Sample records for cow physiological adaptations

  1. COW EFFICIENCY AND ADAPTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficiency of beef production is one of those terms that probably means something different to each person discussing the topic. Certainly, efficiency means something different to the packer than to the feeder or cow-calf producer. Beef production practices, and especially breeding, have been larg...

  2. Physiological responses to repeated transportation of gestating Brahman cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transportation process acts as a stressor with adverse effects on animal health and performance. The purpose of this study was to examine physiological responses to repeated transportation of gestating Brahman cows, previously classified as mature cows, into temperament groups of calm, moderate,...

  3. Exercise Physiology Ethnic Differences in Physiological Cardiac Adaptation to

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Exercise Physiology Ethnic Differences in Physiological Cardiac Adaptation to Intense Physical in the preparticipation cardiac screening era. There are no reports on cardiac adaptation in highly trained black females participation in intense sporting activity is asso- ciated with physiological electric, structural, and func

  4. Addition of Sodium Bicarbonate to Rations of Postpartum Dairy Cows: Physiological and Metabolic Effects1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. H. Kilmer; L. D. Muller; T. J. Snyder

    1981-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate was added to complete mixed rations to characterize physiological, metabolic, and ruminal changes immediately postpartum when dairy cows are switched abruptly from a low energy ration prepartum to a high energy ration postpartum. Twelve Holstein cows were paired and assigned randomly to either a control or buffered ration containing .8% sodium bicarbonate. Ra- tions consisted of 50% corn

  5. Physiological adaptation to space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Sulzman, Frank M.; Gaiser, Karen K.; Teeter, Ronald C.

    1990-01-01

    In space, adaptive physiological changes have been observed in virtually all body systems, but how far these changes progress with time is not known. Their time course demonstrates variable patterns; some systems show evidence of gradual and progressive change. Biomedical postflight data have shown that a compensatory period of readaptation to one gravity is required after space flight, with longer intervals required for longer missions. Consistent readaptation trends include orthostatic intolerance and neurovestibular difficulties. For the long-duration missions of the exploration era, it is critical to determine the extent to which deleterious changes (e.g., bone loss and possible immunological changes) can be reversed upon return to earth. Radiation protection is another critical enabling element for missions beyond low earth orbit. Radiation exposure guidelines have not been established for exploration missions. Currently our experience is insufficient to prescribe countermeasures for the stay times associated with a lunar base or a mission to Mars. Artificial gravity may provide a solution, but the level and duration of exposure necessary to prevent deconditioning must be determined. Central issues for medical care in remote settings are preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic care and the minimization of risk.

  6. Physiologic adaptation to space - Space adaptation syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderploeg, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The adaptive changes of the neurovestibular system to microgravity, which result in space motion sickness (SMS), are studied. A list of symptoms, which range from vomiting to drowsiness, is provided. The two patterns of symptom development, rapid and gradual, and the duration of the symptoms are described. The concept of sensory conflict and rearrangements to explain SMS is being investigated.

  7. Interactions of Forage Quality and Physiological State on Forage Intake of Grazing Beef Cows in Autumn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intake by grazing cattle is affected by quality and availability of forage and by physiological demands, such as lactation and gestation. However, limited information is available on how these factors interact. We tested the hypothesis that autumn forage intake is altered by the interaction of cow...

  8. Resistance Training: Physiological Responses and Adaptations (Part 3 of 4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleck, Steven J.; Kraemer, William J.

    1988-01-01

    The physiological responses and adaptations which occur as a result of resistance training, such as cardiovascular responses, serum lipid count, body composition, and neural adaptations are discussed. Changes in the endocrine system are also described. (JL)

  9. Diet and cooling interactions on physiological responses of grazing dairy cows, milk production and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, M. R.; Valtorta, S. E.; Leva, P. E.; Gaggiotti, M. C.; Conti, G. A.; Gregoret, R. F.

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of diet and cooling in the holding pen before milking on rectal temperature, respiration rate and milk production and composition. Fifty-eight lactating Holstein cows were used in a factorial split-plot design, at Rafaela Experimental Station from 12 January to 3 March 2003. The treatments were combinations of two diets: control (CD) and balanced (BD) with two levels of cooling before milking: none (NSF) and a sprinkler and fans (SF). Forage:concentrate ratios for CD and BD were 81:19 and 68:32, respectively. Cows were milked twice daily. Milk production was recorded daily, and milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and urea) was analysed twice a week. The physiological data were recorded once a week, before the cattle entered the holding pen and after milking, in the afternoon. Average maximum weekly temperature humidity index was 75.4 and ranged from 61.4 to 83. There were highly significant effects of cooling on physiological responses. Milk production was affected by diet and cooling, with no interaction; the highest and lowest production of milk was 22.42 and 20.07 l/cow per day, for BD+SF and CD+NSF, respectively. Protein was affected by diet, and was higher for BD (3.17 vs. 3.08%). There were interaction effects on milk fat at the 8% level, the highest concentration being 3.65% for BD+NFS. It was concluded that under grazing conditions, cooling by sprinkler and fans before milking improves the comfort of dairy cows, and that the effects on milk production and composition are enhanced when diets are specially formulated for heat-stress periods.

  10. Effects of the level of feed intake and ergot contaminated concentrate on ruminal fermentation and on physiological parameters in cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Schumann; P. Lebzien; K.-H. Ueberschär; J. Spilke; M. Höltershinken; S. Dänicke

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of ergot contaminated feed concentrate at differing levels of feed\\u000a intake on ruminal fermentation, and on various physiological parameters of dairy cows. Twelve double fistulated (in the rumen\\u000a and the proximal duodenum) Holstein Friesian cows were fed either a control diet (on a dry matter (DM) base: 60% maize

  11. Complexity and network dynamics in physiological adaptation: an integrated view.

    PubMed

    Baffy, György; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2014-05-28

    Living organisms constantly interact with their surroundings and sustain internal stability against perturbations. This dynamic process follows three fundamental strategies (restore, explore, and abandon) articulated in historical concepts of physiological adaptation such as homeostasis, allostasis, and the general adaptation syndrome. These strategies correspond to elementary forms of behavior (ordered, chaotic, and static) in complex adaptive systems and invite a network-based analysis of the operational characteristics, allowing us to propose an integrated framework of physiological adaptation from a complex network perspective. Applicability of this concept is illustrated by analyzing molecular and cellular mechanisms of adaptation in response to the pervasive challenge of obesity, a chronic condition resulting from sustained nutrient excess that prompts chaotic exploration for system stability associated with tradeoffs and a risk of adverse outcomes such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Deconstruction of this complexity holds the promise of gaining novel insights into physiological adaptation in health and disease. PMID:24751342

  12. Using time-series intervention analysis to model cow heart rate affected by programmed audio and environmental/physiological

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research is the first use of the Box-Jenkins time-series models to describe changes in heart rate (HR) of free-ranging crossbred cows (Bos taurus) receiving both programmed audio cues from directional virtual fencing (DVFTM) devices and non-programmed environmental/physiological cues. The DVFT...

  13. Using time-series intervention analysis to model cow heart rate affected by programmed audio and environmental/physiological cues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research is the first use of the Box-Jenkins time-series models to describe changes in heart rate (HR) of free-ranging crossbred cows (Bos taurus) receiving both programmed audio cues from directional virtual fencing (DVFTM) devices and non-programmed environmental/physiological cues. The DVFT...

  14. Leeches: an adaptational approach to their ecology and physiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Calow; H. Riley

    1980-01-01

    This article is about some topics on the ecology and physiology of leeches that are of general interest and that can be tackled in advanced school or college laboratory classes. The physiology is mainly concerned with the acquisition and utilization of resources by leeches and this is considered, together with their ecology, under the integrating umbrella of adaptational biology. We

  15. Validity of physiological biomarkers for maternal behavior in cows--a comparison of beef and dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Geburt, Katrin; Friedrich, Morten; Piechotta, Marion; Gauly, Matthias; König von Borstel, Uta

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the suitability of potential biomarkers for maternal ability in cattle, and in addition to test the hypothesis that dairy cows have a less pronounced motherliness than beef cows. Therefore, maternal behavior of 20 Simmental beef-type (S) and 20 German Black Pied (dairy-type) Cattle (BP) was assessed on the 2nd and again on the 3rd day of the calf's life. Measurements included the frequency of interactions between cow and calf, the cow's willingness to defend her calf, the overall maternal behavior, saliva cortisol, saliva oxytocin, heart rate, and thermal images of the eye (ET). Mixed model analysis revealed that BP had significantly (P<0.05) higher oxytocin (88.6±9.2 vs. 62.8±9.2 pg/ml saliva) and cortisol (1.3±0.1 vs. 1.0±0.1 ng/ml saliva) levels, but lower heart rates (80.0±2.0 vs. 95.8±2.0bpm) than S cows. Simmental (beef) cows showed more defensive behavior (3.5±0.2 vs. 2.7±0.2 scores), but fewer total interactions between cow and calf (8.1±1.4 vs. 13.8±1.4), compared to BP (dairy). However, with the exception of heart rate and overall maternal behavior, breed differences tended to diminish from the 2nd to the 3rd day of the calf's life. Repeatabilities ranged from 9±23% (ET) to 77±7% (maternal behavior measured on a visual analogue scale), and correlations between physiological parameters and behavior differed between breeds and were generally at a low level. In conclusion, beef cows do not seem to be per se more maternal compared to dairy cows, and the assessed parameters are of limited use as biomarkers for maternal behavior. PMID:25446230

  16. Bennett, A. F. 1997. Adaptation and the evolution of physiological characters,pp. 3-16. In: Handbook of Physiology, Sect. 13: Comparative Physiology. W. H.

    E-print Network

    Bennett, Albert F.

    Bennett, A. F. 1997. Adaptation and the evolution of physiological characters,pp. 3-16. In: Handbook of Physiology, Sect. 13: Comparative Physiology. W. H. Dantzler, ed. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. 1. Adaptation and the evolution of physiological characters A L B E R T F. B E N N E T T 1

  17. Effects of protein supplementation frequency on physiological responses associated with reproduction in beef cows.

    PubMed

    Cappellozza, B I; Cooke, R F; Reis, M M; Marques, R S; Guarnieri Filho, T A; Perry, G A; Jump, D B; Lytle, K A; Bohnert, D W

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine if frequency of protein supplementation impacts physiological responses associated with reproduction in beef cows. Fourteen nonpregnant, nonlactating beef cows were ranked by age and BW and allocated to 3 groups. Groups were assigned to a 3 × 3 Latin square design, containing 3 periods of 21 d and the following treatments: 1) soybean meal supplementation daily (D), 2) soybean meal supplementation 3 times/week (3WK), and 3) soybean meal supplementation once/week (1WK). Within each period, cows were assigned to an estrus synchronization protocol: 100 ?g of GnRH + controlled internal drug release device (CIDR) containing 1.38 g of progesterone (P4) on d 1, 25 mg of PGF2? on d 8, and CIDR removal + 100 ?g of GnRH on d 11. Grass-seed straw was offered for ad libitum consumption. Soybean meal was individually supplemented at a daily rate of 1 kg/cow (as-fed basis). Moreover, 3WK was supplemented on d 0, 2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, 16, and 18 whereas 1WK was supplemented on d 4, 11, and 18. Blood samples were collected from 0 (before) to 72 h after supplementation on d 11 and 18 and analyzed for plasma urea-N (PUN). Samples collected from 0 to 12 h were also analyzed for plasma glucose, insulin, and P4 (d 18 only). Uterine flushing fluid was collected concurrently with blood sampling at 28 h for pH evaluation. Liver biopsies were performed concurrently with blood sampling at 0, 4, and 28 h and analyzed for mRNA expression of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I (CPS-I; h 28) and CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 (h 0 and 4 on d 18). Plasma urea-N concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) for 1WK vs. 3WK from 20 to 72 h and greater (P < 0.01) for 1WK vs. D from 16 to 48 h and at 72 h after supplementation (treatment × hour interaction, P < 0.01). Moreover, PUN concentrations peaked at 28 h after supplementation for 3WK and 1WK (P < 0.01) and were greater (P < 0.01) at this time for 1WK vs. 3WK and D and for 3WK vs. D. Expression of CPS-I was greater (P < 0.01) for 1WK vs. D and 3WK. Uterine flushing pH tended (P ? 0.10) to be greater for 1WK vs. 3WK and D. No treatment effects were detected (P ? 0.15) on expression of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, plasma glucose, and P4 concentrations, whereas plasma insulin concentrations were greater (P ? 0.03) in D and 3WK vs. 1WK. Hence, decreasing frequency of protein supplementation did not reduce uterine flushing pH or plasma P4 concentrations, which are known to impact reproduction in beef cows. PMID:25412746

  18. Physiological Self-Regulation and Adaptive Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzell, Lawrence J.; Pope, Alan T.; Freeman, Frederick G.

    2007-01-01

    Adaptive automation has been proposed as a solution to current problems of human-automation interaction. Past research has shown the potential of this advanced form of automation to enhance pilot engagement and lower cognitive workload. However, there have been concerns voiced regarding issues, such as automation surprises, associated with the use of adaptive automation. This study examined the use of psychophysiological self-regulation training with adaptive automation that may help pilots deal with these problems through the enhancement of cognitive resource management skills. Eighteen participants were assigned to 3 groups (self-regulation training, false feedback, and control) and performed resource management, monitoring, and tracking tasks from the Multiple Attribute Task Battery. The tracking task was cycled between 3 levels of task difficulty (automatic, adaptive aiding, manual) on the basis of the electroencephalogram-derived engagement index. The other two tasks remained in automatic mode that had a single automation failure. Those participants who had received self-regulation training performed significantly better and reported lower National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index scores than participants in the false feedback and control groups. The theoretical and practical implications of these results for adaptive automation are discussed.

  19. Physiological adaptation - Crew health in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, Susan

    1988-01-01

    The experiments planned for the Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) Shuttle mission, which is dedicated to investigating biomedical issues pertinent to the man's presence in space, are discussed. The areas of research will include human and animal experiments concerned with the cardiovascular system, the vestibular apparatus, and metabolic experiments related to renal endocrine function, hematology, immune system, and muscle and bone/calcium metabolism, with particular attention given to the physiological complications resulting from short-duration space flight and subsequent return to the 1-G environment. The hardware systems to be used on the SLS-1 mission represent prototypes of systems to be developed for the medical and research facilities of the Space Station. The results of the experiments will be used to address issues related to long-duration space flight required for the Space Station and interplanetary travels.

  20. Applying additive logistic regression to data derived from sensors monitoring behavioral and physiological characteristics of dairy cows to detect lameness.

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, C; Frank, E; Burke, J K; Verkerk, G A; Jago, J G

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis was that sensors currently available on farm that monitor behavioral and physiological characteristics have potential for the detection of lameness in dairy cows. This was tested by applying additive logistic regression to variables derived from sensor data. Data were collected between November 2010 and June 2012 on 5 commercial pasture-based dairy farms. Sensor data from weigh scales (liveweight), pedometers (activity), and milk meters (milking order, unadjusted and adjusted milk yield in the first 2 min of milking, total milk yield, and milking duration) were collected at every milking from 4,904 cows. Lameness events were recorded by farmers who were trained in detecting lameness before the study commenced. A total of 318 lameness events affecting 292 cows were available for statistical analyses. For each lameness event, the lame cow's sensor data for a time period of 14 d before observation date were randomly matched by farm and date to 10 healthy cows (i.e., cows that were not lame and had no other health event recorded for the matched time period). Sensor data relating to the 14-d time periods were used for developing univariable (using one source of sensor data) and multivariable (using multiple sources of sensor data) models. Model development involved the use of additive logistic regression by applying the LogitBoost algorithm with a regression tree as base learner. The model's output was a probability estimate for lameness, given the sensor data collected during the 14-d time period. Models were validated using leave-one-farm-out cross-validation and, as a result of this validation, each cow in the data set (318 lame and 3,180 nonlame cows) received a probability estimate for lameness. Based on the area under the curve (AUC), results indicated that univariable models had low predictive potential, with the highest AUC values found for liveweight (AUC=0.66), activity (AUC=0.60), and milking order (AUC=0.65). Combining these 3 sensors improved AUC to 0.74. Detection performance of this combined model varied between farms but it consistently and significantly outperformed univariable models across farms at a fixed specificity of 80%. Still, detection performance was not high enough to be implemented in practice on large, pasture-based dairy farms. Future research may improve performance by developing variables based on sensor data of liveweight, activity, and milking order, but that better describe changes in sensor data patterns when cows go lame. PMID:24011945

  1. Emotion Assessment From Physiological Signals for Adaptation of Game Difficulty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillaume Chanel; Cyril Rebetez; Mireille Bétrancourt; Thierry Pun

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes to maintain player's engage- ment by adapting game difficulty according to player's emotions assessed from physiological signals. The validity of this approach was first tested by analyzing the questionnaire responses, electro- encephalogram (EEG) signals, and peripheral signals of the players playing a Tetris game at three difficulty levels. This anal- ysis confirms that the different difficulty levels

  2. Physiology, metabolism Adaptation of Lactobacillus sakei to meat

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Physiology, metabolism Adaptation of Lactobacillus sakei to meat: a new regulatory mechanism Recherches sur la Viande, INRA-CRJ, Domaine de Vilvert, 78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France Abstract -- Lactobacillus Research Park, Norwich NR4 7UA, UK. #12;R. Stentz et al. 1. INTRODUCTION Lactobacillus sakei is a lactic

  3. Physiological Adaptations to Resistance Training in Prepubertal Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    dos Santos Cunha, Giovani; Sant'anna, Marcelo Morganti; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; de Oliveira, Norton Luis; dos Santos, Cinara Bos; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological adaptations of resistance training (RT) in prepubertal boys. Methods: Eighteen healthy boys were divided into RT (n = 9, M[subscript age] = 10.4 ± 0.5 years) and control (CTR; n = 9, M[subscript age] = 10.9 ± 0.7 years) groups. The RT group underwent a resistance training…

  4. PHYSIOLOGY AND ENDOCRINOLOGY SYMPOSIUM: Uterine infection: Linking infection and innate immunity with infertility in the high-producing dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Bromfield, J J; Santos, J E P; Block, J; Williams, R S; Sheldon, I M

    2015-05-01

    Uterine contamination with bacteria is ubiquitous in the postpartum dairy cow. Nearly one-half of all postpartum dairy cows develop clinical disease resulting in metritis and endometritis, which cause depressed milk production and infertility. The causative links between uterine infection and infertility include a hostile uterine environment, disrupted endocrine signaling, and perturbations in ovarian function and oocyte development. In this review we consider the various mechanisms linking uterine infection with infertility in the dairy cow, specifically 1) innate immune signaling in the endometrium, 2) alteration in endocrine signaling in response to infectious agents, and 3) impacts of infection on ovarian function, oocyte development, and follicular development. Normal ovarian follicular and oocyte development requires a series of temporally and spatially orchestrated events; however, several of the cellular pathways required for ovarian function are also used during the innate immune response to bacterial pathogens. We propose that activation of cellular pathways during this immune response has a negative impact on ovarian physiology, which is manifest as infertility detected after the clearance of the bacteria. This review highlights how new insights into infection and immunity in cattle are linked to infertility. PMID:26020298

  5. Effects of Drinking Water Temperature on Physiological Responses of Lactating Holstein Cows in Summer1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ko LANHAM; C. E. Coppock; K. Z. Milam; J. M. Labore; D. H. Nave; R. A. Stermer; C. F. Brasington

    1986-01-01

    Nine Iactating Holstein cows were offered drinking water of 7.2, 15.6, and 23.9°C in a 3 x 3 Latin square design in Experiment 1. Water was offered for 10 min at 1300 h to simulate time in a milking parlor. Water consumption de- clined as drinking water temperature decreased. Respiration rates decreased as the drinking water temperature decreased. In Experiment

  6. Membrane lipid unsaturation as physiological adaptation to animal longevity

    PubMed Central

    Naudí, Alba; Jové, Mariona; Ayala, Victòria; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Barja, Gustavo; Pamplona, Reinald

    2013-01-01

    The appearance of oxygen in the terrestrial atmosphere represented an important selective pressure for ancestral living organisms and contributed toward setting up the pace of evolutionary changes in structural and functional systems. The evolution of using oxygen for efficient energy production served as a driving force for the evolution of complex organisms. The redox reactions associated with its use were, however, responsible for the production of reactive species (derived from oxygen and lipids) with damaging effects due to oxidative chemical modifications of essential cellular components. Consequently, aerobic life required the emergence and selection of antioxidant defense systems. As a result, a high diversity in molecular and structural antioxidant defenses evolved. In the following paragraphs, we analyze the adaptation of biological membranes as a dynamic structural defense against reactive species evolved by animals. In particular, our goal is to describe the physiological mechanisms underlying the structural adaptation of cellular membranes to oxidative stress and to explain the meaning of this adaptive mechanism, and to review the state of the art about the link between membrane composition and longevity of animal species. PMID:24381560

  7. Physiologically responsive, mechanically adaptive polymer optical fibers for optogenetics.

    PubMed

    Jorfi, Mehdi; Voirin, Guy; Foster, E Johan; Weder, Christoph

    2014-05-15

    The capability to deliver light to specific locations within the brain using optogenetic tools has opened up new possibilities in the field of neural interfacing. In this context, optical fibers are commonly inserted into the brain to activate or mute neurons using photosensitive proteins. While chronic optogenetic stimulation studies are just beginning to emerge, knowledge gathered in connection with electrophysiological implants suggests that the mechanical mismatch of conventional optical fibers and the cortical tissue may be a significant contributor to neuroinflammatory response. Here, we present the design and fabrication of physiologically responsive, mechanically adaptive optical fibers made of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) that may mitigate this problem. Produced by a one-step wet-spinning process, the fibers display a tensile storage modulus E' of ?7000??MPa in the dry state at 25°C and can thus readily be inserted into cortical tissue. Exposure to water causes a drastic reduction of E' to ?35??MPa on account of modest swelling with the water. The optical properties at 470 and 590 were comparable with losses of 0.7±0.04??dB/cm at 470 nm and 0.6±0.1??dB/cm at 590 nm in the dry state and 1.1±0.1??dB/cm at 470 nm and 0.9±0.3??dB/cm at 590 nm in the wet state. The dry end of a partially switched fiber with a length of 10 cm was coupled with a light-emitting diode with an output of 10.1 mW to deliver light with a power density of >500??mW/cm2 from the wet end, which is more than sufficient to stimulate neurons in vivo. Thus, even without a low-refractive index cladding, the physiologically responsive, mechanically adaptive optical fibers presented here appear to be a very useful new tool for future optogenetic studies. PMID:24978225

  8. Predicting animal ?18O: Accounting for diet and physiological adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, Matthew J.

    1996-12-01

    Theoretical predictions and measured isotope variations indicate that diet and physiological adaptation have a significant impact on animals ?18O and cannot be ignored. A generalized model is therefore developed for the prediction of animal body water and phosphate ?18O to incorporate these factors quantitatively. Application of the model reproduces most published compositions and compositional trends for mammals and birds. A moderate dependence of animal ?18O on humidity is predicted for drought-tolerant animals, and the correlation between humidity and North American deer bone composition as corrected for local meteoric water is predicted within the scatter of the data. In contrast to an observed strong correlation between kangaroo ?18O and humidity ( ?? 18O/?h ˜ 2.5 ± 0.4‰/10% r.h.), the predicted humidity dependence is only 1.3 - 1.7‰/10% r.h., and it is inferred that drinking water in hot dry areas of Australia is enriched in 18O over rainwater. Differences in physiology and water turnover readily explain the observed differences in ?18O for several herbivore genera in East Africa, excepting antelopes. Antelope models are more sensitive to biological fractionations, and adjustments to the flux of transcutaneous water vapor within experimentally measured ranges allows their ?18O values to be matched. Models of the seasonal changes of forage composition for two regions with dissimilar climates show that significant seasonal variations in animal isotope composition are expected, and that animals with different physiologies and diets track climate differently. Analysis of different genera with disparate sensitivities to surface water and humidity will allow the most accurate quantification of past climate changes.

  9. Physiological and productive responses of multiparous lactating Holstein cows exposed to short-term cooling during severe summer conditions in an arid region of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Avendaño-Reyes, L; Hernández-Rivera, J A; Alvarez-Valenzuela, F D; Macías-Cruz, U; Díaz-Molina, R; Correa-Calderón, A; Robinson, P H; Fadel, J G

    2012-11-01

    Heat stress generates a significant economic impact for the dairy industry in arid and semi-arid regions of the world, so that heat abatement is an important issue for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of two short-term cooling periods on physiological and productive status of lactating Holstein cows during hot ambient temperatures. Thirty-nine multiparous cows were blocked by milk yield and assigned to one of three treatments including: control group (C), cows cooled before milking time (0500 and 1700 h daily, 1 h cooling); AM group, cows cooled at 1000 h and before milking (2 h cooling); and AM?+?PM group, cows cooled at 1100, 1500 and 2200 h, as well as before milking (4 h cooling). The cooling system was placed in the holding pen which the cows were moved through for cooling. Respiratory rate, and temperatures of thurl and right flank, were lower (P?cows from the AM?+?PM group than AM and C cows during the morning and afternoon. However, udder temperature was higher in the AM?+?PM group compared to AM and C groups during the afternoon, although lower than the AM group during the morning. Rectal temperature was similar in all groups. Thyroxin concentrations tended (P?cows had a trend (P?cows. PMID:22116633

  10. The adaptation of digestive enzymes to the diet : Its physiological significance

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The adaptation of digestive enzymes to the diet : Its physiological significance T. CORRING adapt to the diet when substrate intake is altered. An analysis of experimental works shows breakdown of dietary components. In the first part of this paper,I have pooled the data on the adaptive

  11. [An overview on the physiological and ecological adaptation mechanisms of the overwinter ticks].

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhi-jun; Yang, Xiao-long; Chen, Jie; Liu, Jing-ze

    2014-10-01

    The current paper introduces the recent research and development on the cryobiology of ticks, based on their overwinter behavior strategy and biochemical and physiological adaptation mechanisms, and provides detail information on the cold hardiness, biochemical and physiological mechanisms, the relationship between cold hardiness and diapause, which will give theoretical clues for subsequent research on the molecular regulation of cold hardiness of ticks. PMID:25726606

  12. Resistance Training: Physiological Responses and Adaptations (Part 2 of 4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleck, Stephen J.; Kraerner, William J.

    1988-01-01

    Resistance training causes a variety of physiological reactions, including changes in muscle size, connective tissue size, and bone mineral content. This article summarizes data from a variety of studies and research. (JL)

  13. Effect of a care plan based on Roy adaptation model biological dimension on stroke patients’ physiologic adaptation level

    PubMed Central

    Alimohammadi, Nasrollah; Maleki, Bibi; Shahriari, Mohsen; Chitsaz, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stroke is a stressful event with several functional, physical, psychological, social, and economic problems that affect individuals’ different living balances. With coping strategies, patients try to control these problems and return to their natural life. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of a care plan based on Roy adaptation model biological dimension on stroke patients’ physiologic adaptation level. Materials and Methods: This study is a clinical trial in which 50 patients, affected by brain stroke and being admitted in the neurology ward of Kashani and Alzahra hospitals, were randomly assigned to control and study groups in Isfahan in 2013. Roy adaptation model care plan was administered in biological dimension in the form of four sessions and phone call follow-ups for 1 month. The forms related to Roy adaptation model were completed before and after intervention in the two groups. Chi-square test and t-test were used to analyze the data through SPSS 18. Results: There was a significant difference in mean score of adaptation in physiological dimension in the study group after intervention (P < 0.001) compared to before intervention. Comparison of the mean scores of changes of adaptation in the patients affected by brain stroke in the study and control groups showed a significant increase in physiological dimension in the study group by 47.30 after intervention (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The results of study showed that Roy adaptation model biological dimension care plan can result in an increase in adaptation in patients with stroke in physiological dimension. Nurses can use this model for increasing patients’ adaptation. PMID:25878708

  14. Physiology of environmental adaptations and resource acquisition in cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Donald E

    2015-01-01

    Cockroaches are a group of insects that evolved early in geological time. Because of their antiquity, they for the most part display generalized behavior and physiology and accordingly have frequently been used as model insects to examine physiological and biochemical mechanisms involved with water balance, nutrition, reproduction, genetics, and insecticide resistance. As a result, a considerable amount of information on these topics is available. However, there is much more to be learned by employing new protocols, microchemical analytical techniques, and molecular biology tools to explore many unanswered questions. PMID:25564743

  15. Effects of dietary betaine supplementation subjected to heat stress on milk performances and physiology indices in dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Ying, S J; An, W J; Lian, H; Zhou, G B; Han, Z Y

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether feeding betaine to cows elevates their production performance during summer heat stress. Thirty-two lactating Holstein cows were randomly divided into 4 groups: the control group, which received a total mixed ration (TMR), and 3 experimental groups that received TMR blended with 10 g/day (group I), 15 g/day (group II), and 20 g/day (group III) betaine for 8 weeks. Milk and blood were sampled throughout the experimental period. The average maximum and minimum air temperatures were 28.3 and 24.1°C, respectively. The average temperature-humidity index was 78.6 units. The results showed that feeding betaine to cows increased feed intake, milk yield, milk lactose, milk protein, plasma cortisol, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde levels (P<0.05); however, it caused HSP70 levels to decrease (P<0.05). The milk performance of group II was significantly affected. These results indicate that supplementing betaine to the diet of dairy cows increases their milk performance and improves their antioxidant capacity; these processes help relieve the cow from heat stress. In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows with 15 g/day betaine generated the most positive influence on performance and productivity, and hence caused the greatest reduction in heat stress. PMID:25222258

  16. A field study of the behavioral and physiological effects of varying amounts of shade for lactating cows at pasture.

    PubMed

    Schütz, K E; Cox, N R; Tucker, C B

    2014-06-01

    Shade reduces the negative effects of heat load, but little is known about how much is required for efficient cooling in commercial settings. The effect of the amount of shade on 8 Holstein-Friesian herds was studied for 2 consecutive summers (mean temperature: 23 °C) on 6 commercial, pasture-based dairy farms. Farms varied in the amount of natural shade provided (range: 0 to 15.6m(2) shade/cow). Time spent in shade, near water, eating, ruminating, lying, and standing were recorded between 1000 and 1530 h in 31 shaded and 11 unshaded paddocks using 20-min instantaneous scan observations of 15 focal cows/herd. Respiration rate and panting score (0 to 4.5) was recorded for focal animals once per hour. The total numbers of cows in shade, near water, and with panting scores ? 2 were recorded every 30 min. Cows without shade spent 4% more time lying than cows with shade (standard error of the difference, SED = 1.9%). A larger proportion of the herd had panting scores ? 2 when no shade was available (6 vs. 2% of the herd, SED = 1.2%), and respiration rates were higher by 8 breaths/min in cows without shade (SED = 4.7 breaths/min). Under the conditions tested, the maximum proportion of the herd that was observed using the shade increased by 3.1% for every 1-m(2) increase in shade size [standard error (SE) = 1.51%], and all cows were first seen simultaneously using shade when 2m(2)/cow was provided. For every 1-m(2) increase in shade, 0.3% fewer cows had panting score ? 2 (SE = 0.12%). We observed no significant relationships between the amount of shade available and any other variables. Although additional work is required to make specific recommendations, these results indicate that providing more shade allowed a higher proportion of animals to use this resource and reduced respiratory signs of heat load. PMID:24731637

  17. Effects of Dietary Sodium Bicarbonate and Calcium Chloride on Physiological Responses of Lactating Dairy Cows in Hot Weather

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Escobosa; C. E. Coppock; L. D. Rowe Jr; W. L. Jenkins; C. E. Gates

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-four lactating cows were as- signed randomly to three treatments to evaluate responses to large differences of dietary sodium and chloride. Treatments were corn-cottonseed meal-corn silage based complete rations with either: 1) .23% sodium chloride (control), 2) control plus 2.28% calcium chloride, or 3) control plus 1.70% sodium bicarbonate.

  18. Allosteric Regulation of PKM2 Allows Cellular Adaptation to Different Physiological States

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dan Y. Gui (Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at Massachusetts Institute of Technology; REV)

    2013-02-19

    Pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (PKM2) activity is subject to complex allosteric regulation. Recently, serine and SAICAR (succinylaminoimidazolecarboxamide ribose-5?-phosphate) were identified as previously unrecognized activators of PKM2. These findings add additional complexity to how PKM2 is regulated in cells and support the notion that modulating PKM2 activity enables cells to adapt their metabolic state to specific physiological contexts.

  19. Physiological and performance adaptations to high-intensity interval training.

    PubMed

    Gibala, Martin J; Jones, Andrew M

    2013-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) refers to exercise that is characterized by relatively short bursts of vigorous activity, interspersed by periods of rest or low-intensity exercise for recovery. In untrained and recreationally active individuals, short-term HIIT is a potent stimulus to induce physiological remodeling similar to traditional endurance training despite a markedly lower total exercise volume and training time commitment. As little as six sessions of 'all-out' HIIT over 14 days, totaling ?15 min of intense cycle exercise within total training time commitment of ?2.5 h, is sufficient to enhance exercise capacity and improve skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. From an athletic standpoint, HIIT is also an effective strategy to improve performance when supplemented into the already high training volumes of well-trained endurance athletes, although the underlying mechanisms are likely different compared to less trained subjects. Most studies in this regard have examined the effect of replacing a portion (typically ?15-25%) of base/normal training with HIIT (usually 2-3 sessions per week for 4-8 weeks). It has been proposed that a polarized approach to training, in which ?75% of total training volume be performed at low intensities, with 10-15% performed at very high intensities may be the optimal training intensity distribution for elite athletes who compete in intense endurance events. PMID:23899754

  20. Physiological adaptations to thermal stress in tropical Asians.

    PubMed

    Duncan, M T; Horvath, S M

    1988-01-01

    Young sedentary adult males of Malay, Indian, and Chinese origin who had established continuous residence in tropical Malaysia and presumed to be naturally acclimatized to heat, were studied to evaluate their physiological responses to a standard heat stress test. The Malay and Indian races have evolved in hot and humid geographical zones, whereas the Chinese originated from a temperate area. Subjects exercised at 50% VO2max alternating 18 minutes walking and 2 min rest during a 2-h exposure to an ambient of 34.9 degrees C dry bulb and 32.1 degrees C wet bulb. Heart rates, core and skin temperatures, sweat rates, and oxygen uptakes were measured during the heat exposure. The subjects of Malay origin exhibited the least circulatory stress of the three ethnic groups. The data obtained on these long-term residents of a hot-wet climate and who were considered acclimatized to this environment were compared to experimental data obtained by other investigators and other ethnic groups. PMID:3396569

  1. Physiology and relevance of human adaptive thermogenesis response.

    PubMed

    Celi, Francesco S; Le, Trang N; Ni, Bin

    2015-05-01

    In homoeothermic organisms, the preservation of core temperature represents a primal function, and its costs in terms of energy expenditure can be considerable. In modern humans, the endogenous thermoregulation mechanisms have been replaced by clothing and environmental control, and the maintenance of thermoneutrality has been successfully achieved by manipulation of the micro- and macroenvironment. The rediscovery of the presence and activity of brown adipose tissue in adult humans has renewed the interest on adaptive thermogenesis (AT) as a means to facilitate weight loss and improve carbohydrate metabolism. The aim of this review is to describe the recent advancements in the study of this function, and to assess the potential and limitations of exploiting AT for environmental/behavioral, and pharmacological interventions. PMID:25869212

  2. Physiological adaptations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae evolved for improved butanol tolerance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Butanol is a chemical with potential uses as biofuel and solvent, which can be produced by microbial fermentation. However, the end product toxicity is one of the main obstacles for developing the production process irrespective of the choice of production organism. The long-term goal of the present project is to produce 2-butanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, unraveling the toxicity mechanisms of solvents such as butanol and understanding the mechanisms by which tolerant strains of S. cerevisiae adapt to them would be an important contribution to the development of a bio-based butanol production process. Results A butanol tolerant S. cerevisiae was achieved through a series of sequential batch cultures with gradual increase of 2-butanol concentration. The final mutant (JBA-mut) tolerates all different alcohols tested at higher concentrations compared to the wild type (JBA-wt). Proteomics analysis of the two strains grown under mild butanol-stress revealed 46 proteins changing their expression by more than 1.5-fold in JBA-mut, 34 of which were upregulated. Strikingly, 21 out of the 34 upregulated proteins were predicted constituents of mitochondria. Among the non-mitochondrial up-regulated proteins, the minor isoform of Glycerol-3-phosphatase (Gpp2) was the most notable, since it was the only tested protein whose overexpression was found to confer butanol tolerance. Conclusion The study demonstrates several differences between the butanol tolerant mutant and the wild type. Upregulation of proteins involved in the mitochondrial ATP synthesizing machinery constituents and glycerol biosynthesis seem to be beneficial for a successful adaptation of yeast cells to butanol stress. PMID:23855998

  3. Distribution, adaptation and physiological meaning of thiols from vertebrate hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Reischl, Evaldo; Dafre, Alcir Luiz; Franco, Jeferson Luis; Wilhelm Filho, Danilo

    2007-01-01

    In the present review, the sequences of hemoglobins (Hb) of 267 adult vertebrate species belonging to eight major vertebrate taxa are examined for the presence and location of cysteinyl residues in an attempt at correlation with their ecophysiology. Essentially, all vertebrates have surface cysteinyl residues in Hb molecules whereby their thiol groups may become highly reactive. Thiol-rich Hbs may display eight or more thiols per tetramer. In vertebrates so far examined, the cysteinyl residues occur in 44 different sequence positions in alpha chains and 41 positions in beta chains. Most of them are conservatively located and occur in only a few positions in Teleostei, Aves and Mammalia, whereas they are dispersed in Amphibia. The internal cysteinyl residue alpha104 is ubiquitous in vertebrates. Residue beta93 is highly conserved in reptiles, birds and mammals. The number of cysteine residues per tetramer with solvent access varies in vertebrates, mammalians and bony fish having the lowest number of external residues, whereas nearly all external cysteine residues in Aves and Lepidosauria are of the surface crevice type. In cartilaginous fish, amphibians, Crocodylidae and fresh water turtles, a substantial portion of the solvent accessible thiols are of the totally external type. Recent evidence shows that some Hb thiol groups are highly reactive and undergo extensive and reversible S-thiolation, and that they may be implicated in interorgan redox equilibrium processes. Participation of thiol groups in nitric oxide ((*)NO) metabolism has also been proved. The evidence argues for a new physiologically relevant role for Hb via involvement in free radical and antioxidant metabolism. PMID:17368111

  4. Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  5. A review of the behavioural and physiological adaptations of hill and lowland breeds of sheep that favour lamb survival

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cathy M. Dwyer; Alistair B. Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    Extensively managed animals, often living in harsh and unfavourable environments, need specific adaptations that promote survivability. This is particularly important at parturition and during the neonatal period, when ewe and lamb mortality is highest. To understand the survival adaptations of extensively managed breeds, we reviewed the behavioural and physiological adaptations of ewes and lambs of hill (extensive) breeds of sheep

  6. Ash, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium content of the metacarpus of hereford cows under different nutritional and physiological conditions 

    E-print Network

    Haque, Mozammel

    1967-01-01

    pounds pez head per r!ay because t!ieir feed allowance was calculated to supply 30 percent morc during pre-parture and 30 percent less during post-partum than that required by Croup A. The percentages of calcium, phosphorus and r?agnesium showa. i.... . 3566 31. 7197 1. 2973 1. 3804 1. 1960 1. 1991 41 'table 1 Continue&1. Cow Number Ash Percent in bon. Percent in bone ash C P Replicate 1 Croup C FP'F(%) 23 35 46 54 35. 72 16 9718 11, 38/IO 4949 36. 15 17, 1. 97/ 11. 4925 . 4259 40...

  7. Predicting organismal vulnerability to climate warming: roles of behaviour, physiology and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Huey, Raymond B; Kearney, Michael R; Krockenberger, Andrew; Holtum, Joseph A M; Jess, Mellissa; Williams, Stephen E

    2012-06-19

    A recently developed integrative framework proposes that the vulnerability of a species to environmental change depends on the species' exposure and sensitivity to environmental change, its resilience to perturbations and its potential to adapt to change. These vulnerability criteria require behavioural, physiological and genetic data. With this information in hand, biologists can predict organisms most at risk from environmental change. Biologists and managers can then target organisms and habitats most at risk. Unfortunately, the required data (e.g. optimal physiological temperatures) are rarely available. Here, we evaluate the reliability of potential proxies (e.g. critical temperatures) that are often available for some groups. Several proxies for ectotherms are promising, but analogous ones for endotherms are lacking. We also develop a simple graphical model of how behavioural thermoregulation, acclimation and adaptation may interact to influence vulnerability over time. After considering this model together with the proxies available for physiological sensitivity to climate change, we conclude that ectotherms sharing vulnerability traits seem concentrated in lowland tropical forests. Their vulnerability may be exacerbated by negative biotic interactions. Whether tropical forest (or other) species can adapt to warming environments is unclear, as genetic and selective data are scant. Nevertheless, the prospects for tropical forest ectotherms appear grim. PMID:22566674

  8. Common-garden studies on adaptive radiation of photosynthetic physiology among Hawaiian lobeliads.

    PubMed

    Givnish, Thomas J; Montgomery, Rebecca A

    2014-03-22

    Species in an adaptive radiation often occupy different habitats so that individuals of each species develop under different conditions. Showing that a radiation is adaptive thus requires evidence that taxa have diverged genetically and that each has an ecological advantage in using particular habitats or resources, taking into account both phenotypic plasticity and phylogenetic relationships among species. Here, we use a common-garden experiment to show that representative species of Hawaiian lobeliads have diverged adaptively in their leaf-level photosynthetic light responses. Across species, plants genetically shifted their photosynthetic physiology with native light regime in accord with theoretical predictions and exhibited adaptive crossover in net carbon gain-that is, species native to a given light regime outperformed others only under conditions similar to those they occupy in the field, with the rank order of species based on photosynthesis per unit leaf mass changing with light level. These findings make a powerful case for adaptation of photosynthetic light responses to native light regimes and, combined with our earlier field studies, provide the strongest demonstration to date for the evolution of divergent adaptations for energy capture in any group of closely related plants. PMID:24478303

  9. Common-garden studies on adaptive radiation of photosynthetic physiology among Hawaiian lobeliads

    PubMed Central

    Givnish, Thomas J.; Montgomery, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    Species in an adaptive radiation often occupy different habitats so that individuals of each species develop under different conditions. Showing that a radiation is adaptive thus requires evidence that taxa have diverged genetically and that each has an ecological advantage in using particular habitats or resources, taking into account both phenotypic plasticity and phylogenetic relationships among species. Here, we use a common-garden experiment to show that representative species of Hawaiian lobeliads have diverged adaptively in their leaf-level photosynthetic light responses. Across species, plants genetically shifted their photosynthetic physiology with native light regime in accord with theoretical predictions and exhibited adaptive crossover in net carbon gain—that is, species native to a given light regime outperformed others only under conditions similar to those they occupy in the field, with the rank order of species based on photosynthesis per unit leaf mass changing with light level. These findings make a powerful case for adaptation of photosynthetic light responses to native light regimes and, combined with our earlier field studies, provide the strongest demonstration to date for the evolution of divergent adaptations for energy capture in any group of closely related plants. PMID:24478303

  10. Adaptation to altitude as a vehicle for experiential learning of physiology by university undergraduates

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David S Weigle (University of Washington Medicine)

    2007-05-16

    In this article, an experiential learning activity is described in which 19 university undergraduates made experimental observations on each other to explore physiological adaptations to high altitude. Following 2 wk of didactic sessions and baseline data collection at sea level, the group ascended to a research station at 12,500-ft elevation. Here, teams of three to four students measured the maximal rate of oxygen uptake, cognitive function, hand and foot volume changes, reticulocyte count and hematocrit, urinary pH and 24-h urine volume, athletic performance, and nocturnal blood oxygen saturation. Their data allowed the students to quantify the effect of altitude on the oxygen cascade and to demonstrate the following altitude-related changes: 1) impaired performance on selected cognitive function tests, 2) mild peripheral edema, 3) rapid reticulocytosis, 4) urinary alkalinization and diuresis, 5) impaired aerobic but not anaerobic exercise performance, 6) inverse relationship between blood oxygen saturation and resting heart rate, and 7) regular periodic nocturnal oxygen desaturation events accompanied by heart rate accelerations. The students learned and applied basic statistical techniques to analyze their data, and each team summarized its results in the format of a scientific paper. The students were uniformly enthusiastic about the use of self-directed experimentation to explore the physiology of altitude adaptation and felt that they learned more from this course format than a control group of students felt that they learned from a physiology course taught by the same instructor in the standard classroom/laboratory format.

  11. Generation of an index for physiological imbalance and its use as a predictor of primary disease in dairy cows during early lactation.

    PubMed

    Moyes, K M; Larsen, T; Ingvartsen, K L

    2013-04-01

    Physiological imbalance (PI) is a situation in which physiological parameters deviate from the normal and cows consequently have an increased risk of developing production diseases and reduced production or reproduction. The objectives of this work were (1) to generate an index for PI based on several plasma metabolites and (2) to compare the use of this index with calculated energy balance (EBAL) and individual plasma metabolites in relation to risk of disease during early lactation. We used a total of 634 lactations from 317 cows consisting of 3 breeds ranging from a parity of 1 to 4. Weekly blood samples were analyzed for selected metabolites; that is, urea nitrogen, albumin, cholesterol, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose, and ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA). Energy intake and EBAL were calculated; veterinary treatment records and daily composite milk somatic cell counts were used to determine incidence of disease. Data were adjusted for numerous fixed effects (e.g., parity, breed, and week around calving) before further statistical analysis. The time of disease (TOD) was recorded as the day in which the signs of disease were observed (TOD=0). The week before and after TOD was ± n wk relative to TOD=0. Each week, all plasma metabolites were individually adjusted to an overall mean (=0) and variance (=1). The normalized variables were included in regression analyses by week of lactation to identify metabolites that explain the variation in calculated EBAL, as a reflection of degree of PI. Nonesterified fatty acids, BHBA, and glucose were weighted within each week based on regression coefficients (i.e., x1-x3 below) generated from a model to predict EBAL. Data from wk -1 relative to TOD were analyzed using a mixed linear model to relate degree of PI and metabolites in blood to risk of disease. The weekly PI index was defined as PI=(x1 × [NEFA])+x2 × [BHBA] - x3 × [glucose])/3. For diseases that developed ? 2 wk after calving, no variables were associated with risk of disease. Prepartal PI and plasma NEFA were better predictors of disease (i.e., metritis, retained placenta, and milk fever) at wk 1 than EBAL and plasma BHBA and glucose. Examining the relationship between PI and milk constituents is needed for the development of an automated in-line and real-time surveillance system for early detection of risk animals on-farm. PMID:23403197

  12. Physiological properties of the gut lumen of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea): adaptive to digesting lignocellulose?

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Martin; Brune, Andreas

    2005-05-01

    Since any given trait of an organism is considered to represent either an adaptation to the environment or a phylogenetic constraint, most physiological gut characteristics should be adaptive in terms of optimizing digestion and utilization of the respective food source. Among the Crustacea, the taxon Oniscidea (Isopoda) is the only suborder that includes, and essentially consists of, species inhabiting terrestrial environments, feeding on food sources different from those of most other Crustacea (i.e., terrestrial leaf litter). Microelectrodes were used to assay physiological characteristics of the gut lumen from representatives of four families of terrestrial isopods: Trichoniscus pusillus (Trichoniscidae), Oniscus asellus (Oniscidae), Porcellio scaber (Porcellionidae), and Trachelipus rathkii (Trachelipodidae). Microsensor measurements of oxygen pressure (Clark-type oxygen microelectrodes) revealed that O2-consuming processes inside the gut lumen created steep radial oxygen gradients. Although all guts were oxic in the periphery, the radial center of the posterior hindgut was micro-oxic or even anoxic in the adults of the larger species. The entire gut lumen of all examined species was strongly oxidizing (Pt microelectrodes; apparent redox potential, Eh: +600-700 mV). Such conditions would allow for the coexistence of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, with both oxidative and fermentative activities contributing to digestion. Although bacterial O2 consumption was also observed in the midgut glands (hepatopancreas), they remained entirely oxic, probably owing to their large surface-to-volume ratio and high oxygen fluxes across the hepatopancreatic epithelium into the gland lumen. Measurements with pH microelectrodes (LIX-type) showed a slight pH gradient from acidic conditions in the anterior hindgut to neutral conditions in the posterior hindgut of O. asellus, P. scaber and T. rathkii. By contrast, the pH in the hindgut lumen of T. pusillus was almost constant. We discuss to what extent these physiological characteristics may be adaptive to the digestion of terrestrial food sources that are rich in lignocellulose. PMID:15900508

  13. Behavioural and physiological adaptations to low-temperature environments in the common frog, Rana temporaria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Extreme environments can impose strong ecological and evolutionary pressures at a local level. Ectotherms are particularly sensitive to low-temperature environments, which can result in a reduced activity period, slowed physiological processes and increased exposure to sub-zero temperatures. The aim of this study was to assess the behavioural and physiological responses that facilitate survival in low-temperature environments. In particular, we asked: 1) do high-altitude common frog (Rana temporaria) adults extend the time available for larval growth by breeding at lower temperatures than low-altitude individuals?; and 2) do tadpoles sampled from high-altitude sites differ physiologically from those from low-altitude sites, in terms of routine metabolic rate (RMR) and freeze tolerance? Breeding date was assessed as the first day of spawn observation and local temperature recorded for five, paired high- and low-altitude R. temporaria breeding sites in Scotland. Spawn was collected and tadpoles raised in a common laboratory environment, where RMR was measured as oxygen consumed using a closed respiratory tube system. Freeze tolerance was measured as survival following slow cooling to the point when all container water had frozen. Results We found that breeding did not occur below 5°C at any site and there was no significant relationship between breeding temperature and altitude, leading to a delay in spawning of five days for every 100 m increase in altitude. The relationship between altitude and RMR varied by mountain but was lower for individuals sampled from high- than low-altitude sites within the three mountains with the highest high-altitude sites (?900 m). In contrast, individuals sampled from low-altitudes survived freezing significantly better than those from high-altitudes, across all mountains. Conclusions Our results suggest that adults at high-altitude do not show behavioural adaptations in terms of breeding at lower temperatures. However, tadpoles appear to have the potential to adapt physiologically to surviving at high-altitude via reduced RMR but without an increase in freeze tolerance. Therefore, survival at high-altitude may be facilitated by physiological mechanisms that permit faster growth rates, allowing completion of larval development within a shorter time period, alleviating the need for adaptations that extend the time available for larval growth. PMID:24885261

  14. Local Adaptation to Altitude Underlies Divergent Thermal Physiology in Tropical Killifishes of the Genus Aphyosemion

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, David J.; Estivales, Guillan; Svendsen, Jon C.; Steffensen, John F.; Agnèse, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    In watersheds of equatorial West Africa, monophyletic groups of killifish species (genus Aphyosemion) occur in discrete altitudinal ranges, low altitude species (LA, sea level to ?350 m) or high altitude species (HA, 350 to 900 m). We investigated the hypothesis that local adaptation to altitude by the LA and HA species would be revealed as divergent effects of temperature on their physiological energetics. Two species from each group (mass ?350 mg) were acclimated to 19, 25 and 28°C, with 19 and 28°C estimated to be outside the thermal envelope for LA or HA, respectively, in the wild. Wild-caught animals (F0 generation) were compared with animals raised in captivity at 25°C (F1 generation) to investigate the contribution of adaptation versus plasticity. Temperature significantly increased routine metabolic rate in all groups and generations. However, LA and HA species differed in the effects of temperature on their ability to process a meal. At 25°C, the specific dynamic action (SDA) response was completed within 8 h in all groups, but acclimation to temperatures beyond the thermal envelope caused profound declines in SDA performance. At 19°C, the LA required ?14 h to complete the SDA, whereas the HA required only ?7 h. The opposite effect was observed at 28°C. This effect was evident in both F0 and F1. Reaction norms for effects of temperature on SDA therefore revealed a trade-off, with superior performance at warmer temperatures by LA being associated with inferior performance at cooler temperatures, and vice-versa in HA. The data indicate that divergent physiological responses to temperature in the LA and HA species reflect local adaptation to the thermal regime in their habitat, and that local adaptation to one thermal environment trades off against performance in another. PMID:23349857

  15. The effects of restraint using self-locking stanchions on dairy cows in relation to behavior, feed intake, physiological parameters, health, and milk yield.

    PubMed

    Bolinger, D J; Albright, J L; Morrow-Tesch, J; Kenyon, S J; Cunningham, M D

    1997-10-01

    Holstein cows (n = 64) ranging from peak to end lactation were restrained in self-locking stanchions (i.e., head locks) for approximately 4 h/d for four periods in a modified switchback design. Milk yield, milk fat percentage, somatic cell count, and dry matter intake and dry matter intake were unaffected by restraint. Milk protein percentage was significantly lower for cows that were restrained. Plasma cortisol concentrations and the ratio of neutrophils to mononuclear cells were not significantly different between restrained and unrestrained (control) cows. No difference in the incidence of mastitis or other health concerns was noted. Behaviorally, cows that were locked in the stanchions spent significantly more time lying after release from restraint. For cows that were locked up, eating frequency over 24 h was significantly reduced, but dry matter intake was not affected. Total rumination frequency over 24 h was not significantly different for cows that were restraubed; however, cows that were restrained ruminated less during the day following release. Grooming was considered to be a behavioral need and was significantly increased during all times when cows were not locked up. Grooming was also one of the first behaviors performed following release. Acts of aggression were elevated during all periods following restraint, but oral behaviors, such as tongue playing and chewing on objects, drinking behavior, and resting postures were not affected. The use of self-locking stanchions did not appear to affect substantially the overall well-being of the cow. PMID:9361214

  16. Free ferulic acid uptake in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Soberon, M A; Cherney, J H; Liu, R H; Ross, D A; Cherney, D J R

    2012-11-01

    Ferulic acid (FRA), a phenolic compound with antioxidant and anticancer activities, naturally occurs in plants as a lignin precursor. Many veins of research have been devoted to releasing FRA from the lignin complex to improve digestibility of ruminant feeds. Thus, the objective of this research was to investigate the transfer of a given dosage of the free form of FRA into the milk of dairy cattle. Six mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows at the Cornell Research Farm (Harford, NY) were given 14-d adaptation to diet and stall position. Ad libitum access to a total mixed ration based on haylage and maize silage (31.1% neutral detergent fiber containing 5.52 mg of FRA/g) was provided during the study. A crossover design was implemented so that each cow alternated weekly between FRA-dosed and control. On d 1, jugular cannulas and urine catheters were placed in all cows. On d 2, FRA-dosed cows received a single dosage of 150 g of pure FRA powder at 0830 h via their fistula (n=4) or a balling gun for nonfistulated cows (n=2). Plasma, urine, feces, feed, orts, milk, and rumen fluid were sampled intensively for the next 36 h and analyzed for FRA concentration. On d 8, the cows crossed over and the experiment was repeated. When compared with the control, FRA administration did not have an effect on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk fat yield, milk protein yield, somatic cell count, or neutral detergent fiber content of orts and feces. The concentration of FRA in the feces did not change as a result of FRA dosage. As expected, FRA concentration increased dramatically upon FRA dosage and decreased over time until returning to basal levels in rumen fluid (4 h after dosage), plasma (5.5 h after dosage), urine (10 h after dosage), and milk (14 h after dosage). Baseline values for FRA in urine and rumen fluid were variable among cows and had an effect on FRA concentration in FRA-dosed cows. From this study, it is observed that orally ingested FRA can be transported into the milk and that the physiological transfer of FRA occurs from rumen to milk within 6.5 h or the first milking after dosage. Ferulic acid may affect the functionality of milk due to its antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial activities. Future research will be required to elucidate whether FRA in milk is bioavailable and bioactive, and to evaluate the complete sensory and microbiological effects of increased FRA and FRA degradation products in milk. PMID:22921626

  17. Adaptation to Shift Work: Physiologically Based Modeling of the Effects of Lighting and Shifts’ Start Time

    PubMed Central

    Postnova, Svetlana; Robinson, Peter A.; Postnov, Dmitry D.

    2013-01-01

    Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers’ sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n?=?8) in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers’ adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21?00 instead of 00?00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters. PMID:23308206

  18. Invited review: heat stress effects during late gestation on dry cows and their calves.

    PubMed

    Tao, S; Dahl, G E

    2013-07-01

    In dairy cattle, late gestation is a critical period for fetal growth and physiological transition into the next lactation. Environmental factors, such as temperature and light, exert dramatic effects on the production, health, and well-being of animals during this period and after parturition. The aim of this review was to introduce effects of heat stress during late gestation on dairy cattle, and discuss the biological mechanisms that underlie the observed production and health responses in the dam and her fetus. Relative to cooled cows, cows that are heat stressed during late gestation have impaired mammary growth before parturition and decreased milk production in the subsequent lactation. In response to higher milk yield, cows cooled prepartum undergo a series of homeorhetic adaptations in early lactation to meet higher demand for milk synthesis compared with heat-stressed cows, but no direct effect of environmental heat stress on metabolism exists during the dry period. Prepartum cooling improves immune status of transition cows and evidence suggests that altered prolactin signaling in immune cells mediates the effects of heat stress on immune function. Late-gestation heat stress compromises placental development, which results in fetal hypoxia, malnutrition, and eventually fetal growth retardation. Maternal heat stress may also have carryover effects on the postnatal growth of offspring, but direct evidence is still lacking. Emerging evidence suggests that offspring from prepartum heat-stressed cows have compromised passive immunity and impaired cell-mediated immune function compared with those from cooled cows. PMID:23664343

  19. Antepartal insulin-like growth factor concentrations indicating differences in the metabolic adaptive capacity of dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Holzhausen, Lars; Araujo, Marcelo Gil; Heppelmann, Maike; Sipka, Anja; Pfarrer, Chistiane; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim; Bollwein, Heinrich

    2014-01-01

    Cows with different Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations showed comparable expression levels of hepatic growth hormone receptor (GHR). Suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2), could be responsible for additional inhibition of the GHR signal cascade. The aims were to monitor cows with high or low antepartal IGF-I concentrations (IGF-Ihigh or IGF-Ilow), evaluate the interrelationships of endocrine endpoints, and measure hepatic SOCS2 expression. Dairy cows (n = 20) were selected (240 to 254 days after artificial insemination (AI)). Blood samples were drawn daily (day -17 until calving) and IGF-I, GH, insulin, thyroid hormones, estradiol, and progesterone concentrations were measured. Liver biopsies were taken (day 264 ± 1 after AI and postpartum) to measure mRNA expression (IGF-I, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, IGFBP-4, acid labile subunit (ALS), SOCS2, deiodinase1, GHR1A). IGF-I concentrations in the two groups were different (p < 0.0001). However, GH concentrations and GHR1A mRNA expression were comparable (p > 0.05). Thyroxine levels and ALS expression were higher in the IGF-Ihigh cows compared to IGF-Ilow cows. Estradiol concentration tended to be greater in the IGF-Ilow group (p = 0.06). It was hypothesized that low IGF-I levels are associated with enhanced SOCS2 expression although this could not be decisively confirmed by the present study. PMID:24962413

  20. Seasonal variation in coat characteristics, tick loads, cortisol levels, some physiological parameters and temperature humidity index on Nguni cows raised in low- and high-input farms.

