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Sample records for cover letter dated

  1. How to Write Effective Resumes and Cover Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nienkamp, Roger L.

    This guide to writing effective resumes and cover letters to employers first emphasizes the value of writing skills in job hunting, and explains what a resume is and why it is important. Next, steps to undertake in preparing to write a resume are reviewed including developing a personal inventory sheet to help determine facts to include in the…

  2. Writing Cover Letters That Address Instructor Feedback Improves Final Papers in a Research Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Frances; Gaze, Catherine M.; Braasch, Jason L. G.

    2015-01-01

    We examined how writing cover letters to the instructor influenced final papers in research methods courses. After receiving instructor feedback on drafts of each section of an American Psychological Association style research paper throughout the semester, students in two classes wrote cover letters to the instructor explaining how the instructor…

  3. Improving Cover-Letter Writing Skills of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Robert; Delano, Monica; Scott, Renee

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated a multicomponent intervention for improving the cover-letter writing skills of individuals with intellectual disabilities. An intervention that included modeling, self-monitoring, prompting, and feedback increased correct performance for all participants. In addition, the skill was demonstrated across audiences.

  4. 78 FR 42986 - Submission for Review: Survivor Annuity Election for a Spouse, RI 20-63; Cover Letter Giving...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... Volume 78 FR 13914 allowing for a 60-day public comment period. No comments were received for this... Management. Title: Survivor Annuity Election for a Spouse/Cover Letter Giving Information About The Cost to... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Survivor Annuity Election for a Spouse, RI 20-63; Cover Letter...

  5. 78 FR 13914 - Submission for Review: Survivor Annuity Election for a Spouse, RI 20-63; Cover Letter Giving...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Survivor Annuity Election for a Spouse, RI 20-63; Cover Letter Giving Information About the Cost To Elect Less Than the Maximum Survivor Annuity, RI 20-116; Cover Letter Giving Information About the Cost To Elect the Maximum Survivor Annuity, RI 20-117 AGENCY: U.S. Office of...

  6. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Maths for physics? Help! Fire! Energy and mass Maths for physics? As a maths graduate working as a university research associate I should be well qualified to support my daughter, who has just started AS-level physics, with the maths she needs for the course. There seems to be little integration between the maths and physics departments, so that maths needed for physics has not yet been covered in maths lessons. This is a problem I remember from my own school days, but the shorter timescale and modular nature of the AS and A2 levels means that it is essential that this mismatch of knowledge is resolved now. I would like to know whether physics teachers in the UK have encountered this problem and whether there is a deficiency in the maths syllabus in relation to the requirements of the AS and A2 levels in Physics or whether this is a problem peculiar to my daughter's school. Eleanor Parent of A-level student, Sheffield, UK Help! Fire! Is there a crisis in physics education? Is physics didactics coming to an end? Yes and no. Being a delegate from Norway at the on-going conference Physics on Stage (6-10 November 2000) at CERN in Geneva, I have had the opportunity to discuss this with people from all over Europe. Yes, there is a crisis. (Look at the proceedings for details on this.) I'd like to take a broader look at this situation. Like Hari Seldon in Isaac Asimov's Foundation Trilogy, I believe that there is nothing like a real crisis to get things going... Famous is the quote from the American Patent Office around 1890: 'Everything has been invented that could be invented'. Fortunately, this spurred action. The Michelson and Morley experiment heralded a most exciting period for physics. Just a cosmic blink later we put a person on the Moon. Coming back to the crisis - I am certain that in the near future we will see an interesting development

  7. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE Contents: Force on a pendulum Sound slows down Bond is back Force on a pendulum The simple pendulum has been used by several educationalists for investigating the patterns of thinking among students and their observations that Aristotelian thinking persists among students at college level. I had also considered the simple pendulum in my 1985 letter in Physics Today [1], so I was interested to read the test given by Lenka Czudková and Jana Musilová [2]. When students were asked to draw net forces acting on the particle at various positions, 31.9% of students believed that the net force was tangential to the particle's path the whole time. To me this is no surprise because in our derivation of the equation for the period of a simple pendulum we assume that the unbalanced sine component provides the restoring force for the harmonic motion of the bob. Of course, Czudková and Musilová's question asked students for the net force on the particle, not the component. The student's answer fits well with the logic of the equilibrium of forces and the parallelogram law. Lastly, let me bring out the similarity between the student's answer and the thinking of George Gamow. He used to call positrons 'donkey' electrons because of their displacement against the applied force, before Paul Dirac termed them positrons. Victor Weisskeptf told me this anecdote in a letter in May 1982. References [1] Sathe D 1985 Phys. Today 38 144 [2] Czudková L and Musilová J 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 428 Dileep V Sathe Dadawala Jr College, Pune, India Sound slows down Without wanting to stir up more trouble amongst the already muddy waters of Physics teaching, consider how many times you have heard (or, more worryingly, read) this: 'Sound waves travel faster in a denser material' But...The velocity of simple longitudinal waves in a bulk medium is given by v = (K/ρ)1/2 where K is

  8. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Alternative view of education in Zambia Pedantry or compromise Alternative view of education in Zambia I have just read the 'On the Map' report of the International School of Lusaka with very mixed feelings (Physics Education, March 2001). I have recently spent some time in Zambia, in Lusaka, and share Sue Pears' love for the country and the Zambians. The ISL is indeed a good, prestigious school, similar to International Schools in many other countries. But, as in most other developing countries, there is enormous variation between the different types of schooling, and the ISL is at one end of the spectrum. Most schools in Zambia are less favoured. Zambia is a wonderful, beautiful country full of the most friendly and resourceful people I know. It is also a very poor country. It is a country of enormous contrasts and its schools reflect that variation. It has a tiny, affluent 'middle' class of professionals, politicians, businessmen, employees of international businesses and NGOs—nearly all paid from overseas budgets. It has an enormous majority of poor folk, cheerfully living in very basic conditions but sharing their lives in extended families without complaint. The government is virtually bankrupt, and consequently those paid by the government—teachers, police, nurses etc—get a pittance. The wage for a teacher in a typical school is #20 per month (compared to a typical teacher in the UK who gets 100 times more, about #2000 per month). The GNP in Zambia is about 1 per day per person, and this has to pay for all the schools, hospitals, police, and the civic infrastructure that we take so much for granted (the GNP in UK is about 60 per day per person). Consequently most state schools do not have resources; they have a classroom and a teacher but little else. What resources the school has will be paid for by the school fees that every

  9. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Alternative view of education in Zambia Pedantry or compromise Alternative view of education in Zambia I have just read the 'On the Map' report of the International School of Lusaka with very mixed feelings (Physics Education, March 2001). I have recently spent some time in Zambia, in Lusaka, and share Sue Pears' love for the country and the Zambians. The ISL is indeed a good, prestigious school, similar to International Schools in many other countries. But, as in most other developing countries, there is enormous variation between the different types of schooling, and the ISL is at one end of the spectrum. Most schools in Zambia are less favoured. Zambia is a wonderful, beautiful country full of the most friendly and resourceful people I know. It is also a very poor country. It is a country of enormous contrasts and its schools reflect that variation. It has a tiny, affluent 'middle' class of professionals, politicians, businessmen, employees of international businesses and NGOs—nearly all paid from overseas budgets. It has an enormous majority of poor folk, cheerfully living in very basic conditions but sharing their lives in extended families without complaint. The government is virtually bankrupt, and consequently those paid by the government—teachers, police, nurses etc—get a pittance. The wage for a teacher in a typical school is #20 per month (compared to a typical teacher in the UK who gets 100 times more, about #2000 per month). The GNP in Zambia is about 1 per day per person, and this has to pay for all the schools, hospitals, police, and the civic infrastructure that we take so much for granted (the GNP in UK is about 60 per day per person). Consequently most state schools do not have resources; they have a classroom and a teacher but little else. What resources the school has will be paid for by the school fees that every

  10. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE Contents: Force on a pendulum Sound slows down Bond is back Force on a pendulum The simple pendulum has been used by several educationalists for investigating the patterns of thinking among students and their observations that Aristotelian thinking persists among students at college level. I had also considered the simple pendulum in my 1985 letter in Physics Today [1], so I was interested to read the test given by Lenka Czudková and Jana Musilová [2]. When students were asked to draw net forces acting on the particle at various positions, 31.9% of students believed that the net force was tangential to the particle's path the whole time. To me this is no surprise because in our derivation of the equation for the period of a simple pendulum we assume that the unbalanced sine component provides the restoring force for the harmonic motion of the bob. Of course, Czudková and Musilová's question asked students for the net force on the particle, not the component. The student's answer fits well with the logic of the equilibrium of forces and the parallelogram law. Lastly, let me bring out the similarity between the student's answer and the thinking of George Gamow. He used to call positrons 'donkey' electrons because of their displacement against the applied force, before Paul Dirac termed them positrons. Victor Weisskeptf told me this anecdote in a letter in May 1982. References [1] Sathe D 1985 Phys. Today 38 144 [2] Czudková L and Musilová J 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 428 Dileep V Sathe Dadawala Jr College, Pune, India Sound slows down Without wanting to stir up more trouble amongst the already muddy waters of Physics teaching, consider how many times you have heard (or, more worryingly, read) this: 'Sound waves travel faster in a denser material' But...The velocity of simple longitudinal waves in a bulk medium is given by v = (K/ρ)1/2 where K is

  11. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: M-set as metaphor The abuse of algebra M-set as metaphor 'To see a World in a Grain of Sand And a Heaven in a Wild Flower Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand And Eternity in an hour' William Blake's implied relativity of spatial and temporal scales is intriguing and, given the durability of this worlds-within-worlds concept (he wrote in 1803) in art, literature and science, the blurring of distinctions between the very large and the very small must strike some kind of harmonious chord in the human mind. Could this concept apply to the physical world? To be honest, we cannot be absolutely sure. Most cosmological thinking still retains the usual notions of a finite universe and an absolute size scale extending from smallest to largest objects. In the boundless realm of mathematics, however, the story is quite different. The M-set was discovered by the French mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot in 1980, created by just a few simple lines of computer code that are repeated recursively. As in Blake's poem, this 'world' has no bottom we have an almost palpable archetype for the concept of infinity. I would use the word 'tangible', but one of the defining features of the M-set is that nowhere in the labyrinth can one find a surface smooth enough for a tangent. Upon magnification even surfaces that appeared to be smooth explode with quills and scrolls and lightning bolts and spiral staircases. And there is something more, something truly sublime. Observe a small patch with unlimited magnifying power and, as you observe the M-set on ever-smaller scales, down through literally endless layers of ornate structure, you occasionally come upon a rapidly expanding cortex of dazzling colour with a small black structure at its centre. The black spot appears to be the M-set itself! There is no end to the hierarchy, no bottom-most level, just endless recursive

  12. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: M-set as metaphor The abuse of algebra M-set as metaphor 'To see a World in a Grain of Sand And a Heaven in a Wild Flower Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand And Eternity in an hour' William Blake's implied relativity of spatial and temporal scales is intriguing and, given the durability of this worlds-within-worlds concept (he wrote in 1803) in art, literature and science, the blurring of distinctions between the very large and the very small must strike some kind of harmonious chord in the human mind. Could this concept apply to the physical world? To be honest, we cannot be absolutely sure. Most cosmological thinking still retains the usual notions of a finite universe and an absolute size scale extending from smallest to largest objects. In the boundless realm of mathematics, however, the story is quite different. The M-set was discovered by the French mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot in 1980, created by just a few simple lines of computer code that are repeated recursively. As in Blake's poem, this 'world' has no bottom we have an almost palpable archetype for the concept of infinity. I would use the word 'tangible', but one of the defining features of the M-set is that nowhere in the labyrinth can one find a surface smooth enough for a tangent. Upon magnification even surfaces that appeared to be smooth explode with quills and scrolls and lightning bolts and spiral staircases. And there is something more, something truly sublime. Observe a small patch with unlimited magnifying power and, as you observe the M-set on ever-smaller scales, down through literally endless layers of ornate structure, you occasionally come upon a rapidly expanding cortex of dazzling colour with a small black structure at its centre. The black spot appears to be the M-set itself! There is no end to the hierarchy, no bottom-most level, just endless recursive

  13. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Quantum uncertainties Reflections in a plastic box A brief history of quantum physics Correction Grammar and gender Quantum uncertainties Whilst I enjoyed Gesche Pospiech's article ('Uncertainty and complementarity: the heart of quantum physics' 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 393 9) I would like to expand on two comments he makes. Firstly the author claims that QM is linear, and a consequence of this is that any two superimposed states form an admissible third state. This is rather too sweeping, as it is true only for degenerate states. Otherwise quantum mechanics would allow a continuum of energies between states by a simple admixture of levels. The proof of this statement is trivial. For a Hamiltonian H and two orthogonal wavefunctions, ψ1 and ψ2 with energies E1 and E2 then (ψ1 + ψ2) is not an eigenfunction of that Hamiltonian as H(ψ1 + ψ2) = E1ψ1 + E2ψ2 ≠ E(ψ1 + ψ2) for any value of E, unless E1 = E2. Secondly Pospiech states that quantum objects show wave- or particle-like behaviour, depending on the measuring apparatus, and that occasionally experiments (such as Taylor's) reveal both. I would contest the validity of this type of thinking. All experiments on quantum objects reveal both types of behaviour—even ones which simply show straight line motion of photons. What is important, in addition, is our interpretation of the results. It takes an understanding of QED, for example, to see that an experiment which otherwise shows particle behaviour is, in fact, showing quantum behaviour. More contentiously though I would suggest that detection apparatus is incapable of detecting anything other than particles. Wave-like behaviour is revealed only by an analysis of the paths the particle could have taken. In other words, the interference of continuous fields sometimes predicts the same results when the detection is averaged over many events

  14. "Please Consider My Request for an Interview": A Cross-Cultural Genre Analysis of Cover Letters Written by Canadian and Taiwanese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Hsiao-I

    2013-01-01

    In this study, similarities and differences among generic structures in 80 cover letters written by Taiwanese and Canadian college students were investigated, adopting Upton and Connor's (2001) framework. The results demonstrated that Canadian students tend to write longer letters, use a greater variety of word types and sentence structures,…

  15. The Kill Date as a Management Tool for Cover Cropping Success

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Ayuso, María; Gabriel, José Luis; Quemada, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Integrating cover crops (CC) in rotations provides multiple ecological services, but it must be ensured that management does not increase pre-emptive competition with the subsequent crop. This experiment was conducted to study the effect of kill date on: (i) CC growth and N content; (ii) the chemical composition of residues; (iii) soil inorganic N and potentially mineralizable N; and (iv) soil water content. Treatments were fallow and a CC mixture of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and vetch (Vicia sativa L.) sown in October and killed on two different dates in spring. Above-ground biomass and chemical composition of CC were determined at harvest, and ground cover was monitored based on digital image analysis. Soil mineral N was determined before sowing and after killing the CC, and potentially mineralizable N was measured by aerobic incubation at the end of the experiment. Soil water content was monitored daily to a depth of 1.1 m using capacitance sensors. Under the present conditions of high N availability, delaying kill date increased barley above-ground biomass and N uptake from deep soil layers; little differences were observed in vetch. Postponing kill date increased the C/N ratio and the fiber content of plant residues. Ground cover reached >80% by the first kill date (∼1250°C days). Kill date was a means to control soil inorganic N by balancing the N retained in the residue and soil, and showed promise for mitigating N losses. The early kill date decreased the risk of water and N pre-emptive competition by reducing soil depletion, preserving rain harvested between kill dates and allowing more time for N release in spring. The soil potentially mineralizable N was enhanced by the CC and kill date delay. Therefore kill date is a crucial management variable for maximizing the CC benefits in agricultural systems. PMID:25296333

  16. The kill date as a management tool for cover cropping success.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Ayuso, María; Gabriel, José Luis; Quemada, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Integrating cover crops (CC) in rotations provides multiple ecological services, but it must be ensured that management does not increase pre-emptive competition with the subsequent crop. This experiment was conducted to study the effect of kill date on: (i) CC growth and N content; (ii) the chemical composition of residues; (iii) soil inorganic N and potentially mineralizable N; and (iv) soil water content. Treatments were fallow and a CC mixture of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and vetch (Vicia sativa L.) sown in October and killed on two different dates in spring. Above-ground biomass and chemical composition of CC were determined at harvest, and ground cover was monitored based on digital image analysis. Soil mineral N was determined before sowing and after killing the CC, and potentially mineralizable N was measured by aerobic incubation at the end of the experiment. Soil water content was monitored daily to a depth of 1.1 m using capacitance sensors. Under the present conditions of high N availability, delaying kill date increased barley above-ground biomass and N uptake from deep soil layers; little differences were observed in vetch. Postponing kill date increased the C/N ratio and the fiber content of plant residues. Ground cover reached >80% by the first kill date (∼1250°C days). Kill date was a means to control soil inorganic N by balancing the N retained in the residue and soil, and showed promise for mitigating N losses. The early kill date decreased the risk of water and N pre-emptive competition by reducing soil depletion, preserving rain harvested between kill dates and allowing more time for N release in spring. The soil potentially mineralizable N was enhanced by the CC and kill date delay. Therefore kill date is a crucial management variable for maximizing the CC benefits in agricultural systems. PMID:25296333

  17. Land cover data from Landsat single-date archive imagery: an integrated classification approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajocco, Sofia; Ceccarelli, Tomaso; Rinaldo, Simone; De Angelis, Antonella; Salvati, Luca; Perini, Luigi

    2012-10-01

    The analysis of land cover dynamics provides insight into many environmental problems. However, there are few data sources which can be used to derive consistent time series, remote sensing being one of the most valuable ones. Due to their multi-temporal and spatial coverage needs, such analysis is usually based on large land cover datasets, which requires automated, objective and repeatable procedures. The USGS Landsat archives provide free access to multispectral, high-resolution remotely sensed data starting from the mid-eighties; in many cases, however, only single date images are available. This paper suggests an objective approach for generating land cover information from 30m resolution and single date Landsat archive satellite imagery. A procedure was developed integrating pixel-based and object-oriented classifiers, which consists of the following basic steps: i) pre-processing of the satellite image, including radiance and reflectance calibration, texture analysis and derivation of vegetation indices, ii) segmentation of the pre-processed image, iii) its classification integrating both radiometric and textural properties. The integrated procedure was tested for an area in Sardinia Region, Italy, and compared with a purely pixel-based one. Results demonstrated that a better overall accuracy, evaluated against the available land cover cartography, was obtained with the integrated (86%) compared to the pixel-based classification (68%) at the first CORINE Land Cover level. The proposed methodology needs to be further tested for evaluating its trasferability in time (constructing comparable land cover time series) and space (for covering larger areas).

