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1

Perspective on physiological/endocrine and nutritional factors influencing fertility in post-partum dairy cows.  

PubMed

Increasing reproductive performance of post-partum lactating dairy cows is a multi-factorial challenge involving disciplines of production medicine, nutrition, physiology and herd management. Systems of programmed timed insemination have been fine-tuned to achieve pregnancy per artificial inseminations (AI) approximating 45%. Systems have optimized follicle development, integrated follicle development with timing of induced corpus luteum regression and fine-tuned sequential timing of induced ovulation and AI. Use of programmes for insemination have identified occurrence of anovulatory ovarian status, body condition, uterine health and seasonal summer stress as factors contributing to reduced herd fertility. Furthermore, programmes of timed insemination provide a platform to evaluate efficacy of nutritional and herd health systems targeted to the transition and post-partum periods. The homeorhetic periparturient period, as cows deal with decreases in dry matter intake, results in a negative energy balance and is associated with a period of immunosuppression. Cows that transition well will cycle earlier and have a greater risk of becoming pregnant earlier post-partum. The innate arms of the immune system (acute and adaptive) are suppressed during the periparturient period. Cows experiencing the sequential complex of disorders such as dystocia, puerperal metritis, metritis, endometritis and subclinical endometritis are subsequently less fertile. Targeted strategies of providing specific nutraceuticals that provide pro- and anti-inflammatory effects, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g., linoleic, eicosapentaenoic/docosahexaenoic, conjugated linoleic acid), sequential glycogenic and lipogenic enrichment of diets, and organic selenium appear to differentially regulate and improve the immune and reproductive systems to benefit an earlier restoration of ovarian activity and increased fertility. PMID:24417194

Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Silvestre, F T; Kim, I H; Staples, C R

2010-09-01

2

Addition of Sodium Bicarbonate to Rations of Postpartum Dairy Cows: Physiological and Metabolic Effects1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium bicarbonate was added to complete mixed rations to characterize physiological, metabolic, and ruminal changes immediately postpartum when dairy cows are switched abruptly from a low energy ration prepartum to a high energy ration postpartum. Twelve Holstein cows were paired and assigned randomly to either a control or buffered ration containing .8% sodium bicarbonate. Ra- tions consisted of 50% corn

L. H. Kilmer; L. D. Muller; T. J. Snyder

1981-01-01

3

Physiologic adaptation to space - Space adaptation syndrome  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The adaptive changes of the neurovestibular system to microgravity, which result in space motion sickness (SMS), are studied. A list of symptoms, which range from vomiting to drowsiness, is provided. The two patterns of symptom development, rapid and gradual, and the duration of the symptoms are described. The concept of sensory conflict and rearrangements to explain SMS is being investigated.

Vanderploeg, J. M.

1985-01-01

4

Validity of physiological biomarkers for maternal behavior in cows - A comparison of beef and dairy cattle.  

PubMed

The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the suitability of potential biomarkers for maternal ability in cattle, and in addition to test the hypothesis that dairy cows have a less pronounced motherliness than beef cows. Therefore, maternal behavior of 20 Simmental beef-type (S) and 20 German Black Pied (dairy-type) Cattle (BP) was assessed on the 2nd and again on the 3rd day of the calf's life. Measurements included the frequency of interactions between cow and calf, the cow's willingness to defend her calf, the overall maternal behavior, saliva cortisol, saliva oxytocin, heart rate, and thermal images of the eye (ET). Mixed model analysis revealed that BP had significantly (P<0.05) higher oxytocin (88.6±9.2 vs. 62.8±9.2pg/ml saliva) and cortisol (1.3±0.1 vs. 1.0±0.1ng/ml saliva) levels, but lower heart rates (80.0±2.0 vs. 95.8±2.0bpm) than S cows. Simmental (beef) cows showed more defensive behavior (3.5±0.2 vs. 2.7±0.2 scores), but fewer total interactions between cow and calf (8.1±1.4 vs. 13.8±1.4), compared to BP (dairy). However, with the exception of heart rate and overall maternal behavior, breed differences tended to diminish from the 2nd to the 3rd day of the calf's life. Repeatabilities ranged from 9±23% (ET) to 77±7% (maternal behavior measured on a visual analogue scale), and correlations between physiological parameters and behavior differed between breeds and were generally at a low level. In conclusion, beef cows do not seem to be per se more maternal compared to dairy cows, and the assessed parameters are of limited use as biomarkers for maternal behavior. PMID:25446230

Geburt, Katrin; Friedrich, Morten; Piechotta, Marion; Gauly, Matthias; König von Borstel, Uta

2015-02-01

5

Interactions of Forage Quality and Physiological State on Forage Intake of Grazing Beef Cows in Autumn  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Intake by grazing cattle is affected by quality and availability of forage and by physiological demands, such as lactation and gestation. However, limited information is available on how these factors interact. We tested the hypothesis that autumn forage intake is altered by the interaction of cow...

6

Resistance Training: Physiological Responses and Adaptations (Part 3 of 4).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The physiological responses and adaptations which occur as a result of resistance training, such as cardiovascular responses, serum lipid count, body composition, and neural adaptations are discussed. Changes in the endocrine system are also described. (JL)

Fleck, Steven J.; Kraemer, William J.

1988-01-01

7

Short dry period management improves peripartum ruminal adaptation in dairy cows.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to determine whether the improvement in postpartum energy balance frequently reported in cows under short dry period management could be due to an improvement in ruminal function related to the reduction in the number of diet changes before calving. Six multiparous and 6 primiparous Holstein cows equipped with ruminal cannula were assigned to 6 blocks of 2 cows each according to parity, projected milk production at 305 d, and expected calving date. Within each block, cows were randomly assigned to either a conventional (CDP; 63.2 ± 2.0 d) or a short dry period (SDP; 35.2 ± 2.0 d) management in a randomized complete block design. The CDP cows were fed a far-off diet until 28 d before calving, followed by a prepartum diet, whereas SDP cows received only the prepartum diet. After calving, both groups were fed the same lactation diet. Milk yield and dry matter intake (DMI) were recorded daily and milk composition, weekly. Blood samples were taken twice a week during the first 4 wk postcalving and weekly otherwise. Omasal and ruminal samples were collected approximately 3 wk prior and 3 wk after calving. From 28 d before calving until calving, when the 2 groups of cows were fed the same prepartum diet, there was no effect of the dry period length management on DMI, plasma concentrations of ?-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids, and glucose and nutrient digestibility in the rumen. However, CDP cows tended to have lower ruminal pH and higher ruminal concentrations of total volatile fatty acids than SDP cows. From calving to 60 d in milk, daily DMI was higher for SDP than for CDP cows (22.3 ± 0.44 vs. 20.7 ± 0.30 kg), but milk production and milk concentrations and yields of fat, protein, and total solids were not affected by the dry period length management. After calving, body weight loss was reduced and body condition score tended to increase more rapidly for SDP than for CDP cows. Nutrient digestibility in the rumen, expressed in kilograms per day, was greater or tended to be greater for SDP cows, but differences were no longer significant when expressed per unit of nutrient ingested. The decrease in plasma nonesterified fatty acids and ?-hydroxybutyrate in SDP cows without effect on milk yield suggests an improved energy balance likely due to greater DMI. Results from the present study seem to indicate that reducing the number of diet changes before calving could facilitate ruminal adaptation to the lactation diet and improve energy balance postpartum. PMID:25306282

Jolicoeur, M S; Brito, A F; Santschi, D E; Pellerin, D; Lefebvre, D; Berthiaume, R; Girard, C L

2014-12-01

8

Bennett, A. F. 1997. Adaptation and the evolution of physiological characters,pp. 3-16. In: Handbook of Physiology, Sect. 13: Comparative Physiology. W. H.  

E-print Network

Bennett, A. F. 1997. Adaptation and the evolution of physiological characters,pp. 3-16. In: Handbook of Physiology, Sect. 13: Comparative Physiology. W. H. Dantzler, ed. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. 1. Adaptation and the evolution of physiological characters A L B E R T F. B E N N E T T 1

Bennett, Albert F.

9

Plasticity of physiology in Lobelia: testing for adaptation and constraint.  

PubMed

Phenotypic plasticity is thought to be a major mechanism allowing sessile organisms such as plants to adapt to environmental heterogeneity. However, the adaptive value of many common plastic responses has not been tested by linking these responses to fitness. Even when plasticity is adaptive, costs of plasticity, such as the energy necessary to maintain regulatory pathways for plastic responses, may constrain its evolution. We used a greenhouse experiment to test whether plastic physiological responses to soil water availability (wet vs. dry conditions) were adaptive and/or costly in the congeneric wildflowers Lobelia cardinalis and L. siphilitica. Eight physiological traits related to carbon and water uptake were measured. Specific leaf area (SLA), photosynthetic rate (A), stomatal conductance (gs), and photosynthetic capacity (Amax) responded plastically to soil water availability in L. cardinalis. Plasticity in Amax was maladaptive, plasticity in A and g(s) was adaptive, and plasticity in SLA was adaptively neutral. The nature of adaptive plasticity in L. cardinalis, however, differed from previous studies. Lobelia cardinalis plants with more conservative water use, characterized by lower g(s), did not have higher fitness under drought conditions. Instead, well-watered L. cardinalis that had higher g(s) had higher fitness. Only Amax responded plastically to drought in L. siphilitica, and this response was adaptively neutral. We detected no costs of plasticity for any physiological trait in either L. cardinalis or L. siphilitica, suggesting that the evolution of plasticity in these traits would not be constrained by costs. Physiological responses to drought in plants are presumed to be adaptive, but our data suggest that much of this plasticity can be adaptively neutral or maladaptive. PMID:16817538

Caruso, Christina M; Maherali, Hafiz; Sherrard, Mark

2006-05-01

10

Effects of protein supplementation frequency on physiological responses associated with reproduction in beef cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this experiment was to determine if frequency of protein supplementation impacts physiological responses associated with reproduction in beef cows. Fourteen non-pregnant, non-lactating beef cows were ranked by age and BW, and allocated to 3 groups. Groups were assigned to a 3 × 3 Latin square design, containing 3 periods of 21 d and the following treatments: 1) soybean meal ( SB: ) supplementation daily ( D: ), 2) SB supplementation 3 times/wk ( 3WK: ), and 3) SB supplementation once/wk ( 1WK: ). Within each period, cows were assigned to an estrus synchronization protocol; 100 ?g of GnRH + controlled internal drug release ( CIDR: ) containing 1.38 g of progesterone ( P4: ) on d 1, 25 mg of PGF2? on d 8, and CIDR removal + 100 ?g of GnRH on d 11. Grass-seed straw was offered for ad libitum consumption. Soybean meal was individually supplemented at a daily rate of 1 kg/cow (as-fed basis). Moreover, 3WK were supplemented on d 0, 2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, 16, and 18, whereas 1WK were supplemented on d 4, 11, and 18. Blood samples were collected from 0 (prior to) to 72 h after supplementation on d 11 and 18, and analyzed for plasma urea-N ( PUN: ). Samples collected from 0 to 12 h were also analyzed for plasma glucose, insulin, and P4 (d 18 only). Uterine flushing fluid was collected concurrently with blood sampling at 28 h for pH evaluation. Liver biopsies were performed concurrently with blood sampling at 0, 4, and 28 h, and analyzed for mRNA expression of carbamoylphosphate synthetase I ( CPS-I: ; h 28), and CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 (h 0 and 4 on d 18). Plasma urea-N concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) for 1WK vs. 3WK from 20 to 72 h, and greater (P < 0.01) for 1WK vs. D from 16 to 48 h and at 72 h after supplementation (treatment × hour interaction; P < 0.01). Moreover, PUN concentrations peaked at 28 h after supplementation for 3WK and 1WK (P < 0.01), and were greater (P < 0.01) at this time for 1WK vs. 3WK and D and for 3WK vs. D. Expression of CPS-I was greater (P < 0.01) for 1WK vs. D and 3WK. Uterine flushing pH tended (P ? 0.10) to be greater for 1WK vs. 3WK and D. No treatment effects were detected (P ? 0.15) on expression of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, plasma glucose and P4 concentrations, whereas plasma insulin concentrations were greater (P ? 0.03) in D and 3WK vs. 1WK. Hence, decreasing frequency of protein supplementation did not reduce uterine flushing pH or plasma P4 concentrations, which are known to impact reproduction in beef cows. PMID:25412746

Cappellozza, B I; Cooke, R F; Reis, M M; Marques, R S; Guarnieri Filho, T A; Perry, G A; Jump, D B; Lytle, K A; Bohnert, D W

2014-11-20

11

Psychological and Physiological Adaptations to Sperm Competition in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postcopulatory competition between males, in the form of sperm competition, is a widespread phenomenon in many animal species. The extent to which sperm competition has been an important selective pressure during human evolution remains controversial, however. The authors review critically the evidence that human males and females have psychological, behavioral, and physiological adaptations that evolved in response to selection pressures

Todd K. Shackelford; Nicholas Pound; Aaron T. Goetz

2005-01-01

12

Functional Genomics of Physiological Plasticity and Local Adaptation in Killifish  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary solutions to the physiological challenges of life in highly variable habitats can span the continuum from evolution of a cosmopolitan plastic phenotype to the evolution of locally adapted phenotypes. Killifish (Fundulus sp.) have evolved both highly plastic and locally adapted phenotypes within different selective contexts, providing a comparative system in which to explore the genomic underpinnings of physiological plasticity and adaptive variation. Importantly, extensive variation exists among populations and species for tolerance to a variety of stressors, and we exploit this variation in comparative studies to yield insights into the genomic basis of evolved phenotypic variation. Notably, species of Fundulus occupy the continuum of osmotic habitats from freshwater to marine and populations within Fundulus heteroclitus span far greater variation in pollution tolerance than across all species of fish. Here, we explore how transcriptome regulation underpins extreme physiological plasticity on osmotic shock and how genomic and transcriptomic variation is associated with locally evolved pollution tolerance. We show that F. heteroclitus quickly acclimate to extreme osmotic shock by mounting a dramatic rapid transcriptomic response including an early crisis control phase followed by a tissue remodeling phase involving many regulatory pathways. We also show that convergent evolution of locally adapted pollution tolerance involves complex patterns of gene expression and genome sequence variation, which is confounded with body-weight dependence for some genes. Similarly, exploiting the natural phenotypic variation associated with other established and emerging model organisms is likely to greatly accelerate the pace of discovery of the genomic basis of phenotypic variation. PMID:20581107

Galvez, Fernando; Zhang, Shujun; Williams, Larissa M.; Oleksiak, Marjorie F.

2011-01-01

13

Effects of physiological and/or disease status on the response of postpartum dairy cows to synchronization of estrus using an intravaginal progesterone device.  

PubMed

Progesterone treatments are used to increase submission rates in postpartum dairy cows; however, in many cases the protocol is used as a blanket therapy for all cows without regard for physiological or disease state. The objective of this study was to identify the physiological or disease classes of cows that respond well (or not) to synchronization of estrus via progesterone. Dairy cows (n = 402) were monitored peri and postpartum to establish their physiological or disease status. Animals were classified as having negative energy balance, clinical lameness, uterine infection (UI), anovulatory anestrus, high somatic cell counts, and healthy (H). Blood samples were collected at five different time points and analyzed for metabolites. All animals received an 8-day controlled internal drug release protocol, which included GnRH at insertion and PGF2? the day before removal. Response to the protocol was determined by visual observation of estrus synchronization. Conception rate was determined by ultrasonography between Days 32 and 35 after artificial insemination. Animals without UI were 1.9 times more likely to respond and two times more likely to be confirmed pregnant than those with UI. There was no relationship between negative energy balance and clinical lameness in the visual estrous response, but both conditions were associated with reduced conception rates. Dairy cows in anovulatory anestrus responded successfully to the protocol in both estrous response and conception rates. High glutathione peroxidase concentrations had a positive effect on conception rates, whereas high non-esterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate had a negative effect on the estrous response. In conclusion, disease and physiological states of dairy cows determined the response to progesterone-based synchronization. The more disease or physiological problems the cows had, the lower the estrous response and conception rates; cows with these problems were not ideal candidates for synchronization. Both anestrus and healthy dairy cows were good responders to progesterone-based synchronization. PMID:25261264

McNally, Julie C; Crowe, Mark A; Roche, James F; Beltman, Marijke E

2014-12-01

14

Hormonal profiles, physiological parameters, and productive and reproductive performances of Girolando cows in the state of Ceará-Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study compared two breed groups of Girolando (½ Holstein ½ Gyr vs. ¾ Holstein ¼ Gyr) through analysis of physiological, productive, and reproductive parameters to determine the group best suited to rearing in a semiarid tropical climate. The experiment was conducted at the Companhia de Alimentos do Nordeste (CIALNE) farm, in the municipality of Umirim, State of Ceará, Brazil. Eighty cows were used in a 2 × 2 factorial study; 40 of each breed group were kept under an extensive system during the wet season and an intensive system during the dry season. The collection of physiological data and blood samples were obtained in the afternoon after milking. Rectal temperature (RT), surface temperature (ST), and respiratory rate (RR) were obtained for each cow after milking. Blood samples were obtained by tail vein puncture and were determined triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) and cortisol. The environmental parameters obtained were relative humidity (RH) and air temperature (AT), and from these, a temperature and humidity index (THI) was calculated. Pregnancy diagnosis (PD) was determined by ultrasonography 30 days after artificial insemination (AI). The milk production of each cow was recorded with automated milkings in the farm. The variables were expressed as mean and standard error, evaluated by ANOVA at 5 % probability using the Proc GLM of SAS. Chi-square test at 5 % probability was applied to data of pregnancy rate (PR) and the number of AI's to obtain pregnancy. It can be concluded that the breed group ½ Holstein ½ Gyr is most suited for farming under conditions of thermal stress.

da Costa, Antônio Nélson Lima; Feitosa, José Valmir; Júnior, Péricles Afonso Montezuma; de Souza, Priscila Teixeira; de Araújo, Airton Alencar

2015-02-01

15

Physiological adaptations of small mammals to desert ecosystems.  

PubMed

Adaptations of animals to the xeric environment have been studied in various taxonomic groups and across several deserts. Despite the impressive data that have been accumulated, the focus in most of these studies is mainly on the significance of one variable at a time. Here, we attempt to integrate between responses of several physiological systems, challenged by increasing diet and water salinity and extreme temperatures, acquired in different studies of thermo and osmo-regulatory adaptations, of small rodents, to the xeric environment. Studies have shown differential thermoregulatory responses to increased dietary salinity, which were attributed to habitat and habits of the relevant species. In the thermoregulatory studies, a potential adaptive significance of low metabolic rate was demonstrated. From an evolutionary point of view, the most important adaptation is in the timing of reproduction, as it enables the transfer of genetic properties to the next generation in an unpredictable ecosystem, where reproduction might not occur every year. Results in this aspect show that increased dietary salinity, through an increase in vasopressin plasma levels, plays an important role as a regulator of the reproductive system. We assume that the amount of food existing in the habitat and the amount of reserves in the animal in the form of white adipose tissue are important for reproduction. Photoperiod affects all studied physiological responses, emphasizing the importance of pre-acclimation to seasonal characteristics. We summarize the existing data and suggest neuro-endocrine pathways, which have a central role in these adaptations by affecting thermoregulation, osmoregulation and reproduction to create the optimal response to xeric conditions. These hypotheses can be used as the basis for future studies. PMID:21392308

Schwimmer, Hagit; Haim, Abraham

2009-12-01

16

Are free glucose and glucose-6-phosphate in milk indicators of specific physiological states in the cow?  

PubMed

A total of 3200 milk samples from Holstein and Jersey cows were analysed for free glucose and glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) by an enzymatic-fluorometric method that requires no pre-treatment. The cows were primiparous as well as multiparous, and samples were taken throughout the entire lactation period. In addition, lactose, protein, fat, citrate and ?-hydroxybutyrate were determined and comparisons between these variables were made. Data were analysed using GLM model for the effect of parity, breed, time from last milking and stage of lactation on variations in parameters in milk. Pearson's correlations were generated between milk variables. P<0.05 was considered significant. Concentration of free glucose and G6P were on average 331 and 81 ?M, respectively. Time from last milking (stay in the gland cistern) did not increase the concentration of these monosaccharides, indicating that they are not hydrolysis product from lactose post secretion, but rather reflecting the energy status of the mammary epithelial cells pre-secretion. Wide variation in range of these metabolites, that is, from 90 to 630 ?M and 5 to 324 ?M, for glucose and G6P, respectively, was observed. During the first 21 weeks in milk, free glucose increased whereas G6P decreased. Concentration of free glucose in milk is greater for primiparous than multiparous cows and greater for Holstein than Jersey cows. Concentration of G6P was not affected by parity or breed. The use of free glucose and G6P as indicators of physiological conditions and risk of disease is warranted for use as potential biomarkers for in-line surveillance systems on-farm. PMID:25159717

Larsen, T; Moyes, K M

2015-01-01

17

Hormonal profiles, physiological parameters, and productive and reproductive performances of Girolando cows in the state of Ceará-Brazil.  

PubMed

This study compared two breed groups of Girolando (½ Holstein ½ Gyr vs. ¾ Holstein ¼ Gyr) through analysis of physiological, productive, and reproductive parameters to determine the group best suited to rearing in a semiarid tropical climate. The experiment was conducted at the Companhia de Alimentos do Nordeste (CIALNE) farm, in the municipality of Umirim, State of Ceará, Brazil. Eighty cows were used in a 2?×?2 factorial study; 40 of each breed group were kept under an extensive system during the wet season and an intensive system during the dry season. The collection of physiological data and blood samples were obtained in the afternoon after milking. Rectal temperature (RT), surface temperature (ST), and respiratory rate (RR) were obtained for each cow after milking. Blood samples were obtained by tail vein puncture and were determined triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) and cortisol. The environmental parameters obtained were relative humidity (RH) and air temperature (AT), and from these, a temperature and humidity index (THI) was calculated. Pregnancy diagnosis (PD) was determined by ultrasonography 30 days after artificial insemination (AI). The milk production of each cow was recorded with automated milkings in the farm. The variables were expressed as mean and standard error, evaluated by ANOVA at 5 % probability using the Proc GLM of SAS. Chi-square test at 5 % probability was applied to data of pregnancy rate (PR) and the number of AI's to obtain pregnancy. It can be concluded that the breed group ½ Holstein ½ Gyr is most suited for farming under conditions of thermal stress. PMID:24859822

da Costa, Antônio Nélson Lima; Feitosa, José Valmir; Júnior, Péricles Afonso Montezuma; de Souza, Priscila Teixeira; de Araújo, Airton Alencar

2015-02-01

18

Physiological and productive responses of multiparous lactating Holstein cows exposed to short-term cooling during severe summer conditions in an arid region of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat stress generates a significant economic impact for the dairy industry in arid and semi-arid regions of the world, so that heat abatement is an important issue for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of two short-term cooling periods on physiological and productive status of lactating Holstein cows during hot ambient temperatures. Thirty-nine multiparous cows were blocked by milk yield and assigned to one of three treatments including: control group (C), cows cooled before milking time (0500 and 1700 h daily, 1 h cooling); AM group, cows cooled at 1000 h and before milking (2 h cooling); and AM + PM group, cows cooled at 1100, 1500 and 2200 h, as well as before milking (4 h cooling). The cooling system was placed in the holding pen which the cows were moved through for cooling. Respiratory rate, and temperatures of thurl and right flank, were lower ( P < 0.05) in cows from the AM + PM group than AM and C cows during the morning and afternoon. However, udder temperature was higher in the AM + PM group compared to AM and C groups during the afternoon, although lower than the AM group during the morning. Rectal temperature was similar in all groups. Thyroxin concentrations tended ( P < 0.10) to be lower in AM + PM relative to the AM and C groups. The AM + PM group had higher ( P < 0.05) milk production than C (18.70 vs. 17.43 kg, respectively), and AM + PM cows had a trend ( P < 0.10) to increased milk energy output vs. the C and AM groups (13.75 vs. 13.18 and 13.15 Mcal, respectively). Protein and fat in milk, body condition score, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and triiodothyronine were similar among the groups. Four hours of cooling with spray and fans during severe summer temperatures only modestly improved milk yield of lactating Holstein cows.

Avendaño-Reyes, L.; Hernández-Rivera, J. A.; Álvarez-Valenzuela, F. D.; Macías-Cruz, U.; Díaz-Molina, R.; Correa-Calderón, A.; Robinson, P. H.; Fadel, J. G.

2012-11-01

19

Membrane lipid unsaturation as physiological adaptation to animal longevity  

PubMed Central

The appearance of oxygen in the terrestrial atmosphere represented an important selective pressure for ancestral living organisms and contributed toward setting up the pace of evolutionary changes in structural and functional systems. The evolution of using oxygen for efficient energy production served as a driving force for the evolution of complex organisms. The redox reactions associated with its use were, however, responsible for the production of reactive species (derived from oxygen and lipids) with damaging effects due to oxidative chemical modifications of essential cellular components. Consequently, aerobic life required the emergence and selection of antioxidant defense systems. As a result, a high diversity in molecular and structural antioxidant defenses evolved. In the following paragraphs, we analyze the adaptation of biological membranes as a dynamic structural defense against reactive species evolved by animals. In particular, our goal is to describe the physiological mechanisms underlying the structural adaptation of cellular membranes to oxidative stress and to explain the meaning of this adaptive mechanism, and to review the state of the art about the link between membrane composition and longevity of animal species. PMID:24381560

Naudí, Alba; Jové, Mariona; Ayala, Victòria; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Barja, Gustavo; Pamplona, Reinald

2013-01-01

20

Membrane lipid unsaturation as physiological adaptation to animal longevity.  

PubMed

The appearance of oxygen in the terrestrial atmosphere represented an important selective pressure for ancestral living organisms and contributed toward setting up the pace of evolutionary changes in structural and functional systems. The evolution of using oxygen for efficient energy production served as a driving force for the evolution of complex organisms. The redox reactions associated with its use were, however, responsible for the production of reactive species (derived from oxygen and lipids) with damaging effects due to oxidative chemical modifications of essential cellular components. Consequently, aerobic life required the emergence and selection of antioxidant defense systems. As a result, a high diversity in molecular and structural antioxidant defenses evolved. In the following paragraphs, we analyze the adaptation of biological membranes as a dynamic structural defense against reactive species evolved by animals. In particular, our goal is to describe the physiological mechanisms underlying the structural adaptation of cellular membranes to oxidative stress and to explain the meaning of this adaptive mechanism, and to review the state of the art about the link between membrane composition and longevity of animal species. PMID:24381560

Naudí, Alba; Jové, Mariona; Ayala, Victòria; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Barja, Gustavo; Pamplona, Reinald

2013-01-01

21

The western painted turtle genome, a model for the evolution of extreme physiological adaptations in a slowly evolving lineage  

E-print Network

turtle genome, a model for the evolution of extreme physiological adaptationsturtles Freeze tolerance constitutes a second suite of physiological adaptationsturtle genome, a model for the evolution of extreme physiological adaptations

2013-01-01

22

Physiological Monitoring of Cardiorespiratory Adaptations During Rehearsal and Performance of Contemporary Dance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wyon, M., and E. Redding. Physiological monitoring of cardiorespiratory adaptations during rehearsal and perfor- mance of contemporary dance. J. Strength Cond. Res. 19(3):000- 000. 2005.—Previous research has shown that dance class and rehearsal stress different cardiorespiratory energy systems than dance performance. The aim of the present study was to monitor the physiological parameters of a number of dancers during a

Matthew A. Wyon; Emma Redding

2005-01-01

23

Avoid, attack or do both? Behavioral and physiological adaptations in natural enemies faced with novel hosts  

PubMed Central

Background Confronted with well-defended, novel hosts, should an enemy invest in avoidance of these hosts (behavioral adaptation), neutralization of the defensive innovation (physiological adaptation) or both? Although simultaneous investment in both adaptations may first appear to be redundant, several empirical studies have suggested a reinforcement of physiological resistance to host defenses with additional avoidance behaviors. To explain this paradox, we develop a mathematical model describing the joint evolution of behavioral and physiological adaptations on the part of natural enemies to their host defenses. Our specific goals are (i) to derive the conditions that may favor the simultaneous investment in avoidance and physiological resistance and (ii) to study the factors that govern the relative investment in each adaptation mode. Results Our results show that (i) a simultaneous investment may be optimal if the fitness costs of the adaptive traits are accelerating and the probability of encountering defended hosts is low. When (i) holds, we find that (ii) the more that defended hosts are rare and/or spatially aggregated, the more behavioral adaptation is favored. Conclusion Despite their interference, physiological resistance to host defensive innovations and avoidance of these same defenses are two strategies in which it may be optimal for an enemy to invest in simultaneously. The relative allocation to each strategy greatly depends on host spatial structure. We discuss the implications of our findings for the management of invasive plant species and the management of pest resistance to new crop protectants or varieties. PMID:16271142

Vacher, Corinne; Brown, Sam P; Hochberg, Michael E

2005-01-01

24

Resistance Training: Physiological Responses and Adaptations (Part 2 of 4).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Resistance training causes a variety of physiological reactions, including changes in muscle size, connective tissue size, and bone mineral content. This article summarizes data from a variety of studies and research. (JL)

Fleck, Stephen J.; Kraerner, William J.

1988-01-01

25

Adapting APSIM to model the physiology and genetics of complex adaptive traits in field crops.  

PubMed

Progress in molecular plant breeding is limited by the ability to predict plant phenotype based on its genotype, especially for complex adaptive traits. Suitably constructed crop growth and development models have the potential to bridge this predictability gap. A generic cereal crop growth and development model is outlined here. It is designed to exhibit reliable predictive skill at the crop level while also introducing sufficient physiological rigour for complex phenotypic responses to become emergent properties of the model dynamics. The approach quantifies capture and use of radiation, water, and nitrogen within a framework that predicts the realized growth of major organs based on their potential and whether the supply of carbohydrate and nitrogen can satisfy that potential. The model builds on existing approaches within the APSIM software platform. Experiments on diverse genotypes of sorghum that underpin the development and testing of the adapted crop model are detailed. Genotypes differing in height were found to differ in biomass partitioning among organs and a tall hybrid had significantly increased radiation use efficiency: a novel finding in sorghum. Introducing these genetic effects associated with plant height into the model generated emergent simulated phenotypic differences in green leaf area retention during grain filling via effects associated with nitrogen dynamics. The relevance to plant breeding of this capability in complex trait dissection and simulation is discussed. PMID:20400531

Hammer, Graeme L; van Oosterom, Erik; McLean, Greg; Chapman, Scott C; Broad, Ian; Harland, Peter; Muchow, Russell C

2010-05-01

26

Physiology of environmental adaptations and resource acquisition in cockroaches.  

PubMed

Cockroaches are a group of insects that evolved early in geological time. Because of their antiquity, they for the most part display generalized behavior and physiology and accordingly have frequently been used as model insects to examine physiological and biochemical mechanisms involved with water balance, nutrition, reproduction, genetics, and insecticide resistance. As a result, a considerable amount of information on these topics is available. However, there is much more to be learned by employing new protocols, microchemical analytical techniques, and molecular biology tools to explore many unanswered questions. PMID:25564743

Mullins, Donald E

2015-01-01

27

Human Adaptation to Space: Space Physiology and Countermeasures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews human physiological responses to spaceflight, and the countermeasures taken to prevent adverse effects of manned space flight. The topics include: 1) Human Spaceflight Experience; 2) Human Response to Spaceflight; 3) ISS Expeditions 1-16; 4) Countermeasure; and 5) Biomedical Data;

Fogarty, Jennifer

2009-01-01

28

Effects of dietary betaine supplementation subjected to heat stress on milk performances and physiology indices in dairy cow.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine whether feeding betaine to cows elevates their production performance during summer heat stress. Thirty-two lactating Holstein cows were randomly divided into 4 groups: the control group, which received a total mixed ration (TMR), and 3 experimental groups that received TMR blended with 10 g/day (group I), 15 g/day (group II), and 20 g/day (group III) betaine for 8 weeks. Milk and blood were sampled throughout the experimental period. The average maximum and minimum air temperatures were 28.3 and 24.1°C, respectively. The average temperature-humidity index was 78.6 units. The results showed that feeding betaine to cows increased feed intake, milk yield, milk lactose, milk protein, plasma cortisol, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde levels (P<0.05); however, it caused HSP70 levels to decrease (P<0.05). The milk performance of group II was significantly affected. These results indicate that supplementing betaine to the diet of dairy cows increases their milk performance and improves their antioxidant capacity; these processes help relieve the cow from heat stress. In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows with 15 g/day betaine generated the most positive influence on performance and productivity, and hence caused the greatest reduction in heat stress. PMID:25222258

Zhang, L; Ying, S J; An, W J; Lian, H; Zhou, G B; Han, Z Y

2014-01-01

29

Influence of oxidative stress and metabolic adaptation on PON1 activity and MDA level in transition dairy cows.  

PubMed

Serum PON1 is a HDL-associated enzyme that protects lipoproteins, both LDL and HDL, against oxidation and it is considered as an antioxidative/anti-inflammatory component of HDL. Dairy cows are highly susceptible to oxidative stress which commonly occurs in late pregnancy and early lactation. During the transition period, increased production of reactive oxygen species is associated to processes of metabolic adaptation to a low-energy balance. We investigated serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration to assess the antioxidative/prooxidative status during pregnancy and the postpartum period. In order to evaluate metabolic homeostasis, common metabolic parameters (glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C and albumin concentrations) were determined as well. A significantly lower PON1 activity was found in late pregnancy and early postpartum (P<0.05) compared to the first and the second trimester of pregnancy and the mid-lactation. MDA level was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the dry period compared to pregnant lactating and postpartum cows. Serum glucose concentration (P<0.001) was lower in the early and late puerperium indicating low-energy balance in the early lactation. Serum triglyceride and albumin concentrations were lower in late puerperium (P<0.001), while total cholesterol and HDL-C were lower during the dry period (P<0.05) as well as in early postpartum (P<0.001). Significant correlations of PON1 activity with glucose (P<0.05), albumin (P<0.05), total cholesterol (P<0.001) and HDL-C (P<0.001) were also found. The observed lower serum PON1 activity and higher MDA level in late pregnancy and early postpartum could indicate a prooxidants/antioxidants imbalance influenced by reproductive stress and metabolic adaptation in the transition period of dairy cows. PMID:17850995

Turk, R; Jureti?, D; Geres, D; Svetina, A; Turk, N; Flegar-Mestri?, Z

2008-10-01

30

Phenotyping for drought adaptation in wheat using physiological traits  

PubMed Central

Wheat (Triticum spp) is one of the first domesticated food crops. It represents the first source of calories (after rice) and an important source of proteins in developing countries. As a result of the Green Revolution, wheat yield sharply increased due to the use of improved varieties, irrigation, pesticides, and fertilizers. The rate of increase in world wheat production, however, slowed after 1980, except in China, India, and Pakistan. Being adapted to a wide range of moisture conditions, wheat is grown on more land area worldwide than any other crop, including in drought prone areas. In these marginal rain-fed environments where at least 60 m ha of wheat is grown, amount and distribution of rainfall are the predominant factors influencing yield variability. Intensive work has been carried out in the area of drought adaptation over the last decades. Breeding strategies for drought tolerance improvement include: definition of the target environment, choice and characterization of the testing environment, water stress management and characterization, and use of phenotyping traits with high heritability. The use of integrative traits, facilitated by the development and application of new technologies (thermal imaging, spectral reflectance, stable isotopes) is facilitating high throughput phenotyping and indirect selection, consequently favoring yield improvement in drought prone environments. PMID:23181021

Monneveux, Philippe; Jing, Ruilian; Misra, Satish C.

2012-01-01

31

Ash, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium content of the metacarpus of hereford cows under different nutritional and physiological conditions  

E-print Network

soils aud grazeable forage generally run considerably above the levels required by cattle. llistolo~ical Studies of Bone Slides made from de-mineralized bone from cows given high snd low planes of nutrition duri. ng the pre- and post-partrm periods... is of Variance of Phosphorus in Bone Ash Analysis of Variance of tial nesium in Bone Ash 23 25 26 29 lteaa Percentages of Calcium, Phosphorus and 1'lagnesium in Bone Ash ot' Cows from Dilferent Sources. 1? Duncan's Multiple Range Test foc Dif...

Haque, Mozammel

1967-01-01

32

The strengths of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study environmental adaptational physiology in fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptational physiology studies how animals cope with their environment, even if this environment is subject to permanent fluctuations such as tidal or seasonal variations. Aquatic organisms are generally more prone to be exposed to osmotic, hypoxic and temperature challenges than terrestrial animals. Some of these challenges are more restraining in an aquatic environment. To date, very few studies have used

A. Van der Linden; M. Verhoye; H. O. Pörtner; C. Bock

2004-01-01

33

Adaptation to Altitude as a Vehicle for Experiential Learning of Physiology by University Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, an experiential learning activity is described in which 19 university undergraduates made experimental observations on each other to explore physiological adaptations to high altitude. Following 2 wk of didactic sessions and baseline data collection at sea level, the group ascended to a research station at 12,500-ft elevation.…

Weigle, David S.; Buben, Amelia; Burke, Caitlin C.; Carroll, Nels D.; Cook, Brett M.; Davis, Benjamin S.; Dubowitz, Gerald; Fisher, Rian E.; Freeman, Timothy C.; Gibbons, Stephen M.; Hansen, Hale A.; Heys, Kimberly A.; Hopkins, Brittany; Jordan, Brittany L.; McElwain, Katherine L.; Powell, Frank L.; Reinhart, Katherine E.; Robbins, Charles D.; Summers, Cameron C.; Walker, Jennifer D.; Weber, Steven S.; Weinheimer, Caroline J.

2007-01-01

34

The adaptation of digestive enzymes to the diet : Its physiological significance  

E-print Network

The adaptation of digestive enzymes to the diet : Its physiological significance T. CORRING Laboratoire de Physiologie de la Nutrition, LN.R.A. 78350 Jouy en Josas, France. Summary. Digestive enzymes that this process includes many enzymes. The intestinal step of digestion is the most important in the enzyme

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

35

Physiological adaptations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae evolved for improved butanol tolerance  

PubMed Central

Background Butanol is a chemical with potential uses as biofuel and solvent, which can be produced by microbial fermentation. However, the end product toxicity is one of the main obstacles for developing the production process irrespective of the choice of production organism. The long-term goal of the present project is to produce 2-butanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, unraveling the toxicity mechanisms of solvents such as butanol and understanding the mechanisms by which tolerant strains of S. cerevisiae adapt to them would be an important contribution to the development of a bio-based butanol production process. Results A butanol tolerant S. cerevisiae was achieved through a series of sequential batch cultures with gradual increase of 2-butanol concentration. The final mutant (JBA-mut) tolerates all different alcohols tested at higher concentrations compared to the wild type (JBA-wt). Proteomics analysis of the two strains grown under mild butanol-stress revealed 46 proteins changing their expression by more than 1.5-fold in JBA-mut, 34 of which were upregulated. Strikingly, 21 out of the 34 upregulated proteins were predicted constituents of mitochondria. Among the non-mitochondrial up-regulated proteins, the minor isoform of Glycerol-3-phosphatase (Gpp2) was the most notable, since it was the only tested protein whose overexpression was found to confer butanol tolerance. Conclusion The study demonstrates several differences between the butanol tolerant mutant and the wild type. Upregulation of proteins involved in the mitochondrial ATP synthesizing machinery constituents and glycerol biosynthesis seem to be beneficial for a successful adaptation of yeast cells to butanol stress. PMID:23855998

2013-01-01

36

Differential and Conditional Activation of PKC-Isoforms Dictates Cardiac Adaptation during Physiological to Pathological Hypertrophy  

PubMed Central

A cardiac hypertrophy is defined as an increase in heart mass which may either be beneficial (physiological hypertrophy) or detrimental (pathological hypertrophy). This study was undertaken to establish the role of different protein kinase-C (PKC) isoforms in the regulation of cardiac adaptation during two types of cardiac hypertrophy. Phosphorylation of specific PKC-isoforms and expression of their downstream proteins were studied during physiological and pathological hypertrophy in 24 week male Balb/c mice (Mus musculus) models, by reverse transcriptase-PCR, western blot analysis and M-mode echocardiography for cardiac function analysis. PKC-? was significantly induced during pathological hypertrophy while PKC-? was exclusively activated during physiological hypertrophy in our study. PKC-? activation during pathological hypertrophy resulted in cardiomyocyte apoptosis leading to compromised cardiac function and on the other hand, activation of PKC-? during physiological hypertrophy promoted cardiomyocyte growth but down regulated cellular apoptotic load resulting in improved cardiac function. Reversal in PKC-isoform with induced activation of PKC-? and simultaneous inhibition of phospho-PKC-? resulted in an efficient myocardium to deteriorate considerably resulting in compromised cardiac function during physiological hypertrophy via augmentation of apoptotic and fibrotic load. This is the first report where PKC-? and -? have been shown to play crucial role in cardiac adaptation during physiological and pathological hypertrophy respectively thereby rendering compromised cardiac function to an otherwise efficient heart by conditional reversal of their activation. PMID:25116170

Naskar, Shaon; Datta, Kaberi; Mitra, Arkadeep; Pathak, Kanchan; Datta, Ritwik; Bansal, Trisha; Sarkar, Sagartirtha

2014-01-01

37

Effects of Dietary Sodium Bicarbonate and Calcium Chloride on Physiological Responses of Lactating Dairy Cows in Hot Weather  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four lactating cows were as- signed randomly to three treatments to evaluate responses to large differences of dietary sodium and chloride. Treatments were corn-cottonseed meal-corn silage based complete rations with either: 1) .23% sodium chloride (control), 2) control plus 2.28% calcium chloride, or 3) control plus 1.70% sodium bicarbonate.

A. Escobosa; C. E. Coppock; L. D. Rowe Jr; W. L. Jenkins; C. E. Gates

1984-01-01

38

Distribution, adaptation and physiological meaning of thiols from vertebrate hemoglobins.  

PubMed

In the present review, the sequences of hemoglobins (Hb) of 267 adult vertebrate species belonging to eight major vertebrate taxa are examined for the presence and location of cysteinyl residues in an attempt at correlation with their ecophysiology. Essentially, all vertebrates have surface cysteinyl residues in Hb molecules whereby their thiol groups may become highly reactive. Thiol-rich Hbs may display eight or more thiols per tetramer. In vertebrates so far examined, the cysteinyl residues occur in 44 different sequence positions in alpha chains and 41 positions in beta chains. Most of them are conservatively located and occur in only a few positions in Teleostei, Aves and Mammalia, whereas they are dispersed in Amphibia. The internal cysteinyl residue alpha104 is ubiquitous in vertebrates. Residue beta93 is highly conserved in reptiles, birds and mammals. The number of cysteine residues per tetramer with solvent access varies in vertebrates, mammalians and bony fish having the lowest number of external residues, whereas nearly all external cysteine residues in Aves and Lepidosauria are of the surface crevice type. In cartilaginous fish, amphibians, Crocodylidae and fresh water turtles, a substantial portion of the solvent accessible thiols are of the totally external type. Recent evidence shows that some Hb thiol groups are highly reactive and undergo extensive and reversible S-thiolation, and that they may be implicated in interorgan redox equilibrium processes. Participation of thiol groups in nitric oxide ((*)NO) metabolism has also been proved. The evidence argues for a new physiologically relevant role for Hb via involvement in free radical and antioxidant metabolism. PMID:17368111

Reischl, Evaldo; Dafre, Alcir Luiz; Franco, Jeferson Luis; Wilhelm Filho, Danilo

2007-01-01

39

Turkeys and Cows  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In honor of Thanksgiving, this blog posts an adaptation of the familiar chicken and cows problems that promote informal algebraic reasoning. Learners must find the correct number of turkeys and cows given the number of heads and the number of legs. A solution is modeled and a downloadable PDF of four more problems is included.

Kawas, Terry

2011-11-17

40

Physiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

Kay, Ian

2008-01-01

41

Physiological and proteomic analysis of Lactobacillus casei in response to acid adaptation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the acid tolerance response (ATR) in Lactobacillus casei by a combined physiological and proteomic analysis. To optimize the ATR induction, cells were acid adapted for 1 h at different pHs, and then acid challenged at pH 3.5. The result showed that acid adaptation improved acid tolerance, and the highest survival was observed in cells adapted at pH 4.5 for 1 h. Analysis of the physiological data showed that the acid-adapted cells exhibited higher intracellular pH (pHi), intracellular NH4 (+) content, and lower inner permeability compared with the cells without adaptation. Proteomic analysis was performed upon acid adaptation to different pHs (pH 6.5 vs. pH 4.5) using two-dimensional electrophoresis. A total of 24 proteins that exhibited at least 1.5-fold differential expression were identified. Four proteins (Pgk, LacD, Hpr, and Galm) involved in carbohydrate catabolism and five classic stress response proteins (GroEL, GrpE, Dnak, Hspl, and LCAZH_2811) were up-regulated after acid adaptation at pH 4.5 for 1 h. Validation of the proteomic data was performed by quantitative RT-PCR, and transcriptional regulation of all selected genes showed a positive correlation with the proteomic patterns of the identified proteins. Results presented in this study may be useful for further elucidating the acid tolerance mechanisms and may help in formulating new strategies to improve the industrial performance of this species during acid stress. PMID:25062817

Wu, Chongde; He, Guiqiang; Zhang, Juan

2014-10-01

42

Boldness behavior and stress physiology in a novel urban environment suggest rapid correlated evolutionary adaptation  

PubMed Central

Novel or changing environments expose animals to diverse stressors that likely require coordinated hormonal and behavioral adaptations. Predicted adaptations to urban environments include attenuated physiological responses to stressors and bolder exploratory behaviors, but few studies to date have evaluated the impact of urban life on codivergence of these hormonal and behavioral traits in natural systems. Here, we demonstrate rapid adaptive shifts in both stress physiology and correlated boldness behaviors in a songbird, the dark-eyed junco, following its colonization of a novel urban environment. We compared elevation in corticosterone (CORT) in response to handling and flight initiation distances in birds from a recently established urban population in San Diego, California to birds from a nearby wildland population in the species' ancestral montane breeding range. We also measured CORT and exploratory behavior in birds raised from early life in a captive common garden study. We found persistent population differences for both reduced CORT responses and bolder exploratory behavior in birds from the colonist population, as well as significant negative covariation between maximum CORT and exploratory behavior. Although early developmental effects cannot be ruled out, these results suggest contemporary adaptive evolution of correlated hormonal and behavioral traits associated with colonization of an urban habitat. PMID:22936840

Cardoso, Gonçalo C.; Whittaker, Danielle J.; Campbell-Nelson, Samuel; Robertson, Kyle W.; Ketterson, Ellen D.

2012-01-01

43

[Research development of problem "Scientific principles of hygiene and physiology of human adaptation to conditions of the World's ocean"].  

PubMed

Work of problem-solving commission on "Scientific background of hygiene and physiology of human adaptation to World ocean conditions" is described. Medical problems of the water transport as key problems are noted. PMID:8344568

Votenko, A M

1993-02-01

44

Adaptation to altitude as a vehicle for experiential learning of physiology by university undergraduates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this article, an experiential learning activity is described in which 19 university undergraduates made experimental observations on each other to explore physiological adaptations to high altitude. Following 2 wk of didactic sessions and baseline data collection at sea level, the group ascended to a research station at 12,500-ft elevation. Here, teams of three to four students measured the maximal rate of oxygen uptake, cognitive function, hand and foot volume changes, reticulocyte count and hematocrit, urinary pH and 24-h urine volume, athletic performance, and nocturnal blood oxygen saturation. Their data allowed the students to quantify the effect of altitude on the oxygen cascade and to demonstrate the following altitude-related changes: 1) impaired performance on selected cognitive function tests, 2) mild peripheral edema, 3) rapid reticulocytosis, 4) urinary alkalinization and diuresis, 5) impaired aerobic but not anaerobic exercise performance, 6) inverse relationship between blood oxygen saturation and resting heart rate, and 7) regular periodic nocturnal oxygen desaturation events accompanied by heart rate accelerations. The students learned and applied basic statistical techniques to analyze their data, and each team summarized its results in the format of a scientific paper. The students were uniformly enthusiastic about the use of self-directed experimentation to explore the physiology of altitude adaptation and felt that they learned more from this course format than a control group of students felt that they learned from a physiology course taught by the same instructor in the standard classroom/laboratory format.

David S Weigle (University of Washington Medicine)

2007-05-16

45

King of the mountains: Tibetan and Sherpa physiological adaptations for life at high altitude.  

PubMed

Anecdotal evidence surrounding Tibetans' and Sherpas' exceptional tolerance to hypobaric hypoxia has been recorded since the beginning of high-altitude exploration. These populations have successfully lived and reproduced at high altitude for hundreds of generations with hypoxia as a constant evolutionary pressure. Consequently, they are likely to have undergone natural selection toward a genotype (and phenotype) tending to offer beneficial adaptation to sustained hypoxia. With the advent of translational human hypoxic research, in which genotype/phenotype studies of healthy individuals at high altitude may be of benefit to hypoxemic critically ill patients in a hospital setting, high-altitude natives may provide a valuable and intriguing model. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the scientific literature encompassing Tibetan and Sherpa physiological adaptations to a high-altitude residence. The review demonstrates the extent to which evolutionary pressure has refined the physiology of this high-altitude population. Furthermore, although many physiological differences between highlanders and lowlanders have been found, it also suggests many more potential avenues of investigation. PMID:25362633

Gilbert-Kawai, Edward T; Milledge, James S; Grocott, Michael P W; Martin, Daniel S

2014-11-01

46

Match and mismatch: conservation physiology, nutritional ecology and the timescales of biological adaptation  

PubMed Central

Conservation physiology (CP) and nutritional ecology (NE) are both integrative sciences that share the fundamental aim of understanding the patterns, mechanisms and consequences of animal responses to changing environments. Here, we explore the high-level similarities and differences between CP and NE, identifying as central themes to both fields the multiple timescales over which animals adapt (and fail to adapt) to their environments, and the need for integrative models to study these processes. At one extreme are the short-term regulatory responses that modulate the state of animals in relation to the environment, which are variously considered under the concepts of homeostasis, homeorhesis, enantiostasis, heterostasis and allostasis. In the longer term are developmental responses, including phenotypic plasticity and transgenerational effects mediated by non-genomic influences such as parental physiology, epigenetic effects and cultural learning. Over a longer timescale still are the cumulative genetic changes that take place in Darwinian evolution. We present examples showing how the adaptive responses of animals across these timescales have been represented in an integrative framework from NE, the geometric framework (GF) for nutrition, and close with an illustration of how GF can be applied to the central issue in CP, animal conservation. PMID:22566672

Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J.; Tait, Alice H.

2012-01-01

47

Global transcriptional, physiological and metabolite analyses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough responses to salt adaptation  

SciTech Connect

The response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to salt adaptation (long-term NaCl exposure) was examined by physiological, global transcriptional, and metabolite analyses. The growth of D. vulgaris was inhibited by high levels of NaCl, and the growth inhibition could be relieved by the addition of exogenous amino acids (e.g., glutamate, alanine, tryptophan) or yeast extract. Salt adaptation induced the expression of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis and transport, electron transfer, hydrogen oxidation, and general stress responses (e.g., heat shock proteins, phage shock proteins, and oxidative stress response proteins). Genes involved in carbon metabolism, cell motility, and phage structures were repressed. Comparison of transcriptomic profiles of D. vulgaris responses to salt adaptation with those of salt shock (short-term NaCl exposure) showed some similarity as well as a significant difference. Metabolite assays showed that glutamate and alanine were accumulated under salt adaptation, suggesting that they may be used as osmoprotectants in D. vulgaris. A conceptual model is proposed to link the observed results to currently available knowledge for further understanding the mechanisms of D. vulgaris adaptation to elevated NaCl.

He, Z.; Zhou, A.; Baidoo, E.; He, Q.; Joachimiak, M. P.; Benke, P.; Phan, R.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Hemme, C.L.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.J.; Fields, M.W.; Wall, J.; Stahl, D.; Hazen, T.C.; Keasling, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Zhou, J.

2009-12-01

48

RLS adaptive filtering for physiological interference reduction in NIRS brain activity measurement: a Monte Carlo study.  

PubMed

The non-invasive measurement of cerebral functional haemodynamics using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) instruments is often affected by physiological interference. The suppression of this interference is crucial for reliable recovery of brain activity measurements because it can significantly affect the signal quality. In this study, we present a recursive least-squares (RLS) algorithm for adaptive filtering to reduce the magnitude of the physiological interference component. To evaluate it, we implemented Monte Carlo simulations based on a five-layer slab model of a human adult head with a multidistance source-detector arrangement, of a short pair and a long pair, for NIRS measurement. We derived measurements by adopting different interoptode distances, which is relevant to the process of optimizing the NIRS probe configuration. Both RLS and least mean squares (LMS) algorithms were used to attempt the removal of physiological interference. The results suggest that the RLS algorithm is more capable of minimizing the effect of physiological interference due to its advantages of faster convergence and smaller mean squared error (MSE). The influence of superficial layer thickness on the performance of the RLS algorithm was also investigated. We found that the near-detector position is an important variable in minimizing the MSE and a short source-detector separation less than 9 mm is robust to superficial layer thickness variation. PMID:22551687

Zhang, Y; Sun, J W; Rolfe, P

2012-06-01

49

What Has Natural Variation Taught Us about Plant Development, Physiology, and Adaptation?  

