path coupling method applied statistical mechanical models, referred to as aggregate path coupling. In conjunction with large deviations estimates, we use this aggregate path coupling method to prove rapid mixing of Glauber dynamics for a large class of statistical mechanical models, including models that exhibit discontinuous phase transitions which have traditionally been more difficult to analyze rigorously. The parameter region for rapid mixing for the generalized Curie-Weiss-Potts model is derived as a new application of the aggregate path coupling method.

  4. Path Coupling and Aggregate Path Coupling

    E-print Network

    Kovchegov, Yevgeniy

    2015-01-01

    In this survey paper, we describe and characterize an extension to the classical path coupling method applied statistical mechanical models, referred to as aggregate path coupling. In conjunction with large deviations estimates, we use this aggregate path coupling method to prove rapid mixing of Glauber dynamics for a large class of statistical mechanical models, including models that exhibit discontinuous phase transitions which have traditionally been more difficult to analyze rigorously. The parameter region for rapid mixing for the generalized Curie-Weiss-Potts model is derived as a new application of the aggregate path coupling method.

  5. Ni(II) Salts and 2-Propanol Effect Catalytic Reductive Coupling of Epoxides and Alkynes

    E-print Network

    Beaver, Matthew G.

    A Ni-catalyzed reductive coupling of alkynes and epoxides using Ni(II) salts and simple alcohol reducing agents is described. Whereas previously reported conditions relied on Ni(cod)2 and Et3B, this system has several ...

  6. Quick connect coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprague, Benny B. (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A coupling device has a transversely arranged, open-end groove in a flange attached to a pipe end. The groove in the flange receives a circumferentially arranged locking flange element on the other coupling member and permits alignment of the bores of the coupling members when the locking flange element is in the open end groove. Upon alignment of the bores of the coupling members, a trigger member is activated to automatically release a spring biased tubular member in one of the coupling members. The tubular member has a conical end which is displaced into the other coupling member to lock the coupling members to one another. A tensioning nut is threadedly movable on a coupling member so as to be moved into tightening engagement with the other coupling member.

  7. Globally coupled chaotic maps and demographic stochasticity

    E-print Network

    David A. Kessler; Nadav M. Shnerb

    2009-06-04

    The affect of demographic stochasticity of a system of globally coupled chaotic maps is considered. A two-step model is studied, where the intra-patch chaotic dynamics is followed by a migration step that coupled all patches; the equilibrium number of agents on each site, $N$, controls the strength of the discreteness-induced fluctuations. For small $N$ (large fluctuations) a period-doubling cascade appears as the coupling (migration) increases. As $N$ grows an extremely slow dynamic emerges, leading to a flow along a one-dimensional family of almost period 2 solutions. This manifold become a true solutions in the deterministic limit. The degeneracy between different attractors that characterizes the clustering phase of the deterministic system is thus the $N \\to \\infty$ limit of the slow dynamics manifold.

  8. Formalization of Embodied Sensorimotor Coupling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Kohei

    2008-10-01

    Theoretical conception of an active behavior of the system is one of the most challengeable topics in complex systems research. Recently, especially in the fields of robotics and artificial intelligence, there broadly exists the study to understand the interface between the system and its environment by creating an autonomous agent that carries a sensorimotor coupling. In this paper, an embodied sensorimotor coupling system is discussed. Applying a generative pointer, the system is formalized to contain an intrinsic discrepancy induced by heterarichical duality in a flow construction by using category theory. In the system, the body plays a positive role as a dynamical mediator, or interface, between two conflicting layers, a relational layers and a constituent layers. As a result, it induces a structural change of the system itself. Implementing the construction to a Braitenberg type vehicle, we observed dynamical changes of system parameters and its behavior revealed various motion patterns compared with the conventional sensorimotor coupling system.

  9. A multi-agent architecture for geosimulation of moving agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahidnia, Mohammad H.; Alesheikh, Ali A.; Alavipanah, Seyed Kazem

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a novel architecture is proposed in which an axiomatic derivation system in the form of first-order logic facilitates declarative explanation and spatial reasoning. Simulation of environmental perception and interaction between autonomous agents is designed with a geographic belief-desire-intention and a request-inform-query model. The architecture has a complementary quantitative component that supports collaborative planning based on the concept of equilibrium and game theory. This new architecture presents a departure from current best practices geographic agent-based modelling. Implementation tasks are discussed in some detail, as well as scenarios for fleet management and disaster management.

  10. Investigational Antimicrobial Agents of 2013

    PubMed Central

    Pucci, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY New antimicrobial agents are always needed to counteract the resistant pathogens that continue to be selected by current therapeutic regimens. This review provides a survey of known antimicrobial agents that were currently in clinical development in the fall of 2012 and spring of 2013. Data were collected from published literature primarily from 2010 to 2012, meeting abstracts (2011 to 2012), government websites, and company websites when appropriate. Compared to what was reported in previous surveys, a surprising number of new agents are currently in company pipelines, particularly in phase 3 clinical development. Familiar antibacterial classes of the quinolones, tetracyclines, oxazolidinones, glycopeptides, and cephalosporins are represented by entities with enhanced antimicrobial or pharmacological properties. More importantly, compounds of novel chemical structures targeting bacterial pathways not previously exploited are under development. Some of the most promising compounds include novel ?-lactamase inhibitor combinations that target many multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, a critical medical need. Although new antimicrobial agents will continue to be needed to address increasing antibiotic resistance, there are novel agents in development to tackle at least some of the more worrisome pathogens in the current nosocomial setting. PMID:24092856

  11. Next Generation Remote Agent Planner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonsson, Ari K.; Muscettola, Nicola; Morris, Paul H.; Rajan, Kanna

    1999-01-01

    In May 1999, as part of a unique technology validation experiment onboard the Deep Space One spacecraft, the Remote Agent became the first complete autonomous spacecraft control architecture to run as flight software onboard an active spacecraft. As one of the three components of the architecture, the Remote Agent Planner had the task of laying out the course of action to be taken, which included activities such as turning, thrusting, data gathering, and communicating. Building on the successful approach developed for the Remote Agent Planner, the Next Generation Remote Agent Planner is a completely redesigned and reimplemented version of the planner. The new system provides all the key capabilities of the original planner, while adding functionality, improving performance and providing a modular and extendible implementation. The goal of this ongoing project is to develop a system that provides both a basis for future applications and a framework for further research in the area of autonomous planning for spacecraft. In this article, we present an introductory overview of the Next Generation Remote Agent Planner. We present a new and simplified definition of the planning problem, describe the basics of the planning process, lay out the new system design and examine the functionality of the core reasoning module.

  12. Artificial societies and psychological agents Stuart Watt

    E-print Network

    Artificial societies and psychological agents Stuart Watt KMI-TR-33 September 1996 A revised Agents, Autumn 1996 #12;Artificial societies and psychological agents Stuart Watt Knowledge Media.N.K.Watt@open.ac.uk Abstract Agents have for a while been a key concept in artificial intelligence, but often all that the word

  13. Capitulo 2 Arquitecturas y programas de agente

    E-print Network

    Guerra Hernández, Alejandro

    Cap´itulo 2 Arquitecturas y programas de agente 2.1. Arquitecturas de Agente Es posible formalizar la definici´on abstracta de agente que hemos presentado (p. 4), en la forma de una arquitectura ambiente. 13 #12;14 2 Arquitecturas y programas de agente Para modelar el efecto de una acci´on en el

  14. Partner switching promotes cooperation among myopic agents on a geographical plane.

    PubMed

    Li, Yixiao; Min, Yong; Zhu, Xiaodong; Cao, Jie

    2013-02-01

    We study the coupling dynamics between the evolution of cooperation and the evolution of partnership network on a geographical plane. While agents play networked prisoner's dilemma games, they can dynamically adjust their partnerships based on local information about reputation. We incorporate geographical features into the process of the agent's partner switching and investigate the corresponding effects. At each time step of the coevolution, a random agent can either update his strategy by imitation or adjust his partnership by switching from the lowest reputation partner to the highest reputation one among his neighbors. We differentiate two types of neighbors: geographical neighbors (i.e., the set of agents who are close to the focal agent in terms of geographical distance) and connectivity neighbors (i.e., the set of agents who are close to the focal agent in the partnership network in terms of geodesic distance). We find that switching to either geographical neighbors or connectivity neighbors enhances cooperation greatly in a wide parameter range. Cooperation can be favored in a much stricter condition when agents switch to connectivity neighbors more frequently. However, an increasing tendency of reconnecting to geographical neighbors shortens the geographical distance between a pair of partners on average. When agents consider the cost of geographical distance in adjusting the partnership, they are prone to reconnect to geographical neighbors. PMID:23496584

  15. Integrated Information Framework for Intelligent Cooperative Design Based on Multi-Agent System and XML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Cao; Lina, Yang; Yanli, Yang; Hua, Chen

    2008-11-01

    To meet the requirements of distributed cooperation in various industries, the architecture of cooperative design based on multi-agent system on Internet is proposed by analyzing cooperative design pattern, and its key technologies, such as product developing process management, information management, and conflict resolution, are discussed. An integrated information framework of loosely coupling modules is proposed which supports concurrent work mode based on multi-agent system. Integrating Web service technique and agent technique into this framework can organize many cooperative members and their activities effectively though they are distributed at different places. Finally, system development mode based on Web is put forward.

  16. Adaptive networks of trading agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burda, Z.; Krzywicki, A.; Martin, O. C.

    2008-10-01

    Multiagent models have been used in many contexts to study generic collective behavior. Similarly, complex networks have become very popular because of the diversity of growth rules giving rise to scale-free behavior. Here we study adaptive networks where the agents trade “wealth” when they are linked together while links can appear and disappear according to the wealth of the corresponding agents; thus the agents influence the network dynamics and vice versa. Our framework generalizes a multiagent model of Bouchaud and Mézard [Physica A 282, 536 (2000)], and leads to a steady state with fluctuating connectivities. The system spontaneously self-organizes into a critical state where the wealth distribution has a fat tail and the network is scale free; in addition, network heterogeneities lead to enhanced wealth condensation.

  17. Agent review phase one report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zubelewicz, Alex Tadeusz; Davis, Christopher Edward; Bauer, Travis LaDell

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings for phase one of the agent review and discusses the review methods and results. The phase one review identified a short list of agent systems that would prove most useful in the service architecture of an information management, analysis, and retrieval system. Reviewers evaluated open-source and commercial multi-agent systems and scored them based upon viability, uniqueness, ease of development, ease of deployment, and ease of integration with other products. Based on these criteria, reviewers identified the ten most appropriate systems. The report also mentions several systems that reviewers deemed noteworthy for the ideas they implement, even if those systems are not the best choices for information management purposes.

  18. Environmentally responsive MRI contrast agents

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Gemma-Louise; Kramberger, Iris; Davis, Jason J.

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical imaging techniques can provide a vast amount of anatomical information, enabling diagnosis and the monitoring of disease and treatment profile. MRI uniquely offers convenient, non-invasive, high resolution tomographic imaging. A considerable amount of effort has been invested, across several decades, in the design of non toxic paramagnetic contrast agents capable of enhancing positive MRI signal contrast. Recently, focus has shifted towards the development of agents capable of specifically reporting on their local biochemical environment, where a switch in image contrast is triggered by a specific stimulus/biochemical variable. Such an ability would not only strengthen diagnosis but also provide unique disease-specific biochemical insight. This feature article focuses on recent progress in the development of MRI contrast switching with molecular, macromolecular and nanoparticle-based agents. PMID:24040650

  19. Separation and analysis of lanthanides by isotachophoresis coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vio, Laurent; Crétier, Gérard; Chartier, Frédéric; Geertsen, Valérie; Gourgiotis, Alkiviadis; Isnard, Hélène; Rocca, Jean-Louis

    2012-09-15

    This study is a large project initiated by the French Nuclear Agency, and concerns the development of a new electrolyte system for the separation of lanthanides by isotachophoresis. This new system is based on a leading electrolyte that incorporates 2-hydroxy-2-methylbutyric acid as complexing agent. The optimization of separation conditions (complexing agent concentration, pH, capillary dimensions, injection conditions, and current intensity) performed by experiments on a commercial capillary instrument with contactless conductivity detection, which allows to improve the separation of 13 lanthanides (La to Lu, except Pm and Ho). We have also directly coupled the isotachophoresis to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer to visualize the mono-elementary elution bands and demonstrate the potentiality of the method for isotope ratio measurements. The application to a simulated solution representative of a fraction of fission products present in a MOX spent fuel is presented in this paper to demonstrate the possible application in future on nuclear fuel samples. PMID:22967598

  20. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfurly alcohol cleaning agent

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Carter, Richard D. (Lee's Summit, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); Powers, Michael T. (Santa Rosa, CA)

    1997-10-21

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  1. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, G.W.; Carter, R.D.; Hand, T.E.; Powers, M.T.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  2. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, G.W.; Carter, R.D.; Hand, T.E.; Powers, M.T.

    1996-05-07

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene or terpineol cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  3. High temperature profile modification agents and methods for using same

    SciTech Connect

    Ryles, R.G.; Robustelli, A.G.; Clechiello, J.V.

    1989-05-02

    This patent describes a method for altering the permeability of at least a portion of a subterranean formation penetrated by at least one wellbore comprising the steps of passing a fluid gelable composition into the formation to a preselected location and gelling the composition to modify the liquid flow profile of the portion of the formation. The improvement consists of using, as the fluid gellable composition, a composition comprising: (a) water; (b) a water-thickening and cross-linkable amount of a water-dispersible polymer consisting essentially of: from about 30 to about 99 mol % of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid units or salts thereof and from about 70 to 1 mol % of acrylic acid units or salts thereof and (c) an amount of a polyvalent metal capable of cross-linking the polymer to form a stable gel, wherein the polyvalent metal in component (c) is provided in the form of a redox couple, the redox couple comprising (iii) at least one oxidizing agent comprising a water-soluble compound of the polyvalent metal in its highest valence state and being capable of being reduced to a lower valence state and being selected from the group consisting of hexavalent chromium compounds and permanganates and (iv) a reducing agent effective to reduce the higher valence metal in oxidizing agent (iii) to a lower polyvalent valence state.

  4. The New Agent: A Qualitative Study to Strategically Adapt New Agent Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Lauri M.; Hadley, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative study reported here assessed the needs of agents related to new agent professional development to improve the current model. Agents who participated in new agent professional development within the last 5 years were selected to participate in focus groups to determine concerns and continued needs. Agents enjoyed networking and…

  5. Ultrasound contrast agents: clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, J A

    2001-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (USCA) for intravenous injections are usually gas-filled microbubbles with a mean diameter less than that of a red blood corpuscle. There are only a few products on the market at the time of this writing, but several companies have various agents under development. This paper covers both established USCA on the market, and some new agents under clinical evaluation. The potential of improving ultrasound imaging using USCA depends on several factors. These factors include the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the products, which determine the effects they have on various ultrasound imaging techniques. Furthermore, the proper clinical application of the agents requires a combination of technical and medical knowledge by the examiner, dedicated equipment, a disease that can be diagnosed or characterised by ultrasound and USCA, and a cooperative patient. Taking into account these factors, USCA can be used for improving the detection, characterisation and follow-up of diseases of several vascular beds and parenchymal organs from head to foot. PMID:11519539

  6. Nucleotide cleaving agents and method

    DOEpatents

    Que, Jr., Lawrence (Roseville, MN); Hanson, Richard S. (Falcon Heights, MN); Schnaith, Leah M. T. (Redwing, MN)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a unique series of nucleotide cleaving agents and a method for cleaving a nucleotide sequence, whether single-stranded or double-stranded DNA or RNA, using and a cationic metal complex having at least one polydentate ligand to cleave the nucleotide sequence phosphate backbone to yield a hydroxyl end and a phosphate end.

  7. Other Viruses and Viruslike Agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diseases reported under 'Virus and Virus-like Agents' in the first volume of this compendium, with the exception of Cherry rasp leaf virus and Rubus chinese seed-borne virus, should be considered oddities since there are no known type isolates available for these reported viruses. Without a po...

  8. An Autonomous Spacecraft Agent Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pell, Barney; Bernard, Douglas E.; Chien, Steve A.; Gat, Erann; Muscettola, Nicola; Nayak, P. Pandurang; Wagner, Michael D.; Williams, Brian C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the New Millennium Remote Agent (NMRA) architecture for autonomous spacecraft control systems. This architecture integrates traditional real-time monitoring and control with constraint-based planning and scheduling, robust multi-threaded execution, and model-based diagnosis and reconfiguration.

  9. Triggered pore-forming agents

    DOEpatents

    Bayley, H.; Walker, B.J.; Chang, C.Y.; Niblack, B.; Panchal, R.

    1998-07-07

    An inactive pore-forming agent is revealed which is activated to lytic function by a condition such as pH, light, heat, reducing potential, or metal ion concentration, or substance such as a protease, at the surface of a cell. 30 figs.

  10. SEM: A Cultural Change Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Bradley; Bourke, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The authors advance the concept that institutional culture is a purposeful framework by which to view SEM's utility, particularly as a cultural change agent. Through the connection of seemingly independent functions of performance and behavior, implications emerge that deepen the understanding of the influence of culture on performance outcomes…

  11. Direct Vasodilators and Sympatholytic Agents.

    PubMed

    McComb, Meghan N; Chao, James Y; Ng, Tien M H

    2016-01-01

    Direct vasodilators and sympatholytic agents were some of the first antihypertensive medications discovered and utilized in the past century. However, side effect profiles and the advent of newer antihypertensive drug classes have reduced the use of these agents in recent decades. Outcome data and large randomized trials supporting the efficacy of these medications are limited; however, in general the blood pressure-lowering effect of these agents has repeatedly been shown to be comparable to other more contemporary drug classes. Nevertheless, a landmark hypertension trial found a negative outcome with a doxazosin-based regimen compared to a chlorthalidone-based regimen, leading to the removal of ?-1 adrenergic receptor blockers as first-line monotherapy from the hypertension guidelines. In contemporary practice, direct vasodilators and sympatholytic agents, particularly hydralazine and clonidine, are often utilized in refractory hypertension. Hydralazine and minoxidil may also be useful alternatives for patients with renal dysfunction, and both hydralazine and methyldopa are considered first line for the treatment of hypertension in pregnancy. Hydralazine has also found widespread use for the treatment of systolic heart failure in combination with isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN). The data to support use of this combination in African Americans with heart failure are particularly robust. Hydralazine with ISDN may also serve as an alternative for patients with an intolerance to angiotensin antagonists. Given these niche indications, vasodilators and sympatholytics are still useful in clinical practice; therefore, it is prudent to understand the existing data regarding efficacy and the safe use of these medications. PMID:26033778

  12. Software for Automation of Real-Time Agents, Version 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Forest; Estlin, Tara; Gaines, Daniel; Schaffer, Steve; Chouinard, Caroline; Engelhardt, Barbara; Wilklow, Colette; Mutz, Darren; Knight, Russell; Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David

    2005-01-01

    Version 2 of Closed Loop Execution and Recovery (CLEaR) has been developed. CLEaR is an artificial intelligence computer program for use in planning and execution of actions of autonomous agents, including, for example, Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna ground stations, robotic exploratory ground vehicles (rovers), robotic aircraft (UAVs), and robotic spacecraft. CLEaR automates the generation and execution of command sequences, monitoring the sequence execution, and modifying the command sequence in response to execution deviations and failures as well as new goals for the agent to achieve. The development of CLEaR has focused on the unification of planning and execution to increase the ability of the autonomous agent to perform under tight resource and time constraints coupled with uncertainty in how much of resources and time will be required to perform a task. This unification is realized by extending the traditional three-tier robotic control architecture by increasing the interaction between the software components that perform deliberation and reactive functions. The increase in interaction reduces the need to replan, enables earlier detection of the need to replan, and enables replanning to occur before an agent enters a state of failure.

  13. CATS-based Agents That Err

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes preliminary research on intelligent agents that make errors. Such agents are crucial to the development of novel agent-based techniques for assessing system safety. The agents extend an agent architecture derived from the Crew Activity Tracking System that has been used as the basis for air traffic controller agents. The report first reviews several error taxonomies. Next, it presents an overview of the air traffic controller agents, then details several mechanisms for causing the agents to err in realistic ways. The report presents a performance assessment of the error-generating agents, and identifies directions for further research. The research was supported by the System-Wide Accident Prevention element of the FAA/NASA Aviation Safety Program.

  14. Swarm autonomic agents with self-destruct capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments an autonomic entity manages a system by generating one or more stay alive signals based on the functioning status and operating state of the system. In some embodiments, an evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy. The evolvable neural interface receives and generates heartbeat monitor signals and pulse monitor signals that are used to generate a stay alive signal that is used to manage the operations of the synthetic neural system. In another embodiment an asynchronous Alice signal (Autonomic license) requiring valid credentials of an anonymous autonomous agent is initiated. An unsatisfactory Alice exchange may lead to self-destruction of the anonymous autonomous agent for self-protection.

  15. Swarm autonomic agents with self-destruct capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments an autonomic entity manages a system by generating one or more stay alive signals based on the functioning status and operating state of the system. In some embodiments, an evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy. The evolvable neural interface receives and generates heartbeat monitor signals and pulse monitor signals that are used to generate a stay alive signal that is used to manage the operations of the synthetic neural system. In another embodiment an asynchronous Alice signal (Autonomic license) requiring valid credentials of an anonymous autonomous agent is initiated. An unsatisfactory Alice exchange may lead to self-destruction of the anonymous autonomous agent for self-protection.

  16. Hybrid coordination of multi-agent networks with hierarchical leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ding-Xin; Xu, Guang-Hui; Guan, Zhi-Hong; Chi, Ming; Zheng, Ding-Fu

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the hybrid coordination problem of multi-agent networks with hierarchical leaders is investigated. Firstly, for the case of static major leader with uncoupled follower groups, a necessary and sufficient condition is given for all minor leaders to attain the expected formation and follower groups asymptotically converge to their given desired states. Secondly, for the case of static major leader with coupling follower groups, a sufficient condition on control parameters and the weighted adjacency matrix for the hybrid coordination is provided. Thirdly, for the case of moving major leader with hierarchy delays, a necessary and sufficient condition for the multi-agent network to derive desired performance is also obtained. Finally, some numerical examples are presented to illustrate the theoretical results.

  17. From actors to agents in socio-ecological systems models

    PubMed Central

    Rounsevell, M. D. A.; Robinson, D. T.; Murray-Rust, D.

    2012-01-01

    The ecosystem service concept has emphasized the role of people within socio-ecological systems (SESs). In this paper, we review and discuss alternative ways of representing people, their behaviour and decision-making processes in SES models using an agent-based modelling (ABM) approach. We also explore how ABM can be empirically grounded using information from social survey. The capacity for ABM to be generalized beyond case studies represents a crucial next step in modelling SESs, although this comes with considerable intellectual challenges. We propose the notion of human functional types, as an analogy of plant functional types, to support the expansion (scaling) of ABM to larger areas. The expansion of scope also implies the need to represent institutional agents in SES models in order to account for alternative governance structures and policy feedbacks. Further development in the coupling of human-environment systems would contribute considerably to better application and use of the ecosystem service concept. PMID:22144388

  18. Building Scalable Services: The CHIL Agent Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bürkle, Axel; Dimakis, Nikolaos; Karl, Ruth; Müller, Wilmuth; Pfirrmann, Uwe; Schenk, Manfred; Sutschet, Gerhard

    The services realized within the CHIL project are implemented by a set of collaborative software agents communicating with each other on a semantic level. In order to ensure this collaboration as well as a scalable service composition, coordination, and configuration, an agent framework and infrastructure was designed. A special feature of the CHIL agent infrastructure is the “pluggable behaviors” mechanism. This concept allows implementing service-specific code in agent behaviors, which will be plugged into the agents. It keeps the agent free from service functionality and enables a service-oriented scalable configuration.