  18. 28 CFR 55.4 - Effective date; list of covered jurisdictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date; list of covered jurisdictions. 55.4 Section 55.4 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROVISIONS OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Nature of Coverage § 55.4...

  19. 28 CFR 55.4 - Effective date; list of covered jurisdictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Effective date; list of covered jurisdictions. 55.4 Section 55.4 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROVISIONS OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Nature of Coverage § 55.4...

  20. The Effects of Cover Letter Appeal and Nonmonetary Incentives on University Professors' Response to a Mail Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Margaret M.

    Educational researchers find mail questionnaires a convenient and relatively inexpensive way to conduct a survey, but response rate remains a crucial issue. This research examines the effects of two manipulated variables, the appeal of the introductory letter and a nonmonetary incentive, on survey response rate. Gender was also used as an…

  1. Influence of Seeding Ratio, Planting Date, and Termination Date on Rye-Hairy Vetch Cover Crop Mixture Performance under Organic Management.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Andrew; Cogger, Craig; Bary, Andy; Fortuna, Ann-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Cover crop benefits include nitrogen accumulation and retention, weed suppression, organic matter maintenance, and reduced erosion. Organic farmers need region-specific information on winter cover crop performance to effectively integrate cover crops into their crop rotations. Our research objective was to compare cover crop seeding mixtures, planting dates, and termination dates on performance of rye (Secale cereale L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) monocultures and mixtures in the maritime Pacific Northwest USA. The study included four seed mixtures (100% hairy vetch, 25% rye-75% hairy vetch, 50% rye-50% hairy vetch, and 100% rye by seed weight), two planting dates, and two termination dates, using a split-split plot design with four replications over six years. Measurements included winter ground cover; stand composition; cover crop biomass, N concentration, and N uptake; and June soil NO3(-)-N. Rye planted in mid-September and terminated in late April averaged 5.1 Mg ha(-1) biomass, whereas mixtures averaged 4.1 Mg ha(-1) and hairy vetch 2.3 Mg ha(-1). Delaying planting by 2.5 weeks reduced average winter ground cover by 65%, biomass by 50%, and cover crop N accumulation by 40%. Similar reductions in biomass and N accumulation occurred for late March termination, compared with late April termination. Mixtures had less annual biomass variability than rye. Mixtures accumulated 103 kg ha(-1) N and had mean C:N ratio <17:1 when planted in mid-September and terminated in late April. June soil NO3(-)-N (0 to 30 cm depth) averaged 62 kg ha(-1) for rye, 97 kg ha(-1) for the mixtures, and 119 kg ha(-1) for hairy vetch. Weeds comprised less of the mixtures biomass (20% weeds by weight at termination) compared with the monocultures (29%). Cover crop mixtures provided a balance between biomass accumulation and N concentration, more consistent biomass over the six-year study, and were more effective at reducing winter weeds compared with monocultures. PMID:26080008

  2. Influence of Seeding Ratio, Planting Date, and Termination Date on Rye-Hairy Vetch Cover Crop Mixture Performance under Organic Management

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Andrew; Cogger, Craig; Bary, Andy; Fortuna, Ann-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Cover crop benefits include nitrogen accumulation and retention, weed suppression, organic matter maintenance, and reduced erosion. Organic farmers need region-specific information on winter cover crop performance to effectively integrate cover crops into their crop rotations. Our research objective was to compare cover crop seeding mixtures, planting dates, and termination dates on performance of rye (Secale cereale L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) monocultures and mixtures in the maritime Pacific Northwest USA. The study included four seed mixtures (100% hairy vetch, 25% rye-75% hairy vetch, 50% rye-50% hairy vetch, and 100% rye by seed weight), two planting dates, and two termination dates, using a split-split plot design with four replications over six years. Measurements included winter ground cover; stand composition; cover crop biomass, N concentration, and N uptake; and June soil NO3--N. Rye planted in mid-September and terminated in late April averaged 5.1 Mg ha-1 biomass, whereas mixtures averaged 4.1 Mg ha-1 and hairy vetch 2.3 Mg ha-1. Delaying planting by 2.5 weeks reduced average winter ground cover by 65%, biomass by 50%, and cover crop N accumulation by 40%. Similar reductions in biomass and N accumulation occurred for late March termination, compared with late April termination. Mixtures had less annual biomass variability than rye. Mixtures accumulated 103 kg ha-1 N and had mean C:N ratio <17:1 when planted in mid-September and terminated in late April. June soil NO3--N (0 to 30 cm depth) averaged 62 kg ha-1 for rye, 97 kg ha-1 for the mixtures, and 119 kg ha-1 for hairy vetch. Weeds comprised less of the mixtures biomass (20% weeds by weight at termination) compared with the monocultures (29%). Cover crop mixtures provided a balance between biomass accumulation and N concentration, more consistent biomass over the six-year study, and were more effective at reducing winter weeds compared with monocultures. PMID:26080008

  3. The effect of winter cover crop planting date on Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) suppression in cotton and peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbicide resistant Palmer amaranth (PA) has rapidly become the dominant weed management issue in agronomic crops of the Southeast U.S. The small size of PA seeds relative to other common weeds may provide an opportunity for physical weed control through cover crop mulches. Field studies were condu...

  4. Cover crops and sampling date effect on on-farm soil carbon pools under conservation tillage cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops may influence soil C sequestration and microbial activities by providing additional residue C to soil. We examined the influence of legume (crimson clover), nonlegume (rye), blend (a mixture of legumes containing balansa clover, hairy vetch, and crimson clover], and rye + blend mixture c...

  5. Letter Imperfect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    In this essay, the author, a 5th-grade teacher, questions how well a standardized test can measure his students. This article presents a letter he wrote for the Washington state science test scorer regarding his students' test scores. He shares stories about some of the students in his class. He points out that tests can turn out to be more like…

  6. 12 CFR 614.4720 - Letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... conformity with the list which follows. (a) Each letter of credit shall be in writing and shall conspicuously state that it is a letter of credit, or be conspicuously entitled as such. (b) The letter of credit shall contain a specified expiration date or be for a definite term. (c) The letter of credit...

  7. Methodology for Comparing Soil Maps of Different Dates with the Aim to Reveal and Describe Changes in the Soil Cover (by the Example of Soil Salinization Monitoring)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukhovich, D. I.; Simakova, M. S.; Kulyanitsa, A. L.; Bryzzhev, A. V.; Koroleva, P. V.; Kalinina, N. V.; Chernousenko, G. I.; Vil'chevskaya, E. V.; Dolinina, E. A.; Rukhovich, S. V.

    2016-02-01

    A methodology for comparing soil map of different dates in order to reveal changes in the soil cover is discussed. The analysis of a set of the maps of soil salinization on one of the farms in the Golodnaya Steppe region of Uzbekistan is used as an example. It is shown that traditional methods of comparing two maps developed in different years (normally, with an interval of five years and more) are low informative for the assessment of soil salinization dynamics. The suggested methodology assumes simultaneous analysis of several maps in order to reveal the trends in soil salinization. However, even in this case, the obtained results do not adequately characterize the dynamics of soil salinization on irrigated fields. It is argued that the direction of soil salinization-desalinization processes is an improper characteristic in this case. In order to understand the dynamics of soil salinization, the maps showing the dynamism of soil salinity and the maximum changes in the degree of salinity can be applied. A series of the compared maps make it possible to describe the changes in the soil cover related to salinization-desalinization processes. The high dynamism of these processes against the background of a virtually stable pool of soluble salts in the 1-m-deep soil layer is shown for the considered farm.

  8. 31 CFR 535.416 - Letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Letters of credit. 535.416 Section... § 535.416 Letters of credit. (a) Question. Prior to the effective date, a bank subject to the jurisdiction of the United States has issued or confirmed a documentary letter of credit for a...

  9. 31 CFR 535.416 - Letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Letters of credit. 535.416 Section 535... § 535.416 Letters of credit. (a) Question. Prior to the effective date, a bank subject to the jurisdiction of the United States has issued or confirmed a documentary letter of credit for a...

  10. 31 CFR 535.416 - Letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Letters of credit. 535.416 Section 535... § 535.416 Letters of credit. (a) Question. Prior to the effective date, a bank subject to the jurisdiction of the United States has issued or confirmed a documentary letter of credit for a...

  11. 31 CFR 535.416 - Letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Letters of credit. 535.416 Section 535... § 535.416 Letters of credit. (a) Question. Prior to the effective date, a bank subject to the jurisdiction of the United States has issued or confirmed a documentary letter of credit for a...

  12. Resume and Cover Letter Writing Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2004

    2004-01-01

    A resume is a selling tool that outlines a person's education, skills, and experience. The reader will probably spend 20 seconds or less screening a resume, so it is necessary to focus his or her attention quickly. Everything needs to be right--from the information the resume contains, to how it's written, to where it's written. A poorly written…

  13. Historical photographs revisited: A case study for dating and characterizing recent loss of coral cover on the inshore Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Tara R.; Leonard, Nicole D.; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Brodie, Jon; McCook, Laurence J.; Wachenfeld, David R.; Duc Nguyen, Ai; Markham, Hannah L.; Pandolfi, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term data with high-precision chronology are essential to elucidate past ecological changes on coral reefs beyond the period of modern-day monitoring programs. In 2012 we revisited two inshore reefs within the central Great Barrier Reef, where a series of historical photographs document a loss of hard coral cover between c.1890-1994 AD. Here we use an integrated approach that includes high-precision U-Th dating specifically tailored for determining the age of extremely young corals to provide a robust, objective characterisation of ecological transition. The timing of mortality for most of the dead in situ corals sampled from the historical photograph locations was found to coincide with major flood events in 1990-1991 at Bramston Reef and 1970 and 2008 at Stone Island. Evidence of some recovery was found at Bramston Reef with living coral genera similar to what was described in c.1890 present in 2012. In contrast, very little sign of coral re-establishment was found at Stone Island suggesting delayed recovery. These results provide a valuable reference point for managers to continue monitoring the recovery (or lack thereof) of coral communities at these reefs.

  14. Historical photographs revisited: A case study for dating and characterizing recent loss of coral cover on the inshore Great Barrier Reef

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Tara R.; Leonard, Nicole D.; Zhao, Jian-xin; Brodie, Jon; McCook, Laurence J.; Wachenfeld, David R.; Duc Nguyen, Ai; Markham, Hannah L.; Pandolfi, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term data with high-precision chronology are essential to elucidate past ecological changes on coral reefs beyond the period of modern-day monitoring programs. In 2012 we revisited two inshore reefs within the central Great Barrier Reef, where a series of historical photographs document a loss of hard coral cover between c.1890–1994 AD. Here we use an integrated approach that includes high-precision U-Th dating specifically tailored for determining the age of extremely young corals to provide a robust, objective characterisation of ecological transition. The timing of mortality for most of the dead in situ corals sampled from the historical photograph locations was found to coincide with major flood events in 1990–1991 at Bramston Reef and 1970 and 2008 at Stone Island. Evidence of some recovery was found at Bramston Reef with living coral genera similar to what was described in c.1890 present in 2012. In contrast, very little sign of coral re-establishment was found at Stone Island suggesting delayed recovery. These results provide a valuable reference point for managers to continue monitoring the recovery (or lack thereof) of coral communities at these reefs. PMID:26813703

  15. Historical photographs revisited: A case study for dating and characterizing recent loss of coral cover on the inshore Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Clark, Tara R; Leonard, Nicole D; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Brodie, Jon; McCook, Laurence J; Wachenfeld, David R; Duc Nguyen, Ai; Markham, Hannah L; Pandolfi, John M

    2016-01-01

    Long-term data with high-precision chronology are essential to elucidate past ecological changes on coral reefs beyond the period of modern-day monitoring programs. In 2012 we revisited two inshore reefs within the central Great Barrier Reef, where a series of historical photographs document a loss of hard coral cover between c.1890-1994 AD. Here we use an integrated approach that includes high-precision U-Th dating specifically tailored for determining the age of extremely young corals to provide a robust, objective characterisation of ecological transition. The timing of mortality for most of the dead in situ corals sampled from the historical photograph locations was found to coincide with major flood events in 1990-1991 at Bramston Reef and 1970 and 2008 at Stone Island. Evidence of some recovery was found at Bramston Reef with living coral genera similar to what was described in c.1890 present in 2012. In contrast, very little sign of coral re-establishment was found at Stone Island suggesting delayed recovery. These results provide a valuable reference point for managers to continue monitoring the recovery (or lack thereof) of coral communities at these reefs. PMID:26813703

  16. On letter frequency effects.

    PubMed

    New, Boris; Grainger, Jonathan

    2011-10-01

    In four experiments we examined whether the frequency of occurrence of letters affects performance in the alphabetic decision task (speeded letter vs. pseudo-letter classification). Experiments 1A and 1B tested isolated letters and pseudo-letters presented at fixation, and Experiments 2A and 2B tested the same stimuli inserted at the 1st, 3rd, or 5th position in a string of Xs. Significant negative correlations between letter frequency and response times to letter targets were found in all experiments. The correlations were found to be stronger for token frequency counts compared with both type frequency and frequency rank, stronger for frequency counts based on a book corpus compared with film subtitles, and stronger for measures counting occurrences as the first letter of words compared with inner letters and final letters. Correlations for letters presented in strings of Xs were found to depend on letter case and position-in-string. The results are in favor of models of word recognition that implement case-specific and position-specific letter representations. PMID:21855049

  17. Writing Letters of Recommendation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withers, Jennie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to instruct teachers how to write a letter of recommendation for their students. It includes when to say no, what the student needs to provide the teacher and how to write a strong letter. I am a teacher with sixteen years experience and therefore have written many letters for students. This instructional essay will…

  18. All About Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post Office Dept., Washington, DC.

    This booklet, designed to promote the letter writing habit, provides information about writing letters in a variety of situations. It is divided into several short sections with illustrations. Reasons to write letters and postcards are offered by several authors and celebrites including Stevie Wonder, Darryl Stingley, and "Dear Abby." Addresses…

  19. RED-LETTER DAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

  20. Establishing Site X: Letter, Arthur H. Compton to Enrico Fermi, September 14, 1942

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Compton, A. H.

