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  1. Alterations of Innate Immunity Reactants in Transition Dairy Cows before Clinical Signs of Lameness

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guanshi; Hailemariam, Dagnachew; Dervishi, Elda; Deng, Qilan; Goldansaz, Seyed A.; Dunn, Suzanna M.; Ametaj, Burim N.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Lameness is prevalent in dairy cows and early diagnosis and timely treatment of the disease can lower animal suffering, improve recovery rate, increase longevity, and minimize cow loss. However, there are no indications of disease until it appears clinically, and presently the only approach to deal with the sick cow is intensive treatment or culling. The results suggest that lameness affected serum concentrations of the several parameters related to innate immunity and carbohydrate metabolism that might be used to monitor health status of transition dairy cows in the near future. Abstract The objectives of this study were to evaluate metabolic and innate immunity alterations in the blood of transition dairy cows before, during, and after diagnosis of lameness during periparturient period. Blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vain once per week before morning feeding from 100 multiparous Holstein dairy cows during −8, −4, disease diagnosis, and +4 weeks (wks) relative to parturition. Six healthy cows (CON) and six cows that showed clinical signs of lameness were selected for intensive serum analyses. Concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), lactate, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were measured in serum by ELISA or colorimetric methods. Health status, DMI, rectal temperature, milk yield, and milk composition also were monitored for each cow during the whole experimental period. Results showed that cows affected by lameness had greater concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA in the serum vs. CON cows. Concentrations of TNF tended to be greater in cows with lameness compared with CON. In addition, there was a health status (Hs) by time (week) interaction for IL-1, TNF, and Hp in lameness cows vs. CON ones. Enhanced serum concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA at −8 and

  2. Alterations of Innate Immunity Reactants in Transition Dairy Cows before Clinical Signs of Lameness.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guanshi; Hailemariam, Dagnachew; Dervishi, Elda; Deng, Qilan; Goldansaz, Seyed A; Dunn, Suzanna M; Ametaj, Burim N

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate metabolic and innate immunity alterations in the blood of transition dairy cows before, during, and after diagnosis of lameness during periparturient period. Blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vain once per week before morning feeding from 100 multiparous Holstein dairy cows during -8, -4, disease diagnosis, and +4 weeks (wks) relative to parturition. Six healthy cows (CON) and six cows that showed clinical signs of lameness were selected for intensive serum analyses. Concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), lactate, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were measured in serum by ELISA or colorimetric methods. Health status, DMI, rectal temperature, milk yield, and milk composition also were monitored for each cow during the whole experimental period. Results showed that cows affected by lameness had greater concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA in the serum vs. CON cows. Concentrations of TNF tended to be greater in cows with lameness compared with CON. In addition, there was a health status (Hs) by time (week) interaction for IL-1, TNF, and Hp in lameness cows vs. CON ones. Enhanced serum concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA at -8 and -4 wks before parturition were different in cows with lameness as compared with those of the CON group. The disease was also associated with lowered overall milk production and DMI as well as milk fat and fat-to-protein ratio. In conclusion, cows affected postpartum by lameness had alterations in several serum variables related to innate immunity and carbohydrate metabolism that give insights into the etiopathogenesis of the disease and might serve to monitor health status of transition dairy cows in the near future. PMID:26479383

  3. Expression Profiling of Innate Immune Genes in Milk Somatic Cells During Subclinical Mastitis in Crossbred Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, A; Radhika, G; Aravindhakshan, T V; Anilkumar, K

    2016-10-01

    Innate immune mechanism plays a key role in mammary defense, from recognition of pathogens to activation of nonspecific and specific immunity involved in elimination of pathogens. Expression profiles of innate immune response genes namely Toll like receptor 2 (TLR-2), Peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 (PGLYRP-1), Interleukin 8 receptor (IL-8 R), L-Selectin (SELL), and Osteopontin (OPN) in milk somatic cells of subclinical mastitis (SCM) affected crossbred cows were investigated under this study at transcript level using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Dairy cows in mid lactation were screened for SCM using California Mastitis Test (CMT), Somatic Cell Count (SCC) and Electrical Conductivity test (EC). Based on results of SCM screening tests, crossbred cows were clustered into two groups with four Staphylococcus aureus infected SCM cows and four apparently healthy cows. The expressions levels of TLR-2, PGLYRP-1, IL-8 R, SELL, and OPN in milk somatic cells of SCM affected cows were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than healthy cows. These genes could be considered as candidate genes for innate immune response against S. aureus SCM infection. PMID:27565875

  4. Period of dominance of the ovulatory follicle influences embryo quality in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cerri, Ronaldo L A; Rutigliano, Heloísa M; Chebel, Ricardo C; Santos, José E P