PubMed Central

Nearly 100 genes and functional polymorphisms underlying natural variation in plant development and physiology have been identified. In crop plants, these include genes involved in domestication traits, such as those related to plant architecture, fruit and seed structure and morphology, as well as yield and quality traits improved by subsequent crop breeding. In wild plants, comparable traits have been dissected mainly in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this review, we discuss the major contributions of the analysis of natural variation to our understanding of plant development and physiology, focusing in particular on the timing of germination and flowering, plant growth and morphology, primary metabolism, and mineral accumulation. Overall, functional polymorphisms appear in all types of genes and gene regions, and they may have multiple mutational causes. However, understanding this diversity in relation to adaptation and environmental variation is a challenge for which tools are now available. PMID:19574434

Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; Aarts, Mark G.M.; Bentsink, Leonie; Keurentjes, Joost J.B.; Reymond, Matthieu; Vreugdenhil, Dick; Koornneef, Maarten

2009-01-01

50

Behavioural and physiological adaptations to low-temperature environments in the common frog, Rana temporaria  

PubMed Central

Background Extreme environments can impose strong ecological and evolutionary pressures at a local level. Ectotherms are particularly sensitive to low-temperature environments, which can result in a reduced activity period, slowed physiological processes and increased exposure to sub-zero temperatures. The aim of this study was to assess the behavioural and physiological responses that facilitate survival in low-temperature environments. In particular, we asked: 1) do high-altitude common frog (Rana temporaria) adults extend the time available for larval growth by breeding at lower temperatures than low-altitude individuals?; and 2) do tadpoles sampled from high-altitude sites differ physiologically from those from low-altitude sites, in terms of routine metabolic rate (RMR) and freeze tolerance? Breeding date was assessed as the first day of spawn observation and local temperature recorded for five, paired high- and low-altitude R. temporaria breeding sites in Scotland. Spawn was collected and tadpoles raised in a common laboratory environment, where RMR was measured as oxygen consumed using a closed respiratory tube system. Freeze tolerance was measured as survival following slow cooling to the point when all container water had frozen. Results We found that breeding did not occur below 5°C at any site and there was no significant relationship between breeding temperature and altitude, leading to a delay in spawning of five days for every 100 m increase in altitude. The relationship between altitude and RMR varied by mountain but was lower for individuals sampled from high- than low-altitude sites within the three mountains with the highest high-altitude sites (?900 m). In contrast, individuals sampled from low-altitudes survived freezing significantly better than those from high-altitudes, across all mountains. Conclusions Our results suggest that adults at high-altitude do not show behavioural adaptations in terms of breeding at lower temperatures. However, tadpoles appear to have the potential to adapt physiologically to surviving at high-altitude via reduced RMR but without an increase in freeze tolerance. Therefore, survival at high-altitude may be facilitated by physiological mechanisms that permit faster growth rates, allowing completion of larval development within a shorter time period, alleviating the need for adaptations that extend the time available for larval growth. PMID:24885261

2014-01-01

51

SIRT1: Linking Adaptive Cellular Responses to aging-associated Changes in Organismal Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sirtuins comprise a family of enzymes implicated in the determination of organismal life span in yeast and the nematode. The mammalian sirtuin SIRT1 has been shown to deacetylate several proteins in an NAD+-dependent manner. SIRT1 substrates are involved in the regulation of apoptosis/cell survival, endocrine signaling, differentiation, chromatin remodeling, and transcription. Thus SIRT1 provides a molecular link between nutrient availability and adaptive transcriptional responses. This review presents current evidence as to how SIRT1 functions are relevant to changes in tissue physiology that occur with ageing and its implications for future pharmacological intervention to alleviate such degenerative processes.

2006-12-01

52

Local Adaptation to Altitude Underlies Divergent Thermal Physiology in Tropical Killifishes of the Genus Aphyosemion  

PubMed Central

In watersheds of equatorial West Africa, monophyletic groups of killifish species (genus Aphyosemion) occur in discrete altitudinal ranges, low altitude species (LA, sea level to ?350 m) or high altitude species (HA, 350 to 900 m). We investigated the hypothesis that local adaptation to altitude by the LA and HA species would be revealed as divergent effects of temperature on their physiological energetics. Two species from each group (mass ?350 mg) were acclimated to 19, 25 and 28°C, with 19 and 28°C estimated to be outside the thermal envelope for LA or HA, respectively, in the wild. Wild-caught animals (F0 generation) were compared with animals raised in captivity at 25°C (F1 generation) to investigate the contribution of adaptation versus plasticity. Temperature significantly increased routine metabolic rate in all groups and generations. However, LA and HA species differed in the effects of temperature on their ability to process a meal. At 25°C, the specific dynamic action (SDA) response was completed within 8 h in all groups, but acclimation to temperatures beyond the thermal envelope caused profound declines in SDA performance. At 19°C, the LA required ?14 h to complete the SDA, whereas the HA required only ?7 h. The opposite effect was observed at 28°C. This effect was evident in both F0 and F1. Reaction norms for effects of temperature on SDA therefore revealed a trade-off, with superior performance at warmer temperatures by LA being associated with inferior performance at cooler temperatures, and vice-versa in HA. The data indicate that divergent physiological responses to temperature in the LA and HA species reflect local adaptation to the thermal regime in their habitat, and that local adaptation to one thermal environment trades off against performance in another. PMID:23349857

McKenzie, David J.; Estivales, Guillan; Svendsen, Jon C.; Steffensen, John F.; Agnèse, Jean-François

2013-01-01

53

High sustained +Gz acceleration: physiological adaptation to high-G tolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the early 1940s, a significant volume of research has been conducted in an effort to describe the impact of acute exposures to high-G acceleration on cardiovascular mechanisms responsible to maintaining cerebral perfusion and conscious in high performance aircraft pilots during aerial combat maneuvers. The value of understanding hemodynamic characteristics that underlie G-induced loss of consciousness has been instrumental in the evolution of optimal technology development (e.g., G-suits, positive pressure breathing, COMBAT EDGE, etc.) and pilot training (e.g., anti-G straining maneuvers). Although the emphasis of research has been placed on the development of protection against acute high +Gz acceleration effects, recent observations suggest that adaptation of cardiovascular mechanism associated with blood pressure regulation may contribute to a protective 'G-training' effect. Regular training at high G enhances G tolerance in humans, rats, guinea pigs, and dogs while prolonged layoff from exposure in high G profiles (G-layoff) can result in reduced G endurance. It seems probable that adaptations in physiological functions following chronically-repeated high G exposure (G training) or G-layoff could have significant impacts on performance during sustained high-G acceleration since protective technology such as G-suits and anit-G straining maneuvers are applied consistently during these periods of training. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of new data from three experiments that support the notion that repeated exposure on a regular basis to high sustained +Gz acceleration induces significant physiological adaptations which are associated with improved blood pressure regulation and subsequent protection of cerebral perfusion during orthostatic challenges.

Convertino, V. A.

1998-01-01

54

Genetic variance and covariance for physiological traits in Lobelia: are there constraints on adaptive evolution?  

PubMed

Physiological traits that control the uptake of carbon dioxide and loss of water are key determinants of plant growth and reproduction. Variation in these traits is often correlated with environmental gradients of water, light, and nutrients, suggesting that natural selection is the primary evolutionary mechanism responsible for physiological diversification. Responses to selection, however, can be constrained by the amount of standing genetic variation for physiological traits and genetic correlations between these traits. To examine the potential for constraint on adaptive evolution, we estimated the quantitative genetic basis of physiological trait variation in one population of each of two closely related species (Lobelia siphilitica and L. cardinalis). Restricted maximum likelihood analyses of greenhouse-grown half-sib families were used to estimate genetic variances and covariances for seven traits associated with carbon and water relations. We detected significant genetic variation for all traits in L. siphilitica, suggesting that carbon-gain and water-use traits could evolve in response to natural selection in this population. In particular, narrow-sense heritabilities for photosynthetic rate (A), stomatal conductance (gs), and water-use efficiency (WUE) in our L. siphilitica population were high relative to previous studies in other species. Although there was significant narrow-sense heritability for A in L. cardinalis, we detected little genetic variation for traits associated with water use (gs and WUE), suggesting that our population of this species may be unable to adapt to drier environments. Despite being tightly linked functionally, the genetic correlation between A and gs was not strong and significant in either population. Therefore, our L. siphilitica population would not be genetically constrained from evolving high A (and thus fixing more carbon for growth and reproduction) while also decreasing gs to limit water loss. However, a significant negative genetic correlation existed between WUE and plant size in L. siphilitica, suggesting that high WUE may be negatively associated with high fecundity. In contrast, our results suggest that any constraints on the evolution of photosynthetic and stomatal traits of L. cardinalis are caused primarily by a lack of genetic variation, rather than by genetic correlations between these functionally related traits. PMID:15926692

Caruso, Christina M; Maherali, Hafiz; Mikulyuk, Alison; Carlson, Kjarstin; Jackson, Robert B

2005-04-01

55

Adaptation to Shift Work: Physiologically Based Modeling of the Effects of Lighting and Shifts’ Start Time  

PubMed Central

Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers’ sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n?=?8) in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers’ adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21?00 instead of 00?00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters. PMID:23308206

Postnova, Svetlana; Robinson, Peter A.; Postnov, Dmitry D.

2013-01-01

56

Interval versus continuous training with identical workload: physiological and aerobic capacity adaptations.  

PubMed

The interval model has been more recommended to promote aerobic adaptations due to recovery period that enables the execution of elevated intensity and as consequence, higher workload in relation to continuous. However, the physiological and aerobic capacity adaptations in interval training with identical workload to continuous are still uncertain. The purpose was to characterize the effects of chronic and acute biomarkers adaptations and aerobic capacity in interval and continuous protocols with equivalent load. Fifty Wistar rats were divided in three groups: Continuous training (GTC), interval training (GTI) and control (CG). The running training lasted 8 weeks (wk) and was based at Anaerobic Threshold (AT) velocity. GTI showed glycogen super-compensation (mg/100mg) 48 h after training session in relation to CG and GTC (GTI red gastrocnemious (RG)=1.41+/-0.16; GTI white gastrocnemious (WG) =1.78+/-0.20; GTI soleus (S)=0.26+/-0.01; GTI liver (L)=2.72+/-0.36; GTC RG=0.42+/-0.17; GTC WG=0.54+/-0.22; GTC S=0.100+/-0.01; GTC L=1.12+/-0.24; CG RG=0.32+/-0.05; CG WG=0.65+/-0.17; CG S=0.14+/-0.01; CG L=2.28+/-0.33). The volume performed by GTI was higher than GTC. The aerobic capacity reduced 11% after experimental period in GTC when compared to GTI, but this change was insignificant (19.6+/-5.4m/min; 17.7+/-2.5 m/min, effect size=0.59). Free Fatty Acids and Glucose concentration did not show statistical differences among the groups. Corticosterone concentration increased in acute condition for GTI and GTC. Testosterone concentration reduced 71% in GTC immediately after the exercise in comparison to CG. The GTI allowed positive adaptations when compared to GTC in relation to: glycogen super-compensation, training volume performed and anabolic condition. However, the GTI not improved the aerobic performance. PMID:25317688

de Araujo, G G; Gobatto, C A; Marcos-Pereira, M; Dos Reis, I Gm; Verlengia, R

2014-10-15

57

Assessment of heifer grazing experience on short-term adaptation to pasture and performance as lactating cows.  

PubMed

A 3-yr study evaluated the carryover effects of dairy heifer grazing experience on behavior and first-lactation performance as dairy cows. Forty-one Holstein and 23 Holstein-Jersey crossbred calves born between January and April 2008 were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (n=8 per group, 2 groups per treatment) in a completely randomized design. Treatments were combinations of managing dairy heifers in confinement (CNF) or on pasture (PST): grazed yr 1 and 2 (PSTPST); grazed yr 1, but confined yr 2 (PSTCNF); confined yr 1 and grazed yr 2 (CNFPST); or confined yr 1 and 2 (CNFCNF). After calving, all heifers on all treatments were grazed as cows in yr 3. In yr 1, PSTPST and PSTCNF heifers were grazed for 41 d on Italian ryegrass pastures, whereas CNFPST and CNFCNF were housed in bedded-pack pens and fed a TMR. In yr 2, PSTPST and CNFPST heifers grazed Italian ryegrass pasture for 65 d, whereas PSTCNF and CNFCNF remained in confinement. In yr 2, a mid-trial assessment of heifer grazing behavior was made on PSTPST versus CNFPST heifers. Grazing activities were assessed by visual observation and heifer movement measured by portable global positioning system units. Heifers from all treatment groups subsequently calved between January and April in yr 3. All primiparous cows were then allocated to pastures by treatment group, grazed for 61 d, (May through July) in yr 3, with grazing behavior and milk production evaluated while grazing. In yr 2, heifers on the PSTPST treatment spent more time grazing than heifers on the CNFPST treatment (78 vs. 35% of the time) when first exposed to pasture (d 1). On d 1 to 3, PSTPST heifers walked a greater distance than CNFPST heifers; however, PSTPST and CNFPST heifers had similar daily grazing times and walking patterns after 3 d of pasture exposure in yr 2. As lactating cows (yr 3), cows with no (CNFCNF) grazing experience grazed less on d 1 compared with cows with (PSTPST, PSTCNF, or CNFPST) grazing experience. Day-1 grazing times in yr 3 were 62, 59, 76, and 13% of the times for cows with PSTPST, PSTCNF, CNFPST, and CNFCNF grazing experience, respectively. In yr 3, on d 1 to 3, cows with previous grazing experience as heifers (PSTPST, CNFPST, and PSTCNF) walked a greater distance than cows without previous grazing experience (CNFCNF). Milk production was lowest on d 1 to 3 for cows with no previous grazing experience (CNFCNF), but average daily milk production was not different overall over the 61 d of study in yr 3. Results indicate that grazing experiences as a heifer can affect behavior and milk production during a cow's first days on pasture. After a short acclimation period, dairy cows without grazing experience as heifers developed similar grazing behaviors and performance as cows with grazing experience as heifers. PMID:23522679

Lopes, F; Coblentz, W; Hoffman, P C; Combs, D K

2013-05-01

58

Antepartal insulin-like growth factor concentrations indicating differences in the metabolic adaptive capacity of dairy cows  

PubMed Central

Cows with different Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations showed comparable expression levels of hepatic growth hormone receptor (GHR). Suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2), could be responsible for additional inhibition of the GHR signal cascade. The aims were to monitor cows with high or low antepartal IGF-I concentrations (IGF-Ihigh or IGF-Ilow), evaluate the interrelationships of endocrine endpoints, and measure hepatic SOCS2 expression. Dairy cows (n = 20) were selected (240 to 254 days after artificial insemination (AI)). Blood samples were drawn daily (day -17 until calving) and IGF-I, GH, insulin, thyroid hormones, estradiol, and progesterone concentrations were measured. Liver biopsies were taken (day 264 ± 1 after AI and postpartum) to measure mRNA expression (IGF-I, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, IGFBP-4, acid labile subunit (ALS), SOCS2, deiodinase1, GHR1A). IGF-I concentrations in the two groups were different (p < 0.0001). However, GH concentrations and GHR1A mRNA expression were comparable (p > 0.05). Thyroxine levels and ALS expression were higher in the IGF-Ihigh cows compared to IGF-Ilow cows. Estradiol concentration tended to be greater in the IGF-Ilow group (p = 0.06). It was hypothesized that low IGF-I levels are associated with enhanced SOCS2 expression although this could not be decisively confirmed by the present study. PMID:24962413

Holzhausen, Lars; Araujo, Marcelo Gil; Heppelmann, Maike; Sipka, Anja; Pfarrer, Chistiane; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim; Bollwein, Heinrich

2014-01-01

59

Invited review: heat stress effects during late gestation on dry cows and their calves.  

PubMed

In dairy cattle, late gestation is a critical period for fetal growth and physiological transition into the next lactation. Environmental factors, such as temperature and light, exert dramatic effects on the production, health, and well-being of animals during this period and after parturition. The aim of this review was to introduce effects of heat stress during late gestation on dairy cattle, and discuss the biological mechanisms that underlie the observed production and health responses in the dam and her fetus. Relative to cooled cows, cows that are heat stressed during late gestation have impaired mammary growth before parturition and decreased milk production in the subsequent lactation. In response to higher milk yield, cows cooled prepartum undergo a series of homeorhetic adaptations in early lactation to meet higher demand for milk synthesis compared with heat-stressed cows, but no direct effect of environmental heat stress on metabolism exists during the dry period. Prepartum cooling improves immune status of transition cows and evidence suggests that altered prolactin signaling in immune cells mediates the effects of heat stress on immune function. Late-gestation heat stress compromises placental development, which results in fetal hypoxia, malnutrition, and eventually fetal growth retardation. Maternal heat stress may also have carryover effects on the postnatal growth of offspring, but direct evidence is still lacking. Emerging evidence suggests that offspring from prepartum heat-stressed cows have compromised passive immunity and impaired cell-mediated immune function compared with those from cooled cows. PMID:23664343

Tao, S; Dahl, G E

2013-07-01

60

Seasonal variation in coat characteristics, tick loads, cortisol levels, some physiological parameters and temperature humidity index on Nguni cows raised in low- and high-input farms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal variations in hair length, tick loads, cortisol levels, haematological parameters (HP) and temperature humidity index (THI) in Nguni cows of different colours raised in two low-input farms, and a commercial stud was determined. The sites were chosen based on their production systems, climatic characteristics and geographical locations. Zazulwana and Komga are low-input, humid-coastal areas, while Honeydale is a high-input, dry-inland Nguni stud farm. A total of 103 cows, grouped according to parity, location and coat colour, were used in the study. The effects of location, coat colour, hair length and season were used to determine tick loads on different body parts, cortisol levels and HP in blood from Nguni cows. Highest tick loads were recorded under the tail and the lowest on the head of each of the animals (P < 0.05). Zazulwana cows recorded the highest tick loads under the tails of all the cows used in the study from the three farms (P < 0.05). High tick loads were recorded for cows with long hairs. Hair lengths were longest during the winter season in the coastal areas of Zazulwana and Honeydale (P < 0.05). White and brown-white patched cows had significantly longer (P < 0.05) hair strands than those having a combination of red, black and white colour. Cortisol and THI were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in summer season. Red blood cells, haematoglobin, haematocrit, mean cell volumes, white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils were significantly different (P < 0.05) as some associated with age across all seasons and correlated to THI. It was concluded that the location, coat colour and season had effects on hair length, cortisol levels, THI, HP and tick loads on different body parts and heat stress in Nguni cows.

Katiyatiya, C. L. F.; Muchenje, V.; Mushunje, A.

2014-08-01

61

Seasonal variation in coat characteristics, tick loads, cortisol levels, some physiological parameters and temperature humidity index on Nguni cows raised in low- and high-input farms.  

PubMed

Seasonal variations in hair length, tick loads, cortisol levels, haematological parameters (HP) and temperature humidity index (THI) in Nguni cows of different colours raised in two low-input farms, and a commercial stud was determined. The sites were chosen based on their production systems, climatic characteristics and geographical locations. Zazulwana and Komga are low-input, humid-coastal areas, while Honeydale is a high-input, dry-inland Nguni stud farm. A total of 103 cows, grouped according to parity, location and coat colour, were used in the study. The effects of location, coat colour, hair length and season were used to determine tick loads on different body parts, cortisol levels and HP in blood from Nguni cows. Highest tick loads were recorded under the tail and the lowest on the head of each of the animals (P?cows recorded the highest tick loads under the tails of all the cows used in the study from the three farms (P?cows with long hairs. Hair lengths were longest during the winter season in the coastal areas of Zazulwana and Honeydale (P?cows had significantly longer (P?cows. PMID:25172085

Katiyatiya, C L F; Muchenje, V; Mushunje, A

2014-08-30

62

Physiological cellular responses and adaptations of Rhodococcus erythropolis IBBPo1 to toxic organic solvents.  

PubMed

A new Gram-positive bacterium, Rhodococcus erythropolis IBBPo1 (KF059972.1) was isolated from a crude oil-contaminated soil sample by enrichment culture method. R. erythropolis IBBPo1 was able to tolerate a wide range of toxic compounds, such as antibiotics (800-1000?g/mL), synthetic surfactants (50-200?g/mL), and organic solvents (40%-100%). R. erythropolis IBBPo1 showed good tolerance to both alkanes (cyclohexane, n-hexane, n-decane) and aromatics (toluene, styrene, ethylbenzene) with logPOW (logarithm of the partition coefficient of the solvent in octanol-water mixture) values between 2.64 and 5.98. However, alkanes were less toxic for R. erythropolis IBBPo1 cells, compared with aromatics. The high organic solvent tolerance of R. erythropolis IBBPo1 could be due to the presence in their large genome of some catabolic (alkB, alkB1, todC1, todM, xylM), transporter (HAE1) and trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (otsA1, KF059973.1) genes. Numerous and complex physiological cellular responses and adaptations involved in organic solvent tolerance were revealed in R. erythropolis IBBPo1 cells exposed 1 and 24hr to 1% organic solvents. R. erythropolis IBBPo1 cells adapt to 1% organic solvents by changing surface hydrophobicity, morphology and their metabolic fingerprinting. Considerable modifications in otsA1 gene sequence were also observed in cells exposed to organic solvents (except ethylbenzene). PMID:25288551

Stancu, Mihaela Marilena

2014-10-01

63

Can supplementation with vitamin C and E alter physiological adaptations to strength training?  

PubMed Central

Background Antioxidant supplementation has recently been demonstrated to be a double-edged sword, because small to moderate doses of exogenous antioxidants are essential or beneficial, while high doses may have adverse effects. The adverse effects can be manifested in attenuated effects of exercise and training, as the antioxidants may shut down some redox-sensitive signaling in the exercised muscle fibers. However, conditions such as age may potentially modulate the need for antioxidant intake. Therefore, this paper describes experiments for testing the hypothesis that high dosages of vitamin C (1000 mg/day) and E (235 mg/day) have negative effects on adaptation to resistance exercise and training in young volunteers, but positive effects in older men. Methods/design We recruited a total of 73 volunteers. The participants were randomly assigned to receiving either vitamin C and E supplementation or a placebo. The study design was double-blinded, and the participants followed an intensive training program for 10–12 weeks. Tests and measurements aimed at assessing changes in physical performance (maximal strength) and physiological characteristics (muscle mass), as well as biochemical and cellular systems and structures (e.g., cell signaling and morphology). Discussion Dietary supplements, such as vitamin C and E, are used by many people, especially athletes. The users often believe that high dosages of supplements improve health (resistance to illness and disease) and physical performance. These assumptions are, however, generally not supported in the scientific literature. On the contrary, some studies have indicated that high dosages of antioxidant supplements have negative effects on exercise-induced adaptation processes. Since this issue concerns many people and few randomized controlled trials have been conducted in humans, further studies are highly warranted. Trial registration ACTRN12614000065695 PMID:25075311

2014-01-01

64

Prepartal dietary energy alters transcriptional adaptations of the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue of dairy cows during the transition period.  

PubMed

Overfeeding during the dry period may predispose cows to increased insulin resistance (IR) with enhanced postpartum lipolysis. We studied gene expression in the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of 16 Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows fed either a controlled energy diet [Con, 99 MJ/day metabolizable energy (ME)] during the last 6 wk of the dry period or high-energy diet (High, 141 MJ/day ME) for the first 3 wk and then gradually decreasing energy allowance during 3 wk to 99 MJ/day ME before the expected parturition. Tissue biopsies were collected at -10, 1, and 9 days, and blood samples at -10, 1, and 7 days relative to parturition. Overfed cows had greater dry matter, crude protein, and ME intakes and ME balance before parturition. Daily milk yield, live weight, and body condition score were not different between treatments. The High cows tended to have greater plasma insulin and lower glucagon/insulin ratio compared with Con cows. No differences in circulating glucose, glucagon, nonesterified fatty acids and ?-hydroxybutyrate concentrations, and hepatic triglyceride contents were observed between treatments. Overfeeding compared with Con resulted in lower CPT1A and PCK1 and a tendency for lower G6PC and PC expression in the liver. The High group tended to have lower RETN expression in SAT than Con. No other effects of overfeeding on the expression of genes related to IR in SAT were observed. In conclusion, overfeeding energy prepartum may have compromised hepatic gluconeogenic capacity and slightly affected IR in SAT based on gene expression. PMID:24569674

Selim, S; Salin, S; Taponen, J; Vanhatalo, A; Kokkonen, T; Elo, K T

2014-05-01

65

Physiological Adaptation of Desulfitobacterium hafniense Strain TCE1 to Tetrachloroethene Respiration?†  

PubMed Central

Desulfitobacterium spp. are ubiquitous organisms with a broad metabolic versatility, and some isolates have the ability to use tetrachloroethene (PCE) as terminal electron acceptor. In order to identify proteins involved in this organohalide respiration process, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed. Soluble and membrane-associated proteins obtained from cells of Desulfitobacterium hafniense strain TCE1 that were growing on different combinations of the electron donors lactate and hydrogen and the electron acceptors PCE and fumarate were analyzed. Among proteins increasingly expressed in the presence of PCE compared to fumarate as electron acceptor, a total of 57 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry analysis, revealing proteins involved in stress response and associated regulation pathways, such as PspA, GroEL, and CodY, and also proteins potentially participating in carbon and energy metabolism, such as proteins of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and electron transfer flavoproteins. These proteomic results suggest that D. hafniense strain TCE1 adapts its physiology to face the relative unfavorable growth conditions during an apparent opportunistic organohalide respiration. PMID:21478312

Prat, Laure; Maillard, Julien; Grimaud, Régis; Holliger, Christof

2011-01-01

66

Phytoplankton production and physiological adaptation on the southeastern shelf of the Agulhas ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation of phytoplankton production and physiology was undertaken during two research cruises on the southeastern shelf of southern Africa. The data set included photosynthesis-irradiance and active fluorescence parameters, phytoplankton absorption coefficients and HPLC pigment concentrations. Primary production was estimated to vary over a similar range for both cruises within 0.27-3.69 g C m -2 d -1. Pigment indices indicated that diatoms were dominant on the first cruise and the communities were subject to conditions where the mixed layer was deeper than the euphotic zone and they optimized their photosynthesis to very low light intensities at the bottom and below the euphotic zone. Mixed diatom-flagellate populations were observed during the second cruise where the euphotic zone was deeper than the mixed layer and the populations adapted to irradiances higher in the euphotic zone. In response to a mean lower water column PAR, it was found that these mixed communities increased the proportion of chlorophyll a in the pigment pool and had a higher quantum yield of photochemistry and higher light-limited photosynthetic efficiency.

Barlow, R.; Lamont, T.; Kyewalyanga, M.; Sessions, H.; Morris, T.

2010-07-01

67

Effects of mercury on Dictyostelium discoideum: proteomics reveals the molecular mechanisms of physiological adaptation and toxicity.  

PubMed

Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae were exposed to Hg 2 microM corresponding to a sublethal concentration and Hg 10 microM with the first effects on mortality and replication rate. A total of 900 spots were visualized by 2-DE electrophoresis. Two-hundred fifty single proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Low Hg concentration (2 microM) treatment induced up-regulation of 13 spots, mainly involved in oxidative stress response/detoxification, oxidoreductase activity, and metabolic processes. High Hg concentration (10 microM) treatment showed a different PES with 12 proteins downregulated and only two up-regulated, mainly involved in cellular metabolic processes, metal ion binding, and transferase activity. The analyses for the carbonylation show no changes after 2 microM Hg(2+) treatment and 13 differentially carbonylated proteins after 10 microM Hg(2+) involved in a broad range of cellular processes. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms of physiological adaptation and toxicity to a low and an high mercury concentration, respectively, of Dictyostelium amoebae. PMID:20408569

Marsano, Francesco; Boatti, Lara; Ranzato, Elia; Cavaletto, Maria; Magnelli, Valeria; Dondero, Francesco; Viarengo, Aldo

2010-06-01

68

Physiological and Proteomic Adaptation of the Alpine Grass Stipa purpurea to a Drought Gradient  

PubMed Central

Stipa purpurea, an endemic forage species on the Tibetan Plateau, is highly resistant to cold and drought, but the mechanisms underlying its responses to drought stress remain elusive. An understanding of such mechanisms may be useful for developing cultivars that are adaptable to water deficit. In this study, we analyzed the physiological and proteomic responses of S. purpurea under increasing drought stress. Seedlings of S. purpurea were subjected to a drought gradient in a controlled experiment, and proteins showing changes in abundance under these conditions were identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry analysis. A western blotting analysis was conducted to confirm the increased abundance of a heat-shock protein, NCED2, and a dehydrin in S. purpurea seedlings under drought conditions. We detected carbonylated proteins to identify oxidation-sensitive proteins in S. purpurea seedlings, and found that ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (RuBisCO) was one of the oxidation-sensitive proteins under drought. Together, these results indicated drought stress might inhibit photosynthesis in S. purpurea by oxidizing RuBisCO, but the plants were able to maintain photosynthetic efficiency by a compensatory upregulation of unoxidized RuBisCO and other photosynthesis-related proteins. Further analyses confirmed that increased abundance of antioxidant enzymes could balance the redox status of the plants to mitigate drought-induced oxidative damage. PMID:25646623

Yang, Yunqiang; Dong, Chao; Yang, Shihai; Li, Xiong; Sun, Xudong; Yang, Yongping

2015-01-01

69

Compensation of the Metabolic Costs of Antibiotic Resistance by Physiological Adaptation in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Antibiotic resistance is often associated with metabolic costs. To investigate the metabolic consequences of antibiotic resistance, the genomic and transcriptomic profiles of an amoxicillin-resistant Escherichia coli strain and the wild type it was derived from were compared. A total of 125 amino acid substitutions and 7 mutations that were located <1,000 bp upstream of differentially expressed genes were found in resistant cells. However, broad induction and suppression of genes were observed when comparing the expression profiles of resistant and wild-type cells. Expression of genes involved in cell wall maintenance, DNA metabolic processes, cellular stress response, and respiration was most affected in resistant cells regardless of the absence or presence of amoxicillin. The SOS response was downregulated in resistant cells. The physiological effect of the acquisition of amoxicillin resistance in cells grown in chemostat cultures consisted of an initial increase in glucose consumption that was followed by an adaptation process. Furthermore, no difference in maintenance energy was observed between resistant and sensitive cells. In accordance with the transcriptomic profile, exposure of resistant cells to amoxicillin resulted in reduced salt and pH tolerance. Taken together, the results demonstrate that the acquisition of antibiotic resistance in E. coli is accompanied by specifically reorganized metabolic networks in order to circumvent metabolic costs. The overall effect of the acquisition of resistance consists not so much of an extra energy requirement, but more a reduced ecological range. PMID:23716056

Händel, Nadine; Schuurmans, J. Merijn; Brul, Stanley

2013-01-01

70

Adaptation and evaluation of the GrazeIn model of grass dry matter intake and milk yield prediction for grazing dairy cows.  

PubMed

The prediction of grass dry matter intake (GDMI) and milk yield (MY) are important to aid sward and grazing management decision making. Previous evaluations of the GrazeIn model identified weaknesses in the prediction of GDMI and MY for grazing dairy cows. To increase the accuracy of GDMI and MY prediction, GrazeIn was adapted, and then re-evaluated, using a data set of 3960 individual cow measurements. The adaptation process was completed in four additive steps with different components of the model reparameterised or altered. These components were: (1) intake capacity (IC) that was increased by 5% to reduce a general GDMI underprediction. This resulted in a correction of the GDMI mean and a lower relative prediction error (RPE) for the total data set, and at all stages of lactation, compared with the original model; (2) body fat reserve (BFR) deposition from 84 days in milk to next calving that was included in the model. This partitioned some energy to BFR deposition after body condition score nadir had been reached. This reduced total energy available for milk production, reducing the overprediction of MY and reducing RPE for MY in mid and late lactation, compared with the previous step. There was no effect on predicted GDMI; (3) The potential milk curve was reparameterised by optimising the rate of decrease in the theoretical hormone related to secretory cell differentiation and the basal rate of secretory cell death to achieve the lowest possible mean prediction error (MPE) for MY. This resulted in a reduction in the RPE for MY and an increase in the RPE for GDMI in all stages of lactation compared with the previous step; and (4) finally, IC was optimised, for GDMI, to achieve the lowest possible MPE. This resulted in an IC correction coefficient of 1.11. This increased the RPE for MY but decreased the RPE for GDMI compared with the previous step. Compared with the original model, modifying this combination of four model components improved the prediction accuracy of MY, particularly in late lactation with a decrease in RPE from 27.8% in the original model to 22.1% in the adapted model. However, testing of the adapted model using an independent data set would be beneficial and necessary to make definitive conclusions on improved predictions. PMID:24438821

O'Neill, B F; Ruelle, E; O'Donovan, M; Shalloo, L; Mulligan, F J; Boland, T M; Delaby, L; Delagarde, R; Lewis, E

2014-04-01

71

A Chemosensory Adaptation Module for the Physiology Laboratory from Student-Directed "C. elegans" Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The model organism, "Caenorhabditis elegans," in addition to being well suited to genetics and cell biology teaching applications, can also be useful in the physiology laboratory. In this article, the author describes how students in a junior level college Comparative Physiology course have made use of "C. elegans" in semester-long,…

Lindblom, Tim

2006-01-01

72

Annual Research Review: The Neurobiology and Physiology of Resilience and Adaptation across the Life Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Adaptation is key to survival. An organism must adapt to environmental challenges in order to be able to thrive in the environment in which they find themselves. Resilience can be thought of as a measure of the ability of an organism to adapt, and to withstand challenges to its stability. In higher animals, the brain is a key player in…

Karatoreos, Ilia N.; McEwen, Bruce S.

2013-01-01

73

SIRT1 is a Highly Networked Protein That Mediates the Adaptation to Chronic Physiological Stress  

PubMed Central

SIRT1 is a NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase that has a very large number of established protein substrates and an equally impressive list of biological functions thought to be regulated by its activity. Perhaps as notable is the remarkable number of points of conflict concerning the role of SIRT1 in biological processes. For example, evidence exists suggesting that SIRT1 is a tumor suppressor, is an oncogene, or has no effect on oncogenesis. Similarly, SIRT1 is variably reported to induce, inhibit, or have no effect on autophagy. We believe that the resolution of many conflicting results is possible by considering recent reports indicating that SIRT1 is an important hub interacting with a complex network of proteins that collectively regulate a wide variety of biological processes including cancer and autophagy. A number of the interacting proteins are themselves hubs that, like SIRT1, utilize intrinsically disordered regions for their promiscuous interactions. Many studies investigating SIRT1 function have been carried out on cell lines carrying undetermined numbers of alterations to the proteins comprising the SIRT1 network or on inbred mouse strains carrying fixed mutations affecting some of these proteins. Thus, the effects of modulating SIRT1 amount and/or activity are importantly determined by the genetic background of the cell (or the inbred strain of mice), and the effects attributed to SIRT1 are synthetic with the background of mutations and epigenetic differences between cells and organisms. Work on mice carrying alterations to the Sirt1 gene suggests that the network in which SIRT1 functions plays an important role in mediating physiological adaptation to various sources of chronic stress such as calorie restriction and calorie overload. Whether the catalytic activity of SIRT1 and the nuclear concentration of the co-factor, NAD+, are responsible for modulating this activity remains to be determined. However, the effect of modulating SIRT1 activity must be interpreted in the context of the cell or tissue under investigation. Indeed, for SIRT1, we argue that context is everything. PMID:24020004

Clark-Knowles, Katherine V.; Caron, Annabelle Z.; Gray, Douglas A.

2013-01-01

74

The adaptability of physiological systems optimizes performance: new directions in augmentation  

E-print Network

This paper contributes to the human-machine interface community in two ways: as a critique of the closed-loop AC (augmented cognition) approach, and as a way to introduce concepts from complex systems and systems physiology into the field. Examples will be given from human physiology and learning and memory. Finally, the alternate approach presented herein is considered as a preferable design alternate in human-machine systems.

Alicea, Bradly

2008-01-01

75

Physiological adaptations of the gut in the Lake Magadi tilapia, Alcolapia grahami, an alkaline- and saline-adapted teleost fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the gut physiology of the Lake Magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami), specifically those aspects associated with feeding and drinking while living in water of unusually high carbonate alkalinity (titratable base=245 mequiv l?1) and pH (9.85). Drinking of this highly alkaline lake water occurs at rates comparable to or higher than those seen in marine teleosts. Eating and drinking take

Annie Narahara Bergman; Pierre Laurent; George Otiang'a-Owiti; Harold L. Bergman; Patrick J. Walsh; Paul Wilson; Chris M. Wood

2003-01-01

76

Estimating the capability of microalgae to physiological acclimatization and genetic adaptation to petroleum and diesel oil contamination.  

PubMed

There is increasing scientific interest in how phytoplankton reacts to petroleum contamination, since crude oil and its derivatives are generating extensive contamination of aquatic environments. However, toxic effects of short-term petroleum exposure are more widely known than the adaptation of phytoplankton to long-term petroleum exposure. An analysis of short-term and long-term effects of petroleum exposure was done using experimental populations of freshwater (Scenedesmus intermedius and Microcystis aeruginosa) and marine (Dunaliella tertiolecta) microalgae isolated from pristine sites without crude oil product contamination. These strains were exposed to increased levels of petroleum and diesel oil. Short-term exposure to petroleum or diesel oil revealed a rapid inhibition of photosynthetic performance and cell proliferation in freshwater and marine phytoplankton species. A broad degree of inter-specific variation in lethal contamination level was observed. When different strains were exposed to petroleum or diesel oil over the long-term, the cultures showed massive destruction of the sensitive cells. Nonetheless, after further incubation, some cultures were able to grow again due to cells that were resistant to the toxins. By means of a fluctuation analysis, discrimination between cells that had become resistant due to physiological acclimatization and resistant cells arising from rare spontaneous mutations was accomplished. In addition, an analysis was done as to the maximum capacity of adaptation to a gradual contamination process. An experimental ratchet protocol was used, which maintains a strong selection pressure in a temporal scale up to several months over very large experimental populations of microalgae. Microalgae are able to survive to petroleum contamination as a result of physiological acclimatization without genetic changes. However, when petroleum concentration exceeds the physiological limits, survival depends exclusively on the occurrence on mutations that confer resistance and subsequent selection of these mutants. Finally, it is certain that further mutations and selection will ultimately determine adaptation of microalgae to the environmental forcing. PMID:22982500

Romero-Lopez, Julia; Lopez-Rodas, Victoria; Costas, Eduardo

2012-11-15

77

Life under water: physiological adaptations to diving and living at sea.  

PubMed

This review covers the field of diving physiology by following a chronological approach and focusing heavily on marine mammals. Because the study of modern diving physiology can be traced almost entirely to the work of Laurence Irving in the 1930s, this particular field of physiology is different than most in that it did not derive from multiple laboratories working at many locations or on different aspects of a similar problem. Because most of the physiology principles still used today were first formulated by Irving, it is important to the study of this field that the sequence of thought is examined as a progression of theory. The review covers the field in roughly decadal blocks and traces ideas as they were first suggested, tested, modified and in some cases, abandoned. Because diving physiology has also been extremely dependent on new technologies used in the development of diving recorders, a chronological approach fits well with advances in electronics and mechanical innovation. There are many species that dive underwater as part of their natural behavior, but it is mainly the marine mammals (seals, sea lions, and whales) that demonstrate both long duration and dives to great depth. There have been many studies on other diving species including birds, snakes, small aquatic mammals, and humans. This work examines these other diving species as appropriate and a listing of reviews and relevant literature on these groups is included at the end. PMID:23723028

Castellini, Michael

2012-07-01

78

Responses of energy balance, physiology, and production for transition dairy cows fed with a low-energy prepartum diet during hot season.  

PubMed

Twenty multiparous Chinese Holstein dairy cows calving in hot summer (S group), were compared with 20 similar control cows calving in cool autumn (C group). Diets were the same for both groups; prepartum diets had relatively low energy density. Average temperature-humidity index was 76.5 and 53.0 in summer and autumn, respectively. S group cows had significantly higher rectal temperatures (39.6 vs. 39.0 °C) and respiration rates (79.0 vs. 31.3 breaths/min) than C group, and consumed less feed (prepartum 8.0 vs. 12.3 kg/day, postpartum 16.3 vs. 21.2 kg/day). Calculated energy balance (EB) was -7.98 vs. -5.15 Mcal/day for S group prepartum and postpartum, respectively. In contrast, EB was 1.36 vs. -2.03 Mcal/day for C group prepartum and postpartum, respectively. S group produced significantly less milk than C group by 15.4 % (5.2 kg/day) and 26.8 % (10.2 kg/d) for milk yield and energy-corrected milk, respectively. Percentages of milk fat (3.28 vs. 4.29 %), protein (3.08 vs. 3.33 %), and solids-not-fat (8.46 vs. 8.78 %) were significantly lower for S group. Milk urea nitrogen (19.54 vs. 13.31 mg/dL) was significantly higher in S group. Significantly lower feed efficiency was observed in S group (1.56 vs. 1.66). During the entire transition period, S group had significantly lower circulating glucose levels. S group had significantly higher levels of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) prepartum, but after 14 days in milk, NEFA was significantly lower. We conclude that increasing dietary energy density during transition period (especially prepartum) is necessary to minimize adverse effects of hot season. PMID:23584629

Su, Huawei; Wang, Yachun; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Fuwei; Cao, Zhijun; Rahman, Muhammad Aziz Ur; Cao, Binghai; Li, Shengli

2013-10-01

79

Functional Validation of Hydrophobic Adaptation to Physiological Temperature in the Small Heat Shock Protein ?A-crystallin  

PubMed Central

Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) maintain cellular homeostasis by preventing stress and disease-induced protein aggregation. While it is known that hydrophobicity impacts the ability of sHsps to bind aggregation-prone denaturing proteins, the complex quaternary structure of globular sHsps has made understanding the significance of specific changes in hydrophobicity difficult. Here we used recombinant protein of the lenticular sHsp ? A-crystallin from six teleost fishes environmentally adapted to temperatures ranging from -2°C to 40°C to identify correlations between physiological temperature, protein stability and chaperone-like activity. Using sequence and structural modeling analysis we identified specific amino acid differences between the warm adapted zebrafish and cold adapted Antarctic toothfish that could contribute to these correlations and validated the functional consequences of three specific hydrophobicity-altering amino acid substitutions in ?A-crystallin. Site directed mutagenesis of three residues in the zebrafish (V62T, C143S, T147V) confirmed that each impacts either protein stability or chaperone-like activity or both, with the V62T substitution having the greatest impact. Our results indicate a role for changing hydrophobicity in the thermal adaptation of ? A-crystallin and suggest ways to produce sHsp variants with altered chaperone-like activity. These data also demonstrate that a comparative approach can provide new information about sHsp function and evolution. PMID:22479631

Posner, Mason; Kiss, Andor J.; Skiba, Jackie; Drossman, Amy; Dolinska, Monika B.; Hejtmancik, J. Fielding; Sergeev, Yuri V.

2012-01-01

80

Functional validation of hydrophobic adaptation to physiological temperature in the small heat shock protein ?A-crystallin.  

PubMed

Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) maintain cellular homeostasis by preventing stress and disease-induced protein aggregation. While it is known that hydrophobicity impacts the ability of sHsps to bind aggregation-prone denaturing proteins, the complex quaternary structure of globular sHsps has made understanding the significance of specific changes in hydrophobicity difficult. Here we used recombinant protein of the lenticular sHsp ? A-crystallin from six teleost fishes environmentally adapted to temperatures ranging from -2°C to 40°C to identify correlations between physiological temperature, protein stability and chaperone-like activity. Using sequence and structural modeling analysis we identified specific amino acid differences between the warm adapted zebrafish and cold adapted Antarctic toothfish that could contribute to these correlations and validated the functional consequences of three specific hydrophobicity-altering amino acid substitutions in ?A-crystallin. Site directed mutagenesis of three residues in the zebrafish (V62T, C143S, T147V) confirmed that each impacts either protein stability or chaperone-like activity or both, with the V62T substitution having the greatest impact. Our results indicate a role for changing hydrophobicity in the thermal adaptation of ? A-crystallin and suggest ways to produce sHsp variants with altered chaperone-like activity. These data also demonstrate that a comparative approach can provide new information about sHsp function and evolution. PMID:22479631

Posner, Mason; Kiss, Andor J; Skiba, Jackie; Drossman, Amy; Dolinska, Monika B; Hejtmancik, J Fielding; Sergeev, Yuri V

2012-01-01

81

Adaptation of plasma membrane amino acid transport mechanisms to physiological demands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular identification of almost all physiologically characterized amino acid transporters in recent years has facilitated the functional analysis of this important class of transport proteins. The picture that emerges from these studies is that antiport is the prevalent mode of amino acid transport rather than a combination of uniporters and cotransporters. Mainly neurotransmitters and osmolytes are transported by complex

Stefan Bröer

2002-01-01

82

Pattern of serum protein fractions in dairy cows during different stages of gestation and lactation.  

PubMed

In dairy cows the period of transition from late gestation to early lactation is recognized as inducing considerable metabolic adaptation. The aim of this study was to analyse modifications in serum protein values occurring during the dry and the transition period and during lactation in a group of five Holstein cows of high average milk production. For all subjects, selected on the basis of their pregnancy status, blood samples were collected at different physiological phases: dry period (-60, -30 d to calving), transition period (almost 7 d to calving, 7 d after calving), and lactation (weeks 2, 5 and 15 after calving), for a total of eight blood samples for each cow. On each blood sample total proteins and electrophoresis analysis were performed. On the data obtained, normally distributed (P<0·05, Kolmogorov-Smirnov's test), one-way Repeated Measure Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), was applied to evaluate the influence of different stages of gestation and lactation on the considered parameters. Results showed a significant effect on total proteins, ?1-globulins, ?-globulins, ?-globulins and albumin/globulin ratio. Most of the detected modifications were related to the transition from gestation to lactation, indicating that it is a period of great metabolic stress for cows. On the basis of the obtained results we can affirm that the pattern of serum protein fraction rn could give information about dehydration, plasma volume expansion and hepatic function occurring during the peripartum period in dairy cows. PMID:21843395

Piccione, Giuseppe; Messina, Vanessa; Schembari, Angelo; Casella, Stefania; Giannetto, Claudia; Alberghina, Daniela

2011-11-01

83

Cow Madness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mad Cows: The Why Files, provided by the University of Wisconsin, provides brief information on Mad Cow disease in layperson's language with hypertext links. Although prion research has been going on for over 25 years, the scientific and medical communities have only recently acknowledged the existence of prions and there remains serious debate over their role in a variety of neurological diseases. The name "prion" is derived from "proteinaceous infectious particles," and was coined by Dr. Stanley Prusiner, who discovered the agents and who recently received the Nobel Prize for Medicine for his work. Prions are thought to be the first transmissible and heritable disease-causing agents that lack DNA and RNA. They are composed solely of protein and appear to be the cause of such diseases as kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, and bovine spongiform encephalopathies, mad cow disease, and scrapie in sheep and goats.

84

HEMOGLOBIN FUNCTION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATION TO HYPOXIA IN HIGH-ALTITUDE MAMMALS  

E-print Network

TO HYPOXIC STRESS When atmospheric air is drawn into the alveoli of the lungs, oxygen is under a higher the biochemical mechanisms that enable high-altitude animals to survive and function under conditions of hypoxic to understand the nature of genetic adaptation to hypoxic stress from the level of blood bio- chemistry

Storz, Jay F.

85

Individual Differences in Behavioral, Physiological, and Genetic Sensitivities to Contexts: Implications for Development and Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although exposure to adversity places children at high risk for developmental problems, there is considerable variation in the adaptation of children exposed to both low and high levels of adversity. In recent years, researchers have made significant progress in understanding how social environments shape children’s development. Studies indicate that not all children are equally susceptible to environmental effects. In this

W. Thomas Boyce

2009-01-01

86

Behavioural and physiological effect of dental environment sensory adaptation on childrens dental anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dental anxiety is a serious obstacle in conventional oral healthcare delivery. A sensory adapted dental environment (SDE) might be effective in reducing anxiety and inducing relaxation. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a Snoezelen SDE in reducing anxiety among children undergoing scaling and polishing by a dental hygienist. The Snoezelen environment consists of a partially dimmed room with

Michele Shapiro; Raphael N. Melmed; Harold D. Sgan-Cohen; Ilana Eli; Shula Parush; Beit Issie Shapiro

2007-01-01

87

Space Physiology within an Exercise Physiology Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of…

Carter, Jason R.; West, John B.

2013-01-01

88

Distinct roles of HIF1A in endothelial adaptations to physiological and ambient oxygen.  

PubMed

Fetoplacental endothelial cells reside under physiological normoxic conditions (?2-8% O2) in vivo. Under such conditions, cells are believed to sense O2 changes primarily via hypoxia inducible factor 1 ? (HIF1A). However, little is known regarding the role of HIF1A in fetoplacental endothelial function under physiological normoxia. We recently reported that physiological chronic normoxia (PCN; 20-25 day, 3% O2) enhanced FGF2- and VEGFA-stimulated proliferation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) via the MEK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT1 pathways compared to standard cell culture normoxia (SCN; ambient O2: ?21% O2). Here, we investigated the action of HIF1A in regulating these cellular responses in HUVECs. HIF1A adenovirus infection in SCN-cells increased HIF1A protein expression, enhanced FGF2- and VEGFA-stimulated cell proliferation by 2.4 and 2.0-fold respectively, and promoted VEGFA-stimulated cell migration by 1.4-fold. HIF1A adenovirus infection in SCN-cells did not affect either basal or FGF2- and VEGFA-induced ERK1/2 activation, but it decreased basal AKT1 phosphorylation. Interestingly, HIF1A knockdown in PCN-cells via specific HIF1A siRNA transfection did not alter FGF2- and VEGFA-stimulated cell proliferation and migration, or ERK1/2 activation; however, it inhibited FGF2-induced AKT1 activation by ?50%. These data indicate that HIF1A differentially regulates cell proliferation and migration, and ERK1/2 and AKT1 activation in PCN- and SCN-HUVECs. These data also suggest that HIF1A critically regulates cell proliferation and migration in SCN-, but not in PCN-HUVECs. PMID:24796659

Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Li, Yan; Wang, Kai; Dai, Cai-Feng; Huang, Shi-An; Chen, Dong-Bao; Zheng, Jing

2014-06-25

89

Physiological responses to food deprivation in the house sparrow, a species not adapted to prolonged fasting.  

PubMed

Many wild birds fast during reproduction, molting, migration, or because of limited food availability. Species that are adapted to fasting sequentially oxidize endogenous fuels in three discrete phases. We hypothesized that species not adapted to long fasts have truncated, but otherwise similar, phases of fasting, sequential changes in fuel oxidization, and similar changes in blood metabolites to fasting-adapted species. We tested salient predictions in house sparrows (Passer domesticus biblicus), a subspecies that is unable to tolerate more than ~32 h of fasting. Our main hypothesis was that fasting sparrows sequentially oxidize substrates in the order carbohydrates, lipids, and protein. We dosed 24 house sparrows with [(13)C]glucose, palmitic acid, or glycine and measured (13)CO(2) in their breath while they fasted for 24 h. To ascertain whether blood metabolite levels reflect fasting-induced changes in metabolic fuels, we also measured glucose, triacylglycerides, and ?-hydroxybutyrate in the birds' blood. The results of both breath (13)CO(2) and plasma metabolite analyses did not support our hypothesis; i.e., that sparrows have the same metabolic responses characteristic of fasting-adapted species, but on a shorter time scale. Contrary to our main prediction, we found that recently assimilated (13)C-tracers were oxidized continuously in different patterns with no definite peaks corresponding to the three phases of fasting and also that changes in plasma metabolite levels accurately tracked the changes found by breath analysis. Notably, the rate of recently assimilated [(13)C]glycine oxidization was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than that of the other metabolic tracers at all postdosing intervals. We conclude that the inability of house sparrows to fast for longer than 32 h is likely related to their inability to accrue large lipid stores, separately oxidize different fuels, and/or spare protein during fasting. PMID:22785424

Khalilieh, Anton; McCue, Marshall D; Pinshow, Berry

2012-09-01

90

Adaptive radiation of photosynthetic physiology in the Hawaiian lobeliads: dynamic photosynthetic responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hawaiian lobeliads have radiated into habitats from open alpine bogs to densely shaded rainforest interiors, and show corresponding\\u000a adaptations in steady-state photosynthetic light responses and associated leaf traits. Shaded environments are not uniformly\\u000a dark, however, but punctuated by sunflecks that carry most of the photosynthetically active light that strikes plants. We\\u000a asked whether lobeliads have diversified in their dynamic photosynthetic

Rebecca A. Montgomery; Thomas J. Givnish

2008-01-01

91

Physiological fitness and health adaptations from purposeful training using off-road vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate fitness and health adaptations from a training program riding all-terrain vehicles\\u000a (ATV) and off-road motorcycles (ORM) as the exercise stimulus. Participants (n = 58) were randomized to a control group (n = 12) or one of four experimental groups; 2 days\\/week ATV (n = 11), 2 days\\/week ORM (n = 12), 4 days\\/week ATV (n = 11), or 4 days\\/week ORM (n = 12). Aerobic fitness, musculoskeletal fitness,

J. F. Burr; V. K. Jamnik; N. Gledhill

92

RNA Sequencing of Populus x canadensis Roots Identifies Key Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Physiological Adaption to Excess Zinc  

PubMed Central

Populus x canadensis clone I-214 exhibits a general indicator phenotype in response to excess Zn, and a higher metal uptake in roots than in shoots with a reduced translocation to aerial parts under hydroponic conditions. This physiological adaptation seems mainly regulated by roots, although the molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes are still poorly understood. Here, differential expression analysis using RNA-sequencing technology was used to identify the molecular mechanisms involved in the response to excess Zn in root. In order to maximize specificity of detection of differentially expressed (DE) genes, we consider the intersection of genes identified by three distinct statistical approaches (61 up- and 19 down-regulated) and validate them by RT-qPCR, yielding an agreement of 93% between the two experimental techniques. Gene Ontology (GO) terms related to oxidation-reduction processes, transport and cellular iron ion homeostasis were enriched among DE genes, highlighting the importance of metal homeostasis in adaptation to excess Zn by P. x canadensis clone I-214. We identified the up-regulation of two Populus metal transporters (ZIP2 and NRAMP1) probably involved in metal uptake, and the down-regulation of a NAS4 gene involved in metal translocation. We identified also four Fe-homeostasis transcription factors (two bHLH38 genes, FIT and BTS) that were differentially expressed, probably for reducing Zn-induced Fe-deficiency. In particular, we suggest that the down-regulation of FIT transcription factor could be a mechanism to cope with Zn-induced Fe-deficiency in Populus. These results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in adaption to excess Zn in Populus spp., but could also constitute a starting point for the identification and characterization of molecular markers or biotechnological targets for possible improvement of phytoremediation performances of poplar trees. PMID:25671786

Ariani, Andrea; Di Baccio, Daniela; Romeo, Stefania; Lombardi, Lara; Andreucci, Andrea; Lux, Alexander; Horner, David Stephen; Sebastiani, Luca

2015-01-01

93

Mad Cow Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Anxiety Disorders Relaxation Exercises The Flu Vaccine Mad Cow Disease KidsHealth > Teens > Infections > Bacterial & Viral Infections > Mad ... are people to get it? What Is Mad Cow Disease? Mad cow disease is an incurable, fatal ...

