Pang, Yang |
1997-09-22
Many phenomenological models for relativistic heavy ion collisions share a common framework - the relativistic Boltzmann equations. Within this framework, a nucleus-nucleus collision is described by the evolution of phase-space distributions of several species of particles. The equations can be effectively solved with the cascade algorithm by sampling each phase-space distribution with points, i.e. {delta}-functions, and by treating the interaction terms as collisions of these points. In between collisions, each point travels on a straight line trajectory. In most implementations of the cascade algorithm, each physical particle, e.g. a hadron or a quark, is often represented by one point. Thus, the cross-section for a collision of two points is just the cross-section of the physical particles, which can be quite large compared to the local density of the system. For an ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collision, this could lead to a large violation of the Lorentz invariance. By using the invariance property of the Boltzmann equation under a scale transformation, a Lorentz invariant cascade algorithm can be obtained. The General Cascade Program - GCP - is a tool for solving the relativistic Boltzmann equation with any number of particle species and very general interactions with the cascade algorithm.
Group Theory of Covariant Harmonic Oscillators
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Y. S.; Noz, Marilyn E.
1978-01-01
A simple and concrete example for illustrating the properties of noncompact groups is presented. The example is based on the covariant harmonic-oscillator formalism in which the relativistic wave functions carry a covariant-probability interpretation. This can be used in a group theory course for graduate students who have some background in…
Noncommutative Gauge Theory with Covariant Star Product
Zet, G.
2010-08-04
We present a noncommutative gauge theory with covariant star product on a space-time with torsion. In order to obtain the covariant star product one imposes some restrictions on the connection of the space-time. Then, a noncommutative gauge theory is developed applying this product to the case of differential forms. Some comments on the advantages of using a space-time with torsion to describe the gravitational field are also given.
Minimal unitary (covariant) scattering theory
Lindesay, J.V.; Markevich, A.
1983-06-01
In the minimal three particle equations developed by Lindesay the two body input amplitude was an on shell relativistic generalization of the non-relativistic scattering model characterized by a single mass parameter ..mu.. which in the two body (m + m) system looks like an s-channel bound state (..mu.. < 2m) or virtual state (..mu.. > 2m). Using this driving term in covariant Faddeev equations generates a rich covariant and unitary three particle dynamics. However, the simplest way of writing the relativisitic generalization of the Faddeev equations can take the on shell Mandelstam parameter s = 4(q/sup 2/ + m/sup 2/), in terms of which the two particle input is expressed, to negative values in the range of integration required by the dynamics. This problem was met in the original treatment by multiplying the two particle input amplitude by THETA(s). This paper provides what we hope to be a more direct way of meeting the problem.
Spacetime states and covariant quantum theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reisenberger, Michael; Rovelli, Carlo
2002-06-01
In its usual presentation, classical mechanics appears to give time a very special role. But it is well known that mechanics can be formulated so as to treat the time variable on the same footing as the other variables in the extended configuration space. Such covariant formulations are natural for relativistic gravitational systems, where general covariance conflicts with the notion of a preferred physical-time variable. The standard presentation of quantum mechanics, in turn, again gives time a very special role, raising well known difficulties for quantum gravity. Is there a covariant form of (canonical) quantum mechanics? We observe that the preferred role of time in quantum theory is the consequence of an idealization: that measurements are instantaneous. Canonical quantum theory can be given a covariant form by dropping this idealization. States prepared by noninstantaneous measurements are described by ``spacetime smeared states.'' The theory can be formulated in terms of these states, without making any reference to a special time variable. The quantum dynamics is expressed in terms of the propagator, an object covariantly defined on the extended configuration space.
Nuclear moments in covariant density functional theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, J.; Zhao, P. W.; Zhang, S. Q.; Hu, J. N.; Li, J.
2014-05-01
Recent progresses on microscopic and self-consistent description of the nuclear moments in covariant density functional theory based on a point-coupling interaction are briefly reviewed. In particular, the electric quadrupole moments of Cd isotopes and the magnetic moments of Pb isotopes are discussed.
Covariant Spectator Theory and Hadron Structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peña, M. T.; Leitão, Sofia; Biernat, Elmar P.; Stadler, Alfred; Ribeiro, J. E.; Gross, Franz
2016-06-01
We present the first results of a study on meson spectroscopy using a covariant formalism based on the Covariant Spectator Theory. Our approach is derived directly in Minkowski space and it approximates the Bethe-Salpeter equation by taking effectively into account the contributions from both ladder and crossed ladder diagrams in the q{bar{q}} interaction kernel. A general Lorentz structure of the kernel is tested and chiral constraints on the kernel are discussed. Results for the pion form factor are also presented.
Gauge field theory of covariant strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaku, Michio
1986-03-01
We present a gauge covariant second-quantized field theory of strings which is explicitly invariant under the gauge transformations generated by the Virasoro algebra. Unlike the old field theory strings [1] this new formulation is Lorentz covariant as well as gauge covariant under the continuous group Diff( S1) and its central extension. We derive the free action: L=Φ(X) †P[i∂ τ-(L 0-1)]PΦ(X) , in the same way that Feynman derived the Schrödinger equation from the path integral formalism. The action is manifestly invariant under the gauge transformation δΦ(X)= limit∑n=1∞ɛ -nL -nΦ(X) , where P is a projection operator which annihilates spurious states. We give three distinct formulations of this operator P to all orders, the first based on extracting the operator from the functional formulation of the Nambu-Goto action, and the second and third based on inverting the Shapovalov matrix on a Verma module. This gauge covariant formulation can be easily extended to the Green-Schwarz superstring [2,3]. One element application of these methods is to re-express the old Neveu-Schwarz-Ramond model as a field theory which is manifestly invariant under space-time supersymmetric transformations.
Alfred Stadler, Franz Gross
2010-10-01
We provide a short overview of the Covariant Spectator Theory and its applications. The basic ideas are introduced through the example of a {phi}{sup 4}-type theory. High-precision models of the two-nucleon interaction are presented and the results of their use in calculations of properties of the two- and three-nucleon systems are discussed. A short summary of applications of this framework to other few-body systems is also presented.
Covariant generalization of cosmological perturbation theory
Enqvist, Kari; Hoegdahl, Janne; Nurmi, Sami; Vernizzi, Filippo
2007-01-15
We present an approach to cosmological perturbations based on a covariant perturbative expansion between two worldlines in the real inhomogeneous universe. As an application, at an arbitrary order we define an exact scalar quantity which describes the inhomogeneities in the number of e-folds on uniform density hypersurfaces and which is conserved on all scales for a barotropic ideal fluid. We derive a compact form for its conservation equation at all orders and assign it a simple physical interpretation. To make a comparison with the standard perturbation theory, we develop a method to construct gauge-invariant quantities in a coordinate system at arbitrary order, which we apply to derive the form of the nth order perturbation in the number of e-folds on uniform density hypersurfaces and its exact evolution equation. On large scales, this provides the gauge-invariant expression for the curvature perturbation on uniform density hypersurfaces and its evolution equation at any order.
Canonical quantization of Galilean covariant field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, E. S.; de Montigny, M.; Khanna, F. C.
2005-11-01
The Galilean-invariant field theories are quantized by using the canonical method and the five-dimensional Lorentz-like covariant expressions of non-relativistic field equations. This method is motivated by the fact that the extended Galilei group in 3 + 1 dimensions is a subgroup of the inhomogeneous Lorentz group in 4 + 1 dimensions. First, we consider complex scalar fields, where the Schrödinger field follows from a reduction of the Klein-Gordon equation in the extended space. The underlying discrete symmetries are discussed, and we calculate the scattering cross-sections for the Coulomb interaction and for the self-interacting term λΦ4. Then, we turn to the Dirac equation, which, upon dimensional reduction, leads to the Lévy-Leblond equations. Like its relativistic analogue, the model allows for the existence of antiparticles. Scattering amplitudes and cross-sections are calculated for the Coulomb interaction, the electron-electron and the electron-positron scattering. These examples show that the so-called 'non-relativistic' approximations, obtained in low-velocity limits, must be treated with great care to be Galilei-invariant. The non-relativistic Proca field is discussed briefly.
Inflation in general covariant theory of gravity
Huang, Yongqing; Wang, Anzhong; Wu, Qiang E-mail: anzhong_wang@baylor.edu
2012-10-01
In this paper, we study inflation in the framework of the nonrelativistic general covariant theory of the Hořava-Lifshitz gravity with the projectability condition and an arbitrary coupling constant λ. We find that the Friedmann-Robterson-Walker (FRW) universe is necessarily flat in such a setup. We work out explicitly the linear perturbations of the flat FRW universe without specifying to a particular gauge, and find that the perturbations are different from those obtained in general relativity, because of the presence of the high-order spatial derivative terms. Applying the general formulas to a single scalar field, we show that in the sub-horizon regions, the metric and scalar field are tightly coupled and have the same oscillating frequencies. In the super-horizon regions, the perturbations become adiabatic, and the comoving curvature perturbation is constant. We also calculate the power spectra and indices of both the scalar and tensor perturbations, and express them explicitly in terms of the slow roll parameters and the coupling constants of the high-order spatial derivative terms. In particular, we find that the perturbations, of both scalar and tensor, are almost scale-invariant, and, with some reasonable assumptions on the coupling coefficients, the spectrum index of the tensor perturbation is the same as that given in the minimum scenario in general relativity (GR), whereas the index for scalar perturbation in general depends on λ and is different from the standard GR value. The ratio of the scalar and tensor power spectra depends on the high-order spatial derivative terms, and can be different from that of GR significantly.
Variational formulation of covariant eikonal theory for vector waves
Kaufman, A.N.; Ye, H.; Hui, Y.
1986-10-01
The eikonal theory of wave propagation is developed by means of a Lorentz-covariant variational principle, involving functions defined on the natural eight-dimensional phase space of rays. The wave field is a four-vector representing the electromagnetic potential, while the medium is represented by an anisotropic, dispersive nonuniform dielectric tensor D/sup ..mu nu../(k,x). The eikonal expansion yields, to lowest order, the Hamiltonian ray equations, which define the Lagrangian manifold k(x), and the wave-action conservation law, which determines the wave-amplitude transport along the rays. The first-order contribution to the variational principle yields a concise expression for the transport of the polarization phase. The symmetry between k-space and x-space allows for a simple implementation of the Maslov transform, which avoids the difficulties of caustic singularities.
Conditional Covariance Theory and Detect for Polytomous Items
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhang, Jinming
2007-01-01
This paper extends the theory of conditional covariances to polytomous items. It has been proven that under some mild conditions, commonly assumed in the analysis of response data, the conditional covariance of two items, dichotomously or polytomously scored, given an appropriately chosen composite is positive if, and only if, the two items…
A Causal, Covariant Theory of Dissipative Fluid Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scofield, Dillon; Huq, Pablo
2015-04-01
The use of newtonian viscous dissipation theory in covariant fluid flow theories is known to lead to predictions that are inconsistent with the second law of thermodynamics and to predictions that are acausal. For instance, these problems effectively limit the covariant form of the Navier-Stokes theory (NST) to time-independent flow regimes. Thus the NST, the work horse of fluid dynamical theory, is limited in its ability to model time-dependent turbulent, stellar or thermonuclear flows. We show how such problems are avoided by a new geometrodynamical theory of fluids. This theory is based on a recent result of geometrodynamics showing current conservation implies gauge field creation, called the vortex field lemma and classification of flows by their Pfaff dimension. Experimental confirmation of the theory is reviewed.
Addressing spectroscopic quality of covariant density functional theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afanasjev, A. V.
2015-03-01
The spectroscopic quality of covariant density functional theory has been accessed by analyzing the accuracy and theoretical uncertainties in the description of spectroscopic observables. Such analysis is first presented for the energies of the single-particle states in spherical and deformed nuclei. It is also shown that the inclusion of particle-vibration coupling improves the description of the energies of predominantly single-particle states in medium and heavy-mass spherical nuclei. However, the remaining differences between theory and experiment clearly indicate missing physics and missing terms in covariant energy density functionals. The uncertainties in the predictions of the position of two-neutron drip line sensitively depend on the uncertainties in the prediction of the energies of the single-particle states. On the other hand, many spectroscopic observables in well deformed nuclei at ground state and finite spin only weakly depend on the choice of covariant energy density functional.
Covariant electromagnetic theory for inertial frames with substratum flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilhelm, H. E.
1985-10-01
The original Maxwell's equations for the ether rest frame are generalized to electromagnetic field equations for arbitrary inertial frames in which the ether is in a state of motion. The electromagnetic field equations with ether flow w are found to be Galilei covariant, and reduce to the Maxwell equations in the limit w/c goes to zero. Electromagnetic signals propagate isotropically with the speed of light relative to the ether. Relative to inertial frames with ether flow w, electromagnetic signals propagate anisotropically. In inertial frames with ether flow, an electromagnetic wave experiences a blue or red shift. The difficulties of the Lorentz covariant and ether-free special theory of relativity are removed by adopting a covariance principle compatible with an electromagnetic ether. The present theory is shown to agree with the Michelson-Morley and Doppler effect experiment.
Students' Notions regarding "Covariance" of a Physical Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bandyopadhyay, Atanu; Kumar, Arvind
2010-01-01
A physical theory is said to be covariant with respect to a certain class of transformations when its basic equations retain their "form" under those transformations. It is one of the basic notions encountered in physics, particularly in the domain of relativity. In this paper we study in some detail how students deal with this notion in different…
Scale-covariant theory of gravitation and astrophysical applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canuto, V.; Adams, P. J.; Hsieh, S.-H.; Tsiang, E.
1977-01-01
A scale-covariant theory of gravitation is presented which is characterized by a set of equations that are complete only after a choice of the scale function is made. Special attention is given to gauge conditions and units which allow gravitational phenomena to be described in atomic units. The generalized gravitational-field equations are derived by performing a direct scale transformation, by extending Riemannian geometry to Weyl geometry through the introduction of the notion of cotensors, and from a variation principle. Modified conservation laws are provided, a set of dynamical equations is obtained, and astrophysical consequences are considered. The theory is applied to examine certain homogeneous cosmological solutions, perihelion shifts, light deflections, secular variations of planetary orbital elements, stellar structure equations for a star in quasi-static equilibrium, and the past thermal history of earth. The possible relation of the scale-covariant theory to gauge field theories and their predictions of cosmological constants is discussed.
On a gauge covariant formulation of string field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ju-Fei, Tang; Chuan-Jie, Zhu
1986-11-01
It is shown that the Neveu-Nicolai-West formulation of the gauge covariant string field theories and that of Banks and Peskin can be obtained by different consistent truncation of the BRST multiplets. A proof is given to show the equivalence of light-cone formulation and the gauge covariant formulation without using the property of trivial cohomology of string differential forms. We would like to thank D.D. Wu and X.J. Zhou for discussion and Yi-Bing Ding for careful reading of the manuscript.
Quasilocal conserved charges in a covariant theory of gravity.
Kim, Wontae; Kulkarni, Shailesh; Yi, Sang-Heon
2013-08-23
In any generally covariant theory of gravity, we show the relationship between the linearized asymptotically conserved current and its nonlinear completion through the identically conserved current. Our formulation for conserved charges is based on the Lagrangian description, and so completely covariant. By using this result, we give a prescription to define quasilocal conserved charges in any higher derivative gravity. As applications of our approach, we demonstrate the angular momentum invariance along the radial direction of black holes and reproduce more efficiently the linearized potential on the asymptotic anti-de Sitter space. PMID:24010423
Pion electromagnetic form factor in the Covariant Spectator Theory
Biernat, Elmar P.; Gross, Franz L.; Pena, Teresa; Stadler, Alfred
2014-01-01
The pion electromagnetic form factor at spacelike momentum transfer is calculated in relativistic impulse approximation using the Covariant Spectator Theory. The same dressed quark mass function and the equation for the pion bound-state vertex function as discussed in the companion paper are used for the calculation, together with a dressed quark current that satisfies the Ward-Takahashi identity. The results obtained for the pion form factor are in agreement with experimental data, they exhibit the typical monopole behavior at high momentum transfer and they satisfy some remarkable scaling relations.
Direct Neutron Capture Calculations with Covariant Density Functional Theory Inputs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shi-Sheng; Peng, Jin-Peng; Smith, Michael S.; Arbanas, Goran; Kozub, Ray L.
2014-09-01
Predictions of direct neutron capture are of vital importance for simulations of nucleosynthesis in supernovae, merging neutron stars, and other astrophysical environments. We calculate the direct capture cross sections for E1 transitions using nuclear structure information from a covariant density functional theory as input for the FRESCO coupled-channels reaction code. We find good agreement of our predictions with experimental cross section data on the double closed-shell targets 16O, 48Ca, and 90Zr, and the exotic nucleus 36S. Extensions of the technique for unstable nuclei and for large-scale calculations will be discussed. Predictions of direct neutron capture are of vital importance for simulations of nucleosynthesis in supernovae, merging neutron stars, and other astrophysical environments. We calculate the direct capture cross sections for E1 transitions using nuclear structure information from a covariant density functional theory as input for the FRESCO coupled-channels reaction code. We find good agreement of our predictions with experimental cross section data on the double closed-shell targets 16O, 48Ca, and 90Zr, and the exotic nucleus 36S. Extensions of the technique for unstable nuclei and for large-scale calculations will be discussed. Supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics.
Covariant density functional theory: The role of the pion
Lalazissis, G. A.; Karatzikos, S.; Serra, M.; Otsuka, T.; Ring, P.
2009-10-15
We investigate the role of the pion in covariant density functional theory. Starting from conventional relativistic mean field (RMF) theory with a nonlinear coupling of the {sigma} meson and without exchange terms we add pions with a pseudovector coupling to the nucleons in relativistic Hartree-Fock approximation. In order to take into account the change of the pion field in the nuclear medium the effective coupling constant of the pion is treated as a free parameter. It is found that the inclusion of the pion to this sort of density functionals does not destroy the overall description of the bulk properties by RMF. On the other hand, the noncentral contribution of the pion (tensor coupling) does have effects on single particle energies and on binding energies of certain nuclei.
Neutrinoless double-beta decay in covariant density functional theory
Ring, P.; Yao, J. M.; Song, L. S.; Hagino, K.; Meng, J.
2015-10-15
We use covariant density functional theory beyond mean field in order to describe neutrinoless double-beta decay in a fully relativistic way. The dynamic effects of particle-number and angular-momentum conservations as well as shape fluctuations of quadrupole character are taken into account within the generator coordinate method for both initial and final nuclei. The calculations are based on the full relativistic transition operator. The nuclear matrix elements (NME’s) for a large number of possible transitions are investigated. The results are compared with various non-relativistic calculations, in particular also with the density functional theory based on the Gogny force. We find that the non-relativistic approximation is justified and that the total NME’s can be well approximated by the pure axial-vector coupling term. This corresponds to a considerable reduction of the computational effort.
Neutrinoless double-beta decay in covariant density functional theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ring, P.; Yao, J. M.; Song, L. S.; Hagino, K.; Meng, J.
2015-10-01
We use covariant density functional theory beyond mean field in order to describe neutrinoless double-beta decay in a fully relativistic way. The dynamic effects of particle-number and angular-momentum conservations as well as shape fluctuations of quadrupole character are taken into account within the generator coordinate method for both initial and final nuclei. The calculations are based on the full relativistic transition operator. The nuclear matrix elements (NME's) for a large number of possible transitions are investigated. The results are compared with various non-relativistic calculations, in particular also with the density functional theory based on the Gogny force. We find that the non-relativistic approximation is justified and that the total NME's can be well approximated by the pure axial-vector coupling term. This corresponds to a considerable reduction of the computational effort.
Mass, charge, and motion in covariant gravity theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gralla, Samuel E.
2013-05-01
Previous work established a universal form for the equation of motion of small bodies in theories of a metric and other tensor fields that have second-order field equations following from a covariant Lagrangian in four spacetime dimensions. Differences in the motion of the “same” body in two different theories are entirely accounted for by differences in the body’s effective mass and charges in those different theories. Previously the process of computing the mass and charges for a particular body was left implicit, to be determined in each particular theory as the need arises. I now obtain explicit expressions for the mass and charges of a body as surface integrals of the fields it generates, where the integrand is constructed from the symplectic current for the theory. This allows the entire prescription for computing the motion of a small body to be written down in a few lines, in a manner universal across bodies and theories. For simplicity I restrict to scalar and vector fields (in addition to the metric), but there is no obstacle to treating higher-rank tensor fields. I explicitly apply the prescription to work out specific equations for various body types in Einstein gravity, generalized Brans-Dicke theory (in both Jordan and Einstein frames), Einstein-Maxwell theory and the Will-Nordvedt vector-tensor theory. In the scalar-tensor case, this clarifies the origin and meaning of the “sensitivities” defined by Eardley and others, and provides explicit formulas for their evaluation.
Nuclear chiral and magnetic rotation in covariant density functional theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Jie; Zhao, Pengwei
2016-05-01
Excitations of chiral rotation observed in triaxial nuclei and magnetic and/or antimagnetic rotations (AMR) seen in near-spherical nuclei have attracted a lot of attention. Unlike conventional rotation in well-deformed or superdeformed nuclei, here the rotational axis is not necessary coinciding with any principal axis of the nuclear density distribution. Thus, tilted axis cranking (TAC) is mandatory to describe these excitations self-consistently in the framework of covariant density functional theory (CDFT). We will briefly introduce the formalism of TAC–CDFT and its application for magnetic and AMR phenomena. Configuration-fixed CDFT and its predictions for nuclear chiral configurations and for favorable triaxial deformation parameters are also presented, and the discoveries of the multiple chiral doublets in 133Ce and 103Rh are discussed.
Quantum Gravity from the Point of View of Locally Covariant Quantum Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brunetti, Romeo; Fredenhagen, Klaus; Rejzner, Katarzyna
2016-08-01
We construct perturbative quantum gravity in a generally covariant way. In particular our construction is background independent. It is based on the locally covariant approach to quantum field theory and the renormalized Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism. We do not touch the problem of nonrenormalizability and interpret the theory as an effective theory at large length scales.
A FORMALISM FOR COVARIANT POLARIZED RADIATIVE TRANSPORT BY RAY TRACING
Gammie, Charles F.; Leung, Po Kin
2012-06-20
We write down a covariant formalism for polarized radiative transfer appropriate for ray tracing through a turbulent plasma. The polarized radiation field is represented by the polarization tensor (coherency matrix) N{sup {alpha}{beta}} {identical_to} (a{sup {alpha}}{sub k} a*{sup {beta}}{sub k}), where a{sub k} is a Fourier coefficient for the vector potential. Using Maxwell's equations, the Liouville-Vlasov equation, and the WKB approximation, we show that the transport equation in vacuo is k{sup {mu}}{nabla}{sub {mu}} N{sup {alpha}{beta}} = 0. We show that this is equivalent to Broderick and Blandford's formalism based on invariant Stokes parameters and a rotation coefficient, and suggest a modification that may reduce truncation error in some situations. Finally, we write down several alternative approaches to integrating the transfer equation.
Reflection asymmetric shapes in covariant density functional theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afanasjev, A. V.; Agbemava, S.; Ring, P.
2014-03-01
Reflection asymmetric (octupole deformed) shapes play an important role in some areas of nuclear chart. For example, the outer fission barriers in actinides and superheavy nuclei are strongly affected by such shapes. The recent progress in the study of such shapes and octupole softness at ground states of lanthanides (A ~ 145) and actinides (A ~ 224) as well as at outer fission barriers of actinides and superheavy nuclei within the covariant density functional theory will be reviewed. New results obtained within the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov framework with separable limit of finite range Gogny D1S pairing in the pairing channel will be discussed. The experimental data will be systematically compared with model calculations. The work on the extension of the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov formalism to the description of odd, odd-odd and rotating nuclei with reflections asymmetric shapes is currently in progress. New results obtained with these extensions will be reported. This work has been supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under the grant DE-FG02-07ER41459 and by the DFG cluster of excellence ``Origin and Structure of the Universe '' (www.universe-cluster.de).
Covariant Spectator Theory of np scattering: Isoscalar interaction currents
Gross, Franz L.
2014-06-01
Using the Covariant Spectator Theory (CST), one boson exchange (OBE) models have been found that give precision fits to low energy $np$ scattering and the deuteron binding energy. The boson-nucleon vertices used in these models contain a momentum dependence that requires a new class of interaction currents for use with electromagnetic interactions. Current conservation requires that these new interaction currents satisfy a two-body Ward-Takahashi (WT), and using principals of {\\it simplicity\\/} and {\\it picture independence\\/}, these currents can be uniquely determined. The results lead to general formulae for a two-body current that can be expressed in terms of relativistic $np$ wave functions, ${\\it \\Psi}$, and two convenient truncated wave functions, ${\\it \\Psi}^{(2)}$ and $\\widehat {\\it \\Psi}$, which contain all of the information needed for the explicit evaluation of the contributions from the interaction current. These three wave functions can be calculated from the CST bound or scattering state equations (and their off-shell extrapolations). A companion paper uses this formalism to evaluate the deuteron magnetic moment.
On covariant Poisson brackets in classical field theory
Forger, Michael; Salles, Mário O.
2015-10-15
How to give a natural geometric definition of a covariant Poisson bracket in classical field theory has for a long time been an open problem—as testified by the extensive literature on “multisymplectic Poisson brackets,” together with the fact that all these proposals suffer from serious defects. On the other hand, the functional approach does provide a good candidate which has come to be known as the Peierls–De Witt bracket and whose construction in a geometrical setting is now well understood. Here, we show how the basic “multisymplectic Poisson bracket” already proposed in the 1970s can be derived from the Peierls–De Witt bracket, applied to a special class of functionals. This relation allows to trace back most (if not all) of the problems encountered in the past to ambiguities (the relation between differential forms on multiphase space and the functionals they define is not one-to-one) and also to the fact that this class of functionals does not form a Poisson subalgebra.
Experimental Confirmation of a Causal, Covariant, Relativistic Theory of Dissipative Fluid Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scofield, Dillon; Huq, Pablo
2015-11-01
Using newtonian viscous dissipation stress in covariant, relativistic fluid flow theories leads to a violation of the second law of thermodynamics and to acausality of their predictions. E.g., the Landau & Lifshitz theory, a Lorentz covariant formulation, suffers from these defects. These problems effectively limit such theories to time-independent flow régimes. Thus, these theories are of little fundamental interest to astrophysical, geophysical, or thermonuclear flow modeling. We discuss experimental confirmation of the new geometrodynamical theory of fluids solving these problems. This theory is derived from recent results of geometrodynamics showing current conservation implies gauge field creation; the vortex field lemma.
The Split Property for Locally Covariant Quantum Field Theories in Curved Spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fewster, Christopher J.
2015-12-01
The split property expresses the way in which local regions of spacetime define subsystems of a quantum field theory. It is known to hold for general theories in Minkowski space under the hypothesis of nuclearity. Here, the split property is discussed for general locally covariant quantum field theories in arbitrary globally hyperbolic curved spacetimes, using a spacetime deformation argument to transport the split property from one spacetime to another. It is also shown how states obeying both the split and (partial) Reeh-Schlieder properties can be constructed, providing standard split inclusions of certain local von Neumann algebras. Sufficient conditions are given for the theory to admit such states in ultrastatic spacetimes, from which the general case follows. A number of consequences are described, including the existence of local generators for global gauge transformations, and the classification of certain local von Neumann algebras. Similar arguments are applied to the distal split property and circumstances are exhibited under which distal splitting implies the full split property.
Covariant Action for the Super-Five-Brane of {ital M} Theory
Bandos, I.; Nurmagambetov, A.; Sorokin, D.; Lechner, K.; Pasti, P.; Tonin, M.
1997-06-01
We propose a complete, d=6 covariant and kappa-symmetric, action for the M theory five-brane propagating in D=11 supergravity background. This opens a direct way of relating a wide class of super-p -brane solutions of string theory with the five-brane of M theory, which should be useful for studying corresponding dualities and nonperturbative aspects of these theories. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Covariant gauges without Gribov ambiguities in Yang-Mills theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serreau, J.; Tissier, M.; Tresmontant, A.
2014-06-01
We propose a one-parameter family of nonlinear covariant gauges which can be formulated as an extremization procedure that may be amenable to lattice implementation. At high energies, where the Gribov ambiguities can be ignored, this reduces to the Curci-Ferrari-Delbourgo-Jarvis gauges. We further propose a continuum formulation in terms of a local action which is free of Gribov ambiguities and avoids the Neuberger zero problem of the standard Faddeev-Popov construction. This involves an averaging over Gribov copies with a nonuniform weight, which introduces a new gauge-fixing parameter. We show that the proposed gauge-fixed action is perturbatively renormalizable in four dimensions and we provide explicit expressions of the renormalization factors at one loop. We discuss the possible implications of the present proposal for the calculation of Yang-Mills correlators.
Introduction to string field theory. A pedestrian approach to the covariant formulation
West, G.B.
1986-01-01
A relatively elementary account is given of what a string field represents and what is involved in the construction of its covariant action. Emphasis is on drawing a correspondence with similar problems in ordinary field theory and, particularly, using the language and mathematics used in ordinary field theory. Only the free string is discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs. (LEW)
Comment on the Big-Bang singularity in the scale-covariant theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beesham, A.
1986-06-01
In a recently published article, Rahman and Banerji (1985) have shown that certain Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker cosmological models with zero cosmological constant in the scale covariant theory of Canuto et al. (1977) do not have an observable singularity of infinite density in the beginning. This is in contrast to the corresponding general relativistic models, each of which has a Big-Bang singularity (see, for example, Ellis, 1971). In this note it is shown that the cosmological models in the scale-covariant theory which have been considered as possible viable models of the universe by Canuto and his coworkers each possess a singularity where the energy density diverges.
Quasi-local conserved charges in Lorenz-diffeomorphism covariant theory of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adami, H.; Setare, M. R.
2016-04-01
In this paper, using the combined Lorenz-diffeomorphism symmetry, we find a general formula for the quasi-local conserved charge of the covariant gravity theories in a first order formalism of gravity. We simplify the general formula for the Lovelock theory of gravity. Afterwards, we apply the obtained formula on BHT gravity to obtain the energy and angular momentum of the rotating OTT black hole solution in the context of this theory.
Theory of contributon transport
Painter, J.W.; Gerstl, S.A.W.; Pomraning, G.C.
1980-10-01
A general discussion of the physics of contributon transport is presented. To facilitate this discussion, a Boltzmann-like transport equation for contributons is obtained, and special contributon cross sections are defined. However, the main goal of this study is to identify contributon transport equations and investigate possible deterministic solution techniques. Four approaches to the deterministic solution of the contributon transport problem are investigated. These approaches are an attempt to exploit certain attractive properties of the contributon flux, psi = phi phi/sup +/, where phi and phi/sup +/ are the solutions to the forward and adjoint Boltzmann transport equations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tay, Louis; Vermunt, Jeroen K.; Wang, Chun
2013-01-01
We evaluate the item response theory with covariates (IRT-C) procedure for assessing differential item functioning (DIF) without preknowledge of anchor items (Tay, Newman, & Vermunt, 2011). This procedure begins with a fully constrained baseline model, and candidate items are tested for uniform and/or nonuniform DIF using the Wald statistic.…
Covariant Density Functional Theory--highlights on recent progress and applications
Meng, J.; Li, J.; Zhao, P. W.; Liang, H. Z.; Yao, J. M.
2011-05-06
The density functional theory with a few number of parameters allows a very successful phenomenological description of ground state properties of nuclei all over the nuclear chart. The recent progress on the application of the covariant density functional theory (CDFT) for nuclear structure and astrophysics as well as its extensions by the group in Beijing is summarized. In particular, its application to magnetic moments is discussed in details.
Strangeness S =-1 hyperon-nucleon scattering in covariant chiral effective field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Kai-Wen; Ren, Xiu-Lei; Geng, Li-Sheng; Long, Bingwei
2016-07-01
Motivated by the successes of covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory in one-baryon systems and in heavy-light systems, we study relevance of relativistic effects in hyperon-nucleon interactions with strangeness S =-1 . In this exploratory work, we follow the covariant framework developed by Epelbaum and Gegelia to calculate the Y N scattering amplitude at leading order. By fitting the five low-energy constants to the experimental data, we find that the cutoff dependence is mitigated, compared with the heavy-baryon approach. Nevertheless, the description of the experimental data remains quantitatively similar at leading order.
Covariant anomaly and Hawking radiation from the modified black hole in the rainbow gravity theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Jun-Jin; Wu, Shuang-Qing
2008-12-01
Recently, Banerjee and Kulkarni (R. Banerjee, S. Kulkarni, arXiv: 0707. 2449 [hep-th]) suggested that it is conceptually clean and economical to use only the covariant anomaly to derive Hawking radiation from a black hole. Based upon this simplified formalism, we apply the covariant anomaly cancellation method to investigate Hawking radiation from a modified Schwarzschild black hole in the theory of rainbow gravity. Hawking temperature of the gravity’s rainbow black hole is derived from the energy-momentum flux by requiring it to cancel the covariant gravitational anomaly at the horizon. We stress that this temperature is exactly the same as that calculated by the method of cancelling the consistent anomaly.
Scale covariant gravitation. V - Kinetic theory. VI - Stellar structure and evolution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsieh, S.-H.; Canuto, V. M.
1981-01-01
A scale covariant kinetic theory for particles and photons is developed. The mathematical framework of the theory is given by the tangent bundle of a Weyl manifold. The Liouville equation is derived, and solutions to corresponding equilibrium distributions are presented and shown to yield thermodynamic results identical to the ones obtained previously. The scale covariant theory is then used to derive results of interest to stellar structure and evolution. A radiative transfer equation is derived that can be used to study stellar evolution with a variable gravitational constant. In addition, it is shown that the sun's absolute luminosity scales as L approximately equal to GM/kappa, where kappa is the stellar opacity. Finally, a formula is derived for the age of globular clusters as a function of the gravitational constant using a previously derived expression for the absolute luminosity.
Nodal Diffusion & Transport Theory
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1992-02-19
DIF3D solves multigroup diffusion theory eigenvalue, adjoint, fixed source, and criticality (concentration, buckling, and dimension search) problems in 1, 2, and 3-space dimensions for orthogonal (rectangular or cylindrical), triangular, and hexagonal geometries. Anisotropic diffusion theory coefficients are permitted. Flux and power density maps by mesh cell and regionwise balance integrals are provided. Although primarily designed for fast reactor problems, upscattering and internal black boundary conditions are also treated.
Quark model with chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in the Covariant Spectator Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biernat, Elmar P.; Peña, M. T.; Ribeiro, J. E.; Stadler, A.; Gross, F.
2016-03-01
We propose a model for the quark-antiquark interaction in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. We show that with an equal-weighted scalar-pseudoscalar structure for the confining part of our interaction kernel the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is preserved and our model complies with the Adler-zero constraint for π-π-scattering imposed by chiral symmetry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kisil, Vladimir V.
2011-03-01
Dedicated to the memory of Cora Sadosky The paper develops theory of covariant transform, which is inspired by the wavelet construction. It was observed that many interesting types of wavelets (or coherent states) arise from group representations which are not square integrable or vacuum vectors which are not admissible. Covariant transform extends an applicability of the popular wavelets construction to classic examples like the Hardy space H2, Banach spaces, covariant functional calculus and many others.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tian, Wei; Cai, Li; Thissen, David; Xin, Tao
2013-01-01
In item response theory (IRT) modeling, the item parameter error covariance matrix plays a critical role in statistical inference procedures. When item parameters are estimated using the EM algorithm, the parameter error covariance matrix is not an automatic by-product of item calibration. Cai proposed the use of Supplemented EM algorithm for…
Locally covariant quantum field theory and the spin-statistics connection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fewster, Christopher J.
2016-03-01
The framework of locally covariant quantum field theory (QFT), an axiomatic approach to QFT in curved spacetime (CST), is reviewed. As a specific focus, the connection between spin and statistics is examined in this context. A new approach is given, which allows for a more operational description of theories with spin and for the derivation of a more general version of the spin-statistics connection in CSTs than previously available. This part of the text is based on [C. J. Fewster, arXiv:1503.05797.] and a forthcoming publication; the emphasis here is on the fundamental ideas and motivation.
Nuclear Structure and Astrophysics r-PROCESS with Covariant Density Functional Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, J.; Long, W. H.; Niu, Z. M.; Sun, B.; Zhou, S. G.
2010-09-01
The density functional theory (DFT) with a minimal number of parameters allows a very successful phenomenological description of ground state properties of nuclei all over the periodic table. Recent progresses on the application of the covariant density functional theory as well as its extensions by the group in Beijing for a series of interests and hot topics in nuclear astrophysics and nuclear structure are reviewed, including the rapid neutron-capture process, Th/U chronometer, halo and giant halo in density dependent relativistic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov, and neutron halo in deformed nuclei.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ristorcelli, J. R.
1995-01-01
The mathematical consequences of a few simple scaling assumptions about the effects of compressibility are explored using a simple singular perturbation idea and the methods of statistical fluid mechanics. Representations for the pressure-dilation and dilatational dissipation covariances appearing in single-point moment closures for compressible turbulence are obtained. While the results are expressed in the context of a second-order statistical closure they provide some interesting and very clear physical metaphors for the effects of compressibility that have not been seen using more traditional linear stability methods. In the limit of homogeneous turbulence with quasi-normal large-scales the expressions derived are - in the low turbulent Mach number limit - asymptotically exact. The expressions obtained are functions of the rate of change of the turbulence energy, its correlation length scale, and the relative time scale of the cascade rate. The expressions for the dilatational covariances contain constants which have a precise and definite physical significance; they are related to various integrals of the longitudinal velocity correlation. The pressure-dilation covariance is found to be a nonequilibrium phenomena related to the time rate of change of the internal energy and the kinetic energy of the turbulence. Also of interest is the fact that the representation for the dilatational dissipation in turbulence, with or without shear, features a dependence on the Reynolds number. This article is a documentation of an analytical investigation of the implications of a pseudo-sound theory for the effects of compressibility.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skordis, Constantinos
2006-11-01
A relativistic theory of gravity has recently been proposed by Bekenstein, where gravity is mediated by a tensor, a vector, and a scalar field, thus called TeVeS. The theory aims at modifying gravity in such a way as to reproduce Milgrom’s modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) in the weak field, nonrelativistic limit, which provides a framework to solve the missing mass problem in galaxies without invoking dark matter. In this paper I apply a covariant approach to formulate the cosmological equations for this theory, for both the background and linear perturbations. I derive the necessary perturbed equations for scalar, vector, and tensor modes without adhering to a particular gauge. Special gauges are considered in the appendixes.
Electromagnetic structure of the Delta baryon within the covariant spectator theory
M. T. Pena, G. Ramalho, Franz Gross
2010-12-01
We calculated all the electromagnetic observables for the nucleon and its lowest-lying Delta(1232) excitation within a constituent quark model for those two baryons based on the covariant spectator theory. Once the reactions gamma N \\to N and gamma N \\to Delta were described, we predicted without further adjusting of parameters the four electromagnetic Delta form factors: the electric charge G_{E0}, the magnetic dpole G_{M1}, the electric quadrupole G_{E2} and the magnetic octupole G_{M3}. The results are compatible with the available experimental data and recent lattice QCD data.
Static and dynamic aspect of covariant density functional theory in proton rich nuclei
Ring, P.; Lalazissis, G. A.; Paar, N.; Vretenar, D.
2007-11-30
Proton rich nuclei are investigated in the framework of Covariant Density Functional Theory (CDFT). The Relativistic Hartree Bogoliubov (RHB) model is used to study the proton drip line in the region of heavy and superheavy nuclei. The dynamical behavior of nuclei with a large proton excess is studied within the Relativistic Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation (RQRPA). Low lying El-strength is observed and it is shown that it corresponds to an oscillation of the proton skin against the isospin saturated neutron-proton core. This mode is in full analogy to the neutron pygmy resonances found in many nuclei with neutron excess.
Can the Big-Bang singularity be avoided in the scale-covariant theory?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahman, H.; Banerji, S.
1985-07-01
The Raychaudhuri (1955) equation is written in terms of atomic units in the scale-covariant theory of Canuto et al. (1977), and it is pointed out that even dust-filled nonrotating cosmological models may not have an observable singularity of infinite density in the beginning. Simple explicit solutions of Einstein's equations are also constructed in terms of atomic units and it is shown that the Einstein-de Sitter solution in gravitational units may appear to be a static or an oscillating universe in atomic units.
Seifert, Michael D.; Wald, Robert M.
2007-04-15
We present a general method for the analysis of the stability of static, spherically symmetric solutions to spherically symmetric perturbations in an arbitrary diffeomorphism covariant Lagrangian field theory. Our method involves fixing the gauge and solving the linearized gravitational field equations to eliminate the metric perturbation variables in terms of the matter variables. In a wide class of cases--which include f(R) gravity, the Einstein-aether theory of Jacobson and Mattingly, and Bekenstein's TeVeS theory--the remaining perturbation equations for the matter fields are second order in time. We show how the symplectic current arising from the original Lagrangian gives rise to a symmetric bilinear form on the variables of the reduced theory. If this bilinear form is positive definite, it provides an inner product that puts the equations of motion of the reduced theory into a self-adjoint form. A variational principle can then be written down immediately, from which stability can be tested readily. We illustrate our method in the case of Einstein's equation with perfect fluid matter, thereby rederiving, in a systematic manner, Chandrasekhar's variational principle for radial oscillations of spherically symmetric stars. In a subsequent paper, we will apply our analysis to f(R) gravity, the Einstein-aether theory, and Bekenstein's TeVeS theory.
Frame-covariant formulation of inflation in scalar-curvature theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burns, Daniel; Karamitsos, Sotirios; Pilaftsis, Apostolos
2016-06-01
We develop a frame-covariant formulation of inflation in the slow-roll approximation by generalizing the inflationary attractor solution for scalar-curvature theories. Our formulation gives rise to new generalized forms for the potential slow-roll parameters, which enable us to examine the effect of conformal transformations and inflaton reparameterizations in scalar-curvature theories. We find that cosmological observables, such as the power spectrum, the spectral indices and their runnings, can be expressed in a concise manner in terms of the generalized potential slow-roll parameters which depend on the scalar-curvature coupling function, the inflaton wavefunction, and the inflaton potential. We show how the cosmological observables of inflation are frame-invariant in this generalized potential slow-roll formalism, as long as the end-of-inflation condition is appropriately extended to become frame-invariant as well. We then apply our formalism to specific scenarios, such as the induced gravity inflation, Higgs inflation and F (R) models of inflation, and obtain more accurate results, without making additional approximations to the potential. Our results are shown to be consistent to lowest order with those presented in the literature. Finally, we outline how our frame-covariant formalism can be naturally extended beyond the tree-level approximation, within the framework of the Vilkovisky-DeWitt effective action.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujita, Tomohiro; Gao, Xian; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi
2016-02-01
We investigate the cosmological background evolution and perturbations in a general class of spatially covariant theories of gravity, which propagates two tensor modes and one scalar mode. We show that the structure of the theory is preserved under the disformal transformation. We also evaluate the primordial spectra for both the gravitational waves and the curvature perturbation, which are invariant under the disformal transformation. Due to the existence of higher spatial derivatives, the quadratic Lagrangian for the tensor modes itself cannot be transformed to the form in the Einstein frame. Nevertheless, there exists a one-parameter family of frames in which the spectrum of the gravitational waves takes the standard form in the Einstein frame.
Roche, Michael J.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Hyde, Amanda L.; Conroy, David E.; Ram, Nilam
2013-01-01
Interpersonal theory identifies agency and communion as uncorrelated (orthogonal) dimensions, largely evidenced by research examining between-person analyses of single-occasion measures. However, longitudinal studies of interpersonal behavior demonstrated the within-person association of agency and communion is not orthogonal for many individuals, and between-person differences in these associations relate to adjustment. We applied a similar approach to investigate the association of interpersonal perceptions. 184 university students completed a 7-day event-contingent study of their interpersonal experiences. Using multilevel regression models, we demonstrated that agentic and communal perceptions were positively associated, and the strength of this within-person association was moderated by between-person scores of dependency and narcissism. We discuss the benefits of incorporating within-person interpersonal associations (termed interpersonal covariation) into interpersonal theory and assessment. PMID:24072945
Computer algebra and transport theory.
Warsa, J. S.
2004-01-01
Modern symbolic algebra computer software augments and complements more traditional approaches to transport theory applications in several ways. The first area is in the development and enhancement of numerical solution methods for solving the Boltzmann transport equation. Typically, special purpose computer codes are designed and written to solve specific transport problems in particular ways. Different aspects of the code are often written from scratch and the pitfalls of developing complex computer codes are numerous and well known. Software such as MAPLE and MATLAB can be used to prototype, analyze, verify and determine the suitability of numerical solution methods before a full-scale transport application is written. Once it is written, the relevant pieces of the full-scale code can be verified using the same tools I that were developed for prototyping. Another area is in the analysis of numerical solution methods or the calculation of theoretical results that might otherwise be difficult or intractable. Algebraic manipulations are done easily and without error and the software also provides a framework for any additional numerical calculations that might be needed to complete the analysis. We will discuss several applications in which we have extensively used MAPLE and MATLAB in our work. All of them involve numerical solutions of the S{sub N} transport equation. These applications encompass both of the two main areas in which we have found computer algebra software essential.
A preliminary evaluation of an O2/CO2 based eddy covariance theory at Missouri AmeriFlux site
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, B.; Gu, L.
2013-12-01
The eddy covariance (EC) technique has been widely used at flux sites on every continent, across most ecosystem types and climates to monitor exchanges of momentum, mass and energy between land surface and atmosphere. In an attempt to develop a self-consistent theory for the EC technique, Gu et al. (2012) reformulated the fundamental equations for EC by introducing the concept of constraining gas that has no net ecosystem sink/source. Gu (2013) expanded the theory of Gu et al. (2012) to include paired gases whose ecosystem exchange ratios are stable over an averaging period (e.g. 30 min) and therefore can be used to constrain EC flux measurements of any gases. He proposed that O2 and CO2 are an ideal pair of gases as their biological processes are coupled and their ecosystem exchange ratio (also known as oxidative ratio) is close to 1. Advantages of this new O2/CO2 based EC theory include: 1) avoidance of covariance loss in calculating dry air density induced by spatial separation of measuring instruments and use of multiple indirectly derived variables, 2) the minimum number of assumptions adopted for the derivation of the equation, and 3) avoidance of errors related to linearization of ideal gas law. In this study, we conducted a preliminary evaluation for the basic principle of Gu (2013) EC theory. We crosschecked net ecosystem exchange (NEE) estimations from different, independent methods by using CO2 and H2O as paired constraining gases. Using CO2 and H2O instead of CO2 and O2 as paired constraining gases is not ideal in the framework of Gu (2013); however, no fast response O2 analyzer is currently available. CO2 and H2O are both transported between the inside of plants and canopy air through stomata on leaves in the processes of photosynthesis and transpiration which are known to be closely coupled. However, this close coupling is contaminated by other ecosystem sinks/sources, e.g. respiration of plants and soil for CO2 and evaporation of intercepted and soil
Towards a consistent noncommutative supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory: Superfield covariant analysis
Ferrari, A.F.; Girotti, H.O.; Ribeiro, A.A.; Gomes, M.; Rivelles, V.O.; Silva, A.J. da; Petrov, A.Yu.
2004-10-15
Commutative four dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory is known to be renormalizable for N=1,2, and finite for N=4. However, in the noncommutative version of the model the UV/IR mechanism gives rise to infrared divergences which may spoil the perturbative expansion. In this work we pursue the study of the consistency of the N=1,2,4 noncommutative supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with gauge group U(N) (NCSYM). We employ the covariant superfield framework to compute the one-loop corrections to the two- and three-point functions of the gauge superfield V. It is found that the cancellation of the harmful UV/IR infrared divergences only takes place in the fundamental representation of the gauge group. We argue that this is in agreement with the low energy limit of the open superstring in the presence of an external magnetic field. As expected, the planar sector of the two-point function of the V superfield exhibits UV divergences. They are found to cancel, in the Feynman gauge, for the maximally extended N=4 supersymmetric theory. This gives support to the belief that the N=4 NCSYM theory is UV finite.
Pinto, Sérgio Alexandre; Stadler, Alfred; Gross, Franz
2009-05-01
We present the first calculations of the electromagnetic form factors of ^{3}He and ^{3}H within the framework of the Covariant Spectator Theory (CST). This first exploratory study concentrates on the sensitivity of the form factors to the strength of the scalar meson-nucleon off-shell coupling, known from previous studies to have a strong influence on the three-body binding energy. Results presented here were obtained using the complete impulse approximation (CIA), which includes contributions of relativistic origin that appear as two-body corrections in a non-relativistic framework, such as "Z-graphs," but omits other two and three-body currents. Finally, we compare our results to non-relativistic calculations augmented by relativistic corrections of O(v/c)^{2}.
Alexandre Pinto, SÂ ergio; Stadler, Alfred; Gross, Franz
2009-01-01
We present the first calculations of the electromagnetic form factors of 3He and 3H within the framework of the Covariant Spectator Theory (CST). This first exploratory study concentrates on the sensitivity of the form factors to the strength of the scalar meson-nucleon off-shell coupling, known from previous studies to have a strong influence on the three-body binding energy. Results presented here were obtained using the complete impulse approximation (CIA), which includes contributions of relativistic origin that appear as two-body corrections in a non-relativistic framework, such as ?Z-graphs?, but omits other two and three-body currents. We compare our results to non-relativistic calculations augmented by relativistic corrections of O(v/c)2.
Pinto, Sergio Alexandre; Stadler, Alfred; Gross, Franz
2009-05-15
We present the first calculations of the electromagnetic form factors of {sup 3}He and {sup 3}H within the framework of the Covariant Spectator Theory (CST). This first exploratory study concentrates on the sensitivity of the form factors to the strength of the scalar meson-nucleon off-shell coupling, known from previous studies to have a strong influence on the three-body binding energy. Results presented here were obtained using the complete impulse approximation (CIA), which includes contributions of relativistic origin that appear as two-body corrections in a nonrelativistic framework, such as 'Z-graphs', but omits other two and three-body currents. We compare our results to nonrelativistic calculations augmented by relativistic corrections of O(v/c){sup 2}.
Chiral symmetry and π -π scattering in the covariant spectator theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biernat, Elmar P.; Peña, M. T.; Ribeiro, J. E.; Stadler, Alfred; Gross, Franz
2014-11-01
The π -π scattering amplitude calculated with a model for the quark-antiquark interaction in the framework of the covariant spectator theory (CST) is shown to satisfy the Adler zero constraint imposed by chiral symmetry. The CST formalism is established in Minkowski space and our calculations are performed in momentum space. We prove that the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is satisfied by our model. Then we show that, similar to what happens within the Bethe-Salpeter formalism, application of the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity to the CST π -π scattering amplitude allows us to sum the intermediate quark-quark interactions to all orders. The Adler self-consistency zero for π -π scattering in the chiral limit emerges as the result for this sum.
Exploration of direct neutron capture with covariant density functional theory inputs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shi-Sheng; Peng, Jin-Peng; Smith, M. S.; Arbanas, G.; Kozub, R. L.
2015-04-01
Predictions of direct neutron capture are of vital importance for simulations of nucleosynthesis in supernovae, merging neutron stars, and other astrophysical environments. We calculated direct capture cross sections using nuclear structure information obtained from a covariant density functional theory as input for the fresco coupled reaction channels code. We investigated the impact of pairing, spectroscopic factors, and optical potentials on our results to determine a robust method to calculate cross sections of direct neutron capture on exotic nuclei. Our predictions agree reasonably well with experimental cross section data for the closed shell nuclei 16O and 48Ca, and for the exotic nucleus 36S . We then used this approach to calculate the direct neutron capture cross section on the doubly magic unstable nucleus 132Sn which is of interest for the astrophysical r-process.
Chiral symmetry and π-π scattering in the Covariant Spectator Theory
Biernat, Elmar P.; Peña, M. T.; Ribeiro, J. E.; Stadler, Alfred; Gross, Franz
2014-11-14
The π-π scattering amplitude calculated with a model for the quark-antiquark interaction in the framework of the Covariant Spectator Theory (CST) is shown to satisfy the Adler zero constraint imposed by chiral symmetry. The CST formalism is established in Minkowski space and our calculations are performed in momentum space. We prove that the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is satisfied by our model. Then we show that, similarly to what happens within the Bethe-Salpeter formalism, application of the axial-vector Ward Takahashi identity to the CST π-π scattering amplitude allows us to sum the intermediate quark-quark interactions to all orders. Thus, the Adlermore » self-consistency zero for π-π scattering in the chiral limit emerges as the result for this sum.« less
Gravitational energy for GR and Poincaré gauge theories: A covariant Hamiltonian approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Chiang-Mei; Nester, James M.; Tung, Roh-Suan
2015-08-01
Our topic concerns a long standing puzzle: The energy of gravitating systems. More precisely we want to consider, for gravitating systems, how to best describe energy-momentum and angular momentum/center-of-mass momentum (CoMM). It is known that these quantities cannot be given by a local density. The modern understanding is that (i) they are quasi-local (associated with a closed 2-surface), (ii) they have no unique formula, (iii) they have no reference frame independent description. In the first part of this work, we review some early history, much of it not so well known, on the subject of gravitational energy in Einstein's general relativity (GR), noting especially Noether's contribution. In the second part, we review (including some new results) much of our covariant Hamiltonian formalism and apply it to Poincaré gauge theories of gravity (PG), with GR as a special case. The key point is that the Hamiltonian boundary term has two roles, it determines the quasi-local quantities, and furthermore, it determines the boundary conditions for the dynamical variables. Energy-momentum and angular momentum/CoMM are associated with the geometric symmetries under Poincaré transformations. They are best described in a local Poincaré gauge theory. The type of spacetime that naturally has this symmetry is Riemann-Cartan spacetime, with a metric compatible connection having, in general, both curvature and torsion. Thus our expression for the energy-momentum of physical systems is obtained via our covariant Hamiltonian formulation applied to the PG.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afanasjev, A. V.; Abdurazakov, O.
2013-07-01
The cranked relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov theory has been applied for a systematic study of pairing and rotational properties of actinides and light superheavy nuclei. Pairing correlations are taken into account by the Brink-Booker part of finite-range Gogny D1S force. For the first time, in the covariant density functional theory (CDFT) framework, the pairing properties of deformed nuclei are studied via the quantities (such as three-point Δ(3) indicators) related to odd-even mass staggerings. The investigation of the moments of inertia at low spin and the Δ(3) indicators shows the need for an attenuation of the strength of the Brink-Booker part of the Gogny D1S force in pairing channel. The investigation of rotational properties of even-even and odd-mass nuclei at normal deformation, performed in the density functional theory framework in such a systematic way for the first time, reveals that in the majority of the cases the experimental data are well described. These include the evolution of the moments of inertia with spin, band crossings in the A≥242 nuclei, the impact of the particle in specific orbital on the moments of inertia in odd-mass nuclei. The analysis of the discrepancies between theory and experiment in the band crossing region of A≤240 nuclei suggests the stabilization of octupole deformation at high spin, not included in the present calculations. The evolution of pairing with deformation, which is important for the fission barriers, has been investigated via the analysis of the moments of inertia in the superdeformed minimum. The dependence of the results on the CDFT parametrization has been studied by comparing the results of the calculations obtained with the NL1 and NL3* parametrizations.