    2009-05-01

    Length of dominance of the ovulatory follicle and exposure to oestradiol (OE(2)) during proestrus can affect fertility. Lactating cows had their oestrous cycle pre-synchronized and were subjected to one of the four synchronization treatments. Cows in the oestrus detection (OD) treatment received GnRH on day 6 of the oestrous cycle, PGF(2alpha) 7 days later, and were inseminated at detected oestrus. The remaining cows were subjected to the Ovsynch (OVS) protocol (day 0 GnRH, day 7 PGF(2alpha), day 9 GnRH, and timed artificial insemination (AI) 12 h later) starting on day 3 (OVS3) or day 6 (OVS6 and OVS6E) of the oestrous cycle. Cows in the OVS6E treatment received an injection of 0.5 mg oestradiol cypionate 36 h before AI. Ovaries were examined by ultrasonography and blood was sampled for progesterone and OE(2) concentrations. Uteri were flushed 6 days after AI and recovered embryos-oocytes evaluated. Diameter of the ovulatory follicle at AI differed (P<0.01) among treatments, and it was the largest for OVS3 cows, which also had extended (P<0.01) length of follicular dominance. During proestrus, OD and OVS6E cows had increased (P<0.01) OE(2) concentrations. Fertilization was not altered by treatments, and maximum fertilization was achieved when the number of accessory spermatozoa was >7. Proportions of viable embryos in relation to embryos and embryos-oocytes recovered were smaller for OVS3 cows (P<0.01) than the other treatments, and embryos from OVS3 cows also had fewer (P<0.01) blastomeres and tended (P=0.09) to have a lower proportion of live blastomeres. Extending the period of follicle dominance did not alter fertilization but reduced (P<0.001) embryo quality. Embryo quality was compromised even when the dominance of the ovulatory follicle was extended by only 1.5 days. PMID:19204087

  5. Dairy cows affected by ketosis show alterations in innate immunity and lipid and carbohydrate metabolism during the dry off period and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guanshi; Hailemariam, Dagnachew; Dervishi, Elda; Goldansaz, Seyed Ali; Deng, Qilan; Dunn, Suzanna M; Ametaj, Burim N

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to search for alterations in blood variables related to innate immunity and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism during the transition period in cows affected by ketosis. One hundred multiparous Holstein dairy cows were involved in the study. Blood samples were collected at -8, -4, week of disease diagnosis (+1 to +3weeks), and +4weeks relative to parturition from 6 healthy cows (CON) and 6 cows with ketosis and were analyzed for serum variables. Results showed that cows with ketosis had greater concentrations of serum β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), serum amyloid A (SAA), and lactate in comparison with the CON animals. Serum concentrations of BHBA, IL-6, TNF, and lactate were greater starting at -8 and -4weeks prior to parturition in cows with ketosis vs those of CON group. Cows with ketosis also had lower DMI and milk production vs CON cows. Milk fat also was lower in ketotic cows at diagnosis of disease. Cows affected by ketosis showed an activated innate immunity and altered carbohydrate and lipid metabolism several weeks prior to diagnosis of disease. Serum IL-6 and lactate were the strongest discriminators between ketosis cows and CON ones before the occurrence of ketosis, which might be useful as predictive biomarkers of the disease state. PMID:27474003

  6. Persistent dominant follicle alters pattern of oviductal secretory proteins from cows at estrus.

    PubMed

    Binelli, M; Hampton, J; Buhi, W C; Thatcher, W W

    1999-07-01

    The experimental objective was to compare synthesis of oviductal secretory proteins of dairy cows bearing a persistent dominant follicle (PDF) versus a fresh dominant follicle (FDF) at estrus. On Day 7 after synchronized estrus (Day 0), cows received an intravaginal progesterone device and injection of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha). On Day 9, cows received an injection of a GnRH agonist (FDF group; n = 3) or received no injection (PDF group, n = 3). On Day 16, all cows received PGF2alpha, and progesterone devices were removed. At slaughter on Day 18 or Day 19, oviducts ipsilateral and contralateral to the dominant follicle were divided into infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus regions. Explants from oviductal regions were cultured in minimal essential medium supplemented with [3H]leucine for 24 h. Two-dimensional fluorographs of proteins in conditioned media were analyzed by densitometry. Rate of incorporation of [3H]leucine into macromolecules was greater in the infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus of FDF cows (p < 0.01). Overall, intensities of radiolabeled secretory protein (P) 2 and P13 were greater for FDF than for PDF. In the ampulla, P14 was more intense for FDF while P7 was more intense for PDF. Abundance of P1 in the isthmus was greater for PDF cows. Across regions, P5, P6, P8, P9, and P11 were more intense for PDF than for FDF in the ipsilateral side. In the contralateral side, P19 was more intense for PDF than for FDF, whereas P6, P8, P9, and P11 were more intense for FDF. Differences in biosynthetic activity and in secreted oviductal proteins from cows bearing a PDF may contribute to the decrease in fertility associated with a PDF. PMID:10377040