    1942-09-01

    This letter from Compton to Fermi describes developments bearing on the establishment of site X (which, as of the letter date, is definitely determined as at the Tennessee Valley) for the construction of a pile and associated pilot plant buildings, describes the situation as of the letter date, and offers counsel as to how to proceed.

  1. Planting date impacts on soil water management, plant growth, and weeds in cover-crop-based no-till corn production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low input and organic farmers are increasingly utilizing cover crop mulches in maize production. Many farmers are delaying planting corn into these high residue environments to allow greater growth of the cover crop to maximize nitrogen fixation and improve mechanical termination with roller crimpe...

  2. Seeding date affects fall growth of winter canola (Brassica napus L. ‘Baldur’) and its performance as a winter cover crop in central Iowa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, interest has increased in finding non-grass cover crop species that could be planted after soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr.) and before corn (Zea mays L.) in Iowa crop rotations. In this study, we investigate the use of winter canola (Brassica napus L.) as an alternative cover crop fo...

  3. Seeding date affects fall growth of winter canola (1 Brassica napus L. ‘Baldur’) and its performance as a winter cover crop in central Iowa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, interest has increased in finding non-grass cover crop species that could be planted after soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr.) and before corn (Zea mays L.) in Iowa crop rotations. In this study, we investigate the use of winter canola (Brassica napus L.) as an alternative cover crop fo...

  4. Learning to write letters: examination of student and letter factors.

    PubMed

    Puranik, Cynthia S; Petscher, Yaacov; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    Learning to write the letters of the alphabet is an important part of learning how to write conventionally. In this study, we investigated critical factors in the development of letter-writing skills using exploratory item response models to simultaneously account for variance in responses due to differences between students and between letters. Letter-writing skills were assessed in 415 preschool children aged 3 to 5 years. At the student level, we examined the contribution of letter-name knowledge, letter-sound knowledge, and phonological awareness to letter-writing skills. At the letter level, we examined seven intrinsic and extrinsic factors in understanding how preschool children learn to write alphabet letters: first letter of name, letters in name, letter order, textual frequency, number of strokes, symmetry, and letter type. Results indicated that variation in letter-writing skills was accounted for more by differences between students rather than by differences between letters, with most of the variability accounted for by letter-name knowledge and age. Although significant, the contribution of letter-sound knowledge and phonological awareness was relatively small. Student-level mechanisms underlying the acquisition of letter-writing skills are similar to the mechanisms underlying the learning of letter sounds. However, letter characteristics, which appear to play a major role in the learning of letter names and letter sounds, did not appear to influence learning how to write letters in a substantial way. The exception was if the letter was in the child's name. PMID:25181463

  5. Investigation of environmental change pattern in Japan: A study on change detection of land cover in Tokyo districts using multi-dates LANDSAT CCT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruyasu, T.; Murai, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The software program, which enables the geographically corrected LANDSAT digital data base, was developed. The data base could provide land use planners with land cover information and the environmental change pattern. Land cover was evaluated by the color representation for ratio of three primary components, water vegetation, and nonorganic matter. Software was also developed for the change detection within multidates LANDSAT MSS data.

  6. A land cover change study in the Highlands of Northern Ethiopia using a flight of aerial photographs dating back to the 1930s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyassa, Etefa; Frankl, Amaury; Zenebe, Amanuel; Lanckriet, Sil; Demissie, Biadgilgn; Zenebe, Gebreyohanis; Poesen, Jean; Nyssen, Jan

    2016-04-01

    In the Highlands of Northern Ethiopia, land degradation is claimed to have occurred over a long time mainly due agricultural practices and lack of land management. However, quantitative information on the long term land use, cover and management change is rare. The knowledge of such historical changes is essential for the present and future land management for sustainable development, especially in an agriculture-based economy. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the changes of land use, cover and management around Hagere Selam, Northern Ethiopia, over the last 80 years (1935 - 2014). We recovered a flight of ten aerial photographs at an approximate scale of 1:11,500, realized by the Italian Military Geographical Institute in 1935, along a mountain ridge between 13.6490°N, 39.1848°E and 13.6785°N, 39.2658°E. Jointly with Google Earth images (2014), the historical aerial photographs were used to compare changes over the long time. The point-count technique was used by overlaying a grid of 18 x 15 points (small squares) on 20 cm x 15 cm aerial photographs and on Google Earth images representing the same area. Occurrence of major land cover types (cropland, forest, grassland, shrubland, bare land, built-up areas and water body) was counted to compute their proportion in 1935 and 2014. In 1935, cropland, shrubland and built-up areas were predominant while other land cover types were not observed. On the Google Earth images, all categories were observed except forest. The results show that in both times cropland was the dominant land cover followed by shrubland. The proportion of cropland at present (70.5%) is approximately the same as in the 1930s (72%), but shrubland decreased and bare land, grassland and built-up areas have increased. Hence, the large share of cropland was maintained over the past long period without allowing for woody vegetation to expand its area, while some cropland was abandoned and converted to grassland and bare land. The increased

  7. The Business Letter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nederland Independent School District, TX.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 9-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Business. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: This guide, designed for direct student use, indicates the parts of a business letter, a placement guide, and steps for typing letters. Worksheets and illustrations indicate forms of block and indented styles; open, closed, and mixed punctuation; the…

  8. Metamorphopsia and letter recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wiecek, Emily; Dakin, Steven C.; Bex, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Acuity is the most commonly used measure of visual function, and reductions in acuity are associated with most eye diseases. Metamorphopsia—a perceived distortion of visual space—is another common symptom of visual impairment and is currently assessed qualitatively using Amsler (1953) charts. In order to quantify the impact of metamorphopsia on acuity, we measured the effect of physical spatial distortion on letter recognition. Following earlier work showing that letter recognition is tuned to specific spatial frequency (SF) channels, we hypothesized that the effect of distortion might depend on the spatial scale of visual distortion just as it depends on the spatial scale of masking noise. Six normally sighted observers completed a 26 alternate forced choice (AFC) Sloan letter identification task at five different viewing distances, and the letters underwent different levels of spatial distortion. Distortion was controlled using spatially band-pass filtered noise that spatially remapped pixel locations. Noise was varied over five spatial frequencies and five magnitudes. Performance was modeled with logistic regression and worsened linearly with increasing distortion magnitude and decreasing letter size. We found that retinal SF affects distortion at midrange frequencies and can be explained with the tuning of a basic contrast sensitivity function, while object-centered distortion SF follows a similar pattern of letter object recognition sensitivity and is tuned to approximately three cycles per letter (CPL). The interaction between letter size and distortion makes acuity an unreliable outcome for metamorphopsia assessment. PMID:25453116

  9. Letters from a Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Donna Holland; Lawal-Solarin, Foluso Williams; Lester, David

    2007-01-01

    There has been no published study on personal letters written before an individual's suicidal death hitherto, although studies have been done using diaries. The purpose of this study was to search for trends in the use of particular linguistic categories in a series of personal letters written before an individual's suicidal death. A linguistic…

  10. Which Children Benefit from Letter Names in Learning Letter Sounds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treiman, Rebecca; Pennington, Bruce F.; Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Boada, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Typical U.S. children use their knowledge of letters' names to help learn the letters' sounds. They perform better on letter sound tests with letters that have their sounds at the beginnings of their names, such as v, than with letters that have their sounds at the ends of their names, such as m, and letters that do not have their sounds in their…

  11. Trends in the Employment Process: Resumes and Job Application Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinks, Neld; Wells, Barron

    1999-01-01

    Surveys of Fortune 500 companies in 1978, 1985, and 1995 revealed trends and preferences in content of resumes and cover letters. Compared to earlier years, current preferences were for both letters and resumes in the initial contact, more emphasis on grammar and spelling, and acceptance of two-page resumes. (SK)

  12. 47 CFR 64.632 - Letter of authorization form and content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and content. (a) An iTRS provider may use a written or electronically signed letter of authorization to obtain authorization of an iTRS user's request to change his or her default provider. A letter of... letter of authorization shall be signed and dated by the iTRS user requesting the default provider...

  13. 47 CFR 64.632 - Letter of authorization form and content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and content. (a) An iTRS provider may use a written or electronically signed letter of authorization to obtain authorization of an iTRS user's request to change his or her default provider. A letter of... letter of authorization shall be signed and dated by the iTRS user requesting the default provider...

  14. Teaching Letter Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Steve; Madan, Avi J.

    1981-01-01

    The authors describe a remedial technique for teaching letter formation to students with handwriting difficulties. The approach blends traditional procedures (modeling, physical prompts, tracing, self correction, etc.) with cognitive behavior modification principles. (CL)

  15. IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW LETTERS, 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    The following letters provide a summary of the Environmental Protection Agencys comments regarding 2002 Implementation Review of nineteen estuary programs in the National Estuary Program. Various strengths within the programs included use of implementation progress and tracking s...

  16. Fine-tuning of age integrating magnetostratigraphy, radiocarbon dating, and carbonate cyclicity: Example of lacustrine sediments from Heqing basin (Yunnan, China) covering the past 1 Myr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shouyun; Goddu, Srinivasa Rao; Appel, Erwin; Verosub, Ken

    2007-05-01

    High-resolution magnetostratigraphy, wavelength spectra of carbonate cyclicities, and AMS radiocarbon dating are integrated to establish an optimum age model for a 168 m long drill core of lacustrine sediments from Heqing basin, Yunnan Province, southwestern China. A 14C age of 51.62 +2.42/-1.85 kyr BP is obtained at a depth of 7.3 m. Remanent magnetization is carried by maghemite and partly in addition by magnetite, both showing the same direction. The polarity sequence clearly reveals the Brunhes/Matuyama (B/M) boundary at 141.5 m. Blake Event is found between 16.3 and 17.5 m, and the upper boundary of Jaramillo is indicated at 167.0 m. Carbonate content and magnetic susceptibility were used for spectral analysis. Fourier analysis was done on the depth section for sliding windows with different window lengths. The spectra within the range of window centers (30-140 m) show a dominant long wavelength, which changes from about 18.5 m in the lower part (>65 m depth) to about 14.5 m in the upper part (<65 m depth) of the core. It is assumed that the long wavelength peak represents the 95-kyr Milankovitch eccentricity cycle. The B/M boundary and Blake Event match very well with this model, but the age of Jaramillo is strongly underestimated. Fourier spectra of sliding windows slightly indicate a drop of the sedimentation rate at the lowermost part of the core. An optimum age model is calculated by cubic spline interpolation using tie points from 14C dating, magnetostratigraphy ('true' ages of Blake Event, B/M boundary, and Jaramillo), and wavelengths of carbonate (change in sedimentation rate at 65 m). Alternative depth-to-age transfer functions were tested, i.e. a wavelength age model (using sedimentation rates with 14C as a tie point), a cyclostratigraphic model (using bandpass-filtered carbonate data corresponding to 95 kyr eccentricity cycles) and correlation of carbonate variations to the marine oxygen isotope curve. However, none of the approaches lead to a

  17. Students as Letter Writers: How Letters Inform Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirms, Lynn M.

    2004-01-01

    Letters from students, serve to enhance the insight toward students at a personal level while adding a familiar form and friendly voice to the classroom community. The biographical letter and study-skill letter are the two sets of students' letters discussed. It is found that one needs to know one's student better versus the time needed for this…

  18. Launch of Zoological Letters.

    PubMed

    Fukatsu, Takema; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    A new open-access journal, Zoological Letters, was launched as a sister journal to Zoological Science, in January 2015. The new journal aims at publishing topical papers of high quality from a wide range of basic zoological research fields. This review highlights the notable reviews and research articles that have been published in the first year of Zoological Letters, providing an overview on the current achievements and future directions of the journal. PMID:26853862

  19. High Resolution, Absolute Dated Terrestrial Climate Record of Temperature and Precipitation From the Eastern US Covering 0-7ka, 116-127ka, and 145-298 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardt, B. F.; Rowe, H. D.; Springer, G. S.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.

    2007-12-01

    Analysis of 4 stalagmites from Buckeye Creek Cave (BCC) in West Virginia provides a high resolution record of temperature and precipitation in the eastern US. Periods of coverage include 0-7ka, 116-127ka, and 145-298 ka. Samples were dated using U/Th dating techniques developed for carbonates (Broecker 1963) and adapted for measurement on mass spectrometer (Edwards et al., 1987). The chronology is constrained by 6-14 dates per sample. Replication is the best method to ensure that observed isotopic changes are due to regional climate and not kinetic fractionation or heterogeneous behavior within the cave environment. When replication is available within the BCC record, there is general agreement in the timing, direction, and magnitude of shifts in δ13C and δ18O. Such agreement supports the interpretation of the isotopic composition of speleothem calcite as a climate signal. The δ18O record can reflect either temperature or precipitation. Since the record contains glacial and interglacial intervals and has a range of 2‰ (~5.5 °C at +0.35‰/°C), it is reasonable to conclude that temperature effects determine the isotopic composition of the samples. However, temperature cannot explain the entire record, as Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 1 and 5e demonstrate more negative values than during full glacial conditions (MIS 6 & 8). Therefore precipitation must be a contributing factor. Such an interpretation is supported by the δ13C record. During arid periods, rock-water interaction time is increased, leading to a positive shift in δ13C (Denniston et al., 2007). Our record is ~4‰ higher during glacial periods than during MIS 1 and 5e. Broadly speaking, our record tracks insolation. However, one remarkable aspect of this record is the behavior of δ18O at insolation peaks. Our record contains four abrupt negative shifts in δ18O during maxima in local summer insolation greater than 520 W/m2. Temperature change does not provide a compelling explanation for this

  20. Students' Perceptions of Reference Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Brian K.; Appel, Jonathan; Smith, Donald H.; Hoofnagle, Kara

    2006-01-01

    This study examines students' perceptions of reference letters. Students (n = 444) were asked to describe how they perceived reference letters. Four themes were uncovered. First, some students perceived reference letters as useful for employers. Second, some students perceived the letters as important for students seeking employment or admission…

  1. Letter Names, Letter Sounds and Phonological Awareness: An Examination of Kindergarten Children across Letters and of Letters across Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Mary Ann; Bell, Michelle; Shaw, Deborah; Moretti, Shelley; Page, Jodi

    2006-01-01

    In this study 149 kindergarten children were assessed for knowledge of letter names and letter sounds, phonological awareness, and cognitive abilities. Through this it examined child and letter characteristics influencing the acquisition of alphabetic knowledge in a naturalistic context, the relationship between letter-sound knowledge and…

  2. Submission Letters across English Language Teaching and Mathematics: The Case of Iranian Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalilifar, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    Submitting an article to an English journal for publication requires enclosing an accompanying cover letter. Yet, the phraseology and rhetorical conventions of such letters are not comprehensively documented in literature. This article investigates two English corpora of genuine electronic submission letters to journal editors by Iranian English…

  3. The Million Dollar Letter: Some Hints on How to Write One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Marshall

    2004-01-01

    This article suggests ways of writing a truly effective cover letter, an extremely important document in the search for a job. First, features gleaned from 13 model letters in technical writing textbooks yield figures on the number of words, sentences, and paragraphs per letter, plus the average number of words per sentence and paragraph,…

  4. Cover Crop Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential benefits of cover crops in vegetable production systems depend on the type of cover crop that is used and how it is managed from planting to termination date. This chapter focuses on management practices that are applicable to a broad range cover crops and vegetable production systems ...