    PubMed

    Katiyatiya, C L F; Muchenje, V; Mushunje, A

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal variations in hair length, tick loads, cortisol levels, haematological parameters (HP) and temperature humidity index (THI) in Nguni cows of different colours raised in two low-input farms, and a commercial stud was determined. The sites were chosen based on their production systems, climatic characteristics and geographical locations. Zazulwana and Komga are low-input, humid-coastal areas, while Honeydale is a high-input, dry-inland Nguni stud farm. A total of 103 cows, grouped according to parity, location and coat colour, were used in the study. The effects of location, coat colour, hair length and season were used to determine tick loads on different body parts, cortisol levels and HP in blood from Nguni cows. Highest tick loads were recorded under the tail and the lowest on the head of each of the animals (P?cows recorded the highest tick loads under the tails of all the cows used in the study from the three farms (P?cows with long hairs. Hair lengths were longest during the winter season in the coastal areas of Zazulwana and Honeydale (P?cows had significantly longer (P?cows. PMID:25172085

  1. Seasonal variation in coat characteristics, tick loads, cortisol levels, some physiological parameters and temperature humidity index on Nguni cows raised in low- and high-input farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katiyatiya, C. L. F.; Muchenje, V.; Mushunje, A.

    2014-08-01

    Seasonal variations in hair length, tick loads, cortisol levels, haematological parameters (HP) and temperature humidity index (THI) in Nguni cows of different colours raised in two low-input farms, and a commercial stud was determined. The sites were chosen based on their production systems, climatic characteristics and geographical locations. Zazulwana and Komga are low-input, humid-coastal areas, while Honeydale is a high-input, dry-inland Nguni stud farm. A total of 103 cows, grouped according to parity, location and coat colour, were used in the study. The effects of location, coat colour, hair length and season were used to determine tick loads on different body parts, cortisol levels and HP in blood from Nguni cows. Highest tick loads were recorded under the tail and the lowest on the head of each of the animals (P < 0.05). Zazulwana cows recorded the highest tick loads under the tails of all the cows used in the study from the three farms (P < 0.05). High tick loads were recorded for cows with long hairs. Hair lengths were longest during the winter season in the coastal areas of Zazulwana and Honeydale (P < 0.05). White and brown-white patched cows had significantly longer (P < 0.05) hair strands than those having a combination of red, black and white colour. Cortisol and THI were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in summer season. Red blood cells, haematoglobin, haematocrit, mean cell volumes, white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils were significantly different (P < 0.05) as some associated with age across all seasons and correlated to THI. It was concluded that the location, coat colour and season had effects on hair length, cortisol levels, THI, HP and tick loads on different body parts and heat stress in Nguni cows.

  2. Seasonal variation in coat characteristics, tick loads, cortisol levels, some physiological parameters and temperature humidity index on Nguni cows raised in low- and high-input farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katiyatiya, C. L. F.; Muchenje, V.; Mushunje, A.

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal variations in hair length, tick loads, cortisol levels, haematological parameters (HP) and temperature humidity index (THI) in Nguni cows of different colours raised in two low-input farms, and a commercial stud was determined. The sites were chosen based on their production systems, climatic characteristics and geographical locations. Zazulwana and Komga are low-input, humid-coastal areas, while Honeydale is a high-input, dry-inland Nguni stud farm. A total of 103 cows, grouped according to parity, location and coat colour, were used in the study. The effects of location, coat colour, hair length and season were used to determine tick loads on different body parts, cortisol levels and HP in blood from Nguni cows. Highest tick loads were recorded under the tail and the lowest on the head of each of the animals ( P < 0.05). Zazulwana cows recorded the highest tick loads under the tails of all the cows used in the study from the three farms ( P < 0.05). High tick loads were recorded for cows with long hairs. Hair lengths were longest during the winter season in the coastal areas of Zazulwana and Honeydale ( P < 0.05). White and brown-white patched cows had significantly longer ( P < 0.05) hair strands than those having a combination of red, black and white colour. Cortisol and THI were significantly lower ( P < 0.05) in summer season. Red blood cells, haematoglobin, haematocrit, mean cell volumes, white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils were significantly different ( P < 0.05) as some associated with age across all seasons and correlated to THI. It was concluded that the location, coat colour and season had effects on hair length, cortisol levels, THI, HP and tick loads on different body parts and heat stress in Nguni cows.

  3. Effect of farm and simulated laboratory cold environmental conditions on the performance and physiological responses of lactating dairy cows supplemented with bovine somatotropin (BST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, B. A.; Johnson, H. D.; Li, R.; Collier, R. J.

    1990-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of bovine somatotropin (BST) supplementation in twelve lactating dairy cows maintained in cold environmental conditions. Six cows were injected daily with 25 mg of BST; the other six were injected with a control vehicle. Cows were maintained under standard dairy management during mid-winter for 30 days. Milk production was recorded twice daily, and blood samples were taken weekly. Animals were then transferred to environmentally controlled chambers and exposed to cycling thermoneutral (15° to 20° C) and cycling cold (-5° to +5° C) temperatures for 10 days in a split-reversal design. Milk production, feed and water intake, body weights and rectal temperatures were monitored. Blood samples were taken on days 1, 3, 5, 8 and 10 of each period and analyzed for plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), cortisol, insulin and prolactin. Under farm conditions, BST-treated cows produced 11% more milk than control-treated cows and in environmentally controlled chambers produced 17.4% more milk. No differences due to BST in feed or water intake, body weights or rectal temperatures were found under laboratory conditions. Plasma T3 and insulin increased due to BST treatment while no effect was found on cortisol, prolactin or T4. The results showed that the benefits of BST supplementation in lactating dairy cows were achieved under cold environmental conditions.

  4. The effect of stress on udder health of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Giesecke, W H

    1985-09-01

    The appropriate literature has been reviewed for the purpose of defining the phenomenon of stress in lactating dairy cattle, establishing a baseline concept of lactation stress and emphasizing the most significant aspects of the natural mammary defence mechanisms. Data on the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) make it clear that stress is essentially the rate of wear and tear of the biological system affected by a stressor either eliciting stress of the organism as a whole or partly so. Owing to the variety of stressors which may affect the dairy cow at physiological and pathological levels, a definition of stress in the broad sense is indicated. This is essential from the point of view of the anti-homeostatic effects (metabolic and immunological) of lactation stress, aggravated by anti-homeostatic effects elicited by superimposed other types of stress (e.g. heat stress). The lactating cow, as a ruminant in a state of sustained stress, requires a special profile of hormonal mediators. In high yielding cows, for example, acute and sustained heat stress promotes increased activities of prolactin, progesterone and catecholamines. Compared with the mainly glycogenic/glycogenolytic metabolism of non-ruminant mammals, the lipogenic/lipolytic and glycogenic/glycogenolytic metabolism of the dairy cow depends on hormonal mediators which differ from those of the former not so much in their nature but in their magnitude and ratios. Stressors induce the development of GAS reactions in the dairy cow. These enable the cow to create and maintain homeostasis of its integrated 3 main physio-pathological systems and thus to endure the stressor(s). The cow's compensating adjustments to a stressor are therefore the effects of stress. This means that natural lactation is the effect of the lactation stress induced by the cow's progeny (i.e. the natural lactation stressor). Artificial lactation stressors (e.g. removal of milk by hand and machine) may affect the lactation stress in magnitude but not necessarily in nature. Likewise, a range of behavioural, physiological, lactational and lacteal changes related to other stressors are the effects of different types of stress. Lactation stress, like other types of stress, shows 3 stages of development, i.e., an overcompensating alarm phase (= lactogenesis), resistance phase (= galactopoiesis) and exhaustion phase (= regression). They facilitate adjustments of the cow's homeostasis from the level of involutional homeostasis (= no lactational activity) to that of lactational homeostasis. Like other tissues in a state of stress, the lactating mammary epithelium requires a greatly increased supply of glucose.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3911132

  5. Interval versus continuous training with identical workload: physiological and aerobic capacity adaptations.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, G G; Gobatto, C A; Marcos-Pereira, M; Dos Reis, I Gm; Verlengia, R

    2015-05-20

    The interval model training has been more recommended to promote aerobic adaptations due to recovery period that enables the execution of elevated intensity and as consequence, higher workload in relation to continuous training. However, the physiological and aerobic capacity adaptations in interval training with identical workload to continuous are still uncertain. The purpose was to characterize the effects of chronic and acute biomarkers adaptations and aerobic capacity in interval and continuous protocols with equivalent load. Fifty Wistar rats were divided in three groups: Continuous training (GTC), interval training (GTI) and control (CG). The running training lasted 8 weeks (wk) and was based at Anaerobic Threshold (AT) velocity. GTI showed glycogen super-compensation (mg/100 mg) 48 h after training session in relation to CG and GTC (GTI red gastrocnemius (RG)=1.41+/-0.16; GTI white gastrocnemius (WG)=1.78+/-0.20; GTI soleus (S)=0.26+/-0.01; GTI liver (L)=2.72+/-0.36; GTC RG=0.42+/-0.17; GTC WG=0.54+/-0.22; GTC S=0.100+/-0.01; GTC L=1.12+/-0.24; CG RG=0.32+/-0.05; CG WG=0.65+/-0.17; CG S=0.14+/-0.01; CG L=2.28+/-0.33). The volume performed by GTI was higher than GTC. The aerobic capacity reduced 11 % after experimental period in GTC when compared to GTI, but this change was insignificant (19.6+/-5.4 m/min; 17.7+/-2.5 m/min, effect size = 0.59). Free fatty acids and glucose concentration did not show statistical differences among the groups. Corticosterone concentration increased in acute condition for GTI and GTC. Testosterone concentration reduced 71 % in GTC immediately after the exercise in comparison to CG. The GTI allowed positive adaptations when compared to GTC in relation to: glycogen super-compensation, training volume performed and anabolic condition. However, the GTI not improved the aerobic performance. PMID:25317688

  6. Molecular inflammation and adipose tissue matrix remodeling precede physiological adaptations to pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Resi, Veronica; Basu, Subhabrata; Haghiac, Maricela; Presley, Larraine; Minium, Judi; Kaufman, Bram; Bernard, Steven; Catalano, Patrick; Hauguel-de Mouzon, Sylvie

    2012-10-01

    Changes in adipose tissue metabolism are central to adaptation of whole body energy homeostasis to pregnancy. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms supporting tissue remodeling, we have characterized the longitudinal changes of the adipose transcriptome in human pregnancy. Healthy nonobese women recruited pregravid were followed in early (8-12 wk) and in late (36-38 wk) pregnancy. Adipose tissue biopsies were obtained in the fasting state from the gluteal depot. The adipose transcriptome was examined via whole genome DNA microarray. Expression of immune-related genes and extracellular matrix components was measured using real-time RT-PCR. Adipose mass, adipocyte size, and cell number increased in late pregnancy compared with pregravid measurements (P < 0.001) but remained unchanged in early pregnancy. The adipose transcriptome evolved during pregnancy with 10-15% of genes being differently expressed compared with pregravid. Functional gene cluster analysis revealed that the early molecular changes affected immune responses, angiogenesis, matrix remodeling, and lipid biosynthesis. Increased expression of macrophage markers (CD68, CD14, and the mannose-6 phosphate receptor) emphasized the recruitment of the immune network in both early and late pregnancy. The TLR4/NF-?B signaling pathway was enhanced specifically in relation to inflammatory adipokines and chemokines genes. We conclude that early recruitment of metabolic and immune molecular networks precedes the appearance of pregnancy-related physiological changes in adipose tissue. This biphasic pattern suggests that physiological inflammation is an early step preceding the development of insulin resistance, which peaks in late pregnancy. PMID:22811467

  7. Prepartal dietary energy alters transcriptional adaptations of the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue of dairy cows during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Selim, S; Salin, S; Taponen, J; Vanhatalo, A; Kokkonen, T; Elo, K T

    2014-05-01

    Overfeeding during the dry period may predispose cows to increased insulin resistance (IR) with enhanced postpartum lipolysis. We studied gene expression in the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of 16 Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows fed either a controlled energy diet [Con, 99 MJ/day metabolizable energy (ME)] during the last 6 wk of the dry period or high-energy diet (High, 141 MJ/day ME) for the first 3 wk and then gradually decreasing energy allowance during 3 wk to 99 MJ/day ME before the expected parturition. Tissue biopsies were collected at -10, 1, and 9 days, and blood samples at -10, 1, and 7 days relative to parturition. Overfed cows had greater dry matter, crude protein, and ME intakes and ME balance before parturition. Daily milk yield, live weight, and body condition score were not different between treatments. The High cows tended to have greater plasma insulin and lower glucagon/insulin ratio compared with Con cows. No differences in circulating glucose, glucagon, nonesterified fatty acids and ?-hydroxybutyrate concentrations, and hepatic triglyceride contents were observed between treatments. Overfeeding compared with Con resulted in lower CPT1A and PCK1 and a tendency for lower G6PC and PC expression in the liver. The High group tended to have lower RETN expression in SAT than Con. No other effects of overfeeding on the expression of genes related to IR in SAT were observed. In conclusion, overfeeding energy prepartum may have compromised hepatic gluconeogenic capacity and slightly affected IR in SAT based on gene expression. PMID:24569674

  8. Physiological cellular responses and adaptations of Rhodococcus erythropolis IBBPo1 to toxic organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Stancu, Mihaela Marilena

    2014-10-01

    A new Gram-positive bacterium, Rhodococcus erythropolis IBBPo1 (KF059972.1) was isolated from a crude oil-contaminated soil sample by enrichment culture method. R. erythropolis IBBPo1 was able to tolerate a wide range of toxic compounds, such as antibiotics (800-1000?g/mL), synthetic surfactants (50-200?g/mL), and organic solvents (40%-100%). R. erythropolis IBBPo1 showed good tolerance to both alkanes (cyclohexane, n-hexane, n-decane) and aromatics (toluene, styrene, ethylbenzene) with logPOW (logarithm of the partition coefficient of the solvent in octanol-water mixture) values between 2.64 and 5.98. However, alkanes were less toxic for R. erythropolis IBBPo1 cells, compared with aromatics. The high organic solvent tolerance of R. erythropolis IBBPo1 could be due to the presence in their large genome of some catabolic (alkB, alkB1, todC1, todM, xylM), transporter (HAE1) and trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (otsA1, KF059973.1) genes. Numerous and complex physiological cellular responses and adaptations involved in organic solvent tolerance were revealed in R. erythropolis IBBPo1 cells exposed 1 and 24hr to 1% organic solvents. R. erythropolis IBBPo1 cells adapt to 1% organic solvents by changing surface hydrophobicity, morphology and their metabolic fingerprinting. Considerable modifications in otsA1 gene sequence were also observed in cells exposed to organic solvents (except ethylbenzene). PMID:25288551

  9. Genetic and Physiological Adaptation of the Copepod EURYTEMORA AFFINIS to Seasonal Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Brian P.

    1978-01-01

    Evidence of significant additive genetic (genic) variance in temperature tolerance of the copepod Eurytemora affinis was derived from several sources. Differences were observed between average tolerances of progeny of animals exposed and not exposed to heat shock in a power plant. Genic variance was estimated using offspring-parent regressions, full-sib, and half-sib covariances, with quite consistent results. Expressed genic variance between male progeny was always higher than that among female progeny.—The pairs of estimates obtained were as follows: female heritabilities first, 0.40 ± 0.09 and 0.84 ± 0.35 (half-sibs); 0.20 ± 0.09 and 0.79 ± 0.24 (full-sibs); 0.11 ± 0.10 and 0.89 ± 0.45 (full-sibs); 0.28 ± 0.18 and 0.78 ± 0.29 (full-sibs); 0.11 ± 0.44 and 0.72 ± 0.26 (offspring-parent regression). There was no evidence of either nonadditive genetic variance or common environmental (maternal and brood) effects, implying that the genetic variance was mostly additive and was not maintained because of heterozygous advantage.—The presence of so much genetic variance is surprising in view of the high physiological adaptation found earlier, especially in females. PMID:17248856

  10. Physiological and proteomic adaptation of the alpine grass Stipa purpurea to a drought gradient.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunqiang; Dong, Chao; Yang, Shihai; Li, Xiong; Sun, Xudong; Yang, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    Stipa purpurea, an endemic forage species on the Tibetan Plateau, is highly resistant to cold and drought, but the mechanisms underlying its responses to drought stress remain elusive. An understanding of such mechanisms may be useful for developing cultivars that are adaptable to water deficit. In this study, we analyzed the physiological and proteomic responses of S. purpurea under increasing drought stress. Seedlings of S. purpurea were subjected to a drought gradient in a controlled experiment, and proteins showing changes in abundance under these conditions were identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry analysis. A western blotting analysis was conducted to confirm the increased abundance of a heat-shock protein, NCED2, and a dehydrin in S. purpurea seedlings under drought conditions. We detected carbonylated proteins to identify oxidation-sensitive proteins in S. purpurea seedlings, and found that ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (RuBisCO) was one of the oxidation-sensitive proteins under drought. Together, these results indicated drought stress might inhibit photosynthesis in S. purpurea by oxidizing RuBisCO, but the plants were able to maintain photosynthetic efficiency by a compensatory upregulation of unoxidized RuBisCO and other photosynthesis-related proteins. Further analyses confirmed that increased abundance of antioxidant enzymes could balance the redox status of the plants to mitigate drought-induced oxidative damage. PMID:25646623

  11. NaCl-induced physiological and biochemical adaptative mechanisms in the ornamental Myrtus communis L. plants.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Motos, José Ramón; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Álvarez, Sara; Fernández-García, Nieves; Sánchez-Blanco, María Jesús; Hernández, José Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Physiological and biochemical changes in Myrtus communis L. plants after being subjected to different solutions of NaCl (44, and 88mM) for up to 30 days (Phase I) and after recovery from the salinity period (Phase II) were studied. Myrtle plants showed salinity tolerance by displaying a series of adaptative mechanisms to cope with salt-stress, including controlled ion homeostasis, the increase in root/shoot ratio, the reduction of water potentials and stomatal conductance to limit water loss. In addition, they displayed different strategies to protect the photosynthetic machinery, including limiting toxic ion accumulation in leaves, increase in chlorophyll content, and changes in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, leaf anatomy and increases in catalase activity. Anatomical modifications in leaves, including a decrease in spongy parenchyma and increased intercellular spaces, allow CO2 diffusion in a situation of reduced stomatal aperture. In spite of all these changes, salinity produced oxidative stress in myrtle plants as monitored by increases in oxidative stress parameter values. The post-recovery period is perceived as a new stress situation, as observed through effects on plant growth and alterations in non-photochemical quenching parameters and lipid peroxidation values. PMID:26074356

  12. Questioning the Resistance/Aerobic Training Dichotomy: A commentary on physiological adaptations determined by effort rather than exercise modality

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, James; Steele, James

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses and challenges the current opinion that exercise adaptation is generally defined by modality; resistance exercise (RE), or aerobic exercise (AE). In presenting a strong body of recent research which demonstrably challenges these perceptions we suggest alternate hypotheses towards physiological adaptation which is hinged more upon the effort than the exercise modality. Practical implications of this interpretation of exercise adaptation might effect change in exercise adherence since existing barriers to exercise of time, costs, specialized equipment, etc. become nullified. In presenting the evidence herein we suggest that lay persons wishing to attain the health and fitness (including strength and muscle hypertrophy) benefits of exercise can choose from a wide range of potential exercise modalities so long as the effort is high. Future research should consider this hypothesis by directly comparing RE and AE for acute responses and chronic adaptations. PMID:25713674

  13. A Chemosensory Adaptation Module for the Physiology Laboratory from Student-Directed "C. elegans" Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindblom, Tim

    2006-01-01

    The model organism, "Caenorhabditis elegans," in addition to being well suited to genetics and cell biology teaching applications, can also be useful in the physiology laboratory. In this article, the author describes how students in a junior level college Comparative Physiology course have made use of "C. elegans" in semester-long,…

  14. Relation between QT interval and heart rate. New design of physiologically adaptive cardiac pacemaker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A F Rickards; J Norman

    1981-01-01

    The relation between QT interval and heart rate has been studied in a group of patients undergoing physiological exercise, in a group undergoing atrial pacing without exercise, and in a group with complete heart block undergoing exercise at a fixed ventricular rate controlled by cardiac pacing. The expected shortening in QT interval during physiological exercise is only in part the

  15. A neutral DNA marker suggests that parallel physiological adaptations to open shore and salt marsh habitats have evolved more than once within two different species of gastropods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. M. Sokolova; E. G. Boulding

    2004-01-01

    Local adaptation is an important mechanism generating physiological diversity and can be especially pronounced in species with restricted dispersal and gene flow such as direct developing snails of the genus Littorina. We compared physiological responses to salinity and desiccation stress in two co-occurring species of northeastern Pacific Littorina ( L. subrotundata and L. sitkana) with salt marsh and open shore

  16. HEMOGLOBIN FUNCTION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATION TO HYPOXIA IN HIGH-ALTITUDE MAMMALS

    E-print Network

    Storz, Jay F.

    polymorphism in North American deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) that illustrates how integrative studies, evolutionary physiology, hemoglobin, hypoxia, natural selection, oxygen transport, Peromyscus maniculatus High a case study involving a complex hemoglobin polymorphism in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus

  17. Responses of energy balance, physiology, and production for transition dairy cows fed with a low-energy prepartum diet during hot season.

    PubMed

    Su, Huawei; Wang, Yachun; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Fuwei; Cao, Zhijun; Rahman, Muhammad Aziz Ur; Cao, Binghai; Li, Shengli

    2013-10-01

    Twenty multiparous Chinese Holstein dairy cows calving in hot summer (S group), were compared with 20 similar control cows calving in cool autumn (C group). Diets were the same for both groups; prepartum diets had relatively low energy density. Average temperature-humidity index was 76.5 and 53.0 in summer and autumn, respectively. S group cows had significantly higher rectal temperatures (39.6 vs. 39.0 °C) and respiration rates (79.0 vs. 31.3 breaths/min) than C group, and consumed less feed (prepartum 8.0 vs. 12.3 kg/day, postpartum 16.3 vs. 21.2 kg/day). Calculated energy balance (EB) was -7.98 vs. -5.15 Mcal/day for S group prepartum and postpartum, respectively. In contrast, EB was 1.36 vs. -2.03 Mcal/day for C group prepartum and postpartum, respectively. S group produced significantly less milk than C group by 15.4 % (5.2 kg/day) and 26.8 % (10.2 kg/d) for milk yield and energy-corrected milk, respectively. Percentages of milk fat (3.28 vs. 4.29 %), protein (3.08 vs. 3.33 %), and solids-not-fat (8.46 vs. 8.78 %) were significantly lower for S group. Milk urea nitrogen (19.54 vs. 13.31 mg/dL) was significantly higher in S group. Significantly lower feed efficiency was observed in S group (1.56 vs. 1.66). During the entire transition period, S group had significantly lower circulating glucose levels. S group had significantly higher levels of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) prepartum, but after 14 days in milk, NEFA was significantly lower. We conclude that increasing dietary energy density during transition period (especially prepartum) is necessary to minimize adverse effects of hot season. PMID:23584629

  18. Estimating the capability of microalgae to physiological acclimatization and genetic adaptation to petroleum and diesel oil contamination.

    PubMed

    Romero-Lopez, Julia; Lopez-Rodas, Victoria; Costas, Eduardo

    2012-11-15

    There is increasing scientific interest in how phytoplankton reacts to petroleum contamination, since crude oil and its derivatives are generating extensive contamination of aquatic environments. However, toxic effects of short-term petroleum exposure are more widely known than the adaptation of phytoplankton to long-term petroleum exposure. An analysis of short-term and long-term effects of petroleum exposure was done using experimental populations of freshwater (Scenedesmus intermedius and Microcystis aeruginosa) and marine (Dunaliella tertiolecta) microalgae isolated from pristine sites without crude oil product contamination. These strains were exposed to increased levels of petroleum and diesel oil. Short-term exposure to petroleum or diesel oil revealed a rapid inhibition of photosynthetic performance and cell proliferation in freshwater and marine phytoplankton species. A broad degree of inter-specific variation in lethal contamination level was observed. When different strains were exposed to petroleum or diesel oil over the long-term, the cultures showed massive destruction of the sensitive cells. Nonetheless, after further incubation, some cultures were able to grow again due to cells that were resistant to the toxins. By means of a fluctuation analysis, discrimination between cells that had become resistant due to physiological acclimatization and resistant cells arising from rare spontaneous mutations was accomplished. In addition, an analysis was done as to the maximum capacity of adaptation to a gradual contamination process. An experimental ratchet protocol was used, which maintains a strong selection pressure in a temporal scale up to several months over very large experimental populations of microalgae. Microalgae are able to survive to petroleum contamination as a result of physiological acclimatization without genetic changes. However, when petroleum concentration exceeds the physiological limits, survival depends exclusively on the occurrence on mutations that confer resistance and subsequent selection of these mutants. Finally, it is certain that further mutations and selection will ultimately determine adaptation of microalgae to the environmental forcing. PMID:22982500

  19. Ecological adaptation in Lolium : morphologi-cal and physiological parameters at early stages

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    on persistence of the two varieties. Additional key words : Lolium perenne, Mediterranean climate, physiological morphologiques et physiologiques de deux variétés de Lolium perenne L., de niveau diffé- rent de persistance en jeunes de croissance sur la persistance des deux variétés. Mots clés additionnels : Lolium perenne

  20. Space Physiology within an Exercise Physiology Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jason R.; West, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of…

  1. The dialectics of the sacred cow: Ecological adaptation versus political appropriation in the origins of India's cattle complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Diener; Donald Nonini; Eugene E. Robkin

    1978-01-01

    The misinterpretations, logical lapses, empirical errors, and theoretical shortcomings of Harris' ecological theories concerning the origins of food taboos in political societies are considerable, yet his work has been lauded by laymen and scientists alike. We conclude that his speculations meet widespread ideological needs in the contemporary West; if present cultural forms in post-colonial societies are in fact adaptive, if

  2. Adaptations and Resistance of Zooplankton to Stress: Effects of Genetic, Environmental, and Physiological Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marko Reinikainen; Jaana Hietala; Mari Walls

    1998-01-01

    The ability of a species to adapt to stress factors such as exposure to toxicants depends to a large extent on the presence of individuals that are able to respond to the exposure in a successful way. Several strategies can be employed to cope with different stress factors. Investments on growth and reproduction, for instance, can be varied to meet

  3. Physiological and Comparative Evidence Fails to Confirm an Adaptive Role for Aging in Evolution.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alan A

    2015-01-01

    The longstanding debate about whether aging may have evolved for some adaptive reason is generally considered to pit evolutionary theory against empirical observations consistent with aging as a programmed aspect of organismal biology, in particular conserved aging genes. Here I argue that the empirical evidence on aging mechanisms does not support a view of aging as a programmed phenomenon, but rather supports a view of aging as the dysregulation of complex networks that maintain organismal homeostasis. The appearance of programming is due largely to the inadvertent activation of existing pathways during the process of dysregulation. It is argued that aging differs markedly from known programmed biological phenomena such as apoptosis in that it is (a) very heterogeneous in how it proceeds, and (b) much slower than it would need to be. Furthermore, the taxonomic distribution of aging across species does not support any proposed adaptive theories of aging, which would predict that aging rate would vary on a finer taxonomic scale depending on factors such as population density. Thus, while there are problems with the longstanding non-adaptive paradigm, current evidence does not support the notion that aging is programmed or that it may have evolved for adaptive reasons. PMID:26054345

  4. Individual Differences in Behavioral, Physiological, and Genetic Sensitivities to Contexts: Implications for Development and Adaptation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Thomas Boyce

    2009-01-01

    Although exposure to adversity places children at high risk for developmental problems, there is considerable variation in the adaptation of children exposed to both low and high levels of adversity. In recent years, researchers have made significant progress in understanding how social environments shape children’s development. Studies indicate that not all children are equally susceptible to environmental effects. In this

  5. Space physiology II: adaptation of the central nervous system to space flight--past, current, and future studies.

    PubMed

    Clément, Gilles; Ngo-Anh, Jennifer Thu

    2013-07-01

    Experiments performed in orbit on the central nervous system have focused on the control of posture, eye movements, spatial orientation, as well as cognitive processes, such as three-dimensional visual perception and mental representation of space. Brain activity has also been recorded during and immediately after space flight for evaluating the changes in brain structure activation during tasks involving perception, attention, memory, decision, and action. Recent ground-based studies brought evidence that the inputs from the neurovestibular system also participate in orthostatic intolerance. It is, therefore, important to revisit the flight data of neuroscience studies in the light of new models of integrative physiology. The outcomes of this exercise will increase our knowledge on the adaptation of body functions to changing gravitational environment, vestibular disorders, aging, and our approach towards more effective countermeasures during human space flight and planetary exploration. PMID:23053128

  6. Physiological and morphological adaptations of the fruit tree Ziziphus rotundifolia in response to progressive drought stress.

    PubMed

    Arndt, S K; Clifford, S C; Wanek, W; Jones, H G; Popp, M

    2001-07-01

    The physiological basis of drought resistance in Ziziphus rotundifolia Lamk., which is an important, multipurpose fruit tree of the northwest Indian arid zone, was investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Three irrigation regimes were imposed over a 34-day period: an irrigation treatment, a gradual drought stress treatment (50% of water supplied in the irrigation treatment) and a rapid drought stress treatment (no irrigation). Changes in gas exchange, water relations, carbon isotope composition and solute concentrations of leaves, stems and roots were determined. The differential rate of stress development in the two drought treatments did not result in markedly different physiological responses, but merely affected the time at which they were expressed. The initial response to decreasing soil water content was reduced stomatal conductance, effectively maintaining predawn leaf water potential (Psi(leaf)), controlling water loss and increasing intrinsic water-use efficiency, while optimizing carbon gain during drought. Carbon isotope composition (delta13C) of leaf tissue sap provided a more sensitive indicator of changes in short-term water-use efficiency than delta13C of bulk leaf tissue. As drought developed, osmotic potential at full turgor decreased and total solute concentrations increased in leaves, indicating osmotic adjustment. Decreases in leaf starch concentrations and concomitant increases in hexose sugars and sucrose suggested a shift in carbon partitioning in favor of soluble carbohydrates. In severely drought-stressed leaves, high leaf nitrate reductase activities were paralleled by increases in proline concentration, suggesting an osmoprotective role for proline. As water deficit increased, carbon was remobilized from leaves and preferentially redistributed to stems and roots, and leaves were shed, resulting in reduced whole-plant transpiration and enforced dormancy. Thus, Z. rotundifolia showed a range of responses to different drought intensities indicating a high degree of plasticity in response to water deficits. PMID:11470656

  7. Inhibition of MCU forces extramitochondrial adaptations governing physiological and pathological stress responses in heart.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Tyler P; Wu, Yuejin; Joiner, Mei-Ling A; Koval, Olha M; Wilson, Nicholas R; Luczak, Elizabeth D; Wang, Qinchuan; Chen, Biyi; Gao, Zhan; Zhu, Zhiyong; Wagner, Brett A; Soto, Jamie; McCormick, Michael L; Kutschke, William; Weiss, Robert M; Yu, Liping; Boudreau, Ryan L; Abel, E Dale; Zhan, Fenghuang; Spitz, Douglas R; Buettner, Garry R; Song, Long-Sheng; Zingman, Leonid V; Anderson, Mark E

    2015-07-21

    Myocardial mitochondrial Ca(2+) entry enables physiological stress responses but in excess promotes injury and death. However, tissue-specific in vivo systems for testing the role of mitochondrial Ca(2+) are lacking. We developed a mouse model with myocardial delimited transgenic expression of a dominant negative (DN) form of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU). DN-MCU mice lack MCU-mediated mitochondrial Ca(2+) entry in myocardium, but, surprisingly, isolated perfused hearts exhibited higher O2 consumption rates (OCR) and impaired pacing induced mechanical performance compared with wild-type (WT) littermate controls. In contrast, OCR in DN-MCU-permeabilized myocardial fibers or isolated mitochondria in low Ca(2+) were not increased compared with WT, suggesting that DN-MCU expression increased OCR by enhanced energetic demands related to extramitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis. Consistent with this, we found that DN-MCU ventricular cardiomyocytes exhibited elevated cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] that was partially reversed by ATP dialysis, suggesting that metabolic defects arising from loss of MCU function impaired physiological intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload is thought to dissipate the inner mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) and enhance formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a consequence of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Our data show that DN-MCU hearts had preserved ??m and reduced ROS during ischemia reperfusion but were not protected from myocardial death compared with WT. Taken together, our findings show that chronic myocardial MCU inhibition leads to previously unanticipated compensatory changes that affect cytoplasmic Ca(2+) homeostasis, reprogram transcription, increase OCR, reduce performance, and prevent anticipated therapeutic responses to ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:26153425

  8. Effect of walking stress on growth, physiological adaptability and endocrine responses in Malpura ewes in a semi-arid tropical environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veerasamy Sejian; Vijai P. Maurya; Syed M. K. Naqvi

    2011-01-01

    Sheep in hot semi-arid environments are mostly reared using extensive systems. In addition to thermal stress and feed scarcity, the animals need to walk long distances for grazing in this ecological zone. A study was conducted to assess the effect of long-distance walking on adaptive capability in terms of physiological, biochemical and endocrine responses in Malpura ewes. Fourteen adult Malpura

  9. Physiological framework for adaptation of stomata to CO2 from glacial to future concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Peter J.; Leitch, Ilia J.; Ruszala, Elizabeth M.; Hetherington, Alistair M.; Beerling, David J.

    2012-01-01

    In response to short-term fluctuations in atmospheric CO2 concentration, ca, plants adjust leaf diffusive conductance to CO2, gc, via feedback regulation of stomatal aperture as part of a mechanism for optimizing CO2 uptake with respect to water loss. The operational range of this elaborate control mechanism is determined by the maximum diffusive conductance to CO2, gc(max), which is set by the size (S) and density (number per unit area, D) of stomata on the leaf surface. Here, we show that, in response to long-term exposure to elevated or subambient ca, plants alter gc(max) in the direction of the short-term feedback response of gc to ca via adjustment of S and D. This adaptive feedback response to ca, consistent with long-term optimization of leaf gas exchange, was observed in four species spanning a diverse taxonomic range (the lycophyte Selaginella uncinata, the fern Osmunda regalis and the angiosperms Commelina communis and Vicia faba). Furthermore, using direct observation as well as flow cytometry, we observed correlated increases in S, guard cell nucleus size and average apparent 1C DNA amount in epidermal cell nuclei with increasing ca, suggesting that stomatal and leaf adaptation to ca is linked to genome scaling. PMID:22232765

  10. From physiology to fitness: the costs of a defensive adaptation in rattlesnakes.

    PubMed

    Moon, Brad R

    2006-01-01

    The costs of using and maintaining presumed adaptations are unknown for most animals. Energetically expensive traits, such as some agonistic and antipredator behaviors in animals, may incur trade-offs with other aspects of an animal's life history, such as feeding and reproduction. However, infrequent and brief use may reduce the costs of vigorous behaviors. The shaker muscles in the tails of rattlesnakes are an excellent system for studying the potential costs of a specialized defensive system. The high energetic cost of rattling may increase feeding requirements or use energy that could otherwise be available for reproduction. I used energetic modeling to test whether the cost of rattling in western diamond-backed rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox) can be high enough to increase feeding demands or reduce fecundity and fitness. Only very frequent and prolonged rattling would increase feeding needs and perhaps reduce fecundity to some degree. Typically, rattling probably incurs very low costs to feeding, reproduction, and hence fitness. These and other results suggest that many seemingly expensive adaptations may have minimal costs to energy budgets, reproduction, and fitness. PMID:16380934

  11. Physiological adaptations to prolonged fasting in the overwintering striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis).

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Bowman, Jeff; Sadowski, Carrie; Nituch, Larissa A; Bruce, Laura; Halonen, Toivo; Puukka, Katri; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Aho, Jari; Nieminen, Petteri

    2013-12-01

    Wintertime physiology of captive striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in response to cold ambient temperature (Ta) and fasting was investigated with body temperature (Tb) and activity recordings and analyses of hematology, plasma biochemistry and tissue fatty acids (FA). After 105 days of food deprivation, the skunks were in phase II of fasting indicated by the elevated plasma nonesterified FA and glycerol but no accumulation of nitrogen end products. Shorter-chain saturated and monounsaturated FA together with C18-20 n-3 polyunsaturated FA were preferentially mobilized. Individual amino acids responded to fasting in a complex manner, while essential and nonessential amino acid sums remained stable. Increases in hemoglobin and hematocrit suggested dehydration. The activity levels were lower in mid-January-early March, and the activity bouts were mostly displayed between 17:00-23:00 h. Daily torpor was observed in two females with 29 and 46 bouts. The deepest torpor (Tb<31 °C) occurred between dawn and early afternoon and lasted for 3.3 ± 0.18 h. The average minimum Tb was 29.2 ± 0.15 °C and the lowest recorded Tb was 25.8 °C. There was significant relation between the average 24-h Tb and Ta. Increases in wintertime Ta, as predicted by climate change scenarios, could influence torpor patterns in the species. PMID:23981473

  12. Physiological adaptations of microorganisms to high oxygen in two oligotrophic lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Mikell, A.T. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen at four times normal saturation inhibited growth and metabolism of summer planktobacteria in surface waters of alpine oligotrophic Mountain Lake (Giles County, Virginia). Data included viable colony counts, D-(U-/sup 14/C)glucose incorporation into extractable lipid of colonies, and respiration-assimilation of D-(U-/sup 14/C)glucose by lake water samples. Significant differences were not detected in either colony counts or /sup 14/C-lipid when superoxide dismutase or catalase were added to the medium. The upper waters of Lake Hoare, Antarctica, contain dissolved oxygen at greater than or equal to42 mg liter/sup -1/ (=HDO). HDO did inhibit D-(U-/sup 14/C)glucoses assimilation-respiration compared with normal atmospheric dissolved oxygen (=ADO) in Lake Hoare water. D-(U-/sup 14/C)glucose was assimilated and respired optimally at 12/sup 0/C in Lake Hoare. Colony formation was inhibited in both lakes. Five microbial isolated were selected from Lake Hoare by growth under very high oxygen. Isolates were examined for physiological characteristics which might enhance their survival in the HDO environment. Bacterial isolates were motile Gram negative rods, catalase and oxidase positive, differing in their growth response to temperature and nutrient concentration. Four of five bacterial isolates demonstrated HDO inducible superoxide dismutase (SOD). Microorganisms in the high oxygen Lake Hoare waters may be protected from oxygen toxicity by the lake's oligotrophic nature as well as a combination of cellular defenses.

  13. Physiological complexity and system adaptability: evidence from postural control dynamics of older adults.

    PubMed

    Manor, Brad; Costa, Madalena D; Hu, Kun; Newton, Elizabeth; Starobinets, Olga; Kang, Hyun Gu; Peng, C K; Novak, Vera; Lipsitz, Lewis A

    2010-12-01

    The degree of multiscale complexity in human behavioral regulation, such as that required for postural control, appears to decrease with advanced aging or disease. To help delineate causes and functional consequences of complexity loss, we examined the effects of visual and somatosensory impairment on the complexity of postural sway during quiet standing and its relationship to postural adaptation to cognitive dual tasking. Participants of the MOBILIZE Boston Study were classified into mutually exclusive groups: controls [intact vision and foot somatosensation, n = 299, 76 ± 5 (SD) yr old], visual impairment only (<20/40 vision, n = 81, 77 ± 4 yr old), somatosensory impairment only (inability to perceive 5.07 monofilament on plantar halluxes, n = 48, 80 ± 5 yr old), and combined impairments (n = 25, 80 ± 4 yr old). Postural sway (i.e., center-of-pressure) dynamics were assessed during quiet standing and cognitive dual tasking, and a complexity index was quantified using multiscale entropy analysis. Postural sway speed and area, which did not correlate with complexity, were also computed. During quiet standing, the complexity index (mean ± SD) was highest in controls (9.5 ± 1.2) and successively lower in the visual (9.1 ± 1.1), somatosensory (8.6 ± 1.6), and combined (7.8 ± 1.3) impairment groups (P = 0.001). Dual tasking resulted in increased sway speed and area but reduced complexity (P < 0.01). Lower complexity during quiet standing correlated with greater absolute (R = -0.34, P = 0.002) and percent (R = -0.45, P < 0.001) increases in postural sway speed from quiet standing to dual-tasking conditions. Sensory impairments contributed to decreased postural sway complexity, which reflected reduced adaptive capacity of the postural control system. Relatively low baseline complexity may, therefore, indicate control systems that are more vulnerable to cognitive and other stressors. PMID:20947715

  14. Growth, physiological adaptation, and gene expression analysis of two Egyptian rice cultivars under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Mekawy, Ahmad Mohammad M; Assaha, Dekoum V M; Yahagi, Hiroyuki; Tada, Yuma; Ueda, Akihiro; Saneoka, Hirofumi

    2015-02-01

    Abiotic stressors, such as high salinity, greatly affect plant growth. In an attempt to explore the mechanisms underlying salinity tolerance, physiological parameters of two local Egyptian rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars, Sakha 102 and Egyptian Yasmine, were examined under 50 mM NaCl stress for 14 days. The results indicate that Egyptian Yasmine is relatively salt tolerant compared to Sakha 102, and this was evident in its higher dry mass production, lower leaf Na(+) levels, and enhanced water conservation under salt stress conditions. Moreover, Egyptian Yasmine exhibited lower Na(+)/K(+) ratios in all tissues examined under salinity stress. The ability to maintain such traits seemed to differ in the leaves and roots of Egyptian Yasmine, and the root K(+) content was much higher in Egyptian Yasmine than in Sakha 102. In order to understand the basis for these differences, we studied transcript levels of genes encoding Na(+) and K(+) transport proteins in different tissues. In response to salinity stress, Egyptian Yasmine showed induction of expression of some membrane transporter/channel genes that may contribute to Na(+) exclusion from the shoots (OsHKT1;5), limiting excess Na(+) entry into the roots (OsLti6b), K(+) uptake (OsAKT1), and reduced expression of a Na(+) transporter gene (OsHKT2;1). Therefore, the active regulation of genes related to Na(+) transport at the transcription level may be involved in salt tolerance mechanisms of Egyptian Yasmine, and these mechanisms offer the promise of improved salinity stress tolerance in local Egyptian rice genotypes. PMID:25532120

  15. Explaining bathymetric diversity patterns in marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes: physiological contributions to adaptation of life at depth

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Alastair; Thatje, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Bathymetric biodiversity patterns of marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes have been identified in the extant fauna of the deep continental margins. Depth zonation is widespread and evident through a transition between shelf and slope fauna from the shelf break to 1000 m, and a transition between slope and abyssal fauna from 2000 to 3000 m; these transitions are characterised by high species turnover. A unimodal pattern of diversity with depth peaks between 1000 and 3000 m, despite the relatively low area represented by these depths. Zonation is thought to result from the colonisation of the deep sea by shallow-water organisms following multiple mass extinction events throughout the Phanerozoic. The effects of low temperature and high pressure act across hierarchical levels of biological organisation and appear sufficient to limit the distributions of such shallow-water species. Hydrostatic pressures of bathyal depths have consistently been identified experimentally as the maximum tolerated by shallow-water and upper bathyal benthic invertebrates at in situ temperatures, and adaptation appears required for passage to deeper water in both benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes. Together, this suggests that a hyperbaric and thermal physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths contributes to bathymetric zonation. The peak of the unimodal diversity–depth pattern typically occurs at these depths even though the area represented by these depths is relatively low. Although it is recognised that, over long evolutionary time scales, shallow-water diversity patterns are driven by speciation, little consideration has been given to the potential implications for species distribution patterns with depth. Molecular and morphological evidence indicates that cool bathyal waters are the primary site of adaptive radiation in the deep sea, and we hypothesise that bathymetric variation in speciation rates could drive the unimodal diversity–depth pattern over time. Thermal effects on metabolic-rate-dependent mutation and on generation times have been proposed to drive differences in speciation rates, which result in modern latitudinal biodiversity patterns over time. Clearly, this thermal mechanism alone cannot explain bathymetric patterns since temperature generally decreases with depth. We hypothesise that demonstrated physiological effects of high hydrostatic pressure and low temperature at bathyal depths, acting on shallow-water taxa invading the deep sea, may invoke a stress–evolution mechanism by increasing mutagenic activity in germ cells, by inactivating canalisation during embryonic or larval development, by releasing hidden variation or mutagenic activity, or by activating or releasing transposable elements in larvae or adults. In this scenario, increased variation at a physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths results in elevated speciation rate. Adaptation that increases tolerance to high hydrostatic pressure and low temperature allows colonisation of abyssal depths and reduces the stress–evolution response, consequently returning speciation of deeper taxa to the background rate. Over time this mechanism could contribute to the unimodal diversity–depth pattern. PMID:24118851

  16. Explaining bathymetric diversity patterns in marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes: physiological contributions to adaptation of life at depth.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alastair; Thatje, Sven

    2014-05-01

    Bathymetric biodiversity patterns of marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes have been identified in the extant fauna of the deep continental margins. Depth zonation is widespread and evident through a transition between shelf and slope fauna from the shelf break to 1000 m, and a transition between slope and abyssal fauna from 2000 to 3000 m; these transitions are characterised by high species turnover. A unimodal pattern of diversity with depth peaks between 1000 and 3000 m, despite the relatively low area represented by these depths. Zonation is thought to result from the colonisation of the deep sea by shallow-water organisms following multiple mass extinction events throughout the Phanerozoic. The effects of low temperature and high pressure act across hierarchical levels of biological organisation and appear sufficient to limit the distributions of such shallow-water species. Hydrostatic pressures of bathyal depths have consistently been identified experimentally as the maximum tolerated by shallow-water and upper bathyal benthic invertebrates at in situ temperatures, and adaptation appears required for passage to deeper water in both benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes. Together, this suggests that a hyperbaric and thermal physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths contributes to bathymetric zonation. The peak of the unimodal diversity-depth pattern typically occurs at these depths even though the area represented by these depths is relatively low. Although it is recognised that, over long evolutionary time scales, shallow-water diversity patterns are driven by speciation, little consideration has been given to the potential implications for species distribution patterns with depth. Molecular and morphological evidence indicates that cool bathyal waters are the primary site of adaptive radiation in the deep sea, and we hypothesise that bathymetric variation in speciation rates could drive the unimodal diversity-depth pattern over time. Thermal effects on metabolic-rate-dependent mutation and on generation times have been proposed to drive differences in speciation rates, which result in modern latitudinal biodiversity patterns over time. Clearly, this thermal mechanism alone cannot explain bathymetric patterns since temperature generally decreases with depth. We hypothesise that demonstrated physiological effects of high hydrostatic pressure and low temperature at bathyal depths, acting on shallow-water taxa invading the deep sea, may invoke a stress-evolution mechanism by increasing mutagenic activity in germ cells, by inactivating canalisation during embryonic or larval development, by releasing hidden variation or mutagenic activity, or by activating or releasing transposable elements in larvae or adults. In this scenario, increased variation at a physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths results in elevated speciation rate. Adaptation that increases tolerance to high hydrostatic pressure and low temperature allows colonisation of abyssal depths and reduces the stress-evolution response, consequently returning speciation of deeper taxa to the background rate. Over time this mechanism could contribute to the unimodal diversity-depth pattern. PMID:24118851

  17. Cortical response to psycho-physiological changes in auto-adaptive robot assisted gait training.

    PubMed

    Jelinek, Herbert F; August, Katherine G; Imam, Md Hasan; Khandoker, Ahsan H; Koenig, Alexander; Riener, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Robot-assisted treadmill training improves motor function and walking ability in neurologically impaired patients. However, despite attention having been shown to play a role in training success, psychological responsiveness to task difficulty and motivational levels at task onset have not been measured. Seven healthy subjects participated in a robot-assist treadmill training task. Subjects engaged in a virtual task with varying difficulty levels that was shown to induce a feeling of being bored, excited and over-stressed. The participants' mental engagement was measured using the ECG-based heart rate variability in real time, during gait training as a proxy for EEG and psychological test batteries. Heart rate variability (HRV), which has been shown to reflect cortical engagement for both cognitive and physical tasks, was measured using nonlinear measures obtained from the Poincaré plot. We show that the cortical response to the task measured with HRV varies in relation to the level of mental engagement in response to the difficulty level of the virtual task. From these results we propose that nonlinear measures quantify cortical response / motivational level to robot-assist motor learning tasks and that the adaptation to the task is dependent on the level of motivation. PMID:22256051

  18. Physiological and genetic control mechanisms for plant adaptation to high temperature and elevated CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Zeiger, Eduardo

    2001-02-01

    Acclimations of the stomatal response to CO2 were characterized. Stomata from the model plant used, Vicia faba, are very sensitive to ambient CO2 when grown in growth chambers as compared to stomata from green house grown leaves. The different CO2 sensitivities of growth chamber and green house grown guard cells was confirmed by reciprocal transfer experiments. Stomata acclimated to their new environment and acquired the CO2 sensitivity typical of that environment. A mechanism for CO2 sensing was also characterized. Results show that CO2 concentration alters the concentration of zeaxanthin in the guard cell chloroplast, thus modifying the light response of the guard cells. This mechanism accounts for the well characterized interactions of light and CO2 in the stomatal responses. The xanthophyll cycle in the stomata of the facultative CAM plant, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, was characterized. In the C3 mode, zeaxanthin is formed in the light and stomata open. Upon induction of the CAM mode, zeaxanthin synthesis is blocked and stomata no longer respond to light. These results implicate the regulation of the xanthophyll cycle of guard cells in the CAM adaptation.

  19. Physiological and health-related adaptations to low-volume interval training: influences of nutrition and sex.

    PubMed

    Gibala, Martin J; Gillen, Jenna B; Percival, Michael E

    2014-11-01

    Interval training refers to the basic concept of alternating periods of relatively intense exercise with periods of lower-intensity effort or complete rest for recovery. Low-volume interval training refers to sessions that involve a relatively small total amount of exercise (i.e. ?10 min of intense exercise), compared with traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) protocols that are generally reflected in public health guidelines. In an effort to standardize terminology, a classification scheme was recently proposed in which the term 'high-intensity interval training' (HIIT) be used to describe protocols in which the training stimulus is 'near maximal' or the target intensity is between 80 and 100 % of maximal heart rate, and 'sprint interval training' (SIT) be used for protocols that involve 'all out' or 'supramaximal' efforts, in which target intensities correspond to workloads greater than what is required to elicit 100 % of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Both low-volume SIT and HIIT constitute relatively time-efficient training strategies to rapidly enhance the capacity for aerobic energy metabolism and elicit physiological remodeling that resembles changes normally associated with high-volume MICT. Short-term SIT and HIIT protocols have also been shown to improve health-related indices, including cardiorespiratory fitness and markers of glycemic control in both healthy individuals and those at risk for, or afflicted by, cardiometabolic diseases. Recent evidence from a limited number of studies has highlighted potential sex-based differences in the adaptive response to SIT in particular. It has also been suggested that specific nutritional interventions, in particular those that can augment muscle buffering capacity, such as sodium bicarbonate, may enhance the adaptive response to low-volume interval training. PMID:25355187

  20. Effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin during the periparturient period on innate and adaptive immune responses, systemic inflammation, and metabolism of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Silva, P R B; Machado, K S; Da Silva, D N Lobão; Moraes, J G N; Keisler, D H; Chebel, R C

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this experiment was to determine effects of treating peripartum dairy cows with body condition score ?3.75 with recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on immune, inflammatory, and metabolic responses. Holstein cows (253±1d of gestation) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments: untreated control (n=53), rbST87.5 (n=56; 87.5mg of rbST), and rbST125 (n=57; 125mg of rbST). Cows in the rbST87.5 and rbST125 treatments received rbST weekly from -21 to 28d relative to calving. Growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1, haptoglobin, tumor necrosis factor ?, nonesterified fatty acids, ?-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, and cortisol concentrations were determined weekly from -21 to 21d relative to calving. Blood sampled weekly from -14 to 21d relative to calving was used for hemogram and polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) expression of adhesion molecules, phagocytosis, and oxidative burst. Cows were vaccinated with ovalbumin at -21, -7, and 7d relative to calving, and blood was collected weekly from -21 to 21d relative to calving to determine IgG anti-ovalbumin concentrations. A subsample of cows had liver biopsied -21, -7, and 7d relative to calving to determine total lipids, triglycerides, and glycogen content. Growth hormone concentrations prepartum (control=11.0±1.2, rbST87.5=14.1±1.2, rbST125=15.1±1.3ng/mL) and postpartum (control=14.4±1.1, rbST87.5=17.8±1.2, rbST125=21.8±1.1ng/mL) were highest for rbST125 cows. Cows treated with rbST had higher insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations than control cows (control=110.5±4.5, rbST87.5=126.2±4.5, rbST125=127.2±4.5ng/mL) only prepartum. Intensity of L-selectin expression was higher for rbST125 than for control and rbST87.5 cows [control=3,590±270, rbST87.5=3,279±271, rbST125=4,371±279 geometric mean fluorescence intensity (GMFI)] in the prepartum period. The PMNL intensities of phagocytosis (control=3,131±130, rbST87.5=3,391±133, rbST125=3,673±137 GMFI) and oxidative burst (control=9,588±746, rbST87.5=11,238±761, rbST125=12,724±781 GMFI) were higher for rbST125 cows than for control cows during the prepartum period. Concentrations of serum IgG anti-ovalbumin tended to be higher for rbST125 cows than for control cows (control=0.75±0.11, rbST87.5=0.94±0.10, rbST125=1.11±0.11 optical density) in the prepartum period. Haptoglobin concentration was significantly reduced 7d postpartum for rbST125 treatment compared with control and rbST87.5 treatments (control=2.74±0.28, rbST87.5=2.81±0.28, rbST125=1.87±0.28 optical density). Although treatment tended to affect postpartum ?-hydroxybutyrate (control=747.5±40.2, rbST87.5=753.2±40.1, rbST125=648.8±39.7 µmol/L), it did not affect liver contents of total lipids, triglycerides, or glycogen. Incidence of metritis among rbST125 cows was reduced compared with that in control cows (control=23.1, rbST87.5=18.0, rbST125=7.8%). Treatment of dairy cows with 125mg of rbST improved innate immune responses and IgG concentration, with limited effects on metabolism. PMID:25912866

  1. Effects of milk production capacity and metabolic status on HPA function in early postpartum dairy cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Beerda; J. E. Kornalijnslijper; Werf van der J. T. N; E. N. Noordhuizen-Stassen; H. Hopster

    2004-01-01

    Increasing milk yields in modern dairy cows cause concern that high yield may impair the cows' health and welfare, for example, via negative effects on metabolic status and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) function. This study aims to investigate whether a high level of milk production, and the associated metabolic status, affects HPA function in dairy cows and changes their adaptive capacity. Additionally,

  2. Effect of prepartal ad libitum feeding of grass silage on transcriptional adaptations of the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue in dairy cows during the periparturient period.

    PubMed

    Selim, S; Kokkonen, T; Taponen, J; Vanhatalo, A; Elo, K

    2015-08-01

    Prepartal energy overfeeding may predispose cows to a state of increased insulin resistance with greater lipolysis after parturition. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of prepartal overfeeding in terms of abundant grass silage ration on the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) gene expression around parturition. Sixteen multiparous Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were fed ad libitum either grass silage [high energy, HE; 144 MJ/d of metabolizable energy (ME) intake, n=8] or a mixture of grass silage, wheat straw, and rapeseed meal [55:40:5 (CON), 109 MJ/d of ME, n=8] during the dry period (58.2±4.89 d, mean ± standard deviation). Tissue biopsies and blood samples were collected at -14 (±4.98), 1, and 7 d relative to the actual parturition date. The HE cows had greater total dry matter intake, ME intake, and ME balance during the dry period than the CON cows. Compared with CON, the increases in body weight and body condition score were greater in HE during the dry period. Milk yield during the first 2 wk of lactation was not different between the groups. Plasma glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, glucagon, and ?-hydroxybutyrate did not differ between the groups during the transition period. Dietary treatment did not affect hepatic triglyceride content; however, a delayed increase in hepatic total lipid content was observed in the HE cows at d 1 postpartum. Hepatic cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 mRNA expression was lower in HE than in CON at d 1 and 7 postpartum. Adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 mRNA abundance tended to be lower in SAT of HE than CON. Lower lipoprotein lipase, leptin, and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase mRNA abundances were observed at d 7 postpartum in SAT of the HE cows compared with the CON cows. We concluded that prepartal ad libitum feeding of grass silage may decrease insulin sensitivity and lipogenesis in SAT during peripartal period and may attenuate the increase of hepatic gluconeogenic capacity from propionate compared with a controlled-energy diet. PMID:26026764

  3. Teaching the physiology of adaptation to hypoxic stress with the aid of a classic paper on high altitude by Houston and Riley

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    E M Tansey (Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine)

    2007-12-19

    Many pathological conditions exist where tissues exhibit hypoxia or low oxygen tension. Hypoxic hypoxia arises when there is a reduction in the amount of oxygen entering the blood and occurs in healthy people at high altitude. In 1946, research sponsored by the United States Navy led to the collection and subsequent publication of masses of data demonstrating the physiological consequences and adaptations of ascent to high altitude. This article describes how a figure from a 1947 paper from the American Physiological Society Legacy collection (Houston CS, Riley RL. Respiratory and circulatory changes during acclimatization to high altitude. Am J Physiol 149: 565Â?588) may be used to allow students to review their understanding of some of the generalized effects of hypoxia on the body. In particular, this figure summarizes some of the adaptive responses that take place in the oxygen transport system as a consequence of prolonged hypoxia.