  19. Peptide-based protein capture agents with high affinity, selectivity, and stability as antibody replacements in biodetection assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppock, Matthew B.; Farrow, Blake; Warner, Candice; Finch, Amethist S.; Lai, Bert; Sarkes, Deborah A.; Heath, James R.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra

    2014-05-01

    Current biodetection assays that employ monoclonal antibodies as primary capture agents exhibit limited fieldability, shelf life, and performance due to batch-to-batch production variability and restricted thermal stability. In order to improve upon the detection of biological threats in fieldable assays and systems for the Army, we are investigating protein catalyzed capture (PCC) agents as drop-in replacements for the existing antibody technology through iterative in situ click chemistry. The PCC agent oligopeptides are developed against known protein epitopes and can be mass produced using robotic methods. In this work, a PCC agent under development will be discussed. The performance, including affinity, selectivity, and stability of the capture agent technology, is analyzed by immunoprecipitation, western blotting, and ELISA experiments. The oligopeptide demonstrates superb selectivity coupled with high affinity through multi-ligand design, and improved thermal, chemical, and biochemical stability due to non-natural amino acid PCC agent design.

  20. Neuroprotective "agents" in surgery. Secret "agent" man, or common "agent" machine?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    The search for clinically-effective neuroprotective agents has received enormous support in recent years--an estimated $200 million by pharmaceutical companies on clinical trials for traumatic brain injury alone. At the same time, the pathophysiology of brain injury has proved increasingly complex, rendering the likelihood of a single agent "magic bullet" even more remote. On the other hand, great progress continues with technology that makes surgery less invasive and less risky. One example is the application of endovascular techniques to treat coronary artery stenosis, where both the invasiveness of sternotomy and the significant neurological complication rate (due to microemboli showering the cerebral vasculature) can be eliminated. In this paper we review aspects of intraoperative neuroprotection both present and future. Explanations for the slow progress on pharmacologic neuroprotection during surgery are presented. Examples of technical advances that have had great impact on neuroprotection during surgery are given both from coronary artery stenosis surgery and from surgery for Parkinson's disease. To date, the progress in neuroprotection resulting from such technical advances is an order of magnitude greater than that resulting from pharmacologic agents used during surgery. The progress over the last 20 years in guidance during surgery (CT and MRI image-guidance) and in surgical access (endoscopic and endovascular techniques) will soon be complemented by advances in our ability to evaluate biological tissue intraoperatively in real-time. As an example of such technology, the NASA Smart Probe project is considered. In the long run (i.e., in 10 years or more), pharmacologic "agents" aimed at the complex pathophysiology of nervous system injury in man will be the key to true intraoperative neuroprotection. In the near term, however, it is more likely that mundane "agents" based on computers, microsensors, and microeffectors will be the major impetus to improved intraoperative neuroprotection.

  1. Fig 1. Mobile Virtual Agent InterfaceFig 1. Mobile Virtual Agent Interface Context Awareness in Mobile Relational Agents

    E-print Network

    Bickmore, Timothy

    and other background processes remain active. Example wake up con- ditions include specific times of day such as PDAs (Fig. 1). The animated agent appears in a fixed close-up shot, and is capable of a range with an otherwise identical agent without sensing ability. Both agents attempted to motivate users to walk more

  2. Modeling and Visualizing Flow of Chemical Agents Across Complex Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Kramer, Marc; Chaderjian, Neal

    2005-01-01

    Release of chemical agents across complex terrain presents a real threat to homeland security. Modeling and visualization tools are being developed that capture flow fluid terrain interaction as well as point dispersal downstream flow paths. These analytic tools when coupled with UAV atmospheric observations provide predictive capabilities to allow for rapid emergency response as well as developing a comprehensive preemptive counter-threat evacuation plan. The visualization tools involve high-end computing and massive parallel processing combined with texture mapping. We demonstrate our approach across a mountainous portion of North California under two contrasting meteorological conditions. Animations depicting flow over this geographical location provide immediate assistance in decision support and crisis management.

  3. Bacteriocins as Potential Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sumanpreet; Kaur, Sukhraj

    2015-01-01

    Cancer remains one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide, despite advances in its treatment and detection. The conventional chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of cancer have non-specific toxicity toward normal body cells that cause various side effects. Secondly, cancer cells are known to develop chemotherapy resistance in due course of treatment. Thus, the demand for novel anti-cancer agents is increasing day by day. Some of the experimental studies have reported the therapeutic potential of bacteriocins against various types of cancer cell lines. Bacteriocins are ribosomally-synthesized cationic peptides secreted by almost all groups of bacteria. Some bacteriocins have shown selective cytotoxicity toward cancer cells as compared to normal cells. This makes them promising candidates for further investigation and clinical trials. In this review article, we present the overview of the various cancer cell-specific cytotoxic bacteriocins, their mode of action and efficacies. PMID:26617524

  4. Drug interactions with antisecretory agents.

    PubMed

    Hansten, P D

    1991-01-01

    Antisecretory agents may affect the absorption, metabolism, and renal excretion of other drugs. Inhibition of gastric acid secretion may decrease the gastrointestinal absorption of drugs such as ketoconazole that dissolve poorly in the absence of adequate acid. With anti-secretory agents, the drug interaction mechanism most likely to result in adverse effects is the inhibition of hepatic oxidative drug metabolism, primarily a problem with cimetidine. Omeprazole also appears to inhibit the hepatic metabolism of some drugs, but available evidence indicates that it interacts with fewer drugs than cimetidine and the magnitude of the inhibition is lower. Cimetidine decreases the renal clearance of procainamide and its active metabolite, N-acetylprocainamide, probably through interference with active renal tubular secretion. In therapeutic doses, other H2-receptor antagonists probably have minimal effects on renal procainamide elimination. PMID:1679670

  5. [Pharmacology of bone anabolic agents].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Toshio

    2015-10-01

    Bone is constantly remodeled to maintain its volume, structural integrity and strength Currently available bone anabolic agent is teriparatide. Teriparatide increases bone mass and strength via both remodeling-dependent and -independent mechanisms, although remodeling-dependent mechanism overweighs the other. Canonical Wnt signal plays an important role in enhancing osteoblast differentiation and bone formation, and its osteocyte-derived inhibitor, sclerostin, regulates bone formation via the regulation of Wnt signaling. Anti-sclerostin antibody stimulates Wnt signaling and enhances bone formation. Phase II clinical trials with anti-sclerostin antibodies, romosozumab and blosozumab, demonstrated a marked increase in bone mineral density after one year of treatment. The new modality of anabolic agents via remodeling-independent stimulation of bone formation may open up a new avenue for the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:26529924

  6. Humor and Embodied Conversational Agents Anton Nijholt

    E-print Network

    Nijholt, Anton

    , Affective Computing, Nonverbal Communication #12;2 Humor and Embodied Conversational Agents A. Nijholt humor. Keywords: Humor, Embodied Conversational Agents, Affective Computing, Nonverbal Communication . 1 and nonverbal communication is equally important. Multimodal emotion display and detection are among

  7. Approximation algorithms for distributed and selfish agents

    E-print Network

    Mirrokni, Vahab S

    2005-01-01

    Many real-world systems involve distributed and selfish agents who optimize their own objective function. In these systems, we need to design efficient mechanisms so that system-wide objective is optimized despite agents ...

  8. Learning other agents` preferences in multiagent negotiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bui, H.H.; Kieronska, D.; Venkatesh, S.

    1996-12-31

    In multiagent systems, an agent does not usually have complete information about the preferences and decision making processes of other agents. This might prevent the agents from making coordinated choices, purely due to their ignorance of what others want. This paper describes the integration of a learning module into a communication-intensive negotiating agent architecture. The learning module gives the agents the ability to learn about other agents` preferences via past interactions. Over time, the agents can incrementally update their models of other agents` preferences and use them to make better coordinated decisions. Combining both communication and learning, as two complement knowledge acquisition methods, helps to reduce the amount of communication needed on average, and is justified in situations where communication is computationally costly or simply not desirable (e.g. to preserve the individual privacy).

  9. Intelligent Agents as Cognitive Tools for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylor, Amy

    1999-01-01

    Examines the educational potential for intelligent agents as cognitive tools. Discusses the role of intelligent agents: managing large amounts of information (information overload), serving as a pedagogical expert, and creating programming environments for the learner. (AEF)

  10. 12 CFR 725.4 - Agent membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...case of an Agent group, each central credit union in the group, must: (1...Facility activity in conformity with requirements...of service, and conformity with established...case of an Agent group, each central...

  11. 12 CFR 725.4 - Agent membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...case of an Agent group, each central credit union in the group, must: (1...Facility activity in conformity with requirements...of service, and conformity with established...case of an Agent group, each central...

  12. 12 CFR 725.4 - Agent membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...case of an Agent group, each central credit union in the group, must: (1...Facility activity in conformity with requirements...of service, and conformity with established...case of an Agent group, each central...

  13. 12 CFR 725.4 - Agent membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...case of an Agent group, each central credit union in the group, must: (1...Facility activity in conformity with requirements...of service, and conformity with established...case of an Agent group, each central...

  14. 12 CFR 725.4 - Agent membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...case of an Agent group, each central credit union in the group, must: (1...Facility activity in conformity with requirements...of service, and conformity with established...case of an Agent group, each central...

  15. Modeling emotion dynamics in intelligent agents 

    E-print Network

    Seif El-Nasr, Magy

    1998-01-01

    Emotions were shown to have a leading role in the human decision-making process, and thus they play an important role in human intelligence. Intelligent agents' research produced many models of emotional agents. However, most of these models focused...

  16. Mechanism Design and Deliberative Agents Kate Larson

    E-print Network

    Dignum, Frank

    constraints placed on the agents participating in a mecha- nism. Mechanism design has traditionally assumed that the agents know their preferences over different outcomes, and the mecha- nism problem is to simply get

  17. MOCHA: Modelling Organisational Change using Agents

    E-print Network

    Norman, Tim

    benefit by thinking about the solution in terms of the roles that agents may enact and the relation- ships an effective way to capture medium- to long-term associations and dependencies between agents

  18. Intelligent Agent Architectures: Reactive Planning Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenschein, Stanley J.; Kahn, Philip

    1993-01-01

    An Integrated Agent Architecture (IAA) is a framework or paradigm for constructing intelligent agents. Intelligent agents are collections of sensors, computers, and effectors that interact with their environments in real time in goal-directed ways. Because of the complexity involved in designing intelligent agents, it has been found useful to approach the construction of agents with some organizing principle, theory, or paradigm that gives shape to the agent's components and structures their relationships. Given the wide variety of approaches being taken in the field, the question naturally arises: Is there a way to compare and evaluate these approaches? The purpose of the present work is to develop common benchmark tasks and evaluation metrics to which intelligent agents, including complex robotic agents, constructed using various architectural approaches can be subjected.

  19. Agent C.T. Parker 

    E-print Network

    Sloan

    2011-08-17

    and after pregnancy, results show whelps were helminth-free after birth NEMATODA 9 Ancylostoma caninum Egerton, J. R. ; et al., 1979 , Ant-imicrob. Agents and Chemotherapy, v. 15 (3), 372-378 nematodes of cattle, sheep, dogs, and chick- ens, efficacy...-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology Supplement 23, Part 4 Parasite-Subject Catalogue Parasites: Nematoda and Acanthocephala United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service July 1982 Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary...

  20. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-10-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly. PMID:26576135

  1. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly. PMID:26576135

  2. Adaptive Agent Integration Architectures for Heterogeneous Team Members

    E-print Network

    Kaminka, Gal A.

    ,pynadath,nico,das,galkg@isi.edu Abstract With the proliferation of software agents and smart hard­ ware devices there is a growing agents, user agents, agents in virtual environ­ ments, smart hardware devices and robotic agents (or want) automated in the agent integration architecture. Software agents have still differing

  3. Software Agents A Breakthrough in Software Development Productivity

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    is written entirely in Java and is portable across several system architectures. We have developed agentSoftware Agents A Breakthrough in Software Development Productivity Agent technology is an evolving Agents Intelligent AgentsIntelligent Agents Intelligent Agents Over the last 10 years we have developed

  4. Three tooth kinematic coupling

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Layton C. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A three tooth kinematic coupling based on having three theoretical line contacts formed by mating teeth rather than six theoretical point contacts. The geometry requires one coupling half to have curved teeth and the other coupling half to have flat teeth. Each coupling half has a relieved center portion which does not effect the kinematics, but in the limit as the face width approaches zero, three line contacts become six point contacts. As a result of having line contact, a three tooth coupling has greater load capacity and stiffness. The kinematic coupling has application for use in precision fixturing for tools or workpieces, and as a registration device for a work or tool changer or for optics in various products.

  5. Oak Ridge Mobile Agent Community (ORMAC)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-06-30

    The Oak Ridge Mobile Agent Community (ORMAC) framework software facilitates the execution of a collection of mobile software agents across a heterogeneous collection of computer systems. ORMAC provides the software agents with the ability to communicate with each other in a synchronous and asynchronous manner. Also, ORMAC allows the software agents to move to any computer system in the community and continue execution there. ORMAC is intended to aid programmers in solving a very generalmore »set of distributed software problems.« less

  6. Investigating biocomplexity through the agent-based paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Himanshu

    2015-01-01

    Capturing the dynamism that pervades biological systems requires a computational approach that can accommodate both the continuous features of the system environment as well as the flexible and heterogeneous nature of component interactions. This presents a serious challenge for the more traditional mathematical approaches that assume component homogeneity to relate system observables using mathematical equations. While the homogeneity condition does not lead to loss of accuracy while simulating various continua, it fails to offer detailed solutions when applied to systems with dynamically interacting heterogeneous components. As the functionality and architecture of most biological systems is a product of multi-faceted individual interactions at the sub-system level, continuum models rarely offer much beyond qualitative similarity. Agent-based modelling is a class of algorithmic computational approaches that rely on interactions between Turing-complete finite-state machines—or agents—to simulate, from the bottom-up, macroscopic properties of a system. In recognizing the heterogeneity condition, they offer suitable ontologies to the system components being modelled, thereby succeeding where their continuum counterparts tend to struggle. Furthermore, being inherently hierarchical, they are quite amenable to coupling with other computational paradigms. The integration of any agent-based framework with continuum models is arguably the most elegant and precise way of representing biological systems. Although in its nascence, agent-based modelling has been utilized to model biological complexity across a broad range of biological scales (from cells to societies). In this article, we explore the reasons that make agent-based modelling the most precise approach to model biological systems that tend to be non-linear and complex. PMID:24227161

  7. Hydroxypyridonate chelating agents and synthesis thereof

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, K.N.; Scarrow, R.C.; White, D.L.

    1985-11-12

    Chelating agents having 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (HOPO) and related moieties incorporated within their structures, including polydentate HOPO-substituted polyamines such as spermidine and spermine, and HOPO-substituted desferrioxamine. The chelating agents are useful in selectively removing certain cations from solution, and are particularly useful as ferric ion and actinide chelators. Novel syntheses of the chelating agents are provided. 4 tabs.

  8. Tactics SmartyAgent Flight tickets

    E-print Network

    Dignum, Frank

    Tactics SmartyAgent Flight tickets We have made 3 different agents and we came to the conclusion a flexible agent. Because the flight tickets are very expensive being flexible yields to buying the flights until you are certain that you will have the hotels. We have chosen to buy the flight tickets at the end

  9. STUDIES OF WATERBORNE AGENTS OF VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The etiologic agent of a large outbreak of waterborne viral gastroenteritis was detected employing immune electron microscopy (IEM) and a newly developed solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA). This agent, referred to as the Snow Mountain Agent (SMA), is 27-32 nm. in diameter, has cu...

  10. 24 CFR 232.1011 - Management agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Management agents. 232.1011 Section... Management agents. (a) An operator or borrower may, with the prior written approval of HUD, execute a management agent agreement setting forth the duties and procedures for matters related to the management...

  11. 24 CFR 232.1011 - Management agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Management agents. 232.1011 Section... Management agents. (a) An operator or borrower may, with the prior written approval of HUD, execute a management agent agreement setting forth the duties and procedures for matters related to the management...

  12. Some considerations about embodied agents Catherine Pelachaud

    E-print Network

    Pelachaud, Catherine

    . It is therefore important to consider both verbal and nonverbal behaviors while building an embodied agent realistic: 3D model, fine simulation of muscle actions and of skin elasticity, and good lip movements create of the animation. While building an animated agent, one is faced with a lot of work: they agent talks, moves, shows

  13. Asymptotically Optimal Agents Tor Lattimore1

    E-print Network

    Hutter, Marcus

    A Technical Proofs 19 B Table of Notation 21 Keywords Rational agents; sequential decision theory; artificial;1 Introduction The dream of artificial general intelligence is to create an agent that, starting decision theory [NR03]. However, if the true environment is unknown then the agent will necessarily spend

  14. Modeling Visual Landmark Navigation with Autonomous Agents

    E-print Network

    Moeller, Ralf

    Modeling Visual Landmark Navigation with Autonomous Agents Dimitrios Lambrinos1 , Ralf Moller1, the autonomous agents approach 3], to gain additional insights into the navigation behavior of Cataglyphis. Lambrinos, M. Maris, H. Kobayashi, T. Labhart, R. Pfeifer, and R. Wehner. An autonomous agent navigating

  15. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - General Agent's requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General Agent's requirements. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping... General Agent's requirements. The General Agent shall: (a) Obtain from the Master, a requisition for slop..., together with a copy of the vendor's invoice showing items, units, unit cost and totals. (c) Furnish...

  16. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - General Agent's requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General Agent's requirements. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping... General Agent's requirements. The General Agent shall: (a) Obtain from the Master, a requisition for slop..., together with a copy of the vendor's invoice showing items, units, unit cost and totals. (c) Furnish...

  17. 46 CFR 153.1106 - Cleaning agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cleaning agents. 153.1106 Section 153.1106 Shipping...and D Cargo and Nls Residue § 153.1106 Cleaning agents. No tank cleaning agent other than water or steam may be used to...

  18. 46 CFR 153.1106 - Cleaning agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cleaning agents. 153.1106 Section 153.1106 Shipping...and D Cargo and Nls Residue § 153.1106 Cleaning agents. No tank cleaning agent other than water or steam may be used to...

  19. 46 CFR 153.1106 - Cleaning agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cleaning agents. 153.1106 Section 153.1106 Shipping...and D Cargo and Nls Residue § 153.1106 Cleaning agents. No tank cleaning agent other than water or steam may be used to...

  20. 46 CFR 153.1106 - Cleaning agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cleaning agents. 153.1106 Section 153.1106 Shipping...and D Cargo and Nls Residue § 153.1106 Cleaning agents. No tank cleaning agent other than water or steam may be used to...

  1. 46 CFR 153.1106 - Cleaning agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning agents. 153.1106 Section 153.1106 Shipping...and D Cargo and Nls Residue § 153.1106 Cleaning agents. No tank cleaning agent other than water or steam may be used to...

  2. Agent-based modeling of complex infrastructures

    SciTech Connect

    North, M. J.

    2001-06-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) can be applied to investigate complex infrastructures and infrastructure interdependencies. The CAS model agents within the Spot Market Agent Research Tool (SMART) and Flexible Agent Simulation Toolkit (FAST) allow investigation of the electric power infrastructure, the natural gas infrastructure and their interdependencies.

  3. Smart Objects for Attentive Agents Christopher Peters

    E-print Network

    O'Sullivan, Carol

    for directing the attention of agents when interacting with objects. Such information is useful for driving gaze The animation of autonomous agents is a challenging task. Agents must make high-level decisions for themselves or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation

  4. MOBILE AGENT MANAGEMENT Patricia Cuesta Rivalta

    E-print Network

    with the mobile agent technology. This thesis extends the Mobile Code Toolkit of the Perpetuum Mobile ProcuraMOBILE AGENT MANAGEMENT By Patricia Cuesta Rivalta A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of Graduate to Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research acceptance of this thesis MOBILE AGENT MANAGEMENT Submitted

  5. Grid Information Services using Software Agents

    E-print Network

    Ould-Khaoua, Mohamed

    Grid Information Services using Software Agents H.N. Lim Choi Keung #3; J. Cao D.P. Spooner S and scheduling. #3; High Performance Systems Group, Dept. of Computer Science, University of Warwick, Coventry.1.1 The A4 Agent System The Agile Architecture and Autonomous Agent system (A4)[3, 6] addresses the general

  6. 22 CFR 51.22 - Passport agents and passport acceptance agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Passport agents and passport acceptance agents. 51.22 Section 51.22 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Application § 51.22 Passport agents and passport acceptance agents. (a) U.S. citizen employees of...

  7. 22 CFR 51.22 - Passport agents and passport acceptance agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Passport agents and passport acceptance agents. 51.22 Section 51.22 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Application § 51.22 Passport agents and passport acceptance agents. (a) U.S. citizen employees of...

  8. 22 CFR 51.22 - Passport agents and passport acceptance agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Passport agents and passport acceptance agents. 51.22 Section 51.22 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Application § 51.22 Passport agents and passport acceptance agents. (a) U.S. citizen employees of...

  9. 22 CFR 51.22 - Passport agents and passport acceptance agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Passport agents and passport acceptance agents. 51.22 Section 51.22 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Application § 51.22 Passport agents and passport acceptance agents. (a) U.S. citizen employees of...

  10. 22 CFR 51.22 - Passport agents and passport acceptance agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Passport agents and passport acceptance agents. 51.22 Section 51.22 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Application § 51.22 Passport agents and passport acceptance agents. (a) U.S. citizen employees of...

  11. Agent-Based Simulation of Complex Aviation Incidents by Integrating Different Cognitive Agent Models

    E-print Network

    Treur, Jan

    Agent-Based Simulation of Complex Aviation Incidents by Integrating Different Cognitive Agent. Aviation incidents often have a complex character in the sense that a number of different aspects of human. Keywords: aviation, agent-based simulation, agent model, situation awareness, operator functional state

  12. Social Norms accentuate agent trust and attenuate agent Henry Hexmoor and Prapulla Poli

    E-print Network

    Hexmoor, Henry

    Social Norms accentuate agent trust and attenuate agent autonomy Henry Hexmoor and Prapulla Poli presents the influence of norms on agent trust and autonomy. Different attributes of norms were considered with different patterns of norm adherence. We also define stability as a result of predictable agent behavior

  13. Evolving Expert Agent Parameters for Capture the Flag Agent in Xpilot

    E-print Network

    Parker, Gary B.

    for video game agents has a long history. In the past, researchers have evolved agents for the video game systems for autonomous agents, both video game agents and robots. In previous work, a wide range; genetic algorithm I. INTRODUCTION Video games are popular for entertainment and many can be used to test

  14. Intelligent Agents An agent perceives its environment through sensors and acts on this

    E-print Network

    Imberman, Susan

    , and other organs for sensors; hands, legs, mouth, and other body parts for actuators · Robotic agentIntelligent Agents An agent perceives its environment through sensors and acts on this environment environment through sensors and acting upon that environment through actuators · Human agent: eyes, ears

  15. Agent-based health care management An Agent-based Approach to Health Care Management

    E-print Network

    Mascardi, Viviana

    Agent-based health care management 1 An Agent-based Approach to Health Care Management Jun Huang1, London WC2A 3PX, UK. Abbreviated title: Agent-based health care management Complete Mailing Address. London E1 4NS UK #12;Agent-based health care management 2 Abstract The provision of medical care

  16. Multi-Agent Based Clustering: Towards Generic Multi-Agent Data Mining

    E-print Network

    Coenen, Frans

    Multi-Agent Based Clustering: Towards Generic Multi-Agent Data Mining Santhana Chaimontree, Katie.Chaimontree,katie,Coenen}@liverpool.ac.uk Abstract. A framework for Multi Agent Data Mining (MADM) is de- scribed. The framework comprises a collection of agents cooperating to address given data mining tasks. The fundamental concept underpinning

  17. Multi-Agent Based Clustering: Towards Generic Multi-Agent Data Mining

    E-print Network

    Atkinson, Katie

    Multi-Agent Based Clustering: Towards Generic Multi-Agent Data Mining Santhana Chaimontree, Katie.Chaimontree, katie, Coenen}@liverpool.ac.uk Abstract. A framework for Multi Agent Data Mining (MADM) is de- scribed. The framework comprises a collection of agents cooperating to address given data mining tasks. The fundamental

  18. Achieving agent coordination via distributed preferences

    SciTech Connect

    D`Ambrosio, J.G.; Birmingham, W.P.