94

Physiological fitness and health adaptations from purposeful training using off-road vehicles.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate fitness and health adaptations from a training program riding all-terrain vehicles (ATV) and off-road motorcycles (ORM) as the exercise stimulus. Participants (n = 58) were randomized to a control group (n = 12) or one of four experimental groups; 2 days/week ATV (n = 11), 2 days/week ORM (n = 12), 4 days/week ATV (n = 11), or 4 days/week ORM (n = 12). Aerobic fitness, musculoskeletal fitness, body composition, clinical health, and quality of life (QOL) were compared at baseline and following 6 weeks of training. In all riding groups, there were improvements in blood pressure (SBP = 9.4 ± 10.1, DBP = 5.8 ± 6.2 mmHg), fasting glucose (0.5 ± 0.7 mmol/l), subcutaneous adiposity (0.9 ± 1.1%), body mass (0.7 ± 2.7 kg), waist circumference (1.3 ± 2.5 cm), and isometric leg endurance (26 ± 44 s). All changes were of moderate to large magnitude (Cohen's d 0.52-0.94) with the exception of a small loss of body mass (Cohen's d = 0.27). Although changes occurred in the riding groups for aerobic power (2.9 ± 4.6 ml kg(-1) min(-1)), leg power (172 ± 486 w), and curl-ups (13.2 ± 22.7), these changes were not significantly different from the control group. No significant alterations occurred in resting heart rate, trunk flexibility, back endurance, hand grip strength, long jump, pull/push strength, or push-up ability as a result of training. Physical domain QOL increased in all 2 days/week riders but mental domain QOL increased in all ORM, but not ATV riders regardless of volume. Ambient carbon monoxide levels while riding (<30 ppm) were within safe exposure guidelines. Positive adaptations can be gained from a training program using off-road vehicle riding as the exercise stimulus. PMID:21225277

Burr, J F; Jamnik, V K; Gledhill, N

2011-08-01

95

Physiological adaptations of microorganisms to high oxygen in two oligotrophic lakes  

SciTech Connect

Dissolved oxygen at four times normal saturation inhibited growth and metabolism of summer planktobacteria in surface waters of alpine oligotrophic Mountain Lake (Giles County, Virginia). Data included viable colony counts, D-(U-/sup 14/C)glucose incorporation into extractable lipid of colonies, and respiration-assimilation of D-(U-/sup 14/C)glucose by lake water samples. Significant differences were not detected in either colony counts or /sup 14/C-lipid when superoxide dismutase or catalase were added to the medium. The upper waters of Lake Hoare, Antarctica, contain dissolved oxygen at greater than or equal to42 mg liter/sup -1/ (=HDO). HDO did inhibit D-(U-/sup 14/C)glucoses assimilation-respiration compared with normal atmospheric dissolved oxygen (=ADO) in Lake Hoare water. D-(U-/sup 14/C)glucose was assimilated and respired optimally at 12/sup 0/C in Lake Hoare. Colony formation was inhibited in both lakes. Five microbial isolated were selected from Lake Hoare by growth under very high oxygen. Isolates were examined for physiological characteristics which might enhance their survival in the HDO environment. Bacterial isolates were motile Gram negative rods, catalase and oxidase positive, differing in their growth response to temperature and nutrient concentration. Four of five bacterial isolates demonstrated HDO inducible superoxide dismutase (SOD). Microorganisms in the high oxygen Lake Hoare waters may be protected from oxygen toxicity by the lake's oligotrophic nature as well as a combination of cellular defenses.

Mikell, A.T. Jr.

1985-01-01

96

Cell adaptation to a physiologically relevant ECM mimic with different viscoelastic properties  

PubMed Central

To successfully induce tissue repair or regeneration in vivo, bioengineered constructs must possess both optimal bioactivity and mechanical strength. This is because cell interaction with the extracellular matrix (ECM) produces two different but concurrent signaling mechanisms: ligation-induced signaling, which depends on ECM biological stimuli, and traction-induced signaling, which depends on ECM mechanical stimuli. In this report, we provide a fundamental understanding of how alterations in mechanical stimuli alone, produced by varying the viscoelastic properties of our bioengineered construct, modulate phenotypic behavior at the whole-cell level. Using a physiologically-relevant ECM mimic composed of hyaluronan and fibronectin, we found that adult human dermal fibroblasts modify their mechanical response in order to match substrate stiffness. More specifically, the cells on stiffer substrates had higher modulus and a more stretched and organized actin cytoskeleton (and vice versa), which translated into larger traction forces exerted on the substrate. This modulation of cellular mechanics had contrasting effects on migration and proliferation, where cells migrated faster on softer substrates while proliferating preferentially on the stiffer ones. These findings implicate substrate rigidity as a critical design parameter in the development of bioengineered constructs aimed at eliciting maximal cell and tissue function. PMID:17049594

Ghosh, Kaustabh; Pan, Zhi; Guan, E; Ge, Shouren; Liu, Yajie; Nakamura, Toshio; Ren, Xiang-Dong; Rafailovich, Miriam; Clark, Richard A.F.

2009-01-01

97

Physiological and morphological adaptations in relation to water use efficiency in Mediterranean accessions of Solanum lycopersicum.  

PubMed

The physiological traits underlying the apparent drought resistance of 'Tomàtiga de Ramellet' (TR) cultivars, a population of Mediterranean tomato cultivars with delayed fruit deterioration (DFD) phenotype and typically grown under non-irrigation conditions, are evaluated. Eight different tomato accessions were selected and included six TR accessions, one Mediterranean non-TR accession (NTR(M)) and a processing cultivar (NTR(O)). Among the TR accessions two leaf morphology types, normal divided leaves and potato-leaf, were selected. Plants were field grown under well-watered (WW) and water-stressed (WS) treatments, with 30 and 10% of soil water capacity, respectively. Accessions were clustered according to the leaf type and TR phenotype under WW and WS, respectively. Correlation among parameters under the different water treatments suggested that potential improvements in the intrinsic water-use efficiency (A(N)/g(s)) are possible without negative impacts on yield. Under WS TR accessions displayed higher A(N)/g(s), which was not due to differences in Rubisco-related parameters, but correlated with the ratio between the leaf mesophyll and stomatal conductances (g(m)/g(s)). The results confirm the existence of differential traits in the response to drought stress in Mediterranean accessions of tomato, and demonstrate that increases in the g(m)/g(s) ratio would allow improvements in A(N)/g(s) in horticultural crops. PMID:20955222

Galmés, Jeroni; Conesa, Miquel Àngel; Ochogavía, Joan Manuel; Perdomo, Juan Alejandro; Francis, David M; Ribas-Carbó, Miquel; Savé, Robert; Flexas, Jaume; Medrano, Hipólito; Cifre, Josep

2011-02-01

98

Regulation of T-lymphocyte physiology by the Chat-H/CasL adapter complex.  

PubMed

The Cas family of proteins consists of at least four members implicated in the regulation of diverse cellular processes such as cell proliferation, adhesion, motility, and cancer cell metastasis. Cas family members have conserved C-termini that mediate constitutive heterotypic interactions with members of a different group of proteins, the NSP family. Both the Cas and NSP proteins have conserved domains that mediate protein-protein interactions with other cytoplasmic intermediates. Signaling modules assembled by these proteins in turn regulate signal transduction downstream of a variety of receptors including integrin, chemokine, and antigen receptors. T lymphocytes express the NSP protein NSP3/Chat-H and the Cas protein Hef1/CasL, which are found in a constitutive complex in naive T cells. We recently showed that Chat-H and Hef1/CasL regulate integrin-mediated adhesion and promote T-cell migration and trafficking downstream of activated chemokine receptors. It is currently unclear if the Chat-H/CasL module also plays a role in antigen receptor signaling. Here we review our current knowledge of how Chat-H and Hef1/CasL regulate T-cell physiology and whether this protein complex plays a functional role downstream of T-cell receptor activation. PMID:19909363

Alexandropoulos, Konstantina; Regelmann, Adam G

2009-11-01

99

[Photosynthetic physiological adaptabilities of Pinus tabulaeformis and Robinia pseudoacacia in the Loess Plateau].  

PubMed

With Yangling, Yongshou, Fuxian, Ansai, Mizhi and Shenmu, the s ix counties from the south to the north in the Loess Plateau as study sites, this paper studied thoe photosynthetic charac teristics and leaf traits of Pinus tabulaeformis and Robinia pseudoacacia. The results showed that among the six sites, there were significant differences in the photosynthetic rate (Pn), photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE), water use efficiency (WUE), leaf mass per area (LMA), nitrogen content (Nmass), and chlorophyll content (Chl) of P. tabulaeformis and R. pseudoacacia, suggesting that the photosynthetic capacity and leaf traits of the two species differed with sites. From the south to the north, the Pn, PNUE and WUE of P. tabulaeformis increased slightly while those of R. pseudoacacia decreased significantly, indicating that in drought habitat, P. tabulaef6rmis could still maintain high photosynthetic capacity, hut the photosynthetic capacity of R. pseudoacacia was greatly restrained. Also from the south to the north, the LMA of P. tabulaeformis and R. pseudoacacia had a slight increasing trend, while Nmass and Chl decreased slightly. The variation ranges of the three parameters were greater for R. pseudoacacia than for P. tabulaeformis, indicating that P. tabulaeformis had stronger drought-tolerant capability than R. pseudoacacia, which was not only exhibited in physiological metabolism, but also in leaf morphological acclimation. The correlation analysis between photosynthetic parameters and leaf traits of P. tabulaeformis and R. pseudoacacia in the six sites showed that there was a significant negative correlation between LMA and Nmass. The Pn and PNUE of both test species had no correlations with LMA and Nmass, but had significant positive correlation with Chl. The WUE of the species was negatively correlated with LMA, but positively correlated with Nmass. PMID:17396493

Zheng, Shu-xia; Shangguan, Zhou-ping

2007-01-01

100

Growth, physiological adaptation, and gene expression analysis of two Egyptian rice cultivars under salt stress.  

PubMed

Abiotic stressors, such as high salinity, greatly affect plant growth. In an attempt to explore the mechanisms underlying salinity tolerance, physiological parameters of two local Egyptian rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars, Sakha 102 and Egyptian Yasmine, were examined under 50 mM NaCl stress for 14 days. The results indicate that Egyptian Yasmine is relatively salt tolerant compared to Sakha 102, and this was evident in its higher dry mass production, lower leaf Na(+) levels, and enhanced water conservation under salt stress conditions. Moreover, Egyptian Yasmine exhibited lower Na(+)/K(+) ratios in all tissues examined under salinity stress. The ability to maintain such traits seemed to differ in the leaves and roots of Egyptian Yasmine, and the root K(+) content was much higher in Egyptian Yasmine than in Sakha 102. In order to understand the basis for these differences, we studied transcript levels of genes encoding Na(+) and K(+) transport proteins in different tissues. In response to salinity stress, Egyptian Yasmine showed induction of expression of some membrane transporter/channel genes that may contribute to Na(+) exclusion from the shoots (OsHKT1;5), limiting excess Na(+) entry into the roots (OsLti6b), K(+) uptake (OsAKT1), and reduced expression of a Na(+) transporter gene (OsHKT2;1). Therefore, the active regulation of genes related to Na(+) transport at the transcription level may be involved in salt tolerance mechanisms of Egyptian Yasmine, and these mechanisms offer the promise of improved salinity stress tolerance in local Egyptian rice genotypes. PMID:25532120

Mekawy, Ahmad Mohammad M; Assaha, Dekoum V M; Yahagi, Hiroyuki; Tada, Yuma; Ueda, Akihiro; Saneoka, Hirofumi

2015-02-01

101

Explaining bathymetric diversity patterns in marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes: physiological contributions to adaptation of life at depth.  

PubMed

Bathymetric biodiversity patterns of marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes have been identified in the extant fauna of the deep continental margins. Depth zonation is widespread and evident through a transition between shelf and slope fauna from the shelf break to 1000 m, and a transition between slope and abyssal fauna from 2000 to 3000 m; these transitions are characterised by high species turnover. A unimodal pattern of diversity with depth peaks between 1000 and 3000 m, despite the relatively low area represented by these depths. Zonation is thought to result from the colonisation of the deep sea by shallow-water organisms following multiple mass extinction events throughout the Phanerozoic. The effects of low temperature and high pressure act across hierarchical levels of biological organisation and appear sufficient to limit the distributions of such shallow-water species. Hydrostatic pressures of bathyal depths have consistently been identified experimentally as the maximum tolerated by shallow-water and upper bathyal benthic invertebrates at in situ temperatures, and adaptation appears required for passage to deeper water in both benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes. Together, this suggests that a hyperbaric and thermal physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths contributes to bathymetric zonation. The peak of the unimodal diversity-depth pattern typically occurs at these depths even though the area represented by these depths is relatively low. Although it is recognised that, over long evolutionary time scales, shallow-water diversity patterns are driven by speciation, little consideration has been given to the potential implications for species distribution patterns with depth. Molecular and morphological evidence indicates that cool bathyal waters are the primary site of adaptive radiation in the deep sea, and we hypothesise that bathymetric variation in speciation rates could drive the unimodal diversity-depth pattern over time. Thermal effects on metabolic-rate-dependent mutation and on generation times have been proposed to drive differences in speciation rates, which result in modern latitudinal biodiversity patterns over time. Clearly, this thermal mechanism alone cannot explain bathymetric patterns since temperature generally decreases with depth. We hypothesise that demonstrated physiological effects of high hydrostatic pressure and low temperature at bathyal depths, acting on shallow-water taxa invading the deep sea, may invoke a stress-evolution mechanism by increasing mutagenic activity in germ cells, by inactivating canalisation during embryonic or larval development, by releasing hidden variation or mutagenic activity, or by activating or releasing transposable elements in larvae or adults. In this scenario, increased variation at a physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths results in elevated speciation rate. Adaptation that increases tolerance to high hydrostatic pressure and low temperature allows colonisation of abyssal depths and reduces the stress-evolution response, consequently returning speciation of deeper taxa to the background rate. Over time this mechanism could contribute to the unimodal diversity-depth pattern. PMID:24118851

Brown, Alastair; Thatje, Sven

2014-05-01

102

Explaining bathymetric diversity patterns in marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes: physiological contributions to adaptation of life at depth  

PubMed Central

Bathymetric biodiversity patterns of marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes have been identified in the extant fauna of the deep continental margins. Depth zonation is widespread and evident through a transition between shelf and slope fauna from the shelf break to 1000 m, and a transition between slope and abyssal fauna from 2000 to 3000 m; these transitions are characterised by high species turnover. A unimodal pattern of diversity with depth peaks between 1000 and 3000 m, despite the relatively low area represented by these depths. Zonation is thought to result from the colonisation of the deep sea by shallow-water organisms following multiple mass extinction events throughout the Phanerozoic. The effects of low temperature and high pressure act across hierarchical levels of biological organisation and appear sufficient to limit the distributions of such shallow-water species. Hydrostatic pressures of bathyal depths have consistently been identified experimentally as the maximum tolerated by shallow-water and upper bathyal benthic invertebrates at in situ temperatures, and adaptation appears required for passage to deeper water in both benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes. Together, this suggests that a hyperbaric and thermal physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths contributes to bathymetric zonation. The peak of the unimodal diversity–depth pattern typically occurs at these depths even though the area represented by these depths is relatively low. Although it is recognised that, over long evolutionary time scales, shallow-water diversity patterns are driven by speciation, little consideration has been given to the potential implications for species distribution patterns with depth. Molecular and morphological evidence indicates that cool bathyal waters are the primary site of adaptive radiation in the deep sea, and we hypothesise that bathymetric variation in speciation rates could drive the unimodal diversity–depth pattern over time. Thermal effects on metabolic-rate-dependent mutation and on generation times have been proposed to drive differences in speciation rates, which result in modern latitudinal biodiversity patterns over time. Clearly, this thermal mechanism alone cannot explain bathymetric patterns since temperature generally decreases with depth. We hypothesise that demonstrated physiological effects of high hydrostatic pressure and low temperature at bathyal depths, acting on shallow-water taxa invading the deep sea, may invoke a stress–evolution mechanism by increasing mutagenic activity in germ cells, by inactivating canalisation during embryonic or larval development, by releasing hidden variation or mutagenic activity, or by activating or releasing transposable elements in larvae or adults. In this scenario, increased variation at a physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths results in elevated speciation rate. Adaptation that increases tolerance to high hydrostatic pressure and low temperature allows colonisation of abyssal depths and reduces the stress–evolution response, consequently returning speciation of deeper taxa to the background rate. Over time this mechanism could contribute to the unimodal diversity–depth pattern. PMID:24118851

Brown, Alastair; Thatje, Sven

2014-01-01

103

Cortical response to psycho-physiological changes in auto-adaptive robot assisted gait training.  

PubMed

Robot-assisted treadmill training improves motor function and walking ability in neurologically impaired patients. However, despite attention having been shown to play a role in training success, psychological responsiveness to task difficulty and motivational levels at task onset have not been measured. Seven healthy subjects participated in a robot-assist treadmill training task. Subjects engaged in a virtual task with varying difficulty levels that was shown to induce a feeling of being bored, excited and over-stressed. The participants' mental engagement was measured using the ECG-based heart rate variability in real time, during gait training as a proxy for EEG and psychological test batteries. Heart rate variability (HRV), which has been shown to reflect cortical engagement for both cognitive and physical tasks, was measured using nonlinear measures obtained from the Poincaré plot. We show that the cortical response to the task measured with HRV varies in relation to the level of mental engagement in response to the difficulty level of the virtual task. From these results we propose that nonlinear measures quantify cortical response / motivational level to robot-assist motor learning tasks and that the adaptation to the task is dependent on the level of motivation. PMID:22256051

Jelinek, Herbert F; August, Katherine G; Imam, Md Hasan; Khandoker, Ahsan H; Koenig, Alexander; Riener, Robert

2011-01-01

104

Physiological and genetic control mechanisms for plant adaptation to high temperature and elevated CO2  

SciTech Connect

Acclimations of the stomatal response to CO2 were characterized. Stomata from the model plant used, Vicia faba, are very sensitive to ambient CO2 when grown in growth chambers as compared to stomata from green house grown leaves. The different CO2 sensitivities of growth chamber and green house grown guard cells was confirmed by reciprocal transfer experiments. Stomata acclimated to their new environment and acquired the CO2 sensitivity typical of that environment. A mechanism for CO2 sensing was also characterized. Results show that CO2 concentration alters the concentration of zeaxanthin in the guard cell chloroplast, thus modifying the light response of the guard cells. This mechanism accounts for the well characterized interactions of light and CO2 in the stomatal responses. The xanthophyll cycle in the stomata of the facultative CAM plant, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, was characterized. In the C3 mode, zeaxanthin is formed in the light and stomata open. Upon induction of the CAM mode, zeaxanthin synthesis is blocked and stomata no longer respond to light. These results implicate the regulation of the xanthophyll cycle of guard cells in the CAM adaptation.

Zeiger, Eduardo

2001-02-01

105

Novel roles of ohrR-ohr in Xanthomonas sensing, metabolism, and physiological adaptive response to lipid hydroperoxide.  

PubMed

Lipid hydroperoxides are highly toxic to biological systems. Here, the Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli sensing and protective systems against linoleic hydroperoxide (LOOH) were investigated by examining the phenotypes, biochemical and regulatory characteristics of various Xanthomonas mutants in known peroxide resistance pathways. Analysis of LOOH resistance levels indicates that both alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC) and organic hydroperoxide resistance enzyme (Ohr) have important and nonredundant roles in the process. Nonetheless, inactivation of ohr leads to a marked reduction in LOOH resistance levels. The regulatory characteristics of an ohr mutant add further support to its primary role in LOOH protection. Northern analysis shows that LOOH had differential effects on induction of ahpC and ohr expression with the latter being more sensitive to the inducer. Analysis of the ahpC and ohr promoters confirmed that the LOOH-dependent induction of these promoters is mediated by the transcription regulators OxyR and OhrR, respectively. Using the in vivo promoter assays and the in vitro gel mobility shift assay, we show that LOOH directly oxidized OhrR at the sensing residue Cys-22 leading to its inactivation. In addition, physiological analysis shows that pretreatment of X. campestris pv. phaseoli with a sublethal dose of LOOH induced high levels of resistance to subsequent exposure to lethal concentrations of LOOH. This novel LOOH-induced adaptive response requires a functional ohrR-ohr operon. These data illustrate an important novel physiological role for the ohrR-ohr system in sensing and inactivating lipid hydroperoxides. PMID:15838057

Klomsiri, Chananat; Panmanee, Warunya; Dharmsthiti, Saovanee; Vattanaviboon, Paiboon; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

2005-05-01

106

Physiological and health-related adaptations to low-volume interval training: influences of nutrition and sex.  

PubMed

Interval training refers to the basic concept of alternating periods of relatively intense exercise with periods of lower-intensity effort or complete rest for recovery. Low-volume interval training refers to sessions that involve a relatively small total amount of exercise (i.e. ?10 min of intense exercise), compared with traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) protocols that are generally reflected in public health guidelines. In an effort to standardize terminology, a classification scheme was recently proposed in which the term 'high-intensity interval training' (HIIT) be used to describe protocols in which the training stimulus is 'near maximal' or the target intensity is between 80 and 100 % of maximal heart rate, and 'sprint interval training' (SIT) be used for protocols that involve 'all out' or 'supramaximal' efforts, in which target intensities correspond to workloads greater than what is required to elicit 100 % of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Both low-volume SIT and HIIT constitute relatively time-efficient training strategies to rapidly enhance the capacity for aerobic energy metabolism and elicit physiological remodeling that resembles changes normally associated with high-volume MICT. Short-term SIT and HIIT protocols have also been shown to improve health-related indices, including cardiorespiratory fitness and markers of glycemic control in both healthy individuals and those at risk for, or afflicted by, cardiometabolic diseases. Recent evidence from a limited number of studies has highlighted potential sex-based differences in the adaptive response to SIT in particular. It has also been suggested that specific nutritional interventions, in particular those that can augment muscle buffering capacity, such as sodium bicarbonate, may enhance the adaptive response to low-volume interval training. PMID:25355187

Gibala, Martin J; Gillen, Jenna B; Percival, Michael E

2014-11-01

107

Modulation of the Somatotropic Axis in Periparturient Dairy Cows  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on modulation of growth hormone (GH) and its downstream actions on periparturient dairy cows undergoing physiological and metabolic adaptations. During the periparturient period, cows experience a negative energy balance implicating that the feed intake does not meet the total energy demand for the onset of lactation. To regulate this metabolic condition, key hormones of somatotropic axis such as GH, IGF-I and insulin must coordinate adaptations required for the preservation of metabolic homeostasis. The hepatic GHR1A transcript and GHR protein are reduced at parturition, but recovers on postpartum. However, plasma IGF-I concentration remains low even though hepatic abundance of the GHR and IGF-I mRNA return to pre-calving value. This might be caused by alternation in IGFBPs and ALS genes, which consequently affect the plasma IGF-I stability. Plasma insulin level declines in a parallel manner with the decrease in plasma IGF-I after parturition. Increased GH stimulates the lipolytic effects and hepatic glucose synthesis to meet the energy requirement for mammary lactose synthesis, suggesting that GH antagonizes insulin-dependent glucose uptake and attenuates insulin action to decrease gluconeogenesis. PMID:25049937

Kim, Jin Wook

2014-01-01

108

Wolf presence in the ranch of origin: impacts on temperament and physiological responses of beef cattle following a simulated wolf encounter.  

PubMed

This experiment evaluated temperament, vaginal temperature, and plasma cortisol in beef cows from wolf-naïve and wolf-experienced origins that were subjected to a simulated wolf encounter. Multiparous, pregnant, nonlactating Angus-crossbreed cows from the Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center located near Burns, OR (CON; n = 50), and from a commercial operation near Council, ID (WLF; n = 50), were used. To date, grey wolves are not present around Burns, OR, and thus CON were naïve to wolves. Conversely, wolves are present around Council, ID, and WLF cows were selected from a herd that had experienced multiple confirmed wolf-predation episodes from 2008 to 2012. Following a 50-d commingling and adaptation period, CON and WLF cows were ranked by temperament, BW, and BCS and allocated to 5 groups (d 0; 10 CON and 10 WLF cows/group). Groups were individually subjected to the experimental procedures on d 2 (n = 3) and d 3 (n = 2). Before the simulated wolf encounter, cow temperament was assessed and blood samples and vaginal temperatures (using intravaginal data loggers) were collected (presimulation assessments). Cows were then sorted by origin, moved to 2 adjacent drylot pens (10 WLF and 10 CON cows/pen), and subjected to a simulated wolf encounter event for 20 min, which consisted of 1) cotton plugs saturated with wolf urine attached to the drylot fence, 2) continuous reproduction of wolf howls, and 3) 3 leashed dogs that were walked along the fence perimeter. Thereafter, WLF and CON cows were commingled and returned to the handling facility for postsimulation assessments, which were conducted immediately after exposure to wolf-urine-saturated cotton plugs, wolf howl reproduction, and 20-s exposure to the 3 dogs while being restrained in a squeeze chute. Chute score, temperament score, and plasma cortisol concentration increased (P ? 0.01) from pre- to postsimulation assessment in WLF but did not change in CON cows (P ? 0.19). Exit velocity decreased (P = 0.01) from pre- to postsimulation assessment in CON but did not change (P = 0.79) in WLF cows. In addition, WLF cows had a greater (P = 0.03) increase in temperature from pre- to postsimulation assessments compared with CON cows. In conclusion, the simulated wolf encounter increased excitability and fear-related physiological stress responses in cows that originated from a wolf-experienced herd but not in cows that originated from a wolf-naïve herd. PMID:24085412

Cooke, R F; Bohnert, D W; Reis, M M; Cappellozza, B I

2013-12-01

109

Physiologic adaptation of man in space; Proceedings of the Seventh International Man in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, Feb. 10-13, 1986  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics discussed in this volume include space motion sickness, cardiovascular adaptation, fluid shifts, extravehicular activity, general physiology, perception, vestibular response modifications, vestibular physiology, and pharmacology. Papers are presented on the clinical characterization and etiology of space motion sickness, ultrasound techniques in space medicine, fluid shifts in weightlessness, Space Shuttle inflight and postflight fluid shifts measured by leg volume changes, and the probability of oxygen toxicity in an 8-psi space suit. Consideration is also given to the metabolic and hormonal status of crewmembers in short-term space flights, adaptive changes in perception of body orientation and mental image rotation in microgravity, the effects of a visual-vestibular stimulus on the vestibulo-ocular reflex, rotation tests in the weightless phase of parabolic flight, and the mechanisms of antimotion sickness drugs.

Holland, Albert W. (editor)

1987-01-01

110

Design and Rationale of the Assessment of Proper Physiologic Response with Rate Adaptive Pacing Driven by Minute Ventilation or Accelerometer (APPROPRIATE) Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rate-adaptive sensors are designed to restore a physiologic heart rate response to activity, in particular for patients that\\u000a have chronotropic incompetence (CI). Limited data exist comparing two primary types of sensors; an accelerometer (XL) sensor\\u000a which detects activity or motion and a minute ventilation (MV) sensor, which detects the product of respiration rate and tidal\\u000a volume. The APPROPRIATE study will

F. Roosevelt Gilliam; Michael Giudici; Andrew Benn; Bruce Koplan; Kellie Jean Chase Berg; Stacia Merkel Kraus; Kira Q. Stolen; Guy E. Alvarez; Donald L. Hopper; Bruce L. Wilkoff

2011-01-01

111

Physiological basis for high CO2 tolerance in marine ectothermic animals: pre-adaptation through lifestyle and ontogeny?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future ocean acidification has the potential to adversely affect many marine organisms. A growing body of evidence suggests that many species could suffer from reduced fertilization success, decreases in larval- and adult growth rates, reduced calcification rates, and even mortality when being exposed to near-future levels (year 2100 scenarios) of ocean acidification. Little research focus is currently placed on those organisms/taxa that might be less vulnerable to the anticipated changes in ocean chemistry; this is unfortunate, as the comparison of more vulnerable to more tolerant physiotypes could provide us with those physiological traits that are crucial for ecological success in a future ocean. Here, we attempt to summarize some ontogenetic and lifestyle traits that lead to an increased tolerance towards high environmental pCO2. In general, marine ectothermic metazoans with an extensive extracellular fluid volume may be less vulnerable to future acidification as their cells are already exposed to much higher pCO2 values (0.1 to 0.4 kPa, ca. 1000 to 3900 ?atm) than those of unicellular organisms and gametes, for which the ocean (0.04 kPa, ca. 400 ?atm) is the extracellular space. A doubling in environmental pCO2 therefore only represents a 10% change in extracellular pCO2 in some marine teleosts. High extracellular pCO2 values are to some degree related to high metabolic rates, as diffusion gradients need to be high in order to excrete an amount of CO2 that is directly proportional to the amount of O2 consumed. In active metazoans, such as teleost fish, cephalopods and many brachyuran crustaceans, exercise induced increases in metabolic rate require an efficient ion-regulatory machinery for CO2 excretion and acid-base regulation, especially when anaerobic metabolism is involved and metabolic protons leak into the extracellular space. These ion-transport systems, which are located in highly developed gill epithelia, form the basis for efficient compensation of pH disturbances during exposure to elevated environmental pCO2. Compensation of extracellular acid-base status in turn may be important in avoiding metabolic depression. So far, maintained "performance" at higher seawater pCO2 (>0.3 to 0.6 kPa) has only been observed in adults/juveniles of active, high metabolic species with a powerful ion regulatory apparatus. However, while some of these taxa are adapted to cope with elevated pCO2 during their regular embryonic development, gametes, zygotes and early embryonic stages, which lack specialized ion-regulatory epithelia, may be the true bottleneck for ecological success - even of the more tolerant taxa. Our current understanding of which marine animal taxa will be affected adversely in their physiological and ecological fitness by projected scenarios of anthropogenic ocean acidification is quite incomplete. While a growing amount of empirical evidence from CO2 perturbation experiments suggests that several taxa might react quite sensitively to ocean acidification, others seem to be surprisingly tolerant. However, there is little mechanistic understanding on what physiological traits are responsible for the observed differential sensitivities (see reviews of Seibel and Walsh, 2003; Pörtner et al., 2004; Fabry et al., 2008; Pörtner, 2008). This leads us to the first very basic question of how to define general CO2 tolerance on the species level.

Melzner, F.; Gutowska, M. A.; Langenbuch, M.; Dupont, S.; Lucassen, M.; Thorndyke, M. C.; Bleich, M.; Pörtner, H.-O.

2009-10-01

112

Physiological and morphological adaptations of herbaceous perennial legumes allow differential access to sources of varyingly soluble phosphate.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of three perennial legume species to access sources of varyingly soluble phosphorus (P) and their associated morphological and physiological adaptations. Two Australian native legumes with pasture potential (Cullen australasicum and Kennedia prostrata) and Medicago sativa cv. SARDI 10 were grown in sand under two P levels (6 and 40?µg P g(-1) ) supplied as Ca(H2 PO4 )2 ·H2 O (Ca-P, highly soluble, used in many fertilizers) or as one of three sparingly soluble forms: Ca10 (OH)2 (PO4 )6 (apatite-P, found in relatively young soils; major constituent of rock phosphate), C6 H6 O24 P6 Na12 (inositol-P, the most common form of organic P in soil) and FePO4 (Fe-P, a poorly-available inorganic source of P). All species grew well with soluble P. When 6?µg P g(-1) was supplied as sparingly soluble P, plant dry weight (DW) and P uptake were very low for C. australasicum and M. sativa (0.1-0.4?g DW) with the exception of M. sativa supplied with apatite-P (1.5?g). In contrast, K. prostrata grew well with inositol-P (1.0?g) and Fe-P (0.7?g), and even better with apatite-P (1.7?g), similar to that with Ca-P (1.9?g). Phosphorus uptake at 6?µg P g(-1) was highly correlated with total root length, total rhizosphere carboxylate content and total rhizosphere acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) activity. These findings provide strong indications that there are opportunities to utilize local Australian legumes in low P pasture systems to access sparingly soluble soil P and increase perennial legume productivity, diversity and sustainability. PMID:25291346

Pang, Jiayin; Yang, Jiyun; Lambers, Hans; Tibbett, Mark; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Ryan, Megan H

2014-10-01

113

Adaptation of the hydrocarbonoclastic bacterium Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2 to alkanes and toxic organic compounds: a physiological and transcriptomic approach.  

PubMed

The marine hydrocarbonoclastic bacterium Alcanivorax borkumensis is able to degrade mixtures of n-alkanes as they occur in marine oil spills. However, investigations of growth behavior and physiology of these bacteria when cultivated with n-alkanes of different chain lengths (C6 to C30) as the substrates are still lacking. Growth rates increased with increasing alkane chain length up to a maximum between C12 and C19, with no evident difference between even- and odd-numbered chain lengths, before decreasing with chain lengths greater than C19. Surface hydrophobicity of alkane-grown cells, assessed by determination of the water contact angles, showed a similar pattern, with maximum values associated with growth rates on alkanes with chain lengths between C11 and C19 and significantly lower values for cells grown on pyruvate. A. borkumensis was found to incorporate and modify the fatty acid intermediates generated by the corresponding n-alkane degradation pathway. Cells grown on distinct n-alkanes proved that A. borkumensis is able to not only incorporate but also modify fatty acid intermediates derived from the alkane degradation pathway. Comparing cells grown on pyruvate with those cultivated on hexadecane in terms of their tolerance toward two groups of toxic organic compounds, chlorophenols and alkanols, representing intensely studied organic compounds, revealed similar tolerances toward chlorophenols, whereas the toxicities of different n-alkanols were significantly reduced when hexadecane was used as a carbon source. As one adaptive mechanism of A. borkumensis to these toxic organic solvents, the activity of cis-trans isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids was proven. These findings could be verified by a detailed transcriptomic comparison between cultures grown on hexadecane and pyruvate and including solvent stress caused by the addition of 1-octanol as the most toxic intermediate of n-alkane degradation. PMID:23645199

Naether, Daniela J; Slawtschew, Slavtscho; Stasik, Sebastian; Engel, Maria; Olzog, Martin; Wick, Lukas Y; Timmis, Kenneth N; Heipieper, Hermann J

2013-07-01

114

Physiological basis for high CO2 tolerance in marine ectothermic animals: pre-adaptation through lifestyle and ontogeny?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future ocean acidification has the potential to adversely affect many marine organisms. A growing body of evidence suggests that many species could suffer from reduced fertilization success, decreases in larval- and adult growth rates, reduced calcification rates, metabolic depression and even mortality when being exposed to near-future levels (year 2100 scenarios) of ocean acidification. Little research focus is currently placed on those organisms/taxa that might be less vulnerable to the anticipated changes in ocean chemistry; this is unfortunate, as the comparison of more vulnerable to more tolerant physiotypes could provide us with those physiological traits that are crucial for ecological success in a future ocean. Here, we attempt to summarize some ontogenetic and lifestyle traits that lead to an increased tolerance towards high environmental pCO2. In general, marine ectothermic metazoans with an extensive extracellular fluid volume may be less vulnerable to future acidification as their cells are already exposed to much higher pCO2 values (0.1 to 0.4 kPa, 1000 to 4000 ?atm) than those of unicellular organisms and gametes, for which the ocean (0.04 kPa, 400 ?atm) is the extracellular space. A doubling in environmental pCO2 therefore only represents a 10% change in extracellular CO2 in some marine teleosts. High extracellular pCO2 values are to some degree related to high metabolic rates, as diffusion gradients need to be high in order to excrete an amount of CO2 that is directly proportional to the amount of O2 consumed. In active metazoans, such as teleost fish, cephalopods and many brachyuran crustaceans, exercise induced increases in metabolic rate require an efficient ion-regulatory machinery for CO2 excretion and acid-base regulation, especially when anaerobic metabolism is involved and metabolic protons leak into the extracellular space. These ion-transport systems, which are located in highly developed gill epithelia, form the basis for efficient compensation of pH disturbances during exposure to elevated environmental pCO2. Compensation of extracellular acid-base status in turn may be extremely important in avoiding metabolic depression. So far, maintained "performance" at higher seawater pCO2 (>0.3 to 0.6 kPa) has only been observed in adults/juveniles of active, high metabolic species with a powerful ion regulatory apparatus. However, while some of these taxa are adapted to cope with elevated pCO2 during their regular embryonic development, unicellular gametes, which lack specialized ion-regulatory epithelia, may be the true bottleneck for ecological success - even of the more tolerant taxa.

Melzner, F.; Gutowska, M. A.; Langenbuch, M.; Dupont, S.; Lucassen, M.; Thorndyke, M. C.; Bleich, M.; Pörtner, H.-O.

2009-05-01

115

Cows Causing Global Warming  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Remember when President Reagan blamed trees for air pollution? Well now the Japanese are blaming cows for global warming. Apparently, the methane emissions from burping cows account for 5% of all global greenhouse gases. Simple...

Hacker, Randi

2008-08-06

116

Cow's milk and children  

MedlinePLUS

Milk and children ... children over 1 year old to drink cow's milk. However, there's no scientific evidence that this is true. While most experts recommend not giving cow's milk to infants , it is safe to give milk ...

117

Adaptive Calibration of Children's Physiological Responses to Family Stress: The Utility of Evolutionary Developmental Theory--Comment on Del Giudice et al. (2012) and Sturge-Apple et al. (2012)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's physiological reactions to stress are presented from the broader theoretical perspective of adaptive calibration to the environment, as rooted in life history theory. Del Giudice, Hinnant, Ellis, and El-Sheikh (2012) focus on children's physiological responses to a stressful task as a consequence of their history of family stress.…

Bugental, Daphne Blunt

2012-01-01

118

What's Mad Cow Disease?  

MedlinePLUS

... Main Page The Pink Locker Society What's Mad Cow Disease? KidsHealth > Kids > Q&A > Q & A > What's Mad Cow Disease? Print A A A Text Size What's ... You might have heard news reports about mad cow disease and wondered: What the heck is that? ...

119

Physiological Observations and Omics to Develop Personalized Sensormotor Adaptability Countermeasures Using Bed Rest and Space Flight Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances during the initial exposure to microgravity and during the re-adapation phase following a return to an earth-gravitational environment. These alterations may disrupt the ability to perform mission critical functional tasks requiring ambulation, manual control and gaze stability. Interestingly, astronauts who return from space flight show substantial differences in their abilities to readapt to a gravitational environment. The ability to predict the manner and degree to which individual astronauts would be affected would improve the effectiveness of countermeasure training programs designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. For such an approach to succeed, we must develop predictive measures of sensorimotor adaptability that will allow us to foresee, before actual space flight, which crewmembers are likely to experience the greatest challenges to their adaptive capacities. The goals of this project are to identify and characterize this set of predictive measures that include: 1) behavioral tests to assess sensory bias and adaptability quantified using both strategic and plastic-adaptive responses; 2) imaging to determine individual brain morphological and functional features using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging, resting state functional connectivity MRI, and sensorimotor adaptation task-related functional brain activation; 3) genotype markers for genetic polymorphisms in Catechol-O-Methyl Transferase, Dopamine Receptor D2, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and genetic polymorphism of alpha2-adrenergic receptor that play a role in the neural pathways underlying sensorimotor adaptation. We anticipate these predictive measures will be significantly correlated with individual differences in sensorimotor adaptability after long-duration space flight and an analog bed rest environment. We will be conducting a retrospective study leveraging data already collected from relevant ongoing/completed bed rest and space flight studies. These data will be combined with predictor metrics that will be collected prospectively - behavioral, brain imaging and genomic measures; from these returning subjects to build models for predicting post-mission (bed rest - non-astronauts or space flight - astronauts) adaptive capability as manifested in their outcome measures. Comparisons of model performance will allow us to better design and implement sensorimotor adaptability training countermeasures that are customized for each crewmember's sensory biases, adaptive capacity, brain structure and functional capacities, and genetic predispositions against decrements in post-mission adaptive capability. This ability will allow more efficient use of crew time during training and will optimize training prescriptions for astronauts to ensure expected outcomes.

Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.; Feiveson, A.; Oddsson, L.; Zanello, S.; Oman, C. M.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.; Peters, B.; Cohen, H. S.; Reschke, M.; Wood, S.; Bloomberg, J. J.

2014-01-01

120

Teaching Skeletal Muscle Adaptations to Aerobic Exercise Using an American Physiological Society Classic Paper by Dr. Philip Gollnick and Colleagues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Discussion of a strategy for using a classic paper to enhance the studentsÂ? ability to understand research, increase their knowledge of the adaptations to exercise, and learn computer skills in data analysis and presentation

PhD Gregory A. Brown (University of Nebraska, Kearney Department of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Leisure Studies)

2006-09-01

121

Temperature relations of aerial and aquatic physiological performance in a mid-intertidal limpet Cellana toreuma: Adaptation to rapid changes in thermal stress during emersion.  

PubMed

The physiological performance of a mid-intertidal limpet Cellana toreuma was determined to study the physiological adaptation of intertidal animals to rapid changes and extreme temperatures during emersion. The relationship between the Arrhenius breakpoint temperature (ABT) and in situ operative body temperature was studied to predict the possible impact of climate change on the species. The temperature coefficient (Q10 ) of emersed animals was higher than that of submersed animals and the ratio of aerial: aquatic heart rate rose with increasing temperature. The ABTs of submersed and emersed animals were 30.2 and 34.2°C, respectively. The heart rate and levels of molecular biomarkers (hsps, ampk?, ampk? and sirt1 mRNA) were determined in 48 h simulated semi-diurnal tides. There were no obvious changes of heart rate and gene expression during the transition between emersion and submersion at room temperature, although expressions of hsp70 and hsp90 were induced significantly after thermal stress. These results indicate that C. toreuma can effectively utilize atmospheric oxygen, and the higher Q10 and ABT of emersed animals are adaptations to the rapid change and extreme thermal stress during emersion. However, the in situ operative body temperature frequently exceeds the aerial ABT of C. toreuma, indicating the occurrence of large-scale mortality of C. toreuma in summer, and this species should be sensitive to increasing temperature in the scenario of climate change. PMID:24979525

Huang, Xiongwei; Wang, Tifeng; Ye, Ziwen; Han, Guodong; Dong, Yunwei

2015-01-01

122

Mad Cow Disease (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... What to Expect Ebola: What to Know Mad Cow Disease KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Bacterial & Viral Infections > Mad ... What Is Being Done About It About Mad Cow Disease Mad cow disease has been in the ...

123

Physiological and biomechanical adaptations to the cycle to run transition in Olympic triathlon: review and practical recommendations for training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current knowledge of the physiological, biomechanical, and sensory eVects of the cycle to run transition in the Olympic tria- thlon (1.5 km,10 km,40 km) is reviewed and implications for the training of junior and elite triathletes are discussed. Triathlon running elicits hyperventilation, increased heart rate, decreased pulmonary compli- ance, and exercise induced hypoxaemia. This may be due to exercise intensity,

Gregoire P Millet; Veronica E Vleck

2000-01-01

124

Photosynthetic adaptation to temperature in four species from the Colorado shortgrass steppe: a physiological model for coexistence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several aspects of photosynthetic adaptation to temperature were examined in four graminoid species from the Colorado shortgrass steppe. The experimental species were chosen to provide examples of a variety of in situ seasonal phenology patterns. The cool season grass, Agropyron smithii (C3), exhibited higher photosynthesis rates when grown in a cool temperature regime (20\\/15°C), and compared to warm grown plants

Russell K. Monson; Robert O. Littlejohn; George J. Williams

1983-01-01

125

Ruminant metabolic systems biology: reconstruction and integration of transcriptome dynamics underlying functional responses of tissues to nutrition and physiological state.  

PubMed

High-throughput 'omics' data analysis via bioinformatics is one key component of the systems biology approach. The systems approach is particularly well-suited for the study of the interactions between nutrition and physiological state with tissue metabolism and functions during key life stages of organisms such as the transition from pregnancy to lactation in mammals, ie, the peripartal period. In modern dairy cows with an unprecedented genetic potential for milk synthesis, the nature of the physiologic and metabolic adaptations during the peripartal period is multifaceted and involves key tissues such as liver, adipose, and mammary. In order to understand such adaptation, we have reviewed several works performed in our and other labs. In addition, we have used a novel bioinformatics approach, Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA), in combination with partly previously published data to help interpret longitudinal biological adaptations of bovine liver, adipose, and mammary tissue to lactation using transcriptomics datasets. Use of DIA with transcriptomic data from those tissues during normal physiological adaptations and in animals fed different levels of energy prepartum allowed visualization and integration of most-impacted metabolic pathways around the time of parturition. The DIA is a suitable tool for applying the integrative systems biology approach. The ultimate goal is to visualize the complexity of the systems at study and uncover key molecular players involved in the tissue's adaptations to physiological state or nutrition. PMID:22807626

Bionaz, Massimo; Loor, Juan J

2012-01-01

126

Cows and Sheep  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Solvers of this problem apply number sense and logical reasoning to determine the numbers of cows and sheep in each of five fields by using clues about how many cows and sheep can be seen by each animal. The problem includes questions for getting started, suggestions for implementation and differentiation, a printable student page, and sample solutions.

2014-01-01

127

The western painted turtle genome, a model for the evolution of extreme physiological adaptations in a slowly evolving lineage  

PubMed Central

Background We describe the genome of the western painted turtle, Chrysemys picta bellii, one of the most widespread, abundant, and well-studied turtles. We place the genome into a comparative evolutionary context, and focus on genomic features associated with tooth loss, immune function, longevity, sex differentiation and determination, and the species' physiological capacities to withstand extreme anoxia and tissue freezing. Results Our phylogenetic analyses confirm that turtles are the sister group to living archosaurs, and demonstrate an extraordinarily slow rate of sequence evolution in the painted turtle. The ability of the painted turtle to withstand complete anoxia and partial freezing appears to be associated with common vertebrate gene networks, and we identify candidate genes for future functional analyses. Tooth loss shares a common pattern of pseudogenization and degradation of tooth-specific genes with birds, although the rate of accumulation of mutations is much slower in the painted turtle. Genes associated with sex differentiation generally reflect phylogeny rather than convergence in sex determination functionality. Among gene families that demonstrate exceptional expansions or show signatures of strong natural selection, immune function and musculoskeletal patterning genes are consistently over-represented. Conclusions Our comparative genomic analyses indicate that common vertebrate regulatory networks, some of which have analogs in human diseases, are often involved in the western painted turtle's extraordinary physiological capacities. As these regulatory pathways are analyzed at the functional level, the painted turtle may offer important insights into the management of a number of human health disorders. PMID:23537068

2013-01-01

128

Application of Physiological Self-Regulation and Adaptive Task Allocation Techniques for Controlling Operator Hazardous States of Awareness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prinzel, Hadley, Freeman, and Mikulka found that adaptive task allocation significantly enhanced performance only when used at the endpoints of the task workload continuum (i.e., very low or high workload), but that the technique degraded performance if invoked during other levels of task demand. These researchers suggested that other techniques should be used in conjunction with adaptive automation to help minimize the onset of hazardous states of awareness (HSA) and keep the operator 'in-the-loop.' The paper reports on such a technique that uses psychophysiological self-regulation to modulate the level of task engagement. Eighteen participants were assigned to three groups (self-regulation, false feedback, and control) and performed a compensatory tracking task that was cycled between three levels of task difficulty on the basis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) record. Those participants who had received self-regulation training performed significantly better and reported lower NASA-TLX scores than participants in the false feedback and control groups. Furthermore, the false feedback and control groups had significantly more task allocations resulting in return-to-manual performance decrements and higher EEG difference scores. Theoretical and practical implications of these results for adaptive automation are discussed.

Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Pope, Alan T.; Freeman, Frederick G.

2001-01-01

129

Effect of walking stress on growth, physiological adaptability and endocrine responses in Malpura ewes in a semi-arid tropical environment.  

PubMed

Sheep in hot semi-arid environments are mostly reared using extensive systems. In addition to thermal stress and feed scarcity, the animals need to walk long distances for grazing in this ecological zone. A study was conducted to assess the effect of long-distance walking on adaptive capability in terms of physiological, biochemical and endocrine responses in Malpura ewes. Fourteen adult Malpura non-pregnant ewes weighing between 33 and 35 kg were used in the study. The ewes were randomly allocated into two groups of seven animals each: GI (n?=?7; Control), and GII (n?=?7; walking stress). The animals were stall-fed with a diet consisting of 70% roughage and 30% concentrate. Both GI and GII ewes had uniform access to feed and water. The walking stress group (GII) ewes were made to walk 14 km in two spans between 0900 and 1500 hours with 1 h 30 min for each span (7 km) of walking. The ewes subjected to walking stress (GII) were prevented from grazing by applying a face mask made of cotton thread. The study was conducted for a period of two estrous cycles (35 days) during the autumn season (October-November). Physiological responses were recorded twice daily at 0800 and 1400 hours at weekly intervals. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein at weekly intervals to study the effects of walking stress on blood biochemical and endocrine parameters. The results indicate that walking stress had significant (P?adapt to long-distance walking, and that adrenal and thyroid gland hormones play a significant role in such adaptation. PMID:21455731

Sejian, Veerasamy; Maurya, Vijai P; Naqvi, Syed M K

2012-03-01

130

Grazing Soybean to Increase Voluntary Cow Traffic in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System  

PubMed Central

Pasture-based automatic milking systems (AMS) require cow traffic to enable cows to be milked. The interval between milkings can be manipulated by strategically allocating pasture. The current experiment investigated the effect of replacing an allocation of grazed pasture with grazed soybean (Glycine max) with the hypothesis that incorporating soybean would increase voluntary cow traffic and milk production. One hundred and eighty mixed age, primiparous and multiparous Holstein-Friesian/Illawarra cows were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (n = 90/group) with a 2×2 Latin square design. Each group was either offered treatments of kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum Hoach ex Chiov.) pasture (pasture) or soybean from 0900 h to 1500 h during the experimental period which consisted of 2 periods of 3 days following 5 days of training and adaptation in each period with groups crossing over treatments after the first period. The number of cows trafficking to each treatment was similar together with milk yield (mean ?18 L/cow/d) in this experiment. For the cows that arrived at soybean or pasture there were significant differences in their behaviour and consequently the number of cows exiting each treatment paddock. There was greater cow traffic (more cows and sooner) exiting pasture allocations. Cows that arrived at soybean stayed on the allocation for 25% more time and ate more forage (8.5 kg/cow/d/allocation) relative to pasture (4.7 kg/cow/d/allocation). Pasture cows predominantly replaced eating time with rumination. These findings suggest that replacing pasture with alternative grazeable forages provides no additional incentive to increase voluntary cow traffic to an allocation of feed in AMS. This work highlights the opportunity to increase forage intakes in AMS through the incorporation of alternative forages. PMID:25049970

Clark, C. E. F.; Horadagoda, A.; Kerrisk, K. L.; Scott, V.; Islam, M. R.; Kaur, R.; Garcia, S. C.

2014-01-01

131

Do Telomeres Adapt to Physiological Stress? Exploring the Effect of Exercise on Telomere Length and Telomere-Related Proteins  

PubMed Central

Aging is associated with a tissue degeneration phenotype marked by a loss of tissue regenerative capacity. Regenerative capacity is dictated by environmental and genetic factors that govern the balance between damage and repair. The age-associated changes in the ability of tissues to replace lost or damaged cells is partly the cause of many age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and sarcopenia. A well-established marker of the aging process is the length of the protective cap at the ends of chromosomes, called telomeres. Telomeres shorten with each cell division and with increasing chronological age and short telomeres have been associated with a range of age-related diseases. Several studies have shown that chronic exposure to exercise (i.e., exercise training) is associated with telomere length maintenance; however, recent evidence points out several controversial issues concerning tissue-specific telomere length responses. The goals of the review are to familiarize the reader with the current telomere dogma, review the literature exploring the interactions of exercise with telomere phenotypes, discuss the mechanistic research relating telomere dynamics to exercise stimuli, and finally propose future directions for work related to telomeres and physiological stress. PMID:24455708

Ludlow, Andrew T.; Ludlow, Lindsay W.; Roth, Stephen M.