  4. Physiologic adaptation of man in space; Proceedings of the Seventh International Man in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, Feb. 10-13, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Albert W. (editor)

    1987-01-01

    Topics discussed in this volume include space motion sickness, cardiovascular adaptation, fluid shifts, extravehicular activity, general physiology, perception, vestibular response modifications, vestibular physiology, and pharmacology. Papers are presented on the clinical characterization and etiology of space motion sickness, ultrasound techniques in space medicine, fluid shifts in weightlessness, Space Shuttle inflight and postflight fluid shifts measured by leg volume changes, and the probability of oxygen toxicity in an 8-psi space suit. Consideration is also given to the metabolic and hormonal status of crewmembers in short-term space flights, adaptive changes in perception of body orientation and mental image rotation in microgravity, the effects of a visual-vestibular stimulus on the vestibulo-ocular reflex, rotation tests in the weightless phase of parabolic flight, and the mechanisms of antimotion sickness drugs.

  5. Heart-rate-adapted image reconstruction in multidetector-row cardiac CT: influence of physiological and technical prerequisite on image quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Herzog; Nasreddin Abolmaali; Joern O. Balzer; Sabine Baunach; Hanns Ackermann; Selami Dogan; Martina B. Britten; Thomas J. Vogl

    2002-01-01

    .   The purpose of this study was to develop strategies for optimal image reconstruction in multidetector-row cardiac CT and\\u000a to discuss the results in the context of individual heart rate, cardiac physiology, and technical prerequisite. Sixty-four\\u000a patients underwent multidetector-row cardiac CT. Depending on the heart rate either a single-segmental reconstruction (SSR)\\u000a or an adaptive two-segmental reconstruction (ASR) was applied. Image

  6. Effect of walking stress on growth, physiological adaptability and endocrine responses in Malpura ewes in a semi-arid tropical environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veerasamy Sejian; Vijai P. Maurya; Syed M. K. Naqvi

    Sheep in hot semi-arid environments are mostly reared using extensive systems. In addition to thermal stress and feed scarcity,\\u000a the animals need to walk long distances for grazing in this ecological zone. A study was conducted to assess the effect of\\u000a long-distance walking on adaptive capability in terms of physiological, biochemical and endocrine responses in Malpura ewes.\\u000a Fourteen adult Malpura

  7. How to reintroduce cow's milk?

    PubMed

    Dupont, Christophe

    2013-11-01

    In a child that is allergic to milk, the natural next step, following the elimination diet, is the reintroduction of cow's milk. Several questions may arise. When feasible, this reintroduction has many benefits for the child and his family. However, the disease needs to be well defined by physicians and explained to parents. They need to understand that there are different types of allergy to cow's milk, specifically IgE- and non-IgE-mediated, and each of these may exhibit both a variable duration and frequently an incomplete recovery. Deciding where to first reintroduce cow's milk to a child who has previously followed a milk-free diet, whether it be at home or in a hospital, also frequently presents an issue. Following this first reintroduction, the progressive increase of milk into the diet needs to be managed properly, as not all children will go back to a normal dairy products intake. Recent studies show that most children with milk allergy tolerate products containing baked milk and that their consumption might speed up recovery. Hence, the purpose of the milk challenge in a child on a milk-free diet is becoming, even in a child still reactive to milk, the first step of gradual and individually adapted reintroduction of milk or dairy products. When reintroduction of cow's milk does not work, immunotherapy becomes an option, and this is carried out in specialized centers. PMID:24112424

  8. Physiological screening for target site insensitivity and localization of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in cardenolide-adapted Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Petschenka, Georg; Offe, Julia K; Dobler, Susanne

    2012-05-01

    Cardenolides are toxic plant compounds which specifically inhibit Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, an animal enzyme which is essential for many physiological processes, such as the generation of action potentials. Several adapted insects feeding on cardenolide-containing plants sequester these toxins for their own defence. Some of these insects were shown to possess Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases with a reduced sensitivity towards cardenolides (target site insensitivity). In the present study we screened five species of arctiid moths feeding on cardenolide-containing plants for target site insensitivity towards cardenolides using an in vitro enzyme assay. The derived dose response curves of the respective Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases were compared to the insensitive Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus). Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases of all arctiid species tested were highly sensitive to ouabain, a water-soluble cardenolide which is most widely used in laboratory studies. Nevertheless, we detected substantial amounts of cardenolides in the haemolymph of two of the arctiid species. In caterpillars of the sequestering arctiid Empyreuma pugione and of D. plexippus we localized Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by immunohistochemistry and western blot (in D. plexippus). Both techniques revealed strong expression of the enzyme in the nervous tissue and indicated weak expression or even absence in other tissues tested. We conclude that instead of target site insensitivity the investigated arctiid species use a different strategy to tolerate cardenolides. Most plausibly, the perineurium surrounding the nervous tissue functions as a barrier which prevents cardenolides from reaching Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in the ventral nerve cord. PMID:22343317

  9. Adaptation of the hydrocarbonoclastic bacterium Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2 to alkanes and toxic organic compounds: a physiological and transcriptomic approach.

    PubMed

    Naether, Daniela J; Slawtschew, Slavtscho; Stasik, Sebastian; Engel, Maria; Olzog, Martin; Wick, Lukas Y; Timmis, Kenneth N; Heipieper, Hermann J

    2013-07-01

    The marine hydrocarbonoclastic bacterium Alcanivorax borkumensis is able to degrade mixtures of n-alkanes as they occur in marine oil spills. However, investigations of growth behavior and physiology of these bacteria when cultivated with n-alkanes of different chain lengths (C6 to C30) as the substrates are still lacking. Growth rates increased with increasing alkane chain length up to a maximum between C12 and C19, with no evident difference between even- and odd-numbered chain lengths, before decreasing with chain lengths greater than C19. Surface hydrophobicity of alkane-grown cells, assessed by determination of the water contact angles, showed a similar pattern, with maximum values associated with growth rates on alkanes with chain lengths between C11 and C19 and significantly lower values for cells grown on pyruvate. A. borkumensis was found to incorporate and modify the fatty acid intermediates generated by the corresponding n-alkane degradation pathway. Cells grown on distinct n-alkanes proved that A. borkumensis is able to not only incorporate but also modify fatty acid intermediates derived from the alkane degradation pathway. Comparing cells grown on pyruvate with those cultivated on hexadecane in terms of their tolerance toward two groups of toxic organic compounds, chlorophenols and alkanols, representing intensely studied organic compounds, revealed similar tolerances toward chlorophenols, whereas the toxicities of different n-alkanols were significantly reduced when hexadecane was used as a carbon source. As one adaptive mechanism of A. borkumensis to these toxic organic solvents, the activity of cis-trans isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids was proven. These findings could be verified by a detailed transcriptomic comparison between cultures grown on hexadecane and pyruvate and including solvent stress caused by the addition of 1-octanol as the most toxic intermediate of n-alkane degradation. PMID:23645199

  10. Physiological and morphological adaptations of herbaceous perennial legumes allow differential access to sources of varyingly soluble phosphate.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jiayin; Yang, Jiyun; Lambers, Hans; Tibbett, Mark; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Ryan, Megan H

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of three perennial legume species to access sources of varyingly soluble phosphorus (P) and their associated morphological and physiological adaptations. Two Australian native legumes with pasture potential (Cullen australasicum and Kennedia prostrata) and Medicago sativa cv. SARDI 10 were grown in sand under two P levels (6 and 40?µg P g(-1) ) supplied as Ca(H2 PO4 )2 ·H2 O (Ca-P, highly soluble, used in many fertilizers) or as one of three sparingly soluble forms: Ca10 (OH)2 (PO4 )6 (apatite-P, found in relatively young soils; major constituent of rock phosphate), C6 H6 O24 P6 Na12 (inositol-P, the most common form of organic P in soil) and FePO4 (Fe-P, a poorly-available inorganic source of P). All species grew well with soluble P. When 6?µg P g(-1) was supplied as sparingly soluble P, plant dry weight (DW) and P uptake were very low for C. australasicum and M. sativa (0.1-0.4?g DW) with the exception of M. sativa supplied with apatite-P (1.5?g). In contrast, K. prostrata grew well with inositol-P (1.0?g) and Fe-P (0.7?g), and even better with apatite-P (1.7?g), similar to that with Ca-P (1.9?g). Phosphorus uptake at 6?µg P g(-1) was highly correlated with total root length, total rhizosphere carboxylate content and total rhizosphere acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) activity. These findings provide strong indications that there are opportunities to utilize local Australian legumes in low P pasture systems to access sparingly soluble soil P and increase perennial legume productivity, diversity and sustainability. PMID:25291346

  11. Cow's milk and children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for children over 1 year old to drink cow's milk. However, there's no scientific evidence that this is true. While most experts recommend not giving cow's milk to infants , it is safe to give milk ...

  12. Cows Causing Global Warming

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2008-08-06

    Broadcast Transcript: Remember when President Reagan blamed trees for air pollution? Well now the Japanese are blaming cows for global warming. Apparently, the methane emissions from burping cows account for 5% of all global greenhouse gases. Simple...

  13. Synthetic Physiology: Strategies for Adapting Tools from Nature for Genetically-Targeted Control of Fast Biological Processes

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Brian Y.; Chuong, Amy S.; Klapoetke, Nathan C.; Boyden, Edward S.

    2013-01-01

    The life and operation of cells involve many physiological processes that take place over fast timescales of milliseconds to minutes. Genetically-encoded technologies for driving or suppressing specific fast physiological processes in intact cells, perhaps embedded within intact tissues in living organisms, are critical for the ability to understand how these physiological processes contribute to emergent cellular and organismal functions and behaviors. Such “synthetic physiology” tools are often incredibly complex molecular machines, in part because they must operate at high speeds, without causing side effects. We here explore how synthetic physiology molecules can be identified and deployed in cells, and how the physiology of these molecules in cellular contexts can be assessed and optimized. For concreteness, we discuss these methods in the context of the “optogenetic” light-gated ion channels and pumps that we have developed over the past few years as synthetic physiology tools, and widely disseminated for use in neuroscience for probing the role of specific brain cell types in neural computations, behaviors, and pathologies. We anticipate that some of the insights revealed here may be of general value for the field of synthetic physiology, as they raise issues that will be of importance for the development and use of high-performance, high-speed, side-effect free physiological control tools, in heterologous expression systems. PMID:21601097

  14. Adaptive Calibration of Children's Physiological Responses to Family Stress: The Utility of Evolutionary Developmental Theory--Comment on Del Giudice et al. (2012) and Sturge-Apple et al. (2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt

    2012-01-01

    Children's physiological reactions to stress are presented from the broader theoretical perspective of adaptive calibration to the environment, as rooted in life history theory. Del Giudice, Hinnant, Ellis, and El-Sheikh (2012) focus on children's physiological responses to a stressful task as a consequence of their history of family stress.…

  15. Factors affecting embryo donor performance in Brahman cows 

    E-print Network

    Bastidas, Pedro Segundo

    1986-01-01

    FACTORS AFFECTING EMBRYO DONOR PERFORMANCE IN BRAHMAN COWS A Thesis by PEDRO SEGUNDO BASTIDAS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1986... Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction FACTORS AFFECTING EMBRYO DONOR PERFORMANCE IN BRAHMAN COWS A Thesis by PEDRO SEGUNDO BASTIDAS Approved as to style and content by: R. D. Randel (Chairman of Committee) P. G. Harms (Committee Member) D...

  16. The effect of gossypol in the diet of pregnant and postpartum Brahman cows on calf development and cow performance 

    E-print Network

    Willard, Scott Thomas

    1993-01-01

    and -OH groups in the molecule are replaced by other groups (Prasad and Diczfalusy, 1982). TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECIS OF GOSSYPOL Monogastric animals, such as pigs, dogs, rabbits, rats and humans, have been found to be highly susceptible to gossypol... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1993 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction THE EFFECT OF GOSSYPOL IN THE DIET OF PREGNANT AND POS'IPARTUM BRAHMAN COWS ON CALF DEVELOPMENT AND COW PERFOIBRWCE A Thesis by SCOTT THOMAS WILLARD...

  17. Effect of Extreme Walking Conditions for Dairy Cows on Milk Yield, Chemical Composition, and Somatic Cell Count1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Coulon; P. Pradel; T. Cochard; B. Poutrel

    1998-01-01

    Thirty-two cows (16 Montbeliardes and 16 Taren- taises) in midlactation were used in an experiment utilizing a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Throughout the trial, cows received first-cutting cocksfoot hay for ad libitum intake supplemented with a fixed amount of concentrate that was individu- ally adapted to the milk yield of each cow. During a 23-d experimental period,

  18. Determination of ovulation from the onset of estrus in beef cows 

    E-print Network

    Massey, Joe Manuel

    1974-01-01

    ovulation occurred. Rectal temperature was also taken when the cow was first found in estrus and at each succeeding rectal 14 palpation. Observation for cessation of estrus was made every two hours after the onset of estrus. The cow's age, breed... 1974 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction DETERMINATION OF OVULATION FROM THE ONSET OF ESTRUS IN BEEF COWS A Thesis by Joe Manuel Massey Approved as to style and content by: (Cha. irman of Committee) ( ead of Departm nt) (M ber) (Member...

  19. Physiology and the Biomedical Engineering Curriculum: Utilizing Emerging Instructional Technologies to Promote Development of Adaptive Expertise in Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Regina K.

    2013-01-01

    A mixed-methods research study was designed to test whether undergraduate engineering students were better prepared to learn advanced topics in biomedical engineering if they learned physiology via a quantitative, concept-based approach rather than a qualitative, system-based approach. Experiments were conducted with undergraduate engineering…

  20. Teaching Skeletal Muscle Adaptations to Aerobic Exercise Using an American Physiological Society Classic Paper by Dr. Philip Gollnick and Colleagues

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Gregory A. Brown (University of Nebraska, Kearney Department of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Leisure Studies)

    2006-09-01

    Discussion of a strategy for using a classic paper to enhance the studentsÂ? ability to understand research, increase their knowledge of the adaptations to exercise, and learn computer skills in data analysis and presentation

  1. Negative energy balance and hepatic gene expression patterns in high-yielding dairy cows during the early postpartum period: a global approach

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, S. D.; Waters, S. M.; Kenny, D. A.; Diskin, M. G.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Patton, J.; Wathes, D. C.

    2010-01-01

    In high-yielding dairy cows the liver undergoes extensive physiological and biochemical changes during the early postpartum period in an effort to re-establish metabolic homeostasis and to counteract the adverse effects of negative energy balance (NEB). These adaptations are likely to be mediated by significant alterations in hepatic gene expression. To gain new insights into these events an energy balance model was created using differential feeding and milking regimes to produce two groups of cows with either a mild (MNEB) or severe NEB (SNEB) status. Cows were slaughtered and liver tissues collected on days 6–7 of the first follicular wave postpartum. Using an Affymetrix 23k oligonucleotide bovine array to determine global gene expression in hepatic tissue of these cows, we found a total of 416 genes (189 up- and 227 downregulated) to be altered by SNEB. Network analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that SNEB was associated with widespread changes in gene expression classified into 36 gene networks including those associated with lipid metabolism, connective tissue development and function, cell signaling, cell cycle, and metabolic diseases, the three most significant of which are discussed in detail. SNEB cows displayed reduced expression of transcription activators and signal transducers that regulate the expression of genes and gene networks associated with cell signaling and tissue repair. These alterations are linked with increased expression of abnormal cell cycle and cellular proliferation associated pathways. This study provides new information and insights on the effect of SNEB on gene expression in high-yielding Holstein Friesian dairy cows in the early postpartum period. PMID:20716645

  2. Space physiology and medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Nicogossian; Parker J. F. Jr

    1982-01-01

    The state of knowledge in space physiology and medicine are reviewed. Overviews of manned space flight, the space environment, spaceflight systems and procedures, physiological adaptation to space flight, health maintenance of space crew members, and medical problems of space flight are presented.

  3. Physiological heterogeneity in biofilms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Franklin; Philip S. Stewart

    2008-01-01

    Biofilms contain bacterial cells that are in a wide range of physiological states. Within a biofilm population, cells with diverse genotypes and phenotypes that express distinct metabolic pathways, stress responses and other specific biological activities are juxtaposed. The mechanisms that contribute to this genetic and physiological heterogeneity include microscale chemical gradients, adaptation to local environmental conditions, stochastic gene expression and

  4. Surgical Motion Adaptive Robotic Technology (S.M.A.R.T): Taking the Motion out of Physiological Motion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anshul Thakral; Jeffrey Wallace; Damian Tomlin; Nikesh Seth; Nitish V. Thakor

    2001-01-01

    In precision computer and robotic assisted minimally invasive surgical procedures, such as retinal microsurgery or cardiac\\u000a bypass surgery, physiological motion can hamper the surgeon’s ability to effectively visualize and approach the target site.\\u000a Current day stabilizers used for minimally invasive cardiac surgery often stretch or pull at the tissue, causing subsequent\\u000a tissue damage. In this study, we investigated novel means

  5. Heat stress abatement for dry cows: Does cooling improve transition into lactation?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental factors, especially temperature and photoperiod, influence health and productivity of dairy cows during lactation, possibly via similar physiological effects. For example, heat stress is a critical component of lowered milk yield during summer. Long days improve yield during lactation...

  6. The nervous system has the remarkable ability to adapt and respond to various stimuli, ranging from physiologi-

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    The nervous system has the remarkable ability to adapt and respond to various stimuli, ranging from to regenerate beyond the lesion site, in contrast to those in the PNS or embryonic nervous system. Recent evi of glial inhibition in the intact nervous system, and their implications for the development of strategies

  7. Photosynthetic adaptation to temperature in four species from the Colorado shortgrass steppe: a physiological model for coexistence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell K. Monson; Robert O. Littlejohn; George J. Williams

    1983-01-01

    Several aspects of photosynthetic adaptation to temperature were examined in four graminoid species from the Colorado shortgrass steppe. The experimental species were chosen to provide examples of a variety of in situ seasonal phenology patterns. The cool season grass, Agropyron smithii (C3), exhibited higher photosynthesis rates when grown in a cool temperature regime (20\\/15°C), and compared to warm grown plants

  8. Marketing Cull Cows – How & When?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dillon M. Feuz

    1995-01-01

    Cull cows are often overlooked as an important source of income to the cow-calf enterprise. Depending upon the relationships between cull cow and calf prices, and the herd culling rate, cull cow receipts generally account for 15-30 percent of income from the cow-calf enterprise. However, some producers give little attention to this source of income and ways of enhancing it.

  9. Fasting in the American marten ( Martes americana ): a physiological model of the adaptations of a lean-bodied animal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petteri Nieminen; Kirsti Rouvinen-Watt; Seppo Saarela; Anne-Mari Mustonen

    2007-01-01

    The American marten (Martes americana) is a boreal forest marten with low body adiposity throughout the year. The aim of this study was to investigate the adaptations\\u000a of this lean-bodied species to fasting for an ecologically relevant duration (48 h) by exposing eight farm-bred animals to\\u000a total food deprivation with seven control animals. Selected morphological and hematological parameters, plasma and serum

  10. Application of Physiological Self-Regulation and Adaptive Task Allocation Techniques for Controlling Operator Hazardous States of Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Pope, Alan T.; Freeman, Frederick G.

    2001-01-01

    Prinzel, Hadley, Freeman, and Mikulka found that adaptive task allocation significantly enhanced performance only when used at the endpoints of the task workload continuum (i.e., very low or high workload), but that the technique degraded performance if invoked during other levels of task demand. These researchers suggested that other techniques should be used in conjunction with adaptive automation to help minimize the onset of hazardous states of awareness (HSA) and keep the operator 'in-the-loop.' The paper reports on such a technique that uses psychophysiological self-regulation to modulate the level of task engagement. Eighteen participants were assigned to three groups (self-regulation, false feedback, and control) and performed a compensatory tracking task that was cycled between three levels of task difficulty on the basis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) record. Those participants who had received self-regulation training performed significantly better and reported lower NASA-TLX scores than participants in the false feedback and control groups. Furthermore, the false feedback and control groups had significantly more task allocations resulting in return-to-manual performance decrements and higher EEG difference scores. Theoretical and practical implications of these results for adaptive automation are discussed.

  11. When is a cow in estrus? Clinical and practical aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Roelofs; F. López-Gatius; R. H. F. Hunter; Ch. Hanzen

    2010-01-01

    Good detection of estrus is critically important in dairy husbandry. Incorrect detection of estrus is related to loss of profit due to extended calving intervals, milk loss, veterinary costs, etc. Detection of estrus remains a major problem despites enormous progress in the knowledge of reproductive physiology of the cow and in development of estrus detection aids. To achieve good estrus

  12. Effect of walking stress on growth, physiological adaptability and endocrine responses in Malpura ewes in a semi-arid tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sejian, Veerasamy; Maurya, Vijai P.; Naqvi, Syed M. K.

    2012-03-01

    Sheep in hot semi-arid environments are mostly reared using extensive systems. In addition to thermal stress and feed scarcity, the animals need to walk long distances for grazing in this ecological zone. A study was conducted to assess the effect of long-distance walking on adaptive capability in terms of physiological, biochemical and endocrine responses in Malpura ewes. Fourteen adult Malpura non-pregnant ewes weighing between 33 and 35 kg were used in the study. The ewes were randomly allocated into two groups of seven animals each: GI ( n = 7; Control), and GII ( n = 7; walking stress). The animals were stall-fed with a diet consisting of 70% roughage and 30% concentrate. Both GI and GII ewes had uniform access to feed and water. The walking stress group (GII) ewes were made to walk 14 km in two spans between 0900 and 1500 hours with 1 h 30 min for each span (7 km) of walking. The ewes subjected to walking stress (GII) were prevented from grazing by applying a face mask made of cotton thread. The study was conducted for a period of two estrous cycles (35 days) during the autumn season (October-November). Physiological responses were recorded twice daily at 0800 and 1400 hours at weekly intervals. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein at weekly intervals to study the effects of walking stress on blood biochemical and endocrine parameters. The results indicate that walking stress had significant ( P < 0.05) influence on body weight, average daily gain, respiration rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), plasma glucose, calcium, phosphorus, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), tri-iodo-thyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), and cortisol. However, walking stress did not influence the reproductive hormone levels. The significant changes in RR, RT, plasma cortisol, T3 and T4 show that Malpura ewes have the capability to adapt to long-distance walking, and that adrenal and thyroid gland hormones play a significant role in such adaptation.

  13. Fasting in the American marten (Martes americana): a physiological model of the adaptations of a lean-bodied animal.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Petteri; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Saarela, Seppo; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2007-10-01

    The American marten (Martes americana) is a boreal forest marten with low body adiposity throughout the year. The aim of this study was to investigate the adaptations of this lean-bodied species to fasting for an ecologically relevant duration (48 h) by exposing eight farm-bred animals to total food deprivation with seven control animals. Selected morphological and hematological parameters, plasma and serum biochemistry, endocrinological variables and liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) enzyme activities were determined. After 48 h without food, the marten were within phase II of fasting with depleted liver and muscle glycogen stores, but with active lipid mobilization indicated by the high lipase activities in several WAT depots. The plasma ghrelin concentrations were higher due to food deprivation, possibly increasing appetite and enhancing foraging behavior. The lower plasma insulin and higher cortisol concentrations could mediate augmented lipolysis and the lower triiodothyronine levels could suppress the metabolic rate. Fasting did not affect the plasma levels of stress-associated catecholamines or variables indicating tissue damage. In general, the adaptations to short-term fasting exhibited some differences compared to the related farm-bred American mink (Mustela vison), an example of which was the better ability of the marten to hydrolyze lipids despite its significantly lower initial fat mass. PMID:17605015

  14. Addition of Sodium Bicarbonate to Rations of Pre and Postpartum Dairy Cows1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. H. Kilmer; L. D. Muller; P. J. Wangsness

    1980-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate was added to complete mixed rations to evaluate the effect of buffer addition on adaptation to high-energy rations by dairy cows in early lactation. Forty-five Holstein cows were assigned to one of three treatment groups: control pre- and postpartum; control prepartum, buffer postpartum; and buffer pre- and postpartum. Rations consisted of 85% chopped grass hay: 15% concentrate prepartum

  15. Physiology Online

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Physiology Online, the electronic information service of the Physiological Society, provides information about its three journals: Journal of Physiology, Proceedings of the Physiological Society, and Experimental Physiology. Also included are selected abstracts, as well as information about recent monographs, job listings (mostly in the U.K.), information about Society grants, a physiology file and software archive for both PC and Mac platforms, pointers to other physiology resources on the Internet, and a listing of upcoming meetings and conferences within the field.

  16. Photosynthetic Adaptation of Solanum dulcamara L. to Sun and Shade Environments: II. Physiological Characterization of Phenotypic Response to Environment.

    PubMed

    Clough, J M; Alberte, R S; Teeri, J A

    1979-07-01

    Photosynthetic and growth properties of Solanum dulcamara L. were studied under controlled environments. The 200 experimentally tested plants were clonal replicates of five field-collected individuals, three from fully exposed habitats and two from deeply shaded habitats. After 4 weeks of growth in one of eight environmental treatments, each plant was measured for leaf adaxial and abaxial conductance to water vapor, specific leaf weight, chlorophyll per square decimeter of leaf, photosynthetic unit size, light-saturated photosynthetic rate, total leaf area, and total leaf, stem, and root dry weights. Changes in light level influenced photosynthesis and growth of each plant more than changes in water availability or temperature. It is strongly suggested that the primary adaptive response of the tested individuals to changes in levels of light involves the regulation of leaf thickness. PMID:16660909

  17. Using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling to address nonlinear kinetics and changes in rodent physiology and metabolism due to aging and adaptation in deriving reference values for propylene glycol methyl ether and propylene glycol methyl ether acetate.

    SciTech Connect

    Kirman, C R.; Sweeney, Lisa M.; Corley, Rick A.; Gargas, M L.

    2005-04-01

    Reference values, including an oral reference dose (RfD) and an inhalation reference concentration (RfC), were derived for propylene glycol methyl ether (PGME), and an oral RfD was derived for its acetate (PGMEA). These values were based upon transient sedation observed in F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice during a two-year inhalation study. The dose-response relationship for sedation was characterized using internal dose measures as predicted by a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for PGME and its acetate. PBPK modeling was used to account for changes in rodent physiology and metabolism due to aging and adaptation, based on data collected during weeks 1, 2, 26, 52, and 78 of a chronic inhalation study. The peak concentration of PGME in richly perfused tissues was selected as the most appropriate internal dose measure based upon a consideration of the mode of action for sedation and similarities in tissue partitioning between brain and other richly perfused tissues. Internal doses (peak tissue concentrations of PGME) were designated as either no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs) or lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels (LOAELs) based upon the presence or absence of sedation at each time-point, species, and sex in the two year study. Distributions of the NOAEL and LOAEL values expressed in terms of internal dose were characterized using an arithmetic mean and standard deviation, with the mean internal NOAEL serving as the basis for the reference values, which was then divided by appropriate uncertainty factors. Where data were permitting, chemical-specific adjustment factors were derived to replace default uncertainty factor values of ten. Nonlinear kinetics are were predicted by the model in all species at PGME concentrations exceeding 100 ppm, which complicates interspecies and low-dose extrapolations. To address this complication, reference values were derived using two approaches which differ with respect to the order in which these extrapolations were performed: (1) uncertainty factor application followed by interspecies extrapolation (PBPK modeling); and (2) interspecies extrapolation followed by uncertainty factor application. The resulting reference values for these two approaches are substantially different, with values from the former approach being 7-fold higher than those from the latter approach. Such a striking difference between the two approaches reveals an underlying issue that has received little attention in the literature regarding the application of uncertainty factors and interspecies extrapolations to compounds where saturable kinetics occur in the range of the NOAEL. Until such discussions have taken place, reference values based on the latter approach are recommended for risk assessments involving human exposures to PGME and PGMEA.

  18. Larval exposure to 4-nonylphenol and 17?-estradiol affects physiological and behavioral development of seawater adaptation in Atlantic salmon smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lerner, Darrren T.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2007-01-01

    Population declines of anadromous salmonids are attributed to anthropogenic disturbances including dams, commercial and recreational fisheries, and pollutants, such as estrogenic compounds. Nonylphenol (NP), a xenoestrogen, is widespread in the aquatic environment due to its use in agricultural, industrial, and household products. We exposed Atlantic salmon yolk-sac larvae to waterborne 10 or 100 ?g L-1 NP (NP-L or NP-H, respectively), 2 ?g L-1 17?-estradiol (E2), or vehicle, for 21 days to investigate their effects on smolt physiology and behavior 1 year later. NP-H caused approximately 50% mortality during exposure, 30 days after exposure, and 60 days after exposure. Mortality rates of NP-L and E2 fish were not affected until 60 days after treatment, when they were 4-fold greater than those of controls. Treatment with NP-L or E2 as yolk-sac larvae decreased gill sodium-potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase (Na+,K+-ATPase) activity and seawater (SW) tolerance during smolt development, 1 year after exposure. Exposure to NP-L and E2 resulted in a latency to enter SW and reduced preference for SW approximately 2- and 5-fold, respectively. NP-L-exposed fish had 20% lower plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels and 35% lower plasma triiodothyronine (T3). Plasma growth hormone and thyroxine (T4) were unaffected. Exposure to E2 did not affect plasma levels of IGF-I, GH, T3, or T4. Both treatment groups exhibited increased plasma cortisol and decreased osmoregulatory capacity in response to a handling stressor. These results suggest that early exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of NP, and other estrogenic compounds, can cause direct and delayed mortalities and that this exposure can have long term, “organizational” effects on life-history events in salmonids.

  19. Thermoregulatory responses of Holstein and Brown Swiss Heat-Stressed dairy cows to two different cooling systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abelardo Correa-Calderon; Dennis Armstrong; Donald Ray; Sue DeNise; Mark Enns; Christine Howison

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-seven Holstein and 26 Brown Swiss dairy cows were used to evaluate the effect of two different cooling systems on physiological and hormonal responses during the summer. A control group of cows had access only to shade (C). A second group was cooled with spray and fans (S\\/F) and the third group was under an evaporative cooling system called Korral

  20. Genome-guided analysis of physiological capacities of Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans provides insights into environmental adaptations and syntrophic acetate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Bettina; Manzoor, Shahid; Niazi, Adnan; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Schnürer, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the genome-based analysis of Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans strain Re1, a syntrophic acetate-oxidising bacterium (SAOB). Principal issues such as environmental adaptations, metabolic capacities, and energy conserving systems have been investigated and the potential consequences for syntrophic acetate oxidation discussed. Briefly, in pure culture, T. acetatoxydans grows with different organic compounds and produces acetate as the main product. In a syntrophic consortium with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, it can also reverse its metabolism and instead convert acetate to formate/H2 and CO2. It can only proceed if the product formed is continuously removed. This process generates a very small amount of energy that is scarcely enough for growth, which makes this particular syntrophy of special interest. As a crucial member of the biogas-producing community in ammonium-rich engineered AD processes, genomic features conferring ammonium resistance, bacterial defense, oxygen and temperature tolerance were found, as well as attributes related to biofilm formation and flocculation. It is likely that T. acetatoxydans can form an electrochemical gradient by putative electron-bifurcating Rnf complex and [Fe-Fe] hydrogenases, as observed in other acetogens. However, genomic deficiencies related to acetogenic metabolism and anaerobic respiration were discovered, such as the lack of formate dehydrogenase and F1F0 ATP synthase. This has potential consequences for the metabolic pathways used under SAO and non-SAO conditions. The two complete sets of bacteriophage genomes, which were found to be encoded in the genome, are also worthy of mention. PMID:25811859

  1. The Effects of Sprint Interval vs. Continuous Endurance Training on Physiological And Metabolic Adaptations in Young Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nalcakan, Gulbin Rudarli

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of sprint interval training (SIT) and continuous endurance training (CET) on selected anthropometric, aerobic, and anaerobic performance indices as well as the blood lipid profile, inflammatory and muscle damage markers in healthy young males. Fifteen recreationally active male volunteers (age: 21.7 ±2.2 years, body mass: 83.0 ±8.0 kg, body height: 1.82 ±0.05 m) were divided into two groups according to their initial VO2max levels. Training programs were conducted 3 times per week for 7 weeks. The SIT program consisted of 4–6 Wingate anaerobic sprints with a 4.5 min recovery, while CET consisted of 30–50 min cycling at 60% VO2max. Biochemical, anthropometric and fitness assessments were performed both pre and post-intervention. Significant improvements in VO2max, anaerobic power and capacity, and VO2 utilization during the submaximal workout and significant decreases in body fat and in waist circumference after the intervention occurred in both SIT and CET groups. Significantly greater gross efficiency was measured in the CET group. No differences in the lipid profile or serum levels of inflammatory, myocardial and skeletal muscle damage markers were observed after the training period. The study results agree with the effectiveness of a 30 s all-out training program with a reduced time commitment for anthropometric, aerobic and anaerobic adaptation and eliminate doubts about its safety as a model. PMID:25713670

  2. Genome-Guided Analysis of Physiological Capacities of Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans Provides Insights into Environmental Adaptations and Syntrophic Acetate Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Niazi, Adnan; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Schnürer, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the genome-based analysis of Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans strain Re1, a syntrophic acetate-oxidising bacterium (SAOB). Principal issues such as environmental adaptations, metabolic capacities, and energy conserving systems have been investigated and the potential consequences for syntrophic acetate oxidation discussed. Briefly, in pure culture, T. acetatoxydans grows with different organic compounds and produces acetate as the main product. In a syntrophic consortium with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, it can also reverse its metabolism and instead convert acetate to formate/H2 and CO2. It can only proceed if the product formed is continuously removed. This process generates a very small amount of energy that is scarcely enough for growth, which makes this particular syntrophy of special interest. As a crucial member of the biogas-producing community in ammonium-rich engineered AD processes, genomic features conferring ammonium resistance, bacterial defense, oxygen and temperature tolerance were found, as well as attributes related to biofilm formation and flocculation. It is likely that T. acetatoxydans can form an electrochemical gradient by putative electron-bifurcating Rnf complex and [Fe-Fe] hydrogenases, as observed in other acetogens. However, genomic deficiencies related to acetogenic metabolism and anaerobic respiration were discovered, such as the lack of formate dehydrogenase and F1F0 ATP synthase. This has potential consequences for the metabolic pathways used under SAO and non-SAO conditions. The two complete sets of bacteriophage genomes, which were found to be encoded in the genome, are also worthy of mention. PMID:25811859

  3. GnRH-Induced Ca2+ Signaling Patterns and Gonadotropin Secretion in Pituitary Gonadotrophs. Functional Adaptations to Both Ordinary and Extraordinary Physiological Demands

    PubMed Central

    Durán-Pastén, Maria Luisa; Fiordelisio, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Pituitary gonadotrophs are a small fraction of the anterior pituitary population, yet they synthesize gonadotropins: luteinizing (LH) and follicle-stimulating (FSH), essential for gametogenesis and steroidogenesis. LH is secreted via a regulated pathway while FSH release is mostly constitutive and controlled by synthesis. Although gonadotrophs fire action potentials spontaneously, the intracellular Ca2+ rises produced do not influence secretion, which is mainly driven by Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH), a decapeptide synthesized in the hypothalamus and released in a pulsatile manner into the hypophyseal portal circulation. GnRH binding to G-protein-coupled receptors triggers Ca2+ mobilization from InsP3-sensitive intracellular pools, generating the global Ca2+ elevations necessary for secretion. Ca2+ signaling responses to increasing (GnRH) vary in stereotyped fashion from subthreshold to baseline spiking (oscillatory), to biphasic (spike-oscillatory or spike-plateau). This progression varies somewhat in gonadotrophs from different species and biological preparations. Both baseline spiking and biphasic GnRH-induced Ca2+ signals control LH/FSH synthesis and exocytosis. Estradiol and testosterone regulate gonadotropin secretion through feedback mechanisms, while FSH synthesis and release are influenced by activin, inhibin, and follistatin. Adaptation to physiological events like the estrous cycle, involves changes in GnRH sensitivity and LH/FSH synthesis: in proestrus, estradiol feedback regulation abruptly changes from negative to positive, causing the pre-ovulatory LH surge. Similarly, when testosterone levels drop after orquiectomy the lack of negative feedback on pituitary and hypothalamus boosts both GnRH and LH secretion, gonadotrophs GnRH sensitivity increases, and Ca2+ signaling patterns change. In addition, gonadotrophs proliferate and grow. These plastic changes denote a more vigorous functional adaptation in response to an extraordinary functional demand. PMID:24137156

  4. Anatomy & Physiology

    MedlinePLUS

    Search SEER Training: SEER Training Modules Print Home Glossary Citation Help Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro ...

  5. Disruption of hypothalamic leptin signaling in mice leads to early-onset obesity, but physiological adaptations in mature animals stabilize adiposity levels

    PubMed Central

    Ring, Laurence E.; Zeltser, Lori M.

    2010-01-01

    Distinct populations of leptin-sensing neurons in the hypothalamus, midbrain, and brainstem contribute to the regulation of energy homeostasis. To assess the requirement for leptin signaling in the hypothalamus, we crossed mice with a floxed leptin receptor allele (Leprfl) to mice transgenic for Nkx2.1-Cre, which drives Cre expression in the hypothalamus and not in more caudal brain regions, generating LeprNkx2.1KO mice. From weaning, LeprNkx2.1KO mice exhibited phenotypes similar to those observed in mice with global loss of leptin signaling (Leprdb/db mice), including increased weight gain and adiposity, hyperphagia, cold intolerance, and insulin resistance. However, after 8 weeks of age, LeprNkx2.1KO mice maintained stable adiposity levels, whereas the body fat percentage of Leprdb/db animals continued to escalate. The divergence in the adiposity phenotypes of Leprdb/db and LeprNkx2.1KO mice with age was concomitant with increased rates of linear growth and energy expenditure in LeprNkx2.1KO mice. These data suggest that remaining leptin signals in LeprNkx2.1KO mice mediate physiological adaptations that prevent the escalation of the adiposity phenotype in adult mice. The persistence of severe adiposity in LeprNkx2.1KO mice, however, suggests that compensatory actions of circuits regulating growth and energy expenditure are not sufficient to reverse obesity established at an early age. PMID:20592471

  6. Physiological responses of Uroleucon jaceae (L.) to seasonal changes in the quality of its host plant Centaurea jacea L.: multilevel control of adaptations to the life cycle of the host

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernhard Stadler

    1992-01-01

    Exploiters of short-lived plants have evolved strategies in response to physiological changes that occur during the development of their hosts. The ability to adapt to host quality changes is necessary particularly if the mobility of an animal is poor or risk-constrained. In the plant-aphid system Centaurea jaceae-Uroleucon jaceae, the responses of the aphid to the seasonal changes in its host

  7. Consider a spherical cow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harte

    1985-01-01

    Consider a Spherical Cow describes relatively simple mathematical methods for developing quantitative answers to often complex environmental problems. Early chapters provide systematic insights into problem solving and identifying mathematical tools and models that lead to back of the envelope answers. Subsequent chapters treat increasingly complex problems. Solutions are sought at different levels, e.g., informed guesses, quantitative solutions based on detailed

  8. Evidence for pulsatile release of LH during early and late gestation in Holstein cows 

    E-print Network

    Little, Daniel Edward

    1980-01-01

    EVIDENCE FOR PULSATILE RELEASE OF LH DURING EARLY AND LATE GESTATION IN HOLSTEIN COWS A Thesis by DANIEL EDWARD LITTLE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1980 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction EVIDENCE FOR PULSATILE RELEASE OF LH DURING EARLY AND LATE GESTATION IN HOLSTEIN COWS A Thesis by DANIEL EDWARD LITTLE Approved as to style and content by: (Ch irman...

  9. Heart-rate-adapted image reconstruction in multidetector-row cardiac CT: influence of physiological and technical prerequisite on image quality.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Christopher; Abolmaali, Nasreddin; Balzer, Joern O; Baunach, Sabine; Ackermann, Hanns; Dogan, Selami; Britten, Martina B; Vogl, Thomas J

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop strategies for optimal image reconstruction in multidetector-row cardiac CT and to discuss the results in the context of individual heart rate, cardiac physiology, and technical prerequisite. Sixty-four patients underwent multidetector-row cardiac CT. Depending on the heart rate either a single-segmental reconstruction (SSR) or an adaptive two-segmental reconstruction (ASR) was applied. Image reconstruction was done either antegrade (a) or retrograde (r) in relation to the R-peak. Reconstruction of all data sets was performed at multiple time points within the t-wave/p-wave interval, differing from each other by 50 ms. In addition, each reconstruction was assigned to one of six reconstruction intervals (A-F), each corresponding to a specific event in the cardiac cycle. While no significant time points were found for absolute values, the following interval/reconstruction technique combinations provided significant better image quality: F/r at HR <60 bpm for all coronary segments ( p65 bpm for all segments ( p

  10. Differences in leukocyte profile, gene expression, and metabolite status of dairy cows with or without sole ulcers.

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, Keelin; McCabe, Matthew; Earley, Bernadette

    2015-03-01

    Sole ulcers are one of the most severe pathologies causing lameness in dairy cows and are associated with abnormal behavior and impaired production performance. However, little is known about how or whether lameness caused by sole ulcers affects the cow systemically. This study compared hematology profile, leukocyte gene expression, and physiological responses [metabolite, cortisol, the endogenous steroid hormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and haptoglobin concentrations] of cows with sole ulcers and healthy cows. Twelve clinically lame cows (lame) were identified as having at least one sole ulcer and no other disorder, and matched with a cow that had good locomotion and no disorders (sound), using days in milk, liveweight, body condition score, and diet. Blood samples were taken from all 24 cows within 24h of sole ulcer diagnosis. Leukocyte counts were obtained using an automated cell counter, cortisol and DHEA concentration by ELISA, and plasma haptoglobin, urea, total protein, creatine kinase, and glucose were analyzed on an Olympus analyzer. Expression of 16 genes associated with lameness or stress were estimated using reverse transcription-PCR. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure in SAS software (version 9.3; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Lame cows had a higher neutrophil percentage, a numerically lower lymphocyte percentage, and tended to have a higher neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio than sound cows. Serum cortisol and DHEA concentrations were higher in lame than in sound cows. Lame cows also tended to have higher haptoglobin and glucose levels than sound, as well as higher protein yet lower urea levels. Sound cows tended to have higher relative expression of the gene coding for colony-stimulating factor 2 than lame, but in all other cases where differences were detected in cytokine gene expression (IL-1?, IL-1?, CXCL8, and IL-10), relative gene expression in sound cows tended to be, or was, lower than in lame. Relative expression of MMP-13, GR-?, Fas, haptoglobin, and CD62L were, or tended to be, higher in lame than sound cows. A high neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio in combination with higher cortisol levels in cows with ulcers is indicative of physiological stress. Moreover, increased DHEA and a higher cortisol:DHEA ratio, as well as a tendency for higher haptoglobin levels and increased haptoglobin mRNA expression, are indicative of systemic inflammation. Increased cytokine mRNA expression indicates activation of the immune system compared with healthy cows. Increased expression of MMP-13 mRNA has been found in cows with impaired locomotion and thus could be implicated in development of claw horn disorders. PMID:25557893

  11. [Allergy to cow's milk].

    PubMed

    Fourrier, E

    1997-07-01

    After recalling the medical reluctance as well as the risks that there are in complete elimination of milk in infants, the author presents several clinical pictures and then a classification of the immunological types. Allergic shock of neonates, digestive and extra-digestive (skin and respiratory airways) symptoms finally the rare chronic gastro-enteritis to cow milk. Non-reaginic food allergies: Acute gastro-enteropathy to cow milk, with villous atrophy and Heiner's syndrome, delayed hypersensitivities are studied, of difficult diagnosis that may cover almost all pathologies. They may be found in the digestive system, respiratory, the kidneys and even in the organs of behaviour. Migrane of food origin must be remembered. Development in regressive rules is a function of the type of allergy and the suddenness of the symptoms. Diagnosis is above all by questioning and confirmation or not by skin and in vitro tests. Certainty can only be shown by tests of elimination and re-introduction. The diet, at the same time of both diagnostic and therapeutic value, is based on the replacement of cow milk by foods that contain the same amount of proteins. It is essential, especially in the very small, to have perfect match of food so as to avoid any risk of a dramatic hypoprotinemia, which may happen if the child does not like the suggested diet, or if the parents cannot buy the substitution products. In such conditions great care must be taken to avoid provoking a crisis. Care must be taken to decide: If the elimination of cow milk is always justified each time. If it is, always check that the substituted protein is properly made, the family may change the diet mistakenly. It is better, finally, to keep the eczema, rather than die with it healed. PMID:9376082

  12. Cesarean section in cows.

    PubMed

    Newman, Kenneth D; Anderson, David E

    2005-03-01

    The goals of the cesarean section are preservation of the dam and calf and the future reproductive efficiency of the dam. The outcome of the cesarean section is a self-fulfilling prophecy. Numerous variables may affect the successful outcome of this procedure. Case selection is the most important and often overlooked variable. In addition, skin preparation,surgical technique, calf viability at the time of surgery, and exteriorizing the uterus can affect outcome. Minimizing excessive adhesion formation is equally important because it may affect reproductive efficiency adversely. Good surgical technique, including gentle tissue handling, appropriate suture materials and patterns, and adequate infolding of the uterine incision to prevent leakage, combined with antibiotics and anti-inflammatories when indicated can help minimize detrimental adhesions that may affect adversely the future reproductive efficiency of the cow. When dealing with anemphysematous fetus, intensive medical management perioperatively isa crucial determining factor of cow survival. Anti-inflammatories, high doses of intravenous antibiotics, and a ventral midline approach that permits adequate uterine exteriorization and reduces abdominal contamination also are likely key elements that contribute to the high survival rates of cows with emphysematous fetuses. PMID:15718088

  13. Cardiac Physiology of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    May, Linda

    2015-07-01

    Although the physiology of the heart and vascular system has not changed, there are many things we have learned and are still learning today. Research related to heart adaptations during pregnancy has been performed since the 1930s. Since the mid-1950s, researchers began to look at changes in the maternal cardiovascular system during exercise while pregnant. Research related to exercise during pregnancy and offspring heart development began and has continued since the 1970s. We will review the normal female cardiovascular system adaptations to pregnancy in general. Additionally, topics related to maternal cardiac adaptations to pregnancy during acute exercise, as well as the chronic conditioning response from exercise training will be explored. Since physical activity during pregnancy influences fetal development, the fetal cardiac development will be discussed in regards to acute and chronic maternal exercise. Similarly, the influence of various types of maternal exercise on acute and chronic fetal heart responses will be described. Briefly, the topics related to how and if there is maternal-fetal synchrony will be explained. Lastly, the developmental changes of the fetal cardiovascular system that persist after birth will be explored. Overall, the article will discuss maternal cardiac physiology related to changes with normal pregnancy, and exercise during pregnancy, as well as fetal cardiac physiology related to changes with normal development, and exercise during pregnancy as well as developmental changes in offspring after birth. © 2015 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 5:1325-1344, 2015. PMID:26140720

  14. Disseminated hemangiosarcoma in a cow

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Matthew L.; Smith, Billy I.; Engiles, Julie B.

    2011-01-01

    An antemortem diagnosis of disseminated hemangiosarcoma with extensive hepatic and splenic involvement was made in a 9-year-old cow evaluated for lethargy, weight loss, regenerative anemia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzymes. This is the first report of hemangiosarcoma in a cow with a suspected primary location of the liver and/or spleen. PMID:21731096

  15. Plasma oxidative stress biomarkers and progesterone profiles in a dairy cow diagnosed with an ovarian follicular cyst.

    PubMed

    Talukder, S; Ingenhoff, L; Kerrisk, K L; Celi, P

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the oxidative stress biomarkers in a cow diagnosed with a follicular cyst in her left ovary. Progesterone (P4) and plasma oxidative stress status was measured in 13 Holstein cows after synchronization of oestrus with controlled internal drug release (CIDR) and prostaglandinF2? (PGF2?) protocol. The presence and size of ovarian structures were monitored by transrectal ultrasound at 4 hourly intervals. Of the 13 cows, 12 were monitored until ovulation was detected and recorded, whereas one cow failed to ovulate and developed a follicular cyst. Oxidative stress biomarkers; reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs), biological antioxidant potential (BAP), oxidative stress index (OSI), glutathione (GSH), ceruloplasmin and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) were measured in the cystic cow and compared to those of the 12 ovulated cows and are referred to as higher or lower if they are outside the mean ± standard error of mean of those of ovulated cows. The cystic cow had lower ROMs and OSI between 36 and 84 h after PGF2? injection and at 9 h, from 36 to 60 h after PGF2? injection respectively. On the other hand, antioxidant (BAP and GSH) was higher in the cystic cow compared to her ovulated herd mates. The observed imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant might have disrupted the physiological events for ovulation to occur, leading to cystic ovarian disease. PMID:25190317

  16. Sleep in Dairy Cows Emma Ternman

    E-print Network

    Sleep in Dairy Cows Emma Ternman Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science Department/Repro, Uppsala 2014 Cover: Ceres ­ my supermodel cow (photo: J. Lipka) #12;Sleep in Dairy Cows Abstract Little is known about rest and sleep in dairy cows, but it has been shown in other species that the total amount

  17. Elevated non-esterified fatty acids and ?-hydroxybutyrate and their association with transition dairy cow performance.

    PubMed

    McArt, Jessica A A; Nydam, Daryl V; Oetzel, Garrett R; Overton, Thomas R; Ospina, Paula A

    2013-12-01

    Dairy cows pass through a period of negative energy balance as they transition from late gestation to early lactation. Poor adaptation through this period, expressed as excessively elevated concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) pre- or post-partum and elevated concentrations of ?-hydroxybutyrate post-partum, increases an individual animal's risk of post-partum disease, removal from the herd, reproductive difficulty, and reduced milk production. Field studies have shown that subclinical ketosis often affects 40% of cows in a herd although the incidence can be as high as 80%. Peak incidence occurs at 5 days in milk, and cows that develop subclinical ketosis in the first week of lactation have a higher risk of negative effects and reduced milk production than cows that develop subclinical ketosis in the second week of lactation. Herds with more than a 15-20% prevalence of excessively elevated concentrations of NEFAs and ?-hydroxybutyrate in early lactation have higher rates of negative subsequent events, poorer reproduction, and lower milk yield than herds with a lower prevalence of negative energy balance. This paper reviews (1) strategies for testing of energy-related metabolites, (2) consequences of poor adaptation to negative energy balance (for individual animals and for herds), (3) treatment approaches for affected cows, and (4) economic considerations for testing and treating cows with poor adaptation to negative energy balance. PMID:24054909

  18. Physiology of Bone.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Bone serves three main physiological functions: its mechanical nature provides support for locomotion and offers protection to vulnerable internal organs, it forms a reservoir for the storage of calcium and phosphate in the body, and it provides an environment for bone marrow production and haematopoietic cell development. The traditional view of bone as a passive tissue that responds to hormonal and dietary influences has changed over the past half century to one of bone as a dynamic adaptive tissue that responds to mechanical demands. This chapter gathers together some recent advances in bone physiology and molecular cell biology and discusses the potential application of the functional adaptation of bone to loading to enhance bone strength during childhood and adolescence. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:26138834

  19. Physiological Genomics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1969-12-31

    Five journals with free (or recently extended) online trial periods were recently announced; online content includes full text, figures, and tables. The American Physiological Society has announced free, online access to Physiological Genomics through December 31, 2001; full text and abstracts are available from 1999. The journal is published in conjunction with Stanford University's HighWire Press.

  20. Mad Cow Disease

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Clayton, Sonia

    2004-01-22

    BioEd Online is an â??educational resource for educators, students, and parentsâ? from the Baylor College of Medicine. This is an excellent place to find educational materials and current information in the field of biology. The â??Hot Topicsâ? section of this site focus on current events and issues in biology that are â??receiving national attention.â? Mad Cow Disease has remained a challenge to scientists and regulatory commissions since its discovery in 1986. This â??Hot Topicâ? on Mad Cow Disease was compiled by Sonia Clayton, PhD, James Denk, MA, and Nancy Moreno, PhD, and contains a brief discussion of the how the disease effects cattle and humans, as well as prevention information. Also included are references and links for further reading at the bottom of the page. On the right hand side of the page a related slide set is available for viewing as well as several links to related news stories.

  1. Factors affecting milk flow traits in dairy cows: results of a field study.

    PubMed

    Sandrucci, A; Tamburini, A; Bava, L; Zucali, M

    2007-03-01

    The study of milk flow curves provides useful information for enhancing milking efficiency and protecting udder health by adapting milking machine and milking procedures to the physiological requirements of the cow. The aim of this experiment was to investigate, using field data, the relationships among traits of the milk flow curves, their sources of variation, and milking performances in terms of milk production, machine-on time, and udder health. A total of 2,486 milk flow curves of the whole udder were collected in 82 Italian Holstein-Friesian dairy herds in the Lombardy region of Italy. Approximately one-third (35.1%) of milk flow curves were classified as bimodal. Most flow characteristics were influenced by lactation number, days in milk, and peak flow but also strongly affected by premilking operations. Proper udder preparation, including forestripping and predipping, resulted in better milking performances compared with poor preparation, with greater milk yield per milking, shorter milking time, and lesser bimodality. Premilking delay time, between the start of teat stimulation and cup attachment, affected milking time significantly: The shortest milking time was obtained for a range of delay time between 1 and 60 s. As the delay time increased, the percentage of bimodality dropped significantly. Increasing the number of clusters per operator led to greater percentages of bimodal curves. The greater somatic cell count of cows with bimodal curves supports the hypothesis of the negative effect of bimodality on udder health and indicates the importance of avoiding its occurrence using proper pre-milking procedures. PMID:17297090

  2. Effects of feeding various dosages of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zaworski, E M; Shriver-Munsch, C M; Fadden, N A; Sanchez, W K; Yoon, I; Bobe, G

    2014-05-01

    Feeding 56 versus 0 g/d of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; Diamond V Original XP; Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA) can increase feed intake and milk production in transition dairy cows. To evaluate the effects of various dosages of SCFP, Holstein cows were given individually a supplement containing 0 (n=14), 56 (n=15), or 112 g (n=13) of SCFP daily during morning lockup as a topdressing to their total mixed ration. The supplement consisted of 0, 56, or 112 g of SCFP mixed with 84 g of molasses and 168, 112, or 56 g of corn meal, respectively. Supplement feeding began 28 d before predicted calving date (no less than 14 d) and ended 28 d postpartum, and supplement intake was evaluated daily. Blood samples were collected at d -21, -14, -7, -3, -1, 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 to measure serum concentrations of macrominerals, metabolites, acute-phase proteins, immunoglobulin, and hormones. Milk weights were measured and milk samples were collected 2 times/wk on nonconsecutive days and analyzed for milk fat, protein, lactose, and somatic cell count (SCC). During the first day after calving, feeding SCFP versus no SCFP decreased serum cortisol concentrations and at least tended to increase supplement intake and serum concentrations of calcium, glucose, urea N, and serum amyloid A. During the first 4 wk postpartum, feeding SCFP versus no SCFP decreased milk SCC and increased milk production and serum phosphorus concentrations. Feeding 112 versus 56 g of SCFP/d did not show additional effects. Feeding SCFP may have a dosage-independent beneficial effect in supporting the physiologic adaptations after parturition, resulting in higher milk production and lower milk SCC. PMID:24612807

  3. Feeding the Transition Dairy Cow 

    E-print Network

    Stokes, Sandra R.

    1999-09-20

    available forages for the dry cows are high in calcium, phospho- rus, and/or potassium. Anionic salts are fed to manipulate the dietary cation/ anion balance in the close-up cow. These L-5197 8-99 Feeding the transition dairy cow Sandra R. Stokes* *Extension... dairy specialist; The Texas A&M University System. Feed intake usually decreases in the f_inal week before calving T salts lower body pH and stimulate calci- um release from the bones and calcium absorption from the gut. However, these salts are not very...

  4. Developmental Physiology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web portal offered through the University of North Texas aims to "promote a sense of identity and connectivity among interested scientists and students active in the burgeoning field of developmental physiology." Users will find a wide array of useful features and services, including developmental physiology news, career and funding information, regularly updated links to related publications, a searchable database of developmental physiology researchers worldwide, op-ed pieces, hundreds of related links, and more. A helpful intra-site search engine has been recently added.