  5. A letter signed: the very beginnings of Dalton's atomic theory.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Herbert T

    2010-11-01

    This paper explores the provenance and content of a previously unknown personal letter by John Dalton (1766-1844), which is dated 12 April 1803. It relates to a startling breakthrough in Dalton's research, which pre-dates by five months the earliest date in his laboratory notebook, namely, 6 September 1803. The author acquired the letter about thirty years ago, and now offers it to the public. He makes no attempt to explain how it contributes to--or even changes--our understanding of Dalton, but leaves that privilege to Dalton scholars. PMID:21465997

  6. Harvard Education Letter, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves-Desai, Kelly, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document is comprised of the six issues in volume 15 of the Harvard Education Letter, a bimonthly newsletter addressing current issues in elementary and secondary education. Articles in this volume include the following: (1) January-February--"Retention vs. Social Promotion: Schools Search for Alternatives" (Kelly), and "School Design Can Say…

  7. Inside the Letter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Roger; Graham, Alan

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how a Java applet can help to build learners' intuitions about basic ideas of algebra. "Matchbox Algebra" is a Java applet the authors have designed to enable learners to grasp a key idea in learning algebra: that the letter "x" may be thought of as representing an as-yet-unknown number. They describe the…

  8. Four-Letter Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Robert G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a computer program (for Apple II) that tests knowledge of four-letter words. The program, which includes four games and a dictionary, can be used in one of two modes (inquiry or game) by students at any level depending on version of dictionary selected. Dictionary operations and classroom applications are discussed. (JN)

  9. Five Long Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bone, Eric

    1990-01-01

    Describes the life of former Louisiana governor Huey Long through five fictitious letters. Discusses Long's experiences as a state public service commissioner, governor, and senator. Attributes Long's assassination to his killer's personal motives. Concludes that Long's life showed how much personal power could be gained even in a democracy. (SG)

  10. Harvard Education Letter, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, David, T., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document is comprised of the six issues in volume 17 of the Harvard Education Letter, a bimonthly newsletter addressing current issues in elementary and secondary education. Articles in this volume include the following: (1) January-February--"Charters and Districts: Three Stages in an Often Rocky Relationship" (Kelly) and "'We Don't Allow…

  11. Harvard Education Letter, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, David T., Editor

    2002-01-01

    This document is comprised of the 6 issues in volume 18 of the Harvard Education Letter, a bimonthly newsletter addressing current issues in elementary and secondary education. Articles in this volume include the following: (1) January/February--"Curriculum Access in the Digital Age" (David T. Gordon) and "Using Charters To Improve Urban Schools"…

  12. Letter to Doxiadis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Buckminster

    1969-01-01

    The second half of a lengthy letter to Dr. Constantine Doxiadis (published in full in Main Currents in Modern Thought, XXV, March-April 1969) summarizes Buckminster Fuller's personal reflections on the impact of industrialization and on the effect of technological change in uniting mankind. (MF)

  13. Letters and American Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevis, David E.

    The work itself should help a person who is going to teach reading and writing. Practical suggestions are offered in the final two chapters, while the opening three give intellectual perspectives. A theme binds the work of letting the consciousness of writing as a visual system be increased and of breaking the spell by which letter phonetics can…

  14. Letters in this Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-01-01

    Reforming the General Chemistry Textbook individual letters by Edward T. Samulski; Stephen J. Hawkes; Stephen J. Fisher; J. Stephen Hartman; A. R. H. Cole; Stanley Pine, Ronald Archer, and Herbert Kaesz; Jimmy Reeves; Robert Hill; and Brock Spencer, C. Bradley Moore and Nedah Rose. Re: article by R. J. Gillespie The author replies

  15. The Fuzzy Scarlet Letter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallas, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    Critics of the public release of teacher evaluation scores sometimes liken these ratings to the scarlet letter worn by Hester Prynne in Nathaniel Hawthorne's classic novel. The comparison is apt. But public school teachers who are subjected to public shaming because of their students' test scores can rarely expect the opportunities for redemption…

  16. Harvard Education Letter, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, David T., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document is comprised of the six issues in volume 16 of the Harvard Education Letter, a bimonthly newsletter addressing current issues in elementary and secondary education. Articles in this volume include the following: (1) January-February--"Grade Inflation: What's Really behind All Those A's?" (Birk) and "Every Friday was Fight Day"…

  17. Resource Letter QI-1: Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauch, Frederick W.

    2016-07-01

    This Resource Letter surveys the history and modern developments in the field of quantum information. It is written to guide advanced undergraduates, beginning graduate students, and other new researchers to the theoretical and experimental aspects of this field. The topics covered include quantum states and processes, quantum coding and cryptography, quantum computation, the experimental implementation of quantum information processing, and the role of quantum information in the fundamental properties and foundations of physical theories.

  18. President Nixon's Letter of Resignation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Mary; Childress, Marilyn

    1982-01-01

    Contains a primary source document--President Nixon's resignation letter--and suggests teaching strategies for its use with secondary level students. To refresh students' memories of the events surrounding the letter, a selective chronology is also presented. (RM)

  19. New Insights about Letter Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of alphabetic knowledge (letter names, letter sounds, and letter forms) is an important predictor of later literacy achievement. This article describes research findings that provide new insights about how children learn the alphabetic principle and the implications for effective and efficient instruction of the alphabet. Teachers…

  20. Letter of the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    A recent decision by the 8th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in a case from Arkansas centered on a vicious letter written by an 8th-grade boy about his former girlfriend and turned over to school officials. The court ruled for the school district in expelling the student for the year, without allowing him to attend an alternative school. Argues that…

  1. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-03-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Criticisms of hands-on pseudoscience David J Fisher 27 Elderberry Road, Cardiff CF5 3RG, UK Measuring varying fields Don Koks Adelaide University, Australia Relativity at A-level: a comment David Sang 3 Ellasdale Road, Bognor Regis, PO21 2SG, UK

  2. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-11-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents The equivalence of mass and energy Peter Stansbury Head of Physics, Christ Church Grammar School, Claremont, Western Australia 6010 Comment on `A simple experiment to study parabolic surfaces' N Gauthier Department of Physics, The Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario K7K 7B4, Canada

  3. Dating Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents of Teens Crime, Teens, and Trauma Assault Bullying and Harassment Child Sexual Abuse Dating Violence Sexual ... Parents of Teens Crime, Teens, and Trauma Assault Bullying and Harassment Child Sexual Abuse Dating Violence Sexual ...

  4. Radiocarbon Dating

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, B A

    2007-12-20

    Radiocarbon dating can be used to determine the age of objects that contain components that were once alive. In the case of human remains, a radiocarbon date can distinguish between a crime scene and an archeological site. Documents, museum artifacts and art objects can be dated to determine if their age is correct for the historical context. A radiocarbon date does not confirm authenticity, but it can help identify a forgery.

  5. 46 CFR 176.310 - Certification Expiration Date Stickers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Certification Expiration Date Stickers. 176.310 Section... Letters § 176.310 Certification Expiration Date Stickers. (a) A Certification Expiration Date Sticker... operated without a valid Certification Expiration Date Sticker affixed to the vessel on a place that is:...

  6. 46 CFR 176.310 - Certification Expiration Date Stickers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Certification Expiration Date Stickers. 176.310 Section... Letters § 176.310 Certification Expiration Date Stickers. (a) A Certification Expiration Date Sticker... operated without a valid Certification Expiration Date Sticker affixed to the vessel on a place that is:...

  7. 46 CFR 176.310 - Certification Expiration Date Stickers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Certification Expiration Date Stickers. 176.310 Section... Letters § 176.310 Certification Expiration Date Stickers. (a) A Certification Expiration Date Sticker... operated without a valid Certification Expiration Date Sticker affixed to the vessel on a place that is:...

  8. 46 CFR 176.310 - Certification Expiration Date Stickers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification Expiration Date Stickers. 176.310 Section... Letters § 176.310 Certification Expiration Date Stickers. (a) A Certification Expiration Date Sticker... operated without a valid Certification Expiration Date Sticker affixed to the vessel on a place that is:...

  9. 46 CFR 176.310 - Certification Expiration Date Stickers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Certification Expiration Date Stickers. 176.310 Section... Letters § 176.310 Certification Expiration Date Stickers. (a) A Certification Expiration Date Sticker... operated without a valid Certification Expiration Date Sticker affixed to the vessel on a place that is:...

  10. DATE PALM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews date palm biology and cultivation. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the oldest fruit crops grown in the arid regions of the Arabian Peninsula, North Africa, and the Middle East. The exact origin of the date palm is unknown but most probably the area of origin w...

  11. Dating Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stader, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Dating violence is a form of student-on-student victimization and is a serious school safety issue. Research indicates that at a minimum, 10 percent of high school students are victims of dating violence in one form or another. Among female high school students that date, some data indicate that as many as 30 percent may be victims of dating…

  12. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-03-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Comment on `Magnetic and electric field strengths of high voltage power lines and household appliances' José Luis Giordano Dept. de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales y Fluidos, CPSI, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain Twins paradox S R Carson Norton College, Malton, North Yorkshire, UK On alternative ways of finding the ratio of specific heats of gases Tomas Ficker Physics Department, Technical University of Brno, Czech Republic

  13. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Narrow-band interference filters for lecture demonstrations A P Ovcharenko, B M Valiyov and V D Yegorenkov Kharkov State University, Ukraine Static electricity and the gas lift chair P Cooke Department of Physics, University of South Australia, Levels Campus, Pooraka, South Australia Relativistic mass Simon Carson Norton College, Langton Road, Norton, Malton, North Yorkshire YO17 9PT, UK Magazine or journal? Philip Britton Head of Physics, Leeds Grammar School, UK

  14. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-09-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Heat and temperature Kevin Carlton Canterbury Christ Church University College, North Holmes Road, Canterbury, Kent CT1 1QU, UK James Bond's shoes J Oliver Linton Head of Physics, Wolverhampton Grammar School, Compton Road, Wolverhampton WV3 9RB, UK Of springs and strings Ronald Newburgh Extension School, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA Clarifying the concept Keith Atkin 14 Cortworth Road, Ecclesall, Sheffield S11 9LP, UK

  15. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-01-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Physics and history Arthur I Miller Department of Science & Technology Studies, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK Physics and history: a reply David Miller Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK Cathode rays, the electron and Thomson's discovery John Harris 33 Glentham Road, London SW13 9JD, UK Vectors: swallow them whole! David Wheeler Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand

  16. The letter height superiority illusion.

    PubMed

    New, Boris; Doré-Mazars, Karine; Cavézian, Céline; Pallier, Christophe; Barra, Julien

    2016-02-01

    Letters are identified better when they are embedded within words rather than within pseudowords, a phenomenon known as the word superiority effect (Reicher in Journal of Experimental Psychology, 81, 275-280, 1969). This effect is, inter alia, accounted for by the interactive-activation model (McClelland & Rumelhart in Psychological Review, 88, 375-407, 1981) through feedback from word to letter nodes. In this study, we investigated whether overactivation of features could lead to perceptual bias, wherein letters would be perceived as being taller than pseudoletters, or words would be perceived as being taller than pseudowords. In two experiments, we investigated the effects of letter and lexical status on the perception of size. Participants who had to compare the heights of letters and pseudoletters, or of words and pseudowords, indeed perceived the former stimuli as being taller than the latter. Possible alternative interpretations of this height superiority effect for letters and words are discussed. PMID:26370216

  17. The letters of John Dastin.

    PubMed

    Thiesen, Wilfred

    2008-07-01

    John Dastin, a noted alchemist who lived ca. 1300, followed the lead of many of his contemporaries and predecessors in using letters to propagate his views on alchemy. This article identifies a number of letters that Dastin wrote, and includes one text addressed to a cardinal of the city of Naples. This letter is virtually a copy of a work by Arnold of Villanova. I believe that other works ascribed to Dastin will also show a great dependence on Arnold's works. PMID:19048973

  18. Radiocarbon Dating.

    PubMed

    Van Strydonck, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Although most historians and art historians consider the radiocarbon dating technique not to be very precise by their criteria, the method has gained much importance over the last decades. Radiocarbon dating is increasingly used in the field of textile research and old polychrome statues, but also objects made of ivory, stucco, paper, and parchment are dated with the technique. Especially after the introduction of the AMS technique, a boom of this type of research has been noticed. PMID:27573138

  19. What Can Reduce Letter Migrations in Letter Position Dyslexia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedmann, Naama; Rahamim, Einav

    2014-01-01

    Letter position dyslexia (LPD) is a peripheral dyslexia that causes errors of letter position within words, such as reading "cloud" as "could." In this study, we assessed the effect of various display manipulations and reading methods on the reading of 10 Hebrew readers with developmental LPD. These manipulations included…

  20. Visually discriminating upper case letters, lower case letters and numbers.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Janet; Waugh, Russell F; Konza, Deslea

    2015-01-01

    English and number literacy are important for successful learning and testing student literacy and numeracy standards enables early identification and remediation of children who have difficulty. Rasch measures were created with the RUMM2020 computer program for the perceptual constructs of visual discrimination upper case letters, lower case letters and numbers. Thirty items for Visual Discrimination of Upper Case Letters (VDUCL), 36 for Lower Case Letters (VDLCL) and 20 for Visual Discrimination of Numbers (VDN) were presented to 324 Pre-Primary through Year 4 children, aged 4-9 years old. All students attended school in Perth, Western Australia. Eighteen of the initial 30 items for VDUCL, thirty-one of the original 36 items for VDLCL and thirteen of the original 20 items for VDN were used to create linear scales (the others were deleted due to misfit) and these clearly showed which letters and numbers children said were easy and which were hard. PMID:25562334

  1. Neurotic love letters.

    PubMed

    Tierra, Tatiana De La

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The intensity of falling in love is expressed through sexual longing and is focused on pleasures of the body. Fresh fruits and vegetables and other elements of nature-wind, birds, foliage-form part of the setting of seduction. Being in love with another woman makes the entire world beautiful. But the lesbian paradise is eventually eclipsed by bitter realities that intrude upon the relationship-the ever-present ex-lover (still in the picture), family ties (with homophobic overtones), business connections (that imperil lesbian economic independence), and issues of commitment and honesty that eventually lead to betrayal and a bittersweet breakup. Based on correspondence originally written in Spanish, "Neurotic Love Letters" is a testament to an unfortunate fact-that all the love and lust between two women cannot always conquer dubious circumstances and harsh realities unique to lesbian relationships. PMID:24821038

  2. Dating Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dating violence can cause serious harm to your body and your emotions. If you are in an abusive relationship, get help. Leaving an abusive dating relationship See a doctor or nurse to take care of any physical problems. And reach out for support for your emotional ...

  3. Letters in Biographies and Novels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterra, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    This is an annotated bibliography of biographies, historical fiction, contemporary stories, and discussion questions related to letter writing. A sidebar suggests an activity that involves reading a book about Ludwig van Beethoven, listening to Beethoven's music, and discussing letters in the story. (DGM)

  4. Schema-Based Analysis of Gendered Self-Disclosure in Persian: Writing for Dating Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khodadady, Ebrahim; Mehr, Somayeh Javadi

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a textual analysis of letters written by 21 male and 21 female participants in Persian. Each writer wrote two letters, one to a dating service and another one to a hypothetical person chosen and introduced by the center. Therefore, a total of 84 letters were collected from the participants. Schema theory was used to find the…

  5. Exploiting a Corpus of Business Letters from a Phraseological, Functional Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowerdew, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates how a freely available online corpus has been exploited in a module on teaching business letters covering the following four speech acts (functions) commonly found in business letters: invitations, requests, complaints and refusals. It is proposed that different strategies are required for teaching potentially…

  6. Let's Begin with the Letter People[R]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Let's Begin with the Letter People"[R] is an early childhood literacy curriculum that uses 26 thematic units--each of which covers a letter of the alphabet--to develop children's language and early literacy skills. A major focus of the program is phonological awareness, including rhyming, word play, alliteration, and segmentation. Children are…

  7. Resource Letter Neu-1 History of the Neutrino

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Leon M.

    1970-01-01

    This resource letter is designed to guide college physicists to literature on the history of the neutrino. The literature surveyed covers five periods: (1) the Pauli conjecture, (2) mesous and the universal Fermi interaction, (3) parity violation and two components, (4) the two neutrino experiment, and (5) neutrino astronomy. The bibliography…

  8. 39 CFR 310.2 - Unlawful carriage of letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in injunction, fine or imprisonment or both and payment of postage lost as a result of the illegal... postage which would have been charged on the letter if it had been sent through the Postal Service is paid by stamps, or postage meter stamps, on the cover or by other methods approved by the Postal...

  9. 39 CFR 310.2 - Unlawful carriage of letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in injunction, fine or imprisonment or both and payment of postage lost as a result of the illegal... postage which would have been charged on the letter if it had been sent through the Postal Service is paid by stamps, or postage meter stamps, on the cover or by other methods approved by the Postal...

  10. 48 CFR 42.504 - Postaward letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Postaward Orientation 42.504 Postaward letters. In some... orientation (in lieu of a conference). The letter should identify the Government representative...