2013-01-01

132

Functional evidence for physiological mechanisms to circumvent neurotoxicity of cardenolides in an adapted and a non-adapted hawk-moth species  

PubMed Central

Because cardenolides specifically inhibit the Na+K+-ATPase, insects feeding on cardenolide-containing plants need to circumvent this toxic effect. Some insects such as the monarch butterfly rely on target site insensitivity, yet other cardenolide-adapted lepidopterans such as the oleander hawk-moth, Daphnis nerii, possess highly sensitive Na+K+-ATPases. Nevertheless, larvae of this species and the related Manduca sexta are insensitive to injected cardenolides. By radioactive-binding assays with nerve cords of both species, we demonstrate that the perineurium surrounding the nervous tissue functions as a diffusion barrier for a polar cardenolide (ouabain). By contrast, for non-polar cardenolides such as digoxin an active efflux carrier limits the access to the nerve cord. This barrier can be abolished by metabolic inhibitors and by verapamil, a specific inhibitor of P-glycoproteins (PGPs). This supports that a PGP-like transporter is involved in the active cardenolide-barrier of the perineurium. Tissue specific RT-PCR demonstrated expression of three PGP-like genes in hornworm nerve cords, and immunohistochemistry further corroborated PGP expression in the perineurium. Our results thus suggest that the lepidopteran perineurium serves as a diffusion barrier for polar cardenolides and provides an active barrier for non-polar cardenolides. This may explain the high in vivo resistance to cardenolides observed in some lepidopteran larvae, despite their highly sensitive Na+K+-ATPases. PMID:23516239

Petschenka, Georg; Pick, Christian; Wagschal, Vera; Dobler, Susanne

2013-01-01

133

Influence of alpine forage either employed as donor cow's feed or as incubation substrate on in vitro ruminal fatty acid biohydrogenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of alpine grazing on ruminal fatty acid biohydrogenation were studied in vitro in comparison to different lowland controls, by (i) adapting a fistulated ruminal fluid donor cow to alpine pasture and (ii) by incubating alpine forages with the resulting ruminal fluid. The cow first received a grass–maize silage based diet in the lowlands. Subsequently, the cow grazed for

R. Khiaosa-ard; C. R. Soliva; M. Kreuzer; F. Leiber

2011-01-01

134

Using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling to address nonlinear kinetics and changes in rodent physiology and metabolism due to aging and adaptation in deriving reference values for propylene glycol methyl ether and propylene glycol methyl ether acetate.  

SciTech Connect

Reference values, including an oral reference dose (RfD) and an inhalation reference concentration (RfC), were derived for propylene glycol methyl ether (PGME), and an oral RfD was derived for its acetate (PGMEA). These values were based upon transient sedation observed in F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice during a two-year inhalation study. The dose-response relationship for sedation was characterized using internal dose measures as predicted by a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for PGME and its acetate. PBPK modeling was used to account for changes in rodent physiology and metabolism due to aging and adaptation, based on data collected during weeks 1, 2, 26, 52, and 78 of a chronic inhalation study. The peak concentration of PGME in richly perfused tissues was selected as the most appropriate internal dose measure based upon a consideration of the mode of action for sedation and similarities in tissue partitioning between brain and other richly perfused tissues. Internal doses (peak tissue concentrations of PGME) were designated as either no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs) or lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels (LOAELs) based upon the presence or absence of sedation at each time-point, species, and sex in the two year study. Distributions of the NOAEL and LOAEL values expressed in terms of internal dose were characterized using an arithmetic mean and standard deviation, with the mean internal NOAEL serving as the basis for the reference values, which was then divided by appropriate uncertainty factors. Where data were permitting, chemical-specific adjustment factors were derived to replace default uncertainty factor values of ten. Nonlinear kinetics are were predicted by the model in all species at PGME concentrations exceeding 100 ppm, which complicates interspecies and low-dose extrapolations. To address this complication, reference values were derived using two approaches which differ with respect to the order in which these extrapolations were performed: (1) uncertainty factor application followed by interspecies extrapolation (PBPK modeling); and (2) interspecies extrapolation followed by uncertainty factor application. The resulting reference values for these two approaches are substantially different, with values from the former approach being 7-fold higher than those from the latter approach. Such a striking difference between the two approaches reveals an underlying issue that has received little attention in the literature regarding the application of uncertainty factors and interspecies extrapolations to compounds where saturable kinetics occur in the range of the NOAEL. Until such discussions have taken place, reference values based on the latter approach are recommended for risk assessments involving human exposures to PGME and PGMEA.

Kirman, C R.; Sweeney, Lisa M.; Corley, Rick A.; Gargas, M L.

2005-04-01

135

Technical aspects of transvaginal ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration in cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 7.5 MHz rectal transducer adapted for transvaginal use was compared with a human microcurvilinear 6 MHz transvaginal transducer for follicular aspiration in cows. Some of the problems encountered while developing an accurate and repeatable technique are discussed, including the preparation of the cow, and the selection of the needle and suction apparatus. Proficiency in the retrieval of oocytes was

CA Scott; L Robertson; RT de Moura; C Paterson; JS Boyd

1994-01-01

136

Addition of Sodium Bicarbonate to Rations of Pre and Postpartum Dairy Cows1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium bicarbonate was added to complete mixed rations to evaluate the effect of buffer addition on adaptation to high-energy rations by dairy cows in early lactation. Forty-five Holstein cows were assigned to one of three treatment groups: control pre- and postpartum; control prepartum, buffer postpartum; and buffer pre- and postpartum. Rations consisted of 85% chopped grass hay: 15% concentrate prepartum

L. H. Kilmer; L. D. Muller; P. J. Wangsness

1980-01-01

137

Physiology Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physiology Online, the electronic information service of the Physiological Society, provides information about its three journals: Journal of Physiology, Proceedings of the Physiological Society, and Experimental Physiology. Also included are selected abstracts, as well as information about recent monographs, job listings (mostly in the U.K.), information about Society grants, a physiology file and software archive for both PC and Mac platforms, pointers to other physiology resources on the Internet, and a listing of upcoming meetings and conferences within the field.

1994-01-01

138

Cooling Dry Cows  

E-print Network

T he drop in milk production in the summer causes sig- nificant economic losses in the dairy industry. That decrease in production is brought on by heat stress, and studies have documented that cooling lactat- ing cows increases their milk pro... studies have investigat- ed whether cooling dry cows affects postpartum milk produc- tion and reproductive measures, but the results so far have been inconclusive. In deciding whether to install cooling systems for dry cattle, producers should consider...

Stokes, Sandra R.

2000-07-17

139

Quantification of training load, energy intake, and physiological adaptations during a rugby preseason: a case study from an elite European rugby union squad.  

PubMed

Bradley, WJ, Cavanagh, BP, Douglas, W, Donovan, TF, Morton, JP, and Close, GL. Quantification of training load, energy intake, and physiological adaptations during a rugby preseason: A case study from an Elite European Rugby Union Squad. J Strength Cond Res 29(2): 534-544, 2015-Rugby Union (RU) is a high-speed collision sport consisting of an intermittent activity profile. Given the extreme physical demands of the sport, significant emphasis is placed on players possessing high lean body mass while minimizing body fat. Anecdotally, the most significant changes in body composition are observed during the preseason; however, there are no objective data on the physiological demands and energy intake during this time. We therefore monitored 45 elite European RU players over the 10-week preseason period by assessing training load using Global Positioning System and session rate of perceived exertion (sRPE) while also assessing changes in anthropometry and physical performance. For forwards and backs, respectively, mean weekly distance covered was 9,774 m (1,404) and 11,585 m (1,810) with a total mean weekly sRPE of 3,398 (335) arbitrary units and 2,944 (410) arbitrary units. Mean daily energy intake was 14.8 MJ (1.9) and 13.3 MJ (1.9), carbohydrate (CHO) intake was 3.3 (0.7) and 4.14 (0.4) g·kg body mass, protein intake was 2.52 (0.3) and 2.59 (0.6) g·kg body mass, and fat intake was 1.0 (0.3) and 0.95 (0.3) g·kg body mass for forwards and backs, respectively. Markers of physical performance (1 repetition maximum strength, speed, and repeated sprint tests) and anthropometry (body fat and estimated lean mass) improved in all players. Interestingly, all players self-selected a "low" CHO "high" protein diet. Based on physiological improvements the training load and energy intake seems appropriate, although further research is required to evaluate if such energy intakes would also be suitable for match day performance. PMID:25029003

Bradley, Warren J; Cavanagh, Bryce P; Douglas, William; Donovan, Timothy F; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

2015-02-01

140

GnRH-Induced Ca2+ Signaling Patterns and Gonadotropin Secretion in Pituitary Gonadotrophs. Functional Adaptations to Both Ordinary and Extraordinary Physiological Demands  

PubMed Central

Pituitary gonadotrophs are a small fraction of the anterior pituitary population, yet they synthesize gonadotropins: luteinizing (LH) and follicle-stimulating (FSH), essential for gametogenesis and steroidogenesis. LH is secreted via a regulated pathway while FSH release is mostly constitutive and controlled by synthesis. Although gonadotrophs fire action potentials spontaneously, the intracellular Ca2+ rises produced do not influence secretion, which is mainly driven by Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH), a decapeptide synthesized in the hypothalamus and released in a pulsatile manner into the hypophyseal portal circulation. GnRH binding to G-protein-coupled receptors triggers Ca2+ mobilization from InsP3-sensitive intracellular pools, generating the global Ca2+ elevations necessary for secretion. Ca2+ signaling responses to increasing (GnRH) vary in stereotyped fashion from subthreshold to baseline spiking (oscillatory), to biphasic (spike-oscillatory or spike-plateau). This progression varies somewhat in gonadotrophs from different species and biological preparations. Both baseline spiking and biphasic GnRH-induced Ca2+ signals control LH/FSH synthesis and exocytosis. Estradiol and testosterone regulate gonadotropin secretion through feedback mechanisms, while FSH synthesis and release are influenced by activin, inhibin, and follistatin. Adaptation to physiological events like the estrous cycle, involves changes in GnRH sensitivity and LH/FSH synthesis: in proestrus, estradiol feedback regulation abruptly changes from negative to positive, causing the pre-ovulatory LH surge. Similarly, when testosterone levels drop after orquiectomy the lack of negative feedback on pituitary and hypothalamus boosts both GnRH and LH secretion, gonadotrophs GnRH sensitivity increases, and Ca2+ signaling patterns change. In addition, gonadotrophs proliferate and grow. These plastic changes denote a more vigorous functional adaptation in response to an extraordinary functional demand. PMID:24137156

Durán-Pastén, Maria Luisa; Fiordelisio, Tatiana

2013-01-01

141

Insights into the Physiology and Ecology of the Brackish-Water-Adapted Cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena CCY9414 Based on a Genome-Transcriptome Analysis  

PubMed Central

Nodularia spumigena is a filamentous diazotrophic cyanobacterium that dominates the annual late summer cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea. But N. spumigena also is common in brackish water bodies worldwide, suggesting special adaptation allowing it to thrive at moderate salinities. A draft genome analysis of N. spumigena sp. CCY9414 yielded a single scaffold of 5,462,271 nucleotides in length on which genes for 5,294 proteins were annotated. A subsequent strand-specific transcriptome analysis identified more than 6,000 putative transcriptional start sites (TSS). Orphan TSSs located in intergenic regions led us to predict 764 non-coding RNAs, among them 70 copies of a possible retrotransposon and several potential RNA regulators, some of which are also present in other N2-fixing cyanobacteria. Approximately 4% of the total coding capacity is devoted to the production of secondary metabolites, among them the potent hepatotoxin nodularin, the linear spumigin and the cyclic nodulapeptin. The transcriptional complexity associated with genes involved in nitrogen fixation and heterocyst differentiation is considerably smaller compared to other Nostocales. In contrast, sophisticated systems exist for the uptake and assimilation of iron and phosphorus compounds, for the synthesis of compatible solutes, and for the formation of gas vesicles, required for the active control of buoyancy. Hence, the annotation and interpretation of this sequence provides a vast array of clues into the genomic underpinnings of the physiology of this cyanobacterium and indicates in particular a competitive edge of N. spumigena in nutrient-limited brackish water ecosystems. PMID:23555932

Voß, Björn; Bolhuis, Henk; Fewer, David P.; Kopf, Matthias; Möke, Fred; Haas, Fabian; El-Shehawy, Rehab; Hayes, Paul; Bergman, Birgitta; Sivonen, Kaarina; Dittmann, Elke; Scanlan, Dave J.; Hagemann, Martin; Stal, Lucas J.; Hess, Wolfgang R.

2013-01-01

142

Physiological Reviews  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Physiological Reviews_is currently available online through the American Physiological Society. Online abstracts and full-text content begin January 1998. Physiological reviews is made available through Stanford University's HighWire Press.

1998-01-01

143

Cow’s Milk Protein Allergy Mimicking Acrodermatitis Enteropathica  

PubMed Central

Cow’s milk protein allergy is an adverse immune reaction to one or more of the constituent proteins of milk obtained from any animal, most commonly alpha s 1-casein cow’s milk. In many cases, the allergy is genetic in origin. The infants may experience symptoms within minutes after feeding (rapid onset) or commonly after 7-10 days of consuming the cow’s milk (slower onset). Many children with cow’s milk protein allergy develop symptoms in at least two of the following organ systems: gastrointestinal, skin and respiratory tract. Acrodermatitis Enteropathica (primary or secondary zinc deficiency) can also produce lesions in the skin and also gastro intestinal symptoms which can mimic milk protein allergy and differentiating between these two may be difficult. We are reporting a case of cow’s milk protein allergy in an infant, which was initially diagnosed as Acrodermatitis Enteropathica and treated with zinc. The lesions did not subside completely even after achieving adequate zinc levels, but on stopping the cow’s milk all the symptoms and signs disappeared completely and there was no recurrence on long term follow up. PMID:24783119

Solomon, John; Kamalammal, Rugmini; Sait, Mohammed Yaseen; Lohith, Harita

2014-01-01

144

MARKETING COWS FOR INCREASED PROFITABILITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Substantial quantities of quality milk are the primary concern of dairy producers; however, approximately 33% of beef production in the U.S is from market dairy cows. Dairy cows are the class of cattle with the greatest violation of antibiotic residues. Additional feeding of market cows can increa...

145

FEEDING AND MARKETING CULL COWS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sale of cull beef cows accounts for 15-25% of yearly gross revenues of cow-calf operations in the United States. Beef from market cows is widely used in the retail and food service sector in a variety of product forms, not all of which is ground. Producers should identify opportunities to add value...

146

Influence of fat supplementation on postpartum reproductive performance in Brahman cows  

E-print Network

INFLUENCE OF FAT SUPPLEMENTATION ON POSTPARTUM REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE IN BRAHMAN COWS A Thesis by CHRISTIAN ALFRED DE FRIES AMBUHL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May f 996 Mar Subject: Physiology of Reproduction INFLUENCE OF FAT SUPPLEMENTATION ON POSTPARTUM REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE IN BRAHMAN COWS A Thesis by CHRISTIAN ALFRED DE FRIES AMBUHL Submitted...

De Fries Ambuhl, Christian Alfred

1996-01-01

147

Procedures of Exercise Physiology Laboratories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This manual describes the laboratory methods used to collect flight crew physiological performance data at the Johnson Space Center. The Exercise Countermeasures Project Laboratory is a standard physiology laboratory; only the application to the study of human physiological adaptations to spaceflight is unique. In the absence of any other recently published laboratory manual, this manual should be a useful document staffs and students of other laboratories.

Bishop, Phillip A.; Fortney, Suzanne; Greenisen, Michael; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Moore, Alan D., Jr.; Squires, William

1998-01-01

148

A reduction in milking frequency and feed allowance improves dairy cow immune status.  

PubMed

Twice-daily milking is the most common milking regimen used globally. A reduction in milking frequency to once daily, combined with a reduced feed allowance (FA), could reduce the physiological stress associated with the transition to peak milk production, and hence improve immune function. This study investigated how milking frequency and FA affect dairy cow immune status. Cows (n = 48) were milked once a day (OAD) or twice a day (TAD) on 1 of 2 FA: high (HFA) or low (LFA), in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. After the mean calving date of March 11, HFA cows were offered ad libitum grass silage and 7 kg of concentrates/cow per day until March 22, then 4 kg of concentrates/cow per day until April 17, and thereafter allocated 31.3 kg of dry matter (DM) grass/cow per day. The LFA cows were offered 4 kg of concentrates/cow per day, 1 kg of concentrates/cow per day, and allocated 19 kg of DM grass/cow per day for the same respective periods. Milk yield was recorded daily and body condition score weekly, and somatic cell count was performed at approximately 2-wk intervals. Blood samples were collected prepartum (d -7 to -1) and at d 1 to 7, d 14 to 21, and d 42 to 49 postpartum. Total and differential leukocyte percentage, IFN-? production in response to concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin, and cortisol, haptoglobin (Hp), and serum amyloid A (SAA) concentrations were evaluated. Cows milked OAD had reduced milk yield and body reserve mobilization, but higher somatic cell counts. Milking frequency and diet had no effect on total leukocyte counts. Cows milked OAD had a higher lymphocyte percentage and lower monocyte percentage, and tended to have a lower neutrophil percentage than cows milked TAD. In addition, the LFA cows had a higher eosinophil percentage than cows fed the HFA. Milking frequency and diet had no effect on IFN-?, Hp, SAA, or cortisol production. Utilization of strategies to reduce milk yield at the beginning of the lactation could not only reduce body reserve mobilization, but also help to maintain a functioning immune system, and thus improve cow welfare. PMID:22365202

O'Driscoll, K; Olmos, G; Llamas Moya, S; Mee, J F; Earley, B; Gleeson, D; O'Brien, B; Boyle, L

2012-03-01

149

Crop Physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, we review the physiology of switchgrass from seed dormancy till the effects of water and nutrients stress on grown plants. These characteristics are presented and discussed mainly at the canopy and whole-plant level with emphasis on the agro-physiology of the species in view of the possible contribution of crop physiology to agricultural development. Switchgrass is noted for

Walter Zegada-Lizarazu; Stan D Wullschleger; S. Surendran Nair; Andrea Monti

2012-01-01

150

Adapting Bulls to Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The adaptation of bulls used for natural breeding purposes to the Gulf Coast region of the United States including all of Florida is an important topic. Nearly 40% of the U.S. cow/calf population resides in the Gulf Coast and Southeast. Thus, as A.I. is relatively rare, the number of bulls used for ...

151

Future consequences and challenges for dairy cow production systems arising from climate change in Central Europe - a review.  

PubMed

It is well documented that global warming is unequivocal. Dairy production systems are considered as important sources of greenhouse gas emissions; however, little is known about the sensitivity and vulnerability of these production systems themselves to climate warming. This review brings different aspects of dairy cow production in Central Europe into focus, with a holistic approach to emphasize potential future consequences and challenges arising from climate change. With the current understanding of the effects of climate change, it is expected that yield of forage per hectare will be influenced positively, whereas quality will mainly depend on water availability and soil characteristics. Thus, the botanical composition of future grassland should include species that are able to withstand the changing conditions (e.g. lucerne and bird's foot trefoil). Changes in nutrient concentration of forage plants, elevated heat loads and altered feeding patterns of animals may influence rumen physiology. Several promising nutritional strategies are available to lower potential negative impacts of climate change on dairy cow nutrition and performance. Adjustment of feeding and drinking regimes, diet composition and additive supplementation can contribute to the maintenance of adequate dairy cow nutrition and performance. Provision of adequate shade and cooling will reduce the direct effects of heat stress. As estimated genetic parameters are promising, heat stress tolerance as a functional trait may be included into breeding programmes. Indirect effects of global warming on the health and welfare of animals seem to be more complicated and thus are less predictable. As the epidemiology of certain gastrointestinal nematodes and liver fluke is favourably influenced by increased temperature and humidity, relations between climate change and disease dynamics should be followed closely. Under current conditions, climate change associated economic impacts are estimated to be neutral if some form of adaptation is integrated. Therefore, it is essential to establish and adopt mitigation strategies covering available tools from management, nutrition, health and plant and animal breeding to cope with the future consequences of climate change on dairy farming. PMID:23253935

Gauly, M; Bollwein, H; Breves, G; Brügemann, K; Dänicke, S; Da?, G; Demeler, J; Hansen, H; Isselstein, J; König, S; Lohölter, M; Martinsohn, M; Meyer, U; Potthoff, M; Sanker, C; Schröder, B; Wrage, N; Meibaum, B; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G; Stinshoff, H; Wrenzycki, C

2013-05-01

152

Physiological Waterfalls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information, defining areas within organ systems where physiological waterfalls exist. Describes pressure-flow relationships of elastic tubes (blood vessels, airways, renal tubules, various ducts). (CS)

Leith, David E.

1976-01-01

153

Kinematic gait analysis and lactation performance in dairy cows fed a diet supplemented with zinc, manganese, copper and cobalt.  

PubMed

This study investigated how supplementation of the diet of dairy cows with trace minerals (zinc, manganese, copper and cobalt) affected kinematic gait parameters and lactation performance. Eight Holstein cows were divided into two groups, with each group receiving a different dietary treatment (control diet, or control diet supplemented with trace minerals) in a two-period crossover design. Kinematic gait parameters were calculated by using image analysis software. Compared to cows fed the control diet, cows that received the trace mineral-supplemented diet exhibited significantly increased walking and stepping rates, and had a shorter stance duration. Feed intake and milk production increased in cows fed the trace mineral-supplemented diet compared with control groups. The plasma manganese concentration was not different in control and experimental cows. In contrast, cobalt was only detected in the plasma of cows fed the supplemented diet. These results provide the first evidence that trace mineral supplementation of the diet of dairy cows affects locomotion, and that the associated gait changes can be detected by using kinematic gait analysis. Moreover, trace mineral supplementation improved milk production and only minimally altered blood and physiological parameters in dairy cows. PMID:24206275

Yamamoto, Satoshi; Ito, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Kii; Matsushima, Yuki; Watanabe, Izumi; Watanabe, Yutaka; Abiko, Keima; Kamada, Toshihiko; Sato, Kan

2014-03-01

154

A review of the causes of poor fertility in high milk producing dairy cows.  

PubMed

Fertility in dairy cows has declined over the past five decades as milk production per cow has increased. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this including issues of genetics, physiology, nutrition and management, and these factors have been investigated at the animal, organ and cellular level at critical time points of the productive life of dairy cows. This paper reviews the physiological events and their causes and consequences affecting fertility in dairy cows and summarises these in a downloadable poster. We consider the following points to have the greatest negative impact on fertility and that they need to be prioritised in efforts to ameliorate the problem (others have been included in the review). Firstly, minimise negative energy balance and resolve any infection of the post partum uterus. Secondly, expression and detection of oestrus followed by insemination with high quality semen (day 0). Thirdly, ovulation and fertilisation of a high quality oocyte (day 1). Fourthly, an early increase in progesterone secretion from the corpus luteum (days 3-7). Fifthly, the uterine endometrium must produce an early and appropriate environment to stimulate embryo development (days 6-13). This leads to sixthly, a large embryo producing adequate quantities of interferon tau (days 14-18) that alters uterine prostaglandin secretion and signals maternal recognition of pregnancy (days 16-18). Future strategies to improve dairy cow fertility are needed for the benefit of the dairy industry and for cow welfare and should be based upon an integrative approach of these events. PMID:21255947

Walsh, S W; Williams, E J; Evans, A C O

2011-02-01

155

Conservation physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation biologists increasingly face the need to provide legislators, courts and conservation managers with data on causal mechanisms underlying conservation problems such as species decline. To develop and monitor solutions, conservation biologists are progressively using more techniques that are physiological. Here, we review the emerging discipline of conservation physiology and suggest that, for conservation strategies to be successful, it is

Martin Wikelski; Steven J. Cooke

2006-01-01

156

Physiological Genomics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Five journals with free (or recently extended) online trial periods were recently announced; online content includes full text, figures, and tables. The American Physiological Society has announced free, online access to Physiological Genomics through December 31, 2001; full text and abstracts are available from 1999. The journal is published in conjunction with Stanford University's HighWire Press.

1969-12-31

157

Effect of ambient temperature and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on water and electrolyte balances in dry and lactating Holstein cows.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of the interaction between 2 constant ambient temperatures [thermoneutrality (TN; 15°C) and high temperature (HT; 28°C)] and 2 levels of Na bicarbonate supplementation [calculated to provide diet Na contents of 0.20%DM (Na-) and 0.50%DM (Na+)] on water partitioning in dairy cows. Treatments were compared on 4 dry and 4mid-lactation Holstein cows according to 2 Latin squares (1 for each physiological stage) over the course of 4 periods of 15d. Diets consisted of a total mixed ration based on maize silage. Dry cows were restricted to their protein and energy requirements, whereas lactating cows were fed ad libitum. The daily average temperature-humidity index was 59.4 for TN and 73.2 for HT. Lactating and dry cows had higher vaginal temperatures at HT than at TN, but the increase was more pronounced in lactating cows (+1.05 vs. +0.12°C for vaginal temperature, respectively). Dry matter intake (DMI) of lactating cows decreased by 2.3kg/d at HT. Free water intake (FWI) and estimated volume of water lost to evaporation increased at HT in both lactating and dry cows; no interactions were observed between temperature and physiological stage. When expressed as a proportion of DMI, the increase in evaporation that occurred with increasing temperature was completely compensated for by an increase in FWI for both physiological stages. The urinary water excretion increased slightly at HT in lactating cows but not in dry cows, which may be related to the low chloride content of the offered diet. High Na supplementation increased DMI slightly in lactating cows, but milk yield was not affected. Sodium supplementation did not limit the decrease in DMI observed in lactating cows at HT; this observation is likely due to the high diet electrolyte balance of the offered diets. Sodium supplementation increased FWI in lactating cows and urinary flow in both physiological states. The interaction between ambient temperature and Na supplementation did not affect either water intake or water evaporation. This study demonstrates that the development of predictive models for water intake that include environmental variables could be based on mechanistic models of evaporation. PMID:24485695

Khelil-Arfa, H; Faverdin, P; Boudon, A

2014-04-01

158

Cow’s milk allergy: From allergens to new forms of diagnosis, therapy and prevention?  

PubMed Central

The first adverse reactions to cow’s milk were already described 2000 years ago. However, it was only 50 years ago that several groups started with the analysis of cow’s milk allergens. Meanwhile the spectrum of allergy eliciting proteins within cow’s milk is identified and several cow’s milk allergens have been characterized regarding their biochemical properties, fold and IgE binding epitopes. The diagnosis of cow’s milk allergy is diverse ranging from fast and cheap in vitro assays to elaborate in vivo assays. Considerable effort was spent to improve the diagnosis from an extract-based into a component resolved concept. There is still no suitable therapy available against cow’s milk allergy except avoidance. Therefore research needs to focus on the development of suitable and safe immunotherapies that do not elicit severe side effect. PMID:23954566

Hochwallner, Heidrun; Schulmeister, Ulrike; Swoboda, Ines; Spitzauer, Susanne; Valenta, Rudolf

2014-01-01

159

Effects of physiological state on duration of sedation in southern elephant seals.  

PubMed

One hundred eighty-one female and thirteen postweanling pup southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) were sedated using a combination of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride. Physiological state had a profound effect on response of the animals to sedation. Physiologically stressed postlactation and postpartum cows had significantly longer periods of sedation than pre-molting females or recently weaned pups. Induction time was not affected by physiological status. Dose rates are recommended for elephant seals in various physiological states. PMID:2810559

Woods, R; Hindell, M; Slip, D J

1989-10-01

160

Effects of feeding various dosages of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product in transition dairy cows.  

PubMed

Feeding 56 versus 0 g/d of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; Diamond V Original XP; Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA) can increase feed intake and milk production in transition dairy cows. To evaluate the effects of various dosages of SCFP, Holstein cows were given individually a supplement containing 0 (n=14), 56 (n=15), or 112 g (n=13) of SCFP daily during morning lockup as a topdressing to their total mixed ration. The supplement consisted of 0, 56, or 112 g of SCFP mixed with 84 g of molasses and 168, 112, or 56 g of corn meal, respectively. Supplement feeding began 28 d before predicted calving date (no less than 14 d) and ended 28 d postpartum, and supplement intake was evaluated daily. Blood samples were collected at d -21, -14, -7, -3, -1, 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 to measure serum concentrations of macrominerals, metabolites, acute-phase proteins, immunoglobulin, and hormones. Milk weights were measured and milk samples were collected 2 times/wk on nonconsecutive days and analyzed for milk fat, protein, lactose, and somatic cell count (SCC). During the first day after calving, feeding SCFP versus no SCFP decreased serum cortisol concentrations and at least tended to increase supplement intake and serum concentrations of calcium, glucose, urea N, and serum amyloid A. During the first 4 wk postpartum, feeding SCFP versus no SCFP decreased milk SCC and increased milk production and serum phosphorus concentrations. Feeding 112 versus 56 g of SCFP/d did not show additional effects. Feeding SCFP may have a dosage-independent beneficial effect in supporting the physiologic adaptations after parturition, resulting in higher milk production and lower milk SCC. PMID:24612807

Zaworski, E M; Shriver-Munsch, C M; Fadden, N A; Sanchez, W K; Yoon, I; Bobe, G

2014-05-01

161

Feeding the Cow and Calf.  

E-print Network

;111 non-supplementetl cows. The difference in the amount and kind ol Sorage available (luring the growing season ha(; ;I direct relationship to weaning weight. Cows r1111s- ing calves during the period of high forage pl-oduc- tion produce the heaviest... calves at weaning timc. The months with high weaning weights shown in figure 5 (3) do not indicate the proper calving season in all areas of the State, a calving period ol 3 to 5 months on each farm or ranch allows tlic highest production per cow...

Maddox, L. A. Jr.

1965-01-01

162

FW405 FISH PHYSIOLOGY (3 CREDITS) COURSE OUTLINE SPRING 2011  

E-print Network

of functional adaptations and adjustments that fishes use to cope with various environmental and physiological. To assist students in understanding how fishes adapt and respond to various environmental and physiological1 FW405 ­ FISH PHYSIOLOGY (3 CREDITS) COURSE OUTLINE ­ SPRING 2011 I. Lecture: Time: Place: Monday

163

Anti-inflammatory salicylate treatment alters the metabolic adaptations to lactation in dairy cattle  

PubMed Central

Adapting to the lactating state requires metabolic adjustments in multiple tissues, especially in the dairy cow, which must meet glucose demands that can exceed 5 kg/day in the face of negligible gastrointestinal glucose absorption. These challenges are met through the process of homeorhesis, the alteration of metabolic setpoints to adapt to a shift in physiological state. To investigate the role of inflammation-associated pathways in these homeorhetic adaptations, we treated cows with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sodium salicylate (SS) for the first 7 days of lactation. Administration of SS decreased liver TNF-? mRNA and marginally decreased plasma TNF-? concentration, but plasma eicosanoids and liver NF-?B activity were unaltered during treatment. Despite the mild impact on these inflammatory markers, SS clearly altered metabolic function. Plasma glucose concentration was decreased by SS, but this was not explained by a shift in hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression or by altered milk lactose secretion. Insulin concentrations decreased in SS-treated cows on day 7 compared with controls, which was consistent with the decline in plasma glucose concentration. The revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (RQUICKI) was then used to assess whether altered insulin sensitivity may have influenced glucose utilization rate with SS. The RQUICKI estimate of insulin sensitivity was significantly elevated by SS on day 7, coincident with the decline in plasma glucose concentration. Salicylate prevented postpartum insulin resistance, likely causing excessive glucose utilization in peripheral tissues and hypoglycemia. These results represent the first evidence that inflammation-associated pathways are involved in homeorhetic adaptations to lactation. PMID:23678026

Farney, Jaymelynn K.; Mamedova, Laman K.; Coetzee, Johann F.; KuKanich, Butch; Sordillo, Lorraine M.; Stoakes, Sara K.; Minton, J. Ernest; Hollis, Larry C.

2013-01-01

164

Synthetic Physiology  

E-print Network

Optogenetic tools are DNA-encoded molecules that, when genetically targeted to cells, enable the control of specific physiological processes within those cells through exposure to light. These tools can pinpoint how these ...

Boyden, Edward Stuart

165

Effect of temporary weaning duration on tonic LH secretion, estrus, and ovulation in anestrous postpartum beef cows  

E-print Network

EFFECT OF TEMPORARY WEANING DURATION ON TONIC LH SECRETION, ESTRUS AND OVULATION IN ANESTROUS POSTPARTUM BEEF COWS A Thesis TANDY EUZABETH SHIVELY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December t 987 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction EFFECT OF TEMPORARY WEANING DURATION ON TONIC LH SECRETION, ESTRUS AND OVULATION IN ANESTROUS POSTPARTUM BEEF COWS A Thesis by TANDY ELIZABETH...

Shively, Tandy Elizabeth

2012-06-07

166

Physiological studies on long-term adaptation to salt stress in the extremely halotolerant yeast Candida versatilis CBS 4019 (syn. C. halophila)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida halophila CBS 4019 (syn. C. versatilis) is an extremely salt-tolerant yeast. It was chosen to study the physiology of long-term resistance to salt stress in cells cultivated at increasing NaCl concentrations up to 4 or 5 M. Growth under stress was slow, severely affected not by salt, but rather by initial external pH. Growing on glucose, glycerol and mannitol

Magda Silva-Graça; Cândida Lucas

2003-01-01

167

Short communication: Effects of dietary nonstructural carbohydrates pre- and postpartum on reproduction of grazing dairy cows.  

PubMed

The working hypothesis was that postpartum anovulatory intervals (PPAI) of grazing dairy cows are shortened by inclusion of concentrates that increase the nonstructural carbohydrate content of the transition diet. Dietary treatments were arranged as a 2x2 factorial, with 68 multiparous cows assigned to isoenergetic diets (114 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow per day) of pasture and pasture silage (PreP) or pasture and pasture silage supplemented with 3 kg of dry matter/cow per day a corn- and barley-based concentrate for 36 d prepartum (PreC). After calving, cows within each prepartum diet group were managed on isoenergetic diets (179 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow per day) of either pasture and pasture silage (PostP) or pasture and pasture silage supplemented with 5 kg of dry matter/cow per day a corn- and barley-based concentrate (PostC) for at least 35 d and until reestablishment of ovulatory cycles. Relative to day of calving (d 0), blood samples were collected at least weekly from d -28 to 35 and milk samples were collected twice weekly for progesterone determination to diagnose ovulatory status. The main variable of interest was PPAI, defined as the interval between calving and the first detected increase in milk progesterone (>3 ng/mL), followed by a pattern of progesterone concentrations consistent with onset of an ovulatory cycle. Subsequent mating records, pregnancy testing, and recalving data were also examined. Prepartum diet did not affect reproduction. The PPAI was 8 d shorter and the 6-wk pregnancy rate was 17% greater in PostC cows compared with PostP cows. Measured indicators of metabolic state and energy balance were poorly related to PPAI. The results support the existence of nutritional signals associated with nonstructural carbohydrates in the postpartum diet, independent of energy balance; these signals benefit the physiological mechanisms underlying the timing of first ovulation and possibly subsequent breeding performance. PMID:20723702

Burke, C R; Kay, J K; Phyn, C V C; Meier, S; Lee, J M; Roche, J R

2010-09-01

168

Predicting nutritional requirements and lactation performance of dual-purpose cows using a dynamic model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic application of the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) model was developed to predict annual cycles in animal nutrient requirements and performance of dual-purpose (milk and beef) cows. Interactions from mobilisation and repletion of body tissue reserves and feed biological values are accounted with a time step of one day, which considers physiological status of the animal,

O. Reynoso-Campos; D. G. Fox; R. W. Blake; M. C. Barry; L. O. Tedeschi; C. F. Nicholson; H. M. Kaiser; P. A. Oltenacu

2004-01-01

169

Role of Cellular Immunity in Cow's Milk Allergy: Pathogenesis, Tolerance Induction, and Beyond  

PubMed Central

Food allergy is an aberrant immune-mediated reaction against harmless food substances, such as cow's milk proteins. Due to its very early introduction, cow's milk allergy is one of the earliest and most common food allergies. For this reason cow's milk allergy can be recognized as one of the first indications of an aberrant inflammatory response in early life. Classically, cow's milk allergy, as is true for most other allergies as well, is primarily associated with abnormal humoral immune responses, that is, elevation of specific immunoglobulin E levels. There is growing evidence indicating that cellular components of both innate and adaptive immunity play significant roles during the pathogenesis of cow's milk allergy. This is true for the initiation of the allergic phenotype (stimulation and skewing towards sensitization), development and outgrowth of the allergic disease. This review discusses findings pertaining to roles of cellular immunity in allergic inflammation, and tolerance induction against cow's milk proteins. In addition, a possible interaction between immune mechanisms underlying cow's milk allergy and other types of inflammation (infections and noncommunicable diseases) is discussed. PMID:25002754

Garssen, Johan

2014-01-01

170

EFFECTS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL STATE ON DURATION OF SEDATION IN SOUTHERN ELEPHANT SEALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred eighty-one female and thirteen postweanling pup southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) were sedated using a combination of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazmne hydrochloride. Physiological state had a profound effect on response of the animals to sedation. Physiologically stressed postlactation and postpartum cows had significantly longer periods of sedations than pre-molting females or recently weaned pups. Induction time was not

Rupe Woods; Mark Hindell; David J. Slip

171

Toxic effect and adaptation in Scenedesmus intermedius to anthropogenic chloramphenicol contamination: genetic versus physiological mechanisms to rapid acquisition of xenobiotic resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic water pollution is producing a challenge to the survival of phytoplankton populations. From an ecological point\\u000a of view, the tolerance of these microorganisms to water pollution is of paramount importance since they are the principal\\u000a primary producers of aquatic ecosystems. The adaptation of a common chlorophyta species (Scenedesmus intermedius) exposed to selected dose-response chloramphenicol (CAP) concentrations has been analyzed.

S. Sánchez-Fortún; F. Marvá; M. Rouco; E. Costas; V. López-Rodas

2009-01-01

172

Physiology of man and animals in the Tenth Five-Year Plan: Proceedings of the Thirteenth Congress of the I. P. Pavlov All-Union Physiological Society  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research in the field of animal and human physiology is reviewed. The following topics on problems of physiological science and related fields of knowledge are discussed: neurophysiology and higher nervous activity, physiology of sensory systems, physiology of visceral systems, evolutionary and ecological physiology, physiological cybernetics, computer application in physiology, information support of physiological research, history and theory of development of physiology. Also discussed were: artificial intelligence, physiological problems of reflex therapy, correlation of structure and function of the brain, adaptation and activity, microcirculation, and physiological studies in nerve and mental diseases.

Lange, K. A.

1980-01-01

173

Fractal physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of fractals and the use of fractals instead of classical scaling concepts to describe the irregular surfaces, structures, and processes exhibited by physiological systems are described. The mathematical development of fractals is reviewed, and examples of natural fractals are cited. Relationships among power laws, noise, and fractal time signals are examined

William Deering; Bruce J. West

1992-01-01

174

Modelling Language-Physiology Coevolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Such models do not show communities evolving from those capable of some simple proto-language towards those capable of some fuller language. In contrast, in human evolution, vocalisations and speech provided a selective advantage that led to the exaptation and adaptation of aspects of human physiology to support improved language capacity (Deacon 1992; Lieberman 1992). This led to a process of

Daniel Livingstone; Colin Fyfe

175

Predictive Models for Regional Hepatic Function Based on 99mTc-IDA SPECT and Local Radiation Dose for Physiologic Adaptive Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: High-dose radiation therapy (RT) for intrahepatic cancer is limited by the development of liver injury. This study investigated whether regional hepatic function assessed before and during the course of RT using 99mTc-labeled iminodiacetic acid (IDA) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could predict regional liver function reserve after RT. Methods and Materials: Fourteen patients treated with RT for intrahepatic cancers underwent dynamic 99mTc-IDA SPECT scans before RT, during, and 1 month after completion of RT. Indocyanine green (ICG) tests, a measure of overall liver function, were performed within 1 day of each scan. Three-dimensional volumetric hepatic extraction fraction (HEF) images of the liver were estimated by deconvolution analysis. After coregistration of the CT/SPECT and the treatment planning CT, HEF dose–response functions during and after RT were generated. The volumetric mean of the HEFs in the whole liver was correlated with ICG clearance time. Three models, dose, priori, and adaptive models, were developed using multivariate linear regression to assess whether the regional HEFs measured before and during RT helped predict regional hepatic function after RT. Results: The mean of the volumetric liver HEFs was significantly correlated with ICG clearance half-life time (r=?0.80, P<.0001), for all time points. Linear correlations between local doses and regional HEFs 1 month after RT were significant in 12 patients. In the priori model, regional HEF after RT was predicted by the planned dose and regional HEF assessed before RT (R=0.71, P<.0001). In the adaptive model, regional HEF after RT was predicted by regional HEF reassessed during RT and the remaining planned local dose (R=0.83, P<.0001). Conclusions: 99mTc-IDA SPECT obtained during RT could be used to assess regional hepatic function and helped predict post-RT regional liver function reserve. This could support individualized adaptive radiation treatment strategies to maximize tumor control and minimize the risk of liver damage.

Wang, Hesheng, E-mail: hesheng@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Feng, Mary [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Frey, Kirk A. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Cao, Yue [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

2013-08-01

176

Physiological Coping: A Model for Teaching Pathophysiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses the use of a teaching model she developed for use in a pathophysiology. The model is based on the physiological component of C. Roy's adaptation model, which encourages students to look for physiological cues and apply relevant knowledge in patient care through a problem-solving approach. (TA)

Porth, Carol M.

1977-01-01

177

Muscle Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Muscle Physiology Lab at the University of California-San Diego provides this comprehensive source of information on the neuromuscular system. The Web site appears as a extensive menu of subtopics, each leading to pages of detailed text and diagrams. Students studying muscle structure and function should find this well-organized and authoritative resource extremely useful. The Web site also includes a search tool for quickly finding pages of interest, and a list of related links for additional information.

2000-01-01

178

Body temperature in early postpartum dairy cows.  

PubMed

A strategy widely adopted in the modern dairy industry is the introduction of postpartum health monitoring programs by trained farm personnel. Within these fresh cow protocols, various parameters (e.g., rectal temperature, attitude, milk production, uterine discharge, ketones) are evaluated during the first 5 to 14 days in milk (DIMs) to diagnose relevant diseases. It is well documented that 14% to 66% of healthy cows exhibit at least one temperature of 39.5 °C or greater within the first 10 DIM. Although widely adopted, data on diagnostic performance of body temperature (BT) measurement to diagnose infectious diseases (e.g., metritis, mastitis) are lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify possible factors associated with BT in postpartum dairy cows. A study was conducted on a commercial dairy farm including 251 cows. In a total of 217 cows, a vaginal temperature logger was inserted from DIM 2 to 10, whereas 34 cows did not receive a temperature logger as control. Temperature loggers measured vaginal temperature every 10 minutes. Rectal temperature was measured twice daily in all cows. On DIM 2, 5, and 10, cows underwent a clinical examination. Body temperature was influenced by various parameters. Primiparous cows had 0.2 °C higher BT than multiparous cows. Multiparous cows that calved during June and July had higher BT than those that calved in May. In primiparous cows, this effect was only evident from DIM 7 to 10. Furthermore, abnormal calving conditions (i.e., assisted calving, dead calf, retained placenta, twins) affected BT in cows. This effect was more pronounced in multiparous cows. Abnormal vaginal discharge did increase BT in primiparous and multiparous cows. Primiparous cows suffering from hyperketonemia (beta-hydroxybutyrat ? 1.4 mmol/L) had higher BT than those not affected. In multiparous cows, there was no association between hyperketonemia and BT. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that BT is influenced by various parameters in dairy cows. Therefore, these parameters have to be considered when interpreting measurements of BT in dairy cows. This information helps to explain the high incidence of type I and II errors when measuring BT and clearly illustrates that measures of BT should not be used as a single criterion to decide whether or not to provide antibiotic treatment to dairy cows. However, research-based test characteristics of other parameters (e.g., vaginal discharge) alone or in combination with BT are still lacking. PMID:24742963

Burfeind, O; Suthar, V S; Voigtsberger, R; Bonk, S; Heuwieser, W

2014-07-01

179

Respiratory Physiology on a Chip  

PubMed Central

Our current understanding of respiratory physiology and pathophysiological mechanisms of lung diseases is often limited by challenges in developing in vitro models faithful to the respiratory environment, both in cellular structure and physiological function. The recent establishment and adaptation of microfluidic-based in vitro devices (?FIVDs) of lung airways have enabled a wide range of developments in modern respiratory physiology. In this paper, we address recent efforts over the past decade aimed at advancing in vitro models of lung structure and airways using microfluidic technology and discuss their applications. We specifically focus on ?FIVDs covering four major areas of respiratory physiology, namely, artificial lungs (AL), the air-liquid interface (ALI), liquid plugs and cellular injury, and the alveolar-capillary barrier (ACB). PMID:24278686

Kumar Mahto, Sanjeev; Tenenbaum-Katan, Janna; Sznitman, Josué

2012-01-01

180

Respiratory physiology on a chip.  

PubMed

Our current understanding of respiratory physiology and pathophysiological mechanisms of lung diseases is often limited by challenges in developing in vitro models faithful to the respiratory environment, both in cellular structure and physiological function. The recent establishment and adaptation of microfluidic-based in vitro devices (?FIVDs) of lung airways have enabled a wide range of developments in modern respiratory physiology. In this paper, we address recent efforts over the past decade aimed at advancing in vitro models of lung structure and airways using microfluidic technology and discuss their applications. We specifically focus on ?FIVDs covering four major areas of respiratory physiology, namely, artificial lungs (AL), the air-liquid interface (ALI), liquid plugs and cellular injury, and the alveolar-capillary barrier (ACB). PMID:24278686

Kumar Mahto, Sanjeev; Tenenbaum-Katan, Janna; Sznitman, Josué

2012-01-01

181

Human Physiology Department of Neurobiology, Physiology,  

E-print Network

Human Physiology Minor Department of Neurobiology, Physiology, and Behavior College of Biological Sciences (530) 752 - 0410 Human Physiology Minor Requirements: Total and Development in Human Performance EXB 116 Nutrition for Physically Active Persons EXB 117 Exercise and Aging

Wainwright, Peter C.

182

Larval exposure to 4-nonylphenol and 17beta-estradiol affects physiological and behavioral development of seawater adaptation in Atlantic salmon smolts.  

PubMed

Population declines of anadromous salmonids are attributed to anthropogenic disturbances including dams, commercial and recreational fisheries, and pollutants, such as estrogenic compounds. Nonylphenol (NP), a xenoestrogen, is widespread in the aquatic environment due to its use in agricultural, industrial, and household products. We exposed Atlantic salmon yolk-sac larvae to waterborne 10 or 100 microg L(-1) NP (NP-L or NP-H, respectively), 2 microg L(-1) 17beta-estradiol (E2), or vehicle, for 21 days to investigate their effects on smolt physiology and behavior 1 year later. NP-H caused approximately 50% mortality during exposure, 30 days after exposure, and 60 days after exposure. Mortality rates of NP-L and E2 fish were not affected until 60 days after treatment, when they were 4-fold greater than those of controls. Treatment with NP-L or E2 as yolk-sac larvae decreased gill sodium-potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase (Na+,K(+)-ATPase) activity and seawater (SW) tolerance during smolt development, 1 year after exposure. Exposure to NP-L and E2 resulted in a latency to enter SW and reduced preference for SW approximately 2- and 5-fold, respectively. NP-L-exposed fish had 20% lower plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels and 35% lower plasma triiodothyronine (T3). Plasma growth hormone and thyroxine (T4) were unaffected. Exposure to E2 did not affect plasma levels of IGF-I, GH, T3, or T4. Both treatment groups exhibited increased plasma cortisol and decreased osmoregulatory capacity in response to a handling stressor. These results suggest that early exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of NP, and other estrogenic compounds, can cause direct and delayed mortalities and that this exposure can have long-term, "organizational" effects on life-history events in salmonids. PMID:17626455

Lerner, Darren T; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur; McCormick, Stephen D

2007-06-15

183

Virtual Fences for Controlling Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a moving virtual fence algorithm for herding cows. Each animal in the herd is given a smart collar consisting of a GPS, PDA, wireless networking and a sound amplifier. Using the GPS, the animal's location can be verified relative to the fence boundary. When approaching the perimeter, the animal is presented with a sound stimulus whose effect is

Zack J. Butler; Peter I. Corke; Ronald A. Peterson; Daniela Rust

2004-01-01

184

Methane Production in Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship among diet composi- tion, intake, and methane production was investigated with data during 404 total energy balance trials with Holstein cows. Methane production in all trials was measured in open circuit respiration chambers. The most useful predictor of total methane production was amounts of soluble residue, hemicellulose, and cellu- lose that apparently were digested. The regression was methane

P. W. Moe; H. F. Tyrrell

1979-01-01

185

Sacred Cows Make Good Hamburger.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two "sacred cows" inherent in reading instruction for disabled readers are rejected: Disabled readers must be taught with simple reading materials, and most teaching time must be spent on reading skills. Two case studies illustrate the teaching of decoding skills and "dyad reading" of books selected by the disabled reader. (Author/JDD)

Eldredge, J. Lloyd

1988-01-01

186

Is there a role for organic trace element supplements in transition cow health?  

PubMed

Optimal transition cow health is the key to success of the subsequent lactation, and increasing attention has been focused on management and nutritional practices that support it. Physiological stress during the transition period alters the efficiency of the immune system, making the lactating dairy cow more susceptible to infectious diseases, such as mastitis and metritis, with subsequent impairment of reproductive performance. Trace elements have a specific role in free radical control at the cellular level and influence the anti-oxidant/free radical balance. Dietary trace elements must be available for absorption throughout the whole of the digestive process until they reach the final site of absorption in the small intestine. Negative interactions between minerals can occur and, as the intestinal environment lowers the absorption of ionic minerals, chelation technology has been developed to increase mineral bioavailability. Organic trace elements have been used in dairy cow experiments, resulting in significant improvements in udder health, lameness and reproductive performance. PMID:18329303

Andrieu, S

2008-04-01

187

Cardiac responses to palpation per rectum in lactating and nonlactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

Interest in the monitoring of heart rate variability (HRV) has increased recently, as it gives more detailed and immediate information about the level of stress than traditional behavioral or hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal measures. In this study, we evaluated heart rate (HR) and parasympathetic HRV parameters to monitor cardiac stress responses to palpation per rectum (PPR) in lactating (LACT; n=11) and nonlactating (NLACT; n=12) dairy cows. Heart rate and HRV were recorded from 40min before PPR until 120min after it was completed. Heart rate, the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), and the high-frequency component (HF) of HRV were analyzed by examining 5-min time windows. To compare cardiac responses to PPR between groups, changes in HR and HRV parameters were calculated as area under the curve (AUC) for LACT and NLACT cows. An immediate increase in HR was detected during PPR in both LACT (+21.4±2.4 beats/min) and NLACT cows (+20.6±2.3 beats/min); however, no differences were found between groups on the basis of parameters of AUC. The increase in HR in both groups along with a parallel decrease in RMSSD (LACT cows: -5.2±0.4ms; NLACT cows: -5.1±0.4ms) and HF [LACT cows: -10.1±0.8 nu (where nu=normalized units); NLACT cows: -16.9±1.2 nu] during PPR indicate an increase in the sympathetic, and a decrease in the parasympathetic tone of the autonomic nervous system. The increase in RMSSD (LACT cows: +7.3±0.7ms; NL cows: +17.8±2.2ms) and in HF (LACT cows: +24.3±2.6 nu; NLACT cows: +32.7±3.5 nu) immediately after PPR indicated a rapid increase in parasympathetic activity, which decreased under the baseline values 10min following PPR. The amplitude and the maximum RMSSD and HF values were greater in NLACT cows than in LACT animals, suggesting a higher short-term cardiac responsiveness of NLACT cows. However, the magnitude and the duration of the stress response were greater in LACT cows, as indicated by the analysis of AUC parameters (area under the HRV response curve and time to return to baseline). Cow response to the PPR was more prominent in parasympathetic HRV measures than in HR. Based on our results, the effect of PPR on the cows' cardiac stress responses may have an impact on animal welfare on dairy farms, and investigating the effect of lactation on the cardiac stress reactions could prove useful in modeling bovine stress sensitivity. Further research is needed to find out whether the differences due to lactation are physiological or management related. PMID:25200771

Kovács, L; T?zsér, J; Szenci, O; Póti, P; Kézér, F L; Ruff, F; Gábriel-T?zsér, Gy; Hoffmann, D; Bakony, M; Jurkovich, V

2014-11-01

188

Root physiological adaptations involved in enhancing P assimilation in mining and non-mining ecotypes of Polygonum hydropiper grown under organic P media  

PubMed Central

It is important to seek out plant species, high in phosphorus (P) uptake, for phytoremediation of P-enriched environments with a large amount of organic P (Po). P assimilation characteristics and the related mechanisms of Polygonum hydropiper were investigated in hydroponic media containing various concentrations of Po (1–8 mmol L-1) supplied as phytate. The mining ecotype (ME) showed significantly higher biomass in both shoots and roots compared to the non-mining ecotype (NME) at 4, 6, and 8 m mol L-1. Shoot P content of both ecotypes increased up to 4 mmol L-1 while root P content increased continually up to 8 mmol L-1 for the ME and up to 6 mmol L-1 for the NME. Root P content of the ME exceeded 1% dry weight under 6 and 8 mmol L-1. The ME had significantly higher P accumulation in both shoots and roots compared to the NME supplied with 6 and 8 mmol L-1. The ME showed higher total root length, specific root length, root surface area, root volume, and displayed significantly greater root length, root surface area, and root volume of lateral roots compared to the NME grown in all Po treatments. Average diameter of lateral roots was 0.17–19 mm for the ME and 0.18–0.21 mm for the NME. Greater acid phosphatase and phytase activities were observed in the ME grown under different levels of Po relative to the NME. This indicated fine root morphology, enhanced acid phosphatase and phytase activities might be adaptations to high Po media. Results from this study establish that the ME of P. hydropiper is capable of assimilating P from Po media and is a potential material for phytoremediation of polluted area with high Po.