  5. Predicting nutritional requirements and lactation performance of dual-purpose cows using a dynamic model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Reynoso-Campos; D. G. Fox; R. W. Blake; M. C. Barry; L. O. Tedeschi; C. F. Nicholson; H. M. Kaiser; P. A. Oltenacu

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic application of the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) model was developed to predict annual cycles in animal nutrient requirements and performance of dual-purpose (milk and beef) cows. Interactions from mobilisation and repletion of body tissue reserves and feed biological values are accounted with a time step of one day, which considers physiological status of the animal,

  6. Relationship of Plasma Nonesterified Fatty Acids and Walking Activity in Postpartum Dairy Cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Adewuyi; J. B. Roelofs; E. Gruys; M. J. M. Toussaint; Eerdenburg van F. J. C. M

    2006-01-01

    To survive and produce milk, postpartum dairy cows use their reserves through lipolysis. If the negative energy balance is severe, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) are formed that can impair several physiological processes. A pilot study suggested that increased walking activity after calving may be related to a reduced serum concentration of NEFA. The objective of this study was to determine

  7. Pasture Forages, Supplementation Rate, and Stocking Rate Effects on Dairy Cow Performance1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Fike; C. R. Staples; L. E. Sollenberger; B. Macoon; J. E. Moore

    2003-01-01

    Objectives were to evaluate effects of forage species, stocking rate, and supplementation rate on perfor- mance and physiology of grazing lactating Holstein cows under intensive rotational stocking management during summer. Eight treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. Animals (n = 62) grazed pastures of Tifton 85 bermudagrass or Florigraze rhi- zoma peanut, a tropical

  8. Role of cellular immunity in cow's milk allergy: pathogenesis, tolerance induction, and beyond.

    PubMed

    Jo, Juandy; Garssen, Johan; Knippels, Leon; Sandalova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy is an aberrant immune-mediated reaction against harmless food substances, such as cow's milk proteins. Due to its very early introduction, cow's milk allergy is one of the earliest and most common food allergies. For this reason cow's milk allergy can be recognized as one of the first indications of an aberrant inflammatory response in early life. Classically, cow's milk allergy, as is true for most other allergies as well, is primarily associated with abnormal humoral immune responses, that is, elevation of specific immunoglobulin E levels. There is growing evidence indicating that cellular components of both innate and adaptive immunity play significant roles during the pathogenesis of cow's milk allergy. This is true for the initiation of the allergic phenotype (stimulation and skewing towards sensitization), development and outgrowth of the allergic disease. This review discusses findings pertaining to roles of cellular immunity in allergic inflammation, and tolerance induction against cow's milk proteins. In addition, a possible interaction between immune mechanisms underlying cow's milk allergy and other types of inflammation (infections and noncommunicable diseases) is discussed. PMID:25002754

  9. Beef cow-calf production.

    PubMed

    Feuz, Dillon M; Umberger, Wendy J

    2003-07-01

    Cow-calf production occurs in all 50 states over varied resource bases and under vastly different environmental conditions. Multiple breeds exist and management styles and objectives are as numerous as the number of cow-calf producers. There is not one area of the country, one breed of cattle, or one management style that is most profitable for producing cows and calves. There are, however, some common strategies that can be employed by cow-calf producers to enhance profitability. Costs need to be controlled without jeopardizing cow herd productivity or net returns. It appears that the cost associated with purchased and harvested feeds varies considerably across operations. Understanding cyclic and seasonal price patterns, weight-price slides, cattle shrink, and other marketing costs can help producers enhance their profit by marketing (and not by just selling) their cattle. Producers with superior cattle genetics can become part of a specific alliance or, at a minimum, document the performance of their cattle so that they can get paid for the superior genetics. The beef industry is changing and will likely continue to change. Cow-calf producers will need to examine their own management practices to determine whether they are optimal for the current industry. Those producers who are most adept at matching their management abilities to their cattle type, their resource base, and the appropriate market outlet will be the most successful in the future. PMID:12951737

  10. Alopecia areata in Eringer cows.

    PubMed

    Timm, Katrin; Rüfenacht, Silvia; von Tscharner, Claudia; Bornand, Valérie F; Doherr, Marcus G; Oevermann, Anna; Flury, Christine; Rieder, Stefan; Hirsbrunner, Gaby; Drögemüller, Cord; Roosje, Petra J

    2010-12-01

    Alopecia areata is a hair loss disorder in humans, dogs and horses with a suspected autoimmune aetiology targeting anagen hair follicles. Alopecia areata is only sporadically reported in cows. Recently, we observed several cases of suspected alopecia areata in Eringer cows. The aim of this study was to confirm the presumptive diagnosis of alopecia areata and to define the clinical phenotype and histopathological patterns, including characterization of the infiltrating inflammatory cells. Twenty Eringer cows with alopecia and 11 Eringer cows without skin problems were included in this study. Affected cows had either generalized or multifocal alopecia or hypotrichosis. The tail, forehead and distal extremities were usually spared. Punch biopsies were obtained from the centre and margin of alopecic lesions and normal haired skin. Histological examination revealed several alterations in anagen hair bulbs. These included peri- and intrabulbar lymphocytic infiltration, peribulbar fibrosis, degenerate matrix cells with clumped melanosomes and pigmentary incontinence. Mild lymphocytic infiltrative mural folliculitis was seen in the inferior segment and isthmus of the hair follicles. Hair shafts were often unpigmented and dysplastic. The large majority of infiltrating lymphocytes were CD3(+) T cells, whereas only occasional CD20(+) lymphocytes were present in the peribulbar infiltrate. Our findings confirm the diagnosis of T-cell-mediated alopecia areata in these cows. Alopecia areata appears to occur with increased frequency in the Eringer breed, but distinct predisposing factors could not be identified. PMID:20626715

  11. Physiology and genetics of leptin in periparturient dairy cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Liefers

    2004-01-01

    In dairy cattle, the increase in milk yield has been accompanied by a decrease in fertility and a more negative energy balance. As the hormone l<\\/span>eptin is involved in regulation of nutritional status and reproductive function (Chapter 2) this is an interesting protein to investigate during the periparturient period in dairy cattle when many changes take place both in

  12. Immune response of postpartum dairy cows fed flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Lessard, M; Gagnon, N; Petit, H V

    2003-08-01

    Thirty Holstein cows were allotted at calving to 10 groups of three cows blocked for similar calving dates to determine the effects of dietary fatty acids on functional properties of immunocompetent cells in early lactation and at breeding. Cows were assigned at calving to one of three isonitrogenous, isoenergetic, and isolipidic supplements based on either calcium salts of palm oil, Megalac, micronized soybeans, or whole flaxseed. On the day of AI and 20 d later, cows were injected with ovalbumin to measure the antibody response. Blood samples were taken at different times after calving (d 5, 21, 42, and 105) and after AI (d 0, 10, 20, and 40) for quantification of serum progesterone, fatty acids, and prostaglandin E2 concentrations. Isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured to evaluate the proliferative response to concanavalin A and in vitro productions of interferon-gamma and prostaglandin E2. In general, feeding flaxseed increased serum omega-3 fatty acids concentration compared with feeding Megalac or soybeans, which decreased the omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids ratio. There was a significant diet x day interaction for the proliferative response of mononuclear cells after calving and AI, indicating that cell responses from cows fed flaxseed were transiently reduced compared with those fed Megalac and soybeans. Moreover, during the breeding period, serum progesterone concentration was significantly greater in cows fed flaxseed compared with those fed Megalac, whereas serum concentration of prostaglandin E2 was significantly lower in cows fed flaxseed than in those fed Megalac or soybeans. Dietary treatments had no effect on the antibody response to ovalbumin and on in vitro productions of interferon-gamma and prostaglandin E2. However, interferon-gamma and prostaglandin E2 were impaired in the first 3 wk after parturition regardless of dietary treatment. These results suggest that changes in fatty acids, progesterone, and prostaglandins E2 concentrations in serum due to dietary treatment and physiological status influenced systemic immunity as shown by reduced proliferative response. However, other mechanisms must be considered and are discussed to explain dietary effect on lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogenic stimulation and other immune functions. PMID:12939089

  13. Regulatory Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  14. Effects of dry period length on milk production, body condition, metabolites, and hepatic glucose metabolism in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Weber, C; Losand, B; Tuchscherer, A; Rehbock, F; Blum, E; Yang, W; Bruckmaier, R M; Sanftleben, P; Hammon, H M

    2015-03-01

    Dry period (DP) length affects energy metabolism around calving in dairy cows as well as milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of the study was to investigate milk production, body condition, metabolic adaptation, and hepatic gene expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in Holstein cows (>10,000 kg milk/305 d) with 28- (n=18), 56- (n=18), and 90-d DP (n=22) length (treatment groups) in a commercial farm. Cows were fed total mixed rations ad libitum adjusted for far-off (not for 28-d DP) and close-up DP and lactation. Milk yield was recorded daily and body condition score (BCS), back fat thickness (BFT), and body weight (BW) were determined at dry off, 1 wk before expected and after calving, and on wk 2, 4, and 8 postpartum (pp). Blood samples were taken on d -56, -28, -7, 1, 7, 14, 28, and 56 relative to calving to measure plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones. Liver biopsies (n=11 per treatment) were taken on d -10 and 10 relative to calving to determine glycogen and total liver fat concentration (LFC) and to quantify mRNA levels of pyruvate carboxylase (PC), cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and glucose-6-phosphatase. Time course of milk yield during first 8 wk in lactation differed among treatment. Milk protein content was higher in 28-d than in 90-d DP cows. Milk fat to protein ratio was highest and milk urea was lowest in 90-d DP cows. Differences in BW, BFT, and BCS were predominantly seen before calving with greatest BW, BFT, and BCS in 90-d DP cows. Plasma concentrations of NEFA and BHBA were elevated during the transition period in all cows, and the greatest increase pp was seen in 90-d DP cows. Plasma glucose concentration decreased around calving and was greater in 28-d than in 90-d DP cows. Dry period length also affected plasma concentrations of urea, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase, and glutamate dehydrogenase. Plasma insulin concentration decreased around calving in all cows, but insulin concentration pp was greater in 28-d than in 56-d DP cows. Hepatic glycogen concentration decreased and LFC increased after calving in all cows, and LFC was greater pp in 90-d DP than in 28-d DP cows. Hepatic PC mRNA abundance pp tended to increase most in 90-d DP cows. Changes on glucose metabolism were more balanced in cows with a reduced DP, whereas cows with extended DP and elevated body condition indicated greatest metabolic changes according to lipid and glucose metabolism during the transition period. PMID:25547307

  15. Physiological studies of exocrine pancreatic secretion in conscious rats. 7th communication: short-term kinetics of adaptation of digestive enzymes to different nutritional stimuli.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, T; Haberich, F J

    1985-05-01

    In conscious rats provided with appropriate indwelling catheters the kinetic period of adaptation (short-term adaptation) of digestive enzymes was investigated in response to a rapid change of diet and to intraduodenal infusions of different food components. Flow-rate and total protein concentration of pancreatic juice were measured. Enzyme-separation by PAA-Gel-Electrophoresis and quantitative analysis of amylases I and II, lipase, chymotrypsins I and II and trypsin were performed. The specific enzymatic activity was characterized by the enzyme fraction in percent of total protein. Rapid "change of diet" in rats, previously adapted for two weeks to a certain diet, caused increasing and decreasing concentrations of the corresponding enzymes respectively. The kinetic of this adaptation could well be described by exponential functions. Intraduodenal perfusion of starch, soy-bean oil or amino acids revealed similar changes in enzyme secretion as seen in the dietary experiments; i. e. intraduodenaL perfusion of starch caused mainly an increase in amylase secretion, soy-bean oil in lipase secretion and amino acids in the secretion of proteases. The kinetics could be described as a definite transfer function to a rectangular stimulus. The time lag between the duodenal "stimulation" and "response" in pancreatic enzyme secretion was only a few hours. After a period of rapid change in enzyme secretion during the initial 5 hours, the secretion rises more slowly to reach steady-state level after 18-22 hours. The results of this study allow a more detailed formal description of the kinetics of pancreatic short-term adaptation to nutritional stimuli without clarifying the involved mechanisms. PMID:2417422

  16. Gene-Based Mapping and Pathway Analysis of Metabolic Traits in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ngoc-Thuy; Gross, Josef Johann; van Dorland, Annette; Tetens, Jens; Thaller, Georg; Schlather, Martin; Bruckmaier, Rupert; Simianer, Henner

    2015-01-01

    The metabolic adaptation of dairy cows during the transition period has been studied intensively in the last decades. However, until now, only few studies have paid attention to the genetic aspects of this process. Here, we present the results of a gene-based mapping and pathway analysis with the measurements of three key metabolites, (1) non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), (2) beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and (3) glucose, characterizing the metabolic adaptability of dairy cows before and after calving. In contrast to the conventional single-marker approach, we identify 99 significant and biologically sensible genes associated with at least one of the considered phenotypes and thus giving evidence for a genetic basis of the metabolic adaptability. Moreover, our results strongly suggest three pathways involved in the metabolism of steroids and lipids are potential candidates for the adaptive regulation of dairy cows in their early lactation. From our perspective, a closer investigation of our findings will lead to a step forward in understanding the variability in the metabolic adaptability of dairy cows in their early lactation. PMID:25789767

  17. Regulation of Adult Physiology and Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster 

    E-print Network

    Schwedes, Christoph 1980-

    2012-10-26

    The physiological responses involved in mediating adaptive change due to varying environmental conditions or social interactions are complex and involve integration of numerous signaling pathways. With Drosophila melanogaster, ...

  18. Fractal physiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Deering; Bruce J. West

    1992-01-01

    The nature of fractals and the use of fractals instead of classical scaling concepts to describe the irregular surfaces, structures, and processes exhibited by physiological systems are described. The mathematical development of fractals is reviewed, and examples of natural fractals are cited. Relationships among power laws, noise, and fractal time signals are examined

  19. Original article Relationship between individual-cow

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    was due to parity. Old cows were generally affected by higher somatic cell counts than younger cows dairy cow / mastitis / intramammary infection / herd effect / Somatic cell count * Correspondence of minor or major pathogens in milk during early lactation. Herd effect was taken into account and a within

  20. The responsiveness of subclinical endometritis to a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug in pasture-grazed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Priest, N V; McDougall, S; Burke, C R; Roche, J R; Mitchell, M; McLeod, K L; Greenwood, S L; Meier, S

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the inflammation associated with subclinical endometritis (SCE) is a part of the mechanism by which reproductive performance is reduced in cows with this disease. If it is, reducing inflammation associated with SCE with a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) should reduce the severity [as measured by average polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) percentage] of uterine pathology and improve reproductive performance. It was also investigated whether the NSAID treatment reduced metabolic indicators of systemic inflammation previously reported to be altered in cows with SCE. Holstein-Friesian and Friesian-Jersey cross dairy cows (n=213) were paired by calving date and d-14 uterine PMN percentage and randomly assigned to 3 injections at intervals of 3 d of an NSAID (1.4 mg of carprofen/kg; n=104) between 21 and 31 d postpartum or left as untreated controls (n=109). Cows with ?14% PMN (upper quartile of PMN percentage) in the cytological sample collected at d 14 postpartum were defined as having SCE. The average d-14 PMN percentage was low (9.9%) and a high self-cure rate of SCE (>90%) at d 42 was observed. Treatment with an NSAID reduced plasma concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase and increased pregnancy rate in SCE cows. However, no effect of the NSAID treatment was observed on PMN percentage at d 42, postpartum anovulatory interval, or milk production. Compared with cows without SCE, cows with SCE had lower plasma albumin concentration, albumin:globulin ratio, and body condition score, but higher nonesterified fatty acids on the day of calving. These results indicate that cows with SCE are experiencing a physiological dysfunction, including lower body condition, liver dysfunction, and greater metabolic challenge during the periparturient period. Further research is required to determine the effect of NSAID on SCE and to evaluate the influence of timing of drug application on treatment effectiveness. PMID:23660148

  1. Salinity adaptation of the invasive New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) in the Columbia River estuary (Pacific Northwest, USA): physiological and molecular studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoy, Marshal; Boese, Bruce L.; Taylor, Louise; Reusser, Deborah; Rodriguez, Rusty

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examine salinity stress tolerances of two populations of the invasive species New Zealand mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum, one population from a high salinity environment in the Columbia River estuary and the other from a fresh water lake. In 1996, New Zealand mud snails were discovered in the tidal reaches of the Columbia River estuary that is routinely exposed to salinity at near full seawater concentrations. In contrast, in their native habitat and throughout its spread in the western US, New Zealand mud snails are found only in fresh water ecosystems. Our aim was to determine whether the Columbia River snails have become salt water adapted. Using a modification of the standard amphipod sediment toxicity test, salinity tolerance was tested using a range of concentrations up to undiluted seawater, and the snails were sampled for mortality at daily time points. Our results show that the Columbia River snails were more tolerant of acute salinity stress with the LC50 values averaging 38 and 22 Practical Salinity Units for the Columbia River and freshwater snails, respectively. DNA sequence analysis and morphological comparisons of individuals representing each population indicate that they were all P. antipodarum. These results suggest that this species is salt water adaptable and in addition, this investigation helps elucidate the potential of this aquatic invasive organism to adapt to adverse environmental conditions.

  2. The effect of heat waves on dairy cow mortality.

    PubMed

    Vitali, A; Felici, A; Esposito, S; Bernabucci, U; Bertocchi, L; Maresca, C; Nardone, A; Lacetera, N

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the mortality of dairy cows during heat waves. Mortality data (46,610 cases) referred to dairy cows older than 24mo that died on a farm from all causes from May 1 to September 30 during a 6-yr period (2002-2007). Weather data were obtained from 12 weather stations located in different areas of Italy. Heat waves were defined for each weather station as a period of at least 3 consecutive days, from May 1 to September 30 (2002-2007), when the daily maximum temperature exceeded the 90th percentile of the reference distribution (1971-2000). Summer days were classified as days in heat wave (HW) or not in heat wave (nHW). Days in HW were numbered to evaluate the relationship between mortality and length of the wave. Finally, the first 3 nHW days after the end of a heat wave were also considered to account for potential prolonged effects. The mortality risk was evaluated using a case-crossover design. A conditional logistic regression model was used to calculate odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for mortality recorded in HW compared with that recorded in nHW days pooled and stratified by duration of exposure, age of cows, and month of occurrence. Dairy cows mortality was greater during HW compared with nHW days. Furthermore, compared with nHW days, the risk of mortality continued to be higher during the 3 d after the end of HW. Mortality increased with the length of the HW. Considering deaths stratified by age, cows up to 28mo were not affected by HW, whereas all the other age categories of older cows (29-60, 61-96, and >96mo) showed a greater mortality when exposed to HW. The risk of death during HW was higher in early summer months. In particular, the highest risk of mortality was observed during June HW. Present results strongly support the implementation of adaptation strategies which may limit heat stress-related impairment of animal welfare and economic losses in dairy cow farm during HW. PMID:25958287

  3. Milk yield and composition from Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, P F; Menezes, L M; Azambuja, R C C; Suñé, R W; Barbosa Silveira, I D; Cardoso, F F

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed milk yield and composition of Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil. A total of 128 records were collected in 2 consecutive calving seasons from cows between 3 and 5 yr of age of 4 breed compositions: Angus (ANAN), Caracu × Angus (CRAN), Hereford × Angus (HHAN), and Nelore × Angus (NEAN). These cows were mated to Brangus (BN) or Braford (BO) bulls and managed under extensive grazing conditions in southern Brazil. Milk production of these cows was assessed by 2 procedures: indirectly by the calf weigh-suckle-weigh procedure (WD) and directly by machine milking (MM). Lactation curves were estimated using nonlinear regression and the following related traits were derived: peak yield (PY), peak week (PW), total yield at 210 d (TY210), and lactation persistence (PERS). Milk composition and calf weaning weight adjusted to 210 d (WW210) were also determined. The MM technique was considered more accurate because of lower standard errors of estimated means, greater statistical power, and greater correlation between TY210 and WW210 (0.50) compared to WD (0.36). Considering the more precise evaluation by MM, the CRAN and NEAN cows had greater TY210 (1070 and 1116 kg, respectively) and PY (8.1 and 7.8 kg, respectively) compared to ANAN and HHAN cows, which had 858 and 842 kg for TY210 and 6.6 and 6.3 kg for PY, respectively. The NEAN cows had the latest PW at 10.8 wk. Late-calving cows had 21% lower TY210 compared to cows that calved earlier. Milk composition was influenced by cow genotype, with CRAN and NEAN cows producing milk with greater fat (3.8 and 3.9%, respectively) and protein (3.2 and 3.1%, respectively) content compared to ANAN and HHAN cows. Regardless of the genotype, fat, protein, and total solids increased in concentration from beginning to end of lactation, while lactose content decreased. Crossbreeding of Angus with adapted breeds of taurine or indicine origin can be effective in increasing milk yield and nutrient content and, consequently, producing heavier calves at weaning under extensive grazing in southern Brazil and other similar subtropical climate regions. PMID:24753378

  4. Body temperature in early postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V S; Voigtsberger, R; Bonk, S; Heuwieser, W

    2014-07-01

    A strategy widely adopted in the modern dairy industry is the introduction of postpartum health monitoring programs by trained farm personnel. Within these fresh cow protocols, various parameters (e.g., rectal temperature, attitude, milk production, uterine discharge, ketones) are evaluated during the first 5 to 14 days in milk (DIMs) to diagnose relevant diseases. It is well documented that 14% to 66% of healthy cows exhibit at least one temperature of 39.5 °C or greater within the first 10 DIM. Although widely adopted, data on diagnostic performance of body temperature (BT) measurement to diagnose infectious diseases (e.g., metritis, mastitis) are lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify possible factors associated with BT in postpartum dairy cows. A study was conducted on a commercial dairy farm including 251 cows. In a total of 217 cows, a vaginal temperature logger was inserted from DIM 2 to 10, whereas 34 cows did not receive a temperature logger as control. Temperature loggers measured vaginal temperature every 10 minutes. Rectal temperature was measured twice daily in all cows. On DIM 2, 5, and 10, cows underwent a clinical examination. Body temperature was influenced by various parameters. Primiparous cows had 0.2 °C higher BT than multiparous cows. Multiparous cows that calved during June and July had higher BT than those that calved in May. In primiparous cows, this effect was only evident from DIM 7 to 10. Furthermore, abnormal calving conditions (i.e., assisted calving, dead calf, retained placenta, twins) affected BT in cows. This effect was more pronounced in multiparous cows. Abnormal vaginal discharge did increase BT in primiparous and multiparous cows. Primiparous cows suffering from hyperketonemia (beta-hydroxybutyrat ? 1.4 mmol/L) had higher BT than those not affected. In multiparous cows, there was no association between hyperketonemia and BT. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that BT is influenced by various parameters in dairy cows. Therefore, these parameters have to be considered when interpreting measurements of BT in dairy cows. This information helps to explain the high incidence of type I and II errors when measuring BT and clearly illustrates that measures of BT should not be used as a single criterion to decide whether or not to provide antibiotic treatment to dairy cows. However, research-based test characteristics of other parameters (e.g., vaginal discharge) alone or in combination with BT are still lacking. PMID:24742963

  5. Quantification of training load, energy intake, and physiological adaptations during a rugby preseason: a case study from an elite European rugby union squad.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Warren J; Cavanagh, Bryce P; Douglas, William; Donovan, Timothy F; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2015-02-01

    Rugby Union (RU) is a high-speed collision sport consisting of an intermittent activity profile. Given the extreme physical demands of the sport, significant emphasis is placed on players possessing high lean body mass while minimizing body fat. Anecdotally, the most significant changes in body composition are observed during the preseason; however, there are no objective data on the physiological demands and energy intake during this time. We therefore monitored 45 elite European RU players over the 10-week preseason period by assessing training load using Global Positioning System and session rate of perceived exertion (sRPE) while also assessing changes in anthropometry and physical performance. For forwards and backs, respectively, mean weekly distance covered was 9,774 m (1,404) and 11,585 m (1,810) with a total mean weekly sRPE of 3,398 (335) arbitrary units and 2,944 (410) arbitrary units. Mean daily energy intake was 14.8 MJ (1.9) and 13.3 MJ (1.9), carbohydrate (CHO) intake was 3.3 (0.7) and 4.14 (0.4) g·kg body mass, protein intake was 2.52 (0.3) and 2.59 (0.6) g·kg body mass, and fat intake was 1.0 (0.3) and 0.95 (0.3) g·kg body mass for forwards and backs, respectively. Markers of physical performance (1 repetition maximum strength, speed, and repeated sprint tests) and anthropometry (body fat and estimated lean mass) improved in all players. Interestingly, all players self-selected a "low" CHO "high" protein diet. Based on physiological improvements the training load and energy intake seems appropriate, although further research is required to evaluate if such energy intakes would also be suitable for match day performance. PMID:25029003

  6. Muscle Physiology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    The Muscle Physiology Lab at the University of California-San Diego provides this comprehensive source of information on the neuromuscular system. The Web site appears as a extensive menu of subtopics, each leading to pages of detailed text and diagrams. Students studying muscle structure and function should find this well-organized and authoritative resource extremely useful. The Web site also includes a search tool for quickly finding pages of interest, and a list of related links for additional information.

  7. Zinc-65 absorption and tissue distribution in two- and six-month-old holstein calves and lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Stake, P E; Miller, W J; Neathery, M W; Gentry, R P

    1975-01-01

    Holstein calves and cows in first lactation were fed a low-zinc (16.6 ppm) experimental diet. Zinc-65 absorption and tissue distribution were determined following a single oral tracer dose of zinc-65 given 14 days prior to sacrifice. Net zinc-65 absorptions for the cows and 2- and 6-mo-old calves were 53.4, 49.7 and 47.2% of the dose. Tissue zinc-65 content, adjusted for body weight and zinc-65 of milk of the cows was not significantly different from that of either age calves in 13 of 20 comparable tissues. Greatest differences in tissue zinc-65 were in tibia and rib with the 6-mo-old group highest and cows lowest. Lactation represents a major homoeostatic demand for zinc, and the intestinal absorptive ability of adult cattle remains responsive to physiological need. PMID:1112935

  8. Physiological response of Pichia pastoris GS115 to methanol-induced high level production of the Hepatitis B surface antigen: catabolic adaptation, stress responses, and autophagic processes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pichia pastoris is an established eukaryotic host for the production of recombinant proteins. Most often, protein production is under the control of the strong methanol-inducible aox1 promoter. However, detailed information about the physiological alterations in P. pastoris accompanying the shift from growth on glycerol to methanol-induced protein production under industrial relevant conditions is missing. Here, we provide an analysis of the physiological response of P. pastoris GS115 to methanol-induced high-level production of the Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg). High product titers and the retention of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are supposedly of major impact on the host physiology. For a more detailed understanding of the cellular response to methanol-induced HBsAg production, the time-dependent changes in the yeast proteome and ultrastructural cell morphology were analyzed during the production process. Results The shift from growth on glycerol to growth and HBsAg production on methanol was accompanied by a drastic change in the yeast proteome. In particular, enzymes from the methanol dissimilation pathway started to dominate the proteome while enzymes from the methanol assimilation pathway, e.g. the transketolase DAS1, increased only moderately. The majority of methanol was metabolized via the energy generating dissimilatory pathway leading to a corresponding increase in mitochondrial size and numbers. The methanol-metabolism related generation of reactive oxygen species induced a pronounced oxidative stress response (e.g. strong increase of the peroxiredoxin PMP20). Moreover, the accumulation of HBsAg in the ER resulted in the induction of the unfolded protein response (e.g. strong increase of the ER-resident disulfide isomerase, PDI) and the ER associated degradation (ERAD) pathway (e.g. increase of two cytosolic chaperones and members of the AAA ATPase superfamily) indicating that potential degradation of HBsAg could proceed via the ERAD pathway and through the proteasome. However, the amount of HBsAg did not show any significant decline during the cultivation revealing its general protection from proteolytic degradation. During the methanol fed-batch phase, induction of vacuolar proteases (e.g. strong increase of APR1) and constitutive autophagic processes were observed. Vacuolar enclosures were mainly found around peroxisomes and not close to HBsAg deposits and, thus, were most likely provoked by peroxisomal components damaged by reactive oxygen species generated by methanol oxidation. Conclusions In the methanol fed-batch phase P. pastoris is exposed to dual stress; stress resulting from methanol degradation and stress resulting from the production of the recombinant protein leading to the induction of oxidative stress and unfolded protein response pathways, respectively. Finally, the modest increase of methanol assimilatory enzymes compared to the strong increase of methanol dissimilatory enzymes suggests here a potential to increase methanol incorporation into biomass/product through metabolic enhancement of the methanol assimilatory pathway. PMID:22873405

  9. PADRE for COWs David Hawking

    E-print Network

    Hawking, David

    partly due to changes in index format. P1-B-1 #12;The scale of collection which could be processed collections and was capable of processing many times this size). Un- fortunately, query processing redesigned to operate in the COW environment. Indexing and retrieval algo- rithms and user-interface have

  10. Cow culture and its future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kalle Maijala

    According to DNA studies, the European and Zebu cattle have started to dif- ferentiate over 100 000 years ago. The humpless cattle seems to be domesti- cated in Near-East, the Zebu cattle in South Pakistan and Africa. In Finland, cows have existed for 3 000 years. Ancestors of our native cattle were trans- ported to West Norway and further to

  11. Feeding the Cow and Calf.

    E-print Network

    Maddox, L. A. Jr.

    1965-01-01

    ~lcti-r~/ lif(-' of the ro-tcrs. The feed required for maintenance increases ;I\\ weight5 of the cows increase. Figure 8 shows in a graphic form this ancl other major causes of changes in efficiency. The energy required to pro- duce 100 pounds of calf...

  12. Physiological adaptations to reproduction. I. Experimentally increasing litter size enhances aspects of antioxidant defence but does not cause oxidative damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Garratt, Michael; Pichaud, Nicolas; King, Edith D Aloise; Brooks, Robert C

    2013-08-01

    Life history theory suggests that investment in reproduction can trade off against growth, longevity and both reproduction and performance later in life. One possible reason for this trade-off is that reproduction directly causes somatic damage. Oxidative stress, an overproduction of reactive oxygen species in relation to cellular defences, can correlate with reproductive investment and has been implicated as a pathway leading to senescence. This has led to the suggestion that this aspect of physiology could be an important mechanism underlying the trade-off between reproduction and lifespan. We manipulated female reproductive investment to test whether oxidative stress increases with reproduction in mice. Each female's pups were cross-fostered to produce litters of either two or eight, representing low and high levels of reproductive investment for wild mice. No differences were observed between reproductive groups at peak lactation for several markers of oxidative stress in the heart and gastrocnemius muscle. Surprisingly, oxidative damage to proteins was lower in the livers of females with a litter size of eight than in females with two pups or non-reproductive control females. While protein oxidation decreased, activity levels of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase increased in the liver, suggesting this may be one pathway used to protect against oxidative stress. Our results highlight the need for caution when interpreting correlative relationships and suggest that oxidative stress does not increase with enhanced reproductive effort during lactation. PMID:23619417

  13. Physiological and Proteomic Adaptation of “Aromatoleum aromaticum” EbN1 to Low Growth Rates in Benzoate-Limited, Anoxic Chemostats

    PubMed Central

    Trautwein, Kathleen; Lahme, Sven; Wöhlbrand, Lars; Feenders, Christoph; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Harder, Jens; Steinbüchel, Alexander; Blasius, Bernd; Reinhardt, Richard

    2012-01-01

    “Aromatoleum aromaticum” EbN1 was cultivated at different growth rates in benzoate-limited chemostats under nitrate-reducing conditions. Physiological characteristics, proteome dynamics, phospholipid-linked fatty acid (PLFA) composition, and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) content were analyzed in steady-state cells at low (?low) (0.036 h?1), medium (?med) (0.108 h?1), and high (?high) (0.180 h?1) growth rates. A positive correlation to growth rate was observed for cellular parameters (cell size, and DNA and protein contents). The free energy consumed for biomass formation steadily increased with growth rate. In contrast, the energy demand for maintenance increased only from ?low to ?med and then remained constant until ?high. The most comprehensive proteomic changes were observed at ?low compared to ?high. Uniformly decreased abundances of protein components of the anaerobic benzoyl coenzyme A (benzoyl-CoA) pathway, central carbon metabolism, and information processing agree with a general deceleration of benzoate metabolism and cellular processes in response to slow growth. In contrast, increased abundances were observed at ?low for diverse catabolic proteins and components of uptake systems in the absence of the respective substrate (aromatic or aliphatic compounds) and for proteins involved in stress responses. This potential catabolic versatility and stress defense during slow growth may be interpreted as preparation for future needs. PMID:22366417

  14. Reproductive management of postpartum cows.

    PubMed

    Roche, J F; Mackey, D; Diskin, M D

    2000-07-01

    High reproductive efficiency in the dairy cow requires a disease-free transition period, high submission rates to AI and high pregnancy rates per service. A key risk factor that causes increased incidence of metabolic disease is low negative energy balance (NEB) in the periparturient and early postpartum periods. Low NEB decreases LH pulse frequency, growth rate and diameter of dominant follicle (DF), IGF-I, glucose, insulin concentrations and increases GH and certain blood metabolites; these effects result in greater loss of body condition score (BCS) and a higher percent of anoestrous cows in the herd. It is important to decrease the incidence of metabolic disease by achieving high dry matter intake (DMI) and minimising the period of NEB after calving. Thus, nutritional management of the cow in the transition period has a crucial role to play in improving reproductive efficiency, because acute nutritional deprivation of heifers has immediate deleterious effects on follicular growth and ovulation. To obtain high submission rates, it is necessary to decrease the incidence of anoestrus and to have good oestrous detection rates. Pregnancy rates per service are affected by a variety of factors. NEB can have deleterious effects on the follicle or the corpus luteum (CL) by decreasing IGF-I concentrations and steroidogenesis. High protein diets fed to postpartum cows leads to increased blood urea and lower fertility. Although the mechanism is not clear, the practical implication of feeding the appropriate level of crude protein in the diet is clear. Thus, a coordinated management approach involving herd managers, nutritionists and veterinarians is required to obtain high reproduction efficiency in dairy cows. PMID:10844236

  15. Physiological effects

    SciTech Connect

    Pearcy, R.W.; Bjoerkman, O.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter examines the effects of CO/sub 2/ on plants at the physiological level. The authors examine the potential effects of elevated CO/sub 2/ in concert with water, temperature, light, and salinity. They also examine plant allometric growth as it is affected by CO/sub 2/. The relationships between CO/sub 2/ uptake and temperature are examined in some detail. Stomatal function as it is now known is discussed, along with changes in water use efficiency correlated with increased levels of CO/sub 2/. Future research needs are identified. 71 references, 8 figures.

  16. Space physiology and medicine, 2nd ed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Nicogossian; C. L. Huntoon; S. L. Pool; P. C. Johnson

    1988-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Physiological Adaptation to Space Flight: Overall Adaptation to Space Flight and Implications; The Neurovestibular System; Performance; The Cardiopulmonary System; Nutrition; Bone and Mineral Metabolism; Hematology, Immunology, Endocrinology, and Biochemistry; Microgravity: Stimulations and Analogs; Health Maintenance of Space Crewmemebers: Medical Evaluation for Astronaut Selection and Longitudinal Studies; Biomedical Training of Space Crews; Ground-Based Medical Programs;

  17. WE-EF-BRD-03: I Want It Now!: Advances in MRI Acquisition, Reconstruction and the Use of Priors to Enable Fast Anatomic and Physiologic Imaging to Inform Guidance and Adaptation Decisions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y

    2015-06-01

    MRI-guided treatment is a growing area of medicine, particularly in radiotherapy and surgery. The exquisite soft tissue anatomic contrast offered by MRI, along with functional imaging, makes the use of MRI during therapeutic procedures very attractive. Challenging the utility of MRI in the therapy room are many issues including the physics of MRI and the impact on the environment and therapeutic instruments, the impact of the room and instruments on the MRI; safety, space, design and cost. In this session, the applications and challenges of MRI-guided treatment will be described.The session format is:1.Past, present and future: MRI-guided radiotherapy from 2005 to 2025: Jan Lagendijk2.Battling Maxwell's equations: Physics challenges and solutions for hybrid MRI systems: Paul Keall3.I want it now!: Advances in MRI acquisition, reconstruction and the use of priors to enable fast anatomic and physiologic imaging to inform guidance and adaptation decisions: Yanle Hu4.MR in the OR: The growth and applications of MRI for interventional radiology and surgery: Rebecca FahrigLearning Objectives:1.To understand the history and trajectory of MRI-guided radiotherapy2.To understand the challenges of integrating MR imaging systems with linear accelerators3.To understand the latest in fast MRI methods to enable the visualisation of anatomy and physiology on radiotherapy treatment timescales4.To understand the growing role and challenges of MRI for image-guided surgical proceduresMy disclosures are publicly available and updated at: http://sydney.edu.au/medicine/radiation-physics/about-us/disclosures.php. PMID:26129273

  18. Survey of mycotic mastitis in dairy cows from Heilongjiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yulong; Ren, Yachao; Fan, Chunling; Shao, Hong; Zhang, Zecai; Mao, Wenbin; Wei, Chunbo; Ni, Hongbo; Zhu, Zhanbo; Hou, Xilin; Piao, Fanze; Cui, Yudong

    2013-11-01

    A survey of the prevalence rate, pathogenic subspecies, and risk factors of mycotic mastitis in dairy cows from Heilongjiang Province, China, was conducted. Milk samples from 412 cows with chronic mastitis were collected and cultured on 8 % sheep blood agar, MacConkey agar, and Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol. Counting of the morphologically distinct colonies was performed, as well as the isolation and identification of organisms through phenotypical and physiological criteria. Four hundred seventy-eight aerobic microorganisms were isolated. Yeasts and yeast-like fungi 35.6 % (170/478) and bacteria 64.4 % (308/478) were isolated. The fungal isolates were identified as Candida (79.4 %), Trichosporon (5.9 %), Aspergillus (7.1 %), Cryptococcus (2.4 %), and Rhodotorula (4.1 %). More than ten species of yeast were isolated including Candida krusei 50/135 (37 %), Candida rugosa 16/135 (11.9 %), and Candida lusitaniae 15/135 (11.1 %). A higher positivity (18.5 and 56.3 %) (P ?0.05) was observed in cows from environmental temperatures of 0-15 and 15-35 °C than those at <0 °C and in cows affected by the disease for >45 and 30-45 days compared with cows suffering 10-30 days. Meanwhile, a statistically significant difference (44.9 vs. 31.4 %) (P ?0.05) was observed under extensive raising systems vs. intensive raising systems. It appears that Candida is a major pathogen of mycotic mastitis of dairy cows. Extensive raising system, high environmental temperature (15-35 °C), and the duration of the disease (>30 days) were important risk factors of the incidence of mycotic mastitis. Here, we provide a theoretical foundation for research into preventing and treating mycotic mastitis of dairy cows in China. PMID:23813119

  19. First report about the mode of action of combined butafosfan and cyanocobalamin on hepatic metabolism in nonketotic early lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Kreipe, L; Deniz, A; Bruckmaier, R M; van Dorland, H A

    2011-10-01

    The primary aim was to investigate the effect of combined butafosfan and cyanocobalamin on liver metabolism in early lactating cows through mRNA expression measurements of genes encoding 31 enzymes and transport proteins of major metabolic processes in the liver using 16 multiparous early lactating dairy cows. The treatments included i.v. injection of 10 mL/100 kg of body weight combined butafosfan and cyanocobalamin (TG, n = 8) on 3 d consecutively at 25 ± 3 d in milk or injection with physiological saline solution similarly applied (CG, n = 8). Results include a higher daily milk production for TG cows (41.1 ± 0.9 kg, mean ± SEM) compared with CG cows (39.5 ± 0.7 kg). In plasma, the concentration of inorganic phosphorus was lower in the TG cows (1.25 ± 0.08 mmol/L) after the treatment than in the CG cows (1.33 ± 0.07 mmol/L). The plasma ?-hydroxybutyrate concentration was 0.65 ± 0.13 mmol/L for all cows before the treatment, and remained unaffected post treatment. The unique result was that in the liver, the mRNA abundance of acyl-coenzyme A synthetase long-chain family member 1, involved in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis, was lower across time points after the treatment for TG compared with CG cows (17.5 ± 0.15 versus 18.1 ± 0.24 cycle threshold, log(2), respectively). In conclusion, certain effects of combined butafosfan and cyanocobalamin were observed on mRNA abundance of a gene in the liver of nonketotic early lactating cows. PMID:21943742

  20. Physiology for High School - The Physiology of Endurance Exercise: Research on the Last Frontier

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-04-18

    The keynote presentation from EB 2009's Physiology for Life Science High School Teachers and Students Workshop. This presentation discusses how sled dogs use energy and adapt while running the 1,000 mile Iditarod Race in Alaska.

  1. Gastrointestinal parasites presence during the peripartum decreases total milk production in grazing dairy Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Perri, A F; Mejía, M E; Licoff, N; Lazaro, L; Miglierina, M; Ornstein, A; Becu-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    2011-06-10

    Parasitism in cattle is known to impair growth and development. Recent findings suggest that productivity of adult animals is also affected, but little is known about the physiological mechanisms involved. Furthermore, development of nematode resistance to drugs makes imperative the search of management practices that avoid whole herd treatment. We undertook an epidemiological and endocrine study in a grass based dairy farm in Argentina to study the effect of parasites on milk production and the underlying mechanisms involved, and identify individual animals that would benefit from antiparasitic treatment. All the cows in the dairy were followed monthly for egg parasite output in feces. Samples were cultured for genera determination. Milk production and reproductive results were recorded and periodical bleedings for hormone determination were performed. Nematode egg output (EPG) was maximal in late Summer and Autumn and minimal in Spring in coincidence with the Ostertagia inhibition-disinhibition cycle as this genus had the highest prevalence in all the study. The highest proportion of positive samples was found in the high producing herd and maximal counts were found in the peripartal period. Milk production did not correlate with EPG mean values but, when cows were grouped by EPG positivity around parturition, a significant difference in total milk production between EPG null and positive cows was observed. Positive cows produced 7%, 12% or 15% less milk than null EPG cows, depending on the sampling month/s chosen for classification. The highest difference was seen when both prepartum and postpartum samples were taken into account. No difference in lactation length and a marginal effect on partum to first service interval were encountered. Endocrine studies revealed a decrease in serum growth hormone (GH), type I insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and prolactin during lactation in cows with positive EPG in the first postpartum sample with respect to null EPG cows at that time. GH levels decreased and prolactin and IGF-I levels increased in both groups of cows from month 0 to 6 in milk. Serum insulin levels remained stable throughout lactation and were similar in both groups of cows. In conclusion, EPG around parturition may be a useful tool for identifying cows that will have a decrease in productivity due to parasite effects and would possibly benefit from an antiparasitic treatment. Besides, our results suggest that detrimental effect of parasites on milk production may be mediated by GH, IGF-I and prolactin serum levels. PMID:21269774

  2. Root physiological adaptations involved in enhancing P assimilation in mining and non-mining ecotypes of Polygonum hydropiper grown under organic P media.

    PubMed

    Ye, Daihua; Li, Tingxuan; Zheng, Zicheng; Zhang, Xizhou; Chen, Guangdeng; Yu, Haiying

    2015-01-01

    It is important to seek out plant species, high in phosphorus (P) uptake, for phytoremediation of P-enriched environments with a large amount of organic P (Po). P assimilation characteristics and the related mechanisms of Polygonum hydropiper were investigated in hydroponic media containing various concentrations of Po (1-8 mmol L(-1)) supplied as phytate. The mining ecotype (ME) showed significantly higher biomass in both shoots and roots compared to the non-mining ecotype (NME) at 4, 6, and 8 m mol L(-1). Shoot P content of both ecotypes increased up to 4 mmol L(-1) while root P content increased continually up to 8 mmol L(-1) for the ME and up to 6 mmol L(-1) for the NME. Root P content of the ME exceeded 1% dry weight under 6 and 8 mmol L(-1). The ME had significantly higher P accumulation in both shoots and roots compared to the NME supplied with 6 and 8 mmol L(-1). The ME showed higher total root length, specific root length, root surface area, root volume, and displayed significantly greater root length, root surface area, and root volume of lateral roots compared to the NME grown in all Po treatments. Average diameter of lateral roots was 0.17-19 mm for the ME and 0.18-0.21 mm for the NME. Greater acid phosphatase and phytase activities were observed in the ME grown under different levels of Po relative to the NME. This indicated fine root morphology, enhanced acid phosphatase and phytase activities might be adaptations to high Po media. Results from this study establish that the ME of P. hydropiper is capable of assimilating P from Po media and is a potential material for phytoremediation of polluted area with high Po. PMID:25699065

  3. The influence of cow factors on the incidence of clinical mastitis in dairy cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Steeneveld; H. Hogeveen; H. W. Barkema; J. van den Broek; R. B. M. Huirne

    2008-01-01

    Many cow-specific risk factors for clinical mastitis (CM) are known. Other studies have analyzed these risk factors separately or only analyzed a limited number of risk factors simultaneously. The goal of this study was to determine the influence of cow factors on the incidence rate of CM (IRCM) with all cow factors in one multivariate model. Also, using a similar

  4. Ovarian activity patterns of postpartum Holstein and Jersey cows of diverse genetic abilities for milk 

    E-print Network

    Dachir, Shlomit

    1983-01-01

    OVARIAN ACTIVITY PATTERNS QF POSTPARTUM HOLSTEIN ANO JERSEY COWS QF OIVERSE GENETIC ABILITIES FQR MILK A Thesis by SHLQMIT OACHIR Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER QF SCIENCE August 1983 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction OVARIAN ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF POSTPARTUM HOLSTEIN ANO JERSEY COIAIS OF OIVERSE GENETIC ABILITIES FOR MILK A Thesis by SHLOMIT OACHIR Approved as to style...

  5. Ovarian activity patterns of postpartum Holstein and Jersey cows of diverse genetic abilities for milk

    E-print Network

    Dachir, Shlomit

    1983-01-01

    OVARIAN ACTIVITY PATTERNS QF POSTPARTUM HOLSTEIN ANO JERSEY COWS QF OIVERSE GENETIC ABILITIES FQR MILK A Thesis by SHLQMIT OACHIR Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER QF SCIENCE August 1983 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction OVARIAN ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF POSTPARTUM HOLSTEIN ANO JERSEY COIAIS OF OIVERSE GENETIC ABILITIES FOR MILK A Thesis by SHLOMIT OACHIR Approved as to style...

  6. Fatty liver in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Herdt, T H

    1988-07-01

    An increase in liver fat concentration during the peripartum period is extremely common in dairy cows and, to some degree, is probably normal. When severe, it is associated with clinical problems including increased morbidity and mortality and reduced breeding efficiency. Fatty liver develops when serum NEFA concentrations rise and hepatic uptake of NEFA exceeds the liver's ability to synthesize and secrete lipoproteins. In most cases, hepatic lipid accumulation appears to commence prepartum, in association with rising serum NEFA concentrations and declining serum lipoprotein concentrations. Commonly used clinicopathologic tests of liver function do not yield clearly abnormal results except in animals with extremely high concentrations of liver fat. Clinically useful estimates of hepatic lipid concentration can be obtained in the field by determining the buoyancy of needle biopsy samples in liquids of various specific gravities. Clinically ill animals with liver fat concentrations of greater than 35 per cent by weight have a poor prognosis, and those that do survive will have a protracted convalescence. Treatment of dairy cows with clinical fatty liver should be aimed at reducing further adipose lipid mobilization and promoting hepatic lipoprotein synthesis; however, protocols for therapy have not as yet been evaluated critically. Prevention of fatty liver is more rewarding than treatment. Dry cows should be maintained in a moderately fat condition and fed high-quality, palatable feeds in amounts necessary to met or slightly exceed their energy requirements. Free-choice feeding of high-energy feeds should be avoided in late lactation and during the nonlactating period. PMID:3061611

  7. Physiological anthropology: past and future.

    PubMed

    Steegmann, A Theodore

    2006-01-01

    Environmental studies in adaptive human biology by North American anthropologists have a history of strong investigative research. From both laboratory and field work, we have gained major insights into human response to physical and social challenges. While these results were considered by most professionals to belong within evolutionary biology, in fact the intellectual structure sprang almost entirely from physiological equilibrium models. Consequently, physiological process itself was the focus. Further, most of the physiological patterns were not linked directly to important outcomes such as work output, reproductive success or survival. About 1975, American physiological anthropologists, led by Paul Baker, turned to studies of health, change and stress response. These studies were strong, but were still neither genetic nor evolutionary in intellectual structure. Evolutionary human biology was taken over by a new body of theory now called "behavior ecology", positing that selfish genes control human behavior to promote their own reproduction. This was paralleled by strong use of evolutionary theory in some areas of molecular biology. However, although physiological anthropologists have not focused on evolution, we have been developing powerful causal models that incorporate elements of physiology, morphology, physical environment and cultural behavior. In these "proximate" biocultural models, it is of little importance whether outcomes such as work or energy management are genetically based. Our future offers two major challenges. First, we must confirm causal links between specific physiological patterns and outcomes of practical importance to individuals and societies. Second, if we are to take our place in evolutionary biology, the one overarching theory of life on earth, we must understand the heritability of physiological traits, and determine whether they play a role in survival and reproduction. PMID:16617211

  8. Prepartum and postpartum nutritional management to optimize fertility in high-yielding dairy cows in confined TMR systems.

    PubMed

    Drackley, J K; Cardoso, F C

    2014-05-01

    The 6 to 8-week period centered on parturition, known as the transition or periparturient period, is critical to welfare and profitability of individual cows. Fertility of high-producing cows is compromised by difficult transitions. Deficiencies in either nutritional or non-nutritional management increase risk for periparturient metabolic disorders and infectious diseases, which decrease subsequent fertility. A primary factor impeding fertility is the extent of negative energy balance (NEB) early postpartum, which may inhibit timing of first ovulation, return to cyclicity, and oocyte quality. In particular, pronounced NEB during the first 10 days to 2 weeks (the time of greatest occurrence of health problems) is critical for later reproductive efficiency. Avoiding over-conditioning and preventing cows from over-consuming energy relative to their requirements in late gestation result in higher dry matter intake (DMI) and less NEB after calving. A pooled statistical analysis of previous studies in our group showed that days to pregnancy are decreased (by 10 days) by controlling energy intake to near requirements of cows before calving compared with allowing cows to over-consume energy. To control energy intake, total mixed rations (TMR) must be well balanced for metabolizable protein, minerals and vitamins yet limit total DM consumed, and cows must uniformly consume the TMR without sorting. Dietary management to maintain blood calcium and rumen health around and after calving also are important. Opportunities may exist to further improve energy status in fresh cows. Recent research to manipulate the glucogenic to lipogenic balance and the essential fatty acid content of tissues are intriguing. High-producing cows that adapt successfully to lactation can have high reproductive efficiency, and nutritional management of the transition period both pre- and post-calving must facilitate that adaptation. PMID:24844126

  9. Effects of corn and soybean meal types on rumen fermentation, nitrogen metabolism and productivity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Shen, J S; Song, L J; Sun, H Z; Wang, B; Chai, Z; Chacher, B; Liu, J X

    2015-03-01

    Twelve multiparous Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation were selected for a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2 ×2 factorial arrangement to investigate the effects of corn and soybean meal (SBM) types on rumen fermentation, N metabolism and lactation performance in dairy cows. Two types of corn (dry ground [DGC] and steam-flaked corn [SFC]) and two types of SBM (solvent-extracted and heat-treated SBM) with different ruminal degradation rates and extents were used to formulate four diets with the same basal ingredients. Each period lasted for 21 days, including 14 d for adaptation and 7 d for sample collection. Cows receiving SFC had a lower dry matter (DM) and total N intake than those fed DGC. However, the milk yield and milk protein yield were not influenced by the corn type, resulting in higher feed and N utilization efficiency in SFC-fed cows than those receiving DGC. Ruminal acetate concentrations was greater and total volatile fatty acids concentrations tended to be greater for cows receiving DGC relative to cows fed SFC, but milk fat content was not influenced by corn type. The SFC-fed cows had lower ruminal ammonia-N, less urea N in their blood and milk, and lower fecal N excretion than those on DGC. Compared with solvent-extracted SBM-fed cows, cows receiving heat-treated SBM had lower microbial protein yield in the rumen, but similar total tract apparent nutrient digestibility, N metabolism measurements, and productivity. Excessive supply of metabolizable protein in all diets may have caused the lack of difference in lactation performance between SBM types. Results of the present study indicated that increasing the energy degradability in the rumen could improve feed efficiency, and reduce environmental pollution. PMID:25656206

  10. [Middle ear physiology].

    PubMed

    Ayerbe, I; Négrevergne, M; Ucelay, R; Sanchez Fernandez, J M

    1999-01-01

    The middle ear forms part of the sound transformer mechanism, together with the outer ear and the conducting system of the inner ear. An intermediate sensory organ, sensitive to acoustic vibration, and linked to the inner ear, the middle ear made its appearance during the period of adaptation of marine creatures to a terrestrial habitat; its presence is therefore a phylogenetic requirement. It is classical to ascribe three functions to the middle ear: the transmission of acoustic vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the cochlea, impedance matching between the air in the external auditary meatus and the labyrinthine fluids, and protection of the inner ear by means of the acoustic reflex. If the classical mechanical explanation has been able to explain its function, the conceptualization of its physiology in terms of energy allows an even better understanding, as well as providing and explanation for the paradoxes which arise in clinical practice when the classical model is used. PMID:10769562

  11. Gravitational adaptation of animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. H.; Burton, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of gravitational adaptation is studied in a group of five Leghorn cocks which had become physiologically adapted to 2 G after 162 days of centrifugation. After this period of adaptation, they are periodically exposed to a 2 G field, accompanied by five previously unexposed hatch-mates, and the degree of retained acceleration adaptation is estimated from the decrease in lymphocyte frequency after 24 hr at 2 G. Results show that the previously adapted birds exhibit an 84% greater lymphopenia than the unexposed birds, and that the lymphocyte frequency does not decrease to a level below that found at the end of 162 days at 2 G. In addition, the capacity for adaptation to chronic acceleration is found to be highly heritable. An acceleration tolerant strain of birds shows lesser mortality during chronic acceleration, particularly in intermediate fields, although the result of acceleration selection is largely quantitative (a greater number of survivors) rather than qualitative (behavioral or physiological changes).

  12. Lecture 14: Adaptation Adaptation

    E-print Network

    Lecture 14: Adaptation · Adaptation ­ Design, Observations, Experiments, Comparisons · Are traits adaptive? · Are differences among populations or species adaptive? Adaptation · A trait that ­ increases of N.S. 1. Is a specific phenotypic trait adaptive? (Shaped by N.S.?) Adaptation: 2 Questions Mirror

  13. Loser cows in Danish dairy herds: definition, prevalence and consequences.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Peter T; Østergaard, Søren; Sørensen, Jan Tind; Houe, Hans

    2007-05-16

    During the last few years, many Danish dairy farmers have expressed increasing concerns regarding a group of cows, which we have chosen to term 'loser cows'. Until now, a loser cow has not been described scientifically. We defined a loser cow on the basis of a clinical examination of the cow. A total of 15,151 clinical examinations were made on 6,451 individual cows from 39 randomly selected, large Danish dairy herds with loose-housing systems using a clinical protocol. Scores for the clinical signs lameness, body condition, hock lesions, other cutaneous lesions, vaginal discharge, condition of hair coat and general condition were converted into a loser cow score. Cows with a loser cow score of 8 or more were classified as loser cows. The overall prevalence of loser cows was 2.15%, 4.50% and 2.98% during the first, second and third round of herd visits, respectively. The associations between the loser cow state and milk production, mortality, morbidity, culling and workload for the farmer were evaluated using data from herd visits and from the Danish Cattle Database and a number of different statistical techniques. It was concluded that the loser cow state has significant negative consequences for both the farmer and the cow. On average, loser cows yielded 0.61 to 2.24 kg energy corrected milk less per day than non-loser cows depending on parity. Hazard ratio for death or euthanasia was 5.69 for loser cows compared to non-loser cows. Incidence rate ratio for disease treatments was 0.69 for non-loser cows compared to loser cows. Loser cows were often culled in an 'unfavourable' way and generally caused extra workload for the farmer. A simplified version of the loser cow score was evaluated and is recommended for future research and use in practice. PMID:17210193

  14. The feeding value of extruded corn grain in a corn silage-based ration for high-producing Holstein cows and heifers during mid lactation.

    PubMed

    Rezamand, P; Andrew, S M; Hoagland, T A

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feeding value of extruded corn in a corn silage-based ration for high-producing Holstein cows during mid lactation. Sixteen multiparous and 8 primiparous Holstein cows (106 +/- 49.7 d in milk; 43.7 +/- 5.27 kg of milk/d) were paired based on parity, days in milk, milk production, and body condition score and assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments in a randomized block design for 10 wk including a 2-wk adaptation period. Cows were fed a total mixed ration and milked 3 times per day. Diets contained 44% forage (3:1; corn silage:grass silage), 44.7% grain, and either extruded corn (EXC) or finely ground corn (FGC) at 11.3% of ration dry matter. No significant differences were detected in dry matter intake, milk protein yields, fat-corrected milk yields, or body condition score between cows fed FGC and cows fed EXC. Multiparous cows fed EXC produced more milk during wk 3 through 8 with a reduced milk fat content compared with multiparous cows fed FGC. Milk protein content was greater for primiparous cows fed EXC during wk 5 through 8 compared with primiparous cows fed the FGC ration. The major effect of feeding 2.7 kg/d of EXC compared with FGC was an increase in milk production and a reduction in milk fat content for multiparous cows, and an increase in milk protein content for primiparous cows. PMID:17582131

  15. Ergonomics of Cow Milking in Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Lundqvist; Marianne Stål; Stefan Pinzke

    1997-01-01

    When milking cows that are kept in stanchion barns, the milker has to use various working postures and movements that involve walking, sitting, rising, squatting, kneeling, stooping, bending, twisting and stretching. They must do this while holding a load of 3-6 kg (cluster, teat cups) in one hand under the cow's udder at a relatively long distance from the body.

  16. Innate and adaptive immune responses to in utero infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection of pregnant cows with noncytopathic (ncp) BVDV induces rapid innate and adaptive immune responses resulting in clearance of the virus in less than 3 weeks. Seven to 14 days after inoculation of the cow, ncpBVDV crosses the placenta and induces a fetal viremia. Establishment of persistent ...

  17. Effect of uterine lavage on neutrophil counts in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dini, P; Farhoodi, M; Hostens, M; Van Eetvelde, M; Pascottini, O Bogado; Fazeli, M H; Opsomer, G

    2015-07-01

    Subclinical endometritis affects approximately 30% of lactating dairy cows, causing significant economic losses to the dairy industry. Yet, there is no efficient treatment available for this condition. The present study examines the effect of uterine lavage in clinically normal cows with sterile saline solution at 30 days in milk (DIM) on the percentage of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) detected with endometrial cytology as an indicator of subclinical endometritis. It was hypothesized uterine lavage would be a technique to reduce the number of PMNs in the uterus, and hence be beneficial for cows affected by subclinical endometritis. Cytology samples were taken by low-volume flushing from 50 Holstein Friesian cows on 30 and 40 DIM. On Day 30, cows were clinically examined and randomly assigned into a treatment and control group. In the treatment group, the cytology sampling on Day 30 was immediately followed by uterine lavage with 500-600mL of sterile physiological saline (35-40°C). Cytology sampling was repeated in all cows at 40 DIM. Lactation numbers >2, peripheral progesterone concentrations >1ng/mL and uterine lavage at 30 DIM all were significantly associated with lesser PMN percentages at 40 DIM (P=0.0041; 0.0187 and 0.0043, respectively). Uterine lavage might, therefore, be a useful and practical method to decrease the number of PMNs in the uterus of cattle. Results from the current study can be used as preliminary data for designing in depth therapeutic protocols for treatment of subclinical endometritis in cattle. PMID:25956200

  18. Dynamic range reduction inspired by photoreceptor physiology.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Erik; Devlin, Kate

    2005-01-01

    A common task in computer graphics is the mapping of digital high dynamic range images to low dynamic range display devices such as monitors and printers. This task is similar to the adaptation processes which occur in the human visual system. Physiological evidence suggests that adaptation already occurs in the photoreceptors, leading to a straightforward model that can be easily adapted for tone reproduction. The result is a fast and practical algorithm for general use with intuitive user parameters that control intensity, contrast, and level of chromatic adaptation, respectively. PMID:15631125

  19. Effects of different strategies for feeding supplements on milk production responses in cows grazing a restricted pasture allowance.