  11. Two New Letters by Denning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beech, Martin

    2010-06-01

    Two letters written by W. F. Denning to R. P. Greg in March and April of 1879 that had been tucked into the folds of an 1876 edition of the British Association for the Advancement of Science Reports were recently found at the Carnegie Institution in Washington D.C. The letters are wonderfully preserved, and offer us a snap-shot of the work being performed by a young Denning at the time when his influence in the field of meteor studies was in its ascendency. The contents of these two letters is analyzed and placed within context to Denning's other publications and private life.

  12. Letters to a Young Writer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, Anne; Becker, Robin

    2002-01-01

    Presents words of encouragement to a young poet. Includes empathetic words and motivating ideas. Presents a letter including a quote from "Tintern Abbey" by William Wordsworth and ideas about that quote. (SG)

  13. Early predictors of letter knowledge.

    PubMed

    de Jong, P F; Olson, R K

    2004-07-01

    This study examined the influence of phonological memory and rapid naming on the development of letter knowledge. Participants were 77 Dutch children, who were followed from the start of their first kindergarten year (mean age 4 years 6.8 months) to the end of their second kindergarten year. Phonological memory was assessed by a nonword repetition test and a sentence repetition test. Rapid naming involved object naming. The study revealed found a substantial effect of phonological memory on the acquisition of letter knowledge that was particularly related to the ability to repeat nonwords. Vocabulary knowledge did not have an independent effect on letter learning after phonological memory was controlled. The study also showed a small effect of rapid naming on the acquisition of letter knowledge that was independent of the effect of phonological memory. Finally, the study also provided further evidence for a specific relation between phonological memory and vocabulary acquisition. PMID:15203300

  14. Letter from the Friends Chairman

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Letter from the Friends Chairman Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents ... FNLM Chairman Paul Rogers converse at a recent Friends function at the National Library of Medicine. Photo ...

  15. Radiocarbon Dating: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortine, Suellen

    This selective annotated bibliography covers various sources of information on the radiocarbon dating method, including journal articles, conference proceedings, and reports, reflecting the most important and useful sources of the last 25 years. The bibliography is divided into five parts--general background on radiocarbon, radiocarbon dating,…

  16. The role of Hebrew letter names in early literacy: the case of multiphonemic acrophonic names.

    PubMed

    Levin, Iris

    2007-12-01

    English-speaking children spell letters correctly more often when the letters' names are heard in the word (e.g., B in beach vs. bone). Hebrew letter names have been claimed to be less useful in this regard. In Study 1, kindergartners were asked to report and spell initial and final letters in Hebrew words that included full (CVC), partial (CV), and phonemic (C) cues derived from these letter names (e.g., kaftor, kartis, kibepsilonl, spelled with /kaf/). Correct and biased responses increased with length of congruent and incongruent cues, respectively. In Study 2, preschoolers and kindergartners were asked to report initial letters with monosyllabic or disyllabic names (e.g., /kaf/ or /samepsilonx/, respectively) that included the cues described above. Correct responses increased with cue length; the effect was stronger with monosyllabic letter names than with disyllabic letter names, probably because the cue covered a larger ratio of the letter name. Phonological awareness was linked to use of letter names. PMID:17949738

  17. 46 CFR 115.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... stability letter must be posted under glass or other suitable transparent material, such that all pages are... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stability letter. 115.306 Section 115.306 Shipping COAST... of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 115.306 Stability letter. When, in accordance...

  18. 46 CFR 115.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... stability letter must be posted under glass or other suitable transparent material, such that all pages are... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stability letter. 115.306 Section 115.306 Shipping COAST... of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 115.306 Stability letter. When, in accordance...

  19. 46 CFR 176.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... letter, the stability letter must be posted under glass or other suitable transparent material, such that... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stability letter. 176.306 Section 176.306 Shipping COAST...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Posting of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 176.306...

  20. 46 CFR 115.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... stability letter must be posted under glass or other suitable transparent material, such that all pages are... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stability letter. 115.306 Section 115.306 Shipping COAST... of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 115.306 Stability letter. When, in accordance...

  1. 46 CFR 176.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... letter, the stability letter must be posted under glass or other suitable transparent material, such that... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stability letter. 176.306 Section 176.306 Shipping COAST...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Posting of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 176.306...

  2. 46 CFR 115.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... stability letter must be posted under glass or other suitable transparent material, such that all pages are... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stability letter. 115.306 Section 115.306 Shipping COAST... of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 115.306 Stability letter. When, in accordance...

  3. 46 CFR 176.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... letter, the stability letter must be posted under glass or other suitable transparent material, such that... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stability letter. 176.306 Section 176.306 Shipping COAST...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Posting of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 176.306...

  4. 46 CFR 176.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... letter, the stability letter must be posted under glass or other suitable transparent material, such that... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stability letter. 176.306 Section 176.306 Shipping COAST...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Posting of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 176.306...

  5. Letter Writing: A Tool for Counselor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Rachel M.

    2008-01-01

    Letter writing is an integral component of narrative therapy practice. In addition to the benefits of letter writing in counseling practice, letter writing may hold interesting possibilities for use in counselor education. This article provides a brief review of the benefits of letter writing in counseling practice and discusses the potential use…

  6. Embedded Picture Mnemonics to Learn Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmidman, Adina; Ehri, Linnea

    2010-01-01

    Can embedded mnemonics ease the task of learning a foreign alphabet? English-speaking preschoolers (N = 36, M = 5;2 years) were taught 10 Hebrew letter-sound relations. Experimental letters were learned with mnemonics that embedded letter shapes in drawings of objects whose shapes resembled the letters and whose English names began with the…

  7. 42 CFR 93.202 - Charge letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Charge letter. 93.202 Section 93.202 Public Health... MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.202 Charge letter. Charge letter means the written notice, as well as any... HHS administrative actions. If the charge letter includes a debarment or suspension action, it may...

  8. 19 CFR 356.16 - Charging letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Charging letter. 356.16 Section 356.16 Customs... Undertaking § 356.16 Charging letter. (a) Contents of letter. The Deputy Under Secretary will initiate proceedings by issuing a charging letter to each charged party and affected party which includes: (1)...

  9. 42 CFR 93.202 - Charge letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Charge letter. 93.202 Section 93.202 Public Health... MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.202 Charge letter. Charge letter means the written notice, as well as any... HHS administrative actions. If the charge letter includes a debarment or suspension action, it may...

  10. 19 CFR 356.16 - Charging letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Charging letter. 356.16 Section 356.16 Customs... Undertaking § 356.16 Charging letter. (a) Contents of letter. The Deputy Under Secretary will initiate proceedings by issuing a charging letter to each charged party and affected party which includes: (1)...

  11. Covering Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Ryan; Wind, Andrew; Trevidi, Neema

    2000-01-01

    Presents four articles considering: (1) the media's role in the coverage of politics; (2) the influence of photography particularly in terms of the president; (3) an event where an Iowa student had a chance to work with professionals while covering politics; and (4) considering scholastic reporters covering national candidates as they learn and…

  12. Effects of Letter-Identification Training on Letter Naming in Prereading Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Schmidt, Anna C.; Saunders, Kathryn J.

    2013-01-01

    Three prereading children who named 0 to 3 of 20 targeted letters were taught to select the 20 printed letters when they heard spoken letter names. For all participants, letter-identification training resulted in naming for the majority of letters.

  13. Language General and Specific Factors in Letter Acquisition: Considering Child and Letter Characteristics in Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk; Petscher, Yaacov

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the extent to which child level factors (i.e., phonological awareness) and letter level factors (i.e., letter name structures, letter frequency, visual similarity, and letter order) contributed to letter name and sound acquisition, using data from Korean-speaking children (N = 169) and cross-classified…

  14. Cover Image, Volume 170A, Number 9, September 2016.

    PubMed

    Moosa, Shahida; Fano, Virginia; Obregon, Maria Gabriela; Altmüller, Janine; Thiele, Holger; Nürnberg, Peter; Nishimura, Gen; Wollnik, Bernd

    2016-09-01

    The cover image, by Shahida Moosa et al., is based on the Research Letter A novel homozygous PAM16 mutation in a patient with a milder phenotype and longer survival, DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37823. PMID:27518918

  15. NEESPI focus issues in Environmental Research Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Julian; Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2010-05-01

    In 2007 and 2009 Environmental Research Letters published focus issues (edited by Pavel Groisman and Amber J Soja) made up of work carried out by NEESPI participants. Here, we present the content of those focus issues as an invaluable resource for researchers working in the NEESPI study area. The first of the two issues, published in 2007 with title 'Northern Hemisphere High Latitude Climate and Environmental Change', presents a diverse collection of articles that are assembled into five groups devoted to studies of climate and hydrology, land cover and land use, the biogeochemical cycle and its feedbacks, the cryosphere, and human dimensions. The second issue, published in 2009, with title 'Climatic and Environmental Change in Northern Eurasia' presents diverse, assorted studies of different aspects of contemporary change, representing the diversity of climates and ecosystems across Northern Eurasia.

  16. Improving e-discharge letters for Permanent pacemaker insertions at Wansbeck General Hospital.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    670 patients attend Wansbeck General Hospital each year for elective and emergency permanent pacemaker insertion or modification. Elective patients for new devices attend the cardiology department on the day of procedure and are clerked onto the cardiology ward after insertion. Patients are discharged home the following day with a letter typed by a junior doctor. Prior to October 2011, junior doctors were unaware of any guidelines regarding content of discharge letters due to poor accessibility. Vital information such as pacemaker model and indication for implantation were frequently absent from the typed summaries. In October 2011, the cardiology department reviewed the guidelines establishing the information required in all discharge summaries for pacemaker implantation and these guidelines were published on the ward in an easy to follow proforma for any junior doctor typing letters. Eight essential criteria should be included in each letter; date and indication for insertion, pacemaker type, make and model, access route, complications, chest x-ray and device check results, and follow-up details. Finally, a copy of the letter was to be sent to the cardiology department for clinic follow-up. Ten letters were audited prior to the proforma being issued. 0 letters contained 100% of the required information. Main criteria missing in most letters included indication for insertion (50%), make of device (0%), the route of access (10%) and cc to cardiology department (0%). 70 letters were audited in October 2012, one year following introduction of the discharge proforma.100% of letters contained all of the eight essential criteria required by the departmental guidelines. 53% of the letters were also received by the cardiology department. In conclusion, a set of easy to follow guidelines in the form of a published document on the cardiology ward has produced dramatic improvement in the quality of e-discharge letters for patients undergoing permanent pacemaker implantation

  17. Sky cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerth, Jordan J.

    Of all of the standard meteorological parameters collected and observed daily, sky cover is not only one of the most complex, but the one that is fairly ambiguously defined and difficult to quantify. Despite that, the implications of how cloud fraction and sky cover are understood not only impact daily weather forecasts, but also present challenges to assessing the state of the earth's climate system. Part of the reason for this is the lack of observational methods for verifying the skill of clouds represented and parameterized in numerical models. While human observers record sky cover as part of routine duties, the spatial coverage of such observations in the United States is relatively sparse. There is greater spatial coverage of automated observations, and essentially complete coverage from geostationary weather satellites that observe the Americas. A good analysis of sky cover reconciles differences between manual observations, automated observations, and satellite observations, through an algorithm that accounts for the strengths and weaknesses of each dataset. This work describes the decision structure for trusting and weighting these similar observations. Some of the issues addressed include: human and instrument error resulting from approximations and estimations, a deficiency in high cloud detectability using surface-based ceilometers, poorly resolved low cloud using infrared channels on space-based radiometers during overnight hours, and decreased confidence in satellite-detected cloud during stray light periods. Using the blended sky cover analysis as the best representation of cloudiness, it is possible to compare the analysis to numerical model fields in order to assess the performance of the model and the parameterizations therein, as well as confirm or uncover additional relationships between sky cover and pertinent fields using an optimization methodology. The optimizer minimizes an affine expression of adjusted fields to the "truth" sky cover

  18. Letter from Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Per Magnus

    2015-04-01

    Some of the ideas of Sigmund Freud were preceded in a literary form by the Swedish writer August Strindberg in the late 19th century. Psychoanalysis itself was introduced in Sweden about a decade into the 20th century by two rivalling pioneers, the doctors Emanuel af Geijerstam and Poul Bjerre. After a slow start, the Danish-Norwegian Psychoanalytical Society and the Finnish-Swedish Psychoanalytical Society were formed in 1934 in Stockholm. The same year, Ericastiftelsen [The Erica Foundation], a psychotherapeutic clinic for children, was founded by Hanna Bratt. Five years later, in 1939, also in Stockholm, the organization that was to become St. Lukasstiftelsen [The Saint Luke's Foundation] was founded. It has been, and still is, an association that has trained psychodynamic psychotherapists, with a focus on existential, religious and philosophical questions. Today, St. Luke's tries to be up-dated from an academic standpoint. During the Second World War, several important psychoanalysts came to Sweden, for example René de Monchy, Lajos and Edith Székely, and Stefi Pedersen. Ola Andersson's doctoral dissertation ("Studies in the Prehistory of Psychoanalysis", 1962) and the historian Gunnar Brandell's essay ("Freud, a Man of His Century", 1961) have had an international impact. In the last two decades, an authorized and carefully edited translation of Freud's collected works has been published by Natur och Kultur, and the history of psychoanalysis in Sweden has been written at the University of Gothenburg. As a result of a recent interest in the work of Jacques Lacan, and French psychoanalysis, philosophy and literature, the journal Psykoanalytisk Tid/Skrift was founded in 2002, in Gothenburg. Since 2011 the journal is called Arche. The largest organized group of psychoanalysts in Sweden today is the Swedish Psychoanalytical Association (SPAF), which has around 225 members. Since 2008, it no longer has the right to license psychotherapists, a situation which

  19. "The Scarlet Letter". [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on Nathaniel Hawthorne's novel "The Scarlet Letter," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that the ending of a novel does not resolve all of the questions that may occur to readers; and that readers may imagine characters living out their lives beyond the ending the author gave to a novel. The main…

  20. The Harvard Education Letter, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Edward, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This document is comprised of volume 11 of the Harvard Education Letter, published bimonthly and addressing current issues in elementary and secondary education. Articles in the volume's six issues are: (1) January-February--"The Old Model of Staff Development Survives in a World Where Everything Else Has Changed" (Miller), "Giving Voice to Our…

  1. Resource Letter N-1: Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cela, Devin; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Helen Zeng, Tingying; Terrones, Mauricio; Souza Filho, Antonio G.; Ferreira, Odair P.

    2014-01-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on Nanotechnology. Journal articles, books, websites, and other documents are cited on the following topics: attributes of various types of nanomaterials, nanotechnology in the context of different academic fields, and the effects of nanotechnology on society.

  2. The Harvard Education Letter, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves-Desai, Kelly, Ed.; Eaton, Susan, Ed.; Walser, Nancy, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document is comprised of volume 14 of the Harvard Education Letter, published bimonthly and addressing current issues in elementary and secondary education. Articles in the six issues of this volume include the following: (1) January-February--"Multi-Age Classrooms: An Age-Old Grouping Method Is Still Evolving" (Walser), "Teachers Wanted:…

  3. Letter to the next President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotherham, Andrew J.; Mikuta, Julie; Freeland, Julia

    2008-01-01

    This article takes the form of a letter to the 44th president of the United States, urging the president to pursue an aggressive agenda to improve teacher quality. The authors assert that because teacher quality is the single most important factor shown to impact student outcomes, the next administration must dedicate resources to human capital…

  4. The Principal and Reference Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Agnes E.; Permuth, Steve; Gray, David L.