  7. PHYSIOLOGY AND ENDOCRINOLOGY SYMPOSIUM: Uterine infection: linking infection and innate immunity with infertility in the high-producing dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Bromfield, J J; Santos, J E P; Block, J; Williams, R S; Sheldon, I M

    2015-05-01

    Uterine contamination with bacteria is ubiquitous in the postpartum dairy cow. Nearly one-half of all postpartum dairy cows develop clinical disease resulting in metritis and endometritis, which cause depressed milk production and infertility. The causative links between uterine infection and infertility include a hostile uterine environment, disrupted endocrine signaling, and perturbations in ovarian function and oocyte development. In this review we consider the various mechanisms linking uterine infection with infertility in the dairy cow, specifically 1) innate immune signaling in the endometrium, 2) alteration in endocrine signaling in response to infectious agents, and 3) impacts of infection on ovarian function, oocyte development, and follicular development. Normal ovarian follicular and oocyte development requires a series of temporally and spatially orchestrated events; however, several of the cellular pathways required for ovarian function are also used during the innate immune response to bacterial pathogens. We propose that activation of cellular pathways during this immune response has a negative impact on ovarian physiology, which is manifest as infertility detected after the clearance of the bacteria. This review highlights how new insights into infection and immunity in cattle are linked to infertility. PMID:26020298

  8. Feeding rolled barley grain steeped in lactic acid modulated energy status and innate immunity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, S; Zebeli, Q; Mazzolari, A; Dunn, S M; Ametaj, B N

    2010-11-01

    Feeding dairy cows large proportions of cereal grain is commonly associated with rumen acidosis, activation of innate immunity, and perturbation of intermediary metabolism. We previously showed that steeping barley grain in 0.5% lactic acid (LA) decreased the rate of starch degradation, lowered the risk of subacute rumen acidosis, modulated rumen fermentation profile, and increased milk fat content in dairy cows. This study sought to investigate whether feeding of LA-treated barley grain would affect carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as well as innate immunity. Eight rumen-fistulated late-lactation (approximately 217 d in milk, DIM) Holstein cows were randomly assigned, in a 2 × 2 crossover design, to 1 of the 2 dietary treatments consisting of 27% (dry matter basis) rolled barley grain steeped for 48 h in an equal volume (wt/vol) of tap water (CTR) or 0.5% LA (TRT). Each experimental period lasted 21 d, with the first 11 d for diet adaptation. Blood and rumen samples were collected on d 12, 15, 17, and 21 of the experimental period before the morning feeding to evaluate the effects of dietary treatment on preprandial day-to-day variation of plasma and rumen variables. To establish the effect of treatment on diurnal variation of plasma variables, blood samples were collected on the last day of each period at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12h after the morning feeding (i.e., 0800 h). Results of the day-to-day study showed that cows fed the TRT diet had greater overall preprandial concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, and insulin, and a lower concentration of haptoglobin in plasma. Diurnal data indicated lower concentrations of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A and a tendency for greater plasma lactate in cows fed the TRT diet. A treatment by time interaction was observed for glucose, lactate, insulin, haptoglobin, and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, suggesting a role for both the processing of grain and the time of sampling on those variables. No effect of diet on

  9. Altered theca and cumulus oocyte complex gene expression, follicular arrest and reduced fertility in cows with dominant follicle follicular fluid androgen excess

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To date, animal models with naturally occurring androgen excess have not been identified. Serendipitously, we discovered two subpopulations of cows with dramatically different follicular fluid androgen concentrations in dominant follicles within our research herd. In the cow, androstenedione is the...

  10. Oxidation-specific epitopes are dominant targets of innate natural antibodies in mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Chou, Meng-Yun; Fogelstrand, Linda; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Hansen, Lotte F; Woelkers, Douglas; Shaw, Peter X; Choi, Jeomil; Perkmann, Thomas; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Miller, Yury I; Hörkkö, Sohvi; Corr, Maripat; Witztum, Joseph L; Binder, Christoph J

    2009-05-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the accumulation of oxidized lipoproteins and apoptotic cells. Adaptive immune responses to various oxidation-specific epitopes play an important role in atherogenesis. However, accumulating evidence suggests that these epitopes are also recognized by innate receptors, such as scavenger receptors on macrophages, and plasma proteins, such as C-reactive protein (CRP). Here, we provide multiple lines of evidence that oxidation-specific epitopes constitute a dominant, previously unrecognized target of natural Abs (NAbs) in both mice and humans. Using reconstituted mice expressing solely IgM NAbs, we have shown that approximately 30% of all NAbs bound to model oxidation-specific epitopes, as well as to atherosclerotic lesions and apoptotic cells. Because oxidative processes are ubiquitous, we hypothesized that these epitopes exert selective pressure to expand NAbs, which in turn play an important role in mediating homeostatic functions consequent to inflammation and cell death, as demonstrated by their ability to facilitate apoptotic cell clearance. These findings provide novel insights into the functions of NAbs in mediating host homeostasis and into their roles in health and diseases, such as chronic inflammatory diseases and atherosclerosis. PMID:19363291