    1996-12-31

    Agent-based systems provide hope for solving a wide variety of distributed problems. One key aspect of agent-based system is coordinating agent actions to achieve coherent behavior. For example, in concurrent engineering (CE), it is necessary to ensure that the individual decision made by constituents in a design organization achieve overall organizational objectives (e.g., increase market share), while still allowing individuals to exploit their expertise. We believe CE is representative of many multi-agent problems, in that agent coordination must include facilities to support both solving a hierarchically decomposed problem, e.g., the contract net, and interactions among peers as well.

  19. Anchor Toolkit - a secure mobile agent system

    SciTech Connect

    Mudumbai, Srilekha S.; Johnston, William; Essiari, Abdelilah

    1999-05-19

    Mobile agent technology facilitates intelligent operation insoftware systems with less human interaction. Major challenge todeployment of mobile agents include secure transmission of agents andpreventing unauthorized access to resources between interacting systems,as either hosts, or agents, or both can act maliciously. The Anchortoolkit, designed by LBNL, handles the transmission and secure managementof mobile agents in a heterogeneous distributed computing environment. Itprovides users with the option of incorporating their security managers.This paper concentrates on the architecture, features, access control anddeployment of Anchor toolkit. Application of this toolkit in a securedistributed CVS environment is discussed as a case study.

  20. Reversal agents in anaesthesia and critical care.

    PubMed

    Pani, Nibedita; Dongare, Pradeep A; Mishra, Rajeeb Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Despite the advent of short and ultra-short acting drugs, an in-depth knowledge of the reversal agents used is a necessity for any anaesthesiologist. Reversal agents are defined as any drug used to reverse the effects of anaesthetics, narcotics or potentially toxic agents. The controversy on the routine reversal of neuromuscular blockade still exists. The advent of newer reversal agents like sugammadex have made the use of steroidal neuromuscular blockers like rocuronium feasible in rapid sequence induction situations. We made a review of the older reversal agents and those still under investigation for drugs that are regularly used in our anaesthesia practice. PMID:26644615

  1. Reversal agents in anaesthesia and critical care

    PubMed Central

    Pani, Nibedita; Dongare, Pradeep A; Mishra, Rajeeb Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advent of short and ultra-short acting drugs, an in-depth knowledge of the reversal agents used is a necessity for any anaesthesiologist. Reversal agents are defined as any drug used to reverse the effects of anaesthetics, narcotics or potentially toxic agents. The controversy on the routine reversal of neuromuscular blockade still exists. The advent of newer reversal agents like sugammadex have made the use of steroidal neuromuscular blockers like rocuronium feasible in rapid sequence induction situations. We made a review of the older reversal agents and those still under investigation for drugs that are regularly used in our anaesthesia practice. PMID:26644615

  2. Nerve agents: implications for anesthesia providers.

    PubMed

    Hrobak, Paula Kay

    2008-04-01

    Anesthesia providers may be called to treat injuries from chemical weapons or spills, for which prompt treatment is vital. It is therefore important to understand the mechanism of action of nerve agents and the resultant pathophysiology and to be able to quickly recognize the signs and symptoms of nerve agent exposure. This review article addresses the different types of nerve agents that are currently being manufactured as well as the symptomatic and definitive treatment of the patient who presents with acute nerve agent toxicity. This article also reviews the physiology of the neuromuscular junction and the autonomic nervous system receptors that nerve agent toxicity affects. PMID:18478812

  3. Bibliographic Coupling: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Bella Hass

    1974-01-01

    The theory and practical applications of bibliographic coupling are reviewed. The reviewer takes issue with the use of bibliographic coupling for information retrieval and automatic classification on logical grounds, and for reasons relating to uncontrolled citation practices. The usefulness of the procedure for the study of the science of science…

  4. Translation-coupling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2015-05-19

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  5. Translation-coupling systems

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  6. Deaths due to Unknown Foodborne Agents

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    This study reviews the available evidence on unknown pathogenic agents transmitted in food and examines the methods that have been used to estimate that such agents cause 3,400 deaths per year in the United States. The estimate of deaths was derived from hospital discharge and death certificate data on deaths attributed to gastroenteritis of unknown cause. Fatal illnesses due to unknown foodborne agents do not always involve gastroenteritis, and gastroenteritis may not be accurately diagnosed or reported on hospital charts or death certificates. The death estimate consequently omitted deaths from unknown foodborne agents that do not cause gastroenteritis and likely overstated the number of deaths from agents that cause gastroenteritis. Although the number of deaths from unknown foodborne agents is uncertain, the possible economic cost of these deaths is so large that increased efforts to identify the causal agents are warranted. PMID:15498153

  7. Deaths due to unknown foodborne agents.

    PubMed

    Frenzen, Paul D

    2004-09-01

    This study reviews the available evidence on unknown pathogenic agents transmitted in food and examines the methods that have been used to estimate that such agents cause 3,400 deaths per year in the United States. The estimate of deaths was derived from hospital discharge and death certificate data on deaths attributed to gastroenteritis of unknown cause. Fatal illnesses due to unknown foodborne agents do not always involve gastroenteritis, and gastroenteritis may not be accurately diagnosed or reported on hospital charts or death certificates. The death estimate consequently omitted deaths from unknown foodborne agents that do not cause gastroenteritis and likely overstated the number of deaths from agents that cause gastroenteritis. Although the number of deaths from unknown foodborne agents is uncertain, the possible economic cost of these deaths is so large that increased efforts to identify the causal agents are warranted. PMID:15498153

  8. Pathogenic agents in freshwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geldreich, Edwin E.

    1996-02-01

    Numerous pathogenic agents have been found in freshwaters used as sources for water supplies, recreational bathing and irrigation. These agents include bacterial pathogens, enteric viruses, several protozoans and parasitic worms more common to tropical waters. Although infected humans are a major source of pathogens, farm animals (cattle, sheep, pigs), animal pets (dogs, cats) and wildlife serve as significant reservoirs and should not be ignored. The range of infected individuals within a given warm-blooded animal group (humans included) may range from 1 to 25%. Survival times for pathogens in the water environment may range from a few days to as much as a year (Ascaris, Taenia eggs), with infective dose levels varying from one viable cell for several primary pathogenic agents to many thousands of cells for a given opportunistic pathogen.As pathogen detection in water is complex and not readily incorporated into routine monitoring, a surrogate is necessary. In general, indicators of faecal contamination provide a positive correlation with intestinal pathogen occurrences only when appropriate sample volumes are examined by sensitive methodology.Pathways by which pathogens reach susceptible water users include ingestion of contaminated water, body contact with polluted recreational waters and consumption of salad crops irrigated by polluted freshwaters. Major contributors to the spread of various water-borne pathogens are sewage, polluted surface waters and stormwater runoff. All of these contributions are intensified during periods of major floods. Several water-borne case histories are cited as examples of breakdowns in public health protection related to water supply, recreational waters and the consumption of contaminated salad crops. In the long term, water resource management must focus on pollution prevention from point sources of waste discharges and the spread of pathogens in watershed stormwater runoff.

  9. Honey - A Novel Antidiabetic Agent

    PubMed Central

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O.; Sulaiman, Siti A.; Wahab, Mohd S. Ab

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus remains a burden worldwide in spite of the availability of numerous antidiabetic drugs. Honey is a natural substance produced by bees from nectar. Several evidence-based health benefits have been ascribed to honey in the recent years. In this review article, we highlight findings which demonstrate the beneficial or potential effects of honey in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), on the gut microbiota, in the liver, in the pancreas and how these effects could improve glycemic control and metabolic derangements. In healthy subjects or patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus, various studies revealed that honey reduced blood glucose or was more tolerable than most common sugars or sweeteners. Pre-clinical studies provided more convincing evidence in support of honey as a potential antidiabetic agent than clinical studies did. The not-too-impressive clinical data could mainly be attributed to poor study designs or due to the fact that the clinical studies were preliminary. Based on the key constituents of honey, the possible mechanisms of action of antidiabetic effect of honey are proposed. The paper also highlights the potential impacts and future perspectives on the use of honey as an antidiabetic agent. It makes recommendations for further clinical studies on the potential antidiabetic effect of honey. This review provides insight on the potential use of honey, especially as a complementary agent, in the management of diabetes mellitus. Hence, it is very important to have well-designed, randomized controlled clinical trials that investigate the reproducibility (or otherwise) of these experimental data in diabetic human subjects. PMID:22811614

  10. Exponentially Modified QCD Coupling

    E-print Network

    Gorazd Cvetic; Cristian Valenzuela

    2007-10-26

    We present a specific class of models for an infrared-finite analytic QCD coupling, such that at large space-like energy scales the coupling differs from the perturbative one by less than any inverse power of the energy scale. This condition is motivated by the ITEP Operator Product Expansion philosophy. Allowed by the ambiguity in the analytization of the perturbative coupling, the proposed class of couplings has three parameters. In the intermediate energy region, the proposed coupling has low loop-level and renormalization scheme dependence. The present modification of perturbative QCD must be considered as a phenomenological attempt, with the aim of enlarging the applicability range of the theory of the strong interactions at low energies.

  11. Exponentially modified QCD coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Cvetic, Gorazd; Valenzuela, Cristian

    2008-04-01

    We present a specific class of models for an infrared-finite analytic QCD coupling, such that at large spacelike energy scales the coupling differs from the perturbative one by less than any inverse power of the energy scale. This condition is motivated by the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics operator product expansion philosophy. Allowed by the ambiguity in the analytization of the perturbative coupling, the proposed class of couplings has three parameters. In the intermediate energy region, the proposed coupling has low loop-level and renormalization scheme dependence. The present modification of perturbative QCD must be considered as a phenomenological attempt, with the aim of enlarging the applicability range of the theory of the strong interactions at low energies.

  12. Method For Detecting Biological Agents

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Liaohai (Los Alamos, NM); McBranch, Duncan W. (Santa Fe, NM); Wang, Hsing-Lin (Los Alamos, NM); Whitten, David G. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2005-12-27

    A sensor is provided including a polymer capable of having an alterable measurable property from the group of luminescence and electrical conductivity, the polymer having an intermediate combination of a recognition element, a tethering element and a property-altering element bound thereto and capable of altering the measurable property, the intermediate combination adapted for subsequent separation from the polymer upon exposure to an agent having an affinity for binding to the recognition element whereupon the separation of the intermediate combination from the polymer results in a detectable change in the alterable measurable property, and, detecting said detectable change in the alterable measurable property.

  13. Hexameric Mn(II) Dendrimer as MRI Contrast Agent

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiang; Gale, Eric M.; Atanasova, Iliyana; Rietz, Tyson A.

    2014-01-01

    A Mn(II) chelating dendrimer was prepared as a contrast agent for MRI applications. The dendrimer comprises six tyrosine-derived [Mn(EDTA)(H2O)]2? moieties coupled to a cyclotriphosphazene core. Variable temperature 17O NMR revealed a single water co-ligand per Mn(II) that undergoes fast water exchange (kex = (3.0±0.1) × 108 s?1 at 37 °C). The 37 °C per Mn(II) relaxivity ranged from 8.2 to 3.8 mM?1s?1 from 0.47 to 11.7T, and is 6-fold higher on a per molecule basis. From this field dependence a rotational correlation time was estimated as 0.45±0.02 ns. The imaging and pharmacokinetic properties of the dendrimer were compared to clinically used [Gd(DTPA)(H2O)]2? in mice at 4.7T. On first pass, the higher per ion relaxivity of the dendrimer resulted in 2-fold greater blood signal than for [Gd(DTPA)(H2O)]2?. Blood clearance was fast and elimination occurred through both the renal and hepatobiliary routes. This Mn(II) containing dendrimer represents potential alternative to Gd-based contrast agents, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease where the use of current Gd-based agents may be contraindicated. PMID:25224391

  14. An agent-based microsimulation of critical infrastructure systems

    SciTech Connect

    BARTON,DIANNE C.; STAMBER,KEVIN L.

    2000-03-29

    US infrastructures provide essential services that support the economic prosperity and quality of life. Today, the latest threat to these infrastructures is the increasing complexity and interconnectedness of the system. On balance, added connectivity will improve economic efficiency; however, increased coupling could also result in situations where a disturbance in an isolated infrastructure unexpectedly cascades across diverse infrastructures. An understanding of the behavior of complex systems can be critical to understanding and predicting infrastructure responses to unexpected perturbation. Sandia National Laboratories has developed an agent-based model of critical US infrastructures using time-dependent Monte Carlo methods and a genetic algorithm learning classifier system to control decision making. The model is currently under development and contains agents that represent the several areas within the interconnected infrastructures, including electric power and fuel supply. Previous work shows that agent-based simulations models have the potential to improve the accuracy of complex system forecasting and to provide new insights into the factors that are the primary drivers of emergent behaviors in interdependent systems. Simulation results can be examined both computationally and analytically, offering new ways of theorizing about the impact of perturbations to an infrastructure network.

  15. Tuberculosis and nature's pharmacy of putative anti-tuberculosis agents.

    PubMed

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C

    2016-01-01

    Due to the growing problem of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, coupled with the twinning of tuberculosis (TB) to human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), the burden of TB is now difficult to manage. Therefore, new antimycobacterial agents are being sought from natural sources. This review focuses on natural antimycobacterial agents from endophytes and medicinal plants of Africa, Europe, Asia, South America and Canada. In the countries mentioned in this review, numerous plant species display putative anti-TB activity. Several antimycobacterial chemical compounds have also been isolated, including: ellagitannin punicalagin, allicin, anthraquinone glycosides, iridoids, phenylpropanoids, beta-sitosterol, galanthimine, crinine, friedelin, gallic acid, ellagic acids, anthocyanidin, taraxerol, termilignan B, arjunic acid, glucopyranosides, 1-epicatechol, leucopelargonidol, hydroxybenzoic acids, benzophenanthridine alkaloids, neolignans, and decarine. These compounds may provide leads to novel and more efficacious drugs to lessen the global burden of TB and drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains. If there is a long-term remedy for TB, it must lie in nature's pharmacy of putative antimycobacterial agents. PMID:26464047

  16. Recent developments in antiviral agents against enterovirus 71 infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is the main etiological agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Recent EV-71 outbreaks in Asia-Pacific were not limited to mild HFMD, but were associated with severe neurological complications such as aseptic meningitis and brainstem encephalitis, which may lead to cardiopulmonary failure and death. The absence of licensed therapeutics for clinical use has intensified research into anti-EV-71 development. This review highlights the potential antiviral agents targeting EV-71 attachment, entry, uncoating, translation, polyprotein processing, virus-induced formation of membranous RNA replication complexes, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The strategies for antiviral development include target-based synthetic compounds, anti-rhinovirus and poliovirus libraries screening, and natural compound libraries screening. Growing knowledge of the EV-71 life cycle will lead to successful development of antivirals. The continued effort to develop antiviral agents for treatment is crucial in the absence of a vaccine. The coupling of antivirals with an effective vaccine will accelerate eradication of the disease. PMID:24521134

  17. Depression: The Differing Narratives of Couples in Couple Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rautiainen, Eija-Liisa; Aaltonen, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    How does the spouse of a person with depression take part in constructing narratives of depression in couple therapy? In this study we examined couples' ways of co-constructing narratives of depression in couple therapy. Three couple therapy processes were chosen for the study, one spouse in each couple having been referred to an outpatient clinic…

  18. Multi-Agent Information Classification Using Dynamic Acquaintance Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis; Peng, Shengquan; Raje, Rajeev; Palakal, Mathew; Mostafa, Javed

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of automated information services focuses on information classification and collaborative agents, i.e. intelligent computer programs. Highlights include multi-agent systems; distributed artificial intelligence; thesauri; document representation and classification; agent modeling; acquaintances, or remote agents discovered through…

  19. Triazole: A Promising Antitubercular Agent.

    PubMed

    Keri, Rangappa S; Patil, Siddappa A; Budagumpi, Srinivasa; Nagaraja, Bhari Mallanna

    2015-10-01

    Tuberculosis is a contagious disease with comparatively high mortality worldwide. The statistics shows that around three million people throughout the world die annually from tuberculosis and there are around eight million new cases each year, of which developing countries showed major share. Therefore, the discovery and development of effective antituberculosis drugs with novel mechanism of action have become an insistent task for infectious diseases research programs. The literature reveals that, heterocyclic moieties have drawn attention of the chemists, pharmacologists, microbiologists, and other researchers owing to its indomitable biological potential as anti-infective agents. Among heterocyclic compounds, triazole (1,2,3-triazole/1,2,4-triazole) nucleus is one of the most important and well-known heterocycles, which is a common and integral feature of a variety of natural products and medicinal agents. Triazole core is considered as a privileged structure in medicinal chemistry and is widely used as 'parental' compounds to synthesize molecules with medical benefits, especially with infection-related activities. In the present review, we have collated published reports on this versatile core to provide an insight so that its complete therapeutic potential can be utilized for the treatment of tuberculosis. This review also explores triazole as a potential targeted core moiety against tuberculosis and various research ongoing worldwide. It is hoped that this review will be helpful for new thoughts in the quest for rational designs of more active and less toxic triazole-based antituberculosis drugs. PMID:25643871

  20. Innovative Agents in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Faiman, Beth; Richards, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) remains an incurable cancer of the bone marrow plasma cells. However, the overall survival of patients with MM has increased dramatically within the past decade. This is due, in part, to newer agents such as immunomodulatory drugs (lenalidomide, thalidomide, and pomalidomide) and proteasome inhibitors (bortezomib, carfilzomib, MLN9708). These and several other new classes of drugs have arisen from an improved understanding of the complex environment in which genetic changes occur. Improved understanding of genetic events will enable clinicians to better stratify risk before and during therapy, tailor treatment, and test the value of personalized interventions. The ultimate goal in this incurable disease setting is to reduce the impact of cancer- or chemotherapy-related side effects. Nurses and advanced practitioners are integral to the treatment team. Thus, each should be aware of changes to the current drug landscape. Targeted drugs with sophisticated mechanisms of action are currently under investigation. Patients gain access to newer drugs within the context of clinical trials. Awareness of such trials will help accrual and determine if therapeutic benefit exists. In this article, we will describe new agents with unique and targeted mechanisms of action that have activity in patients with relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma. PMID:25089218

  1. Drug interactions with antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Horn, J R; Hansten, P D

    1995-07-01

    Antibacterial drugs, such as quinolones, macrolides, rifampin, isoniazid, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, can interact with other drugs in a wide variety of clinically significant ways. They are frequently administered with other prescription and nonprescription medications. Antibacterial agents may interact by causing a change in the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of a second drug. In other cases, the antimicrobial may be affected by the action of another drug. Interactions involving antimicrobials often result from alterations in the absorption of the antimicrobial from the gastrointestinal tract or changes in the hepatic metabolism or renal elimination of the drugs concurrently administered. While certain classes of antibacterial drugs are known to interact with many other drugs, the interaction potential of most classes of antimicrobials is not uniform among members of the class. This diversity in interaction potential provides the clinician with an opportunity to avoid potential interactions by means of appropriate drug selection. An understanding of the common, clinically significant drug interactions involving antibacterial agents will enable the physician to avoid unnecessary adverse drug reactions. PMID:7798069

  2. Ruthenium complexes as antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangfei; Collins, J Grant; Keene, F Richard

    2015-04-21

    One of the major advances in medical science has been the development of antimicrobials; however, a consequence of their widespread use has been the emergence of drug-resistant populations of microorganisms. There is clearly a need for the development of new antimicrobials--but more importantly, there is the need for the development of new classes of antimicrobials, rather than drugs based upon analogues of known scaffolds. Due to the success of the platinum anticancer agents, there has been considerable interest in the development of therapeutic agents based upon other transition metals--and in particular ruthenium(II/III) complexes, due to their well known interaction with DNA. There have been many studies of the anticancer properties and cellular localisation of a range of ruthenium complexes in eukaryotic cells over the last decade. However, only very recently has there been significant interest in their antimicrobial properties. This review highlights the types of ruthenium complexes that have exhibited significant antimicrobial activity and discusses the relationship between chemical structure and biological processing--including site(s) of intracellular accumulation--of the ruthenium complexes in both bacterial and eukaryotic cells. PMID:25724019

  3. Nanoparticle-based theranostic agents

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jin; Lee, Seulki; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2010-01-01

    Theranostic nanomedicine is emerging as a promising therapeutic paradigm. It takes advantage of the high capacity of nanoplatforms to ferry cargo and loads onto them both imaging and therapeutic functions. The resulting nanosystems, capable of diagnosis, drug delivery and monitoring of therapeutic response, are expected to play a significant role in the dawning era of personalized medicine, and much research effort has been devoted toward that goal. A convenience in constructing such function-integrated agents is that many nanoplatforms are already, themselves, imaging agents. Their well developed surface chemistry makes it easy to load them with pharmaceutics and promote them to be theranostic nanosystems. Iron oxide nanoparticles, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles and silica nanoparticles, have been previously well investigated in the imaging setting and are candidate nanoplatforms for building up nanoparticle-based theranostics. In the current article, we will outline the progress along this line, organized by the category of the core materials. We will focus on construction strategies and will discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with this emerging technology. PMID:20691229

  4. Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance; Aghazarian, Hrand; Estlin, Tara; Gaines, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing (CARACaS) is a recent product of a continuing effort to develop architectures for controlling either a single autonomous robotic vehicle or multiple cooperating but otherwise autonomous robotic vehicles. CARACaS is potentially applicable to diverse robotic systems that could include aircraft, spacecraft, ground vehicles, surface water vessels, and/or underwater vessels. CARACaS incudes an integral combination of three coupled agents: a dynamic planning engine, a behavior engine, and a perception engine. The perception and dynamic planning en - gines are also coupled with a memory in the form of a world model. CARACaS is intended to satisfy the need for two major capabilities essential for proper functioning of an autonomous robotic system: a capability for deterministic reaction to unanticipated occurrences and a capability for re-planning in the face of changing goals, conditions, or resources. The behavior engine incorporates the multi-agent control architecture, called CAMPOUT, described in An Architecture for Controlling Multiple Robots (NPO-30345), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 65. CAMPOUT is used to develop behavior-composition and -coordination mechanisms. Real-time process algebra operators are used to compose a behavior network for any given mission scenario. These operators afford a capability for producing a formally correct kernel of behaviors that guarantee predictable performance. By use of a method based on multi-objective decision theory (MODT), recommendations from multiple behaviors are combined to form a set of control actions that represents their consensus. In this approach, all behaviors contribute simultaneously to the control of the robotic system in a cooperative rather than a competitive manner. This approach guarantees a solution that is good enough with respect to resolution of complex, possibly conflicting goals within the constraints of the mission to be accomplished by the vehicle(s).