    1999-01-01

    Requests to write letters of reference for former teachers can be legally problematic. Principals should know relevant state laws; have employees sign a release from liability; provide only factual information; maintain fair personnel files; avoid telephone recommendations; disclose information on a need-to-know basis; and avoid performance…

  5. Resource Letter RC-1: Cosmology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Michael P., Jr.; Shepley, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    This is one of a series of resource letters on different topics intended to guide college physicists, astronomers, and other scientists to some of the literature and other teaching aids that may help improve course content in specified fields. (Author/CP)

  6. The Harvard Education Letter, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Edward Ed.; Graves-Desai, Kelly, Ed.; Maloney, Karen, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This document is comprised of volume 12 of the Harvard Education Letter, published bimonthly and addressing current issues in elementary-secondary education. Articles in this volume include the following: (1) January-February--"Early Reports From Kentucky on Cash Rewards for 'Successful' Schools Reveal Many Problems" (Miller), "New Ideas Like…

  7. Radiocarbon Dating the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaput, M. A.; Gajewski, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Anthropocene has no agreed start date since current suggestions for its beginning range from Pre-Industrial times to the Industrial Revolution, and from the mid-twentieth century to the future. To set the boundary of the Anthropocene in geological time, we must first understand when, how and to what extent humans began altering the Earth system. One aspect of this involves reconstructing the effects of prehistoric human activity on the physical landscape. However, for global reconstructions of land use and land cover change to be more accurately interpreted in the context of human interaction with the landscape, large-scale spatio-temporal demographic changes in prehistoric populations must be known. Estimates of the relative number of prehistoric humans in different regions of the world and at different moments in time are needed. To this end, we analyze a dataset of radiocarbon dates from the Canadian Archaeological Radiocarbon Database (CARD), the Palaeolithic Database of Europe and the AustArch Database of Australia, as well as published dates from South America. This is the first time such a large quantity of dates (approximately 60,000) has been mapped and studied at a global scale. Initial results from the analysis of temporal frequency distributions of calibrated radiocarbon dates, assumed to be proportional to population density, will be discussed. The utility of radiocarbon dates in studies of the Anthropocene will be evaluated and potential links between population density and changes in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, climate, migration patterning and fire frequency coincidence will be considered.

  8. How to write an editorial letter?

    PubMed

    Süer, Evren; Yaman, Önder

    2013-09-01

    In most journals, there are letters or answers sections. Letters to the editor are usually a type of short communication that can be written on any topic that attracts the attention of the readers. Although articles are stringently vetted before publication in a journal, some issues can still go unnoticed. In this situation, readers can offer their interpretations by writing a letter to the editor. Thus, letters are also a control mechanism that facilitates progress after an article has been published. One of the most important aspects of a letter to the editor is that it must be short. It is known that a letter is more easily accessible to readers when the message is short and brief. The letter to the editor or author must make reference to objectives or discussions on medical, scientific or general topics that may attract attention. A letter must have a purpose, and it should convey its message in a short and definitive fashion. PMID:26328135

  9. Letters of Reprimand: The Important Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.; Gluckman, Ivan B.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines two legal cases involving letters of reprimand written by administrators and put in teachers' files. Shows how in these cases the letters did not constitute defamation or a violation of First or Fourteenth Amendment rights. (MD)

  10. 7 CFR 987.58 - Terminal date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminal date. 987.58 Section 987.58 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Terminal date. Dates covered by §§ 987.55 and 987.56 shall, by September 30 of the subsequent crop year...

  11. Wall Covering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The attractive wall covering shown below is one of 132 styles in the Mirror Magic II line offered by The General Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio. The material is metallized plastic fabric, a spinoff from space programs. Wall coverings are one of many consumer applications of aluminized plastic film technology developed for NASA by a firm later bought by King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Massachusetts, which now produces the material. The original NASA use was in the Echo 1 passive communications satellite, a "space baloon" made of aluminized mylar; the high reflectivity of the metallized coating enabled relay of communications signals from one Earth station to another by "bouncing" them off the satellite. The reflectivity feature also made the material an extremely efficient insulator and it was subsequently widely used in the Apollo program for such purposes as temperature control of spacecraft components and insulation of tanks for fuels that must be maintained at very low temperatures. I Used as a wall covering, the aluminized material offers extra insulation, reflects light and I resists cracking. In addition to General Tire, King-Seeley also supplies wall covering material to Columbus Coated Fabrics Division of Borden, Incorporated, Columbus, Ohio, among others.

  12. Cover Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are great tools to improve soil quality and health, and great tools to increase carbon sequestration. They are nutrient management tools that can help scavenge nitrate, cycle nitrogen to the following crop, mine NO3 from groundwater, and increase nitrogen use efficiency of cropping syste...

  13. 47 CFR 54.632 - Letters of agency (LOA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...; the signature, title and contact information (including phone number, mailing address, and email...; signature date; and the type of services covered by the LOA. (2) For HCPs located on Tribal lands, if...

  14. 47 CFR 54.632 - Letters of agency (LOA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...; the signature, title and contact information (including phone number, mailing address, and email...; signature date; and the type of services covered by the LOA. (2) For HCPs located on Tribal lands, if...

  15. Making Routine Letters Have Positive Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, S. M.

    While few business people dispute the importance of carefully crafting persuasive, demanding, conciliatory, and bad-news letters, the regular flow of routine communications receives very little meaningful consideration or scrutiny. These routine communications (letters, inquiries, requests, collection letters, complaints, confirmations,…

  16. Are Letter Detection and Proofreading Tasks Equivalent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Aubin, Jean; Losier, Marie-Claire; Roy, Macha; Lawrence, Mike

    2015-01-01

    When readers search for misspellings in a proofreading task or for a letter in a letter detection task, they are more likely to omit function words than content words. However, with misspelled words, previous findings for the letter detection task were mixed. In two experiments, the authors tested the functional equivalence of both tasks. Results…

  17. Educators' Liability for Negative Letters of Recommendation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, James A.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the protection of "qualified privilege" provided by the law to teachers writing letters of recommendation for students. The letter must be written in good faith and with a belief that it contains no inaccurate information. Reviews some related court decisions and provides seven recommendations for writing such letters. (MD)

  18. 24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP... letter, which specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning letter. The warning letter: (1) Does not suspend a lender's MAP privileges; (2) May impose a higher...

  19. 48 CFR 3416.603 - Letter contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Letter contracts. 3416.603... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 3416.603 Letter contracts....

  20. 48 CFR 3016.603 - Letter contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Letter contracts. 3016.603... ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 3016.603 Letter contracts....

  1. Beyond Zebra: Preschoolers' Knowledge about Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treiman, Rebecca; Richmond-Welty, E. Daylene; Tincoff, Ruth

    1997-01-01

    Argues that an important type of child knowledge about letters is knowledge of the phonological structure of the letters' names in English. Concludes that learning the alphabet forms the basis for generalizations about the structure of letter names. (22 references) (Author/CK)

  2. 46 CFR 176.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stability letter. 176.306 Section 176.306 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Posting of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 176.306 Stability letter. When, in accordance with § 178.210...

  3. 24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP... letter, which specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning letter. The warning letter: (1) Does not suspend a lender's MAP privileges; (2) May impose a higher...

  4. 24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP... letter, which specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning letter. The warning letter: (1) Does not suspend a lender's MAP privileges; (2) May impose a higher...

  5. 24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP... letter, which specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning letter. The warning letter: (1) Does not suspend a lender's MAP privileges; (2) May impose a higher...

  6. 24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP... letter, which specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning letter. The warning letter: (1) Does not suspend a lender's MAP privileges; (2) May impose a higher...

  7. 19 CFR 354.7 - Charging letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Charging letter. 354.7 Section 354.7 Customs... VIOLATION OF AN ANTIDUMPING OR COUNTERVAILING DUTY ADMINISTRATIVE PROTECTIVE ORDER § 354.7 Charging letter. (a) Contents of Letter. The Deputy Under Secretary will initiate proceedings by issuing a...

  8. 19 CFR 354.7 - Charging letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Charging letter. 354.7 Section 354.7 Customs... VIOLATION OF AN ANTIDUMPING OR COUNTERVAILING DUTY ADMINISTRATIVE PROTECTIVE ORDER § 354.7 Charging letter. (a) Contents of Letter. The Deputy Under Secretary will initiate proceedings by issuing a...

  9. Letter Dice. Technical Note No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Jock

    Letter and syllable dice devised for a project in rural Ecuador provide inexpensive, easily reproducible learning materials for practice in basic literary skills. Eleven wooden cubes with six letters on each cube are cast onto a surface and the player constructs words from the letters on the top side of the dice. After a word is formed and…

  10. Learning Letter Names and Sounds: Effects of Instruction, Letter Type, and Phonological Processing Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Preschool-age children (N = 58) were randomly assigned to receive instruction in letter names and sounds, letter sounds only, or numbers (control). Multilevel modeling was used to examine letter name and sound learning as a function of instructional condition and characteristics of both letters and children. Specifically, learning was examined in…

  11. What Do Letter Migration Errors Reveal About Letter Position Coding in Visual Word Recognition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Colin J.; Bowers, Jeffrey S.

    2004-01-01

    Dividing attention across multiple words occasionally results in misidentifications whereby letters apparently migrate between words. Previous studies have found that letter migrations preserve within-word letter position, which has been interpreted as support for position-specific letter coding. To investigate this issue, the authors used word…

  12. An Attempt to Simulate Letter-by-Letter Dyslexia in Normal Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiset, Stephanie; Arguin, Martin; Fiset, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    We attempted to simulate the main features of letter-by-letter (LBL) dyslexia in normal readers through stimulus degradation (i.e. contrast reduction and removal of high spatial frequencies). The results showed the word length and the letter confusability effects characteristic of LBL dyslexia. However, the interaction of letter confusability and…

  13. 50 years of JETP Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastukhov, V. P.

    2015-04-01

    This paper briefly traces the 50-year history of the journal Pis'ma v Zhurnal Eksperimental'noi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki (JETP Letters), whose first issue was published on 1 April 1965. The journal is intended for a wide circle of physicists-readers as a fast publication channel for short communications on new results from research of the highest significance and highest priority in all areas of experimental and theoretical physics. Today, the journal celebrates numerous important contributions to the development of physics both in Russia and worldwide. Over a historically short period, JETP Letters developed into a highly authoritative and influential source for physicists engaged in a wide range of fields. Due to the wise and well-timed editorial policy, the journal continues to retain its leadership position, despite the difficulties the entire science periodical literature - and indeed the whole of science - is currently experiencing in Russia.

  14. Open letter to the Vatican.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    An open letter was published by Latin American and Caribbean women during the Special Session of the UN General Assembly on the International Conference on Population and Development. The letter generally focused on the Church¿s stand on women's reproductive rights. In particular, it questioned the Church on the following aspects of reproductive health, which include: 1) maternal death related to lack of access to reproductive health care; 2) Vatican representatives insisting that only parents can supervise their children education and health, which also lead to many cases of sexual abuse and incest; 3) women's sexual inequality and daily violence; 4) the Vatican delegation blocking the advances of contraception, sexual education, and HIV prevention; 5) problems of migrants and allocation of resources; and 6) the Church failing to recognize the capacity of young people to make decisions based on their own conscience. PMID:12178905

  15. Spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding.

    PubMed

    Chung, Susana T L

    2016-04-01

    Crowding between adjacent letters has been investigated primarily as a spatial effect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding. Specifically, we examined the systematic changes in the degradation effects in letter identification performance when adjacent letters were presented with a temporal asynchrony, as a function of letter separation and between the fovea and the periphery. We measured proportion-correct performance for identifying the middle target letter in strings of three lowercase letters at the fovea and 10° in the inferior visual field, for a range of center-to-center letter separations and a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) between the target and flanking letters (positive SOAs: target preceded flankers). As expected, the accuracy for identifying the target letters reduces with decreases in letter separation. This crowding effect shows a strong dependency on SOAs, such that crowding is maximal between 0 and ∼100 ms (depending on conditions) and diminishes for larger SOAs (positive or negative). Maximal crowding does not require the target and flanking letters to physically coexist for the entire presentation duration. Most importantly, crowding can be minimized even for closely spaced letters if there is a large temporal asynchrony between the target and flankers. The reliance of letter identification performance on SOAs and how it changes with letter separations imply that the crowding effect can be traded between space and time. Our findings are consistent with the notion that crowding should be considered as a spatio-temporal, and not simply a spatial, effect. PMID:27088895

  16. Spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Susana T. L.

    2016-01-01

    Crowding between adjacent letters has been investigated primarily as a spatial effect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding. Specifically, we examined the systematic changes in the degradation effects in letter identification performance when adjacent letters were presented with a temporal asynchrony, as a function of letter separation and between the fovea and the periphery. We measured proportion-correct performance for identifying the middle target letter in strings of three lowercase letters at the fovea and 10° in the inferior visual field, for a range of center-to-center letter separations and a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) between the target and flanking letters (positive SOAs: target preceded flankers). As expected, the accuracy for identifying the target letters reduces with decreases in letter separation. This crowding effect shows a strong dependency on SOAs, such that crowding is maximal between 0 and ∼100 ms (depending on conditions) and diminishes for larger SOAs (positive or negative). Maximal crowding does not require the target and flanking letters to physically coexist for the entire presentation duration. Most importantly, crowding can be minimized even for closely spaced letters if there is a large temporal asynchrony between the target and flankers. The reliance of letter identification performance on SOAs and how it changes with letter separations imply that the crowding effect can be traded between space and time. Our findings are consistent with the notion that crowding should be considered as a spatio-temporal, and not simply a spatial, effect. PMID:27088895

  17. Thoughts on the condolence letter.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, B M

    2000-11-15

    Genuine, specific, timely emotional support of caregivers at the time of euthanasia is an important part of the veterinary professional obligation. Such support helps ease client pain during the grieving process. However, caution and sensitivity are essential when assessing and responding to caregiver-companion animal relationships.(1) For example, some caregivers are highly bonded but conceal their emotions, so our perceptions and responses must be thoughtful and discerning. My veterinary technician and I are supportive of our clients during euthanasia. I later write the condolence letter according to our perceptions of that particular human-companion animal bond. The only exceptions to our attempt to be thoroughly supportive at the time of euthanasia are those instances when we perceive that there has been obvious and willful abuse or neglect. At such times, we try to maintain emotional neutrality. The condolence letter and its variations described here are intended to serve as a guide. We send the condolence letter to caregivers within 24 hours of euthanasia, and it is addressed to the entire family. In addition, a euthanasia packet is provided at the time of euthanasia. The packet includes 2 brochures on coping with the loss of a companion animal, (2,3) contact information for a pet loss support hotline and a pet loss support group, an essay and a poem about the death of a companion animal, and a how-to article on dealing with children and their emotions on the loss of a pet. (4) My veterinary technician almost always phones the caregiver 1 to 3 days after euthanasia of their companion animal. The timing of the call depends on the circumstances of death and our judgment as to the emotional needs of the caregiver and family. Where emotions around euthanasia and loss are especially deep, the follow-up call may be made as early as that night or the next morning, with a second call 2 to 3 days later. The nature of the conversation depends on the technician

  18. Writing More Informative Letters of Reference

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Scott M; Ziegelstein, Roy C

    2004-01-01

    Writing a meaningful and valuable letter of reference is not an easy task. Several factors influence the quality of any letter of reference. First, the accuracy and reliability of the writer's impressions and judgment depend on how well he knows the individual being described. Second, the writer's frame of reference, which is determined by the number of persons at the same level that he has worked with, will impact the context and significance of his beliefs and estimations. Third, the letter-writing skills of the person composing the letter will naturally affect the letter. To support the other components of a candidate's application, a letter of reference should provide specific examples of how an individual's behavior or attitude compares to a reference group and should assess “intangibles” that are hard to glean from a curriculum vitae or from test scores. This report offers suggestions that should help physicians write more informative letters of reference. PMID:15109330

  19. Letter Knowledge in Parent–Child Conversations

    PubMed Central

    Robins, Sarah; Treiman, Rebecca; Rosales, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Learning about letters is an important component of emergent literacy. We explored the possibility that parent speech provides information about letters, and also that children’s speech reflects their own letter knowledge. By studying conversations transcribed in CHILDES (MacWhinney, 2000) between parents and children aged one to five, we found that alphabetic order influenced use of individual letters and letter sequences. The frequency of letters in children’s books influenced parent utterances throughout the age range studied, but children’s utterances only after age two. Conversations emphasized some literacy-relevant features of letters, such as their shapes and association with words, but not letters’ sounds. Describing these patterns and how they change over the preschool years offers important insight into the home literacy environment. PMID:25598577

  20. Letter from the Board of Directors of Astronomy & Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meynet, Georges

    2005-07-01

    astrophysics and to have expertise in one of these two sub-fields. Candidates should have a strong record of published research in astronomy and astrophysics, should have experience as a referee and/or journal editor, and be prepared to commit the time needed to oversee the peer review of up to three hundred papers per year. Limited support for office equipment and secretarial help, as well as an annual indemnity, will be provided to the Associate Editors, and the initial term of appointment is three years. Applicants should submit a curriculum vitae, a list of publications, and a concise covering letter that summarizes the candidate's qualifications and the reasons for seeking an Associate Editor position. The likelihood of support from the home institute for the task should also be discussed in the application. Applications should preferably be e-mailed or sent/faxed to the Chairman of the Board of Directors: Dr. Georges Meynet, Geneva Observatory, 1290 Sauverny, Switzerland, email georges.meynet@obs.unige.ch, Fax:+41 22 37 92205. Applications received by 1 October 2005 will receive full consideration, while informal inquiries about the positions may be directed by e-mail to Georges Meynet. On behalf of the Board of Directors Georges Meynet

  1. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-04-01

    Coulombic Models in Chemical Bonding by Lawrence J. Sacks and by Derek W. Smith Re: articles by R. J. Gillespie and by D. W. Smith D. W. Smith replies Capsaicin Hazard by Paul E. Vorndam Re: article by J. D. Batchelor and B. T. Jones B. T. Jones reply Editor's Note: Hazards Re: JCE 1999, 76, 240 and JCE 2000, 77, 266.