  11. Induced ovulation of the first postpartum dominant follicle in beef suckler cows using a GnRH analogue.

    PubMed

    Crowe, M A; Goulding, D; Baguisi, A; Boland, M P; Roche, J F

    1993-11-01

    There is a low incidence of ovulation of the first dominant follicle that develops in the early postpartum period of beef suckler cows, which prolongs the interval from calving to first ovulation. The objective of this study was to determine whether a single injection of a GnRH analogue would ovulate the first postpartum dominant follicle. Limousin x Friesian beef suckler cows were assigned at parturition, over two years (16 cows in year 1; 19 cows in year 2), to one of three treatments: (1) untreated (control; n = 12), (2) GnRH analogue (20 micrograms buserelin i.m.) administered in the growing-plateau phase of the first postpartum dominant follicle (GnRH-G; n = 12) and (3) GnRH analogue administered in the declining phase of the first postpartum dominant follicle (GnRH-D; n = 11). From day 8 or 9 post partum, the ovaries of each cow were examined daily by ultrasound to determine the time of GnRH injection and ovulation. Blood samples were collected daily for progesterone measurement to confirm ovulation and in year 2 to determine the duration of the first oestrous cycle. The mean (+/- SEM) number of days from parturition to development of the first dominant follicle was 11.0 +/- 0.3, 10.3 +/- 0.5 and 10.1 +/- 0.7 for cows assigned to treatments 1-3, respectively (P > 0.05). The proportion of cows ovulating the first dominant follicle was higher (P < 0.05) following GnRH treatment (12 of 12 and 7 of 10; GnRH-G and GnRH-D, respectively) than with controls (2 of 12).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8107039

  12. Differential abundance of IGF1, bile acids, and the genes involved in their signaling in the dominant follicle microenvironment of lactating cows and nulliparous heifers.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Ricardo; Schuermann, Yasmin; Gagnon-Duval, Laurianne; Baldassarre, Hernan; Murphy, Bruce D; Gevry, Nicolas; Agellon, Luis B; Bordignon, Vilceu; Duggavathi, Raj

    2014-04-01

    It is well documented that incidence of fertility problems is high in lactating cows but not in heifers of the same genetic merit. Understanding the metabolic and molecular differences between fertile heifers and relatively infertile lactating cows will help us understand the pathogenesis of infertility in dairy cows. Follicular waves in lactating cows (30-50 days in milk; n = 12) and heifers (n = 10) were synchronized by ultrasound-guided follicle ablation. Follicular fluid and granulosa cells of the dominant follicle were collected by ultrasound-guided aspiration along with blood sampling on Day 6 after synchronization. Dominant and subordinate follicles were larger in lactating cows than in heifers. Metabolic stress in lactating cows was evidenced by lower glucose and higher ß-hydroxy butyric acid compared with heifers. Insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling was reduced in the dominant follicle in lactating cows through reduced insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations in plasma and follicular fluid of the dominant follicle, and reduced expression of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPPA) in their granulosa cells. We also found increased levels of total bile acids in the follicular fluid of the dominant follicle of lactating cows compared with heifers. Granulosa cells of the dominant follicle had higher expression of SLC10A2 and GPBAR1 (bile acid transporter and receptor, respectively) in lactating cows. These novel data are indicative of increased bile acid signaling within the dominant follicles of lactating cows compared with heifers. Overall, we demonstrate in the present study the metabolic, endocrine, and molecular differences within the microenvironment of the dominant follicles in lactating cows and heifers. These differences in follicular microenvironment may contribute toward abnormal ovarian function in lactating dairy cows. PMID:24503106

  13. Metabolic changes in follicular fluid of the dominant follicle in high-yielding dairy cows early post partum.

    PubMed

    Leroy, J L M R; Vanholder, T; Delanghe, J R; Opsomer, G; Van Soom, A; Bols, P E J; Dewulf, J; de Kruif, A

    2004-09-15

    Characteristics of the intrafollicular environment to which the preovulatory oocyte is exposed may be one of the major factors determining subsequent fertility. The aim of our study was to examine to what extent metabolic changes that occur in early post partum high-yielding dairy cows are reflected in the follicular fluid (FF) of the dominant follicle (>8 mm). Nine blood samples were taken per cow from nine high-yielding dairy cows between 7 days before and 46 days after parturition. From Day 14 post partum on and together with blood sampling, FF samples of the largest follicle were collected from the same cows by means of transvaginal follicle aspiration. Serum and FF samples were analyzed using commercial clinical and photometric chemistry assays for glucose, beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB), urea, total protein (TP), triglycerides (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and total cholesterol (TC). All cows lost body condition during the experimental period (0.94+/-0.09 points) illustrating a negative energy balance during the experimental period. In FF, glucose concentrations were significantly higher and the TP, TG, NEFA and TC concentrations were significantly lower than in serum (P<0.05). The concentrations of glucose, beta-OHB, urea and TC in serum and in FF changed significantly over time (P<0.05). Throughout the study, changes of all metabolites in serum were reflected by similar changes in FF. Especially for glucose, beta-OHB and urea the correlations were remarkably high. The results from the present study confirm that the typical metabolic adaptations which can be found in serum of high-yielding dairy cows shortly post partum, are reflected in follicular fluid and, therefore, may affect the quality of both the oocyte and the granulosa cells. PMID:15289052