    PubMed

    Auldist, M J; Marett, L C; Greenwood, J S; Hannah, M; Jacobs, J L; Wales, W J

    2013-02-01

    Milk production responses of grazing cows offered supplements in different ways were measured. Holstein-Friesian cows, averaging 227 d in milk, were allocated into 6 groups of 36, with 2 groups randomly assigned to each of 3 feeding strategies: (1) cows grazed perennial ryegrass pasture supplemented with milled barley grain fed in the milking parlor and pasture silage offered in the paddock (control); (2) same pasture and allotment supplemented with the same amounts of milled barley grain and pasture silage, but presented as a mixed ration after each milking (PMR 1); and (3) same pasture and allotment, supplemented with a mixed ration of milled barley grain, alfalfa hay, corn silage, and crushed corn grain (PMR 2). For all strategies, supplements provided the same metabolizable energy and grain:forage ratio. [75:25, dry matter (DM) basis]. Each group of 36 cows was further allocated into 4 groups of 9, which were assigned to receive 6, 8, 10, or 12 kg of supplement DM/cow per day. Thus, there were 2 replicated groups per supplement amount per dietary strategy. The experiment had a 14-d adaptation period and an 11-d measurement period. Pasture allotment was approximately 14 kg of DM/d for all cows and was offered in addition to the supplement. Positive quadratic responses to increasing amounts of supplement were observed for yield of milk, energy-corrected milk (ECM), and fat and protein, and positive linear responses for concentrations of fat and protein for cows on all 3 supplement feeding strategies. No difference existed between feeding strategy groups in yield of milk, ECM, or protein at any amount of supplement offered, but yield and concentration of fat was higher in PMR 2 cows compared with control and PMR 1 cows at the highest amounts of supplementation. Responses in marginal ECM production per additional kilogram of supplement were also greater for PMR 2 than control and PMR 1 cows when large amounts of supplement were consumed. For all diets, marked daily variation occurred in ruminal fluid volatile fatty acids and pH, especially in cows fed the largest amounts of supplement. It was concluded that when supplements are fed to grazing dairy cows, a simple mix of grain and pasture silage has no benefit over traditional strategies of feeding grain in the parlor and forage in the paddock. However, yield of milk fat and marginal milk production responses can be greater if the strategy uses an isoenergetic ration that also contains alfalfa hay, corn silage, and corn grain. PMID:23219117

  20. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for flunixin in cattle (Bos taurus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Violative residues of flunixin in tissues from bob veal calves and cull dairy cows has been attributed to noncompliance with the FDA-approved route of administration and withdrawal time, however, the effect of administration route and physiological differences among animals on tissue residue depleti...

  1. Respiratory heat loss of Holstein cows in a tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos Maia, Alex Sandro; Gomes Dasilva, Roberto; Battiston Loureiro, Cintia Maria

    2005-05-01

    In order to develop statistical models to predict respiratory heat loss in dairy cattle using simple physiological and environmental measurements, 15 Holstein cows were observed under field conditions in a tropical environment, in which the air temperature reached up to 40°C. The measurements of latent and sensible heat loss from the respiratory tract of the animals were made by using a respiratory mask. The results showed that under air temperatures between 10 and 35°C sensible heat loss by convection decreased from 8.24 to 1.09 W m-2, while the latent heat loss by evaporation increased from 1.03 to 56.51 W m-2. The evaporation increased together with the air temperature in almost a linear fashion until 20°C, but it became increasingly high as the air temperature rose above 25°C. Convection was a mechanism of minor importance for respiratory heat transfer. In contrast, respiratory evaporation was an effective means of thermoregulation for Holsteins in a hot environment. Mathematical models were developed to predict both the sensible and latent heat loss from the respiratory tract in Holstein cows under field conditions, based on measurements of the ambient temperature, and other models were developed to predict respiration rate, tidal volume, mass flow rate and expired air temperature as functions of the ambient temperature and other variables.

  2. Metabolic parameters and their relationship to energy balance in multiparous Simmental, Brown Swiss and Holstein cows in the periparturient period as influenced by energy supply pre- and post-calving.

    PubMed

    Urdl, M; Gruber, L; Obritzhauser, W; Schauer, A

    2015-02-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of three energy supply (E) levels [low (L), medium (M), high (H)], both pre-partum (PRE) and post-partum (POST), and their interactions on metabolic parameters and energy balance (EB) in dairy cows of three breeds. In both phases, E levels applied to a total of 81 multiparous cows of breeds Simmental (SI), Brown Swiss (BS) and Holstein-Friesian (HF; n = 27 for each breed) were 75%, 100% and 125% of recommendations of the German Society of Nutrition Physiology, using a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. During the pre-calving period, serum concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were higher for L(PRE) cows, and glucose concentrations were elevated for H(PRE) cows. During the lactation period, NEFA concentrations were greatest for treatment L(POST). Mean concentrations of ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) were highest for cows of the L(POST) treatment, intermediate for M(POST) and lowest for H(POST). Glucose concentrations were lower for L(POST) cows. SI cows had lower BHB concentrations both pre- and post-calving and higher glucose concentrations during early lactation than the other breeds. BHB concentration POST was highest for BS cows. Restricted feeding PRE resulted in a better energy status of cows fed above energy requirements POST (E(PRE) × E(POST) interaction). HF cows had a higher EB pre-calving, whereas SI cows had a less negative EB during early lactation, compared with the other breeds respectively. Correlations of serum NEFA, BHB and glucose concentrations with EB were strongest during the transition period. Results suggest that controlling energy intake during the dry period might be advantageous for the energy status of dairy cows after calving, whereas energy restriction in early lactation leads to metabolic stress. Evidence is provided of a clear relationship between EB and the blood metabolites NEFA and BHB, especially in the transition period. PMID:24605925

  3. Cardiovascular physiology and diseases of amphibians.

    PubMed

    Heinz-Taheny, Kathleen M

    2009-01-01

    The class Amphibia includes three orders of amphibians: the anurans (frogs and toads), urodeles (salamanders, axolotls, and newts), and caecilians. The diversity of lifestyles across these three orders has accompanying differences in the cardiovascular anatomy and physiology allowing for adaptations to aquatic or terrestrial habitats, pulmonic or gill respiration, hibernation, and body elongation (in the caecilian). This article provides a review of amphibian cardiovascular anatomy and physiology with discussion of unique species adaptations. In addition, amphibians as cardiovascular animal models and commonly encountered natural diseases are covered. PMID:19131029

  4. A cow-level association of ruminal pH on body condition score, serum beta-hydroxybutyrate and postpartum disorders in Thai dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Chaidate, Inchaisri; Somchai, Chanpongsang; Jos, Noordhuizen; Henk, Hogeveen

    2014-09-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows occurs when ruminal pH is below about 5.5. However, the exact threshold level of ruminal pH affecting cow health is still in debate. This investigation was carried out in 505 cows within 31 farms. The postpartum disorders, including dystocia, retained placenta, anestrus, cystic ovary, metritis, clinical mastitis and lameness, were analyzed. Ruminal pH, serum beta-hydroxy butyrate (SBHB), serum urea nitrogen and body condition score (BCS) were measured once during the 3 to 6 weeks postpartum, while BCS was determined once more at 1 week before calving. Ruminal pH was determined by ruminocentesis technique. The ruminal pH was evaluated to study the association with BCS, SBHB and postpartum disorders using linear regression in a generalized linear mixed model with farm as a random effect. The results show that low ruminal pH was associated with dystocia, metritis and lameness. Moreover, a low ruminal pH can be found in cows with a high loss of BCS after calving and also in cows with low SBHB postpartum. These findings confirmed the feasibility of the ruminocentesis technique and the association of low ruminal pH on various postpartum disorders at the individual cow level. However, the consequences of low ruminal pH on dairy cow health still needs more exploration for a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms. PMID:24961478

  5. Effect of Diet Quality on Adenosine5?-triphosphate Concentration and Adenylate Energy Charge of Rumen Microbes from Fistulated Cows1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Erfle; S. Mahadevan; F. D. Sauer

    1979-01-01

    Two fistulated, nonlactating Holstein cows were fed a high quality diet of dairy concentrate mixed with corn silage or a low quality diet of weathered hay. Both animals were adapted in turn for 6 wk to the high quality and then to the low quality diet prior to sampling of rumen contents. The high quality diet was fed daily as

  6. Inheritance is where physiology meets evolution

    PubMed Central

    Danchin, Étienne; Pocheville, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Physiology and evolutionary biology have developed as two separated disciplines, a separation that mirrored the hypothesis that the physiological and evolutionary processes could be decoupled. We argue that non-genetic inheritance shatters the frontier between physiology and evolution, and leads to the coupling of physiological and evolutionary processes to a point where there exists a continuum between accommodation by phenotypic plasticity and adaptation by natural selection. This approach is also profoundly affecting the definition of the concept of phenotypic plasticity, which should now be envisaged as a multi-scale concept. We further suggest that inclusive inheritance provides a quantitative way to help bridging infra-individual (i.e. physiology) with supra-individual (i.e. evolution) approaches, in a way that should help building the long sough inclusive evolutionary synthesis. PMID:24882815

  7. Effects of dietary forage sources on rumen microbial protein synthesis and milk performance in early lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W; Fu, Y; Wang, B; Wang, C; Ye, J A; Wu, Y M; Liu, J-X

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary forage sources on milk performance, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and N utilization in early lactation dairy cows. Twelve primiparous Chinese Holstein dairy cows (45 ± 6.0 DIM) were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric, with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 45:55 [dry matter (DM) basis] and contained similar concentrate mixtures. Different forage sources were then added (on a DM basis): 21% corn silage, 19% corn stover, and 5% alfalfa hay (CS); 19% corn silage, 21% Chinese wild rye hay and 5% alfalfa hay (CWR); or 19% corn silage, 9% Chinese wild rye hay, and 17% alfalfa hay (AH). Each period lasted for 21 d, with the first 14 d for an adaptation period. Dry matter intake was not affected by the source of dietary forage. Milk yield was higher for cows fed AH than those fed CS, with an intermediate value for CWR. Milk protein content was higher in the cows fed AH compared with CWR (3.02 vs. 2.92%), with CS (2.95%) at an intermediate position. The contents of milk fat and lactose were not different among the treatments. However, milk efficiency (milk yield/DM intake) was higher for cows fed AH than those fed CS, with those fed CWR intermediate. Cows fed AH had higher microbial protein yield and metabolizable protein than those fed CS or CWR. The concentrations of urea N in the urine, blood, and milk were decreased for cows fed AH, indicating an increased N conversion. The results indicated that corn stover could replace Chinese wild rye grass in the diets for lactating cows and that a high proportion of alfalfa hay in the diet is beneficial for milk protein production by increasing microbial protein yield. This can be attributed to the improving the supply of rumen-available energy. PMID:23295118

  8. Markers of gut mucosal inflammation and cow’s milk specific immunoglobulins in non-IgE cow’s milk allergy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergy to cow’s milk protein (CMP) may cause gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in the absence of CMP specific IgE. The immunological mechanisms involved in such disease are not fully understood. Therefore we examined markers of gut mucosal inflammation and the immunoglobulin profiles in children with Gl symptoms suspected of cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA). Patients and methods We prospectively recruited infants and young children (n?=?57; median age 8.7 months) with gastrointestinal complaints suspected of CMPA. The diagnosis of CMPA was made using the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. Serum and stool samples were collected during CMP-free diet and after both placebo and active challenges. We analyzed the stool samples for calprotectin, human ?-defensin 2 and IgA. In serum, we analyzed the levels of ?-lactoglobulin and ?-casein specific IgA, and IgG antibodies (total IgG and subclasses IgG1 and IgG4). Control group included children with e.g. dermatological or pulmonary problems, consuming normal diets. Results Fecal calprotectin levels were higher in the challenge positive group (n?=?18) than in the negative (n?=?37), with respective geometric means 55 ?g/g [95% confidence interval 38–81] and 29 [24–36] ?g/g (p?=?0.0039), during cow’s milk free diet. There were no significant inter-group differences in the fecal ?-defensin and IgA levels. The CMP specific IgG and IgA were not elevated in patients with CMPA, but the levels of ?-lactoglobulin-IgG4 (p?=?0.0118) and ?-casein-IgG4 (p?=?0.0044), and total ?-casein-IgG (p?=?0.0054) and -IgA (p?=?0.0050) in all patient samples (regardless of CMPA diagnosis) were significantly lower compared to the control group using dairy products. Conclusions Despite cow’s milk elimination in children intolerant to cow’s milk there might be ongoing low-grade inflammation in the gut mucosa. CMP specific IgG or IgA should not be used to diagnose non-IgE CMPA. The observed frequency of impaired CMP specific total IgA, IgG and IgG4 production in patients following cow’s milk free diet warrants further studies. PMID:24598281

  9. A model for adaptive livestock management on semi-arid rangelands in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Dube, Sikhalazo

    2006-08-16

    A stochastic, compartmental Model for Adaptive Livestock Management (MALM) was developed for cow-calf enterprise for Rolling Plains of Texas from an existing model, Simple Ecological Sustainability Simulator (SESS). The ...

  10. Response of the Cholesterol Metabolism to a Negative Energy Balance in Dairy Cows Depends on the Lactational Stage

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Christiane; Bruckmaier, Rupert M.

    2015-01-01

    The response of cholesterol metabolism to a negative energy balance (NEB) induced by feed restriction for 3 weeks starting at 100 days in milk (DIM) compared to the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 postpartum (p.p.) was investigated in 50 dairy cows (25 control (CON) and 25 feed-restricted (RES)). Blood samples, liver biopsies and milk samples were taken in week 1 p.p., and in weeks 0 and 3 of feed restriction. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (C), phospholipids (PL), triglycerides (TAG), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) increased in RES cows from week 0 to 3 during feed restriction and were higher in week 3 compared to CON cows. In contrast, during the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 p.p., C, PL, TAG and lipoprotein concentrations were at a minimum. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activities did not differ between week 0 and 3 for both groups, whereas during NEB in week 1 p.p. PLTP activity was increased and LCAT activity was decreased. Milk C concentration was not affected by feed restriction in both groups, whereas milk C mass was decreased in week 3 for RES cows. In comparison, C concentration and mass in milk were elevated in week 1 p.p. Hepatic mRNA abundance of sterol regulatory element-binding factor-2 (SREBF-2), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase 1 (HMGCS1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA1) were similar in CON and RES cows during feed restriction, but were upregulated during NEB in week 1 p.p. compared to the non-lactating stage without a NEB. In conclusion, cholesterol metabolism in dairy cows is affected by nutrient and energy deficiency depending on the stage of lactation. PMID:26034989

  11. Effects of supplementation with a phytobiotics-rich herbal mixture on performance, udder health, and metabolic status of Holstein cows with various levels of milk somatic cell counts.

    PubMed

    Hashemzadeh-Cigari, F; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Kadivar, M; Riasi, A; Zebeli, Q

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary supplementation of a novel phytobiotics-rich herbal mixture (PRHM) on feed intake, performance, udder health, ruminal fermentation, and plasma metabolites in cows with moderate or high somatic cell counts (SCC) in the milk. Twenty-four Holstein dairy cows (117 ± 26 d in milk and 46.3 ± 4.7 kg of milk/d at the start of the experiment) were blocked by parity and days in milk and split into 2 groups, based on SCC in the milk; 12 cows were with moderate SCC (260,000cows had high levels of SCC (>500,000 cells/mL) in the milk. Within each SCC group, cows were blocked by milk yield and parity, and were randomly assigned to 2 different feeding regimens. Half of the cows in each SCC group (n=6) were supplemented with PRHM (185 g/cow per day, providing 12.4 g of phenolic compounds per day), and the other half (n=6) were not supplemented in their diets. The experiment lasted 36 d, whereby the first 24 d were used for adaptation to the diets and the last 12 d for sampling. Data showed that supplementation of PRHM decreased somatic cell score in the milk, indicating improved udder health of cows with high initial SCC, but not in cows with moderate SCC. Also, cows supplemented with PRHM consumed more feed DM, produced greater amounts of milk, and showed an improvement of feed utilization efficiency. However, these cows also lost more back-fat thickness during the experiment. Supplementation of PRHM increased fat- and energy-corrected milk yields in cows with high initial SCC, but not in cows with moderate SCC. Supplementation of PRHM decreased milk fat content, whereas other milk components were not affected by PRHM feeding. The PRHM supplementation decreased the acetate-to-propionate ratio in the rumen fluid, but increased ?-hydroxybutyrate and cholesterol concentration in the plasma, irrespective of the initial SCC level in the milk. Other plasma metabolites and liver enzymes were not affected by PRHM supplementation. Apparent nutrient digestibility did not differ among treatments. Overall, supplementation of PRHM seems to be an effective strategy to enhance performance and lower SCC, particularly in cows having high SCC levels in the milk. Further research is warranted to evaluate long-term effects of PRHM supplementation, especially with regard to metabolic health status and reproduction. PMID:25306268

  12. Physiology & Development of Chronic Fear

    E-print Network

    Dennis, Nancy

    Physiology & Development of Chronic Fear (Behavioral Neuroendocrinology Lab) Sonia Cavigelli (PI A Individual B interest fear physiology physiology Individual A Temperament, Physiology, and Health health health Overarching Question: How do individual difference in behavior and physiology influence health

  13. Cardiovascular physiology - Effects of microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V.; Hoffler, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments during spaceflight and its groundbase analog, bedrest, provide consistent data which demonstrate that numerous changes in cardiovascular function occur as part of the physiological adaptation process to the microgravity environment. These include elevated heart rate and venous compliance, lowered blood volume, central venous pressure and stroke volume, and attenuated autonomic reflex functions. Although most of these adaptations are not functionally apparent during microgravity exposure, they manifest themselves during the return to the gravitational challenge of earth's terrestrial environment as orthostatic hypotension and instability, a condition which could compromise safety, health and productivity. Development and application of effective and efficient countermeasures such as saline "loading," intermittent venous pooling, pharmacological treatments, and exercise have become primary emphases of the space life sciences research effort with only limited success. Successful development of countermeasures will require knowledge of the physiological mechanisms underlying cardiovascular adaptation to microgravity which can be obtained only through controlled, parallel groundbased research to complement carefully designed flight experiments. Continued research will provide benefits for both space and clinical applications as well as enhance the basic understanding of cardiovascular homeostasis in humans.

  14. Herpetological diversity along Andean elevational gradients: links with physiological ecology and evolutionary physiology.

    PubMed

    Navas, Carlos A

    2002-11-01

    A well-defined macroecological pattern is the decline in biodiversity with altitude. However, this decline is taxa-specific. For example, amphibians are more diverse than squamates at extreme elevations in the tropical Andes, but this pattern is reversed at extreme elevations in the southern latitudes. Several ecophysiological and evolutionary factors may be related to this difference. At high-elevations in southern latitudes temperature differs dramatically among seasons and dry soils dominate, characteristics that appear to favor lizard physiological ecology. Tropical high altitudes, in contrast, are humid and offer abundant and diverse water resources. These characteristics allow for a richer anuran community but might complicate lizard egg development through temperature and oxygen constrains. Differences in strategies of thermal adaptation might also modulate diversity patterns. The thermal physiology of anurans is extremely labile so that behavioral and physiological performance is maintained despite an altitudinal decrease in field body temperature. Lizards, in contrast, exhibit a conservative thermal physiology and rely on behavioral thermoregulation to face cold and variable temperatures. Both, lizard behavioral strategies and anuran physiological adjustments seem equally efficient in allowing ecological success and diversification for both groups in the tropics up to approximately 3000 m. At higher elevations physiological thermal adaptation is required, and lizards are ecologically constrained, perhaps at various ontogenetic stages. Patterns of biodiversity along environmental clines can be better understood through a physiological approach, and can help to refine and propose hypotheses in evolutionary physiology. PMID:12443907

  15. Glycerol Supplementation in Dairy Cows and Calves

    E-print Network

    , Uppsala Print: SLU Service/Repro, Uppsala 2013 Cover: Cow and calf grazing by a rapeseed field. By Maria rapeseed oil methyl ester leaves glycerol (synonym: glycerine, 1,2,3-propanetriol) as a valuable by

  16. Mineral Supplementation of Beef Cows in Texas

    E-print Network

    Herd, Dennis B.

    1997-06-04

    Mineral Supplementation of Beef Cows in Texas Dennis B. Herd* The proper balance of protein, energy, vitamins and all nutri- tionally important minerals is needed to make a successful nutrition program, one that?s productive yet economical. Nutrient...

  17. The Botanical Garden - A Tool to Teach Systematics, Physiology and a Lot More

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Iain E.P. Taylor (University of British Columbia; )

    1988-06-06

    As the UBC botanical gardens are arranged, there exists multiple teaching opportunities in areas such as: systematics, domesticated plants, environmental and physiological adaptations, micropropagation, biotechnology and others.

  18. physiologyINFO.org

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    What is physiology exactly? It's a good question, and one that is answered quite thoroughly on this website provided by The American Physiology Society (APS). The homepage starts things off with a basic introduction to physiology, complete with a pronunciation guide for the actual word. Moving on, the site contains four primary sections: "What is Physiology?", "Current Research", "Milestones in Physiology" and "Research Issues". The first section expands on the site's introduction by offering information on the questions physiologist ask, along with links to some online experiments culled from physiologists around the world. The "Current Research" section offers white papers from the APS, links to relevant journals, and abstracts from recently published physiology papers. Visitors will also want to look over the "Milestones in Physiology" area, as they can browse the timeline of physiology and also read 46 classic research articles taken from the American Journal of Physiology archives.

  19. Calving system and weaning age effects on cow and preweaning calf performance in the Northern Great Plains.

    PubMed

    Grings, E E; Short, R E; Klement, K D; Geary, T W; MacNeil, M D; Haferkamp, M R; Heitschmidt, R K

    2005-11-01

    A 3-yr study evaluated late winter (Feb), early spring (Apr), and late spring (Jun) calving systems in conjunction with varied weaning strategies on beef cow and calf performance from Northern Great Plains rangelands. Crossbred cows were randomly assigned to one of three calving systems (on average n= 168.calving system(-1).yr(-1)) and one of two weaning times (Wean 1, 2) within each calving system. The Feb and Apr calves were weaned at 190 and 240 d of age, whereas Jun calves were weaned at 140 and 190 d of age. Breeding by natural service occurred in a 32-d period that included estrous synchronization. Cows were managed throughout the year as appropriate for their calving season. Quantity and quality of hay and supplements were provided based on forage and weather conditions, physiological state of the cows, and available harvested feed resources within a year. After weaning, two-thirds of the early weaned steers were fed in confinement in Montana, and one-third were shipped to Oklahoma and were grazed or fed forage. One-half of the early weaned heifers grazed seeded pastures, and the other half was fed in confinement. Early weaned calves were weighed on approximately the same day as late-weaned calves. Birth weight and overall rate of gain from birth to weaning did not differ for calves from the three calving systems. Calf weaning weight differed by weaning age within calving system (P = 0.001), and calves from the Jun calving system that were weaned at 190 d of age tended (P = 0.06) to be lighter than calves of the same age from the Feb or Apr calving systems. Cow BW change and BCS dynamics were affected by calving system, but the proportion of cows pregnant in the fall was not. Cows suckled until later dates gained less or lost more BW during the 50 d between the first and second weaning than dry cows during this period. The previous year's weaning assignment did not affect production in the following year. Estimated harvested feed inputs were less for the Jun cows than for the Feb and Apr cows. We conclude that season of calving and weaning age affect outputs from rangeland-based beef cattle operations. PMID:16230667

  20. The influence of cow factors on the incidence of clinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Steeneveld, W; Hogeveen, H; Barkema, H W; van den Broek, J; Huirne, R B M

    2008-04-01

    Many cow-specific risk factors for clinical mastitis (CM) are known. Other studies have analyzed these risk factors separately or only analyzed a limited number of risk factors simultaneously. The goal of this study was to determine the influence of cow factors on the incidence rate of CM (IRCM) with all cow factors in one multivariate model. Also, using a similar approach, the probability of whether a CM case is caused by gram-positive or gram-negative pathogens was calculated. Data were used from 274 Dutch dairy herds that recorded CM over an 18-mo period. The final dataset contained information on 28,137 lactations of 22,860 cows of different parities. In total 5,363 CM cases were recorded, but only 2,525 CM cases could be classified as gram-positive or gram-negative. The cow factors parity, lactation stage, season of the year, information on SCC from monthly test-day records, and CM history were included in the logistic regression analysis. Separate analyses were performed for heifers and multiparous cows in both the first month of lactation and from the second month of lactation onward. For investigating whether CM was caused by gram-positive or gram-negative pathogens, quarter position was included in the logistic regression analysis as well. The IRCM differed considerably among cows, ranging between 0.0002 and 0.0074 per cow-day at risk for specific cows depending on cow factors. In particular, previous CM cases, SCC in the previous month, and mean SCC in the previous lactation increased the IRCM in the current month of lactation. Results indicate that it is difficult to distinguish between gram-positive and gram-negative CM cases based on cow factors alone. PMID:18349231

  1. Mastitis in post-partum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pyörälä, S

    2008-07-01

    Transition from the dry period to lactation is a high risk period for the modern dairy cow. The biggest challenge at that time is mastitis. Environmental bacteria are the most problematic pathogens around parturition. Coliforms are able to cause severe infections in multiparous cows, and heifers are likely to be infected with coagulase-negative staphylococci. During the periparturient period, hormonal and other factors make the dairy cows more or less immunocompromised. A successful mastitis control programme is focused on the management of dry and calving cows and heifers. Clean and comfortable environment, proper feeding and adequate supplementation of the diet with vitamins and trace elements are essential for maintaining good udder health. Strategies which would enhance closure of the teat canal in the beginning of the dry period and would protect teat end from bacteria until the keratin plug has formed decrease the risk for mastitis after calving. Dry cow therapy has been used with considerable success. Yet, a selective approach could be recommended rather than blanket therapy. Non-antibiotic approaches can be useful tools to prevent new infections during the dry period, in herds where the risk for environmental mastitis is high. Vaccination has been suggested as a means to support the immune defence of the dairy cow around parturition. In some countries, implementation of Escherichia coli core antigen vaccine has reduced the incidence of severe coliform mastitis after calving. PMID:18638132

  2. Short Distance Broadcasting of Physiological Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Geddes; H. E. Hoff; W. A. Spencer

    1961-01-01

    For the transmission of physiological data not requiring complete freedom for the subject, a direct wire system offers many practical advantages including low cost and high reliability. Such a system is particularly well adapted for bedside monitoring and for the usual studies in the clinical laboratory where the patient is required by his illness to be in a fixed position.

  3. Anthropometric and physiological predispositions for elite soccer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Reilly; J. Bangsbo; A. Franks

    2000-01-01

    This review is focused on anthropometric and physiological characteristics of soccer players with a view to establishing their roles within talent detection, identification and development programmes. Top-class soccer playershave to adapt to the physical demandsof the game, which are multifactorial. Players may not need to have an extraordinary capacity within any of the areas of physical performance but must possess

  4. A Summary of Feeding Market Cows for the White Fat Cow Market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daryl R. Strohbehn; W. Darrell Busby; Dennis D. DeWitt; Beedle Perry III

    2004-01-01

    Three groups of culled market cows were fed high concentrate rations at three locations in Iowa to demonstrate the possibilities of finishing for the “White Fat Cow” market. Final shrunk weights ranged from 1378 to 1609 pounds, while average daily gains ranged from 2.78 to 3.87 pounds daily on a 70 to 90 day program. Dry matter feed efficiency on

  5. A case of galactosemia misdiagnosed as cow’s milk intolerance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We report on a female patient affected by galactosemia in whom the diagnosis was obscured by the concomitant presence of manifestations suggesting a cow’s milk intolerance. This case exemplifies the problems in reaching a correct diagnosis in patients with metabolic diseases. PMID:22992216

  6. Effect of Dietary Phosphorus on Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows: Milk Production and Cow Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Lopez; F. D. Kanitz; V. R. Moreira; M. C. Wiltbank; L. D. Satter

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure cow re- sponse to feeding of two dietary concentrations of P, one of which was close to recent National Research Council requirements, and the other of which was well in excess of the requirement. Diets containing 0.37 or 0.57% P (dry basis) were fed to Holstein cows for the first 165 d

  7. The relationship between evolutionary and physiological variation in hemoglobin

    E-print Network

    Kirschner, Marc W.

    ; evolutionary ad- aptation can either alter genetically these same parameters or others to achieve distinct the phenotype. Physiological adaptations change pheno- type by altering certain microscopic parameters of 25 mammals with those of human hemoglobin under a wide range of physiological conditions. We fit

  8. Qualitative Physiology: from Qualitative Processes to Virtual Patients 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Cavazza; Altion Simo

    In this paper, we describe an implementation of qualitative physiology in the field of cardiac emergencies, which is integrated to a 3D virtual patient. . The system integrates qualitative simulation techniques with a realistic visual simulation of the patient in a 3D environment representing an ER room. We have adapted Qualitative Process Theory (QPT) to the representation of physiological processes

  9. Associations of dairy cow behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and risk of elevated somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Devries, T J; Aarnoudse, M G; Barkema, H W; Leslie, K E; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2012-10-01

    Poor dairy cow hygiene has been consistently associated with elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and the risk of subclinical mastitis. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between dairy cow standing and lying behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and the risk of experiencing elevated SCC. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n=69; 86 ± 51 DIM; parity: 2.0 ± 1.2; means ± SD), kept in 1 of 2 groups, were monitored over a 4-mo period. Each group contained 61 ± 1 (mean ± SD) cows over the study period; complete data were obtained from 37 and 32 animals within each respective group. Cows were housed in a sand-bedded, freestall barn with 2 symmetrical pens, each with a free cow traffic automatic milking system. To vary barn hygiene, in 4 consecutive 28-d periods, alley manure scrapers in each of the 2 pens were randomly assigned to frequencies of operation of 3, 6, 12, and 24 times per day. During the last 7 d of each period, cow hygiene (upper leg/flank, lower legs, and udder; scale of 1 = very clean to 4 = very dirty) and stall hygiene (number of 0.15×0.15-m squares contaminated with manure in a 1.20×1.65-m grid) were recorded. Standing and lying behavior of the cows were collected during those days using data loggers. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning and end of each 28-d period. Elevated SCC was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis; incidence of elevated SCC was defined as having a SCC >200,000 cells/mL at the end of each 28-d period, when SCC was <100,000 cells/mL at the beginning of the period. Less frequent scraping of the barn alleys was associated with cows having poorer hygiene. Poor udder hygiene was associated with poor stall hygiene. Longer lying duration was associated with poor hygiene of the upper legs/flank and udder. Greater premilking standing duration was associated with poor udder hygiene and decreased frequency of lying bouts was associated with poor hygiene of the lower legs. Higher milk yield was associated with poor hygiene of the udder and lower legs; multiparous cows had poorer hygiene of the upper legs/flank and udder. Over the study period, 24 new cases of elevated SCC were detected. No associations existed for the risk of experiencing an elevated SCC with alley scraping frequency or cow behavior patterns. However, increased odds of occurrence of elevated SCC were noted for cows of lower milk yield as well as for multiparous cows. In summary, these results show that cow hygiene is affected by the standing and lying behavior of cows and by the cleanliness of the cow's environment. These findings emphasize the need for cows to be provided clean standing and lying environments. The results also show that frequent cleaning of barn alley floors will help improve cow hygiene. PMID:22884345

  10. [Drying off cows: a comparative study with two dry cow products].

    PubMed

    Sampimon, O C; Vernooij, J C; Sol, J

    2003-08-15

    From September 1998 to September 1999, at drying off 397 cows on 73 Dutch farms were treated, with two antibiotic containing dry cow products (cloxacillin; penicillin-neomycin). Farms and cows were selected on an increased bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) and individual cow somatic cell count. The objective of the trial was to compare the efficacy of both products under field conditions. Both products proved to be highly effective against streptococci and penicillin sensitive staphylococci. Because of the low incidence of infections caused by Escherichia coli and penicillin resistant staphylococci no conclusions could be drawn on differences in activity for these two pathogens. No significant differences were found between the two products in cure rate of existing infections at drying off, incidence of new infections during the dry period, incidence of clinical mastitis during the dry period and the course of the individual cow cell counts during the trial. PMID:14582339

  11. Dopamine or thyrotropin-releasing hormone effects on luteinizing hormone secretion in heifers and on the postpartum interval in cows 

    E-print Network

    Lovin, Jeffrey Clay

    1984-01-01

    DOPAMINE OR THYROTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE EFFECTS ON LUTEINIZING HORMONE SECRETION IN HEIFERS AND ON THE POSTPARTUM INTERVAL IN COWS A Thesis by Jeffrey Clay Lovin Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial... fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1984 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction DOPAMINE OR THYROTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE EFFECTS ON LUTEINIZING HORMONE SECRETION IN HEIFERS AND ON THE POSTPARTUM INTERVAL...

  12. Influence of Dietary Sodium and Potassium Bicarbonate and Total Potassium on Heat-Stressed Lactating Dairy Cows1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. L. Schneider; D. K. Beede; C. J. Wilcox; R. J. Collier

    1984-01-01

    Objectives were to study effects of heat stress, 0 or .85% sodium bicarbonate, 0 or 1.0% potassium bicarbonate, and 1.0 or 1.5% total dietary potassium on production and physiological responses of dairy cows. Eighteen lactating Holsteins were assigned to shade (control) or no shade (heat stress) lots continuously for three consecutive 35-day periods and to different dietary treatments each period.

  13. Effect of temporary weaning duration on tonic LH secretion, estrus, and ovulation in anestrous postpartum beef cows 

    E-print Network

    Shively, Tandy Elizabeth

    1987-01-01

    of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December t 987 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction EFFECT OF TEMPORARY WEANING DURATION ON TONIC LH SECRETION, ESTRUS AND OVULATION IN ANESTROUS POSTPARTUM BEEF COWS A Thesis by TANDY ELIZABETH... to thank her parents Joe and Wanda Shively and the rest of her family for providing both moral and financial support throughout the years. TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION. . LITERATURE REVIEW. Postpartum Reproduction in Bovine Females. Factors...

  14. Effect of body condition and dietary lipid intake on lipid metabolism, gonadotropin secretion and luteal activity in postpartum beef cows 

    E-print Network

    Morgan, Allan Rae

    1989-01-01

    and This thesis was written in the style of the Journal of Animal Science. Ins keep, 1989). Both pre- and postpartum body condition (BC) can be used as functional predictors of postpartum reproductive performance (Dunn and Kaltenbach, 1980). Cows calving... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1989 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction EFFECT OF BODY CONDITION AND DIETARY LIPID INTAKE ON LIPID METABOLISM, GONADOTROPIN SECRETION AND LUTEAL ACTIVITY...

  15. Interrelationship of endogenous and exogenous prostaglandins with uterine involution and postpartum interval in beef cows and heifers 

    E-print Network

    Tolleson, Douglas Ray

    1986-01-01

    fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1986 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction INTERRELATIONSHIP OF ENDOGENOUS AND EXOGENOUS PROSTAGLANDINS WITH UTERINE INVOLUTION AND POSTPARTUM INTERVAL IN BEEF COWS.... Three experiments were conducted in an effort to obtain such information. The first experiment utilized 77 beef females grouped according to breed-type, parity and degree of uterine trauma. All animals were palpated frequently per rectum during...

  16. Psychology 260 Physiological Psychology

    E-print Network

    Gallo, Linda C.

    ) To learn the physiology of the nervous system, including an understanding of the neuron, the nerve impulse of the brain as well as nervous system development. 3) To introduce the different physiological systems on the different physiological systems involved in behavior and cognition and will allow the student to understand

  17. Chewing Over Physiology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; de Arcisio Miranda, Manoel; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-01-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the differentareas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it…

  18. Characterization of Dutch dairy farms using sensor systems for cow management.

    PubMed

    Steeneveld, W; Hogeveen, H

    2015-01-01

    To improve cow management in large dairy herds, sensors have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. Recently, the number of dairy farms using sensor systems has increased. It is not known, however, to what extent sensor systems are used on dairy farms, and the reasons why farmers invest or not in sensor systems are unclear. The first objective of this study was to give an overview of the sensor systems currently used in the Netherlands. The second objective was to investigate the reasons for investing or not investing in sensor systems. The third objective was to characterize farms with and without sensor systems. A survey was developed to investigate first, the reasons for investing or not in sensor systems and, then, how the sensor systems are used in daily cow management. The survey was sent to 1,672 Dutch dairy farmers. The final data set consisted of 512 dairy farms (response rate of 30.6%); 202 farms indicated that they had sensor systems and 310 farms indicated that they did not have sensor systems. A wide variety of sensor systems was used on Dutch dairy farms; those for mastitis detection and estrus detection were the most-used sensor systems. The use of sensor systems was different for farms using an automatic milking system (AMS) and a conventional milking system (CMS). Reasons for investing were different for different sensor systems. For sensor systems attached to the AMS, the farmers made no conscious decision to invest: they answered that the sensors were standard in the AMS or were bought for reduced cost with the AMS. The main reasons for investing in estrus detection sensor systems were improving detection rates, gaining insights into the fertility level of the herd, improving profitability of the farm, and reducing labor. Main reasons for not investing in sensor systems were economically related. It was very difficult to characterize farms with and without sensor systems. Farms with CMS and sensor systems had more cows than CMS farms without sensor systems. Furthermore, farms with sensor systems had fewer labor hours per cow compared with farms without sensor systems. Other farm characteristics (age of the farmer, availability of a successor, growth in herd size, milk production per cow, number of cows per hectare, and milk production per hectare) did not differ for farms with and without sensor systems. PMID:25465556

  19. The effect of calving in the summer on the hepatic transcriptome of Holstein cows during the peripartal period.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, K; Akbar, H; Vailati-Riboni, M; Basiricò, L; Morera, P; Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Nardone, A; Bernabucci, U; Loor, J J

    2015-08-01

    The liver is the main metabolic organ coordinating the adaptations that take place during the peripartal period of dairy cows. A successful transition into lactation, rather than management practices alone, depends on environmental factors such as temperature, season of parturition, and photoperiod. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of calving season on the hepatic transcriptome of dairy cows during the transition period. A total of 12 Holstein dairy cows were assigned into 2 groups based on calving season (6 cows March-April, spring; 6 cows June-July, summer, SU). The RNA was extracted from liver samples obtained at -30, 3, and 35 DIM via percutaneous biopsy and hybridized to the Agilent 44K Bovine (V2) Gene Expression Microarray (Agilent Technologies Inc., Santa Clara, CA). A quantitative PCR on 22 target genes was performed to verify and expand the analyses. A total of 4,307 differentially expressed genes were detected (false discovery rate ?0.05) in SU compared with spring. Furthermore, 73 unique differentially expressed genes were detected in SU compared with spring cows after applying a fold-change threshold ?3 and ?-3. For Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways analysis of differentially expressed genes, we used the dynamic impact approach. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software was used to analyze upstream transcription regulators and perform gene network analysis. Among metabolic pathways, energy metabolism from lipids, carbohydrates, and amino acids was strongly affected by calving in SU, with a reduced level of fatty acid synthesis, oxidation, re-esterification, and synthesis of lipoproteins, leading to hepatic lipidosis. Glycan-synthesis was downregulated in SU cows probably as a mechanism to counteract the progression of this lipidosis. In contrast, calving in the SU resulted in upregulation of gluconeogenesis but also greater use of glucose as an energy source. Among nonmetabolic pathways, the heat-shock response was obviously activated in SU cows but was also associated with inflammatory and intracellular stress response. Furthermore, data support a recent finding that cows experience endoplasmic reticulum stress around parturition. Transcription regulator analysis revealed how metabolic changes are related to important regulatory mechanisms, including epigenetic modification. The holistic analyses of the liver transcriptome response to calving in the summer at high environmental temperatures underscore how transition cows should be carefully managed during this period, as they experience alterations in liver energy metabolism and inflammatory state increasing susceptibility to health disorders in early postpartum. PMID:26074246

  20. Milk production and composition of mid-lactation cows consuming perennial ryegrass-and chicory-based diets.

    PubMed

    Muir, S K; Ward, G N; Jacobs, J L

    2014-02-01

    Dry matter intakes (DMI), nutrient selection, and milk production responses of dairy cows grazing 3 herbage-based diets offered at 2 allowances were measured. The 2 allowances were 20 (low) and 30 (high) kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day and these were applied to 3 herbage types: perennial ryegrass (PRG) and chicory (CHIC+) monocultures and a mixed sward of chicory and perennial ryegrass (MIX). The CHIC+ diet was supplemented with alfalfa hay (approximately 2 kg of DM/cow per day) to maintain dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration and all diets were supplemented with energy-based pellets (6 kg of DM/cow per day). Holstein-Friesian dairy cows averaging 136 ± 30 d in milk were allocated to 4 replicates of the 6 treatments using stratified randomization procedures. Cows were adapted to their experimental diets over a 14-d period, with measurements of DMI, milk yield, and composition conducted over the following 10 d. Herbage DMI was lowest (12.8 vs. 14.0 kg of DM/d) for CHIC+ compared with the MIX and PRG, although total forage intake (grazed herbage plus hay) was similar (14.0 to 15.0 kg of DM/d) across the 3 treatments. Milk production, milk protein, and milk fat concentrations were not different between herbage types. Grazed herbage DMI increased with increasing herbage allowance and this was associated with increased milk protein concentration (3.23 to 3.34%) and total casein production (41.7 to 43.6 mg/g). Concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk fat, particularly linoleic acid, were increased in milk from cows offered the CHIC+ or the MIX diets, indicating potential benefits of chicory herbage on milk fatty acid concentrations. Although feeding CHIC+ or MIX did not increase milk yield, these herbage types could be used as an alternative to perennial ryegrass pasture in spring. PMID:24290818

  1. Body Condition, Nutrition and Reproduction of Beef Cows.

    E-print Network

    Herd, Dennis B.; Sprott, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    .............. 10 Summary ................. .............. 11 References ............................. 11 Body Condition, Nutrition and Reproduction of Beef Cows Dennis B. Herd and L. R. SproW The percentage of body fat in beef cows at spe cific stages...

  2. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  3. Physiologic time: A hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Damien; West, Bruce J.

    2013-06-01

    The scaling of respiratory metabolism with body size in animals is considered by many to be a fundamental law of nature. One apparent consequence of this law is the scaling of physiologic time with body size, implying that physiologic time is separate and distinct from clock time. Physiologic time is manifest in allometry relations for lifespans, cardiac cycles, blood volume circulation, respiratory cycle, along with a number of other physiologic phenomena. Herein we present a theory of physiologic time that explains the allometry relation between time and total body mass averages as entailed by the hypothesis that the fluctuations in the total body mass are described by a scaling probability density.

  4. Breed and heterotic effects on productive longevity of beef cows 

    E-print Network

    Rohrer, Gary Alan

    1987-01-01

    Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Thomas C. Cartwright Data from 498 females produced in a five-breed diallel utilizing Angus (ANG), Brahman (BRM), Hereford (HER), Holstein (HOL) and Jersey (JER) breeds were analyzed to determine differences... OF CULLED COWS AND THE COWS IN THE HERD FOR THE HOLSTEIN BREEDTYPE 72 17 AGE SPECIFIC PROBABILITIES OF ATTRITION AND SURVIVAL RATES, PROBABILITY OF SURVIVING TO A SPECIFIC AGE AND THE AGE DISTRIBUTION OF CULLED COWS AND THE COWS IN THE HERD...

  5. Changes of Adipose Tissue Morphology and Composition during Late Pregnancy and Early Lactation in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Kenéz, Ákos; Kulcsár, Anna; Kluge, Franziska; Benbelkacem, Idir; Hansen, Kathrin; Locher, Lena; Meyer, Ulrich; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven; Huber, Korinna

    2015-01-01

    Dairy cows mobilize large amounts of body fat during early lactation to overcome negative energy balance which typically arises in this period. As an adaptation process, adipose tissues of cows undergo extensive remodeling during late pregnancy and early lactation. The objective of the present study was to characterize this remodeling to get a better understanding of adaptation processes in adipose tissues, affected by changing metabolic conditions including lipid mobilization and refilling as a function of energy status. This was done by determining adipocyte size in histological sections of subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipose tissue biopsy samples collected from German Holstein cows at 42 days prepartum, and 1, 21, and 100 days postpartum. Characterization of cell size changes was extended by the analysis of DNA, triacylglycerol, and protein content per gram tissue, and ?-actin protein expression in the same samples. In both adipose tissue depots cell size was becoming smaller during the course of the study, suggesting a decrease in cellular triacylglycerol content. Results of DNA, triacylglycerol, and protein content, and ?-actin protein expression could only partially explain the observed differences in cell size. The retroperitoneal adipose tissue exhibited a greater extent of time-related differences in cell size, DNA, and protein content, suggesting greater dynamics and metabolic flexibility for this abdominal depot compared to the investigated subcutaneous depot. PMID:25978720

  6. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    PubMed

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants. PMID:23158513

  7. Modelling the extinction of Steller's sea cow.

    PubMed

    Turvey, S T; Risley, C L

    2006-03-22

    Steller's sea cow, a giant sirenian discovered in 1741 and extinct by 1768, is one of the few megafaunal mammal species to have died out during the historical period. The species is traditionally considered to have been exterminated by 'blitzkrieg'-style direct overharvesting for food, but it has also been proposed that its extinction resulted from a sea urchin population explosion triggered by extirpation of local sea otter populations that eliminated the shallow-water kelps on which sea cows fed. Hunting records from eighteenth century Russian expeditions to the Commander Islands, in conjunction with life-history data extrapolated from dugongs, permit modelling of sea cow extinction dynamics. Sea cows were massively and wastefully overexploited, being hunted at over seven times the sustainable limit, and suggesting that the initial Bering Island sea cow population must have been higher than suggested by previous researchers to allow the species to survive even until 1768. Environmental changes caused by sea otter declines are unlikely to have contributed to this extinction event. This indicates that megafaunal extinctions can be effected by small bands of hunters using pre-industrial technologies, and highlights the catastrophic impact of wastefulness when overexploiting resources mistakenly perceived as 'infinite'. PMID:17148336

  8. Transition cow nutrition and feeding management for disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Van Saun, Robert J; Sniffen, Charles J

    2014-11-01

    In this article, an overview is presented of nutrient modeling to define energy and protein requirements of the late pregnant cow, and metabolic relationships between fetus and cow as they relate to nutrient utilization and risk for postparturient disease are discussed. Recommendations for formulating dry cow diets are provided, with emphasis on opportunities to minimize variation and risk for postparturient disease events. PMID:25220248

  9. Production Efficiency of Beef Cows through Mathematical Modeling and Genomics

    E-print Network

    Production Efficiency of Beef Cows through Mathematical Modeling and Genomics For decades cows reside. With recent advances in genomics, the identification of intrinsic genetic factors Develop and evaluate the individual-based model· for production efficiency of beef cows using genomic

  10. Angus Cow Longevity Estimates and Relationship to Production Traits

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    Angus Cow Longevity Estimates and Relationship to Production Traits Arnold M. Saxton, Kenneth J Cow longevity is a trait that has great economic importance to commercial beef cattle producers. Improving longevity allows producers to cull a cow from the breeding herd for voluntary reasons (poor

  11. Rearing conditions and lifetime milk revenues in Swedish dairy cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Hultgren; Catarina Svensson; Mats Pehrsson

    2011-01-01

    Associations between replacement heifer rearing conditions and lifetime milk revenues were studied throughout the productive life of Swedish dairy cows. Data were collected from 2127 cows, mainly Swedish Reds and Swedish Holsteins, representing all female animals born during 1998 in 110 herds and followed until May 2006. Lifetime net milk revenues were calculated for each cow based on the length

  12. Original article Performance of a herd of Holstein cows

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    /kg). The somatic cell count was relatively high (326 000 and 484 000/ml for primiparous and multiparous cows and somatic cells, with growing individual differences. Between months 3 and 10 of lactation, the cows gained of 37 high-yielding Holstein cows managed without the dry period is described. Milk yield was high (9

  13. Effect of rubber flooring on cow locomotion and gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2 dairy cow housing systems on cow locomotion and expression of genes associated with lameness, during the dry and peri-parturient period. Cows were assigned to free-stall housing with either rubber (RUB; n=13) or concrete (CON; n=14) at the feed-f...

  14. Proper Dry Cow Management Critical for Mastitis Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. m. Jones

    publication 404-212 A cow's lactation begins at the time she's dried off rather than when she calves. Proper management of dry cows often is neglected on many dairy farms. Dry cows often are placed in a back pasture and ignored, and subse- quently are underfed. On other farms they remain with the milking herd and may be overfed, especially if

  15. Immune Response of Postpartum Dairy Cows Fed Flaxseed1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lessard; N. Gagnon; H. V. Petit

    2003-01-01

    Thirty Holstein cows were allotted at calving to 10 groups of three cows blocked for similar calving dates to determinetheeffectsofdietaryfattyacidsonfunctional properties of immunocompetent cells in early lactation and at breeding. Cows were assigned at calving to one of three isonitrogenous, isoenergetic, and isolipidic sup- plements based oneither calcium salts of palmoil, Meg- alac, micronized soybeans, or whole flaxseed. On the

  16. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157.124 Section 157.124 Navigation...and Installation § 157.124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo...

  17. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157.124 Section 157.124 Navigation...and Installation § 157.124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo...

  18. The physiological and physical status of single calves at birth in a dairy herd in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TJ Diesch; DJ Mellor; KJ Stafford; RN Ward

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the physiological status of calves at birth and the perinatal factors that might predispose newborn calves to debility and death, using criteria previously established for newborn lambs.METHODS: Friesian mixed-aged cows and heifers on a dairy farm in New Zealand that were close to calving were separated from the main herd and observed 24 h a day until

  19. Effects of two-stage and total vs. fence-line weaning on the physiology and performance of beef calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calves weaned using a two-stage method where nursing is prevented between cow-calf pairs prior to separation (Stage 1) experience less weaning stress after separation (Stage 2) based on behavior and growth measures. The aim of this study was to document changes in various physiological measures of s...

  20. Grazing dairy cows had decreased interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-17, and increased expression of interleukin-10 during the first week after calving.

    PubMed

    Heiser, Axel; McCarthy, Allison; Wedlock, Neil; Meier, Susanne; Kay, Jane; Walker, Caroline; Crookenden, Mallory A; Mitchell, Murray D; Morgan, Stuart; Watkins, Kate; Loor, Juan J; Roche, John R

    2015-02-01

    Peripartum, and especially during the transition period, dairy cows undergo dramatic physiological changes. These coincide with an increased risk of disease during the first 2 wk after calving and have been linked to dairy cows failing to achieve production as well as reproductive targets. Previous evidence suggests that these physiological changes affect the immune system and that transition dairy cows experience some form of reduced immunocompetence. However, almost all of these studies were undertaken in high-production, housed dairy cows. Grazing cows have much lower levels of production and this study aimed to provide clarity whether or not the dysfunctional attributes of the peripartum immune system reported in high production housed cows are evident in these animals. Therefore, cell culture techniques, flow cytometry, and quantitative PCR were applied to analyze the cellular composition of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from transition dairy cows as well as the performance of these cells in an in vitro assay. First, a combination of in vitro stimulation and quantitative PCR for cytokines was validated as a quantifiable immunocompetence assay in 29 cattle and a correlation of quantitative PCR and ELISA demonstrated. Second, the relative number of T helper cells, cytotoxic T cells, B cells, ?? T cells, natural killer cells, and monocytes in peripheral blood was measured, of which B cells and natural killer cells increased in number postcalving (n=29) compared with precalving. Third, following in vitro stimulation cytokine profiles indicated decreased expression of IFN?, tumor necrosis factor, and IL-17 and increased expression of IL-10 wk 1 after calving, which later all returned to precalving values (n=39). Additionally, treatment of transition cows with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (i.e., carprofen) administered on d 1, 3, and 5 postcalving (n=19; untreated control n=20) did not affect the cytokine expression at any time point. In conclusion, an immunocompetence assay has been developed that highlights a characteristic expression pattern for IFN?, tumor necrosis factor, IL-17, and IL-10 that reflects a state of reduced immunocompetence in moderate-yielding pasture-based transition cows after calving, which is similar to that described for higher-yielding housed cows. PMID:25483203

  1. Skeletal Muscle Physiology: Plasticity and Responses to Exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Kraemer; Barry A. Spiering

    2006-01-01

    Skeletal muscle displays an impressive capability to adapt to various stimuli. Exercise and physical activity, in their many forms, present specific stresses to muscle. Depending on the exact nature of the stress, muscle may adapt by increasing size, improving neuromuscular performance, or enhancing endurance capabilities. In this article, we provide an overview of the basics of neuromuscular physiology, principles of

  2. Evaluation of F1 cows sired by Brahman, Boran, and Tuli for reproductive and maternal performance and cow longevity 

    E-print Network

    Cunningham, Samantha Fern

    2005-11-01

    EVALUATION OF F 1 COWS SIRED BY BRAHMAN, BORAN, AND TULI FOR REPRODUCTIVE AND MATERNAL PERFORMANCE AND COW LONGEVITY A Thesis by SAMANTHA F. CUNNINGHAM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2005 Major Subject: Animal Breeding EVALUATION OF F 1 COWS SIRED BY BRAHMAN, BORAN, AND TULI FOR REPRODUCTIVE AND MATERNAL PERFORMANCE AND COW LONGEVITY A...

  3. Utilization of Vitamin A by Dairy Cows

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1937-01-01

    (13) reported that 2.5 to 3.4% of the vitamin A value of dried alfalfa and corn silage usually appeared in the m-ilk on a daily intake of 1,213,500 to 946,700 U. S. P. 1934 units per cow. Peterson et a1 (12) stated that only about 2% of the carotene.../12 ..... ~mber .................... cow, in years and months. . f calving, 1934.. .......... lmple of butter collected, 1734 ....................... Second sample collected, 1934.. ... Third sample collected, 1934.. .... Fourth sample, 1934...

  4. The Vitamin A Requirements of Dairy Cows

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Copeland, O. C. (Orlin Cephas); Treichler, Ray

    1934-01-01

    BULLE A 8 CO XAS AfiRICULTURAL LLLUL, CAMPU EXPERIMENT 7%" A. R. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS TIN NO. 495 AUGUST, 193g :3= -a c 3 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY I'HE VITAMIN A REQUIREMENTS OF DAIRY COWS GRICULTURAL... of Veterinary Medicine. TAs of Augnst 1, 1934 **In cooperation with U. S. Department of Agriculture. $In cooperation with Texas Extension Service. Dairy cows must have feed high in vitamin A potency in order to continue to produce butter high in vitamin A...

  5. Utilization of Vitamin A by Dairy Cows.

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1937-01-01

    .67% for the five 3ds. 'le vitamin A potency of the butterfat from some of the cows higher than that of others fed on the same feed for the same ~d of time. Some cows appear to have a greater power than rs to secrete vitamin A and carotene into the butter... per day at the end of seventeen weeks. The carotene decreased from 16.7, 9.7, and 9.8 parts per million in the beginning to 0.4, 3.9, and 3.6 parts per million respecti~ely for the three levels of vitamin A consumption. The apparent recovery...

  6. Evaluation of F1 Cows Sired by Brahman, Boran, and Tuli Bulls for Reproductive and Maternal Performance Traits and Cow Longevity 

    E-print Network

    Muntean, Carl

    2011-08-08

    , Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Uganda) and classified them as high- and low-performance environments. He reported that in 16 high production environments, Brahman straightbred cows (446 kg) were heavier than Tuli straightbred cows (400 kg) in Botswana..., and both Brahman and Tuli cow weights in Botswana were heavier than Boran straightbred cows in Zambia (375 kg). In low production environments, Brahman cows evaluated in Zimbabwe (390 kg) were again heavier than both Tuli cows studied in Zimbabwe (369...

  7. Chewing over physiology integration.

    PubMed

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; Miranda, Manoel de Arcisio; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-03-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the different areas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it comes to cuts in expenses. With the aim of addressing this kind of problem, the graduate students of our department organized a physiology summer course offered to undergraduate students. The objective was to present the different physiological systems in an integrated fashion. The strategy pursued was to plan laboratory classes whose experimental results were the basis for the relevant theoretical discussions. The subject we developed to illustrate physiology integration was the study of factors influencing salivary secretion. PMID:15718383

  8. Relationships of cow age and initial cow body weight with calf and cow grazing season weight changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary objective in a study implemented during 1975-2001 on northern mixed-grass prairie at the High Plains Grassland Research Station (HPGRS) near Cheyenne, Wyoming, was to evaluate long-term calf and cow grazing season body weight gain responses under 14 different management practices (e.g. t...

  9. Cow evaluation at different milk yields of herds.

    PubMed

    Powell, R L; Norman, H D; Weinland, B T

    1983-01-01

    Herds with higher milk production per cow tend to have used bulls with larger Predicted Differences and to have larger Cow Indexes. A larger portion of cows in these herds should attain elite status for production than in herds with lower production. However, even when average sire merit was similar, higher producing herds had substantially more elite cows, apparently because standard deviation of deviated production of cows is greater in herds with high milk production. This suggested that cow deviation in high producing herds may receive too much weight in the Cow Index. However, higher heritabilities likely are appropriate for cows in higher producing herds, which would favor weighting deviation more in high producing herds. Adjustments for these two effects would offset each other at least partially. Cow Indexes adjusted for either or both effects had similar correlations with son or daughter performance as did the current Cow Index that considers neither effect. Although high producing herds have more elite cows than can be justified by average sire merit, some of the apparent advantage may be justifiable by larger heritabilities. PMID:6833589

  10. Effect of pre-grazing herbage mass on dairy cow performance, grass dry matter production and output from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pastures.