  2. The influence of reading expertise in mirror-letter perception: Evidence from beginning and expert readers.

    PubMed

    Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Dimitropoulou, María; Estévez, Adelina; Carreiras, Manuel

    2013-06-01

    The visual word recognition system recruits neuronal systems originally developed for object perception which are characterized by orientation insensitivity to mirror reversals. It has been proposed that during reading acquisition beginning readers have to "unlearn" this natural tolerance to mirror reversals in order to efficiently discriminate letters and words. Therefore, it is supposed that this unlearning process takes place in a gradual way and that reading expertise modulates mirror-letter discrimination. However, to date no supporting evidence for this has been obtained. We present data from an eye-movement study that investigated the degree of sensitivity to mirror-letters in a group of beginning readers and a group of expert readers. Participants had to decide which of the two strings presented on a screen corresponded to an auditorily presented word. Visual displays always included the correct target word and one distractor word. Results showed that those distractors that were the same as the target word except for the mirror lateralization of two internal letters attracted participants' attention more than distractors created by replacement of two internal letters. Interestingly, the time course of the effects was found to be different for the two groups, with beginning readers showing a greater tolerance (decreased sensitivity) to mirror-letters than expert readers. Implications of these findings are discussed within the framework of preceding evidence showing how reading expertise modulates letter identification. PMID:24273596

  3. Cover Picture.

    PubMed

    Krömer; Rios-Carreras; Fuhrmann; Musch; Wunderlin; Debaerdemaeker; Mena-Osteritz; Bäuerle

    2000-10-01

    The cover picture shows the synthesis of novel conjugated macrocycles assembled from oligothiophenes bearing terminal acetylene groups. Under pseudo-high-dilution conditions the oxidative cyclooligomerization first gives the oligothiophenediynes, the precursors to the new class of alpha-cyclo[n]thiophenes. The detailed structure of macrocycles with up to 76 ring members and cavities of up to 3 nm could be investigated by means of X-ray structure analysis, scanning tunneling microscopy, and quantum chemical calculations (see the molecular model top right). The novel rings combine the excellent electronic properties of the corresponding linearly conjugated oligomers with the possibility of complexing large organic guest molecules or other objects (the tower of the Cathedral at Ulm represents a nanometer-sized, rodlike entity), which should have new fundamental properties and applications. The background shows the image obtained by scanning electron microscopy of a self-assembled and perfectly ordered monolayer of macrocycles on a graphite surface. More on these fascinating nanometer-sized rings can be found in the communication by P. Bäuerle et al. on p. 3481 ff. PMID:11091367

  4. Resource Letter: GW-1: Global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firor, John W.

    1994-06-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the possibility of a human-induced climate change—a global warming. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: the Greenhouse Effect, sources of infrared-trapping gases, climate models and their uncertainties, verification of climate models, past climate changes, and economics, ethics, and politics of policy responses to climate change. [The letter E after an item indicates elementary level or material of general interest to persons becoming informed in the field. The letter I, for intermediate level, indicates material of somewhat more specialized nature, and the letter A indicates rather specialized or advanced material.

  5. On Becoming a Doctor of Humane Letters.

    PubMed

    Tribble Md, Curt

    2016-01-01

    In an era of rapid, cheap, and efficient electronic communication, the practice-and art-of letter writing has faded. There are many reasons for us as physicians and surgeons to resist this evolution. And, there are many opportunities to employ letter writing to the benefit of ourselves, our patients, and our colleagues. A true Doctor of Humane Letters is an honorary degree, generally awarded for significant contributions to society.  However, given that humane can be defined as showing compassion, understanding, mercy, and tolerance, we can all strive to be worthy of such a distinction. There are many mundane letters familiar to us all, such as letters of recommendation, letters of thanks, and letters of commendation. However, I would like to offer some suggestions about other less common, but useful, types of letters that might prove valuable to physicians both in training and in practice. These include letters of inquiry, condolence, reflection, and explanation, as well as some notes about missives that are often best written but not sent. PMID:27585190

  6. Learning Letter Names and Sounds: Effects of Instruction, Letter Type, and Phonological Processing Skill

    PubMed Central

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Preschool-aged children (n = 58) were randomly assigned to receive instruction in letter names and sounds, letter sounds only, or numbers (control). Multilevel modeling was used to examine letter name and sound learning as a function of instructional condition and characteristics of both letters and children. Specifically, learning was examined in light of letter name structure, whether letter names included cues to their respective sounds, and children’s phonological processing skills. Consistent with past research, children receiving letter name and sound instruction were most likely to learn the sounds of letters whose names included cues to their sounds, regardless of phonological processing skills. Only children with higher phonological skills showed a similar effect in the control condition. Practical implications are discussed. PMID:20097352

  7. Letter-Name Letter-Sound and Phonological Awareness: Evidence from Greek-Speaking Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manolitsis, George; Tafa, Eufimia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinally the development of letter-sound and letter-name knowledge and their relation to each other and to various aspects of phonological awareness in a sample of Greek kindergarten children who did not know how to read. One hundred twenty children aged 58-69 months were assessed on letter-sound and…

  8. Letter Names and Phonological Awareness Help Children to Learn Letter-Sound Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoso-Martins, Claudia; Mesquita, Tereza Cristina Lara; Ehri, Linnea

    2011-01-01

    Two experimental training studies with Portuguese-speaking preschoolers in Brazil were conducted to investigate whether children benefit from letter name knowledge and phonological awareness in learning letter-sound relations. In Experiment 1, two groups of children were compared. The experimental group was taught the names of letters whose sounds…

  9. Letters from the Future: Suggestions for Using Letter Writing as a School Counselling Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kress, Victoria E.; Hinkle, Michelle Gimenez; Protivnak, Jake J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a school counselling intervention that utilises letters written from the future. Few peer-reviewed articles have addressed the use of letter writing in a school counselling context, and none have focused on the use of letters from the future as a means of school counsellor intervention. The authors present a theoretical…

  10. Letter Names: Effect on Letter Saying, Spelling, and Word Recognition in Hebrew.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Iris; Patel, Sigal; Margalit, Tamar; Barad, Noa

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether letter names, which bridge the gap between oral and written language among English speaking children, have a similar function in Hebrew. In findings from studies of Israeli kindergartners and first graders, children were found to rely on letter names in performing a number of letter saying, spelling, and word recognition tasks.…

  11. Knowledge-Based Interpretation Of Scanned Business Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreich, Joachim; Luhn, Achim; Maderlechner, Gerd

    1989-07-01

    Office Automation by electronic text processing has not reduced the amount of paper used for communication and storage. The present boom of FAX-Systems proves this tendency. With this growing degree of office automation the paper-computer interface becomes increasingly important. To be useful, this interface must be able to handle documents containing text as well as graphics, and convert them into an electronic representation that not only captures content (like in current OCR readers), but also the layout and logic structure. We describe a system for the analysis of business letters which is able to extract the key elements of a letter like its sender, the date, etc. The letter can thus for instance be stored in electronic archival systems, edited by structure editors, or forwarded via electronic mail services. This system was implemented on a Symbolics Lisp machine for the high level part of the analysis and on a VAX for the low and medium level processing stages. Some practical results are presented and discussed. Apart from this application our system is a useful testbed to implement and test sophisticated control structures and model representations for image understanding.

  12. Osler and the Infected Letter

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The spread of infectious agents through the mail has concerned public health officials for 5 centuries. The dissemination of anthrax spores in the US mail in 2001 was a recent example. In 1901, two medical journals reported outbreaks of smallpox presumably introduced by letters contaminated with variola viruses. The stability and infectivity of the smallpox virus are reviewed from both a historical (anecdotal) perspective and modern virologic studies. Bubonic plague was the contagious disease that led to quarantines as early as the 14th century in port cities in southern Europe. Later, smallpox, cholera, typhus, and yellow fever were recognized as also warranting quarantine measures. Initially, attempts were made to decontaminate all goods imported from pestilential areas, particularly mail. Disinfection of mail was largely abandoned in the early 20th century with newer knowledge about the spread and stability of these 5 infectious agents. PMID:15890120

  13. 23 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Guide Letter of Certification by State Engineer

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Guide Letter of Certification by State Engineer A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 637 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... State Engineer Date Project No. This is to certify that: The results of the tests used in the...

  14. 23 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Guide Letter of Certification by State Engineer

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Guide Letter of Certification by State Engineer A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 637 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... State Engineer Date Project No. This is to certify that: The results of the tests used in the...

  15. 23 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Guide Letter of Certification by State Engineer

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Guide Letter of Certification by State Engineer A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 637 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... State Engineer Date Project No. This is to certify that: The results of the tests used in the...

  16. 23 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Guide Letter of Certification by State Engineer

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guide Letter of Certification by State Engineer A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 637 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... State Engineer Date Project No. This is to certify that: The results of the tests used in the...

  17. 23 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Guide Letter of Certification by State Engineer

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Guide Letter of Certification by State Engineer A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 637 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... State Engineer Date Project No. This is to certify that: The results of the tests used in the...

  18. 76 FR 60602 - Proposed Collection of Information: Annual Letters-Certificates of Authority (A) and Admitted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Admitted Reinsurer (B) AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice and... Admitted Reinsurer (B).'' DATES: Written comments should be received on or before November 28, 2011... (A) and Admitted Reinsurer (B). OMB Number: 1510-0057. Form Number: None. Abstract: This letter...

  19. 33 CFR 239.9 - Effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Effective date. 239.9 Section 239.9 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER RESOURCES POLICIES AND AUTHORITIES: FEDERAL PARTICIPATION IN COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.9 Effective date. These regulations...

  20. From Numbers to Letters: Feedback Regularization in Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinaro, Nicola; Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Marin-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Carreiras, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Word reading in alphabetic languages involves letter identification, independently of the format in which these letters are written. This process of letter "regularization" is sensitive to word context, leading to the recognition of a word even when numbers that resemble letters are inserted among other real letters (e.g., M4TERI4L). The present…

  1. A Stimulus Sampling Theory of Letter Identity and Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Dennis; Kinoshita, Sachiko; van Casteren, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    Early on during word recognition, letter positions are not accurately coded. Evidence for this comes from transposed-letter (TL) priming effects, in which letter strings generated by transposing two adjacent letters (e.g., "jugde") produce large priming effects, more than primes with the letters replaced in the corresponding position (e.g.,…

  2. 12 CFR 208.24 - Letters of credit and acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... section, standby letters of credit include every letter of credit (or similar arrangement however named or... default by the party procuring the issuance of the letter of credit in the performance of an obligation. 6 6 A standby letter of credit does not include: (1) Commercial letters of credit and...

  3. Letters in Time and Retinotopic Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Various phenomena in tachistoscopic word identification and priming (WRODS and LTRS are confused with and prime WORDS and LETTERS) suggest that position-specific channels are not used in the processing of letters in words. Previous approaches to this issue have sought alternative matching rules because they have assumed that these phenomena reveal…

  4. 19 CFR 356.16 - Charging letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Charging letter. 356.16 Section 356.16 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURES AND RULES FOR IMPLEMENTING ARTICLE 1904 OF THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Violation of a Protective Order or a Disclosure Undertaking § 356.16 Charging letter....

  5. 7 CFR 1773.33 - Management letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... than as allowed under 7 CFR part 1744, subpart E; (ii) The requirement for a borrower to prepare and... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Management letter. 1773.33 Section 1773.33 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Reporting Requirements § 1773.33 Management letter. The...

  6. Statistical Learning, Letter Reversals, and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treiman, Rebecca; Gordon, Jessica; Boada, Richard; Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2014-01-01

    Reversal errors play a prominent role in theories of reading disability. We examined reversal errors in the writing of letters by 5- to 6-year-old children. Of the 130 children, 92 had a history of difficulty in producing speech sounds, a risk factor for reading problems. Children were more likely to reverse letter forms that face left, such as…

  7. Letter to, and Paintings by, George Catlin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, David; Potter, Lee Ann; Eder, Elizabeth K.

    2008-01-01

    Letters received and sent by Secretary of War Lewis Cass in the 1830s reveal much about relations between the U.S. government and Native Americans. In the immediate aftermath of the Indian Removal Act, signed into law on May 28, 1830, by President Andrew Jackson, some letters came from interpreters and school teachers seeking payment for their…

  8. An Open Letter to Tomorrow's Secondary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    The article takes the form of a letter written to pre-service or beginning teachers at the secondary level in the public school system. The letter acknowledges the attributes they bring to the profession (enthusiasm, optimism, creativity, and open-mindedness) and calls on them to make the most of and work to sustain these traits as they begin…

  9. Letter to Editor - "Reply to RP Heaney"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A letter to the editor was submitted in reply to a letter written to the editor of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition regarding a recent publication (Hunt, CD. and Johnson, LK. Calcium requirements: new estimations for men and women by cross-sectional statistical analyses of calcium balance...

  10. Developing a Standardized Letter of Recommendation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Alyssa M.; Kyllonen, Patrick C.; Plante, Janice W.

    2006-01-01

    The Standardized Letter of Recommendation (SLR) is a Web-based admission tool designed to replace traditional, narrative letters of recommendation with a more systematic and equitable source of information about applicants to institutions of higher education. The SLR includes a rating scale and open-ended response space that prompt evaluators to…

  11. 48 CFR 16.603 - Letter contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Letter contracts. 16.603 Section 16.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts...

  12. 48 CFR 18.112 - Letter contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Letter contracts. 18.112 Section 18.112 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.112 Letter...

  13. An Open Letter to Premier Wen Jiabao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education and Society, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article is an open letter of a group of early childhood education (ECE) practitioners to Premier Wen Jiabao. This open letter was written with one goal in mind: to ask Premier Wen's government to take measures to protect young children and support early childhood education. These practitioners have become worried about the many accidents that…

  14. 24 CFR 241.1010 - Feasibility letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1010 Feasibility letter. (a) Request for study. The owner may request the Commissioner to undertake a feasibility analysis of an equity or acquisition loan, and issue a feasibility... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Feasibility letter....

  15. 24 CFR 241.1010 - Feasibility letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1010 Feasibility letter. (a) Request for study. The owner may request the Commissioner to undertake a feasibility analysis of an equity or acquisition loan, and issue a feasibility... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Feasibility letter....

  16. 24 CFR 241.1010 - Feasibility letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1010 Feasibility letter. (a) Request for study. The owner may request the Commissioner to undertake a feasibility analysis of an equity or acquisition loan, and issue a feasibility... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Feasibility letter....

  17. 24 CFR 241.1010 - Feasibility letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1010 Feasibility letter. (a) Request for study. The owner may request the Commissioner to undertake a feasibility analysis of an equity or acquisition loan, and issue a feasibility... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Feasibility letter....

  18. Transmittal Letters: Communicating the Financial Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Craig L.

    1987-01-01

    The transmittal letter, part of a school district's comprehensive annual financial report, provides a creative opportunity to communicate the financial picture of a district to readers. After the introduction, the letter should include sections on (1) mission, services, and environment; (2) financial highlights; (3) systems and controls; and (4)…

  19. 24 CFR 241.1010 - Feasibility letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1010 Feasibility letter. (a) Request for study. The owner may request the Commissioner to undertake a feasibility analysis of an equity or acquisition loan, and issue a feasibility... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Feasibility letter....