  14. Alterations in innate immunity reactants and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism precede occurrence of metritis in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dervishi, Elda; Zhang, Guanshi; Hailemariam, Dagnachew; Goldansaz, Seyed Ali; Deng, Qilan; Dunn, Suzanna M; Ametaj, Burim N

    2016-02-01

    The overall purpose of the present study was to search for early screening biomarkers of disease state. Therefore the objectives of this study were to evaluate metabolites related to carbohydrate metabolism, acute phase proteins, and proinflammatory cytokines in the blood of transition dairy cows starting at -8 weeks before calving. Blood samples were collected from 100 multiparous Holstein dairy cows during -8, -4, disease diagnosis, +4 and +8 weeks relative to parturition. Six healthy cows and 6 cows that showed clinical signs of metritis were selected for serum analysis. Overall the results showed that cows with metritis had greater concentration of lactate, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and serum amyloid A (SAA) versus healthy cows throughout the experiment. The disease was associated with decrease in milk production and fat: protein ratio. Cows with metritis showed alteration in metabolites related to carbohydrate metabolism, acute phase proteins, and proinflammatory cytokines starting at -8 weeks prior to parturition and appearance of clinical signs of the disease. This study suggests a possible use of cytokines as early markers of disease in dairy cows. PMID:26850534

  15. Altered Theca and Cumulus Oocyte Complex Gene Expression, Follicular Arrest and Reduced Fertility in Cows with Dominant Follicle Follicular Fluid Androgen Excess

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Adam F.; Pohlmeier, William E.; Sargent, Kevin M.; Cole, Brizett D.; Vinton, Rebecca J.; Kurz, Scott G.; McFee, Renee M.; Cushman, Robert A.; Cupp, Andrea S.; Wood, Jennifer R.

    2014-01-01

    Aspiration of bovine follicles 12–36 hours after induced corpus luteum lysis serendipitously identified two populations of cows, one with High androstenedione (A4; >40 ng/ml; mean = 102) and another with Low A4 (<20 ng/ml; mean = 9) in follicular fluid. We hypothesized that the steroid excess in follicular fluid of dominant follicles in High A4 cows would result in reduced fertility through altered follicle development and oocyte maternal RNA abundance. To test this hypothesis, estrous cycles of cows were synchronized and ovariectomy was performed 36 hours later. HPLC MS/MS analysis of follicular fluid showed increased dehydroepiandrosterone (6-fold), A4 (158-fold) and testosterone (31-fold) in the dominant follicle of High A4 cows. However, estrone (3-fold) and estradiol (2-fold) concentrations were only slightly elevated, suggesting a possible inefficiency in androgen to estrogen conversion in High A4 cows. Theca cell mRNA expression of LHCGR, GATA6, CYP11A1, and CYP17A1 was greater in High A4 cows. Furthermore, abundance of ZAR1 was decreased 10-fold in cumulus oocyte complexes from High A4 cows, whereas NLRP5 abundance tended to be 19.8-fold greater (P = 0.07). There was a tendency for reduction in stage 4 follicles in ovarian cortex samples from High A4 cows suggesting that progression to antral stages were impaired. High A4 cows tended (P<0.07) to have a 17% reduction in calving rate compared with Low A4 cows suggesting reduced fertility in the High A4 population. These data suggest that the dominant follicle environment of High A4 cows including reduced estrogen conversion and androgen excess contributes to infertility in part through altered follicular and oocyte development. PMID:25330369

  16. Effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin during the periparturient period on innate and adaptive immune responses, systemic inflammation, and metabolism of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Silva, P R B; Machado, K S; Da Silva, D N Lobão; Moraes, J G N; Keisler, D H; Chebel, R C

    2015-07-01

    , rbST87.5=11,238±761, rbST125=12,724±781 GMFI) were higher for rbST125 cows than for control cows during the prepartum period. Concentrations of serum IgG anti-ovalbumin tended to be higher for rbST125 cows than for control cows (control=0.75±0.11, rbST87.5=0.94±0.10, rbST125=1.11±0.11 optical density) in the prepartum period. Haptoglobin concentration was significantly reduced 7d postpartum for rbST125 treatment compared with control and rbST87.5 treatments (control=2.74±0.28, rbST87.5=2.81±0.28, rbST125=1.87±0.28 optical density). Although treatment tended to affect postpartum β-hydroxybutyrate (control=747.5±40.2, rbST87.5=753.2±40.1, rbST125=648.8±39.7 µmol/L), it did not affect liver contents of total lipids, triglycerides, or glycogen. Incidence of metritis among rbST125 cows was reduced compared with that in control cows (control=23.1, rbST87.5=18.0, rbST125=7.8%). Treatment of dairy cows with 125mg of rbST improved innate immune responses and IgG concentration, with limited effects on metabolism. PMID:25912866

  17. Pathways of the dominant follicle after exposure to sub-luteal circulating progesterone concentrations are different in lactating dairy cows versus non-lactating heifers.