  5. Agent Reward Shaping for Alleviating Traffic Congestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Traffic congestion problems provide a unique environment to study how multi-agent systems promote desired system level behavior. What is particularly interesting in this class of problems is that no individual action is intrinsically "bad" for the system but that combinations of actions among agents lead to undesirable outcomes, As a consequence, agents need to learn how to coordinate their actions with those of other agents, rather than learn a particular set of "good" actions. This problem is ubiquitous in various traffic problems, including selecting departure times for commuters, routes for airlines, and paths for data routers. In this paper we present a multi-agent approach to two traffic problems, where far each driver, an agent selects the most suitable action using reinforcement learning. The agent rewards are based on concepts from collectives and aim to provide the agents with rewards that are both easy to learn and that if learned, lead to good system level behavior. In the first problem, we study how agents learn the best departure times of drivers in a daily commuting environment and how following those departure times alleviates congestion. In the second problem, we study how agents learn to select desirable routes to improve traffic flow and minimize delays for. all drivers.. In both sets of experiments,. agents using collective-based rewards produced near optimal performance (93-96% of optimal) whereas agents using system rewards (63-68%) barely outperformed random action selection (62-64%) and agents using local rewards (48-72%) performed worse than random in some instances.

  6. Multifield coupled quintessence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amendola, Luca; Barreiro, Tiago; Nunes, Nelson J.

    2014-10-01

    We study models of quintessence consisting of a number of scalar fields coupled to several dark matter components. In the case of exponential potentials the scaling solutions can be described in terms of a single field. The corresponding effective logarithmic slope and effective coupling can be written in a simple form in terms of the individual slopes and couplings of the original fields. We also investigate solutions where the scalar potential is negligible, in particular those leading to transient matter dominated solutions. Finally, we compute the evolution equations for the linear perturbations which will allow these models to be tested against current and future observational data.

  7. Ensemble strong coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, W. L.

    2015-08-01

    Strong coupling between light and an ensemble of molecules leads to the formation of new hybrid states and offers the exciting prospect of a new route to control material properties. Now a theoretical model has been introduced to complement the recent observation of strong coupling between the vibrational modes of molecules and an electromagnetic (cavity) mode. This new work by del Pino et al (2015 New J. Phys. 17 053040) makes an important contribution by offering fresh insight into the underlying physics, especially into the role of dephasing processes in determining the dynamics of ensemble strong coupling.

  8. A Probabilistic Framework for Multi-agent Distributed Interpretation and

    E-print Network

    Regina, University of

    for Multi-agent Systems 1 #12;Abstract Multiply sectioned Bayesian networks for single-agent systems are extended into a framework for multi-agent distributed interpretation systems. Each agent is rep- resented]. Such systems pose special issues that must be addressed. A multi-agent view is thus required where each agent

  9. Considerations in detecting CDC select agents under field conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Charles; Soelberg, Scott; Swanson, Nathaneal; Furlong, Clement; Baker, Paul

    2008-04-01

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) has become a widely accepted technique for real-time detection of interactions between receptor molecules and ligands. Antibody may serve as receptor and can be attached to the gold surface of the SPR device, while candidate analyte fluids contact the detecting antibody. Minute, but detectable, changes in refractive indices (RI) indicate that analyte has bound to the antibody. A decade ago, an inexpensive, robust, miniature and fully integrated SPR chip, called SPREETA, was developed. University of Washington (UW) researchers subsequently developed a portable, temperature-regulated instrument, called SPIRIT, to simultaneously use eight of these three-channel SPREETA chips. A SPIRIT prototype instrument was tested in the field, coupled to a remote reporting system on a surrogate unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Two target protein analytes were released sequentially as aerosols with low analyte concentration during each of three flights and were successfully detected and verified. Laboratory experimentation with a more advanced SPIRIT instrument demonstrated detection of very low levels of several select biological agents that might be employed by bioterrorists. Agent detection under field-like conditions is more challenging, especially as analyte concentrations are reduced and complex matricies are introduced. Two different sample preconditioning protocols have been developed for select agents in complex matrices. Use of these preconditioning techniques has allowed laboratory detection in spiked heavy mud of Francisella tularensis at 10 3 CFU/ml, Bacillus anthracis spores at 10 3 CFU/ml, Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) at 1 ng/ml, and Vaccinia virus (a smallpox simulant) at 10 5 PFU/ml. Ongoing experiments are aimed at simultaneous detection of multiple agents in spiked heavy mud, using a multiplex preconditioning protocol.

  10. Collective Motion in a Network of Self-Propelled Agent Systems

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hao; Zhao, Dandan; Liu, Xueming; Gao, Jianxi

    2015-01-01

    Collective motions of animals that move towards the same direction is a conspicuous feature in nature. Such groups of animals are called a self-propelled agent (SPA) systems. Many studies have been focused on the synchronization of isolated SPA systems. In real scenarios, different SPA systems are coupled with each other forming a network of SPA systems. For example, a flock of birds and a school of fish show predator-prey relationships and different groups of birds may compete for food. In this work, we propose a general framework to study the collective motion of coupled self-propelled agent systems. Especially, we study how three different connections between SPA systems: symbiosis, predator-prey, and competition influence the synchronization of the network of SPA systems. We find that a network of SPA systems coupled with symbiosis relationship arrive at a complete synchronization as all its subsystems showing a complete synchronization; a network of SPA systems coupled by predator-prey relationship can not reach a complete synchronization and its subsystems converges to different synchronized directions; and the competitive relationship between SPA systems could increase the synchronization of each SPA systems, while the network of SPA systems coupled by competitive relationships shows an optimal synchronization for small coupling strength, indicating that small competition promotes the synchronization of the entire system. PMID:26640954

  11. Do Couples Assortatively Mate? 

    E-print Network

    Mistry, Navin

    2010-06-30

    This study investigated the role of intelligence, conservatism, personal values, and Openness in assortative mating. A sample of 32 couples was given questionnaires, which measured self-rated intelligence and partner-rated Openness, conservatism...

  12. Coupling in the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Gelfand, N.M.

    1994-12-01

    The performance of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at the commencement of run Ib was far below expectations. After a frustrating period of several months, a low-{beta} quad downstream of the interaction point at B0 was found to be rolled. This rolled quadrupole coupled the horizontal and vertical motion of the Tevatron beams. It also made matching the beam from the Main Ring to the Tevatron impossible, resulting in emittance blow up on injection. The net result of the roll was a significant reduction in the Tevatron luminosity. When the roll in the quadrupole was corrected the performance of the Tevatron improved dramatically. This note will discuss the experimental data indicating the presence of coupling and subsequent calculations which show how coupling an affect the luminosity. It is not intended to exhaust a discussion of coupling, which hopefully will be understood well enough to be discussed in a subsequent note.

  13. Antagonistic formation motion of cooperative agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wan-Ting; Dai, Ming-Xiang; Xue, Fang-Zheng

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates a new formation motion problem of a class of first-order multi-agent systems with antagonistic interactions. A distributed formation control algorithm is proposed for each agent to realize the antagonistic formation motion. A sufficient condition is derived to ensure that all of the agents make an antagonistic formation motion in a distributed manner. It is shown that all of the agents can be spontaneously divided into several groups and that agents in the same group collaborate while agents in different groups compete. Finally, a numerical simulation is included to demonstrate our theoretical results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61203080 and 61473051) and the Natural Science Foundation of Chongqing City (Grant No. CSTC 2011BB0081).

  14. Persuasive Conversational Agent with Persuasion Tactics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narita, Tatsuya; Kitamura, Yasuhiko

    Persuasive conversational agents persuade people to change their attitudes or behaviors through conversation, and are expected to be applied as virtual sales clerks in e-shopping sites. As an approach to create such an agent, we have developed a learning agent with the Wizard of Oz method in which a person called Wizard talks to the user pretending to be the agent. The agent observes the conversations between the Wizard and the user, and learns how to persuade people. In this method, the Wizard has to reply to most of the user's inputs at the beginning, but the burden gradually falls because the agent learns how to reply as the conversation model grows.

  15. A New Understanding of Chemical Agent Release

    SciTech Connect

    Nakafuji, G; Greenman, R; Theofanous, T

    2002-07-24

    The evolution of thickened chemical agent released at supersonic velocities, due to a missile defense intercept or a properly functioning warhead, has been misunderstood. Current and historical experimental and modeling efforts have attributed agent breakup to a variety of droplet breakup mechanisms. According to this model, drops of agent fragment into subsequent generations of smaller drops until a stable drop size is reached. Recent experimental data conducted in a supersonic wind tunnel show that agent breakup is not driven by any droplet breakup mechanism. The breakup of agent is instead governed by viscoelastic behavior and aerodynamic history effects. This viscoelastic breakup mechanism results in the formation of threads and sheets of liquid, instead of drops. The evolution and final state of agent released has broad implications not only for aerobreakup models, but also for all atmospheric dispersion models.

  16. 3DGIS-Based Multi-Agent Geosimulation and Visualization of Building Evacuation Using GAMA Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macatulad, E. G.; Blanco, A. C.

    2014-11-01

    Recent GIS applications have already extended analyses from the traditional 2-2.5D environment (x,y,attributes) to 3D space (x,y,z,attributes). Coupled with agent-based modeling (ABM), available 3DGIS data can be used to develop simulation models for improved analysis of spatial data and spatial processes. One such application is on building evacuation for which ABM is integrated with 3D indoor spatial data to model human behavior during evacuation events and simulate evacuation scenarios visualized in 3D. The research presented in this paper develops a multi-agent geosimulation model for building evacuation, integrating 3DGIS dataset of the case study building as input in ABM using the GAMA simulation platform. This model is intended to complement and improve traditional approaches in building evacuation planning and management such as earthquake and fire drills. The initial model developed includes PEOPLE agents to model the building occupants, and FLOORS, ROOMS, INDOOR_PATHS and EXIT_POINTS agents, which are modeled from the 3DGIS layers. The INDOOR_PATHS and EXIT_POINTS agents influence the movement of PEOPLE agents. Test simulations were performed involving PEOPLE agents placed in rooms of the building based on potential number of occupants computed based from the floor area of each room. The PEOPLE agents are programmed to find the shortest path along the INDOOR_PATHS towards the EXIT_POINTS instance designated for each room of the building. The simulation computes for the total time it takes for all PEOPLE agents to exit the building.

  17. The EO-1 Autonomous Science Agent Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Rob; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Rabideau, Gregg; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Lee, Rachel; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; Hengemihle, Jerry; D'Agostino, Jeff; Shulman, Seth; Ungar, Stephen; Brakke, Thomas; Boyer, Darrell; Van Gaasbeck, Jim; Greeley, Ronald; Doggett, Thomas; Baker, Victor; Dohm, James; Ip, Felipe

    2004-01-01

    An Autonomous Science Agent is currently flying onboard the Earth Observing One Spacecraft. This software enables the spacecraft to autonomously detect and respond to science events occurring on the Earth. The package includes software systems that perform science data analysis, deliberative planning, and run-time robust execution. Because of the deployment to a remote spacecraft, this Autonomous Science Agent has stringent constraints of autonomy, reliability, and limited computing resources. We describe these constraints and how they are reflected in our agent architecture.

  18. Massive Multi-Agent Systems Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campagne, Jean-Charles; Gardon, Alain; Collomb, Etienne; Nishida, Toyoaki

    2004-01-01

    In order to build massive multi-agent systems, considered as complex and dynamic systems, one needs a method to analyze and control the system. We suggest an approach using morphology to represent and control the state of large organizations composed of a great number of light software agents. Morphology is understood as representing the state of the multi-agent system as shapes in an abstract geometrical space, this notion is close to the notion of phase space in physics.

  19. Reinforcement Learning Multi-Agent Modeling of Decision-Making Agents for the Study of Transboundary Surface Water Conflicts with Application to the Syr Darya River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegels, N.; Siegfried, T.; Pereira Cardenal, S. J.; Jensen, R. A.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.

    2008-12-01

    In most economics--driven approaches to optimizing water use at the river basin scale, the system is modelled deterministically with the goal of maximizing overall benefits. However, actual operation and allocation decisions must be made under hydrologic and economic uncertainty. In addition, river basins often cross political boundaries, and different states may not be motivated to cooperate so as to maximize basin- scale benefits. Even within states, competing agents such as irrigation districts, municipal water agencies, and large industrial users may not have incentives to cooperate to realize efficiency gains identified in basin- level studies. More traditional simulation--optimization approaches assume pre-commitment by individual agents and stakeholders and unconditional compliance on each side. While this can help determine attainable gains and tradeoffs from efficient management, such hardwired policies do not account for dynamic feedback between agents themselves or between agents and their environments (e.g. due to climate change etc.). In reality however, we are dealing with an out-of-equilibrium multi-agent system, where there is neither global knowledge nor global control, but rather continuous strategic interaction between decision making agents. Based on the theory of stochastic games, we present a computational framework that allows for studying the dynamic feedback between decision--making agents themselves and an inherently uncertain environment in a spatially and temporally distributed manner. Agents with decision-making control over water allocation such as countries, irrigation districts, and municipalities are represented by reinforcement learning agents and coupled to a detailed hydrologic--economic model. This approach emphasizes learning by agents from their continuous interaction with other agents and the environment. It provides a convenient framework for the solution of the problem of dynamic decision-making in a mixed cooperative / non-cooperative environment with which different institutional setups and incentive systems can be studied so to identify reasonable ways to reach desirable, Pareto--optimal allocation outcomes. Preliminary results from an application to the Syr Darya river basin in Central Asia will be presented and discussed. The Syr Darya River is a classic example of a transboundary river basin in which basin-wide efficiency gains identified in optimization studies have not been sufficient to induce cooperative management of the river by the riparian states.

  20. [Sexual dysfunction associated with antidepressant agents.

    PubMed

    Bergh, Sara Johanna; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2014-05-26

    Sexual dysfunction is a common adverse effect of antidepressant treatment and a main reason for non-compliance with treatment. Different antidepressant agents are associated with different degrees of dysfunction, which is thought to depend on the agent's pharmacological profile. Agents with serotonergic activity, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and venlafaxine, yield the highest rate of sexual dysfunction. Non-SSRI agents such as duloxetine, reboxetine and mirtazapine have fewer sexual side effects than SSRI and venlafaxine. Agomelatine and bupropion are similar to placebo. PMID:25352006

  1. How Minds Work Minds, Agents, Senses, Actions

    E-print Network

    Memphis, University of

    & Institute for Intelligent Systems The University of Memphis #12;HMW: Minds, Agents, Senses, Actions 2 Two? · Humans: sight, hearing, touch, smell · Other animals: ­ Bats, dolphins -- echolocation ­ Sharks

  2. Emergent Behavior of Coupled Barrier Island - Resort Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D. E.; Werner, B. T.

    2004-12-01

    Barrier islands are attractive sites for resorts. Natural barrier islands experience beach erosion and island overwash during storms, beach accretion and dune building during inter-storm periods, and migration up the continental shelf as sea level rises. Beach replenishment, artificial dune building, seawalls, jetties and groins have been somewhat effective in protecting resorts against erosion and overwash during storms, but it is unknown how the coupled system will respond to long-term sea level rise. We investigate coupled barrier island - resort systems using an agent-based model with three components: natural barrier islands divided into a series of alongshore cells; resorts controlled by markets for tourism and hotel purchases; and coupling via storm damage to resorts and resort protection by government agents. Modeled barrier islands change by beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms. In the resort hotel market, developer agents build hotels and hotel owning agents purchase them using predictions of future revenue and property appreciation, with the goal of maximizing discounted utility. In the tourism market, hotel owning agents set room rental prices to maximize profit and tourist agents choose vacation destinations maximizing a utility based on beach width, price and word-of-mouth. Government agents build seawalls, groins and jetties, and widen the beach and build up dunes by adding sand to protect resorts from storms, enhance beach quality, and maximize resort revenue. Results indicate that barrier islands and resorts evolve in a coupled manner to resort size saturation, with resorts protected against small-to-intermediate-scale storms under fairly stable sea level. Under extended, rapidly rising sea level, protection measures enhance the effect of large storms, leading to emergent behavior in the form of limit cycles or barrier submergence, depending on the relative rates of resort recovery from storms and sea level rise. The model is applied to Ocean City, Maryland and neighboring undeveloped Assateague Island National Seashore. Supported by the National Science Foundation, Geology and Paleontology Program, and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation

  3. Serotonin Regulates Electrical Coupling via Modulation of Extrajunctional Conductance: H-current

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Theresa M.; Caplan, Jonathan S.; Zoran, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Synaptic strength can be highly variable from animal to animal within a species or over time within an individual. The process of synaptic plasticity induced by neuromodulatory agents might be unpredictable when the underlying circuits subject to modulation are themselves inherently variable. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptomine; 5HT) and serotonergic signaling pathways are important regulators of animal behavior and are pharmacological targets in a wide range of neurological disorders. We have examined the effect of 5HT on electrical synapses possessing variable coupling strengths. While 5HT decreased electrical coupling at synapses with weak electrical connectivity, synapses with strong electrical coupling were less affected by 5HT treatment, as follows from the equations used for calculating coupling coefficients. The fact that the modulatory effect of 5HT on electrical connections was negatively correlated with the strength of electrical coupling suggests that the degree of electrical coupling within a neural network impacts subsequent neuromodulation of those synapses. Biophysical studies indicated that these effects were primarily due to 5HT-induced modulation of membrane currents that indirectly affect junctional coupling at synaptic contacts. In support of these experimental analyses, we created a simple model of coupled neurons to demonstrate that modulation of electrical coupling could be due solely to 5HT effects on H-channel conductance. Therefore, variability in the strength of electrical coupling in neural circuits can determine the pharmacological effect of this neuromodulatory agent. PMID:20599836

  4. 31 CFR 10.4 - Eligibility for enrollment as enrolled agent or enrolled retirement plan agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...an enrolled agent to an applicant who demonstrates special competence in tax matters by written examination administered by...retirement plan agent to an applicant who demonstrates special competence in qualified retirement plan matters by written...

  5. Designing Agent Utilities for Coordinated, Scalable and Robust Multi-Agent Systems

    E-print Network

    Tumer, Kagan

    Designing Agent Utilities for Coordinated, Scalable and Robust Multi-Agent Systems Kagan Tumer NASA another, and/or enter into contracts with one an- #12;2 Kagan Tumer other [6, 8, 12, 21]. When dealing

  6. Agents with Faces: A Study on the Effects of Personification of Software Agents 129 [Bates 94] Bates, Joseph. ``The Role of Emotion in Believable Agents.'' Communications of

    E-print Network

    ] Brennan, Susan. et al. ``Effect of Message Style on Users' Attributions toward Agents,'' in CHI `94; Agents with Faces: A Study on the Effects of Personification of Agents 131 References [King 96] King

  7. Bendamustine: rescue of an effective antineoplastic agent from the mid-twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Leoni, Lorenzo M

    2011-04-01

    Although the alkylating agent bendamustine was developed in Germany in the mid-twentieth century, it has only recently come to the forefront in the rest of the world as an effective chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of several hematologic malignancies. Based on the activity demonstrated in single-arm and randomized trials, this nitrogen mustard is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and rituximab-refractory indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The unique structural and mechanistic features of bendamustine differentiate it from other alkylating agents, providing increased stability and potency in DNA cross linking and subsequent cytotoxicity. Due to its unusual development, few studies have closely examined the mechanisms of action for this nitrogen mustard and many unanswered questions remain. Additionally, phase I and pharmacokinetic studies are limited, although increased understanding of the clinical pharmacology of bendamustine led to development of dosing recommendations by international experts based on the available data. The clinical activity of bendamustine as a single agent and in combination with other chemotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic drugs, coupled with its potential lack of cross-resistance with many other chemotherapy agents, make bendamustine an attractive therapy for patients with newly diagnosed and refractory hematologic malignancies. This review will discuss the development of bendamustine, its structural and pharmacologic characteristics, and current data regarding the optimal dosing of this agent in specific clinical settings. PMID:21530771

  8. Safe motion planning for mobile agents: A model of reactive planning for multiple mobile agents

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimura, Kikuo.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of motion planning for multiple mobile agents is studied. Each planning agent independently plans its own action based on its map which contains a limited information about the environment. In an environment where more than one mobile agent interacts, the motions of the robots are uncertain and dynamic. A model for reactive agents is described and simulation results are presented to show their behavior patterns. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Departments as Agents of Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1996-07-01

    Higher education is changing because it has no choice. And, for the most part, outside influences are dictating the processes of change. The more fortunate institutions have had a flat budget during this period, but most have been forced to deal with a declining revenue stream as well. Legislators seem bent on micromanaging state-supported institutions, even as they cut their support. Regulators demand greater institutional accountability. Students and their parents expect more service at lower prices and increased flexibility. Technological advances have dramatically affected the availability and accessibility of extant knowledge. It is no longer a question of whether institutions will change, but rather, who will control the change. Most institutions possess long-standing academic traditions, but these are placed at risk in an increasingly competitive market that holds little sympathy for such traditions and may even see them as obstacles or barriers. As a result, the change agents will undoubtedly have a profound effect on the very nature of academic institutions. From the academic point of view, it would seem prudent to attempt to manage the changes that will inevitably occur. A number of concerned observers, notably the Pew Higher Education Roundtable and the American Association for Higher Education, argue persuasively that the academic department is the logical focus for responding to the current winds of change. Using a marketing metaphor, the academic department has been likened to a "producers' cooperative" of services that consumers seek. Thus, the department should be held accountable for the quality of teaching delivered by its members, for the coherence of its major, for its contributions to the general education curriculum, and for supervising and rewarding its individual faculty members. If departments are to be held accountable, it is surely in their best interest to act in such a way that they are accountable. Expecting academic departments to be the principal agents for recasting American higher education might appear to some like putting a fox in charge of the chicken coop. For many observers, departments epitomize everything that is wrong with higher education. Departments have come to be viewed as the agents of a discipline that draw faculty attention away from their home institution, and seek to sustain individual privilege at the expense of initiatives designed to enhance learning and teaching. Departments have been portrayed as clans of arrogant experts accountable only to their own personal agendas and to their disciplines. From this rather harsh point of view, departments have become privatized as they and their institutions strive to enhance their reputations through the faculty they hire, often at the expense of undergraduate teaching. Faculty define their interests in increasingly narrow terms, which in turn is often reflected in the courses they teach. As individual courses come to represent the increasingly specialized views of their faculty-owners, the curriculum begins to lose focus and coherence. Thus, the privatization of faculty effort has far-reaching effects on an institution's educational mission. In spite of its apparent flaws, the department, more than any other unit, stands the best chance of providing the basis of change that can renew higher education. Although individual faculty members may find their greatest rewards elsewhere, a department can only be rewarded on the basis of the combined efforts and accomplishments of its collective faculty. This fact alone makes departments an obvious vehicle for change. Furthermore, institutional support for a discipline is focused in the department, as is the institution's responsibility for teaching undergraduates. For a department to compete effectively in the new marketplace, it must ensure that its members remain active scholars who are not only expert in their primary fields, but also open to inter- and cross-disciplinary opportunities. New developments and intellectual opportunities will continue to occur at the interfac

  10. CS 3793/5233 Artificial Intelligence Intelligence and Agents 1 Agents and Definitions of Artificial

    E-print Network

    Ruan, Jianhua

    CS 3793/5233 Artificial Intelligence Intelligence and Agents ­ 1 Agents and Definitions of Artificial Intellgence Intelligence is the art of good guesswork. (H. B. Barlow) #12;What is Artificial Intelligence? Definitions of AI What is AI? The Turing Test Goals of AI Agents CS 3793/5233 Artificial

  11. Objective Trust-based Agents: Trust and Trustworthiness in a Multi-agent Trading Society

    E-print Network

    Witkowski, Mark

    step, in which supplier Agents select customer agents to serve and make offers of units in response in times of shortage, at the risk of appearing untrustworthy. Select_Suppliers() Select_Customers() Update customer Agents preferentially select suppliers they trust to offer them the units they require. Similarly