A covariant Fokker-Planck equation for a simple gas from relativistic kinetic theory
Chacon-Acosta, Guillermo; Dagdug, Leonardo; Morales-Tecotl, Hugo A.
2010-12-14
A manifestly covariant Fokker-Planck differential equation is derived for the case of a relativistic simple gas by taking a small momentum transfer approximation within the collision integral of the relativistic Boltzmann equation. We follow closely previous work, with the main difference that we keep manifest covariance at every stage of the analysis. In addition, we use the covariant Juettner distribution function to find a relativistic generalization of the Einstein's fluctuation-dissipation relation.
Time-odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory: Rotating systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afanasjev, A. V.; Abusara, H.
2010-09-01
Time-odd mean fields (nuclear magnetism) and their impact on physical observables in rotating nuclei are studied in the framework of covariant density functional theory (CDFT). It is shown that they have profound effect on the dynamic and kinematic moments of inertia. Particle number, configuration, and rotational frequency dependencies of their impact on the moments of inertia have been analyzed in a systematic way. Nuclear magnetism can also considerably modify the band crossing features such as crossing frequencies and the properties of the kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia in the band crossing region. The impact of time-odd mean fields on the moments of inertia in the regions away from band crossing only weakly depends on the relativistic mean-field parametrization, reflecting good localization of the properties of time-odd mean fields in CDFT. The moments of inertia of normal-deformed nuclei considerably deviate from the rigid-body value. On the contrary, superdeformed and hyperdeformed nuclei have the moments of inertia which are close to rigid-body value. The structure of the currents in rotating frame, their microscopic origin, and the relations to the moments of inertia have been systematically analyzed. The phenomenon of signature separation in odd-odd nuclei, induced by time-odd mean fields, has been analyzed in detail.
Time-odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory: Rotating systems
Afanasjev, A. V.; Abusara, H.
2010-09-15
Time-odd mean fields (nuclear magnetism) and their impact on physical observables in rotating nuclei are studied in the framework of covariant density functional theory (CDFT). It is shown that they have profound effect on the dynamic and kinematic moments of inertia. Particle number, configuration, and rotational frequency dependencies of their impact on the moments of inertia have been analyzed in a systematic way. Nuclear magnetism can also considerably modify the band crossing features such as crossing frequencies and the properties of the kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia in the band crossing region. The impact of time-odd mean fields on the moments of inertia in the regions away from band crossing only weakly depends on the relativistic mean-field parametrization, reflecting good localization of the properties of time-odd mean fields in CDFT. The moments of inertia of normal-deformed nuclei considerably deviate from the rigid-body value. On the contrary, superdeformed and hyperdeformed nuclei have the moments of inertia which are close to rigid-body value. The structure of the currents in rotating frame, their microscopic origin, and the relations to the moments of inertia have been systematically analyzed. The phenomenon of signature separation in odd-odd nuclei, induced by time-odd mean fields, has been analyzed in detail.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertolini, Daniele; Schutz, Katelin; Solon, Mikhail P.; Walsh, Jonathan R.; Zurek, Kathryn M.
2016-06-01
We compute the non-Gaussian contribution to the covariance of the matter power spectrum at one-loop order in standard perturbation theory (SPT), using the framework of the effective field theory (EFT) of large scale structure (LSS). The complete one-loop contributions are evaluated for the first time, including the leading EFT corrections that involve seven independent operators, of which four appear in the power spectrum and bispectrum. We compare the non-Gaussian part of the one-loop covariance computed with both SPT and EFT of LSS to two separate simulations. In one simulation, we find that the one-loop prediction from SPT reproduces the simulation well to ki+kj˜0.25 h /Mpc , while in the other simulation we find a substantial improvement of EFT of LSS (with one free parameter) over SPT, more than doubling the range of k where the theory accurately reproduces the simulation. The disagreement between these two simulations points to unaccounted for systematics, highlighting the need for improved numerical and analytic understanding of the covariance.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tay, Louis; Huang, Qiming; Vermunt, Jeroen K.
2016-01-01
In large-scale testing, the use of multigroup approaches is limited for assessing differential item functioning (DIF) across multiple variables as DIF is examined for each variable separately. In contrast, the item response theory with covariate (IRT-C) procedure can be used to examine DIF across multiple variables (covariates) simultaneously. To…
A quantum photonic dissipative transport theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, Chan U.; Zhang, Wei-Min
2012-05-01
In this paper, a quantum transport theory for describing photonic dissipative transport dynamics in nanophotonics is developed. The nanophotonic devices concerned in this paper consist of on-chip all-optical integrated circuits incorporating photonic bandgap waveguides and driven resonators embedded in nanostructured photonic crystals. The photonic transport through waveguides is entirely determined from the exact master equation of the driven resonators, which is obtained by explicitly eliminating all the degrees of freedom of the waveguides (treated as reservoirs). Back-reactions from the reservoirs are fully taken into account. The relation between the driven photonic dynamics and photocurrents is obtained explicitly. The non-Markovian memory structure and quantum decoherence dynamics in photonic transport can then be fully addressed. As an illustration, the theory is utilized to study the transport dynamics of a photonic transistor consisting of a nanocavity coupled to two waveguides in photonic crystals. The controllability of photonic transport through the external driven field is demonstrated.
Contextualized Network Analysis: Theory and Methods for Networks with Node Covariates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Binkiewicz, Norbert M.
Biological and social systems consist of myriad interacting units. The interactions can be intuitively represented in the form of a graph or network. Measurements of these graphs can reveal the underlying structure of these interactions, which provides insight into the systems that generated the graphs. Moreover, in applications such as neuroconnectomics, social networks, and genomics, graph data is accompanied by contextualizing measures on each node. We leverage these node covariates to help uncover latent communities, using a modification of spectral clustering. Statistical guarantees are provided under a joint mixture model called the node contextualized stochastic blockmodel, including a bound on the mis-clustering rate. For most simulated conditions, covariate assisted spectral clustering yields superior results relative to both regularized spectral clustering without node covariates and an adaptation of canonical correlation analysis. We apply covariate assisted spectral clustering to large brain graphs derived from diffusion MRI, using the node locations or neurological regions as covariates. In both cases, covariate assisted spectral clustering yields clusters that are easier to interpret neurologically. A low rank update algorithm is developed to reduce the computational cost of determining the tuning parameter for covariate assisted spectral clustering. As simulations demonstrate, the low rank update algorithm increases the speed of covariate assisted spectral clustering up to ten-fold, while practically matching the clustering performance of the standard algorithm. Graphs with node attributes are sometimes accompanied by ground truth labels that align closely with the latent communities in the graph. We consider the example of a mouse retina neuron network accompanied by the neuron spatial location and neuronal cell types. In this example, the neuronal cell type is considered a ground truth label. Current approaches for defining neuronal cell type vary
Theory of runaway collisional transport
Tessarotto, M. ); White, R.B. )
1993-11-01
The purpose of this paper is to formulate the transport problem for a multispecies rotating toroidal magnetoplasma in the so-called runaway regime, which is defined by an appropriate ordering of relevant characteristic frequencies, in particular, the Larmor frequency, the characteristic acceleration frequency due to the applied electric field and the effective collision frequency, all evaluated at some characteristic speed [ital v][sub 0]. A suitable form of the gyrokinetic equation is obtained to describe the time-dependent, multispecies plasma response to an applied electric field, in toroidal geometry and for a strongly rotating, quiescent, and collisional plasma. Its moment equations are proven to imply the reduction of the energy equation to Joule's law, as well as consequences on the form of Ohm's law and of the Grad--Shafranov equation. To construct an approximate solution of the gyrokinetic equation and to evaluate all relevant fluxes, appearing in the moment equations, a general variational solution method is developed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, P. W.; Song, L. S.; Sun, B.; Geissel, H.; Meng, J.
2012-12-01
The covariant density functional theory with the point-coupling interaction PC-PK1 is compared with new and accurate experimental masses in the element range from 50 to 91. The experimental data are from a mass measurement performed with the storage ring mass spectrometry at Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) [Chen , Nucl. Phys. ANUPABL0375-947410.1016/j.nuclphysa.2012.03.002 882, 71 (2012)]. Although the microscopic theory contains only 11 parameters, it agrees well with the experimental data. The comparison is characterized by a rms deviation of 0.859 MeV. For even-even nuclei, the theory agrees within about 600 keV. Larger deviations are observed in this comparison for the odd-A and odd-odd nuclei. Improvements and possible reasons for the deviations are discussed in this contribution as well.
Contributions to δVpn for Even-Even ra Isotopes Based on the Covariant Density Functional Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, W.; Li, Z. P.; Zhang, S. Q.
The δVpn for even-even 208-228Ra are investigated in the covariant density functional theory and the quadrupole-octupole collective Hamiltonian method. It is shown that the successive introduction of static deformation and collective fluctuation are crucial ingredients for the reproduction of data, especially for N = 132 - 136. The properties of the nuclei associated with δVpn at N = 132 are analyzed in detail. Microscopically, near the Fermi surfaces in the single-particle level spectrums, levels with similar energies above the gaps N = 132 and Z = 88 can be found for 220Ra.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lisano, Michael E.
2007-01-01
Recent literature in applied estimation theory reflects growing interest in the sigma-point (also called unscented ) formulation for optimal sequential state estimation, often describing performance comparisons with extended Kalman filters as applied to specific dynamical problems [c.f. 1, 2, 3]. Favorable attributes of sigma-point filters are described as including a lower expected error for nonlinear even non-differentiable dynamical systems, and a straightforward formulation not requiring derivation or implementation of any partial derivative Jacobian matrices. These attributes are particularly attractive, e.g. in terms of enabling simplified code architecture and streamlined testing, in the formulation of estimators for nonlinear spaceflight mechanics systems, such as filter software onboard deep-space robotic spacecraft. As presented in [4], the Sigma-Point Consider Filter (SPCF) algorithm extends the sigma-point filter algorithm to the problem of consider covariance analysis. Considering parameters in a dynamical system, while estimating its state, provides an upper bound on the estimated state covariance, which is viewed as a conservative approach to designing estimators for problems of general guidance, navigation and control. This is because, whether a parameter in the system model is observable or not, error in the knowledge of the value of a non-estimated parameter will increase the actual uncertainty of the estimated state of the system beyond the level formally indicated by the covariance of an estimator that neglects errors or uncertainty in that parameter. The equations for SPCF covariance evolution are obtained in a fashion similar to the derivation approach taken with standard (i.e. linearized or extended) consider parameterized Kalman filters (c.f. [5]). While in [4] the SPCF and linear-theory consider filter (LTCF) were applied to an illustrative linear dynamics/linear measurement problem, in the present work examines the SPCF as applied to
Plasma confinement theory and transport simulation
Ross, D.W.
1993-02-01
The objectives continue to be: (1) to advance the transport studies of tokamaks, including development and maintenance of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Database, and (2) to provide theoretical interpretation, modeling and equilibrium and stability for TEXT-Upgrade. Recent publications and reports, and conference presentations of the Fusion Research Center theory group are listed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agbemava, S. E.; Afanasjev, A. V.; Ring, P.
2016-04-01
A systematic investigation of octupole-deformed nuclei is presented for even-even systems with Z ≤106 located between the two-proton and two-neutron driplines. For this study we use five most-up-to-date covariant energy density functionals of different types, with a nonlinear meson coupling, with density-dependent meson couplings, and with density-dependent zero-range interactions. Pairing correlations are treated within relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov theory based on an effective separable particle-particle interaction of finite range. This allows us to assess theoretical uncertainties within the present covariant models for the prediction of physical observables relevant for octupole-deformed nuclei. In addition, a detailed comparison with the predictions of nonrelativistic models is performed. A new region of octupole deformation, centered around Z ˜98 ,N ˜196 is predicted for the first time. In terms of its size in the (Z ,N ) plane and the impact of octupole deformation on binding energies this region is similar to the best known region of octupole-deformed nuclei centered at Z ˜90 ,N ˜136 . For the later island of octupole-deformed nuclei, the calculations suggest substantial increase of its size as compared with available experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pejhan, Hamed; Rahbardehghan, Surena
2016-04-01
Respecting that any consistent quantum field theory in curved space-time must include black hole radiation, in this paper, we examine the Krein-Gupta-Bleuler (KGB) formalism as an inevitable quantization scheme in order to follow the guideline of the covariance of minimally coupled massless scalar field and linear gravity on de Sitter (dS) background in the sense of Wightman-Gärding approach, by investigating thermodynamical aspects of black holes. The formalism is interestingly free of pathological large distance behavior. In this construction, also, no infinite term appears in the calculation of expectation values of the energy-momentum tensor (we have an automatic and covariant renormalization) which results in the vacuum energy of the free field to vanish. However, the existence of an effective potential barrier, intrinsically created by black holes gravitational field, gives a Casimir-type contribution to the vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor. On this basis, by evaluating the Casimir energy-momentum tensor for a conformally coupled massless scalar field in the vicinity of a nonrotating black hole event horizon through the KGB quantization, in this work, we explicitly prove that the hole produces black-body radiation which its temperature exactly coincides with the result obtained by Hawking for black hole radiation.
A unified theory of transport barriers and of subneoclassical transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogister, André L.
1999-01-01
"Subneoclassical" heat fluxes are shown to be rigorous consequences of the revisited neoclassical theory published earlier [Phys. Plasmas 1, 619 (1994)]. Including finite Larmor radius and inertia effects, this theory also provides a nondegenerate ambipolarity constraint, which, together with the parallel momentum equation, defines unambiguously the radial electric field Er and the parallel velocity U∥,i. It is shown that the stationary solution of those equations features, under conditions that are discussed, highly sheared Er profiles as observed in edge transport barriers. The operation regime is determined by a competition between nonlinear spin up of the rotation (which is interpreted) and momentum loss via charge exchange neutrals. The position of the transport barrier—near the last closed magnetic surface (LCMS)—is explained. The local threshold condition is analyzed, including the role of recycling neutrals and of the isotope mass. The width of the shear layer, as well as the predicted jumps and negative values of Er in front of the LCMS, agrees with experimental data. The time-dependent equations have solutions propagating from the edge to the core; the time scale associated with the toroidal rotation scales as and is usually comparable to the neoclassical heat transport time scale. Although the theory is so far limited to the high collisionality regime, a clear physical interpretation of the results allows extrapolation to low collisionality plasmas.
Biernat, Elmar P.; Gross, Franz; Peña, M. T.; Stadler, Alfred
2015-10-26
The pion form factor is calculated in the framework of the charge-conjugation invariant covariant spectator theory. This formalism is established in Minkowski space, and the calculation is set up in momentum space. In a previous calculation we included only the leading pole coming from the spectator quark (referred to as the relativistic impulse approximation). In this study we also include the contributions from the poles of the quark which interacts with the photon and average over all poles in both the upper and lower half-planes in order to preserve charge conjugation invariance (referred to as the C-symmetric complete impulse approximation). We find that for small pion mass these contributions are significant at all values of the four-momentum transfer Q^{2} but, surprisingly, do not alter the shape obtained from the spectator poles alone.
Biernat, Elmar P.; Gross, Franz; Peña, M. T.; Stadler, Alfred
2015-10-26
The pion form factor is calculated in the framework of the charge-conjugation invariant covariant spectator theory. This formalism is established in Minkowski space, and the calculation is set up in momentum space. In a previous calculation we included only the leading pole coming from the spectator quark (referred to as the relativistic impulse approximation). In this study we also include the contributions from the poles of the quark which interacts with the photon and average over all poles in both the upper and lower half-planes in order to preserve charge conjugation invariance (referred to as the C-symmetric complete impulse approximation).more » We find that for small pion mass these contributions are significant at all values of the four-momentum transfer Q2 but, surprisingly, do not alter the shape obtained from the spectator poles alone.« less
Density-Functional Theory of Thermal Transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eich, F. G.; Principi, A.; di Ventra, M.; Vignale, G.
2014-03-01
We have recently introduced a non-equilibrium density-functional theory of local temperature and associated energy density that is suitable for the study of thermoelectric phenomena from first principles. This theory rests on a local temperature field coupled to the energy-density operator. Here we apply the theory to a simple two-terminal setup, in which the terminals are held at different temperatures. We show that our treatment becomes equivalent to the standard Landauer-Büttiker formulation of thermal transport in the non-interacting limit. We gratefully acknowledge support from DOE under Grant No. DE-FG02-05ER46203 (FGE, AP, GV) and DE-FG02-05ER46204 (MD).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borzou, Ahmad; Lin, Kai; Wang, Anzhong
2012-02-01
In this paper, we study electromeganetic static spacetimes in the nonrelativisitc general covariant theory of the Hořava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity, proposed recently by Hořava and Melby-Thompson, and present all the electric static solutions, which represent the generalization of the Reissner-Nordström solution found in Einstein's general relativity (GR). The global/local structures of spacetimes in the HL theory in general are different from those given in GR, because the dispersion relations of test particles now contain high-order momentum terms, so the speeds of these particles are unbounded in the ultraviolet (UV). As a result, the conception of light-cones defined in GR becomes invalid and test particles do not follow geodesics. To study black holes in the HL theory, we adopt the geometrical optical approximations, and define a horizon as a (two-closed) surface that is free of spacetime singularities and on which massless test particles are infinitely redshifted. With such a definition, we show that some of our solutions give rise to (charged) black holes, although the radii of their horizons in general depend on the energies of the test particles.
Bias Reduction in Quasi-Experiments with Little Selection Theory but Many Covariates
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steiner, Peter M.; Cook, Thomas D.; Li, Wei; Clark, M. H.
2015-01-01
In observational studies, selection bias will be completely removed only if the selection mechanism is ignorable, namely, all confounders of treatment selection and potential outcomes are reliably measured. Ideally, well-grounded substantive theories about the selection process and outcome-generating model are used to generate the sample of…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Subramaniam, Shankar; Sun, Bo
2015-11-01
The presence of solid particles in a steady laminar flow generates velocity fluctuations with respect to the mean fluid velocity that are termed pseudo-turbulence. The level of these pseudo-turbulent velocity fluctuations has been characterized in statistically homogeneous fixed particle assemblies and freely evolving suspensions using particle-resolved direct numerical simulation (PR-DNS) by Mehrabadi et al. (JFM, 2015), and it is found to be a significant contribution to the total kinetic energy associated with the flow. The correlation of these velocity fluctuations with temperature (or a passive scalar) generates a flux term that appears in the transport equation for the average fluid temperature (or average scalar concentration). The magnitude of this transport of temperature-velocity covariance is quantified using PR-DNS of thermally fully developed flow past a statistically homogeneous fixed assembly of particles, and the budget of the average fluid temperature equation is presented. The relation of this transport term to the axial dispersion coefficient (Brenner, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A, 1980) is established. The simulation results are then interpreted in the context of our understanding of axial dispersion in gas-solid flow. NSF CBET 1336941.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, De-Liang; Siemens, D.; Bernard, V.; Epelbaum, E.; Gasparyan, A. M.; Gegelia, J.; Krebs, H.; Meißner, Ulf-G.
2016-05-01
We present the results of a third order calculation of the pion-nucleon scattering amplitude in a chiral effective field theory with pions, nucleons and delta resonances as explicit degrees of freedom. We work in a manifestly Lorentz invariant formulation of baryon chiral perturbation theory using dimensional regularization and the extended on-mass-shell renormalization scheme. In the delta resonance sector, the on mass-shell renormalization is realized as a complex-mass scheme. By fitting the low-energy constants of the effective Lagrangian to the S- and P -partial waves a satisfactory description of the phase shifts from the analysis of the Roy-Steiner equations is obtained. We predict the phase shifts for the D and F waves and compare them with the results of the analysis of the George Washington University group. The threshold parameters are calculated both in the delta-less and delta-full cases. Based on the determined low-energy constants, we discuss the pion-nucleon sigma term. Additionally, in order to determine the strangeness content of the nucleon, we calculate the octet baryon masses in the presence of decuplet resonances up to next-to-next-to-leading order in SU(3) baryon chiral perturbation theory. The octet baryon sigma terms are predicted as a byproduct of this calculation.
Verification of TEMPEST with neoclassical transport theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Z.; Cohen, B. I.; Cohen, R. H.; Dorr, M.; Hittinger, J.; Kerbel, G.; Nevins, W. M.; Rognlien, T.; Umansky, M.; Xu, X.
2006-10-01
TEMPEST is an edge gyro-kinetic continuum code developed to study boundary plasma transport over the region extending from the H-mode pedestal across the separatrix to the divertor plates. For benchmark purposes, we present results from the 4D (2r,2v) TEMPEST for both steady-state transport and time-dependent Geodesic Acoustic Modes (GAMs). We focus on an annular region inside the separatrix of a circular cross-section tokamak where analytical and numerical results are available. The parallel flow velocity and radial particle flux are obtained for different collisional regimes and compared with previous neoclassical results. The effect of radial electric field and the transition to steep edge gradients is emphasized. The dynamical response of GAMs is also shown and compared to recent theory.
Topics in Covariant Closed String Field Theory and Two-Dimensional Quantum Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saadi, Maha
1991-01-01
The closed string field theory based on the Witten vertex is found to be nonpolynomial in order to reproduce all tree amplitudes correctly. The interactions have a geometrical pattern of overlaps, which can be thought as the edges of a spherical polyhedron with face-perimeters equal to 2pi. At each vertex of the polyhedron there are three faces, thus all elementary interactions are cubic in the sense that at most three strings can coincide at a point. The quantum action is constructed by substracting counterterms which cancel the overcounting of moduli space, and by adding loop vertices in such a way no possible surfaces are missed. A counterterm that gives the correct one-string one-loop amplitude is formulated. The lowest order loop vertices are analyzed in the cases of genus one and two. Also, a one-loop two -string counterterm that restores BRST invariance to the respective scattering amplitude is constructed. An attempt to understand the formulation of two -dimensional pure gravity from the discrete representation of a two-dimensional surface is made. This is considered as a toy model of string theory. A well-defined mathematical model is used. Its continuum limit cannot be naively interpreted as pure gravity because each term of the sum over surfaces is not positive definite. The model, however, could be considered as an analytic continuation of the standard matrix model formulation of gravity. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.).
Experimental Test of Resonant Particle Transport Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eggleston, D. L.
1999-11-01
It has long been suggested that the single-particle resonant transport theory developed for tandem mirrors might be able to explain asymmetry-induced transport in Malmberg-Penning traps.(C.F. Driscoll and J.H. Malmberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50), 167 (1983). We have recently adapted this theory to non-neutral plasmas(D.L. Eggleston and T.M. O'Neil, Phys. Plasmas 6), 2699 (1999). and are attempting an experimental test under the simplest possible conditions. The experiment(D.L. Eggleston, Phys. Plasmas 4), 1196 (1997). employs forty wall sectors in order to apply an asymmetry consisting of a single Fourier mode: φ1 =φ _nlωexp [ i( fracnπ Lz+lθ -ω t) ] . The electron density is kept low enough to avoid complications due to collective effects (shielding and waves) while the usual azimuthal E× B drift is maintained by a negatively biased central wire. We have confirmed the dominant role played by resonant particlesfootnote D.L. Eggleston, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 43, 1805 (1998). and here report on an absolute comparison between experimental and theoretical values for the radial particle flux. Interestingly, our initial results indicate that the experimental flux is forty times smaller than the theoretical value.
Franz Gross; Alfred Stadler
2008-02-11
Using the covariant spectator theory (CST), we present two one boson exchange kernels that have been successfully adjusted to fit the 2007 world $np$ data (containing 3788 data) below 350 MeV. One model (which we designate WJC-1) has 27 parameters and fits with a chi2/N = 1.06. The other model (designated WJC-2) has only 15 parameters and fits with a chi2/N = 1.12. Both of these models also reproduce the experimental triton binding energy without introducing additional irreducible three-nucleon forces. One result of this work is a new phase shift analysis, updated for all data until 2006, which is useful even if one does not work within the CST. In carrying out these fits we have reviewed the entire data base, adding new data not previously used in other high precision fits and restoring some data omitted in previous fits. A full discussion and evaluation of the 2007 data base is presented.
Litvinova, E. V.; Afanasjev, A. V.
2011-07-15
The impact of particle-vibration coupling and polarization effects due to deformation and time-odd mean fields on single-particle spectra is studied systematically in doubly magic nuclei from low-mass {sup 56}Ni up to superheavy ones. Particle-vibration coupling is treated fully self-consistently within the framework of the relativistic particle-vibration coupling model. Polarization effects due to deformation and time-odd mean field induced by odd particle are computed within covariant density functional theory. It has been found that among these contributions the coupling to vibrations makes a major impact on the single-particle structure. The impact of particle-vibration coupling and polarization effects on calculated single-particle spectra, the size of the shell gaps, the spin-orbit splittings and the energy splittings in pseudospin doublets is discussed in detail; these physical observables are compared with experiment. Particle-vibration coupling has to be taken into account when model calculations are compared with experiment since this coupling is responsible for observed fragmentation of experimental levels; experimental spectroscopic factors are reasonably well described in model calculations.
Scaling theory for anomalous semiclassical quantum transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sena-Junior, M. I.; Macêdo, A. M. S.
2016-01-01
Quantum transport through devices coupled to electron reservoirs can be described in terms of the full counting statistics (FCS) of charge transfer. Transport observables, such as conductance and shot-noise power are just cumulants of FCS and can be obtained from the sample's average density of transmission eigenvalues, which in turn can be obtained from a finite element representation of the saddle-point equation of the Keldysh (or supersymmetric) nonlinear sigma model, known as quantum circuit theory. Normal universal metallic behavior in the semiclassical regime is controlled by the presence of a Fabry-Pérot singularity in the average density of transmission eigenvalues. We present general conditions for the suppression of Fabry-Pérot modes in the semiclassical regime in a sample of arbitrary shape, a disordered conductor or a network of ballistic quantum dots, which leads to an anomalous metallic phase. Through a double-scaling limit, we derive a scaling equation for anomalous metallic transport, in the form of a nonlinear differential equation, which generalizes the ballistic-diffusive scaling equation of a normal metal. The two-parameter stationary solution of our scaling equation generalizes Dorokhov's universal single-parameter distribution of transmission eigenvalues. We provide a simple interpretation of the stationary solution using a thermodynamic analogy with a spin-glass system. As an application, we consider a system formed by a diffusive wire coupled via a barrier to normal-superconductor reservoirs. We observe anomalous reflectionless tunneling, when all perfectly transmitting channels are suppressed, which cannot be explained by the usual mechanism of disorder-induced opening of tunneling channels.
Effective equilibrium theory of nonequilibrium quantum transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutt, Prasenjit; Koch, Jens; Han, Jong; Le Hur, Karyn
2011-12-01
The theoretical description of strongly correlated quantum systems out of equilibrium presents several challenges and a number of open questions persist. Here, we focus on nonlinear electronic transport through an interacting quantum dot maintained at finite bias using a concept introduced by Hershfield [S. Hershfield, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70 2134 (1993)] whereby one can express such nonequilibrium quantum impurity models in terms of the system's Lippmann-Schwinger operators. These scattering operators allow one to reformulate the nonequilibrium problem as an effective equilibrium problem associated with a modified Hamiltonian. In this paper, we provide a pedagogical analysis of the core concepts of the effective equilibrium theory. First, we demonstrate the equivalence between observables computed using the Schwinger-Keldysh framework and the effective equilibrium approach, and relate Green's functions in the two theoretical frameworks. Second, we expound some applications of this method in the context of interacting quantum impurity models. We introduce a novel framework to treat effects of interactions perturbatively while capturing the entire dependence on the bias voltage. For the sake of concreteness, we employ the Anderson model as a prototype for this scheme. Working at the particle-hole symmetric point, we investigate the fate of the Abrikosov-Suhl resonance as a function of bias voltage and magnetic field.
Plasma transport theory spanning weak to strong coupling
Daligault, Jérôme; Baalrud, Scott D.
2015-06-29
We describe some of the most striking characteristics of particle transport in strongly coupled plasmas across a wide range of Coulomb coupling strength. We then discuss the effective potential theory, which is an approximation that was recently developed to extend conventional weakly coupled plasma transport theory into the strongly coupled regime in a manner that is practical to evaluate efficiently.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhaunerchyk, V.; Frasinski, L. J.; Eland, J. H. D.; Feifel, R.
2014-05-01
Multidimensional covariance analysis and its validity for correlation of processes leading to multiple products are investigated from a theoretical point of view. The need to correct for false correlations induced by experimental parameters which fluctuate from shot to shot, such as the intensity of self-amplified spontaneous emission x-ray free-electron laser pulses, is emphasized. Threefold covariance analysis based on simple extension of the two-variable formulation is shown to be valid for variables exhibiting Poisson statistics. In this case, false correlations arising from fluctuations in an unstable experimental parameter that scale linearly with signals can be eliminated by threefold partial covariance analysis, as defined here. Fourfold covariance based on the same simple extension is found to be invalid in general. Where fluctuations in an unstable parameter induce nonlinear signal variations, a technique of contingent covariance analysis is proposed here to suppress false correlations. In this paper we also show a method to eliminate false correlations associated with fluctuations of several unstable experimental parameters.
General theory of Taylor dispersion phenomena. Part 3. Surface transport
Dill, L.H.; Brenner, H.
1982-01-01
An asymptotic theory of Brownian tracer particle transport phenomena within a bulk fluid, as augmented by surface transport, is presented in the context of generalized Taylor dispersion theory. The analysis expands upon prior work, which was limited to transport wholly within a continuous phase, so as to now include surface adsorption, diffusion, and convection of the tracer along a continuous surface bounding the continuous fluid phase.
Some Remarks on GMRES for Transport Theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patton, Bruce W.; Holloway, James Paul
2003-01-01
We review some work on the application of GMRES to the solution of the discrete ordinates transport equation in one-dimension. We note that GMRES can be applied directly to the angular flux vector, or it can be applied to only a vector of flux moments as needed to compute the scattering operator of the transport equation. In the former case we illustrate both the delights and defects of ILU right-preconditioners for problems with anisotropic scatter and for problems with upscatter. When working with flux moments we note that GMRES can be used as an accelerator for any existing transport code whose solver is based on a stationary fixed-point iteration, including transport sweeps and DSA transport sweeps. We also provide some numerical illustrations of this idea. We finally show how space can be traded for speed by taking multiple transport sweeps per GMRES iteration. Key Words: transport equation, GMRES, Krylov subspace
Transportation Optimization with Fuzzy Trapezoidal Numbers Based on Possibility Theory
He, Dayi; Li, Ran; Huang, Qi; Lei, Ping
2014-01-01
In this paper, a parametric method is introduced to solve fuzzy transportation problem. Considering that parameters of transportation problem have uncertainties, this paper develops a generalized fuzzy transportation problem with fuzzy supply, demand and cost. For simplicity, these parameters are assumed to be fuzzy trapezoidal numbers. Based on possibility theory and consistent with decision-makers' subjectiveness and practical requirements, the fuzzy transportation problem is transformed to a crisp linear transportation problem by defuzzifying fuzzy constraints and objectives with application of fractile and modality approach. Finally, a numerical example is provided to exemplify the application of fuzzy transportation programming and to verify the validity of the proposed methods. PMID:25137239
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourget, Antoine; Troost, Jan
2016-03-01
We construct a covariant generating function for the spectrum of chiral primaries of symmetric orbifold conformal field theories with N = (4 , 4) supersymmetry in two dimensions. For seed target spaces K3 and T 4, the generating functions capture the SO(21) and SO(5) representation theoretic content of the chiral ring respectively. Via string dualities, we relate the transformation properties of the chiral ring under these isometries of the moduli space to the Lorentz covariance of perturbative string partition functions in flat space.
Theory of photoelectron production, transport and energy loss
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nagy, A. F.
1974-01-01
Current understanding of the theory of ionospheric photoelectron production, transport and energy loss is summarized. The various approaches used in the theoretical calculations of photoelectron fluxes appear to be self consistent and sound; improved values for a number of input parameters are needed now in order to achieve significant improvements and more confidence in the results. The major remaining problem in the present day theory of photoelectron transport and energy loss is centered around the calculations of photoelectron transit through the protonosphere.
Unified theory of ripple transport in stellarators
Beidler, C.D.; Hitchon, W.N.G.; van Rij, W.I.; Hirshman, S.P.; Shohet, J.L.
1987-04-27
The distribution function for ripple-trapped particles has been found in a series form valid for all low collision frequencies, for standard and transport-optimized stellarators. The diffusion coefficient obtained with this distribution function shows excellent agreement with the results of Monte Carlo and Fokker-Planck computer codes, in the cases studied.
Transport in Chern-Simons-matter theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gur-Ari, Guy; Hartnoll, Sean; Mahajan, Raghu
2016-07-01
The frequency-dependent longitudinal and Hall conductivities — σ xx and σ xy — are dimensionless functions of ω/T in 2+1 dimensional CFTs at nonzero temperature. These functions characterize the spectrum of charged excitations of the theory and are basic experimental observables. We compute these conductivities for large N Chern-Simons theory with fermion matter. The computation is exact in the 't Hooft coupling λ at N = ∞. We describe various physical features of the conductivity, including an explicit relation between the weight of the delta function at ω = 0 in σ xx and the existence of infinitely many higher spin conserved currents in the theory. We also compute the conductivities perturbatively in Chern-Simons theory with scalar matter and show that the resulting functions of ω/T agree with the strong coupling fermionic result. This provides a new test of the conjectured 3d bosonization duality. In matching the Hall conductivities we resolve an outstanding puzzle by carefully treating an extra anomaly that arises in the regularization scheme used.
Relativistic transport theory for cosmic-rays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Webb, G. M.
1985-01-01
Various aspects of the transport of cosmic-rays in a relativistically moving magnetized plasma supporting a spectrum of hydromagnetic waves that scatter the cosmic-rays are presented. A local Lorentz frame moving with the waves or turbulence scattering the cosmic-rays is used to specify the individual particle momentum. The comoving frame is in general a noninertial frame in which the observer's volume element is expanding and shearing, geometric energy change terms appear in the cosmic-ray transport equation which consist of the relativistic generalization of the adiabatic deceleration term and a further term involving the acceleration vector of the scatterers. A relativistic version of the pitch angle evolution equation, including the effects of adiabatic focussing, pitch angle scattering, and energy changes is presented.
Faizal, Mir; Higuchi, Atsushi
2008-09-15
The propagators of the Faddeev-Popov (FP) ghosts for Yang-Mills theories and perturbative quantum gravity in the covariant gauge are infrared (IR) divergent in de Sitter spacetime. We point out, however, that the modes responsible for these divergences will not contribute to loop diagrams in computations of time-ordered products in either Yang-Mills theories or perturbative quantum gravity. Therefore, we propose that the IR-divergent FP-ghost propagator should be regularized by a small mass term that is sent to zero in the end of any perturbative calculations. This proposal is equivalent to using the effective FP-ghost propagators, which we present in an explicit form, obtained by removing the modes responsible for the IR divergences. We also make some comments on the corresponding propagators in anti-de Sitter spacetime.
Modeling of Active Transmembrane Transport in a Mixture Theory Framework
Ateshian, Gerard A.; Morrison, Barclay; Hung, Clark T.
2010-01-01
This study formulates governing equations for active transport across semi-permeable membranes within the framework of the theory of mixtures. In mixture theory, which models the interactions of any number of fluid and solid constituents, a supply term appears in the conservation of linear momentum to describe momentum exchanges among the constituents. In past applications, this momentum supply was used to model frictional interactions only, thereby describing passive transport processes. In this study, it is shown that active transport processes, which impart momentum to solutes or solvent, may also be incorporated in this term. By projecting the equation of conservation of linear momentum along the normal to the membrane, a jump condition is formulated for the mechano-electrochemical potential of fluid constituents which is generally applicable to nonequilibrium processes involving active transport. The resulting relations are simple and easy to use, and address an important need in the membrane transport literature. PMID:20213212
MSTS - Multiphase Subsurface Transport Simulator theory manual
White, M.D.; Nichols, W.E.
1993-05-01
The US Department of Energy, through the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office, has designated the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada for detailed study as the candidate US geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Site characterization will determine the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for the potential waste repository. If the site is determined suitable, subsequent studies and characterization will be conducted to obtain authorization from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to construct the potential waste repository. A principal component of the characterization and licensing processes involves numerically predicting the thermal and hydrologic response of the subsurface environment of the Yucca Mountain site to the potential repository over a 10,000-year period. The thermal and hydrologic response of the subsurface environment to the repository is anticipated to include complex processes of countercurrent vapor and liquid migration, multiple-phase heat transfer, multiple-phase transport, and geochemical reactions. Numerical simulators based on mathematical descriptions of these subsurface phenomena are required to make numerical predictions of the thermal and hydrologic response of the Yucca Mountain subsurface environment The engineering simulator called the Multiphase Subsurface Transport Simulator (MSTS) was developed at the request of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office to produce numerical predictions of subsurface flow and transport phenomena at the potential Yucca Mountain site. This document delineates the design architecture and describes the specific computational algorithms that compose MSTS. Details for using MSTS and sample problems are given in the {open_quotes}User`s Guide and Reference{close_quotes} companion document.
Optimal-transport formulation of electronic density-functional theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buttazzo, Giuseppe; De Pascale, Luigi; Gori-Giorgi, Paola
2012-06-01
The most challenging scenario for Kohn-Sham density-functional theory, that is, when the electrons move relatively slowly trying to avoid each other as much as possible because of their repulsion (strong-interaction limit), is reformulated here as an optimal transport (or mass transportation theory) problem, a well-established field of mathematics and economics. In practice, we show that to solve the problem of finding the minimum possible internal repulsion energy for N electrons in a given density ρ(r) is equivalent to find the optimal way of transporting N-1 times the density ρ into itself, with the cost function given by the Coulomb repulsion. We use this link to set the strong-interaction limit of density-functional theory on firm ground and to discuss the potential practical aspects of this reformulation.
Multi-phase reactive transport theory
Lichtner, P.C.
1995-07-01
Physicochemical processes in the near-field region of a high-level waste repository may involve a diverse set of phenomena including flow of liquid and gas, gaseous diffusion, and chemical reaction of the host rock with aqueous solutions at elevated temperatures. This report develops some of the formalism for describing simultaneous multicomponent solute and heat transport in a two-phase system for partially saturated porous media. Diffusion of gaseous species is described using the Dusty Gas Model which provides for simultaneous Knudsen and Fickian diffusion in addition to Darcy flow. A new form of the Dusty Gas Model equations is derived for binary diffusion which separates the total diffusive flux into segregative and nonsegregative components. Migration of a wetting front is analyzed using the quasi-stationary state approximation to the Richards` equation. Heat-pipe phenomena are investigated for both gravity- and capillary-driven reflux of liquid water. An expression for the burnout permeability is derived for a gravity-driven heat-pipe. Finally an estimate is given for the change in porosity and permeability due to mineral dissolution which could occur in the region of condensate formation in a heat-pipe.
Density Functional Theory with Dissipation: Transport through Single Molecules
Kieron Burke
2012-04-30
A huge amount of fundamental research was performed on this grant. Most of it focussed on fundamental issues of electronic structure calculations of transport through single molecules, using density functional theory. Achievements were: (1) First density functional theory with dissipation; (2) Pseudopotential plane wave calculations with master equation; (3) Weak bias limit; (4) Long-chain conductance; and (5) Self-interaction effects in tunneling.
Adjoint Function: Physical Basis of Variational & Perturbation Theory in Transport
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2009-07-27
Version 00 Dr. J.D. Lewins has now released the following legacy book for free distribution: Importance: The Adjoint Function: The Physical Basis of Variational and Perturbation Theory in Transport and Diffusion Problems, North-Holland Publishing Company - Amsterdam, 582 pages, 1966 Introduction: Continuous Systems and the Variational Principle 1. The Fundamental Variational Principle 2. The Importance Function 3. Adjoint Equations 4. Variational Methods 5. Perturbation and Iterative Methods 6. Non-Linear Theory
Treatment of uncertainty in study of transportation: Fuzzy set theory and evidence theory
Kikuchi, Shinya; Pursula, M.
1998-01-01
This paper examines the nature of uncertainty present in transport planning and explores appropriate mathematical treatment. Two types of uncertainty are dealt with: vagueness and ambiguity. The former refers to the uncertainty caused by the lack of definition of words, and the latter refers to the uncertainty caused by the lack of information about the subject matter. The mathematical framework that can deal with vagueness is fuzzy set theory, and that for ambiguity is evidence theory. Differences in the nature of problems that these two types of uncertainty present are examined. How to apply the appropriate mathematical technique to model these types of uncertainty is discussed, along with the basic properties of fuzzy set theory and evidence theory. Domains of transport problems that are conducive to these theories are explained, and the issues that need to be examined when using these theories are discussed.
Revisiting Feynman's ratchet with thermoelectric transport theory.
Apertet, Y; Ouerdane, H; Goupil, C; Lecoeur, Ph
2014-07-01
We show how the formalism used for thermoelectric transport may be adapted to Smoluchowski's seminal thought experiment, also known as Feynman's ratchet and pawl system. Our analysis rests on the notion of useful flux, which for a thermoelectric system is the electrical current and for Feynman's ratchet is the effective jump frequency. Our approach yields original insight into the derivation and analysis of the system's properties. In particular we define an entropy per tooth in analogy with the entropy per carrier or Seebeck coefficient, and we derive the analog to Kelvin's second relation for Feynman's ratchet. Owing to the formal similarity between the heat fluxes balance equations for a thermoelectric generator (TEG) and those for Feynman's ratchet, we introduce a distribution parameter γ that quantifies the amount of heat that flows through the cold and hot sides of both heat engines. While it is well established that γ = 1/2 for a TEG, it is equal to 1 for Feynman's ratchet. This implies that no heat may be rejected in the cold reservoir for the latter case. Further, the analysis of the efficiency at maximum power shows that the so-called Feynman efficiency corresponds to that of an exoreversible engine, with γ = 1. Then, turning to the nonlinear regime, we generalize the approach based on the convection picture and introduce two different types of resistance to distinguish the dynamical behavior of the considered system from its ability to dissipate energy. We finally put forth the strong similarity between the original Feynman ratchet and a mesoscopic thermoelectric generator with a single conducting channel. PMID:25122257
A theory of non-local linear drift wave transport
Moradi, S.; Anderson, J.; Weyssow, B.
2011-06-15
Transport events in turbulent tokamak plasmas often exhibit non-local or non-diffusive action at a distance features that so far have eluded a conclusive theoretical description. In this paper a theory of non-local transport is investigated through a Fokker-Planck equation with fractional velocity derivatives. A dispersion relation for density gradient driven linear drift modes is derived including the effects of the fractional velocity derivative in the Fokker-Planck equation. It is found that a small deviation (a few percent) from the Maxwellian distribution function alters the dispersion relation such that the growth rates are substantially increased and thereby may cause enhanced levels of transport.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, J. M.; Song, L. S.; Hagino, K.; Ring, P.; Meng, J.
2015-02-01
We report a systematic study of nuclear matrix elements (NMEs) in neutrinoless double-β decays with a state-of-the-art beyond-mean-field covariant density functional theory. The dynamic effects of particle-number and angular-momentum conservations as well as quadrupole shape fluctuations are taken into account with projections and generator coordinate method for both initial and final nuclei. The full relativistic transition operator is adopted to calculate the NMEs. The present systematic studies show that in most of the cases there is a much better agreement with the previous nonrelativistic calculation based on the Gogny force than in the case of the nucleus 150Nd found by Song et al. [Phys. Rev. C 90, 054309 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevC.90.054309]. In particular, we find that the total NMEs can be well approximated by the pure axial-vector coupling term with a considerable reduction of the computational effort.
Chiral symmetry and $\pi $-$\pi $ scattering in the Covariant Spectator Theory
Biernat, Elmar P.; Peña, M. T.; Ribeiro, J. E.; Stadler, Alfred; Gross, Franz
2014-11-14
The π-π scattering amplitude calculated with a model for the quark-antiquark interaction in the framework of the Covariant Spectator Theory (CST) is shown to satisfy the Adler zero constraint imposed by chiral symmetry. The CST formalism is established in Minkowski space and our calculations are performed in momentum space. We prove that the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is satisfied by our model. Then we show that, similarly to what happens within the Bethe-Salpeter formalism, application of the axial-vector Ward Takahashi identity to the CST π-π scattering amplitude allows us to sum the intermediate quark-quark interactions to all orders. Thus, the Adler self-consistency zero for π-π scattering in the chiral limit emerges as the result for this sum.
Transport theory for the Lennard-Jones dense fluid
Karkheck, J.; Stell, G.; Xu, J.
1988-11-01
A kinetic theory for a fluid of particles interacting via a pair potential with hard-core plus truncated tail is described and used to derive a transport theory for the Lennard-Jones fluid as well as the square-well fluid. Numerical results for shear viscosity, thermal conductivity, and the self-diffusion coefficient are given for the Lennard-Jones fluid and compared with simulation and experimental results. Our Lennard-Jones theory proves quantitatively useful over a wide range of states.
Linear kinetic theory and particle transport in stochastic mixtures
Pomraning, G.C.
1995-12-31
We consider the formulation of linear transport and kinetic theory describing energy and particle flow in a random mixture of two or more immiscible materials. Following an introduction, we summarize early and fundamental work in this area, and we conclude with a brief discussion of recent results.
THE LARGE ASPECT RATIO LIMIT OF NEOCLASSICAL TRANSPORT THEORY
WONG,SK; CHAN,VS
2002-11-01
OAK B202 THE LARGE ASPECT RATIO LIMIT OF NEOCLASSICAL TRANSPORT THEORY. This article presents a comprehensive description of neoclassical transport theory in the banana regime for large aspect ratio flux surfaces of arbitrary shapes. The method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to obtain analytical solutions for plasma distribution functions and to compute transport coefficients. The method provides justification for retaining only the part of the Fokker-Planck operator that involves the second derivative with respect to the cosine of the pitch angle for the trapped and barely circulating particles. It leads to a simple equation for the freely circulating particles with boundary conditions that embody a discontinuity separating particles moving in opposite directions. Corrections to the transport coefficients are obtained by generalizing an existing boundary layer analysis. The system of moment and field equations is consistently taken in the cylinder limit, which facilitates discussion of the treatment of dynamical constraints. it is shown that the nonlocal nature of Ohm's law in neoclassical theory renders the mathematical problem of plasma transport with changing flux surfaces nonstandard.
Kinetic theory of nonlinear transport phenomena in complex plasmas
Mishra, S. K.; Sodha, M. S.
2013-03-15
In contrast to the prevalent use of the phenomenological theory of transport phenomena, a number of transport properties of complex plasmas have been evaluated by using appropriate expressions, available from the kinetic theory, which are based on Boltzmann's transfer equation; in particular, the energy dependence of the electron collision frequency has been taken into account. Following the recent trend, the number and energy balance of all the constituents of the complex plasma and the charge balance on the particles is accounted for; the Ohmic loss has also been included in the energy balance of the electrons. The charging kinetics for the complex plasma comprising of uniformly dispersed dust particles, characterized by (i) uniform size and (ii) the Mathis, Rumpl, and Nordsieck power law of size distribution has been developed. Using appropriate expressions for the transport parameters based on the kinetic theory, the system of equations has been solved to investigate the parametric dependence of the complex plasma transport properties on the applied electric field and other plasma parameters; the results are graphically illustrated.
Deriving Kubelka-Munk theory from radiative transport.
Sandoval, Christopher; Kim, Arnold D
2014-03-01
We derive Kubelka-Munk (KM) theory systematically from the radiative transport equation (RTE) by analyzing the system of equations resulting from applying the double spherical harmonics method of order one and transforming that system into one governing the positive- and negative-going fluxes. Through this derivation, we establish the theoretical basis of KM theory, identify all parameters, and determine its range of validity. Moreover, we are able to generalize KM theory to take into account general boundary sources and nonhomogeneous terms, for example. The generalized Kubelka-Munk (gKM) equations are also much more accurate at approximating the solution of the RTE. We validate this theory through comparison with numerical solutions of the RTE. PMID:24690662
Current Issues in Electron and Positron Transport Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robson, Robert
2007-10-01
In this paper we review the current status of transport theory for low energy electrons or positrons in gases, in the context of both kinetic theory and fluid modelling. In particular, we focus on the following issues: (i) Muliterm vs two-term representation of the velocity distribution function in solution of Boltzmann's equation; (ii) the effect of non-conservative collisions (attachment, ionization, positron annihilation) on transport properties; (iii) the enduring electron- hydrogen vibrational cross section controversy and possible implications for the Boltzmann equation itself; (iv) closure of the fluid equations and the heat flux ansatz; and (v) correct use of swarm transport coefficients in fluid modelling of low temperature plasmas. Both hydrodynamic and non-hydrodynamic examples will be given, with attention focussed on the Franck-Hertz experiment, particularly the ``window'' of fields in which oscillations of transport properties are produced, and the way in which electric and magnetic fields combine to affect transport properties. In collaboration with co-authors Z. LJ. Petrovi'c, Institute of Physics Belgrade, and R.D. White, James Cook University.
Analysis of the theory of high energy ion transport
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, J. W.
1977-01-01
Procedures for the approximation of the transport of high-energy ions are discussed on the basis of available data on ion nuclear reactions. A straightahead approximation appears appropriate for space applications. The assumption that the secondary-ion-fragment velocity is equal to that of the fragmenting nucleus is inferior to straightahead theory but is of sufficient accuracy if the primary ions display a broad energy spectrum. An iterative scheme for the solution of the inhomogenous integral transport equations holds promise for practical calculation. A model calculation shows that multiple charged ion fragments penetrate to greater depths in comparison with the free path of a primary heavy ion.
Deffayet, C.; Esposito-Farese, G.; Vikman, A.
2009-04-15
We consider the recently introduced 'Galileon' field in a dynamical spacetime. When the Galileon is assumed to be minimally coupled to the metric, we underline that both field equations of the Galileon and the metric involve up to third-order derivatives. We show that a unique nonminimal coupling of the Galileon to curvature eliminates all higher derivatives in all field equations, hence yielding second-order equations, without any extra propagating degree of freedom. The resulting theory breaks the generalized 'Galilean' invariance of the original model.
Huang Yongqing; Wang Anzhong
2011-05-15
In this paper, we investigate three important issues: stability, ghost, and strong coupling, in the Horava-Melby-Thompson setup of the Horava-Lifshitz theory with {lambda}{ne}1, generalized recently by da Silva. We first develop the general linear scalar perturbations of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe with arbitrary spatial curvature and find that an immediate by-product of the setup is that, in all the inflationary models described by a scalar field, the FRW universe is necessarily flat. Applying them to the case of the Minkowski background, we find that it is stable, and, similar to the case {lambda}=1, the spin-0 graviton is eliminated. The vector perturbations vanish identically in the Minkowski background. Thus, similar to general relativity, a free gravitational field in this setup is completely described by a spin-2 massless graviton, even with {lambda}{ne}1. We also study the ghost problem in the FRW background and find explicitly the ghost-free conditions. To study the strong coupling problem, we consider two different kinds of spacetimes, all with the presence of matter: one is cosmological, and the other is static. We find that the coupling becomes strong for a process with energy higher than M{sub pl}|c{sub {psi}|}{sup 5/2} in the flat FRW background and M{sub pl}|c{sub {psi}|}{sup 3} in a static weak gravitational field, where |c{sub {psi}|{identical_to}}|(1-{lambda})/(3{lambda}-1)|{sup 1/2}.
STOMP, Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases, theory guide
White, M.D.; Oostrom, M.
1996-10-01
This guide describes the simulator`s governing equations, constitutive functions and numerical solution algorithms of the STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) simulator, a scientific tool for analyzing multiple phase subsurface flow and transport. The STOMP simulator`s fundamental purpose is to produce numerical predictions of thermal and hydrologic flow and transport phenomena in variably saturated subsurface environments, which are contaminated with volatile or nonvolatile organic compounds. Auxiliary applications include numerical predictions of solute transport processes including radioactive chain decay processes. In writing these guides for the STOMP simulator, the authors have assumed that the reader comprehends concepts and theories associated with multiple-phase hydrology, heat transfer, thermodynamics, radioactive chain decay, and nonhysteretic relative permeability, saturation-capillary pressure constitutive functions. The authors further assume that the reader is familiar with the computing environment on which they plan to compile and execute the STOMP simulator. The STOMP simulator requires an ANSI FORTRAN 77 compiler to generate an executable code. The memory requirements for executing the simulator are dependent on the complexity of physical system to be modeled and the size and dimensionality of the computational domain. Likewise execution speed depends on the problem complexity, size and dimensionality of the computational domain, and computer performance. One-dimensional problems of moderate complexity can be solved on conventional desktop computers, but multidimensional problems involving complex flow and transport phenomena typically require the power and memory capabilities of workstation or mainframe type computer systems.
Anomalous transport and diffusion versus extreme value theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozłowska, Marzena; Kutner, Ryszard
2005-11-01
In the present work we match the biased hierarchical continuous-time random flight (HCTRF) on a regular lattice (based on hierarchical waiting-time distribution) and the extreme event theory (EVT). This approach extends the understanding of the anomalous transport and diffusion (for example, found in some amorphous, vitreous solids as well as in conducting and light-emitting organic polymers). Both independent approaches were developed in terms of random-trap or valley model where the disorder of energy landscape is exponentially distributed while the corresponding mean residence times in traps obey the power-law. This type of disorder characterizes several amorphous (even used commercially) materials which makes it possible to apply the HCTRF formalism. By using the EVT we additionally show that the rare (stochastic) events are indeed responsible for the transport and diffusion in these materials.
Gyrokinetic theory and simulation of angular momentum transport
Waltz, R. E.; Staebler, G. M.; Candy, J.; Hinton, F. L.
2007-12-15
A gyrokinetic theory of turbulent toroidal angular momentum transport as well as modifications to neoclassical poloidal rotation from turbulence is formulated starting from the fundamental six-dimensional kinetic equation. The gyro-Bohm scaled transport is evaluated from toroidal delta-f gyrokinetic simulations using the GYRO code [Candy and Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)]. The simulations recover two pinch mechanisms in the radial transport of toroidal angular momentum: The slab geometry ExB shear pinch [Dominguez and Staebler, Phys. Fluids B 5, 387 (1993)] and the toroidal geometry 'Coriolis' pinch [Peeters, Angioni, and Strintzi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 265003 (2007)]. The pinches allow the steady state null stress (or angular momentum transport flow) condition required to understand intrinsic (or spontaneous) toroidal rotation in heated tokamak without an internal source of torque [Staebler, Kinsey, and Waltz, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 46, 221 (2001)]. A predicted turbulent shift in the neoclassical poloidal rotation [Staebler, Phys. Plasmas 11, 1064 (2004)] appears to be small at the finite relative gyroradius (rho-star) of current experiments.
Does hindered transport theory apply to desalination membranes?