    PubMed

    Atanasov, B; De Koster, J; Bommelé, L; Dovenski, T; Opsomer, G

    2015-03-01

    With the increased use of different synchronization programs in cattle, attention is given to the progesterone concentration during development of the ovulatory follicle. It has been shown that low peripheral progesterone concentrations during follicular development may lead to decreased fertility. To investigate the effect of low progesterone concentrations on the fate of the dominant follicle, a study was conducted where cycles of dairy cows and heifers were manipulated to induce the development of the first dominant follicle without progesterone (PLACEBO) or under sub-luteal progesterone concentrations from a progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID Delta(®)). After insertion of the devices, daily follow up was performed by transrectal ultrasonography to identify and measure follicular development and blood samples were taken to determine the circulating progesterone concentration. Follow up was continued until the ovulation of a follicle occurred. After ovulation, the fate of the first dominant follicle was identified as arrested, atretic or ovulatory. Arrest was defined as persistence of the dominant follicle followed by ovulation whereas atresia was defined as regression of the dominant follicle and subsequent growth and ovulation of a new follicle. During PLACEBO treatment, heifers ovulated earlier and smaller follicles in comparison to cows. During PRID Delta(®) treatment, heifers had greater progesterone concentrations compared to cows and arrest of the dominant follicle occurred more in cows in comparison to heifers. In cycles where the dominant follicle was arrested, the ovulatory follicle was larger in comparison to cycles where the dominant follicle was atretic. PMID:25637465

  18. Evaluation of the systemic innate immune response and metabolic alterations of nonlactating cows with diet-induced subacute ruminal acidosis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lecompte, J C; Kroeker, A D; Ceballos-Márquez, A; Li, S; Plaizier, J C; Gomez, D E

    2014-12-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) increases lipopolysaccharide endotoxin in the rumen, which might translocate into the systemic circulation, triggering a cascade of clinical and immunological alterations. The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical immune and metabolic responses to ruminal-derived lipopolysaccharide in nonlactating cows induced with SARA using 2 challenges, a grain-based SARA challenge (GBSC) or an alfalfa-pellet SARA challenge (APSC). Six dry, nonlactating Holstein cows were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square arrangement of treatments with 4-wk experimental cycles. All cows received the control diet containing 70% forage and 30% mixed concentrates (dry matter basis) for 3 wk. In wk 4, cows received a control diet, GBSC (38% wheat-barley pellets, 32% other mixed concentrate, and 30% forages), or APSC (45% mixed concentrate, 32% alfalfa pellets, and 23% other forages). Total plasma proteins and immunology-related proteins, acute phase proteins, blood cells, serum chemistry, mRNA gene expression of peripheral blood cell surface markers, and selected proinflammatory cytokines were evaluated. Ruminal pH was lower in both groups with induced SARA compared with a control group. Ruminal endotoxins were higher in GBSC; however, plasma endotoxin was not detected in any study group. No significant differences in feed intake, rectal temperature, white blood cell counts, or differentials were found between control and SARA challenge groups; changes in glucose, urea, Ca, and Mg were observed in SARA groups. Total plasma proteins were lower in both SARA groups, and acute phase proteins were higher in GBSC. The expression of CD14, MD2, and TLR4 mRNA in peripheral blood leukocytes was not affected by SARA induction. The induction of SARA as a result of GBSC or APSC challenge was successful; however, LPS was not detected in plasma. Changes in clinical, metabolic, and inflammatory responses were not observed in the SARA-challenged cows, suggesting that

  19. Free fatty acid levels in fluid of dominant follicles at the preferred insemination time in dairy cows are not affected by early postpartum fatty acid stress.