Ye, Daihua; Li, Tingxuan; Zheng, Zicheng; Zhang, Xizhou; Chen, Guangdeng; Yu, Haiying

2015-01-01

189

Genome-Wide Scans for Candidate Genes Involved in the Aquatic Adaptation of Dolphins  

PubMed Central

Since their divergence from the terrestrial artiodactyls, cetaceans have fully adapted to an aquatic lifestyle, which represents one of the most dramatic transformations in mammalian evolutionary history. Numerous morphological and physiological characters of cetaceans have been acquired in response to this drastic habitat transition, such as thickened blubber, echolocation, and ability to hold their breath for a long period of time. However, knowledge about the molecular basis underlying these adaptations is still limited. The sequence of the genome of Tursiops truncates provides an opportunity for a comparative genomic analyses to examine the molecular adaptation of this species. Here, we constructed 11,838 high-quality orthologous gene alignments culled from the dolphin and four other terrestrial mammalian genomes and screened for positive selection occurring in the dolphin lineage. In total, 368 (3.1%) of the genes were identified as having undergone positive selection by the branch-site model. Functional characterization of these genes showed that they are significantly enriched in the categories of lipid transport and localization, ATPase activity, sense perception of sound, and muscle contraction, areas that are potentially related to cetacean adaptations. In contrast, we did not find a similar pattern in the cow, a closely related species. We resequenced some of the positively selected sites (PSSs), within the positively selected genes, and showed that most of our identified PSSs (50/52) could be replicated. The results from this study should have important implications for our understanding of cetacean evolution and their adaptations to the aquatic environment. PMID:23246795

Liu, He-Qun; Irwin, David M.; Shen, Yong-Yi; Zhang, Ya-Ping

2013-01-01

190

Genome-wide scans for candidate genes involved in the aquatic adaptation of dolphins.  

PubMed

Since their divergence from the terrestrial artiodactyls, cetaceans have fully adapted to an aquatic lifestyle, which represents one of the most dramatic transformations in mammalian evolutionary history. Numerous morphological and physiological characters of cetaceans have been acquired in response to this drastic habitat transition, such as thickened blubber, echolocation, and ability to hold their breath for a long period of time. However, knowledge about the molecular basis underlying these adaptations is still limited. The sequence of the genome of Tursiops truncates provides an opportunity for a comparative genomic analyses to examine the molecular adaptation of this species. Here, we constructed 11,838 high-quality orthologous gene alignments culled from the dolphin and four other terrestrial mammalian genomes and screened for positive selection occurring in the dolphin lineage. In total, 368 (3.1%) of the genes were identified as having undergone positive selection by the branch-site model. Functional characterization of these genes showed that they are significantly enriched in the categories of lipid transport and localization, ATPase activity, sense perception of sound, and muscle contraction, areas that are potentially related to cetacean adaptations. In contrast, we did not find a similar pattern in the cow, a closely related species. We resequenced some of the positively selected sites (PSSs), within the positively selected genes, and showed that most of our identified PSSs (50/52) could be replicated. The results from this study should have important implications for our understanding of cetacean evolution and their adaptations to the aquatic environment. PMID:23246795

Sun, Yan-Bo; Zhou, Wei-Ping; Liu, He-Qun; Irwin, David M; Shen, Yong-Yi; Zhang, Ya-Ping

2013-01-01

191

Proteomic analysis of cow, yak, buffalo, goat and camel milk whey proteins: quantitative differential expression patterns.  

PubMed

To aid in unraveling diverse genetic and biological unknowns, a proteomic approach was used to analyze the whey proteome in cow, yak, buffalo, goat, and camel milk based on the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) techniques. This analysis is the first to produce proteomic data for the milk from the above-mentioned animal species: 211 proteins have been identified and 113 proteins have been categorized according to molecular function, cellular components, and biological processes based on gene ontology annotation. The results of principal component analysis showed significant differences in proteomic patterns among goat, camel, cow, buffalo, and yak milk. Furthermore, 177 differentially expressed proteins were submitted to advanced hierarchical clustering. The resulting clustering pattern included three major sample clusters: (1) cow, buffalo, and yak milk; (2) goat, cow, buffalo, and yak milk; and (3) camel milk. Certain proteins were chosen as characterization traits for a given species: whey acidic protein and quinone oxidoreductase for camel milk, biglycan for goat milk, uncharacterized protein (Accession Number: F1MK50 ) for yak milk, clusterin for buffalo milk, and primary amine oxidase for cow milk. These results help reveal the quantitative milk whey proteome pattern for analyzed species. This provides information for evaluating adulteration of specific specie milk and may provide potential directions for application of specific milk protein production based on physiological differences among animal species. PMID:23464874

Yang, Yongxin; Bu, Dengpan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Lingyun

2013-04-01

192

Gravitational adaptation of animals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of gravitational adaptation is studied in a group of five Leghorn cocks which had become physiologically adapted to 2 G after 162 days of centrifugation. After this period of adaptation, they are periodically exposed to a 2 G field, accompanied by five previously unexposed hatch-mates, and the degree of retained acceleration adaptation is estimated from the decrease in lymphocyte frequency after 24 hr at 2 G. Results show that the previously adapted birds exhibit an 84% greater lymphopenia than the unexposed birds, and that the lymphocyte frequency does not decrease to a level below that found at the end of 162 days at 2 G. In addition, the capacity for adaptation to chronic acceleration is found to be highly heritable. An acceleration tolerant strain of birds shows lesser mortality during chronic acceleration, particularly in intermediate fields, although the result of acceleration selection is largely quantitative (a greater number of survivors) rather than qualitative (behavioral or physiological changes).

Smith, A. H.; Burton, R. R.

1982-01-01

193

Effect of dietary cation-anion difference on measures of acid-base physiology and performance in beef cattle.  

PubMed

Dietary constituents can affect cow acid-base physiology and uterine pH. Dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) has been shown to affect cow acid-base physiology, but the effect on uterine pH has not been demonstrated. The objective of this work was to determine if DCAD [(Na + K + 0.15Ca + 0.15Mg) - (Cl + 0.60S + 0.50P)] could affect cow DMI, acid-base physiology, and uterine pH, and second, to determine if dietary supplements could alleviate any negative effects of DCAD on these variables. In Exp. 1, 21 cows were utilized to determine the effect of a negative DCAD (-0.9 mEq/100 g of DM; low-DCAD) or positive DCAD (+25.0 mEq/100 g of DM; high-DCAD) diet on cow BW, DMI, and pH of blood, urine, and uterine flush fluid. In Exp. 2, 21 cows were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 treatments: control (-3.1 mEq/100 g of DM), molasses (+2.9 mEq/100 g of DM), or molasses+buffer (+25.8 mEq/100 g of DM) to determine if supplemental liquid molasses or liquid molasses with a buffer could alleviate the effects of a negative DCAD, forage-based diet. Cows were individually fed their respective diets for 42 d in both experiments. Cow BW, blood, urine, and uterine flush were collected on d 0, 21, and 42 during both experiments. Cow ADG was not different (P = 0.71) in Exp. 1 or Exp. 2 (P = 0.47). Hay DMI did not differ (P < 0.70) between high-DCAD and low-DCAD cows before d 28, but was greater (P < 0.001) for high-DCAD cows after d 28 in Exp. 1. In Exp. 2, mean hay DMI did not differ (P = 0.39) among treatments. In Exp. 1, a treatment x day interaction (P < 0.05) was apparent for blood, pH, base excess, bicarbonate, pCO(2), and urine pH. Blood gas and pH measures peaked on d 21 for high-DCAD and declined from d 0 to 42 in low-DCAD cows. High-DCAD cows had greater (P = 0.08) uterine flush pH compared with low-DCAD cows. In contrast, during Exp. 2 there were no differences (P > 0.14) among treatments for blood, pH, base excess, pCO(2), or uterine flush pH. Urine pH exhibited a treatment x day interaction (P < 0.0001). On d 21 molasses supplemented cow urine pH was greater (P < 0.0001) than control cows, whereas on d 42 molasses+buffer had greater (P = 0.01) urine pH compared with control and molasses cows. Dietary cation-anion difference and the use of molasses-based supplements had minimal effect on forage-fed beef cow DMI. However, DCAD has the capacity to alter forage-fed beef cow acid-base physiology and potentially affect uterine physiology. PMID:19783689

Hersom, M J; Hansen, G R; Arthington, J D

2010-01-01

194

Prepartum and postpartum nutritional management to optimize fertility in high-yielding dairy cows in confined TMR systems.  

PubMed

The 6 to 8-week period centered on parturition, known as the transition or periparturient period, is critical to welfare and profitability of individual cows. Fertility of high-producing cows is compromised by difficult transitions. Deficiencies in either nutritional or non-nutritional management increase risk for periparturient metabolic disorders and infectious diseases, which decrease subsequent fertility. A primary factor impeding fertility is the extent of negative energy balance (NEB) early postpartum, which may inhibit timing of first ovulation, return to cyclicity, and oocyte quality. In particular, pronounced NEB during the first 10 days to 2 weeks (the time of greatest occurrence of health problems) is critical for later reproductive efficiency. Avoiding over-conditioning and preventing cows from over-consuming energy relative to their requirements in late gestation result in higher dry matter intake (DMI) and less NEB after calving. A pooled statistical analysis of previous studies in our group showed that days to pregnancy are decreased (by 10 days) by controlling energy intake to near requirements of cows before calving compared with allowing cows to over-consume energy. To control energy intake, total mixed rations (TMR) must be well balanced for metabolizable protein, minerals and vitamins yet limit total DM consumed, and cows must uniformly consume the TMR without sorting. Dietary management to maintain blood calcium and rumen health around and after calving also are important. Opportunities may exist to further improve energy status in fresh cows. Recent research to manipulate the glucogenic to lipogenic balance and the essential fatty acid content of tissues are intriguing. High-producing cows that adapt successfully to lactation can have high reproductive efficiency, and nutritional management of the transition period both pre- and post-calving must facilitate that adaptation. PMID:24844126

Drackley, J K; Cardoso, F C

2014-05-01

195

MORPHOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF METHANOMONAS METHANOOXIDANS  

PubMed Central

Stocks, Peter K. (Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge), and C. S. McCleskey. Morphology and physiology of Methanomonas methanooxidans. J. Bacteriol. 88:1071–1077. 1964.—Pure cultures of methane-oxidizing bacteria isolated from soil, from the rumen of a fistulated cow, and from coalmine water were found to be identical in morphological, cultural, and physiological characteristics with Methanomonas methanooxidans of Brown and Strawinski. Two of the isolates were serologically related to the organism of Brown and Strawinski. All the strains required methane for good growth, but a delayed moderate growth occurred on methanol. No other substances were utilized as carbon and energy source. Nitrogen requirements were satisfied by nitrates, ammonium salts, peptone, or certain amino acids. The taxonomic position of the species is discussed. Images PMID:14219021

Stocks, Peter K.; McCleskey, C. S.

1964-01-01

196

The feeding value of extruded corn grain in a corn silage-based ration for high-producing Holstein cows and heifers during mid lactation.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the feeding value of extruded corn in a corn silage-based ration for high-producing Holstein cows during mid lactation. Sixteen multiparous and 8 primiparous Holstein cows (106 +/- 49.7 d in milk; 43.7 +/- 5.27 kg of milk/d) were paired based on parity, days in milk, milk production, and body condition score and assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments in a randomized block design for 10 wk including a 2-wk adaptation period. Cows were fed a total mixed ration and milked 3 times per day. Diets contained 44% forage (3:1; corn silage:grass silage), 44.7% grain, and either extruded corn (EXC) or finely ground corn (FGC) at 11.3% of ration dry matter. No significant differences were detected in dry matter intake, milk protein yields, fat-corrected milk yields, or body condition score between cows fed FGC and cows fed EXC. Multiparous cows fed EXC produced more milk during wk 3 through 8 with a reduced milk fat content compared with multiparous cows fed FGC. Milk protein content was greater for primiparous cows fed EXC during wk 5 through 8 compared with primiparous cows fed the FGC ration. The major effect of feeding 2.7 kg/d of EXC compared with FGC was an increase in milk production and a reduction in milk fat content for multiparous cows, and an increase in milk protein content for primiparous cows. PMID:17582131

Rezamand, P; Andrew, S M; Hoagland, T A

2007-07-01

197

Fertility of dairy cows in Northern Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive database was established on the milk production and reproductive performance of dairy cows in 19 selected herds in Northern Ireland, varying in size, management system and genetic merit. Data were obtained for 2471 cows, 1775 of which calved in a second year, and 693 were culled from the herd for specific reasons. The estimated mean rate of heat

C. S. Mayne; D. R. Mackey; M. Verner; W. J. McCaughey; F. J. Gordon; M. A. McCoy; S. D. Lennox; D. C. Catney; A. R. G. Wylie; B. W. Kennedy

2002-01-01

198

MRSA Transmission between Cows and Humans  

PubMed Central

We isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from cows with subclinical mastitis and from a person who worked with these animals. The bovine and human strains were indistinguishable by phenotyping and genotyping methods and were of a low frequency spa type. To our knowledge, this finding indicates the first documented case of direct transmission of MRSA between cows and humans. PMID:17553285

Juhász-Kaszanyitzky, Éva; Jánosi, Szilárd; Somogyi, Pál; Dán, Ádám; van Bloois, Linda vanderGraaf; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Wagenaar, Jaap A.

2007-01-01

199

Cow's Milk Allergy in Thai Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is nowadays a common problem in Thai children. We reviewed medical records of patients with CMA from the Department of Pediatrics at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital of the past 10 years, from 1998 to 2007. The criteria for the diagnosis of CMA included: elimination of cow's milk formula resulting in improvement of symptoms, and: recurrence

Jarungchit Ngamphaiboon; Pantipa Chatchatee; Thaneya Thongkaew

2008-01-01

200

Dairy cow manure digester and cogenerator performance  

SciTech Connect

A 94 m/sup 3/ mesophilic digester with a 15 kW engine-generator was monitored. The average manure collected was 6.48 kg VS/cow/day. An ultimate methane yield (Bo) of 0.25 L CH4/g VS was calculated. The potential gross energy production was determined to be 3 kWh/cow/day.

Pigg, D.L.; Vetter, R.L.

1985-01-01

201

Predicting the forage intake by lactating cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The current National Research Council (NRC) model to estimate the dry matter intake by cows is based on a single equation related to metabolic size and net energy density of the diet. However, research has indicated that the observed dry matter production by grazing cows can be influenced by animal...

202

Effects of Clinical Mastitis on Milk Yield in Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of clinical mastitis on milk yield was studied in 24,276 Finnish Ayrshire cows that calved in 1993 and were followed for one lactation (i.e., until culling or the next calving). Cows that had only mastitis, but no other diseases, and cows that had no diseases (healthy cows) during the lactation were included in the study. Monthly test day

P. J. Rajala-Schultz; Y. T. Gröhn; C. E. McCulloch; C. L. Guard

1999-01-01

203

Residues in Colostrum Following Antibiotic Dry Cow Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cows from five dairy herds were used to determine persistence of antibiotic residues in colostrum and milk following dry cow therapy. Cows were treated in all quarters at drying off with antibiotics approved for use for nonlactating cows. Antibiotics procaine penicillin G plus dihydrostreptomycin, novobiocin, cloxa- cillin, or cephapirin were compared with no treatment. Composite colostrum sam- pies were collected

S. P. Oliver; R. T. Duby; R. W. Prange; J. P. Tritschler II

1984-01-01

204

Massive vulvar edema in 2 prepartum dairy cows  

PubMed Central

Two late gestation Holstein cows about to begin the third lactation developed massive vulvar edema. These were the only affected animals in the herd of 500 milking cows. The vulvar edema spontaneously regressed postpartum for both cows. Massive vulvar swelling is seldom observed in dairy cows in advanced pregnancy and is not described in the literature. PMID:24790232

Cheong, Soon Hon; Gilbert, Robert O.

2014-01-01

205

Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate if and how cow factors and intramammary infection (IMI) are associated with 4 different udder-health indicators in dairy cows as a first step in investigating whether the diagnostic performance of these indicators can be improved. The investigated indicators were somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) measured in milk. In this cross-sectional study, approximately 1,000 cows from 25 dairy herds were sampled for bacteriology (quarter milk samples) during 3 consecutive days: the day before test milking, at the day of test milking, and at the day after test milking. The whole-udder test milking sample was analyzed for milk composition, SCC, LDH, NAGase, and AP. Cow data (parity, breed, milk yield, percentage of milk fat and protein, milk urea concentration, and days in milk from the sampled test milking) were collected from the Swedish milk-recording scheme. Of the sampled cows 485 were considered IMI negative and were used in multivariable mixed-effect linear regression models to investigate associations between cow factors and the udder-health indicators. A second modeling including all cows, both IMI negative and IMI positive (256 cows), was also performed. The results showed that all udder-health indicators were affected by cow factors but that different cow factors were associated with different indicators. Intramammary-infection status was significantly associated with all udder-health indicators except AP. Parity and milk urea concentration were the only cow factors associated with all indicators in all models. The significant cow factors explained 23% of the variation in SCC and >30% of the variation in LDH, NAGase, and AP in IMI-negative cows, showing that LDH, NAGase, and AP are more affected than SCC by cow factors. The IMI status explained 23% of the variation in SCC in the model with all cows but only 7% of the variation in LDH and 2% of the variation in NAGase, indicating that SCC has the best potential as a diagnostic tool in finding cows with IMI. However, further studies are needed to investigate whether the diagnostic properties of these udder-health indicators will improve with adjustment according to their associations with different cow factors when used as a diagnostic tool for finding cows with IMI. PMID:24997662

Nyman, A-K; Persson Waller, K; Bennedsgaard, T W; Larsen, T; Emanuelson, U

2014-09-01

206

Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for flunixin in cattle (Bos taurus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Violative residues of flunixin in tissues from bob veal calves and cull dairy cows has been attributed to noncompliance with the FDA-approved route of administration and withdrawal time, however, the effect of administration route and physiological differences among animals on tissue residue depleti...

207

Cardiovascular physiology and diseases of amphibians.  

PubMed

The class Amphibia includes three orders of amphibians: the anurans (frogs and toads), urodeles (salamanders, axolotls, and newts), and caecilians. The diversity of lifestyles across these three orders has accompanying differences in the cardiovascular anatomy and physiology allowing for adaptations to aquatic or terrestrial habitats, pulmonic or gill respiration, hibernation, and body elongation (in the caecilian). This article provides a review of amphibian cardiovascular anatomy and physiology with discussion of unique species adaptations. In addition, amphibians as cardiovascular animal models and commonly encountered natural diseases are covered. PMID:19131029

Heinz-Taheny, Kathleen M

2009-01-01

208

Metabolic parameters and their relationship to energy balance in multiparous Simmental, Brown Swiss and Holstein cows in the periparturient period as influenced by energy supply pre- and post-calving.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of three energy supply (E) levels [low (L), medium (M), high (H)], both pre-partum (PRE) and post-partum (POST), and their interactions on metabolic parameters and energy balance (EB) in dairy cows of three breeds. In both phases, E levels applied to a total of 81 multiparous cows of breeds Simmental (SI), Brown Swiss (BS) and Holstein-Friesian (HF; n = 27 for each breed) were 75%, 100% and 125% of recommendations of the German Society of Nutrition Physiology, using a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. During the pre-calving period, serum concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were higher for LPRE cows, and glucose concentrations were elevated for HPRE cows. During the lactation period, NEFA concentrations were greatest for treatment LPOST . Mean concentrations of ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) were highest for cows of the LPOST treatment, intermediate for MPOST and lowest for HPOST . Glucose concentrations were lower for LPOST cows. SI cows had lower BHB concentrations both pre- and post-calving and higher glucose concentrations during early lactation than the other breeds. BHB concentration POST was highest for BS cows. Restricted feeding PRE resulted in a better energy status of cows fed above energy requirements POST (EPRE  × EPOST interaction). HF cows had a higher EB pre-calving, whereas SI cows had a less negative EB during early lactation, compared with the other breeds respectively. Correlations of serum NEFA, BHB and glucose concentrations with EB were strongest during the transition period. Results suggest that controlling energy intake during the dry period might be advantageous for the energy status of dairy cows after calving, whereas energy restriction in early lactation leads to metabolic stress. Evidence is provided of a clear relationship between EB and the blood metabolites NEFA and BHB, especially in the transition period. PMID:24605925

Urdl, M; Gruber, L; Obritzhauser, W; Schauer, A

2015-02-01

209

A cow-level association of ruminal pH on body condition score, serum beta-hydroxybutyrate and postpartum disorders in Thai dairy cattle.  

PubMed

Subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows occurs when ruminal pH is below about 5.5. However, the exact threshold level of ruminal pH affecting cow health is still in debate. This investigation was carried out in 505 cows within 31 farms. The postpartum disorders, including dystocia, retained placenta, anestrus, cystic ovary, metritis, clinical mastitis and lameness, were analyzed. Ruminal pH, serum beta-hydroxy butyrate (SBHB), serum urea nitrogen and body condition score (BCS) were measured once during the 3 to 6 weeks postpartum, while BCS was determined once more at 1 week before calving. Ruminal pH was determined by ruminocentesis technique. The ruminal pH was evaluated to study the association with BCS, SBHB and postpartum disorders using linear regression in a generalized linear mixed model with farm as a random effect. The results show that low ruminal pH was associated with dystocia, metritis and lameness. Moreover, a low ruminal pH can be found in cows with a high loss of BCS after calving and also in cows with low SBHB postpartum. These findings confirmed the feasibility of the ruminocentesis technique and the association of low ruminal pH on various postpartum disorders at the individual cow level. However, the consequences of low ruminal pH on dairy cow health still needs more exploration for a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms. PMID:24961478

Chaidate, Inchaisri; Somchai, Chanpongsang; Jos, Noordhuizen; Henk, Hogeveen

2014-09-01

210

Inheritance is where physiology meets evolution.  

PubMed

Physiology and evolutionary biology have developed as two separated disciplines, a separation that mirrored the hypothesis that the physiological and evolutionary processes could be decoupled. We argue that non-genetic inheritance shatters the frontier between physiology and evolution, and leads to the coupling of physiological and evolutionary processes to a point where there exists a continuum between accommodation by phenotypic plasticity and adaptation by natural selection. This approach is also profoundly affecting the definition of the concept of phenotypic plasticity, which should now be envisaged as a multi-scale concept. We further suggest that inclusive inheritance provides a quantitative way to help bridging infra-individual (i.e. physiology) with supra-individual (i.e. evolution) approaches, in a way that should help building the long sough inclusive evolutionary synthesis. PMID:24882815

Danchin, Etienne; Pocheville, Arnaud

2014-06-01

211

Effects of the precalving administration of omega-3 fatty acids alone or in combination with acetylsalicylic acid in periparturient dairy cows.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of the administration of long chain omega-3 fatty acids (?-3 FA) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on inflammation, performance, and fertility in periparturient dairy cows. Five weeks before calving, 26 multiparous dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: ?-3 FA (n = 9; OME), ?-3 FA and ASA (n = 9; OMAS), or palm oil (n = 8; CTR). During the last 3 wk of pregnancy, OME and OMAS groups received daily 12.0 g of fish-derived ?-3 FA, whereas CTR cows received only SFA. In addition, OMAS cows received daily 6.0 mg ASA/kg BW starting at 7 d before calving. Only a few cows had health problems after calving, but those in OMAS were most affected (n = 3 vs. 1 in CTR). Inflammatory status around calving did not improve in OME cows, as confirmed by the patterns of concentration of acute-phase proteins (APP), which were similar to CTR. Compared with CTR and OME, the increase of the positive APP and the decrease of the negative APP (e.g., albumin; P < 0.01) observed in OMAS cows suggested a severe inflammatory status after calving. Compared with OMAS, postcalving energy metabolism was better in OME cows as shown by a lower degree of lipomobilization (smaller BCS drop, greater glucose) and milder ketogenesis (less ?-hydroxybutyrate; P < 0.01). Cows in CTR had optimal fertility indices, whereas OMAS was the worst group. The severe inflammation and the more negative energy balance likely contributed to the poor fertility parameters in those cows. It is known that ASA exerts an inhibitory effect on cyclooxygenases, causing a possible decrease in the synthesis of PGF2?. A decreased concentration of PGF2? is connected with alterations in the physiologic processes related to labor and to uterine motility. Cows in OMAS had a longer pregnancy (P < 0.10 vs.OME) and a greater frequency of retained placenta, which may be attributed to decreased synthesis of PGF2?. The administration of ?-3 FA alone did not delay calving or the expulsion of fetal membranes. In conclusion, long-chain ?-3 FA improved the physiological status of cows, partly through better energy balance. The administration of ASA before calving (even at a low dose) in combination with ?-3 FA did not exert any synergistic positive effect on inflammation and performance. PMID:23519730

Grossi, P; Bertoni, G; Cappelli, F Piccioli; Trevisi, E

2013-06-01

212

Viewing Conditions and Chromatic Adaptation  

E-print Network

Chromatic adaptation Physiology Pupil Dilation/constriction Rod-cone transition Receptor gain control is added Helps in low inllumination #12;11 Guth's model (1991) Sigma is a noise term Guth's model (1991

Majumder, Aditi

213

Markers of gut mucosal inflammation and cow’s milk specific immunoglobulins in non-IgE cow’s milk allergy  

PubMed Central

Background Allergy to cow’s milk protein (CMP) may cause gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in the absence of CMP specific IgE. The immunological mechanisms involved in such disease are not fully understood. Therefore we examined markers of gut mucosal inflammation and the immunoglobulin profiles in children with Gl symptoms suspected of cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA). Patients and methods We prospectively recruited infants and young children (n?=?57; median age 8.7 months) with gastrointestinal complaints suspected of CMPA. The diagnosis of CMPA was made using the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. Serum and stool samples were collected during CMP-free diet and after both placebo and active challenges. We analyzed the stool samples for calprotectin, human ?-defensin 2 and IgA. In serum, we analyzed the levels of ?-lactoglobulin and ?-casein specific IgA, and IgG antibodies (total IgG and subclasses IgG1 and IgG4). Control group included children with e.g. dermatological or pulmonary problems, consuming normal diets. Results Fecal calprotectin levels were higher in the challenge positive group (n?=?18) than in the negative (n?=?37), with respective geometric means 55 ?g/g [95% confidence interval 38–81] and 29 [24–36] ?g/g (p?=?0.0039), during cow’s milk free diet. There were no significant inter-group differences in the fecal ?-defensin and IgA levels. The CMP specific IgG and IgA were not elevated in patients with CMPA, but the levels of ?-lactoglobulin-IgG4 (p?=?0.0118) and ?-casein-IgG4 (p?=?0.0044), and total ?-casein-IgG (p?=?0.0054) and -IgA (p?=?0.0050) in all patient samples (regardless of CMPA diagnosis) were significantly lower compared to the control group using dairy products. Conclusions Despite cow’s milk elimination in children intolerant to cow’s milk there might be ongoing low-grade inflammation in the gut mucosa. CMP specific IgG or IgA should not be used to diagnose non-IgE CMPA. The observed frequency of impaired CMP specific total IgA, IgG and IgG4 production in patients following cow’s milk free diet warrants further studies. PMID:24598281

2014-01-01

214

Short communication: Relationship between competitive success during displacements at an overstocked feed bunk and measures of physiology and behavior in Holstein dairy cattle.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate how behavioral and physiological parameters are affected based on a cow's level of success at displacing others at an overstocked feed bunk. Forty Holstein nonlactating, late-gestation dairy cattle were housed in an overstocked pen [5 stalls/10 cows and 0.34 m of linear feed bunk (FB) space/cow] in groups of 10 (4 heifers and 6 multiparous cows) for 14 d. Plasma nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, and fecal cortisol metabolites (11,17-dioxoandrostanes) were measured in blood and feces sampled every 2d. A glucose tolerance test and an ACTH challenge were conducted on all cows on d 13 and 14, respectively to further explore the effects of competitive success on energy metabolism and stress physiology. Feeding behavior and displacements at the FB were recorded between d 7 to 10 of the observation period. A competition index (CInd) was calculated for each cow by dividing the number of times the cow displaced another at the FB by the total number of displacements the cow was involved in, either as an actor or reactor. Cows were then divided into 3 subgroups based on their CInd: high success (HS: CInd ?0.6), medium success (0.4 ? CInd <0.6), and low success (LS: CInd <0.4). Heifers accounted for 7, 36, and 79% of the total number of animals in the HS (n=15), medium success (n=11), and LS (n=14) groups, respectively. No differences were observed in daily feeding time, total number of displacements, and time to approach the FB following fresh feed delivery between the 3 CInd groups; however, cows in the LS group had greater daily nonesterified fatty acid and 11,17-dioxoandrostane concentrations relative to cows in the HS group. No differences existed in cortisol response to an ACTH stimulation test between CInd categories. During the glucose tolerance test, glucose response curves were the same between all 3 CInd categories; however, the peak insulin response of LS cows was 130 ?IU/mL greater than the peak HS response, indicating that LS cows may have decreased tissue responses to insulin or increased pancreatic responses to glucose. In an overstocked environment, dairy cattle physiology is associated with a cow's level of success at displacing other individuals at the feed bunk. PMID:22818456

Huzzey, J M; Grant, R J; Overton, T R

2012-08-01

215

Cardiovascular physiology - Effects of microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments during spaceflight and its groundbase analog, bedrest, provide consistent data which demonstrate that numerous changes in cardiovascular function occur as part of the physiological adaptation process to the microgravity environment. These include elevated heart rate and venous compliance, lowered blood volume, central venous pressure and stroke volume, and attenuated autonomic reflex functions. Although most of these adaptations are not functionally apparent during microgravity exposure, they manifest themselves during the return to the gravitational challenge of earth's terrestrial environment as orthostatic hypotension and instability, a condition which could compromise safety, health and productivity. Development and application of effective and efficient countermeasures such as saline "loading," intermittent venous pooling, pharmacological treatments, and exercise have become primary emphases of the space life sciences research effort with only limited success. Successful development of countermeasures will require knowledge of the physiological mechanisms underlying cardiovascular adaptation to microgravity which can be obtained only through controlled, parallel groundbased research to complement carefully designed flight experiments. Continued research will provide benefits for both space and clinical applications as well as enhance the basic understanding of cardiovascular homeostasis in humans.

Convertino, V.; Hoffler, G. W.

1992-01-01

216

Effects of different feeding time and frequency on metabolic conditions and milk production in heat-stressed dairy cows.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of three different feeding management (FM) schedules on physiological markers of heat stress (HS), metabolic conditions, milk yield and quality during the hot season in dairy cows. The study involved 27 mid-lactating cows, subdivided in three homogeneous groups differing in feeding time and frequency: total mixed ration (TMR) delivered once daily in the morning (M); twice daily, half in the morning and half in the evening (ME); once daily in the evening (E). During the trial, blood samples were collected in the morning (a.m.) and in the evening (p.m.), breathing rate (BR), rectal temperature (RT), and milk yield were recorded and individual milk samples were collected. Microclimate data indicated that cows were subjected to mild-moderate HS. During the hotter days, cows receiving M treatment showed higher values of RT (38.97 °C vs 38.68 °C and 38.62 °C, in ME and E) and BR (71.44 vs 66.52 and 65.26 breaths min?¹, in ME and E), a.m. plasma glucose was lower in M (3.69 vs 3.83 and 3.83 mmol?L?¹, in ME and E) and a.m. plasma urea was lower in E (4.82 vs 5.48 and 5.35 mmol?L?¹, in M and ME). Milk yield was unaffected by FM, as well as milk composition and cheese-making properties. Only milk protein content and yield were higher in M (3.42 vs 3.36 and 3.27 g 100 mL?¹; and 1.11 vs 1.08 and 1.02 kg day?¹, for ME and E). Our results on cow physiology indicate that M seems a less suitable FM to match cow welfare during the summer season. PMID:23161272

Calamari, L; Petrera, F; Stefanini, L; Abeni, F

2013-09-01

217

Effects of different feeding time and frequency on metabolic conditions and milk production in heat-stressed dairy cows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of three different feeding management (FM) schedules on physiological markers of heat stress (HS), metabolic conditions, milk yield and quality during the hot season in dairy cows. The study involved 27 mid-lactating cows, subdivided in three homogeneous groups differing in feeding time and frequency: total mixed ration (TMR) delivered once daily in the morning (M); twice daily, half in the morning and half in the evening (ME); once daily in the evening (E). During the trial, blood samples were collected in the morning (a.m.) and in the evening (p.m.), breathing rate (BR), rectal temperature (RT), and milk yield were recorded and individual milk samples were collected. Microclimate data indicated that cows were subjected to mild-moderate HS. During the hotter days, cows receiving M treatment showed higher values of RT (38.97 °C vs 38.68 °C and 38.62 °C, in ME and E) and BR (71.44 vs 66.52 and 65.26 breaths min-1, in ME and E), a.m. plasma glucose was lower in M (3.69 vs 3.83 and 3.83 mmol L-1, in ME and E) and a.m. plasma urea was lower in E (4.82 vs 5.48 and 5.35 mmol L-1, in M and ME). Milk yield was unaffected by FM, as well as milk composition and cheese-making properties. Only milk protein content and yield were higher in M (3.42 vs 3.36 and 3.27 g 100 mL-1; and 1.11 vs 1.08 and 1.02 kg day-1, for ME and E). Our results on cow physiology indicate that M seems a less suitable FM to match cow welfare during the summer season.

Calamari, L.; Petrera, F.; Stefanini, L.; Abeni, F.

2013-09-01

218

Physiology & Development of Chronic Fear  

E-print Network

Physiology & Development of Chronic Fear (Behavioral Neuroendocrinology Lab) Sonia Cavigelli (PI A Individual B interest fear physiology physiology Individual A Temperament, Physiology, and Health health health Overarching Question: How do individual difference in behavior and physiology influence health

Dennis, Nancy

219

Lecture 14: Adaptation Adaptation  

E-print Network

orchid Darwin (1859) 'how the innumerable species inhabiting this world have been modified, so adaptive? 2. Are differences among populations or species adaptive? Adaptation: 2 Questions Mirror orchid Mirror orchid flower adaptive? Hypothesis: Flowers mimic female bees to attract male bee pollinators

220

Herpetological diversity along Andean elevational gradients: links with physiological ecology and evolutionary physiology.  

PubMed

A well-defined macroecological pattern is the decline in biodiversity with altitude. However, this decline is taxa-specific. For example, amphibians are more diverse than squamates at extreme elevations in the tropical Andes, but this pattern is reversed at extreme elevations in the southern latitudes. Several ecophysiological and evolutionary factors may be related to this difference. At high-elevations in southern latitudes temperature differs dramatically among seasons and dry soils dominate, characteristics that appear to favor lizard physiological ecology. Tropical high altitudes, in contrast, are humid and offer abundant and diverse water resources. These characteristics allow for a richer anuran community but might complicate lizard egg development through temperature and oxygen constrains. Differences in strategies of thermal adaptation might also modulate diversity patterns. The thermal physiology of anurans is extremely labile so that behavioral and physiological performance is maintained despite an altitudinal decrease in field body temperature. Lizards, in contrast, exhibit a conservative thermal physiology and rely on behavioral thermoregulation to face cold and variable temperatures. Both, lizard behavioral strategies and anuran physiological adjustments seem equally efficient in allowing ecological success and diversification for both groups in the tropics up to approximately 3000 m. At higher elevations physiological thermal adaptation is required, and lizards are ecologically constrained, perhaps at various ontogenetic stages. Patterns of biodiversity along environmental clines can be better understood through a physiological approach, and can help to refine and propose hypotheses in evolutionary physiology. PMID:12443907

Navas, Carlos A

2002-11-01

221

Comparative analysis of function of reproductive organs of cow and female reindeer. Cellular composition of blood in vessels of reproductive organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellular composition of blood was studied in vessels of reproductive organs and jugular vein in females of reindeer and cow\\u000a depending on their physiological state. Physiological leukocytosis was revealed in reproductive organs of the animals, the\\u000a most expressed in reindeer. In both species, during the estrous cycle, in blood of vessels of reproductive organs the content\\u000a of lymphocytes and monocytes

M. F. Borisenkov; N. P. Mongalev

2006-01-01

222

physiologyINFO.org  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is physiology exactly? It's a good question, and one that is answered quite thoroughly on this website provided by The American Physiology Society (APS). The homepage starts things off with a basic introduction to physiology, complete with a pronunciation guide for the actual word. Moving on, the site contains four primary sections: "What is Physiology?", "Current Research", "Milestones in Physiology" and "Research Issues". The first section expands on the site's introduction by offering information on the questions physiologist ask, along with links to some online experiments culled from physiologists around the world. The "Current Research" section offers white papers from the APS, links to relevant journals, and abstracts from recently published physiology papers. Visitors will also want to look over the "Milestones in Physiology" area, as they can browse the timeline of physiology and also read 46 classic research articles taken from the American Journal of Physiology archives.

223

Effect of core body temperature, time of day, and climate conditions on behavioral patterns of lactating dairy cows experiencing mild to moderate heat stress.  

PubMed

Cattle show several responses to heat load, including spending more time standing. Little is known about what benefit this may provide for the animals. Data from 3 separate cooling management trials were analyzed to investigate the relationship between behavioral patterns in lactating dairy cows experiencing mild to moderate heat stress and their body temperature. Cows (n=157) were each fitted with a leg data logger that measured position and an intravaginal data logger that measures core body temperature (CBT). Ambient conditions were also collected. All data were standardized to 5-min intervals, and information was divided into several categories: when standing and lying bouts were initiated and the continuance of each bout (7,963 lying and 6,276 standing bouts). In one location, cows were continuously subjected to heat-stress levels according to temperature-humidity index (THI) range (THI?72). The THI range for the other 2 locations was below and above a heat-stress threshold of 72 THI. Overall and regardless of period of day, cows stood up at greater CBT compared with continuing to stand or switching to a lying position. In contrast, cows lay down at lower CBT compared with continuing to lie or switching to a standing position, and lying bouts lasted longer when cows had lower CBT. Standing bouts also lasted longer when cattle had greater CBT, and they were less likely to lie down (less than 50% of lying bouts initiated) when their body temperature was over 38.8°C. Also, cow standing behavior was affected once THI reached 68. Increasing CBT decreased lying duration and increased standing duration. A CBT of 38.93°C marked a 50% likelihood a cow would be standing. This is the first physiological evidence that standing may help cool cows and provides insight into a communally observed behavioral response to heat. PMID:25468707

Allen, J D; Hall, L W; Collier, R J; Smith, J F

2015-01-01

224

The Botanical Garden - A Tool to Teach Systematics, Physiology and a Lot More  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the UBC botanical gardens are arranged, there exists multiple teaching opportunities in areas such as: systematics, domesticated plants, environmental and physiological adaptations, micropropagation, biotechnology and others.

Iain E.P. Taylor (University of British Columbia; )

1988-06-06

225

Effect of ovulatory follicle size on steroidogenic capacity and molecular markers of oocyte competence prior to GnRH-induced ovulation in non-lactating beef cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced ovulation of small dominant follicles decreased pregnancy rates and increased late embryonic/fetal mortality in beef cows. Inadequate oocyte competence, as affected by the physiological status of the dominant follicle, is a potential explanation for the...

226

Regulation of Adult Physiology and Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster  

E-print Network

The physiological responses involved in mediating adaptive change due to varying environmental conditions or social interactions are complex and involve integration of numerous signaling pathways. With Drosophila melanogaster, I can investigate...

Schwedes, Christoph 1980-

2012-10-26

227

Trace fossils and extended organisms: a physiological perspective  

E-print Network

adaptability to organisms' external constructions, and which promote homeostasis of the organism and its local rules than the conventional physiology that is con¢ned within an organism's skin. This can make

Turner, Scott

228

Effects of short day photoperiod on prolactin signaling in dry cows: a common mechanism among tissues and environments?  

PubMed

Photoperiodic manipulation has dramatic physiological and production effects in dairy cows. During lactation, exposure to long day photoperiod (LDPP) increases milk yield and circulating IGF-I and prolactin (PRL) concentrations. Conversely, cows housed under a short day photoperiod (SDPP) during the dry period produce more milk in the subsequent lactation than cows exposed to LDPP or natural photoperiod. Exposure to SDPP depresses PRL secretion but increases PRL receptor mRNA levels in mammary, immune, and hepatic tissues. In dry cows under SDPP, PRL signaling is a potential mechanism to drive more extensive mammary cell differentiation and growth relative to LDPP. In mammary biopsies taken during the dry period and into lactation, the amount of IGF-II mRNA was greater in SDPP vs. LDPP cows during the dry period, whereas IGFBP-5 mRNA increased in both groups during lactation even though photoperiodic treatments ended at parturition and all cows were on an ambient lighting schedule when lactating. Levels of IGF-I mRNA did not differ over time or between treatments; however, during the dry period, lower IGFBP-5 and increased IGF-II expression in SDPP cows may enhance mammary cell growth and survival. Key among the potential modulators of PRL signaling is the suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family. Mammary transcription of mRNA for SOCS proteins was low during the dry period but increased in lactation. During the dry period, SOCS mRNA level in the mammary gland of cows on SDPP was reduced compared with cows on LDPP, which may enhance PRL-induced proliferation and subsequent milk production. However, improved mammary capacity and immune function alone are likely insufficient to support increased milk yield. Using improved milk yield as a functional indicator of greater animal well-being during the transition, it is clear that some metabolic accommodation is necessary for expression of that capacity. Emerging evidence supports a link between PRL signaling and hepatic lipid metabolism, with decreases in PRL being beneficial to lipid metabolism. Extending that concept to broad environmental responses, it can be speculated that altered PRL signaling impairs lipid metabolism, mammary growth, and immune function under conditions of stress (e.g., heat stress) also. Thus, shifts in gene expression related to PRL signaling may provide an environmentally mediated mechanism to alter production and health in cows as they transition into lactation. PMID:17686892

Dahl, G E

2008-03-01

229

Cow's Milk Protein Allergy Mimicking Acrodermatitis Enteropathica.  

PubMed

Cow's milk protein allergy is an adverse immune reaction to one or more of the constituent proteins of milk obtained from any animal, most commonly alpha s 1-casein cow's milk. In many cases, the allergy is genetic in origin. The infants may experience symptoms within minutes after feeding (rapid onset) or commonly after 7-10 days of consuming the cow's milk (slower onset). Many children with cow's milk protein allergy develop symptoms in at least two of the following organ systems: gastrointestinal, skin and respiratory tract. Acrodermatitis Enteropathica (primary or secondary zinc deficiency) can also produce lesions in the skin and also gastro intestinal symptoms which can mimic milk protein allergy and differentiating between these two may be difficult. We are reporting a case of cow's milk protein allergy in an infant, which was initially diagnosed as Acrodermatitis Enteropathica and treated with zinc. The lesions did not subside completely even after achieving adequate zinc levels, but on stopping the cow's milk all the symptoms and signs disappeared completely and there was no recurrence on long term follow up. PMID:24783119

Solomon, John; Kamalammal, Rugmini; Sait, Mohammed Yaseen; Lohith, Harita

2014-03-01

230

Mastitis in post-partum dairy cows.  

PubMed

Transition from the dry period to lactation is a high risk period for the modern dairy cow. The biggest challenge at that time is mastitis. Environmental bacteria are the most problematic pathogens around parturition. Coliforms are able to cause severe infections in multiparous cows, and heifers are likely to be infected with coagulase-negative staphylococci. During the periparturient period, hormonal and other factors make the dairy cows more or less immunocompromised. A successful mastitis control programme is focused on the management of dry and calving cows and heifers. Clean and comfortable environment, proper feeding and adequate supplementation of the diet with vitamins and trace elements are essential for maintaining good udder health. Strategies which would enhance closure of the teat canal in the beginning of the dry period and would protect teat end from bacteria until the keratin plug has formed decrease the risk for mastitis after calving. Dry cow therapy has been used with considerable success. Yet, a selective approach could be recommended rather than blanket therapy. Non-antibiotic approaches can be useful tools to prevent new infections during the dry period, in herds where the risk for environmental mastitis is high. Vaccination has been suggested as a means to support the immune defence of the dairy cow around parturition. In some countries, implementation of Escherichia coli core antigen vaccine has reduced the incidence of severe coliform mastitis after calving. PMID:18638132

Pyörälä, S

2008-07-01

231

Polyamines in plant physiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The diamine putrescine, the triamine spermidine, and the tetramine spermine are ubiquitous in plant cells, while other polyamines are of more limited occurrence. Their chemistry and pathways of biosynthesis and metabolism are well characterized. They occur in the free form as cations, but are often conjugated to small molecules like phenolic acids and also to various macromolecules. Their titer varies from approximately micromolar to more than millimolar, and depends greatly on environmental conditions, especially stress. In cereals, the activity of one of the major polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, arginine decarboxylase, is rapidly and dramatically increased by almost every studied external stress, leading to 50-fold or greater increases in putrescine titer within a few hours. The physiological significance of this increase is not yet clear, although most recent work suggests an adaptive, protective role. Polyamines produced through the action of ornithine decarboxylase, by contrast, seem essential for DNA replication and cell division. The application of exogenous polyamines produces effects on patterns of senescence and morphogenesis, suggesting but not proving a regulatory role for polyamines in these processes. The evidence for such a regulatory role is growing.

Galston, A. W.; Sawhney, R. K.

1990-01-01

232

Effects of Monensin on the Reproduction, Health, and Milk Production of Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized clinical trial including 1109 cows from 12 Australian dairy herds was used to evaluate the effects of monensin on the health (n = >686 cows), production (n = 915 cows), and reproduction (n = >908 cows) of dairy cows. Cows were allocated to a treatment group receiving a slow-release intrarumi- nal bolus containing 32 g of sodium monensin

S. Beckett; I. Lean; R. Dyson; W. Tranter; L. Wade

1998-01-01

233

The Roy Adaptation Model. Testing the Adaptation Model in Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Roy Adaptation Model sees man as having four modes of adaptation--basic physiological needs, self-concept, role function, and interdependence. The study described tests the feasibility of the Model for nursing practice in both episodic and distributive settings. (TA)

Wagner, Patricia

1976-01-01

234

Structure of Cow-Calf Industry Profitability in the cow-calf business has been  

E-print Network

Structure of Cow-Calf Industry Profitability in the cow-calf business has been relatively low due performance analysis completed in 2008 revealed that beef herds in the southwestern United States had low profitability and a mean annual return on assets of 0.61 percent. Partly due to the complex nature

235

Quantitative unbiased estimates of endometrial gland surface area and volume in cycling cows and heifers.  

PubMed

Entire reproductive tracts were removed from seven normal healthy heifers and qualitative unbiased estimates made of endometrial gland volume density and glandular surface density. After examining approximately 55 microscopic fields of endometrium from each tract, a mean glandular surface density value of 10.2 mm(2)/mm(3) (CE 3.1%) was obtained. The stereological method was then employed in optimising the design of the main study. The endometrial height was measured for 17 healthy cycling heifers and 19 similar cows. Subsequently, unbiased estimates were made of intercaruncular endometrial gland volume per unit surface for all cattle were investigated; differences between heifers and cows generally, and the possible effect of the follicular and luteal phases of the oestrous cycle were compared. The mean surface area of glands per unit area of endometrium at the intercaruncular site in heifers and cows was approximately 18 mm(2)/mm(2) in the follicular phase and 26 mm(2)/mm(2) in the luteal phase, figures similar to the gland area found in women. The intercaruncular gland volume increased significantly, by about 30% during the luteal phase of the bovine oestrous cycle in heifers, from 0.01 to 0.13 per mm(3). The differences in endometrial anatomy between site of sampling and either follicular or luteal phases of the oestrous cycle were always more significant in heifers than cows. The endometrial thickness in cows was always greater than for heifers, irrespective of the site of sampling. It was concluded that the intercaruncular endometrium of cattle was far more active physiologically than recognised previously. PMID:12443683

Dhaliwal, G S; Murray, R D; Rees, E M; Howard, C V; Beech, D J

2002-12-01

236

Physiological Information Database (PID)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has developed a physiological information database (created using Microsoft ACCESS) intended to be used in PBPK modeling. The database contains physiological parameter values for humans from early childhood through senescence as well as similar data for laboratory animal spec...

237

Molecular aspects of oxygen sensing in physiological adaptation to hypoxia 1 Presented at the conference on Neural Control of Breathing: Molecular to Organismal Perspectives, Madison, WI, 21–25 July 1996. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen is an essential substrate in aerobic metabolism for most eukaryotic organisms. Thus organisms and cells have developed numerous immediate and long-term compensatory mechanisms for dealing with oxygen deprivation. Adaptation to hypoxia at the organismal level includes reflex hyperventilation, polycythemia and angiogenesis, which lead to increased O2 delivery to the tissues. Adaptation at the cellular level involves a shift from

Maria F Czyzyk-Krzeska

1997-01-01

238

Adaptation level and ‘animal spirits’  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the tradition of physiological psychology dating back to Wilhelm Wundt, an adaptation-level approach is taken to the level of economic certainty, as measured by the psychologically sensitive unemployment series. Unemployment levels ‘low’ relative to the adaptation level are shown to promote confidence — high ‘animal spirits’ — while the converse holds for ‘high’ unemployment rates. The resulting metric is

Elliott Middleton

1996-01-01

239

Influence of Dietary Sodium and Potassium Bicarbonate and Total Potassium on Heat-Stressed Lactating Dairy Cows1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives were to study effects of heat stress, 0 or .85% sodium bicarbonate, 0 or 1.0% potassium bicarbonate, and 1.0 or 1.5% total dietary potassium on production and physiological responses of dairy cows. Eighteen lactating Holsteins were assigned to shade (control) or no shade (heat stress) lots continuously for three consecutive 35-day periods and to different dietary treatments each period.

P. L. Schneider; D. K. Beede; C. J. Wilcox; R. J. Collier

1984-01-01

240

Adaptive cognitive technical systems.  

PubMed

Adaptive cognitive technical systems are capable of sensing the internal state of its user and of adapting its behavior appropriately to those measurements to improve the usability of the system. One important example of such user state is the user's mental workload level. This paper gives an introduction to the topic of workload recognition and adaptation. It reviews the literature on recognition of workload from physiological signals and on how those user state estimates are employed to improve human-machine interaction. PMID:24997342

Putze, Felix; Schultz, Tanja

2014-08-30

241

Global endometrial transcriptomic profiling: transient immune activation precedes tissue proliferation and repair in healthy beef cows  

PubMed Central

Background All cows experience bacterial contamination and tissue injury in the uterus postpartum, instigating a local inflammatory immune response. However mechanisms that control inflammation and achieve a physiologically functioning endometrium, while avoiding disease in the postpartum cow are not succinctly defined. This study aimed to identify novel candidate genes indicative of inflammation resolution during involution in healthy beef cows. Previous histological analysis of the endometrium revealed elevated inflammation 15?days postpartum (DPP) which was significantly decreased by 30 DPP. The current study generated a genome-wide transcriptomic profile of endometrial biopsies from these cows at both time points using mRNA-Seq. The pathway analysis tool GoSeq identified KEGG pathways enriched by significantly differentially expressed genes at both time points. Novel candidate genes associated with inflammatory resolution were subsequently validated in additional postpartum animals using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results mRNA-Seq revealed 1,107 significantly differentially expressed genes, 73 of which were increased 15 DPP and 1,034 were increased 30 DPP. Early postpartum, enriched immune pathways (adjusted P?cows (5 animals) at both time points. SAA1/2, GATA2, IGF1, SHC2, and SERPINA14 genes were significantly elevated 30 DPP and are functionally associated with tissue repair and the restoration of uterine homeostasis postpartum. Conclusions The results of this study reveal an early activation of the immune response which undergoes a temporal functional change toward tissue proliferation and regeneration during endometrial involution in healthy postpartum cows. These molecular changes mirror the activation and resolution of endometrial inflammation during involution previously classified by the degree of neutrophil infiltration. SAA1/2, GATA2, IGF1, SHC2, and SERPINA14 genes may become potential markers for resolution of endometrial inflammation in the postpartum cow. PMID:22985206

2012-01-01

242

Characterization of Dutch dairy farms using sensor systems for cow management.  

PubMed

To improve cow management in large dairy herds, sensors have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. Recently, the number of dairy farms using sensor systems has increased. It is not known, however, to what extent sensor systems are used on dairy farms, and the reasons why farmers invest or not in sensor systems are unclear. The first objective of this study was to give an overview of the sensor systems currently used in the Netherlands. The second objective was to investigate the reasons for investing or not investing in sensor systems. The third objective was to characterize farms with and without sensor systems. A survey was developed to investigate first, the reasons for investing or not in sensor systems and, then, how the sensor systems are used in daily cow management. The survey was sent to 1,672 Dutch dairy farmers. The final data set consisted of 512 dairy farms (response rate of 30.6%); 202 farms indicated that they had sensor systems and 310 farms indicated that they did not have sensor systems. A wide variety of sensor systems was used on Dutch dairy farms; those for mastitis detection and estrus detection were the most-used sensor systems. The use of sensor systems was different for farms using an automatic milking system (AMS) and a conventional milking system (CMS). Reasons for investing were different for different sensor systems. For sensor systems attached to the AMS, the farmers made no conscious decision to invest: they answered that the sensors were standard in the AMS or were bought for reduced cost with the AMS. The main reasons for investing in estrus detection sensor systems were improving detection rates, gaining insights into the fertility level of the herd, improving profitability of the farm, and reducing labor. Main reasons for not investing in sensor systems were economically related. It was very difficult to characterize farms with and without sensor systems. Farms with CMS and sensor systems had more cows than CMS farms without sensor systems. Furthermore, farms with sensor systems had fewer labor hours per cow compared with farms without sensor systems. Other farm characteristics (age of the farmer, availability of a successor, growth in herd size, milk production per cow, number of cows per hectare, and milk production per hectare) did not differ for farms with and without sensor systems. PMID:25465556

Steeneveld, W; Hogeveen, H

2015-01-01

243

Wheat grain as a prepartal cereal choice to ease metabolic transition from gestation into lactation in Holstein cows.  