Dražević, Emil; Košutić, Krešimir; Kolev, Vesselin; Freger, Viatcheslav
2014-10-01
As reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration polyamide membranes become increasingly used for water purification, prediction of pollutant transport is required for membrane development and process engineering. Many popular models use hindered transport theory (HTT), which considers a spherical solute moving through an array of fluid-filled rigid cylindrical pores. Experiments and molecular dynamic simulations, however, reveal that polyamide membranes have a distinctly different structure of a "molecular sponge", a network of randomly connected voids widely distributed in size. In view of this disagreement, this study critically examined the validity of HTT by directly measuring diffusivities of several alcohols within a polyamide film of commercial RO membrane using attenuated total reflection-FTIR. It is found that measured diffusivities deviate from HTT predictions by as much as 2-3 orders of magnitude. This result indicates that HTT does not adequately describe solute transport in desalination membranes. As a more adequate alternative, the concept of random resistor networks is suggested, with resistances described by models of activated transport in "soft" polymers without a sharp size cutoff and with a proper address of solute partitioning. PMID:25137614
Applications of the compensating pressure theory of water transport.
Canny, M
1998-07-01
Some predictions of the recently proposed theory of long-distance water transport in plants (the Compensating Pressure Theory) have been verified experimentally in sunflower leaves. The xylem sap cavitates early in the day under quite small water stress, and the compensating pressure P (applied as the tissue pressure of turgid cells) pushes water into embolized vessels, refilling them during active transpiration. The water potential, as measured by the pressure chamber or psychrometer, is not a measure of the pressure in the xylem, but (as predicted by the theory) a measure of the compensating pressure P. As transpiration increases, P is increased to provide more rapid embolism repair. In many leaf petioles this increase in P is achieved by the hydrolysis of starch in the starch sheath to soluble sugars. At night P falls as starch is reformed. A hypothesis is proposed to explain these observations by pressure-driven reverse osmosis of water from the ground parenchyma of the petiole. Similar processes occur in roots and are manifested as root pressure. The theory requires a pump to transfer water from the soil into the root xylem. A mechanism is proposed by which this pump may function, in which the endodermis acts as a one-way valve and a pressure-confining barrier. Rays and xylem parenchyma of wood act like the xylem parenchyma of petioles and roots to repair embolisms in trees. The postulated root pump permits a re-appraisal of the work done by evaporation during transpiration, leading to the proposal that in tall trees there is no hydrostatic gradient to be overcome in lifting water. Some published observations are re-interpreted in terms of the theory: doubt is cast on the validity of measurements of hydraulic conductance of wood; vulnerability curves are found not to measure the cavitation threshold of water in the xylem, but the osmotic pressure of the xylem parenchyma; if measures of xylem pressure and of hydraulic conductance are both suspect, the accepted
Jones, Jeff A; Waller, Niels G
2015-06-01
Yuan and Chan (Psychometrika, 76, 670-690, 2011) recently showed how to compute the covariance matrix of standardized regression coefficients from covariances. In this paper, we describe a method for computing this covariance matrix from correlations. Next, we describe an asymptotic distribution-free (ADF; Browne in British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 37, 62-83, 1984) method for computing the covariance matrix of standardized regression coefficients. We show that the ADF method works well with nonnormal data in moderate-to-large samples using both simulated and real-data examples. R code (R Development Core Team, 2012) is available from the authors or through the Psychometrika online repository for supplementary materials. PMID:24362970
Quantum energy inequalities and local covariance II: categorical formulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fewster, Christopher J.
2007-11-01
We formulate quantum energy inequalities (QEIs) in the framework of locally covariant quantum field theory developed by Brunetti, Fredenhagen and Verch, which is based on notions taken from category theory. This leads to a new viewpoint on the QEIs, and also to the identification of a new structural property of locally covariant quantum field theory, which we call local physical equivalence. Covariant formulations of the numerical range and spectrum of locally covariant fields are given and investigated, and a new algebra of fields is identified, in which fields are treated independently of their realisation on particular spacetimes and manifestly covariant versions of the functional calculus may be formulated.
Modeling for Convective Heat Transport Based on Mixing Length Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamagishi, Y.; Yanagisawa, T.
2002-12-01
Convection is the most important mechanism for the Earth's internal dynamics, and plays a substantial role on its evolution. On investigating the thermal history of the Earth, convective heat transport should be taken into account. However, it is difficult to treat full convective flow throughout the Earth's entire history. Therefore, the parameterized convection has been developed and widely used. Convection occurring in the Earth's interior has some complicated aspects. It has large variation of viscosity, internal heating, phase boundaries, etc. Especially, the viscosity contrast has significant effect on the efficiency of the heat transport of the convection. The parameterized convection treats viscosity variation artificially, so it has many limitations. We developed an alternative method based on the concept of "mixing length theory". We can relate local thermal gradient with local convective velocity of fluid parcel. Convective heat transport is identified with effective thermal diffusivity, and we can calculate horizontally averaged temperature profile and heat flux by solving a thermal conduction problem. On estimating the parcel's velocity, we can include such as the effect of variable viscosity. In this study, we confirm that the temperature profile can be calculated correctly by this method, on comparing the experimental and 2D calculation results. We further show the effect of the viscosity contrast on the thermal structure of the convective fluid, and calculate the relationship between Nusselt number and modified Rayleigh number.
Theory of activated transport in bilayer quantum Hall systems.
Roostaei, B; Mullen, K J; Fertig, H A; Simon, S H
2008-07-25
We analyze the transport properties of bilayer quantum Hall systems at total filling factor nu=1 in drag geometries as a function of interlayer bias, in the limit where the disorder is sufficiently strong to unbind meron-antimeron pairs, the charged topological defects of the system. We compute the typical energy barrier for these objects to cross incompressible regions within the disordered system using a Hartree-Fock approach, and show how this leads to multiple activation energies when the system is biased. We then demonstrate using a bosonic Chern-Simons theory that in drag geometries current in a single layer directly leads to forces on only two of the four types of merons, inducing dissipation only in the drive layer. Dissipation in the drag layer results from interactions among the merons, resulting in very different temperature dependences for the drag and drive layers, in qualitative agreement with experiment. PMID:18764355
Theory of Activated Transport in Bilayer Quantum Hall Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roostaei, Bahman; Fertig, Herbert; Mullen, Kieran; Simon, Steven
2008-03-01
We analyze the transport properties of bilayer quantum Hall systems at total filling factor ν= 1 in drag geometries as a function of interlayer bias, in the limit where the disorder is sufficiently strong to unbind meron-antimeron pairs, the charged topological defects of the system. We compute the typical energy barrier for these objects to cross incompressible regions within the disordered system using a Hartree-Fock approach, and show how this leads to multiple activation energies when the system is biased. We then demonstrate using a bosonic Chern- Simons theory that in drag geometries, current in a single layer directly leads to forces on only two of the four types of merons, inducing dissipation only in the drive layer. Dissipation in the drag layer results from interactions among the merons, resulting in very different temperature dependences for the drag and drive layers, in qualitative agreement with experiment. We conclude with predictions for future experiments.
Theory of Activated Transport in Bilayer Quantum Hall Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roostaei, B.; Mullen, K. J.; Fertig, H. A.; Simon, S. H.
2008-07-01
We analyze the transport properties of bilayer quantum Hall systems at total filling factor ν=1 in drag geometries as a function of interlayer bias, in the limit where the disorder is sufficiently strong to unbind meron-antimeron pairs, the charged topological defects of the system. We compute the typical energy barrier for these objects to cross incompressible regions within the disordered system using a Hartree-Fock approach, and show how this leads to multiple activation energies when the system is biased. We then demonstrate using a bosonic Chern-Simons theory that in drag geometries current in a single layer directly leads to forces on only two of the four types of merons, inducing dissipation only in the drive layer. Dissipation in the drag layer results from interactions among the merons, resulting in very different temperature dependences for the drag and drive layers, in qualitative agreement with experiment.
Phenomenological Spin Transport Theory Driven by Anomalous Nernst Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taniguchi, Tomohiro
2016-07-01
Several experimental efforts such as material investigation and structure improvement have been made recently to find a large anomalous Nernst effect in ferromagnetic metals. Here, we develop a theory of spin transport driven by the anomalous Nernst effect in a diffusive ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic multilayer. Starting from a phenomenological formula of a spin-dependent electric current, the theoretical formulas of electric voltage and spin torque generated by the anomalous Nernst effect are derived. The magnitude of the electric voltage generated from the spin current via the inverse spin Hall effect is on the order of 0.1 µV for currently available experimental parameter values. The temperature gradient necessary to switch the magnetization is quite larger than the typical experimental value. The separation of the contributions of the Seebeck and transverse spin Seebeck effects is also discussed.
Microscopic theory on charge transports of a correlated multiorbital system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arakawa, Naoya
2016-07-01
Current vertex correction (CVC), the backflowlike correction to the current, comes from conservation laws, and the CVC due to electron correlation contains information about many-body effects. However, it has been little understood how the CVC due to electron correlation affects the charge transports of a correlated multiorbital system. To improve this situation, I studied the in-plane resistivity ρa b and the Hall coefficient in the weak-field limit RH, in addition to the magnetic properties and the electronic structure, for a t2 g-orbital Hubbard model on a square lattice in a paramagnetic state away from or near an antiferromagnetic (AF) quantum-critical point (QCP) in the fluctuation-exchange (FLEX) approximation with the CVCs arising from the self-energy (Σ ), the Maki-Thompson (MT) irreducible four-point vertex function, and the main terms of the Aslamasov-Larkin (AL) one. Then, I found three main results about the CVCs. First, the main terms of the AL CVC do not qualitatively change the results obtained in the FLEX approximation with the Σ CVC and the MT CVC. Second, ρa b and RH near the AF QCP have a high-temperature region, governed mainly by the Σ CVC, and a low-temperature region, governed mainly by the Σ CVC and the MT CVC. Third, in case away from the AF QCP, the MT CVC leads to a considerable effect on only RH at low temperatures, although RH at high temperatures and ρa b at all temperatures considered are sufficiently described by including only the Σ CVC. Those findings reveal several aspects of many-body effects on the charge transports of a correlated multiorbital system. I also achieved the qualitative agreement with several experiments of Sr2RuO4 or Sr2Ru0.975Ti0.025O4 . Moreover, I showed several better points of this theory than other theories.
Covariant Perturbation Expansion of Off-Diagonal Heat Kernel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gou, Yu-Zi; Li, Wen-Du; Zhang, Ping; Dai, Wu-Sheng
2016-07-01
Covariant perturbation expansion is an important method in quantum field theory. In this paper an expansion up to arbitrary order for off-diagonal heat kernels in flat space based on the covariant perturbation expansion is given. In literature, only diagonal heat kernels are calculated based on the covariant perturbation expansion.
Density Functional Theory Calculations of Mass Transport in UO2
Andersson, Anders D.; Dorado, Boris; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Stanek, Christopher R.
2012-06-26
In this talk we present results of density functional theory (DFT) calculations of U, O and fission gas diffusion in UO{sub 2}. These processes all impact nuclear fuel performance. For example, the formation and retention of fission gas bubbles induce fuel swelling, which leads to mechanical interaction with the clad thereby increasing the probability for clad breach. Alternatively, fission gas can be released from the fuel to the plenum, which increases the pressure on the clad walls and decreases the gap thermal conductivity. The evolution of fuel microstructure features is strongly coupled to diffusion of U vacancies. Since both U and fission gas transport rates vary strongly with the O stoichiometry, it is also important to understand O diffusion. In order to better understand bulk Xe behavior in UO{sub 2{+-}x} we first calculate the relevant activation energies using DFT techniques. By analyzing a combination of Xe solution thermodynamics, migration barriers and the interaction of dissolved Xe atoms with U, we demonstrate that Xe diffusion predominantly occurs via a vacancy-mediated mechanism. Since Xe transport is closely related to diffusion of U vacancies, we have also studied the activation energy for this process. In order to explain the low value of 2.4 eV found for U migration from independent damage experiments (not thermal equilibrium) the presence of vacancy clusters must be included in the analysis. Next we investigate species transport on the (111) UO{sub 2} surface, which is motivated by the formation of small voids partially filled with fission gas atoms (bubbles) in UO{sub 2} under irradiation. Surface diffusion could be the rate-limiting step for diffusion of such bubbles, which is an alternative mechanism for mass transport in these materials. As expected, the activation energy for surface diffusion is significantly lower than for bulk transport. These results are further discussed in terms of engineering-scale fission gas release models
Cooperative learning of neutron diffusion and transport theories
Robinson, Michael A.
1999-04-30
A cooperative group instructional strategy is being used to teach a unit on neutron transport and diffusion theory in a first-year-graduate level, Reactor Theory course that was formerly presented in the traditional lecture/discussion style. Students are divided into groups of two or three for the duration of the unit. Class meetings are divided into traditional lecture/discussion segments punctuated by cooperative group exercises. The group exercises were designed to require the students to elaborate, summarize, or practice the material presented in the lecture/discussion segments. Both positive interdependence and individual accountability are fostered by adjusting individual grades on the unit exam by a factor dependent upon group achievement. Group collaboration was also encouraged on homework assignments by assigning each group a single grade on each assignment. The results of the unit exam have been above average in the two classes in which the cooperative group method was employed. In particular, the problem solving ability of the students has shown particular improvement. Further,the students felt that the cooperative group format was both more educationally effective and more enjoyable than the lecture/discussion format.
Theory of Transport Phenomena in Coherent Quantum Hall Bilayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacDonald, Allan H.; Chen, Hua; Sodemann, Inti
2015-03-01
We will describe a theory that allows to understand the anomalous transport properties of the excitonic condensate state occurring in quantum quantum Hall bilayers in terms of a picture in which the condensate phase is nearly uniform across the sample, and the strength of condensate coupling to interlayer tunneling processes is substantially reduced compared to the predictions of disorder-free microscopic mean-field theory. These ingredients provide a natural explanation for recently established I-V characteristics which feature a critical current above which the tunneling resistance abruptly increases and a non-local interaction between interlayer tunneling at the inner and outer edges of Corbino rings. We propose a microscopic picture in which disorder is the main agent responsible for the reduction of the effective interlayer tunneling strength. IS is supported by the Pappalardo Fellowship in Physics. HC and AHM are supported by DOE Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering Grant DE-FG03- 02ER45958 and Welch Foundation Grant TBF1473.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hepner, T. E.; Meyers, J. F. (Inventor)
1985-01-01
A laser velocimeter covariance processor which calculates the auto covariance and cross covariance functions for a turbulent flow field based on Poisson sampled measurements in time from a laser velocimeter is described. The device will process a block of data that is up to 4096 data points in length and return a 512 point covariance function with 48-bit resolution along with a 512 point histogram of the interarrival times which is used to normalize the covariance function. The device is designed to interface and be controlled by a minicomputer from which the data is received and the results returned. A typical 4096 point computation takes approximately 1.5 seconds to receive the data, compute the covariance function, and return the results to the computer.
Extended neoclassical transport theory for incompressible tokamak plasmas
Shaing, K.C.
1997-09-01
Conventional neoclassical transport theory is extended to include the effects of orbit squeezing, and to allow the effective poloidal Mach number U{sub pM}=[(V{sub {parallel}}/v{sub t})+(V{sub E}B/v{sub t}B{sub p})] of the order of unity for incompressible tokamak plasmas. Here, V{sub {parallel}} is the parallel mass flow, v{sub t} is the ion thermal speed, V{sub E} is the poloidal {bold E{times}B} drift speed, B is the magnetic field strength, and B{sub p} is the poloidal magnetic field strength. It is found that ion thermal conductivity is reduced from its conventional neoclassical value in both banana and plateau regimes if U{sub pM}{gt}1 and S{gt}1. Here, S=[1+cI{sup 2}{Phi}{sup {prime}{prime}}/({Omega}{sub 0}B{sub 0})] is the orbit squeezing factor with c the speed of light, I=RB{sub t}, R the major radius, {Phi} the electrostatic potential, B{sub 0} the magnetic field strength on the axis, {Omega}{sub 0}=eB{sub 0}/Mc, M the ion mass, e the ion charge, {Phi}{sup {prime}{prime}}=d{sup 2}{Phi}/d{psi}{sup 2}, and {psi} the poloidal flux function. However, there is an irreducible minimum for the ion thermal conductivity in the banana-plateau regime set by the conventional Pfirsch{endash}Schl{umlt u}ter transport. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gunawardana, K. G. S. H.
The rapid development of nanotechnology has enabled the fabrication of structures much smaller than the mean free path of electrons and phonons. In modern electronics, miniaturization is desired to increase the transistor density and the clock speed. Electronic transport on the nanoscale has been studied for over three decades and fascinating quantum effects have been observed. Phonon transport on this scale is of significant interest because of the increased power dissipation in nanoelectronics, which undermines the correct functionality of devices and limits their lifetime. Apart from the effort to minimize heat generation, an efficient heat management scheme is necessary. Historically, thermal transport in bulk materials was described by the Fourier's law, in which the thermal conductivity is an intrinsic property of the material. Later a more descriptive model, the Boltzmann approach for thermal transport, was developed and could explain the thermal conductivity down to a 100 nm length scale at high temperatures. At low temperatures and in structures smaller than roughly 100 nm, thermal transport is described by the fully quantum mechanical Landauer- Butticker formalism. In this context, accurate calculation of phonon transmission probabilities is very important. In this dissertation, I develop a continuum model to calculate phonon transmission probabilities between media, which have high contrast in the elastic properties. In this work, we include an interface transition layer between the two media and look for interface properties that improve thermal transport. Secondly, I develop a new theoretical tool based on the R-Matrix theory to calculate phonon transmission probabilities on the atomic scale. R-matrix theory is a well developed theoretical approach commonly used in nuclear and atomic physics to solve scattering problems. Recently, this approach has been successfully developed to calculate electronic scattering in mesoscopic quantum devices. The key
Low-energy theory of transport in Majorana wire junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zazunov, A.; Egger, R.; Levy Yeyati, A.
2016-07-01
We formulate and apply a low-energy transport theory for hybrid quantum devices containing junctions of topological superconductor (TS) wires and conventional normal (N) or superconducting (S) leads. We model TS wires as spinless p -wave superconductors and derive their boundary Keldysh Green's function, capturing both the Majorana end state and continuum quasiparticle excitations in a unified manner. We also specify this Green's function for a finite-length TS wire. Junctions connecting different parts of the device are described by the standard tunneling Hamiltonian. Using this Hamiltonian approach, one also has the option to include many-body interactions in a systematic manner. For N-TS junctions, we provide the current-voltage (I -V ) characteristics at arbitrary junction transparency and give exact results for the shot-noise power and the excess current. For TS-TS junctions, analytical results for the thermal noise spectrum and for the I -V curve in the high-transparency low-bias regime are presented. For S-TS junctions, we compute the entire I -V curve and clarify the conditions for having a finite Josephson current.
Lie-transform theory of transport in plasma turbulence
Wang, Shaojie
2014-07-15
From the Vlasov equation, a phase-space transport equation is derived by using the Lie-transform approach, and its connection with the quasilinear transport, nonlinear stochastic transport, and fractional transport equations are discussed. The phase-space transport equation indicates a particle redistribution in the real space induced by the inhomogeneity in the energy space distribution and by the correlation between the change of position and the change of energy.
Covariant action for type IIB supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sen, Ashoke
2016-07-01
Taking clues from the recent construction of the covariant action for type II and heterotic string field theories, we construct a manifestly Lorentz covariant action for type IIB supergravity, and discuss its gauge fixing maintaining manifest Lorentz invariance. The action contains a (non-gravitating) free 4-form field besides the usual fields of type IIB supergravity. This free field, being completely decoupled from the interacting sector, has no physical consequence.
Galilean covariant harmonic oscillator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horzela, Andrzej; Kapuscik, Edward
1993-01-01
A Galilean covariant approach to classical mechanics of a single particle is described. Within the proposed formalism, all non-covariant force laws defining acting forces which become to be defined covariantly by some differential equations are rejected. Such an approach leads out of the standard classical mechanics and gives an example of non-Newtonian mechanics. It is shown that the exactly solvable linear system of differential equations defining forces contains the Galilean covariant description of harmonic oscillator as its particular case. Additionally, it is demonstrated that in Galilean covariant classical mechanics the validity of the second Newton law of dynamics implies the Hooke law and vice versa. It is shown that the kinetic and total energies transform differently with respect to the Galilean transformations.
Construction of Covariance Functions with Variable Length Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gaspari, Gregory; Cohn, Stephen E.; Guo, Jing; Pawson, Steven
2005-01-01
This article focuses on construction, directly in physical space, of three-dimensional covariance functions parametrized by a tunable length field, and on an application of this theory to reproduce the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) in the Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 4 (GEOS-4) data assimilation system. These Covariance models are referred to as multi-level or nonseparable, to associate them with the application where a multi-level covariance with a large troposphere to stratosphere length field gradient is used to reproduce the QBO from sparse radiosonde observations in the tropical lower stratosphere. The multi-level covariance functions extend well-known single level covariance functions depending only on a length scale. Generalizations of the first- and third-order autoregressive covariances in three dimensions are given, providing multi-level covariances with zero and three derivatives at zero separation, respectively. Multi-level piecewise rational covariances with two continuous derivatives at zero separation are also provided. Multi-level powerlaw covariances are constructed with continuous derivatives of all orders. Additional multi-level covariance functions are constructed using the Schur product of single and multi-level covariance functions. A multi-level powerlaw covariance used to reproduce the QBO in GEOS-4 is described along with details of the assimilation experiments. The new covariance model is shown to represent the vertical wind shear associated with the QBO much more effectively than in the baseline GEOS-4 system.
On the application of quantum transport theory to electron sources.
Jensen, Kevin L
2003-01-01
Electron sources (e.g., field emitter arrays, wide band-gap (WBG) semiconductor materials and coatings, carbon nanotubes, etc.) seek to exploit ballistic transport within the vacuum after emission from microfabricated structures. Regardless of kind, all sources strive to minimize the barrier to electron emission by engineering material properties (work function/electron affinity) or physical geometry (field enhancement) of the cathode. The unique capabilities of cold cathodes, such as instant ON/OFF performance, high brightness, high current density, large transconductance to capacitance ratio, cold emission, small size and/or low voltage operation characteristics, commend their use in several advanced devices when physical size, weight, power consumption, beam current, and pulse repletion frequency are important, e.g., RF power amplifier such as traveling wave tubes (TWTs) for radar and communications, electrodynamic tethers for satellite deboost/reboost, and electric propulsion systems such as Hall thrusters for small satellites. The theoretical program described herein is directed towards models to evaluate emission current from electron sources (in particular, emission from WBG and Spindt-type field emitter) in order to assess their utility, capabilities and performance characteristics. Modeling efforts particularly include: band bending, non-linear and resonant (Poole-Frenkel) potentials, the extension of one-dimensional theory to multi-dimensional structures, and emission site statistics due to variations in geometry and the presence of adsorbates. Two particular methodologies, namely, the modified Airy approach and metal-semiconductor statistical hyperbolic/ellipsoidal model, are described in detail in their present stage of development. PMID:12535543
Albaalbaki, Bashar; Hill, Reghan J.
2014-01-01
A computational framework is developed for applying interfacial kinetic transport theory to predict water vapour permeability of porous media. Modified conservation equations furnish spatially periodic disturbances from which the average flux and, thus, the effective diffusivity is obtained. The equations are solved exactly for a model porous medium comprising parallel layers of gas and solid with arbitrary solid volume fraction. From the microscale effective diffusivity, a two-point boundary-value problem is solved at the macroscale to furnish the water vapour transport rate in membranes subjected to a finite RH differential. Then, the microscale model is implemented using a computational framework (extended finite-element method) to examine the role of particle size, aspect ratio and positioning for periodic arrays of aligned super-ellipses (model particles that pack with high density). We show that the transverse water vapour permeability can be reduced by an order of magnitude only when fibres with a high-aspect ratio cross section are packed in a periodic staggered configuration. Maximum permeability is achieved at intermediate micro-structural length scales, where gas-phase diffusion is enhanced by surface diffusion, but not limited by interfacial-exchange kinetics. The two-dimensional computations demonstrated here are intended to motivate further efforts to develop efficient computational solutions for realistic three-dimensional microstructures. PMID:24399918
Scale-free transport in fusion plasmas: theory and applications
Sanchez, R.; Mier, J. A.; Garcia, L.; Newman, D. E.; Carreras, B. A.; Leboeuf, J. N.; Decyk, V.
2008-11-01
A novel approach to detect the existence of scale-free transport in turbulent flows, based on the characterization of its Lagrangian characteristics, is presented and applied to two situations relevant for tokamak plasmas. The first one, radial transport in the presence of near-critical turbulence, has been known for quite some time to yield scale-free, superdiffusive transport. We use it to test the method and illustrate its robustness with respect to other approaches. The second situation, radial transport across radially-sheared poloidal zonal flows driven by turbulence via the Reynold stresses, is examined for the first time in this manner. The result is rather surprising and different from the traditionally assumed diffusive behavior. Instead, radial transport behaves instead in a scale-free, subdiffusive manner, which may have implications for the modeling of transport across transport barriers.
Scale-free transport in fusion plasmas: theory and applications
Sanchez, Raul; Mier, Jose Angel; Newman, David E; Carreras, Benjamin A; Garcia, Luis; Leboeuf, Jean-Noel; Decyk, Viktor
2008-01-01
A novel approach to detect the existence of scale-free transport in turbulent flows, based on the characterization of its Lagrangian characteristics, is presented and applied to two situations relevant for tokamak plasmas. The first one, radial transport in the presence of near-critical turbulence, has been known for quite some time to yield scale-free, superdiffusive transport. We use it to test the method and illustrate its robustness with respect to other approaches. The second situation, radial transport across radially-sheared poloidal zonal flows driven by turbulence via the Reynold stresses, is examined for the first time in this manner. The result is rather surprising and different from the traditionally assumed diffusive behavior. Instead, radial transport behaves instead in a scale-free, subdiffusive manner, which may have implications for the modeling of transport across transport barriers.
Ballistic transport in Saturn's rings - an analytic theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lissauer, J. J.
1984-01-01
Ejecta from impacts of micrometeoroids on Saturn's ring particles will, in most cases, remain in orbit about Saturn and eventually be reaccreted by the rings, possibly at a different radial location. The resulting mass transport has been suggested as the cause of some of the features observed in Saturn's rings. Previous attempts to model this transport have used numerical simulations which have not included the effects of the angular momentum transport coincident with mass transport. An analytical model for ballistic mass transport in Saturn's rings is developed. The model includes the effects of angular momentum advection and shows that the net material movement due to angular momentum advection is comparable to that caused by direct ballistic mass transport.
Covariant jump conditions in electromagnetism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itin, Yakov
2012-02-01
A generally covariant four-dimensional representation of Maxwell's electrodynamics in a generic material medium can be achieved straightforwardly in the metric-free formulation of electromagnetism. In this setup, the electromagnetic phenomena are described by two tensor fields, which satisfy Maxwell's equations. A generic tensorial constitutive relation between these fields is an independent ingredient of the theory. By use of different constitutive relations (local and non-local, linear and non-linear, etc.), a wide area of applications can be covered. In the current paper, we present the jump conditions for the fields and for the energy-momentum tensor on an arbitrarily moving surface between two media. From the differential and integral Maxwell equations, we derive the covariant boundary conditions, which are independent of any metric and connection. These conditions include the covariantly defined surface current and are applicable to an arbitrarily moving smooth curved boundary surface. As an application of the presented jump formulas, we derive a Lorentzian type metric as a condition for existence of the wave front in isotropic media. This result holds for ordinary materials as well as for metamaterials with negative material constants.
Covariant mutually unbiased bases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carmeli, Claudio; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro
2016-06-01
The connection between maximal sets of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) in a prime-power dimensional Hilbert space and finite phase-space geometries is well known. In this article, we classify MUBs according to their degree of covariance with respect to the natural symmetries of a finite phase-space, which are the group of its affine symplectic transformations. We prove that there exist maximal sets of MUBs that are covariant with respect to the full group only in odd prime-power dimensional spaces, and in this case, their equivalence class is actually unique. Despite this limitation, we show that in dimension 2r covariance can still be achieved by restricting to proper subgroups of the symplectic group, that constitute the finite analogues of the oscillator group. For these subgroups, we explicitly construct the unitary operators yielding the covariance.
Contaminant Transport in the Unsaturated Zone Theory and Modeling
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Mathematical models are increasingly used to better understand and quantify site-specific subsurface water flow and solute transport processes. This chapter reviews mathematical models for solute transport in predominantly variably-saturated media. After a brief description of the physics and mathe...
Transport in weak dynamic disorder: a unified theory.
Min, Bin; Li, Tiejun
2013-11-01
For quantum particles, it is well known that static disorder would lead to Anderson localization (AL) while dynamic (evolving) disorder would destroy AL and facilitate the transport. In this article, we study the transport behavior of a quantum particle in weak dynamic disorder. Based on Wigner representation, we obtain the radiative transfer equation (a linear Boltzmann equation) in the weak dynamic disorder limit, which could lead to not only all the existing transport behaviors in the literature but also new transport behaviors (for example, Lévy flight in momentum space). Furthermore, for dimensions greater than one, though we can formally derive the diffusive transport approximation, we argue that this diffusive transport is not physical but the nondiffusive transport should persist forever. This provides a possible resolution for the long-standing puzzle whether diffusive or nondiffusive transport would prevail in the long time limit. Our result would have major implications for the hypertransport of light, matter wave dynamics in disordered media, and directed polymer problems. PMID:24329247
Theory and Simulation of Neoclassical Transport Processes, with Local Trapping
Dubin, Daniel H. E.
2009-03-30
Neoclassical transport is studied using idealized simulations that follow guiding centers in given fields, neglecting collective effects on the plasma evolution, but including collisions at rate {nu}. For simplicity the magnetic field is assumed to be uniform; transport is due to asymmetries in applied electrostatic fields. Also, the Fokker-Planck equation describing the particle distribution is solved, and the predicted transport is found to agree with the simulations. Banana, plateau, and fluid regimes are identified and observed in the simulations. When separate trapped particle populations are created by application of an axisymmetric squeeze potential, enhanced transport regimes are observed, scaling as {radical}({nu}) when {nu}<{omega}{sub 0}<{omega}{sub b} and as 1/{nu} when {omega}{sub 0}<{nu}<{omega}{sub b} where {omega}{sub 0} and {omega}{sub b} are the rotation and axial bounce frequencies, respectively. These regimes are similar to those predicted for neoclassical transport in stellarators.
A review of carrier thermoelectric-transport theory in organic semiconductors.
Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Liu, Ming
2016-07-20
Carrier thermoelectric-transport theory has recently become of growing interest and numerous thermoelectric-transport models have been proposed for organic semiconductors, due to pressing current issues involving energy production and the environment. The purpose of this review is to provide a theoretical description of the thermoelectric Seebeck effect in organic semiconductors. Special attention is devoted to the carrier concentration, temperature, polaron effect and dipole effect dependence of the Seebeck effect and its relationship to hopping transport theory. Furthermore, various theoretical methods are used to discuss carrier thermoelectric transport. Finally, an outlook of the remaining challenges ahead for future theoretical research is provided. PMID:27386952
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, S.; Trauzettel, B.; Egger, R.
2002-11-01
We propose a Landauerlike theory for nonlinear transport in networks of one-dimensional interacting quantum wires (Luttinger liquids). A concrete example of current experimental focus is given by carbon nanotube Y junctions. Our theory has three basic ingredients that allow one to explicitly solve this transport problem: (i) radiative boundary conditions to describe the coupling to external leads, (ii) the Kirchhoff node rule describing charge conservation, and (iii) density matching conditions at every node.
Chen, S; Trauzettel, B; Egger, R
2002-11-25
We propose a Landauerlike theory for nonlinear transport in networks of one-dimensional interacting quantum wires (Luttinger liquids). A concrete example of current experimental focus is given by carbon nanotube Y junctions. Our theory has three basic ingredients that allow one to explicitly solve this transport problem: (i) radiative boundary conditions to describe the coupling to external leads, (ii) the Kirchhoff node rule describing charge conservation, and (iii) density matching conditions at every node. PMID:12485088
SU-E-P-04: Transport Theory Learning Module in the Maple Environment
Both, J
2014-06-01
Purpose: The medical physics graduate program at the University of Miami is developing a computerized instructional module which provides an interactive mechanism for students to learn transport theory. While not essential in the medical physics curriculum, transport theory should be taught because the conceptual level of transport theory is fundamental, a substantial literature exists and ought to be accessible, and students should understand commercial software which solves the Boltzmann equation.But conventional teaching and learning of transport theory is challenging. Students may be under prepared to appreciate its methods, results, and relevance, and it is not substantially addressed in textbooks for the medical physicists. Other resources an instructor might reasonably use, while excellent, may be too briskly paced for beginning students. The purpose of this work is to render teaching of transport theory more tractable by making learning highly interactive. Methods: The module is being developed in the Maple mathematics environment by instructors and graduate students. It will refresh the students' knowledge of vector calculus and differential equations, and will develop users' intuition for phase space concepts. Scattering concepts will be developed with animated simulations using tunable parameters characterizing interactions, so that students may develop a “feel” for cross section. Transport equations for one and multiple types of radiation will be illustrated with phase space animations. Numerical methods of solution will be illustrated. Results: Attempts to teach rudiments of transport theory in radiation physics and dosimetry courses using conventional classroom techniques at the University of Miami have had small success, because classroom time is limited and the material has been hard for our students to appreciate intuitively. Conclusion: A joint effort of instructor and students to teach and learn transport theory by building an interactive
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kerner, Boris S.
2013-11-01
It is explained why the set of the fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown (a transition from free flow to congested traffic) should be the empirical basis for any traffic and transportation theory that can be reliably used for control and optimization in traffic networks. It is shown that the generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of the traffic and transportation theory are not consistent with the set of the fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown at a highway bottleneck. To these fundamentals and methodologies of the traffic and transportation theory belong (i) Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) theory, (ii) the General Motors (GM) model class (for example, Herman, Gazis et al. GM model, Gipps’s model, Payne’s model, Newell’s optimal velocity (OV) model, Wiedemann’s model, Bando et al. OV model, Treiber’s IDM, Krauß’s model), (iii) the understanding of highway capacity as a particular (fixed or stochastic) value, and (iv) principles for traffic and transportation network optimization and control (for example, Wardrop’s user equilibrium (UE) and system optimum (SO) principles). Alternatively to these generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of the traffic and transportation theory, we discuss the three-phase traffic theory as the basis for traffic flow modeling as well as briefly consider the network breakdown minimization (BM) principle for the optimization of traffic and transportation networks with road bottlenecks.
Criticism of generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of traffic and transportation theory
Kerner, Boris S.
2015-03-10
It is explained why the set of the fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown (a transition from free flow to congested traffic) should be the empirical basis for any traffic and transportation theory that can be reliable used for control and optimization in traffic networks. It is shown that generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of traffic and transportation theory are not consistent with the set of the fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown at a highway bottleneck. To these fundamentals and methodologies of traffic and transportation theory belong (i) Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) theory, (ii) the General Motors (GM) model class (for example, Herman, Gazis et al. GM model, Gipps’s model, Payne’s model, Newell’s optimal velocity (OV) model, Wiedemann’s model, Bando et al. OV model, Treiber’s IDM, Krauß’s model), (iii) the understanding of highway capacity as a particular stochastic value, and (iv) principles for traffic and transportation network optimization and control (for example, Wardrop’s user equilibrium (UE) and system optimum (SO) principles). Alternatively to these generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of traffic and transportation theory, we discuss three-phase traffic theory as the basis for traffic flow modeling as well as briefly consider the network breakdown minimization (BM) principle for the optimization of traffic and transportation networks with road bottlenecks.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haefner, L. E.
1975-01-01
Mathematical and philosophical approaches are presented for evaluation and implementation of ground and air transportation systems. Basic decision processes are examined that are used for cost analyses and planning (i.e, statistical decision theory, linear and dynamic programming, optimization, game theory). The effects on the environment and the community that a transportation system may have are discussed and modelled. Algorithmic structures are examined and selected bibliographic annotations are included. Transportation dynamic models were developed. Citizen participation in transportation projects (i.e, in Maryland and Massachusetts) is discussed. The relevance of the modelling and evaluation approaches to air transportation (i.e, airport planning) is examined in a case study in St. Louis, Missouri.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frasinski, Leszek J.
2016-08-01
Recent technological advances in the generation of intense femtosecond pulses have made covariance mapping an attractive analytical technique. The laser pulses available are so intense that often thousands of ionisation and Coulomb explosion events will occur within each pulse. To understand the physics of these processes the photoelectrons and photoions need to be correlated, and covariance mapping is well suited for operating at the high counting rates of these laser sources. Partial covariance is particularly useful in experiments with x-ray free electron lasers, because it is capable of suppressing pulse fluctuation effects. A variety of covariance mapping methods is described: simple, partial (single- and multi-parameter), sliced, contingent and multi-dimensional. The relationship to coincidence techniques is discussed. Covariance mapping has been used in many areas of science and technology: inner-shell excitation and Auger decay, multiphoton and multielectron ionisation, time-of-flight and angle-resolved spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, stimulated Raman scattering, directional gamma ray sensing, welding diagnostics and brain connectivity studies (connectomics). This review gives practical advice for implementing the technique and interpreting the results, including its limitations and instrumental constraints. It also summarises recent theoretical studies, highlights unsolved problems and outlines a personal view on the most promising research directions.
Theory and simulations of electrostatic field error transport
Dubin, Daniel H. E.
2008-07-15
Asymmetries in applied electromagnetic fields cause plasma loss (or compression) in stellarators, tokamaks, and non-neutral plasmas. Here, this transport is studied using idealized simulations that follow guiding centers in given fields, neglecting collective effects on the plasma evolution, but including collisions at rate {nu}. For simplicity the magnetic field is assumed to be uniform; transport is due to asymmetries in applied electrostatic fields. Also, the Fokker-Planck equation describing the particle distribution is solved, and the predicted transport is found to agree with the simulations. Banana, plateau, and fluid regimes are identified and observed in the simulations. When separate trapped particle populations are created by application of an axisymmetric squeeze potential, enhanced transport regimes are observed, scaling as {radical}({nu}) when {nu}<{omega}{sub 0}<{omega}{sub B} and as 1/{nu} when {omega}{sub 0}<{nu}<{omega}{sub B} (where {omega}{sub 0} and {omega}{sub B} are the rotation and axial bounce frequencies, respectively). These regimes are similar to those predicted for neoclassical transport in stellarators.
Towards a wave theory of charged beam transport: A collection of thoughts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dattoli, G.; Mari, C.; Torre, A.
1992-01-01
We formulate in a rigorous way a wave theory of charged beam linear transport. The Wigner distribution function is introduced and provides the link with classical mechanics. Finally, the von Neumann equation is shown to coincide with the Liouville equation for the nonlinear transport.
Near-field radiative thermal transport: From theory to experiment
Song, Bai Fiorino, Anthony; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod
2015-05-15
Radiative thermal transport via the fluctuating electromagnetic near-field has recently attracted increasing attention due to its fundamental importance and its impact on a range of applications from data storage to thermal management and energy conversion. After a brief historical account of radiative thermal transport, we summarize the basics of fluctuational electrodynamics, a theoretical framework for the study of radiative heat transfer in terms of thermally excited propagating and evanescent electromagnetic waves. Various approaches to modeling near-field thermal transport are briefly discussed, together with key results and proposals for manipulation and utilization of radiative heat flow. Subsequently, we review the experimental advances in the characterization of both near-field heat flow and energy density. We conclude with remarks on the opportunities and challenges for future explorations of radiative heat transfer at the nanoscale.
SymGF: A Symbolic Tool for Quantum Transport Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Zi Min
In this thesis, I report the development and application of a symbolic derivation tool named "SymGF'' - standing for Symbolic Green's Function, that can automatically and analytically derive quantum transport expressions and the associated Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's functions (NEGF). Quantum transport happens in open systems consisting of a scattering region coupled to external electrodes. When there are strong electron-electron interactions in the scattering region, analytical derivations of the Green's functions can be very tedious and error prone. Running on a personal computer, SymGF derives the necessary analytical formulas at a level of correlation specified by the user, using the equation of motion (EOM) method. The input to SymGF are the second quantized form the device Hamiltonian, the (anti)commutators of the operators that appear in the Hamiltonian, and a truncation rule for the correlators which determines the accuracy of the final outcome. The output of SymGF are the analytical expressions of transport properties such as electric current and conductance in terms of various Green's functions; as well as the Green's functions themselves in terms of the unperturbed non-interacting Green's functions that can be obtained straightforwardly. For systems where electron-electron interaction can be neglected, the transport problems can be easily solved and SymGF is not necessary - even though SymGF gives the same answer; but for interacting systems SymGF drastically reduces the mathematical burden of analytical derivations. We have tested SymGF for several transport problems involving Kondo resonances where analytical derivations were done by humans: exactly the same results were obtained by SymGF but in a tiny fraction of time. We have applied SymGF to new and very hard problems that resist analytical derivations by hand, including quantum transport in a double quantum dot system; transport through a single quantum dot in parallel to a direct lead
Enzymatically Driven Transport: A Kinetic Theory for Nuclear Export
Kim, Sanghyun; Elbaum, M.
2013-01-01
Nuclear import and export are often considered inverse processes whereby transport receptors ferry protein cargo through the nuclear pore. In contrast to import, where the reversible binding of receptor to nuclear RanGTP leads to a balanced bidirectional exchange, termination of export by physiologically irreversible hydrolysis of the Ran-bound GTP leads to unidirectional transport. We present a concise mathematical model that predicts protein distributions and kinetic rates for receptor-mediated nuclear export, which further exhibit an unexpected pseudolinear relation one to the other. Predictions of the model are verified with permeabilized and live cell measurements. PMID:24209844
Misunderstanding analysis of covariance.
Miller, G A; Chapman, J P
2001-02-01
Despite numerous technical treatments in many venues, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) remains a widely misused approach to dealing with substantive group differences on potential covariates, particularly in psychopathology research. Published articles reach unfounded conclusions, and some statistics texts neglect the issue. The problem with ANCOVA in such cases is reviewed. In many cases, there is no means of achieving the superficially appealing goal of "correcting" or "controlling for" real group differences on a potential covariate. In hopes of curtailing misuse of ANCOVA and promoting appropriate use, a nontechnical discussion is provided, emphasizing a substantive confound rarely articulated in textbooks and other general presentations, to complement the mathematical critiques already available. Some alternatives are discussed for contexts in which ANCOVA is inappropriate or questionable. PMID:11261398
Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Jeon, Sangyong; Venugopalan, Raju; Wirstam, Jens
2000-08-15
The one loop effective action in quantum field theory can be expressed as a quantum mechanical path integral over world lines, with internal symmetries represented by Grassmanian variables. In this paper, we develop a real time, many body, world line formalism for the one loop effective action. In particular, we study hot QCD and obtain the classical transport equations which, as Litim and Manuel have shown, reduce in the appropriate limit to the non-Abelian Boltzmann-Langevin equation first obtained by Boedeker. In the Vlasov limit, the classical kinetic equations are those that correspond to the hard thermal loop effective action. We also discuss the imaginary time world line formalism for a hot {phi}{sup 4} theory, and elucidate its relation to classical transport theory. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
High-current beam dynamics and transport, theory and experiment
Reiser, M.
1986-01-01
Recent progress in the understanding of beam physics and technology factors determining the current and brightness of ion and electron beams in linear accelerators will be reviewed. Topics to be discussed including phase-space density constraints of particle sources, low-energy beam transport include charge neutralization, emittance growth due to mismatch, energy exchange, instabilities, nonlinear effects, and longitudinal bunching.
Kinetic and transport theory near the tokamak edge
Hazeltine, R.D.; Catto, P.J.
1996-06-01
Conventional transport orderings employed in the core of a tokamak plasma allow large divergence-free flows in flux surfaces, but only weak radial flows. However, alternate orderings are required in the edge region where radial diffusion must balance the rapid loss due to free streaming to divertor plates or limiters. Kinetic equations commonly used to study the plasma core do not allow such a balance and are, therefore, inapplicable in the plasma edge. Similarly, core transport formulas cannot be extended to the edge region without major, qualitative alteration. Here the necessary changes are addressed. By deriving and solving a novel kinetic equation, distinctive collisional transport laws for the plasma edge are constructed. It is found that the new edge ordering retains the radial diffusion and parallel flow of particles, momentum, and heat to lowest order in the conservation equations. To higher order a surprising form for parallel transport in the scrape-off layer is found, in which the parallel flow of particles and heat are driven by a combination of the conventional gradients, viscosity, and new terms involving radial derivatives. The new terms are not relatively small, and could affect understanding of limiter and divertor operation. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
The theory of bio-energy transport in the protein molecules and its properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pang, Xiao-feng
2011-10-01
The bio-energy transport is a basic problem in life science and related to many biological processes. Therefore to establish the mechanism of bio-energy transport and its theory have an important significance. Based on different properties of structure of α-helical protein molecules some theories of bio-energy transport along the molecular chains have been proposed and established, where the energy is released by hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). A brief survey of past researches on different models and theories of bio-energy, including Davydov's, Takeno's, Yomosa's, Brown et al.'s, Schweitzer's, Cruzeiro-Hansson's, Forner's and Pang's models were first stated in this paper. Subsequently we studied and reviewed mainly and systematically the properties, thermal stability and lifetimes of the carriers (solitons) transporting the bio-energy at physiological temperature 300 K in Pang's and Davydov's theories. From these investigations we know that the carrier (soliton) of bio-energy transport in the α-helical protein molecules in Pang's model has a higher binding energy, higher thermal stability and larger lifetime at 300 K relative to those of Davydov's model, in which the lifetime of the new soliton at 300 K is enough large and belongs to the order of 10 -10 s or τ/τ⩾700. Thus we can conclude that the soliton in Pang's model is exactly the carrier of the bio-energy transport, Pang's theory is appropriate to α-helical protein molecules.
Transport theory of superconductors with singular interaction corrections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levchenko, Alex
2010-03-01
We study nonlinear transport properties of superconductors near the classical critical point Tc where fluctuation effects play the dominant role. In this regime conductivity is set by the interplay of two competing effects. The first is that strong electron-electron interactions in the Cooper channel increase the life time of fluctuation Cooper pairs and thus enhance conductivity. On the other hand, dynamic pair breaking effects tend to suppress superconductivity. An interplay between these processes defines the new transport regime GiT-TcTc√Gi where fluctuation induced conductivity becomes more singular, here Gi is the Ginzburg number. The crossover temperature Tc√Gi is generated as the result of scattering on dynamic fluctuations of the order parameter. The most singular contributions to conductivity stem from the dynamic Aslamazov-Larkin term, and novel Maki-Thompson and interference corrections. We suggest that the natural way to probe nonlinear fluctuation regime in superconductors is by magnetoconductivity measurements in the perpendicular field.
Ballistic electron transport in stubbed quantum waveguides: Experiment and theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debray, P.; Raichev, O. E.; Vasilopoulos, P.; Rahman, M.; Perrin, R.; Mitchell, W. C.
2000-04-01
We present results of experimental and theoretical investigations of electron transport through stub-shaped waveguides or electron stub tuners (ESTs) in the ballistic regime. Measurements of the conductance G as a function of voltages, applied to different gates Vi (i=bottom, top, and side) of the device, show oscillations in the region of the first quantized plateau that we attribute to reflection resonances. The oscillations are rather regular and almost periodic when the height h of the EST cavity is small compared to its width. When h is increased, the oscillations become less regular and broad depressions in G appear. A theoretical analysis, which accounts for the electrostatic potential formed by the gates in the cavity region, and a numerical computation of the transmission probabilities successfully explains the experimental observations. An important finding for real devices, defined by surface Schottky gates, is that the resonance minima result from size quantization along the transport direction of the EST.
A pure $S$-wave covariant model for the nucleon
Franz Gross; G. Ramalho; M.T. Pena
2008-01-01
Using the manifestly covariant spectator theory, and modeling the nucleon as a system of three constituent quarks with their own electromagnetic structure, we show that all four nucleon electromagnetic form factors can be very well described by a manifestly covariant nucleon wave function with zero orbital angular momentum.
Catchment-scale herbicides transport: Theory and application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertuzzo, E.; Thomet, M.; Botter, G.; Rinaldo, A.
2013-02-01
This paper proposes and tests a model which couples the description of hydrologic flow and transport of herbicides at catchment scales. The model accounts for streamflow components' age to characterize short and long term fluctuations of herbicide flux concentrations in stream waters, whose peaks exceeding a toxic threshold are key to exposure risk of aquatic ecosystems. The model is based on a travel time formulation of transport embedding a source zone that describes near surface herbicide dynamics. To this aim we generalize a recently proposed scheme for the analytical derivation of travel time distributions to the case of solutes that can be partially taken up by transpiration and undergo chemical degradation. The framework developed is evaluated by comparing modeled hydrographs and atrazine chemographs with those measured in the Aabach agricultural catchment (Switzerland). The model proves reliable in defining complex transport features shaped by the interplay of long term processes, related to the persistence of solute components in soils, and short term dynamics related to storm inter-arrivals. The effects of stochasticity in rainfall patterns and application dates on concentrations and loads in runoff are assessed via Monte Carlo simulations, highlighting the crucial role played by the first rainfall event occurring after herbicide application. A probabilistic framework for critical determinants of exposure risk to aquatic communities is defined. Modeling of herbicides circulation at catchment scale thus emerges as essential tools for ecological risk assessment.
Velocity-Field Theory, Boltzmann's Transport Equation and Geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ichinose, Shoichi
Boltzmann equation describes the time development of the velocity distribution in the continuum fluid matter. We formulate the equation using the field theory where the velocity-field plays the central role. The matter (constituent particles) fields appear as the density and the viscosity. Fluctuation is examined, and is clearly discriminated from the quantum effect. The time variable is emergently introduced through the computational process step. The collision term, for the (velocity)**4 potential (4-body interaction), is explicitly obtained and the (statistical) fluctuation is closely explained. The present field theory model does not conserve energy and is an open-system model. (One dimensional) Navier-Stokes equation or Burger's equation, appears. In the latter part, we present a way to directly define the distribution function by use of the geometry, appearing in the mechanical dynamics, and Feynman's path-integral.
Generalized Linear Covariance Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carpenter, James R.; Markley, F. Landis
2014-01-01
This talk presents a comprehensive approach to filter modeling for generalized covariance analysis of both batch least-squares and sequential estimators. We review and extend in two directions the results of prior work that allowed for partitioning of the state space into solve-for'' and consider'' parameters, accounted for differences between the formal values and the true values of the measurement noise, process noise, and textita priori solve-for and consider covariances, and explicitly partitioned the errors into subspaces containing only the influence of the measurement noise, process noise, and solve-for and consider covariances. In this work, we explicitly add sensitivity analysis to this prior work, and relax an implicit assumption that the batch estimator's epoch time occurs prior to the definitive span. We also apply the method to an integrated orbit and attitude problem, in which gyro and accelerometer errors, though not estimated, influence the orbit determination performance. We illustrate our results using two graphical presentations, which we call the variance sandpile'' and the sensitivity mosaic,'' and we compare the linear covariance results to confidence intervals associated with ensemble statistics from a Monte Carlo analysis.
Generalized Linear Covariance Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis
2008-01-01
We review and extend in two directions the results of prior work on generalized covariance analysis methods. This prior work allowed for partitioning of the state space into "solve-for" and "consider" parameters, allowed for differences between the formal values and the true values of the measurement noise, process noise, and a priori solve-for and consider covariances, and explicitly partitioned the errors into subspaces containing only the influence of the measurement noise, process noise, and a priori solve-for and consider covariances. In this work, we explicitly add sensitivity analysis to this prior work, and relax an implicit assumption that the batch estimator s anchor time occurs prior to the definitive span. We also apply the method to an integrated orbit and attitude problem, in which gyro and accelerometer errors, though not estimated, influence the orbit determination performance. We illustrate our results using two graphical presentations, which we call the "variance sandpile" and the "sensitivity mosaic," and we compare the linear covariance results to confidence intervals associated with ensemble statistics from a Monte Carlo analysis.
Extraction of hot QCD matter transport coefficients utilizing microscopic transport theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demir, Nasser Soliman
Ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) are thought to have produced a state of matter called the Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP). The QGP forms when nuclear matter governed by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) reaches a temperature and baryochemical potential necessary to achieve the transition of hadrons (bound states of quarks and gluons) to deconfined quarks and gluons. Such conditions have been achieved at RHIC, and the resulting QGP created exhibits properties of a near perfect fluid. In particular, strong evidence shows that the QGP exhibits a very small shear viscosity to entropy density ratio eta/s, near the lower bound predicted for that quantity by Anti-deSitter space/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) methods of eta/s = ℎ4pkB , where h is Planck's constant and kB is Boltzmann's constant. As the produced matter expands and cools, it evolves through a phase described by a hadron gas with rapidly increasing eta/s. This thesis presents robust calculations of eta/s for hadronic and partonic media as a function of temperature using the Green-Kubo formalism. An analysis is performed for the behavior of eta/s to mimic situations of the hadronic media at RHIC evolving out of chemical equilibrium, and systematic uncertainties are assessed for our method. In addition, preliminary results are presented for the bulk viscosity to entropy density ratio zeta/s, whose behavior is not well-known in a relativistic heavy ion collisions. The diffusion coefficient for baryon number is investigated, and an algorithm is presented to improve upon the previous work of investigation of heavy quark diffusion in a thermal QGP. By combining the results of my investigations for eta/s from our microscopic transport models with what is currently known from the experimental results on elliptic flow from RHIC, I find that the trajectory of eta/s in a heavy ion collision has a rich structure, especially near the deconfinement transition temperature Tc. I
Statistical theory of designed quantum transport across disordered networks.
Walschaers, Mattia; Mulet, Roberto; Wellens, Thomas; Buchleitner, Andreas
2015-04-01
We explain how centrosymmetry, together with a dominant doublet of energy eigenstates in the local density of states, can guarantee interference-assisted, strongly enhanced, strictly coherent quantum excitation transport between two predefined sites of a random network of two-level systems. Starting from a generalization of the chaos-assisted tunnelling mechanism, we formulate a random matrix theoretical framework for the analytical prediction of the transfer time distribution, of lower bounds of the transfer efficiency, and of the scaling behavior of characteristic statistical properties with the size of the network. We show that these analytical predictions compare well to numerical simulations, using Hamiltonians sampled from the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble. PMID:25974468
Statistical theory of designed quantum transport across disordered networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walschaers, Mattia; Mulet, Roberto; Wellens, Thomas; Buchleitner, Andreas
2015-04-01
We explain how centrosymmetry, together with a dominant doublet of energy eigenstates in the local density of states, can guarantee interference-assisted, strongly enhanced, strictly coherent quantum excitation transport between two predefined sites of a random network of two-level systems. Starting from a generalization of the chaos-assisted tunnelling mechanism, we formulate a random matrix theoretical framework for the analytical prediction of the transfer time distribution, of lower bounds of the transfer efficiency, and of the scaling behavior of characteristic statistical properties with the size of the network. We show that these analytical predictions compare well to numerical simulations, using Hamiltonians sampled from the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble.
Some Exact Solutions in Energy Dependent Transport Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, M. M. R.
1980-01-01
Some exact solutions are obtained for energy dependent slowing down problems with energy dependent cross sections. The transport equation is solved using the backward-forward model of Fermi. Also studied is the energy dependent diffusion equation. Using these models, and a novel technique involving difference equations, it has been possible to find explicit, and numerically useful, solutions for slowing down from a plane, monoenergetic source in an infinite medium. The slowing down density and the energy deposition function are obtained which are of value in reactor physics and radiation damage calculations.