    PubMed

    Aardema, Hilde; Gadella, Bart M; van de Lest, Chris H A; Brouwers, Jos F H M; Stout, Tom A E; Roelen, Bernard A J; Vos, Peter L A M

    2015-04-01

    The fertility of high-yielding dairy cows has declined during the last 3 decades, in association with a more profound negative energy balance (NEB) during the early weeks postpartum. One feature of this NEB is a marked elevation in circulating free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. During the early postpartum period (≤ d 42), circulatory FFA levels were measured weekly, and progesterone concentrations and the diameter of the dominant follicles were determined thrice weekly. Retrospectively, cows that ovulated within 35 d postpartum were grouped as "normal ovulating" cows (n = 5), and the others were grouped as "delayed ovulating" cows (n = 5). In both groups, high total FFA levels (>500 µM) were evident immediately postpartum. Interestingly, cows with delayed ovulation had higher plasma FFA concentrations in the first weeks postpartum compared with normal ovulating cows. In both cow groups, FFA decreased to control levels of non-NEB cows within 3 wk postpartum. The FFA compositions and concentrations in fluids from the dominant follicles of postpartum cows were not different between the normal and delayed ovulating cows when measured at potential insemination points: d 55, 80, and 105 postpartum. Interestingly, the concentration of monounsaturated oleic acid was higher and that of saturated stearic acid lower in follicular fluids of both groups compared with that in blood. The level of FFA in follicular fluid was correlated with the ratio of 17β-estradiol (E2) to progesterone (P4) in follicular fluid, with a relatively high level of unsaturated FFA in follicles with a low E2:P4 ratio. Taken together, these results indicate that a more severe NEB early postpartum is related to a delay in the first postpartum ovulation and does not affect FFA composition in follicular fluid at the preferred insemination time. The high FFA level in dominant follicles with a low E2:P4 ratio may be due to a different FFA metabolism in these follicles. The diagnostic value of this

  20. Evaluation of breed-dependent differences in the innate immune responses of Holstein and Jersey cows to Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent diseases of cattle. Various studies have reported breed-dependent differences in the risk for developing this disease. Among two major breeds, Jersey cows have been identified as having a lower prevalence of mastitis than Holstein cows. It is well established...

  1. Exposure of Lactating Dairy Cows to Acute Pre-Ovulatory Heat Stress Affects Granulosa Cell-Specific Gene Expression Profiles in Dominant Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Vanselow, Jens; Vernunft, Andreas; Koczan, Dirk; Spitschak, Marion; Kuhla, Björn

    2016-01-01

    High environmental temperatures induce detrimental effects on various reproductive processes in cattle. According to the predicted global warming the number of days with unfavorable ambient temperatures will further increase. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of acute heat stress during the late pre-ovulatory phase on morphological, physiological and molecular parameters of dominant follicles in cycling cows during lactation. Eight German Holstein cows in established lactation were exposed to heat stress (28°C) or thermoneutral conditions (15°C) with pair-feeding for four days. After hormonal heat induction growth of the respective dominant follicles was monitored by ultrasonography for two days, then an ovulatory GnRH dose was given and follicular steroid hormones and granulosa cell-specific gene expression profiles were determined 23 hrs thereafter. The data showed that the pre-ovulatory growth of dominant follicles and the estradiol, but not the progesterone concentrations tended to be slightly affected. mRNA microarray and hierarchical cluster analysis revealed distinct expression profiles in granulosa cells derived from heat stressed compared to pair-fed animals. Among the 255 affected genes heatstress-, stress- or apoptosis associated genes were not present. But instead, we found up-regulation of genes essentially involved in G-protein coupled signaling pathways, extracellular matrix composition, and several members of the solute carrier family as well as up-regulation of FST encoding follistatin. In summary, the data of the present study show that acute pre-ovulatory heat stress can specifically alter gene expression profiles in granulosa cells, however without inducing stress related genes and pathways and suggestively can impair follicular growth due to affecting the activin-inhibin-follistatin system. PMID:27532452

  2. Exposure of Lactating Dairy Cows to Acute Pre-Ovulatory Heat Stress Affects Granulosa Cell-Specific Gene Expression Profiles in Dominant Follicles.

    PubMed

    Vanselow, Jens; Vernunft, Andreas; Koczan, Dirk; Spitschak, Marion; Kuhla, Björn

    2016-01-01

    High environmental temperatures induce detrimental effects on various reproductive processes in cattle. According to the predicted global warming the number of days with unfavorable ambient temperatures will further increase. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of acute heat stress during the late pre-ovulatory phase on morphological, physiological and molecular parameters of dominant follicles in cycling cows during lactation. Eight German Holstein cows in established lactation were exposed to heat stress (28°C) or thermoneutral conditions (15°C) with pair-feeding for four days. After hormonal heat induction growth of the respective dominant follicles was monitored by ultrasonography for two days, then an ovulatory GnRH dose was given and follicular steroid hormones and granulosa cell-specific gene expression profiles were determined 23 hrs thereafter. The data showed that the pre-ovulatory growth of dominant follicles and the estradiol, but not the progesterone concentrations tended to be slightly affected. mRNA microarray and hierarchical cluster analysis revealed distinct expression profiles in granulosa cells derived from heat stressed compared to pair-fed animals. Among the 255 affected genes heatstress-, stress- or apoptosis associated genes were not present. But instead, we found up-regulation of genes essentially involved in G-protein coupled signaling pathways, extracellular matrix composition, and several members of the solute carrier family as well as up-regulation of FST encoding follistatin. In summary, the data of the present study show that acute pre-ovulatory heat stress can specifically alter gene expression profiles in granulosa cells, however without inducing stress related genes and pathways and suggestively can impair follicular growth due to affecting the activin-inhibin-follistatin system. PMID:27532452