    PubMed

    Wims, C M; Delaby, L; Boland, T M; O'Donovan, M

    2014-01-01

    A grazing study was undertaken to examine the effect of maintaining three levels of pre-grazing herbage mass (HM) on dairy cow performance, grass dry matter (DM) production and output from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pastures. Cows were randomly assigned to one of three pre-grazing HM treatments: 1150 - Low HM (L), 1400 - Medium HM (M) or 2000 kg DM/ha - High HM (H). Herbage accumulation under grazing was lowest (P<0.01) on the L treatment and cows grazing the L pastures required more grass silage supplementation during the grazing season (+73 kg DM/cow) to overcome pasture deficits due to lower pasture growth rates (P<0.05). Treatment did not affect daily milk production or pasture intake, although cows grazing the L pastures had to graze a greater daily area (P<0.01) and increase grazing time (P<0.05) to compensate for a lower pre-grazing HM (P<0.01). The results indicate that, while pre-grazing HM did not influence daily milk yield per cow, adapting the practise of grazing low HM (1150 kg DM/ha) pasture reduces pasture DM production and at a system level may increase the requirement for imported feed. PMID:24229787

  11. Constraints to milk production in grazing dairy cows in Brazil and management strategies for improving their productivity.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, A L; Louvandini, H; Bueno, I C; Vitti, D M; Meirelles, C F; Gennari, S M

    1999-01-27

    Productivity in most Brazilian dairy herds is low and depends exclusively on pasture. To study the productive potential of pastures and to devise strategies to further improve pasture and animal productivity in this production system, studies were carried out to obtain basic on-farm information. The constraints which affect productivity and reproductive performance of dairy cows, the effects of restrictions in suckling time of calves, and strategic supplementation during the dry season upon animal production were the evaluated parameters. From March 1992 through February 1997, studies were carried out on four private farms in the northern region of the State of São Paulo. Between March 1992 and February 1994 (Study 1--survey phase), 142 cows (parity = 1-6) grazed pasture which consisted of signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria brizanta). Once-a-month data were collected on body weight, body condition, and milk production. Reproduction parameters were assessed by milk progesterone profiles. From March 1996 to February 1997 (Study 2--intervention phase), 45 lactating dairy cows from two farms were hand-milked once a day and the calf suckling was restricted to two hours after milking. Data were collected on milk production and cow body weight. In Study 1, cows were grouped by calving date for the analysis of the reproductive and production data. Concentrations of blood metabolites, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were compared among randomly selected cows (n = 69) from all farms. Estimated pasture available per hectare (ha) at any time, crude protein (CP), and dry matter digestibility (DMD) of pasture available for grazing differed (p < 0.05) between seasons [pasture available = 1.2, 1.4, 1.8 and 2.2 t/ha (SE = 0.70); CP = 42, 60, 48 and 57 g/kg (DM) (SE = 10.1); DMD = 399, 468, 401 and 457 g/kg (DM) (SE = 21), respectively, for dry season 1992 (D92), wet season 1992 (W92), dry season 1993 (D93), and wet season 1993 (W93)]. The proportion of animals showing ovarian activity at 90 days postpartum (DPP) was higher for cows which calved in the wet season than cows which calved in the dry season. In Study 2, milk production tended to the higher (7.3 and 6.5 kg/day, respectively, for the intervention and survey studies; p = 0.08). The data suggest that milk production is being limited by pasture availability, the quality of pasture, and the lack of supplementation. We suggest that, although supplementing cows in the dry period may have an economic advantage, better pasture management needs to be introduced. Stocking rate must be adapted to pasture productivity and pasture quality throughout the year. PMID:10081801

  12. Recent advances in the synchronization of estrus and ovulation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Macmillan, Keith L

    2010-01-01

    Synchronization programs have become standard components in the current breeding management of cows in the dairy herds of most dairy industries. Many are based on protocols that allow timed inseminations (TAI) so as to circumvent the practical difficulties associated with estrus detection. These difficulties are exacerbated in modern herds of high producing cows either because of increasing herd size in which individual animal monitoring is difficult and often subjective, or because small intensively managed herds are milked in robotic systems that minimize animal: staff interactions. Additional reasons arise from high producing cows having less obvious symptoms of estrus, partly because of housing systems combined with intensive feeding and milking, partly because of higher metabolic clearance rates of reproductive hormones like estradiol and partly because of the increasing prevalence of prolonged post-partum anestrus and reproductive tract pathology. The most recently developed programs include protocols for resynchronization following first or subsequent inseminations. These re-synchronization protocols may involve selected forms of hormonal intervention during the diestrous and pro-estrous periods following TAI, or following pregnancy diagnosis by ultrasound from 28 days after TAI. The latter form of re-synchronization has become increasingly important with the recognition that late embryonic/early foetal death has become a major factor compromising the reproductive performance of high producing Holstein cows in many dairy industries. Although cows detected in estrus without any hormonal treatment before insemination have higher conception rates than those inseminated following synchronization and TAI, the low detection rates combined with embryonic death means that intervals from calving to conception (days open) are usually less when synchronization programs have been successfully implemented. One of the significant factors affecting a program's success is the compliance rate that may sometimes be less than 70%. Almost all programs involve strategically timed injections of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). Injections of an estradiol ester and progesterone supplementation per vaginum may be included in some programs. The basic program is the "Ovsynch" regimen. Numerous variations have been tested and developed. Many involve increasingly complex protocols that increase the risk of non-compliance, none has consistently achieved conception rates that exceed 40% and few have reduced the incidence of embryonic death. These synchronization programs are the best that are currently available. They have not been able to overcome the consequences of lowered fertility associated with high levels of milk yield, forms of nutrition and environmental factors like heat stress that have profound effects on the physiology and metabolism of the high producing dairy cow. PMID:20629216

  13. Thermoregulatory responses of Holstein and Brown Swiss Heat-Stressed dairy cows to two different cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa-Calderon, Abelardo; Armstrong, Dennis; Ray, Donald; DeNise, Sue; Enns, Mark; Howison, Christine

    . Thirty-seven Holstein and 26 Brown Swiss dairy cows were used to evaluate the effect of two different cooling systems on physiological and hormonal responses during the summer. A control group of cows had access only to shade (C). A second group was cooled with spray and fans (S/F) and the third group was under an evaporative cooling system called Korral Kool (KK). The maximum temperature humidity index during the trial was from 73 to 85. Rectal temperatures and respiration rates of the C group were higher (P < 0.05) than those of the S/F and KK groups in both Holstein and Brown Swiss cows. Triiodothyronine levels in milk were higher (P < 0.05) in the KK group than in the S/F and C groups, while cortisol levels were lower (P < 0.05) in the C group than in S/F and KK. There was no significant difference in the hormonal response of the two breeds. These results demonstrate that both cooling systems may be used increase the comfort of Holstein and Brown Swiss cows during summer in hot, dry climates.

  14. Thermoregulatory responses of Holstein and Brown Swiss heat-stressed dairy cows to two different cooling systems.

    PubMed

    Correa-Calderon, Abelardo; Armstrong, Dennis; Ray, Donald; DeNise, Sue; Enns, Mark; Howison, Christine

    2004-02-01

    Thirty-seven Holstein and 26 Brown Swiss dairy cows were used to evaluate the effect of two different cooling systems on physiological and hormonal responses during the summer. A control group of cows had access only to shade (C). A second group was cooled with spray and fans (S/F) and the third group was under an evaporative cooling system called Korral Kool (KK). The maximum temperature humidity index during the trial was from 73 to 85. Rectal temperatures and respiration rates of the C group were higher (P<0.05) than those of the S/F and KK groups in both Holstein and Brown Swiss cows. Triiodothyronine levels in milk were higher (P<0.05) in the KK group than in the S/F and C groups, while cortisol levels were lower (P<0.05) in the C group than in S/F and KK. There was no significant difference in the hormonal response of the two breeds. These results demonstrate that both cooling systems may be used increase the comfort of Holstein and Brown Swiss cows during summer in hot, dry climates. PMID:14624352

  15. Toxicological Effects of Toxaphene on Dairy Cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Leighton; K. A. Kuiken; Hilton A. Smith

    1952-01-01

    The effectiveness and wide use of chlorinated hyydrocarbons as insecticides, not only on the bodies of dairy cows but on the forage crops which they consume, have resulted in considerable interest in the toxicity of these materials upon dairy animals. Considerable work has been done with DDT, and there is ample evidence that DDT is excreted in the milk of

  16. Space physiology and medicine, 2nd ed

    SciTech Connect

    Nicogossian, A.E.; Huntoon, C.L.; Pool, S.L.; Johnson, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Physiological Adaptation to Space Flight: Overall Adaptation to Space Flight and Implications; The Neurovestibular System; Performance; The Cardiopulmonary System; Nutrition; Bone and Mineral Metabolism; Hematology, Immunology, Endocrinology, and Biochemistry; Microgravity: Stimulations and Analogs; Health Maintenance of Space Crewmemebers: Medical Evaluation for Astronaut Selection and Longitudinal Studies; Biomedical Training of Space Crews; Ground-Based Medical Programs; Countermeasures to Space Deconditioning; Medical Problems of Space Flight: Toxic Hazards in Space Operations; Radiation Exposure Issues and Medical Care and Health Maintenance in Flight.

  17. The Cardiovascular Physiology of Sports and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Opondo, Mildred A; Sarma, Satyam; Levine, Benjamin D

    2015-07-01

    Athletes represent the extremes of human performance. Many of their remarkable abilities stem from a cardiovascular system that has adapted to meet the metabolic needs of exercising muscle. A large and compliant heart is a hallmark feature of athletes who engage in highly aerobic events. Despite high fitness levels, athletes may present with symptoms that limit performance. Understanding and dissecting these limitations requires a strong background in sports science and the factors that determine sports capabilities. This article reviews the basic principles of exercise physiology, cardiovascular adaptations unique to the "athlete's heart," and the utility of exercise testing in athletes. PMID:26100417

  18. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    PubMed

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F

    2015-08-01

    studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead dairy cows. The final model also predicted that increased proportions of dairy cows with clinical mastitis and infertility problems were associated with increased mortality. Finally, an increase in mortality was predicted to be associated with an increase in the proportion of lame or injured permanently removed dairy cows. In general terms, this model identified that mortality was associated with reproductive problems, non-infectious postpartum disease, infectious disease and infectious disease prevention, and information derived from postmortem evaluations. Ultimately, addressing excessive mortality levels requires a concerted effort that recognizes and appropriately manages the numerous and diverse underlying risks. PMID:25721925

  19. Insect Physiology Online

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    A large database dedicated to research articles about various topics of insect physiology. Topics range from excretion to diapause to temperature and water regulation. There are also extensive listings of resources (academic units, funding, journals) and course data on insect physiology.

  20. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  1. Living History of Physiology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-07-01

    The APS is pleased to announce the launch of the Living History of Physiology Project. The Society encourages the membership to consider interviewing senior physiologists at their institutions to provide a living history of physiology. The videos provided to date focus on the physiologistÂ?s training and career and their professional interactions.

  2. COMPARATIVE GUT PHYSIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM: Comparative physiology of digestion.

    PubMed

    Furness, J B; Cottrell, J J; Bravo, D M

    2015-02-01

    The digestive systems of all species have been shaped by environmental pressures over long evolutionary time spans. Nevertheless, all digestive systems must achieve the same end points, the ingestion of biological material and its conversion to molecules that serve as energy substrates and structural components of tissues. A range of strategies to extract nutrients, including for animals reliant primarily on foregut fermentation, hindgut fermentation, and enzymatic degradation, have evolved. Moreover, animals have adapted to different foodstuffs as herbivores (including frugivores, folivores, granivores, etc.), carnivores, and omnivores. We present evidence that humans have diverged from other omnivores because of the long history of consumption of cooked or otherwise prepared food. We consider them to be cucinivores. We present examples to illustrate that the range of foodstuffs that can be efficiently assimilated by each group or species is limited and is different from that of other groups or species. Differences are reflected in alimentary tract morphology. The digestive systems of each group and of species within the groups are adaptable, with constraints determined by individual digestive physiology. Although overall digestive strategies and systems differ, the building blocks for digestion are remarkably similar. All vertebrates have muscular tubular tracts lined with a single layer of epithelial cells for most of the length, use closely related digestive enzymes and transporters, and control the digestive process through similar hormones and similarly organized nerve pathways. Extrapolations among species that are widely separated in their digestive physiologies are possible when the basis for extrapolation is carefully considered. Divergence is greatest at organ or organismal levels, and similarities are greatest at the cell and molecular level. PMID:26020739

  3. Current Topics for Teaching Skeletal Muscle Physiology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Susan V. Brooks (University of Michigan)

    2003-12-01

    Contractions of skeletal muscles provide the stability and power for all body movements. Consequently, any impairment in skeletal muscle function results in some degree of instability or immobility. Factors that influence skeletal muscle structure and function are therefore of great interest both scientifically and clinically. Injury, disease, and old age are among the factors that commonly contribute to impairment in skeletal muscle function. The goal of this article is to update current concepts of skeletal muscle physiology. Particular emphasis is placed on mechanisms of injury, repair, and adaptation in skeletal muscle as well as mechanisms underlying the declining skeletal muscle structure and function associated with aging. For additional materials please refer to the "Skeletal Muscle Physiology" presentation located on the American Physiological Society Archive of Teaching Resources Web site (http://www.apsarchive.org).

  4. Space physiology and medicine (2nd edition)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E. (editor); Huntoon, Carolyn Leach (editor); Pool, Sam L. (editor)

    1989-01-01

    The fundamental biomedical issues involved in manned space flight are examined in review chapters contributed by leading U.S. experts. Sections are devoted to the history of manned space flight, the space environment, space-flight systems and procedures, physiological adaptation to space flight, health maintenance of space crewmembers, and medical problems of space flight. Extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, photographs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  5. Cointegration analysis used in a study of dairy-cow mortality.

    PubMed

    Nørgaard, N H; Lind, K M; Agger, J F

    1999-10-31

    A competitive environment forces the farmer constantly to adopt new and more-intensive production methods aiming at lowering costs and increasing yields. At debate is whether this intensification of production has an adverse impact on animal health and welfare. We investigated this issue by using cointegration analysis (a new tool used in time series analysis). We introduce cointegration analysis by applying the method in an epidemiological study of dairy-cow mortality. Two long-run epidemiological relations are identified:(i) a physiological relation (where increasing consumption of concentrates corresponded to increasing milk yield and mortality) and (ii) a physical relation (which illustrated that higher mortality was closely related to a higher growth rate of the average herd size, current investments in dairy farming, and higher milk yield). We concluded that a higher level of physiological stress due to higher yield and concentrate consumption has led to increased mortality. Furthermore, changes in the physical environment due to increased mechanisation and larger herd sizes have contributed to less attention per cow and increased mortality. PMID:10551429

  6. Genetics and the physiological ecology of conifers

    SciTech Connect

    Mitton, J.B.

    1995-07-01

    Natural selection acts on the diversity of genotypes, adapting populations to their specific environments and driving evolution in response to changes in climate. Genetically based differences in physiology and demography adapt species to alternate environments and produce, along with historical accidents, the present distribution of species. The sorting of conifer species by elevation is so marked that conifers help to define plant communities arranged in elevational bands in the Rocky Mountains. For these reasons, a genetic perspective is necessary to appreciate the evolution of ecophysiological patterns in the coniferous forests of the Rocky Mountains. The fascinating natural history and the economic importance of western conifers have stimulated numerous studies of their ecology, ecological genetics, and geographic variation. These studies yield some generalizations, and present some puzzling contradictions. This chapter focuses on the genetic variability associated with the physiological differences among genotypes in Rocky Mountain conifers. Variation among genotypes in survival, growth, and resistance to herbivores is used to illustrate genetically based differences in physiology, and to suggest the mechanistic studies needed to understand the relationships between genetic and physiological variation.

  7. Physiologic and pharmacokinetic changes in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Costantine, Maged M.

    2014-01-01

    Physiologic changes in pregnancy induce profound alterations to the pharmacokinetic properties of many medications. These changes affect distribution, absorption, metabolism, and excretion of drugs, and thus may impact their pharmacodynamic properties during pregnancy. Pregnant women undergo several adaptations in many organ systems. Some adaptations are secondary to hormonal changes in pregnancy, while others occur to support the gravid woman and her developing fetus. Some of the changes in maternal physiology during pregnancy include, for example, increased maternal fat and total body water, decreased plasma protein concentrations, especially albumin, increased maternal blood volume, cardiac output, and blood flow to the kidneys and uteroplacental unit, and decreased blood pressure. The maternal blood volume expansion occurs at a larger proportion than the increase in red blood cell mass, which results in physiologic anemia and hemodilution. Other physiologic changes include increased tidal volume, partially compensated respiratory alkalosis, delayed gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility, and altered activity of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes. Understating these changes and their profound impact on the pharmacokinetic properties of drugs in pregnancy is essential to optimize maternal and fetal health. PMID:24772083

  8. Euthanasia of Danish dairy cows evaluated in two questionnaire surveys

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Peter T; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2008-01-01

    Background Mortality risk in Danish dairy cows has more than doubled since 1990 (from 2% in 1990 to 5% in 2005). Until now, registrations about dead cows in the Danish Cattle Database have not included information about whether the cow died unassisted or was euthanized. Methods We interviewed a random sample of 196 Danish dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow to the Danish Cattle Database in 2002 and 196 dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow in 2006. Our objectives were to evaluate the proportion of euthanized cows, changes in the behaviour of farmers regarding euthanasia of cows over the years and possible reasons for these changes. Results It seems that the threshold for euthanasia of cows among farmers has changed. Farmers generally reported a lower threshold for euthanasia compared to 5–10 years ago. Conclusion The threshold for euthanasia of cows has, according to the dairy farmers, become lower. This might have positive impacts on animal welfare as more seriously ill cows are euthanized in the herds and not put through a period of suffering associated with disease and treatment or transported to a slaughterhouse in poor condition. PMID:18718005

  9. Separate housing for one month after calving improves production and health in primiparous cows but not in multiparous cows.

    PubMed

    Østergaard, S; Thomsen, P T; Burow, E

    2010-08-01

    The hypothesis was that dairy cows housed for 1 mo after calving in a separate group with herd mates would produce more milk and would be healthier than cows integrated in a group of all lactating cows immediately after calving. The experiment was conducted with 489 cows in 6 commercial loose-housing dairy herds where cows were randomly selected for treatment (separate housing) or control. Cows selected for treatment were housed for 1 mo after calving in a separate section, and controls were housed in the remaining section of the barn for lactating cows. Data were compared for milk yield, somatic cell count, medical treatments, reproductive performance, culling, mortality, and clinical observation of scores for body condition, leg and udder hygiene, lameness, hock lesions, other cutaneous lesions, vaginal discharge, and condition of the hair coat. The analysis of the effect of separate housing showed that primiparous cows produced more milk [approximately 230 kg of energy-corrected milk from 0 to 305 d in milk (DIM)], whereas multiparous and especially parity 3+ cows produced less milk (approximately 394 kg of energy-corrected milk from 0 to 305 DIM) during the lactation. Separate housing had no effect on mortality or reproductive efficiency. In primiparous cows, the number of medical treatments for ketosis was reduced by separate housing [hazard ratio 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13-0.83]. Clinical evaluations showed that separate housing decreased the scores for hock lesions in cows at 0 to 30 DIM (odds ratio 0.41, CI: 0.19-0.91), whereas the scoring of leg cleanliness showed more dirty legs in separated cows at 0 to 30 DIM (odds ratio 3.61, CI: 2.01-6.47) compared with cows integrated into the herd immediately. The body condition score in separated cows was reduced from 0 to 30 DIM (score reduced by 0.16, CI: 0.07-0.25) and from 31 to 60 DIM (score reduced by 0.13, CI: 0.04-0.23) compared with cows integrated immediately. We concluded that separate housing for 1 mo after calving increased milk yield in primiparous cows but not in multiparous cows, which produced less milk. The hypothesis about fewer health problems could only be confirmed with regard to fewer primiparous cows being treated for ketosis. PMID:20655421

  10. Inbreeding and crossbreeding parameters for production and fertility traits in Holstein, Montbéliarde, and Normande cows.

    PubMed

    Dezetter, C; Leclerc, H; Mattalia, S; Barbat, A; Boichard, D; Ducrocq, V

    2015-07-01

    Breed differences and nonadditive genetic effects for milk production traits, somatic cell score (SCS), conception rate (CR), and days to first service (DFS) were estimated for Holstein × Montbéliarde and Holstein × Normande crossbreds, using an animal model adapted from the French genetic evaluation and extended to across-breed analysis. Inbreeding and breed differences were estimated from all purebred recorded cows. Only records from 1,137 herds with Holstein × Montbéliarde crossbred cows and from 1,033 herds with Holstein × Normande crossbred cows were used to estimate crossbreeding parameters. In these herds, crossbred cows represented about 13% of the total number of recorded animals compared with <1% when all herds were considered. Compared with the Montbéliarde and Normande breeds, the Holstein breed was genetically superior for production [+951kg and +2,444kg for 305-d mature-equivalent (305ME) milk, +40kg and +102kg for 305ME fat, +17kg and +54kg for 305ME protein, respectively] and inferior for fertility traits (-12 and -9% for CR, respectively). Inbreeding depression caused loss of yield for production traits (from -32 to -41kg of 305ME milk, -1.4 to -1.7kg of 305ME fat, and -1.1 to -1.3kg of 305ME protein per inbreeding percentage), a small increase in SCS (+0.001 to 0.006) and DFS (+0.12d), and a decrease in CR (-0.27 to -0.44%). Favorable heterosis effects were found for all traits (+494 to 524kg of 305ME milk, +21 to 22kg of 305ME fat, +15 to 16kg of 305ME protein, -0.05 to -0.04 SCS, +2 to 3% for CR, and -3 to 6d of DFS), to such a point that F1 crossbreds could compete with Holstein cows for milk production while having a better fertility. However, recombination losses suggested that some F1 heterosis was lost for backcross cows. PMID:25981069

  11. Effects of cow diet on the microbial community and organic matter and nitrogen content of feces.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, P C J; Reijs, J W; Bloem, J; Dijkstra, J; de Goede, R G M

    2007-11-01

    Knowledge of the effects of cow diet on manure composition is required to improve nutrient use efficiency and to decrease emissions of N to the environment. Therefore, we performed an experiment with nonlactating cows to determine the consequences of changes in cow rations for the chemical characteristics and the traits of the microbial community in the feces. In this experiment, 16 cows were fed 8 diets, differing in crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, starch, and net energy content. These differences were achieved by changing dietary ingredients or roughage to concentrate ratio. After an adaptation period of 3 wk, fecal material was collected and analyzed. Observed results were compared with simulated values using a mechanistic model that provides insight into the mechanisms involved in the effect of dietary variation on fecal composition. Feces produced on a high-fiber, low-protein diet had a high C:N ratio (>16) and had lower concentrations of both organic and inorganic N than feces on a low-fiber, high-protein diet. Fecal bacterial biomass concentration was highest in high-protein, high-energy diets. The fraction of inorganic N in the feces was not significantly different between the different feces. Microbial biomass in the feces ranged from 1,200 to 8,000 microg of C/g of dry matter (average: 3,700 microg of C/g of dry matter). Bacterial diversity was similar for all fecal materials, but the different protein levels in the feeding regimens induced changes in the community structure present in the different feces. The simulated total N content (N(total)) in the feces ranged from 1.0 to 1.5 times the observed concentrations, whereas the simulated C:N(total) of the feces ranged from 0.7 to 0.9 times the observed C:N(total). However, bacterial biomass C was not predicted satisfactorily (simulated values being on average 3 times higher than observed), giving rise to further discussion on the definition of microbial C in feces. Based on these observations, it was concluded that diet composition affected fecal chemical composition and microbial biomass. These changes may affect the nutrient use and efficiency of the manure. Because the present experiment used a limited number of dry cows and extreme diet regimens, extrapolation of results to other dairy cow situations should be done with care. PMID:17954755

  12. Why Physiology Matters in Medicine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael J Joyner (Mayo Clinic Anesthesiology)

    2011-04-01

    Editorial, April 2011. The author advocates for increased utilization of physiology in the biomedical field with examples of medical research in which physiology and doctors with physiological training played a crucial role.

  13. UNDERGRADUATE STUDENT MANUAL HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Guenther, Frank

    UNDERGRADUATE STUDENT MANUAL FOR HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY 2012-2013 Revised: September, 2012 (JLS) #12;- 2 ................................................................................................................. - 3 - II. INTRODUCTION TO THE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH SCIENCES PROGRAM IN HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY........................................................................................................................................ - 4 - III. FULL-TIME FACULTY IN HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY

  14. UNDERGRADUATE STUDENT MANUAL HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Guenther, Frank

    UNDERGRADUATE STUDENT MANUAL FOR HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY 2011-2012 Revised: September, 2011 (JLS) #12;- 2 ................................................................................................................. - 3 - II. INTRODUCTION TO THE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH SCIENCES PROGRAM IN HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY........................................................................................................................................ - 4 - III. FULL-TIME FACULTY IN HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY

  15. Clinicopathological evaluation of downer dairy cows with fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Kalaitzakis, Emmanouil; Panousis, Nikolaos; Roubies, Nikolaos; Giadinis, Nektarios; Kaldrymidou, Eleni; Georgiadis, Marios; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2010-06-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between severity of fatty liver and macromineral status in downer dairy cows and determined the usefulness of selected biochemical analytes for assessing prognosis. Blood and liver biopsy specimens were obtained from 36 Holstein downer cows shortly after the cows became recumbent and before they were treated. Liver tissue was examined histologically and serum activity of liver-derived enzymes and concentration of total lipids, triglycerides, bile acids, glucose, beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetic acid, total bilirubin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol and macrominerals (Ca, Mg, K, Na, P) were determined. Fatty liver infiltration was severe in 44% of the cows and moderate in 44%. Serum activities of ornithine carbamoyltransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase, and NEFA/cholesterol ratio were good indicators of fatty liver. Cows with severe fatty liver had the lowest mean K values. The prognosis is guarded for downer cows with moderate and severe fatty liver and when total bilirubin concentration is high. PMID:20808573

  16. Modifications of the defense and remodeling functionalities of bovine neutrophils inside the mammary gland of milk stasis cows received a commercial dry-cow treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ting-Chieh Yu; Chai-Ju Chang; Chin-Han Ho; Huo-Cheng Peh; Shuen-Ei Chen; Wen-Bor Liu; Hsin-Yi Peng; Piya Piamya; Ming-Tsao Chen; Hajime Nagahata

    An appropriate length of milk stasis between two consecutive lactations of dairy cows is crucial for sustainable milk production. This dry period of cows allows extensive remodeling and sufficient cell renewal in mammary gland. Nevertheless, early dry period is one of the most risky stages in cow lactation cycle to intramammary infection. Dry-cow treatment through teats is, therefore, widely practiced

  17. Effect of treatment with progesterone and oestradiol benzoate on ovarian follicular turnover in postpartum anoestrous cows and cows which have resumed oestrous cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. M. Rhodes; C. R. Burke; B. A. Clark; M. L. Day; K. L. Macmillan

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to determine the effect of a low dose of progesterone (P) with and without the addition of an injection of oestradiol benzoate (ODB) on ovarian follicle dynamics, oestradiol production and LH pulsatility in postpartum anoestrous cows, compared with cows which had resumed oestrous cycles (cycling cows). In the first experiment, anoestrous Jersey cows were treated

  18. Increased muscle fatty acid oxidation in dairy cows with intensive body fat mobilization during early lactation.

    PubMed

    Schäff, C; Börner, S; Hacke, S; Kautzsch, U; Sauerwein, H; Spachmann, S K; Schweigel-Röntgen, M; Hammon, H M; Kuhla, B

    2013-10-01

    The beginning of lactation requires huge metabolic adaptations to meet increased energy demands for milk production of dairy cows. One of the adaptations is the mobilization of body reserves mainly from adipose tissue as reflected by increased plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations. The capacity of the liver for complete oxidation of NEFA is limited, leading to an increased formation of ketone bodies, reesterification, and accumulation of triglycerides in the liver. As the skeletal muscle also may oxidize fatty acids, it may help to decrease the fatty acid load on the liver. To test this hypothesis, 19 German Holstein cows were weekly blood sampled from 7 wk before until 5 wk after parturition to analyze plasma NEFA concentrations. Liver biopsies were obtained at d 3, 18, and 30 after parturition and, based on the mean liver fat content, cows were grouped to the 10 highest (HI) and 9 lowest (LO). In addition, muscle biopsies were obtained at d -17, 3, and 30 relative to parturition and used to quantify mRNA abundance of genes involved in fatty acid degradation. Plasma NEFA concentrations peaked after parturition and were 1.5-fold higher in HI than LO cows. Muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1? and ? mRNA was upregulated in early lactation. The mRNA abundance of muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPARG) increased in early lactation and was higher in HI than in LO cows, whereas the abundance of PPARA continuously decreased after parturition. The mRNA abundance of muscle PPARD, uncoupling protein 3, and the ?-oxidative enzymes 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase, very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and 3-ketoacyl-CoA was greatest at d 3 after parturition, whereas the abundance of PPAR? coactivator 1? decreased after parturition. Our results indicate that around parturition, oxidation of fatty acids in skeletal muscle is highly activated, which may contribute to diminish the fatty acid load on the liver. The decline in muscle fatty acid oxidation within the first 4 wk of lactation accompanied with increased feed intake refer to greater supply of ruminally derived acetate, which as the preferred fuel of the muscle, saves long-chain fatty acids for milk fat production. PMID:23910553

  19. Liver fat content and lipid metabolism in dairy cows during early lactation and during a mid-lactation feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Gross, J J; Schwarz, F J; Eder, K; van Dorland, H A; Bruckmaier, R M

    2013-08-01

    During the transition period, the lipid metabolism of dairy cows is markedly affected by energy status. Fatty liver is one of the main health disorders after parturition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a negative energy balance (NEB) at 2 stages in lactation [NEB at the onset of lactation postpartum (p.p.) and a deliberately induced NEB by feed restriction near 100 d in milk] on liver triglyceride content and parameters of lipid metabolism in plasma and liver based on mRNA abundance of associated genes. Fifty multiparous dairy cows were studied from wk 3 antepartum to approximately wk 17 p.p. in 2 periods. According to their energy balance in period 1 (parturition to wk 12 p.p.), cows were allocated to a control (CON; n=25) or a restriction group (RES; 70% of energy requirements; n=25) for 3 wk in mid lactation starting at around 100 d in milk (period 2). Liver triglyceride (TG) content, plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and ?-hydroxybutyrate were highest in wk 1 p.p. and decreased thereafter. During period 2, feed restriction did not affect liver TG and ?-hydroxybutyrate concentration, whereas NEFA concentration was increased in RES cows as compared with CON cows. Hepatic mRNA abundances of tumor necrosis factor ?, ATP citrate lyase, mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2 were not altered by lactational and energy status during both experimental periods. The expression of fatty acid synthase was higher in period 2 compared with period 1, but did not differ between RES and CON groups. The mRNA abundance of acetyl-coenzyme A-carboxylase showed a tendency toward higher expression during period 2 compared with period 1. The solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 1 (SLC27A1) was upregulated in wk 1 p.p. and also during feed restriction in RES cows. In conclusion, the present study shows that a NEB has different effects on hepatic lipid metabolism and TG concentration in the liver of dairy cows at early and later lactation. Therefore, the homeorhetic adaptations during the periparturient period trigger excessive responses in metabolism, whereas during the homeostatic control of endocrine and metabolic systems after established lactation, as during the period of feed restriction in the present study, organs are well adapted to metabolic and environmental changes. PMID:23746584

  20. Photosynthesis: Physiological and

    E-print Network

    Ehleringer, Jim

    Photosynthesis: Physiological and Ecological Considerations Chapter 9 THE CONVERSION OF SOLAR reactions of photosynthesis should not overshadow the fact that, under natural condi- tions. The impact of the environment on photosynthesis is of interest to plant physiologists, ecologists

  1. Anatomy and Physiology Everyday

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Teresa Alvarez (St. Louis Community College Forest Park AHNS)

    2008-08-22

    Students use information from newspaper articles to write a paper or presentation on the correlation of information from the article and their understanding of it using knowledge gained in anatomy and physiology class.

  2. Adventures in Exercise Physiology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kathleen A. FitzPatrick

    2004-09-01

    The author altered the format of an exercise physiology course from traditional lecture to emphasizing daily reading quizzes and group problem-solving activities. The SALGains evaluation was used to compare the two approaches and significant improvements

  3. Endogenous Pyrogen Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beisel, William R.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the physiology of endogenous pyrogen (EP), the fever-producing factor of cellular origin. Included are: its hormone-like role, its molecular nature, bioassay procedures, cellular production and mechanisms of EP action. (SA)

  4. MARKETING PRACTICES IN BEEF COW-CALF OPERATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen L. Ott

    1998-01-01

    The National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) Beef '97 Study collected data on the marketing practices of 2,713 beef cow-calf producers representing 85.7% of all beef cows as of January 1, 1997, in 23 leading cow-calf states. Of the operations included in the study, 67.4% sold steer calves, and 52.1% sold heifer calves for slaughter in the year preceding the

  5. Evaluation of five Zebu breeds for cow productivity

    E-print Network

    Elizondo, Eugenio B.

    1989-01-01

    of calves out of Fl cows (the Fl's were aired by Angus (control), Gray Brahman, Gir, Indu Brazil, Nellore and Red Brahman bulls and out of Hereford cows); and to compare Charolais and Salers as terminal sire breeds for birth and weaning characters.... C. Smith (Head of Department) December 1989 ABSTRACT Evaluation of Five Zebu Breeds for Cow Productivity. (December 1989) Eugenio B. Elizondo, B. S. , Texas ASM University; Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. James O. Sanders Birth (n=351...

  6. Cesarean delivery and cow milk allergy/intolerance.

    PubMed

    Eggesbø, M; Botten, G; Stigum, H; Samuelsen, S O; Brunekreef, B; Magnus, P

    2005-09-01

    The present study provides support for a positive association between cesarean delivery and persistent cow milk allergy/cow's milk intolerance. Correspondingly, a negative association was seen between cesarean delivery and early outgrown cow milk allergy/intolerance. A possible explanation is that cesarean delivery, rather than increasing the overall risk of food allergy, increases the risk of persistency of disease among food allergic children. PMID:16076303

  7. Physiological Basis of Insomnia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael H. Bonnet; Donna L. Arand

    \\u000a Forty years of psychophysiological research have shown that patients with primary insomnia have elevated levels of physiological\\u000a arousal as indicated by a wide range of variables including brain and whole-body metabolic measures, cardiac measures, and\\u000a hormone and endocrine measures. Current research has attempted to refine our understanding of the relationship between physiological\\u000a arousal, poor EEG sleep, psychological status, and subjective

  8. Cardiac Physiology Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Feingold; Ricardo Munoz

    A basic understanding of cardiovascular physiology is fundamental to the comprehension of the conditions and pharmacological\\u000a mechanisms described throughout this Handbook. With that goal in mind, this chapter provides an overview of cardiovascular\\u000a physiology and highlights the unique aspects of the neonatal and pediatric heart. Although not intended to be an exhaustive\\u000a review, this chapter should serve to familiarize the

  9. Electrostatic Radionuclide Separation: A New Version of Rutherford's "Thorium Cow".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiswirth, Marcus; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes three experiments (also useful as demonstrations) using a "thorium cow," a device which concentrates the daughter products from thorium compounds by precipitation on a charged electrode. (JN)

  10. Nonsystemic causes of the downer cow syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cox, V S

    1988-07-01

    Traditionally, the downer cow has been considered a metabolic problem. This viewpoint cannot account for the pelvic limb predilection of the condition. Whatever the primary cause of recumbency, all recumbent animals are susceptible to pressure damage. The extensive literature on pressure damage in human beings and horses is reviewed. Miscellaneous causes of and contributing factors to bovine recumbency are reviewed. Concepts and details of diagnosis, prevention, management, and therapy are discussed. PMID:3061616

  11. Nutrient Requirements of the Cow and Calf. 

    E-print Network

    Maddox, L. A. Jr.

    1965-01-01

    the : devote little space to the neecls of the cow and energy value of feeds antl nutrient requirements of If'. Information necessary to establish require- animals (Glossary of Energy Terms, 1962) . A :nts for several functions are limited and some..., National Re- Osage County, Oklahoma, Texas A&M search Council Publication 464. Univ., PhD Dissertation. 10. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, 1963, 5. Fraps, G. S., 1947, The Composition and Util- National Academy of Science, National Re- ization...

  12. Cow-Calf Enterprise Standardized Performance Analysis

    E-print Network

    McCorkle, Dean; Bevers, Stan

    2009-03-02

    Cow-Calf Enterprise Standardized Performance Analysis Risk Management E-556 RM3-13.0 03-09 *Professor and Extension Economist?Management, and Extension Program Specialist III ?Economic Accountability, The Texas A&M System. Cattlemen...- tion systems. In 1992, the National Cattlemen?s Beef Asso- ciation adopted the Standardized Performance Analysis (SPA) system developed through efforts of NCBA producers, the National Inte- grated Resource Management Coordinating Committee...

  13. Effects on Nutrient and Hormonal Profile of Long-Term Infusions of Glucose or Insulin Plus Glucose in Cows Treated with Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin Before Peak Milk Yield

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Léonard; Elliot Block

    1997-01-01

    Ten Holstein cows were treated with 30.9 mg·d-1 of recombinant bST from 15 to 41 d of lactation. The Latin square design included three infusion periods of 6 d each with 3 d of rest between infusion periods. Infusions were physiological saline, glucose (50 g·h-1) , and insulin plus glucose (12.5 IU·h-1 +5 0 g·h-1) . Blood was collected continuously

  14. Effects of "own" versus "alien" suckling on incidence of ovarian luteal activity, estrus and secretion of luteinizing hormone, oxytocin and prolactin in early postpartum beef cows 

    E-print Network

    Silveira, Patrice Auvern

    1992-01-01

    EFFECTS OF "OWN" VERSUS "ALIEN" SUCKLING ON INCIDENCE OF OVARIAN LUTEAL ACTIVITY, ESTRUS AND SECRETION OF LUTEINIZING HORMONE, OXYTOCIN AND PROLACTIN IN EARLY POSTPARTUM BEEF COWS A Thesis by PATRICE AUVERN SILVEIRA Submitted to the Office... of Graduate Studies of Texas A8 M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1992 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction EFFECTS OF "OWN" VERSUS "ALIEN" SUCKLING ON INCIDENCE OF OVARIAN LUTEAL...

  15. Productivity of F b1 sAngus-Jersey cows compared with Hereford cows under intensive and extensive management conditions 

    E-print Network

    Ellison, Daniel Richard

    1974-01-01

    production and conception rates. Gaines and Palfrey (1931) showed a small negative correlation between calving interval and yield of milk of present lactation. Carman (1955) studied 1, 646 Holstein lactation records and found little relationship... of milk production when comparing two-year-old Angus and Angus-Holstein cows. The crossbred cows had problems rebreeding (63X conception rate for the Angus versus 13X for the Angus-Holstein) which indicated that the higher milk producing cow needs a...

  16. Effect of corn silage particle size and supplemental hay on rumen pH and feed preference by dairy cows fed high-starch diets.

    PubMed

    Kmicikewycz, A D; Heinrichs, A J

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine the effects of corn silage particle size and supplemental hay on rumen pH and feed preference in lactating dairy cows experiencing a bout of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). In this study, 12 lactating (8 ruminally cannulated), multiparous Holstein cows averaging 91±40d in milk and weighing 695±95kg (mean ± SD) were randomly assigned to a replicated 4×4 Latin square. During each of the four 21-d periods, animals were offered 1 of 4 diets that were chemically similar but varied in corn silage particle size and supplemental second cutting orchardgrass hay: short corn silage total mixed ration (TMR; ST); short corn silage TMR with 5.6% supplemental hay (SH); long corn silage TMR (L); and long corn silage TMR with 5.6% supplemental hay (LH). Cows were allowed to adapt to this feeding scheme for 14d, and cannulated cows were then subjected to a rumen challenge to induce a bout of SARA by restricting feed before the challenge and providing 4kg of ground wheat via the rumen cannula. Although baseline pH was low, the SARA challenge lowered ruminal pH further for all cows regardless of diet. Daily average rumen pH decreased from 5.44 and 5.45 to 5.33 and 5.38 for ST and SH, respectively, and from 5.64 and 5.54 to 5.47 and 5.39 for L and LH, respectively, from baseline to challenge phase. Following the rumen challenge, rumen concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and valerate increased. Decreasing corn silage particle size significantly increased TMR and total DMI during all phases of the model. Feeding short corn silage TMR increased milk, protein, and lactose yields. Cows fed supplemental hay had increased fat yield and protein concentration in the milk and responded minimally to the effects of particle size selection when challenged with SARA. Cows consuming short corn silage TMR changed feed preference for longer forage particles during the course of the SARA challenge. During the recovery phase, however, cows refused an average of 13.5% of the offered TMR and 78.7% of the supplemental hay. These results indicate that cows did not prefer the supplemental hay regardless of corn silage particle size during a bout of SARA, which may have been due to the possible adaptation of a low ruminal pH throughout the study. PMID:25465541

  17. Effect of sensor systems for cow management on milk production, somatic cell count, and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Steeneveld, W; Vernooij, J C M; Hogeveen, H

    2015-06-01

    To improve management on dairy herds, sensor systems have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. It is not known whether using sensor systems also improves measures of health and production in dairy herds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of using sensor systems on measures of health and production in dairy herds. Data of 414 Dutch dairy farms with (n=152) and without (n=262) sensor systems were available. For these herds, information on milk production per cow, days to first service, first calving age, and somatic cell count (SCC) was provided for the years 2003 to 2013. Moreover, year of investment in sensor systems was available. For every farm year, we determined whether that year was before or after the year of investment in sensor systems on farms with an automatic milking system (AMS) or a conventional milking system (CMS), or whether it was a year on a farm that never invested in sensor systems. Separate statistical analyses were performed to determine the effect of sensor systems for mastitis detection (color, SCC, electrical conductivity, and lactate dehydrogenase sensors), estrus detection for dairy cows, estrus detection for young stock, and other sensor systems (weighing platform, rumination time sensor, fat and protein sensor, temperature sensor, milk temperature sensor, urea sensor, ?-hydroxybutyrate sensor, and other sensor systems). The AMS farms had a higher average SCC (by 12,000cells/mL) after sensor investment, and CMS farms with a mastitis detection system had a lower average SCC (by 10,000cells/mL) in the years after sensor investment. Having sensor systems was associated with a higher average production per cow on AMS farms, and with a lower average production per cow on CMS farms in the years after investment. The most likely reason for this lower milk production after investment was that on 96% of CMS farms, the sensor system investment occurred together with another major change at the farm, such as a new barn or a new milking system. Most likely, these other changes had led to a decrease in milk production that could not be compensated for by the use of sensor systems. Having estrus detection sensor systems did not improve reproduction performance. Labor reduction was an important reason for investing in sensor systems. Therefore, economic benefits from investments in sensor systems can be expected more from the reduction in labor costs than from improvements in measures of health and production in dairy herds. PMID:25841965

  18. Comparison of milk produced by cows cloned by nuclear transfer with milk from non-cloned cows.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Marie K; Lucey, John A; Govindasamy-Lucey, Selvarani; Pace, Marvin M; Bishop, Michael D

    2003-01-01

    Cloning technologies, including embryo splitting and nuclear transfer, were introduced into dairy cattle breeding in the early 1980s. With the recent worldwide attention on the cloning of sheep ("Dolly") and cows ("Gene"), the potential food safety concerns for food products derived from cloned animals needs to be addressed. There has been no study of the composition of milk produced by cloned cows. In this preliminary study, we evaluated the composition of milk from 15 lactating non-embryonic cell cloned cows and six non-cloned lactating cows over a single season. The cloned cows came from five unique genetic lines and three distinct breeds. Milk samples were analyzed for total solids, fat, fatty acid profile, lactose, protein and compared to non-cloned and literature values. Gross chemical composition of milk from cloned cows was similar to that of the non-cloned cows and literature values. Our results lead us to conclude that there are no obvious differences in milk composition produced from cloned cows compared to non-cloned cows. PMID:14588139

  19. Characteristics of patients suffering from cow milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Li; Yao, Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Hui-Lin; Chao, Peng-Li; Tong, Man-Li; Liu, Gui-Li; Lin, Li-Rong; Fan-Liu; Zhang, Zhong-Ying; Yang, Tian-Ci

    2012-09-01

    The most frequent symptoms among the manifestations of cow milk allergy (CMA) are gastrointestinal. CMA pathogenesis involves immunological mechanisms with participation of immunocompetent cells, production of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and immunoglobulin G (IgG). We aim to determine whether cow milk-specific IgE antibodies coexist with cow milk-specific IgG antibodies in CMA patients with diarrhea symptom, and if there is any relationship between both antibody types. 65 CMA patients (average age of 17 years, ranging from 2 to 74 years), all of who had diarrhea symptom of CMA, were enrolled in this study. The total cow IgE and IgG subclass in serum were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay and rate immune scatter turbidimetry, respectively. And also the cow milk-specific IgE was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The number of eosinophils in serum was calculated by Sysmex XE-2100 Hematology Analyzer. Our data showed that both cow milk-specific IgG and IgE levels were significantly elevated in CMA patients compared to those of age-matched control subjects. Out of the 65 CMA patients, 40 showed elevated cow milk-specific IgE antibody level, among which, 28 cases presented highly sensitive reaction to cow milk-specific IgG, along with each six of moderate and mild sensitive reaction to cow milk-specific IgG; while 20 showed elevated total IgG levels. The IgG3 positive rate was 16.9%, which was the highest. A moderate correlation between cow milk-specific IgE and cow milk-specific IgG was found in the CMA patients (r=0.415, P=0.001). The results indicated that cow milk-specific IgE antibodies could coexist with cow milk-specific IgG antibodies in patients suffering from CMA. The aberrant changes in the concentration of cow milk-specific IgE antibodies were associated with cow milk-specific IgG antibodies. PMID:22722049

  20. Dynamical Adaptation in Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Damon A.; Benichou, Raphael; Meister, Markus; Azeredo da Silveira, Rava

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is at the heart of sensation and nowhere is it more salient than in early visual processing. Light adaptation in photoreceptors is doubly dynamical: it depends upon the temporal structure of the input and it affects the temporal structure of the response. We introduce a non-linear dynamical adaptation model of photoreceptors. It is simple enough that it can be solved exactly and simulated with ease; analytical and numerical approaches combined provide both intuition on the behavior of dynamical adaptation and quantitative results to be compared with data. Yet the model is rich enough to capture intricate phenomenology. First, we show that it reproduces the known phenomenology of light response and short-term adaptation. Second, we present new recordings and demonstrate that the model reproduces cone response with great precision. Third, we derive a number of predictions on the response of photoreceptors to sophisticated stimuli such as periodic inputs, various forms of flickering inputs, and natural inputs. In particular, we demonstrate that photoreceptors undergo rapid adaptation of response gain and time scale, over ? 300 ms—i. e., over the time scale of the response itself—and we confirm this prediction with data. For natural inputs, this fast adaptation can modulate the response gain more than tenfold and is hence physiologically relevant. PMID:24244119

  1. DEGREE PROGRAMME BSc (Hons) Physiology

    E-print Network

    Levi, Ran

    BSc (Hons) Physiology DEGREE PROGRAMME GUIDE 2013-2014 #12;BSc (Hons) Physiology Introduction - Year 4 Introduction Physiology is the study of how living organisms work, particularly humans. Its body systems control our ability to think, eat, sleep and perform exercise. Physiological knowledge

  2. Gluconeogenesis in dairy cows: the secret of making sweet milk from sour dough.

    PubMed

    Aschenbach, Jörg R; Kristensen, Niels B; Donkin, Shawn S; Hammon, Harald M; Penner, Gregory B

    2010-12-01

    Gluconeogenesis is a crucial process to support glucose homeostasis when nutritional supply with glucose is insufficient. Because ingested carbohydrates are efficiently fermented to short-chain fatty acids in the rumen, ruminants are required to meet the largest part of their glucose demand by de novo genesis after weaning. The qualitative difference to nonruminant species is that propionate originating from ruminal metabolism is the major substrate for gluconeogenesis. Disposal of propionate into gluconeogenesis via propionyl-CoA carboxylase, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, and the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) has a high metabolic priority and continues even if glucose is exogenously supplied. Gluconeogenesis is regulated at the transcriptional and several posttranscriptional levels and is under hormonal control (primarily insulin, glucagon, and growth hormone). Transcriptional regulation is relevant for regulating precursor entry into gluconeogenesis (propionate, alanine and other amino acids, lactate, and glycerol). Promoters of the bovine pyruvate carboxylase (PC) and PEPCK genes are directly controlled by metabolic products. The final steps decisive for glucose release (fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase and glucose 6-phosphatase) appear to be highly dependent on posttranscriptional regulation according to actual glucose status. Glucogenic precursor entry, together with hepatic glycogen dynamics, is mostly sufficient to meet the needs for hepatic glucose output except in high-producing dairy cows during the transition from the dry period to peak lactation. Lactating cows adapt to the increased glucose requirement for lactose production by mobilization of endogenous glucogenic substrates and increased hepatic PC expression. If these adaptations fail, lipid metabolism may be altered leading to fatty liver and ketosis. Increasing feed intake and provision of glucogenic precursors from the diet are important to ameliorate these disturbances. An improved understanding of the complex mechanisms underlying gluconeogenesis may further improve our options to enhance the postpartum health status of dairy cows. PMID:21171012

  3. Cow, sheep and llama manure at psychrophilic anaerobic co-digestion with low cost tubular digesters in cold climate and high altitude.

    PubMed

    Martí-Herrero, J; Alvarez, R; Cespedes, R; Rojas, M R; Conde, V; Aliaga, L; Balboa, M; Danov, S

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the co-digestion of cow and llama manure combined with sheep manure, in psychrophilic conditions and real field low cost tubular digesters adapted to cold climate. Four digesters were monitored in cold climate conditions; one fed with cow manure, a second one with llama manure, the third one with co-digestion of cow-sheep manure and the fourth one was fed with llama-sheep manure. The slurry had a mean temperature of 16.6 °C, the organic load rate was 0.44 kgvs m(-3) d(-1) and the hydraulic retention time was 80 days. After one hundred days biogas production was stable, as was the methane content and the pH of the effluent. The co-digestion of cow-sheep manure results in a biogas production increase of 100% compared to the mono-digestion of cow manure, while co-digestion of llama-sheep manure results in a decrease of 50% in biogas production with respect to mono-digestion of llama manure. PMID:25656868

  4. Effects of weightlessness on human fluid and electrolyte physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Philip C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Skylab and Spacelab data on changes occurring in human fluid and electrolyte physiology during the acute and adaptive phases of adaptation to spaceflight are summarized. The combined results for all three Spacelab studies show that hyponatremia developed within 20 h after the onset of weightlessness and continued throughout the flights, and hypokalemia developed by 40 h. Antidiuretic hormone was increased in plasma throughout the flights. Aldosterone decreased by 40 h, but after 7 days it had reached preflight levels.

  5. Effects of feed delivery time on feed intake, milk production, and blood metabolites of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nikkhah, A; Furedi, C J; Kennedy, A D; Crow, G H; Plaizier, J C

    2008-11-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feed delivery time and its interactions with dietary concentrate inclusion and parity on milk production and on 24-h averages and patterns of feed intake and blood metabolites. Four multiparous and 4 primiparous lactating Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Experimental periods included 14 d of adaptation and 7 d of sampling. A higher concentrate diet with a forage:concentrate ratio (dry matter basis) of 38:62 or a lower-concentrate diet with a forage:concentrate ratio of 51:49 was delivered at either 0900 or 2100 h. During sampling periods, daily feed intakes, as well as feed intakes during 3-h intervals relative to feed delivery, were determined. During 2 nonconsecutive days of the sampling period, jugular blood was sampled every 2 h. Average temperature and relative humidity in the experimental facility were 20.4 degrees C and 68.1%, and the maximum daily air temperature did not exceed 25 degrees C. This data does not suggest that cows were heat-stressed. Changing feed delivery time from 0900 to 2100 h increased the amount of feed consumed within 3 h after feeding from 27 to 37% of total daily intake but did not affect daily dry matter intake. The cows fed at 2100 h had lower blood glucose at 2 h after feeding but greater blood lactate and beta-hydroxybutyrate acid at 2 and 4 h after feeding than cows fed at 0900 h. These effects of feed delivery time on the 24-h patterns in blood metabolites may be caused by the greater feed intake during the 3 h after feed delivery of the cows fed at 2100 h. Daily averages of glucose, urea, lactate, and beta-hydroxybutyrate acid and nonesterified fatty acids in peripheral blood were not affected by time of feeding. The change in feed delivery time did not affect milk yield and milk protein but increased milk fat percentage from 2.5 to 2.9% and milk fat yield from 0.98 to 1.20 kg/d in multiparous cows, without affecting milk fat in primiparous cows. The interactions between diet and time of feeding on daily feed intake, milk production, and blood metabolites were not significant. The effects of the time of feed delivery on the 24-h patterns in blood metabolites suggest that this time may affect peripheral nutrient availability. Results of this study suggest beneficial effects of feeding at 2100 h instead of at 0900 h on milk fat production of lactating cows, but parity appears to mediate this effect. PMID:18946130

  6. Single-Cell Physiology.

    PubMed

    Taheri-Araghi, Sattar; Brown, Steven D; Sauls, John T; McIntosh, Dustin B; Jun, Suckjoon

    2015-06-22

    Single-cell techniques have a long history of unveiling fundamental paradigms in biology. Recent improvements in the throughput, resolution, and availability of microfluidics, computational power, and genetically encoded fluorescence have led to a modern renaissance in microbial physiology. This resurgence in research activity has offered new perspectives on physiological processes such as growth, cell cycle, and cell size of model organisms such as Escherichia coli. We expect these single-cell techniques, coupled with the molecular revolution of biology's recent half-century, to continue illuminating unforeseen processes and patterns in microorganisms, the bedrock of biological science. In this article we review major open questions in single-cell physiology, provide a brief introduction to the techniques for scientists of diverse backgrounds, and highlight some pervasive issues and their solutions. PMID:25747591

  7. Effects of Roughness and Compressibility of Flooring on Cow Locomotion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Rushen; A. M. de Passillé

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effects of roughness and degree of compressibility of flooring on the locomotion of dairy cows. We observed 16 cows walking down specially con- structed walkways with materials that differed in sur- face roughness and degree of compressibility. Use of a commercially available soft rubber flooring material decreased slipping, number of strides, and time to tra- verse the

  8. A Model for Poor Fertility in Dairy Cows

    E-print Network

    , Ireland From A review of the causes of poor fertility in high milk producing dairy cows (2011) Animal BCS precalving High milk production Genetic selection 21 endometritis 20% Metritis Type of pathogenA Model for Poor Fertility in Dairy Cows SW Walsh, EJ Williams, ACO Evans University College Dublin

  9. Ruminal fermentation and forestomach digestion of peas by dairy cows

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Ruminal fermentation and forestomach digestion of peas by dairy cows GR Khorasani E Okine R Corbett as a replacement for soybean meal in the diet of dairy cows on ruminal digestion and metabolites and nutrient flow, bacterial N and bacterial N as percent of duodenal non-ammonia N. On the basis of ruminal fermentation data

  10. Cow-Calf Producer Preferences for Voluntary Traceability Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee L. Schulz; Glynn T. Tonsor

    2010-01-01

    This article identifies preferences of US cow-calf producers for voluntary traceability systems to better identify the potential success of alternative voluntary traceability systems. Results suggest that notable heterogeneity exists between cow-calf producers in their preferences and the welfare effects of mandating traceability adoption. Producers are sensitive to price, managing entity and information requirements. We provide forecasts of voluntary participation rates

  11. Angus Cow Longevity Estimates and Relationship to Production Traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold M. Saxton; Kenneth J. Stalder; Robert B. Simpson

    Summary Cow longevity is a trait that has great economic importance to commercial beef cattle producers. Increased costs associated with early removal of a female from the herd include young female development costs, increased depreciation costs and lower productivity of young females compared to mature females. Improving longevity allows producers to cull a cow from the breeding herd for voluntary

  12. Rubber Flooring Impact on Production and Herdlife of Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of rubber flooring in dairies has become popular because of perceived cow comfort. The overall objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate production, reproduction, and retention of first and second lactations of cows assigned to either rubber (RUB) or concrete (CON) flooring at the fe...

  13. Utilization of Whole Cottonseed and Hay in Beef Cow Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over a 3-yr period, cow wintering experiments were designed to determine free-choice intake of WCS (whole cottonseed) by mature beef cows during winter, and the effects on diet digestibility when WCS was fed at recommended levels (0.05% body weight) and free-choice. In a 2007 study, the potential va...

  14. Anionic Salt Programs for Close-Up Dry Cows 

    E-print Network

    Stokes, Sandra R.

    1998-12-17

    Dairy farmers can improve long-term milk production by having a well-managed program for dry cows during the last 3 weeks before calving. This publication explains how an anionic salt program can help control subclinical hypocalcemia and "droopy cow...

  15. From the Baltimore Sun Cows get along fine with robot

    E-print Network

    Hamza, Iqbal

    From the Baltimore Sun Cows get along fine with robot At a Harford County dairy, an automated no longer must rise at dawn with the cows. They can go out to dinner or catch one of their children cream store. After all, the robot minds the herd. The Dallams, who run Brooms Bloom Dairy, a 240-acre

  16. Manure Nutrient Excretion by Jersey and Holstein Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to evaluate feces, urine, and nitrogen (N) excretion by Jersey and Holstein cows. Sixteen multiparous cows (n=8 per breed) were fed two experimental rations at calving in a switchback experimental design. Diets were 50% forage and based on corn meal (control) or whole cottonseed. H...