Simplified Quantum Transport Theory for Finite Bias and Temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiaoguang; Wu, Yuning; Pantelides, Sokrates
We reformulate the Landauer-Buttiker formula for quantum transport by explicitly accounting for the energy and bias voltage dependence of the transmission probability. Under the assumption of a constant electric field, a simple formula for the differential conductance under a finite bias and at a finite temperature is derived that does not require a nonequilibrium self-consistent calculation. Calculation for the tunneling current through Au-Benzendithiol-Au molecular junction shows excellent agreement with the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method at zero temperature. Temperature dependent I-V curves for a number of devices are demonstrated. Supported by NSF Grant 1508898.
Fermion particle production in semiclassical Boltzmann-Vlasov transport theory
Dawson, John F.; Mihaila, Bogdan; Cooper, Fred
2009-07-01
We present numerical solutions of the semiclassical Boltzmann-Vlasov equation for fermion particle-antiparticle production by strong electric fields in boost-invariant coordinates in (1+1) and (3+1) dimensional QED. We compare the Boltzmann-Vlasov results with those of recent quantum field theory calculations and find good agreement. We conclude that extending the Boltzmann-Vlasov approach to the case of QCD should allow us to do a thorough investigation of how backreaction affects recent results on the dependence of the transverse momentum distribution of quarks and antiquarks on a second Casimir invariant of color SU(3)
Transport coefficients in Yang-Mills theory and QCD.
Christiansen, Nicolai; Haas, Michael; Pawlowski, Jan M; Strodthoff, Nils
2015-09-11
We calculate the shear-viscosity-over-entropy-density ratio η/s in Yang-Mills theory from the Kubo formula using an exact diagrammatic representation in terms of full propagators and vertices using gluon spectral functions as external input. We provide an analytic fit formula for the temperature dependence of η/s over the whole temperature range from a glueball resonance gas at low temperatures, to a high-temperature regime consistent with perturbative results. Subsequently, we provide a first estimate for η/s in QCD. PMID:26406822
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhdanov, V. M.; Stepanenko, A. A.
2016-03-01
In this paper we derive the set of general transport equations for multicomponent partially ionized reactive plasma in the presence of electric and magnetic fields taking into account the internal degrees of freedom and electronic excitation of plasma particles. Our starting point is a generalized Boltzmann equation with the collision integral in the Wang-Chang and Uhlenbeck form and a reactive collision integral. We obtain a set of conservation equations for such plasma and employ a linearized variant of Grad's moment method to derive the system of moment (or transport) equations for the plasma species nonequilibrium parameters. Full and reduced transport equations, resulting from the linearized system of moment equations, are presented, which can be used to obtain transport relations and expressions for transport coefficients of electrons and heavy plasma particles (molecules, atoms and ions) in partially ionized reactive plasma.
Impact of the 235U Covariance Data in Benchmark Calculations
Leal, Luiz C; Mueller, Don; Arbanas, Goran; Wiarda, Dorothea; Derrien, Herve
2008-01-01
The error estimation for calculated quantities relies on nuclear data uncertainty information available in the basic nuclear data libraries such as the U.S. Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF/B). The uncertainty files (covariance matrices) in the ENDF/B library are generally obtained from analysis of experimental data. In the resonance region, the computer code SAMMY is used for analyses of experimental data and generation of resonance parameters. In addition to resonance parameters evaluation, SAMMY also generates resonance parameter covariance matrices (RPCM). SAMMY uses the generalized least-squares formalism (Bayes method) together with the resonance formalism (R-matrix theory) for analysis of experimental data. Two approaches are available for creation of resonance-parameter covariance data. (1) During the data-evaluation process, SAMMY generates both a set of resonance parameters that fit the experimental data and the associated resonance-parameter covariance matrix. (2) For existing resonance-parameter evaluations for which no resonance-parameter covariance data are available, SAMMY can retroactively create a resonance-parameter covariance matrix. The retroactive method was used to generate covariance data for 235U. The resulting 235U covariance matrix was then used as input to the PUFF-IV code, which processed the covariance data into multigroup form, and to the TSUNAMI code, which calculated the uncertainty in the multiplication factor due to uncertainty in the experimental cross sections. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the use of the 235U covariance data in calculations of critical benchmark systems.
A two-dimensional mixing length theory of convective transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lesaffre, Pierre; Chitre, Shashikumar M.; Potter, Adrian T.; Tout, Christopher A.
2013-05-01
The helioseismic observations of the internal rotation profile of the Sun raise questions about the two-dimensional (2D) nature of the transport of angular momentum in stars. Here we derive a convective prescription for axisymmetric (2D) stellar evolution models. We describe the small-scale motions by a spectrum of unstable linear modes in a Boussinesq fluid. Our saturation prescription makes use of the angular dependence of the linear dispersion relation to estimate the anisotropy of convective velocities. We are then able to provide closed form expressions for the thermal and angular momentum fluxes with only one free parameter, the mixing length. We illustrate our prescription for slow rotation, to first order in the rotation rate. In this limit, the thermodynamical variables are spherically symmetric, while the angular momentum depends on both radius and latitude. We obtain a closed set of equations for stellar evolution, with a self-consistent description for the transport of angular momentum in convective regions. We derive the linear coefficients which link the angular momentum flux to the rotation rate (Λ-effect) and its gradient (α-effect). We compare our results to former relevant numerical work.
Using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) with Fallible Covariates
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Culpepper, Steven Andrew; Aguinis, Herman
2011-01-01
Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) is used widely in psychological research implementing nonexperimental designs. However, when covariates are fallible (i.e., measured with error), which is the norm, researchers must choose from among 3 inadequate courses of action: (a) know that the assumption that covariates are perfectly reliable is violated but…
The electrical transport properties of liquid Rb using pseudopotential theory
Patel, A. B. Bhatt, N. K. Thakore, B. Y. Jani, A. R.; Vyas, P. R.
2014-04-24
Certain electric transport properties of liquid Rb are reported. The electrical resistivity is calculated by using the self-consistent approximation as suggested by Ferraz and March. The pseudopotential due to Hasegawa et al for full electron-ion interaction, which is valid for all electrons and contains the repulsive delta function due to achieve the necessary s-pseudisation was used for the calculation. Temperature dependence of structure factor is considered through temperature dependent potential parameter in the pair potential. Finally, thermo-electric power and thermal conductivity are obtained. The outcome of the present study is discussed in light of other such results, and confirms the applicability of pseudopotential at very high temperature via temperature dependent pair potential.
The electrical transport properties of liquid Rb using pseudopotential theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patel, A. B.; Bhatt, N. K.; Thakore, B. Y.; Vyas, P. R.; Jani, A. R.
2014-04-01
Certain electric transport properties of liquid Rb are reported. The electrical resistivity is calculated by using the self-consistent approximation as suggested by Ferraz and March. The pseudopotential due to Hasegawa et al for full electron-ion interaction, which is valid for all electrons and contains the repulsive delta function due to achieve the necessary s-pseudisation was used for the calculation. Temperature dependence of structure factor is considered through temperature dependent potential parameter in the pair potential. Finally, thermo-electric power and thermal conductivity are obtained. The outcome of the present study is discussed in light of other such results, and confirms the applicability of pseudopotential at very high temperature via temperature dependent pair potential.
Statistical-mechanical theory of passive transport through semipermeable membranes.
del Castillo, L F; Mason, E A; Revercomb, H E
1979-09-01
The first general multicomponent equations for transport through semipermeable membranes are derived from basic statistical-mechanical principles. The procedure follows that used earlier for open membranes, but semipermeability is modelled mathematically by the introduction of external forces on the impermeant species. Gases are treated first in order to clarify the problems involved, but the final results apply to general nonideal solutions of any concentration. The mixed-solvent effect is treated rigorously, and a mixed-solvent osmotic pressure is defined. A useful specific identification of so-called osmotic flow is given, along with a demonstration that such an identification cannot be unique. Results are obtained both for discontinuous membrane models, and for a continuous model. PMID:486702
Anomalous transport theory for the reversed field pinch
Terry, P.W.; Hegna, C.C; Sovinec, C.R.
1996-09-01
Physically motivated transport models with predictive capabilities and significance beyond the reversed field pinch (RFP) are presented. It is shown that the ambipolar constrained electron heat loss observed in MST can be quantitatively modeled by taking account of the clumping in parallel streaming electrons and the resultant self-consistent interaction with collective modes; that the discrete dynamo process is a relaxation oscillation whose dependence on the tearing instability and profile relaxation physics leads to amplitude and period scaling predictions consistent with experiment; that the Lundquist number scaling in relaxed plasmas driven by magnetic turbulence has a weak S{sup {minus}1/4} scaling; and that radial E{times}B shear flow can lead to large reductions in the edge particle flux with little change in the heat flux, as observed in the RFP and tokamak. 24 refs.
Noninvasive cross section reconstruction with transport theory constraints
Fredette, N.; Ragusa, J.; Bangerth, W.
2012-07-01
We consider the inverse problem of identifying the spatially variable absorption and scattering properties of a medium by measuring the exiting radiation when the body is actively interrogated. We formulate this inverse problem as a PDE-constrained optimization problem and solve it iteratively with Newton's method. The constraint is given by the radiative transport equation for neutral particles. Two examples are considered. The first is a dual inclusion domain with no scattering. This problem explores the convergence patterns of the method. The second problem is a central inclusion problem with scattering. This problem explores the optical thickness limit of the method. This optical thickness was determined to be 2-3 mean free paths. (authors)
Transport theory for potato orbits in an axisymmetric torus with finite toroidal flow speed
Shaing, K. C.; Peng, Yueng Kay Martin
2004-01-01
Transport theory for potato orbits in the region near the magnetic axis in an axisymmetric torus such as tokamaks and spherical tori is extended to the situation where the toroidal flow speed is of the order of the sonic speed as observed in National Spherical Torus Experiment [E. J. Synakowski, M. G. Bell, R. E. Bell et al., Nucl. Fusion 43, 1653 (2003)]. It is found that transport fluxes such as ion radial heat flux, and bootstrap current density are modified by a factor of the order of the square of the toroidal Mach number. The consequences of the orbit squeezing are also presented. The theory is developed for parabolic (in radius r) plasma profiles. A method to apply the results of the theory for the transport modeling is discussed.
Covariant approximation averaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shintani, Eigo; Arthur, Rudy; Blum, Thomas; Izubuchi, Taku; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph
2015-06-01
We present a new class of statistical error reduction techniques for Monte Carlo simulations. Using covariant symmetries, we show that correlation functions can be constructed from inexpensive approximations without introducing any systematic bias in the final result. We introduce a new class of covariant approximation averaging techniques, known as all-mode averaging (AMA), in which the approximation takes account of contributions of all eigenmodes through the inverse of the Dirac operator computed from the conjugate gradient method with a relaxed stopping condition. In this paper we compare the performance and computational cost of our new method with traditional methods using correlation functions and masses of the pion, nucleon, and vector meson in Nf=2 +1 lattice QCD using domain-wall fermions. This comparison indicates that AMA significantly reduces statistical errors in Monte Carlo calculations over conventional methods for the same cost.
Covariant deformed oscillator algebras
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quesne, Christiane
1995-01-01
The general form and associativity conditions of deformed oscillator algebras are reviewed. It is shown how the latter can be fulfilled in terms of a solution of the Yang-Baxter equation when this solution has three distinct eigenvalues and satisfies a Birman-Wenzl-Murakami condition. As an example, an SU(sub q)(n) x SU(sub q)(m)-covariant q-bosonic algebra is discussed in some detail.
Partial covariate adjusted regression
Şentürk, Damla; Nguyen, Danh V.
2008-01-01
Covariate adjusted regression (CAR) is a recently proposed adjustment method for regression analysis where both the response and predictors are not directly observed (Şentürk and Müller, 2005). The available data has been distorted by unknown functions of an observable confounding covariate. CAR provides consistent estimators for the coefficients of the regression between the variables of interest, adjusted for the confounder. We develop a broader class of partial covariate adjusted regression (PCAR) models to accommodate both distorted and undistorted (adjusted/unadjusted) predictors. The PCAR model allows for unadjusted predictors, such as age, gender and demographic variables, which are common in the analysis of biomedical and epidemiological data. The available estimation and inference procedures for CAR are shown to be invalid for the proposed PCAR model. We propose new estimators and develop new inference tools for the more general PCAR setting. In particular, we establish the asymptotic normality of the proposed estimators and propose consistent estimators of their asymptotic variances. Finite sample properties of the proposed estimators are investigated using simulation studies and the method is also illustrated with a Pima Indians diabetes data set. PMID:20126296
Khondker, Zakaria S; Zhu, Hongtu; Chu, Haitao; Lin, Weili; Ibrahim, Joseph G.
2012-01-01
Estimation of sparse covariance matrices and their inverse subject to positive definiteness constraints has drawn a lot of attention in recent years. The abundance of high-dimensional data, where the sample size (n) is less than the dimension (d), requires shrinkage estimation methods since the maximum likelihood estimator is not positive definite in this case. Furthermore, when n is larger than d but not sufficiently larger, shrinkage estimation is more stable than maximum likelihood as it reduces the condition number of the precision matrix. Frequentist methods have utilized penalized likelihood methods, whereas Bayesian approaches rely on matrix decompositions or Wishart priors for shrinkage. In this paper we propose a new method, called the Bayesian Covariance Lasso (BCLASSO), for the shrinkage estimation of a precision (covariance) matrix. We consider a class of priors for the precision matrix that leads to the popular frequentist penalties as special cases, develop a Bayes estimator for the precision matrix, and propose an efficient sampling scheme that does not precalculate boundaries for positive definiteness. The proposed method is permutation invariant and performs shrinkage and estimation simultaneously for non-full rank data. Simulations show that the proposed BCLASSO performs similarly as frequentist methods for non-full rank data. PMID:24551316
Transport theory for energetic alpha particles in finite aspect ratio tokamaks with broken symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaing, K. C.; Schlutt, M.; Lai, A. L.
2016-02-01
Transport theory for the energetic alpha particles in finite aspect ratio tokamaks with broken symmetry is developed for the case where the slowing down collision operator dominates. The transport fluxes in the 1 /ν and superbanana plateau regimes are derived. Here, ν is the typical collision frequency. They can be used in modeling the energy loss of the alpha particles in thermonuclear fusion reactors. Numerical realizations of the superbanana orbits of alpha particles in tokamaks with broken symmetry are also presented. The existence of the superbananas corroborates the predictions of the theories presented here and elsewhere.
Transport induced by mean-eddy interaction: I. Theory, and relation to Lagrangian lobe dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ide, Kayo; Wiggins, Stephen
2015-02-01
In this paper we develop a method for the estimation of Transport Induced by the Mean-Eddy interaction (TIME) in two-dimensional unsteady flows. The method is based on the dynamical systems approach to fluid transport and can be viewed as a hybrid combination of Lagrangian and Eulerian methods. The (Eulerian) boundaries across which we consider (Lagrangian) transport are kinematically defined by appropriately chosen streamlines of the mean flow. By evaluating the impact of the mean-eddy interaction on transport, the TIME method can be used as a diagnostic tool for transport processes that occur during a specified time interval along a specified boundary segment. We introduce two types of TIME functions: one that quantifies the accumulation of flow properties and another that measures the displacement of the transport geometry. The spatial geometry of transport is described by the so-called pseudo-lobes, and temporal evolution of transport by their dynamics. In the case where the TIME functions are evaluated along a separatrix, the pseudo-lobes have a relationship to the lobes of Lagrangian transport theory. In fact, one of the TIME functions is identical to the Melnikov function that is used to measure the distance, at leading order in a small parameter, between the two invariant manifolds that define the Lagrangian lobes. We contrast the similarities and differences between the TIME and Lagrangian lobe dynamics in detail. An application of the TIME method is carried out for inter-gyre transport in the wind-driven oceanic circulation model and a comparison with the Lagrangian transport theory is made.
O'Dell, R.D.; Alcouffe, R.E.
1987-09-01
This report is for the serious user of discrete ordinates transport computer codes for performing nuclear analysis calculations. The first section after the introduction provides a reasonably thorough mathematical description of the analytic Boltzmann transport equation. Next is a section on the numerical discretization of the energy, angle, and space variables in the transport equation, along with an introduction to the source iteration method. The fourth section provides numerical details and features pertinent to discrete ordinates codes. That section details angular quadrature, spatial discretization methods, iteration acceleration methods, and search capabilities. The fifth section presents considerations in choosing a discrete ordinates code for use, and this is followed by a section on typical discrete ordinates codes available throughout the world. The report ends with some guidance for the user. 73 refs., 18 figs., 13 tabs.
Hydrodynamic theory of thermoelectric transport and negative magnetoresistance in Weyl semimetals.
Lucas, Andrew; Davison, Richard A; Sachdev, Subir
2016-08-23
We present a theory of thermoelectric transport in weakly disordered Weyl semimetals where the electron-electron scattering time is faster than the electron-impurity scattering time. Our hydrodynamic theory consists of relativistic fluids at each Weyl node, coupled together by perturbatively small intervalley scattering, and long-range Coulomb interactions. The conductivity matrix of our theory is Onsager reciprocal and positive semidefinite. In addition to the usual axial anomaly, we account for the effects of a distinct, axial-gravitational anomaly expected to be present in Weyl semimetals. Negative thermal magnetoresistance is a sharp, experimentally accessible signature of this axial-gravitational anomaly, even beyond the hydrodynamic limit. PMID:27512042
Earth Observing System Covariance Realism
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zaidi, Waqar H.; Hejduk, Matthew D.
2016-01-01
The purpose of covariance realism is to properly size a primary object's covariance in order to add validity to the calculation of the probability of collision. The covariance realism technique in this paper consists of three parts: collection/calculation of definitive state estimates through orbit determination, calculation of covariance realism test statistics at each covariance propagation point, and proper assessment of those test statistics. An empirical cumulative distribution function (ECDF) Goodness-of-Fit (GOF) method is employed to determine if a covariance is properly sized by comparing the empirical distribution of Mahalanobis distance calculations to the hypothesized parent 3-DoF chi-squared distribution. To realistically size a covariance for collision probability calculations, this study uses a state noise compensation algorithm that adds process noise to the definitive epoch covariance to account for uncertainty in the force model. Process noise is added until the GOF tests pass a group significance level threshold. The results of this study indicate that when outliers attributed to persistently high or extreme levels of solar activity are removed, the aforementioned covariance realism compensation method produces a tuned covariance with up to 80 to 90% of the covariance propagation timespan passing (against a 60% minimum passing threshold) the GOF tests-a quite satisfactory and useful result.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Liu, Ming
2015-05-01
Recent measurements conducted over a large range of temperature and carrier density have found that the Seebeck coefficient exhibits an approaching disorder-free transport feature in high-mobility conjugated polymers [D. Venkateshvaran et al., Nature 515, 384 (2014), 10.1038/nature13854]. It is difficult for the current Seebeck coefficient model to interpret the feature of the charge transport approaching disorder-free transport. We present a general analytical model to describe the Seebeck effect for organic semiconductors based on the hopping transport and percolation theory. The proposed model can well explain the Seebeck feature of the polymers with approaching disorder-free transport, as well as that of the organic semiconductors with the general disorder. The simulated results imply that the Seebeck coefficient in the organic semiconductors would happen to transfer from temperature dependence to temperature independence with the decrease of the energetic disorder.
Application of covariant analytic mechanics to gravity with Dirac field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakajima, Satoshi
2016-03-01
We applied the covariant analytic mechanics with the differential forms to the Dirac field and the gravity with the Dirac field. The covariant analytic mechanics treats space and time on an equal footing regarding the differential forms as the basis variables. A significant feature of the covariant analytic mechanics is that the canonical equations, in addition to the Euler-Lagrange equation, are not only manifestly general coordinate covariant but also gauge covariant. Combining our study and the previous works (the scalar field, the abelian and non-abelian gauge fields and the gravity without the Dirac field), the applicability of the covariant analytic mechanics was checked for all fundamental fields. We studied both the first and second order formalism of the gravitational field coupled with matters including the Dirac field. It was suggested that gravitation theories including higher order curvatures cannot be treated by the second order formalism in the covariant analytic mechanics. In addition, we showed that the covariant analytic mechanics is equivalent to corrected De Donder-Weyl theory.
Bauer, Susanne N; Nowak, Heike; Keller, Frank; Kallarackal, Jose; Hajirezaei, Mohamad-Reza; Komor, Ewald
2014-09-01
Sieve tube sap was obtained from Tanacetum by aphid stylectomy and from Ricinus after apical bud decapitation. The amino acids in sieve tube sap were analyzed and compared with those from leaves. Arginine and lysine accumulated in the sieve tube sap of Tanacetum more than 10-fold compared to the leaf extracts and they were, together with asparagine and serine, preferably selected into the sieve tube sap, whereas glycine, methionine/tryptophan and γ-amino butyric acid were partially or completely excluded. The two basic amino acids also showed a close covariation in sieve tube sap. The acidic amino acids also grouped together, but antagonistic to the other amino acids. The accumulation ratios between sieve tube sap and leaf extracts were smaller in Ricinus than in Tanacetum. Arginine, histidine, lysine and glutamine were enriched and preferentially loaded into the phloem, together with isoleucine and valine. In contrast, glycine and methionine/tryptophan were partially and γ-amino butyric acid almost completely excluded from sieve tube sap. The covariation analysis grouped arginine together with several neutral amino acids. The acidic amino acids were loaded under competition with neutral amino acids. It is concluded from comparison with the substrate specificities of already characterized plant amino acid transporters, that an AtCAT1-like transporter functions in phloem loading of basic amino acids, whereas a transporter like AtGAT1 is absent in phloem. Although Tanacetum and Ricinus have different minor vein architecture, their phloem loading specificities for amino acids are relatively similar. PMID:24446756
Linear covariance analysis for gimbaled pointing systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christensen, Randall S.
Linear covariance analysis has been utilized in a wide variety of applications. Historically, the theory has made significant contributions to navigation system design and analysis. More recently, the theory has been extended to capture the combined effect of navigation errors and closed-loop control on the performance of the system. These advancements have made possible rapid analysis and comprehensive trade studies of complicated systems ranging from autonomous rendezvous to vehicle ascent trajectory analysis. Comprehensive trade studies are also needed in the area of gimbaled pointing systems where the information needs are different from previous applications. It is therefore the objective of this research to extend the capabilities of linear covariance theory to analyze the closed-loop navigation and control of a gimbaled pointing system. The extensions developed in this research include modifying the linear covariance equations to accommodate a wider variety of controllers. This enables the analysis of controllers common to gimbaled pointing systems, with internal states and associated dynamics as well as actuator command filtering and auxiliary controller measurements. The second extension is the extraction of power spectral density estimates from information available in linear covariance analysis. This information is especially important to gimbaled pointing systems where not just the variance but also the spectrum of the pointing error impacts the performance. The extended theory is applied to a model of a gimbaled pointing system which includes both flexible and rigid body elements as well as input disturbances, sensor errors, and actuator errors. The results of the analysis are validated by direct comparison to a Monte Carlo-based analysis approach. Once the developed linear covariance theory is validated, analysis techniques that are often prohibitory with Monte Carlo analysis are used to gain further insight into the system. These include the creation
Quasi-linear theory and transport theory. [particle acceleration in interplanetary medium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Charles W.
1992-01-01
The theory of energetic particle scattering by magnetostatic fluctuations is reviewed in so far as it fails to produce the rigidity-independent mean-free-paths observed. Basic aspects of interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations are reviewed with emphasis placed on the existence of dissipation range spectra at high wavenumbers. These spectra are then incorporated into existing theories for resonant magnetostatic scattering and are shown to yield infinite mean-free-paths. Nonresonant scattering in the form of magnetic mirroring is examined and offered as a partial solution to the magnetostatic problem. In the process, mean-free-paths are obtained in good agreement with observations in the interplanetary medium at 1 AU and upstream of planetary bow shocks.
Ross, D.W.
1993-02-01
The objectives continue to be: (1) to advance the transport studies of tokamaks, including development and maintenance of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Database, and (2) to provide theoretical interpretation, modeling and equilibrium and stability for TEXT-Upgrade. Recent publications and reports, and conference presentations of the Fusion Research Center theory group are listed.
Using Nuclear Theory, Data and Uncertainties in Monte Carlo Transport Applications
Rising, Michael Evan
2015-11-03
These are slides for a presentation on using nuclear theory, data and uncertainties in Monte Carlo transport applications. The following topics are covered: nuclear data (experimental data versus theoretical models, data evaluation and uncertainty quantification), fission multiplicity models (fixed source applications, criticality calculations), uncertainties and their impact (integral quantities, sensitivity analysis, uncertainty propagation).
Covariant magnetic connection hypersurfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pegoraro, F.
2016-04-01
> In the single fluid, non-relativistic, ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma description, magnetic field lines play a fundamental role by defining dynamically preserved `magnetic connections' between plasma elements. Here we show how the concept of magnetic connection needs to be generalized in the case of a relativistic MHD description where we require covariance under arbitrary Lorentz transformations. This is performed by defining 2-D magnetic connection hypersurfaces in the 4-D Minkowski space. This generalization accounts for the loss of simultaneity between spatially separated events in different frames and is expected to provide a powerful insight into the 4-D geometry of electromagnetic fields when .
Bendib, A.
2008-09-23
The conference is devoted to the study of systems consisting of a large number of particles by using the kinetic theory. In a first part, we present a general overview of the kinetic theory. In particular, the role of the correlations between particles is shown and discussed through the main models reported in the literature. In a second part, we present three applications to the transport properties in plasmas and neutral gases. The first application is devoted to the transport in hot plasmas perturbed with respect to the global equilibrium. The quasi-static and collisionless distribution function and transport coefficients are established. The influence of relativistic effects is also discussed. The second application deals with strongly inhomogeneous magnetized plasmas. The transport coefficients of Braginskii are calculated numerically in the local and the weakly nonlocal approximations. New nonlocal transport coefficients are emphasized. Finally, we apply the kinetic theory to the neutral gases by calculating the semi-collisional dispersion relation of acoustic waves. In particular, the dispersion and the damping of these waves in rarefied gases are highlighted. The method used to solve the kinetic equations is compared with the conventional method of Chapman-Enskog.
Theory and simulation of photogeneration and transport in Si-SiOx superlattice absorbers.
Aeberhard, Urs
2011-01-01
Si-SiOx superlattices are among the candidates that have been proposed as high band gap absorber material in all-Si tandem solar cell devices. Owing to the large potential barriers for photoexited charge carriers, transport in these devices is restricted to quantum-confined superlattice states. As a consequence of the finite number of wells and large built-in fields, the electronic spectrum can deviate considerably from the minibands of a regular superlattice. In this article, a quantum-kinetic theory based on the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism for an effective mass Hamiltonian is used for investigating photogeneration and transport in such devices for arbitrary geometry and operating conditions. By including the coupling of electrons to both photons and phonons, the theory is able to provide a microscopic picture of indirect generation, carrier relaxation, and inter-well transport mechanisms beyond the ballistic regime. PMID:21711827
Systematic investigation of theories of transport in the Lennard-Jones fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyer, Kippi M.; Pettitt, B. M.; Stell, George
2007-01-01
Three kinetic theories of transport are investigated for the single-species Lennard-Jones model fluid. Transport coefficients, including diffusion, shear, and bulk viscosity, are calculated from these theories for the Lennard-Jones fluid across the fluid regions of the phase diagram. The results are systematically compared against simulation. It is found that for each transport property considered, there is at least one theoretical result based on approximations that have been systematically derived from a first-principles starting point that is quantitatively useful over a wide range of densities and temperatures. To the authors' knowledge, this article constitutes the first such compendium of results for the Lennard-Jones model fluid that has been assembled.
Theory and simulation of photogeneration and transport in Si-SiOx superlattice absorbers
2011-01-01
Si-SiOx superlattices are among the candidates that have been proposed as high band gap absorber material in all-Si tandem solar cell devices. Owing to the large potential barriers for photoexited charge carriers, transport in these devices is restricted to quantum-confined superlattice states. As a consequence of the finite number of wells and large built-in fields, the electronic spectrum can deviate considerably from the minibands of a regular superlattice. In this article, a quantum-kinetic theory based on the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism for an effective mass Hamiltonian is used for investigating photogeneration and transport in such devices for arbitrary geometry and operating conditions. By including the coupling of electrons to both photons and phonons, the theory is able to provide a microscopic picture of indirect generation, carrier relaxation, and inter-well transport mechanisms beyond the ballistic regime. PMID:21711827
CFEST Coupled Flow, Energy & Solute Transport Version CFEST005 Theory Guide
Freedman, Vicky L.; Chen, Yousu; Gupta, Sumant K.
2005-11-01
This document presents the mathematical theory implemented in the CFEST (Coupled Flow, Energy, and Solute Transport) simulator. The simulator is a three-dimensional finite element model that can be used for evaluating flow and solute mass transport. Although the theory for thermal transport is presented in this guide, it has not yet been fully implemented in the simulator. The flow module is capable of simulating both confined and unconfined aquifer systems, as well as constant and variable density fluid flows. For unconfined aquifers, the model uses a moving boundary for the water table, deforming the numerical mesh so that the uppermost nodes are always at the water table. For solute transport, changes in concentration of a single dissolved chemical constituent are computed for advective and hydrodynamic transport, linear sorption represented by a retardation factor, and radioactive decay. Once fully implemented, transport of thermal energy in the groundwater and solid matrix of the aquifer can also be used to model aquifer thermal regimes. Mesh construction employs “collapsible”, hexahedral finite elements in a three-dimensional coordinate system. CFEST uses the Galerkin finite element method to convert the partial differential equations to algebraic form. To solve the coupled equations for momentum, solute and heat transport, either Picard or Newton-Raphson iterative schemes are used to treat nonlinearities. An upstream weighted residual finite-element method is used to solve the advective-dispersive transport and energy transfer equations, which circumvents problems of numerical oscillation problems. Matrix solutions of the flow and transport problems are performed using efficient iterative solvers available in ITPACK and PETSc, solvers that are available in the public domain. These solvers are based on the preconditioned conjugate gradient and ORTHOMIN methods for symmetric and a nonsymmetric matrices, respectively.
Large-Scale Transportation Network Congestion Evolution Prediction Using Deep Learning Theory
Ma, Xiaolei; Yu, Haiyang; Wang, Yunpeng; Wang, Yinhai
2015-01-01
Understanding how congestion at one location can cause ripples throughout large-scale transportation network is vital for transportation researchers and practitioners to pinpoint traffic bottlenecks for congestion mitigation. Traditional studies rely on either mathematical equations or simulation techniques to model traffic congestion dynamics. However, most of the approaches have limitations, largely due to unrealistic assumptions and cumbersome parameter calibration process. With the development of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) and Internet of Things (IoT), transportation data become more and more ubiquitous. This triggers a series of data-driven research to investigate transportation phenomena. Among them, deep learning theory is considered one of the most promising techniques to tackle tremendous high-dimensional data. This study attempts to extend deep learning theory into large-scale transportation network analysis. A deep Restricted Boltzmann Machine and Recurrent Neural Network architecture is utilized to model and predict traffic congestion evolution based on Global Positioning System (GPS) data from taxi. A numerical study in Ningbo, China is conducted to validate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method. Results show that the prediction accuracy can achieve as high as 88% within less than 6 minutes when the model is implemented in a Graphic Processing Unit (GPU)-based parallel computing environment. The predicted congestion evolution patterns can be visualized temporally and spatially through a map-based platform to identify the vulnerable links for proactive congestion mitigation. PMID:25780910
Large-scale transportation network congestion evolution prediction using deep learning theory.
Ma, Xiaolei; Yu, Haiyang; Wang, Yunpeng; Wang, Yinhai
2015-01-01
Understanding how congestion at one location can cause ripples throughout large-scale transportation network is vital for transportation researchers and practitioners to pinpoint traffic bottlenecks for congestion mitigation. Traditional studies rely on either mathematical equations or simulation techniques to model traffic congestion dynamics. However, most of the approaches have limitations, largely due to unrealistic assumptions and cumbersome parameter calibration process. With the development of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) and Internet of Things (IoT), transportation data become more and more ubiquitous. This triggers a series of data-driven research to investigate transportation phenomena. Among them, deep learning theory is considered one of the most promising techniques to tackle tremendous high-dimensional data. This study attempts to extend deep learning theory into large-scale transportation network analysis. A deep Restricted Boltzmann Machine and Recurrent Neural Network architecture is utilized to model and predict traffic congestion evolution based on Global Positioning System (GPS) data from taxi. A numerical study in Ningbo, China is conducted to validate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method. Results show that the prediction accuracy can achieve as high as 88% within less than 6 minutes when the model is implemented in a Graphic Processing Unit (GPU)-based parallel computing environment. The predicted congestion evolution patterns can be visualized temporally and spatially through a map-based platform to identify the vulnerable links for proactive congestion mitigation. PMID:25780910
Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Rafikov, Roman R.; Stone, James M.
2013-06-10
The nature of angular momentum transport in the boundary layers of accretion disks has been one of the central and long-standing issues of accretion disk theory. In this work we demonstrate that acoustic waves excited by supersonic shear in the boundary layer serve as an efficient mechanism of mass, momentum, and energy transport at the interface between the disk and the accreting object. We develop the theory of angular momentum transport by acoustic modes in the boundary layer, and support our findings with three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, using an isothermal equation of state. Our first major result is the identification of three types of global modes in the boundary layer. We derive dispersion relations for each of these modes that accurately capture the pattern speeds observed in simulations to within a few percent. Second, we show that angular momentum transport in the boundary layer is intrinsically nonlocal, and is driven by radiation of angular momentum away from the boundary layer into both the star and the disk. The picture of angular momentum transport in the boundary layer by waves that can travel large distances before dissipating and redistributing angular momentum and energy to the disk and star is incompatible with the conventional notion of local transport by turbulent stresses. Our results have important implications for semianalytical models that describe the spectral emission from boundary layers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Cass T.; Gray, William G.
2008-03-01
This work is the fourth in a series of papers on the thermodynamically constrained averaging theory (TCAT) approach for modeling flow and transport phenomena in multiscale porous medium systems. The general TCAT framework and the mathematical foundation presented in previous works are built upon by formulating macroscale models for conservation of mass, momentum, and energy, and the balance of entropy for a species in a phase volume, interface, and common curve. In addition, classical irreversible thermodynamic relations for species in entities are averaged from the microscale to the macroscale. Finally, we comment on alternative approaches that can be used to connect species and entity conservation equations to a constrained system entropy inequality, which is a key component of the TCAT approach. The formulations detailed in this work can be built upon to develop models for species transport and reactions in a variety of multiphase systems.
HIGH DIMENSIONAL COVARIANCE MATRIX ESTIMATION IN APPROXIMATE FACTOR MODELS
Fan, Jianqing; Liao, Yuan; Mincheva, Martina
2012-01-01
The variance covariance matrix plays a central role in the inferential theories of high dimensional factor models in finance and economics. Popular regularization methods of directly exploiting sparsity are not directly applicable to many financial problems. Classical methods of estimating the covariance matrices are based on the strict factor models, assuming independent idiosyncratic components. This assumption, however, is restrictive in practical applications. By assuming sparse error covariance matrix, we allow the presence of the cross-sectional correlation even after taking out common factors, and it enables us to combine the merits of both methods. We estimate the sparse covariance using the adaptive thresholding technique as in Cai and Liu (2011), taking into account the fact that direct observations of the idiosyncratic components are unavailable. The impact of high dimensionality on the covariance matrix estimation based on the factor structure is then studied. PMID:22661790
Neoclassical transport theory in a tokamak plasma with large spatial gradients
Chang, C.S.
1996-12-31
Usual neoclassical theories assumed that the spatical inhomogeneity of the plasma was weak. Specifically, this included the following two strong assumptions: banana width was negligible compared to the radial gradient scale length and variation of any physical quantity along the field line was small. This led to the simplification that the spatial inhomogeneity itself did not affect the fundamental transport processes. However, there have been many experimental suggestions that the spatial inhomogeneity may not be small. Firstly, both H-mode and ERS mode experiments have indicated that the finite banana width effect may be important to understand the plasma transport processes. Secondly, the RF and auxiliary heating processes may be sufficiently localized in space so that we may need to consider a strongly inhomogeneous heating effect along the field lines. In the present work we develop a modified neoclassical theory, in parallel with the old theories, which can include the finite banana width effect and the inhomogeneous heating effect. Several new and significant transport terms have been identified, which can play important roles in the understanding of the fundamental transport processes in a tokamak plasma.
Baalrud, Scott D.; Daligault, Jérôme
2014-05-15
A method for extending traditional plasma transport theories into the strong coupling regime is presented. Like traditional theories, this is based on a binary scattering approximation, but where physics associated with many body correlations is included through the use of an effective interaction potential. The latter is simply related to the pair-distribution function. Modeling many body effects in this manner can extend traditional plasma theory to orders of magnitude stronger coupling. Theoretical predictions are tested against molecular dynamics simulations for electron-ion temperature relaxation as well as diffusion in one component systems. Emphasis is placed on the connection with traditional plasma theory, where it is stressed that the effective potential concept has precedence through the manner in which screening is imposed. The extension to strong coupling requires accounting for correlations in addition to screening. Limitations of this approach in the presence of strong caging are also discussed.
Stardust Navigation Covariance Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menon, Premkumar R.
2000-01-01
The Stardust spacecraft was launched on February 7, 1999 aboard a Boeing Delta-II rocket. Mission participants include the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Lockheed Martin Astronautics (LMA) and the University of Washington. The primary objective of the mission is to collect in-situ samples of the coma of comet Wild-2 and return those samples to the Earth for analysis. Mission design and operational navigation for Stardust is performed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). This paper will describe the extensive JPL effort in support of the Stardust pre-launch analysis of the orbit determination component of the mission covariance study. A description of the mission and it's trajectory will be provided first, followed by a discussion of the covariance procedure and models. Predicted accuracy's will be examined as they relate to navigation delivery requirements for specific critical events during the mission. Stardust was launched into a heliocentric trajectory in early 1999. It will perform an Earth Gravity Assist (EGA) on January 15, 2001 to acquire an orbit for the eventual rendezvous with comet Wild-2. The spacecraft will fly through the coma (atmosphere) on the dayside of Wild-2 on January 2, 2004. At that time samples will be obtained using an aerogel collector. After the comet encounter Stardust will return to Earth when the Sample Return Capsule (SRC) will separate and land at the Utah Test Site (UTTR) on January 15, 2006. The spacecraft will however be deflected off into a heliocentric orbit. The mission is divided into three phases for the covariance analysis. They are 1) Launch to EGA, 2) EGA to Wild-2 encounter and 3) Wild-2 encounter to Earth reentry. Orbit determination assumptions for each phase are provided. These include estimated and consider parameters and their associated a-priori uncertainties. Major perturbations to the trajectory include 19 deterministic and statistical maneuvers
Covariant constraints in ghost free massive gravity
Deffayet, C.; Mourad, J.; Zahariade, G. E-mail: mourad@apc.univ-paris7.fr
2013-01-01
We show that the reformulation of the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley massive gravity theory using vielbeins leads to a very simple and covariant way to count constraints, and hence degrees of freedom. Our method singles out a subset of theories, in the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley family, where an extra constraint, needed to eliminate the Boulware Deser ghost, is easily seen to appear. As a side result, we also introduce a new method, different from the Stuckelberg trick, to extract kinetic terms for the polarizations propagating in addition to those of the massless graviton.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghanbarian, Behzad; Hunt, Allen G.; Skinner, Thomas E.; Ewing, Robert P.
2015-02-01
Accurate prediction of the saturation dependence of different modes of transport in porous media, such as those due to conductivity, air permeability, and diffusion, is of broad interest in engineering and natural resources management. Most current predictions use a "bundle of capillary tubes" concept, which, despite its widespread use, is a severely distorted idealization of natural porous media. In contrast, percolation theory provides a reliable and powerful means to model interconnectivity of disordered networks and porous materials. In this study, we invoke scaling concepts from percolation theory and effective medium theory to predict the saturation dependence of modes of transport — hydraulic and electrical conductivity, air permeability, and gas diffusion — in two disturbed soils. Universal scaling from percolation theory predicts the saturation dependence of air permeability and gas diffusion accurately, even when the percolation threshold for airflow is estimated from the porosity. We also find that the non-universal scaling obtained from the critical path analysis (CPA) of percolation theory can make excellent predictions of hydraulic and electrical conductivity under partially saturated conditions.
Ravi-Kumar, V.S.; Tsotsis, T.T.; Sahimi, M.
1997-08-01
The results of ongoing efforts by this group to model the transport of asphaltene molecules through model membranes are presented. A model is described which aims to capture the effect of the polydisperse nature of asphaltene molecules on their transport properties. The asphaltene structure is generated stochastically using Monte Carlo techniques. Individual asphaltene molecules are approximated as spheroids for the purpose of calculating their hindered diffusivities. Continuum hydrodynamic theories and boundary element methods are used to calculate the diffusion coefficients. A number of analytical expressions, scaling relationships and approximations utilized in the literature are evaluated.
Beyond Orbital-Motion-Limited theory effects for dust transport in tokamaks
Delzanno, Gian Luca; Tang, Xianzhu
2015-05-29
Dust transport in tokamaks is very important for ITER. Can many kilograms of dust really accumulate in the device? Can the dust survive? The conventional dust transport model is based on Orbital-Motion-Limited theory (OML). But OML can break in the limit where the dust grain becomes positively charged due to electron emission processes because it overestimates the dust collected power. An OML^{+} approximation of the emitted electrons trapped/passing boundary is shown to be in good agreement with PIC simulations.
Metal-molecule contacts and charge transport across monomolecular layers: measurement and theory.
Kushmerick, J G; Holt, D B; Yang, J C; Naciri, J; Moore, M H; Shashidhar, R
2002-08-19
Charge transport studies across molecular length scales under symmetric and asymmetric metal-molecule contact conditions using a simple crossed-wire tunnel junction technique are presented. It is demonstrated that oligo(phenylene ethynylene), a conjugated organic molecule, acts like a molecular wire under symmetric contact conditions, but exhibits characteristics of a molecular diode when the connections are asymmetric. To understand this behavior, we have calculated current-voltage (I-V) characteristics using extended Huckel theory coupled with a Green's function approach. The experimentally observed I-V characteristics are in excellent qualitative agreement with the theory. PMID:12190491
Full quantum theory of the chiral anomaly transport in a Weyl semimetal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Woo-Ram; Park, Kwon; KIAS Team
In relativistic field theory, the chiral anomaly means a violation of the number conservation of chiral fermions. In condensed matter physics, the chiral anomaly can be manifested in a Weyl semimetal as a negative magnetoresistance in the presence of parallel electric and magnetic fields. In this work, we use the Keldysh-Floquet Green's function formalism to develop a full quantum theory of the chiral anomaly transport, which can be valid in a broad range of both electric and magnetic field strengths. The authors thank KIAS Center for Advanced Computation (CAC) for providing computing resources.
Luxmoore, R.J.; Jardine, P.M.; Gardner, R.H. ); Wilson, G.V. . Dept. of Plant and Soil Science)
1990-01-01
Investigations of rain-fed solute transport have been conducted at a forested hillslope site by using an in situ soil pedon and a subsurface hydrologic monitoring facility. Complementary solute transport studies on undisturbed soil columns taken from the field site have not provided data that can be directly applied to the field situation. Scaling up from columns to pedons and from pedons to hillslopes is being evaluated with percolation theory and Latin hypercube sampling methods. Percolation theory provides a means of identifying mobile zones and stagnant zones for given soil structural attributes which can be compared with column dye tracing results. The generation of frequency distributions of backwater and backbone porosities for a range of total soil porosities and pore arrangements may provide a stochastic representation of soil systems suitable for scaling up from the column scale to the pedon using the Latin hypercube sampling method. 9 refs.
cDF Theory Software for mesoscopic modeling of equilibrium and transport phenomena
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2015-12-01
The approach is based on classical Density Functional Theory ((cDFT) coupled with the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) transport kinetics model and quantum mechanical description of short-range interaction and elementary transport processes. The model we proposed and implemented is fully atomistic, taking into account pairwise short-range and manybody long-range interactions. But in contrast to standard molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, where long-range manybody interactions are evaluated as a sum of pair-wise atom-atom contributions, we include them analytically based onmore » wellestablished theories of electrostatic and excluded volume interactions in multicomponent systems. This feature of the PNP/cDFT approach allows us to reach well beyond the length-scales accessible to MD simulations, while retaining the essential physics of interatomic interactions from first principles and in a parameter-free fashion.« less
cDF Theory Software for mesoscopic modeling of equilibrium and transport phenomena
2015-12-01
The approach is based on classical Density Functional Theory ((cDFT) coupled with the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) transport kinetics model and quantum mechanical description of short-range interaction and elementary transport processes. The model we proposed and implemented is fully atomistic, taking into account pairwise short-range and manybody long-range interactions. But in contrast to standard molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, where long-range manybody interactions are evaluated as a sum of pair-wise atom-atom contributions, we include them analytically based on wellestablished theories of electrostatic and excluded volume interactions in multicomponent systems. This feature of the PNP/cDFT approach allows us to reach well beyond the length-scales accessible to MD simulations, while retaining the essential physics of interatomic interactions from first principles and in a parameter-free fashion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albright, M.; Kapusta, J. I.
2016-01-01
We develop a flexible quasiparticle theory of transport coefficients of hot hadronic matter at finite baryon density. We begin with a hadronic quasiparticle model which includes a scalar and a vector mean field. Quasiparticle energies and the mean fields depend on temperature and baryon chemical potential. Starting with the quasiparticle dispersion relation, we derive the Boltzmann equation and use the Chapman-Enskog expansion to derive formulas for the shear and bulk viscosities and thermal conductivity. We obtain both relaxation-time approximation formulas and more general integral equations. Throughout the work, we explicitly enforce the Landau-Lifshitz conditions of fit and ensure the theory is thermodynamically self-consistent. The derived formulas should be useful for predicting the transport coefficients of the hadronic phase of matter produced in heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and at other accelerators.
Diagrammatic and asymptotic approaches to the origins of radiative transport theory: tutorial.
Cazé, A; Schotland, John C
2015-08-01
The radiative transport equation (RTE) is used widely to describe the propagation of multiply scattered light in disordered media. In this tutorial, we present two derivations of the RTE for scalar wave fields. The first derivation is based on diagrammatic perturbation theory, while the second stems from an asymptotic multiscale expansion. Although the two approaches are quite distinct mathematically, some common ground can be found and is discussed. PMID:26367292
Electronic transport properties of one dimensional lithium nanowire using density functional theory
Thakur, Anil; Kumar, Arun; Chandel, Surjeet; Ahluwalia, P. K.
2015-05-15
Single nanowire electrode devices are a unique platform for studying as energy storage devices. Lithium nanowire is of much importance in lithium ion batteries and therefore has received a great deal of attention in past few years. In this paper we investigated structural and electronic transport properties of Li nanowire using density functional theory (DFT) with SIESTA code. Electronic transport properties of Li nanowire are investigated theoretically. The calculations are performed in two steps: first an optimized geometry for Li nanowire is obtained using DFT calculations, and then the transport relations are obtained using NEGF approach. SIESTA and TranSIESTA simulation codes are used in the calculations correspondingly. The electrodes are chosen to be the same as the central region where transport is studied, eliminating current quantization effects due to contacts and focusing the electronic transport study to the intrinsic structure of the material. By varying chemical potential in the electrode regions, an I-V curve is traced which is in agreement with the predicted behavior. Agreement of bulk properties of Li with experimental values make the study of electronic and transport properties in lithium nanowires interesting because they are promising candidates as bridging pieces in nanoelectronics. Transmission coefficient and V-I characteristic of Li nano wire indicates that Li nanowire can be used as an electrode device.
Electronic transport properties of one dimensional lithium nanowire using density functional theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thakur, Anil; Kumar, Arun; Chandel, Surjeet; Ahluwalia, P. K.
2015-05-01
Single nanowire electrode devices are a unique platform for studying as energy storage devices. Lithium nanowire is of much importance in lithium ion batteries and therefore has received a great deal of attention in past few years. In this paper we investigated structural and electronic transport properties of Li nanowire using density functional theory (DFT) with SIESTA code. Electronic transport properties of Li nanowire are investigated theoretically. The calculations are performed in two steps: first an optimized geometry for Li nanowire is obtained using DFT calculations, and then the transport relations are obtained using NEGF approach. SIESTA and TranSIESTA simulation codes are used in the calculations correspondingly. The electrodes are chosen to be the same as the central region where transport is studied, eliminating current quantization effects due to contacts and focusing the electronic transport study to the intrinsic structure of the material. By varying chemical potential in the electrode regions, an I-V curve is traced which is in agreement with the predicted behavior. Agreement of bulk properties of Li with experimental values make the study of electronic and transport properties in lithium nanowires interesting because they are promising candidates as bridging pieces in nanoelectronics. Transmission coefficient and V-I characteristic of Li nano wire indicates that Li nanowire can be used as an electrode device.
Covariance Spectroscopy Applied to Nuclear Radiation Detection
Trainham, R., Tinsley, J., Keegan, R., Quam, W.
2011-09-01
Covariance spectroscopy is a method of processing second order moments of data to obtain information that is usually absent from average spectra. In nuclear radiation detection it represents a generalization of nuclear coincidence techniques. Correlations and fluctuations in data encode valuable information about radiation sources, transport media, and detection systems. Gaining access to the extra information can help to untangle complicated spectra, uncover overlapping peaks, accelerate source identification, and even sense directionality. Correlations existing at the source level are particularly valuable since many radioactive isotopes emit correlated gammas and neutrons. Correlations also arise from interactions within detector systems, and from scattering in the environment. In particular, correlations from Compton scattering and pair production within a detector array can be usefully exploited in scenarios where direct measurement of source correlations would be unfeasible. We present a covariance analysis of a few experimental data sets to illustrate the utility of the concept.
Network Theory: A Primer and Questions for Air Transportation Systems Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holmes, Bruce J.
2004-01-01
A new understanding (with potential applications to air transportation systems) has emerged in the past five years in the scientific field of networks. This development emerges in large part because we now have a new laboratory for developing theories about complex networks: The Internet. The premise of this new understanding is that most complex networks of interest, both of nature and of human contrivance, exhibit a fundamentally different behavior than thought for over two hundred years under classical graph theory. Classical theory held that networks exhibited random behavior, characterized by normal, (e.g., Gaussian or Poisson) degree distributions of the connectivity between nodes by links. The new understanding turns this idea on its head: networks of interest exhibit scale-free (or small world) degree distributions of connectivity, characterized by power law distributions. The implications of scale-free behavior for air transportation systems include the potential that some behaviors of complex system architectures might be analyzed through relatively simple approximations of local elements of the system. For air transportation applications, this presentation proposes a framework for constructing topologies (architectures) that represent the relationships between mobility, flight operations, aircraft requirements, and airspace capacity, and the related externalities in airspace procedures and architectures. The proposed architectures or topologies may serve as a framework for posing comparative and combinative analyses of performance, cost, security, environmental, and related metrics.
On covariance structure in noisy, big data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paffenroth, Randy C.; Nong, Ryan; Du Toit, Philip C.
2013-09-01
Herein we describe theory and algorithms for detecting covariance structures in large, noisy data sets. Our work uses ideas from matrix completion and robust principal component analysis to detect the presence of low-rank covariance matrices, even when the data is noisy, distorted by large corruptions, and only partially observed. In fact, the ability to handle partial observations combined with ideas from randomized algorithms for matrix decomposition enables us to produce asymptotically fast algorithms. Herein we will provide numerical demonstrations of the methods and their convergence properties. While such methods have applicability to many problems, including mathematical finance, crime analysis, and other large-scale sensor fusion problems, our inspiration arises from applying these methods in the context of cyber network intrusion detection.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Song, Y. Tony
2006-01-01
The Asian Marginal Seas are interconnected by a number of narrow straits, such as the Makassar Strait connecting the Pacific Ocean with the Indian Ocean, the Luzon Strait connecting the South China Sea with the Pacific Ocean, and the Korea/Tsushima Strait connecting the East China Sea with the Japan/East Sea. Here we propose a method, the combination of the "geostrophic control" formula of Garrett and Toulany (1982) and the "hydraulic control" theory of Whitehead et al. (1974), allowing the use of satellite-observed sea-surface-height (SSH) and ocean-bottom-pressure (OBP) data for estimating interbasin transport. The new method also allows separating the interbasin transport into surface and bottom fluxes that play an important role in maintaining the mass balance of the regional oceans. Comparison with model results demonstrates that the combined method can estimate the seasonal variability of the strait transports and is significantly better than the method of using SSH or OBP alone.
Alternative Test Criteria in Covariance Structure Analysis: A Unified Approach.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Satorra, Albert
1989-01-01
Within covariance structural analysis, a unified approach to asymptotic theory of alternative test criteria for testing parametric restrictions is provided. More general statistics for addressing the case where the discrepancy function is not asymptotically optimal, and issues concerning power analysis and the asymptotic theory of testing-related…
Preferential Transport Theory for Beta-Amyloid Clearance from the Brain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coloma, Mikhail; Schaffer, David; Chiarot, Paul; Huang, Peter
2015-11-01
The failure to clear beta-amyloid from the aging brain leads to its accumulation within the walls of arteries and to Alzheimer's disease. However, the transport mechanism for beta-amyloid clearance is not well understood. In this study, we propose a preferential transport theory for flow within the vascular walls in the cerebral arterial basement membrane. The flow conduit within the arterial basement membrane is modeled as an annulus between deformable concentric cylinders filled with an incompressible, single-phase Newtonian fluid. The transport is driven by arterial lumen deformation induced by heart pulsations superimposed with reflected boundary waves. Our theory predicts that while the overall arterial wave propagation is in the same direction as the blood flow toward the capillaries, a reverse flow in the basement membrane can be preferentially induced toward larger arteries. This has been suggested as a potential clearance pathway for beta-amyloid. We estimate the magnitude of the reverse transport through a control volume analysis which is corroborated by numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. Bench-top experiments to validate our computational models are presented.
Theory of band warping and its effects on thermoelectronic transport properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mecholsky, Nicholas A.; Resca, Lorenzo; Pegg, Ian L.; Fornari, Marco
2014-04-01
Optical and transport properties of materials depend heavily upon features of electronic band structures in proximity of energy extrema in the Brillouin zone (BZ). Such features are generally described in terms of multidimensional quadratic expansions and corresponding definitions of effective masses. Multidimensional quadratic expansions, however, are permissible only under strict conditions that are typically violated when energy bands become degenerate at extrema in the BZ. Even for energy bands that are nondegenerate at critical points in the BZ there are instances in which multidimensional quadratic expansions cannot be correctly performed. Suggestive terms such as "band warping," "fluted energy surfaces," or "corrugated energy surfaces" have been used to refer to such situations and ad hoc methods have been developed to treat them. While numerical calculations may reflect such features, a complete theory of band warping has not hitherto been developed. We define band warping as referring to band structures that do not admit second-order differentiability at critical points in k space and we develop a generally applicable theory, based on radial expansions, and a corresponding definition of angular effective mass. Our theory also accounts for effects of band nonparabolicity and anisotropy, which hitherto have not been precisely distinguished from, if not utterly confused with, band warping. Based on our theory, we develop precise procedures to evaluate band warping quantitatively. As a benchmark demonstration, we analyze the warping features of valence bands in silicon using first-principles calculations and we compare those with previous semiempirical models. As an application of major significance to thermoelectricity, we use our theory and angular effective masses to generalize derivations of tensorial transport coefficients for cases of either single or multiple electronic bands, with either quadratically expansible or warped energy surfaces. From that
Covariant balance laws in continua with microstructure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yavari, Arash; Marsden, Jerrold E.