PubMed

Wheat grain (WG) is a unique cereal rich in easily fermentable starch and low in cation-anion difference (e.g. 5.3 mEq/100 g). The controlled prepartal dietary inclusion of WG, thus, has the potential to ease adapting the rumen microbes and papillae to the high-starch lactation diets, stimulate feed intake, reduce hypocalcaemia by reducing extracellular alkalinity and a moderate induction of bone resorption, and improve milk yield in periparturient cows. The primary objective was to determine the effects of prepartal feeding of WG compared to barley grain plus wheat bran on metabolic and productive criteria in periparturient Holstein cows. Twenty-four dry cows and 16 pregnant heifers were blocked based on parity and projected calving date and fed a prepartal diet containing either (i) ground WG (18% on a dry matter basis) or (ii) a conventional diet with ground barley grain and wheat bran or control diet, from 28-day prepartum until parturition. All cows were fed the control diet during 21-day postpartum. Prepartal dietary inclusion of WG increased prepartum feed intake, elevated blood glucose and attenuated hypocalcaemia at 7-day prepartum and 1-day postpartum, reduced urine pH, and increased milk fat percent and yield. Blood proteins at 7-day prepartum were higher and placenta tended to be expelled sooner in WG-fed cows than in other cows. Treatments did not affect milk protein, changes in body condition score; total time spent eating, ruminating and chewing; blood levels of urea nitrogen, cholesterol, and phosphorous, fecal pH, and calving difficulty. Therefore, the prepartal dietary use of WG proved effective in the simultaneous improvement of calcium and energy states, and thereby, in easing the metabolic transition from gestation into lactation in Holstein cows. PMID:19012605

Amanlou, H; Zahmatkesh, D; Nikkhah, A

2008-10-01

244

Intestinal mucosal atrophy and adaptation  

PubMed Central

Mucosal adaptation is an essential process in gut homeostasis. The intestinal mucosa adapts to a range of pathological conditions including starvation, short-gut syndrome, obesity, and bariatric surgery. Broadly, these adaptive functions can be grouped into proliferation and differentiation. These are influenced by diverse interactions with hormonal, immune, dietary, nervous, and mechanical stimuli. It seems likely that clinical outcomes can be improved by manipulating the physiology of adaptation. This review will summarize current understanding of the basic science surrounding adaptation, delineate the wide range of potential targets for therapeutic intervention, and discuss how these might be incorporated into an overall treatment plan. Deeper insight into the physiologic basis of adaptation will identify further targets for intervention to improve clinical outcomes. PMID:23197881

Shaw, Darcy; Gohil, Kartik; Basson, Marc D

2012-01-01

245

Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

2009-01-01

246

Physiologic time: A hypothesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scaling of respiratory metabolism with body size in animals is considered by many to be a fundamental law of nature. One apparent consequence of this law is the scaling of physiologic time with body size, implying that physiologic time is separate and distinct from clock time. Physiologic time is manifest in allometry relations for lifespans, cardiac cycles, blood volume circulation, respiratory cycle, along with a number of other physiologic phenomena. Herein we present a theory of physiologic time that explains the allometry relation between time and total body mass averages as entailed by the hypothesis that the fluctuations in the total body mass are described by a scaling probability density.

West, Damien; West, Bruce J.

2013-06-01

247

Physiologic time: a hypothesis.  

PubMed

The scaling of respiratory metabolism with body size in animals is considered by many to be a fundamental law of nature. One apparent consequence of this law is the scaling of physiologic time with body size, implying that physiologic time is separate and distinct from clock time. Physiologic time is manifest in allometry relations for lifespans, cardiac cycles, blood volume circulation, respiratory cycle, along with a number of other physiologic phenomena. Herein we present a theory of physiologic time that explains the allometry relation between time and total body mass averages as entailed by the hypothesis that the fluctuations in the total body mass are described by a scaling probability density. PMID:23659904

West, Damien; West, Bruce J

2013-06-01

248

Neuronal Responses to Physiological Stress  

PubMed Central

Physiological stress can be defined as any external or internal condition that challenges the homeostasis of a cell or an organism. It can be divided into three different aspects: environmental stress, intrinsic developmental stress, and aging. Throughout life all living organisms are challenged by changes in the environment. Fluctuations in oxygen levels, temperature, and redox state for example, trigger molecular events that enable an organism to adapt, survive, and reproduce. In addition to external stressors, organisms experience stress associated with morphogenesis and changes in inner chemistry during normal development. For example, conditions such as intrinsic hypoxia and oxidative stress, due to an increase in tissue mass, have to be confronted by developing embryos in order to complete their development. Finally, organisms face the challenge of stochastic accumulation of molecular damage during aging that results in decline and eventual death. Studies have shown that the nervous system plays a pivotal role in responding to stress. Neurons not only receive and process information from the environment but also actively respond to various stresses to promote survival. These responses include changes in the expression of molecules such as transcription factors and microRNAs that regulate stress resistance and adaptation. Moreover, both intrinsic and extrinsic stresses have a tremendous impact on neuronal development and maintenance with implications in many diseases. Here, we review the responses of neurons to various physiological stressors at the molecular and cellular level. PMID:23112806

Kagias, Konstantinos; Nehammer, Camilla; Pocock, Roger

2012-01-01

249

An outbreak of sand impaction in postpartum dairy cows  

PubMed Central

Twenty-two cases of indigestion occurred in a 650-cow herd. Five cows had severe sand abomasal impaction, diagnosed by laparotomy. The pH of prepartum cows’ urine was < 6.0 and of sand 8.0. Feed showed a dietary cation-anion difference ? ?110 mEq/kg. After feeding management corrections, no more cases were diagnosed. PMID:17987969

Melendez, Pedro; Krueger, Traci; Benzaquen, Mauricio; Risco, Carlos

2007-01-01

250

33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157.124 Section 157.124 Navigation...and Installation § 157.124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo...

2012-07-01

251

33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157.124 Section 157.124 Navigation...and Installation § 157.124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo...

2014-07-01

252

33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157.124 Section 157.124 Navigation...and Installation § 157.124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo...

2013-07-01

253

33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157.124 Section 157.124 Navigation...and Installation § 157.124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo...

2010-07-01

254

33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157.124 Section 157.124 Navigation...and Installation § 157.124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo...

2011-07-01

255

Consumer and Market Responses to Mad Cow Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine how consumers and financial markets in the United States reacted to two health warnings about mad cow disease: the first discovery of an infected cow in December 2003 and an Oprah Winfrey show that aired seven years earlier on the potentially harmful effects of mad cow disease. We find a pronounced and significant reduction in beef sales following

Wolfram Schlenker; Sofia B. Villas-Boas

2009-01-01

256

Factors affecting fertilization and pregnancy establishment in beef cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Embryonic mortality represents the single greatest economic loss for cow/calf producers worldwide. In beef cattle, fertilization rates to a single service exceed 90%, but rarely do 65% of matings result in pregnancy establishment and birth of a live calf. The primary difference between a cow’s est...

257

Transition Cow Nutrition and Feeding Management for Disease Prevention.  

PubMed

In this article, an overview is presented of nutrient modeling to define energy and protein requirements of the late pregnant cow, and metabolic relationships between fetus and cow as they relate to nutrient utilization and risk for postparturient disease are discussed. Recommendations for formulating dry cow diets are provided, with emphasis on opportunities to minimize variation and risk for postparturient disease events. PMID:25220248

Van Saun, Robert J; Sniffen, Charles J

2014-11-01

258

On the Art Career Track: Behold... the Cow as Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cows have been a favorite subject for many artists, including Canadian artist Joe Fafard. In this article, grade 11 graphic-design students do a series of exercises in their sketchbooks using the cow motif. Each exercise was designed to have students move from traditional pictures of the dairy cow to more eclectic visual solutions. Eight…

Osterer, Irv

2011-01-01

259

Is mad cow disease caused by a bacteria?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmissible spongioform enchephalopathies (TSE's), include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (also called BSE or “mad cow disease”), Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) in humans, and scrapie in sheep. They remain a mystery, their cause hotly debated. But between 1994 and 1996, 12 people in England came down with CJD, the human form of mad cow, and all had eaten beef from suspect cows. Current

L. Broxmeyer

2004-01-01

260

Transfer of chiortetracycline from contaminated feedingstuff to cows' milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three groups of four Friesian cows in mid-lactation were fed a compound feedingstuff contaminated with 2, 10 or 300 mg chlortetracycline\\/kg for 21 days, and were then fed an uncontaminated diet for seven days. A fourth group of four cows was fed an uncontaminated diet throughout the study. Daily pooled milk samples from each cow were analysed by high performance

J. D. G. McEvoy; H. C. Higgins; D. G. Kennedy; C. S. Mayne

2000-01-01

261

Body Temperature Versus Microclimate Selection in Heat Stressed Dairy Cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study is to characterize the thermoregulatory responses of unrestrained heat-stressed dairy cows within a freestall environment using fan and spray configurations for cooling cows while lying or standing. An experimental treatment sprayed individual cows lying in freestalls from ...

262

Grazing dairy cows had decreased interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-17, and increased expression of interleukin-10 during the first week after calving.  

PubMed

Peripartum, and especially during the transition period, dairy cows undergo dramatic physiological changes. These coincide with an increased risk of disease during the first 2 wk after calving and have been linked to dairy cows failing to achieve production as well as reproductive targets. Previous evidence suggests that these physiological changes affect the immune system and that transition dairy cows experience some form of reduced immunocompetence. However, almost all of these studies were undertaken in high-production, housed dairy cows. Grazing cows have much lower levels of production and this study aimed to provide clarity whether or not the dysfunctional attributes of the peripartum immune system reported in high production housed cows are evident in these animals. Therefore, cell culture techniques, flow cytometry, and quantitative PCR were applied to analyze the cellular composition of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from transition dairy cows as well as the performance of these cells in an in vitro assay. First, a combination of in vitro stimulation and quantitative PCR for cytokines was validated as a quantifiable immunocompetence assay in 29 cattle and a correlation of quantitative PCR and ELISA demonstrated. Second, the relative number of T helper cells, cytotoxic T cells, B cells, ?? T cells, natural killer cells, and monocytes in peripheral blood was measured, of which B cells and natural killer cells increased in number postcalving (n=29) compared with precalving. Third, following in vitro stimulation cytokine profiles indicated decreased expression of IFN?, tumor necrosis factor, and IL-17 and increased expression of IL-10 wk 1 after calving, which later all returned to precalving values (n=39). Additionally, treatment of transition cows with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (i.e., carprofen) administered on d 1, 3, and 5 postcalving (n=19; untreated control n=20) did not affect the cytokine expression at any time point. In conclusion, an immunocompetence assay has been developed that highlights a characteristic expression pattern for IFN?, tumor necrosis factor, IL-17, and IL-10 that reflects a state of reduced immunocompetence in moderate-yielding pasture-based transition cows after calving, which is similar to that described for higher-yielding housed cows. PMID:25483203

Heiser, Axel; McCarthy, Allison; Wedlock, Neil; Meier, Susanne; Kay, Jane; Walker, Caroline; Crookenden, Mallory A; Mitchell, Murray D; Morgan, Stuart; Watkins, Kate; Loor, Juan J; Roche, John R

2015-02-01

263

Type of corn endosperm influences nutrient digestibility in lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of type of corn endosperm on nutrient digestibility in lactating dairy cows. Near-isogenic variants of an Oh43 x W64A normal dent endosperm hybrid carrying floury-2 or opaque-2 alleles were grown in spatial isolation in field plots and harvested as dry shelled corn. Six ruminally cannulated, multiparous Holstein cows (67 +/- 9 d in milk at trial initiation) were randomly assigned to a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design with 14-d periods; the first 11 d of each period were for diet adaptation followed by 3 d of sampling and data collection. Treatment diets that contained dry rolled vitreous-, floury-, or opaque-endosperm corn [33% of dry matter (DM)], alfalfa silage (55% of DM) and protein-mineral-vitamin supplement (12% of DM) were fed as a total mixed ration. The percentage vitreous endosperm was zero for floury and opaque endosperm corns and 64 +/- 7% for the vitreous corn. Prolamin protein content of floury and opaque endosperm corns was 30% of the content found in vitreous corn. Degree of starch access and in vitro ruminal starch digestibility measurements were 32 and 42% greater on average, respectively, for floury and opaque endosperm corns than for vitreous corn. Dry matter and starch disappearances after 8-h ruminal in situ incubations were, on average, 24 and 32 percentage units greater, respectively, for floury and opaque endosperm corns than for vitreous corn. Ruminal pH and acetate molar percentage were lower, propionate molar percentage was greater, and acetate:propionate ratio was lower for cows fed diets containing floury and opaque endosperm corns than for cows fed vitreous corn. In agreement with laboratory and in situ measurements, total-tract starch digestibility was 6.3 percentage units greater, on average, for cows fed diets containing floury and opaque endosperm corns than vitreous corn. Conversely, apparent total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility was lower for cows fed diets containing floury and opaque endosperm corns compared with vitreous corn. The type of endosperm in corn fed to dairy cows can have a marked effect on digestion of starch and NDF. Feeding less vitreous corn increased starch digestion but decreased NDF digestion. PMID:19700716

Lopes, J C; Shaver, R D; Hoffman, P C; Akins, M S; Bertics, S J; Gencoglu, H; Coors, J G

2009-09-01

264

Metabolic stress and inflammatory response in high-yielding, periparturient dairy cows.  

PubMed

Increased disease rates are commonly reported among high-yielding dairy cows in the transition period, extending from 3 weeks before to 3 weeks after calving, and characterized by the occurrence of an inflammatory response in terms of both positive and negative acute phase proteins (APP+ and APP-). To determine the above inflammatory response, the authors had developed the Liver Functionality Index (LFI), which defines the above condition on the basis of some APP- responses (albumin, cholesterol sensu stricto+bilirubin) during the first month of lactation. In this respect, low LFI values are associated to a high inflammatory response and vice versa. The relationship between LFI and inflammatory cytokine response was investigated from day -28 to day +28 with respect to calving in 12 periparturient dairy cows showing the six highest and six lowest LFI values within a cohort of 54 high-yielding dairy cows. The hypothesis being tested was that LFI and APP- on the whole could be used as readout of successful vs. non-successful adaptation to the transition period, with a strong association to disease occurrence. In fact, low LFI cows experienced many more disease cases (13 vs. 3 in high LFI Group) and related drug treatments till day +28. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) serum concentrations were always higher in low LFI cows (P<0.05 on day +28). The greater IL-6 levels were correlated with higher ceruloplasmin (APP+) and lower lysozyme serum concentrations (P<0.05 and <0.1, respectively). This latter finding was correlated with a clear role in vitro of lysozyme in a dose-dependent modulation of the inflammatory response of swine intestinal epithelial cells and bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Hematological examinations showed no significant differences between the two groups under study. On the whole, our results indicate that LFI and LFI-related parameters could be used to identify cows at risk in the transition period toward an improved farm management. Also, our study indicates that disease cases in periparturient, high-yielding dairy cows are correlated with signs of accentuated IL-6 response and other markers of inflammatory phenomena. These likely start in the late lactation period or around dry-off, as suggested by our prepartal data, and proceed at much greater levels after calving. PMID:22197526

Trevisi, E; Amadori, M; Cogrossi, S; Razzuoli, E; Bertoni, G

2012-10-01

265

A metabolomics approach to uncover the effects of grain diets on rumen health in dairy cows.  

PubMed

Dairy cows fed high-grain diets during early lactation have a high incidence of metabolic disorders. However, the precise mechanism(s) of how grain feeding causes disease is not clear. In an effort to understand how this diet transition alters the rumen environment and potentially leads to certain metabolic disorders in dairy cattle, we undertook a comprehensive, quantitative metabolomic analysis of rumen fluid samples from dairy cows fed 4 different diets. Using a combination of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and direct flow injection tandem mass spectroscopy, we identified and quantified 93 metabolites in rumen samples taken from 8 dairy cows fed graded amounts of barley grain (i.e., 0, 15, 30, and 45% of diet dry matter). We also studied temporal changes in the rumen by studying metabolite concentration differences between the first day and the last day of each diet phase following the diet adaptation period. Multivariate analysis showed that rumen metabolites arising from the diet containing 45% barley grain were clearly different from those containing 0, 15, and 30% barley grain. Likewise, a clear separation of the metabolic composition of the ruminal fluid was evident at the beginning and at the end of each diet phase-contrary to the belief that 11 d are suitable for the adaptation of cows to high-grain diets. High-grain diets (>30%) resulted in increased rumen fluid concentrations of several toxic, inflammatory, and unnatural compounds including putrescine, methylamines, ethanolamine, and short-chain fatty acids. Perturbations in several amino acids (phenylalanine, ornithine, lysine, leucine, arginine, valine, and phenylacetylglycine) were also evident. The present study confirms and greatly extends earlier observations on dietary effects on rumen fluid composition and shows that the use of multiple metabolomic platforms permits a far more detailed understanding of metabolic causes and effects. These results may improve our understanding of diet-related rumen metabolism and the influence of grain on the overall health of dairy cattle. PMID:22959937

Saleem, F; Ametaj, B N; Bouatra, S; Mandal, R; Zebeli, Q; Dunn, S M; Wishart, D S

2012-11-01

266

Plasma progesterone, metabolic hormones and beta-hydroxybutyrate in Holstein-Friesian cows after superovulation.  

PubMed

Metabolic hormones [insulin, leptin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)], progesterone (P4) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) serum concentrations were evaluated and their effect on the superovulation results of donor cows was investigated in a semi-arid environment. Body weight, body condition score (BCS) and lactation stage were also included in the analysis. Twenty-three Holstein-Friesian cows were superovulated with 600 IU FSHp following the routine procedure and flushed on day 7 in a Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer Centre in the semi-arid area of Brazil. The corpora lutea (CL) were counted and blood samples were collected for assays. All of the hormones investigated and BHB serum concentrations were within the physiological ranges. There was a positive correlation between hormones, except between BHB and all the others. The leptin level was influenced by feeding status, as indicated by the BCS. Insulin, T4, T3 and BHB levels were affected by milking status. Dry cows had higher levels of all hormones except BHB. An optimum level of leptin resulted in the highest number of CL, while the linear increase of P4, T4 and IGF significantly increased the number of CL. PMID:22079709

Bényei, Balázs; Komlósi, István; Pécsi, Anna; Kulcsár, Margit; Huzsvai, László; Barros, C W C; Huszenicza, Gyula

2011-12-01

267

Determination of presence of Tritrichomonas foetus in uterine lavages from cows with reproductive problems.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the presence of Tritrichomonas foetus in two dairy herds on the Altiplano Cundiboyacense. Twenty-one low-volume uterine lavages from cows with a history of reproductive problems in two dairy herds located in the municipality of Sibaté (Cundinamarca) and Ventaquemada (Boyacá) were evaluated. In the first herd, 10 cows were sampled and in the second, 11 cows, based on three inclusion criteria. The uterine lavages were obtained through infusion of physiological saline solution into the uterine body. The samples were centrifuged and seeded in Tritrichomonas basal medium for 10-15 days at 37 ºC. The protozoa were evaluated on the day of sampling and 10 and 15 days after incubation by means of direct viewing under a dark-field microscope. Positive samples were stained with Wright and Lugol to identify the morphological characteristics. This study showed that T. foetus was present in 61.8% of the animals sampled. The determination that T. foetus was present in 61.8% of the samples analyzed is a significant finding given that in the herds evaluated, this agent had not previously been diagnosed. PMID:23070427

González-Carmona, Lady Carolina; Sánchez-Ladino, Milena Jineth; Castañeda-Salazar, Rubiela; Pulido-Villamarín, Adriana Del Pilar; Guáqueta-Munar, Humberto; Aranda-Silva, Moisés; Rueda-Varón, Milton Januario

2012-01-01

268

Immediate and delayed effects of heat stress on follicular development and its association with plasma FSH and inhibin concentration in cows.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterize the immediate effects of heat stress on plasma FSH and inhibin concentrations, and its involvement in follicular dynamics during a complete oestrous cycle, and to examine a possible delayed effect of heat stress on follicular development. Holstein dairy cows were oestrous synchronized and randomly assigned to either cooled (n = 7) or heat-stressed (n = 6) treatment groups. During a complete oestrous cycle, control cows, which were cooled, maintained normothermia, whereas heat-stressed cows, which were exposed to direct solar radiation, developed hyperthermia. At the end of this oestrous cycle (treated cycle), both groups were cooled and maintained normothermia for the first 10 days of the subsequent oestrous cycle. Throughout this period, follicular development was examined by ultrasonography, and plasma samples were collected. During the second follicular wave of the treated oestrous cycle, a significantly larger cohort of medium sized follicles (6-9 mm) was found in heat-stressed cows than in cooled cows (P < 0.05). The enhanced growth of follicles in this wave in heat-stressed cows was associated with a higher plasma FSH increase which lasted 4 more days (days 8-13 of the oestrous cycle; P < 0.05), and coincided with a decrease in the plasma concentration of immunoreactive inhibin (days 5-18 of the oestrous cycle; P < 0.05). During the follicular phase (days 17-20 of the treated cycle), heat-stressed cows showed an increase in the number of large follicles (>/= 10 mm), and the preovulatory plasma FSH surge was significantly higher in heat-stressed cows than in cooled cows (P < 0.01). The effect of heat stress was also observed during the first follicular wave of the subsequent cycle: the postovulatory plasma FSH concentration was higher (P < 0.01), but fewer medium follicles developed, and the first follicular wave decreased at a slower rate in previously heat-stressed cows than in cooled cows (0.40 and 0.71 follicles per day, respectively). This study shows both immediate and delayed effects of heat stress on follicular dynamics, which were associated with high FSH and low inhibin concentrations in plasma. These alterations may have physiological significance that could be associated with low fertility of cattle during the summer and autumn. PMID:11006149

Roth, Z; Meidan, R; Braw-Tal, R; Wolfenson, D

2000-09-01

269

The physiology of multifactorial problems limiting the establishment of pregnancy in dairy cattle.  

PubMed

The failure of cows to successfully establish pregnancy after insemination is an important limiting factor for the efficiency of dairy production systems. The physiological reasons for this are many and pertain to the post partum and early pregnancy periods. Cows that suffer severe negative energy balance after parturition are prone to diseases (including uterine infection) that are, in part, explained by reduced function of the immune system, having negative consequences for subsequent fertility. In high-producing dairy cows, the duration and intensity of oestrus is low as a consequence of low circulating oestradiol concentrations, and after insemination, high embryo mortality is the single biggest factor reducing calving rates. Embryo mortality occurs as consequences of poor oocyte quality (probably caused by the adverse metabolic environment) and by poor maternal uterine environment (probably caused by carry-over effects of uterine infection and low circulating progesterone concentrations). Immediate improvements in the fertility of lactating cows on many farms can be achieved by applying existing knowledge, but longer-term sustained improvement will require additional knowledge in many areas including the physiology of the tissues that contribute to reproduction. PMID:22394963

Evans, Alexander C O; Walsh, Siobhan W

2011-01-01

270

Dietary effects of linseed on fatty acid composition of milk and on liver, adipose and mammary gland metabolism of periparturient dairy cows.  

PubMed

During the transition period in dairy cows, drastic adaptations within and between key tissues and cell types occur in a coordinated manner to support late gestation, the synthesis of large quantities of milk and metabolic homoeostasis. The start of lactation coincides with an increase of triacylglycerols in the liver, which has been associated with several economically important diseases in dairy cows (i.e. hepatic lipidiosis, mastitis). The polyunsaturated fatty acids have been used to improve liver metabolism and immune function in the mammary gland. Therefore, the effects of dietary linseed supplementation on milk quality and liver, adipose and mammary gland metabolism of periparturient dairy cows were studied in 14 cows that were randomly assigned to control or linseed supplementation. Animals were treated from 3 weeks antepartum until 6 weeks post-partum. Linseed did not modify dry matter intake, but increased milk yield and lactose yield, and decreased milk fat concentration, which coincided with lower proportion of C16 and higher proportions of stearic acid, conjugated linoleic acid and ?-linolenic acid in milk fat. Linseed supplementation did not significantly change the expression of key lipid metabolism genes in liver and adipose tissues, except of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) in liver, which was increased in cows supplemented with linseed, suggesting that more glucose was secreted and probably available for lactose synthesis compared with cows fed control diet. Large adaptations of transcription occurred in the mammary gland when dairy cows were supplemented with linseed. The main affected functional modules were related to energy metabolism, cell proliferation and remodelling, as well as the immune system response. PMID:23639022

Mach, N; Zom, R L G; Widjaja, H C A; van Wikselaar, P G; Weurding, R E; Goselink, R M A; van Baal, J; Smits, M A; van Vuuren, A M

2013-05-01

271

Cow attributes, herd management, and reproductive history events associated with abortion in cow-calf herds from Western Canada.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this study was to identify herd management and cow characteristics that are associated with abortion in cow-calf herds in Western Canada. Reproductive events were closely monitored in 29,713 cows in 203 herds from the beginning of the breeding season in 2001 through the calving season in 2002. Herd management and cow-level risk factors such as age, body condition score, and previous reproductive history were measured through a series of herd visits by project personnel and detailed individual animal records maintained by the herd owner. Pregnancy status was assessed in fall of 2001 by the herd veterinarian. Cows most likely to abort were replacement heifers, cows that were more than 10 years of age, cows with a body condition score of less than or equal to or 5 of 9 at pregnancy testing, or with twin pregnancies. Cows vaccinated for bovine viral diarrhea virus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bred on community pastures were less likely to abort than cows from community pastures that were not vaccinated. Cows bred on community pastures that were not vaccinated were also more likely to abort than cows that were not on community pastures regardless of vaccination status. Adverse calving-associated events such as severe dystocia, problems such as uterine prolapse or retained placentas, abortion or calf death within 1 hour of birth were also associated with an increased risk of abortion the subsequent calving season after accounting for all other factors. PMID:24472651

Waldner, C L

2014-04-01

272

Insect Physiology Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A large database dedicated to research articles about various topics of insect physiology. Topics range from excretion to diapause to temperature and water regulation. There are also extensive listings of resources (academic units, funding, journals) and course data on insect physiology.

0002-11-30

273

Reproduction, Physiology and Biochemistry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter focuses on the reproduction, physiology, and biochemistry of the root-knot nematodes. The extensive amount of information on the reproduction and cytogenetics of species of Meloidogyne contrasts with the limited information on physiology, biochemistry, and biochemical pathways. In commo...

274

Phun Week: Understanding Physiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

2009-01-01

275

How We Teach Physiology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes are being made in the medical physiology undergraduate curriculum at Leeds to help students take greater responsibility for their own learning. Describes the use of problem-based assignments, workbooks, clinical case studies, and computer-based learning exercises in the physiology course to encourage student-directed learning. (LZ)

Whitaker, Elaine M.

1994-01-01

276

LACTATING COWS: EFFECTS ON INTAKE, DIGESTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supplemental fats (SF) have special value in the diets of dairy cows with superior productive ability, because the high energy density of SF allows greater energy consumption and direct transfer of the fatty acids (PA) of the SF to milk fat; this increases metabolic efficiency. Some SF, especially oils with a high degree of unsaturation, disturb ruminal fermentation, decrease fiber

C. E. Coppock; D. L. Willrs

2010-01-01

277

Utilization of Vitamin A by Dairy Cows.  

E-print Network

39126 39129 39130 39133 39135 39139 37741 39740 After it was evident that the special A. I. V. sorghum silage was in- effective in raising the butterfat in vitamin A, the same cows were placed upon pasture. The result was an immediate and rapid...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1937-01-01

278

Protein-Energy Interrelationships in Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

In dairy cows two distinct and im- portant aspects of the interrelationship between protein and energy-yielding nutrients can be identified. First, a change of protein input can influence performance by changing overall plane of nutrition. To a large extent this results from changes of digestibility and as- sociated intake of ration ingredients. Within this context it appears that at high

J. D. Oldham

1984-01-01

279

Cow's Eye Dissection in the Physics Lab.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes the science demonstration of dissecting a cow's eye to integrate biology and physics in the study of optics and lenses. Reviews the anatomy of the eye, describes the visual process and covers topics as index of refraction of the cornea, microscopic receptors, the lens, and the retina. (MDH)

Lapp, David R.; Keenan, James E.

1991-01-01

280

Identifying and managing cow's milk protein allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cow's milk protein (CMP) is usually one of the first complementary foods to be introduced into the infant's diet and is commonly consumed throughout childhood as part of a balanced diet. CMP is capable of inducing a multitude of adverse reactions in children, which may involve organs like the skin, gastrointestinal (GI) tract or respiratory system. The diagnosis of CMP-induced

George du Toit; Rosan Meyer; Neil Shah; Ralf G Heine; Michael A Thomson; Gideon Lack; Adam T Fox

2010-01-01

281

Production diseases of the transition cow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production diseases of the dairy cow are caused by a level of production inconsistent with nutrient intake, provision of an inadequate diet, an unsuitable environment, an inappropriate breeding policy or various combinations of these factors. Although the transition period of 3 weeks pre-calving until 3 weeks post-calving is associated with a peak incidence of production disease, the effects of these

F. J. Mulligan; M. L. Doherty

2008-01-01

282

Current Topics for Teaching Skeletal Muscle Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Contractions of skeletal muscles provide the stability and power for all body movements. Consequently, any impairment in skeletal muscle function results in some degree of instability or immobility. Factors that influence skeletal muscle structure and function are therefore of great interest both scientifically and clinically. Injury, disease, and old age are among the factors that commonly contribute to impairment in skeletal muscle function. The goal of this article is to update current concepts of skeletal muscle physiology. Particular emphasis is placed on mechanisms of injury, repair, and adaptation in skeletal muscle as well as mechanisms underlying the declining skeletal muscle structure and function associated with aging. For additional materials please refer to the "Skeletal Muscle Physiology" presentation located on the American Physiological Society Archive of Teaching Resources Web site (http://www.apsarchive.org).

Susan V. Brooks (University of Michigan)

2003-12-01

283

Evaluation of Coarsely Ground Wheat as a Replacement for Ground Corn in the Diets of Lactating Dairy Cows  

PubMed Central

Eight multiparous Holstein cows (569±47 kg of BW; 84±17 DIM) were used to evaluate the effects of different levels of coarsely ground wheat (CGW) as replacements for ground corn (GC) in diets on feed intake and digestion, ruminal fermentation, lactation performance, and plasma metabolites profiles in dairy cows. The cows were settled in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 3-wk treatment periods; four cows in one of the replicates were fitted with rumen cannulas. The four diets contained 0, 9.6, 19.2, and 28.8% CGW and 27.9, 19.2, 9.6, and 0% GC on dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. Increasing dietary levels of CGW, daily DM intake tended to increase quadratically (p = 0.07); however, apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were significantly decreased (p<0.01) in cows fed the 28.8% CGW diets. Ruminal pH remained in the normal physiological range for all dietary treatments at all times, except for the 28.8% CGW diets at 6 h after feeding; moreover, increasing dietary levels of CGW, the daily mean ruminal pH decreased linearly (p = 0.01). Increasing the dietary levels of CGW resulted in a linear increase in ruminal propionate (p<0.01) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) (p = 0.06) concentration, while ruminal acetate: propionate decreased linearly (p = 0.03) in cows fed the 28.8% CGW diets. Milk production was not affected by diets; however, percentage and yield of milk fat decreased linearly (p = 0.02) when the level of CGW was increased. With increasing levels of dietary CGW, concentrations of plasma beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) (p = 0.07) and cholesterol (p<0.01) decreased linearly, whereas plasma glucose (p = 0.08), insulin (p = 0.02) and urea nitrogen (p = 0.02) increased linearly at 6 h after the morning feeding. Our results indicate that CGW is a suitable substitute for GC in the diets of dairy cows and that it may be included up to a level of 19.2% of DM without adverse effects on feed intake and digestion, ruminal fermentation, lactation performance, and plasma metabolites if the cows are fed fiber-sufficient diets. PMID:25049874

Guo, Y. Q.; Zou, Y.; Cao, Z. J.; Xu, X. F.; Yang, Z. S.; Li, S. L.

2013-01-01

284

The effects of feeding 3-nitrooxypropanol on methane emissions and productivity of Holstein cows in mid lactation.  

PubMed

The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of adding 3-nitrooxypropanol to the diet of lactating Holstein cows on methane emissions, rumen fermentation, ruminal microbial profile, and milk production. Twelve ruminally cannulated Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a crossover design study with 28-d periods. Cows were fed a diet containing 38% forage on a dry matter basis with either 2,500 mg/d of 3-nitrooxypropanol (fed as 25 g of 10% 3-nitrooxypropanol on silicon dioxide) or 25 g/d of silicon dioxide (control). After a 21-d diet adaptation period, dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield were recorded daily. Rumen fluid and digesta were collected on d 22 and 28 for volatile fatty acid analysis and microbial profiling. Enteric methane emissions were measured on d 23 to 27 using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer gas technique. Feeding 3-nitrooxypropanol did not affect DMI; however, methane production was reduced from 17.8 to 7.18 g/kg of DMI. No change in milk or milk component yields was observed, but cows fed 3-nitrooxypropanol gained more body weight than control cows (1.06 vs. 0.39 kg/d). Concentrations of total volatile fatty acids in ruminal fluid were not affected by treatment, but a reduction in acetate proportion and a tendency for an increase in propionate proportion was noted. As such, a reduction in the acetate-to-propionate ratio was observed (2.02 vs. 2.36). Protozoa counts were not affected by treatment; however, a reduction in methanogen copy count number was observed when 3-nitrooxypropanol was fed (0.95 vs. 2.69 × 10(8)/g of rumen digesta). The data showed that feeding 3-nitrooxypropanol to lactating dairy cows at 2,500 mg/d can reduce methane emissions without compromising DMI or milk production. PMID:24630651

Haisan, J; Sun, Y; Guan, L L; Beauchemin, K A; Iwaasa, A; Duval, S; Barreda, D R; Oba, M

2014-05-01

285

Environmental stressors influencing hormones and systems physiology in cattle  

PubMed Central

Environmental stressors undoubtedly influence organismal biology, specifically the endocrine system that, in turn, impact cattle at the systems physiology level. Despite the significant advances in understanding the genetic determinants of the ideal dairy or beef cow, there is a grave lack of understanding of the systems physiology and effects of the environmental stressors that interfere with the endocrine system. This is a major problem because the lack of such knowledge is preventing advances in understanding gene-environment interactions and developing science-based solutions to these challenges. In this review, we synthesize the current knowledge on the nature of the major environmental stressors, such as climate (heat, cold, wind, and humidity), nutrition (feeds, feeding systems, and endocrine disruptors) and management (housing density and conditions, transportation, weaning practices). We summarize the impact of each one of these factors on cattle at the systems level, and provide solutions for the challenges. PMID:24996419

2014-01-01

286

Seasonal and physiological variations in serum chemistry and mineral concentrations in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports the seasonal and physiological variations of copper, zinc, magnesium, iron sodium chlorine, potassium,\\u000a calcium, phosphorus, urea, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine (CR), aspartate aminotransfrase (AST), alanine aminotransferase\\u000a (ALT), cholesterol, albumin, globulin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and total protein concentrations in cattle. Two groups\\u000a of mated (n=14) and nonmated (n=10), healthy cows were selected for the study. Serum samples

Beran Yokus; Ulker Dileki Cakir

2006-01-01

287

Milk composition, milk fatty acid profile, digestion, and ruminal fermentation in dairy cows fed whole flaxseed and calcium salts of flaxseed oil.  

PubMed

Four ruminally lactating Holstein cows averaging 602+/-25 kg of body weight and 64+/-6 d in milk at the beginning of the experiment were randomly assigned to a 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of feeding whole flaxseed and calcium salts of flaxseed oil on dry matter intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk production and composition, and milk fatty acid profile. The treatments were a control with no flaxseed products (CON) or a diet (on a dry matter basis) of 4.2% whole flaxseed (FLA), 1.9% calcium salts of flaxseed oil (SAL), or 2.3% whole flaxseed and 0.8% calcium salts of flaxseed oil (MIX). The 4 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were fed for ad libitum intake. Experimental periods consisted of 21 d of diet adaptation and 7 d of data collection and sampling. Dry matter intake, digestibility, milk production, and milk concentrations of protein, lactose, urea N, and total solids did not differ among treatments. Ruminal pH was reduced for cows fed the CON diet compared with those fed the SAL diet. Propionate proportion was higher in ruminal fluid of cows fed CON than in that of those fed SAL, and cows fed the SAL and CON diets had ruminal propionate concentrations similar to those of cows fed the FLA and MIX diets. Butyrate concentration was numerically higher for cows fed the SAL diet compared with those fed the FLA diet. Milk fat concentration was lower for cows fed SAL than for those fed CON, and there was no difference between cows fed CON and those fed FLA and MIX. Milk yields of protein, fat, lactose, and total solids were similar among treatments. Concentrations of cis-9 18:1 and of intermediates of ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids such as trans-9 18:1 were higher in milk fat of cows fed SAL and MIX than for those fed the CON diet. Concentration of rumenic acid (cis-9, trans-11 18:2) in milk fat was increased by 63% when feeding SAL compared with FLA. Concentration of alpha-linolenic acid was higher in milk fat of cows fed SAL and MIX than in milk of cows fed CON (75 and 61%, respectively), whereas there was no difference between FLA and CON. Flaxseed products (FLA, SAL, and MIX diets) decreased the n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio in milk fat. Results confirm that flax products supplying 0.7 to 1.4% supplemental fat in the diet can slightly improve the nutritive value of milk fat for better human health. PMID:20630232

Côrtes, C; da Silva-Kazama, D C; Kazama, R; Gagnon, N; Benchaar, C; Santos, G T D; Zeoula, L M; Petit, H V

2010-07-01

288

Residues in colostrum following antibiotic dry cow therapy.  

PubMed

Cows from five dairy herds were used to determine persistence of antibiotic residues in colostrum and milk following dry cow therapy. Cows were treated in all quarters at drying off with antibiotics approved for use for nonlactating cows. Antibiotics procaine penicillin G plus dihydrostreptomycin, novobiocin, cloxacillin, or cephapirin were compared with no treatment. Composite colostrum samples were collected from each cow at first milking after parturition. Samples were screened for residues by Delvotest P. Colostrum samples positive by Delvotest also were tested by Bacillus stearothermophilus disc assay. Four of 186 colostrum samples from cows treated with antibiotics at drying off were positive for residues by Delvotest. Only one was confirmed positive by disc assay following heat treatment. All colostrum samples from 48 cows not treated were negative. Samples of first marketable milk also were collected. Over 96% of milk samples from cows treated at drying off and 100% of milk samples from cows not treated were negative for residues by Delvotest. If manufacturer's recommendations are followed, antibiotic residues in colostrum and milk following dry cow therapy with products in our study should not be a significant problem. PMID:6530498

Oliver, S P; Duby, R T; Prange, R W; Tritschler, J P

1984-12-01

289

Comparison of pharmacokinetics and milk elimination of flunixin in healthy cows and cows with mastitis.  

PubMed

Objective-To determine whether pharmacokinetics and milk elimination of flunixin and 5-hydroxy flunixin differed between healthy and mastitic cows. Design-Prospective controlled clinical trial. Animals-20 lactating Holstein cows. Procedures-Cows with mastitis and matched control cows received flunixin IV, ceftiofur IM, and cephapirin or ceftiofur, intramammary. Blood samples were collected before (time 0) and 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 36 hours after flunixin administration. Composite milk samples were collected at 0, 2, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, and 96 hours. Plasma and milk samples were analyzed by use of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Results-For flunixin in plasma samples, differences in area under the concentration-time curve and clearance were detected between groups. Differences in flunixin and 5-hydroxy flunixin concentrations in milk were detected at various time points. At 36 hours after flunixin administration (milk withdrawal time), 8 cows with mastitis had 5-hydroxy flunixin concentrations higher than the tolerance limit (ie, residues). Flunixin residues persisted in milk up to 60 hours after administration in 3 of 10 mastitic cows. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Pharmacokinetics and elimination of flunixin and 5-hydroxy flunixin in milk differed between mastitic and healthy cows, resulting in violative residues. This may partially explain the high number of flunixin residues reported in beef and dairy cattle. This study also raised questions as to whether healthy animals should be used when determining withdrawal times for meat and milk. PMID:25517334

Kissell, Lindsey W; Leavens, Teresa L; Baynes, Ronald E; Riviere, Jim E; Smith, Geof W

2015-01-01

290

Starch levels on performance, milk composition and energy balance of lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of starch levels in diets with the replacement of citrus pulp for corn on milk yield, milk composition, and energy balance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in seven 4?×?4 Latin squares conducted concurrently, and each experimental period consisted of 20 days (16 days for adaptation and 4 days for sampling). The experimental treatments comprised four starch levels: 15, 20, 25, and 30 % in the diet. The dry matter intake increased linearly with increasing starch levels. The milk yield and 3.5 % fat-corrected milk yield showed quadratic response to increasing starch levels. The milk protein content and milk total solids content responded linearly to increasing starch levels. The feed efficiency, milk lactose content, milk urea nitrogen, plasma urea nitrogen, and plasma glucose concentration were not affected by starch levels. The estimated net energy for lactation (NEL) intake increased linearly as the starch level was raised. Although the milk NEL output per kilogram of milk was not affected by starch, the milk NEL output daily responded quadratically to starch levels. In addition, the NEL in body weight gain also responded quadratically to increasing starch levels. The efficiency of energy use for milk yield and the NEL efficiency for production also responded quadratically to increasing starch levels. Diets for mid-lactating dairy cows producing around 30 kg/day of milk should be formulated to provide around 25 % starch to optimize performance. PMID:25315370

Carmo, Carolina Almeida; Batistel, Fernanda; de Souza, Jonas; Martinez, Junio Cesar; Correa, Paulo; Pedroso, Alexandre Mendonça; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

2015-01-01

291

The effect of modified roofing on the milk yield and reproductive performance of heat-stressed dairy cows under hot-humid conditions.  

PubMed

The objective was to measure the effects of cooling techniques (shade cloth vs. normal roof) on performance and physiology of 16 Friesian crossbred cows (87.5% Holstein Friesian × 12.5% Brahman) located at Sakol Nakhon Livestock Research and Testing Station, Department of Livestock Development, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives (Sakol Nakhon, Thailand). They were divided randomly into two groups of eight. The two groups were used to evaluate the effects of modified roofing (normal roof fitted with woven polypropylene shade cloth) on the subjects' milk yield and reproductive performance under hot humid conditions. Results indicated that the modified roofing offered a more efficient way to minimize heat stress than the normal roof. The difference was sufficient to enable the cows to have a significantly lower mean rectal temperature and respiration rate (38.56 °C, 61.97 breaths/min) than that of the cows housed under normal roofing (39.86 °C; 85.16 breaths/min). The cows housed under modified roofing produced more milk (P < 0.05) but did not differ significantly in reproductive performance from the cows housed under normal roofing. PMID:20887315

Khongdee, Sriapa; Sripoon, Somchai; Chousawai, Somchai; Hinch, Geoff; Chaiyabutr, Narongsak; Markvichitr, Kanjana; Vajrabukka, Chanvit

2010-10-01

292

UNDERGRADUATE STUDENT MANUAL HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY  

E-print Network

UNDERGRADUATE STUDENT MANUAL FOR HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY 2012-2013 Revised: September, 2012 (JLS) #12;- 2 ................................................................................................................. - 3 - II. INTRODUCTION TO THE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH SCIENCES PROGRAM IN HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY........................................................................................................................................ - 4 - III. FULL-TIME FACULTY IN HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY

Guenther, Frank

293

UNDERGRADUATE STUDENT MANUAL HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY  

E-print Network

UNDERGRADUATE STUDENT MANUAL FOR HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY 2011-2012 Revised: September, 2011 (JLS) #12;- 2 ................................................................................................................. - 3 - II. INTRODUCTION TO THE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH SCIENCES PROGRAM IN HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY........................................................................................................................................ - 4 - III. FULL-TIME FACULTY IN HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY

Guenther, Frank

294

Anatomy and Physiology Everyday  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use information from newspaper articles to write a paper or presentation on the correlation of information from the article and their understanding of it using knowledge gained in anatomy and physiology class.

Teresa Alvarez (St. Louis Community College Forest Park AHNS)

2008-08-22

295

Curriculum Guidelines for Physiology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guidelines developed by the Section on Physiology of the American Association of Dental Schools for use by educational institutions as curriculum development aids are presented. Primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, and specific behavioral objectives are discussed. (MLW)

Journal of Dental Education, 1986

1986-01-01

296

Physiological Steps Doctrine  

E-print Network

a therapeutic drug, that drug is often converted by the natural physiology of the digestive system into one or more chemically different metabolites. The end products of in vivo conversion sometimes possess therapeutic efficacy. Many patent...

Torrance, Andrew W.

2008-01-01

297

Adventures in Exercise Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The author altered the format of an exercise physiology course from traditional lecture to emphasizing daily reading quizzes and group problem-solving activities. The SALGains evaluation was used to compare the two approaches and significant improvements

Kathleen A. FitzPatrick

2004-09-01

298

Photosynthesis: Physiological and  

E-print Network

Photosynthesis: Physiological and Ecological Considerations Chapter 9 THE CONVERSION OF SOLAR reactions of photosynthesis should not overshadow the fact that, under natural condi- tions. The impact of the environment on photosynthesis is of interest to plant physiologists, ecologists

Ehleringer, Jim

299

Dynamical Adaptation in Photoreceptors  

PubMed Central

Adaptation is at the heart of sensation and nowhere is it more salient than in early visual processing. Light adaptation in photoreceptors is doubly dynamical: it depends upon the temporal structure of the input and it affects the temporal structure of the response. We introduce a non-linear dynamical adaptation model of photoreceptors. It is simple enough that it can be solved exactly and simulated with ease; analytical and numerical approaches combined provide both intuition on the behavior of dynamical adaptation and quantitative results to be compared with data. Yet the model is rich enough to capture intricate phenomenology. First, we show that it reproduces the known phenomenology of light response and short-term adaptation. Second, we present new recordings and demonstrate that the model reproduces cone response with great precision. Third, we derive a number of predictions on the response of photoreceptors to sophisticated stimuli such as periodic inputs, various forms of flickering inputs, and natural inputs. In particular, we demonstrate that photoreceptors undergo rapid adaptation of response gain and time scale, over ? 300 ms—i. e., over the time scale of the response itself—and we confirm this prediction with data. For natural inputs, this fast adaptation can modulate the response gain more than tenfold and is hence physiologically relevant. PMID:24244119

Clark, Damon A.; Benichou, Raphael; Meister, Markus; Azeredo da Silveira, Rava

2013-01-01

300

Heterosis and heterosis retention for reproductive and maternal traits in Brahman - British crossbred cows  

E-print Network

traits were analyzed for Angus (A), Brahman (B), and Hereford (H) straightbred cows; F1 and F2 BA and BH cows; and 3/8 B 5/8 A first (Bn) and second (Bn2) generation cows in Central Texas. Heterosis was estimated for calf crop born (CCB), calf crop....07). F1 BH cows expressed heterosis (PBn2 cows expressed heterosis (PBn cows did not express heterosis (P>0...

Key, Kelli Loren

2005-02-17

301

Subacute ruminal acidosis and total mixed ration preference in lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a condition where the pH of the rumen becomes abnormally acidic because of increased and altered production of volatile fatty acids. The objective of this experiment was to determine how a SARA challenge affects total mixed ration selection in dairy cows. In this study, 8 multiparous, lactating, ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were given a choice between a long-forage-particle-size diet with slow-fermenting starch (LC) and a short-forage-particle-size diet with fast-fermenting starch in a crossover design. Cows were allowed to adapt to this feeding scheme and were then subjected to a rumen challenge to induce a bout of SARA. The rumen challenge successfully decreased rumen pH and altered rumen volatile fatty acid profiles. Daily average rumen pH decreased from 6.02 to 5.77, and average minimum rumen pH decreased from 5.59 to 5.28. In addition, following the rumen challenge, concentrations of acetate, butyrate, and valerate, and acetate-to-propionate ratio increased. In response to the rumen challenge, intake of LC increased from the baseline level of 18.1% of total daily dry matter intake to 38.3% for that day. During the first recovery day after the rumen challenge, LC intake moderated to 28.0% of total daily dry matter intake. On the second recovery day, LC intake returned to baseline levels at 18.6%. These results indicate that cows are able to alter their diet preference for higher physically effective fiber and slower starch fermentability during a bout of SARA and that they can effectively fully recover from this type of SARA within 72 h when appropriate diets are available. PMID:23932130

Maulfair, D D; McIntyre, K K; Heinrichs, A J

2013-10-01

302

Great Arteries Contribution in Orthostasis Cardiovascular Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity of adopting an orthostatic posture is, undoubtedly, a milestone in the evolution of the human species and has motivated extensive research in the physiological and anthropological areas. The physiological mechanisms involved in adopting and maintaining an orthostatic posture and its complications have been investigated through the centuries. The anatomists do not consider the postural adaptation of the human

Jorge Elias Neto

2006-01-01

303

Associations of herd- and cow-level factors, cow lying behavior, and risk of elevated somatic cell count in free-stall housed lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

Recent evidence suggests that the risk of intramammary infection in dairy cows is related to lying patterns. The objectives of this study were to quantify the standing and lying behavior of dairy cows milked 3×/d, determine the cow- and herd-level factors associated with these behaviors, and relate these findings to the risk of an elevated somatic cell count (SCC). Five commercial free-stall dairy herds in Eastern Ontario, milking 3×/d, were enrolled in a longitudinal study. Forty Holstein-Friesian cows/herd were randomly selected as focal animals based on days in milk (<200 d) and SCC (<100,000 cells/mL). Farms were followed for 4, 5-week periods. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning of each period and end of the final period. Elevated SCC (eSCC) was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis. A new incident eSCC was defined as an individual cow that started the period with a SCC <100,000 cells/mL but whose next SCC exceeded 200,000 cells/mL. Lying behavior was recorded 5d after each milk sampling using data loggers. For these 5d, individual milking times and feeding times were also recorded. On d1 of each recording period 2 trained observers scored focal cows for hygiene and lameness. Throughout the course of the study, cows averaged 11.2h/d of lying time, split into 8.6 lying bouts/d that were on average 84.6 min in length. Later lactation cows had longer daily lying times that were split into fewer lying bouts of longer duration than cows earlier in lactation. Lame cows had longer daily lying times and lying bout durations than non-lame cows. Cows with greater milk yield had lower lying times than lower producing cows. Average post-milking standing time across the study herds was 103 min. Manipulation of feed (feed delivery or push-up) by the stockperson, in the hour before milking or shortly thereafter, resulted in the longest post-milking standing times. Over the study period, 48 new eSCC were detected, resulting in a mean herd incidence rate of 0.91 eSCC/cow-year at risk for all study herds. A non-linear relationship between post-milking standing time and eSCC incidence was found; compared to those cows that lie down <90 min after milking, cows that lie down for the first time >90 min after milking had a lower risk of acquiring a new eSCC. The risk of experiencing an eSCC was also increased in multiparous cows, and in those cows with a higher SCC at the beginning of the study. These results indicate that management practices that promote post-milking standing time, such as the manipulation of feed delivery around milking times, should be encouraged to reduce the risk of cows experiencing new eSCC. PMID:23791124

Watters, M E Alexandrea; Meijer, Karin M A; Barkema, Herman W; Leslie, Kenneth E; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Devries, Trevor J

2013-09-01

304

Urinary calcium excretion in non-lactating dairy cows in relation to intake of fat-coated rice bran.  

PubMed

At calving, many older cows fail to compensate the sudden demand of calcium by an adequate activation of intestinal absorption. This results in a variable degree of hypocalcaemia. Reducing intestinal availability of calcium during the close-up period can prevent milk fever. Fat-coated rice bran (FCRB) was investigated for its potential to reduce Ca availability in pre-calving cows. Fat-coated rice bran was incubated in situ to estimate ruminal degradation of dry matter and phytic acid. Also, seven dry multiparous dairy cows were used for a feeding trial in three periods of approximately 1 week each: P1: adaptation; P2: feeding of 2 kg of FCRB and P3: withdrawal of FCRB. Feed intake was recorded and daily urine samples were analysed for pH, Ca and creatinine. The bypass fraction of phytic acid (passage rate: 5%/h) was 30%. Fat-coated rice bran depressed dry matter intake in P2, resulting in a lower Ca intake. In P2 urine pH and calcium excretion were lower. Daily calcium excretion decreased after introduction of FCRB, peaked after withdrawal and dropped 2 days later. Changes in urinary Ca excretion by feeding FCRB indicate that FCRB affected Ca homeostasis in dry multiparous dairy cows. PMID:19364378

Martín-Tereso, J; Derks, M; van Laar, H; Mulder, K; den Hartog, L A; Verstegen, M W A

2010-02-01

305

Delayed effect of progesterone on endometrial morphology in dairy cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of vaginal progesterone (P4) administered during the luteal phase, on endometrial morphology during the subsequent oestrous cycle. In experiment 1, lactating Holstein cows were allotted to three groups: (1) Control group in which cows remained untreated; (2) The CIDR group in which cows were treated with two P4-containing controlled intravaginal-drug releasing devices

A. Shaham-Albalancy; A. Nyska; M. Kaim; M. Rosenberg; Y. Folman; D. Wolfenson

1997-01-01

306

Effects of supplementation of Tinospora cordifolia to crossbred cows peripartum.  