  17. RAPID GLUTARALDEHYDE FIXATION FOR COW MILK CELL COUNT

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ) is regarded as the reference method for counting somatic cells in cow milk. The use of an electronic particle by the for- maldehyde technique. Materials and Methods Somatic cell counts in 40 samples of milk were carriedRAPID GLUTARALDEHYDE FIXATION FOR COW MILK CELL COUNT BY COULTER COUNTER B. POUTREL G. DUBRAY INRA

  18. Laryngeal obstruction caused by lymphoma in an adult dairy cow

    PubMed Central

    Lardé, Hélène; Nichols, Sylvain; Babkine, Marie; Chénier, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    A Holstein cow was presented for inspiratory dyspnea. Endoscopic evaluation revealed swollen arytenoids and a presumptive diagnosis of bilateral arytenoidal chondritis was made. A partial arytenoidectomy was performed, the right arytenoid was submitted for histopathology, and a diagnosis of laryngeal lymphoma was made. Due to the poor prognosis, the cow was euthanized. PMID:24489391

  19. Fishmeal Supplementation to Grazing Dairy Cows in Early Lactation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. F. Schroeder; G. A. Gagliostro

    2000-01-01

    Our objectives were to determine if grazing dairy cows would respond to fishmeal supplementation and to determine if responses could be explained by stimula- tion of adipose tissue lipolysis. Thirty-four multiparous Holstein cows (25 ± 11 DIM) were supplemented with isonitrogenous concentrates containing either fishmeal or pelleted sunflower meal. On a dry matter (DM) basis, concentrates contained fishmeal (14.5%) or

  20. Rubber Flooring Impact on Health of Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of rubber flooring in dairies has become popular because of perceived cow comfort. The objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate locomotion, health, production, and immunity over the first 180d of each of the 1st and 2nd lactations of cows assigned to free-stall housing with either r...

  1. Optimal Replacement and Ranking of Dairy Cows under Milk Quotas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders R. Kristensen

    1989-01-01

    The usual criterion of optimality to be used in dairy cow replacement models has typically been the maximization of total discounted net revenue per cow. In a situation with herd individual milk quotas, however, the theoretically correct criterion is the maximization of net revenue per kg of milk produced. Optimal replacement policies, future profitabilities, and rankings under the two criteria

  2. Plant and Cell Physiology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This journal has recently been made available online. The Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists, in combination with Oxford Journals Online, has posted recent issues of the journal Plant and Cell Physiology, an international journal covering original research in the fields of "physiology, biochemistry, biophysics, chemistry, molecular biology, cell biology and gene engineering of plants and micro-organisms." Online coverage includes full-text and abstracts from July 2000 to the present. Note that the electronic version of this journal is free through the end of 2000.

  3. Evolutionary plant physiology: Charles Darwin's forgotten synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Niklas, Karl J

    2009-11-01

    Charles Darwin dedicated more than 20 years of his life to a variety of investigations on higher plants (angiosperms). It has been implicitly assumed that these studies in the fields of descriptive botany and experimental plant physiology were carried out to corroborate his principle of descent with modification. However, Darwin's son Francis, who was a professional plant biologist, pointed out that the interests of his father were both of a physiological and an evolutionary nature. In this article, we describe Darwin's work on the physiology of higher plants from a modern perspective, with reference to the following topics: circumnutations, tropisms and the endogenous oscillator model; the evolutionary patterns of auxin action; the root-brain hypothesis; phloem structure and photosynthesis research; endosymbioses and growth-promoting bacteria; photomorphogenesis and phenotypic plasticity; basal metabolic rate, the Pfeffer-Kleiber relationship and metabolic optimality theory with respect to adaptive evolution; and developmental constraints versus functional equivalence in relationship to directional natural selection. Based on a review of these various fields of inquiry, we deduce the existence of a Darwinian (evolutionary) approach to plant physiology and define this emerging scientific discipline as the experimental study and theoretical analysis of the functions of green, sessile organisms from a phylogenetic perspective. PMID:19763527

  4. Evolutionary plant physiology: Charles Darwin's forgotten synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Niklas, Karl J.

    2009-11-01

    Charles Darwin dedicated more than 20 years of his life to a variety of investigations on higher plants (angiosperms). It has been implicitly assumed that these studies in the fields of descriptive botany and experimental plant physiology were carried out to corroborate his principle of descent with modification. However, Darwin’s son Francis, who was a professional plant biologist, pointed out that the interests of his father were both of a physiological and an evolutionary nature. In this article, we describe Darwin’s work on the physiology of higher plants from a modern perspective, with reference to the following topics: circumnutations, tropisms and the endogenous oscillator model; the evolutionary patterns of auxin action; the root-brain hypothesis; phloem structure and photosynthesis research; endosymbioses and growth-promoting bacteria; photomorphogenesis and phenotypic plasticity; basal metabolic rate, the Pfeffer-Kleiber relationship and metabolic optimality theory with respect to adaptive evolution; and developmental constraints versus functional equivalence in relationship to directional natural selection. Based on a review of these various fields of inquiry, we deduce the existence of a Darwinian (evolutionary) approach to plant physiology and define this emerging scientific discipline as the experimental study and theoretical analysis of the functions of green, sessile organisms from a phylogenetic perspective.

  5. Factors influencing the chance of cows being pregnant 30 days after the herd voluntary waiting period.

    PubMed

    Löf, E; Gustafsson, H; Emanuelson, U

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to study factors affecting a reproductive performance indicator at the cow level adjusted for herd management strategy. Associations between the outcome variable, pregnant or not at the herd voluntary waiting period (VWP) plus 30d (pregnant at VWP+30), and the predictor variables were analyzed using a multivariable, generalized estimation equations model that adjusted for clustering of the data at the herd level. The statistical analysis was stratified on parity. In total, 132,721 cows were retained for analyses, of which 29,113 (22%) were pregnant at VWP+30d. Of the nonpregnant cows, 81,483 cows had records of artificial inseminations (AI) and 22,125 cows had no records of AI. The chance of pregnancy was higher for cows of the Swedish Red and for other/crossbreeds compared with Swedish Holstein, for cows from herds with high heat detection efficiency compared with cows from herds with medium and low heat detection efficiency, for cows from herds with long VWP (i.e., >51d) compared with cows from herds with short VWP (<51d), and for cows in freestalls compared with cows in tiestalls. The chance for pregnancy was lower for cows with severe problems at claw trimming compared with cows with no problems at trimming (only for second- and higher-parity cows), for cows that had a record of reproduction-related disease, for cows that had a record of any other disease compared with cows without record, for second- and higher-parity cows with records of dystocia compared with cows with no record of dystocia, for first-parity cows in the group with the highest milk yield compared with first-parity cows in the group with the lowest milk yield, for cows of third and higher parity in the group with the lowest milk yield compared with cows in higher yielding groups, for cows bred in summer compared with those bred in winter-spring (not significant for first-parity cows), and for cows with a twin birth had compared with cows with a single birth. We observed associations of the dose-response type, such that when the milk fat-to-protein ratio increased, the chance for pregnancy decreased, and as the somatic cell count increased, the chance for pregnancy decreased. In conclusion, factors that are known to affect reproductive efficiency also affect the chance of cows being pregnant at the herd VWP plus 30d. PMID:24485688

  6. Consumption of non–cow’s milk beverages and serum vitamin D levels in early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Grace J.; Birken, Catherine S.; Parkin, Patricia C.; Lebovic, Gerald; Chen, Yang; L’Abbé, Mary R.; Maguire, Jonathon L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D fortification of non–cow’s milk beverages is voluntary in North America. The effect of consuming non–cow’s milk beverages on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in children is unclear. We studied the association between non–cow’s milk consumption and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in healthy preschool-aged children. We also explored whether cow’s milk consumption modified this association and analyzed the association between daily non–cow’s milk and cow’s milk consumption. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited children 1–6 years of age attending routinely scheduled well-child visits. Survey responses, and anthropometric and laboratory measurements were collected. The association between non–cow’s milk consumption and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels was tested using multiple linear regression and logistic regression. Cow’s milk consumption was explored as an effect modifier using an interaction term. The association between daily intake of non–cow’s milk and cow’s milk was explored using multiple linear regression. Results: A total of 2831 children were included. The interaction between non–cow’s milk and cow’s milk consumption was statistically significant (p = 0.03). Drinking non–cow’s milk beverages was associated with a 4.2-nmol/L decrease in 25-hydroxyvitamin D level per 250-mL cup consumed among children who also drank cow’s milk (p = 0.008). Children who drank only non–cow’s milk were at higher risk of having a 25-hydroxyvitamin D level below 50 nmol/L than children who drank only cow’s milk (odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.6 to 4.7). Interpretation: Consumption of non–cow’s milk beverages was associated with decreased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in early childhood. This association was modified by cow’s milk consumption, which suggests a trade-off between consumption of cow’s milk fortified with higher levels of vitamin D and non–cow’s milk with lower vitamin D content. PMID:25332367

  7. Does diverse grazing behavior of suckler cows have an impact on predicted methane emissions?

    PubMed

    Ricci, P; Umstätter, C; Holland, J P; Waterhouse, A

    2014-03-01

    A modeling study based on a dataset from a large-scale grazing study was used to identify the potential impact of grazing behavior and performance of diverse cow genotypes on predicted methane (CH4) emissions. Lactating cows grazing extensive seminatural grassland and heath vegetation were monitored with Global Positioning System collars and activity sensors. The diet selected by cows of 3 different genotypes, Aberdeen Angus cross Limousin (AxL), Charolais (CHA), and Luing (LUI), was simulated by matching their locations during active periods with hill vegetation maps. Measured performance and activity were used to predict energy requirements, DMI, and CH4 output. The cumulative effect of actual performance, diet selection, and actual physical activity on potential CH4 output and yield was estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed for the digestibility of intake, energy cost of activity, proportion of milk consumed by calves, and reproductive efficiency. Although with a better performance (P < 0.05), LUI required less total energy than the other genotypes (P < 0.001) as the other 2 spent more energy for maintenance (P < 0.001) and activity (P < 0.001). By selecting a better quality diet (P < 0.03), estimated CH4 of CHA cow-calf pairs was lower than AxL (P = 0.001) and slightly lower than LUI (P = 0.08). Energy lost as CH4 was 0.17 and 0.58% lower for LUI than AxL and CHA (P < 0.002). This study suggests for the first time that measured activity has a major impact on estimated CH4 outputs. A 15% difference of the cow-calf pair CH4 was estimated when using different coefficients to convert actual activity into energy. Predicted CH4 was highly sensitive to small changes in diet quality, suggesting the relative importance of diet selection on heterogeneous rangelands. Extending these results to a farm systems scale, CH4 outputs were also highly sensitive to reductions in weaning rates, illustrating the impact on CH4 at the farm-system level of using poorly adapted genotypes on habitats where their performances may be compromised. This paper demonstrates that variations in grazing behavior and grazing choice have a potentially large impact on CH4 emissions, illustrating the importance of including these factors in calculating realistic national and global estimates. PMID:24665106

  8. Estrous behavior in dairy cows: identification of underlying mechanisms and gene functions.

    PubMed

    Boer, H M T; Veerkamp, R F; Beerda, B; Woelders, H

    2010-03-01

    Selection in dairy cattle for a higher milk yield has coincided with declined fertility. One of the factors is reduced expression of estrous behavior. Changes in systems that regulate the estrous behavior could be manifested by altered gene expression. This literature review describes the current knowledge on mechanisms and genes involved in the regulation of estrous behavior. The endocrinological regulation of the estrous cycle in dairy cows is well described. Estradiol (E2) is assumed to be the key regulator that synchronizes endocrine and behavioral events. Other pivotal hormones are, for example, progesterone, gonadotropin releasing hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1. Interactions between the latter and E2 may play a role in the unfavorable effects of milk yield-related metabolic stress on fertility in high milk-producing dairy cows. However, a clear understanding of how endocrine mechanisms are tied to estrous behavior in cows is only starting to emerge. Recent studies on gene expression and signaling pathways in rodents and other animals contribute to our understanding of genes and mechanisms involved in estrous behavior. Studies in rodents, for example, show that estrogen-induced gene expression in specific brain areas such as the hypothalamus play an important role. Through these estrogen-induced gene expressions, E2 alters the functioning of neuronal networks that underlie estrous behavior, by affecting dendritic connections between cells, receptor populations and neurotransmitter releases. To improve the understanding of complex biological networks, like estrus regulation, and to deal with the increasing amount of genomic information that becomes available, mathematical models can be helpful. Systems biology combines physiological and genomic data with mathematical modeling. Possible applications of systems biology approaches in the field of female fertility and estrous behavior are discussed. PMID:22443949

  9. Pervasive Adaptive Evolution in Primate Seminal Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathaniel L Clark; Willie J Swanson

    2005-01-01

    Seminal fluid proteins show striking effects on reproduction, involving manipulation of female behavior and physiology, mechanisms of sperm competition, and pathogen defense. Strong adaptive pressures are expected for such manifestations of sexual selection and host defense, but the extent of positive selection in seminal fluid proteins from divergent taxa is unknown. We identified adaptive evolution in primate seminal proteins using

  10. Comparison of F1 cows sired by Brahman, Boran and Tuli bulls for reproductive, maternal, and cow longevity traits 

    E-print Network

    Maiga, Assalia Hassimi

    2007-04-25

    and Brahman were evaluated in Botswana, whereas Boran was evaluated in Zambia. 16 McCarter et al. (1991), comparing cow weight in 3-, 4- and 5-year old crossbred cows with different proportions of Brahman out of Angus or Hereford, and Angus- Hereford...

  11. Graininess and roughness of stirred yoghurt made with goat's, cow's or a mixture of goat's and cow's milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Küçükçetin; M. Demir; A. A?ci; E. M. Çomak

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study how the type of milk and the storage time affect the physicochemical characteristics, including graininess and roughness, of stirred yoghurt. Stirred yoghurt was produced from goat's, cow's or a mixture of goat's and cow's milk and was stored for 15 days at 4°C. Yoghurt produced from goat's milk was characterized by its

  12. Sublingual-Oral Rush Desensitization to Mixed Cow and Sheep Milk: A Case Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Nucera; D Schiavino; A Buonomo; E Pollastrini; G Altomonte; V Pecora; M Decinti; C Lombardo; G Patriarca

    ? Abstract We attempted an oral rush desensitization with mixed cow and sheep milk in a 6-year-old boy who had had adverse reactions to cow and goat milks. Skin prick tests and specifi c immunoglobulin (Ig) E to cow, sheep and goat milks were positive. The double-blind, placebo- controlled food challenge with cow milk was positive too. He underwent a

  13. Oestrous expression and relapse back into anoestrus at early postpartum ovulations in fertile dairy cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sakaguchi

    2010-01-01

    A total of 368 ovulations from 92 lactations in 69 cows were analysed to determine the effects of timing of ovulation and signs of oestrus on the fertility of the cows. During the study period of 10 to 13 weeks postpartum, cows ranged from having reached their first ovulation to having reached their fifth. Before ovulation, the cows exhibiting standing

  14. Opsonic Activity of Serum and Whey from Cows Immunized with the Ferric Citrate Receptor1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Wise; J. S. Hogan; K. Takemura; K. L. Smith

    2003-01-01

    The effects of immunizing dairy cows with the ferric citrate receptor, FecA, on the opsonic activity of serum and whey were measured in a phagocytosis assay. Fif- teen cows were assigned to five blocks of three cows based on date of expected parturition. Cows within a block were randomly assigned to one of three treat- ments: 1) FecA immunization, 2)

  15. Mastitis Therapy for Cows with Elevated Somatic Cell Counts or Clinical Mastitis1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Timms; L. H. Schultz

    1984-01-01

    Intramammary treatment with a broad spectrum antibiotic was evaluated for cows treated after a single high monthly somatic cell count or for cows with clinical mastitis. Forty-three quarters of 36 cows were treated after a high somatic cell count, and 56 quarters of 48 cows were treated after clinical symptoms. There was no significant decrease of cell count in response

  16. MONITORING METHOD OF COW ANTHRAX BASED ON GIS AND SPATIAL STATISTICAL

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    MONITORING METHOD OF COW ANTHRAX BASED ON GIS AND SPATIAL STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Lin Li 1 , Yong Yang of the animal disease. In this paper, we analyzed the cow anthrax spatial distribution characteristics of the cow anthrax in this district in combination of spatial statistical analysis and GIS. The Cow anthrax

  17. Efficacy of Cefquinome for Treatment of Cows with Mastitis Experimentally Induced Using Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Y. Shpigel; D. Levin; M. Winkler; A. Saran; G. Ziv; A. Böttner

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy of intramuscularly and intramammar- ily administered cefquinome was evaluated in ex- perimental Escherichia coli mastitis in dairy cows. Forty-seven multiparous, Israeli Holstein cows in early lactation that produced at least 25 L\\/d of milk were used, and 400 to 750 cfu of E. coli were infused into two healthy quarters of each cow. Cows were randomly assigned to

  18. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Every December, for 3 years, 87 beef cows, nursing cows, (594 ' 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November) were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender. They were divided randomly into 6 groups and assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual swards (0.45 hectares/cow...

  19. Programmable physiological infusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.; Adachi, R. R. (inventors)

    1974-01-01

    A programmable physiological infusion device and method are provided wherein a program source, such as a paper tape, is used to actuate an infusion pump in accordance with a desired program. The system is particularly applicable for dispensing calcium in a variety of waveforms.

  20. Renal physiology of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Katharine L; Lafayette, Richard A

    2013-05-01

    Pregnancy involves remarkable orchestration of physiologic changes. The kidneys are central players in the evolving hormonal milieu of pregnancy, responding and contributing to the changes in the environment for the pregnant woman and fetus. The functional impact of pregnancy on kidney physiology is widespread, involving practically all aspects of kidney function. The glomerular filtration rate increases 50% with subsequent decrease in serum creatinine, urea, and uric acid values. The threshold for thirst and antidiuretic hormone secretion are depressed, resulting in lower osmolality and serum sodium levels. Blood pressure drops approximately 10 mmHg by the second trimester despite a gain in intravascular volume of 30% to 50%. The drop in systemic vascular resistance is multifactorial, attributed in part to insensitivity to vasoactive hormones, and leads to activation of the renin-aldosterone-angiostensin system. A rise in serum aldosterone results in a net gain of approximately 1000 mg of sodium. A parallel rise in progesterone protects the pregnant woman from hypokalemia. The kidneys increase in length and volume, and physiologic hydronephrosis occurs in up to 80% of women. This review will provide an understanding of these important changes in kidney physiology during pregnancy, which is fundamental in caring for the pregnant patient. PMID:23928384

  1. Physiology of Breastfeeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This powerpoint presentation summaries physiology of lactation and the impact of a variety of clinical practices on lactation from delivery through weaning. Factors that inhibit lactogenesis stage II are explained, including retained placenta, excess blood loss during delivery, and hypoplastic brea...

  2. Simulated Exercise Physiology Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Pivarnik, James M.

    This book consists of a lab manual and computer disks for either Apple or IBM hardware. The lab manual serves as "tour guide" for the learner going through the various lab experiences. The manual contains definitions, proper terminology, and other basic information about physiological principles. It is organized so a step-by-step procedure may be…

  3. Post-Harvest Physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous plant microbial and physiological processes occur during forage harvest and storage and are almost always deleterious. These processes are influenced by preharvest factors such as mowing time of day, plant species, and maturity stage, as well as by harvest and storage variables. Avoidance o...

  4. Physiology of lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The breast changes in size, shape, and function during puberty, pregnancy, and lactation. The physiology of lactation is reviewed here. The breast is composed of fat and connective tissue that supports a tubuloalveolar structure. During development, anatomic changes involving new lobule formation an...

  5. Postharvest storage and physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato storage makes the crop available for consumption or sale over an extended period of time. In this book chapter, the various way that potatoes are stored worldwide are described. The most important physiological defects that occur in storage are reviewed, as are the biochemical pathways of car...

  6. Haskins Laboratories Physiological

    E-print Network

    rotation 80 Operation of the EMMA 2.0 real-time display system 82 Proposed contents of extended .PRM filesHART: Haskins Laboratories Real-Time Physiological Signal Analysis Systems Philip Rubin, Michael D The Haskins Laboratories Real-Time acquisition and analysis system (HART) provides for on-line capture of up

  7. Factors and Feeds for Supplementing Beef Cows 

    E-print Network

    Hammack, Stephen P.; Gill, Ronald J.

    2000-05-03

    to be deficient in some minerals, especially phosphorus and certain trace elements like copper and zinc. In most situations, supple- mentation should include at least year-round provi- sion of salt and a mineral with 8 percent to 12 per- cent phosphorus and a... of high pro- tein feed may be needed.) A thin, dry, mature cow may require 2 pounds to 4 pounds daily, but of a medium-protein, high-energy supplement. After calving, all of these amounts essentially should be doubled. Daily feeding usually...

  8. Exercise Biology 124 Physiology of Maximal Human Performance

    E-print Network

    Wainwright, Peter C.

    Exercise Biology 124 Physiology of Maximal Human Performance Winter 2011 CRN 43696 Dr. Keith Baar 4 units Molecular mechanisms underlying adaptation to training. Students learn how to exercise to maximize their own performance as well as learning how the frequency, intensity and timing of exercise and nutrition

  9. Physiology for High School - Human Physiological Limits to Exploring Mars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD James A Pawelczyk (Pennsylvania State University)

    2008-04-05

    The keynote presentation from EB 2008's Physiology for Life Science High School Teachers and Students Workshop. This powerpoint presentation discusses the possibility of human exploration on Mars, specifically, how space flight and life on mars would effect human physiology.

  10. How to understand and outwit adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Orion D.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation is the ability of a system to respond and reset itself even in the continuing presence of a stimulus. On one hand, adaptation is a physiological necessity that enables proper neuronal signaling and cell movement. On the other hand, adaptation can be a source of annoyance, as it can make biological systems resistant to experimental perturbations. Here we speculate where adaptation may live in eukaryotic chemotaxis and how it can be encoded in the signaling network. We then discuss tools and strategies that can be used to both understand and outwit adaptation in a wide range of cellular contexts. PMID:24697896

  11. Physiology of the hormetic effect

    SciTech Connect

    Totter, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    Beneficial (hormetic) effects of ionizing radiation have been largely ignored in developing radiobiological theory, chiefly because a suitable explanatory hypothesis is lacking. Examination of the relevant literature has revealed that food restriction effects in animals resemble those of low-level, low-LET, whole-body ionizing radiation exposure (without food restriction) in two major respects: increased longevity and change in the variance of longevity. These physiological changes can be interpreted as resulting from alteration of the steady-state flux of oxygen radicals which affect the endocrine balance. Oxy-radical-producing, low-level ionizing radiation exposure (whole body) is interpreted by the body as excess food intake, thus lowering the appetite and reducing caloric intake which, in turn, increases longevity. The greater variance in longevity accompanying increases in the median age at death with food restriction alters the ratio of long-lived to short-lived descendants and hastens the population's adaptation to semi-permanently diminished rates of food supply. Less variance and earlier mean ages at death result from an increased rate of food supply. Whole-body ionizing radiation exposure results in a mixed response, because it reduces caloric intake while signaling that an increase has occurred.

  12. Clinical physiology of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Maintenance of optimal health in humans requires the proper balance between exercise, rest, and sleep as well as time in the upright position. About one-third of a lifetime is spent sleeping; and it is no coincidence that sleeping is performed in the horizontal position, the position in which gravitational influence on the body is minimal. Although enforced bed rest is necessary for the treatment of some ailments, in some cases it has probably been used unwisely. In addition to the lower hydrostatic pressure with the normally dependent regions of the cardiovascular system, body fuid compartments during bed rest in the horizontal body position, and virtual elimination of compression on the long bones of the skeletal system during bed rest (hypogravia), there is often reduction in energy metabolism due to the relative confinement (hypodynamia) and alteration of ambulatory circadian variations in metabolism, body temperature, and many hormonal systems. If patients are also moved to unfamiliar surroundings, they probably experience some feelings of anxiety and some sociopsychological problems. Adaptive physiological responses during bed rest are normal for that environment. They are attempts by the body to reduce unnecessary energy expenditure, to optimize its function, and to enhance its survival potential. Many of the deconditioning responses begin within the first day or two of bed rest; these early responses have prompted physicians to insist upon early resumption of the upright posture and ambulation of bedridden patients.

  13. Obesity and Asthma: Physiological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brashier, Bill; Salvi, Sundeep

    2013-01-01

    Obesity induces some pertinent physiological changes which are conducive to either development of asthma or cause of poorly controlled asthma state. Obesity related mechanical stress forces induced by abdominal and thoracic fat generate stiffening of the lungs and diaphragmatic movements to result in reduction of resting lung volumes such as functional residual capacity (FRC). Reduced FRC is primarily an outcome of decreased expiratory reserve volume, which pushes the tidal breathing more towards smaller high resistance airways, and consequentially results in expiratory flow limitation during normal breathing in obesity. Reduced FRC also induces plastic alteration in the small collapsible airways, which may generate smooth muscle contraction resulting in increased small airway resistance, which, however, is not picked up by spirometric lung volumes. There is also a possibility that chronically reduced FRC may generate permanent adaptation in the very small airways; therefore, the airway calibres may not change despite weight reduction. Obesity may also induce bronchodilator reversibility and diurnal lung functional variability. Obesity is also associated with airway hyperresponsiveness; however, the mechanism of this is not clear. Thus, obesity has effects on lung function that can generate respiratory distress similar to asthma and may also exaggerate the effects of preexisting asthma. PMID:23970905

  14. Simulation of cow-calf production systems in a range environment: I. Model development.

    PubMed

    Tess, M W; Kolstad, B W

    2000-05-01

    A mathematical computer model of beef cattle production systems was developed at Montana State University. The objective of this report was to describe the rationale and procedures used to simulate animal and system performance. The model was designed to simulate the dynamic relationships among cattle genotype, physiological state, forage quality, and management in range environments. Forage intake, energy and protein metabolism, growth, reproduction, lactation, and changes in chemical body composition are simulated for individual animals over complete life cycles. Expenses driven by animal performance, management decisions, and land resources are tabulated. Several biological and economic measures of system performance can be computed, including ratios of inputs (e.g., DM, CP, ME, dollars) to outputs (e.g., weight, lean), break even prices, and annual gross margin per cow or ranch. Primary uses of the model include the evaluation of system responses to changes in breeding strategies and management in range production/marketing systems. PMID:10834568

  15. Aquatic Invertebrate Ecological Physiology FAS 4932/6154 Fall 2011 Instructor: Dr. Shirley Baker

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    1 Aquatic Invertebrate Ecological Physiology ­ FAS 4932/6154­ Fall 2011 Instructor: Dr. Shirley, behavioral, and ecological adaptations of invertebrate animals. A comparative approach is used to examine of invertebrates and the underlying importance of physiology in the structure and function of communities

  16. Physiological effects of melatonin: Role of melatonin receptors and signal transduction pathways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seithikurippu R. Pandi-Perumal; Ilya Trakht; Venkataramanujan Srinivasan; D. Warren Spence; Georges J. M. Maestroni; Nava Zisapel; Daniel P. Cardinali

    2008-01-01

    Melatonin, an endogenous signal of darkness, is an important component of the body's internal time-keeping system. As such it regulates major physiological processes including the sleep wake cycle, pubertal development and seasonal adaptation. In addition to its relevant antioxidant activity, melatonin exerts many of its physiological actions by interacting with membrane MT1 and MT2 receptors and intracellular proteins such as

  17. Influence of physiological status on residues of lipophilic xenobiotics in livestock.

    PubMed

    MacLachlan, D J

    2009-05-01

    Data on the transfer of lipophilic xenobiotics from livestock feed and the environment to meat and milk are required for risk assessment purposes. Often, data are only available for lactating dairy cattle. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling has been used to explore differences between classes of food-producing animals. Blood and tissue levels of lipophilic xenobiotics under conditions approximating steady-state were simulated. Simulations of constant exposure were performed for lactating cows, non-lactating cattle, sheep, goats and swine. The tissue : blood partition coefficient, fat volume and fat blood flow were identified as critical determinants of predicted tissue concentrations. There may be significant breed differences in residues in milk and fat following exposure. Modeling was used to derive scaling factors that can be used to assist the extrapolation of transfer studies, carried out on lactating dairy cows, to other classes of cattle and different species. PMID:19680941

  18. Factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Morin, D E; Constable, P D; Maunsell, F P; McCoy, G C

    2001-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows, as measured by a commercially available hydrometer (Colostrometer). Colostral specific gravity was measured in 1085 first-milking colostrum samples from 608 dairy cows of four breeds on a single farm during a 5-yr period. Effects of breed, lactation number, and month and year of calving on colostral specific gravity were determined, as were correlations between colostral specific gravity, nonlactating period length, and 305-d yields of milk, protein, and fat. For 75 multiparous Holstein cows, relationships between colostral specific gravity, colostral IgG1, protein, and fat concentrations, and season of calving were determined. Colostral specific gravity values were lower for Brown Swiss and Ayrshire cows than for Jersey and Holstein cows, and lower for cows entering first or second lactation than third or later lactations. Month of calving markedly affected colostral specific gravity values, with highest values occurring in autumn and lowest values in summer. In multiparous Holstein cows, colostral specific gravity was more strongly correlated with colostral protein concentration (r = 0.76) than IgG1 concentration (r = 0.53), and colostral protein concentration varied seasonally (higher in autumn than summer). Our results demonstrate that colostral specific gravity more closely reflects colostral protein concentration than IgG1 concentration and is markedly influenced by month of calving. These results highlight potential limitations of using colostral specific gravity as an indicator of IgG1 concentration. PMID:11352170

  19. Anthropometric and physiological predispositions for elite soccer.

    PubMed

    Reilly, T; Bangsbo, J; Franks, A

    2000-09-01

    This review is focused on anthropometric and physiological characteristics of soccer players with a view to establishing their roles within talent detection, identification and development programmes. Top-class soccer players have to adapt to the physical demands of the game, which are multifactorial. Players may not need to have an extraordinary capacity within any of the areas of physical performance but must possess a reasonably high level within all areas. This explains why there are marked individual differences in anthropometric and physiological characteristics among top players. Various measurements have been used to evaluate specific aspects of the physical performance of both youth and adult soccer players. The positional role of a player is related to his or her physiological capacity. Thus, midfield players and full-backs have the highest maximal oxygen intakes ( > 60 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and perform best in intermittent exercise tests. On the other hand, midfield players tend to have the lowest muscle strength. Although these distinctions are evident in adult and elite youth players, their existence must be interpreted circumspectly in talent identification and development programmes. A range of relevant anthropometric and physiological factors can be considered which are subject to strong genetic influences (e.g. stature and maximal oxygen intake) or are largely environmentally determined and susceptible to training effects. Consequently, fitness profiling can generate a useful database against which talented groups may be compared. No single method allows for a representative assessment of a player's physical capabilities for soccer. We conclude that anthropometric and physiological criteria do have a role as part of a holistic monitoring of talented young players. PMID:11043893

  20. Application of an ELISA Milk Pregnancy Test in Beef Cows.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J N; Byrem, T M; Grooms, D L

    2015-08-01

    Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) are secreted by the binucleate giant cells of the ruminant placenta and enter maternal circulation at the time of placental attachment. The IDEXX Milk Pregnancy Test (IDEXX, Westbrook, ME) detects a subset of PAG in milk. Although designed as a management tool for dairy cows, there is potential for using the milk PAG test in beef cows. Our objective was to compare the performance of the milk PAG ELISA with a gold standard method for pregnancy diagnosis and determine the agreement between milk and serum PAG analysis in lactating beef cows. Angus and Angus-crossed cows (n = 332) from two Michigan beef herds were enrolled in this study. Cows were subjected either to timed artificial insemination followed by exposure to a bull or exclusively exposed to a bull. The bulls and cows were separated 30 days prior to examination. Serum and milk samples were collected and submitted within 24 h of collection to a commercial laboratory for PAG analysis using the IDEXX Milk Pregnancy Assay (milk) and the IDEXX Bovine Pregnancy Assay (serum). Concurrently with milk and serum collection, each cow was examined transrectally by palpation or ultrasonography. When compared to transrectal examination, the performance (and 95% confidence intervals) of the milk PAG ELISA was sensitivity of 99.7% (99.0-100.0%) and specificity of 80.8% (65.6-95.9%). The lower specificity is likely due to the low prevalence (9.9%) of open cows (n = 30) in the herds examined. Of the 332 cows examined, 1.8% (n = 6) were classified as rechecks using the milk PAG ELISA. Results of the milk and serum PAG ELISA were in high agreement (kappa coefficient = 0.91). The milk PAG ELISA was accurate in predicting pregnancy status using milk collected from beef cattle between days 37 and 125 post-insemination and may be useful for aiding management decisions in beef herds. PMID:26058919

  1. Fontan Physiology Revisited.

    PubMed

    Jolley, Matthew; Colan, Steven D; Rhodes, Jonathan; DiNardo, James

    2015-07-01

    The Fontan operation places the systemic and pulmonary circulations in series, driven by a single ventricular chamber. It has become the treatment strategy of choice for palliating single-ventricle congenital heart disease. This anatomy engenders profound changes in physiology, affecting the cardiovascular and respiratory systems with direct implications for anesthetic and intensive care. The physical basis of these changes and their sequelae are reviewed. PMID:26086514

  2. Cardiac physiology and monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Reves

    1985-01-01

    Conclusion  The cardiovascular system serves the body by supplying nutrients and removing wastes. The function of the heart and circulation\\u000a can be measured by a great variety of methods, but it is essential to understand the physiologic basis of the measurements\\u000a for proper interpretation. Furthermore, the entire clinical condition must be always considered in the combination with the\\u000a wealth of numerical

  3. Alterations in coagulation parameters in dairy cows affected with acute mastitis caused by E. coli and S. aureus pathogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zuhair A. Bani Ismail; Charles Dickinson

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate alterations in coagulation parameters in dairy cows affected with acute Escherichia coli (E. coli) mastitis and to compare those values to cows affected with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus ) mastitis. Twenty-four, adult Holstein-Friesian dairy cows affected with acute E. coli mastitis and 17 cows affected with S. aureus mastitis were studied. Cows affected with

  4. Clinical ketosis and standing behavior in transition cows.

    PubMed

    Itle, A J; Huzzey, J M; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2015-01-01

    Ketosis is a common disease in dairy cattle, especially in the days after calving, and it is often undiagnosed. The objective of this study was to compare the standing behavior of dairy cows with and without ketosis during the days around calving to determine if changes in this behavior could be useful in the early identification of sick cows. Serum ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) was measured in 184 cows on a commercial dairy farm twice weekly from 2 to 21d after calving. Standing behavior was measured from 7d before calving to 21d after calving using data loggers. Retrospectively, 15 cows with clinical ketosis (3 consecutive BHBA samples >1.2mmol/L and at least one sample of BHBA >2.9mmol/L) were matched with 15 nonketotic cows (BHBA <1.2mmol/L). Five periods were defined for the statistical analyses: wk -1 (d -7 to -1), d 0 (day of calving), wk +1 (d 1 to 7), wk +2 (d 8 to 14), and wk +3 (d 15 to 21). The first signs of clinical ketosis occurred 4.5±2.1d after calving. Total daily standing time was longer for clinically ketotic cows compared with nonketotic cows during wk -1 (14.3±0.6 vs. 12.0±0.7h/d) and on d 0 (17.2±0.9 vs. 12.7±0.9h/d) but did not differ during the other periods. Clinically ketotic cows exhibited fewer standing bouts compared with nonketotic cows on d 0 only (14.6±1.9 vs. 20.9±1.8bouts/d). Average standing bout duration was also longer for clinically ketotic cows on d 0 compared with nonketotic cows [71.3min/bout (CI: 59.3 to 85.5) vs. 35.8min/bout (CI: 29.8 to 42.9)] but was not different during the other periods. Differences in standing behavior in the week before and on the day of calving may be useful for the early detection of clinical ketosis in dairy cows. PMID:25465623

  5. Fixed-time insemination of porcine luteinizing hormone-treated superovulated beef cows and the resynchronization of beef cows for fixed-time embryo transfer 

    E-print Network

    Nelson, John Stephen

    2009-05-15

    Two trials were conducted to compare the effectiveness of fixed-time artificial insemination (AI) to AI based upon visual detection of estrus following superstimulation of donor beef cows. In Trial 1, multiparous beef cows (n = 31) were randomly...

  6. Ohio Physiological Society Annual Meeting

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Francisco J.

    Ohio Physiological Society 27th Annual Meeting Wright State University October 26-27, 2012 #12;Ohio Physiological Society 27th Annual Meeting Wright State University October 26-27, 2012 OPS 2012 Program Friday Lecture (sponsored by the American Physiological Society) James W. Hicks, PhD, Professor, Ecology

  7. College of Medicine PGY Physiology

    E-print Network

    MacAdam, Keith

    College of Medicine PGY Physiology KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped University of Kentucky 2013-2014 Undergraduate Bulletin 1 PGY 206 ELEMENTARY PHYSIOLOGY. (3) An introductory survey course in basic human physiology. Prereq: One semester of college biology. PGY 207 CASE STUDIES

  8. Longitudinal Profiling of the Tissue-Specific Expression of Genes Related with Insulin Sensitivity in Dairy Cows during Lactation Focusing on Different Fat Depots

    PubMed Central

    Saremi, Behnam; Winand, Sarah; Friedrichs, Paula; Kinoshita, Asako; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven; Häussler, Susanne; Breves, Gerhard; Mielenz, Manfred; Sauerwein, Helga

    2014-01-01

    In dairy cows the milk associated energy output in early lactation exceeds the input via voluntary feed intake. To spare glucose for mammary lactose synthesis, peripheral insulin sensitivity (IS) is reduced and fat mobilization is stimulated. For these processes a link between IS and the endocrine functions of adipose tissue (AT) is likely; we thus aimed to characterise the mRNA expression from bovine AT derived proteins and receptors that are related to IS according to the literature in metabolically active tissues plus systemic IS throughout lactation. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) reduce milk fat thus decreasing the milk drain of energy and potentially dampening lipolysis, but may also affect IS. Subcutaneous (s.c.) AT and liver from pluriparous cows receiving either control fat or CLA supplement (100 g/day from 1 to 182 days in milk each) were biopsied covering week ?3 to 36 relative to parturition. In an additional trial with primiparous cows treated analogously and slaughtered on days in milk 1, 42 or 105, samples from liver, udder, skeletal muscle and 3 visceral and 3 s.c. AT were obtained and assayed for mRNA abundance of adiponectin, its receptors, leptin, leptin receptor, PPAR?, PPAR?2, IL-6, and TNF-?. In pluriparous animals, the mRNA abundance of most of the target genes decreased after parturition in s.c. AT but increased in liver. In primiparous cows, AT depot specific differences were mostly related to retroperitoneal AT; adiponectin receptor 1 and TNF-? were affected predominantly. CLA effects in primiparous cows were largely limited to decreased PPAR?2 mRNA abundance in udder tissue. In pluriparous cows, insulin secretion was increased by CLA resulting in decreased systemic IS but without consistent changes in tissue target mRNA abundance. The temporal gene expression profiles from the adipokines and related receptors support their coactive function in adapting to the needs of lactation. PMID:24465964

  9. Antepartal insulin-like growth factor 1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 concentrations are indicative of ketosis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Piechotta, M; Mysegades, W; Ligges, U; Lilienthal, J; Hoeflich, A; Miyamoto, A; Bollwein, H

    2015-05-01

    A study involving a small number of cows found that the concentrations of insulin-like growth hormone 1 (IGF1) may be a useful predictor of metabolic disease. Further, IGF1 may provide also a pathophysiological link to metabolic diseases such as ketosis. The objective of the current study was to test whether the low antepartal total IGF1 or IGF1 binding protein (IGFBP) concentrations might predict ketosis under field conditions. Clinical examinations and blood sampling were performed antepartum (262-270 d after artificial insemination) on 377 pluriparous pregnant Holstein Friesian cows. The presence of postpartum diseases were recorded (ketosis, fatty liver, displacement of the abomasum, hypocalcemia, mastitis, retention of fetal membranes, and clinical metritis or endometritis), and the concentrations of IGF1, IGFBP2, IGFBP3, and nonesterified fatty acids were measured. Cows with postpartum clinical ketosis had lower IGF1 concentrations antepartum than healthy cows. The sensitivity of antepartal IGF1 as a marker for postpartum ketosis was 0.87, and the specificity was 0.43; a positive predictive value of 0.91 and a negative predictive value of 0.35 were calculated. The cows with ketosis and retained fetal membranes had lower IGFBP2 concentrations compared with the healthy cows. It can be speculated that lower IGF1 production in the liver during late pregnancy may increase growth hormone secretions and lipolysis, thereby increasing the risk of ketosis. Lower IGFBP2 concentrations may reflect the suppression of IGFBP2 levels through higher growth hormone secretion. In conclusion, compared with nonesterified fatty acids as a predictive parameter, IGF1 and IGFBP2 may represent earlier biomarkers of inadequate metabolic adaptation to the high energy demand required postpartum. PMID:25704973

  10. The influence of cow and management factors on reproductive performance of Irish seasonal calving dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lane, Elizabeth A; Crowe, Mark A; Beltman, Marijke E; More, Simon J

    2013-09-01

    Herd management record analysis facilitates accurate assessment of the current herd reproductive status; a crucial decision making tool to implement effective change. To determine the relative importance of cow and management factors on reproductive indices in moderate-yielding Irish seasonal-calving dairy herds, breeding records of 1173 cows were collected from 10 seasonal calving herds between 2007 and 2009. Backward-stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis was utilised to determine the effect of cow factors including parity, calving timing, days post partum, heat detection accuracy and herd factors including herd size and heat detection efficiency on key reproductive indices. Mean farm six-week pregnancy and end of season not-in-calf rate were 46% (range 14-72%) and 22% (range 3-40%), respectively. Oestrous detection efficiency (P<0.001), timing of calving (P<0.001) relative to start of breeding, history of abnormal repeat intervals (P<0.001) and length of post partum interval (P<0.001) were each associated with lower six-week pregnancy rates. Timing of calving (P<0.001) and history of abnormal repeat intervals (P<0.001) were associated with higher not-in-calf rates. Herd size and cow parity were not associated (P>0.05) with either outcome when factors including existing calving pattern and heat detection accuracy and efficiency were accounted for. The existing spread in calving pattern, heat detection quality and length of voluntary waiting period were the most influential factors that reduced fertility performance in seasonal-calving herds. PMID:23928154

  11. Bacterial and fungal organisms in the vagina of normal cows and cows with vaginitis

    E-print Network

    Husted, James Ross

    2005-02-17

    ., Corynebacterium sp., Streptococcus sp., E. coli, and Arcanobacterium pyogenes. Bacteria were isolated from 64% of samples. The most frequent histopathologic finding was mild, chronic endometritis in 76% of the samples. A study was done to determine... of endometritis in the postpartum cow with dystocia or a retained placenta.5 In one study, the most frequent bacteria isolated were Arcanobacterium pyogenes, E. coli, Streptococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Bacteroides sp., Fusobacterium necrophorum...

  12. Social interactions affecting caste development through physiological actions in termites

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Dai; Gotoh, Hiroki; Miura, Toru; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2014-01-01

    A colony of social insects is not only an aggregation of individuals but also a functional unit. To achieve adaptive social behavior in fluctuating environmental conditions, in addition to coordination of physiological status in each individual, the whole colony is coordinated by interactions among colony members. The study on the regulation of social-insect colonies is termed “social physiology.” Termites, a major group of social insects, exhibit many interesting phenomena related to social physiology, such as mechanisms of caste regulation in a colony. In their colonies, there are different types of individuals, i.e., castes, which show distinctive phenotypes specialized in specific colony tasks. Termite castes comprise reproductives, soldiers and workers, and the caste composition can be altered depending on circumstances. For the regulation of caste compositions, interactions among individuals, i.e., social interactions, are thought to be important. In this article, we review previous studies on the adaptive meanings and those on the proximate mechanisms of the caste regulation in termites, and try to understand those comprehensively in terms of social physiology. Firstly, we summarize classical studies on the social interactions. Secondly, previous studies on the pheromone substances that mediate the caste regulatory mechanisms are overviewed. Then, we discuss the roles of a physiological factor, juvenile hormone (JH) in the regulation of caste differentiation. Finally, we introduce the achievements of molecular studies on the animal sociality (i.e., sociogenomics) in terms of social physiology. By comparing the proximate mechanisms of social physiology in termites with those in hymenopterans, we try to get insights into the general principles of social physiology in social animals. PMID:24782780

  13. In vivo Evidence of Cross-Reactivity between Cow’s Milk and Soybean Proteins in a Mouse Model of Food Allergy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paola Smaldini; Renata Curciarello; Angela Candreva; María Amanda Rey; Carlos Alberto Fossati; Silvana Petruccelli; Guillermo Horacio Docena

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) is an important problem worldwide and the development of an in vivo system to study new immunotherapeutic strategies is of interest. Intolerance to soybean formula has been described in CMA patients, but it is not fully understood. In this work, we used a food allergy model in BALB\\/c mice to study the cross-reactivity between cow’s

  14. Age-related shifts in the density and distribution of genetic marker water quality indicators in cow and calf feces.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Orin C; Kelty, Catherine A; Peed, Lindsay; Sivaganesan, Mano; Mooney, Thomas; Jenkins, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Calves make up about 16% of the current bovine population in the United States and can excrete high levels of human pathogens in their feces. We describe the density and distribution of genetic markers from 9 PCR- and real-time quantitative PCR-based assays, including CF128, CF193, CowM2, CowM3, GenBac3, Entero1, EC23S857, CampF2, and ttr-6, commonly used to help assess ambient surface water quality. Each assay was tested against a collection of 381 individual bovine fecal samples representing 31 mother and calf pairings collected over a 10-month time period from time of birth through weaning. Genetic markers reported to be associated with ruminant and/or bovine fecal pollution were virtually undetected in calves for up to 115 days from birth, suggesting that physiological changes in calf ruminant function impact host-associated genetic marker shedding. In addition, general fecal indicator markers for Bacteroidales, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp. exhibited three separate trends across time, indicating that these bacteria respond differently to age-related physiological and dietary changes during calf development. The results of this study suggest that currently available PCR-based water quality indicator technologies can under- or overestimate fecal pollution originating from calves and identify a need for novel calf-associated source identification methods. PMID:24362434

  15. Age-Related Shifts in the Density and Distribution of Genetic Marker Water Quality Indicators in Cow and Calf Feces

    PubMed Central

    Kelty, Catherine A.; Peed, Lindsay; Sivaganesan, Mano; Mooney, Thomas; Jenkins, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Calves make up about 16% of the current bovine population in the United States and can excrete high levels of human pathogens in their feces. We describe the density and distribution of genetic markers from 9 PCR- and real-time quantitative PCR-based assays, including CF128, CF193, CowM2, CowM3, GenBac3, Entero1, EC23S857, CampF2, and ttr-6, commonly used to help assess ambient surface water quality. Each assay was tested against a collection of 381 individual bovine fecal samples representing 31 mother and calf pairings collected over a 10-month time period from time of birth through weaning. Genetic markers reported to be associated with ruminant and/or bovine fecal pollution were virtually undetected in calves for up to 115 days from birth, suggesting that physiological changes in calf ruminant function impact host-associated genetic marker shedding. In addition, general fecal indicator markers for Bacteroidales, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp. exhibited three separate trends across time, indicating that these bacteria respond differently to age-related physiological and dietary changes during calf development. The results of this study suggest that currently available PCR-based water quality indicator technologies can under- or overestimate fecal pollution originating from calves and identify a need for novel calf-associated source identification methods. PMID:24362434

  16. Fixed-time insemination of porcine luteinizing hormone-treated superovulated beef cows and the resynchronization of beef cows for fixed-time embryo transfer

    E-print Network

    Nelson, John Stephen

    2009-05-15

    observed for estrus between d 22 and 24. Cows that displayed estrus were ultrasounded on d 30, those cows not pregnant that possessed a CL had an embryo transferred that day. Cows were later examined for pregnancies approximately 23 to 30 d later...

  17. Anticipatory physiological regulation in feeding biology

    PubMed Central

    Power, Michael L.; Schulkin, Jay

    2008-01-01

    Anticipatory physiological regulation is an adaptive strategy that enables animals to respond faster to physiologic and metabolic challenges. The cephalic phase responses are anticipatory responses that prepare animals to digest, absorb and metabolize nutrients. They enable the sensory aspects of the food to interact with the metabolic state of the animal to influence feeding behavior. The anticipatory digestive secretions and metabolic adjustments in response to food cues are key adaptations that affect digestive and metabolic efficiency and aid in controlling the resulting elevation of metabolic fuels in the blood. Cephalic phase responses enable digestion, metabolism and appetite to be regulated in a coordinated fashion. These responses have significant effects on meal size. For example, if the cephalic phase insulin response is blocked the result is poor glucose control and smaller meals. Cephalic phase responses also are linked to motivation to feed, and may play a more direct role in regulating meal size beyond the permissive one of ameliorating negative consequences of feeding. For example, the orexigenic peptide ghrelin appears to display a cephalic phase response, rising before expected meal times. This anticipatory ghrelin response increases appetite; interestingly it also enhances fat absorption, linking appetite with digestion and metabolism. PMID:18045735

  18. Factors associated with bacteriological cure after dry cow treatment of subclinical staphylococcal mastitis with antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Sol, J; Sampimon, O C; Snoep, J J; Schukken, Y H

    1994-01-01

    Data from five dry cow antibiotic therapy trials were analyzed. Records were only included for cows with > or = 1 culture-positive quarters that were subclinically infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Data for 406 quarters affected with S. aureus from 283 cows on 73 farms were analyzed for quarters, cows, and herds. The probability of cure of an infected quarter decreased when SCC increased, when another quarter was infected in the same cow, when the infection was in a hind quarter, and when the percentage of samples that were positive for S. aureus was higher before drying off. Variables predicting complete bacteriological cure of a cow were log SCC, age of the cow, and the number of infected quarters. The probability of a cure decreased as SCC increased. The probability of cure decreased as age increased, and cows with more than one quarter infected were .57 times less likely to be cured than cows with 1 infected quarter. PMID:8120207

  19. COLOSTRUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONCENTRATION IN COWS: RELATIONSHIP WITH THEIR CALF MORTALITY

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    COLOSTRUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONCENTRATION IN COWS: RELATIONSHIP WITH THEIR CALF MORTALITY AND WITH THE COLOSTRUM QUALITY OF THEIR FEMALE OFFSPRING Jacqueline DARDILLAT* G. TRILLAT* P. LARVOR* I, 63110 Beaumont, France. Résumé. CONCENTRATION EN IMMUNOGLOBULINES DU COLOSTRUM DES VACHES : RELATION

  20. Body Condition, Nutrition and Reproduction of Beef Cows

    E-print Network

    Herd, Dennis B.; Sprott, L. R.

    1998-03-16

    than live weight alone. In commercial practice, body condition scoring can be carried out regularly and satisfactorily in cir- cumstances where weighing may be impractical. 3 Body Condition, Nutrition and Reproduction of Beef Cows Dennis B. Herd and L...

  1. Sacred Cows That Should Be Put to Pasture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artley, A. Sterl

    This paper examines some of the problems associated with unquestioned teaching practices and theories ("sacred cows") in the field of reading. Topics discussed include phonics, pronunciation, oral reading, teacher accountability and behavioral objectives, individualized reading, and the open classroom. (KS)

  2. Body Condition, Nutrition and Reproduction of Beef Cows 

    E-print Network

    Herd, Dennis B.; Sprott, L. R.

    1998-03-16

    Producers must be able to evaluate beef cows' body reserves and to relate the evaluation to reproductive and nutritional management. Topics discussed include the practical importance of body condition scoring and various BCS suggestions....

  3. The Vitamin A Requirements of Dairy Cows.

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Copeland, O. C. (Orlin Cephas); Treichler, Ray

    1934-01-01

    6 6 6 6 322 329 2 3 3 5 4 6 6 6 6 6 1 2 0 3 1 2 1 10 11 .070 1 6 4 4 3 0 3 4 6 3 0 2 3 4 5 2 4 1 .lo0 6 11 13 2 1 0 11 13 25 45 8 14 3 6 12 6 2 4 4 3 2 6 10 1 0 2 3 0 0 -3 3 28 3 1 l1 2... 1: 1 8 54 4 21 15 / l 4 24 44 1 2 5 1 32 20 j 7 -13 THE VITAMIN A REQUIREMENTS OF DAIRY COWS 15 first experiment was made near the middle of the experiment, and for this reason the yellow corn used was assumed to average the 6 units per...

  4. Asthma Outcomes: Pulmonary Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Tepper, Robert S.; Wise, Robert S.; Covar, Ronina; Irvin, Charles G.; Kercsmar, Carolyn M.; Kraft, Monica; Liu, Mark C.; O’Connor, George T.; Peters, Stephen P.; Sorkness, Ronald; Togias, Alkis

    2014-01-01

    Background Outcomes of pulmonary physiology have a central place in asthma clinical research. Objective At the request of National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes and other federal agencies, an expert group was convened to provide recommendations on the use of pulmonary function measures as asthma outcomes that should be assessed in a standardized fashion in future asthma clinical trials and studies to allow for cross-study comparisons. Methods Our subcommittee conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed to identify studies that focused on the validation of various airway response tests used in asthma clinical research. The subcommittee classified the instruments as core (to be required in future studies), supplemental (to be used according to study aims and in a standardized fashion), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an NIH-organized workshop in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results A list of pulmonary physiology outcomes that applies to both adults and children older than 6 years was created. These outcomes were then categorized into core, supplemental, and emerging. Spirometric outcomes (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], and FEV1/FVC) are proposed as core outcomes for study population characterization, for observational studies, and for prospective clinical trials. Bronchodilator reversibility and pre- and post-bronchodilator FEV1 also are core outcomes for study population characterization and observational studies. Conclusions The subcommittee considers pulmonary physiology outcomes of central importance in asthma and proposes spirometric outcomes as core outcomes for all future NIH-initiated asthma clinical research. PMID:22386510

  5. Corn silage hybrid type and quality of alfalfa hay affect dietary nitrogen utilization by early lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Holt, M S; Neal, K; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Hall, J O; Nestor, K E

    2013-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage (CS) hybrids and quality of alfalfa hay (AH) in high-forage dairy diets on N utilization, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance by early-lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. The 8 cows (average days in milk = 23 ± 11.2) were surgically fitted with ruminal cannula, and the 2 squares were conducted simultaneously. Within square, cows were randomly assigned to a sequence of 4 diets: conventional CS (CCS) or brown midrib CS (BMR) was combined with fair-quality AH [FAH: 46.7% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 18.4% crude protein (CP)] or high-quality AH (HAH: 39.2% NDF and 20.7% CP) to form 4 treatments: CCS with FAH, CCS with HAH, BMR with FAH, and BMR with HAH. Diets were isonitrogenous across treatments, averaging 15.9% CP. Each period lasted a total of 21 d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 7d for data collection and sampling. Intake of DM and milk yield did not differ in response to CS hybrids or AH quality. Although feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N output by 24%, it did not affect fecal N output. Feeding HAH decreased urinary N output by 15% but increased fecal N output by 20%. Nitrogen efficiency [milk N (g/d)/intake N (g/d)] tended to increase for BMR treatments. Ruminal ammonia-N concentration was lower for cows fed BMR-based diets than for those fed CCS-based diets but was not affected by quality of AH. Feeding BMR-based diets or HAH decreased milk urea N concentration by 23 or 15%, respectively, compared with CCS-based diets or FAH. Total volatile fatty acid concentration increased with HAH but was not influenced by CS hybrids. Feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N-to-fecal N ratio (UN:FN), and it was further reduced by feeding HAH. Although cows fed the BMR-based diets tended to increase milk N-to-manure N ratio, the quality of AH did not affect the ratio. The lower ratio of UN:FN with a higher ratio of milk N-to-manure N ratio for the BMR-based diets indicates that feeding BMR may reduce manure ammonia-N by reducing excretion of urinary N and increasing secretion of milk N per unit of manure N excreted. PMID:23958019

  6. Type I Allergy to Cow Milk Proteins in Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Stöger; B. Wüthrich

    1993-01-01

    To determine the clinical and serological characteristics of type I food allergy to cow milk proteins in adults, we investigated all 34 patients (aged from 16 to 58 years) who were diagnosed between 1981 and 1991 to have IgE-mediated reactions to cow milk and cheese. Women represented 91.2% of the study group and 39% of them suffered from the first

  7. Factors potentially affecting fertility of lactating dairy cow recipients.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, J L M; Demétrio, D G B; Santos, R M; Chiari, J R; Rodrigues, C A; Sá Filho, O G

    2006-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to evaluate factors that could affect pregnancy rate after embryo transfer (ET) in lactating dairy cow recipients. The trial was conducted at a dairy farm located in Descalvado, SP, Brazil from October 2003 to September 2004. From 1037 cows with CL that were treated with an injection of PGF2alpha, 43.3% were detected in heat; 263 were previously assigned at day of PGF2alpha injection for AI and 186 for ET. Ovulation rate was 85.7% (385/449). Pregnancy rate for cows with CL for AI and embryo transfer recipients were 36.5% (84/230) and 58.7% (91/155) at day 25 and 33.0% (76/230) and 45.8% (71/155) at day 46, respectively. Embryonic loss were 9.5% (8/84) for the AI group and 21.9% (20/91) for the ET group. Average milk production was 31.4 L/day/cow. Average daily milk production from 7 days before PGF2alpha injection to 7 days after ET tended (P < 0.10) to influence pregnancy rate on days 25 and 46. Average daily milk production from the day of embryo transfer to 7 days after influenced embryonic loss (P < 0.05). Cows with higher milk production had lower probability of pregnancy and higher probability of embryonic loss. Cows with higher days in milk had higher probability of pregnancy. Cows with higher rectal body temperature had lower probability of pregnancy and higher probability of embryonic loss. The influence of high milk yield and body temperature on fertility in lactating dairy cow recipients suggests that these effects can occur also after embryo reaches the blastocyst stage. PMID:16290259

  8. Neonatal segmental enteritis due to cow's milk allergy

    PubMed Central

    Arunachalam, Pavai; Mathai, John

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) typically presents with persistent diarrhea or dysentery, vomiting and bleeding per rectum in young infants. CMPA is reported to mimic Hirschsprung's disease and malrotation. We report, a neonate who presented with recurrent attacks of segmental enteritis due to CMPA and the last episode presented with signs of peritonitis. He improved dramatically after elimination of cow's milk from his diet. CMPA should be considered in artificially fed babies with surgical abdomen and atypical clinical signs and symptoms. PMID:24347869

  9. Neonatal segmental enteritis due to cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, Pavai; Mathai, John

    2013-10-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) typically presents with persistent diarrhea or dysentery, vomiting and bleeding per rectum in young infants. CMPA is reported to mimic Hirschsprung's disease and malrotation. We report, a neonate who presented with recurrent attacks of segmental enteritis due to CMPA and the last episode presented with signs of peritonitis. He improved dramatically after elimination of cow's milk from his diet. CMPA should be considered in artificially fed babies with surgical abdomen and atypical clinical signs and symptoms. PMID:24347869

  10. Repeated ovum pick-up in Italian Mediterranean buffalo cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Boni; S. Roviello; L. Zicarelli

    1996-01-01

    The potential of the ovum pick-up technique, used over a long period, was evaluated in 6 Italian Mediterranean buffalo cows that had more than 500 d open. The cows were submitted to ovum pick-up twice weekly for 2 mo. An additional 2-mo cycle of ovum pick-up was performed in 3 of the buffalo. The ovum pick-up sampling did not affect

  11. Calf Removal: A Way to Stimulate Reproduction in Cows

    E-print Network

    Sprott, L. R.