2009-02-01
The purpose of this paper is to extend the Green-Naghdi-Rivlin balance of energy method to continua with microstructure. The key idea is to replace the group of Galilean transformations with the group of diffeomorphisms of the ambient space. A key advantage is that one obtains in a natural way all the needed balance laws on both the macro and micro levels along with two Doyle-Erickson formulas. We model a structured continuum as a triplet of Riemannian manifolds: a material manifold, the ambient space manifold of material particles and a director field manifold. The Green-Naghdi-Rivlin theorem and its extensions for structured continua are critically reviewed. We show that when the ambient space is Euclidean and when the microstructure manifold is the tangent space of the ambient space manifold, postulating a single balance of energy law and its invariance under time-dependent isometries of the ambient space, one obtains conservation of mass, balances of linear and angular momenta but not a separate balance of linear momentum. We develop a covariant elasticity theory for structured continua by postulating that energy balance is invariant under time-dependent spatial diffeomorphisms of the ambient space, which in this case is the product of two Riemannian manifolds. We then introduce two types of constrained continua in which microstructure manifold is linked to the reference and ambient space manifolds. In the case when at every material point, the microstructure manifold is the tangent space of the ambient space manifold at the image of the material point, we show that the assumption of covariance leads to balances of linear and angular momenta with contributions from both forces and micro-forces along with two Doyle-Ericksen formulas. We show that generalized covariance leads to two balances of linear momentum and a single coupled balance of angular momentum. Using this theory, we covariantly obtain the balance laws for two specific examples, namely elastic
The incredible shrinking covariance estimator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Theiler, James
2012-05-01
Covariance estimation is a key step in many target detection algorithms. To distinguish target from background requires that the background be well-characterized. This applies to targets ranging from the precisely known chemical signatures of gaseous plumes to the wholly unspecified signals that are sought by anomaly detectors. When the background is modelled by a (global or local) Gaussian or other elliptically contoured distribution (such as Laplacian or multivariate-t), a covariance matrix must be estimated. The standard sample covariance overfits the data, and when the training sample size is small, the target detection performance suffers. Shrinkage addresses the problem of overfitting that inevitably arises when a high-dimensional model is fit from a small dataset. In place of the (overfit) sample covariance matrix, a linear combination of that covariance with a fixed matrix is employed. The fixed matrix might be the identity, the diagonal elements of the sample covariance, or some other underfit estimator. The idea is that the combination of an overfit with an underfit estimator can lead to a well-fit estimator. The coefficient that does this combining, called the shrinkage parameter, is generally estimated by some kind of cross-validation approach, but direct cross-validation can be computationally expensive. This paper extends an approach suggested by Hoffbeck and Landgrebe, and presents efficient approximations of the leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOC) estimate of the shrinkage parameter used in estimating the covariance matrix from a limited sample of data.
Covariant Electrodynamics in Vacuum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilhelm, H. E.
1990-05-01
The generalized Galilei covariant Maxwell equations and their EM field transformations are applied to the vacuum electrodynamics of a charged particle moving with an arbitrary velocity v in an inertial frame with EM carrier (ether) of velocity w. In accordance with the Galilean relativity principle, all velocities have absolute meaning (relative to the ether frame with isotropic light propagation), and the relative velocity of two bodies is defined by the linear relation uG = v1 - v2. It is shown that the electric equipotential surfaces of a charged particle are compressed in the direction parallel to its relative velocity v - w (mechanism for physical length contraction of bodies). The magnetic field H(r, t) excited in the ether by a charge e moving uniformly with velocity v is related to its electric field E(r, t) by the equation H=ɛ0(v - w)xE/[ 1 +w • (t>- w)/c20], which shows that (i) a magnetic field is excited only if the charge moves relative to the ether, and (ii) the magnetic field is weak if v - w is not comparable to the velocity of light c0 . It is remarkable that a charged particle can excite EM shock waves in the ether if |i> - w > c0. This condition is realizable for anti-parallel charge and ether velocities if |v-w| > c0- | w|, i.e., even if |v| is subluminal. The possibility of this Cerenkov effect in the ether is discussed for terrestrial and galactic situations
Theory of Band Warping and its Effects on Thermoelectronic Transport Properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mecholsky, Nicholas; Resca, Lorenzo; Pegg, Ian; Fornari, Marco
2015-03-01
Transport properties of materials depend upon features of band structures near extrema in the BZ. Such features are generally described in terms of quadratic expansions and effective masses. Such expansions, however, are permissible only under strict conditions that are sometimes violated by materials. Suggestive terms such as ``band warping'' have been used to refer to such situations and ad hoc methods have been developed to treat them. We develop a generally applicable theory, based on radial expansions, and a corresponding definition of angular effective mass which also accounts for effects of band non-parabolicity and anisotropy. Further, we develop precise procedures to evaluate band warping quantitatively and as an example we analyze the warping features of valence bands in silicon using first-principles calculations and we compare those with semi-empirical models. We use our theory to generalize derivations of transport coefficients for cases of either single or multiple electronic bands, with either quadratically expansible or warped energy surfaces. We introduce the transport-equivalent ellipsoid and illustrate the drastic effects that band warping can induce on thermoelectric properties using multi-band models. Vitreous State Laboratory and Samsung's GRO program.
(In)validity of the constant field and constant currents assumptions in theories of ion transport.
Syganow, A; von Kitzing, E
1999-01-01
Constant electric fields and constant ion currents are often considered in theories of ion transport. Therefore, it is important to understand the validity of these helpful concepts. The constant field assumption requires that the charge density of permeant ions and flexible polar groups is virtually voltage independent. We present analytic relations that indicate the conditions under which the constant field approximation applies. Barrier models are frequently fitted to experimental current-voltage curves to describe ion transport. These models are based on three fundamental characteristics: a constant electric field, negligible concerted motions of ions inside the channel (an ion can enter only an empty site), and concentration-independent energy profiles. An analysis of those fundamental assumptions of barrier models shows that those approximations require large barriers because the electrostatic interaction is strong and has a long range. In the constant currents assumption, the current of each permeating ion species is considered to be constant throughout the channel; thus ion pairing is explicitly ignored. In inhomogeneous steady-state systems, the association rate constant determines the strength of ion pairing. Among permeable ions, however, the ion association rate constants are not small, according to modern diffusion-limited reaction rate theories. A mathematical formulation of a constant currents condition indicates that ion pairing very likely has an effect but does not dominate ion transport. PMID:9929480
Theory of the Poloidal Spin-up Precursor to Transport Barrier Formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Staebler, G. M.
1999-11-01
The phenomenon of a sudden change in the poloidal flow prior to the reduction in transport and the steepening of temperature and density profiles has been observed both at the edge (high-modes) and in the core (enhanced reversed shear (ERS-modes) of tokamaks. The poloidal spin-up precursor is narrowly localized in the (radial) direction across magnetic flux surfaces. Although the reduction of turbulent transport is consistent with the theory of E× B flow shear suppression, the localized poloidal spin-up precursor has not been explained by the theory until now. It will be shown that the observed flow pattern is well described by a new class of bifurcation to the momentum balance equations. The new physics follows from extending the standard neoclassical theory of poloidal flow damping to include the turbulent viscous stress. The new bifurcation results from balancing the non-linear turbulent viscous tress with the linear poloidal flow damping due to the neoclassical parallel viscous stress. The new bifurcation results in a mono-polar E× B flow structure (with a large poloidal component) which is narrowly localized in the radial direction. The peak in the flow is shown to reduce and finally disappear as the diamagnetic velocity shear increases.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1985-02-01
Version 00 TP2 is a transport theory code, developed to determine reactivity effects and kinetic parameters such as effective delayed neutron fractions and mean generation time by applying the usual perturbation formalism for two-dimensional geometry.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1985-02-01
Version 00 TP1 is a transport theory code, developed to determine reactivity effects and kinetic parameters such as effective delayed neutron fractions and mean generation time by applying the usual perturbation formalism for one-dimensional geometry.
Covariant Closed String Coherent States
Hindmarsh, Mark; Skliros, Dimitri
2011-02-25
We give the first construction of covariant coherent closed string states, which may be identified with fundamental cosmic strings. We outline the requirements for a string state to describe a cosmic string, and provide an explicit and simple map that relates three different descriptions: classical strings, light cone gauge quantum states, and covariant vertex operators. The resulting coherent state vertex operators have a classical interpretation and are in one-to-one correspondence with arbitrary classical closed string loops.
Covariant closed string coherent states.
Hindmarsh, Mark; Skliros, Dimitri
2011-02-25
We give the first construction of covariant coherent closed string states, which may be identified with fundamental cosmic strings. We outline the requirements for a string state to describe a cosmic string, and provide an explicit and simple map that relates three different descriptions: classical strings, light cone gauge quantum states, and covariant vertex operators. The resulting coherent state vertex operators have a classical interpretation and are in one-to-one correspondence with arbitrary classical closed string loops. PMID:21405564
Theory of Transport of Long Polymer Molecules through Carbon Nanotube Channels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wei, Chenyu; Srivastava, Deepak
2003-01-01
A theory of transport of long chain polymer molecules through carbon nanotube (CNT) channels is developed using Fokker-Planck equation and direct molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The mean transport or translocation time tau is found to depend on the chemical potential energy, entropy and diffusion coefficient. A power law dependence tau approx. N(sup 2)is found where N is number of monomers in a molecule. For 10(exp 5)-unit long polyethylene molecules, tau is estimated to be approx. 1micro-s. The diffusion coefficient of long polymer molecules inside CNTs, like that of short ones, are found to be few orders of magnitude larger than in ordinary silicate based zeolite systems.
Molecular Theory for Electrokinetic Transport in pH-Regulated Nanochannels.
Kong, Xian; Jiang, Jian; Lu, Diannan; Liu, Zheng; Wu, Jianzhong
2014-09-01
Ion transport through nanochannels depends on various external driving forces as well as the structural and hydrodynamic inhomogeneity of the confined fluid inside of the pore. Conventional models of electrokinetic transport neglect the discrete nature of ionic species and electrostatic correlations important at the boundary and often lead to inconsistent predictions of the surface potential and the surface charge density. Here, we demonstrate that the electrokinetic phenomena can be successfully described by the classical density functional theory in conjunction with the Navier-Stokes equation for the fluid flow. The new theoretical procedure predicts ion conductivity in various pH-regulated nanochannels under different driving forces, in excellent agreement with experimental data. PMID:26278253
Zhang, Yu Chen, GuanHua; Yam, ChiYung
2015-04-28
A time-dependent inelastic electron transport theory for strong electron-phonon interaction is established via the equations of motion method combined with the small polaron transformation. In this work, the dissipation via electron-phonon coupling is taken into account in the strong coupling regime, which validates the small polaron transformation. The corresponding equations of motion are developed, which are used to study the quantum interference effect and phonon-induced decoherence dynamics in molecular junctions. Numerical studies show clearly quantum interference effect of the transport electrons through two quasi-degenerate states with different couplings to the leads. We also found that the quantum interference can be suppressed by the electron-phonon interaction where the phase coherence is destroyed by phonon scattering. This indicates the importance of electron-phonon interaction in systems with prominent quantum interference effect.
Fokker Planck and Krook theory of energetic electron transport in a laser produced plasma
Manheimer, Wallace; Colombant, Denis
2015-09-15
Various laser plasma instabilities, such as the two plasma decay instability and the stimulated Raman scatter instability, produce large quantities of energetic electrons. How these electrons are transported and heat the plasma are crucial questions for laser fusion. This paper works out a Fokker Planck and Krook theory for such transport and heating. The result is a set of equations, for which one can find a simple asymptotic approximation for the solution, for the Fokker Planck case, and an exact solution for the Krook case. These solutions are evaluated and compared with one another. They give rise to expressions for the spatially dependent heating of the background plasma, as a function of the instantaneous laser and plasma parameters, in either planar or spherical geometry. These formulas are simple, universal (depending weakly only on the single parameter Z, the charge state), and can be easily be incorporated into a fluid simulation.
Using time-dependent density functional theory in real time for calculating electronic transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaffhauser, Philipp; Kümmel, Stephan
2016-01-01
We present a scheme for calculating electronic transport within the propagation approach to time-dependent density functional theory. Our scheme is based on solving the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations on grids in real space and real time for a finite system. We use absorbing and antiabsorbing boundaries for simulating the coupling to a source and a drain. The boundaries are designed to minimize the effects of quantum-mechanical reflections and electrical polarization build-up, which are the major obstacles when calculating transport by applying an external bias to a finite system. We show that the scheme can readily be applied to real molecules by calculating the current through a conjugated molecule as a function of time. By comparing to literature results for the conjugated molecule and to analytic results for a one-dimensional model system we demonstrate the reliability of the concept.
Fokker Planck and Krook theory of energetic electron transport in a laser produced plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manheimer, Wallace; Colombant, Denis
2015-09-01
Various laser plasma instabilities, such as the two plasma decay instability and the stimulated Raman scatter instability, produce large quantities of energetic electrons. How these electrons are transported and heat the plasma are crucial questions for laser fusion. This paper works out a Fokker Planck and Krook theory for such transport and heating. The result is a set of equations, for which one can find a simple asymptotic approximation for the solution, for the Fokker Planck case, and an exact solution for the Krook case. These solutions are evaluated and compared with one another. They give rise to expressions for the spatially dependent heating of the background plasma, as a function of the instantaneous laser and plasma parameters, in either planar or spherical geometry. These formulas are simple, universal (depending weakly only on the single parameter Z, the charge state), and can be easily be incorporated into a fluid simulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coropceanu, Veaceslav; Li, Hong; Winget, Paul; Zhu, Lingyun; Brédas, Jean-Luc
2013-07-01
We focus this review on the theoretical description, at the density functional theory level, of two key processes that are common to electronic devices based on organic semiconductors (such as organic light-emitting diodes, field-effect transistors, and solar cells), namely charge transport and charge injection from electrodes. By using representative examples of current interest, our main goal is to introduce some of the reliable theoretical methodologies that can best depict these processes. We first discuss the evaluation of the microscopic parameters that determine charge-carrier transport in organic molecular crystals, i.e., electronic couplings and electron-vibration couplings. We then examine the electronic structure at interfaces between an organic layer and a metal or conducting oxide electrode, with an emphasis on the work-function modifications induced by the organic layer and on the interfacial energy-level alignments.
Lorentz covariance, higher-spin superspaces and self-duality
Devchand, Chandrashekar; Nuyts, Jean
1998-12-15
Lorentz covariant generalisations of the notions of supersymmetry, superspace and self-duality are discussed. The essential idea is to extend standard constructions by allowing tangent vectors and coordinates which transform according to more general Lorentz representations than solely the spinorial and vectorial ones of standard lore. Such superspaces provide model configuration spaces for theories of arbitrary spin fields. Our framework is an elegant one for handling higher-dimensional theories in a manifestly SO(3,1) cavariant fashion. A further application is the construction of a hierarchy of solvable Lorentz covariant systems generalising four-dimensional self-duality.
Theory for the anomalous electron transport in Hall effect thrusters. II. Kinetic model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lafleur, T.; Baalrud, S. D.; Chabert, P.
2016-05-01
In Paper I [T. Lafleur et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 053502 (2016)], we demonstrated (using particle-in-cell simulations) the definite correlation between an anomalously high cross-field electron transport in Hall effect thrusters (HETs), and the presence of azimuthal electrostatic instabilities leading to enhanced electron scattering. Here, we present a kinetic theory that predicts the enhanced scattering rate and provides an electron cross-field mobility that is in good agreement with experiment. The large azimuthal electron drift velocity in HETs drives a strong instability that quickly saturates due to a combination of ion-wave trapping and wave-convection, leading to an enhanced mobility many orders of magnitude larger than that expected from classical diffusion theory. In addition to the magnetic field strength, B0, this enhanced mobility is a strong function of the plasma properties (such as the plasma density) and therefore does not, in general, follow simple 1 /B02 or 1 /B0 scaling laws.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Jiawei; Ke, Youqi
2016-07-01
Electron transport properties of nanoelectronics can be significantly influenced by the inevitable and randomly distributed impurities/defects. For theoretical simulation of disordered nanoscale electronics, one is interested in both the configurationally averaged transport property and its statistical fluctuation that tells device-to-device variability induced by disorder. However, due to the lack of an effective method to do disorder averaging under the nonequilibrium condition, the important effects of disorders on electron transport remain largely unexplored or poorly understood. In this work, we report a general formalism of Green's function based nonequilibrium effective medium theory to calculate the disordered nanoelectronics. In this method, based on a generalized coherent potential approximation for the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function, we developed a generalized nonequilibrium vertex correction method to calculate the average of a two-Keldysh-Green's-function correlator. We obtain nine nonequilibrium vertex correction terms, as a complete family, to express the average of any two-Green's-function correlator and find they can be solved by a set of linear equations. As an important result, the averaged nonequilibrium density matrix, averaged current, disorder-induced current fluctuation, and averaged shot noise, which involve different two-Green's-function correlators, can all be derived and computed in an effective and unified way. To test the general applicability of this method, we applied it to compute the transmission coefficient and its fluctuation with a square-lattice tight-binding model and compared with the exact results and other previously proposed approximations. Our results show very good agreement with the exact results for a wide range of disorder concentrations and energies. In addition, to incorporate with density functional theory to realize first-principles quantum transport simulation, we have also derived a general form of
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1990-04-25
Version 00 TPTRIA calculates reactivity, effective delayed neutron fractions and mean generation time for two-dimensional triangular geometry on the basis of neutron transport perturbation theory. DIAMANT2 (also designated as CCC-414), is a multigroup two-dimensional discrete ordinates transport code system for triangular and hexagonal geometry which calculates direct and adjoint angular fluxes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Falconer, P. D.; Pratt, R. W.
1979-01-01
The annual variations of ozone near the tropopause are derived from aircraft exhibit year-to-year differences which are not explicitly accounted for by the simple, classical ozone transport theory. Phenomena such as tropopause lifting, interannual variations in the rates of stratospheric-tropospheric exchange and meridional mixing, contribute differently to the distribution of ozone in this altitude region. Ozone encounter climatologies have been represented by global maps which show the probabilities of exceeding ambient ozone levels of 200, 300, and 400 ppbV along flight routes during the year. Continuous ozone records obtained from the GASP system revealed the presence of gravity waves whose wavelength is of the order 20 km. The GASP data cannot, however, be utilized for the evaluation of horizontal fluxes of such quantities as ozone, sensible heat, and zonal momentum; the data are too sparsely and irregularly distributed for the computation of stable correlations. Multiple species data from the unique circumglobal flight of a Pan American airliner on 28-30 October 1977 are discussed with particular regard to the apparent interhemispheric differences in tropospheric species concentrations, variation between the Arctic and Antarctic stratospheres, to possible covariations between species, and to potential source regions for various constituents.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiani, M.; Alavianmehr, M. M.; Otoofat, M.; Mohsenipour, A. A.; Ghatee, A.
2015-11-01
In this work, we identify a simple method for predicting transport properties of fluids over wide ranges of temperatures and pressure. In this respect, the capability of several equations of state (EOS) and second virial coefficient correlations to predict transport properties of fluids including carbon dioxide, methane and argon using modified Enskog theory (MET) is investigated. The transport properties in question are viscosity and thermal conductivity. The results indicate that the SRK EOS employed in the modified Enskog theory outperforms other equations of state. The average absolute deviation was found to be 12.2 and 18.5% for, respectively, the calculated thermal conductivity and viscosity using the MET.
Shrinkage estimators for covariance matrices.
Daniels, M J; Kass, R E
2001-12-01
Estimation of covariance matrices in small samples has been studied by many authors. Standard estimators, like the unstructured maximum likelihood estimator (ML) or restricted maximum likelihood (REML) estimator, can be very unstable with the smallest estimated eigenvalues being too small and the largest too big. A standard approach to more stably estimating the matrix in small samples is to compute the ML or REML estimator under some simple structure that involves estimation of fewer parameters, such as compound symmetry or independence. However, these estimators will not be consistent unless the hypothesized structure is correct. If interest focuses on estimation of regression coefficients with correlated (or longitudinal) data, a sandwich estimator of the covariance matrix may be used to provide standard errors for the estimated coefficients that are robust in the sense that they remain consistent under misspecification of the covariance structure. With large matrices, however, the inefficiency of the sandwich estimator becomes worrisome. We consider here two general shrinkage approaches to estimating the covariance matrix and regression coefficients. The first involves shrinking the eigenvalues of the unstructured ML or REML estimator. The second involves shrinking an unstructured estimator toward a structured estimator. For both cases, the data determine the amount of shrinkage. These estimators are consistent and give consistent and asymptotically efficient estimates for regression coefficients. Simulations show the improved operating characteristics of the shrinkage estimators of the covariance matrix and the regression coefficients in finite samples. The final estimator chosen includes a combination of both shrinkage approaches, i.e., shrinking the eigenvalues and then shrinking toward structure. We illustrate our approach on a sleep EEG study that requires estimation of a 24 x 24 covariance matrix and for which inferences on mean parameters critically
Chiral transport equation from the quantum Dirac Hamiltonian and the on-shell effective field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manuel, Cristina; Torres-Rincon, Juan M.
2014-10-01
We derive the relativistic chiral transport equation for massless fermions and antifermions by performing a semiclassical Foldy-Wouthuysen diagonalization of the quantum Dirac Hamiltonian. The Berry connection naturally emerges in the diagonalization process to modify the classical equations of motion of a fermion in an electromagnetic field. We also see that the fermion and antifermion dispersion relations are corrected at first order in the Planck constant by the Berry curvature, as previously derived by Son and Yamamoto for the particular case of vanishing temperature. Our approach does not require knowledge of the state of the system, and thus it can also be applied at high temperature. We provide support for our result by an alternative computation using an effective field theory for fermions and antifermions: the on-shell effective field theory. In this formalism, the off-shell fermionic modes are integrated out to generate an effective Lagrangian for the quasi-on-shell fermions/antifermions. The dispersion relation at leading order exactly matches the result from the semiclassical diagonalization. From the transport equation, we explicitly show how the axial and gauge anomalies are not modified at finite temperature and density despite the incorporation of the new dispersion relation into the distribution function.
Modeling PSA Problems - II: A Cell-to-Cell Transport Theory Approach
Labeau, P.E.; Izquierdo, J.M.
2005-06-15
In the first paper of this series, we presented an extension of the classical theory of dynamic reliability in which the actual occurrence of an event causing a change in the system dynamics is possibly delayed. The concept of stimulus activation, which triggers the realization of an event after a distributed time delay, was introduced. This gives a new understanding of competing events in the sequence delineation process.In the context of the level-2 probabilistic safety analysis (PSA), the information on stimulus activation mainly consists of regions of the process variables space where the activation can occur with a given probability. The evolution equations of the extended theory of probabilistic dynamics are therefore particularized to a transport process between discrete cells defined in phase-space on this basis. Doing so, an integrated and coherent approach to level-2 PSA problems is propounded. This amounts to including the stimulus concept and the associated stochastic delays discussed in the first paper in the frame of a cell-to-cell transport process.In addition, this discrete model provides a theoretical basis for the definition of appropriate numerical schemes for integrated level-2 PSA applications.
Quasi-local mass in the covariant Newtonian spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yu-Huei; Wang, Chih-Hung
2008-07-01
In general relativity, quasi-local energy momentum expressions have been constructed from various formulae. However, the Newtonian theory of gravity gives a well-known and a unique quasi-local mass expression (surface integration). Since geometrical formulation of Newtonian gravity has been established in the covariant Newtonian spacetime, it provides a covariant approximation from relativistic to Newtonian theories. By using this approximation, we calculate the Komar integral, the Brown York quasi-local energy and the Dougan Mason quasi-local mass in the covariant Newtonian spacetime. It turns out that the Komar integral naturally gives the Newtonian quasi-local mass expression; however, further conditions (spherical symmetry) need to be made for Brown York and Dougan Mason expressions.
The phase diagram and transport properties of MgO from theory and experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shulenburger, Luke
2013-06-01
Planetary structure and the formation of terrestrial planets have received tremendous interest due to the discovery of so called super-earth exoplanets. MgO is a major constituent of Earth's mantle, the rocky cores of gas giants and is a likely component of the interiors of many of these exoplanets. The high pressure - high temperature behavior of MgO directly affects equation of state models for planetary structure and formation. In this work, we examine MgO under extreme conditions using experimental and theoretical methods to determine its phase diagram and transport properties. Using plate impact experiments on Sandia's Z facility the solid-solid phase transition from B1 to B2 is clearly determined. The melting transition, on the other hand, is subtle, involving little to no signal in us-up space. Theoretical work utilizing density functional theory (DFT) provides a complementary picture of the phase diagram. The solid-solid phase transition is identified through a series of quasi-harmonic phonon calculations and thermodynamic integration, while the melt boundary is found using phase coexistence calculations. One issue of particular import is the calculation of reflectivity along the Hugoniot and the influence of the ionic structure on the transport properties. Particular care is necessary because of the underestimation of the band gap and attendant overestimation of transport properties due to the use of semi-local density functional theory. We will explore the impact of this theoretical challenge and its potential solutions in this talk. The integrated use of DFT simulations and high-accuracy shock experiments together provide a comprehensive understanding of MgO under extreme conditions. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacob, D.; Palacios, J. J.
2011-01-01
We study the performance of two different electrode models in quantum transport calculations based on density functional theory: parametrized Bethe lattices and quasi-one-dimensional wires or nanowires. A detailed account of implementation details in both the cases is given. From the systematic study of nanocontacts made of representative metallic elements, we can conclude that the parametrized electrode models represent an excellent compromise between computational cost and electronic structure definition as long as the aim is to compare with experiments where the precise atomic structure of the electrodes is not relevant or defined with precision. The results obtained using parametrized Bethe lattices are essentially similar to the ones obtained with quasi-one-dimensional electrodes for large enough cross-sections of these, adding a natural smearing to the transmission curves that mimics the true nature of polycrystalline electrodes. The latter are more demanding from the computational point of view, but present the advantage of expanding the range of applicability of transport calculations to situations where the electrodes have a well-defined atomic structure, as is the case for carbon nanotubes, graphene nanoribbons, or semiconducting nanowires. All the analysis is done with the help of codes developed by the authors which can be found in the quantum transport toolbox ALACANT and are publicly available.
Berkolaiko, G.; Kuipers, J.
2013-11-15
To study electronic transport through chaotic quantum dots, there are two main theoretical approaches. One involves substituting the quantum system with a random scattering matrix and performing appropriate ensemble averaging. The other treats the transport in the semiclassical approximation and studies correlations among sets of classical trajectories. There are established evaluation procedures within the semiclassical evaluation that, for several linear and nonlinear transport moments to which they were applied, have always resulted in the agreement with random matrix predictions. We prove that this agreement is universal: any semiclassical evaluation within the accepted procedures is equivalent to the evaluation within random matrix theory. The equivalence is shown by developing a combinatorial interpretation of the trajectory sets as ribbon graphs (maps) with certain properties and exhibiting systematic cancellations among their contributions. Remaining trajectory sets can be identified with primitive (palindromic) factorisations whose number gives the coefficients in the corresponding expansion of the moments of random matrices. The equivalence is proved for systems with and without time reversal symmetry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Ping
The thesis comprises two major themes of quantum statistical dynamics. One is the development of quantum dissipation theory (QDT). It covers the establishment of some basic relations of quantum statistical dynamics, the construction of several nonequivalent complete second-order formulations, and the development of exact QDT. Another is related to the applications of quantum statistical dynamics to a variety of research fields. In particular, unconventional but novel theories of the electron transfer in Debye solvents, quantum transport, and quantum measurement are developed on the basis of QDT formulations. The thesis is organized as follows. In Chapter 1, we present some background knowledge in relation to the aforementioned two themes of this thesis. The key quantity in QDT is the reduced density operator rho(t) ≡ trBrho T(t); i.e., the partial trace of the total system and bath composite rhoT(t) over the bath degrees of freedom. QDT governs the evolution of reduced density operator, where the effects of bath are treated in a quantum statistical manner. In principle, the reduced density operator contains all dynamics information of interest. However, the conventional quantum transport theory is formulated in terms of nonequilibrium Green's function. The newly emerging field of quantum measurement in relation to quantum information and quantum computing does exploit a sort of QDT formalism. Besides the background of the relevant theoretical development, some representative experiments on molecular nanojunctions are also briefly discussed. In chapter 2, we outline some basic (including new) relations that highlight several important issues on QDT. The content includes the background of nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics, the general description of the total composite Hamiltonian with stochastic system-bath interaction, a novel parameterization scheme for bath correlation functions, a newly developed exact theory of driven Brownian oscillator (DBO
Covariance fitting of highly-correlated data in lattice QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoon, Boram; Jang, Yong-Chull; Jung, Chulwoo; Lee, Weonjong
2013-07-01
We address a frequently-asked question on the covariance fitting of highly-correlated data such as our B K data based on the SU(2) staggered chiral perturbation theory. Basically, the essence of the problem is that we do not have a fitting function accurate enough to fit extremely precise data. When eigenvalues of the covariance matrix are small, even a tiny error in the fitting function yields a large chi-square value and spoils the fitting procedure. We have applied a number of prescriptions available in the market, such as the cut-off method, modified covariance matrix method, and Bayesian method. We also propose a brand new method, the eigenmode shift (ES) method, which allows a full covariance fitting without modifying the covariance matrix at all. We provide a pedagogical example of data analysis in which the cut-off method manifestly fails in fitting, but the rest work well. In our case of the B K fitting, the diagonal approximation, the cut-off method, the ES method, and the Bayesian method work reasonably well in an engineering sense. However, interpreting the meaning of χ 2 is easier in the case of the ES method and the Bayesian method in a theoretical sense aesthetically. Hence, the ES method can be a useful alternative optional tool to check the systematic error caused by the covariance fitting procedure.
Conformal killing tensors and covariant Hamiltonian dynamics
Cariglia, M.; Gibbons, G. W.; Holten, J.-W. van; Horvathy, P. A.; Zhang, P.-M.
2014-12-15
A covariant algorithm for deriving the conserved quantities for natural Hamiltonian systems is combined with the non-relativistic framework of Eisenhart, and of Duval, in which the classical trajectories arise as geodesics in a higher dimensional space-time, realized by Brinkmann manifolds. Conserved quantities which are polynomial in the momenta can be built using time-dependent conformal Killing tensors with flux. The latter are associated with terms proportional to the Hamiltonian in the lower dimensional theory and with spectrum generating algebras for higher dimensional quantities of order 1 and 2 in the momenta. Illustrations of the general theory include the Runge-Lenz vector for planetary motion with a time-dependent gravitational constant G(t), motion in a time-dependent electromagnetic field of a certain form, quantum dots, the Hénon-Heiles and Holt systems, respectively, providing us with Killing tensors of rank that ranges from one to six.
Covariant non-commutative space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heckman, Jonathan J.; Verlinde, Herman
2015-05-01
We introduce a covariant non-commutative deformation of 3 + 1-dimensional conformal field theory. The deformation introduces a short-distance scale ℓp, and thus breaks scale invariance, but preserves all space-time isometries. The non-commutative algebra is defined on space-times with non-zero constant curvature, i.e. dS4 or AdS4. The construction makes essential use of the representation of CFT tensor operators as polynomials in an auxiliary polarization tensor. The polarization tensor takes active part in the non-commutative algebra, which for dS4 takes the form of so (5, 1), while for AdS4 it assembles into so (4, 2). The structure of the non-commutative correlation functions hints that the deformed theory contains gravitational interactions and a Regge-like trajectory of higher spin excitations.
A class of covariate-dependent spatiotemporal covariance functions
Reich, Brian J; Eidsvik, Jo; Guindani, Michele; Nail, Amy J; Schmidt, Alexandra M.
2014-01-01
In geostatistics, it is common to model spatially distributed phenomena through an underlying stationary and isotropic spatial process. However, these assumptions are often untenable in practice because of the influence of local effects in the correlation structure. Therefore, it has been of prolonged interest in the literature to provide flexible and effective ways to model non-stationarity in the spatial effects. Arguably, due to the local nature of the problem, we might envision that the correlation structure would be highly dependent on local characteristics of the domain of study, namely the latitude, longitude and altitude of the observation sites, as well as other locally defined covariate information. In this work, we provide a flexible and computationally feasible way for allowing the correlation structure of the underlying processes to depend on local covariate information. We discuss the properties of the induced covariance functions and discuss methods to assess its dependence on local covariate information by means of a simulation study and the analysis of data observed at ozone-monitoring stations in the Southeast United States. PMID:24772199
Model Comparison of Nonlinear Structural Equation Models with Fixed Covariates.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Sik-Yum; Song, Xin-Yuan
2003-01-01
Proposed a new nonlinear structural equation model with fixed covariates to deal with some complicated substantive theory and developed a Bayesian path sampling procedure for model comparison. Illustrated the approach with an illustrative example using data from an international study. (SLD)
Prediction: Design of experiments based on approximating covariance kernels
Fedorov, V.
1998-11-01
Using Mercer`s expansion to approximate the covariance kernel of an observed random function the authors transform the prediction problem to the regression problem with random parameters. The latter one is considered in the framework of convex design theory. First they formulate results in terms of the regression model with random parameters, then present the same results in terms of the original problem.
A covariant approach to the gravitational refractive index
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simaciu, I.; Ionescu-Pallas, N.
A covariant formulation of the Maxwell's field equations in a gravitational field, based on the bimetric interpretation of general relativity Theory, is given. The purpose of the work is in adequate definition of the gravitational refractive index in agreement with both wave equations propagation and a relationship between refractive index and the Minkovskian tensor of gravitational permitivity.
Light ion components of the galactic cosmic rays: Nuclear interactions and transport theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cucinotta, F. A.; Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Badhwar, G. D.; Dubey, R. R.
Light nuclei are present in the primary galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and are produced in thick targets due to projectile or target fragmentation from both nucleon and heavy induced reactions. In the primary GCR, He-4 is the most abundant nucleus after H-1. However, there are also a substantial fluxes of H-2 and He-3. In this paper we describe theoretical models based on quantum multiple scattering theory for the description of light ion nuclear interactions. The energy dependence of the light ion fragmentation cross section is considered with comparisons of inclusive yields and secondary momentum distributions to experiments described. We also analyze the importance of a fast component of lights ions from proton and neutron induced target fragementation. These theoretical models have been incorporated into the cosmic ray transport code HZETRN and will be used to analyze the role of shielding materials in modulating the production and the energy spectrum of light ions.
Turbulence and transport in enhanced confinement regimes of tokamaks: Simulation and theory
Hahm, T.S.; Artun, M.; Beer, M.A.
1996-12-31
An integrated program of theory and computation has been developed to understand the physics responsible for the favorable confinement trends exhibited by, for example, enhanced reversed shear (ERS) plasmas in TFTR and DIII-D. This paper reports on (1) the quantitative assessment of ExB shear suppression of turbulence by comparison of the linear growth rate calculated from the gyrofluid/comprehensive kinetic codes and the experimentally measured shearing rate in TFTR ERS plasmas; (2) the first self-consistent nonlinear demonstration of ion temperature gradient turbulence reduction due to {angle}P{sub i} driven ExB shear by the global gyrokinetic simulation; (3) a revised neoclassical analysis and gyrokinetic particle simulation results in agreement with trends in ERS plasmas; (4) Shafranov shift induced stabilization of trapped electron mode in ERS plasmas calculated by the gyrofluid code; and (5) new nonlinear gyrokinetic equations for turbulence in core transport barriers.
Casanova, S.; Schlickeiser, R.
2012-02-01
Recently, a new transport theory of cosmic rays in magnetized space plasmas extending the quasilinear approximation to the particle orbit has been developed for the case of an axisymmetric incompressible magnetic turbulence. Here, we generalize the approach to the important physical case of a compressible plasma. As previously obtained in the case of an incompressible plasma, we allow arbitrary gyrophase deviations from the unperturbed spiral orbits in the uniform magnetic field. For the case of quasi-stationary and spatially homogeneous magnetic turbulence we derive, in the small Larmor radius approximation, gyrophase-averaged cosmic-ray Fokker-Planck coefficients. Upper limits for the perpendicular and pitch-angle Fokker-Planck coefficients and for the perpendicular and parallel spatial diffusion coefficients are presented.
Sjostrom, Travis; Daligault, Jérôme
2015-12-01
We validate the application of our recent orbital-free density functional theory (DFT) approach [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 155006 (2014);] for the calculation of ionic and electronic transport properties of dense plasmas. To this end, we calculate the self-diffusion coefficient, the viscosity coefficient, the electrical and thermal conductivities, and the reflectivity coefficient of hydrogen and aluminum plasmas. Very good agreement is found with orbital-based Kohn-Sham DFT calculations at lower temperatures. Because the computational costs of the method do not increase with temperature, we can produce results at much higher temperatures than is accessible by the Kohn-Sham method. Our results for warm dense aluminum at solid density are inconsistent with the recent experimental results reported by Sperling et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 115001 (2015)]. PMID:26764850
Ionic and electronic transport properties in dense plasmas by orbital-free density functional theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sjostrom, Travis; Daligault, Jérôme
2015-12-01
We validate the application of our recent orbital-free density functional theory (DFT) approach [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 155006 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.155006;] for the calculation of ionic and electronic transport properties of dense plasmas. To this end, we calculate the self-diffusion coefficient, the viscosity coefficient, the electrical and thermal conductivities, and the reflectivity coefficient of hydrogen and aluminum plasmas. Very good agreement is found with orbital-based Kohn-Sham DFT calculations at lower temperatures. Because the computational costs of the method do not increase with temperature, we can produce results at much higher temperatures than is accessible by the Kohn-Sham method. Our results for warm dense aluminum at solid density are inconsistent with the recent experimental results reported by Sperling et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 115001 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.115001].
Incorporating biplane wing theory into a large, subsonic, all-cargo transport
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zyskowski, Michael K.
1994-01-01
If the air-cargo market increases at the pace predicted, a new conceptual aircraft will be demanded to meet the needs of the air-cargo industry. Furthermore, it has been found that not only should this aircraft be optimized to carry the intermodal containers used by the current shipping industry, but it should also be be able to operate at existing airports. The best solution to these problems is a configuration incorporating a bi-wing planform, which has resulted in significant improvements over the monoplane in lift/drag, weight reduction, and span reduction. The future of the air-cargo market, biplane theory, wind tunnel tests, and a comparison of the aerodynamic characteristics of the biplane and monoplane are discussed. The factors pertaining to a biplane cargo transport are then examined, resulting in biplane geometric parameters.
Light ion components of the galactic cosmic rays: Nuclear interactions and transport theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cucinotta, F. A.; Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Badhwar, G. D.; Dubey, R. R.
1996-01-01
Light nuclei are present in the primary galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and are produced in thick targets due to projectile or target fragmentation from both nucleon and heavy induced reactions. In the primary GCR, He-4 is the most abundant nucleus after H-1. However, there are also a substantial fluxes of H-2 and He-3. In this paper we describe theoretical models based on quantum multiple scattering theory for the description of light ion nuclear interactions. The energy dependence of the light ion fragmentation cross section is considered with comparisons of inclusive yields and secondary momentum distributions to experiments described. We also analyze the importance of a fast component of lights ions from proton and neutron induced target fragementation. These theoretical models have been incorporated into the cosmic ray transport code HZETRN and will be used to analyze the role of shielding materials in modulating the production and the energy spectrum of light ions.
The Importance of Covariate Selection in Controlling for Selection Bias in Observational Studies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steiner, Peter M.; Cook, Thomas D.; Shadish, William R.; Clark, M. H.
2010-01-01
The assumption of strongly ignorable treatment assignment is required for eliminating selection bias in observational studies. To meet this assumption, researchers often rely on a strategy of selecting covariates that they think will control for selection bias. Theory indicates that the most important covariates are those highly correlated with…
Are Eddy Covariance series stationary?
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Spectral analysis via a discrete Fourier transform is used often to examine eddy covariance series for cycles (eddies) of interest. Generally the analysis is performed on hourly or half-hourly data sets collected at 10 or 20 Hz. Each original series is often assumed to be stationary. Also automated ...
Molnar, Ian L; Sanematsu, Paula C; Gerhard, Jason I; Willson, Clinton S; O'Carroll, Denis M
2016-08-01
This study evaluates the pore-scale distribution of silver nanoparticles during transport through a sandy porous medium via quantitative synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography (qSXCMT). The associated distributions of nanoparticle flow velocities and mass flow rates were obtained by coupling these images with computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations. This allowed, for the first time, the comparison of nanoparticle mass flow with that assumed by the standard colloid filtration theory (CFT) modeling approach. It was found that (i) 25% of the pore space was further from the grain than assumed by the CFT model; (ii) the average pore velocity agreed well between results of the coupled qSXCMT/CFD approach and the CFT model within the model fluid envelope, although the former were 2 times larger than the latter in the centers of the larger pores and individual velocities were upwards of 20 times those in the CFT model at identical distances from grain surfaces ; and (iii) approximately 30% of all nanoparticle mass and 38% of all nanoparticle mass flow occurred further away from the grain surface than expected by the CFT model. This work suggests that a significantly smaller fraction of nanoparticles than expected will contact a grain surface by diffusion via CFT models, likely contributing to inadequate CFT model nanoparticle transport predictions. PMID:27385389
Adaptive time stepping algorithm for Lagrangian transport models: Theory and idealised test cases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shah, Syed Hyder Ali Muttaqi; Heemink, Arnold Willem; Gräwe, Ulf; Deleersnijder, Eric
2013-08-01
Random walk simulations have an excellent potential in marine and oceanic modelling. This is essentially due to their relative simplicity and their ability to represent advective transport without being plagued by the deficiencies of the Eulerian methods. The physical and mathematical foundations of random walk modelling of turbulent diffusion have become solid over the years. Random walk models rest on the theory of stochastic differential equations. Unfortunately, the latter and the related numerical aspects have not attracted much attention in the oceanic modelling community. The main goal of this paper is to help bridge the gap by developing an efficient adaptive time stepping algorithm for random walk models. Its performance is examined on two idealised test cases of turbulent dispersion; (i) pycnocline crossing and (ii) non-flat isopycnal diffusion, which are inspired by shallow-sea dynamics and large-scale ocean transport processes, respectively. The numerical results of the adaptive time stepping algorithm are compared with the fixed-time increment Milstein scheme, showing that the adaptive time stepping algorithm for Lagrangian random walk models is more efficient than its fixed step-size counterpart without any loss in accuracy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, A. A.; Elkington, S. R.; Albert, J.; Zheng, L.
2013-12-01
Although much is known about the dynamics of the radiation belts there are still many unanswered questions on the basic physical processes responsible for the storm-time variations of relativistic electrons. Two physical processes that are thought to be especially important are (i) drift-resonant wave-particle interactions with ULF perturbations, which may lead to radial diffusion, and (ii) cyclotron-resonant wave-particle interactions with VLF/ELF waves, which may lead to local energy and pitch-angle diffusion. While there is theoretical and observational support that both of these processes play important roles in radiation belt dynamics, their relative contributions are still not well understood quantitatively. Also, recent work suggests that magnetopause shadowing may play a larger role than previously expected, and the physical connections between changes in the radiation belts and different solar interplanetary drivers are not well understood. In this presentation I will briefly review published work on radial transport, local acceleration, and loss, and I will also present recent results (particularly for high-speed-stream storms) that emphasize the value of integrating theories and observations of the radiation belts, including comments on theories and observations of related electromagnetic fields and plasma populations in the Earth's inner magnetosphere.
Modeling the Electron Transport in Nanostructures by Using the Concept of BIons in M-theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sepehri, Alireza; Pincak, Richard
2016-06-01
In this paper, using the similarity between quantum tunnels in nanostructures and BIon in M-theory, we propose a new model which considers the process of formation of superconductors in nanostructures. We show that by decreasing the size of nanostructures, emitted photons by electrons connect to each other and form a wormhole-like tunnel. This tunnel is a channel for transporting electron inside the nanostructure. If different wormhole-like tunnels join to each other, one big tunnel is constructed that can be an origin for superconductivity in matter. The superconductor order parameter depends on the size of nanostructure and temperature. Increasing temperature, it is shown that the model matches with quantum theory prescriptions. Also, by applying external electromagnetism, external photons interact with exchanging photons between electrons, exchanging photons deviate from original route and the formation of wormhole-like tunnels inside a nanostructure is prevented. Finally, it is shown that the origin of electrodynamics and gravity are the same and thus, the phrase of wormhole can be applied for appeared tunnels in nanostructures.
Theory for electron and hole transport in HgTe-CdTe superlattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, J. R.; Arnold, D. J.; Hoffman, C. A.; Bartoli, F. J.; Ram-Mohan, L. R.
1991-10-01
We present results of the first detailed theory for electron and hole transport in HgTe-CdTe superlattices. The calculations incorporates the superlattice band structure in full generality, and also treats multi-well scattering and screening processes which have been ignored in previous theories. It is predicted that whereas the electron and hole mobilities should be nearly equal at low temperatures, the hole mobility falls far below the electron value at somewhat higher temperatures due to the extreme nonparabolicity of the valence band. This prediction is entirely consistent with experimental results reported previously. Excellent quantitative agreement with the data over a broad temperature range is achieved if interface roughness scattering is considered in addition to ionized impurity scattering, acoustic and optical phonon scattering, and electron-hole scattering. It is pointed out that low-temperature electron mobilities for a number of thin-well HgTe-CdTe superlattices follow the d6W dependence expected for the interface roughness mechanism.
Vector order parameter in general relativity: Covariant equations
Meierovich, Boris E.
2010-07-15
Phase transitions with spontaneous symmetry breaking and vector order parameter are considered in multidimensional theory of general relativity. Covariant equations, describing the gravitational properties of topological defects, are derived. The topological defects are classified in accordance with the symmetry of the covariant derivative of the vector order parameter. The abilities of the derived equations are demonstrated in application to the braneworld concept. New solutions of the Einstein equations with a transverse vector order parameter are presented. In the vicinity of phase transition, the solutions are found analytically.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mészáros, Cs.; Kirschner, I.; Bálint, Á.
2014-07-01
A general description of the basic system of ordinary differential equations of coupled transport processes is given within framework of a linear approximation and treated by tools of matrix analysis and group representation theory. It is shown that the technique of hyperdyads directly generalizes the method of simple dyadic decomposition of operators used earlier in the classical linear irreversible thermodynamics and leads to possible new applications of the concept of quasi-polynomials at descriptions of coupled transport processes.
Noisy covariance matrices and portfolio optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pafka, S.; Kondor, I.
2002-05-01
According to recent findings [#!bouchaud!#,#!stanley!#], empirical covariance matrices deduced from financial return series contain such a high amount of noise that, apart from a few large eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenvectors, their structure can essentially be regarded as random. In [#!bouchaud!#], e.g., it is reported that about 94% of the spectrum of these matrices can be fitted by that of a random matrix drawn from an appropriately chosen ensemble. In view of the fundamental role of covariance matrices in the theory of portfolio optimization as well as in industry-wide risk management practices, we analyze the possible implications of this effect. Simulation experiments with matrices having a structure such as described in [#!bouchaud!#,#!stanley!#] lead us to the conclusion that in the context of the classical portfolio problem (minimizing the portfolio variance under linear constraints) noise has relatively little effect. To leading order the solutions are determined by the stable, large eigenvalues, and the displacement of the solution (measured in variance) due to noise is rather small: depending on the size of the portfolio and on the length of the time series, it is of the order of 5 to 15%. The picture is completely different, however, if we attempt to minimize the variance under non-linear constraints, like those that arise e.g. in the problem of margin accounts or in international capital adequacy regulation. In these problems the presence of noise leads to a serious instability and a high degree of degeneracy of the solutions.
Generalized Covariant Gyrokinetic Dynamics of Magnetoplasmas
Cremaschini, C.; Tessarotto, M.; Nicolini, P.; Beklemishev, A.
2008-12-31
A basic prerequisite for the investigation of relativistic astrophysical magnetoplasmas, occurring typically in the vicinity of massive stellar objects (black holes, neutron stars, active galactic nuclei, etc.), is the accurate description of single-particle covariant dynamics, based on gyrokinetic theory (Beklemishev et al., 1999-2005). Provided radiation-reaction effects are negligible, this is usually based on the assumption that both the space-time metric and the EM fields (in particular the magnetic field) are suitably prescribed and are considered independent of single-particle dynamics, while allowing for the possible presence of gravitational/EM perturbations driven by plasma collective interactions which may naturally arise in such systems. The purpose of this work is the formulation of a generalized gyrokinetic theory based on the synchronous variational principle recently pointed out (Tessarotto et al., 2007) which permits to satisfy exactly the physical realizability condition for the four-velocity. The theory here developed includes the treatment of nonlinear perturbations (gravitational and/or EM) characterized locally, i.e., in the rest frame of a test particle, by short wavelength and high frequency. Basic feature of the approach is to ensure the validity of the theory both for large and vanishing parallel electric field. It is shown that the correct treatment of EM perturbations occurring in the presence of an intense background magnetic field generally implies the appearance of appropriate four-velocity corrections, which are essential for the description of single-particle gyrokinetic dynamics.
Data Covariances from R-Matrix Analyses of Light Nuclei
Hale, G.M. Paris, M.W.
2015-01-15
After first reviewing the parametric description of light-element reactions in multichannel systems using R-matrix theory and features of the general LANL R-matrix analysis code EDA, we describe how its chi-square minimization procedure gives parameter covariances. This information is used, together with analytically calculated sensitivity derivatives, to obtain cross section covariances for all reactions included in the analysis by first-order error propagation. Examples are given of the covariances obtained for systems with few resonances ({sup 5}He) and with many resonances ({sup 13}C ). We discuss the prevalent problem of this method leading to cross section uncertainty estimates that are unreasonably small for large data sets. The answer to this problem appears to be using parameter confidence intervals in place of standard errors.
Data Covariances from R-Matrix Analyses of Light Nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hale, G. M.; Paris, M. W.
2015-01-01
After first reviewing the parametric description of light-element reactions in multichannel systems using R-matrix theory and features of the general LANL R-matrix analysis code EDA, we describe how its chi-square minimization procedure gives parameter covariances. This information is used, together with analytically calculated sensitivity derivatives, to obtain cross section covariances for all reactions included in the analysis by first-order error propagation. Examples are given of the covariances obtained for systems with few resonances (5He) and with many resonances (13C). We discuss the prevalent problem of this method leading to cross section uncertainty estimates that are unreasonably small for large data sets. The answer to this problem appears to be using parameter confidence intervals in place of standard errors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zugang
Network systems, including transportation and logistic systems, electric power generation and distribution networks as well as financial networks, provide the critical infrastructure for the functioning of our societies and economies. The understanding of the dynamic behavior of such systems is also crucial to national security and prosperity. The identification of new connections between distinct network systems is the inspiration for the research in this dissertation. In particular, I answer two questions raised by Beckmann, McGuire, and Winsten (1956) and Copeland (1952) over half a century ago, which are, respectively, how are electric power flows related to transportation flows and does money flow like water or electricity? In addition, in this dissertation, I achieve the following: (1) I establish the relationships between transportation networks and three other classes of complex network systems: supply chain networks, electric power generation and transmission networks, and financial networks with intermediation. The establishment of such connections provides novel theoretical insights as well as new pricing mechanisms, and efficient computational methods. (2) I develop new modeling frameworks based on evolutionary variational inequality theory that capture the dynamics of such network systems in terms of the time-varying flows and incurred costs, prices, and, where applicable, profits. This dissertation studies the dynamics of such network systems by addressing both internal competition and/or cooperation, and external changes, such as varying costs and demands. (3) I focus, in depth, on electric power supply chains. By exploiting the relationships between transportation networks and electric power supply chains, I develop a large-scale network model that integrates electric power supply chains and fuel supply markets. The model captures both the economic transactions as well as the physical transmission constraints. The model is then applied to the New
Manifestly covariant Jüttner distribution and equipartition theorem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chacón-Acosta, Guillermo; Dagdug, Leonardo; Morales-Técotl, Hugo A.
2010-02-01
The relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution plays a key role in describing several high-energy and astrophysical effects. Recently, computer simulations favored Jüttner’s as the relativistic generalization of Maxwell’s distribution for d=1,2,3 spatial dimensions and pointed to an invariant temperature. In this work, we argue an invariant temperature naturally follows from manifest covariance. We present a derivation of the manifestly covariant Jüttner’s distribution and equipartition theorem. The standard procedure to get the equilibrium distribution as a solution of the relativistic Boltzmann’s equation, which holds for dilute gases, is here adopted. However, contrary to previous analysis, we use Cartesian coordinates in d+1 momentum space, with d spatial components. The use of the multiplication theorem of Bessel functions turns crucial to regain the known invariant form of Jüttner’s distribution. Since equilibrium kinetic-theory results should agree with thermodynamics in the comoving frame to the gas the covariant pseudonorm of a vector entering the distribution can be identified with the reciprocal of temperature in such comoving frame. Then by combining the covariant statistical moments of Jüttner’s distribution a form of the equipartition theorem is advanced which also accommodates the invariant comoving temperature and it contains, as a particular case, a previous not manifestly covariant form.
General covariance, artificial gauge freedom and empirical equivalence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pitts, James Brian
This dissertation updates the debate over the nontriviality of general covariance for Einstein's General Theory of Relativity (GTR) and considers particle physics in the debate over underdetermination and empirical equivalence. Both tasks are tied to the unexplored issue of artificial gauge freedom, a valuable form of descriptive redundancy. Whereas Einstein took general covariance to characterize GTR, Kretschmann thought it merely a formal feature that any theory could have. Anderson and Friedman analyzed substantive general covariance as the lack of absolute objects, fields the same in all models. Some extant counterexamples and a new one involving the electron spinor field are resolved. However, Geroch and Giulini diagnose an absolute object in GTR itself in the metric's volume element. One might instead analyze substantive general covariance as formal general covariance achieved without hiding preferred coordinates as scalar "clock fields," recalling Einstein's early views. Theories with no metric or multiple metrics make the age of the universe meaningless or ambiguous, respectively, so the ancient and medieval debate over the eternity of the world should be recast. Particle physics provides case studies for empirical equivalence. Proca's electromagnetism with some nonzero photon mass constitutes a family of rivals to Maxwell's theory. Whereas any Proca theory can be distinguished empirically from Maxwell's, the Proca family approaches Maxwell's for small masses, yielding permanent underdetermination with only approximate empirical equivalence. The weak nuclear force also displays a smooth massless limit classically, but not after quantization, recalling the instability of empirical equivalence under change of auxiliary hypotheses. The standard electroweak theory apparently permits a photon mass term and hence underdetermination, but possible further unification might not. The question of underdetermination regarding massive gravity is unresolved. Physicists
Evidence for maximal acceleration and singularity resolution in covariant loop quantum gravity.