  12. From trigger agents to planning agents: making a simple economy asynchronous

    E-print Network

    Grimaldo, Francisco

    From trigger agents to planning agents: making a simple economy asynchronous Mario Paolucci by a simple agent-based model without the assumption of a Walrasian auctioneer. The model exhibits also for models implemented, for example, in NetLogo. In the economy as represented in Gaffeo et al (2012

  13. On Designing Migrating Agents: From Autonomous Virtual Agents to Intelligent Robotic Systems

    E-print Network

    Lee, WonSook

    On Designing Migrating Agents: From Autonomous Virtual Agents to Intelligent Robotic Systems Kaveh.0 [Artificial Intelligence]: General­Cognitive simulation; I.2.11 [Artificial Intelligence]: Distributed Artificial Intelligence­Intelligent agents; I.2.4 [Artificial Intelligence]: Problem Solving, Control Methods

  14. Security of Mobile Agents on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corradi, Antonio; Montanari, Rebecca; Stefanelli, Cesare

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the Internet focuses on new programming paradigms based on mobile agents. Considers the security issues associated with mobile agents and proposes a security architecture composed of a wide set of services and components capable of adapting to a variety of applications, particularly electronic commerce. (Author/LRW)

  15. Biologic agents for IBD: practical insights.

    PubMed

    Danese, Silvio; Vuitton, Lucine; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2015-09-01

    Six biologic agents are currently approved for the treatment of IBD: four anti-TNF agents (infliximab, adalimumab, golimumab and certolizumab pegol) and two anti-integrin agents (natalizumab and vedolizumab). In Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis refractory to standard medications, treatment choice among available biologic agents can be challenging. Several parameters should be taken into account to help physicians through the decision-making process, including the comparative effectiveness and long-term safety profile, availability and labelling in the prescriber's country, international guidelines, and cost, as well as patient preferences (such as the route of administration). Herein, we provide practical insights on the use of biologic agents in IBD. The results of head-to-head trials between biologic agents are eagerly awaited to guide decision-making regarding the choice of first-line biologic agents and to determine whether switching within the same drug class or swapping (switching out of the drug class) is preferable after primary or secondary loss of response to the first biologic agent. In the near future, treatment algorithms might evolve with the launch of new drugs (such as ustekinumab, tofacitinib and etrolizumab) and the increased use of biosimilars. PMID:26284562

  16. Introductory Notes on AgentIntroductory Notes on Agent--Based Modeling,Based Modeling, AgentAgent--Oriented Programming, & AMESOriented Programming, & AMES

    E-print Network

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    ,...) - Physical entities (weather, landscape, electric grids,...) #12;5 Partial depiction of agents with methods that act on this data -Global regularities arise from the interactions of distributed agents #12 transparent and realistic representation of real-world systems composed of interacting distributed entities

  17. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SERVICES CRM Agent Training

    E-print Network

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SERVICES CRM Agent Training Assigning an agent to a case Service Management case, select the case number. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SERVICES #12;3 5. When the case page has opened TECHNOLOGY SERVICES #12;4 7. Select the appropriate provider group. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SERVICES #12;5 8

  18. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SERVICES CRM Agent Training

    E-print Network

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SERVICES CRM Agent Training Creating a Case Service Management Deployment Request. An agent can change the INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SERVICES #12;3 type to reflect the type of case of the provider group field. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SERVICES #12;4 Selecting the magnifying glass will open

  19. Computing with Mobile Agents in Distributed Networks

    E-print Network

    Kranakis, Evangelos

    1.1 Introduction Mobile agents are software entities with the capacity for motion that can act on behalf of their user with a certain degree of autonomy in order to accomplish a variety of computing computing, and second to overcome the limitations of user interfaces. 1.1.1 What is a mobile agent

  20. Simultaneous Localization and Surveying with Multiple Agents

    E-print Network

    Roweis, Sam

    of multiple agents, that interact with each other through proximity sensors. Since exact learning in this case and Ruslan R. Salakhutdinov 0 20 40 60 80 Sensor 1 Sensor 2 Sensor 3 Wall Sensor Proximity Sensor Fig. 1 sensors; the fourth is a wall-detecting binary sensor. The proximity sensor indicates whether an agent

  1. Updating Probabilities: A Complex Agent Based Example

    E-print Network

    Giffin, Adom

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that one can accommodate data (Bayes) and constraints (MaxEnt) in one method, the method of Maximum (relative) Entropy (ME) (Giffin 2007). In this paper we show a complex agent based example of inference with two different forms of information; moments and data. In this example, several agents each receive partial information about a system in the form of data. In addition, each agent agrees or is informed that there are certain global constraints on the system that are always true. The agents are then asked to make inferences about the entire system. The system becomes more complex as we add agents and allow them to share information. This system can have a geometrical form, such as a crystal structure. The shape may dictate how the agents are able to share information, such as sharing with nearest neighbors. This method can be used to model many systems where the agents or cells have local or partial information but must adhere to some global rules. This could also illustrate how the agent...

  2. Agent Programming Tutorial Prague, June 19th

    E-print Network

    Peterson, James K

    development using JADE framework, organized by the Gerstner Laboratory. JADE (Java Agent DEvelopment framework: Researchers Java developers Ph.D. students Prerequisites Java programming (orientation in basic object ori) is runtime environment for development of FIPA compliant inter- operable agents. Currently in version 3

  3. Pervasive `Calm' for Autonomous Robotic Agents

    E-print Network

    Pervasive `Calm' Perception for Autonomous Robotic Agents Thiemo Wiedemeyer, Ferenc Bálint that these tasks impose onto perception mech- anisms. There is a strong need to scale robot perception capabilities requiring the robotic agent to wait for the results of perception processes. Appears in: Proceedings

  4. Economic Agents and Markets as Emergent Phenomena

    E-print Network

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    Economic Agents and Markets as Emergent Phenomena LEIGH TESFATSION Department of Economics, Iowa Colloquium session "Economic Agents and Markets as Emergent Phenomena" held in October 2001. Decentralized market economies are complex adap- tive systems, consisting of large numbers of buyers and sellers

  5. Analyzing How Social Agents Influence Interpersonal Communication

    E-print Network

    Nakanishi, Hideyuki

    on interpersonal communication. In the first experiment, the agent supported cross-cultural communication, virtual space, cross-cultural communication, balance theory. 1. Introduction Virtual spaces make it easyAnalyzing How Social Agents Influence Interpersonal Communication Hideyuki Nakanishi1 , Satoshi

  6. Internet Worm Attacks and Stochastic Agent Models

    E-print Network

    Bradley, Jeremy

    Project: Internet Worm Attacks and Stochastic Agent Models Jeremy Bradley Email: jb;Presentation Internet worms at work! A formal agent description Our existing techniques Other solutions methods JTB [08/2004] ­ p.3/21 #12;Lifecycle of an Internet Worm Sequence of events: 1. Malicious person

  7. Wearable Computers as Intelligent Agents Thad Starner

    E-print Network

    Starner, Thad E.

    Wearable Computers as Intelligent Agents Thad Starner GVU Center, College of Computing Georgia in requests. Today, wearable computers, through their small size, proximity to the body, and usability. Specifically, wearable computers may begin to act as intelligent agents during everyday life, assisting

  8. Travel Agent Participation in Biosecurity Awareness

    E-print Network

    and Forestry June 2004 New Zealand Tourism Research Institute #12;2 Executive Summary Current Findings. The response rate was high (~25%) and covered a cross-section of urban and rural travel agents from both North between rural and urban settings. Rural agents were 25% more likely than their urban counterparts to say

  9. VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS AGENTS AND WATERBORNE DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of electron microscopic techniques in the study of human gastroenteritis led in the 1970's to the identification of new viral agents that had previously escaped detection by routine cell culture procedures. These agents have been the focus of study by researchers ...

  10. Behavioral Modeling for Agents in Real Environments

    E-print Network

    de Figueiredo, Luiz Henrique

    to define a software platform or architecture to develop agent-based software. StarLogo and Swarm GIS and Agents Integration Cases References #12;Abstract Our purpose is to present a behavioral, an architecture is needed to develop case applications. For our studies StarLogo is very simple and Swarm too

  11. Prototyping An Intelligent Agent Wizard of Oz

    E-print Network

    Greenberg, Saul

    Prototyping An Intelligent Agent Through Wizard of Oz David Maulsby Saul Greenberg Richard Mander through Wizard of Oz." In ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Amsterdam Agent through Wizard of Oz David Maulsby * Saul Greenberg * Richard Mander * Department of Computer

  12. Improving Disability Awareness among Extension Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahadevan, Lakshmi; Peterson, Rick L.; Grenwelge, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Increasing prevalence rates and legislative mandates imply that educators, parents, and Extension agents will need better tools and resources to meet the needs of special populations. The Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service addresses this issue by using e-learning tools. Extension agents can take advantage of these courses to gain critical…

  13. The Extended Mind: Coupling Environment and Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrobel, Susie

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes embodiment and cognitive extension as examples of strong anticipation as defined by Dubois. Clark and Chalmers formulated a thesis which states that parts of the environment, if coupled successfully, can become part of the extended mind. This coupling, be it deliberate or unintentional, shifts the observer-world boundary outwards when the observer encompasses parts of his environment. The resulting extended observer forms a new systemic whole, which consists of both the assimilated context and the recalibrated version of the original observer. Recalibration occurs when conditioning and adaptation lead to corresponding changes on the neural level, for instance, when an agent compensates for delays in a control loop. Plasticity is a prerequisite for any successful incorporation of external structures. However, uncoupled parts of the observer must remain inviolate in order to preserve the boundary. Neither the extended mind nor the core observer are absolute concepts. Depending on whether we focus on local-scale interactions or on large-scale behaviour, boundaries are formed at different interfacial cuts, which lead to either an endo- or an exo-perspective or endo- or exo-anticipation, respectively. For biological extended agents which undergo a transition from exo- to endo-states, a tell-tale sign of a successful exo-endo transition is invisibility. This invisibility occurs when the agent is no longer aware of the delay originally introduced into the control loop by the assimilated part of the environment. Explaining the world in terms of effective causality is not sufficient to account for extended minds. The latter require explanations in terms of final causation. For extended minds, this ordering principle comes in the shape of nested hierarchical layers. The interfaces of these layers may have merged for an endo-observer, whereas an exo-observer can make out the detailed structure, including artificially introduced delays. A sufficient condition for an endo-observer to turn into an extended mind is the formation of a new systemic whole as a result of shifting the interfacial cut between exo-and endo-world outwards. However, this is only a necessary condition for an extended agent with strong anticipatory properties. It is invisibility which is a sufficient condition for strong or endo-anticipation.

  14. Tachyon Couplings to Fermion

    E-print Network

    Mohammad R. Garousi

    2008-11-22

    By fixing the internal CP factor of tachyon and massless Ramond vertex operators in different pictures, we have shown that the internal CP factor of the disk level S-matrix elements of two fermions and odd number of tachyon vertex operators in the world volume of non-BPS D-branes/D-brane-anti-D-brane is zero. We have calculated the S-matrix element of two fermions and two tachyons which has non vanishing internal CP factor, and found the momentum expansion of this amplitude. In the abelian case, we have compared the two-fermion-two-tachyon coupling at low energy with the corresponding coupling in the gauge-fixed supersymmetric tachyon DBI action. The couplings in the two cases are exactly the same.

  15. Tube coupling device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, William N. (inventor); Hein, Leopold A. (inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A first annular ring of a tube coupling device has a keyed opening sized to fit around the nut region of a male coupling, and a second annular ring has a keyed opening sized to fit around the nut of a female coupling. Each ring has mating ratchet teeth and these rings are biased together, thereby engaging these teeth and preventing rotation of these rings. This in turn prevents the rotation of the male nut region with respect to the female nut. For tube-to-bulkhead locking, one facet of one ring is notched, and a pin is pressed into an opening in the bulkhead. This pin is sized to fit within one of the notches in the ring, thereby preventing rotation of this ring with respect to the bulkhead.

  16. Ecology Based Decentralized Agent Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peysakhov, Maxim D.; Cicirello, Vincent A.; Regli, William C.

    2004-01-01

    The problem of maintaining a desired number of mobile agents on a network is not trivial, especially if we want a completely decentralized solution. Decentralized control makes a system more r e bust and less susceptible to partial failures. The problem is exacerbated on wireless ad hoc networks where host mobility can result in significant changes in the network size and topology. In this paper we propose an ecology-inspired approach to the management of the number of agents. The approach associates agents with living organisms and tasks with food. Agents procreate or die based on the abundance of uncompleted tasks (food). We performed a series of experiments investigating properties of such systems and analyzed their stability under various conditions. We concluded that the ecology based metaphor can be successfully applied to the management of agent populations on wireless ad hoc networks.

  17. Novel antibodies as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Zafir-Lavie, I; Michaeli, Y; Reiter, Y

    2007-05-28

    In recent years antibodies, whether generated by traditional hybridoma technology or by recombinant DNA strategies, have evolved from Paul Ehrlich's 'magic bullets' to a modern age 'guided missile'. In the recent years of immunologic research, we are witnessing development in the fields of antigen screening and protein engineering in order to create specific anticancer remedies. The developments in the field of recombinant DNA, protein engineering and cancer biology have let us gain insight into many cancer-related mechanisms. Moreover, novel techniques have facilitated tools allowing unique distinction between malignantly transformed cells, and regular ones. This understanding has paved the way for the rational design of a new age of pharmaceuticals: monoclonal antibodies and their fragments. Antibodies can select antigens on both a specific and a high-affinity account, and further implementation of these qualities is used to target cancer cells by specifically identifying exogenous antigens of cancer cell populations. The structure of the antibody provides plasticity resonating from its functional sites. This review will screen some of the many novel antibodies and antibody-based approaches that are being currently developed for clinical applications as the new generation of anticancer agents. PMID:17530025

  18. Erythropoietin and erythropoiesis stimulating agents.

    PubMed

    Debeljak, Nataša; Sytkowski, Arthur J

    2012-11-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is the main hormonal regulator of red blood cell production. Recombinant EPO has become the leading drug for treatment of anaemia from a variety of causes; however, it is sometimes misused in sport with the aim of improving performance and endurance. This paper presents an introductory overview of EPO, its receptor, and a variety of recombinant human EPOs/erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) available on the market (e.g. epoetins and their long acting analogs--darbepoetin alfa and continuous erythropoiesis receptor activator). Recent efforts to improve on EPO's pharmaceutical properties and to develop novel replacement products are also presented. In most cases, these efforts have emphasized a reduction in frequency of injections or complete elimination of intravenous or subcutaneous injections of the hormone (biosimilars, EPO mimetic peptides, fusion proteins, endogenous EPO gene activators and gene doping). Isoelectric focusing (IEF) combined with double immunoblotting can detect the subtle differences in glycosylation/sialylation, enabling differentiation among endogenous and recombinant EPO analogues. This method, using the highly sensitive anti-EPO monoclonal antibody AE7A5, has been accepted internationally as one of the methods for detecting misuse of ESAs in sport. PMID:22508651

  19. Cold as a therapeutic agent.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Olivero, W; Wang, D; Lanzino, G

    2006-05-01

    The use of cold as a therapeutic agent has a long and colorful history. The Edwin Smith Papyrus, the most ancient medical text known, dated 3500 B.C., made numerous references to the use of cold as therapy. Baron de Larrey, a French army surgeon during Napoleon's Russian campaign, packed the limbs in ice prior to amputations to render the procedures painless. In the early twentieth century, a neurosurgeon, Temple Fay, pioneered "human refrigeration" as a treatment for malignancies and head injuries. In 1961, Irving Cooper developed the first closed cryoprobe system and ushered in the modern era of cryogenic surgery with his imperturbable convictions. Fay's early work fell victim to the disruptive sequel of the World War II. The Nazis confiscated his data (presented before the Third International Cancer Congress in 1939) forwarded to Belgium for publication and brutally applied his refrigeration techniques experimentally without any benefit of anesthesia in the concentration camps, especially Dachau. Hypothermia became associated in the public mind with the atrocities exposed at the war trials in Nürnberg. After lying dormant for decades, the interest was rekindled in the late 80s when mild hypothermia was shown to confer dramatic neuroprotection in a number of experimental models of brain injury. With several large multi-center clinical studies currently under way, hypothermia is receiving unprecedented attention from the medical and scientific communities. PMID:16489500

  20. For whom will the Bayesian agents vote?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caticha, Nestor; Cesar, Jonatas; Vicente, Renato

    2015-04-01

    Within an agent-based model where moral classifications are socially learned, we ask if a population of agents behaves in a way that may be compared with conservative or liberal positions in the real political spectrum. We assume that agents first experience a formative period, in which they adjust their learning style acting as supervised Bayesian adaptive learners. The formative phase is followed by a period of social influence by reinforcement learning. By comparing data generated by the agents with data from a sample of 15000 Moral Foundation questionnaires we found the following. 1. The number of information exchanges in the formative phase correlates positively with statistics identifying liberals in the social influence phase. This is consistent with recent evidence that connects the dopamine receptor D4-7R gene, political orientation and early age social clique size. 2. The learning algorithms that result from the formative phase vary in the way they treat novelty and corroborative information with more conservative-like agents treating it more equally than liberal-like agents. This is consistent with the correlation between political affiliation and the Openness personality trait reported in the literature. 3. Under the increase of a model parameter interpreted as an external pressure, the statistics of liberal agents resemble more those of conservative agents, consistent with reports on the consequences of external threats on measures of conservatism. We also show that in the social influence phase liberal-like agents readapt much faster than conservative-like agents when subjected to changes on the relevant set of moral issues. This suggests a verifiable dynamical criterium for attaching liberal or conservative labels to groups.

  1. Pseudo-peptides as novel antileptospiral agents: Synthesis and spectral characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivamallu, Chandan; Sharanaiah, Umesha; Kollur, Shiva Prasad; Mallesh, Naveen Kumar R.; Hosakere, Revanasiddappa D.; Balamurugan, V.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the synthesis of novel class of pseudo-peptides derived by coupling an amino acid with a heterocyclic moiety containing free amine group using suitable coupling agents. The synthesized compounds were characterized using spectral (1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS) techniques. Preliminary pharmacological assays for Leptospirosis were studied by test tube dilution (TDT) and micro dilution technique (MDT). In particular, all the analyses led to the conclusion that the synthesized compound inhibiting the Leptospira a causal organism of Leptospirosis.

  2. The Second-Agent Effect: Communicative Gestures Increase the Likelihood of Perceiving a Second Agent

    PubMed Central

    Manera, Valeria; Del Giudice, Marco; Bara, Bruno G.; Verfaillie, Karl; Becchio, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Background Beyond providing cues about an agent's intention, communicative actions convey information about the presence of a second agent towards whom the action is directed (second-agent information). In two psychophysical studies we investigated whether the perceptual system makes use of this information to infer the presence of a second agent when dealing with impoverished and/or noisy sensory input. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants observed point-light displays of two agents (A and B) performing separate actions. In the Communicative condition, agent B's action was performed in response to a communicative gesture by agent A. In the Individual condition, agent A's communicative action was replaced with a non-communicative action. Participants performed a simultaneous masking yes-no task, in which they were asked to detect the presence of agent B. In Experiment 1, we investigated whether criterion c was lowered in the Communicative condition compared to the Individual condition, thus reflecting a variation in perceptual expectations. In Experiment 2, we manipulated the congruence between A's communicative gesture and B's response, to ascertain whether the lowering of c in the Communicative condition reflected a truly perceptual effect. Results demonstrate that information extracted from communicative gestures influences the concurrent processing of biological motion by prompting perception of a second agent (second-agent effect). Conclusions/Significance We propose that this finding is best explained within a Bayesian framework, which gives a powerful rationale for the pervasive role of prior expectations in visual perception. PMID:21829472

  3. A user-system interface agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakim, Nagi T.; Srivastava, Sadanand; Bousaidi, Mehdi; Goh, Gin-Hua

    1995-01-01

    Agent-based technologies answer to several challenges posed by additional information processing requirements in today's computing environments. In particular, (1) users desire interaction with computing devices in a mode which is similar to that used between people, (2) the efficiency and successful completion of information processing tasks often require a high-level of expertise in complex and multiple domains, (3) information processing tasks often require handling of large volumes of data and, therefore, continuous and endless processing activities. The concept of an agent is an attempt to address these new challenges by introducing information processing environments in which (1) users can communicate with a system in a natural way, (2) an agent is a specialist and a self-learner and, therefore, it qualifies to be trusted to perform tasks independent of the human user, and (3) an agent is an entity that is continuously active performing tasks that are either delegated to it or self-imposed. The work described in this paper focuses on the development of an interface agent for users of a complex information processing environment (IPE). This activity is part of an on-going effort to build a model for developing agent-based information systems. Such systems will be highly applicable to environments which require a high degree of automation, such as, flight control operations and/or processing of large volumes of data in complex domains, such as the EOSDIS environment and other multidisciplinary, scientific data systems. The concept of an agent as an information processing entity is fully described with emphasis on characteristics of special interest to the User-System Interface Agent (USIA). Issues such as agent 'existence' and 'qualification' are discussed in this paper. Based on a definition of an agent and its main characteristics, we propose an architecture for the development of interface agents for users of an IPE that is agent-oriented and whose resources are likely to be distributed and heterogeneous in nature. The architecture of USIA is outlined in two main components: (1) the user interface which is concerned with issues as user dialog and interaction, user modeling, and adaptation to user profile, and (2) the system interface part which deals with identification of IPE capabilities, task understanding and feasibility assessment, and task delegation and coordination of assistant agents.

  4. Adaptive Agent Integration Architectures for Heterogeneous Team Members

    E-print Network

    Kaminka, Gal A.

    ,pynadath,nico,das,galk¡ @isi.edu Abstract Withthe proliferationof software agents and smart hard- ware devices are presented. 1 Introduction With the ever increasing number of information- gathering agents, user agents in the agent integrationarchitecture. Software agents have still differing requirements for information

  5. AgentSpace as a Framework to Support Interlibrary Cooperation

    E-print Network

    da Silva, Alberto Rodrigues

    -known identity, state and behavior with autonomy to somehow represent its user. The agent's user might be a human in the context of this work. 2.1 Agents and Mobile Agent Systems An agent is a software entity with a wellAgentSpace as a Framework to Support Interlibrary Cooperation Alberto Silva, José Delgado {Alberto

  6. Web Search Agents: "One-Stop Shopping" for Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Ernest

    2002-01-01

    Explains Web search agents as tools that apply intelligent agent software technology for the purpose of automating, improving, and speeding up online search operations. Topics include intelligent desktop agents; search agent marketplace; comparing Web search agents; subjective evaluations; and use by researchers. (LRW)

  7. Coupled parametric oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, I.; Van den Broeck, C.

    1999-12-01

    The region of collective parametric instability for a set of coupled oscillators, subjected to periodic block pulses with random phases, is calculated analytically in the mean-field limit. An extremely rich phase diagram is obtained, with the instability appearing in a much wider region than that of the individual parametric resonance, and persisting in the overdamped limit.

  8. Nominalizations in Couple Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, David B.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a discussion of the linguistic mechansim of nominalization. In identifying and challenging nominalizations, the counselor can help a couple clarify the present state of their relationship, where they are hurting, the desired state of their relationship, and the feeling and behavioral changes they want in their relationship. (Author)

  9. Coupling Gammasphere and ORRUBA

    SciTech Connect

    Ratkiewicz, A.; Cizewski, J. A.; Manning, B.; Pain, S. D.; Bardayan, D. W.; Blackmon, J. C.; Matos, M.; Chipps, K. A.; Hardy, S.; Shand, C.; Jones, K. L.; Kozub, R. L.; Lister, C. J.; Peters, W. A.; Seweryniak, D.