PubMed

Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia), a medicinal plant used in ayurveda, is well documented for its immunomodulatory properties. Since the crossbred periparturient cow is highly susceptible to various diseases that effectively reduces its reproductive performance postpartum we explored the possibility of enhancing the reproductive performance of crossbred cows by guduchi supplementation peripartum. A total of 15 pregnant Karan Fries cows were selected and divided into two groups: treatment group of 8 cows which were supplemented with guduchi at 60 g/day for 45 days prepartum and 120 g/day for 45 days postpartum and unsupplemented control group of 7 cows. Jugular blood samples were collected from all cows during the periparturient period for analysis of endocrine (progesterone, total estrogens and PGFM), immunological and hematological parameters. Incidence of retention of fetal membranes, endometritis, pyometra and calf mortality were higher in control group of cows in comparison to those recorded in treated group. The guduchi supplemented cows exhibited faster uterine involution (28 days vs. 42 days) and early commencement of cyclicity (37 days vs. 58 days; based on plasma progesterone profiles) in comparison to untreated control group of cows. Mean birth weight of calves from treatment group of cows was significantly higher than those from control group however no significant difference was observed in average daily body weight gain of calves in both the groups. A higher total leukocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophil count along with increased neutrophil lymphocyte ratio was recorded in guduchi supplemented cows in comparison to untreated cows although plasma total antioxidant activity was similar between the two groups. Prepartum plasma progesterone concentration was significantly lowered in the treated group however there was no significant change in peripartum plasma total estrogens and PGFM levels due to guduchi supplementation. PMID:21163594

Mallick, Smrutirekha; Prakash, B S

2011-01-01

307

Toward building the cow folliculome.  

PubMed

One of the goals of the EmbryoGENE network was to gather information on the conditions leading to competent oocytes. Using a combination of transcriptomic analyses we are building the foundation of the folliculome, which will take the form of a virtual follicle with gene expression profiling data spanning small to ovulatory or atretic follicles. The different models currently being established not only provide information on the follicular conditions leading to good outcome but also intermediary steps, including evolution towards atresia. The physiology of very few species has been covered to the extent of our database, which is the only one for mono-ovulatory species. The first interesting observation extracted from our data is related to the plateau phase of follicular development, which is not a linear intermediate between growth and ovulation but rather an important modification step of tissue ontogenesis during which growth switches to differentiation or atresia. The markers of cell division, matrix rearrangement, mesenchymal differentiation, oxidation, steroidogenesis and ovulatory changes identified confirm known changes but also several others are now hinting to a more complex picture of this dynamic tissue. In addition to biomarkers, we have insight into the multiple pathways involved during the last few days before ovulation. Our new ability to validate these networks in vitro using primary granulosa cells culture also contributes to the construction of a follicular blueprint. The amazing list of gene responding to FSH alone is a good start but a complete meta-analysis will provide the foundation of the bovine folliculome. PMID:25018044

Sirard, Marc-André

2014-09-01

308

Intrathoracic Ectopic Liver in a Cow  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT A solitary spherical mass was found in the caudal part of the cranial lobe of the left lung of a 28-month-old Japanese Black cow. The mass was circumscribed, embedded in the lung parenchyma and not connected to the liver or diaphragm. Histologically, the mass comprised hepatocytes, portal structures consisting of interlobular bile ducts, interlobular arteries and interlobular veins, and central veins. Based on the histological findings, a diagnosis of intrathoracic ectopic liver was made. Considering the absence of any previous history of traumatic diaphragmatic hernia or surgery, the mass might have resulted from a congenital abnormality. To our knowledge, this is the first report of intrathoracic ectopic liver in a cow that might have resulted from a congenital abnormality. PMID:24419875

HIFUMI, Tatsuro; KAWAGUCHI, Hiroaki; YAMADA, Manabu; MIYOSHI, Noriaki

2014-01-01

309

Intrathoracic ectopic liver in a cow.  

PubMed

A solitary spherical mass was found in the caudal part of the cranial lobe of the left lung of a 28-month-old Japanese Black cow. The mass was circumscribed, embedded in the lung parenchyma and not connected to the liver or diaphragm. Histologically, the mass comprised hepatocytes, portal structures consisting of interlobular bile ducts, interlobular arteries and interlobular veins, and central veins. Based on the histological findings, a diagnosis of intrathoracic ectopic liver was made. Considering the absence of any previous history of traumatic diaphragmatic hernia or surgery, the mass might have resulted from a congenital abnormality. To our knowledge, this is the first report of intrathoracic ectopic liver in a cow that might have resulted from a congenital abnormality. PMID:24419875

Hifumi, Tatsuro; Kawaguchi, Hiroaki; Yamada, Manabu; Miyoshi, Noriaki

2014-05-01

310

Mature Runt Cow Lumbar Intradiscal Pressures And Motion Segment Biomechanics  

PubMed Central

Background Context The optimal animal model for in vivo testing of spinal implants, particularly total or partial disc replacement devices, has not yet been determined. Mechanical and morphological similarities of calf and human spines have been reported; however, limitations of the calf model include open growth plates and oversized vertebrae with growth. Mature runt cows (Corrientes breed) may avoid these limitations. Purpose This study compared vertebral morphology and biomechanical properties of human and runt cow lumbar motion segments. Study Design In vivo disc pressure measurements were obtained in six mature runt cows at L4–5. In vitro evaluation was performed on these same segments and repeated on twelve human motion segments. Methods Disc pressures were measured in vivo in runt cow (Corrientes breed) L45 discs using a percutaneous transducer with the animal performing various activities. These motion segments were then harvested and morphologic and biomechanical evaluations (disc pressure in compression, flexibility tests to 7.5 Nm) were performed on both cow and male human L23 and L45 segments. Results The transverse lumbar disc dimensions were slightly smaller for (mixed gender) cow vs. (male) humans, but were within the range of reported (mixed gender) human values. The mean ± SD disc height was smaller for runt cow (7 ± 1 mm) vs. human discs (13 ± 2 mm, p<0.001). The vertebral bodies of the cow were approximately twice as tall as the human. In vitro testing revealed significantly greater disc pressure response to applied axial loading in the runt cow vs. humans (1.27 ± 0.18 kPa/N vs. 0.84 ± 0.15 kPa/N respectively) but similar overall stiffness (2.15 ± 0.71 kN/mm vs. 1.91 ± 0.94 kN/mm, respectively). Runt cow and human segments flexibility curves were similar with the following exceptions: runt cow stiffness was ~40% greater in torsion (p<0.05), runt cow segment lateral bending motion was greater vs. humans (range of motion by 30%, neutral zone by 100%; both p<0.05) and flexion range of motion tended to be smaller in runt cow vs. human specimens (by ~40%, p=NS). In vivo, the standing disc pressure in the runt cow was 0.80 ± 0.24 MPa. Conclusions Although no animal replicates the human motion segment, the runt cow lumbar spine had a number of biomechanical and morphological measurements within the range of human values. The closed physes and temporally stable morphology of the mature runt cow may make this model more suitable vs. standard calf models for human intradiscal implant studies. PMID:18037351

Buttermann, Glenn Robin; Beaubien, Brian P; Saeger, Louis C

2009-01-01

311

Abnormal regurgitation in three cows caused by intrathoracic perioesophageal lesions  

PubMed Central

Background Three Brown Swiss cows with abnormal regurgitation because of a perioesophageal disorder are described. Case presentation The cows were ill and had poor appetite, salivation and regurgitation of poorly-chewed feed. Collection of rumen juice was successful in one cow, and in another, the tube could be advanced to the level of the 7th intercostal space, and in the third, only saliva could be collected. In one cow, oesophagoscopy revealed a discoloured 10-cm mucosal area with fibrin deposits. Thoracic radiographs were normal. The cows were euthanased and examined postmortem. Cow 1 had a large perioesophageal abscess containing feed material at the level of the thoracic inlet, believed to be the result of a healed oesophageal injury. Cow 2 had an abscess between the oesophagus and trachea 25 cm caudal to the epiglottis with the same presumed aetiology as in cow 1. Cow 3 had a mediastinal carcinoma that enclosed and constricted the oesophagus. Conclusions Abnormal regurgitation in cattle is usually the result of an oesophageal disorder. Causes of oesophageal disorders vary widely and their identification can be difficult. PMID:24629042

2014-01-01

312

Maxillary osteosarcoma in a beef suckler cow  

PubMed Central

A ten-year-old beef suckler cow was referred to the Scottish Centre for Production Animal Health & Food Safety of the University of Glasgow, because of facial swelling in the region of the right maxilla. The facial swelling was first noticed three months earlier and was caused by a slow growing oral mass which contained displaced, loosely embedded teeth. The radiographic, laboratory and clinicopathological findings are described. Necropsy, gross pathology and histological findings confirmed the mass as a maxillary osteosarcoma. PMID:22788782

2012-01-01

313

Effect of corn silage particle size and supplemental hay on rumen pH and feed preference by dairy cows fed high-starch diets.  

PubMed

The objectives of this experiment were to determine the effects of corn silage particle size and supplemental hay on rumen pH and feed preference in lactating dairy cows experiencing a bout of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). In this study, 12 lactating (8 ruminally cannulated), multiparous Holstein cows averaging 91±40d in milk and weighing 695±95kg (mean ± SD) were randomly assigned to a replicated 4×4 Latin square. During each of the four 21-d periods, animals were offered 1 of 4 diets that were chemically similar but varied in corn silage particle size and supplemental second cutting orchardgrass hay: short corn silage total mixed ration (TMR; ST); short corn silage TMR with 5.6% supplemental hay (SH); long corn silage TMR (L); and long corn silage TMR with 5.6% supplemental hay (LH). Cows were allowed to adapt to this feeding scheme for 14d, and cannulated cows were then subjected to a rumen challenge to induce a bout of SARA by restricting feed before the challenge and providing 4kg of ground wheat via the rumen cannula. Although baseline pH was low, the SARA challenge lowered ruminal pH further for all cows regardless of diet. Daily average rumen pH decreased from 5.44 and 5.45 to 5.33 and 5.38 for ST and SH, respectively, and from 5.64 and 5.54 to 5.47 and 5.39 for L and LH, respectively, from baseline to challenge phase. Following the rumen challenge, rumen concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and valerate increased. Decreasing corn silage particle size significantly increased TMR and total DMI during all phases of the model. Feeding short corn silage TMR increased milk, protein, and lactose yields. Cows fed supplemental hay had increased fat yield and protein concentration in the milk and responded minimally to the effects of particle size selection when challenged with SARA. Cows consuming short corn silage TMR changed feed preference for longer forage particles during the course of the SARA challenge. During the recovery phase, however, cows refused an average of 13.5% of the offered TMR and 78.7% of the supplemental hay. These results indicate that cows did not prefer the supplemental hay regardless of corn silage particle size during a bout of SARA, which may have been due to the possible adaptation of a low ruminal pH throughout the study. PMID:25465541

Kmicikewycz, A D; Heinrichs, A J

2015-01-01

314

Comparison of milk produced by cows cloned by nuclear transfer with milk from non-cloned cows.  

PubMed

Cloning technologies, including embryo splitting and nuclear transfer, were introduced into dairy cattle breeding in the early 1980s. With the recent worldwide attention on the cloning of sheep ("Dolly") and cows ("Gene"), the potential food safety concerns for food products derived from cloned animals needs to be addressed. There has been no study of the composition of milk produced by cloned cows. In this preliminary study, we evaluated the composition of milk from 15 lactating non-embryonic cell cloned cows and six non-cloned lactating cows over a single season. The cloned cows came from five unique genetic lines and three distinct breeds. Milk samples were analyzed for total solids, fat, fatty acid profile, lactose, protein and compared to non-cloned and literature values. Gross chemical composition of milk from cloned cows was similar to that of the non-cloned cows and literature values. Our results lead us to conclude that there are no obvious differences in milk composition produced from cloned cows compared to non-cloned cows. PMID:14588139

Walsh, Marie K; Lucey, John A; Govindasamy-Lucey, Selvarani; Pace, Marvin M; Bishop, Michael D

2003-01-01

315

Effects of oil and natural or synthetic vitamin E on ruminal and milk fatty acid profiles in cows receiving a high-starch diet.  

PubMed

Among trans fatty acids, trans-10,cis-12 CLA has negative effects on cow milk fat production and can affect human health. In high-yielding dairy cows, a shift from the trans-11 to the trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with unsaturated fat sources. In some but not all experiments, vitamin E has been shown to control this shift. To ascertain the effects of vitamin E on this shift of BH pathway, 2 studies were conducted. The first study explored in vitro the effects of addition of natural (RRR-?-tocopherol acetate) and synthetic (dl-?-tocopherol acetate) vitamin E. Compared with control and synthetic vitamin E, the natural form resulted in a greater trans-10/trans-11 ratio; however, the effect was very low, suggesting that vitamin E was neither a limiting factor for rumen BH nor a modulator of the BH pathway. An in vivo study investigated the effect of natural vitamin E (RRR-?-tocopherol) on this shift and subsequent milk fat depression. Six rumen-fistulated lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 2×2 crossover design. Cows received 20-kg DM of a control diet based on corn silage with 22% of wheat, and after 2 wk of adaptation, the diet was supplemented with 600 g of sunflower oil for 2 more weeks. During the last week of this 4-wk experimental period, cows were divided into 2 groups: an unsupplemented control group and a group receiving 11 g of RRR-?-tocopherol acetate per day. A trans-10 shift of ruminal BH associated with milk fat depression due to oil supplementation of a high-wheat diet was observed, but vitamin E supplementation of dairy cows did not result in a reversal toward a trans-11 BH pathway, and did not restore milk fat content. PMID:22901477

Zened, A; Troegeler-Meynadier, A; Najar, T; Enjalbert, F

2012-10-01

316

[Cow's milk proteín allergy: proposed guidelines for the management of children with cow's milk protein allergy].  

PubMed

Cow's milk allergy is a growing concern in the practice of pediatrics. The impression of an increasing incidence, similar to what has been reported in other latitudes, has determined the need for guidelines to help in the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. A group of pediatric specialists met to discuss the "state of the art" and propose local guidelines to deal with cow's milk allergy. The aim has been to contribute in the understanding of the pathophysiology, environmental factors, and clinical expressions of this problem, and help pediatricians in the overall management. PMID:19809770

Marina, Orsi; Fernández, Adriana; Follett, Francisco R; Marchisone, Silvia; Saieg, Graciela; Busoni, Verónica B; Tabacco, Omar; Toca, Carmen

2009-10-01

317

Liquid supplement and forage intake by range beef cows.  

PubMed

One hundred eighty crossbred cows were assigned to one of six native range pastures during two winters to evaluate forage and supplement intake as affected by liquid supplement (yr 1: 50% crude protein, 84% from urea; yr 2: 57% crude protein, 91% from urea) delivery method and cow age (2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 yr). Treatments were: 1) no supplement (Control); 2) a lick-wheel feeder containing liquid supplement (ADLIB); and 3) a computer-controlled lick-wheel feeder that dispensed 0.9 kg x cow(-1) x d(-1) of liquid supplement (average 0.5 kg of dry matter x cow(-1) x d(-1); Restricted). Each treatment was applied to two pastures. Forage digestibility was increased (P = 0.03) by supplementation. Supplemented cows lost less (P = 0.05) body condition than unsupplemented cows (average -0.3 vs -0.6). Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was highest (P = 0.001) for ADLIB (8.7 mg/dL), intermediate for Restricted (6.2 mg/dL), and lowest for Control (2.3 mg/dL). Forage DMI was 31% higher (P = 0.01) in 1995 than in 1996, and was increased (P = 0.02) by supplementation both years. Cows supplemented with ADLIB consumed 23% more forage dry matter than Control cows, whereas Restricted cows consumed 21% more dry matter than ADLIB cows. Supplement intake by cows on ADLIB was greater (P = 0.001) than by cows on Restricted in both years. Supplement intake was lowest (P = 0.002) by 2-yr-old cows, intermediate by 3-yr-olds, and greatest by 4-, 5-, and 6-yr-old cows. Variation in supplement intake by individual cows was higher (P = 0.09) for cows in the Restricted treatment (coefficient of variation [CV] = 117%) than those on ADLIB (CV = 68%) during the first year, but did not differ between supplement treatments (average CV = 62%) in the second year. The proportions of cows consuming less than 0.3 kg/d of supplement dry matter intake (DMI) and consuming less than the target amount of supplement (0.5 kg DMI) were less (P = 0.001) for ADLIB than for Restricted during both years. ADLIB cows spent more (P = 0.001) time at the supplement feeder and had more (P < 0.002) supplement feeding bouts than Restricted cows during both years. During the first year, 2- and 3-yr-old cows spent less (P < 0.01) time at the feeder and had fewer feeding bouts per day than 6-yr-old cows. Age had no effect (P > 0.24) on feeding behavior during the second year. Supplementation of beef cows grazing winter range with 50 to 57% crude protein liquid supplement increased forage digestibility and intake. Restricting supplement access increased forage consumption and variability of supplement intake. PMID:12597401

Sowell, B F; Bowman, J G P; Grings, E E; MacNeil, M D

2003-01-01

318

DEGREE PROGRAMME BSc (Hons) Physiology  

E-print Network

BSc (Hons) Physiology DEGREE PROGRAMME GUIDE 2013-2014 #12;BSc (Hons) Physiology Introduction - Year 4 Introduction Physiology is the study of how living organisms work, particularly humans. Its body systems control our ability to think, eat, sleep and perform exercise. Physiological knowledge

Levi, Ran

319

Gluconeogenesis in dairy cows: the secret of making sweet milk from sour dough.  

PubMed

Gluconeogenesis is a crucial process to support glucose homeostasis when nutritional supply with glucose is insufficient. Because ingested carbohydrates are efficiently fermented to short-chain fatty acids in the rumen, ruminants are required to meet the largest part of their glucose demand by de novo genesis after weaning. The qualitative difference to nonruminant species is that propionate originating from ruminal metabolism is the major substrate for gluconeogenesis. Disposal of propionate into gluconeogenesis via propionyl-CoA carboxylase, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, and the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) has a high metabolic priority and continues even if glucose is exogenously supplied. Gluconeogenesis is regulated at the transcriptional and several posttranscriptional levels and is under hormonal control (primarily insulin, glucagon, and growth hormone). Transcriptional regulation is relevant for regulating precursor entry into gluconeogenesis (propionate, alanine and other amino acids, lactate, and glycerol). Promoters of the bovine pyruvate carboxylase (PC) and PEPCK genes are directly controlled by metabolic products. The final steps decisive for glucose release (fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase and glucose 6-phosphatase) appear to be highly dependent on posttranscriptional regulation according to actual glucose status. Glucogenic precursor entry, together with hepatic glycogen dynamics, is mostly sufficient to meet the needs for hepatic glucose output except in high-producing dairy cows during the transition from the dry period to peak lactation. Lactating cows adapt to the increased glucose requirement for lactose production by mobilization of endogenous glucogenic substrates and increased hepatic PC expression. If these adaptations fail, lipid metabolism may be altered leading to fatty liver and ketosis. Increasing feed intake and provision of glucogenic precursors from the diet are important to ameliorate these disturbances. An improved understanding of the complex mechanisms underlying gluconeogenesis may further improve our options to enhance the postpartum health status of dairy cows. PMID:21171012

Aschenbach, Jörg R; Kristensen, Niels B; Donkin, Shawn S; Hammon, Harald M; Penner, Gregory B

2010-12-01

320

Physiology of female micturition.  

PubMed

Micturition is a dynamic physiologic process consisting of alternating storage and expulsion phases and is accomplished by complex interactions among innervation, smooth muscle, connective tissue, urothelium and supportive structures. Although our current understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the lower urinary tract is far from complete, intensive research over the last decade has dramatically improved our appreciation of the neural, biomechanical, biochemical, and morphologic properties of the bladder and urethra, as well as the hormonal influences and unique pelvic and perineal anatomy of women. Continued research related to the physiology of female micturition promises to offer new insights into the complex bladder-urethral interactions and to provide a basis for developing better management strategies for a variety of voiding dysfunctions in women. PMID:12476515

Sullivan, Maryrose P; Yalla, Subbarao V

2002-08-01

321

Effects of weightlessness on human fluid and electrolyte physiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Skylab and Spacelab data on changes occurring in human fluid and electrolyte physiology during the acute and adaptive phases of adaptation to spaceflight are summarized. The combined results for all three Spacelab studies show that hyponatremia developed within 20 h after the onset of weightlessness and continued throughout the flights, and hypokalemia developed by 40 h. Antidiuretic hormone was increased in plasma throughout the flights. Aldosterone decreased by 40 h, but after 7 days it had reached preflight levels.

Leach, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Philip C., Jr.

1991-01-01

322

Specifications Physiological Monitoring System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operation of a physiological monitoring system (PMS) is described. Specifications were established for performance, design, interface, and test requirements. The PMS is a compact, microprocessor-based system, which can be worn in a pack on the body or may be mounted on a Spacelab rack or other appropriate structure. It consists of two modules, the Data Control Unit (DCU) and the Remote Control/Display Unit (RCDU). Its purpose is to collect and distribute data from physiological experiments in the Spacelab and in the Orbiter.

1985-01-01

323

Plant and Cell Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This journal has recently been made available online. The Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists, in combination with Oxford Journals Online, has posted recent issues of the journal Plant and Cell Physiology, an international journal covering original research in the fields of "physiology, biochemistry, biophysics, chemistry, molecular biology, cell biology and gene engineering of plants and micro-organisms." Online coverage includes full-text and abstracts from July 2000 to the present. Note that the electronic version of this journal is free through the end of 2000.

324

Plant Physiology Information Website  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive Plant Physiology Information Website was created by Ross E. Koning, professor of biology at Eastern Connecticut State University. Dr. Koning provides links to lecture notes, lab exercises, and other resources for a variety of his courses including Biology of Plants, Plant Physiology, Principles of Biology, and more. In addition, the site offers a diverse assortment of other resources such as an Elementary Education Energy Workshop handout, a science fair project on lettuce seed germination, and related website links. The site also provides guidelines for CBE, APA, and MLA citation styles.

325

Pollen analysis of Iron Age cow dung in southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thick accumulations of consolidated cow dung occur in ancientkraals (byres or corrals) in the bushveld and highveld areas of Zimbabwe, Botswana, and South Africa dating from the last 2000 years. They originated from long-term cattle herding by Iron Age people. The “vitrified” or baked dung deposits are thought to be a product of the burning of cow dung as fuel,

José S. Carrión; Louis Scott; Tom Huffman; Cobus Dreyer

2000-01-01

326

Bilateral exophthalmos in a Holstein cow with lymphosarcoma  

PubMed Central

A 4-year-old Holstein cow presented with severe bilateral exophthalmos. A complete blood cell count revealed late stage lymphoma; the agar gel immunodiffusion test for enzootic bovine leukosis was positive. The cow was euthanized 1 wk after presentation. Necropsy revealed generalized lymphadenopathy and tumors in most organs. Final diagnosis was lymphosarcoma. PMID:13677600

Malatestinic, Andrea

2003-01-01

327

Rubber Flooring Impact on Health of Dairy Cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Use of rubber flooring in dairies has become popular because of perceived cow comfort. The objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate locomotion, health, production, and immunity over the first 180d of each of the 1st and 2nd lactations of cows assigned to free-stall housing with either r...

328

Risk factors for infertility in nursing cows linked to calving  

E-print Network

Risk factors for infertility in nursing cows linked to calving C Ducrot I Cimarosti F Bugnard with 3 590 cows in order to study the risk factors for infertility linked to calving. Based upon an analy infertility, breed factors, parity, fattening, comfort, calf characteristics (number, sex, weight

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

329

Consumer and Market Responses to Mad-Cow Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine how consumers and financial markets in the United States react to two health warnings about mad cow disease: the first discovery of an infected cow in December 2003 and an Oprah Winfrey show on the potentially harmful effects that aired seven years earlier. Using a unique product-level scanner data set of a national grocery chain, we find a

Wolfram Schlenker; Sofia B Villas-Boas

2008-01-01

330

The Effect of Lameness on Milk Production in Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data were collected prospectively for 1.5 yr on two New York dairy farms to investigate the effect of lame- ness on milk production. The numbers of study cows (percentages treated at least once for lameness) in each herd were 1796 (52%) and 724 (40%), respectively. Lame cows were identified and treated by farm employ- ees or a professional hoof trimmer.

L. D. Warnick; D. Janssen; C. L. Guard; Y. T. Gröhn

2001-01-01

331

Laryngeal obstruction caused by lymphoma in an adult dairy cow  

PubMed Central

A Holstein cow was presented for inspiratory dyspnea. Endoscopic evaluation revealed swollen arytenoids and a presumptive diagnosis of bilateral arytenoidal chondritis was made. A partial arytenoidectomy was performed, the right arytenoid was submitted for histopathology, and a diagnosis of laryngeal lymphoma was made. Due to the poor prognosis, the cow was euthanized. PMID:24489391

Lardé, Hélène; Nichols, Sylvain; Babkine, Marie; Chénier, Sonia

2014-01-01

332

A La Carts: You Want Wireless Mobility? Have a COW  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computers on wheels, or COWs, combine the wireless technology of today with the audio/visual carts of yesteryear for an entirely new spin on mobility. Increasingly used by districts with laptop computing initiatives, COWs are among the hottest high-tech sellers in schools today, according to market research firm Quality Education Data. In this…

Villano, Matt

2006-01-01

333

Original article The proliferative responses of cow stripping milk  

E-print Network

Original article The proliferative responses of cow stripping milk and blood lymphocytes) Summary― Milk samples were collected directly after the morning milking (stripping milk) from eight cows of the Swedish Red and White breed, during the period of mid-lactation. The milk cells (29 ± 111 x

Boyer, Edmond

334

Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Dairy Cows and  

E-print Network

Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Dairy Cows and Their Waste as Measured by Proton California dairies house approximately 1.8 million lactating and 1.5 million dry cows and heifers. State air from lactating and dry dairy cowsandtheirwasteusinganenvironmentalchamber.Carbon dioxide and methane

Goldstein, Allen

335

Mortality (including euthanasia) among Danish dairy cows (1990–2001)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mortality among Danish dairy cows was examined using data from the Danish Cattle Database (DCD) and a questionnaire survey. Mortality risk has increased from approximately 2% in 1990 to approximately 3.5% in 1999. The increased mortality was seen for all dairy breeds and all age groups. Mortality among older dairy cows (parity 3 and older) was approximately twice the mortality

Peter T Thomsen; Anne Mette Kjeldsen; Jan Tind Sørensen; Hans Houe

2004-01-01

336

Manure Nutrient Excretion by Jersey and Holstein Cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective was to evaluate feces, urine, and nitrogen (N) excretion by Jersey and Holstein cows. Sixteen multiparous cows (n=8 per breed) were fed two experimental rations at calving in a switchback experimental design. Diets were 50% forage and based on corn meal (control) or whole cottonseed. H...

337

Onion toxicosis in a herd of beef cows.  

PubMed Central

A herd consumed approximately 20 kg onions/cow/day for 6 weeks. Five cows died and two aborted. Onion toxicosis results in methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia. These changes can cause secondary organ damage and death, if enough onions are consumed. PMID:9919370

Rae, H A

1999-01-01

338

Modelling of ammonia emissions from dairy cow houses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dairy cow husbandry contributes to environmental acidification through the emission of ammonia. In-depth knowledge on the processes and variable factors that play a role in the emission of ammonia from dairy cow houses benefits the production of emission data, the development of low emission housing systems, and evaluation of emission levels in a farming system approach. A mechanistic simulation model

G. J. Monteny

2000-01-01

339

Ultrasonographic examination of the abomasum of 50 cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the position, appearance and dimensions of the abomasum of 50 healthy 4 cows by ultrasonography. The ventral abdominal region caudal to the xiphoid process was examined with a 3.5 MHz linear 5 transducer. The abomasum could be visualised from both sides 2 and from the ventral midline of 47 of the cows.

U. Braun; K. Wild; F. Guscetti

1997-01-01

340

Evolutionary plant physiology: Charles Darwin's forgotten synthesis.  

PubMed

Charles Darwin dedicated more than 20 years of his life to a variety of investigations on higher plants (angiosperms). It has been implicitly assumed that these studies in the fields of descriptive botany and experimental plant physiology were carried out to corroborate his principle of descent with modification. However, Darwin's son Francis, who was a professional plant biologist, pointed out that the interests of his father were both of a physiological and an evolutionary nature. In this article, we describe Darwin's work on the physiology of higher plants from a modern perspective, with reference to the following topics: circumnutations, tropisms and the endogenous oscillator model; the evolutionary patterns of auxin action; the root-brain hypothesis; phloem structure and photosynthesis research; endosymbioses and growth-promoting bacteria; photomorphogenesis and phenotypic plasticity; basal metabolic rate, the Pfeffer-Kleiber relationship and metabolic optimality theory with respect to adaptive evolution; and developmental constraints versus functional equivalence in relationship to directional natural selection. Based on a review of these various fields of inquiry, we deduce the existence of a Darwinian (evolutionary) approach to plant physiology and define this emerging scientific discipline as the experimental study and theoretical analysis of the functions of green, sessile organisms from a phylogenetic perspective. PMID:19763527

Kutschera, Ulrich; Niklas, Karl J

2009-11-01

341

Evolutionary plant physiology: Charles Darwin's forgotten synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charles Darwin dedicated more than 20 years of his life to a variety of investigations on higher plants (angiosperms). It has been implicitly assumed that these studies in the fields of descriptive botany and experimental plant physiology were carried out to corroborate his principle of descent with modification. However, Darwin’s son Francis, who was a professional plant biologist, pointed out that the interests of his father were both of a physiological and an evolutionary nature. In this article, we describe Darwin’s work on the physiology of higher plants from a modern perspective, with reference to the following topics: circumnutations, tropisms and the endogenous oscillator model; the evolutionary patterns of auxin action; the root-brain hypothesis; phloem structure and photosynthesis research; endosymbioses and growth-promoting bacteria; photomorphogenesis and phenotypic plasticity; basal metabolic rate, the Pfeffer-Kleiber relationship and metabolic optimality theory with respect to adaptive evolution; and developmental constraints versus functional equivalence in relationship to directional natural selection. Based on a review of these various fields of inquiry, we deduce the existence of a Darwinian (evolutionary) approach to plant physiology and define this emerging scientific discipline as the experimental study and theoretical analysis of the functions of green, sessile organisms from a phylogenetic perspective.

Kutschera, Ulrich; Niklas, Karl J.

2009-11-01

342

Factors influencing the chance of cows being pregnant 30 days after the herd voluntary waiting period.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to study factors affecting a reproductive performance indicator at the cow level adjusted for herd management strategy. Associations between the outcome variable, pregnant or not at the herd voluntary waiting period (VWP) plus 30d (pregnant at VWP+30), and the predictor variables were analyzed using a multivariable, generalized estimation equations model that adjusted for clustering of the data at the herd level. The statistical analysis was stratified on parity. In total, 132,721 cows were retained for analyses, of which 29,113 (22%) were pregnant at VWP+30d. Of the nonpregnant cows, 81,483 cows had records of artificial inseminations (AI) and 22,125 cows had no records of AI. The chance of pregnancy was higher for cows of the Swedish Red and for other/crossbreeds compared with Swedish Holstein, for cows from herds with high heat detection efficiency compared with cows from herds with medium and low heat detection efficiency, for cows from herds with long VWP (i.e., >51d) compared with cows from herds with short VWP (<51d), and for cows in freestalls compared with cows in tiestalls. The chance for pregnancy was lower for cows with severe problems at claw trimming compared with cows with no problems at trimming (only for second- and higher-parity cows), for cows that had a record of reproduction-related disease, for cows that had a record of any other disease compared with cows without record, for second- and higher-parity cows with records of dystocia compared with cows with no record of dystocia, for first-parity cows in the group with the highest milk yield compared with first-parity cows in the group with the lowest milk yield, for cows of third and higher parity in the group with the lowest milk yield compared with cows in higher yielding groups, for cows bred in summer compared with those bred in winter-spring (not significant for first-parity cows), and for cows with a twin birth had compared with cows with a single birth. We observed associations of the dose-response type, such that when the milk fat-to-protein ratio increased, the chance for pregnancy decreased, and as the somatic cell count increased, the chance for pregnancy decreased. In conclusion, factors that are known to affect reproductive efficiency also affect the chance of cows being pregnant at the herd VWP plus 30d. PMID:24485688

Löf, E; Gustafsson, H; Emanuelson, U

2014-04-01

343

Consumption of non–cow’s milk beverages and serum vitamin D levels in early childhood  

PubMed Central

Background: Vitamin D fortification of non–cow’s milk beverages is voluntary in North America. The effect of consuming non–cow’s milk beverages on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in children is unclear. We studied the association between non–cow’s milk consumption and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in healthy preschool-aged children. We also explored whether cow’s milk consumption modified this association and analyzed the association between daily non–cow’s milk and cow’s milk consumption. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited children 1–6 years of age attending routinely scheduled well-child visits. Survey responses, and anthropometric and laboratory measurements were collected. The association between non–cow’s milk consumption and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels was tested using multiple linear regression and logistic regression. Cow’s milk consumption was explored as an effect modifier using an interaction term. The association between daily intake of non–cow’s milk and cow’s milk was explored using multiple linear regression. Results: A total of 2831 children were included. The interaction between non–cow’s milk and cow’s milk consumption was statistically significant (p = 0.03). Drinking non–cow’s milk beverages was associated with a 4.2-nmol/L decrease in 25-hydroxyvitamin D level per 250-mL cup consumed among children who also drank cow’s milk (p = 0.008). Children who drank only non–cow’s milk were at higher risk of having a 25-hydroxyvitamin D level below 50 nmol/L than children who drank only cow’s milk (odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.6 to 4.7). Interpretation: Consumption of non–cow’s milk beverages was associated with decreased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in early childhood. This association was modified by cow’s milk consumption, which suggests a trade-off between consumption of cow’s milk fortified with higher levels of vitamin D and non–cow’s milk with lower vitamin D content. PMID:25332367

Lee, Grace J.; Birken, Catherine S.; Parkin, Patricia C.; Lebovic, Gerald; Chen, Yang; L’Abbé, Mary R.; Maguire, Jonathon L.

2014-01-01

344

Casein micelles: size distribution in milks from individual cows.  

PubMed

The size distribution and protein composition of casein micelles in the milk of Holstein-Friesian cows was determined as a function of stage and number of lactations. Protein composition did not vary significantly between the milks of different cows or as a function of lactation stage. Differences in the size and polydispersity of the casein micelles were observed between the milks of different cows, but not as a function of stage of milking or stage of lactation and not even over successive lactations periods. Modal radii varied from 55 to 70 nm, whereas hydrodynamic radii at a scattering angle of 73° (Q² = 350 ?m?²) varied from 77 to 115 nm and polydispersity varied from 0.27 to 0.41, in a log-normal distribution. Casein micelle size in the milks of individual cows was not correlated with age, milk production, or lactation stage of the cows or fat or protein content of the milk. PMID:22486748

de Kruif, C G Kees; Huppertz, Thom

2012-05-01

345

Lead absorption in cows: biological indicators of ambient lead exposure  

SciTech Connect

In order to determine actual lead exposure from residual amounts of lead in the environmental soil following the introduction of effective engineering emission controls in a lead smeltery, the absorption of lead in cows grazing in the vicinity was investigated. Four groups of cows were examined: two groups of cows exposed to different ambient lead concentration, compared with two normal groups of cows. In each cow aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) and blood lead (Pb-B) were determined, two years prior to and four years after the technical sanitation of the lead emission source. The results demonstrated normalization of ALAD, EP and Pb-B after the technical sanitation. In spite of normalization, biological indicators ALAD and Pb-B determined four years after the technical sanitation showed increased lead absorption in comparison with the results of the control group. This indirectly indicates lead contamination of the environment from residual amounts of lead in the soil.

Karacic, V.; Prpic-Majic, D.; Skender, L.

1984-03-01

346

How to understand and outwit adaptation.  

PubMed

Adaptation is the ability of a system to respond and reset itself even in the continuing presence of a stimulus. On one hand, adaptation is a physiological necessity that enables proper neuronal signaling and cell movement. On the other hand, adaptation can be a source of annoyance, as it can make biological systems resistant to experimental perturbations. Here we speculate where adaptation might live in eukaryotic chemotaxis and how it can be encoded in the signaling network. We then discuss tools and strategies that can be used to both understand and outwit adaptation in a wide range of cellular contexts. PMID:24697896

Hoeller, Oliver; Gong, Delquin; Weiner, Orion D

2014-03-31

347

Does diverse grazing behavior of suckler cows have an impact on predicted methane emissions?  

PubMed

A modeling study based on a dataset from a large-scale grazing study was used to identify the potential impact of grazing behavior and performance of diverse cow genotypes on predicted methane (CH4) emissions. Lactating cows grazing extensive seminatural grassland and heath vegetation were monitored with Global Positioning System collars and activity sensors. The diet selected by cows of 3 different genotypes, Aberdeen Angus cross Limousin (AxL), Charolais (CHA), and Luing (LUI), was simulated by matching their locations during active periods with hill vegetation maps. Measured performance and activity were used to predict energy requirements, DMI, and CH4 output. The cumulative effect of actual performance, diet selection, and actual physical activity on potential CH4 output and yield was estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed for the digestibility of intake, energy cost of activity, proportion of milk consumed by calves, and reproductive efficiency. Although with a better performance (P < 0.05), LUI required less total energy than the other genotypes (P < 0.001) as the other 2 spent more energy for maintenance (P < 0.001) and activity (P < 0.001). By selecting a better quality diet (P < 0.03), estimated CH4 of CHA cow-calf pairs was lower than AxL (P = 0.001) and slightly lower than LUI (P = 0.08). Energy lost as CH4 was 0.17 and 0.58% lower for LUI than AxL and CHA (P < 0.002). This study suggests for the first time that measured activity has a major impact on estimated CH4 outputs. A 15% difference of the cow-calf pair CH4 was estimated when using different coefficients to convert actual activity into energy. Predicted CH4 was highly sensitive to small changes in diet quality, suggesting the relative importance of diet selection on heterogeneous rangelands. Extending these results to a farm systems scale, CH4 outputs were also highly sensitive to reductions in weaning rates, illustrating the impact on CH4 at the farm-system level of using poorly adapted genotypes on habitats where their performances may be compromised. This paper demonstrates that variations in grazing behavior and grazing choice have a potentially large impact on CH4 emissions, illustrating the importance of including these factors in calculating realistic national and global estimates. PMID:24665106

Ricci, P; Umstätter, C; Holland, J P; Waterhouse, A

2014-03-01

348

Physiological effects of hypnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many studies indicating that sensory, circulatory, gastrointestinal, and cutaneous functions can be altered by means of hypnosis. There also are many studies indicating that similar physiological effects can be produced by symbolic stimulation without hypnosis. The assumption that hypnotic behavior is a function of the trance state is open to question. From Psyc Abstracts 36:01:3II90B.

Theodore Xenophon Barber

1961-01-01

349

Physiology of lactation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The breast changes in size, shape, and function during puberty, pregnancy, and lactation. The physiology of lactation is reviewed here. The breast is composed of fat and connective tissue that supports a tubuloalveolar structure. During development, anatomic changes involving new lobule formation an...

350

Post-Harvest Physiology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Numerous plant microbial and physiological processes occur during forage harvest and storage and are almost always deleterious. These processes are influenced by preharvest factors such as mowing time of day, plant species, and maturity stage, as well as by harvest and storage variables. Avoidance o...

351

Research on gravitational physiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topic of gravitational plant physiology was studied through aspects of plant development (in ARABIDOPSIS) and of behavior (in HELIANTHUS) as these were affected by altered g experience. The effect of increased g levels on stem polarity (in COLEUS) was also examined.

Brown, A. H.; Dahl, A. O.

1974-01-01

352

Physiology of Breastfeeding  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This powerpoint presentation summaries physiology of lactation and the impact of a variety of clinical practices on lactation from delivery through weaning. Factors that inhibit lactogenesis stage II are explained, including retained placenta, excess blood loss during delivery, and hypoplastic brea...

353

Physiology of Cholangiocytes  

PubMed Central

Cholangiocytes are epithelial cells that line the intra- and extrahepatic ducts of the biliary tree. The main physiologic function of cholangiocytes is modification of hepatocyte-derived bile, an intricate process regulated by hormones, peptides, nucleotides, neurotransmitters, and other molecules through intracellular signaling pathways and cascades. The mechanisms and regulation of bile modification are reviewed herein. PMID:23720296

Tabibian, James H.; Masyuk, Anatoliy I.; Masyuk, Tetyana V.; O’Hara, Steven P.; LaRusso, Nicholas F.

2013-01-01

354

Renal Physiology of Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Pregnancy involves remarkable orchestration of physiologic changes. The kidneys are central players in the evolving hormonal milieu of pregnancy, responding and contributing to the changes in the environment for the pregnant woman and fetus. The functional impact of pregnancy on kidney physiology is widespread, involving practically all aspects of kidney function. The glomerular filtration rate increases 50% with subsequent decrease in serum creatinine, urea, and uric acid values. The threshold for thirst and antidiuretic hormone secretion are depressed, resulting in lower osmolality and serum sodium levels. Blood pressure drops approximately 10 mmHg by the second trimester despite a gain in intravascular volume of 30% to 50%. The drop in systemic vascular resistance is multifactorial, attributed in part to insensitivity to vasoactive hormones, and leads to activation of the renin-aldosterone-angiostensin system. A rise in serum aldosterone results in a net gain of approximately 1000 mg of sodium. A parallel rise in progesterone protects the pregnant woman from hypokalemia. The kidneys increase in length and volume, and physiologic hydronephrosis occurs in up to 80% of women. This review will provide an understanding of these important changes in kidney physiology during pregnancy, which is fundamental in caring for the pregnant patient. PMID:23928384

Cheung, Katharine L.; Lafayette, Richard A.

2014-01-01

355

Programmable physiological infusion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A programmable physiological infusion device and method are provided wherein a program source, such as a paper tape, is used to actuate an infusion pump in accordance with a desired program. The system is particularly applicable for dispensing calcium in a variety of waveforms.

Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.; Adachi, R. R. (inventors)

1974-01-01

356

Applied respiratory physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaesthesia has many effects on respiratory physiology, the knowledge of which is relevant to clinical practice. Anaesthesia causes decreased muscle tone in the upper airway, which can lead to airway obstruction. Pulmonary hypoventilation occurs in the spontaneously breathing patient. There is a progressive decrease in the ventilatory response to CO2 with increasing concentration of volatile agents, and even low doses

Derek Randles; Stuart Dabner

2011-01-01

357

Applied respiratory physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaesthesia has many effects on respiratory physiology, the knowledge of which is relevant to clinical practice. Anaesthesia causes decreased muscle tone in the upper airway, which can lead to airway obstruction. Pulmonary hypoventilation occurs in the spontaneously breathing patient. There is a progressive decrease in the ventilatory response to CO2 with increasing concentration of volatile agents, and even low doses

Derek Randles; Stuart Dabner

2008-01-01

358

Lifelines Episode 03: Physiology of the Season  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a free audio podcast from the American Physiological Society. Discussion questions, related research, and other teaching resources are available by clicking on the "collection" tab in the left hand column. In this special holiday edition of the podcast, weÃÂll talk to Perry Barboza of the institute of arctic biology at the university of Alaska in Fairbanks and Lisa Leon of the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine in Natick Massachusetts. Dr. Barboza explains how a reindeerÃÂs physiology allows survival under such frigid winters with so little food and Dr. Leon will look at how humans adapt to extremes of heat and cold. They will also give us some pointers on how to help Santa, Rudolph and the gang as they circumnavigate the globe.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office); Perry Barboza (University of Alaska- Fairbanks Wildlife Physiology and Nutrition)

2007-12-04

359

Assessment of the excretion time of electronic capsules placed in the intestinal lumen of cows with cecal dilatation-dislocation, healthy control cows, and cows with left displacement of the abomasum.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE To analyze the transit time from various locations in the intestines of cows with cecal dilatation-dislocation (CDD), healthy control cows, and cows with left displacement of the abomasum (LDA). ANIMALS 15 cows with naturally occurring CDD (group 1), 14 healthy control cows (group 2), and 18 cows with LDA (group 3). PROCEDURES 5 electronic transmitters were encased in capsules and placed in the lumen of the ileum, cecum, proximal portion of the colon, and 2 locations in the spiral colon (colon 1 and colon 2) and used to measure the transit time (ie, time between placement in the lumen and excretion of the capsules from the rectum). Excretion time of the capsules from each intestinal segment was compared among groups. RESULTS Cows recovered well from surgery, except for 1 cow with relapse of CDD 4 days after surgery and 2 cows with incisional infection. High variability in capsule excretion times was observed for all examined intestinal segments in all groups. Significant differences were detected for the excretion time from the colon (greater in cows with CDD than in healthy control cows) and cecum (less in cows with LDA than in cows of the other 2 groups). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The technique developed to measure excretion time of capsules from bovine intestines was safe and reliable; however, the large variability observed for all intestinal segments and all groups would appear to be a limitation for its use in assessment of intestinal transit time of cattle in future studies. PMID:25535662

Devaux, David J-A L; Lempen, Markus; Schelling, Esther; Koch, Volker M; Meylan, Mireille

2015-01-01

360

Measures of daily distribution patterns of cow calf pairs using global positioning systems on both cows and calves  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

GPS collars were used to describe the daily distribution patterns of cows and their calves from 18 to 60 days postpartum on pinyon juniper-shortgrass rangeland in central New Mexico. Eighteen, 3 year old cows and their calves were fitted weekly with GPS collars for seven consecutive weeks. Twenty da...

361

Economic feasibility of converting cow manure to electricity: A case study of the CVPS Cow Power program in Vermont  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case study of the Central Vermont Public Service Corporation (CVPS) Cow Power program examines the economic feasibility for dairy farms to convert cow manure into electricity via anaerobic methane digestion. The study reviews the mechanism for CVPS, dairy farms, electricity customers, and government agencies to develop and operate the program since 2004, examines the costs and returns for the

Qingbin Wang; Ethan Thompson; Robert L. Parsons; Glenn Rogers; D. Dunn

2011-01-01

362

Comparison of F1 cows sired by Brahman, Boran and Tuli bulls for reproductive, maternal, and cow longevity traits  

E-print Network

Birth weight (BW) (n =1277) and weaning weight (WW) (n = 1090) of calves, pregnancy rate (PR) (n = 1386), calf crop born (CCB) (n = 1386), calf crop weaned (CCW) (n = 1294), cow�s weight at palpation (CW) (n = 1474) and cow body condition score...

Maiga, Assalia Hassimi

2007-04-25

363

Effect on Production of Replacing Dietary Starch With Sucrose in Lactating Dairy Cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Replacing dietary starch with sugar has been reported to improve production in dairy cows. Two sets of 24 Holstein cows averaging 41 kg/d of milk were fed a covariate diet and then blocked by DIM and randomly assigned in two phases to four groups of 6 cows each. Cows were fed experimental diets cont...

364

Intramammary Application of Ozone Therapy to Acute Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The infusion of ozone into the inflamed quarter of cows with clinical mastitis was performed and the efficacy of ozone therapy was evaluated. Ozone was infused into the inflamed quarter via a teat canal using ozone gas generating equipment. Nineteen Holstein cows with acute clinical mastitis were divided into two groups: 15 cows treated with ozone therapy, and 4 cows

Atsuya OGATA; Hajime NAGAHATA

2000-01-01

365

Avian reproductive physiology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos and gametes, embryo transplant, DNA analysis and manipulation, disease screening and control, and improved release conditioning methods.

Gee, G.F.

1995-01-01

366

Production diseases of the transition cow.  

PubMed

Production diseases of the dairy cow are caused by a level of production inconsistent with nutrient intake, provision of an inadequate diet, an unsuitable environment, an inappropriate breeding policy or various combinations of these factors. Although the transition period of 3 weeks pre-calving until 3 weeks post-calving is associated with a peak incidence of production disease, the effects of these diseases on dairy cow health and productivity extend far into the following lactation. Recent advances in understanding of production diseases include the emergence of propylene glycol and rumen protected choline as the supplements of choice for preventing fatty liver and the absence of any preventative effect of increased energy density in the close-up dry period diet on this condition; the linear negative influence of dietary cation anion difference (DCAD) on the incidence of milk fever regardless of urinary pH or the target level of dietary DCAD achieved; the inflammatory response associated with subacute rumen acidosis and its effect on feed intake; an increased awareness of the potential for antioxidant status to improve immunity and health in the transition period; the development of more standardised diagnostic criteria and treatment protocols for uterine infection. A significant body of knowledge already exists which should allow for the optimal management and prevention of bovine production diseases. One of the important challenges facing the dairy industry is the development, implementation and economic assessment of practical, integrated, blueprints of best practice for prevention of the production diseases and other diseases of the dairy cow. PMID:18342556

Mulligan, F J; Doherty, M L

2008-04-01

367

A Physiologically-based Model for Methylmercury Uptake and Accumulation in Female American Kestrels  

EPA Science Inventory

A physiologically-based model was developed to describe the uptake, distribution, and elimination of methylmercury in female American Kestrels (Falco sparverius). The model was adapted from established models for methylmercury in rodents. Features unique to the model include meth...

368

Evolutionary history underlies plant physiological responses to global change since the last glacial maximum  

E-print Network

, and responses were more similar within families than within co-occurring species assemblages. This suggests that adaptation at the level of leaf physiology may not be the main determinant of shifts in community composition, and that plant evolutionary history...

Becklin, Katie M.; Medeiros, Juliana S.; Sale, Kayla R.; Ward, Joy K.

2014-06-01

369

FISH 324: Aquatic Animal Physiology and Reproduction Winter 2014  

E-print Network

at different parts of their life cycle (e.g., anadromy in salmon, catadromy in eels). Case studies will also to cope with the various environmental and physiological challenges to life in aquatic environments challenge or adaptation to the aquatic environment. After considering the challenges of life in aquatic

Washington at Seattle, University of

370

Physiology for High School - Human Physiological Limits to Exploring Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The keynote presentation from EB 2008's Physiology for Life Science High School Teachers and Students Workshop. This powerpoint presentation discusses the possibility of human exploration on Mars, specifically, how space flight and life on mars would effect human physiology.

PhD James A Pawelczyk (Pennsylvania State University)

2008-04-05

371

Delayed effect of progesterone on endometrial morphology in dairy cows.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of vaginal progesterone (P4) administered during the luteal phase, on endometrial morphology during the subsequent oestrous cycle. In experiment 1, lactating Holstein cows were allotted to three groups: (1) Control group in which cows remained untreated; (2) The CIDR group in which cows were treated with two P4-containing controlled intravaginal-drug releasing devices (CIDR) during days (d) 6-12 of the cycle; and (3) The PG + CIDR group of cows that received two prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) injections on d 6 and 7 of the oestrous cycle, to regress the corpus luteum (CL), and were treated with CIDRs on d 6-12, like the CIDR group. All cows were slaughtered on d 3 of the subsequent oestrous cycle. In experiment 2, cows were allotted to three groups: (1) Control cows that remained untreated; (2) CIDR cows that were treated with two CIDRs from d 6 to 15; and (3) Early PG cows that received three i.m. injections of PGF2 alpha on d 3 and 4 of the oestrous cycle to reduce plasma P4. All cows were slaughtered on d 15 of the subsequent cycle. In both experiments, blood was collected during the treated and subsequent cycles to determine P4 and oestradiol (E2) concentrations, and tissue samples from the uterine horn ipsilateral to the CL were collected on the day of slaughter to evaluate endometrial morphology. In both experiments, plasma P4 differed between treatments during the treated cycle but no differences in P4 and E2 concentrations were recorded during the subsequent cycle. In experiment 1, the endometrial morphology of the cows from CIDR and PG + CIDR groups differed from that found in the control group: The surface epithelium was medium to high and the glands were round and tortuous, as compared with low epithelium and oblong glands in the control. In addition, the density of blood vessels and the level of edema was higher in the CIDR-treated cows than in the control cows. In experiment 2, the endometrial morphology of the CIDR-treated group differed from that of the control and early PG groups: Low surface epithelium and oblong glands in the former compared with high epithelium and tortuous glands in the latter. In summary, P4 supplementation during the luteal phase had delayed effect on endometrial morphology at different stages of the subsequent oestrous cycle. PMID:9452870

Shaham-Albalancy, A; Nyska, A; Kaim, M; Rosenberg, M; Folman, Y; Wolfenson, D

1997-08-01

372

Clinical physiology of bed rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maintenance of optimal health in humans requires the proper balance between exercise, rest, and sleep as well as time in the upright position. About one-third of a lifetime is spent sleeping; and it is no coincidence that sleeping is performed in the horizontal position, the position in which gravitational influence on the body is minimal. Although enforced bed rest is necessary for the treatment of some ailments, in some cases it has probably been used unwisely. In addition to the lower hydrostatic pressure with the normally dependent regions of the cardiovascular system, body fuid compartments during bed rest in the horizontal body position, and virtual elimination of compression on the long bones of the skeletal system during bed rest (hypogravia), there is often reduction in energy metabolism due to the relative confinement (hypodynamia) and alteration of ambulatory circadian variations in metabolism, body temperature, and many hormonal systems. If patients are also moved to unfamiliar surroundings, they probably experience some feelings of anxiety and some sociopsychological problems. Adaptive physiological responses during bed rest are normal for that environment. They are attempts by the body to reduce unnecessary energy expenditure, to optimize its function, and to enhance its survival potential. Many of the deconditioning responses begin within the first day or two of bed rest; these early responses have prompted physicians to insist upon early resumption of the upright posture and ambulation of bedridden patients.

Greenleaf, John E.