  20. Genre Analysis of Business Letters of Negotiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    dos Santos, V. B. M. Pinto

    2002-01-01

    Reports findings of a survey on genre analysis of 117 commercial letters in English exchanged by fax between a Brazilian company and two European companies. The letters were analyzed in terms of shared communicative purposes and rhetorical features that together contribute to the building-up of the resulting generic structure named "Business…

  1. Cognitive Determinants of Early Letter Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helal, Suha; Weil-Barais, Annick

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the general cognitive determinants of alphabetic letter knowledge. It involved 60 French kindergarten children (mean age: five years six months). Two test batteries were used: the CMS to evaluate general cognitive abilities (memory, attention, and learning), and the LKT to assess letter knowledge and its various…

  2. Linguistic Prescriptivism in Letters to the Editor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukac, Morana

    2016-01-01

    The public's concern with the fate of the standard language has been well documented in the history of the complaint tradition. The print media have for centuries featured letters to the editor on questions of language use. This study examines a corpus of 258 language-related letters to the editor published in the English-speaking print media. By…

  3. Letter Writing Seminar for Word Processing Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wunsch, Alan P.

    1978-01-01

    A business letter writing seminar was developed by the Center for Executive Development at Arizona State University at the request of the American Express Company's credit card division in Phoenix. Sessions were held on company premises and included basic correspondence and writing techniques for company production form letters, pattern…

  4. 12 CFR 380.32 - Claims bar date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Claims bar date. 380.32 Section 380.32 Banks... LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.32 Claims bar date. Upon its... bar date by which date creditors of the covered financial company shall present their claims,...

  5. 12 CFR 380.32 - Claims bar date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Claims bar date. 380.32 Section 380.32 Banks... LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.32 Claims bar date. Upon its... bar date by which date creditors of the covered financial company shall present their claims,...

  6. 12 CFR 380.32 - Claims bar date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Claims bar date. 380.32 Section 380.32 Banks... LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.32 Claims bar date. Upon its... bar date by which date creditors of the covered financial company shall present their claims,...

  7. Evolutionary theory in letters to the editor.

    PubMed

    Silva, Eric Orion; Lowe, Clayton Cory

    2015-05-01

    This research note presents the results of a content analysis of 234 letters to the editors that discuss evolutionary theory and were published in American newspapers. We find that letters to the editor both support and hinder the cause of teaching evolutionary theory in American secondary schools. On the one hand, anti-evolutionary theory messages are marginalized in the letters section. This marginalization signals a low level of legitimacy for creationism. It might also contribute to the sense of tension that sustains creationist identities. On the other hand, relatively few letters explicitly note the fact that scientists or the scientific community accept evolution. Interestingly, the obscuration of the scientific community's support for evolutionary theory occurs both in letters supporting and opposing evolutionary theory. PMID:25540333

  8. Teen Dating Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... dating violence prevention initiative seeks to reduce dating violence and increase healthy relationships in high-risk urban communities through comprehensive, multisector prevention. Division of Adolescent ...

  9. 50 CFR 217.76 - Letter of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... suspended or revoked, will be valid for a period of time specified in the Letter of Authorization, but a Letter of Authorization may not be valid beyond the effective period of the regulations. (b) A Letter...

  10. The Civil War Letters of Lewis Bissell: A History and Literature Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olcott, Mark; Lear, David

    Designed for use in a one-semester course in U.S. history or literature at the intermediate or secondary level, this collection of the Civil War letters of Lewis Bissell, a Union soldier, is divided into two major parts. Part I (chapters 1 though 5) covers the period of time Bissell spent guarding Washington, District of Columbia. Each chapter…

  11. EDITORIAL: Letter from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptmann, Peter

    2006-12-01

    Dear authors and reviewers of articles for Measurement Science and Technology, I would like to thank all those who have published papers with us in 2006, and special thanks go to those of you who have kindly reviewed articles for the journal this year. I would also like to take this opportunity to update you on some of the developments on the journal this year. As many of you are no doubt aware our impact factor (a measure of the average number of times recent papers are referred to by others) has remained above 1 for the second year in a row. This is often taken as an indication of the quality and relevance of recently published research, and although as readers we develop our own instinct for journals of high quality, it is gratifying as an Editor to see the data from an independent organization agreeing with my own assessment. This year we have welcomed several new faces to our Editorial Board and International Advisory Board. We are delighted to welcome Professor Hirofumi Yamada of the University of Kyoto as a representative from Japan. From China we have been joined by Professor Xuzong Chen of Peking University and Professor Zhiyi Wei of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing. Professor Ivan Marusic from University of Minnesota and Dr Paul Williams of the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder have joined as North American representatives. As usual you will be able to submit your articles through them or direct to the Editorial Office in Bristol, UK. As part of our ongoing initiative to give our authors' work the highest visibility, all articles are freely available online for 30 days from the date of publication, allowing all researchers to read and view the latest research as soon as it is published, and this year there have been many interesting articles to read! As regular readers are aware, Measurement Science and Technology publishes special issues and features, which highlight an area of current interest. This year's topics included

  12. Statistical mechanics of letters in words

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Greg J.; Bialek, William

    2013-01-01

    We consider words as a network of interacting letters, and approximate the probability distribution of states taken on by this network. Despite the intuition that the rules of English spelling are highly combinatorial and arbitrary, we find that maximum entropy models consistent with pairwise correlations among letters provide a surprisingly good approximation to the full statistics of words, capturing ~92% of the multi-information in four-letter words and even “discovering” words that were not represented in the data. These maximum entropy models incorporate letter interactions through a set of pairwise potentials and thus define an energy landscape on the space of possible words. Guided by the large letter redundancy we seek a lower-dimensional encoding of the letter distribution and show that distinctions between local minima in the landscape account for ~68% of the four-letter entropy. We suggest that these states provide an effective vocabulary which is matched to the frequency of word use and much smaller than the full lexicon. PMID:20866490

  13. Statistical mechanics of letters in words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Greg J.; Bialek, William

    2010-06-01

    We consider words as a network of interacting letters, and approximate the probability distribution of states taken on by this network. Despite the intuition that the rules of English spelling are highly combinatorial and arbitrary, we find that maximum entropy models consistent with pairwise correlations among letters provide a surprisingly good approximation to the full statistics of words, capturing ˜92% of the multi-information in four-letter words and even “discovering” words that were not represented in the data. These maximum entropy models incorporate letter interactions through a set of pairwise potentials and thus define an energy landscape on the space of possible words. Guided by the large letter redundancy we seek a lower-dimensional encoding of the letter distribution and show that distinctions between local minima in the landscape account for ˜68% of the four-letter entropy. We suggest that these states provide an effective vocabulary which is matched to the frequency of word use and much smaller than the full lexicon.

  14. EDITORIAL: Letter from the Editor Letter from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashinin, Pavel P.

    2013-01-01

    Dear readers, contributors, and members of the world laser physics community. It is a great honour for us to introduce to you our new publishing partner, IOP Publishing, a subsidiary of the Institute of Physics, United Kingdom. IOP Publishing is a world renowned authority in producing journals, magazines, websites and services that enable researchers and research organizations to present their work to a world-wide audience. Laser Physics, the first English-language scientific journal in Russia, was founded in 1990 on the initiative of Alexander M Prokhorov, a pioneer and leader in laser physics research. Professor Prokhorov served as the first Editor-in-Chief of the journal until 2002. We are proud that it is our 23rd year of publishing Laser Physics and our 10th year of publishing Laser Physics Letters. We would like to honour the memory of our friend, late Professor Igor Yevseyev, whose enthusiasm and unwavering dedication to our journals contributed most significantly to their success. It was initially his idea in 2011 to approach IOP with a partnership proposal. We deeply regret that he is no longer with us as we enter this productive alliance. Now, in partnership with IOP, we are turning a new page in providing world-wide access to the cutting-edge research results in our journals, serving our well established global audience. We see new horizons opening for our journals for years to come and hope that our readers share our enthusiasm and aspirations. Please accept our best wishes for all your new scientific endeavors in the exciting field of laser physics.

  15. 15 CFR 908.13 - Address of letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SUBMITTING REPORTS ON WEATHER MODIFICATION ACTIVITIES § 908.13 Address of letters. Letters and other communications intended for the Administrator, in connection with weather modification reporting or...

  16. Dating and Marriage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family : Dating & Marriage Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Dating and Marriage Dating and Marriage If you are living with HIV, ... Living! Having HIV does not prevent you from dating or marrying—it just may require a little ...

  17. Neural network and letter recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hue Yeon.

    1989-01-01

    Neural net architectures and learning algorithms that recognize hand written 36 alphanumeric characters are studied. The thin line input patterns written in 32 x 32 binary array are used. The system is comprised of two major components, viz. a preprocessing unit and a Recognition unit. The preprocessing unit in turn consists of three layers of neurons; the U-layer, the V-layer, and the C-layer. The functions of the U-layer is to extract local features by template matching. The correlation between the detected local features are considered. Through correlating neurons in a plane with their neighboring neurons, the V-layer would thicken the on-cells or lines that are groups of on-cells of the previous layer. These two correlations would yield some deformation tolerance and some of the rotational tolerance of the system. The C-layer then compresses data through the Gabor transform. Pattern dependent choice of center and wavelengths of Gabor filters is the cause of shift and scale tolerance of the system. Three different learning schemes had been investigated in the recognition unit, namely; the error back propagation learning with hidden units, a simple perceptron learning, and a competitive learning. Their performances were analyzed and compared. Since sometimes the network fails to distinguish between two letters that are inherently similar, additional ambiguity resolving neural nets are introduced on top of the above main neural net. The two dimensional Fourier transform is used as the preprocessing and the perceptron is used as the recognition unit of the ambiguity resolver. One hundred different person's handwriting sets are collected. Some of these are used as the training sets and the remainders are used as the test sets.

  18. Letter to Dr. Felix Bronner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Dear Dr. Bronner: I have been reading in The Physiologist the letters from senior physiologists for many years with great interest. It is impressive that many of the respondents are still pursuing scientific endeavours in their 70's and some even in their 80's. The interesting task is to ponder the relative causative proportions of heredity and environment responsible. One wonders whether knowing something about physiology engenders longer and more productive lives? I suspect so because of the accompanying self-discipline. But another factor would seem to be the pervasive joy of working in this profession. I have been fortunate to be able to acquire the joy of physiology during my graduate studies at Illinois, and to have been able to carry it over here at NASA, Ames Research Center for the past 40 years. A truly academic style research environment at a federal research center is rare. The trick to a joyous research career is to overcome those ever-present slings and arrows of outrageous fortune with dignity whenever possible. To that end I have found solace and guidance in reading the history of warfare and its leaders, especially Sun Tsu's The Art of War and Clauswitz's On War. I became eligible for retirement in 1993, but to insure domestic tranquility and also the joy of pursuing my research hobby have continued working in the laboratory on human research. It is troubling to see that funding for individual scientists conducting human research is declining rapidly, along with their new ideas; perhaps the old ones are more comfortable. Hopefully I can provide a similar response when I'm 80! Thanks for your interest. Sincerely, John Greenleaf

  19. 19 CFR 207.103 - Charging letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... interim measures, as provided for in 19 CFR 207.106. The charging letter shall include: (1) Allegations... be imposed for a prohibited act; (3) A statement that a proceeding has been initiated and that an...

  20. 19 CFR 207.103 - Charging letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... interim measures, as provided for in 19 CFR 207.106. The charging letter shall include: (1) Allegations... be imposed for a prohibited act; (3) A statement that a proceeding has been initiated and that an...

  1. Einstein/Roosevelt Letters: A Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodle, Walter S.

    1985-01-01

    The letters in this unit of study intended for secondary students are facsimile reproductions of the correspondence between Albert Einstein and President Roosevelt on the possibility of constructing an atomic bomb. Classroom activities are also suggested. (RM)

  2. Attentional Processing of Letter Strings by Children.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Virginie; Siéroff, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Reading a letter string requires attentional orienting toward the beginning of the string (left-dominant orientation), followed by orienting along the string. These attentional-orienting processes differ according to the lexicality of the letter string: Sequential processes apply when reading nonwords or pseudowords, while words can be processed more globally. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of these attentional processes involved in reading. We conducted two experiments in 6- (first grade), 7- (second grade), and 9-year-old (fourth grade) children, using a procedure that required the detection of a letter (Experiment 1) or a nonletter (Experiment 2) target in a string of five characters. The target character could occur in the second (left) or fourth (right) position in the string. Results showed an advantage for left nonletter targets as early as age 6 and of left letter targets as early as age 7. In 6-year-olds, only good readers detected a left letter target faster than a right letter target; others detected a right letter target faster. Thus, dominant orienting toward the beginning of the letter string is not fully developed in children before the second year of reading. A possibility is that beginning readers have difficulties inhibiting an attention-orienting bias toward the right visual field in linguistic tasks. The results also showed that the lexicality effect on these attentional processes develops gradually until the fourth year of reading. We believe that the procedure used in this study will be very valuable for evaluating attentional difficulties during reading acquisition. PMID:25386702

  3. How to Write a Letter of Recommendation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, George

    2005-01-01

    Letters of recommendation for students are never easy to write. All faculty feel charged with telling the truth, but they also feel compelled to go over the top far enough that the student won't seem damned with faint praise. And, as with grade point averages, the top gets higher every year. Is it possible to write too positive a letter anymore?…

  4. Letter to the Editor: Robert W. Evans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, A.

    2000-12-01

    I read the Letters page of the latest issue of the JBAA (2000 October) with some amusement. My very good friend Bob Evans had, according to the letter header, not only been elevated to the clergy, but had also transferred his nationality from Kiwi to Aussie. While he'll probably overlook the religious error he may not be so sanguine about being mistaken for an Australian.

  5. Resource Letter SW1: Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Daniel N.; Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    2016-03-01

    This Resource Letter describes the phenomena and effects on technological systems that are known collectively as space weather. A brief history of the topic is provided, and the scientific understandings of drivers for such phenomena are discussed. The impacts of space disturbances are summarized, and the strategies for dealing with space weather threats are examined. The Resource Letter concludes with description of approaches that have been proposed to deal with threats to our increasingly technological society.

  6. On Coding Non-Contiguous Letter Combinations

    PubMed Central

    Dandurand, Frédéric; Grainger, Jonathan; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Granier, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Starting from the hypothesis that printed word identification initially involves the parallel mapping of visual features onto location-specific letter identities, we analyze the type of information that would be involved in optimally mapping this location-specific orthographic code onto a location-invariant lexical code. We assume that some intermediate level of coding exists between individual letters and whole words, and that this involves the representation of letter combinations. We then investigate the nature of this intermediate level of coding given the constraints of optimality. This intermediate level of coding is expected to compress data while retaining as much information as possible about word identity. Information conveyed by letters is a function of how much they constrain word identity and how visible they are. Optimization of this coding is a combination of minimizing resources (using the most compact representations) and maximizing information. We show that in a large proportion of cases, non-contiguous letter sequences contain more information than contiguous sequences, while at the same time requiring less precise coding. Moreover, we found that the best predictor of human performance in orthographic priming experiments was within-word ranking of conditional probabilities, rather than average conditional probabilities. We conclude that from an optimality perspective, readers learn to select certain contiguous and non-contiguous letter combinations as information that provides the best cue to word identity. PMID:21734901

  7. Using cash cover crops to provide pollinator provisions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To date, the use of winter cover crops in MN and SD has been slow to be adopted. The short growing season and potential for late wet springs make cover crops risky to farmers with little economic return. The use of cash cover crops in this area offers the standard advantages of other cover crops, wi...

  8. Representation of Letter Position in Spelling: Evidence from Acquired Dysgraphia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer-Baum, Simon; McCloskey, Michael; Rapp, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The graphemic representations that underlie spelling performance must encode not only the identities of the letters in a word, but also the positions of the letters. This study investigates how letter position information is represented. We present evidence from two dysgraphic individuals, CM and LSS, who perseverate letters when spelling: that…

  9. 12 CFR 337.2 - Standby letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standby letters of credit. 337.2 Section 337.2... UNSAFE AND UNSOUND BANKING PRACTICES § 337.2 Standby letters of credit. (a) Definition. As used in this section, the term standby letter of credit means any letter of credit, or similar arrangement...

  10. 12 CFR 337.2 - Standby letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standby letters of credit. 337.2 Section 337.2... UNSAFE AND UNSOUND BANKING PRACTICES § 337.2 Standby letters of credit. (a) Definition. As used in this section, the term standby letter of credit means any letter of credit, or similar arrangement...