    2013-04-19

    The coincident detection of particles and gamma rays allows the study of the structure of exotic nuclei via inverse kinematics reactions using radioactive ion beams and thick targets. We report on the status of the project to couple the highresolution charged-particle detector ORRUBA to Gammasphere, a high-efficiency, high-resolution gamma ray detector.

  10. Counseling Couples: Cognitive Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Ellen M., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Contains six articles illustrating techniques used in working with adult dyads at the Marriage Council of Philadelphia. Describes cognitive therapy, values analysis, and individual interview methods. Discusses effects of rape on couple adjustment, interrelationships of sexual adjustment and marital satisfaction, and a 20-year longitudinal study of…

  11. Strongly Coupled Plasma Liquids

    E-print Network

    Z. Donko; P. Hartmann; G. J. Kalman

    2007-10-27

    This paper intends to review some of the prominent properties of strongly coupled classical plasmas having in mind the possible link with the quark-gluon plasma created in heavy-ion collisions. Thermodynamic and transport properties of classical liquid-state one-component plasmas are described and features of collective excitations are presented.

  12. Coupled superconductors and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josephson, Brian D.

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes the events leading to the discovery of coupled superconductors, the author's move in the 1970s to a perspective where mind plays a role comparable to matter, and the remarkable hostility sometimes encountered by those who venture into unconventional areas.

  13. Coupled Oscillators with Chemotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawai, Satoshi; Aizawa, Yoji

    1998-08-01

    A simple coupled oscillator system with chemotaxis is introducedto study morphogenesis of cellular slime molds. The modelsuccessfuly explains the migration of pseudoplasmodium which hasbeen experimentally predicted to be lead by cells with higherintrinsic frequencies. Results obtained predict that its velocityattains its maximum value in the interface region between totallocking and partial locking and also suggest possible rolesplayed by partial synchrony during multicellular development.

  14. Designing Agent Utilities for Coordinated, Scalable and Robust Multi-Agent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Kagan

    2005-01-01

    Coordinating the behavior of a large number of agents to achieve a system level goal poses unique design challenges. In particular, problems of scaling (number of agents in the thousands to tens of thousands), observability (agents have limited sensing capabilities), and robustness (the agents are unreliable) make it impossible to simply apply methods developed for small multi-agent systems composed of reliable agents. To address these problems, we present an approach based on deriving agent goals that are aligned with the overall system goal, and can be computed using information readily available to the agents. Then, each agent uses a simple reinforcement learning algorithm to pursue its own goals. Because of the way in which those goals are derived, there is no need to use difficult to scale external mechanisms to force collaboration or coordination among the agents, or to ensure that agents actively attempt to appropriate the tasks of agents that suffered failures. To present these results in a concrete setting, we focus on the problem of finding the sub-set of a set of imperfect devices that results in the best aggregate device. This is a large distributed agent coordination problem where each agent (e.g., device) needs to determine whether to be part of the aggregate device. Our results show that the approach proposed in this work provides improvements of over an order of magnitude over both traditional search methods and traditional multi-agent methods. Furthermore, the results show that even in extreme cases of agent failures (i.e., half the agents failed midway through the simulation) the system's performance degrades gracefully and still outperforms a failure-free and centralized search algorithm. The results also show that the gains increase as the size of the system (e.g., number of agents) increases. This latter result is particularly encouraging and suggests that this method is ideally suited for domains where the number of agents is currently in the thousands and will reach tens or hundreds of thousands in the near future.

  15. Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Feldspathic CAD/CAM Ceramic with Dentin using 2 Bonding Agents and 2 Surface Treatments- An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramaniam, Muthukumar; Chidambaranathan, Ahila Singaravel; Srinivasan, Suganya

    2015-01-01

    Background All ceramics are the material of choice for aesthetic tooth replacements. The success of all ceramic restoration depends on the bond between the ceramic and the tooth surface hence this study was done to evaluate the shear bond strength of Feldspathic CAD/CAM ceramic with <5% hydrofluoric acid and hydrofluoric acid combined with silane coupling agent. Aim To evaluate the shear bond strength of Feldspathic CAD/CAM ceramic with Dentin using bonding agents Prime & Bond NT, XenoIII and surface treatments <5% hydrofluric acid, hydrofluric acid combined with silane coupling agent. Materials and Methods Forty cylinders with 6mm diameter and 5mm height were milled from CEREC Blocs through CAD/CAM technology. Cerec blocks were bonded to etch freshly extracted tooth surface using a self etch and total etch bonding agent. The samples were divided into 4 groups. Group A1-Ceramic cylinders were treated with < 5% HF and bonded using Prime & Bond NT and Variolink II. Group A2- treated with < 5% HF and silane coupling agent and bonded same as group A1. Group B1- treated with < 5% HF and bonded using Xeno III and Variolink II. Group B2- treated with < 5% HF and silane coupling agent, and bonded same as Group A3. The shear bond strength was evaluated after 24 hours by Storing in distilled water in Instron 3385 universal testing machine with 10-KN force. Results Statistical analysis was done using student’s t-test and Lavene’s test. The p-value <0.05 shows significant difference in bond strength between A1 and A2 & B1and B2. Conclusion The application of a silane coupling agent to the ceramic surface after etching with hydrofluoric acid increased the adhesion strength with both bonding agents. Student’s t-test revealed a significant effect of silanization. PMID:26674522

  16. Agent-Supported Mission Operations Teamwork

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of software agents to support of mission operations teamwork. The goals of the work was to make automation by agents easy to use, supervise and direct, manage information and communication to decrease distraction, interruptions, workload and errors, reduce mission impact of off-nominal situations and increase morale and decrease turnover. The accomplishments or the project are: 1. Collaborative agents - mixed initiative and creation of instructions for mediating agent 2. Methods for prototyping, evaluating and evolving socio-technical systems 3. Technology infusion: teamwork tools in mISSIons 4. Demonstrations in simulation testbed An example of the use of agent is given, the use of an agent to monitor a N2 tank leak. An incomplete instruction to the agent is handled with mediating assistants, or Intelligent Briefing and Response Assistant (IBRA). The IBRA Engine also watches data stream for triggers and executes Act-Whenever actions. There is also a Briefing and Response Instruction (BRI) which is easy for a discipline specialist to create through a BRI editor.

  17. Natural chelating agents for radionuclide decorporation

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1985-06-11

    This invention relates to the production of metal-binding compounds useful for the therapy of heavy metal poisoning, for biological mining and for decorporation of radionuclides. The present invention deals with an orderly and effective method of producing new therapeutically effective chelating agents. This method uses challenge biosynthesis for the production of chelating agents that are specific for a particular metal. In this approach, the desired chelating agents are prepared from microorganisms challenged by the metal that the chelating agent is designed to detoxify. This challenge induces the formation of specific or highly selective chelating agents. The present invention involves the use of the challenge biosynthetic method to produce new complexing/chelating agents that are therapeutically useful to detoxify uranium, plutonium, thorium and other toxic metals. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa family of organisms is the referred family of microorganisms to be used in the present invention to produce the new chelating agent because this family is known to elaborate strains resistant to toxic metals.

  18. [Decorporation agents for internal radioactive contamination].

    PubMed

    Ohmachi, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    When radionuclides are accidentally ingested or inhaled, blood circulation or tissue/organ deposition of the radionuclides causes systemic or local radiation effects. In such cases, decorporation therapy is used to reduce the health risks due to their intake. Decorporation therapy includes reduction and/or inhibition of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, isotopic dilution, and the use of diuretics, adsorbents, and chelating agents. For example, penicillamine is recommended as a chelating agent for copper contamination, and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid is approved for the treatment of internal contamination with plutonium. During chelation therapy, the removal effect of the drugs should be monitored using a whole-body counter and/or bioassay. Some authorities, such as the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and International Atomic Energy Agency, have reported recommended decorporation agents for each radionuclide. However, few drugs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and many are off-label-use agents. Because many decontamination agents are drugs that have been available for a long time and have limited efficacy, the development of new, higher-efficacy drugs has been carried out mainly in the USA and France. In this article, in addition to an outline of decorporation agents for internal radioactive contamination, an outline of our research on decorporation agents for actinide (uranium and plutonium) contamination and for radio-cesium contamination is also presented. PMID:25832835

  19. Brahms Mobile Agents: Architecture and Field Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Kaskiris, Charis; vanHoof, Ron

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a model-based, distributed architecture that integrates diverse components in a system designed for lunar and planetary surface operations: an astronaut's space suit, cameras, rover/All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV), robotic assistant, other personnel in a local habitat, and a remote mission support team (with time delay). Software processes, called agents, implemented in the Brahms language, run on multiple, mobile platforms. These mobile agents interpret and transform available data to help people and robotic systems coordinate their actions to make operations more safe and efficient. The Brahms-based mobile agent architecture (MAA) uses a novel combination of agent types so the software agents may understand and facilitate communications between people and between system components. A state-of-the-art spoken dialogue interface is integrated with Brahms models, supporting a speech-driven field observation record and rover command system (e.g., return here later and bring this back to the habitat ). This combination of agents, rover, and model-based spoken dialogue interface constitutes a personal assistant. An important aspect of the methodology involves first simulating the entire system in Brahms, then configuring the agents into a run-time system.

  20. Scoping Planning Agents With Shared Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedrax-Weiss, Tania; Frank, Jeremy D.; Jonsson, Ari K.; McGann, Conor

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we provide a formal framework to define the scope of planning agents based on a single declarative model. Having multiple agents sharing a single model provides numerous advantages that lead to reduced development costs and increase reliability of the system. We formally define planning in terms of extensions of an initial partial plan, and a set of flaws that make the plan unacceptable. A Flaw Filter (FF) allows us to identify those flaws relevant to an agent. Flaw filters motivate the Plan Identification Function (PIF), which specifies when an agent is is ready hand control to another agent for further work. PIFs define a set of plan extensions that can be generated from a model and a plan request. FFs and PIFs can be used to define the scope of agents without changing the model. We describe an implementation of PIFsand FFswithin the context of EUROPA, a constraint-based planning architecture, and show how it can be used to easily design many different agents.

  1. Fluorescence quenching of flavins by reductive agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penzkofer, A.; Bansal, A. K.; Song, S.-H.; Dick, B.

    2007-07-01

    The fluorescence behaviour of the flavins riboflavin, flavin mononucleotide (FMN), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and lumiflavin in aqueous solution at pH 8 in the presence of the reducing agents ?-mercaptoethanol (?-ME), dithiothreitol (DTT), and sodium nitrite (NaNO 2) is studied under aerobic conditions. The fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes are determined as a function of the reducing agent concentration. For all three reducing agents diffusion controlled dynamic fluorescence quenching is observed which is thought to be due to photo-induced reductive electron transfer. For DTT additionally static fluorescence quenching occurs.

  2. Pharmacologic agents for mucus clearance in bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Nair, Girish B; Ilowite, Jonathan S

    2012-06-01

    There are no approved pharmacologic agents to enhance mucus clearance in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. Evidence supports the use of hyperosmolar agents in CF, and studies with inhaled mannitol and hypertonic saline are ongoing in bronchiectasis. N-acetylcysteine may act more as an antioxidant than a mucolytic in other lung diseases. Dornase ? is beneficial to patients with CF, but is not useful in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. Mucokinetic agents such as ?-agonists have the potential to improve mucociliary clearance in normals and many disease states, but have not been adequately studied in patients with bronchiectasis. PMID:22640851

  3. Knowledge Acquisition Ubiquitous Agent Infrastructure (KAUAI)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-09-15

    Mobile agents are autonomous software programs that can move from one host to another during the course of execution. The KAUAI computer code is a middleware that supports the rapid development and deployment of mobile agent based applications. It is built on the J2ME (CLDC) technology. KAUAI handles the instantiation, execution, transportation, and disposal of mobile agents. KAUAI masks the underlying hardware and communication details from application developers and provides flexible functionality for distributed computing.more »KAUAI supports software development in systems that involve a large number of heterogeneous computing platforms ranging from workstations to handheld devices.« less

  4. Knowledge Acquisition Ubiquitous Agent Infrastructure (KAUAI)

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-15

    Mobile agents are autonomous software programs that can move from one host to another during the course of execution. The KAUAI computer code is a middleware that supports the rapid development and deployment of mobile agent based applications. It is built on the J2ME (CLDC) technology. KAUAI handles the instantiation, execution, transportation, and disposal of mobile agents. KAUAI masks the underlying hardware and communication details from application developers and provides flexible functionality for distributed computing. KAUAI supports software development in systems that involve a large number of heterogeneous computing platforms ranging from workstations to handheld devices.

  5. When "together" means "too close": Agency motives and relationship functioning in coresident and living-apart-together couples.

    PubMed

    Hagemeyer, Birk; Schönbrodt, Felix D; Neyer, Franz J; Neberich, Wiebke; Asendorpf, Jens B

    2015-11-01

    The present research addresses the interplay between agency motives and objective dyadic closeness with regard to the functioning of intimate couple relationships. Applying a Person × Situation approach, we hypothesized (a) that partners' implicit and explicit agency motives predict their selection of dyadic living arrangements characterized by high or low objective closeness (coresidence or living-apart-together), (b) that agency motives have more negative effects on relationship functioning in coresident couples, (c) that agency motives predict agentic motivational states in coresident couples, and (d) that agentic states predict day-to-day changes in relationship satisfaction under conditions of high objective closeness. We found support for these between- and within-couple hypotheses in cross-sectional and prospective analyses of an age-heterogeneous sample of 548 heterosexual couples, and in a 2-week diary study with a subsample of 106 couples. Most notably, agentic motive dispositions and motivational states related to relationship functioning more negatively under conditions of high objective closeness. The overall positive effect of objective closeness on relationship functioning was diminished by strong agentic motivation. Perspectives for future research on agency motives in couple relationships are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26371399

  6. Aqueous microwaves assisted cross-coupling reactions applied to unprotected nucleosides.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Len, Christophe; Hervé, Gwénaelle

    2015-02-01

    Nucleoside analogues have attracted much attention due to their potential biological activities. Amongst all synthetic nucleosides, C5-modified pyrimidines and C7- or C8-modified purines have mostly been prepared using palladium cross-coupling reactions and then studied as antitumoral and antiviral agents. Our objective is to focus this review on the Suzuki-Miyaura and on the Heck cross-couplings of nucleosides using microwave irradiations which are an alternative technology compatible with green chemistry and sustainable development.

  7. Simulating prediction markets that include human and automated agents

    E-print Network

    Chang, Wendy, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    In this work I study the interaction of sophisticated trading agents with simpler agents in a prediction market. The goal is to simulate markets with both human and computer agents, and investigate ways to maximize the ...

  8. Agent-Based Macroeconomics Constructive Modeling of Decentralized Market Economies

    E-print Network

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    Agent-Oriented Programming (AOP) is designed for complex interactive systems. Agent-based Computational agents ACE uses AOP to study virtual economic worlds via computational experiments. Commonly used AOP

  9. 14 CFR 121.267 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. 121.267 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent...containers must be provided with a pressure relief to prevent...

  10. 14 CFR 125.165 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. 125.165 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent...containers must be provided with a pressure relief to prevent...

  11. 14 CFR 121.267 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. 121.267 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent...containers must be provided with a pressure relief to prevent...

  12. 14 CFR 125.165 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. 125.165 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent...containers must be provided with a pressure relief to prevent...

  13. 14 CFR 125.165 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. 125.165 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent...containers must be provided with a pressure relief to prevent...

  14. 14 CFR 121.267 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. 121.267 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent...containers must be provided with a pressure relief to prevent...

  15. 14 CFR 125.165 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. 125.165 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent...containers must be provided with a pressure relief to prevent...

  16. 14 CFR 121.267 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. 121.267 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent...containers must be provided with a pressure relief to prevent...

  17. 14 CFR 125.165 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. 125.165 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent...containers must be provided with a pressure relief to prevent...

  18. 14 CFR 121.267 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. 121.267 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent...containers must be provided with a pressure relief to prevent...

  19. Scaling reinforcement learning to the unconstrained multi-agent domain 

    E-print Network

    Palmer, Victor

    2009-06-02

    Reinforcement learning is a machine learning technique designed to mimic the way animals learn by receiving rewards and punishment. It is designed to train intelligent agents when very little is known about the agent’s ...

  20. 21 CFR 178.3295 - Clarifying agents for polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Clarifying agents for polymers. 178.3295 Section 178.3295 Food... § 178.3295 Clarifying agents for polymers. Clarifying agents may be safely used in polymers that are articles or components of...

  1. 21 CFR 178.3295 - Clarifying agents for polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Clarifying agents for polymers. 178.3295 Section 178.3295 Food... § 178.3295 Clarifying agents for polymers. Clarifying agents may be safely used in polymers that are articles or components of...

  2. 21 CFR 178.3295 - Clarifying agents for polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2009-04-01 true Clarifying agents for polymers. 178.3295 Section 178.3295 Food... § 178.3295 Clarifying agents for polymers. Clarifying agents may be safely used in polymers that are articles or components of...

  3. 21 CFR 178.3295 - Clarifying agents for polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Clarifying agents for polymers. 178.3295 Section 178.3295 Food... § 178.3295 Clarifying agents for polymers. Clarifying agents may be safely used in polymers that are articles or components of...

  4. 21 CFR 178.3295 - Clarifying agents for polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Clarifying agents for polymers. 178.3295 Section 178.3295 Food... § 178.3295 Clarifying agents for polymers. Clarifying agents may be safely used in polymers that are articles or components of...

  5. Predicting User Psychological Characteristics from Interactions with Empathetic Virtual Agents

    E-print Network

    Lester, James C.

    Predicting User Psychological Characteristics from Interactions with Empathetic Virtual Agents. Enabling virtual agents to quickly and accurately infer users' psychological characteristics for inferring users' psychological characteristics from observations of their interactions with virtual agents

  6. Exploring complex dynamics in multi agent-based intelligent systems: Theoretical and experimental approaches using the Multi Agent-based Behavioral Economic Landscape (MABEL) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandridis, Konstantinos T.

    This dissertation adopts a holistic and detailed approach to modeling spatially explicit agent-based artificial intelligent systems, using the Multi Agent-based Behavioral Economic Landscape (MABEL) model. The research questions that addresses stem from the need to understand and analyze the real-world patterns and dynamics of land use change from a coupled human-environmental systems perspective. Describes the systemic, mathematical, statistical, socio-economic and spatial dynamics of the MABEL modeling framework, and provides a wide array of cross-disciplinary modeling applications within the research, decision-making and policy domains. Establishes the symbolic properties of the MABEL model as a Markov decision process, analyzes the decision-theoretic utility and optimization attributes of agents towards comprising statistically and spatially optimal policies and actions, and explores the probabilogic character of the agents' decision-making and inference mechanisms via the use of Bayesian belief and decision networks. Develops and describes a Monte Carlo methodology for experimental replications of agent's decisions regarding complex spatial parcel acquisition and learning. Recognizes the gap on spatially-explicit accuracy assessment techniques for complex spatial models, and proposes an ensemble of statistical tools designed to address this problem. Advanced information assessment techniques such as the Receiver-Operator Characteristic curve, the impurity entropy and Gini functions, and the Bayesian classification functions are proposed. The theoretical foundation for modular Bayesian inference in spatially-explicit multi-agent artificial intelligent systems, and the ensembles of cognitive and scenario assessment modular tools build for the MABEL model are provided. Emphasizes the modularity and robustness as valuable qualitative modeling attributes, and examines the role of robust intelligent modeling as a tool for improving policy-decisions related to land use change. Finally, the major contributions to the science are presented along with valuable directions for future research.

  7. Theoretical modelling of ultrasound contrast agents 

    E-print Network

    Looney, Padraig

    2011-11-25

    This thesis compares theoretical models of ultrasound contrast agents to the acoustic response from single Microbubbles(MBs). The acoustic response was compared using a range of driving parameters. A rigid shelled contrast ...

  8. Binding agent for molding ceramic items

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beshentsev, B. D.; Vityuk, N. P.; Volkov, A. V.; Yevdokimov, A. I.; Novikov, M. N.; Piskunov, Y. G.; Pobortsev, E. P.; Sadovnichaya, L. M.

    1983-01-01

    The invention refers to the fabrication of ceramic items by the molding method. It can be used to produce items of complicated configuration, in particular composition of binding agent for electroceramic items.

  9. Mobile Agents and Exploration (1952; Claude Shannon)

    E-print Network

    Kranakis, Evangelos

    of collecting information. The actions executed by the mobile agents can be discrete or continuous distinguish two nodes except perhaps by their degree. The outgoing edges of a node are usually thought

  10. 7 CFR 984.88 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 984.88 Agents. The Secretary may,...

  11. 7 CFR 984.88 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 984.88 Agents. The Secretary may,...

  12. 7 CFR 984.88 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 984.88 Agents. The Secretary may,...

  13. 7 CFR 984.88 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 984.88 Agents. The Secretary may,...

  14. AGENT-BASED COMPUTATIONAL MODELING AND MACROECONOMICS

    E-print Network

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    AGENT-BASED COMPUTATIONAL MODELING AND MACROECONOMICS LEIGH TESFATSION Economics Department, Iowa. From Walrasian Equilibrium to ACE Trading 4. ACE Microfoundations for Macroeconomics 5. Concluding-202 in D. Colander, ed., Post Walrasian Macroeconomics: Beyond the Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium

  15. Learning in engineered multi-agent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Anup

    Consider the problem of maximizing the total power produced by a wind farm. Due to aerodynamic interactions between wind turbines, each turbine maximizing its individual power---as is the case in present-day wind farms---does not lead to optimal farm-level power capture. Further, there are no good models to capture the said aerodynamic interactions, rendering model based optimization techniques ineffective. Thus, model-free distributed algorithms are needed that help turbines adapt their power production on-line so as to maximize farm-level power capture. Motivated by such problems, the main focus of this dissertation is a distributed model-free optimization problem in the context of multi-agent systems. The set-up comprises of a fixed number of agents, each of which can pick an action and observe the value of its individual utility function. An individual's utility function may depend on the collective action taken by all agents. The exact functional form (or model) of the agent utility functions, however, are unknown; an agent can only measure the numeric value of its utility. The objective of the multi-agent system is to optimize the welfare function (i.e. sum of the individual utility functions). Such a collaborative task requires communications between agents and we allow for the possibility of such inter-agent communications. We also pay attention to the role played by the pattern of such information exchange on certain aspects of performance. We develop two algorithms to solve this problem. The first one, engineered Interactive Trial and Error Learning (eITEL) algorithm, is based on a line of work in the Learning in Games literature and applies when agent actions are drawn from finite sets. While in a model-free setting, we introduce a novel qualitative graph-theoretic framework to encode known directed interactions of the form "which agents' action affect which others' payoff" (interaction graph). We encode explicit inter-agent communications in a directed graph (communication graph) and, under certain conditions, prove convergence of agent joint action (under eITEL) to the welfare optimizing set. The main condition requires that the union of interaction and communication graphs be strongly connected; thus the algorithm combines an implicit form of communication (via interactions through utility functions) with explicit inter-agent communications to achieve the given collaborative goal. This work has kinship with certain evolutionary computation techniques such as Simulated Annealing; the algorithm steps are carefully designed such that it describes an ergodic Markov chain with a stationary distribution that has support over states where agent joint actions optimize the welfare function. The main analysis tool is perturbed Markov chains and results of broader interest regarding these are derived as well. The other algorithm, Collaborative Extremum Seeking (CES), uses techniques from extremum seeking control to solve the problem when agent actions are drawn from the set of real numbers. In this case, under the assumption of existence of a local minimizer for the welfare function and a connected undirected communication graph between agents, a result regarding convergence of joint action to a small neighborhood of a local optimizer of the welfare function is proved. Since extremum seeking control uses a simultaneous gradient estimation-descent scheme, gradient information available in the continuous action space formulation is exploited by the CES algorithm to yield improved convergence speeds. The effectiveness of this algorithm for the wind farm power maximization problem is evaluated via simulations. Lastly, we turn to a different question regarding role of the information exchange pattern on performance of distributed control systems by means of a case study for the vehicle platooning problem. In the vehicle platoon control problem, the objective is to design distributed control laws for individual vehicles in a platoon (or a road-train) that regulate inter-vehicle distances at a specified safe value

  16. 7 CFR 982.85 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 982.85 Agents. The...