1993-01-01

373

Physiology of prolonged bed rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bed rest has been a normal procedure used by physicians for centuries in the treatment of injury and disease. Exposure of patients to prolonged bed rest in the horizontal position induces adaptive deconditioning responses. While deconditioning responses are appropriate for patients or test subjects in the horizontal position, they usually result in adverse physiological responses (fainting, muscular weakness) when the patient assume the upright posture. These deconditioning responses result from reduction in hydrostatic pressure within the cardiovascular system, virtual elimination of longitudinal pressure on the long bones, some decrease in total body metabolism, changes in diet, and perhaps psychological impact from the different environment. Almost every system in the body is affected. An early stimulus is the cephalic shift of fluid from the legs which increases atrial pressure and induces compensatory responses for fluid and electrolyte redistribution. Without countermeasures, deterioration in strength and muscle function occurs within 1 wk while increased calcium loss may continue for months. Research should also focus on drug and carbohydrate metabolism.

Greenleaf, J. E.

1988-01-01

374

Evaluation of the Change of Serum Copper and Zinc Concentrations of Dairy Cows with Subclinical Ketosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ketosis in dairy cows can lead to poor reproductive success and decreased milk production. Since the serum concentrations\\u000a of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are closely associated with the health status of cows, we investigated whether serum concentrations\\u000a of Cu and Zn differed in dairy cows with subclinical ketosis and healthy dairy cows. Blood samples of 19 healthy dairy cows

Zhigang Zhang; Guowen Liu; Xiaobing Li; Li Gao; Changming Guo; Hongbin Wang; Zhe Wang

2010-01-01

375

Timothy hays differing in dietary cation-anion difference affect the capability of dairy cows to maintain their calcium homeostasis.  

PubMed

Forages low in dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) can be used to decrease the DCAD in prepartum diet but the extent to which DCAD needs to be reduced is of recent interest. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of timothy hays differing in DCAD at maintaining Ca homeostasis. Six nonlactating and nonpregnant multiparous Holstein cows were fed diets containing timothy (Phleum pratense L.) hay with DCAD values of 4.1 +/- 3.6 (LOW), 14.1 +/- 3.0 (MED), or 25.1 +/- 2.5 (HIGH) mEq per 100 g of DM in a duplicated 3 x 3 Latin square design with 14-d experimental periods. The LOW and MED hays were produced by fertilizing established timothy fields at a rate of 224 kg CaCl(2) per ha, and HIGH hay was obtained from the same field where LOW hay was produced, but from a section not fertilized with CaCl(2). Experimental diets, containing LOW, MED, or HIGH timothy hay at 71% of dietary DM, had DCAD values of 0.7, 7.3, and 14.4 mEq per 100 g of DM, respectively. Animals were fed at 6% of metabolic body weight, which provided 108% of their daily energy requirement. For each period, after a 12 d diet adaptation, cows were subjected to an EDTA challenge (3 cows each on d 13 and 14). Infusion of EDTA solution into the jugular vein decreases the concentration of blood ionized Ca, and the EDTA challenge protocol determined the resistance time and recovery time: the time required for the blood ionized Ca concentration to decrease to 60%, and the time required to recover to 90% of the prechallenge concentrations, respectively. Urine pH was lower when cows were fed LOW compared with HIGH diet (6.88 vs. 7.83), but urine pH when cows were fed MED diet (7.15) did not differ from that when cows received the LOW or HIGH diet. However, immediately before the EDTA challenge, blood pH was lower when cows were fed LOW or MED compared with HIGH diet (7.44 vs. 7.47). Although the resistance time was not affected by treatments, the recovery time was shorter when cows were fed the LOW compared with MED or HIGH diet (185 vs. 248 and 263 min, respectively). Blood pH decreased when cows were fed the LOW or MED diet, but the capability to maintain Ca homeostasis was enhanced only when cows received the LOW diet, in which the DCAD value was decreased to 1 mEq per 100 g of DM. PMID:19109283

Heron, V S; Tremblay, G F; Oba, M

2009-01-01

376

Evaluation of the use of dry cow antibiotics in low somatic cell count cows.  

PubMed

The goal of dry cow therapy (DCT) is to reduce the prevalence of intramammary infections (IMI) by eliminating existing IMI at drying off and preventing new IMI from occurring during the dry period. Due to public health concerns, however, preventive use of antibiotics has become questionable. This study evaluated selective DCT in 1,657 cows with low somatic cell count (SCC) at the last milk recording before drying off in 97 Dutch dairy herds. Low SCC was defined as <150,000 cells/mL for primiparous and <250,000 cells/mL for multiparous cows. A split-udder design was used in which 2 quarters of each cow were treated with dry cow antibiotics and the other 2 quarters remained as untreated controls. The effect of DCT on clinical mastitis (CM), bacteriological status, SCC, and antibiotic use were determined at the quarter level using logistic regression and chi-squared tests. The incidence rate of CM was found to be 1.7 times (95% confidence interval = 1.4-2.1) higher in quarters dried off without antibiotics as compared with quarters dried off with antibiotics. Streptococcus uberis was the predominant organism causing CM in both groups. Somatic cell count at calving and 14 d in milk was significantly higher in quarters dried off without antibiotics (772,000 and 46,000 cells/mL, respectively) as compared with the quarters dried off with antibiotics (578,000 and 30,000 cells/mL, respectively). Quarters with an elevated SCC at drying off and quarters with a positive culture for major pathogens at drying off had a higher risk for an SCC above 200,000 cells/mL at 14 d in milk as compared with quarters with a low SCC at drying off and quarters with a negative culture for major pathogens at drying off. For quarters that were culture-positive for major pathogens at drying off, a trend for a higher risk on CM was also found. Selective DCT, not using DCT in cows that had a low SCC at the last milk recording before drying off, significantly increased the incidence rate of CM and SCC. The decrease in antibiotic use by drying off quarters without DCT was not compensated by an increase in antibiotic use for treating CM. Total antibiotic use related to mastitis was reduced by 85% in these quarters. PMID:24746132

Scherpenzeel, C G M; den Uijl, I E M; van Schaik, G; Olde Riekerink, R G M; Keurentjes, J M; Lam, T J G M

2014-06-01

377

Morphological, Anatomical, and Physiological Changes of Orchardgrass Leaves Grown under Fluctuating Light Regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological and anatomical adaptability of pastures growing under trees in silvopastoral systems can alter the efficiency of conver- sion of energy to dry matter (DM). This study was conducted to deter- mine the effects of different fluctuating light regimes (from 24 to 100% transmissivity) on leaf physiology, morphology, anatomy, and structure of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) in a silvopastoral

Pablo L. Peri; Derrick J. Moot; Peter Jarvis; David L. McNeil; Richard J. Lucas

2007-01-01

378

Aquatic Invertebrate Ecological Physiology FAS 4932/6154 Fall 2011 Instructor: Dr. Shirley Baker  

E-print Network

1 Aquatic Invertebrate Ecological Physiology ­ FAS 4932/6154­ Fall 2011 Instructor: Dr. Shirley, behavioral, and ecological adaptations of invertebrate animals. A comparative approach is used to examine of invertebrates and the underlying importance of physiology in the structure and function of communities

Florida, University of

379

Factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to identify factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows, as measured by a commercially available hydrometer (Colostrometer). Colostral specific gravity was measured in 1085 first-milking colostrum samples from 608 dairy cows of four breeds on a single farm during a 5-yr period. Effects of breed, lactation number, and month and year of calving on colostral specific gravity were determined, as were correlations between colostral specific gravity, nonlactating period length, and 305-d yields of milk, protein, and fat. For 75 multiparous Holstein cows, relationships between colostral specific gravity, colostral IgG1, protein, and fat concentrations, and season of calving were determined. Colostral specific gravity values were lower for Brown Swiss and Ayrshire cows than for Jersey and Holstein cows, and lower for cows entering first or second lactation than third or later lactations. Month of calving markedly affected colostral specific gravity values, with highest values occurring in autumn and lowest values in summer. In multiparous Holstein cows, colostral specific gravity was more strongly correlated with colostral protein concentration (r = 0.76) than IgG1 concentration (r = 0.53), and colostral protein concentration varied seasonally (higher in autumn than summer). Our results demonstrate that colostral specific gravity more closely reflects colostral protein concentration than IgG1 concentration and is markedly influenced by month of calving. These results highlight potential limitations of using colostral specific gravity as an indicator of IgG1 concentration. PMID:11352170

Morin, D E; Constable, P D; Maunsell, F P; McCoy, G C

2001-04-01

380

Postdoctoral Fellow Neural Cardiovascular Physiology  

E-print Network

Postdoctoral Fellow Neural Cardiovascular Physiology Job Description A postdoctoral position is available at Colorado State University, Department of Biomedical Sciences; Center for Cardiovascular and physiological roles of new components of the renin-angiotensin system in the regulation of cardiovascular

Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

381

Carotenoids, chemistry, sources and physiology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter for the Enclyclopedia of Human Nutrition (3rd edition) summarizes the structure, chemical and physiological mechanisms, dietary sources, and metabolism of carotenoids. Carotenoids are a family of phytonutrients which have antioxidant properties under most physiological conditions. Num...

382

Stepping behavior and muscle activity of dairy cows on uncomfortable standing surfaces presented under 1 or 4 legs.  

PubMed

The comfort of dairy cattle while standing has important implications for housing design. Research has examined how cattle respond to standing surfaces by presenting options under all 4 legs or under a single leg, but no work, to date, has compared presentation methods. This study examined behavior and muscle activity when cows stood on rough floors under all 4 legs or just 1 hind leg. Three treatments were tested: smooth concrete under all 4 legs (0-ROUGH), a rough surface under all 4 legs [2cm × 2cm × 4cm trapezoidal protrusions (4-ROUGH)], and a rough surface only under 1 hind leg, with other legs on smooth concrete (1-ROUGH). Twenty-four healthy Holstein cows stood on each surface for 1h/d in a repeated-measures design. Surface electromyograms (SEMG) were used to evaluate muscle fatigue and total activity. Muscle fatigue was measured using SEMG to evaluate (1) static contractions when cows were continuously weight bearing on each hind leg, before and after 1h of standing, and (2) dynamic contractions associated with steps during 1h of standing. Behavioral measures included steps per minute, time between each consecutive step, and the latency to lie down after testing. The number of legs affected by roughness influenced both behavioral and physiological responses to flooring. Cows on 1-ROUGH stepped twice as often with the rough-treated leg and one-half as much with the hind leg on smooth concrete compared with other surfaces. Similarly, on the 1-ROUGH surface, total muscle activity was reduced in the leg on the rough surface, and muscle activity was more sustained (3× higher) in the other hind leg, suggesting that cows avoid possible discomfort under 1 leg by using muscles in the other. In the 4-ROUGH treatment, time between steps was more variable than on the other 2 treatments (coefficient of variation, 4-ROUGH: 245; 1-ROUGH: 208; 0-ROUGH: 190±5.8%), likely because cows could not move away from this uneven flooring. Thus, the method of presentation of stimuli used to evaluate comfort while standing altered the response. Stepping rate and SEMG changed when roughness was under a single leg, whereas timing between consecutive steps was more variable with rough flooring under all 4 legs. These results have implications for the design of experiments evaluating standing comfort in the future. PMID:25465636

Rajapaksha, E; Tucker, C B

2015-01-01

383

Maintenance energy requirements of beef cows and relationship with cow and calf performance, metabolic hormones, and functional proteins.  

PubMed

Gestating Angus, nonlactating, spring-calving cows were used to determine variation in maintenance energy requirements (MR); to evaluate the relationship among MR and cow and calf performance, plasma concentrations of IGF-I, T4, glucose, insulin, and ruminal temperature; and to describe the LM proteome and evaluate protein abundance in cows with different MR. Cows (4 to 7 yr of age) with a BCS of 5.0 ± 0.2 and BW of 582 ± 37 kg in the second to third trimester of gestation were studied in 3 trials (trial 1, n = 23; trial 2, n = 32; trial 3, n = 38). Cows were individually fed a complete diet in amounts to meet predicted MR (Level 1 Model of NRC), and feed intake was adjusted weekly until constant BW was achieved for at least 21 d (maintenance). Cows were classified on the basis of MR as low (>0.5 SD less than mean, LMR), moderate (±0.5 SD of mean, MMR), or high (>0.5 SD more than mean, HMR) MR. Blood samples were taken at maintenance and at 2 mo postpartum in trial 2. Muscle biopsies were taken from LMR and HMR after cows consumed actual MR for 28 d (trial 2) or 21 d (trial 3). Proteins from LM were separated by 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and were identified, and abundance was quantified and compared. The greatest differences in MR between cows were 29%, 24%, and 25% in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Daily MR (NEm, kcal·BW(-0.75)·d(-1)) averaged 89.2 ± 6.3, 93.0 ± 4.9, and 90.4 ± 4.6 in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Postpartum BW and BCS, calf birth and weaning weights, postpartum luteal activity, and ruminal temperature were not influenced by MR of the cows. Concentrations of IGF-I were greater (P = 0.001) in plasma of MMR compared with LMR cows consuming predicted MR diets, and MR was negatively correlated with concentrations of IGF-I in plasma (r = -0.38; P = 0.05) at 2 mo postpartum. A total of 103 proteins were isolated from LM; 52 gene products were identified. Abundance of specific proteins in the LM was not influenced (P > 0.11) by MR. Variation in MR of cows will make it possible to improve feed efficiency by selection. Identification of biomarkers for MR will allow selection of more efficient cows, which consume less feed and produce calves with similar weaning weights. Productive cows that require less feed for maintenance will improve efficiency of production and enhance sustainability of the environment. PMID:24902599

Cooper-Prado, M J; Long, N M; Davis, M P; Wright, E C; Madden, R D; Dilwith, J W; Bailey, C L; Spicer, L J; Wettemann, R P

2014-08-01

384

Pavlov and integrative physiology.  

PubMed

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was the first physiologist to win the Nobel Prize. The Prize was given in 1904 for his research on the neural control of salivary, gastric, and pancreatic secretion. A major reason for the success and novelty of his research was the use of unanesthetized dogs surgically prepared with chronic fistulas or gastric pouches that permitted repeated experiments in the same animal for months. Pavlov invented this chronic method because of the limitations he perceived in the use of acute anesthetized animals for investigating physiological systems. By introducing the chronic method and by showing its experimental advantages, Pavlov founded modern integrative physiology. This paper reviews Pavlov's journey from his birthplace in a provincial village in Russia to Stockholm to receive the Prize. It begins with childhood influences, describes his training and mentors, summarizes the major points of his research by reviewing his book Lectures on the Work of the Digestive Glands, and discusses his views on the relationship between physiology and medicine. PMID:10956230

Smith, G P

2000-09-01

385

Dairy cow preference and usage of an alternative freestall design.  

PubMed

Freestall housing for dairy cows was created to reduce the amount of bedding and labor needed to keep stalls clean. However, some aspects of stall design may restrict stall usage by cows. The aim of this study was to assess dairy cow preference and usage of a conventional stall (with a neck rail and metal stall dividers) and an alternative stall design with no neck rail or stall dividers other than a wooden board protruding slightly (8cm) above the lying surface. In the no-choice phase of the study, 48 cows were randomly assigned to 8 groups (of 6 cows each); groups were alternately allocated to the 2 treatments. Each group was observed for 7 d on one treatment and then switched to the alternate treatment for 7 d. For the choice phase (also 7 d), groups in adjacent pens were merged (to form 4 groups, each with 12 cows) and cows had free access to both treatments within the merged pen. In the no-choice phase, cows spent more time standing with 4 hooves in the alternative versus conventional freestall (0.60±0.06 vs. 0.05±0.06h/d), but stall designs had no effect on time spent lying down (13.2±0.4 vs. 12.9±0.4h/d). In the choice phase, cows spent more time lying down in the conventional freestall (9.4±0.8 vs. 4.1±0.8h/d) and more time standing with all 4 hooves in the alternative stall (0.24±0.03 vs. 0.02±0.03h/d). These results illustrate how different stall design features can affect different types of stall use; the more open design facilitated standing fully in the stall, but the protruding partitions likely made the stall less suitable for lying. PMID:25497827

Abade, C C; Fregonesi, J A; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

2015-02-01

386

Optimal barn characteristics for high-yielding Holstein cows as derived by a new heat-stress model.  

PubMed

Meticulous planning is required to minimize heat-stress conditions in barns. The objective of this study was to determine optimum barn characteristics for high-yielding dairy cows under Israeli (Mediterranean) summer ambient conditions, by using a new stress model that takes ambient temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity into account. During the summers of 2004 and 2005, three meteorological stations were alternately installed in 39 barns: two stations inside the barn at the prevailing downwind direction, and a third station outside the upwind end of the barn. Ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction were measured and recorded every 10 min for 3 to 5 consecutive days at each barn in turn. The data were collected at different geographical and climatic conditions. Therefore, the data collected by an outside station were used as covariates. A heat-stress model was used to determine the threshold temperature (THRT) at which a cow begins to increase its respiratory rate; THRT was the response variable in the statistical model. The THRT model takes in account assumed values of a cow's physiological characteristics: daily milk yield of 45 kg, containing 3.5% fat, and 3 mm fur depth. The independent variables were: orientation, barn type, roof slope, roof ridge, marginal height, roof type (fixed or sliding) and barn width. Results showed that the optimal barn for high-yielding cows is the loose-housing type, oriented with its long axis perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction. Advantageous to the design would be an open ridge or pagoda with marginal height of over 4.7 m for north-south orientation and over 5 m for east-west orientation, roof slope over 11%, and barn width between 43 and 51 m for north-south orientation but lower than 42 m for east-west orientation. A sliding roof was also found to be an excellent solution when outside yards are banned by environmental regulations. PMID:23031139

Shoshani, E; Hetzroni, A

2013-01-01

387

College of Medicine PGY Physiology  

E-print Network

College of Medicine PGY Physiology KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped University of Kentucky 2013-2014 Undergraduate Bulletin 1 PGY 206 ELEMENTARY PHYSIOLOGY. (3) An introductory survey course in basic human physiology. Prereq: One semester of college biology. PGY 207 CASE STUDIES

MacAdam, Keith

388

Homeostatic reinforcement learning for integrating reward collection and physiological stability.  

PubMed

Efficient regulation of internal homeostasis and defending it against perturbations requires adaptive behavioral strategies. However, the computational principles mediating the interaction between homeostatic and associative learning processes remain undefined. Here we use a definition of primary rewards, as outcomes fulfilling physiological needs, to build a normative theory showing how learning motivated behaviors may be modulated by internal states. Within this framework, we mathematically prove that seeking rewards is equivalent to the fundamental objective of physiological stability, defining the notion of physiological rationality of behavior. We further suggest a formal basis for temporal discounting of rewards by showing that discounting motivates animals to follow the shortest path in the space of physiological variables toward the desired setpoint. We also explain how animals learn to act predictively to preclude prospective homeostatic challenges, and several other behavioral patterns. Finally, we suggest a computational role for interaction between hypothalamus and the brain reward system. PMID:25457346

Keramati, Mehdi; Gutkin, Boris

2014-01-01

389

Fixed-time insemination of porcine luteinizing hormone-treated superovulated beef cows and the resynchronization of beef cows for fixed-time embryo transfer  

E-print Network

Two trials were conducted to compare the effectiveness of fixed-time artificial insemination (AI) to AI based upon visual detection of estrus following superstimulation of donor beef cows. In Trial 1, multiparous beef cows (n = 31) were randomly...

Nelson, John Stephen

2009-05-15

390

Clinical ketosis and standing behavior in transition cows.  

PubMed

Ketosis is a common disease in dairy cattle, especially in the days after calving, and it is often undiagnosed. The objective of this study was to compare the standing behavior of dairy cows with and without ketosis during the days around calving to determine if changes in this behavior could be useful in the early identification of sick cows. Serum ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) was measured in 184 cows on a commercial dairy farm twice weekly from 2 to 21d after calving. Standing behavior was measured from 7d before calving to 21d after calving using data loggers. Retrospectively, 15 cows with clinical ketosis (3 consecutive BHBA samples >1.2mmol/L and at least one sample of BHBA >2.9mmol/L) were matched with 15 nonketotic cows (BHBA <1.2mmol/L). Five periods were defined for the statistical analyses: wk -1 (d -7 to -1), d 0 (day of calving), wk +1 (d 1 to 7), wk +2 (d 8 to 14), and wk +3 (d 15 to 21). The first signs of clinical ketosis occurred 4.5±2.1d after calving. Total daily standing time was longer for clinically ketotic cows compared with nonketotic cows during wk -1 (14.3±0.6 vs. 12.0±0.7h/d) and on d 0 (17.2±0.9 vs. 12.7±0.9h/d) but did not differ during the other periods. Clinically ketotic cows exhibited fewer standing bouts compared with nonketotic cows on d 0 only (14.6±1.9 vs. 20.9±1.8bouts/d). Average standing bout duration was also longer for clinically ketotic cows on d 0 compared with nonketotic cows [71.3min/bout (CI: 59.3 to 85.5) vs. 35.8min/bout (CI: 29.8 to 42.9)] but was not different during the other periods. Differences in standing behavior in the week before and on the day of calving may be useful for the early detection of clinical ketosis in dairy cows. PMID:25465623

Itle, A J; Huzzey, J M; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

2015-01-01

391

[Ultrasonographic finding and treatment of a cow with pyelonephrosis].  

PubMed

Ultrasonography of a six-year-old Simmental cow revealed an abscess like structure, approximately 15 cm in diameter, in place of the right kidney. The cow had a history of colic for 4 days and was referred to our clinic with a tentative diagnosis of caecal dilatation. The cow voided dark opaque urine with white floccules. Laboratory examination yielded increased haematocrit, leukocytosis with left shift, hyperbilirubinaemia and azotaemia. The diagnosis was confirmed, the caecum emptied surgically and the pus-filled structure at the site of the right kidney removed. A diagnosis of pyonephrosis was made after pathological examination of the pus-filled structure. PMID:24973321

Lesser; Krüger; Nuss; Sydler; Braun

2014-07-01

392

Ground Versus Unground Grain for Lactating Dairy Cows.  

E-print Network

of the concentrate mixture was com- posed of whole ens. Less of the whole oats and barley was re- fnsed by the cows than of wrn or milo fed as whole $rain. Greater milk production, especially with high producing cows, was obtained in all of the experiments when... of milk were obtained by feeding ground grains, even though more grain mas required to produce this milk, and since the ratio of milk produced to grain consumed was practically unchanged, it seems advisable to grind grains for dairy cows in order...

Darnell, A. L. (Albert Laurie); Copeland, O. C. (Orlin Cephas)

1936-01-01

393

Lymphocyte functions in dairy cows in hot environment.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to ascertain the effects of intense high environmental temperatures (HET) on lymphocyte functions in periparturient dairy cows. The study was undertaken from the beginning of March through the end of July 2003 in a commercial dairy unit located approximately 40 km north of Rome. Thirty-four Holstein cows were utilised in the study. Twenty-two of these cows gave birth in spring (SP cows), from 28 March to 30 April. The remaining 12 cows gave birth in summer (SU cows), between 15 June and 2 July. The two groups of cows were balanced for parity and were fed the same rations. Blood samples were taken 4, 3, 2 and 1 week before calving, and 1, 2 and 4 weeks after calving, in order to evaluate peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) function in vitro, and to determine plasma cortisol concentrations. After isolation, the PBMC were stimulated with mitogens and their response in terms of DNA synthesis and IgM secretion was measured. During spring, either the day (9-20 h) or the night (21-8 h) temperature humidity index (THI) was below the upper critical THI (72) established for dairy cows. During summer, the mean daily THI values were 79.5+/-2.9 during the day and 70.1+/-4.7 during the night. Furthermore, during summer, three heat waves (a period of at least 3 consecutive days during which there were less than 10 recovery hours) occurred. Recovery hours were intended hours with a THI below 72. The first heat wave lasted 5 days, the second 6 days, and the third 15 days. Compared to the SP cows, over the entire periparturient period the extent of DNA synthesis and IgM secretion levels were lower (P ranging from <0.01 to 0.0001) and higher (P<0.01) respectively, in the SU cows. Before calving, the SU cows also presented higher (P<0.01) concentrations of plasma cortisol compared to the SP cows. This study indicates that the effects of HET on the immune response depend on the specific immune function under consideration, and that neuroendocrinal changes due to HET may play a role in the perturbation of immune functions. PMID:15991017

Lacetera, Nicola; Bernabucci, Umberto; Scalia, Daniela; Ronchi, Bruno; Kuzminsky, Giorgina; Nardone, Alessandro

2005-11-01

394

Effect of increasing body condition on key regulators of fat metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue depot and circulation of nonlactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

In response to negative energy balance, overconditioned cows mobilize more body fat than thin cows and subsequently are prone to develop metabolic disorders. Changes in adipose tissue (AT) metabolism are barely investigated in overconditioned cows. Therefore, the objective was to investigate the effect of increasing body condition on key regulator proteins of fat metabolism in subcutaneous AT and circulation of dairy cows. Nonlactating, nonpregnant dairy cows (n=8) investigated in the current study served as a model to elucidate the changes in the course of overcondition independent from physiological changes related to gestation, parturition, and lactation. Cows were fed diets with increasing portions of concentrate during the first 6wk of the experiment until 60% were reached, which was maintained for 9wk. Biopsy samples from AT of the subcutaneous tailhead region were collected every 8wk, whereas blood was sampled monthly. Within the experimental period cows had an average BW gain of 243±33.3 kg. Leptin and insulin concentrations were increased until wk 12. Based on serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids, the surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity were calculated. High-concentrate feeding led to decreased quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and homeostasis model assessment due to high insulin and glucose concentrations indicating decreased insulin sensitivity. Adiponectin, an adipokine-promoting insulin sensitivity, decreased in subcutaneous AT, but remained unchanged in the circulation. The high-concentrate diet affected key enzymes reflecting AT metabolism such as AMP-activated protein kinase and hormone-sensitive lipase, both represented as the proportion of the phosphorylated protein to total protein, as well as fatty acid synthase. The extent of phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and the protein expression of fatty acid synthase were inversely regulated throughout the experimental period, whereas the extent of phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase was consistently decreasing by the high-concentrate diet. Overcondition in nonpregnant, nonlactating dairy cows changed the expression of key regulator proteins of AT metabolism and circulation accompanied by impaired insulin sensitivity, which might increase the risk for metabolic disorders. PMID:25497790

Locher, L; Häussler, S; Laubenthal, L; Singh, S P; Winkler, J; Kinoshita, A; Kenéz, Á; Rehage, J; Huber, K; Sauerwein, H; Dänicke, S

2015-02-01

395

Effects of duration of zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality of grain-fed cull cows.  

PubMed

Several studies have shown that feeding of an energy-dense diet over short periods to cull cows could be profitable in terms of increased saleable yield and improved carcass conditions. Although the application of growth promoters, such as anabolic implants and beta agonists, in finishing of cull cows have been recorded, there is no conclusive evidence as to the timing and duration of beta agonists in cull cow production. In this study, 288 cull cows with four or more permanent incisors and varying weights and body conditions were divided into four treatment groups so that variation in age, weight and body condition were equally distributed among groups. One group received concentrate feed without any beta agonist (C), whereas the other three groups also received concentrate feed with zilpaterol hydrochloride (6 p.p.m.) for 20 (Z20), 30 (Z30) or 40 (Z40) days, respectively, followed by a 2-day withdrawal. Animals were adapted for 10 days on a grain-based diet and fed an additional 40 days before slaughter. Growth rate and efficiency (live and carcass), trimmed meat yield and meat tenderness (Warner Bratzler shear force and sensory) of the aged (10 days) m. longissimus thoracis (LT) and m. semitendinosus (ST) were recorded. In general, Z cows had higher carcass gains and efficiency of gain than C cows (P < 0.05). In addition, Z carcasses showed higher proportional trimmed meat yields than C carcasses (P < 0.05). No significant differences in tenderness measurements were recorded for LT or ST. In general, supplementation of zilpaterol for 30 days showed better growth performance and higher trimmed meat yield than 20 and 40 days supplementation. PMID:22444052

Strydom, P E; Smith, M F

2010-04-01

396

In vitro study of dietary factors affecting the biohydrogenation shift from trans-11 to trans-10 fatty acids in the rumen of dairy cows.  

PubMed

On the basis of the isomer-specific effects of trans fatty acids (FA) on human health, and the detrimental effect of t10,c12-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on cows' milk fat production, there is a need to identify factors that affect the shift from trans-11 to trans-10 pathway during ruminal biohydrogenation of FA. This experiment was conducted in vitro and aimed at separating the effects of the diet of the donor cows from those of the fermentative substrate, which is necessary to prevent this shift. A total of four dry Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. They received 12 kg of dry matter per day of four diets based on maize silage during four successive periods: the control diet (22% starch, <3% fat); the high-starch diet, supplemented with wheat plus barley (35% starch, <3% crude fat); the sunflower oil diet, supplemented with 5% of sunflower oil (20% starch, 7.6% crude fat); and the high-starch plus oil diet (33% starch, 7.3% crude fat). Ruminal fluid of each donor cow was incubated for 5 h with four substrates having similar chemical composition to the diets, replacing sunflower oil by pure linoleic acid (LA). The efficiency of isomerisation of LA to CLA was the highest when rumen fluids from cows receiving dietary oil were incubated with added LA. The shift from trans-11 to trans-10 isomers was induced in vitro by high-starch diets and the addition of LA. Oil supplementation to the diet of the donor cows increased this shift. Conversely, the trans-10 isomer balance was always low when no LA was added to incubation cultures. These results showed that a large accumulation of trans-10 FA was only observed with an adapted microflora, as well as an addition of non-esterified LA to the incubation substrate. PMID:22436225

Zened, A; Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Troegeler-Meynadier, A

2012-03-01

397

Index of thermal stress for cows (ITSC) under high solar radiation in tropical environments.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new thermal stress index for dairy cows in inter-tropical regions, with special mention to the semi-arid ones. Holstein cows were measured for rectal temperature (T R), respiratory rate (F R) and rates of heat exchange by convection (C), radiation (R), skin surface evaporation (E S) and respiratory evaporation (E R) in the north eastern region of Brazil, after exposure to sun for several hours. Average environmental measurements during the observations were air temperature (T A) 32.4 °C (24.4-38.9°), wind speed (U) 1.8 m.s(-1) (0.01-11.0), relative humidity 63.6 % (36.8-81.5) and short-wave solar radiation 701.3 W m(-2) (116-1,295). The effective radiant heat load (ERHL) was 838.5?±?4.9 W m(-2). Values for the atmospheric transmittance (?) were also determined for tropical regions, in order to permit adequate estimates of the solar radiation. The average value was ??=?0.611?±?0.004 for clear days with some small moving clouds, with a range of 0.32 to 0.91 in the day period from 1000 to 1300 hours. Observed ? values were higher (0.62-0.66) for locations near the seacoast and in those regions well-provided with green fields. Effects of month, location and time of the day were all statistically significant (P?cows exposed for 1 to 8 h to sun during the day; in 7 months (February, March, April, July, August, September and November), 4 days per month on the average. A principal component analysis summarised the T R, F R, C, R, E S and E R measurements into just one synthetic variable (y 1); several indexes were then obtained by multiple regression of y 1 on the four environmental variables and its combinations, by using Origin 8.1 software (OriginLab Corp.). The chosen equation was the index of thermal stress for cows, ITSC?=?77.1747?+?4.8327 T A?-?34.8189 U?+?1.111 U (2)?+?118.6981 P V?-?14.7956 P V (2)?-?0.1059 ERHL with r (2)?=?0.812. The correlations of ITSC with T R, F R, C, E S, R and E R were 0.275, 0.255, -0.493, -0.647, -0.818 and 0.075, respectively. Correlations of the index with the physiological variables are presented, and ITSC is compared to three other indexes. PMID:25085700

Da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Maia, Alex Sandro C; de Macedo Costa, Leonardo Lelis

2014-08-01

398

Renal adaptation during hibernation  

PubMed Central

Hibernators periodically undergo profound physiological changes including dramatic reductions in metabolic, heart, and respiratory rates and core body temperature. This review discusses the effect of hypoperfusion and hypothermia observed during hibernation on glomerular filtration and renal plasma flow, as well as specific adaptations in renal architecture, vasculature, the renin-angiotensin system, and upregulation of possible protective mechanisms during the extreme conditions endured by hibernating mammals. Understanding the mechanisms of protection against organ injury during hibernation may provide insights into potential therapies for organ injury during cold storage and reimplantation during transplantation. PMID:24049148

Martin, Sandra L.; Jain, Swati; Keys, Daniel; Edelstein, Charles L.

2013-01-01

399

Hemorrhagic shock: The “physiology approach”  

PubMed Central

A shift of approach from ‘clinics trying to fit physiology’ to the one of ‘physiology to clinics’, with interpretation of the clinical phenomena from their physiological bases to the tip of the clinical iceberg, and a management exclusively based on modulation of physiology, is finally surging as the safest and most efficacious philosophy in hemorrhagic shock. ATLS® classification and recommendations on hemorrhagic shock are not helpful because antiphysiological and potentially misleading. Hemorrhagic shock needs to be reclassified in the direction of usefulness and timing of intervention: in particular its assessment and management need to be tailored to physiology. PMID:23248495

Bonanno, Fabrizio Giuseppe

2012-01-01

400

Fertilization and early embryonic development in heifers and lactating cows in summer and lactating and dry cows in winter.  

PubMed

Two experiments in two seasons evaluated fertilization rate and embryonic development in dairy cattle. Experiment 1 (summer) compared lactating Holstein cows (n = 27; 97.3 +/- 4.1 d postpartum [dppl; 40.0 +/- 1.5 kg milk/d) to nulliparous heifers (n = 28; 11 to 17 mo old). Experiment 2 (winter) compared lactating cows (n = 27; 46.4 +/- 1.6 dpp; 45.9 +/- 1.4 kg milk/d) to dry cows (n = 26). Inseminations based on estrus included combined semen from four high-fertility bulls. Embryos and oocytes recovered 5 d after ovulation were evaluated for fertilization, embryo quality (1 = excellent to 5 = degenerate), nuclei/embryo, and accessory sperm. In experiment 1, 21 embryos and 17 unfertilized oocytes (UFO) were recovered from lactating cows versus 32 embryos and no UFO from heifers (55% vs. 100% fertilization). Embryos from lactating cows had inferior quality scores (3.8 +/- 0.4 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.3), fewer nuclei/embryo (19.3 +/- 3.7 vs. 36.8 +/- 3.0) but more accessory sperm (37.3 +/- 5.8 vs. 22.4 +/- 5.5/embryo) than embryos from heifers. Sperm were attached to 80% of UFO (17.8 +/- 12.1 sperm/UFO). In experiment 2, lactating cows yielded 36 embryos and 5 UFO versus 34 embryos and 4 UFO from dry cows (87.8 vs. 89.5% fertilization). Embryo quality from lactating cows was inferior to dry cows (3.1 +/- 0.3 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.3), but embryos had similar numbers of nuclei (27.2 +/- 2.7 vs. 30.6 +/- 2.1) and accessory sperm (42.0 +/- 9.4 vs. 36.5 +/- 6.3). From 53% of the flushings from lactating cows and 28% from dry cows, only nonviable embryos were collected. Thus, embryos of lactating dairy cows were detectably inferior to embryos from nonlactating females as early as 5 d after ovulation, with a surprisingly high percentage of nonviable embryos. In addition, fertilization rate was reduced only in summer, apparently due to an effect of heat stress on the oocyte. PMID:12487447

Sartori, R; Sartor-Bergfelt, R; Mertens, S A; Guenther, J N; Parrish, J J; Wiltbank, M C

2002-11-01

401

Whole soybean supplementation and cow age class: effects on intake, digestion, performance, and reproduction of beef cows.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of whole soybean supplementation on intake, digestion, and performance of beef cows of varying age. Treatments were arranged in a 2 x 3 factorial with 2 supplements and 3 age classes of cows (2-yr-old, 3-yr-old, and mature cows). Supplements (DM basis) included 1) 1.36 kg/d of whole raw soybeans, and 2) 1.56 kg/d of a soybean meal/hulls supplement. Supplements were formulated to provide similar amounts of protein and energy, but a greater fat content with the whole soybeans. Supplements were individually fed on Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday mornings. During the treatment period, cows had free choice access to bermudagrass hay [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.; 8.4% CP; 72% NDF; DM basis]. In Exp. 1, 166 spring-calving Angus and Angus x Hereford crossbred beef cows were individually fed supplements for an average of 80 d during mid to late gestation. During the first 50 d of supplementation, cows fed soybean meal/hulls gained more BW (10 kg; P < 0.001) and body condition (0.18 BCS units; P = 0.004) than cows fed whole soybeans. However, BW change (P = 0.87) and BCS change (P = 0.25) during the 296-d experiment were not different between supplements. Although calves from cows fed soybean meal/hulls were 2 kg heavier at birth, there was no difference in calf BW at weaning between supplements. Additionally, first service conception rate (68%; P = 0.24) and pregnancy rate (73%; P = 0.21) were not different between supplements. In Exp. 2, 24 cows from Exp. 1 were used to determine the effect of supplement composition on forage intake and digestion; cows remained on the same supplements, hay, and feeding schedule as Exp. 1. Crude fat digestibility was the only intake or digestibility measurement influenced by supplement composition; fat digestibility was higher for cows fed whole soybeans compared with cows fed the soybean meal/hulls supplement (58.1 vs. 48.8%). Hay intake and DMI averaged 1.63 and 1.92% of BW daily, respectively. Dry matter, NDF, and CP digestibility averaged 54.1, 55.1, and 63.2%, respectively. Compared with supplementation with soybean meal/ hulls, whole soybean supplementation during mid to late gestation resulted in reduced BW weight gain during supplementation, inconsistent effects on reproduction, no effect on calf weaning weight, and no effect on forage intake or digestion. PMID:18441082

Banta, J P; Lalman, D L; Krehbiel, C R; Wettemann, R P

2008-08-01

402

Age-Related Shifts in the Density and Distribution of Genetic Marker Water Quality Indicators in Cow and Calf Feces  

PubMed Central

Calves make up about 16% of the current bovine population in the United States and can excrete high levels of human pathogens in their feces. We describe the density and distribution of genetic markers from 9 PCR- and real-time quantitative PCR-based assays, including CF128, CF193, CowM2, CowM3, GenBac3, Entero1, EC23S857, CampF2, and ttr-6, commonly used to help assess ambient surface water quality. Each assay was tested against a collection of 381 individual bovine fecal samples representing 31 mother and calf pairings collected over a 10-month time period from time of birth through weaning. Genetic markers reported to be associated with ruminant and/or bovine fecal pollution were virtually undetected in calves for up to 115 days from birth, suggesting that physiological changes in calf ruminant function impact host-associated genetic marker shedding. In addition, general fecal indicator markers for Bacteroidales, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp. exhibited three separate trends across time, indicating that these bacteria respond differently to age-related physiological and dietary changes during calf development. The results of this study suggest that currently available PCR-based water quality indicator technologies can under- or overestimate fecal pollution originating from calves and identify a need for novel calf-associated source identification methods. PMID:24362434

Kelty, Catherine A.; Peed, Lindsay; Sivaganesan, Mano; Mooney, Thomas; Jenkins, Michael

2014-01-01

403

Adaptive reconstructors for adaptive optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns a class of adaptive optics problems in which phase distortions due to atmospheric turbulence are corrected by adaptive wavefront reconstruction with a deformable mirror - i.e., the control loop that drives the mirror adapts in real time to time-varying atmospheric conditions, as opposed to the linear time-invariant control loops use din conventional 'adaptive optics.' The basic problem

Steve Gibson; C.-C. Chang; Brent L. Ellerbroek

1999-01-01

404

Isoelectric focusing and ELISA for detecting adulteration of donkey milk with cow milk.  

PubMed

Donkey milk has been recently revalued intensely due to its nutritional properties. Moreover, donkey milk has been proposed as an effective alternative food for some infants with cow milk allergy. Two fast analytical methods were proposed to detect the fraudulent practice of blending cow milk to donkey milk. Detection of cow ?s1-casein bands along the profiles of experimental donkey-cow milk mixtures analyzed by isoelectric focusing was adequate to estimate cow milk used as adulterant of donkey milk starting from 5% (v/v). An ELISA-based method using the antipeptide antibodies raised against the 1-28 sequence stretch of cow ?-casein was also developed for an accurate definition of composition of donkey-cow milk mixtures. The presence of cow milk at levels as low as 0.5% (v/v) was detected in donkey-cow milk mixtures prepared at laboratory scale and assayed by ELISA. PMID:24892189

Pizzano, Rosa; Salimei, Elisabetta

2014-06-25

405

Fireplace adapters  

SciTech Connect

An adapter is disclosed for use with a fireplace. The stove pipe of a stove standing in a room to be heated may be connected to the flue of the chimney so that products of combustion from the stove may be safely exhausted through the flue and outwardly of the chimney. The adapter may be easily installed within the fireplace by removing the damper plate and fitting the adapter to the damper frame. Each of a pair of bolts has a portion which hooks over a portion of the damper frame and a threaded end depending from the hook portion and extending through a hole in the adapter. Nuts are threaded on the bolts and are adapted to force the adapter into a tight fit with the adapter frame.

Hunt, R.L.

1983-12-27

406

Physiological correlates of insomnia.  

PubMed

Insomnia is a prevalent sleep disorder that is typically comorbid with medical, psychiatric, and other sleep disorders. Yet, it is a disorder with its own course and morbidity that can persist if untreated. This chapter describes the physiological correlates of insomnia expressed during sleep and during the daytime. Together, the data from nighttime and daytime electrophysiology, event-related brain potential recording, neuroimaging studies, sympathetic nervous system, and HPA axis monitoring all suggest that insomnia is a 24 h disorder of hyperarousal. PMID:24920447

Roehrs, Timothy; Gumenyuk, Valentina; Drake, Christopher; Roth, Thomas

2014-01-01

407

Physiology of Iron Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Summary A revolution occurred during the last decade in the comprehension of the physiology as well as in the physiopathology of iron metabolism. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent knowledge that has accumulated, allowing a better comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in iron homeostasis. Iron metabolism is very fine tuned. The free molecule is very toxic; therefore, complex regulatory mechanisms have been developed in mammalian to insure adequate intestinal absorption, transportation, utilization, and elimination. ‘Ironomics’ certainly will be the future of the understanding of genes as well as of the protein-protein interactions involved in iron metabolism. PMID:25053935

Waldvogel-Abramowski, Sophie; Waeber, Gérard; Gassner, Christoph; Buser, Andreas; Frey, Beat M.; Favrat, Bernard; Tissot, Jean-Daniel

2014-01-01

408

Pioneering in gravitational physiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravity affects biology at almost all levels above that of the cell organelle. Attention is presently given to progress made in the understanding of gravitational effects through studies employing centrifuges, clinostats, inverted preparations, linear devices, water immersion, free fall, and short- and long-term spaceflight. The cardiovascular changes which cause malaise and illness during the first few days of extended space missions are the direct result of fluid translocation from the lower extremities. Upon reentry, there is hypovolumnia and a cardiovascular deconditioning that can include tachycardia, changes in arterial blood pressure, narrow pulse pressure, and syncope. Attention is also given to NASA's gravitational physiology reseach program.

Soffen, G. A.

1983-01-01

409

Grape marc reduces methane emissions when fed to dairy cows.  

PubMed

Grape marc (the skins, seeds, stalk, and stems remaining after grapes have been pressed to make wine) is currently a by-product used as a feed supplement by the dairy and beef industries. Grape marc contains condensed tannins and has high concentrations of crude fat; both these substances can reduce enteric methane (CH4) production when fed to ruminants. This experiment examined the effects of dietary supplementation with either dried, pelleted grape marc or ensiled grape marc on yield and composition of milk, enteric CH4 emissions, and ruminal microbiota in dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dairy cows in late lactation were offered 1 of 3 diets: a control (CON) diet; a diet containing dried, pelleted grape marc (DGM); and a diet containing ensiled grape marc (EGM). The diet offered to cows in the CON group contained 14.0kg of alfalfa hay dry matter (DM)/d and 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d. Diets offered to cows in the DGM and EGM groups contained 9.0kg of alfalfa hay DM/d, 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d, and 5.0kg of dried or ensiled grape marc DM/d, respectively. These diets were offered individually to cows for 18d. Individual cow feed intake and milk yield were measured daily and milk composition measured on 4d/wk. Individual cow CH4 emissions were measured by the SF6 tracer technique on 2d at the end of the experiment. Ruminal bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protozoan communities were quantified on the last day of the experiment. Cows offered the CON, DGM, and EGM diets, ate 95, 98, and 96%, respectively, of the DM offered. The mean milk yield of cows fed the EGM diet was 12.8kg/cow per day and was less than that of cows fed either the CON diet (14.6kg/cow per day) or the DGM diet (15.4kg/cow per day). Feeding DGM and EGM diets was associated with decreased milk fat yields, lower concentrations of saturated fatty acids, and enhanced concentrations of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular cis-9,trans-11 linoleic acid. The mean CH4 emissions were 470, 375, and 389g of CH4/cow per day for cows fed the CON, DGM, and EGM diets, respectively. Methane yields were 26.1, 20.2, and 21.5g of CH4/kg of DMI for cows fed the CON, DGM, and EGM diets, respectively. The ruminal bacterial and archaeal communities were altered by dietary supplementation with grape marc, but ruminal fungal and protozoan communities were not. Decreases of approximately 20% in CH4 emissions and CH4 yield indicate that feeding DGM and EGM could play a role in CH4 abatement. PMID:24952778

Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Torok, V A; Hannah, M C; Ribaux, B E; Tavendale, M H; Eckard, R J; Jacobs, J L; Auldist, M J; Wales, W J

2014-08-01

410

Detection of cow milk adulteration in yak milk by ELISA.  

PubMed

In the current study, a simple, sensitive, and specific ELISA assay using a high-affinity anti-bovine ?-casein monoclonal antibody was developed for the rapid detection of cow milk in adulterated yak milk. The developed ELISA was highly specific and could be applied to detect bovine ?-casein (10-8,000 ?g/mL) and cow milk (1:1,300 to 1:2 dilution) in yak milk. Cross-reactivity was <1% when tested against yak milk. The linear range of adulterant concentration was 1 to 80% (vol/vol) and the minimum detection limit was 1% (vol/vol) cow milk in yak milk. Different treatments, including heating, acidification, and rennet addition, did not interfere with the assay. Moreover, the results were highly reproducible (coefficient of variation <10%) and we detected no significant differences between known and estimated values. Therefore, this assay is appropriate for the routine analysis of yak milk adulterated with cow milk. PMID:25151876

Ren, Q R; Zhang, H; Guo, H Y; Jiang, L; Tian, M; Ren, F Z

2014-10-01

411

Body Condition, Nutrition and Reproduction of Beef Cows  

E-print Network

Producers must be able to evaluate beef cows' body reserves and to relate the evaluation to reproductive and nutritional management. Topics discussed include the practical importance of body condition scoring and various BCS suggestions....

Herd, Dennis B.; Sprott, L. R.

1998-03-16

412

Prevalence of mastitis in imported Friesian cows in Sudan.  

PubMed

Three hundred twenty-two lactating Friesian cows were examined for mastitis by different diagnostic techniques. The predominant pathogens encountered were Staphylococci, Streptococci, Corynebacterium and Escherichia coli spp. PMID:2218036

Abdelrahim, A I; Shommein, A M; Suliman, H B; Shaddad, S A

1990-01-01

413

Corn silage hybrid type and quality of alfalfa hay affect dietary nitrogen utilization by early lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage (CS) hybrids and quality of alfalfa hay (AH) in high-forage dairy diets on N utilization, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance by early-lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. The 8 cows (average days in milk = 23 ± 11.2) were surgically fitted with ruminal cannula, and the 2 squares were conducted simultaneously. Within square, cows were randomly assigned to a sequence of 4 diets: conventional CS (CCS) or brown midrib CS (BMR) was combined with fair-quality AH [FAH: 46.7% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 18.4% crude protein (CP)] or high-quality AH (HAH: 39.2% NDF and 20.7% CP) to form 4 treatments: CCS with FAH, CCS with HAH, BMR with FAH, and BMR with HAH. Diets were isonitrogenous across treatments, averaging 15.9% CP. Each period lasted a total of 21 d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 7d for data collection and sampling. Intake of DM and milk yield did not differ in response to CS hybrids or AH quality. Although feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N output by 24%, it did not affect fecal N output. Feeding HAH decreased urinary N output by 15% but increased fecal N output by 20%. Nitrogen efficiency [milk N (g/d)/intake N (g/d)] tended to increase for BMR treatments. Ruminal ammonia-N concentration was lower for cows fed BMR-based diets than for those fed CCS-based diets but was not affected by quality of AH. Feeding BMR-based diets or HAH decreased milk urea N concentration by 23 or 15%, respectively, compared with CCS-based diets or FAH. Total volatile fatty acid concentration increased with HAH but was not influenced by CS hybrids. Feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N-to-fecal N ratio (UN:FN), and it was further reduced by feeding HAH. Although cows fed the BMR-based diets tended to increase milk N-to-manure N ratio, the quality of AH did not affect the ratio. The lower ratio of UN:FN with a higher ratio of milk N-to-manure N ratio for the BMR-based diets indicates that feeding BMR may reduce manure ammonia-N by reducing excretion of urinary N and increasing secretion of milk N per unit of manure N excreted. PMID:23958019

Holt, M S; Neal, K; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Hall, J O; Nestor, K E

2013-10-01

414

Sward characteristics and performance of dairy cows in organic grass-legume pastures shaded by tropical trees.  

PubMed

The silvopastoral system (SPS) has been suggested to ensure sustainability in animal production systems in tropical ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate pasture characteristics, herbage intake, grazing activity and milk yield of Holstein×Zebu cows managed in two grazing systems (treatments): SPS dominated by a graminaceous forage (Brachiaria decumbens) intercropped with different leguminous herbaceous forages (Stylosanthes spp., Pueraria phaseoloides and Calopogonium mucunoides) and legume trees (Acacia mangium, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala), and open pasture (OP) of B. decumbens intercropped only with Stylosanthes spp. Pastures were managed according to the rules for organic cattle production. The study was carried out by following a switch back format with 12 cows, 6 for each treatment, over 3 experimental years. Herbage mass was similar (P>0.05) for both treatments, supporting an average stocking rate of 1.23 AU/ha. Daily dry matter intake did not vary (P>0.05) between treatments (average of 11.3±1.02 kg/cow per day, corresponding to 2.23±0.2% BW). Milk yield was higher (P<0.05; 10.4±0.06 kg/cow per day) in the SPS than in the OP (9.5±0.06 kg/cow per day) during the 1st year, but did not significantly differ (P>0.05) in subsequent years. The highest (P<0.05) values for herbage mass and milk yield were observed during the 3rd year. In the SPS, with moderate shade (19% shade relative to a full-sun condition), the grass CP was higher (P<0.05) than in the OP, although the NDF content and digestibility coefficient were not modified. The animals spent more time (P<0.05) idling in the SPS than in OP. The higher legume proportion in the SPS was associated with the higher CP level in B. decumbens relative to the OP, which could explain the better (P<0.05) performance of the cows in silvopastoral areas during the 1st year. However, during the 2nd and 3rd years, similarities in the legume percentages of both systems resulted in similar (P>0.05) milk yields. Low persistence of Stylosanthes guianensis was observed over the experimental period, indicating that the persistence of forage legumes under grazing could be improved using adapted cultivars that have higher annual seed production. The SPS and a diversified botanical composition of the pasture using legume species mixed with grasses are recommended for organic milk production. PMID:24703358

Paciullo, D S C; Pires, M F A; Aroeira, L J M; Morenz, M J F; Maurício, R M; Gomide, C A M; Silveira, S R

2014-04-01

415

Serum zinc concentration in exclusively breast-fed infants and in infants fed an adapted formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum zinc concentrations have been determined in 28 healthy full-term Italian infants of both sexes at birth, as well as at 3 and at 5 months of age. Fourteen exclusively breast-fed infants who served as a control group were compared with 14 infants fed a cow's milk based adapted infant formula. No significant differences in serum zinc concentration between the

V. Vigi; R. Chierici; L. Osti; F. Fagioli; R. Reseazzi

1984-01-01

416

Effect of Feeding Bacillus subtilis natto on Hindgut Fermentation and Microbiota of Holstein Dairy Cows  

PubMed Central

The effect of Bacillus subtilis natto on hindgut fermentation and microbiota of early lactation Holstein dairy cows was investigated in this study. Thirty-six Holstein dairy cows in early lactation were randomly allocated to three groups: no B. subtilis natto as the control group, B. subtilis natto with 0.5×1011 cfu as DMF1 group and B. subtilis natto with 1.0×1011 cfu as DMF2 group. After 14 days of adaptation period, the formal experiment was started and lasted for 63 days. Fecal samples were collected directly from the rectum of each animal on the morning at the end of eighth week and placed into sterile plastic bags. The pH, NH3-N and VFA concentration were determined and fecal bacteria DNA was extracted and analyzed by DGGE. The results showed that the addition of B. subtilus natto at either treatment level resulted in a decrease in fecal NH3-N concentration but had no effect on fecal pH and VFA. The DGGE profile revealed that B. subtilis natto affected the population of fecal bacteria. The diversity index of Shannon-Wiener in DFM1 decreased significantly compared to the control. Fecal Alistipes sp., Clostridium sp., Roseospira sp., beta proteobacterium were decreased and Bifidobacterium was increased after supplementing with B. subtilis natto. This study demonstrated that B. subtilis natto had a tendency to change fecal microbiota balance. PMID:25049979

Song, D. J.; Kang, H. Y.; Wang, J. Q.; Peng, H.; Bu, D. P.

2014-01-01

417

Water salinity effects on performance and rumen parameters of lactating grazing Holstein cows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eighteen multiparous lactating grazing Holstein cows, 9 ruminally cannulated, average 136.1 ± 14.6 days in milk, were randomly assigned to three treatments consisting of water containing different levels of total dissolved solids (TDS; mg/l): Treatment 1 = 1,000; Treatment 2 = 5,000 and Treatment 3 = 10,000, at the Experimental Dairy Unit at Rafaela Experimental Station (31°11'S latitude) d