Rovelli, Carlo; Vidotto, Francesca
2013-08-30
A simple argument indicates that covariant loop gravity (spin foam theory) predicts a maximal acceleration and hence forbids the development of curvature singularities. This supports the results obtained for cosmology and black holes using canonical methods. PMID:24033021
Covariant entropy bound and loop quantum cosmology
Ashtekar, Abhay; Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2008-09-15
We examine Bousso's covariant entropy bound conjecture in the context of radiation filled, spatially flat, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models. The bound is violated near the big bang. However, the hope has been that quantum gravity effects would intervene and protect it. Loop quantum cosmology provides a near ideal setting for investigating this issue. For, on the one hand, quantum geometry effects resolve the singularity and, on the other hand, the wave function is sharply peaked at a quantum corrected but smooth geometry, which can supply the structure needed to test the bound. We find that the bound is respected. We suggest that the bound need not be an essential ingredient for a quantum gravity theory but may emerge from it under suitable circumstances.
Covariant Lyapunov analysis of chaotic Kolmogorov flows.
Inubushi, Masanobu; Kobayashi, Miki U; Takehiro, Shin-ichi; Yamada, Michio
2012-01-01
Hyperbolicity is an important concept in dynamical system theory; however, we know little about the hyperbolicity of concrete physical systems including fluid motions governed by the Navier-Stokes equations. Here, we study numerically the hyperbolicity of the Navier-Stokes equation on a two-dimensional torus (Kolmogorov flows) using the method of covariant Lyapunov vectors developed by Ginelli et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 130601 (2007)]. We calculate the angle between the local stable and unstable manifolds along an orbit of chaotic solution to evaluate the hyperbolicity. We find that the attractor of chaotic Kolmogorov flows is hyperbolic at small Reynolds numbers, but that smaller angles between the local stable and unstable manifolds are observed at larger Reynolds numbers, and the attractor appears to be nonhyperbolic at a certain Reynolds numbers. Also, we observed some relations between these hyperbolic properties and physical properties such as time correlation of the vorticity and the energy dissipation rate. PMID:22400681
Covariant chronogeometry and extreme distances: Elementary particles
Segal, I. E.; Jakobsen, H. P.; Ørsted, B.; Paneitz, S. M.; Speh, B.
1981-01-01
We study a variant of elementary particle theory in which Minkowski space, M0, is replaced by a natural alternative, the unique four-dimensional manifold ¯M with comparable properties of causality and symmetry. Free particles are considered to be associated (i) with positive-energy representations in bundles of prescribed spin over ¯M of the group of causality-preserving transformations on ¯M (or its mass-conserving subgroup) and (ii) with corresponding wave equations. In this study these bundles, representations, and equations are detailed, and some of their basic features are developed in the cases of spins 0 and ½. Preliminaries to a general study are included; issues of covariance, unitarity, and positivity of the energy are treated; appropriate quantum numbers are indicated; and possible physical applications are discussed. PMID:16593075
A covariance analysis algorithm for interconnected systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, Victor H. L.; Curley, Robert D.; Lin, Ching-An
1987-01-01
A covariance analysis algorithm for propagation of signal statistics in arbitrarily interconnected nonlinear systems is presented which is applied to six-degree-of-freedom systems. The algorithm uses statistical linearization theory to linearize the nonlinear subsystems, and the resulting linearized subsystems are considered in the original interconnection framework for propagation of the signal statistics. Some nonlinearities commonly encountered in six-degree-of-freedom space-vehicle models are referred to in order to illustrate the limitations of this method, along with problems not encountered in standard deterministic simulation analysis. Moreover, the performance of the algorithm shall be numerically exhibited by comparing results using such techniques to Monte Carlo analysis results, both applied to a simple two-dimensional space-intercept problem.
Sixty years of interest in flow and transport theories: Sources of inspiration and a few results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raats, Peter A. C.
2016-04-01
By choosing to major in soil physics at Wageningen now exactly 60 years ago, I could combine my interest in exact sciences with my experience of growing up on a farm. I never regretted that choice. In the first twenty years, I profited much from close contacts with members of the immediate post-WW II generation of soil physicists (especially Jerry Bolt, Arnold Klute, Ed Miller, Champ Tanner, Wilford Gardner, John Philip, and Jan van Schilfgaarde), chemical engineers (especially at UW Madison the trio Bob Bird, Warren Stewart and Ed Lightfoot) and experts in continuum mechanics (especially at Johns Hopkins Clifford Truesdell and Jerald Ericksen). As graduate student at Illinois with Klute, to describe flow and transport theories in soil science I initially explored as possible framework thermodynamics of irreversible processes (TIP), but soon switched to the continuum theory of mixtures (CTM), initiated by Truesdell in 1957. In CTM, the balance of forces gave a rational basis for flux equations. CTM allowed me to deal with swelling/shrinkage, role of inertia, boundary conditions, and structured soils. Later, I did use TIP to deal with certain aspects of transfer of water and heat in soils and selective uptake of water and nutrients by plant roots. Recently, a variety of theories for upscaling from the pore scale to the Darcy scale have clarified the potential, limits and common ground of CTM and TIP. A great advantage of CTM is that it provides geometric tools suited for kinematic aspects of flow, transport, and growth/decay processes. In particular, the concept of material coordinates of the solid phase that I used in my PhD thesis to cope with large deformation due to swelling/shrinkage of soils, later also turned to be useful to deal with simultaneous shrinkage and decay in peat soils and compost heaps, and the growth of plant tissues. Also, by focusing on the material coordinates for the water, it became possible to describe transport of solutes in unsaturated
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Watkins, James F., Comp.
These written domain referenced tests (DRTs) for the area of transportation/automotive mechanics test cognitive abilities or knowledge of theory. Introductory materials describe domain referenced testing and test development. Each multiple choice test includes a domain statement, describing the behavior and content of the domain, and a test item…
Ling, G N
1990-09-01
This review presents the theory of solute transport across frog skin, epithelial cells of the intestine, the kidney tubules, and other similar systems. This theory is a part of a broader theory of the living cell, called the association-induction hypothesis. The central pumping mechanism is the cyclic activity of a sponge-like cytoplasmic protein(s), which alternately sop-up (by adsorption) the solute being transported and squeeze it out again (by desorption) into the cytoplasmic water at a high concentration level. The uptake phase begins with the adsorption of ATP on key cardinal sites of the protein involved; the release phase is triggered by the desorption of ATP through its dephosphorylation during a transitory activation of an ATPase. The theory recognizes the different nature of the two surfaces of the epithelial cells and assigns to each a key role in the active transport. The surface facing the "source solution" has a higher permeability to the solute being transported, while the surface facing the "sink solution" has a low permeability to the solute. This asymmetry in permeability insures that the solute sopped up by the cytoplasmic protein(s) comes primarily from the source solution. Depolarization of the water of the cell surface facing the sink solution (but not that facing the source solution) insures that the solute released into the cytoplasmic water during the squeezing phase leaves the cell only through the opposite surface as that where the solute has entered the cell. PMID:2080435
Theory of valley-dependent transport in graphene-based lateral quantum structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Feng-Wu; Chou, Mei-Yin; Chen, Yiing-Rei; Wu, Yu-Shu
2016-08-01
Modulation of electronic states in two-dimensional materials can be achieved by using in-plane variations of the band gap or the average potential in lateral quantum structures. In the atomic configurations with hexagonal symmetry, this approach makes it possible to tailor the valleytronic properties for potential device applications. In this work, we present a multiband theory to calculate the valley-dependent electron transport in graphene-based lateral quantum structures. As an example, we consider the structures with a single interface that exhibits an energy gap or potential discontinuity. The theoretical formalism proceeds within the tight-binding description, by first deriving the local bulk complex band structures in the regions of a constant gap or potential and, next, joining the local wave functions across the interface via a cell-averaged current operator to ensure the current continuity. The theory is applied to the study of electron reflection off and transmission through an interface. Both reflection and transmission are found to exhibit valley-contrast behavior that can be used to generate valley-polarized electron sources. The results vary with the type of interfaces, as well as between monolayer and bilayer graphene-based structures. In the monolayer case, the valley contrast originates from the band warping and only becomes sizable for incident carriers of high energy, whereas in AB-stacked bilayer graphene, the vertical interlayer coupling emerges as an additional important cause for valley contrast, and the favorable carrier energy is also found to be drastically lower. Our numerical results clearly demonstrate the propitious valleytronic properties of bilayer graphene structures.
Walsh, Stephen J.; Tardiff, Mark F.
2007-10-01
Removing background from hyperspectral scenes is a common step in the process of searching for materials of interest. Some approaches to background subtraction use spectral library data and require invertible covariance matrices for each member of the library. This is challenging because the covariance matrix can be calculated but standard methods for estimating the inverse requires that the data set for each library member have many more spectral measurements than spectral channels, which is rarely the case. An alternative approach is called shrinkage estimation. This method is investigated as an approach to providing an invertible covariance matrix estimate in the case where the number of spectral measurements is less than the number of spectral channels. The approach is an analytic method for arriving at a target matrix and the shrinkage parameter that modify the existing covariance matrix for the data to make it invertible. The theory is discussed to develop different estimates. The resulting estimates are computed and inspected on a set of hyperspectral data. This technique shows some promise for arriving at an invertible covariance estimate for small hyperspectral data sets.
Gauge covariant fermion propagator in quenched, chirally symmetric quantum electrodynamics
Roberts, C.D.; Dong, Z.; Munczek, H.J.
1995-08-01
The chirally symmetric solution of the massless, quenched, Dyson-Schwinger equation (DSE) for the fermion propagator in three- and four-dimensional quantum electrodynamics was obtained. The DSEs are a valuable nonperturbative tool for studying field theories. In recent years a good deal of progress was made in addressing the limitations of the DSE approach in the study of Abelian gauge theories. Key to this progress is an understanding of the role of the dressed fermion/gauge-boson vertex in ensuring gauge covariance and multiplicative renormalizability of the solution of the fermion DSE. The solutions we obtain are manifestly gauge covariant and a general gauge covariance constraint on the fermion/gauge-boson vertex is presented, which motivates a vertex Ansatz that, for the first time, both satisfies the Ward identity when the fermion self-mass is zero and ensures gauge covariance of the fermion propagator. This research facilitates gauge-invariant, nonperturbative studies of continuum quantum electrodynamics and has already been used by others in studies of the chiral phase transition.
Open Quantum Transport and Non-Hermitian Real-Time Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elenewski, Justin; Zhao, Yanxiang; Chen, Hanning
Sub-nanometer electronic devices are notoriously difficult to simulate, with the most widely adopted transport schemes predicting currents that diverge from experiment by several orders of magnitude. This deviation arises from numerous factors, including the inability of these methods to accommodate dynamic processes such as charge reorganization. A promising alternative entails the direct propagation of an electronic structure calculation, as exemplified by real-time time-dependent density functional theory (RT-TDDFT). Unfortunately this framework is inherently that of a closed system, and modifications must be made to handle incoming and outgoing particle fluxes. To this end, we establish a formal correspondence between the quantum master equation for an open, many-particle system and its description in terms of RT-TDDFT and non-Hermitian boundary potentials. By dynamically constraining the particle density within the boundary regions corresponding to the device leads, a simulation may be selectively converged to the non-equilibrium steady state associated with a given electrostatic bias. Our numerical tests demonstrate that this algorithm is both highly stable and readily integrated into existing electronic structure frameworks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlickeiser, R.
2011-05-01
A new transport theory of cosmic rays in magnetized space plasmas with axisymmetric incompressible magnetic turbulence is developed extending the quasilinear approximation to the particle orbit. Arbitrary gyrophase deviations from the unperturbed spiral orbits in the uniform magnetic field are allowed. For quasi-stationary and spatially homogeneous magnetic turbulence, we derive the small Larmor radius approximation gyrophase-averaged cosmic ray Fokker-Planck coefficients. The generalized Fokker-Planck coefficients correctly reduce to their known quasilinear values in the corresponding limit. New forms of the quasilinear Fokker-Planck coefficients in axisymmetric turbulence are derived which no longer involve infinite sums of products of Bessel functions, which facilitate their numerical computation for specified turbulence field correlation tensors. The Fokker-Planck coefficients for arbitrary phase orbits of the cosmic ray particles provide strict upper limits for the perpendicular and pitch-angle Fokker-Planck coefficients, which in turn yield strict upper and lower limits for the perpendicular and parallel spatial diffusion coefficients, respectively, describing the spatial diffusion of the isotropic part of the cosmic ray phase space density. For the associated mean free paths, we find for this general case that the product of the minimum parallel mean free path with the sum of the maximum perpendicular mean free paths equals R 2 L , where RL denotes the cosmic ray gyroradius.
Connecting Math and Motion: A Covariational Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Culbertson, Robert J.; Thompson, A. S.
2006-12-01
We define covariational reasoning as the ability to correlate changes in two connected variables. For example, the ability to describe the height of fluid in an odd-shaped vessel as a function of fluid volume requires covariational reasoning skills. Covariational reasoning ability is an essential resource for gaining a deep understanding of the physics of motion. We have developed an approach for teaching physical science to in-service math and science high school teachers that emphasizes covariational reasoning. Several examples of covariation and results from a small cohort of local teachers will be presented.
Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections
Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.
2008-09-01
We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jokipii, J. R.
1976-01-01
The reasons for studying cosmic-ray transport theory are summarized and the fundamentally three-dimensional nature of the process is pointed out. It is shown that observations in the solar ecliptic plane cannot unambiguously test transport theories since the solutions to the transport equations depend critically on boundary conditions and variation of parameters such as diffusion tensor out of the ecliptic. Sample calculations (Fokker-Planck coefficient) are shown which illustrate the problem. It is concluded that out-of-the-ecliptic observations are essential to further test transport theory.
Phase-covariant quantum benchmarks
Calsamiglia, J.; Aspachs, M.; Munoz-Tapia, R.; Bagan, E.
2009-05-15
We give a quantum benchmark for teleportation and quantum storage experiments suited for pure and mixed test states. The benchmark is based on the average fidelity over a family of phase-covariant states and certifies that an experiment cannot be emulated by a classical setup, i.e., by a measure-and-prepare scheme. We give an analytical solution for qubits, which shows important differences with standard state estimation approach, and compute the value of the benchmark for coherent and squeezed states, both pure and mixed.
An evaluation of the Rouse theory for sand transport in the Oka estuary, Spain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Al-Ragum, A.; Monge-Ganuzas, M.; Amos, C. L.; Cearreta, A.; Townend, I.; Manca, E.
2014-04-01
The Rouse profile has been traditionally used to represent the vertical distribution of suspended sand in a marine benthic boundary layer. Yet it is one of the biggest unknowns in estuarine morphodynamics, largely due to uncertainties of the ratio of the sediment fall velocity to bed friction on which the Rouse exponent (R=ws/βku*) is based. A field campaign was carried out at three different locations in the Oka estuary, northern Spain, in order to examine these uncertainties. Each location differed in grain size and flow condition thus offering a wide range of settings. The first survey was inside the estuary (wave sheltered, flood tide dominated and relatively broad estuary section), the second was at the distal ebb delta (ebb tide dominated and narrow estuary section), and the third was over the wave exposed proximal ebb delta (wave/flood tidal current combined flows and open sea). The aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of the Rouse (1937) theory for the distribution of sand in suspension throughout a turbulent benthic boundary layer. A modified version of a Helley-Smith sampler was used to trap sand and measure the vertical distribution of sand in the water column. As well, a 1200 ADCP was used to measure flow velocity and backscatter together with an ADV (turbulence). The sand traps were found to have a sampling efficiency of 44%. The grain size at all stations was finer near the surface and coarser near the bed. The sand transport inside the estuary (Station 1) is inwards dominant. By contrast, the sand concentration during the ebb tide was ten times higher than during the flood tide at Station 2 and even higher at Station 3, which suggests that the sand transport over the ebb delta is seawards. The average Rouse parameters for Stations 1, 2, and 3 are 0.48±0.035, 0.78±0.23, and 0.46±0.06 respectively, which correspond to a coefficient of proportionality of the movability number, (χ) of 4 (Van Rijn, 1993). These differ from previous
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
To, Tran Thinh; Adams, Stefan
2012-06-01
A simple first principle model was developed based on extended Hückel-type orbital calculation, Marcus electron transport theory and two-dimensional-electron-gas model for the treatment of charge transport in conjugated polymers. Though simple and easy to compute, the effect of the applied electric-field is factored in. Based on this, a complete one-dimensional device model with a single layer of conjugated polymer sandwiched between two electrodes was developed with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as a case study. Simulated J-V curves show that π-π charge transport is much more pronounced than intra-chain transport, hence agree with previous findings. Using the same framework, we also calculated the absorption spectra of P3HT by considering the electronic energy barrier for electronic transitions that would satisfy Franck-Condon principle. Absorption spectra closely harmonize to experimental UV-Vis result. The model also reveals intra-chain electronic transitions to be the dominant absorption mechanism. All parameters of the model are obtained from either ab-initio Density Functional Theory (DFT) or Molecular Dynamics (MD) calculations, so that this model is capable of predicting charge transport and light absorption properties of new conjugated polymers without introducing fit parameters.
Detecting Seismic Activity with a Covariance Matrix Analysis of Data Recorded on Seismic Arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seydoux, L.; Shapiro, N.; de Rosny, J.; Brenguier, F.
2014-12-01
Modern seismic networks are recording the ground motion continuously all around the word, with very broadband and high-sensitivity sensors. The aim of our study is to apply statistical array-based approaches to processing of these records. We use the methods mainly brought from the random matrix theory in order to give a statistical description of seismic wavefields recorded at the Earth's surface. We estimate the array covariance matrix and explore the distribution of its eigenvalues that contains information about the coherency of the sources that generated the studied wavefields. With this approach, we can make distinctions between the signals generated by isolated deterministic sources and the "random" ambient noise. We design an algorithm that uses the distribution of the array covariance matrix eigenvalues to detect signals corresponding to coherent seismic events. We investigate the detection capacity of our methods at different scales and in different frequency ranges by applying it to the records of two networks: (1) the seismic monitoring network operating on the Piton de la Fournaise volcano at La Réunion island composed of 21 receivers and with an aperture of ~15 km, and (2) the transportable component of the USArray composed of ~400 receivers with ~70 km inter-station spacing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vettchinkina, V.; Kartsev, A.; Karlsson, D.; Verdozzi, C.
2013-03-01
We investigate the static and dynamical behavior of one-dimensional interacting fermions in disordered Hubbard chains contacted to semi-infinite leads. The chains are described via the repulsive Anderson-Hubbard Hamiltonian, using static and time-dependent lattice density-functional theory. The dynamical behavior of our quantum transport system is studied using an integration scheme available in the literature, which we modify via the recursive Lanczos method to increase its efficiency. To quantify the degree of localization due to disorder and interactions, we adapt the definition of the inverse participation ratio to obtain an indicator which is suitable for quantum transport geometries and can be obtained within density-functional theory. Lattice density-functional theories are reviewed and, for contacted chains, we analyze the merits and limits of the coherent-potential approximation in describing the spectral properties, with interactions included via lattice density-functional theory. Our approach appears to be able to capture complex features due to the competition between disorder and interactions. Specifically, we find a dynamical enhancement of delocalization in the presence of a finite bias and an increase of the steady-state current induced by interparticle interactions. This behavior is corroborated by results for the time-dependent densities and for the inverse participation ratio. Using short isolated chains with interaction and disorder, a brief comparative analysis between time-dependent density-functional theory and exact results is then given, followed by general concluding remarks.
Theory of classical and quantum transport in monolayers of MoS2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adam, Shaffique
From the family of new van der Waals materials, the class of layered transition metal dichalcogenides has emerged as a particularly interesting system due to the inherent spin and valley degrees of freedom. In this talk we focus on the interplay between these degrees of freedom and the different types of disorder in monolayers of molybdenum disulphide. Within the semiclassical Drude-Boltzmann formalism, treating the screening of impurities with the random phase approximation, we demonstrate that different scattering mechanisms such as charged impurity scattering, intervalley scattering, and phonons provide different signatures in electronic transport. This allows us to conclude, for example, that in CVD-grown monolayers of MoS2, intervalley scattering dominates over other mechanisms at low temperatures. Interestingly, charged impurities generate spatial inhomogeneity in the carrier density that results in a classical disorder-induced magnetoresistance that can be observed at room temperature. However, at lower temperatures, in this regime of strong intervalley scattering, we predict that the quantum phase-coherent corrections to the conductivity results in a one-parameter crossover from weak localization to weak anti-localization as a function of magnetic field, where this crossover is determined only by the spin lifetime. By comparing with available experimental data, we show that this combined framework allows for a novel way to measure the spin-relaxation in monolayers of MoS2. We find that the spin scattering arises from the Dyakonov-Perel spin-orbit scattering mechanism with a conduction band spin-splitting of about 4 meV, consistent with calculations using density functional theory. Work done in collaboration with Indra Yudhistira and the experimental groups of Goki Eda (NUS), Michael Fuhrer (Monash) and Roland Kawakami (Ohio State), and funded by Singapore National Research Foundation and Ministry of Education.
Einstein's investigations of Galilean covariant electrodynamics prior to 1905
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Norton, John D.
2004-11-01
Einstein learned from the magnet and conductor thought experiment how to use field transformation laws to extend the covariance of Maxwells electrodynamics. If he persisted in his use of this device, he would have found that the theory cleaves into two Galilean covariant parts, each with different field transformation laws. The tension between the two parts reflects a failure not mentioned by Einstein: that the relativity of motion manifested by observables in the magnet and conductor thought experiment does not extend to all observables in electrodynamics. An examination of Ritz's work shows that Einstein's early view could not have coincided with Ritz's on an emission theory of light, but only with that of a conveniently reconstructed Ritz. One Ritz-like emission theory, attributed by Pauli to Ritz, proves to be a natural extension of the Galilean covariant part of Maxwell's theory that happens also to accommodate the magnet and conductor thought experiment. Einstein's famous chasing a light beam thought experiment fails as an objection to an ether-based, electrodynamical theory of light. However it would allow Einstein to formulate his general objections to all emission theories of light in a very sharp form. Einstein found two well known experimental results of 18th and 19th century optics compelling (Fizeau's experiment, stellar aberration), while the accomplished Michelson-Morley experiment played no memorable role. I suggest they owe their importance to their providing a direct experimental grounding for Lorentz' local time, the precursor of Einstein's relativity of simultaneity, and doing it essentially independently of electrodynamical theory. I attribute Einstein's success to his determination to implement a principle of relativity in electrodynamics, but I urge that we not invest this stubbornness with any mystical prescience.
Collisions in Chiral Kinetic Theory.
Chen, Jing-Yuan; Son, Dam T; Stephanov, Mikhail A
2015-07-10
Using a covariant formalism, we construct a chiral kinetic theory Lorentz invariant to order O(ℏ), which includes collisions. We find a new contribution to the particle number current due to the side jumps required by the conservation of angular momentum during collisions. We also find a conserved symmetric stress-energy tensor as well as the H function obeying Boltzmann's H theorem. We demonstrate their use by finding a general equilibrium solution and the values of the anomalous transport coefficients characterizing the chiral vortical effect. PMID:26207458
Spence, R.D.; Godbee, H.W.; Tallent, O.K.; Nestor, C.W. Jr. )
1989-01-01
The analysis of leaching data using analytical solutions based on mass transport theory and empiricism is presented. The waste forms leached to generate the data used in this analysis were prepared with a simulated radioactive waste slurry with traces of potassium ion, manganese ions, carbonate ions, phosphate ions, and sulfate ions solidified with several blends of cementitious materials. Diffusion coefficients were estimated from the results of ANS - 16.1 tests. Data of fraction leached versus time is presented and discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ferrari, C
1936-01-01
The report studies the problem of the transport of vorticity or of momentum in light of the Taylor and Prandtl theories which are briefly reviewed. It also show how the formulas of Prandtl could be brought into agreement with experimental results in those cases where they agree with the principle of statistic similitude of Karman, and particularly in the problem of the distribution of velocity and temperature in the wake of a heated cylindrical obstacle.
Parameter inference with estimated covariance matrices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sellentin, Elena; Heavens, Alan F.
2016-02-01
When inferring parameters from a Gaussian-distributed data set by computing a likelihood, a covariance matrix is needed that describes the data errors and their correlations. If the covariance matrix is not known a priori, it may be estimated and thereby becomes a random object with some intrinsic uncertainty itself. We show how to infer parameters in the presence of such an estimated covariance matrix, by marginalizing over the true covariance matrix, conditioned on its estimated value. This leads to a likelihood function that is no longer Gaussian, but rather an adapted version of a multivariate t-distribution, which has the same numerical complexity as the multivariate Gaussian. As expected, marginalization over the true covariance matrix improves inference when compared with Hartlap et al.'s method, which uses an unbiased estimate of the inverse covariance matrix but still assumes that the likelihood is Gaussian.
Altered Cerebral Blood Flow Covariance Network in Schizophrenia
Liu, Feng; Zhuo, Chuanjun; Yu, Chunshui
2016-01-01
Many studies have shown abnormal cerebral blood flow (CBF) in schizophrenia; however, it remains unclear how topological properties of CBF network are altered in this disorder. Here, arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI was employed to measure resting-state CBF in 96 schizophrenia patients and 91 healthy controls. CBF covariance network of each group was constructed by calculating across-subject CBF covariance between 90 brain regions. Graph theory was used to compare intergroup differences in global and nodal topological measures of the network. Both schizophrenia patients and healthy controls had small-world topology in CBF covariance networks, implying an optimal balance between functional segregation and integration. Compared with healthy controls, schizophrenia patients showed reduced small-worldness, normalized clustering coefficient and local efficiency of the network, suggesting a shift toward randomized network topology in schizophrenia. Furthermore, schizophrenia patients exhibited altered nodal centrality in the perceptual-, affective-, language-, and spatial-related regions, indicating functional disturbance of these systems in schizophrenia. This study demonstrated for the first time that schizophrenia patients have disrupted topological properties in CBF covariance network, which provides a new perspective (efficiency of blood flow distribution between brain regions) for understanding neural mechanisms of schizophrenia. PMID:27445677
Altered Cerebral Blood Flow Covariance Network in Schizophrenia.
Liu, Feng; Zhuo, Chuanjun; Yu, Chunshui
2016-01-01
Many studies have shown abnormal cerebral blood flow (CBF) in schizophrenia; however, it remains unclear how topological properties of CBF network are altered in this disorder. Here, arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI was employed to measure resting-state CBF in 96 schizophrenia patients and 91 healthy controls. CBF covariance network of each group was constructed by calculating across-subject CBF covariance between 90 brain regions. Graph theory was used to compare intergroup differences in global and nodal topological measures of the network. Both schizophrenia patients and healthy controls had small-world topology in CBF covariance networks, implying an optimal balance between functional segregation and integration. Compared with healthy controls, schizophrenia patients showed reduced small-worldness, normalized clustering coefficient and local efficiency of the network, suggesting a shift toward randomized network topology in schizophrenia. Furthermore, schizophrenia patients exhibited altered nodal centrality in the perceptual-, affective-, language-, and spatial-related regions, indicating functional disturbance of these systems in schizophrenia. This study demonstrated for the first time that schizophrenia patients have disrupted topological properties in CBF covariance network, which provides a new perspective (efficiency of blood flow distribution between brain regions) for understanding neural mechanisms of schizophrenia. PMID:27445677
COVARIANCE ASSISTED SCREENING AND ESTIMATION
Ke, By Tracy; Jin, Jiashun; Fan, Jianqing
2014-01-01
Consider a linear model Y = X β + z, where X = Xn,p and z ~ N(0, In). The vector β is unknown and it is of interest to separate its nonzero coordinates from the zero ones (i.e., variable selection). Motivated by examples in long-memory time series (Fan and Yao, 2003) and the change-point problem (Bhattacharya, 1994), we are primarily interested in the case where the Gram matrix G = X′X is non-sparse but sparsifiable by a finite order linear filter. We focus on the regime where signals are both rare and weak so that successful variable selection is very challenging but is still possible. We approach this problem by a new procedure called the Covariance Assisted Screening and Estimation (CASE). CASE first uses a linear filtering to reduce the original setting to a new regression model where the corresponding Gram (covariance) matrix is sparse. The new covariance matrix induces a sparse graph, which guides us to conduct multivariate screening without visiting all the submodels. By interacting with the signal sparsity, the graph enables us to decompose the original problem into many separated small-size subproblems (if only we know where they are!). Linear filtering also induces a so-called problem of information leakage, which can be overcome by the newly introduced patching technique. Together, these give rise to CASE, which is a two-stage Screen and Clean (Fan and Song, 2010; Wasserman and Roeder, 2009) procedure, where we first identify candidates of these submodels by patching and screening, and then re-examine each candidate to remove false positives. For any procedure β̂ for variable selection, we measure the performance by the minimax Hamming distance between the sign vectors of β̂ and β. We show that in a broad class of situations where the Gram matrix is non-sparse but sparsifiable, CASE achieves the optimal rate of convergence. The results are successfully applied to long-memory time series and the change-point model. PMID:25541567
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lebon, G.; Jou, D.
2015-03-01
This paper gives a historical account of the early years (1953-1983) of extended irreversible thermodynamics (EIT). The salient features of this formalism are to upgrade the thermodynamic fluxes of mass, momentum, energy, and others, to the status of independent variables, and to explore the consistency between generalized transport equations and a generalized version of the second law of thermodynamics. This requires going beyond classical irreversible thermodynamics by redefining entropy and entropy flux. EIT provides deeper foundations, closer relations with microscopic formalisms, a wider spectrum of applications, and a more exciting conceptual appeal to non-equilibrium thermodynamics. We first recall the historical contributions by Maxwell, Cattaneo, and Grad on generalized transport equations. A thermodynamic theory wide enough to cope with such transport equations was independently proposed between 1953 and 1983 by several authors, each emphasizing different kinds of problems. In 1983, the first international meeting on this theory took place in Bellaterra (Barcelona). It provided the opportunity for the various authors to meet together for the first time and to discuss the common points and the specific differences of their previous formulations. From then on, a large amount of applications and theoretical confirmations have emerged. From the historical point of view, the emergence of EIT has been an opportunity to revisit the foundations and to open new avenues in thermodynamics, one of the most classical and well consolidated physical theories.
Covariance-enhanced discriminant analysis
XU, PEIRONG; ZHU, JI; ZHU, LIXING; LI, YI
2016-01-01
Summary Linear discriminant analysis has been widely used to characterize or separate multiple classes via linear combinations of features. However, the high dimensionality of features from modern biological experiments defies traditional discriminant analysis techniques. Possible interfeature correlations present additional challenges and are often underused in modelling. In this paper, by incorporating possible interfeature correlations, we propose a covariance-enhanced discriminant analysis method that simultaneously and consistently selects informative features and identifies the corresponding discriminable classes. Under mild regularity conditions, we show that the method can achieve consistent parameter estimation and model selection, and can attain an asymptotically optimal misclassification rate. Extensive simulations have verified the utility of the method, which we apply to a renal transplantation trial.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakatsuka, Takao; Nishimura, Jun
2008-08-01
The Molière theory of multiple Coulomb scattering is improved to take account of ionization loss by applying a differential formulation of the theory. Distributions for the deflection angle θ⃗ , as well as for any linear combination between θ⃗ and the lateral displacement r⃗ , under the ionization process are derived by a series expansion with the same universal functions f(n)(ϑ) of Molière, except that the values for both the expansion parameter B and the scale angle θM are corrected from those under the fixed-energy process. We find that Goudsmit-Saunderson angular distribution with ionization is also expressed by the same characteristic parameters B and θM derived above by the Molière theory. The transport mechanism of Molière process of multiple Coulomb scattering and the stochastic property of Molière series expansion are also investigated and discussed.
Covariant approaches to superconformal blocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Khandker, Zuhair U.; Li, Daliang; Poland, David; Simmons-Duffin, David
2014-08-01
We develop techniques for computing superconformal blocks in 4d superconformal field theories. First we study the super-Casimir differential equation, deriving simple new expressions for superconformal blocks for 4-point functions containing chiral operators in theories with -extended supersymmetry. We also reproduce these results by extending the "shadow formalism" of Ferrara, Gatto, Grillo, and Parisi to supersymmetric theories, where superconformal blocks can be represented as superspace integrals of three-point functions multiplied by shadow three-point functions.
Covariant effective action for loop quantum cosmology a la Palatini
Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Singh, Parampreet E-mail: psingh@perimeterinstitute.ca
2009-01-15
In loop quantum cosmology, non-perturbative quantum gravity effects lead to the resolution of the big bang singularity by a quantum bounce without introducing any new degrees of freedom. Though fundamentally discrete, the theory admits a continuum description in terms of an effective Hamiltonian. Here we provide an algorithm to obtain the corresponding effective action, establishing in this way the covariance of the theory for the first time. This result provides new insights on the continuum properties of the discrete structure of quantum geometry and opens new avenues to extract physical predictions such as those related to gauge invariant cosmological perturbations.
A covariant approach to the analysis of coherent processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karasev, V. P.; Shelepin, L. A.
A general group-theory approach to the study of coherent phenomena in many-particle multilevel systems interacting with boson fields is formulated on the basis of the dynamic symmetry theory and the formalism of group representations. Algebraic models of the systems under study are proposed using this approach which yield generalized Dicke models with allowance for both radiation and collisional processes and also consider systems with a varying number of particles. By using Glauber coherent states and generalized coherent states of SU (n) groups, covariant methods are developed for calculating various characteristics of cooperative phenomena and processes on the basis of the models proposed here.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Chunwei; Yao, Junping; Sun, Dawei; Wang, Shicheng; Liu, Huaping
2016-05-01
Automatic target recognition in infrared imagery is a challenging problem. In this paper, a kernel sparse coding method for infrared target recognition using covariance descriptor is proposed. First, covariance descriptor combining gray intensity and gradient information of the infrared target is extracted as a feature representation. Then, due to the reason that covariance descriptor lies in non-Euclidean manifold, kernel sparse coding theory is used to solve this problem. We verify the efficacy of the proposed algorithm in terms of the confusion matrices on the real images consisting of seven categories of infrared vehicle targets.
Covariance of Neutron Cross Sections for {sup 16}O through R-matrix Analysis
Kunieda, S.; Kawano, T.; Paris, M.; Hale, G.M.; Shibata, K.; Fukahori, T.
2015-01-15
Through the R-matrix analysis, neutron cross sections as well as the covariance are estimated for {sup 16}O in the resolved resonance range. Although we consider the current results are still preliminary, we present the summary of the cross section analysis and the results of data uncertainty/covariance, including those for the differential cross sections. It is found that the values obtained highlight consequences of nature in the theory as well as knowledge from measurements, which gives a realistic quantification of evaluated nuclear data covariances.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levy, Roy; Xu, Yuning; Yel, Nedim; Svetina, Dubravka
2015-01-01
The standardized generalized dimensionality discrepancy measure and the standardized model-based covariance are introduced as tools to critique dimensionality assumptions in multidimensional item response models. These tools are grounded in a covariance theory perspective and associated connections between dimensionality and local independence.…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Jiawei; Ke, Youqi
In realistic nanoelectronics, disordered impurities/defects are inevitable and play important roles in electron transport. However, due to the lack of effective quantum transport method, the important effects of disorders remain poorly understood. Here, we report a generalized non-equilibrium vertex correction (NVC) method with coherent potential approximation to treat the disorder effects in quantum transport simulation. With this generalized NVC method, any averaged product of two single-particle Green's functions can be obtained by solving a set of simple linear equations. As a result, the averaged non-equilibrium density matrix and various important transport properties, including averaged current, disordered induced current fluctuation and the averaged shot noise, can all be efficiently computed in a unified scheme. Moreover, a generalized form of conditionally averaged non-equilibrium Green's function is derived to incorporate with density functional theory to enable first-principles simulation. We prove the non-equilibrium coherent potential equals the non-equilibrium vertex correction. Our approach provides a unified, efficient and self-consistent method for simulating non-equilibrium quantum transport through disorder nanoelectronics. Shanghaitech start-up fund.
Strong and radiative decays of heavy mesons in a covariant model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheung, Chi-Yee; Hwang, Chien-Wen
2014-04-01
In this paper, we investigate symmetry breaking effects in strong and radiative decays of heavy mesons. We study 1 /m Q corrections within the heavy quark effective theory. These effects are studied in a covariant model for heavy mesons. The numerical results are consistent with the experimental data and some other theoretical calculations. These provide a vote of confidence for the validity of this covariant model.
Particle emission from covariant phase space
Bambah, B.A. )
1992-12-01
Using Lorentz-covariant sources, we calculate the multiplicity distribution of {ital n} pair correlated particles emerging from a Lorentz-covariant phase-space volume. We use the Kim-Wigner formalism and identify these sources as the squeezed states of a relativistic harmonic oscillator. The applications of this to multiplicity distributions in particle physics is discussed.
Quality Quantification of Evaluated Cross Section Covariances
Varet, S.; Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.
2015-01-15
Presently, several methods are used to estimate the covariance matrix of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Because the resulting covariance matrices can be different according to the method used and according to the assumptions of the method, we propose a general and objective approach to quantify the quality of the covariance estimation for evaluated cross sections. The first step consists in defining an objective criterion. The second step is computation of the criterion. In this paper the Kullback-Leibler distance is proposed for the quality quantification of a covariance matrix estimation and its inverse. It is based on the distance to the true covariance matrix. A method based on the bootstrap is presented for the estimation of this criterion, which can be applied with most methods for covariance matrix estimation and without the knowledge of the true covariance matrix. The full approach is illustrated on the {sup 85}Rb nucleus evaluations and the results are then used for a discussion on scoring and Monte Carlo approaches for covariance matrix estimation of the cross section evaluations.
REGRESSION METHODS FOR DATA WITH INCOMPLETE COVARIATES
Modern statistical methods in chronic disease epidemiology allow simultaneous regression of disease status on several covariates. hese methods permit examination of the effects of one covariate while controlling for those of others that may be causally related to the disease. owe...
Berkolaiko, G.; Kuipers, J.
2013-12-15
Electronic transport through chaotic quantum dots exhibits universal behaviour which can be understood through the semiclassical approximation. Within the approximation, calculation of transport moments reduces to codifying classical correlations between scattering trajectories. These can be represented as ribbon graphs and we develop an algorithmic combinatorial method to generate all such graphs with a given genus. This provides an expansion of the linear transport moments for systems both with and without time reversal symmetry. The computational implementation is then able to progress several orders further than previous semiclassical formulae as well as those derived from an asymptotic expansion of random matrix results. The patterns observed also suggest a general form for the higher orders.
Relativistically Covariant Many-Body Perturbation Procedure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindgren, Ingvar; Salomonson, Sten; Hedendahl, Daniel
A covariant evolution operator (CEO) can be constructed, representing the time evolution of the relativistic wave unction or state vector. Like the nonrelativistic version, it contains (quasi-)singularities. The regular part is referred to as the Green’s operator (GO), which is the operator analogue of the Green’s function (GF). This operator, which is a field-theoretical concept, is closely related to the many-body wave operator and effective Hamiltonian, and it is the basic tool for our unified theory. The GO leads, when the perturbation is carried to all orders, to the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) in the equal-time or effective-potential approximation. When relaxing the equal-time restriction, the procedure is fully compatible with the exact BSE. The calculations are performed in the photonic Fock space, where the number of photons is no longer constant. The procedure has been applied to helium-like ions, and the results agree well with S-matrix results in cases when comparison can be performed. In addition, evaluation of higher-order quantum-electrodynamical (QED) correlational effects has been performed, and the effects are found to be quite significant for light and medium-heavy ions.
Effect modification by time-varying covariates.
Robins, James M; Hernán, Miguel A; Rotnitzky, Andrea
2007-11-01
Marginal structural models (MSMs) allow estimation of effect modification by baseline covariates, but they are less useful for estimating effect modification by evolving time-varying covariates. Rather, structural nested models (SNMs) were specifically designed to estimate effect modification by time-varying covariates. In their paper, Petersen et al. (Am J Epidemiol 2007;166:985-993) describe history-adjusted MSMs as a generalized form of MSM and argue that history-adjusted MSMs allow a researcher to easily estimate effect modification by time-varying covariates. However, history-adjusted MSMs can result in logically incompatible parameter estimates and hence in contradictory substantive conclusions. Here the authors propose a more restrictive definition of history-adjusted MSMs than the one provided by Petersen et al. and compare the advantages and disadvantages of using history-adjusted MSMs, as opposed to SNMs, to examine effect modification by time-dependent covariates. PMID:17875581
Adjoints and Low-rank Covariance Representation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tippett, Michael K.; Cohn, Stephen E.
2000-01-01
Quantitative measures of the uncertainty of Earth System estimates can be as important as the estimates themselves. Second moments of estimation errors are described by the covariance matrix, whose direct calculation is impractical when the number of degrees of freedom of the system state is large. Ensemble and reduced-state approaches to prediction and data assimilation replace full estimation error covariance matrices by low-rank approximations. The appropriateness of such approximations depends on the spectrum of the full error covariance matrix, whose calculation is also often impractical. Here we examine the situation where the error covariance is a linear transformation of a forcing error covariance. We use operator norms and adjoints to relate the appropriateness of low-rank representations to the conditioning of this transformation. The analysis is used to investigate low-rank representations of the steady-state response to random forcing of an idealized discrete-time dynamical system.
Nonequilibrium GREEN’S Functions for High-Field Quantum Transport Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertoncini, Rita
A formulation of the Kadanoff-Baym-Keldysh theory of nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics is developed in order to describe nonperturbatively the effects of the electric field on electron-phonon scattering in nondegenerate semiconductors. We derive an analytic, gauge-invariant model for the spectral density of energy states that accounts for both intracollisional field effect and collisional broadening simultaneously. A kinetic equation for the quantum distribution function is derived and solved numerically. The nonlinear drift velocity versus applied field characteristics is also evaluated numerically. Many features of our nonlinear theory bear formal resemblance to linear-response theory.
Zuo, Pingbing; Zhang, Ming; Rassoul, Hamid K.
2013-10-20
The focused transport theory is appropriate to describe the injection and acceleration of low-energy particles at shocks as an extension of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). In this investigation, we aim to characterize the role of cross-shock potential (CSP) originated in the charge separation across the shock ramp on pickup ion (PUI) acceleration at various types of shocks with a focused transport model. The simulation results of energy spectrum and spatial density distribution for the cases with and without CSP added in the model are compared. With sufficient acceleration time, the focused transport acceleration finally falls into the DSA regime with the power-law spectral index equal to the solution of the DSA theory. The CSP can affect the shape of the spectrum segment at lower energies, but it does not change the spectral index of the final power-law spectrum at high energies. It is found that the CSP controls the injection efficiency which is the fraction of PUIs reaching the DSA regime. A stronger CSP jump results in a dramatically improved injection efficiency. Our simulation results also show that the injection efficiency of PUIs is mass-dependent, which is lower for species with a higher mass. In addition, the CSP is able to enhance the particle reflection upstream to produce a stronger intensity spike at the shock front. We conclude that the CSP is a non-negligible factor that affects the dynamics of PUIs at shocks.
Eddy Covariance Method: Overview of General Guidelines and Conventional Workflow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burba, G. G.; Anderson, D. J.; Amen, J. L.
2007-12-01
Atmospheric flux measurements are widely used to estimate water, heat, carbon dioxide and trace gas exchange between the ecosystem and the atmosphere. The Eddy Covariance method is one of the most direct, defensible ways to measure and calculate turbulent fluxes within the atmospheric boundary layer. However, the method is mathematically complex, and requires significant care to set up and process data. These reasons may be why the method is currently used predominantly by micrometeorologists. Modern instruments and software can potentially expand the use of this method beyond micrometeorology and prove valuable for plant physiology, hydrology, biology, ecology, entomology, and other non-micrometeorological areas of research. The main challenge of the method for a non-expert is the complexity of system design, implementation, and processing of the large volume of data. In the past several years, efforts of the flux networks (e.g., FluxNet, Ameriflux, CarboEurope, Fluxnet-Canada, Asiaflux, etc.) have led to noticeable progress in unification of the terminology and general standardization of processing steps. The methodology itself, however, is difficult to unify, because various experimental sites and different purposes of studies dictate different treatments, and site-, measurement- and purpose-specific approaches. Here we present an overview of theory and typical workflow of the Eddy Covariance method in a format specifically designed to (i) familiarize a non-expert with general principles, requirements, applications, and processing steps of the conventional Eddy Covariance technique, (ii) to assist in further understanding the method through more advanced references such as textbooks, network guidelines and journal papers, (iii) to help technicians, students and new researchers in the field deployment of the Eddy Covariance method, and (iv) to assist in its use beyond micrometeorology. The overview is based, to a large degree, on the frequently asked questions
A unified theory of tokamak transport via the generalized Balescu--Lenard collision operator
Mynick, H.E.; Duvall, R.E.
1988-06-01
A unified basis from which to study the transport of tokamaks at low collisionality is provided by specializing the ''generalized Balescu--Lenard'' collision operator to toridal geometry. Explicitly evaluating this operator, ripple, turbulent, and neoclassical transport coefficients are obtained, simply by further specializing the single operator to different particular classes of fluctuation wavelength and mode structure. For each class of fluctuations, the operator possesses a diffusive, test-particle contribution D, and in addition a dynamic drag term F, which makes the operator self-consistent, and whose presence is accordingly essential for the resultant fluxes to possess the appropriate conservation laws and symmetrics. These properties, well-known for axisymmetric transport, are demonstrated for one type of turbulent transport, chosen for definiteness, by explicit evaluation of both ''anomalous diffusion'' term arising from D, as well as the closely related test particle calculations, but is shown to have an important impact on the predicted fluxes. 16 refs., 1 fig.
Review of the facile (F/sub N/) method in particle transport theory
Garcia, R.D.M.
1985-10-01
The facile (F/sub N/) method for solving particle transport problems is reviewed. The fundamentals of the method are summarized, recent developments are discussed and several applications of the method are described in detail.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crank, Ron
This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with transportation and energy use. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss the implication of energy usage as it applies to the area of transportation. Some topics covered are efficiencies of various transportation…
Numerical Test of Different Approximations Used in the Transport Theory of Energetic Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, G.; Shalchi, A.
2016-05-01
Recently developed theories for perpendicular diffusion work remarkably well. The diffusion coefficients they provide agree with test-particle simulations performed for different turbulence setups ranging from slab and slab-like models to two-dimensional and noisy reduced MHD turbulence. However, such theories are still based on different analytical approximations. In the current paper we use a test-particle code to explore the different approximations used in diffusion theory. We benchmark different guiding center approximations, simplifications of higher-order correlations, and the Taylor–Green–Kubo formula. We demonstrate that guiding center approximations work very well as long as the particle's unperturbed Larmor radius is smaller than the perpendicular correlation length of the turbulence. Furthermore, the Taylor–Green–Kubo formula and the definition of perpendicular diffusion coefficients via mean square displacements provide the same results. The only approximation that was used in the past in nonlinear diffusion theory that fails is to replace fourth-order correlations by a product of two second-order correlation functions. In more advanced nonlinear theories, however, this type of approximation is no longer used. Therefore, we confirm the validity of modern diffusion theories as a result of the work presented in the current paper.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jackson, A. S.; Rybak, I.; Helmig, R.; Gray, W. G.; Miller, C. T.
2012-06-01
This work is the ninth in a series of papers on the thermodynamically constrained averaging theory (TCAT) approach for modeling flow and transport phenomena in multiscale porous medium systems. A fundamental approach is developed to model the transition region between a two-fluid-phase porous medium system and a single-fluid-phase system, including species transport. A general model formulation is developed along with an entropy inequality to guide the specification of closure relations. The general model formulation and entropy inequality are then used to specify a closed system. The transition region model developed in this work is a generalization and extension of coupling conditions commonly used in sharp interface models. The theoretical framework has multiple areas of potential applicability including terrestrial-atmospheric contact zones, surface water-sediment interface zones, and industrial drying processes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spjeldvik, W. N.
1981-11-01
Computer simulations of processes which control the relative abundances of ions in the trapping regions of geospace are compared with observations from discriminating ion detectors. Energy losses due to Coulomb collisions between ions and exospheric neutrals are considered, along with charge exchange losses and internal charge exchanges. The time evolution of energetic ion fluxes of equatorially mirroring ions under radial diffusion is modelled to include geomagnetic and geoelectric fluctutations. Limits to the validity of diffusion transport theory are discussed, and the simulation is noted to contain provisions for six ionic charge states and the source effect on the radiation belt oxygen ion distributions. Comparisons are made with ion flux data gathered on Explorer 45 and ISEE-1 spacecraft and results indicate that internal charge exchanges cause the radiation belt ion charge state to be independent of source charge rate characteristics, and relative charge state distribution is independent of the radially diffusive transport rate below the charge state redistribution zone.
Cahalan, J. E.; Ama, T.; Palmiotti, G.; Taiwo, T. A.; Yang, W. S.
2000-03-09
The VARIANT-K and DIF3D-K nodal spatial kinetics computer codes have been coupled to the SAS4A and SASSYS-1 liquid metal reactor accident and systems analysis codes. SAS4A and SASSYS-1 have been extended with the addition of heavy liquid metal (Pb and Pb-Bi) thermophysical properties, heat transfer correlations, and fluid dynamics correlations. The coupling methodology and heavy liquid metal modeling additions are described. The new computer code suite has been applied to analysis of neutron source and thermal-hydraulics transients in a model of an accelerator-driven minor actinide burner design proposed in an OECD/NEA/NSC benchmark specification. Modeling assumptions and input data generation procedures are described. Results of transient analyses are reported, with emphasis on comparison of P1 and P3 variational nodal transport theory results with nodal diffusion theory results, and on significance of spatial kinetics effects.
Bammer, Roland; Stollberger, Rudolf
2012-01-01
Counterexamples are used to motivate the revision of the established theory of tracer transport. Then dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in particular is conceptualized in terms of a fully distributed convection–diffusion model from which a widely used convolution model is derived using, alternatively, compartmental discretizations or semigroup theory. On this basis, applications and limitations of the convolution model are identified. For instance, it is proved that perfusion and tissue exchange states cannot be identified on the basis of a single convolution equation alone. Yet under certain assumptions, particularly that flux is purely convective at the boundary of a tissue region, physiological parameters such as mean transit time, effective volume fraction, and volumetric flow rate per unit tissue volume can be deduced from the kernel. PMID:17429633
Anfinrud, P.A.; Hart, D.E.; Hedstrom, J.F.; Struve, W.S.
1986-05-22
Time-correlated photon counting has been used to measure fluorescence concentration depolarization for rhodamine 6G in glycerol. The excitation transport theory developed by Gochanour, Andersen, and Fayer yields good approximations to the experimental decay profiles over the concentration range 1.7 x 10/sup -4/ to 2.4 x 10/sup -3/ M. Although the differences between optimized theoretical and experimental profiles are fractionally small, they are readily characterized under present counting statistics. They prove to be dominated by experimental artifacts, arising from excitation trapping by rhodamine 6G aggregates and from self-absorption in solution cells thicker than approx. 10 ..mu..m.
U{sub N} Method For The Critical Slab Problem In One-Speed Neutron Transport Theory
Oeztuerk, Hakan; Guengoer, Sueleyman
2008-11-11
The Chebyshev polynomial approximation (U{sub N} method) is used to solve the critical slab problem in one-speed neutron transport theory using Marshak boundary condition. The isotropic scattering kernel with the combination of forward and backward scattering is chosen for the neutrons in a uniform finite slab. Numerical results obtained by the U{sub N} method are presented in the tables together with the results obtained by the well-known P{sub N} method for comparison. It is shown that the method converges rapidly with its easily executable equations.
The covariate-adjusted frequency plot.
Holling, Heinz; Böhning, Walailuck; Böhning, Dankmar; Formann, Anton K
2016-04-01
Count data arise in numerous fields of interest. Analysis of these data frequently require distributional assumptions. Although the graphical display of a fitted model is straightforward in the univariate scenario, this becomes more complex if covariate information needs to be included into the model. Stratification is one way to proceed, but has its limitations if the covariate has many levels or the number of covariates is large. The article suggests a marginal method which works even in the case that all possible covariate combinations are different (i.e. no covariate combination occurs more than once). For each covariate combination the fitted model value is computed and then summed over the entire data set. The technique is quite general and works with all count distributional models as well as with all forms of covariate modelling. The article provides illustrations of the method for various situations and also shows that the proposed estimator as well as the empirical count frequency are consistent with respect to the same parameter. PMID:23376964
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rovelli, Carlo
Hamiltonian mechanics of field theory can be formulated in a generally covariant and background independent manner over a finite dimensional extended configuration space. I study the physical symplectic structure of the theory in this framework. This structure can be defined over a space of three-dimensional surfaces without boundary, in the extended configuration space. These surfaces provide a preferred over-coordinatization of phase space. I consider the covariant form of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation on , and a canonical function S on which is a preferred solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. The application of this formalism to general relativity is fully covariant and yields directly the Ashtekar-Wheeler-DeWitt equation, the basic equation of canonical quantum gravity. Finally, I apply this formalism to discuss the partial observables of a covariant field theory and the role of the spin networks -basic objects in quantum gravity- in the classical theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rovelli, Carlo
Hamiltonian mechanics of field theory can be formulated in a generally covariant and background independent manner over a finite dimensional extended configuration space. I study the physical symplectic structure of the theory in this framework. This structure can be defined over a space G of three-dimensional surfaces without boundary, in the extended configuration space. These surfaces provide a preferred over-coordinatization of phase space. I consider the covariant form of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation on G, and a canonical function S on G which is a preferred solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. The application of this formalism to general relativity is fully covariant and yields directly the Ashtekar-Wheeler-DeWitt equation, the basic equation of canonical quantum gravity. Finally, I apply this formalism to discuss the partial observables of a covariant field theory and the role of the spin networks -basic objects in quantum gravity- in the classical theory.
One-dimensional transport equation models for sound energy propagation in long spaces: theory.
Jing, Yun; Larsen, Edward W; Xiang, Ning
2010-04-01
In this paper, a three-dimensional transport equation model is developed to describe the sound energy propagation in a long space. Then this model is reduced to a one-dimensional model by approximating the solution using the method of weighted residuals. The one-dimensional transport equation model directly describes the sound energy propagation in the "long" dimension and deals with the sound energy in the "short" dimensions by prescribed functions. Also, the one-dimensional model consists of a coupled set of N transport equations. Only N=1 and N=2 are discussed in this paper. For larger N, although the accuracy could be improved, the calculation time is expected to significantly increase, which diminishes the advantage of the model in terms of its computational efficiency. PMID:20370013
Theory-based transport simulations of TFTR L-mode temperature profiles
Bateman, G.
1991-10-24
The temperature profiles from a selection of TFTR L-mode discharges are simulated with the 1-1/2-D BALDUR transport code using a combination of theoretically derived transport models, called the Multi-Mode Model. The present version of the Multi-Mode Model consists of effective thermal diffusivities resulting from trapped electron modes and ion temperature gradient ({eta}{sub i}) modes, which dominate in the core of the plasma, together with resistive ballooning modes, which dominate in the periphery. Within the context of this transport model and the TFTR simulations reported here, the scaling of confinement with heating power comes from the temperature dependence of the {eta}{sub i} and trapped electron modes, while the scaling with current comes mostly from resistive ballooning modes. 24 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.