  17. 7 CFR 982.85 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 982.85 Agents. The...

  18. 7 CFR 982.85 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 982.85 Agents. The...

  19. 7 CFR 982.85 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 982.85 Agents. The...

  20. 7 CFR 982.85 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 982.85 Agents. The...

  1. 7 CFR 920.67 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.67 Agents. The Secretary may, by designation in writing,...

  2. 7 CFR 920.67 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.67 Agents. The Secretary may, by designation in writing,...

  3. 7 CFR 920.67 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.67 Agents. The Secretary may, by designation in writing,...

  4. 7 CFR 920.67 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.67 Agents. The Secretary may, by designation in writing,...

  5. 7 CFR 920.67 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.67 Agents. The Secretary may, by designation in writing,...

  6. Autonomic Management for Multi-agent Systems

    E-print Network

    Salih, Nadir K; Viju, PG K; Mohamed, Abdelmotalib A

    2011-01-01

    Autonomic computing is a computing system that can manage itself by self-configuration, self-healing, self-optimizing and self-protection. Researchers have been emphasizing the strong role that multi agent systems can play progressively towards the design and implementation of complex autonomic systems. The important of autonomic computing is to create computing systems capable of managing themselves to a far greater extent than they do today. With the nature of autonomy, reactivity, sociality and pro-activity, software agents are promising to make autonomic computing system a reality. This paper mixed multi-agent system with autonomic feature that completely hides its complexity from users/services. Mentioned Java Application Development Framework as platform example of this environment, could applied to web services as front end to users. With multi agent support it also provides adaptability, intelligence, collaboration, goal oriented interactions, flexibility, mobility and persistence in software systems

  7. Approaches to multi-agent learning

    E-print Network

    Chang, Yu-Han, Ph. D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01

    Systems involving multiple autonomous entities are becoming more and more prominent. Sensor networks, teams of robotic vehicles, and software agents are just a few examples. In order to design these systems, we need methods ...

  8. Opportunistic Behavior in Motivated Learning Agents.

    PubMed

    Graham, James; Starzyk, Janusz A; Jachyra, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    This paper focuses on the novel motivated learning (ML) scheme and opportunistic behavior of an intelligent agent. It extends previously developed ML to opportunistic behavior in a multitask situation. Our paper describes the virtual world implementation of autonomous opportunistic agents learning in a dynamically changing environment, creating abstract goals, and taking advantage of arising opportunities to improve their performance. An opportunistic agent achieves better results than an agent based on ML only. It does so by minimizing the average value of all need signals rather than a dominating need. This paper applies to the design of autonomous embodied systems (robots) learning in real-time how to operate in a complex environment. PMID:25291798

  9. Compositional evaluation of asphalt binder recycling agents 

    E-print Network

    Madrid, Richard Charles

    1997-01-01

    Several experiments were performed to determine how recycling agent composition affects the high, intermediate, and low temperature properties as well as long term oxidative aging characteristics of recycled asphalt blends. Specifically, several...

  10. Natural compounds as anticancer agents: Experimental evidence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiao; Jiang, Yang-Fu

    2012-01-01

    Cancer prevention research has drawn much attention worldwide. It is believed that some types of cancer can be prevented by following a healthy life style. Cancer chemoprevention by either natural or synthetic agents is a promising route towards lowering cancer incidence. In recent years, the concept of cancer chemoprevention has evolved greatly. Experimental studies in animal models demonstrate that the reversal or suppression of premalignant lesions by chemopreventive agents is achievable. Natural occurring agents such as dietary phytochemicals, tea polyphenols and resveratrol show chemopreventive activity in animal models. Moreover, clinical trials for testing the safety and efficacy of a variety of natural agents in preventing or treating human malignancy have been ongoing. Here, we summarize experimental data on the chemopreventive or tumor suppressive effects of several natural compounds including curcumin, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, resveratrol, indole-3-carbinol, and vitamin D. PMID:24520533

  11. 7 CFR 932.72 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 932.72 Agents. The Secretary may,...

  12. 7 CFR 932.72 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 932.72 Agents. The Secretary may,...

  13. 7 CFR 932.72 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 932.72 Agents. The Secretary may,...

  14. 7 CFR 932.72 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 932.72 Agents. The Secretary may,...

  15. 7 CFR 932.72 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 932.72 Agents. The Secretary may,...

  16. Engineering Agent Organisations in a Business Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traskas, Dimitris; Padget, Julian

    Motivated by demands from the commercial world for software systems that can assist in the reorganisation of processes for the purpose of reducing business complexity, we discuss the benefits and challenges of the multi-agent approach. We concentrate on the engineering aspects of large scale multi-agent systems and begin our exploration by focusing on a real world example from the call centre industry. The critical call routing process seems appropriate and useful in presenting our ideas and provides a good starting point for the development of agent organisations capable of self-management and coordination. The main contributions of this work can be summarised as the demonstration of the value of agent organisational models that do not replicate the typical hierarchical structures observed in human organisations and that a quite basic peer-to-peer structure produces very similar performance indicators to a mature simulator that uses conventional techniques, suggesting further improvements may readily be realized.

  17. Soft Computing Agents V. Loia (Ed.)

    E-print Network

    Ulieru, Mihaela

    of information technologies through its ability to enable emulation in Cyberspace of real-world societies communities of agents that emulate our World in Cyberspace are able to deal with the uncertainty intrinsic

  18. 7 CFR 983.86 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.86 Agents. The Secretary...

  19. 7 CFR 983.86 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.86 Agents. The Secretary...

  20. 7 CFR 983.86 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.86 Agents. The Secretary...

  1. 7 CFR 983.86 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.86 Agents. The Secretary...

  2. 7 CFR 983.86 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.86 Agents. The Secretary...

  3. Context Awareness in a Handheld Exercise Agent

    PubMed Central

    Bickmore, Timothy W.; Mauer, Daniel; Brown, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Work towards the development of a handheld health counseling agent designed to promote physical activity is described. Previous work on automated health counselors is discussed, along with the affordances of mobility and context awareness for health behavior interventions. We present a general-purpose software architecture for the rapid design and deployment of mobile health counseling agents. We also describe the results of an initial field trial in which such a mobile agent plays the role of an exercise coach designed to motivate users to walk more. Results were mixed. We found that the context awareness mechanism that was implemented for detecting walking led to greater user-agent social bonding, but less walking in study participants. PMID:20161031

  4. Embodied Teachable Agents: Learning by Teaching Robots

    E-print Network

    Napp, Nils

    these benefits by providing surrogate pupils for them to teach, with potential advantages over human tutees, and enjoyable than virtual agents [16­18], and in some cases with children have been found to be preferable even

  5. BODIPY derivatives as molecular photoacoustic contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laoui, Samir; Bag, Seema; Dantiste, Olivier; Frenette, Mathieu; Hatamimoslehabadi, Maryam; Bellinger-Buckley, Stephanie; Tseng, Jen-Chieh; Rochford, Jonathan; Yelleswarapu, Chandra

    2014-03-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is emerging as a key in vivo imaging technique. Endogenous contrast agents alone are insufficient to obtain high contrast images necessitating a need for synthetic exogenous contrast agents. In recent years a great deal of research has been devoted to the development of nanoparticle based contrast agents with little effort on molecular systems. Here we report on the design and evaluation of BODIPY inspired molecular photoacoustic contrast agents (MPACs). Through chemical modification of the established BODIPY fluorophore, increasing its vibrational freedom and appending with non-emissive functionalities, it is demonstrated that the S0-S1 absorbed excitation energy is redirected towards a nonradiative excited-state decay pathway. Optical and photoacoustic characterization of the modified BODIPY MPACs demonstrates a stronger photoacoustic signal compared to the corresponding fluorescent BODIPY probes.

  6. For whom will the Bayesian agents vote?

    E-print Network

    Caticha, Nestor; Vicente, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Within an agent-based model where moral classifications are socially learned, we ask if a population of agents behaves in a way that may be compared with conservative or liberal positions in the real political spectrum. We assume that agents first experience a formative period, in which they adjust their learning style acting as supervised Bayesian adaptive learners. The formative phase is followed by a period of social influence by reinforcement learning. By comparing data generated by the agents with data from a sample of 15000 Moral Foundation questionnaires we found the following. 1. The number of information exchanges in the formative phase correlates positively with statistics identifying liberals in the social influence phase. This is consistent with recent evidence that connects the dopamine receptor D4-7R gene, political orientation and early age social clique size. 2. The learning algorithms that result from the formative phase vary in the way they treat novelty and corroborative information with mo...

  7. Chemical Agents: Facts about Sheltering in Place

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Emergency Response Guide Reaching At-Risk Populations Chemical Agents: Facts About Sheltering in Place Format: Select ... What “sheltering in place” means Some kinds of chemical accidents or attacks may make going outdoors dangerous. ...

  8. Learning Concepts in Software Agents Uma Ramamurthy*

    E-print Network

    Ramamurthy, Uma

    : deliberative, reflexive, monatomic, non-monatomic, etc.) and the nature of environments (static, dynamic, etc that contains and manages the underlying and primitive resources of an agent. A methodical study

  9. 7 CFR 985.67 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 985.67 Agents. The...

  10. 7 CFR 985.67 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 985.67 Agents. The...

  11. 7 CFR 985.67 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 985.67 Agents. The...

  12. 7 CFR 985.67 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 985.67 Agents. The...

  13. 7 CFR 985.67 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 985.67 Agents. The...

  14. [Bacterial destruction of synthetic organic flotation agents].

    PubMed

    Ilialetdinov, A N; Mendeshev, A

    1979-01-01

    Microorganisms that use the flotation agent T-66 as the sole source of carbon have been isolated from soil enriched with this agent. A mixture of bacterial cultures belonging to the genus Pseudomonas (Ps. fluorescens, Ps. desmolyticum, Ps. rathonis, Ps. cyanoides viscosa, and Ps. aeruginosa) oxidized, after adaptation, at a high rate, components of the flotation agent T-66. Aeration of the medium accelerated the destruction. About 90% of the foltation agent components were oxidized within four months. The highest activity was observed during the first two months. The bacteria also decomposed, actively, oxidized kerosene and oxidized recycle stock added as the sole source of carbon to a mineral medium. Introduction of glucose to the medium accelerated destruction of oxidized recycle stock by the microorganisms, but inhibited destruction of oxidized kerosene. PMID:470638

  15. 21 CFR 181.28 - Release agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... heating 4 hours at 200 °C.; viscosity 300 centisokes, 600 centisokes at 25 °C, specific gravity 0.96 to 0... FOOD INGREDIENTS Specific Prior-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.28 Release agents....

  16. 7 CFR 989.89 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 989.89 Agents. The Secretary may,...

  17. Anomalous gauge boson couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Barklow, T.; Rizzo, T.; Baur, U.

    1997-01-13

    The measurement of anomalous gauge boson self couplings is reviewed for a variety of present and planned accelerators. Sensitivities are compared for these accelerators using models based on the effective Lagrangian approach. The sensitivities described here are for measurement of {open_quotes}generic{close_quotes} parameters {kappa}{sub V}, {lambda}{sub V}, etc., defined in the text. Pre-LHC measurements will not probe these coupling parameters to precision better than O(10{sup -1}). The LHC should be sensitive to better than O(10{sup -2}), while a future NLC should achieve sensitivity of O(10{sup -3}) to O(10{sup -4}) for center of mass energies ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 TeV.

  18. Magnetic coupling device

    DOEpatents

    Nance, Thomas A. (Aiken, SC)

    2009-08-18

    A quick connect/disconnect coupling apparatus is provided in which a base member is engaged by a locking housing through a series of interengagement pins. The pins maintain the shaft in a locked position. Upon exposure to an appropriately positioned magnetic field, pins are removed a sufficient distance such that the shaft may be withdrawn from the locking housing. The ability to lock and unlock the connector assembly requires no additional tools or parts apart from a magnetic key.

  19. Preparing for bioterrorism: category A agents.

    PubMed

    Persell, D J; Arangie, P; Young, C; Stokes, E N; Payne, W C; Skorga, P; Gilbert-Palmer, D

    2001-12-01

    September 11, 2001, brought the possibility of biologic acts of terrorism against the United States into the national consciousness. As the American people brace themselves for this new threat to the national well-being, clinicians must understand how to prevent, recognize, and treat the biologic agents that could be used in terrorist attacks. This article discusses the most likely biologic agents, including diagnostic laboratory procedures, treatment options, psychological effects, special populations, and reporting requirements. PMID:11809039

  20. Precursors to radiopharmaceutical agents for tissue imaging

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Prem C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1988-01-01

    A class of radiolabeled compounds to be used in tissue imaging that exhibits rapid brain uptake, good brain:blood radioactivity ratios, and long retention times. The imaging agents are more specifically radioiodinated aromatic amines attached to dihydropyridine carriers, that exhibit heart as well as brain specificity. In addition to the radiolabeled compounds, classes of compounds are also described that are used as precursors and intermediates in the preparation of the imaging agents.

  1. MATE: The multi-agent test environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Cindy L.

    1992-01-01

    In this report we present the Multi-Agent Test Environment, MATE. MATE is a collection of experiment management tools for assisting in the design, testing, and evaluation of distributed problem-solvers. It provides the experimenter with an automated tool for executing and monitoring experiments choosing among rule bases, number of agents, communication strategies, and inference engines. Using MATE the experimenter can run a series of distributed problem-solving experiments without human intervention.

  2. Mirage gauge coupling unification

    E-print Network

    Luis E. Ibanez

    1999-06-11

    We use compact D=4, N=1, Type IIB orientifolds as a testing ground for recent ideas about precocious gauge coupling unification and a low energy string scale. We find that certain such orientifolds have the interesting property that gauge couplings receive moduli-dependent corrections which mimic the effect of field theoretical logarithmic running. The effective cut-off scale for the logarithmic correction is not $M_{string}$ but rather $M_X=\\sqrt{\\alpha}M_{Planck}M_c/M_{string}$, where $M_c$ is the compactification scale. Thus there is just normal logarithmic running up to $M_{string}$ and extra moduli dependent corrections which behave as if there was further running to a higher virtual scale $M_X$. In this mechanism a prominent role is played by anomalous U(1)'s with moduli dependent Fayet-Iliopoulos terms. A vanishing FI-term fixes the modulus dependence of the corrected gauge coupling. We discuss possible ways to implement this mechanism in the context of a simple extension of the MSSM.

  3. Quick torque coupling

    DOEpatents

    Luft, Peter A. (El Cerrito, CA)

    2009-05-12

    A coupling for mechanically connecting modular tubular struts of a positioning apparatus or space frame, comprising a pair of toothed rings (10, 12) attached to separate strut members (16), the teeth (18, 20) of the primary rings (10, 12) mechanically interlocking in both an axial and circumferential manner, and a third part comprising a sliding, toothed collar (14) the teeth (22) of which interlock the teeth (18, 20) of the primary rings (10, 12), preventing them from disengaging, and completely locking the assembly together. A secondary mechanism provides a nesting force for the collar, and/or retains it. The coupling is self-contained and requires no external tools for installation, and can be assembled with gloved hands in demanding environments. No gauging or measured torque is required for assembly. The assembly can easily be visually inspected to determine a "go" or "no-go" status. The coupling is compact and relatively light-weight. Because of it's triply interlocking teeth, the connection is rigid. The connection does not primarily rely on clamps, springs or friction based fasteners, and is therefore reliable in fail-safe applications.

  4. A Few Bad Apples: A Model of Disease Influenced Agent Behaviour in a Heterogeneous Contact Environment

    PubMed Central

    Enright, Jessica; Kao, Rowland R.

    2015-01-01

    For diseases that infect humans or livestock, transmission dynamics are at least partially dependent on human activity and therefore human behaviour. However, the impact of human behaviour on disease transmission is relatively understudied, especially in the context of heterogeneous contact structures such as described by a social network. Here, we use a strategic game, coupled with a simple disease model, to investigate how strategic agent choices impact the spread of disease over a contact network. Using beliefs that are based on disease status and that build up over time, agents choose actions that stochastically determine disease spread on the network. An agent’s disease status is therefore a function of both his own and his neighbours actions. The effect of disease on agents is modelled by a heterogeneous payoff structure. We find that the combination of network shape and distribution of payoffs has a non-trivial impact on disease prevalence, even if the mean payoff remains the same. An important scenario occurs when a small percentage (called noncooperators) have little incentive to avoid disease. For diseases that are easily acquired when taking a risk, then even when good behavior can lead to disease eradication, a small increase in the percentage of noncooperators (less than 5%) can yield a large (up to 25%) increase in prevalence. PMID:25734661

  5. A three-state kinetic agent-based model to analyze tax evasion dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crokidakis, Nuno

    2014-11-01

    In this work we study the problem of tax evasion on a fully-connected population. For this purpose, we consider that the agents may be in three different states, namely honest tax payers, tax evaders and undecided, that are individuals in an intermediate class among honests and evaders. Every individual can change his/her state following a kinetic exchange opinion dynamics, where the agents interact by pairs with competitive negative (with probability q) and positive (with probability 1-q) couplings, representing agreement/disagreement between pairs of agents. In addition, we consider the punishment rules of the Zaklan econophysics model, for which there is a probability pa of an audit each agent is subject to in every period and a length of time k detected tax evaders remain honest. Our results suggest that below the critical point qc=1/4 of the opinion dynamics the compliance is high, and the punishment rules have a small effect in the population. On the other hand, for q>qc the tax evasion can be considerably reduced by the enforcement mechanism. We also discuss the impact of the presence of the undecided agents in the evolution of the system.

  6. Current state of clinical translation of cardioprotective agents for acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kloner, Robert A

    2013-08-01

    There is continued interest in the concept of limiting myocardial infarct size with adjunctive agents administered along with reperfusion injury; however, there remains considerable controversy in the literature. The purpose of this article is to review the medical literature on clinical trials performed during the past 3 years that have attempted to reduce myocardial infarct size by administration of adjunctive therapies along with reperfusion therapy. A PubMed-driven literature search revealed a host of clinical trials focusing on the following prominent types of therapies: endogenous conditioning (postconditioning and remote ischemic conditioning); rapid cooling; pharmacological therapy (cyclosporine, abciximab, clopidogrel, tirofiban, erythropoietin, thrombus aspiration, adenosine, glucose-insulin-potassium, statins, antidiabetic agents, FX06, iron chelation, and ranolazine). Although there remains some controversy, quite a few of these studies showed that adjunctive therapy further reduced myocardial infarct size when coupled with reperfusion. Antiplatelet agents are emerging as some of the newest agents that seem to have cardioprotective capabilities. Postconditioning has become a bit more controversial in the clinical literature; remote conditioning, early and rapid cooling, adenosine, and ranolazine are intriguing therapies deserving of larger studies. Certain agents and maneuvers, such as erythropoietin, protein kinase C ? inhibitors, iron chelation, and intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation, perhaps should be retired. The correct adjunctive therapy administered along with reperfusion has the capability of further reducing myocardial injury during ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. PMID:23908332

  7. Intelligent agents for e-commerce applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuppala, Krishna

    1999-12-01

    This thesis focuses on development of intelligent agent solutions for e-commerce applications. E-Commerce has several complexities like: lack of information about the players, learning the nature of one's business partners/competitors, finding the right business partner to do business with, using the right strategy to get best profit out of the negotiations etc. The agent models developed can be used in any agent solution for e-commerce. Concepts and techniques from Game Theory and Artificial Intelligence are used. The developed models have several advantages over the existing ones as: the models assume the non-availability of information about other players in the market, the models of players get updated over the time as and when new information comes about the players, the negotiation model incorporates the patience levels of the players and expectations from other players in the market. Power industry has been chosen as the application area for the demonstration of the capabilities and usage of the developed agent models. Two e-commerce scenarios where sellers and buyers can go through the power exchanges to bid in auctions, or make bilateral deals outside of the exchange are addressed. In the first scenario agent helps market participants in coordinating strategies with other participants, bidding in auctions by analyzing and understanding the behavior of other participants. In the second scenario, called "Power Traders Assistant" agent helps power trader, who buys and sells power through bilateral negotiations, in negotiating deals with his customers.

  8. Anti-arthritic agents: progress and potential.

    PubMed

    Laev, Sergey S; Salakhutdinov, Nariman F

    2015-07-01

    Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis are the two most common types of arthritis. Cartilage breakdown is a key feature of both diseases which contributes to the pain and joint deformity experienced by patients. Therefore, anti-arthritis drugs are of great importance. The aim of this review is to present recent progress in studies of various agents against osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. The structures and activities of anti-arthritic agents, which used in medical practice or are in development, are presented and discussed. The effects and mechanisms of action of opioids, glucocorticoids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, natural products derived from plants, nutraceuticals, and a number of new and perspective agents are considered. Various perspective targets for the treatment of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis are also discussed. Trials of good quality are needed to draw solid conclusions regarding efficacy of many of the studied agents. Unfortunately, to date, there is no pharmacologic agent proven to prevent the progression of both diseases, and there is an urgent need for further development of better anti-arthritic agents. PMID:26014481

  9. Ultrasonic mixing of epoxy curing agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, W. T.; St.clair, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    A new technique for mixing solid curing agents into liquid epoxy resins using ultrasonic energy was developed. This procedure allows standard curing agents such as 4,4 prime-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (4,4 prime-DDS) and its 3,3 prime-isomer, (3,3 prime-DDS) to be mixed without prior melting of the curing agent. It also allows curing agents such as 4,4 prime-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (4,4 prime-DDS) and its 3,3 prime-isomer, (3,3 prime-DDS) to be mixed without prior melting of the curing agent. It also allows curing agents with very high melt temperatures such as 4,4 prime-diaminobenzophenone (4,4 prime-DABP) (242 C) to be mixed without premature curing. Four aromatic diamines were ultrasonically blended into MY-720 epoxy resin. These were 4,4 prime-DDS; 3,3 prime-DDA; 4,4 prime-DABP and 3,3 prime-DABP. Unfilled moldings were cast and cured for each system and their physical and mechanical properties compared.