    2003-10-08

    - mon cause of slow breeding and failure to breed is inadequate nutrition. Research trials have found that cows that are prop- erly nourished have the highest pregnancy rates and breed quicker after calving. Cow age is another fac- tor that affects... the resumption of estrous activity. In poorly nourished females, the result is improved reproductive performance. Conditions That Warrant Altering Nursing Activity Although many producers put their best efforts into providing adequate nutrition for their herd...

  12. Supplemental Carbohydrate Sources for Lactating Dairy Cows on Pasture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Delahoy; L. D. Muller; F. Bargo; T. W. Cassidy; L. A. Holden

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate steam- flakedcornandnonforagefibersourcesassupplemental carbohydratesforlactatingdairycowsonpasture.Cows were allotted to a new paddock of an orchardgrass (Dac- tylis glomerata L.) pasture twice daily in one group in both trials. In experiment 1, 28 Holstein cows, averag- ing 216 d in milk, were randomly assigned to either a cracked-corn (CC) or a steam-flaked (SFC) supplement in a split plot

  13. Effect of Feeding Bacillus subtilis natto on Hindgut Fermentation and Microbiota of Holstein Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Song, D. J.; Kang, H. Y.; Wang, J. Q.; Peng, H.; Bu, D. P.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Bacillus subtilis natto on hindgut fermentation and microbiota of early lactation Holstein dairy cows was investigated in this study. Thirty-six Holstein dairy cows in early lactation were randomly allocated to three groups: no B. subtilis natto as the control group, B. subtilis natto with 0.5×1011 cfu as DMF1 group and B. subtilis natto with 1.0×1011 cfu as DMF2 group. After 14 days of adaptation period, the formal experiment was started and lasted for 63 days. Fecal samples were collected directly from the rectum of each animal on the morning at the end of eighth week and placed into sterile plastic bags. The pH, NH3-N and VFA concentration were determined and fecal bacteria DNA was extracted and analyzed by DGGE. The results showed that the addition of B. subtilus natto at either treatment level resulted in a decrease in fecal NH3-N concentration but had no effect on fecal pH and VFA. The DGGE profile revealed that B. subtilis natto affected the population of fecal bacteria. The diversity index of Shannon-Wiener in DFM1 decreased significantly compared to the control. Fecal Alistipes sp., Clostridium sp., Roseospira sp., beta proteobacterium were decreased and Bifidobacterium was increased after supplementing with B. subtilis natto. This study demonstrated that B. subtilis natto had a tendency to change fecal microbiota balance. PMID:25049979

  14. Water salinity effects on performance and rumen parameters of lactating grazing Holstein cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtorta, Silvia E.; Gallardo, Miriam R.; Sbodio, Oscar A.; Revelli, Germán R.; Arakaki, Cristina; Leva, Perla E.; Gaggiotti, Mónica; Tercero, Esteban J.

    2008-01-01

    Eighteen multiparous lactating grazing Holstein cows, 9 ruminally cannulated, average 136.1 ± 14.6 days in milk, were randomly assigned to three treatments consisting of water containing different levels of total dissolved solids (TDS; mg/l): Treatment 1 = 1,000; Treatment 2 = 5,000 and Treatment 3 = 10,000, at the Experimental Dairy Unit at Rafaela Experimental Station (31°11'S latitude) during summer 2005. Animals were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three 28-day experimental periods, with 3 weeks for water adaptation and 1 week for measurements. Feed and water intake, milk production and composition, body weight and condition score and rumen parameters were evaluated. No treatment effects were observed in any of the variables evaluated, with the exception of water intake, which was higher for animals receiving 10,000 mg/l TDS in the drinking water (189 l/day vs. 106 and 122 l/day for cows receiving water with 1,000 and 5,000 mg/l TDS, respectively). Water intake was significantly higher for animals in treatment 10,000 ( P < 0.05). It was concluded that the rumen presents a surprising buffer capacity and that consideration of TDS alone is insufficient to characterize drinking water quality.

  15. Physiology of iron metabolism.

    PubMed

    Waldvogel-Abramowski, Sophie; Waeber, Gérard; Gassner, Christoph; Buser, Andreas; Frey, Beat M; Favrat, Bernard; Tissot, Jean-Daniel

    2014-06-01

    A revolution occurred during the last decade in the comprehension of the physiology as well as in the physiopathology of iron metabolism. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent knowledge that has accumulated, allowing a better comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in iron homeostasis. Iron metabolism is very fine tuned. The free molecule is very toxic; therefore, complex regulatory mechanisms have been developed in mammalian to insure adequate intestinal absorption, transportation, utilization, and elimination. 'Ironomics' certainly will be the future of the understanding of genes as well as of the protein-protein interactions involved in iron metabolism. PMID:25053935

  16. Pioneering in gravitational physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Gravity affects biology at almost all levels above that of the cell organelle. Attention is presently given to progress made in the understanding of gravitational effects through studies employing centrifuges, clinostats, inverted preparations, linear devices, water immersion, free fall, and short- and long-term spaceflight. The cardiovascular changes which cause malaise and illness during the first few days of extended space missions are the direct result of fluid translocation from the lower extremities. Upon reentry, there is hypovolumnia and a cardiovascular deconditioning that can include tachycardia, changes in arterial blood pressure, narrow pulse pressure, and syncope. Attention is also given to NASA's gravitational physiology reseach program.

  17. The Flexible Phenotype: A Body-Centred In-tegration of Ecology, Physiology, and Be-

    E-print Network

    Rubenstein, Dustin R.

    and systems. But physiology is also about studying how living organisms adjust and adapt these systems ani- mals, the central players in this text are really migrant shorebirds, particularly the red knot on the role of the environment, with chapters that discuss phenotypic adaptation, de- sign constraint

  18. Effects of fat-enriched diet and methionine on insulin sensitivity in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Fukumori, R; Sugino, T; Shingu, H; Moriya, N; Kobayashi, H; Yamaji, K; El-Sabagh, M; Hasegawa, Y; Kojima, M; Kangawa, K; Obitsu, T; Nagao, Y; Taniguchi, K; Kushibiki, S

    2015-06-01

    The hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (EGC) technique was used to investigate the effects of calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA-Ca) and rumen-protected Met (RPM) on insulin sensitivity in the peripheral tissues of lactating cows. Six multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square experiment in each 14-d period. Dietary treatments were 0 (RPM0), 20 (RPM20), and 60 (RPM60) g/d of RPM, supplemented with a diet containing 1.5% of LCFA-Ca equal to 110% of the cows' ME requirement. And as a control for the 3 LCFA-Ca-containing diets, a dietary treatment without LCFA-Ca (Con) was also included. After a 10-d adaptation period, milk samples were collected for 4 d, and EGC experiments were performed on d 14 of each treatment period. Insulin solution was infused through a jugular vein catheter at a rate of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 milliunits·kg BW·min for 30 min and then at a rate of 0.5 milliunits·kg BW·min for 60 min. Glucose solution was variably infused to maintain plasma glucose at steady state through the same catheter. Blood samples for measurements were taken using the contralateral catheter. Plasma total cholesterol, cholesterol ester, free cholesterol, and phospholipid concentrations in RPM0 and RPM20 were higher than those in Con, whereas the concentrations in RPM60 were low at the same degree of those in RPM0 ( < 0.05). Plasma Met concentration was greatest in RPM60 ( < 0.05). In the EGC experiment, the glucose infusion rate was greater in RPM60 than in RPM0 and RPM20 and an effective concentration of insulin resulting in 50% maximal glucose infusion rate was lower in RPM60 compared with RPM0 ( < 0.05), indicating that insulin sensitivity was intensified in RPM60. Although the insulin sensitivity evaluated from the EGC data in RPM0, RPM20, and RPM60 was not different from Con, a slight decline was observed in RPM0 and insulin sensitivity in RPM60 was higher than Con. Our results from the EGC experiment demonstrated that the feeding RPM lead to increased insulin sensitivity, which suggests that dietary Met affects lipid metabolism via insulin action in lactating dairy cows fed a LCFA-Ca-containing diet. PMID:26115265

  19. Physiological Requirements for Zinc

    PubMed Central

    Hambidge, K. Michael; Miller, Leland V.; Krebs, Nancy F.

    2015-01-01

    The estimates of zinc physiological requirements by the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG) in 2004 were conspicuously low in comparison with those estimated by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 2001. The objective of this review is to explore the reasons for this gap and to reflect on lessons learned. All estimates of inevitable losses of endogenous zinc, especially intestinal excretion of endogenous zinc, were reviewed. An error in zinc menstrual losses, as well as a minor error in the linear regression of endogenous fecal zinc (EFZ) vs. total daily zinc absorption (TAZ) by IOM, were corrected. The review revealed an error by IZiNCG in selecting two data points for the linear regression of EFZ on TAZ. A second major reason for the “gap” is attributable to weighting of the data in the regression analysis by number of subjects per study by IZiNCG. Adjusting for these factors, together with use of the same reference data for body weights, resulted in satisfactory agreement between the two estimates of physiological requirements. The lessons to be learned from this review are discussed together with suggestions for future action by IOM as well as a constructive role for IZiNCG. PMID:22002220

  20. Efficacy and safety of hydrolyzed cow milk and amino acid–derived formulas in infants with cow milk allergy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erika Isolauri; Yelda Sütas; Soili Mäkinen-Kiljunen; Simo S. Oja; Riitta Isosomppi; Kristiina Turjanmaa

    1995-01-01

    Objective: To determine the antigenicity, nutritional adequacy, and growth-promoting efficacy of protein hydrolysate or amino acid–derived formulas in infants with cow milk allergy. Study design: Several protein hydrolysate or amino acid–derived formulas were graded for ?-lactoglobulin content and skin reactivity in 74 atopic children with cow milk allergy proved by a double-blind, placebo-controlled challenge. A randomized, prospective follow-up study of

  1. Investigation of the persistence of triclabendazole residues in bovine milk following lactating-cow and dry-cow treatments.

    PubMed

    Power, C; Whelan, M; Danaher, M; Bloemhoff, Y; Sayers, R; O'Brien, B; Furey, A; Jordan, K

    2013-01-01

    Triclabendazole is a flukicide used in the treatment of liver fluke in cattle. However, its use in the treatment of liver fluke is prohibited in dairy cows. In this work, two independent studies were designed to investigate the persistence of triclabendazole residues in milk following the administration of 10% Fasinex® as dry-cow and lactating-cow treatments. In the dry-cow study, 36 in-calf dairy cows were treated with a commercial product, 10% Fasinex(®), at drying-off and three triclabendazole residues (triclabendazole, triclabendazole sulphoxide and triclabendazole sulphone) were monitored in the milk following calving, approximately 60 days post-treatment. No residues were measurable in the milk of the 36 cows tested - the LOQ of the method was 1.00 µg kg(-1). In the lactating-cow study, the persistence of four triclabendazole residues was investigated in the milk of six dairy cows. The highest levels of triclabendazole, triclabendazole sulphoxide, triclabendazole sulphone and keto-triclabendazole residues measured in individual milk samples were 244, 525, 1710 and 16 ?g kg(-1), respectively. Residues of triclabendazole, triclabendazole sulphoxide, triclabendazole sulphone and keto-triclabendazole were detectable in milk for up to 5.5, 15.5, 20 and 5 days post-treatment, respectively. Triclabendazole sulphone was found to be the most important residue, accounting for >87% of marker residues at ?3.5 days following drug administration. These results indicate that following treatment at drying-off, triclabendazole residues in milk post-calving are well below the current MRL. Therefore, triclabendazole is a suitable flukicide for use during the dry period. PMID:23697867

  2. Relationship of psychological and physiological parameters during an arctic ski expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Sheryl L.; Grobler, Lukas C.; SchjØll, Olaf

    2001-08-01

    Considerable data (primarily physiological) have been collected during expeditions in extreme environments over the last century. Physiological measurements have only recently been examined in association with the emotional or behavioral state of the subject. Establishing this psychophysiological relationship is essential to understanding fully the adaptation of humans to the stresses of extreme environments. This pilot study investigated the simultaneous collection of physiological, psychological and behavioral data from a two-man Greenland expedition in order to model how specific relationships between physiological and psychological adaptation to a polar environment may be identified. The data collected describes changes in adrenal and other hormonal activity and psychological functioning. Levels of cortisol and testosterone were calculated. Factors influencing the plasma profiles of the aforementioned included 24-hour sunlight, high calorific intake of more than 28 000 kJ/day and extreme physical exercise. There was a difference between individual psychological profiles as well as self-report stress and physiological stress.

  3. Evolutionary history underlies plant physiological responses to global change since the last glacial maximum.

    PubMed

    Becklin, Katie M; Medeiros, Juliana S; Sale, Kayla R; Ward, Joy K

    2014-06-01

    Assessing family- and species-level variation in physiological responses to global change across geologic time is critical for understanding factors that underlie changes in species distributions and community composition. Here, we used stable carbon isotopes, leaf nitrogen content and stomatal measurements to assess changes in leaf-level physiology in a mixed conifer community that underwent significant changes in composition since the last glacial maximum (LGM) (21 kyr BP). Our results indicate that most plant taxa decreased stomatal conductance and/or maximum photosynthetic capacity in response to changing conditions since the LGM. However, plant families and species differed in the timing and magnitude of these physiological responses, and responses were more similar within families than within co-occurring species assemblages. This suggests that adaptation at the level of leaf physiology may not be the main determinant of shifts in community composition, and that plant evolutionary history may drive physiological adaptation to global change over recent geologic time. PMID:24636555

  4. Evolutionary history underlies plant physiological responses to global change since the last glacial maximum

    PubMed Central

    Becklin, Katie M.; Medeiros, Juliana S.; Sale, Kayla R.; Ward, Joy K.

    2014-01-01

    Assessing family- and species-level variation in physiological responses to global change across geologic time is critical for understanding factors that underlie changes in species distributions and community composition. Here, we used stable carbon isotopes, leaf nitrogen content and stomatal measurements to assess changes in leaf-level physiology in a mixed conifer community that underwent significant changes in composition since the last glacial maximum (LGM) (21 kyr BP). Our results indicate that most plant taxa decreased stomatal conductance and/or maximum photosynthetic capacity in response to changing conditions since the LGM. However, plant families and species differed in the timing and magnitude of these physiological responses, and responses were more similar within families than within co-occurring species assemblages. This suggests that adaptation at the level of leaf physiology may not be the main determinant of shifts in community composition, and that plant evolutionary history may drive physiological adaptation to global change over recent geologic time. PMID:24636555

  5. Rumen bypass and biodistribution of l-carnitine from dual-layered coated pellets in cows, in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qing-Ri; Lee, Eung-Seok; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Cho, Chong-Su; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2008-07-01

    A ruman bypass delivery system was investigated to improve the delivery efficiency of L-carnitine in biological samples of cows. Highly water-soluble L-carnitine used for dietary supplement in ruminants was chosen. L-Carnitine-loaded compact pellets were prepared by extrusion method and then coated with various coating materials such as ethylcellulose (EC), Eudragit E100 (E100), Eudragit RS100 (RS100), stearyl alcohol and glyceryl monostearate, for single-layered coated pellets (SCP). Two types of dual-layered coated pellets (DCP) were also designed as DCP-A (inner E100/outer EC) or DCP-B (inner EC/outer E100). Preparation of compact pellet and methods of polymeric coatings are the most important strategies for modulated release and rumen bypass efficiency based on chewing behaviors and physiology of veterinary species. DCPs were more efficient in retarding L-carnitine release in rumen fluid (pH 6.8) than the SCP but DCP-B gave much faster release in abomasums fluid (pH 1.2). Both DCP-A and DCP-B showed high in vivo rumen bypass efficiency in cows compared with the nonprotected preparation and most of l-carnitine was readily absorbed. DCP-B was also efficient for delivering L-carnitine in biological samples of cows, mainly in muscle but no statistical differences were observed among the tested preparations after the multiple oral feeding to cows for 3 months. Interestingly, DCP-B produced higher L-carnitine levels in milk in a dose-dependent manner. However, delivery efficiency of L-carnitine preparations in biological samples of cows would rather be more dependent on feeding schedules. PMID:18448287

  6. Human Physiological Responses to Acute and Chronic Cold Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocks, Jodie M.; Taylor, Nigel A. S.; Tipton, Michael J.; Greenleaf, John E.

    2001-01-01

    When inadequately protected humans are exposed to acute cold, excessive body heat is lost to the environment and unless heat production is increased and heat loss attenuated, body temperature will decrease. The primary physiological responses to counter the reduction in body temperature include marked cutaneous vasoconstriction and increased metabolism. These responses, and the hazards associated with such exposure, are mediated by a number of factors which contribute to heat production and loss. These include the severity and duration of the cold stimulus; exercise intensity; the magnitude of the metabolic response; and individual characteristics such as body composition, age, and gender. Chronic exposure to a cold environment, both natural and artificial, results in physiological alterations leading to adaptation. Three quite different, but not necessarily exclusive, patterns of human cold adaptation have been reported: metabolic, hypothermic, and insulative. Cold adaptation has also been associated with an habituation response, in which there is a desensitization, or damping, of the normal response to a cold stress. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the human physiological and pathological responses to cold exposure. Particular attention is directed to the factors contributing to heat production and heat loss during acute cold stress, and the ability of humans to adapt to cold environments.

  7. Effects of herbage allowance of native grasslands in purebred and crossbred beef cows: metabolic, endocrine and hepatic gene expression profiles through the gestation-lactation cycle.

    PubMed

    Laporta, J; Astessiano, A L; López-Mazz, C; Soca, P; Espasandin, A C; Carriquiry, M

    2014-05-12

    Our objective was to evaluate the metabolic, endocrine and hepatic mRNA profiles through the gestation-lactation cycle in purebred (PU: Angus and Hereford) and crossbred (CR: reciprocal F1 crosses) mutliparous beef cows (n=32), grazing on two herbage allowances of native pastures (2.5 v. 4 kg dry matter/kg BW; LO v. HI) and their associations with cow's productive performance (calf birth weight, milk production and commencement of luteal activity). Cow BW, body condition score (BCS) and blood samples were collected monthly, starting at -165 days relative to calving (days), and every 2 weeks after calving until +60 days of lactation. Liver biopsies were collected at -165, -75, -45, -15±10, and +15 and +60±3 days. Metabolic, endocrine and hepatic gene expression profiles, and calf birth weight, milk yield and postpartum commencement of luteal activity were evaluated. Overall, the most pronounced changes in metabolic, endocrine and hepatic gene expression occurred during winter gestation (-165 to -45 days), when all cows experienced the onset of a negative energy balance (decreased BCS, glucose and insulin, and increased non-esterified fatty acid concentrations, P<0.008). Concentrations of insulin and IGF-I were greater (P<0.037) in HI than in LO cows. However, serum IGF-I concentrations and hepatic growth hormone receptor (GHR) and IGF1 mRNA decreased (P<0.05) during the winter gestation period only in HI cows. Although IGF-I concentrations decreased (P<0.05) during the early postpartum (-15 v.+15 days) for all cows, the typical molecular mechanism that control the uncoupling of the growth hormone-IGF1 axis during the transition period of the dairy cattle (reduced hepatic GHR1A and IGF-I mRNA) was not observed in this study. The hepatic mRNA expression of key transcripts involved in gluconeogenesis and fatty-acid oxidation were upregulated (P<0.05) during winter gestation (from -165 to -45, -15 or +15 days, depending on the cow groups). Particularly, acyl-CoA oxidase-1 mRNA was greater for CR than for PU cows during winter gestation (-75 and -45 days), and fibroblast growth factor-21 mRNA was downregulated (P<0.01) only for HI cows during the transition (-15 v. 15 days) and lactation period (+15 to +60 days, P<0.01). These results, together with the greater BCS, estimated energy intake, increased milk yield and shorter commencement of luteal activity in HI than in LO, and in CR than in PU cows (P<0.018), would indicate that HI and CR cows were able to adapt more efficiently to changes in nutrient and energy supply through the gestation-lactation cycle. PMID:24815925

  8. "Their pineal glands aglow": Theosophical physiology in Ulysses.

    PubMed

    Morrisson, Mark S

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that Joyce's engagements with the Theosophy of the Dublin literary world amount to more than simple parody. In Ulysses, Joyce portrays Theosophy's efforts to offer an alternative understanding of physiology to that of the medical establishment as a form of boundary work, an adaptation of the discourse of modern medical research to fashion modern mysticism as a science. Ultimately, Joyce rejects Theosophical physiology and its evolutionary scientism because it provides an unsatisfactory rhetorical body, a failed attempt to renegotiate the boundaries between scientific materialism and spirituality in the awkward modernity of Dublin in 1904. PMID:20836274

  9. An overview of undergraduate physiology education in Turkish medical faculties

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dicle Balkanci (Hacettepe University)

    2008-12-01

    The immune system is a vital physiological component that affords animals protection from disease and is composed of innate and adaptive mechanisms that rely on cellular and dissolved components. The serum complement system is a series of dissolved proteins that protect against a variety of pathogens. The activity of complement in serum can be determined by its ability to lyse red blood cells in vitro. Here, we describe a modification of a standard complement hemolysis assay that makes an interesting and informative laboratory exercise suitable for a variety of courses including physiology.

  10. Serum zinc concentration in exclusively breast-fed infants and in infants fed an adapted formula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Vigi; R. Chierici; L. Osti; F. Fagioli; R. Reseazzi

    1984-01-01

    Serum zinc concentrations have been determined in 28 healthy full-term Italian infants of both sexes at birth, as well as at 3 and at 5 months of age. Fourteen exclusively breast-fed infants who served as a control group were compared with 14 infants fed a cow's milk based adapted infant formula. No significant differences in serum zinc concentration between the

  11. The Electroretinogram of the Horseshoe Crab, Limulus polyphemus: A Laboratory Exercise in Sensory Physiology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Robert A. Linsenmeier (Northwestern University; )

    2008-04-11

    The eye of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus represents an easily-excised and durable preparation for investigating various parameters of a typical sensory system. One can study the time course of dark adaptation as well as the dependence of response amplitude and latency on stimulus intensity in both the dark-adapted and light-adapted eye. Requirements for specialized, technical equipment are minimal. Suitable for undergraduates in advanced general biology, physiology, and special projects.

  12. Fractal Forms in Physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Bruce J.

    The natural variability in physiological structure is herein related to the geometric concept of a fractal. The average dimensions of the branches in the tracheobronchial tree, long thought to be exponential, are shown to be an inverse power law of the generation number modulated by a harmonic variation. A similar functional form is found for the power spectrum of the QRS-complex of the healthy human heart. These results follow from the assumption that the bronchial tree and the cardiac conduction system are fractal forms. The fractal concept provides a mechanism for the morphogenesis of complex structures which are more stable than those generated by classical scaling (i.e., they are more error tolerant).

  13. Physiology Concepts and Physiology Problems for Biomedical Engineering Students

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gatchell, David

    Physiology is a core element of an undergraduate biomedical engineering curriculum, although programs differ in whether the biomedical engineering faculty or biology faculty teach these courses, and in whether physiology is taught in stand-alone courses or incorporated into other courses. Here we first present an analysis of the concepts and topics in physiology that are viewed by biomedical engineering faculty and by representatives of industry as being most important for biomedical engineers to learn. We also provide information on the importance of other topics in biology for the biomedical engineering curriculum. Biomedical engineering students need to be able to work with quantitative aspects of physiology and need practice applying engineering concepts to physiological systems. However, many physiology texts appropriate for undergraduates avoid quantitative analysis, and provide few problems to develop the students use of mathematics or engineering tools in the context of physiology. As a result, we have begun the development of a resource of quantitative homework problems from which individual problems can be selected and linked to any physiology course.

  14. Induced hyperketonemia affects the mammary immune response during lipopolysaccharide challenge in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zarrin, M; Wellnitz, O; van Dorland, H A; Bruckmaier, R M

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic adaptations during negative energy and nutrient balance in dairy cows are thought to cause impaired immune function and hence increased risk of infectious diseases, including mastitis. Characteristic adaptations mostly occurring in early lactation are an elevation of plasma ketone bodies and free fatty acids (nonesterified fatty acids, NEFA) and diminished glucose concentration. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of elevated plasma ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) at simultaneously even or positive energy balance and thus normal plasma NEFA and glucose on factors related to the immune system in liver and mammary gland of dairy cows. In addition, we investigated the effect of elevated plasma BHBA and intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge on the mammary immune response. Thirteen dairy cows were infused either with BHBA (HyperB, n=5) to induce hyperketonemia (1.7 mmol/L) or with a 0.9% saline solution (NaCl, n=8) for 56 h. Two udder quarters were injected with 200 ?g of LPS after 48 h of infusion. Rectal temperature (RT) and somatic cell counts (SCC) were measured before, at 48 h after the start of infusions, and hourly during the LPS challenge. The mRNA abundance of factors related to the immune system was measured in hepatic and mammary tissue biopsies 1 wk before and 48 h after the start of the infusion, and additionally in mammary tissue at 56 h of infusion (8h after LPS administration). At 48 h of infusion in HyperB, the mRNA abundance of serum amyloid A (SAA) in the mammary gland was increased and that of haptoglobin (Hp) tended to be increased. Rectal temperature, SCC, and mRNA abundance of candidate genes in the liver were not affected by the BHBA infusion until 48 h. During the following LPS challenge, RT and SCC increased in both groups. However, SCC increased less in HyperB than in NaCl. Quarters infused with LPS showed a more pronounced increase of mRNA abundance of IL-8 and IL-10 in HyperB than in NaCl. The results demonstrate that an increase of plasma BHBA upregulates acute phase proteins in the mammary gland. In response to intramammary LPS challenge, elevated BHBA diminishes the influx of leukocytes from blood into milk, perhaps by via modified cytokine synthesis. Results indicate that increased ketone body plasma concentrations may play a crucial role in the higher mastitis susceptibility in early lactation. PMID:24239080

  15. Effects of Dietary Energy Density and Intake on Maintenance Energy Requirements in Beef Cows 

    E-print Network

    Trubenbach, Levi Anthony

    2014-12-11

    nutritional manipulation strategies to optimize cow efficiency. An experiment was conducted to analyze the effects of dietary energy density and intake on maintenance energy requirements in beef cows. In a 2 x 2 factorial treatment arrangement, thirty...

  16. A proposed classification of environmental adaptation: the example of high altitude

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Paul Richalet

    2007-01-01

    Extreme environments are defined as the opposite of usual environments where the evoked physiological responses are unperceivable,\\u000a repeatable and adjusted to the constraint. Adaptation strategies to a given environment show three levels: cultural or technological, where a buffer space is built to protect the organism from the hostile milieu, physiological, where temporary adaptive mechanisms are developed, and genetic, where full

  17. A proposed classification of environmental adaptation: the example of high altitude

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Paul Richalet

    Extreme environments are defined as the opposite of usual environments where the evoked physiological responses are unperceivable,\\u000a repeatable and adjusted to the constraint. Adaptation strategies to a given environment show three levels: cultural or technological, where a buffer space is built to protect the organism from the hostile milieu, physiological, where temporary adaptive mechanisms are developed, and genetic, where full

  18. Mutual adaptive interface: laboratory experiments for human state estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osamu Kubo; Makoto Takahashi; Hidekazu Yoshikawa

    1993-01-01

    The validity of the human state estimation method based on the physiological measures as the source information for the mutual adaptive interface (MADI) proposed in the preceding paper has been shown through the laboratory experiments. The neural network has been adopted as the real-time estimation method for the short term state. The statistical properties of the physiological measures are shown

  19. Prepartum nutritional strategy affects reproductive performance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, F C; LeBlanc, S J; Murphy, M R; Drackley, J K

    2013-09-01

    Negative energy balance during early postpartum is associated with reduced reproductive performance in dairy cows. A pooled statistical analysis of 7 studies completed in our group from 1993 to 2010 was conducted to investigate the association between prepartum energy feeding regimen and reproductive performance. The interval from calving to pregnancy (days to pregnancy, DTP) was the dependent variable to assess reproductive performance. Individual data for 408 cows (354 multiparous and 54 primiparous) were included in the analysis. The net energy for lactation (NEL) intake was determined from each cow's average dry matter intake and calculated dietary NEL density. Treatments applied prepartum were classified as either controlled-energy (CE; limited NEL intake to ?100% of requirement) or high-energy (HE; cows were allowed to consume >100%) diets fed during the far-off (FO) or close-up (CU) dry periods. Cow was the experimental unit. The Cox proportional hazard model revealed that days to pregnancy was shorter for CE (median=157 d) than HE (median=167 d) diets during the CU period [hazard ratio (HR)=0.70]. Cows fed HE diets during the last 4 wk prepartum lost more body condition score in the first 6 wk postpartum than those fed CE diets (-0.43 and -0.30, respectively). Cows fed CE diets during the FO period had lower nonesterified fatty acids concentrations in wk 1, 2, and 3 of lactation than cows fed HE diets. Higher nonesterified fatty acids concentration in wk 1 postpartum was associated with a greater probability of disease (n=251; odds ratio=1.18). Cows on the CE regimen during the FO period had greater plasma glucose concentrations during wk 1 and 3 after calving than cows fed the HE regimen. Higher plasma glucose (HG) concentration compared with lower glucose (LG) in wk 3 (HG: n=154; LG: n=206) and wk 4 (HG: n=71; LG: n=254) after calving was associated with shorter days to pregnancy (wk 3: median=151 and 171 d for HG and LG, respectively, and HR=1.3; wk 4: median=148 and 167 d, respectively, and HR=1.4). In the first 2 wk after calving, cows that received HE diets in the FO period had higher concentrations of total lipids and triglyceride and greater ratio of triglyceride to glycogen in liver than cows fed CE diets. In conclusion, cows fed CE diets during the CU period had a shorter interval between parturition and conception, which may be explained by increased NEL intake during the first 4 wk postpartum and lower incidence of peripartal diseases. Lower body condition score loss during the first 6 wk postpartum and slightly higher glucose concentration at wk 3 likely contributed to improved reproductive performance. PMID:23810594

  20. Defining the Molecular and Physiological Role of Leaf Cuticular Waxes in Reproductive Stage Heat Tolerane in Wheat

    E-print Network

    Mondal, Suchismita

    2012-07-16

    In wheat, cooler canopies have been associated with yield under high temperature stress. The objectives of this study were, i) to understand the role of leaf cuticular waxes as physiological adaptive mechanisms during reproductive stage high...

  1. Cow biological type affects ground beef colour stability.

    PubMed

    Raines, Christopher R; Hunt, Melvin C; Unruh, John A

    2009-12-01

    To determine the effects of cow biological type on colour stability of ground beef, M. semimembranosus from beef-type (BSM) and dairy-type (DSM) cows was obtained 5d postmortem. Three blends (100% BSM, 50% BSM+50% DSM, 100% DSM) were adjusted to 90% and 80% lean points using either young beef trim (YBT) or beef cow trim (BCT), then packaged in high oxygen (High-O(2); 80% O(2)) modified atmosphere (MAP). The BSM+YBT patties had the brightest colour initially, but discoloured rapidly. Although DSM+BCT patties had the darkest colour initially, they discoloured least during display. Metmyoglobin reducing ability of ground DSM was up to fivefold greater than ground BSM, and TBARS values of BSM was twofold greater than DSM by the end of display (4d). Though initially darker than beef cow lean, dairy cow lean has a longer display colour life and may be advantageous to retailers using High-O(2) MAP. PMID:20416626

  2. Fatty infiltration of liver in spontaneously ketotic dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gröhn, Y; Lindberg, L A; Bruss, M L; Farver, T B

    1983-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain 1) fatty infiltration of the liver in spontaneously ketotic cows and 2) the most appropriate blood components to aid diagnosis of ketotic fatty liver. Liver biopsies and blood samples were obtained under field conditions. Cows were divided into three groups (healthy, mildly ketotic, and severely ketotic) by their blood ketone body concentrations. Severely ketotic cows had a greater percent fat in the liver than healthy cows. The mildly ketotic group fell between the other two groups and was significantly different from only the severely ketotic group. There was a positive correlation between fatty infiltration and blood ketone body concentrations but a negative correlation with glucose concentrations. Liver-specific enzymes were positively correlated with fatty infiltration. Only ornithine carbamoyltransferase and iditol (sorbitol) dehydrogenase could be used to separate healthy cows from those with severe ketosis. The best equation to explain the variation of percent fat in liver included concentration of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and logarithm of ornithine carbamoyltransferase concentration (Log-OCT): % Fat = -6.15 + 2.39 (BHB) + 11.7 (LogOCT) Although this equation explained 39.5% of the variation, it could not be used to predict reliably percent fat in the liver. Liver biopsy seems still to be the only reliable method of measuring of fatty infiltration in the liver. PMID:6655090

  3. Survival and fertility of dairy cows following uterine prolapse.

    PubMed

    Oakley, G E

    1992-09-01

    During the springs of the 1990-91 and 1991-92 dairying seasons, 103 cases of uterine prolapse in dairy cows were treated and then followed to determine the survival rate and the pregnancy rate of the remaining cows. It was found that 19 (18.4%) cows died within 24 hours of treatment and a further 16 (15.5%) died or were lost to the study during the course of the season. The 68 cows that remained were mated, and of these 53 (77.9%) were found to be pregnant and six (8.8%) aborted later. No cows suffered a repeat prolapse during the season. Cases were seen in all age groups, with the highest incidence in this study occurring in the 4 year-olds. All cases that survived went on to milk satisfactorily until the end of the season, indicating that prompt attention to uterine prolapse gives a reasonable survival rate and an acceptable conception rate. PMID:16031674

  4. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium among dairy cows in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Siripanth, Chutatip; Stich, Roger W

    2006-10-01

    Cryptosporidium species are frequently associated with diarrhea among AIDS patients in Thailand, and dairy herds are a possible source of some of these infections. A cross-sectional study was performed to determine if Cryptosporidium is present among dairy cows in Thailand. Fecal samples were randomly collected from 363 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from 108 of 860 farms in the Nong Pho region of central Thailand. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium among dairy cows was 9.4%, according to an assay for Cryptosporidium-specific antigen (CSA) and 0.6% by microscopic examination of acid-fast stained feces. CSA was detected in all host age categories tested, but was most prevalent among calves (15.1%). Overall, 31.5% of farms were contaminated with Cryptosporidium infections. Fifty percent of poorly managed farms had CSA-positive cows, which were more likely to contaminate water and raw milk, while 12.9% of farms with acceptable management practices had CSA-positive cows. There was no association between the detection of Cryptosporidium and other gastrointestinal parasites. These results indicate that Cryptosporidium is enzootic among Thai dairy cattle, and suggest that cattle could have a role in zoonotic cryptosporidiosis in Thailand. PMID:17135534

  5. Butter Tolerance in Children Allergic to Cow's Milk

    PubMed Central

    Minoura, Takanori; Kitaoka, Setsuko

    2015-01-01

    We performed an oral food challenge (OFC) with 10 g of butter (equivalent of 2.9 mL cow's milk) and 25-mL heated cow's milk for 68 children with cow's milk-allergy. Thirty-eight children reacted only to heated cow's milk. Twenty-four children reacted to neither heated milk nor butter. Thirty-eight (86.4%) of 44 patients with positive results to the OFC for heated milk could safely tolerate butter. It is highly likely that even children with cow's milk-allergy who show positive results to an OFC for heated milk can consume butter. The milk-specific IgE value indicative of a negative predictive value of over 95% was 17.8 kUA/L, and patients with low milk-specific IgE values may be able to safely consume butter. Including butter in the diets of patients with milk-allergy after a butter challenge may improve quality of life. PMID:25729626

  6. NEUROBIOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY Graduation Requirements

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Wen

    NEUROBIOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY Graduation Requirements: A minimum 2.0 average in all biology courses 28600 Introduction to Ecology (2 cr.; spring) 9. One of these four options: (Neurobiology and Physiology Neurobiology (3 cr.; fall)) C. BIOL 53800 Molecular, Cellular & Developmental Neurobiology (3 cr.; spring) D

  7. The physiology of the tunnel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan J. Blackmore; Tom S. Troscianko

    1989-01-01

    Several theories to account for the origin of tunnel hallucinations and tunnel experiences near death are considered: (1) the idea of a “real” tunnel; (2) representations of transition; (3) reliving birth memories; (4) imagination; and (5) physiological origins. Three different physiological theories are considered that related the tunnel form to the structure of the visual cortex. All can account for

  8. Postdoctoral Fellow Neural Cardiovascular Physiology

    E-print Network

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    or ancestry, sex, gender, disability, veteran status, genetic information, sexual orientation, or genderPostdoctoral Fellow Neural Cardiovascular Physiology Job Description A postdoctoral position and physiological roles of new components of the renin-angiotensin system in the regulation of cardiovascular

  9. Physiological spacecraft environment data documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The physiological limits of exposure to environmental parameters encountered during space flight was documented. The environmental limits which have been previously established were described in terms of acceptable physiological changes. The process of coordinating data and assembling the completed data book is described in this report.

  10. THE EFFECT OF SOLANUM GLAUCOPHYLLUM ON CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS UTILIZATION IN LACTATING COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the study was to determine if Solanum glaucophyllum (Sg) could serve as a source of 1,25(OH)2D3 to increase calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) utilization and, therefore, decrease fecal Ca and P excretion in lactating cows. Ten primiparous, lactating Holstein cows were used. Four cows ...

  11. Performance of dairy cows fed forage treated with fibrolytic enzymes prior to feeding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R Dhiman; M. S Zaman; R. R Gimenez; J. L Walters; R Treacher

    2002-01-01

    Fifty multiparous Holstein dairy cows in early lactation were used to evaluate production responses to cellulase, xylanase and ferulic acid esterase (FAE) enzyme application on the forage portion of the diet. Cows were assigned to five treatments in a randomized complete block design experiment. During weeks 10–21 of lactation, cows were fed a basal diet (CTL), or a basal diet

  12. [Study of hepatic steatosis at the start of lactation in dairy cows consuming grass silage].

    PubMed

    Mazur, A; Bazin, S; Rayssiguier, Y

    1988-01-01

    A survey of the incidence of post-parturient fatty liver in high yielding dairy cows was carried out on 74 cows from 34 dairy herds fed grass silage. Triglyceride determination in liver biopsies indicated that 20% of the cows had a moderate or severe fatty liver between 5 and 21 days postpartum. PMID:3254595

  13. The comparative evaluation of uterine and cervical mucosa cytology with endometrial histopathology in cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Ahmadi; A. Khodakaram Tafti; S. Nazifi; H. R. Ghaisari

    2005-01-01

    Reproductive tract abnormalities especially in the uterus and ovaries of cows often results in infertility. The object of this study was to determine the relationship between the cytology of uterine and cervical mucosa and endometrial histopathology in normal and endometritic cows. In this study, the genital tracts of 131 slaughtered cows were collected. According to macroscopic appearances and histopathological evaluation,

  14. Effect of grass maturity and starch supplementation on nutrient digestibility in dairy cows

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of grass maturity and starch supplementation on nutrient digestibility in dairy cows AM van Box 160, 8200 AD Lelystad, The Netherlands Digestion of fibre from more mature grass is lower than forage maturity and starch supplementation in dairy cows. Four lactating cows were fed totally mixed

  15. STATE AND NATIONAL STANDARDIZED LACTATION AVERAGES BY BREED FOR COWS CALVING IN 2000

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Means for dairy cow lactation data used in national genetic evaluations and other USDA research are useful for indicating trends and describing cow populations. Breed lactation means are on a 305-day, twice daily milking, mature-equivalent basis from cows contributing to genetic evaluations. Data fo...

  16. EFFECTS OF STALL SURFACE ON OCCUPACY AND POSTURAL CHANGES IN DAIRY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A great deal of concern is allotted toward dairy cow comfort in order to optimize both cow welfare and milk production. Toward this end, producers are utilizing various stall surfaces in order to optimize cow comfort, while at the same time decreasing health concerns. Experiment 1 was designed to ...

  17. The effect of floor surface on dairy cow immune function and locomotion score

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study evaluated the effect of 2 dairy cow housing systems on cow locomotion, leukocyte activity and expression of genes associated with lameness, during the dry and peri-parturient period. Cows were assigned to free-stall housing with either rubber (RUB; n=13) or concrete (CON; n=14) at the feed...

  18. A SURVEY OF COW-CALF PRODUCERS IN OREGON AND NEVADA - PRODUCTION PRACTICES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2004 we developed a survey and sent it to cow-calf producers throughout Oregon. The survey posed 22 questions related to cow management, female replacement programs, bull management, and annual cow-herd economics. The survey was mailed to the 2,090 members of the Oregon Cattleman’s Association ...

  19. Texture of Butter from Cows with Different Milk Fatty Acid Compositions1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Bobe; E. G. Hammond; A. E. Freeman; G. L. Lindberg; D. C. Beitz

    2003-01-01

    Milk fatty acid composition and textural properties of butter are known to be affected by the cows' diets. We examined the phenotypic variation in milk fatty acid composition among cows fed the same diet to see if the variation was sufficient to produce butter with different textural properties. Ten cows were selected that tested higher (n = 5) or lower

  20. Strategies for Managing Reproduction in the Heat-Stressed Dairy Cow1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Hansen; C. F. Arechiga

    1999-01-01

    Establishment and maintenance of pregnancy is difficult in lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress because of reductions in estrous detection rate and the proportion of inseminated cows that maintain pregnancy. The most common approach to ameliorate heat stress in developed countries has been to alter the cow's environment through provision of shade, fans, sprinklers, and so on. Nonetheless, seasonal

  1. State and National Standardized Lactation Averages by Breed for Cows Calving in 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Means for dairy cow lactation data used in national genetic evaluations and other USDA research are useful for indicating trends and describing cow populations. Breed lactation means are on a 305-day, twice daily milking, mature-equivalent basis from cows contributing to genetic evaluations. Data fo...

  2. INFLUENCE OF COW SIZE AND BREED TYPE ON ENERGY REQUIREMENTS 1 ,2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Lemenager; L. A. Nelson; K. S. Hendrix

    Summary Two studies were conducted to determine how cow size and breed type affect TDN requirements during the last trimester of gestation and to evaluate the effects of milk production potential on TDN needs. Cows studied were Hereford (HH), Angus x Hereford (AH), Charolais x Hereford (CH) and Brown Swiss x Hereford (SH). Weight loss was about 13 kg\\/cow during

  3. Analysis of Reproductive Performance of Lactating Cows on Large Dairy Farms Using Machine Learning Algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Z. Caraviello; K. A. Weigel; M. Craven; D. Gianola; N. B. Cook; K. V. Nordlund; P. M. Fricke; M. C. Wiltbank

    2006-01-01

    The fertility of lactating dairy cows is economically important, but the mean reproductive performance of Holstein cows has declined during the past 3 decades. Traits such as first-service conception rate and preg- nancy status at 150 d in milk (DIM) are influenced by numerousexplanatory factorscommon tospecific farms or individual cows on these farms. Machine learning algorithms offer great flexibility with

  4. State and national standardized lactation averages by breed for cows calving in 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Means for dairy cow lactation data used in national genetic evaluations and other USDA research are useful for indicating trends and describing cow populations. Breed lactation means are on a 305-day, twice daily milking, mature-equivalent basis from cows contributing to genetic evaluations. Data fo...

  5. SUPPLEMENTAL METHIONINE AND UREA FOR GESTATING BEEF COWS CONSUMING LOW QUALITY FORAGE DIETS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies conducted to evaluate Met requirements for late gestating beef cows consuming low quality forages. Inadequate supply of metabolizable AA may limit protein accretion during pregnancy in beef cows. In Exp. 1, two ruminally cannulated non-gestating non- lactating cows were utilized in a flow s...

  6. Improving Energy Supply to Late Gestation and Early Postpartum Dairy Cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. Dann; G. A. Varga; D. E. Putnam

    1999-01-01

    Sixty-five multiparous Holstein cows were used to test the effects of feeding diets of varied ruminal carbohydrate availability during the transition period on dry matter intake, blood metabolites, and lacta- tional performance. Cows received total mixed rations containing either cracked corn or steam-flaked corn beginning 28 d prior to expected calving date. At parturition, cows were assigned to a postpartum

  7. Phospholipids and Fat Secretion by Cows on Normal and Low Fiber Diets: Lactational Trends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Kinsella; G. Houghton

    1975-01-01

    Daily yields of milk, milk fat, phos- pholipids, and fatty acids were measured weekly during lactations of two groups of cows on a normal and restricted roughage diet. Milk yield was higher in normal cows during the initial 15 wk of lactation. Fat production decreased and was consis- tently lower in milk from cows on re- stricted roughage (from 1.2

  8. Physiological correlates of mental workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zacharias, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to assess the basis of and techniques for physiological assessment of mental workload. The study findings reviewed had shortcomings involving one or more of the following basic problems: (1) physiologic arousal can be easily driven by nonworkload factors, confounding any proposed metric; (2) the profound absence of underlying physiologic models has promulgated a multiplicity of seemingly arbitrary signal processing techniques; (3) the unspecified multidimensional nature of physiological "state" has given rise to a broad spectrum of competing noncommensurate metrics; and (4) the lack of an adequate definition of workload compels physiologic correlations to suffer either from the vagueness of implicit workload measures or from the variance of explicit subjective assessments. Using specific studies as examples, two basic signal processing/data reduction techniques in current use, time and ensemble averaging are discussed.

  9. The effect of stocking rate and calving date on reproductive performance, body state, and metabolic and health parameters of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, B; Pierce, K M; Delaby, L; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2012-03-01

    Two groups of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows with different mean calving dates (CD) were established from within the existing research herd at Moorepark (Teagasc, Ireland). Animals were assigned to either an early calving (mean CD February 12) treatment or a late calving (mean CD February 25) treatment. Animals within each CD treatment were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 stocking rate (SR) treatments, low (2.51 cows/ha), medium (2.92 cows/ha), or high (3.28 cows/ha), which were designed to represent 3 alternative whole-farm SR in a spring-calving, grass-based milk production system following abolition of the European Union milk quotas. A total of 138 spring-calving dairy cows, comprising 2 strains of Holstein-Friesian, North American (NA) and New Zealand (NZ), were used in each year (2009 and 2010). The effects of CD, SR treatment, genetic strain, and their interactions on reproductive performance, body weight, body condition score, blood metabolites, hormone and immunological parameters, and health status were analyzed. Stocking rate and CD had no effect on pregnancy rates, immunological parameters, or health status, although a tendency was observed for more reproductive intervention as SR increased. Earlier calving and increased SR also resulted in reduced body weight, body condition score, and metabolic status in early lactation. Strain of Holstein-Friesian also affected reproductive performance. The NZ strain tended to have a higher submission rate and 42 d pregnancy rate compared with the NA strain, and a strain by SR interaction was observed for pregnancy rate to first service. Earlier calving and increased SR can be achieved without adverse effects on overall pregnancy rates. The existence of a SR by strain interaction for several reproductive variables suggests that the smaller NZ strain is better adapted to increased SR systems. PMID:22365215

  10. Oxygen in demand: How oxygen has shaped vertebrate physiology.

    PubMed

    Dzal, Yvonne A; Jenkin, Sarah E M; Lague, Sabine L; Reichert, Michelle N; York, Julia M; Pamenter, Matthew E

    2015-08-01

    In response to varying environmental and physiological challenges, vertebrates have evolved complex and often overlapping systems. These systems detect changes in environmental oxygen availability and respond by increasing oxygen supply to the tissues and/or by decreasing oxygen demand at the cellular level. This suite of responses is termed the oxygen transport cascade and is comprised of several components. These components include 1) chemosensory detectors that sense changes in oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH in the blood, and initiate changes in 2) ventilation and 3) cardiac work, thereby altering the rate of oxygen delivery to, and carbon dioxide clearance from, the tissues. In addition, changes in 4) cellular and systemic metabolism alters tissue-level metabolic demand. Thus the need for oxygen can be managed locally when increasing oxygen supply is not sufficient or possible. Together, these mechanisms provide a spectrum of responses that facilitate the maintenance of systemic oxygen homeostasis in the face of environmental hypoxia or physiological oxygen depletion (i.e. due to exercise or disease). Bill Milsom has dedicated his career to the study of these responses across phylogenies, repeatedly demonstrating the power of applying the comparative approach to physiological questions. The focus of this review is to discuss the anatomy, signalling pathways, and mechanics of each step of the oxygen transport cascade from the perspective of a Milsomite. That is, by taking into account the developmental, physiological, and evolutionary components of questions related to oxygen transport. We also highlight examples of some of the remarkable species that have captured Bill's attention through their unique adaptations in multiple components of the oxygen transport cascade, which allow them to achieve astounding physiological feats. Bill's research examining the oxygen transport cascade has provided important insight and leadership to the study of the diverse suite of adaptations that maintain cellular oxygen content across vertebrate taxa, which underscores the value of the comparative approach to the study of physiological systems. PMID:25698654

  11. Educational Puzzles for Understanding Gastrointestinal Physiology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cynthia M. Bailey (Wayne State University Department of Physiology)

    1999-06-01

    We developed four innovative, creative, and fun educational tools to promote active learning, enhance problem-solving skills, and encourage small group discussion. Furthermore, the tools encourage deductive reasoning and critical thinking rather than passive memorization of material. The tools include crossword puzzles, hidden messages, word scrambles, and word searches. These tools were developed using two computer programs: the Crossword Construction Kit and The New Puzzle Factory. Instructors are encouraged to optimize the value of the tools by using the additional options presented at the end of each of the puzzles. The additional options encourage students to become active learners by creating their own tools. Although the principles of these four tools can be adapted to many disciplines, these specific games focused on gastrointestinal physiology. Our goal was to create tools that can be used either inside or outside the classroom to complement and enhance the lecture.

  12. Adaptation Plan

    E-print Network

    Durnbaugh, A.

    2011-01-01

    Climate Adaptation and Preparedness Aaron Durnbaugh, Adaptation Coordinator & Deputy Commissioner, City of Chicago Department of Environment Rahm Emanuel, Mayor ESL-KT-11-11-16 1 Chicago River Reduced water quality. Changed... of Chicago ? 2011 ESL-KT-11-11-16 3 Chicago River Promote & incentivize green infrastructure to manage stormwater. Monitor threat of aquatic invasive species. RESILIENCY Adaptation will help reduce the impact of the changes that can be expected...

  13. Peptidomic profile of milk of Holstein cows at peak lactation.

    PubMed

    Dallas, David C; Guerrero, Andres; Parker, Evan A; Garay, Luis A; Bhandari, Aashish; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Barile, Daniela; German, J Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Bovine milk is known to contain naturally occurring peptides, but relatively few of their sequences have been determined. Human milk contains hundreds of endogenous peptides, and the ensemble has been documented for antimicrobial actions. Naturally occurring peptides from bovine milk were sequenced and compared with human milk peptides. Bovine milk samples from six cows in second-stage peak lactation at 78-121 days postpartum revealed 159 peptides. Most peptides (73%) were found in all six cows sampled, demonstrating the similarity of the intramammary peptide degradation across these cows. One peptide sequence, ALPIIQKLEPQIA from bovine perilipin 2, was identical to another found in human milk. Most peptides derived from ?-casein, ?s1-casein, and ?s2-casein. No peptides derived from abundant bovine milk proteins such as lactoferrin, ?-lactoglobulin, and secretory immunoglobulin A. The enzymatic cleavage analysis revealed that milk proteins were degraded by plasmin, cathepsins B and D, and elastase in all samples. PMID:24344900

  14. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding or into freestall housing 4 wk before the expected calving date. Individual straw-bedded maternity pens were placed adjacent to the straw-bedded group pens, and cows were moved to the maternity pens before calving. Cows that spent more than 12 h in the maternity pen before calving and calved unassisted were included in this study (39 multiparous cows and 15 primiparous cows). Dams were observed from 6 h before calving until 6 h after calving. The time from the onset of rhythmical abdominal contractions (defined as the onset of stage II labor), the time from a visible amniotic sac, and the time from visible calf feet until the birth of the calf were recorded. Furthermore, the cows' latency to stand up after birth was recorded. Calves were observed during the first 6 h after birth and the latency to first standing attempt, to first successful standing, to first suckle attempt, and to first successful suckling were recorded. Cows previously housed in straw pens expelled the calf faster once the calves' feet were visible compared with cows previously housed in freestalls. Multiparous cows stood sooner and licked their calf sooner after birth compared with primiparous cows. Jersey calves of cows previously housed in straw pens also stood up and suckled their dams sooner compared with Jersey calves of cows previously housed in freestalls. Holstein cows previously housed in straw pens tended to stand up sooner compared with Holstein cows previously housed in freestalls. These results suggest that a longer period of housing on deep-bedded straw compared with freestalls with mattresses before calving may facilitate the calving process, whereas the effect on calf vitality needs further investigation. PMID:25597972

  15. Intake and performance of lactating cows grazing diverse forage mixtures.

    PubMed

    Soder, K J; Sanderson, M A; Stack, J L; Muller, L D

    2006-06-01

    Twenty multiparous Holstein cows in midlactation grazed pastures of 4 forage mixtures in a 12-wk study repeated during 2 grazing seasons to determine if forage mixture complexity affected intake and productivity of lactating dairy cows. The forage mixtures were 1) orchardgrass plus white clover [2 species (SP)]; 2) orchardgrass, white clover, and chicory (3SP); 3) orchardgrass, tall fescue, perennial ryegrass, red clover, birdsfoot trefoil, and chicory (6SP); and 4) 6SP mixture plus white clover, alfalfa, and Kentucky bluegrass (9SP). Total herbage intake was similar among forage mixtures, averaging 12.0 kg/d across all forage mixtures and years. Milk production and composition were not affected by forage mixture or year, and averaged 34.6 kg/d, 3.4%, and 2.8% for milk production, milk fat percentage, and milk protein percentage, respectively. The conjugated linoleic acid content of milk fat was higher for cows that grazed the 3SP, 6SP, and 9SP mixtures than from cows that grazed the 2SP mixture (1.02 vs. 0.87 g of conjugated linoleic acid/100 g of fatty acids, respectively). Blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen, and nonesterified fatty acids were not affected by forage mixture and averaged 69.2 mg/dL, 13.4 mg/dL, and 277.5 muEq/L, respectively. The results of this study indicate that altering the forage mixture in pastures did not affect dry matter intake, milk production, or blood metabolite profiles of lactating cows. The use of complex mixtures of forages in grazing systems should not affect dairy cow performance. PMID:16702282

  16. Health and productivity of dairy cows fed polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, L.B.; Liu, T.T.; Durst, H.I.; Smith, K.L.; Redman, D.R.

    1987-07-01

    Holstein cows were studied through a complete lactation, a nonlactating period, and 42 days of a subsequent lactation for overt and subtle responses to a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls. Dosed cows (n = 4) received consecutive 60-day periods of daily dosing with 10, 100, and 1000 mg of Aroclor 1254. Control cows (n = 6) received daily sham doses. The following were recorded: daily milk production, feed intake, and health observations; weekly body weight, temperature, heart and respiratory rates and rectal palpation; semi-monthly clinical chemistry determinations; and monthly milk fat, microbiological culture of quarter foremilk samples, and composite milk somatic cell counts. Mean daily milk production (22.4 +/- 1.1 vs 24.8 +/- 1.0 kg) and net energy of a complete lactation (1.46 +/- 0.05 vs 1.45 +/- 0.03 Mcal/kg dry matter intake) were not different (p = 0.85) for control and PCB-dosed cows. Milk production during the first 42 days of the subsequent lactation was also similar for control and dosed cows. Occurrences of injuries, dysfunctions, and general infections were not related to polychlorinated biphenyl exposure. Intramammary infections were detected for both lactations with 51 and 32 infections detected in microbiological cultures, respectively, for the control and dosed groups. Environmental pathogens were most frequently isolated from cases of clinically apparent mastitis. The majority of quarter infections detected were due to Corynebacterium bovis. Only one animal (dosed, necropsy revealed left oviduct obstructed) failed to conceive with three to six services required before conception for the other control and dosed cows. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls resulting in maximal residues in milk fat, near 100 micrograms/g, had no apparent effect on health and productivity.

  17. COW INDEXING IN SWEDEN Department of Animal Breeding, Agvicultwval College S-750 07 U!psala 7, Sweden

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    COW INDEXING IN SWEDEN L. ELOFSON Department of Animal Breeding, Agvicultwval College S-750 07 U!psala 7, Sweden The Swedish cow index gives an estimate of a cow's breeding value for milk production. Since 1976, indexes have been calculated for all milk-recorded cows (55 p. ioo of population

  18. The effects of age on the erythrocyte sodium and potassium concentrations of dairy cows during late pregnancy and early lactation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Mulei; R. C. W. Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals from 54 dairy cows (mainly Friesians and Jerseys) during the periods 8 weeks before and 8 weeks after calving. The cows were divided into two age groups; group 1 consisting of 26 cows aged 2 1\\/2 years and group 2 consisting of 28 cows aged 5–9 years. The changes in the erythrocyte sodium

  19. Evaluation of heterosis and heterosis retention in Bos taurus-Bos indicus crossbred cattle for productivity traits in cows 

    E-print Network

    Meuchel, Meredith Christine

    2005-11-01

    Reproductive and weight traits were analyzed for Angus (A), Brahman (B), Hereford (H), and Nellore (N) straightbred cows; F1 NA cows; 3/8N 5/8A cows and quarter blood composite cows (BANH) of the four straightbreds in Central Texas. Heterosis...

  20. Evaluation of udder and teat characteristics, calf growth, and reproduction in young Bos indicus-Bos taurus cows 

    E-print Network

    Gladney, Cody Jack

    2008-10-10

    the same 4 F1 Nellore-Angus sires, and were analyzed separately. Sire of cow was significant for calf birth weight (P = 0.014) among ET cows, but not NS cows. Among NS families, calves from cows out of Brahman-Hereford dams were 2.0 kg heavier (P = 0...