Pebay, Cécile; Sella, Catherine; Thouin, Laurent; Amatore, Christian
2013-12-17
Mass transport at infinite regular arrays of microband electrodes was investigated theoretically and experimentally in unstirred solutions. Even in the absence of forced hydrodynamics, natural convection limits the convection-free domain up to which diffusion layers may expand. Hence, several regimes of mass transport may take place according to the electrode size, gap between electrodes, time scale of the experiment, and amplitude of natural convection. They were identified through simulation by establishing zone diagrams that allowed all relative contributions to mass transport to be delineated. Dynamic and steady-state regimes were compared to those achieved at single microband electrodes. These results were validated experimentally by monitoring the chronoamperometric responses of arrays with different ratios of electrode width to gap distance and by mapping steady-state concentration profiles above their surface through scanning electrochemical microscopy. PMID:24283775
Solving the transport equation with quadratic finite elements: Theory and applications
Ferguson, J.M.
1997-12-31
At the 4th Joint Conference on Computational Mathematics, the author presented a paper introducing a new quadratic finite element scheme (QFEM) for solving the transport equation. In the ensuing year the author has obtained considerable experience in the application of this method, including solution of eigenvalue problems, transmission problems, and solution of the adjoint form of the equation as well as the usual forward solution. He will present detailed results, and will also discuss other refinements of his transport codes, particularly for 3-dimensional problems on rectilinear and non-rectilinear grids.
Analytical Theory of the Destruction Terms in Dissipation Rate Transport Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubinstein, Robert; Zhou, Ye
1996-01-01
Modeled dissipation rate transport equations are often derived by invoking various hypotheses to close correlations in the corresponding exact equations. D. C. Leslie suggested that these models might be derived instead from Kraichnan's wavenumber space integrals for inertial range transport power. This suggestion is applied to the destruction terms in the dissipation rate equations for incompressible turbulence, buoyant turbulence, rotating incompressible turbulence, and rotating buoyant turbulence. Model constants like C(epsilon 2) are expressed as integrals; convergence of these integrals implies the absence of Reynolds number dependence in the corresponding destruction term. The dependence of C(epsilon 2) on rotation rate emerges naturally; sensitization of the modeled dissipation rate equation to rotation is not required. A buoyancy related effect which is absent in the exact transport equation for temperature variance dissipation, but which sometimes improves computational predictions, also arises naturally. Both the presence of this effect and the appropriate time scale in the modeled transport equation depend on whether Bolgiano or Kolmogorov inertial range scaling applies. A simple application of these methods leads to a preliminary, dissipation rate equation for rotating buoyant turbulence.
Bifurcation theory of a one-dimensional transport model for the L-H transition
Weymiens, W.; Blank, H. J. de; Hogeweij, G. M. D.
2013-08-15
Transitions between low and high-confinement (L-H transitions) in magnetically confined plasmas can appear as three qualitatively different types: sharp, smooth, and oscillatory. Bifurcation analysis unravels these possible transition types and how they are situated in parameter space. In this paper the bifurcation analysis is applied to a 1-dimensional model for the radial transport of energy and density near the edge of magnetically confined plasmas. This phenomenological L-H transition model describes the reduction of the turbulent transport by E×B-flow shear self-consistently with the evolution of the radial electric field. Therewith, the exact parameter space, including the threshold values of the control parameters, of the possible L-H transitions in the model is determined. Furthermore, a generalised equal area rule is derived to describe the evolution of the transport barrier in space and time self-consistently. Applying this newly developed rule to the model analysed in this paper reveals a naturally occurring transition to an extra wide transport barrier that may correspond to the improved confinement known as the very-high-confinement mode.
From Mechanical Motion to Brownian Motion, Thermodynamics and Particle Transport Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bringuier, E.
2008-01-01
The motion of a particle in a medium is dealt with either as a problem of mechanics or as a transport process in non-equilibrium statistical physics. The two kinds of approach are often unrelated as they are taught in different textbooks. The aim of this paper is to highlight the link between the mechanical and statistical treatments of particle…
A/sub n/ method in monokinetic neutron transport theory: Convergence and numerical applications
Coppa, G.; Ravetto, P.; Sumini, M.
1981-10-01
The convergence of the approximate method, referred to as A/sub n/, to study the solution of the monokinetic transport equation is fully investigated, when it is applied to the description of the neutron population in both infinite and finite media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wohletz, K. H.; Sheridan, M. F.; Brown, W. K.
1989-11-01
The assumption that distributions of mass versus size interval for fragmented materials fit the log normal distribution is empirically based and has historical roots in the late 19th century. Other often used distributions (e.g., Rosin-Rammler, Weibull) are also empirical and have the general form for mass per size interval: n(l) = klα exp (-lβ), where n(l) represents the number of particles of diameter l, l is the normalized particle diameter, and k, α, and β are constants. We describe and extend the sequential fragmentation distribution to include transport effects upon observed volcanic ash size distributions. The sequential fragmentation/transport (SFT) distribution is also of the above mathematical form, but it has a physical basis rather than empirical. The SFT model applies to a particle-mass distribution formed by a sequence of fragmentation (comminution) and transport (size sorting) events acting upon an initial mass m': n(x, m) = C ∫∫ n(x', m')p(ξ)dx' dm', where x' denotes spatial location along a linear axis, C is a constant, and integration is performed over distance from an origin to the sample location and mass limits from 0 to m. We show that the probability function that models the production of particles of different size from an initial mass and sorts that distribution, p(ξ), is related to mg, where g (noted as γ for fragmentation processes) is a free parameter that determines the location, breadth, and skewness of the distribution; g(γ) must be greater than -1, and it increases from that value as the distribution matures with greater number of sequential steps in the fragmentation or transport process; γ is expected to be near -1 for "sudden" fragmentation mechanisms such as single-event explosions and transport mechanisms that are functionally dependent upon particle mass. This free parameter will be more positive for evolved fragmentation mechanisms such as ball milling and complex transport processes such as saltation. The SFT
Application of continuous time random walk theory to nonequilibrium transport in soil.
Li, Na; Ren, Li
2009-09-01
Continuous time random walk (CTRW) formulations have been demonstrated to provide a general and effective approach that quantifies the behavior of solute transport in heterogeneous media in field, laboratory, and numerical experiments. In this paper we first apply the CTRW approach to describe the sorbing solute transport in soils under chemical (or) and physical nonequilibrium conditions by curve-fitting. Results show that the theoretical solutions are in a good agreement with the experimental measurements. In case that CTRW parameters cannot be determined directly or easily, an alternative method is then proposed for estimating such parameters independently of the breakthrough curve data to be simulated. We conduct numerical experiments with artificial data sets generated by the HYDRUS-1D model for a wide range of pore water velocities (upsilon) and retardation factors (R) to investigate the relationship between CTRW parameters for a sorbing solute and these two quantities (upsilon, R) that can be directly measured in independent experiments. A series of best-fitting regression equations are then developed from the artificial data sets, which can be easily used as an estimation or prediction model to assess the transport of sorbing solutes under steady flow conditions through soil. Several literature data sets of pesticides are used to validate these relationships. The results show reasonable performance in most cases, thus indicating that our method could provide an alternative way to effectively predict sorbing solute transport in soils. While the regression relationships presented are obtained under certain flow and sorption conditions, the methodology of our study is general and may be extended to predict solute transport in soils under different flow and sorption conditions. PMID:19692144
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gray, William G.; Miller, Cass T.
2009-05-01
This work is the fifth in a series of papers on the thermodynamically constrained averaging theory (TCAT) approach for modeling flow and transport phenomena in multiscale porous medium systems. The general TCAT framework and the mathematical foundation presented in previous works are used to develop models that describe species transport and single-fluid-phase flow through a porous medium system in varying physical regimes. Classical irreversible thermodynamics formulations for species in fluids, solids, and interfaces are developed. Two different approaches are presented, one that makes use of a momentum equation for each entity along with constitutive relations for species diffusion and dispersion, and a second approach that makes use of a momentum equation for each species in an entity. The alternative models are developed by relying upon different approaches to constrain an entropy inequality using mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations. The resultant constrained entropy inequality is simplified and used to guide the development of closed models. Specific instances of dilute and non-dilute systems are examined and compared to alternative formulation approaches.
Cross-Section Covariance Data Processing with the AMPX Module PUFF-IV
Wiarda, Dorothea; Leal, Luiz C; Dunn, Michael E
2011-01-01
The ENDF community is endeavoring to release an updated version of the ENDF/B-VII library (ENDF/B-VII.1). In the new release several new evaluations containing covariance information have been added, as the community strives to add covariance information for use in programs like the TSUNAMI (Tools for Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Methodology Implementation) sequence of SCALE (Ref 1). The ENDF/B formatted files are processed into libraries to be used in transport calculations using the AMPX code system (Ref 2) or the NJOY code system (Ref 3). Both codes contain modules to process covariance matrices: PUFF-IV for AMPX and ERRORR in the case of NJOY. While the cross section processing capability between the two code systems has been widely compared, the same is not true for the covariance processing. This paper compares the results for the two codes using the pre-release version of ENDF/B-VII.1.
The covariant formulation of f(T) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krššák, Martin; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.
2016-06-01
We show that the well-known problem of frame dependence and violation of local Lorentz invariance in the usual formulation of f(T) gravity is a consequence of neglecting the role of spin connection. We re-formulate f(T) gravity starting from, instead of the ‘pure tetrad’ teleparallel gravity, the covariant teleparallel gravity, using both the tetrad and the spin connection as dynamical variables, resulting in a fully covariant, consistent, and frame-independent version of f(T) gravity, which does not suffer from the notorious problems of the usual, pure tetrad, f(T) theory. We present the method to extract solutions for the most physically important cases, such as the Minkowski, the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) and the spherically symmetric ones. We show that in covariant f(T) gravity we are allowed to use an arbitrary tetrad in an arbitrary coordinate system along with the corresponding spin connection, resulting always in the same physically relevant field equations.
Relativistic Momentum and Manifestly Covariant Equipartition Theorem Revisited
Chacon-Acosta, Guillermo; Dagdug, Leonardo; Morales-Tecotl, Hugo A.
2010-07-12
Recently the discussion about the right relativistic generalization of thermodynamics has been revived. In particular the case of temperature has been investigated by alluding to a form of relativistic equipartition theorem. Now from the kinetic theory point of view a covariant equipartition involves necessarily the relativistic momentum of the system, which is given by an integral of the energy-momentum tensor over a spacelike hypersurface. Some authors have even proposed to trade the spacelike hypersurfaces entering in there by lightlike ones to accommodate Lorentz covariance. In this work we argue that a well defined momentum for a diluted gas can be given by making use of the velocity of the gas as whole and thereby selecting a hypersurface; this being in direct analogy with the case of an extended classical electron model and which turned out to solve the Abraham-Lorentz controversy codified in the wrong non-relativistic limit. We also discuss the effect of such choices on the equipartition theorem calculated through the covariant form of the Juettner distribution function.
Colosi, John A; Chandrayadula, Tarun K; Voronovich, Alexander G; Ostashev, Vladimir E
2013-10-01
Second moments of mode amplitudes at fixed frequency as a function of separations in mode number, time, and horizontal distance are investigated using mode-based transport equations and Monte Carlo simulation. These second moments are used to study full-field acoustic coherence, including depth separations. Calculations for low-order modes between 50 and 250 Hz are presented using a deep-water Philippine Sea environment. Comparisons between Monte Carlo simulations and transport theory for time and depth coherence at frequencies of 75 and 250 Hz and for ranges up to 500 km show good agreement. The theory is used to examine the accuracy of the adiabatic and quadratic lag approximations, and the range and frequency scaling of coherence. It is found that while temporal coherence has a dominant adiabatic component, horizontal and vertical coherence have more equal contributions from coupling and adiabatic effects. In addition, the quadratic lag approximation is shown to be most accurate at higher frequencies and longer ranges. Last the range and frequency scalings are found to be sensitive to the functional form of the exponential decay of coherence with lag, but temporal and horizontal coherence show scalings that fall quite close to the well-known inverse frequency and inverse square root range laws. PMID:24116510
Covariation bias in panic-prone individuals.
Pauli, P; Montoya, P; Martz, G E
1996-11-01
Covariation estimates between fear-relevant (FR; emergency situations) or fear-irrelevant (FI; mushrooms and nudes) stimuli and an aversive outcome (electrical shock) were examined in 10 high-fear (panic-prone) and 10 low-fear respondents. When the relation between slide category and outcome was random (illusory correlation), only high-fear participants markedly overestimated the contingency between FR slides and shocks. However, when there was a high contingency of shocks following FR stimuli (83%) and a low contingency of shocks following FI stimuli (17%), the group difference vanished. Reversal of contingencies back to random induced a covariation bias for FR slides in high- and low-fear respondents. Results indicate that panic-prone respondents show a covariation bias for FR stimuli and that the experience of a high contingency between FR slides and aversive outcomes may foster such a covariation bias even in low-fear respondents. PMID:8952200
Reconciling Covariances with Reliable Orbital Uncertainty
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Folcik, Z.; Lue, A.; Vatsky, J.
2011-09-01
There is a common suspicion that formal covariances do not represent a realistic measure of orbital uncertainties. By devising metrics for measuring the representations of orbit error, we assess under what circumstances such lore is justified as well as the root cause of the discrepancy between the mathematics of orbital uncertainty and its practical implementation. We offer a scheme by which formal covariances may be adapted to be an accurate measure of orbital uncertainties and show how that adaptation performs against both simulated and real space-object data. We also apply these covariance adaptation methods to the process of observation association using many simulated and real data test cases. We demonstrate that covariance-informed observation association can be reliable, even in the case when only two tracks are available. Satellite breakup and collision event catalog maintenance could benefit from the automation made possible with these association methods.
Recurrence Analysis of Eddy Covariance Fluxes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lange, Holger; Flach, Milan; Foken, Thomas; Hauhs, Michael
2015-04-01
The eddy covariance (EC) method is one key method to quantify fluxes in biogeochemical cycles in general, and carbon and energy transport across the vegetation-atmosphere boundary layer in particular. EC data from the worldwide net of flux towers (Fluxnet) have also been used to validate biogeochemical models. The high resolution data are usually obtained at 20 Hz sampling rate but are affected by missing values and other restrictions. In this contribution, we investigate the nonlinear dynamics of EC fluxes using Recurrence Analysis (RA). High resolution data from the site DE-Bay (Waldstein-Weidenbrunnen) and fluxes calculated at half-hourly resolution from eight locations (part of the La Thuile dataset) provide a set of very long time series to analyze. After careful quality assessment and Fluxnet standard gapfilling pretreatment, we calculate properties and indicators of the recurrent structure based both on Recurrence Plots as well as Recurrence Networks. Time series of RA measures obtained from windows moving along the time axis are presented. Their interpretation is guided by three different questions: (1) Is RA able to discern periods where the (atmospheric) conditions are particularly suitable to obtain reliable EC fluxes? (2) Is RA capable to detect dynamical transitions (different behavior) beyond those obvious from visual inspection? (3) Does RA contribute to an understanding of the nonlinear synchronization between EC fluxes and atmospheric parameters, which is crucial for both improving carbon flux models as well for reliable interpolation of gaps? (4) Is RA able to recommend an optimal time resolution for measuring EC data and for analyzing EC fluxes? (5) Is it possible to detect non-trivial periodicities with a global RA? We will demonstrate that the answers to all five questions is affirmative, and that RA provides insights into EC dynamics not easily obtained otherwise.
Covariate analysis of bivariate survival data
Bennett, L.E.
1992-01-01
The methods developed are used to analyze the effects of covariates on bivariate survival data when censoring and ties are present. The proposed method provides models for bivariate survival data that include differential covariate effects and censored observations. The proposed models are based on an extension of the univariate Buckley-James estimators which replace censored data points by their expected values, conditional on the censoring time and the covariates. For the bivariate situation, it is necessary to determine the expectation of the failure times for one component conditional on the failure or censoring time of the other component. Two different methods have been developed to estimate these expectations. In the semiparametric approach these expectations are determined from a modification of Burke's estimate of the bivariate empirical survival function. In the parametric approach censored data points are also replaced by their conditional expected values where the expected values are determined from a specified parametric distribution. The model estimation will be based on the revised data set, comprised of uncensored components and expected values for the censored components. The variance-covariance matrix for the estimated covariate parameters has also been derived for both the semiparametric and parametric methods. Data from the Demographic and Health Survey was analyzed by these methods. The two outcome variables are post-partum amenorrhea and breastfeeding; education and parity were used as the covariates. Both the covariate parameter estimates and the variance-covariance estimates for the semiparametric and parametric models will be compared. In addition, a multivariate test statistic was used in the semiparametric model to examine contrasts. The significance of the statistic was determined from a bootstrap distribution of the test statistic.
Phase-covariant quantum cloning of qudits
Fan Heng; Imai, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Keiji; Wang, Xiang-Bin
2003-02-01
We study the phase-covariant quantum cloning machine for qudits, i.e., the input states in a d-level quantum system have complex coefficients with arbitrary phase but constant module. A cloning unitary transformation is proposed. After optimizing the fidelity between input state and single qudit reduced density operator of output state, we obtain the optimal fidelity for 1 to 2 phase-covariant quantum cloning of qudits and the corresponding cloning transformation.
Theory of ion transport with fast acid-base equilibrations in bioelectrochemical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dykstra, J. E.; Biesheuvel, P. M.; Bruning, H.; Ter Heijne, A.
2014-07-01
Bioelectrochemical systems recover valuable components and energy in the form of hydrogen or electricity from aqueous organic streams. We derive a one-dimensional steady-state model for ion transport in a bioelectrochemical system, with the ions subject to diffusional and electrical forces. Since most of the ionic species can undergo acid-base reactions, ion transport is combined in our model with infinitely fast ion acid-base equilibrations. The model describes the current-induced ammonia evaporation and recovery at the cathode side of a bioelectrochemical system that runs on an organic stream containing ammonium ions. We identify that the rate of ammonia evaporation depends not only on the current but also on the flow rate of gas in the cathode chamber, the diffusion of ammonia from the cathode back into the anode chamber, through the ion exchange membrane placed in between, and the membrane charge density.
Theory of ion transport with fast acid-base equilibrations in bioelectrochemical systems.
Dykstra, J E; Biesheuvel, P M; Bruning, H; Ter Heijne, A
2014-07-01
Bioelectrochemical systems recover valuable components and energy in the form of hydrogen or electricity from aqueous organic streams. We derive a one-dimensional steady-state model for ion transport in a bioelectrochemical system, with the ions subject to diffusional and electrical forces. Since most of the ionic species can undergo acid-base reactions, ion transport is combined in our model with infinitely fast ion acid-base equilibrations. The model describes the current-induced ammonia evaporation and recovery at the cathode side of a bioelectrochemical system that runs on an organic stream containing ammonium ions. We identify that the rate of ammonia evaporation depends not only on the current but also on the flow rate of gas in the cathode chamber, the diffusion of ammonia from the cathode back into the anode chamber, through the ion exchange membrane placed in between, and the membrane charge density. PMID:25122405
Atakulov, Sh. B. Zaynolobidinova, S. M.; Nabiev, G. A.; Nabiyev, M. B.; Yuldashev, A. A.
2013-07-15
The mobility of nondegenerate electrons in quasi-single-crystal and polycrystalline PbTe films is experimentally investigated. The results obtained are compared with the data for bulk crystals at the same charge-carrier concentration. Under the assumption of limitation of the charge-carrier mobility by intercrystallite potential barriers, electron transport in an electric field is theoretically considered. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the experiment.
Transport-theoretic model for the electron-proton-hydrogen atom aurora. I. Theory
Basu, B.; Jasperse, J.R; Strickland, D.J.
1993-12-01
The first self-consistent transport-theoretic model for the combined electron-proton-hydrogen atom aurora is presented. This is needed for accurate modeling of the diffuse aurora, particularly in the midnight sector, for which a statistical study indicates that the proton contribution to the total auroral energy flux is (on the average) about 20 to 25% of that of the electrons. As a result, the ionization yield as well as the yields of many emission features will be underestimated (on the average) by about the same percentage if the proton-hydrogen atom contributions are neglected. The model presented here can also be used to study a pure electron aurora or a pure proton-hydrogen atom aurora by choosing the appropriate boundary conditions, namely, by setting the incident flux of one or the other particle population equal to zero. In the latter case, the new feature of the present model is the rigorous transport-theoretic treatment of the contributions to ionization rates and to emission rates and yields from the secondary electrons produced by protons and hydrogen atoms. A coupled set of three linear transport equations is presented. Protons and hydrogen atoms are coupled only to each other through charge-changing (charge exchange and stripping) collisions, while the electrons are coupled to both protons and hydrogen atoms through the secondary electrons that they produce. Source functions for the secondary electrons produced by the three primary particle populations are compared and contrasted, and the numerical methods for solving the coupled transport equations are described. Finally, formulas for calculating pertinent aurora-related quantities from the particle fluxes are given. 66 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.
Goulet, T.; Keszei, E.; Jay-Gerin, J.
1988-03-15
We present a three-dimensional probabilistic model of particle transport in a medium where the particles suffer quasielastic collisions. The model accounts for bulk and surface scattering, as well as partial reflections at the boundaries of the medium. We give analytical and numerical methods for the evaluation of the particle transmission probability in the case of a medium with a plane-parallel geometry. The influence of the various parameters of the model on this probability is also discussed.
Quantum transport theory of 3D time-reversal invariant topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dellabetta, Brian Jon
We consider the potential technological role of a recently predicted and discovered phase of quantum matter - topological insulators (TIs), which are characterized by an insulating bulk and topologically protected, gapless, spin-momentum locked surface modes. Precise engineering of these gapless modes may yield new potential materials for novel electronic devices, but many materials issues and open questions in application remain in the nascent field. The quasiparticle dynamics of TI systems can be elegantly written in terms of a low-energy effective momentum-space Hamiltonian, but analytic methods quickly become intractable in multifarious systems and disordered heterostructures which in general lack translational invariance, as momentum is no longer a good quantum number. Computational methods possess a clear advantage in this regime, for understanding systems in which geometry, contact layout, and disorder play a dominant role. We employ computationally intensive methods to calculate observable, non-equilibrium transport dynamics of real-space topological systems, to propose and identify experimental signatures of topological behavior, and to connect interesting experimental observations to the underlying topological properties in normal, disordered, and superconducting systems. The customizability of these computational methods allows us to determine the salient underlying physics involved in a number of different scenarios, including surface transport corrugated TI channels, the Aharonov-Bohm effect in TI nanowires, supercurrent in TI Josephson junctions, and the superconducting proximity effect and resulting transport in TI-superconductor heterostructures. In doing so, we expand the understanding of quantum and mesoscopic transport in heterostructured TI systems as a first step in exploring their long-term place in novel device applications.
Wohletz, K.H. ); Sheridan, M.F. ); Brown, W.K. )
1989-11-10
The assumption that distributions of mass versus size interval for fragmented materials fit the log normal distribution is empirically based and has historical roots in the late 19th century. Other often used distributions (e.g., Rosin-Rammler, Weibull) are also empirical and have the general form for mass per size interval: {ital n}({ital l})={ital kl}{sup {alpha}} exp(-{ital l}{beta}), where {ital n}({ital l}) represents the number of particles of diameter {ital l}, {ital l} is the normalized particle diameter, and {ital k}, {alpha}, and {beta} are constants. We describe and extend the sequential fragmentation distribution to include transport effects upon observed volcanic ash size distributions. The sequential fragmentation/transport (SFT) distribution is also of the above mathematical form, but it has a physical basis rather than empirical. The SFT model applies to a particle-mass distribution formed by a sequence of fragmentation (comminution) and transport (size sorting) events acting upon an initial mass {ital m}{prime}: {ital n}({ital x}, {ital m})={ital C} {integral}{integral} {ital n}({ital x}{prime}, {ital m}{prime}){ital p}({xi}) {ital dx}{prime} {ital dm}{prime}, where {ital x}{prime} denotes spatial location along a linear axis, {ital C} is a constant, and integration is performed over distance from an origin to the sample location and mass limits from 0 to {ital m}.
Qin, Yunke; Cheng, Changli; Geng, Hua; Wang, Chao; Hu, Wenping; Xu, Wei; Shuai, Zhigang; Zhu, Daoben
2016-05-18
Comprehensive investigations of crystal structures, electrical transport properties and theoretical simulations have been performed over a series of sulfur-bridged annulene-based donor-acceptor complexes with an alternate stacking motif. A remarkably high mobility, up to 1.57 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for holes and 0.47 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for electrons, was obtained using organic single crystal field-effect transistor devices, demonstrating the efficient ambipolar transport properties. These ambipolar properties arise from the fact that the electronic couplings for both holes and electrons have the same super-exchange nature along the alternate stacking direction. The magnitude of super-exchange coupling depends not only on the intermolecular stacking distance and pattern, but also the energy level alignments between the adjacent donor-acceptor moieties. The concluded transport mechanism and structure-property relationship from this research will provide an important guideline for the future design of organic semiconductors based on donor-acceptor complexes. PMID:27157854
Low-dimensional Representation of Error Covariance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tippett, Michael K.; Cohn, Stephen E.; Todling, Ricardo; Marchesin, Dan
2000-01-01
Ensemble and reduced-rank approaches to prediction and assimilation rely on low-dimensional approximations of the estimation error covariances. Here stability properties of the forecast/analysis cycle for linear, time-independent systems are used to identify factors that cause the steady-state analysis error covariance to admit a low-dimensional representation. A useful measure of forecast/analysis cycle stability is the bound matrix, a function of the dynamics, observation operator and assimilation method. Upper and lower estimates for the steady-state analysis error covariance matrix eigenvalues are derived from the bound matrix. The estimates generalize to time-dependent systems. If much of the steady-state analysis error variance is due to a few dominant modes, the leading eigenvectors of the bound matrix approximate those of the steady-state analysis error covariance matrix. The analytical results are illustrated in two numerical examples where the Kalman filter is carried to steady state. The first example uses the dynamics of a generalized advection equation exhibiting nonmodal transient growth. Failure to observe growing modes leads to increased steady-state analysis error variances. Leading eigenvectors of the steady-state analysis error covariance matrix are well approximated by leading eigenvectors of the bound matrix. The second example uses the dynamics of a damped baroclinic wave model. The leading eigenvectors of a lowest-order approximation of the bound matrix are shown to approximate well the leading eigenvectors of the steady-state analysis error covariance matrix.
Sequential BART for imputation of missing covariates.
Xu, Dandan; Daniels, Michael J; Winterstein, Almut G
2016-07-01
To conduct comparative effectiveness research using electronic health records (EHR), many covariates are typically needed to adjust for selection and confounding biases. Unfortunately, it is typical to have missingness in these covariates. Just using cases with complete covariates will result in considerable efficiency losses and likely bias. Here, we consider the covariates missing at random with missing data mechanism either depending on the response or not. Standard methods for multiple imputation can either fail to capture nonlinear relationships or suffer from the incompatibility and uncongeniality issues. We explore a flexible Bayesian nonparametric approach to impute the missing covariates, which involves factoring the joint distribution of the covariates with missingness into a set of sequential conditionals and applying Bayesian additive regression trees to model each of these univariate conditionals. Using data augmentation, the posterior for each conditional can be sampled simultaneously. We provide details on the computational algorithm and make comparisons to other methods, including parametric sequential imputation and two versions of multiple imputation by chained equations. We illustrate the proposed approach on EHR data from an affiliated tertiary care institution to examine factors related to hyperglycemia. PMID:26980459
Alberga, Domenico; Perrier, Aurélie; Ciofini, Ilaria; Mangiatordi, Giuseppe Felice; Lattanzi, Gianluca; Adamo, Carlo
2015-07-28
We explore the relation between the morphological and the charge transport properties of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(2,5-bis(3-alkylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (PBTTT) semiconductor polymers in both amorphous and crystalline phases. Using molecular dynamics to simulate bulk supercells and the Marcus theory to analyze the transport properties we found that amorphous systems display a reduced hole mobility due to the loss of nematic order and π-π stacking leading to a reduction in the electronic coupling between two chains. In the crystal phase, PBTTT displays a larger charge mobility than P3HT due to the interdigitation of the side chains enhancing the stability of the conjugated rings on the backbones. This more stable π-π stacking reduces the energetic disorder with respect to P3HT and increases the electronic coupling. In contrast, in the amorphous phase, PBTTT displays a reduced charge mobility with respect to P3HT due to the absence of side chains attached to the thienothiophenes, which increases their fluctuations and the energetic disorder. In addition, we show that it is possible to calculate the reorganization energy neglecting the side chains of the polymers and thus saving computational time. Within this approximation, we obtained mobility values matching the experimental measurements, thus confirming that the side chains are crucial to shape the morphology of the polymeric systems but are not involved in the charge transport process. PMID:26118645
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lafleur, T.; Baalrud, S. D.; Chabert, P.
2016-05-01
Using a 1D particle-in-cell simulation with perpendicular electric, E0, and magnetic, B0, fields, and modelling the azimuthal direction (i.e., the E0 × B0 direction), we study the cross-field electron transport in Hall effect thrusters (HETs). For low plasma densities, the electron transport is found to be well described by classical electron-neutral collision theory, but at sufficiently high densities (representative of typical HETs), a strong instability is observed to significantly enhance the electron mobility, even in the absence of electron-neutral collisions. This instability is associated with correlated high-frequency (of the order of MHz) and short-wavelength (of the order of mm) fluctuations in both the electric field and the plasma density, which are shown to be the cause of the anomalous transport. Saturation of the instability is observed to occur due to a combination of ion-wave trapping in the E0 × B0 direction, and convection in the E0 direction.
Modeling reactive transport in deformable porous media using the theory of interacting continua.
Turner, Daniel Zack
2012-01-01
This report gives an overview of the work done as part of an Early Career LDRD aimed at modeling flow induced damage of materials involving chemical reactions, deformation of the porous matrix, and complex flow phenomena. The numerical formulation is motivated by a mixture theory or theory of interacting continua type approach to coupling the behavior of the fluid and the porous matrix. Results for the proposed method are presented for several engineering problems of interest including carbon dioxide sequestration, hydraulic fracturing, and energetic materials applications. This work is intended to create a general framework for flow induced damage that can be further developed in each of the particular areas addressed below. The results show both convincing proof of the methodologies potential and the need for further validation of the models developed.
Covariance Modifications to Subspace Bases
Harris, D B
2008-11-19
Adaptive signal processing algorithms that rely upon representations of signal and noise subspaces often require updates to those representations when new data become available. Subspace representations frequently are estimated from available data with singular value (SVD) decompositions. Subspace updates require modifications to these decompositions. Updates can be performed inexpensively provided they are low-rank. A substantial literature on SVD updates exists, frequently focusing on rank-1 updates (see e.g. [Karasalo, 1986; Comon and Golub, 1990, Badeau, 2004]). In these methods, data matrices are modified by addition or deletion of a row or column, or data covariance matrices are modified by addition of the outer product of a new vector. A recent paper by Brand [2006] provides a general and efficient method for arbitrary rank updates to an SVD. The purpose of this note is to describe a closely-related method for applications where right singular vectors are not required. This note also describes the SVD updates to a particular scenario of interest in seismic array signal processing. The particular application involve updating the wideband subspace representation used in seismic subspace detectors [Harris, 2006]. These subspace detectors generalize waveform correlation algorithms to detect signals that lie in a subspace of waveforms of dimension d {ge} 1. They potentially are of interest because they extend the range of waveform variation over which these sensitive detectors apply. Subspace detectors operate by projecting waveform data from a detection window into a subspace specified by a collection of orthonormal waveform basis vectors (referred to as the template). Subspace templates are constructed from a suite of normalized, aligned master event waveforms that may be acquired by a single sensor, a three-component sensor, an array of such sensors or a sensor network. The template design process entails constructing a data matrix whose columns contain the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ntsime, Basetsana P.; Moitsheki, Raseelo J.
2016-06-01
In this paper we consider a nonlinear convection-dispersion equation arising in contaminant transport. The water flow velocity is considered to be spatially-dependent and dispersion coefficient depends on concentration. A direct group classification resulted in a number of cases for which the governing equation admits Lie point symmetries. In each case the one dimensional optimal system of subalgebras is constructed. Reductions are performed. The reduced ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are nonlinear and difficult to solve exactly. On the other hand we consider the steady state problem and applied the method of canonical coordinates to determine exact solutions.
Safari, M; Kwok, C Y; Nazar, L F
2016-08-24
A comprehensive experimental and theoretical analysis of the isothermal transport of species for the two model ternary-electrolytes with LiTFSI-Li2S4/dioxolane (DOL)-dimethoxyethane (DME) and LiTFSI-Li2S6/DOL-DME formulations is presented. An unambiguous picture of the polysulfide's mobility is set forth after a detailed investigation of the macroscopic transference number and diffusion coefficients. The new findings of incongruent diffusion for Li2S4 species and high significance of cross-term diffusion coefficients reformulate a fledgling view of the prevalent redox-shuttle phenomena. The practical implications of this complex mechanism are discussed in detail. PMID:27610417
2D/1D approximations to the 3D neutron transport equation. I: Theory
Kelley, B. W.; Larsen, E. W.
2013-07-01
A new class of '2D/1D' approximations is proposed for the 3D linear Boltzmann equation. These approximate equations preserve the exact transport physics in the radial directions x and y and diffusion physics in the axial direction z. Thus, the 2D/1D equations are more accurate approximations of the 3D Boltzmann equation than the conventional 3D diffusion equation. The 2D/1D equations can be systematically discretized, to yield accurate simulation methods for 3D reactor core problems. The resulting solutions will be more accurate than 3D diffusion solutions, and less expensive to generate than standard 3D transport solutions. In this paper, we (i) show that the simplest 2D/1D equation has certain desirable properties, (ii) systematically discretize this equation, and (iii) derive a stable iteration scheme for solving the discrete system of equations. In a companion paper [1], we give numerical results that confirm the theoretical predictions of accuracy and iterative stability. (authors)
Generalized linear transport theory in dilute neutral gases and dispersion relation of sound waves.
Bendib, A; Bendib-Kalache, K; Gombert, M M; Imadouchene, N
2006-10-01
The transport processes in dilute neutral gases are studied by using the kinetic equation with a collision relaxation model that meets all conservation requirements. The kinetic equation is solved keeping the whole anisotropic part of the distribution function with the use of the continued fractions. The conservative laws of the collision operator are taken into account with the projection operator techniques. The generalized heat flux and stress tensor are calculated in the linear approximation, as functions of the lower moments, i.e., the density, the flow velocity and the temperature. The results obtained are valid for arbitrary collision frequency nu with the respect to kv(t) and the characteristic frequency omega, where k(-1) is the characteristic length scale of the system and v(t) is the thermal velocity. The transport coefficients constitute accurate closure relations for the generalized hydrodynamic equations. An application to the dispersion and the attenuation of sound waves in the whole collisionality regime is presented. The results obtained are in very good agreement with the experimental data. PMID:17155048
Light dosimetry in optical phantoms and in tissues: I. Multiple flux and transport theory.
Star, W M; Marijnissen, J P; van Gemert, M J
1988-04-01
This is the first of two papers on the quantitative measurement of light energy fluence rates in optical phantoms and in tissues, in vitro and in vivo. The theory discussed in the present paper will be used in a forthcoming experimental paper to quantitatively check measurements of light energy fluence rates. A simple multiple flux model, which is equivalent to the diffusion approximation, is derived from the equation of transfer in a plane as well as in a spherical geometry. The equations obtained are similar to those of the Kubelka-Munk and related heuristic models. This permits conclusions regarding the limitations of these models and the values of their constants. The heuristic models are equivalent to diffusion theory for diffuse incident light, but not for collimated incident light. We also present a simple calculation of the radiance as a function of direction in the diffusion domain. This, together with the effective attenuation coefficient, permits indirect experimental determination of both the albedo and the anisotropy factor (g) of the scattering function. Similarity relations are discussed, as they result from the so called delta-Eddington approximation, leading to the conclusion that far from boundaries and sources light propagation characteristics do not change very much when g and omega s are varied, provided omega s (1-g) is kept constant (omega s = scattering coefficient). Therefore, only two optical constants are required to approximately describe light propagation in homogeneous and isotropic media in the diffusion approximation. PMID:3380885
The covariation of Northern Hemisphere summertime CO2 with surface temperature at boreal latitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wunch, D.; Wennberg, P. O.; Messerschmidt, J.; Parazoo, N.; Toon, G. C.; Deutscher, N. M.; Keppel-Aleks, G.; Roehl, C. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.
2013-04-01
We observe significant interannual variability in the strength of the seasonal cycle drawdown in northern midlatitudes from measurements of CO2 made by the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). This variability correlates with surface temperature in the boreal latitudes. The TCCON measurements give an average covariation between the XCO2 seasonal cycle minima and boreal surface temperature of 1.3 ± 0.7 ppm K-1. Assimilations from CarbonTracker 2011 and CO2 simulations using the Simple Biosphere exchange Model (SiB) transported by GEOS-Chem underestimate this covariation. Both atmospheric transport and biospheric activity contribute to the observed covariation.
Tests of Transport Theory and Reduced Impurity Influx with Highly Radiative Plasmas in TFTR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hill, K. W.
1997-11-01
The electron and ion temperature profiles in beam-heated plasmas were observed to be remarkably invariant when radiative losses were increased significantly through gas puffing of high-Z impurities (argon, krypton, xenon) in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. Without impurity puffing, radiative losses accounted for typically only ~ 25\\char'45 of the input power and the radiation profile was strongly peaked at the plasma edge, where the dominant carbon impurity was not fully stripped. At central electron temperatures, T_eo, of ~ 6 keV, trace concentrations of krypton and xenon (n_z/ne ~ 10-3) generated flat and centrally peaked radiation profiles respectively, and a significant fraction of the input power (45-100\\char'45 ) was lost through radiation. This loss provided a nearly ideal technique for studying local heat transport in tokamaks because it perturbed the net heating profile strongly and in a measureable way, with little effect on the density and the beam deposition profiles. In supershot plasmas, Ti >> T_e, the ion temperature profile remained constant, or even increased modestly, as the radiated power fraction was increased to 75-90\\char'45 with krypton and xenon. This observation is surprising because ion-electron coupling is the dominant power loss term for the ions in the core of supershot plasmas, and the central Ti would have decreased a factor of two if the local ion thermal diffusivity had remained constant at its value without impurity puffing. In L-mode plasmas where ion-electron power coupling is a smaller term in the power balance, the electron temperature during impurity puffing also changed only ~ 10-15\\char'45 even as the net power flow through the electrons was decreased by a factor of ~ 3. The ``stiffness" of the temperature profiles to net input power is supportive of transport mechanisms which have a marginal-stability character. Preliminary comparisons of the temperature changes with predictions of the IFS/PPPL transport model
Quasi-local mass in the covariant Newtonian space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yu-Huei; Wang, Chih-Hung
2008-10-01
In general relativity, quasi-local energy-momentum expressions have been constructed from various formulae. However, Newtonian theory of gravity gives a well known and an unique quasi-local mass expression (surface integration). Since geometrical formulation of Newtonian gravity has been established in the covariant Newtonian space-time, it provides a covariant approximation from relativistic to Newtonian theories. By using this approximation, we calculate Komar integral, Brown-York quasi-local energy and Dougan-Mason quasi-local mass in the covariant Newtonian space-time. It turns out that Komar integral naturally gives the Newtonian quasi-local mass expression, however, further conditions (spherical symmetry) need to be made for Brown-York and Dougan-Mason expressions.
Eddy transport of reacting substances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flierl, Glenn
2015-11-01
We examine an exact formulation of eddy fluxes but extended to tracers which react with each other. The resulting formula is evaluated using the lattice model approach, allowing not only control (including elimination) of sub-grid-scale diffusion and efficient enough computation to generate an adequate ensemble. The theory predicts that the flux is a non-local average of the mean gradients, even for passive scalars, and we can calculate the averaging kernel. The reaction terms alter the effective transport for a single scalar depending on decay time scale compared to that of the Lagrangian covariance. But, in addition, the eddies produce ``cross-fluxes'' whereby the transport of each tracer depends on the gradients of all of them.
Borges, P. D. E-mail: lscolfaro@txstate.edu; Scolfaro, L. E-mail: lscolfaro@txstate.edu
2014-12-14
The thermoelectric properties of indium nitride in the most stable wurtzite phase (w-InN) as a function of electron and hole concentrations and temperature were studied by solving the semiclassical Boltzmann transport equations in conjunction with ab initio electronic structure calculations, within Density Functional Theory. Based on maximally localized Wannier function basis set and the ab initio band energies, results for the Seebeck coefficient are presented and compared with available experimental data for n-type as well as p-type systems. Also, theoretical results for electric conductivity and power factor are presented. Most cases showed good agreement between the calculated properties and experimental data for w-InN unintentionally and p-type doped with magnesium. Our predictions for temperature and concentration dependences of electrical conductivity and power factor revealed a promising use of InN for intermediate and high temperature thermoelectric applications. The rigid band approach and constant scattering time approximation were utilized in the calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vestergaard, Christian L.; Mikkelsen, Morten Bo; Reisner, Walter; Kristensen, Anders; Flyvbjerg, Henrik
2016-01-01
Transition state theory (TST) provides a simple interpretation of many thermally activated processes. It applies successfully on timescales and length scales that differ several orders of magnitude: to chemical reactions, breaking of chemical bonds, unfolding of proteins and RNA structures and polymers crossing entropic barriers. Here we apply TST to out-of-equilibrium transport through confined environments: the thermally activated translocation of single DNA molecules over an entropic barrier helped by an external force field. Reaction pathways are effectively one dimensional and so long that they are observable in a microscope. Reaction rates are so slow that transitions are recorded on video. We find sharp transition states that are independent of the applied force, similar to chemical bond rupture, as well as transition states that change location on the reaction pathway with the strength of the applied force. The states of equilibrium and transition are separated by micrometres as compared with angstroms/nanometres for chemical bonds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibata, Masakazu; Ohmi, Shun-ichiro; Ishiwara, Hiroshi
2012-03-01
The drain current vs gate voltage (ID-VG) and drain current vs drain voltage (ID-VD) characteristics of ferroelectric gate-all-around Si nanowire transistors are derived using the drift/diffusion transport theory. It is pointed out that the nonsaturated polarization in the ferroelectric film, which occurs near the drain region in the channel owing to the influence of the applied drain voltage, plays an important role in the calculation of the drain current as well as the polarization near the source region, and a graphical method using analytical expressions for the minor polarization hysteresis loops is presented to calculate the mobile charge density in the nanowire. By numerical analysis, the gate voltage range suitable for memory operation is determined in Si nanowire transistors with ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] gate films.
Vestergaard, Christian L; Mikkelsen, Morten Bo; Reisner, Walter; Kristensen, Anders; Flyvbjerg, Henrik
2016-01-01
Transition state theory (TST) provides a simple interpretation of many thermally activated processes. It applies successfully on timescales and length scales that differ several orders of magnitude: to chemical reactions, breaking of chemical bonds, unfolding of proteins and RNA structures and polymers crossing entropic barriers. Here we apply TST to out-of-equilibrium transport through confined environments: the thermally activated translocation of single DNA molecules over an entropic barrier helped by an external force field. Reaction pathways are effectively one dimensional and so long that they are observable in a microscope. Reaction rates are so slow that transitions are recorded on video. We find sharp transition states that are independent of the applied force, similar to chemical bond rupture, as well as transition states that change location on the reaction pathway with the strength of the applied force. The states of equilibrium and transition are separated by micrometres as compared with angstroms/nanometres for chemical bonds. PMID:26732388
Theory of transport noise in membrane channels with open-closed kinetics.
Frehland, E
1979-03-21
A theoretical approach to transport noise in kinetic systems, which has recently been developed, is applied to electric fluctuations around steady-states in membrane channels with different conductance states. The channel kinetics may be simple two state (open-closed) kinetics or more complicated. The membrane channel is considered as a sequence of binding sites separated by energy barriers over which the ions have to jump according to the usual single-file diffusion model. For simplicity the channels are assumed to act independently. In the special case of ionic movement fast compared with the channel open-closed kinetics the results agree with those derived from the usual Master equation approach to electric fluctuations in nerve membrane channels. For the simple model of channels with one binding site and two energy barries the coupling between the fluctuations coming from the open-closed kinetics and from the jump diffusion is investigated. PMID:427255
Hu, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Qi, Jian-Guang; Yin, Liu-Yi
2015-11-28
Understanding molecular motion in terms of molecular structure is an important issue for microscopic understanding of the nature of transport properties and glass transition, and for design of structured materials to meet specific demands in various applications. Herein, a novel molecular mechanism is proposed to connect macroscopic motion in ionic liquids with molecular structure via conformational conversions of the constituent ions or of the cation-anion pairs. New equations for description of relaxation time, diffusion coefficient, molar conductivity, and viscosity of ionic liquids are established. The equation parameters, which were determined from the temperature dependent heat capacities, self-diffusion coefficients, molar conductivities, and viscosities of typical ionic liquids, were used to produce predictions for the corresponding properties of other ionic liquids and for the glass transition temperatures of representative ionic liquids. All predictions are in nice agreements with the experimental results. PMID:26627962
2016-01-01
A comprehensive experimental and theoretical analysis of the isothermal transport of species for the two model ternary-electrolytes with LiTFSI-Li2S4/dioxolane (DOL)-dimethoxyethane (DME) and LiTFSI-Li2S6/DOL-DME formulations is presented. An unambiguous picture of the polysulfide’s mobility is set forth after a detailed investigation of the macroscopic transference number and diffusion coefficients. The new findings of incongruent diffusion for Li2S4 species and high significance of cross-term diffusion coefficients reformulate a fledgling view of the prevalent redox-shuttle phenomena. The practical implications of this complex mechanism are discussed in detail. PMID:27610417
Relation between finite element methods and nodal methods in transport theory
Walters, W.F.
1985-01-01
This paper examines the relationship between nodal methods and finite-element methods for solving the discrete-ordinates form of the transport equation in x-y geometry. Specifically, we will examine the relation of three finite-element schemes to the linear-linear (LL) and linear-nodal (LN) nodal schemes. The three finite-element schemes are the linear-continuous-diamond-difference (DD) scheme, the linear-discontinuous (LD) scheme, and the quadratic-discontinuous (QD) scheme. A brief derivation of the (LL) and (LN) nodal schemes is given in the third section of this paper. The approximations that cause the LL scheme to reduce to the DD, LD, and QD schemes are then indicated. An extremely simple method of deriving the finite-element schemes is then introduced.
Theory of helimagnons in itinerant quantum systems. IV. Transport in the weak-disorder regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirkpatrick, T. R.; Belitz, D.; Saha, Ronojoy
2008-09-01
We apply a recent quasiparticle model for the electronic properties of metallic helimagnets to calculate the transport properties of three-dimensional systems in the helically ordered phase. We focus on the ballistic regime τ2TγF≫1 at weak disorder (large elastic mean-free time τ ) or intermediate temperature. In this regime, we find a leading temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity proportional to T . This is much stronger than either the Fermi-liquid contribution (T2) or the contribution from helimagnon scattering in the clean limit (T5/2) . It is reminiscent of the behavior of nonmagnetic two-dimensional metals, but the sign of the effect is opposite to that in the nonmagnetic case. Experimental consequences of this result are discussed.
Transport theory for a leaf canopy of finite-dimensional scattering centers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Myneni, Ranga B.; Marshak, Alexander L.; Kniazikhin, Iurii V.
1991-01-01
A formalism for photon transport in leaf canopies with finite-dimensional scattering centers that cross shade mutually is developed. Starting from first principles, expressions for the interaction cross sections are derived. The problem of illumination by a monodirectional source is studied in detail using a successive collisions approach. A balance equation is formulated in R3 and the interaction between a leaf canopy and the adjacent atmosphere is discussed. Although the details are those relating to a leaf canopy, the formalism is equally applicable to other media where the constituents cross shade mutually such as planetary surfaces, rings and ridged-ice in polar regions, i.e., media that exhibit opposition brightening.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, Dong; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Wang, Weile; Deering, Donald W,; Stenberg, Pauline; Shabanov, Nikolay; Tan, Bin; Myneni, Ranga B.
2008-01-01
Radiation reflected from vegetation canopies exhibits high spatial variation. Satellite-borne sensors measure the mean intensities emanating from heterogeneous vegetated pixels. The theory of radiative transfer in stochastic media provides the most logical linkage between satellite observations and the three-dimensional canopy structure through a closed system of simple equations which contains the mean intensity and higher statistical moments directly as its unknowns. Although this theory has been a highly active research field in recent years, its potential for satellite remote sensing of vegetated surfaces has not been fully realized because of the lack of models of a canopy pair-correlation function that the stochastic radiative transfer equations require. The pair correlation function is defined as the probability of finding simultaneously phytoelements at two points. This paper presents analytical and Monte Carlo generated pair correlation functions. Theoretical and numerical analyses show that the spatial correlation between phytoelements is primarily responsible for the effects of the three-dimensional canopy structure on canopy reflective and absorptive properties. The pair correlation function, therefore, is the most natural and physically meaningful measure of the canopy structure over a wide range of scales. The stochastic radiative transfer equations naturally admit this measure and thus provide a powerful means to investigate the three-dimensional canopy structure from space. Canopy reflectances predicted by the stochastic equations are assessed by comparisons with the PARABOLA measurements from coniferous and broadleaf forest stands in the BOREAS Southern Study Areas. The pair correlation functions are derived from data on tree structural parameters collected during field campaigns conducted at these sites. The simulated canopy reflectances compare well with the PARABOLA data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harman, C. J.
2014-12-01
Models that faithfully represent spatially-integrated hydrologic transport through the critical zone at sub-watershed scales are essential building blocks for large-scale models of land use and climate controls on non-point source contaminant delivery. A particular challenge facing these models is the need to represent the delay between inputs of soluble contaminants (such as nitrate) at the field scale, and the solute load that appears in streams. Recent advances in the theory of time-variable transit time distributions (e.g. Botter et al., GRL 38(L11403), 2011) have provided a rigorous framework for representing conservative solute transport and its coupling to hydrologic variability and partitioning. Here I will present a reformulation of this framework that offers several distinct advantages over existing formulations: 1) the derivation of the governing conservation equation is simple and intuitive, 2) the closure relations are expressed in a convenient and physically meaningful way as probability distributions Ω(ST)Omega(S_T) over the storage ranked by age STS_T, and 3) changes in transport behavior determined by storage-dependent dilution and flow-path dynamics (as distinct from those due only to changes in the rates and partitioning of water flux) are completely encapsulated by these probability distributions. The framework has been implemented to model to the rich dataset of long-term stream and precipitation chloride from the Plynlimon watershed in Wales, UK. With suitable choices for the functional form of the closure relationships, only a small number of free parameters are required to reproduce the observed chloride dynamics as well as previous models with many more parameters, including reproducing the observed fractal 1/f filtering of the streamflow chloride variability. The modeled transport dynamics are sensitive to the input precipitation variability and water balance partitioning to evapotranspiration. Apparent storage-dependent age
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allegra, Michele; Giorda, Paolo; Lloyd, Seth
2016-04-01
Assessing the role of interference in natural and artificial quantum dynamical processes is a crucial task in quantum information theory. To this aim, an appropriate formalism is provided by the decoherent histories framework. While this approach has been deeply explored from different theoretical perspectives, it still lacks of a comprehensive set of tools able to concisely quantify the amount of coherence developed by a given dynamics. In this paper, we introduce and test different measures of the (average) coherence present in dissipative (Markovian) quantum evolutions, at various time scales and for different levels of environmentally induced decoherence. In order to show the effectiveness of the introduced tools, we apply them to a paradigmatic quantum process where the role of coherence is being hotly debated: exciton transport in photosynthetic complexes. To spot out the essential features that may determine the performance of the transport, we focus on a relevant trimeric subunit of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex and we use a simplified (Haken-Strobl) model for the system-bath interaction. Our analysis illustrates how the high efficiency of environmentally assisted transport can be traced back to a quantum recoil avoiding effect on the exciton dynamics, that preserves and sustains the benefits of the initial fast quantum delocalization of the exciton over the network. Indeed, for intermediate levels of decoherence, the bath is seen to selectively kill the negative interference between different exciton pathways, while retaining the initial positive one. The concepts and tools here developed show how the decoherent histories approach can be used to quantify the relation between coherence and efficiency in quantum dynamical processes.
FAST NEUTRON COVARIANCES FOR EVALUATED DATA FILES.
HERMAN, M.; OBLOZINSKY, P.; ROCHMAN, D.; KAWANO, T.; LEAL, L.
2006-06-05
We describe implementation of the KALMAN code in the EMPIRE system and present first covariance data generated for Gd and Ir isotopes. A complete set of covariances, in the full energy range, was produced for the chain of 8 Gadolinium isotopes for total, elastic, capture, total inelastic (MT=4), (n,2n), (n,p) and (n,alpha) reactions. Our correlation matrices, based on combination of model calculations and experimental data, are characterized by positive mid-range and negative long-range correlations. They differ from the model-generated covariances that tend to show strong positive long-range correlations and those determined solely from experimental data that result in nearly diagonal matrices. We have studied shapes of correlation matrices obtained in the calculations and interpreted them in terms of the underlying reaction models. An important result of this study is the prediction of narrow energy ranges with extremely small uncertainties for certain reactions (e.g., total and elastic).
Gram-Schmidt algorithms for covariance propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thornton, C. L.; Bierman, G. J.
1977-01-01
This paper addresses the time propagation of triangular covariance factors. Attention is focused on the square-root free factorization, P = UD(transpose of U), where U is unit upper triangular and D is diagonal. An efficient and reliable algorithm for U-D propagation is derived which employs Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization. Partitioning the state vector to distinguish bias and coloured process noise parameters increase mapping efficiency. Cost comparisons of the U-D, Schmidt square-root covariance and conventional covariance propagation methods are made using weighted arithmetic operation counts. The U-D time update is shown to be less costly than the Schmidt method; and, except in unusual circumstances, it is within 20% of the cost of conventional propagation.
Gram-Schmidt algorithms for covariance propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thornton, C. L.; Bierman, G. J.
1975-01-01
This paper addresses the time propagation of triangular covariance factors. Attention is focused on the square-root free factorization, P = UDU/T/, where U is unit upper triangular and D is diagonal. An efficient and reliable algorithm for U-D propagation is derived which employs Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization. Partitioning the state vector to distinguish bias and colored process noise parameters increases mapping efficiency. Cost comparisons of the U-D, Schmidt square-root covariance and conventional covariance propagation methods are made using weighted arithmetic operation counts. The U-D time update is shown to be less costly than the Schmidt method; and, except in unusual circumstances, it is within 20% of the cost of conventional propagation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahbazi, Maryam; Bourbonnais, Claude
2015-03-01
The electrical and thermal transport properties of the normal state of quasi-1D superconductors like Bechgaard salts are investigated by combining the linearised Boltzmann equation and the renormalisation group (RG) method. The collision integral operator is calculated using the Umklapp scattering amplitudes obtained by the RG method yielding the electrical resistivity(ρ) and Seebeck coefficient(S). The power law dependence, ρ (T) ~Tα , for resistivity is obtained by changing the antinesting parameter t⊥' simulating the pressure distance from the quantum critical point (QCP) between spin-density-wave (SDW) and d-wave SC (SCd) in the phase diagram. The resistivity evolves from a linear component (α ~= 1) at the QCP towards a Fermi liquid component (α ~= 2) with increasing t⊥', which confirms an extended region of quantum criticality as a result of interference between SCd and SDW causing an anomalous growth of Umklapp scattering. Its anisotropy is also tied to the k⊥-dependence of hot/cold scattering regions along the Fermi surface. Similar calculations for the Seebeck coefficient show deviations from the usual linear temperature dependence and also a change of sign near a SDW instability.