  10. A review of imaging agent development.

    PubMed

    Agdeppa, Eric D; Spilker, Mary E

    2009-06-01

    This educational review highlights the processes, opportunities, and challenges encountered in the discovery and development of imaging agents, mainly positron emission tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography tracers. While the development of imaging agents parallels the drug development process, unique criteria are needed to identify opportunities for new agents. Imaging agent development has the flexibility to pursue functional or nonfunctional targets as long as they play a role in the specific disease or mechanism of interest and meet imageability requirements. However, their innovation is tempered by relatively small markets for diagnostic imaging agents, intellectual property challenges, radiolabeling constraints, and adequate target concentrations for imaging. At the same time, preclinical imaging is becoming a key translational tool for proof of mechanism and concept studies. Pharmaceutical and imaging industries face a common bottleneck in the form of the limited number of trials one company can possibly perform. However, microdosing and theranostics are evidence that partnerships between pharmaceutical and imaging companies can accelerate clinical translation of tracers and therapeutic interventions. This manuscript will comment on these aspects to provide an educational review of the discovery and development processes for imaging agents. PMID:19415506

  11. Bidding Agents That Perpetrate Auction Fraud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevathan, Jarrod; McCabe, Alan; Read, Wayne

    This paper presents a software bidding agent that inserts fake bids on the seller's behalf to inflate an auction's price. This behaviour is referred to as shill bidding. Shill bidding is strictly prohibited by online auctioneers, as it defrauds unsuspecting buyers by forcing them to pay more for the item. The malicious bidding agent was constructed to aid in developing shill detection techniques. We have previously documented a simple shill bidding agent that incrementally increases the auction price until it reaches the desired profit target, or it becomes too risky to continue bidding. This paper presents an adaptive shill bidding agent which when used over a series of auctions with substitutable items, can revise its strategy based on bidding behaviour in past auctions. The adaptive agent applies a novel prediction technique referred to as the Extremum Consistency (EC) algorithm, to determine the optimal price to aspire for. The EC algorithm has successfully been used in handwritten signature verification for determining the maximum and minimum values in an input stream. The agent's ability to inflate the price has been tested in a simulated marketplace and experimental results are presented.

  12. NESTA: NASA Engineering Shuttle Telemetry Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Smith, Kevin E.; Boloni, Ladislau

    2005-01-01

    The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed an agent based tool to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the NASA Engineering Shuttle Telemetry Agent, increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during ground processing of the Shuttle's subsystems. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream and automatically alerts system engineers when predefined criteria have been met. Efficiency and safety are improved through increased automation. Sandia National Labs' Java Expert System Shell is employed as the rule engine. The shell's predicate logic lends itself well to capturing the heuristics and specifying the engineering rules of this spaceport domain. The declarative paradigm of the rule-based agent yields a highly modular and scalable design spanning multiple subsystems of the Shuttle. Several hundred monitoring rules have been written thus far with corresponding notifications sent to Shuttle engineers. This paper discusses the rule-based telemetry agent used for Space Shuttle ground processing and explains the problem domain, development of the agent software, benefits of AT technology, and deployment and sustaining engineering of the product.

  13. CHI: A General Agent Communication Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, S.Y.; Phillips, L.R.; Spires, S.V.

    1998-12-17

    We have completed and exercised a communication framework called CHI (CLOS to HTML Interface) by which agents can communicate with humans. CHI follows HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) and produces HTML (HyperText Markup Language) for use by WWW (World-Wide Web) browsers. CHI enables the rapid and dynamic construction of interface mechanisms. The essence of CHI is automatic registration of dynamically generated interface elements to named objects in the agent's internal environment. The agent can access information in these objects at will. State is preserved, so an agent can pursue branching interaction sequences, activate failure recovery behaviors, and otherwise act opportunistically to maintain a conversation. The CHI mechanism remains transparent in multi-agent, multi-user environments because of automatically generated unique identifiers built into the CHI mechanism. In this paper we discuss design, language, implementation, and extension issues, and, by way of illustration, examine the use of the general CHI/HCHI mechanism in a specific international electronic commerce system. We conclude that the CHI mechanism is an effective, efficient, and extensible means of the agent/human communication.

  14. A task-oriented modular and agent-based collaborative design mechanism for distributed product development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinfei; Chen, Ming; Wang, Lei; Wu, Qidi

    2014-05-01

    The rapid expansion of enterprises makes product collaborative design (PCD) a critical issue under the distributed heterogeneous environment, but as the collaborative task of large-scale network becomes more complicated, neither unified task decomposition and allocation methodology nor Agent-based network management platform can satisfy the increasing demands. In this paper, to meet requirements of PCD for distributed product development, a collaborative design mechanism based on the thought of modularity and the Agent technology is presented. First, the top-down 4-tier process model based on task-oriented modular and Agent is constructed for PCD after analyzing the mapping relationships between requirements and functions in the collaborative design. Second, on basis of sub-task decomposition for PCD based on a mixed method, the mathematic model of task-oriented modular based on multi-objective optimization is established to maximize the module cohesion degree and minimize the module coupling degree, while considering the module executable degree as a restriction. The mathematic model is optimized and simulated by the modified PSO, and the decomposed modules are obtained. Finally, the Agent structure model for collaborative design is put forward, and the optimism matching Agents are selected by using similarity algorithm to implement different task-modules by the integrated reasoning and decision-making mechanism with the behavioral model of collaborative design Agents. With the results of experimental studies for automobile collaborative design, the feasibility and efficiency of this methodology of task-oriented modular and Agent-based collaborative design in the distributed heterogeneous environment are verified. On this basis, an integrative automobile collaborative R&D platform is developed. This research provides an effective platform for automobile manufacturing enterprises to achieve PCD, and helps to promote product numeralization collaborative R&D and management development.

  15. Assessing groundwater policy with coupled economic-groundwater hydrologic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Kevin B.; Brown, Casey; Yang, Yi-Chen E.; Ahlfeld, David P.

    2014-03-01

    This study explores groundwater management policies and the effect of modeling assumptions on the projected performance of those policies. The study compares an optimal economic allocation for groundwater use subject to streamflow constraints, achieved by a central planner with perfect foresight, with a uniform tax on groundwater use and a uniform quota on groundwater use. The policies are compared with two modeling approaches, the Optimal Control Model (OCM) and the Multi-Agent System Simulation (MASS). The economic decision models are coupled with a physically based representation of the aquifer using a calibrated MODFLOW groundwater model. The results indicate that uniformly applied policies perform poorly when simulated with more realistic, heterogeneous, myopic, and self-interested agents. In particular, the effects of the physical heterogeneity of the basin and the agents undercut the perceived benefits of policy instruments assessed with simple, single-cell groundwater modeling. This study demonstrates the results of coupling realistic hydrogeology and human behavior models to assess groundwater management policies. The Republican River Basin, which overlies a portion of the Ogallala aquifer in the High Plains of the United States, is used as a case study for this analysis.

  16. Synthesis of nano-hydroxyapatite and its rapid mediated surface functionalization by silane coupling agent.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Sarish; Khan, Kishwar; Mujahid, Mohammad; Nosheen, Shaneela

    2016-01-01

    In this work, hydroxyapatite (HA) nanorods were synthesized by simple one step wet precipitation method followed by their rapid surface functionalization via aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) to give modified (HA-APTS) product. Functionalized hydroxyapatite (HA-APTS) holds amino groups on their surface that can be further functionalized with other bioactive molecules. The extent of functionalization of HA was studied under three different processing conditions; at room temperature, at 80°C and under microwave condition (600W). Three different temperatures have been use for the purpose of comparison between the functionalized products so that we can judge that whether there is any effect of temperature on the final products. In the last we conclude that temperature has no effect. So microwave condition is best to carried out the functionalization in just 5min. PMID:26478359

  17. Effect of coupling agents on the weathering characteristics of bio-fiber composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bio-fiber polymer composites (BFPC) are composite materials made from a thermoplastic or thermoset resin (substrate) with cellulosic fibers as fillers or reinforcement. BFPC have shown a significant growth in the last decade as a building product, automotive parts, and landscaping products. BFPC com...

  18. Robotics projects coupled with agent-oriented trends in artificial intelligence education have the

    E-print Network

    Klassner, Frank

    students become inspired to learn how to build high-altitude rockets after watching Sputnik glide across the night sky soon after it was launched in October 1957. To- day AI should be poised to capture students and astronomy capturing them in the 1950s and 1960s. Look at what today's undergraduates are seeing and hearing

  19. Effect of particle size, coupling agent and DDGS additions on Paulownia wood polypropylene composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanical, flexural, thermal, and physical characteristics of wood plastic composites employing Paulownia wood (PP) flour derived from 36-mo-old trees blended with polypropylene (PP) were analyzed. Composites of 25% and 40% w/w of PW and 0-10% by weight of maleated polypropylene (MAPP) were pr...

  20. Polymeric coupling agents for enhancing the adhesion of epoxy to steel-II

    SciTech Connect

    Vaidesswaran, K.; Bell, J.P.; Nikles, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    Steel is one of the most versatile materials known to mankind. It is used in a variety of applications. In many of these applications, it is exposed to the atmosphere, leading to rust formation, which weakens structures made using steel. Hence, protection is important. The popular methods to prevent corrosion are painting, galvanizing, electroplating etc. The widely used Chrome etching process is very effective in corrosion inhibition as well as in hardening the steel. But, Chromium and its compounds are highly placed among the toxic chemicals listed under pollution prevention initiatives of the EPA. Hence, it was decided to find alternatives to this process.

  1. Nanometal-Oxide Sunscreen Agents by Capillary Electrophoresis-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    Capillary electrophoresis with detection by ICPMS is being explored to characterize nanomaterials in waste water treatment plant effluents. TiO2 and ZnO, being widely used as UV filters in personal care products, plastics, and paints, are of concern as they enter the environment...

  2. Marriage Equality for Same-Sex Couples: Counseling Psychologists as Social Change Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostosky, Sharon S.; Riggle, Ellen D. B.

    2011-01-01

    The denial of civil marriage rights is a specific example of minority stress that can negatively affect the psychosocial well-being of self-identified lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals in same-sex partnerships, their families, and their allies. Counseling psychologists have an important role in addressing the…

  3. Sugar beet pulp and poly(lactic acid) composites using methylene diphenyl diisocyanate as coupling agent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Composites from sugar beet pulp (SBP) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were extruded in the presence of polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI). SBP particles were evenly distributed within the PLA matrix phase as revealed by confocal fluorescence microscopic analysis. The resultant composites w...

  4. EFFECT OF SILANE COUPLING AGENTS ON RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLVENTLESS MAGNETIC INK. (R826728)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  5. CHARGE-COUPLED Philip Felber

    E-print Network

    CHARGE-COUPLED DEVICES by Philip Felber A literature study as a project for ECE 575 Illinois Speed 15 Cost 16 Conclusion 17 Bibliograghy 18 #12;3 ABSTRACT The charge-coupled device (CCD) is, by far a brief description of how the more common charge-coupled devices work, and it reviews some current

  6. New chemical cross-coupling between aryl halides and allylic acetates using a cobalt catalyst.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Paulo; Gosmini, Corinne; Périchon, Jacques

    2003-04-01

    [reaction: see text] The cobalt-catalyzed coupling reaction of aromatic halides and allylic acetates proceeds readily under mild conditions in the presence of the appropriate reducing agent to produce allylaromatic derivatives either in pure acetonitrile (aryl bromides) or in an acetonitrile/pyridine mixture (aryl chlorides). PMID:12659569

  7. Tracker coupled quintessence

    E-print Network

    F. Shojai; R. Moti; F. Najdat

    2013-05-26

    In this paper two tracker solutions for conformally coupled quintessence model is obtained. The first solution is determined by dividing the evolution of the universe to matter and dark energy dominated epochs and then the allowed bound on the equation of state parameter is obtained, such that a tracker behaviour is resulted. For the other solution, the quintessence potential is assumed to be a linear combination of two exponential functions. Then we have found an exact solution which can be tracker by adjusting some parameters.

  8. Sealing coupling. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Pardini, J.A.; Brubaker, R.C.; Rusnak, J.J.

    1982-09-20

    Disclosed is a remotely operable releasable sealing coupling which provides fluid-tight joinder of upper and a lower conduit sections. Each conduit section has a concave conical sealing surface adjacent its end portion. A tubular sleeve having convex spherical ends is inserted between the conduit ends to form line contact with the concave conical end portions. An inwardly projecting lip located at one end of the sleeve cooperates with a retaining collar formed on the upper pipe end to provide swivel capture for the sleeve. The upper conduit section also includes a tapered lower end portion which engages the inside surface of the sleeve to limit misalignment of the connected conduit sections.

  9. A structure-activity analysis of the variation in oxime efficacy against nerve agents

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Donald M. Koplovitz, Irwin; Worek, Franz; Sweeney, Richard E.

    2008-09-01

    A structure-activity analysis was used to evaluate the variation in oxime efficacy of 2-PAM, obidoxime, HI-6 and ICD585 against nerve agents. In vivo oxime protection and in vitro oxime reactivation were used as indicators of oxime efficacy against VX, sarin, VR and cyclosarin. Analysis of in vivo oxime protection was conducted with oxime protective ratios (PR) from guinea pigs receiving oxime and atropine therapy after sc administration of nerve agent. Analysis of in vitro reactivation was conducted with second-order rate contants (k{sub r2}) for oxime reactivation of agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from guinea pig erythrocytes. In vivo oxime PR and in vitro k{sub r2} decreased as the volume of the alkylmethylphosphonate moiety of nerve agents increased from VX to cyclosarin. This effect was greater with 2-PAM and obidoxime (> 14-fold decrease in PR) than with HI-6 and ICD585 (< 3.7-fold decrease in PR). The decrease in oxime PR and k{sub r2} as the volume of the agent moiety conjugated to AChE increased was consistent with a steric hindrance mechanism. Linear regression of log (PR-1) against log (k{sub r2} {center_dot} [oxime dose]) produced two offset parallel regression lines that delineated a significant difference between the coupling of oxime reactivation and oxime protection for HI-6 and ICD585 compared to 2-PAM and obidoxime. HI-6 and ICD585 appeared to be 6.8-fold more effective than 2-PAM and obidoxime at coupling oxime reactivation to oxime protection, which suggested that the isonicotinamide group that is common to both of these oximes, but absent from 2-PAM and obidoxime, is important for oxime efficacy.

  10. Selective Radical–Radical Cross-Couplings: Design of a Formal ?-Mannich Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Jeffrey, Jenna L.; Petronijevi?, Filip R.; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2015-01-01

    A direct ?-coupling of cyclic ketones with imines has been accomplished via the synergistic combination of photoredox catalysis and organocatalysis. Transient ?-enaminyl radicals derived from ketones via enamine and oxidative photoredox catalysis readily combine with persistent ?-amino radicals in a highly selective hetero radical–radical coupling. This novel pathway to ?-aminoketones is predicated upon the use of DABCO as both a base and an electron transfer agent. This protocol also formally allows for the direct synthesis of ?-Mannich products via a chemoselective three-component coupling of aryl aldehydes, amines, and ketones. PMID:26075347

  11. Combining emerging agents in advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Luu, Thehang; Chung, Cathie; Somlo, George

    2011-01-01

    Newer treatments have improved survival for patients with metastatic breast cancer over the last two decades, and a battery of new cytotoxic and targeted therapies is continuing to enhance this trend. This review outlines recent data and ongoing research in this area, by highlighting new developments (regarding approved but relatively new classes of cytotoxic and targeted agents) and also new classes of targeted therapy that are undergoing clinical evaluation. Mechanisms for synergy between agents are discussed where data are available, as is information on the rationale behind the development of agents that inhibit angiogenesis, DNA repair, histone deacetylases, heat shock proteins, or various signaling pathways in tumor proliferation. The abundance of clinical research surrounding anticancer agents, together with ongoing cancer biology research, is expected to further increase the available pool of therapeutic options for metastatic breast cancer. Concomitantly, in the absence of an effective targeted monotherapy, a better understanding of the interplay between biologic and cytotoxic anticancer agents will improve our ability to rationally design combination regimens with better efficacy and tolerability. PMID:21543509

  12. Combining Emerging Agents in Advanced Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Cathie

    2011-01-01

    Newer treatments have improved survival for patients with metastatic breast cancer over the last two decades, and a battery of new cytotoxic and targeted therapies is continuing to enhance this trend. This review outlines recent data and ongoing research in this area, by highlighting new developments (regarding approved but relatively new classes of cytotoxic and targeted agents) and also new classes of targeted therapy that are undergoing clinical evaluation. Mechanisms for synergy between agents are discussed where data are available, as is information on the rationale behind the development of agents that inhibit angiogenesis, DNA repair, histone deacetylases, heat shock proteins, or various signaling pathways in tumor proliferation. The abundance of clinical research surrounding anticancer agents, together with ongoing cancer biology research, is expected to further increase the available pool of therapeutic options for metastatic breast cancer. Concomitantly, in the absence of an effective targeted monotherapy, a better understanding of the interplay between biologic and cytotoxic anticancer agents will improve our ability to rationally design combination regimens with better efficacy and tolerability. PMID:21543509

  13. Dynamically sequencing an animated pedagogical agent

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, B.A.; Lester, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    One of the most promising opportunities introduced by rapid advances in knowledge-based learning environments and multimedia technologies is the possibility of creating animated pedagogical agents. These agents should exhibit three properties: timely domain coverage (they should clearly communicate fundamental concepts and relationships within the allotted time); contextuality (they should provide explanations in appropriate problem-solving contexts); and continuity (their activities and utterances should be pedagogically, visually, and aurally coherent). We have developed the coherence-structured behavior space approach to creating animated pedagogical agents. This is a two-step approach. First, we design a behavior space of animation and audio segments that are structured by prerequisite relationships and a continuity metric. Second, we navigate coherent paths through the space to dynamically sequence behaviors. This creates seamless global behaviors that communicate fundamental knowledge and provide contextualized problem-solving advice. The coherence-structured behavior space approach has been implemented in Herman the Bug, an animated pedagogical agent for Design-A-Plant, a knowledge-based learning environment for botanical anatomy and physiology. Formative evaluations of the agent with middle school students are encouraging.

  14. Contrast agent choice for intravenous coronary angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Zeman, H.D.; Siddons, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    The screening of the general population for coronary artery disease would be practical if a method existed for visualizing the extent of occlusion after an intravenous injection of contrast agent. Measurements performed with monochromatic synchrotron radiation x-rays and an iodine containing contrast agent at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory have shown that such an intravenous angiography procedure would be possible with an adequately intense monochromatic x-ray source. Because of the size and cost of synchrotron radiation facilities it would be desirable to make the most efficient use of the intensity available, while reducing as much as possible the radiation dose experienced by the patient. By choosing contrast agents containing elements with a higher atomic number than iodine, it is possible to both improve the image quality and reduce the patient radiation dose, while using the same synchrotron source. By using Si monochromator crystals with a small mosaic spread, it is possible to increase the x-ray flux available for imaging by over an order of magnitude, without any changes in the storage ring or wiggler magnet. The most critical imaging task for intravenous coronary angiography utilizing synchrotron radiation x-rays is visualizing a coronary artery through the left ventricle or aorta which also contains a contrast agent. Calculations have been made of the signal to noise ratio expected for this imaging task for various contrast agents with atomic numbers between that of iodine and bismuth.

  15. [Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents].

    PubMed

    Seto, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister agents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, proteinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and biological terrorism, speedy decontamination of victims, facilities and equipment is required for the minimization of the damage. In the present situation, washing victims and contaminated materials with large volumes of water is the basic way, and additionally hypochlorite salt solution is used for decomposition of CWA's. However, it still remains unsolved how to dispose large volumes of waste water, and the decontamination reagents have serious limitation of high toxicity, despoiling nature against the environments, long finishing time and non-durability in effective decontamination. Namely, the existing decontamination system is not effective, nonspecifically affecting the surrounding non-target materials. Therefore, it is the urgent matter to build up the usable decontamination system surpassing the present technologies. The symposiast presents the on-going joint project of research and development of the novel decontamination system against CBWA's, in the purpose of realizing nontoxic, fast, specific, effective and economical terrorism on-site decontamination. The projects consists of (1) establishment of the decontamination evaluation methods and verification of the existing technologies and adaptation of bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase, (2) development of adsorptive elimination technologies using molecular recognition tools, and (4) development of deactivation technologies using photocatalysis. PMID:19122437

  16. Coupled biopolymer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, J. M.; Zhang, Tao

    2015-03-01

    The actin cytoskeleton provides the cell with structural integrity and allows it to change shape to crawl along a surface, for example. The actin cytoskeleton can be modeled as a semiflexible biopolymer network that modifies its morphology in response to both external and internal stimuli. Just inside the inner nuclear membrane of a cell exists a network of filamentous lamin that presumably protects the heart of the cell nucleus--the DNA. Lamins are intermediate filaments that can also be modeled as semiflexible biopolymers. It turns out that the actin cytoskeletal biopolymer network and the lamin biopolymer network are coupled via a sequence of proteins that bridge the outer and inner nuclear membranes. We, therefore, probe the consequences of such a coupling via numerical simulations to understand the resulting deformations in the lamin network in response to perturbations in the cytoskeletal network. Such study could have implications for mechanical mechanisms of the regulation of transcription, since DNA--yet another semiflexible polymer--contains lamin-binding domains, and, thus, widen the field of epigenetics.

  17. Multiphysics Application Coupling Toolkit

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-12-02

    This particular consortium implementation of the software integration infrastructure will, in large part, refactor portions of the Rocstar multiphysics infrastructure. Development of this infrastructure originated at the University of Illinois DOE ASCI Center for Simulation of Advanced Rockets (CSAR) to support the center's massively parallel multiphysics simulation application, Rocstar, and has continued at IllinoisRocstar, a small company formed near the end of the University-based program. IllinoisRocstar is now licensing these new developments as free, openmore »source, in hopes to help improve their own and others' access to infrastructure which can be readily utilized in developing coupled or composite software systems; with particular attention to more rapid production and utilization of multiphysics applications in the HPC environment. There are two major pieces to the consortium implementation, the Application Component Toolkit (ACT), and the Multiphysics Application Coupling Toolkit (MPACT). The current development focus is the ACT, which is (will be) the substrate for MPACT. The ACT itself is built up from the components described in the technical approach. In particular, the ACT has the following major components: 1.The Component Object Manager (COM): The COM package provides encapsulation of user applications, and their data. COM also provides the inter-component function call mechanism. 2.The System Integration Manager (SIM): The SIM package provides constructs and mechanisms for orchestrating composite systems of multiply integrated pieces.« less

  18. Spin-axion coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakin, Alexander B.; Popov, Vladimir A.

    2015-11-01

    We establish a new covariant phenomenological model, which describes an influence of pseudoscalar (axion) field on spins of test massive particles. The model includes general relativistic equations of particle motion and spin evolution in background pseudoscalar (axion), electromagnetic and gravitational fields. It describes both the direct spin-axion coupling of the gradient type and indirect spin-axion interaction mediated by electromagnetic fields. Special attention is paid to the direct spin-axion coupling caused by the gradient of the pseudoscalar (axion) field. We show that it describes a spin precession, when the pseudoscalar (axion) field is inhomogeneous and/or nonstationary. Applications of the model, which correspond to the three types of four-vectors attributed to the gradient of the pseudoscalar (axion) field (timelike, spacelike, and null), are considered in detail. These are the spin precessions induced by relic cosmological axions, axions distributed around spherically symmetric static objects, and axions in a gravitational wave field, respectively. We discuss features of the obtained exact solutions and some general properties of the axionically induced spin rotation.

  19. Strongly coupled quantum heat machines

    E-print Network

    David Gelbwaser-Klimovsky; Alán Aspuru-Guzik

    2015-04-18

    Quantum heat machines (QHMs) models generally assume a weak coupling to the baths. This supposition is grounded in the separability principle between systems and allows the derivation of the evolution equation for this case. In the weak coupling regime, the machine's output is limited by the coupling strength, restricting their application. Seeking to overcome this limitation, we here analyze QHMs in the virtually unexplored strong coupling regime, where separability, as well as other standard thermodynamic assumptions, may no longer hold. We show that strongly coupled QHMs may be as efficient as their weakly coupled counterparts. In addition, we find a novel turnover behavior where their output saturates and disappears in the limit of ultra-strong coupling.

  20. Animated Pedagogical Agents: A Review of Agent Technology Software in Electronic Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govindasamy, Malliga K.

    2014-01-01

    Agent technology has become one of the dynamic and most interesting areas of computer science in recent years. The dynamism of this technology has resulted in computer generated characters, known as pedagogical agent, entering the digital learning environments in increasing numbers. Commonly deployed in implementing tutoring strategies, these…