Transport-theory approach to ion-beam mixing and recoil implantation
Manning, I. )
1990-12-01
Ion bombardment of an amorphous target in slab geometry is considered, and ion-beam mixing and recoil implantation evaluated in the binary-collision approximation. A fundamental equation for target-atom redistribution during ion bombardment is formulated, which relates the redistribution flux to the source function for the creation of energetic atomic recoils and their range distribution; for the analysis, this equation plays the role of the Boltzmann transport equation. Expanding the target-atom density in a power series and truncating at the second term yields a flux equation and closed expressions for coefficients of recoil implantation and of ion-beam mixing. The flux equation plays a role analogous to that of Fick's law in diffusion. Lattice relaxations are taken into account by introducing flux transformations between laboratory and marker coordinate frames. The closed expressions for the coefficients are calculated and compared with experiment. The binary-collision contribution to ion-beam mixing turns out to be larger than heretofore thought. A new mechanism for ion-beam mixing emerges, which turns out to make a very significant contribution. There are even cases where the new mechanism far outweighs the cascade-mixing mechanism, thought to be the major contributor to binary-collision ion-beam mixing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wurm, Jürgen; Richter, Klaus; Adagideli, Inanç
2011-11-01
We investigate the effect of different edge types on the statistical properties of both the energy spectrum of closed graphene billiards and the conductance of open graphene cavities in the semiclassical limit. To this end, we use the semiclassical Green's function for ballistic graphene flakes [see J. Wurm, K. Richter, and İ. Adagideli, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.84.075468 84, 075468 (2011)]. First, we study the spectral two-point correlation function or, more precisely, its Fourier transform the spectral form factor, starting from the graphene version of Gutzwiller's trace formula for the oscillating part of the density of states. We calculate the two leading-order contributions to the spectral form factor, paying particular attention to the influence of the edge characteristics of the system. Then, we consider transport properties of open graphene cavities. We derive generic analytical expressions for the classical conductance, the weak localization correction, the size of the universal conductance fluctuations, and the shot-noise power of a ballistic graphene cavity. Again, we focus on the effects of the edge structure. For both the conductance and the spectral form factor, we find that edge-induced pseudospin interference affects the results significantly. In particular, intervalley coupling mediated through scattering from armchair edges is the key mechanism that governs the coherent quantum interference effects in ballistic graphene cavities.
Zuo, Chao; Chen, Qian; Yu, Yingjie; Asundi, Anand
2013-03-11
Several existing strategies for estimating the axial intensity derivative in the transport-of-intensity equation (TIE) from multiple intensity measurements have been unified by the Savitzky-Golay differentiation filter--an equivalent convolution solution for differentiation estimation by least-squares polynomial fitting. The different viewpoint from the digital filter in signal processing not only provides great insight into the behaviors, the shortcomings, and the performance of these existing intensity derivative estimation algorithms, but more important, it also suggests a new way of improving solution strategies by extending the applications of Savitzky-Golay differentiation filter in TIE. Two novel methods for phase retrieval based on TIE are presented--the first by introducing adaptive-degree strategy in spatial domain and the second by selecting optimal spatial frequencies in Fourier domain. Numerical simulations and experiments verify that the second method outperforms the existing methods significantly, showing reliable retrieved phase with both overall contrast and fine phase variations well preserved. PMID:23482106
Measurements and theory for transport layer structure in intense bed-load
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fraccarollo, L.; Capart, H.
2012-04-01
We focus on sediment laden flows driven by turbulent open-channel flows where the bed surface is fully mobilized and nonetheless the thickness of the bedload layer is conveniently smaller than the flow depth. This regime presents dynamic and kinematic features which persist in the range of applied Shields stress between about 0.3 and 3. Below the lower limit the moving grains do not develop significant stresses compared to the applied ones; above the upper limit, debris-flow type frictional contacts develop in a non negligible portion of the bedload layer. We report laboratory experiments in which, using high-speed cameras and a laser light sheet, detailed profiles of granular velocity and concentration have been measured. We checked that the transversal bed profile is flat and that the sidewall measurements are representative of the interior domain. The profiles provide new information on transport layer structure and its relation to the applied Shields stress. Contrary to expectations, we find that intense bed-load layers respond to changes in flow conditions by adjusting their granular concentration at the base. Two mechanisms account for the resulting behavior: stresses generated by immersed granular collisions, and equilibration by density stratification. Without parameter adjustment, the deduced constitutive relations capture the responses of velocity, concentration, and layer thickness in the above reported ten-fold increase Shields-stress range. Away from this intermediate range, in both directions, we show how the flow features rapidly change and the theoretical inferences decay.
Theory of thermal transport in multilayer hexagonal boron nitride and nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindsay, L.; Broido, D. A.
2012-01-01
We present a theory for the lattice thermal conductivity κL of single-walled boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) and multilayer hexagonal boron nitride (MLBN), which is based on an exact numerical solution of the phonon Boltzmann equation. Coupling between layers in MLBN and nanotube curvature in BNNTs each break a phonon scattering selection rule found in single-layer hexagonal boron nitride (SLBN), which reduces κL in these systems. We show that out-of-plane flexural phonons in MLBN and out-of-tube phonons in BNNTs provide large contributions to κL, qualitatively similar to multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). However, we find that the κL's in BNNTs and MLBN are considerably smaller compared to similar SWCNTs and MLG structures because of stronger anharmonic phonon scattering in the former. A large and strongly temperature-dependent isotope effect is found reflecting the interplay between anharmonic and isotope scattering phonons. Finally, we also demonstrate convergence of BNNTs into SLBN for large-diameter nanotubes and MLBN to bulk hexagonal boron nitride within a few layers.
Parametric number covariance in quantum chaotic spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vinayak, Kumar, Sandeep; Pandey, Akhilesh
2016-03-01
We study spectral parametric correlations in quantum chaotic systems and introduce the number covariance as a measure of such correlations. We derive analytic results for the classical random matrix ensembles using the binary correlation method and obtain compact expressions for the covariance. We illustrate the universality of this measure by presenting the spectral analysis of the quantum kicked rotors for the time-reversal invariant and time-reversal noninvariant cases. A local version of the parametric number variance introduced earlier is also investigated.
A violation of the covariant entropy bound?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masoumi, Ali; Mathur, Samir D.
2015-04-01
Several arguments suggest that the entropy density at high energy density ρ should be given by the expression s =K √{ρ /G } , where K is a constant of order unity. On the other hand the covariant entropy bound requires that the entropy on a light sheet be bounded by A /4 G , where A is the area of the boundary of the sheet. We find that in a suitably chosen cosmological geometry, the above expression for s violates the covariant entropy bound. We consider different possible explanations for this fact, in particular, the possibility that entropy bounds should be defined in terms of volumes of regions rather than areas of surfaces.
Covariance Analysis of Gamma Ray Spectra
Trainham, R.; Tinsley, J.
2013-01-01
The covariance method exploits fluctuations in signals to recover information encoded in correlations which are usually lost when signal averaging occurs. In nuclear spectroscopy it can be regarded as a generalization of the coincidence technique. The method can be used to extract signal from uncorrelated noise, to separate overlapping spectral peaks, to identify escape peaks, to reconstruct spectra from Compton continua, and to generate secondary spectral fingerprints. We discuss a few statistical considerations of the covariance method and present experimental examples of its use in gamma spectroscopy.
Covariance analysis of gamma ray spectra
Trainham, R.; Tinsley, J.
2013-01-15
The covariance method exploits fluctuations in signals to recover information encoded in correlations which are usually lost when signal averaging occurs. In nuclear spectroscopy it can be regarded as a generalization of the coincidence technique. The method can be used to extract signal from uncorrelated noise, to separate overlapping spectral peaks, to identify escape peaks, to reconstruct spectra from Compton continua, and to generate secondary spectral fingerprints. We discuss a few statistical considerations of the covariance method and present experimental examples of its use in gamma spectroscopy.
Sparse Multivariate Regression With Covariance Estimation
Rothman, Adam J.; Levina, Elizaveta; Zhu, Ji
2014-01-01
We propose a procedure for constructing a sparse estimator of a multivariate regression coefficient matrix that accounts for correlation of the response variables. This method, which we call multivariate regression with covariance estimation (MRCE), involves penalized likelihood with simultaneous estimation of the regression coefficients and the covariance structure. An efficient optimization algorithm and a fast approximation are developed for computing MRCE. Using simulation studies, we show that the proposed method outperforms relevant competitors when the responses are highly correlated. We also apply the new method to a finance example on predicting asset returns. An R-package containing this dataset and code for computing MRCE and its approximation are available online. PMID:24963268
Parametric number covariance in quantum chaotic spectra.
Vinayak; Kumar, Sandeep; Pandey, Akhilesh
2016-03-01
We study spectral parametric correlations in quantum chaotic systems and introduce the number covariance as a measure of such correlations. We derive analytic results for the classical random matrix ensembles using the binary correlation method and obtain compact expressions for the covariance. We illustrate the universality of this measure by presenting the spectral analysis of the quantum kicked rotors for the time-reversal invariant and time-reversal noninvariant cases. A local version of the parametric number variance introduced earlier is also investigated. PMID:27078354
Covariant spectator theory of np scattering: Deuteron quadrupole moment
Gross, Franz
2015-01-26
The deuteron quadrupole moment is calculated using two CST model wave functions obtained from the 2007 high precision fits to np scattering data. Included in the calculation are a new class of isoscalar np interaction currents automatically generated by the nuclear force model used in these fits. The prediction for model WJC-1, with larger relativistic P-state components, is 2.5% smaller that the experiential result, in common with the inability of models prior to 2014 to predict this important quantity. However, model WJC-2, with very small P-state components, gives agreement to better than 1%, similar to the results obtained recently from _{X}EFT predictions to order N^{3}LO.
Covariant spectator theory of np scattering: Deuteron quadrupole moment
Gross, Franz
2015-01-26
The deuteron quadrupole moment is calculated using two CST model wave functions obtained from the 2007 high precision fits to np scattering data. Included in the calculation are a new class of isoscalar np interaction currents automatically generated by the nuclear force model used in these fits. The prediction for model WJC-1, with larger relativistic P-state components, is 2.5% smaller that the experiential result, in common with the inability of models prior to 2014 to predict this important quantity. However, model WJC-2, with very small P-state components, gives agreement to better than 1%, similar to the results obtained recently frommore » XEFT predictions to order N3LO.« less
Scale-covariant theory of gravitation and astrophysical applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canuto, V.; Hsieh, S. H.; Adams, P. J.
1977-01-01
Generalized Einstein equations invariant under scale transformations are presented, and several astrophysical tests studied. It is assumed that the dynamics of atoms or clocks used as measuring apparatus is given a priori. Connection with gauge fields and broken symmetries is made through the cosmological constant.
The fermionic covariant prolongation structure of the super generalized Hirota equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Zhaowen; Yao, Shaokui; Zhang, Chunhong; Gegenhasi
2016-07-01
The integrability of a super generalized Hirota equation (GHE) is investigated by means of the fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory. We construct the su(2/1) × R(λ) prolongation structure for the super GHE and derive the corresponding Lax representation and the Bäcklund transformation. In addition, a solution of the super integrable equation is presented.
Quantization of Generally Covariant Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sforza, Daniel M.
2000-12-01
Finite dimensional models that mimic the constraint structure of Einstein's General Relativity are quantized in the framework of BRST and Dirac's canonical formalisms. The first system to be studied is one featuring a constraint quadratic in the momenta (the "super-Hamiltonian") and a set of constraints linear in the momenta (the "supermomentum" constraints). The starting point is to realize that the ghost contributions to the supermomentum constraint operators can be read in terms of the natural volume induced by the constraints in the orbits. This volume plays a fundamental role in the construction of the quadratic sector of the nilpotent BRST charge. It is shown that the quantum theory is invariant under scaling of the super-Hamiltonian. As long as the system has an intrinsic time, this property translates in a contribution of the potential to the kinetic term. In this aspect, the results substantially differ from other works where the scaling invariance is forced by introducing a coupling to the curvature. The contribution of the potential, far from being unnatural, is beautifully justified in the light of the Jacobi's principle. Then, it is shown that the obtained results can be extended to systems with extrinsic time. In this case, if the metric has a conformal temporal Killing vector and the potential exhibits a suitable behavior with respect to it, the role played by the potential in the case of intrinsic time is now played by the norm of the Killing vector. Finally, the results for the previous cases are extended to a system featuring two super-Hamiltonian constraints. This step is extremely important due to the fact that General Relativity features an infinite number of such constraints satisfying a non trivial algebra among themselves.
Covariance of cross-correlations: towards efficient measures for large-scale structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Robert E.
2009-12-01
We study the covariance of the cross-power spectrum of different tracers for the large-scale structure. We develop the counts-in-cells framework for the multitracer approach, and use this to derive expressions for the full non-Gaussian covariance matrix. We show that for the usual autopower statistic, besides the off-diagonal covariance generated through gravitational mode-coupling, the discreteness of the tracers and their associated sampling distribution can generate strong off-diagonal covariance, and that this becomes the dominant source of covariance as spatial frequencies become larger than the fundamental mode of the survey volume. On comparison with the derived expressions for the cross-power covariance, we show that the off-diagonal terms can be suppressed, if one cross-correlates a high tracer-density sample with a low one. Taking the effective estimator efficiency to be proportional to the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), we show that, to probe clustering as a function of physical properties of the sample, i.e. cluster mass or galaxy luminosity, the cross-power approach can outperform the autopower one by factors of a few. We confront the theory with measurements of the mass-mass, halo-mass and halo-halo power spectra from a large ensemble of N-body simulations. We show that there is a significant S/N advantage to be gained from using the cross-power approach when studying the bias of rare haloes. The analysis is repeated in configuration space and again S/N improvement is found. We estimate the covariance matrix for these samples, and find strong off-diagonal contributions. The covariance depends on halo mass, with higher mass samples having stronger covariance. In agreement with theory, we show that the covariance is suppressed for the cross-power. This work points the way towards improved estimators for studying the clustering of tracers as a function of their physical properties.
3-D Deep Penetration Neutron Imaging of Thick Absorgin and Diffusive Objects Using Transport Theory
Ragusa, Jean; Bangerth, Wolfgang
2011-08-01
here explores the inverse problem of optical tomography applied to heterogeneous domains. The neutral particle transport equation was used as the forward model for how neutral particles stream through and interact within these heterogeneous domains. A constrained optimization technique that uses Newtons method served as the basis of the inverse problem. Optical tomography aims at reconstructing the material properties using (a) illuminating sources and (b) detector readings. However, accurate simulations for radiation transport require that the particle (gamma and/or neutron) energy be appropriate discretize in the multigroup approximation. This, in turns, yields optical tomography problems where the number of unknowns grows (1) about quadratically with respect to the number of energy groups, G, (notably to reconstruct the scattering matrix) and (2) linearly with respect to the number of unknown material regions. As pointed out, a promising approach could rely on algorithms to appropriately select a material type per material zone rather than G2 values. This approach, though promising, still requires further investigation: (a) when switching from cross-section values unknowns to material type indices (discrete integer unknowns), integer programming techniques are needed since derivative information is no longer available; and (b) the issue of selecting the initial material zoning remains. The work reported here proposes an approach to solve the latter item, whereby a material zoning is proposed using one-group or few-groups transport approximations. The capabilities and limitations of the presented method were explored; they are briefly summarized next and later described in fuller details in the Appendices. The major factors that influenced the ability of the optimization method to reconstruct the cross sections of these domains included the locations of the sources used to illuminate the domains, the number of separate experiments used in the reconstruction, the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koslowski, Thorsten
2000-12-01
In this work, we present a theoretical and numerical study of the microscopic and electronic structure of solutions of refractory metal halides in alkali halide melts, [NbCl5]x[KCl]1-x and [TaCl5]x[KCl]1-x with 0⩽x⩽0.5. The geometry of the melts is described by ensembles of charged hard spheres, the electronic structure is modeled by a tight-binding Hamiltonian, which is extended by a reaction field to describe the diabatic energy profile of the electronic self-exchange in many-orbital mixed-valence systems. Despite its simplicity, the model leads to the formation of distorted octahedral [NbCl6]- and [TaCl6]- clusters, as evident both from the inspection of the simulation geometries and from the analysis of the partial pair distribution functions. Even in the presence of the strong potential energy fluctuations characteristic of ionic liquids, the octahedral structure is manifest in the density of states in a t2g-eg splitting of the conduction band. The Hamiltonian that describes mixed-valence systems is solved self-consistently. Using an attractive Hubbard parameter of 1.5 eV, we show that the numerical results can be interpreted by Marcus' theory of outer-sphere electron transfer reactions with a reorganization energy of 2.2 eV, an electronic coupling parameter of 0.12 eV, and an activation energy of 0.42 eV. Both anion-d metal cation and intervalence charge transfer excitations contribute to the optical absorption spectrum, the latter leads to a pronounced polaron absorption peak. These findings are compared to recent experimental results.
Rasiah, Velu; Armour, John David
2013-02-15
Reliable information in transit time (TT) derived from transit velocity (TV) for rain or irrigation water to mix with groundwater (GW) and the subsequent discharge to surface water bodies (SWB) is essential to address the issues associated with the transport of nutrients, particularly nitrate, from GW to SWB. The objectives of this study are to (i) compare the TV estimates obtained using flux theory-based (FT) approach with the water table rise/recession (WT) rate approach and (ii) explore the impact of the differences on solute transport from GW to SWB. The results from a study conducted during two rainy seasons in the northeast humid tropics of Queensland, Australia, showed the TV varied in space and over time and the variations depended on the estimation procedures. The lateral TV computed using the WT approach ranged from 1.00 × 10(-3) to 2.82 × 10(-1) m/d with a mean of 6.18 × 10(-2) m/d compared with 2.90 × 10(-4) to 5.15 × 10(-2) m/d for FT with a mean of 2.63 × 10(-2) m/d. The vertical TV ranged from 2.00 × 10(-3) to 6.02 × 10(-1) m/d with a mean of 1.28 × 10(-1) m/d for the WT compared with 6.76 × 10(-3)-1.78 m/d for the FT with a mean of 2.73 × 10(-1) m/d. These differences are attributed to the role played by different flow pathways. The bypass flow pathway played a role only in WT but not in FT. Approximately 86-95% of the variability in lateral solute transport was accounted for by the lateral TV and the total recession between two consecutive major rainfall events. A comparison of TT from FT and WT approaches indicated the laterally transported nitrate from the GW to the nearby creek was relatively 'new', implying the opportunity for accumulation and to undergo biochemical reactions in GW was low. The results indicated the WT approach produced more reliable TT estimates than FT in the presence of bypass flow pathways. PMID:23287381
Reactive Transport of Carbonated Magma Beneath a Mid-Oceanic Ridge: Theory and Numerical Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keller, T.; Katz, R. F.; Hirschmann, M. M.
2014-12-01
Laboratory experiments indicate that even small concentrations of CO2 in the upper mantle significantly affect the silicate melting behavior [DH06]. CO2 stabilizes carbon-rich melt at high pressure, thus vastly increasing the volume of the upper mantle expected to be partially molten [H10,DH10]. These small-degree melts have important consequences for chemical differentiation and could affect the dynamics of mantle flow. We have developed theory and numerical implementation to simulate thermo-chemically coupled magma/mantle dynamics in terms of a two-phase (rock+melt), three component (dunite+basalt+volatiles) physical model. The fluid dynamics is based on McKenzie's equations [McK84], while the thermo-chemical formulation of the system is represented by a novel, disequilibrium approach to volatile-bearing mantle melting. An experimentally constrained ternary phase diagram, based on an effective solid solution, is used to characterize the equilibrium state in the system. This physical model is implemented as a parallel, two-dimensional finite-volume code that leverages tools from the PETSc library. Early application of this simulation code to a mid-ocean ridge system suggests that the methodology captures some of the first order features of carbonated mantle melting, including deep, low-degree, volatile-rich melt formation. Melt segregation leads to continuous dynamic thermo-chemical dis-equilibration, while phenomenologically derived reaction rates continually move the system towards re-equilibration. The simulations will be used to first characterize carbon extraction from the MOR system assuming chemically homogeneous mantle, and will subsequently be extended to investigate the consequences of heterogeneity in lithology [KW12] and volatile content. Such studies will advance our understanding of the role that the mid-ocean ridge system plays in the deep carbon cycle. REFERENCESDH06 Dasgupta & Hirschmann (2006), doi:10.1038/nature04612.H10 Hirschmann (2010), doi
Urbatsch, Todd James
2015-06-15
We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moustaki, Irini; Joreskog, Karl G.; Mavridis, Dimitris
2004-01-01
We consider a general type of model for analyzing ordinal variables with covariate effects and 2 approaches for analyzing data for such models, the item response theory (IRT) approach and the PRELIS-LISREL (PLA) approach. We compare these 2 approaches on the basis of 2 examples, 1 involving only covariate effects directly on the ordinal variables…
Covariates of Sesame Street Viewing by Preschoolers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Spaner, Steven D.
A study was made of nine covariates as to their discriminating power between preschoolers who watch Sesame Street regularly and preschoolers who do not watch Sesame Street, Surveyed were 372 3-4 year old children on 9 variables. The nine variables were: race, socioeconomic status, number of siblings, child's birth order, maternal age, maternal…
Observed Score Linear Equating with Covariates
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Branberg, Kenny; Wiberg, Marie
2011-01-01
This paper examined observed score linear equating in two different data collection designs, the equivalent groups design and the nonequivalent groups design, when information from covariates (i.e., background variables correlated with the test scores) was included. The main purpose of the study was to examine the effect (i.e., bias, variance, and…
Invariance of covariances arises out of noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grytskyy, D.; Tetzlaff, T.; Diesmann, M.; Helias, M.
2013-01-01
Correlated neural activity is a known feature of the brain [1] and evidence increases that it is closely linked to information processing [2]. The temporal shape of covariances has early been related to synaptic interactions and to common input shared by pairs of neurons [3]. Recent theoretical work explains the small magnitude of covariances in inhibition dominated recurrent networks by active decorrelation [4, 5, 6]. For binary neurons the mean-field approach takes random fluctuations into account to accurately predict the average activity in such networks [7] and expressions for covariances follow from a master equation [8], both briefly reviewed here for completeness. In our recent work we have shown how to map different network models, including binary networks, onto linear dynamics [9]. Binary neurons with a strong non-linear Heaviside gain function are inaccessible to the classical treatment [8]. Here we show how random fluctuations generated by the network effectively linearize the system and implement a self-regulating mechanism, that renders population-averaged covariances independent of the interaction strength and keeps the system away from instability.
Covariant Photon Quantization in the SME
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colladay, D.
2014-01-01
The Gupta-Bleuler quantization procedure is applied to the SME photon sector. A direct application of the method to the massless case fails due to an unavoidable incompleteness in the polarization states. A mass term can be included into the photon lagrangian to rescue the quantization procedure and maintain covariance.
Economical phase-covariant cloning of qudits
Buscemi, Francesco; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Macchiavello, Chiara
2005-04-01
We derive the optimal N{yields}M phase-covariant quantum cloning for equatorial states in dimension d with M=kd+N, k integer. The cloning maps are optimal for both global and single-qudit fidelity. The map is achieved by an 'economical' cloning machine, which works without ancilla.
Hawking fluxes, back reaction and covariant anomalies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulkarni, Shailesh
2008-11-01
Starting from the chiral covariant effective action approach of Banerjee and Kulkarni (2008 Phys. Lett. B 659 827), we provide a derivation of the Hawking radiation from a charged black hole in the presence of gravitational back reaction. The modified expressions for charge and energy flux, due to the effect of one-loop back reaction are obtained.
A Covariance NMR Toolbox for MATLAB and OCTAVE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Short, Timothy; Alzapiedi, Leigh; Brüschweiler, Rafael; Snyder, David
2011-03-01
The Covariance NMR Toolbox is a new software suite that provides a streamlined implementation of covariance-based analysis of multi-dimensional NMR data. The Covariance NMR Toolbox uses the MATLAB or, alternatively, the freely available GNU OCTAVE computer language, providing a user-friendly environment in which to apply and explore covariance techniques. Covariance methods implemented in the toolbox described here include direct and indirect covariance processing, 4D covariance, generalized indirect covariance (GIC), and Z-matrix transform. In order to provide compatibility with a wide variety of spectrometer and spectral analysis platforms, the Covariance NMR Toolbox uses the NMRPipe format for both input and output files. Additionally, datasets small enough to fit in memory are stored as arrays that can be displayed and further manipulated in a versatile manner within MATLAB or OCTAVE.
A covariance NMR toolbox for MATLAB and OCTAVE.
Short, Timothy; Alzapiedi, Leigh; Brüschweiler, Rafael; Snyder, David
2011-03-01
The Covariance NMR Toolbox is a new software suite that provides a streamlined implementation of covariance-based analysis of multi-dimensional NMR data. The Covariance NMR Toolbox uses the MATLAB or, alternatively, the freely available GNU OCTAVE computer language, providing a user-friendly environment in which to apply and explore covariance techniques. Covariance methods implemented in the toolbox described here include direct and indirect covariance processing, 4D covariance, generalized indirect covariance (GIC), and Z-matrix transform. In order to provide compatibility with a wide variety of spectrometer and spectral analysis platforms, the Covariance NMR Toolbox uses the NMRPipe format for both input and output files. Additionally, datasets small enough to fit in memory are stored as arrays that can be displayed and further manipulated in a versatile manner within MATLAB or OCTAVE. PMID:21215669
Covariance modeling in geodetic applications of collocation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barzaghi, Riccardo; Cazzaniga, Noemi; De Gaetani, Carlo; Reguzzoni, Mirko
2014-05-01
Collocation method is widely applied in geodesy for estimating/interpolating gravity related functionals. The crucial problem of this approach is the correct modeling of the empirical covariance functions of the observations. Different methods for getting reliable covariance models have been proposed in the past by many authors. However, there are still problems in fitting the empirical values, particularly when different functionals of T are used and combined. Through suitable linear combinations of positive degree variances a model function that properly fits the empirical values can be obtained. This kind of condition is commonly handled by solver algorithms in linear programming problems. In this work the problem of modeling covariance functions has been dealt with an innovative method based on the simplex algorithm. This requires the definition of an objective function to be minimized (or maximized) where the unknown variables or their linear combinations are subject to some constraints. The non-standard use of the simplex method consists in defining constraints on model covariance function in order to obtain the best fit on the corresponding empirical values. Further constraints are applied so to have coherence with model degree variances to prevent possible solutions with no physical meaning. The fitting procedure is iterative and, in each iteration, constraints are strengthened until the best possible fit between model and empirical functions is reached. The results obtained during the test phase of this new methodology show remarkable improvements with respect to the software packages available until now. Numerical tests are also presented to check for the impact that improved covariance modeling has on the collocation estimate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Contreras Aburto, Claudio; Nägele, Gerhard
2013-10-01
We develop a general method for calculating conduction-diffusion transport properties of strong electrolyte mixtures, including specific conductivities, steady-state electrophoretic mobilities, and self-diffusion coefficients. The ions are described as charged Brownian spheres, and the solvent-mediated hydrodynamic interactions (HIs) are also accounted for in the non-instantaneous ion atmosphere relaxation effect. A linear response expression relating long-time partial mobilities to associated dynamic structure factors is employed in our derivation of a general mode coupling theory (MCT) method for the conduction-diffusion properties. A simplified solution scheme for the MCT method is discussed. Analytic results are obtained for transport coefficients of pointlike ions which, for very low ion concentrations, reduce to the Deby-Falkenhagen-Onsager-Fuoss limiting law expressions. As an application, an unusual non-monotonic concentration dependence of the polyion electrophoretic mobility in a mixture of two binary electrolytes is discussed. In addition, leading-order extensions of the limiting law results are derived with HIs included. The present method complements a related MCT method by the authors for the electrolyte viscosity and shear relaxation function [C. Contreras-Aburto and G. Nägele, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 24, 464108 (2012)], so that a unifying scheme for conduction-diffusion and viscoelastic properties is obtained. We present here the general framework of the method, illustrating its versatility for conditions where fully analytic results are obtainable. Numerical results for conduction-diffusion properties and the viscosity of concentrated electrolytes are presented in Paper II [C. Contreras Aburto and G. Nägele, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 134110 (2013)].
Contreras Aburto, Claudio; Nägele, Gerhard
2013-10-01
We develop a general method for calculating conduction-diffusion transport properties of strong electrolyte mixtures, including specific conductivities, steady-state electrophoretic mobilities, and self-diffusion coefficients. The ions are described as charged Brownian spheres, and the solvent-mediated hydrodynamic interactions (HIs) are also accounted for in the non-instantaneous ion atmosphere relaxation effect. A linear response expression relating long-time partial mobilities to associated dynamic structure factors is employed in our derivation of a general mode coupling theory (MCT) method for the conduction-diffusion properties. A simplified solution scheme for the MCT method is discussed. Analytic results are obtained for transport coefficients of pointlike ions which, for very low ion concentrations, reduce to the Deby-Falkenhagen-Onsager-Fuoss limiting law expressions. As an application, an unusual non-monotonic concentration dependence of the polyion electrophoretic mobility in a mixture of two binary electrolytes is discussed. In addition, leading-order extensions of the limiting law results are derived with HIs included. The present method complements a related MCT method by the authors for the electrolyte viscosity and shear relaxation function [C. Contreras-Aburto and G. Nägele, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 24, 464108 (2012)], so that a unifying scheme for conduction-diffusion and viscoelastic properties is obtained. We present here the general framework of the method, illustrating its versatility for conditions where fully analytic results are obtainable. Numerical results for conduction-diffusion properties and the viscosity of concentrated electrolytes are presented in Paper II [C. Contreras Aburto and G. Nägele, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 134110 (2013)]. PMID:24116554
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, Timothy M.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Boering, Kristie A.; Eckman, Richard S.; Lerner, Jean; Plumb, R. Alan; Rind, David H.; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Wei, Chu-Feng
1999-01-01
MM II defined a series of experiments to better understand and characterize model transport and to assess the realism of this transport by comparison to observations. Measurements from aircraft, balloon, and satellite, not yet available at the time of MM I [Prather and Remsberg, 1993], provide new and stringent constraints on model transport, and address the limits of our transport modeling abilities. Simulations of the idealized tracers the age spectrum, and propagating boundary conditions, and conserved HSCT-like emissions probe the relative roles of different model transport mechanisms, while simulations of SF6 and C02 make the connection to observations. Some of the tracers are related, and transport diagnostics such as the mean age can be derived from more than one of the experiments for comparison to observations. The goals of the transport experiments are: (1) To isolate the effects of transport in models from other processes; (2) To assess model transport for realistic tracers (such as SF6 and C02) for comparison to observations; (3) To use certain idealized tracers to isolate model mechanisms and relationships to atmospheric chemical perturbations; (4) To identify strengths and weaknesses of the treatment of transport processes in the models; (5) To relate evaluated shortcomings to aspects of model formulation. The following section are included:Executive Summary, Introduction, Age Spectrum, Observation, Tropical Transport in Models, Global Mean Age in Models, Source-Transport Covariance, HSCT "ANOY" Tracer Distributions, and Summary and Conclusions.
Characterizing the evolution of genetic variance using genetic covariance tensors.
Hine, Emma; Chenoweth, Stephen F; Rundle, Howard D; Blows, Mark W
2009-06-12
Determining how genetic variance changes under selection in natural populations has proved to be a very resilient problem in evolutionary genetics. In the same way that understanding the availability of genetic variance within populations requires the simultaneous consideration of genetic variance in sets of functionally related traits, determining how genetic variance changes under selection in natural populations will require ascertaining how genetic variance-covariance (G) matrices evolve. Here, we develop a geometric framework using higher-order tensors, which enables the empirical characterization of how G matrices have diverged among populations. We then show how divergence among populations in genetic covariance structure can then be associated with divergence in selection acting on those traits using key equations from evolutionary theory. Using estimates of G matrices of eight male sexually selected traits from nine geographical populations of Drosophila serrata, we show that much of the divergence in genetic variance occurred in a single trait combination, a conclusion that could not have been reached by examining variation among the individual elements of the nine G matrices. Divergence in G was primarily in the direction of the major axes of genetic variance within populations, suggesting that genetic drift may be a major cause of divergence in genetic variance among these populations. PMID:19414471
Development and Testing of Neutron Cross Section Covariance Data for SCALE 6.2
Marshall, William BJ J; Williams, Mark L; Wiarda, Dorothea; Rearden, Bradley T; Dunn, Michael E; Mueller, Don; Clarity, Justin B; Jones, Elizabeth L
2015-01-01
assessment of similarities between benchmark experiments and safety applications. This is described by a c_{k} value for each experiment with each application. Several studies have analyzed typical c_{k} values for a range of critical experiments compared with hypothetical irradiated fuel applications. The c_{k} value is sensitive to the cross-section covariance data because the contribution of each nuclide is influenced by its uncertainty; large uncertainties indicate more likely bias sources and are thus given more weight. Changes in c_{k} values resulting from different covariance data can be used to examine and assess underlying data changes. These comparisons are performed for PWR and BWR fuel in storage and transportation systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, F.; Zhu, A.; Zhang, G.; Geng, X.; Fraser, W.; Zhao, Y.
2011-12-01
Information on soil spatial variation is critical for environmental modelling. Based on soil-landscape relationship theory, easily observed soil forming environmental factors such as landform and vegetation are frequently utilized to infer soil variation which is difficult to measure. In low relief areas such as plains, however, this would be problematic due to the inability of easily obtained environmental information in reflecting soil variation. How to develop new environmental covariates for digital soil mapping under these situations remains a challenge. This paper presents an approach to developing new environmental covariates and applying them to soil texture mapping over such areas. For the development of the covariates, temporal responses of the land surface to a rainfall event (dynamic feedbacks) were captured daily from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) images over a short period after a major rain event. Then, a set of environmental covariates was constructed from land surface dynamic feedbacks using feature extraction techniques including two dimensional discrete wavelet analysis and principle component analysis. In order to apply the covariates to map soil texture, we derived environmental classes and their fuzzy membership distributions from the covariates using fuzzy c-means clustering. Typical soil texture values of the environmental classes were then obtained through a spatial overlay between the membership distributions and a dataset of soil sampling points. Based on the membership distributions and typical soil texture values of the environmental classes, spatial variation of soil texture was predicted through a linearly weighted averaging function. The approach was applied to develop new environmental covariates and then use them to produce soil texture maps in a low relief area located in south Manitoba, Canada. A total of 51 field soil sample sites were used to evaluate the developed environmental covariates. The results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polin, Daniel; Ziegler, Joshua; Malozovsky, Yuriy; Bagayoko, Diola
We present the findings of ab-initio calculations of electronic, transport, and structural properties of cubic sodium oxide (Na2O). These results were obtained using density functional theory (DFT), specifically a local density approximation (LDA) potential, and the linear combination of Gaussian orbitals (LCGO). Our implementation of LCGO followed the Bagayoko, Zhao, and Williams method as enhanced by the work of Ekuma and Franklin (BZW-EF). We describe the electronic band structure of Na2O with a direct band gap of 2.22 eV. Our results include predicted values for the electronic band structure and associated energy eigenvalues, the total and partial density of states (DOS and pDOS), the equilibrium lattice constant of Na2O, and the bulk modulus. We have also calculated the electron and holes effective masses in the Γ to L, Γ to X, and Γ to K directions. Acknowledgments: This work was funded in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Louisiana Board of Regents, through LASiGMA [Award Nos. EPS- 1003897, NSF (2010-15)-RII-SUBR] and NSF HRD-1002541, the US Department of Energy - National, Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) (Award No. DE- NA0002630), LaSPACE, and LONI-SUBR.
Chandrayadula, Tarun K; Colosi, John A; Worcester, Peter F; Dzieciuch, Matthew A; Mercer, James A; Andrew, Rex K; Howe, Bruce M
2013-10-01
Second order mode statistics as a function of range and source depth are presented from the Long Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation EXperiment (LOAPEX). During LOAPEX, low frequency broadband signals were transmitted from a ship-suspended source to a mode-resolving vertical line array. Over a one-month period, the ship occupied seven stations from 50 km to 3200 km distance from the receiver. At each station broadband transmissions were performed at a near-axial depth of 800 m and an off-axial depth of 350 m. Center frequencies at these two depths were 75 Hz and 68 Hz, respectively. Estimates of observed mean mode energy, cross mode coherence, and temporal coherence are compared with predictions from modal transport theory, utilizing the Garrett-Munk internal wave spectrum. In estimating the acoustic observables, there were challenges including low signal to noise ratio, corrections for source motion, and small sample sizes. The experimental observations agree with theoretical predictions within experimental uncertainty. PMID:24116512
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirchner, Stefan; Munoz, Enrique; Bolech, C. J.
2012-02-01
The non-linear conductance of semiconductor heterostructures and single molecule devices exhibiting Kondo physics has recently attracted attention [1,2]. We address the observed sample-dependence across various systems by considering additional electronic contributions present in the effective low-energy model underlying these experiments. To this end we develop a novel version of the superperturbation theory [3] in terms of dual fermions on the Keldysh contour. We analyze the role of particle hole asymmetry on the transport coefficients. Our approach [4] systematically extends the work of Yamada and Yosida and others to the particle-hole asymmetric Anderson model and reproduce the exactly solvable resonant level model and the special case considered in [5]. It correctly describes the strong coupling physics and is free of internal inconsistencies that would lead to a breakdown of current conservation. [4pt] [1] M. Grobis et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 246601 (2008).[0pt] [2] G. D. Scott et al., Phys. Rev. B 79, 165413 (2009).[0pt] [3] H. Hafermann et al., EPL 85, 27007 (2009).[0pt] [4] Enrique Munoz, C.J. Bolech, and Stefan Kirchner, submitted (2011).[0pt] [5] K. Yamada, Prog. Theo. Phys. 62, 354 (1979).
Kiebish, Michael A.; Han, Xianlin; Cheng, Hua; Chuang, Jeffrey H.; Seyfried, Thomas N.
2008-01-01
Otto Warburg first proposed that cancer originated from irreversible injury to mitochondrial respiration, but the structural basis for this injury has remained elusive. Cardiolipin (CL) is a complex phospholipid found almost exclusively in the inner mitochondrial membrane and is intimately involved in maintaining mitochondrial functionality and membrane integrity. Abnormalities in CL can impair mitochondrial function and bioenergetics. We used shotgun lipidomics to analyze CL content and composition in highly purified brain mitochondria from the C57BL/6J (B6) and VM/Dk (VM) inbred strains and from subcutaneously grown brain tumors derived from these strains to include an astrocytoma and ependymoblastoma (B6 tumors), a stem cell tumor, and two microgliomas (VM tumors). Major abnormalities in CL content or composition were found in all tumors. The compositional abnormalities involved an abundance of immature molecular species and deficiencies of mature molecular species, suggesting major defects in CL synthesis and remodeling. The tumor CL abnormalities were also associated with significant reductions in both individual and linked electron transport chain activities. A mathematical model was developed to facilitate data interpretation. The implications of our findings to the Warburg cancer theory are discussed. PMID:18703489
Aburto, Claudio Contreras; Nägele, Gerhard
2013-10-01
On the basis of a versatile mode-coupling theory (MCT) method developed in Paper I [C. Contreras Aburto and G. Nägele, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 134109 (2013)], we investigate the concentration dependence of conduction-diffusion linear transport properties for a symmetric binary electrolyte solution. The ions are treated in this method as charged Brownian spheres, and the solvent-mediated ion-ion hydrodynamic interactions are accounted for also in the ion atmosphere relaxation effect. By means of a simplified solution scheme, convenient semi-analytic MCT expressions are derived for the electrophoretic mobilities, and the molar conductivity, of an electrolyte mixture with equal-sized ions. These expressions reduce to the classical Debye-Falkenhagen-Onsager-Fuoss results in the limit of very low ion concentration. The MCT expressions are numerically evaluated for a binary electrolyte, and compared to experimental data and results by another theoretical method. Our analysis encloses, in addition, the electrolyte viscosity. To analyze the dynamic influence of the hydration shell, the significance of mixed slip-stick hydrodynamic surface boundary conditions, and the effect of solvent permeability are explored. For the stick boundary condition employed in the hydrodynamic diffusivity tensors, our theoretical results for the molar conductivity and viscosity of an aqueous 1:1 electrolyte are in good overall agreement with reported experimental data for aqueous NaCl solutions, for concentrations extending even up to two molar. PMID:24116555
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aburto, Claudio Contreras; Nägele, Gerhard
2013-10-01
On the basis of a versatile mode-coupling theory (MCT) method developed in Paper I [C. Contreras Aburto and G. Nägele, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 134109 (2013)], we investigate the concentration dependence of conduction-diffusion linear transport properties for a symmetric binary electrolyte solution. The ions are treated in this method as charged Brownian spheres, and the solvent-mediated ion-ion hydrodynamic interactions are accounted for also in the ion atmosphere relaxation effect. By means of a simplified solution scheme, convenient semi-analytic MCT expressions are derived for the electrophoretic mobilities, and the molar conductivity, of an electrolyte mixture with equal-sized ions. These expressions reduce to the classical Debye-Falkenhagen-Onsager-Fuoss results in the limit of very low ion concentration. The MCT expressions are numerically evaluated for a binary electrolyte, and compared to experimental data and results by another theoretical method. Our analysis encloses, in addition, the electrolyte viscosity. To analyze the dynamic influence of the hydration shell, the significance of mixed slip-stick hydrodynamic surface boundary conditions, and the effect of solvent permeability are explored. For the stick boundary condition employed in the hydrodynamic diffusivity tensors, our theoretical results for the molar conductivity and viscosity of an aqueous 1:1 electrolyte are in good overall agreement with reported experimental data for aqueous NaCl solutions, for concentrations extending even up to two molar.
Bansal, Harkirat S; Takhar, Pawan S; Alvarado, Christine Z; Thompson, Leslie D
2015-12-01
Hybrid mixture theory (HMT) based 2-scale fluid transport relations of Takhar coupled with a multiphase heat transfer equation were solved to model water, oil and gas movement during frying of chicken nuggets. A chicken nugget was treated as a heterogeneous material consisting of meat core with wheat-based coating. The coupled heat and fluid transfer equations were solved using the finite element method. Numerical simulations resulted in data on spatial and temporal profiles for moisture, rate of evaporation, temperature, oil, pore pressure, pressure in various phases, and coefficient of elasticity. Results showed that most of the oil stayed in the outer 1.5 mm of the coating region. Temperature values greater than 100 °C were observed in the coating after 30 s of frying. Negative gage-pore pressure (p(w) < p(g)) magnitudes were observed in simulations, which is in agreement with experimental observations of Sandhu and others. It is hypothesized that high water-phase capillary pressure (p(c) > p(g)) in the hydrophilic matrix causes p(w) < p(g), which further results in negative pore pressure. The coefficient of elasticity was the highest at the surface (2.5 × 10(5) Pa) for coating and the interface of coating and core (6 × 10(5) Pa). Kinetics equation for color change obtained from experiments was coupled with the HMT based model to predict the color (L, a, and b) as a function of frying time. PMID:26509578
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cartwright, Keith Lewis
The purpose of this study is to understand the oscillatory steady-state behavior of crossed-field electron flow in diodes for magnetic fields greater than the Hull field (B > BH) by the means of theory and self-consistent, electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Many prior analytic studies of diode-like problems have been time-independent, which leaves the stability and time-dependence of these models unresolved. We investigate fluctuations through the system, including virtual cathode oscillations, and compare results for various cathode injection models. The dominant oscillations in magnetically insulated crossed-field diodes are found to be a series resonance, Z(ω s) = 0, between the pure electron plasma and vacuum impedance of the diode. The series resonance in crossed-field electron flow is shown to be the ky --> 0 (one-dimensional) limit of the diocotron/magnetron eigenmode equation. The wavenumber, ky, is perpendicular to the direction across the diode and magnetic field. The series resonance is derived theoretically and verified with self-consistent, electrostatic, PIC simulations. Electron transport across the magnetic field in a cutoff planar smooth-bore magnetron is described on the basis of surface waves (formed by the shear flow instability) perpendicular to the magnetic field and along the cathode. A self-consistent, 2d3v (two spatial dimensions and three velocity components), electrostatic PIC simulation of a crossed-field diode produces a near- Brillouin flow which slowly expands across the diode, punctuated by sudden transport across the diode. The theory of slow transport across the diode is explained by the addition of perturbed orbits to the Brillouin shear flow motion of the plasma in the diode. A slow drift compared to the shear flow is described which results from the fields caused by the surface wave inducing an electrostatic ponderomotive-like force in a dc external magnetic field. In order to perform the above
Low-Fidelity Covariances: Neutron Cross Section Covariance Estimates for 387 Materials
The Low-fidelity Covariance Project (Low-Fi) was funded in FY07-08 by DOEÆs Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). The project was a collaboration among ANL, BNL, LANL, and ORNL. The motivation for the Low-Fi project stemmed from an imbalance in supply and demand of covariance data. The interest in, and demand for, covariance data has been in a continual uptrend over the past few years. Requirements to understand application-dependent uncertainties in simulated quantities of interest have led to the development of sensitivity / uncertainty and data adjustment software such as TSUNAMI [1] at Oak Ridge. To take full advantage of the capabilities of TSUNAMI requires general availability of covariance data. However, the supply of covariance data has not been able to keep up with the demand. This fact is highlighted by the observation that the recent release of the much-heralded ENDF/B-VII.0 included covariance data for only 26 of the 393 neutron evaluations (which is, in fact, considerably less covariance data than was included in the final ENDF/B-VI release).[Copied from R.C. Little et al., "Low-Fidelity Covariance Project", Nuclear Data Sheets 109 (2008) 2828-2833] The Low-Fi covariance data are now available at the National Nuclear Data Center. They are separate from ENDF/B-VII.0 and the NNDC warns that this information is not approved by CSEWG. NNDC describes the contents of this collection as: "Covariance data are provided for radiative capture (or (n,ch.p.) for light nuclei), elastic scattering (or total for some actinides), inelastic scattering, (n,2n) reactions, fission and nubars over the energy range from 10(-5{super}) eV to 20 MeV. The library contains 387 files including almost all (383 out of 393) materials of the ENDF/B-VII.0. Absent are data for (7{super})Li, (232{super})Th, (233,235,238{super})U and (239{super})Pu as well as (223,224,225,226{super})Ra, while (nat{super})Zn is replaced by (64,66,67,68,70{super})Zn
Covariance and the hierarchy of frame bundles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Estabrook, Frank B.
1987-01-01
This is an essay on the general concept of covariance, and its connection with the structure of the nested set of higher frame bundles over a differentiable manifold. Examples of covariant geometric objects include not only linear tensor fields, densities and forms, but affinity fields, sectors and sector forms, higher order frame fields, etc., often having nonlinear transformation rules and Lie derivatives. The intrinsic, or invariant, sets of forms that arise on frame bundles satisfy the graded Cartan-Maurer structure equations of an infinite Lie algebra. Reduction of these gives invariant structure equations for Lie pseudogroups, and for G-structures of various orders. Some new results are introduced for prolongation of structure equations, and for treatment of Riemannian geometry with higher-order moving frames. The use of invariant form equations for nonlinear field physics is implicitly advocated.
RNA sequence analysis using covariance models.
Eddy, S R; Durbin, R
1994-01-01
We describe a general approach to several RNA sequence analysis problems using probabilistic models that flexibly describe the secondary structure and primary sequence consensus of an RNA sequence family. We call these models 'covariance models'. A covariance model of tRNA sequences is an extremely sensitive and discriminative tool for searching for additional tRNAs and tRNA-related sequences in sequence databases. A model can be built automatically from an existing sequence alignment. We also describe an algorithm for learning a model and hence a consensus secondary structure from initially unaligned example sequences and no prior structural information. Models trained on unaligned tRNA examples correctly predict tRNA secondary structure and produce high-quality multiple alignments. The approach may be applied to any family of small RNA sequences. Images PMID:8029015
Backreaction of cosmological perturbations in covariant macroscopic gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paranjape, Aseem
2008-09-01
The problem of corrections to Einstein’s equations arising from averaging of inhomogeneities (backreaction) in the cosmological context has gained considerable attention recently. We present results of analyzing cosmological perturbation theory in the framework of Zalaletdinov’s fully covariant macroscopic gravity. We show that this framework can be adapted to the setting of cosmological perturbations in a manner which is free from gauge related ambiguities. We derive expressions for the backreaction which can be readily applied in any situation (not necessarily restricted to the linear perturbations considered here) where the metric can be brought to the perturbed Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker form. In particular, these expressions can be employed in toy models studying nonlinear structure formation, and possibly also in N-body simulations. Additionally, we present results of example calculations which show that the backreaction remains negligible well into the matter dominated era.
Covariant quantum mechanics applied to noncommutative geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Astuti, Valerio
2015-08-01
We here report a result obtained in collaboration with Giovanni Amelino-Camelia, first shown in the paper [1]. Applying the manifestly covariant formalism of quantum mechanics to the much studied Snyder spacetime [2] we show how it is trivial in every physical observables, this meaning that every measure in this spacetime gives the same results that would be obtained in the flat Minkowski spacetime.
Economical phase-covariant cloning with multiclones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Wen-Hai; Ye, Liu
2009-09-01
This paper presents a very simple method to derive the explicit transformations of the optimal economical 1 to M phase-covariant cloning. The fidelity of clones reaches the theoretic bound [D'Ariano G M and Macchiavello C 2003 Phys. Rev. A 67 042306]. The derived transformations cover the previous contributions [Delgado Y, Lamata L et al., 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 150502] in which M must be odd.
Covariance expressions for eigenvalue and eigenvector problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liounis, Andrew J.
There are a number of important scientific and engineering problems whose solutions take the form of an eigenvalue--eigenvector problem. Some notable examples include solutions to linear systems of ordinary differential equations, controllability of linear systems, finite element analysis, chemical kinetics, fitting ellipses to noisy data, and optimal estimation of attitude from unit vectors. In many of these problems, having knowledge of the eigenvalue and eigenvector Jacobians is either necessary or is nearly as important as having the solution itself. For instance, Jacobians are necessary to find the uncertainty in a computed eigenvalue or eigenvector estimate. This uncertainty, which is usually represented as a covariance matrix, has been well studied for problems similar to the eigenvalue and eigenvector problem, such as singular value decomposition. There has been substantially less research on the covariance of an optimal estimate originating from an eigenvalue-eigenvector problem. In this thesis we develop two general expressions for the Jacobians of eigenvalues and eigenvectors with respect to the elements of their parent matrix. The expressions developed make use of only the parent matrix and the eigenvalue and eigenvector pair under consideration. In addition, they are applicable to any general matrix (including complex valued matrices, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors) as long as the eigenvalues are simple. Alongside this, we develop expressions that determine the uncertainty in a vector estimate obtained from an eigenvalue-eigenvector problem given the uncertainty of the terms of the matrix. The Jacobian expressions developed are numerically validated with forward finite, differencing and the covariance expressions are validated using Monte Carlo analysis. Finally, the results from this work are used to determine covariance expressions for a variety of estimation problem examples and are also applied to the design of a dynamical system.
Partial covariance mapping techniques at FELs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frasinski, Leszek
2014-05-01
The development of free-electron lasers (FELs) is driven by the desire to access the structure and chemical dynamics of biomolecules with atomic resolution. Short, intense FEL pulses have the potential to record x-ray diffraction images before the molecular structure is destroyed by radiation damage. However, even during the shortest, few-femtosecond pulses currently available, there are some significant changes induced by massive ionisation and onset of Coulomb explosion. To interpret the diffraction images it is vital to gain insight into the electronic and nuclear dynamics during multiple core and valence ionisations that compete with Auger cascades. This paper focuses on a technique that is capable to probe these processes. The covariance mapping technique is well suited to the high intensity and low repetition rate of FEL pulses. While the multitude of charges ejected at each pulse overwhelm conventional coincidence methods, an improved technique of partial covariance mapping can cope with hundreds of photoelectrons or photoions detected at each FEL shot. The technique, however, often reveals spurious, uninteresting correlations that spoil the maps. This work will discuss the strengths and limitations of various forms of covariance mapping techniques. Quantitative information extracted from the maps will be linked to theoretical modelling of ionisation and fragmentation paths. Special attention will be given to critical experimental parameters, such as counting rate, FEL intensity fluctuations, vacuum impurities or detector efficiency and nonlinearities. Methods of assessing and optimising signal-to-noise ratio will be described. Emphasis will be put on possible future developments such as multidimensional covariance mapping, compensation for various experimental instabilities and improvements in the detector response. This work has been supported the EPSRC, UK (grants EP/F021232/1 and EP/I032517/1).
Using Covariance Analysis to Assess Pointing Performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bayard, David; Kang, Bryan
2009-01-01
A Pointing Covariance Analysis Tool (PCAT) has been developed for evaluating the expected performance of the pointing control system for NASA s Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). The SIM pointing control system is very complex, consisting of multiple feedback and feedforward loops, and operating with multiple latencies and data rates. The SIM pointing problem is particularly challenging due to the effects of thermomechanical drifts in concert with the long camera exposures needed to image dim stars. Other pointing error sources include sensor noises, mechanical vibrations, and errors in the feedforward signals. PCAT models the effects of finite camera exposures and all other error sources using linear system elements. This allows the pointing analysis to be performed using linear covariance analysis. PCAT propagates the error covariance using a Lyapunov equation associated with time-varying discrete and continuous-time system matrices. Unlike Monte Carlo analysis, which could involve thousands of computational runs for a single assessment, the PCAT analysis performs the same assessment in a single run. This capability facilitates the analysis of parametric studies, design trades, and "what-if" scenarios for quickly evaluating and optimizing the control system architecture and design.
Covariance tracking: architecture optimizations for embedded systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romero, Andrés; Lacassagne, Lionel; Gouiffès, Michèle; Zahraee, Ali Hassan
2014-12-01
Covariance matching techniques have recently grown in interest due to their good performances for object retrieval, detection, and tracking. By mixing color and texture information in a compact representation, it can be applied to various kinds of objects (textured or not, rigid or not). Unfortunately, the original version requires heavy computations and is difficult to execute in real time on embedded systems. This article presents a review on different versions of the algorithm and its various applications; our aim is to describe the most crucial challenges and particularities that appeared when implementing and optimizing the covariance matching algorithm on a variety of desktop processors and on low-power processors suitable for embedded systems. An application of texture classification is used to compare different versions of the region descriptor. Then a comprehensive study is made to reach a higher level of performance on multi-core CPU architectures by comparing different ways to structure the information, using single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) instructions and advanced loop transformations. The execution time is reduced significantly on two dual-core CPU architectures for embedded computing: ARM Cortex-A9 and Cortex-A15 and Intel Penryn-M U9300 and Haswell-M 4650U. According to our experiments on covariance tracking, it is possible to reach a speedup greater than ×2 on both ARM and Intel architectures, when compared to the original algorithm, leading to real-time execution.