  3. A Newly Emergent Turkey Arthritis Reovirus Shows Dominant Enteric Tropism and Induces Significantly Elevated Innate Antiviral and T Helper-1 Cytokine Responses

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeldin, Tamer A.; Mor, Sunil K.; Sobhy, Nader M.; Xing, Zheng; Reed, Kent M.; Goyal, Sagar M.; Porter, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Newly emergent turkey arthritis reoviruses (TARV) were isolated from tendons of lame 15-week-old tom turkeys that occasionally had ruptured leg tendons. Experimentally, these TARVs induced remarkable tenosynovitis in gastrocnemius tendons of turkey poults. The current study aimed to characterize the location and the extent of virus replication as well as the cytokine response induced by TARV during the first two weeks of infection. One-week-old male turkeys were inoculated orally with TARV (O’Neil strain). Copy numbers of viral genes were estimated in intestines, internal organs and tendons at ½, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 14 days Post inoculation (dpi). Cytokine profile was measured in intestines, spleen and leg tendons at 0, 4, 7 and 14 dpi. Viral copy number peaked in jejunum, cecum and bursa of Fabricius at 4 dpi. Copy numbers increased dramatically in leg tendons at 7 and 14 dpi while minimal copies were detected in internal organs and blood during the same period. Virus was detected in cloacal swabs at 1–2 dpi, and peaked at 14 dpi indicating enterotropism of the virus and its early shedding in feces. Elevation of IFN-α and IFN-β was observed in intestines at 7 dpi as well as a prominent T helper-1 response (IFN-γ) at 7 and 14 dpi. IFN-γ and IL-6 were elevated in gastrocnemius tendons at 14 dpi. Elevation of antiviral cytokines in intestines occurred at 7dpi when a significant decline of viral replication in intestines was observed. T helper-1 response in intestines and leg tendons was the dominant T-helper response. These results suggest the possible correlation between viral replication and cytokine response in early infection of TARV in turkeys. Our findings provide novel insights which help elucidate viral pathogenesis in turkey tendons infected with TARV. PMID:26659460

  4. Innate and adaptive immune responses to in utero infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection of pregnant cows with noncytopathic (ncp) BVDV induces rapid innate and adaptive immune responses resulting in clearance of the virus in less than 3 weeks. Seven to 14 days after inoculation of the cow, ncpBVDV crosses the placenta and induces a fetal viremia. Establishment of persistent ...

  5. Comparison of Holstein and Jersey Innate Immune Responses to Escherichia coli Intramammary Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent diseases in cattle and remains among the most costly diseases to the dairy industry. Various surveys have indicated a higher prevalence of and risk for mastitis in Holstein cows than in Jersey cows. The innate immune system comprises the immediate host defense...

  6. Dominance and parent-of-origin effects of coding and non-coding alleles at the acylCoA-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase (DGAT1) gene on milk production traits in German Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    Kuehn, Christa; Edel, Christian; Weikard, Rosemarie; Thaller, Georg

    2007-01-01

    Background Substantial gene substitution effects on milk production traits have formerly been reported for alleles at the K232A and the promoter VNTR loci in the bovine acylCoA-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) gene by using data sets including sires with accumulated phenotypic observations of daughters (breeding values, daughter yield deviations). However, these data sets prevented analyses with respect to dominance or parent-of-origin effects, although an increasing number of reports in the literature outlined the relevance of non-additive gene effects on quantitative traits. Results Based on a data set comprising German Holstein cows with direct trait measurements, we first confirmed the previously reported association of DGAT1 promoter VNTR alleles with milk production traits. We detected a dominant mode of effects for the DGAT1 K232A and promoter VNTR alleles. Namely, the contrasts between the effects of heterozygous individuals at the DGAT1 loci differed significantly from the midpoint between the effects for the two homozygous genotypes for several milk production traits, thus indicating the presence of dominance. Furthermore, we identified differences in the magnitude of effects between paternally and maternally inherited DGAT1 promoter VNTR – K232A haplotypes indicating parent-of-origin effects on milk production traits. Conclusion Non-additive effects like those identified at the bovine DGAT1 locus have to be accounted for in more specific QTL detection models as well as in marker assisted selection schemes. The DGAT1 alleles in cattle will be a useful model for further investigations on the biological background of non-additive effects in mammals due to the magnitude and consistency of their effects on milk production traits. PMID:17892573

  7. Chapter 2: Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, Stuart E.; Broide, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an explosion of interest in the innate immune system. Questions about how the innate immune system senses infection and empowers a protective immune response are being answered at the molecular level. These basic science discoveries are being translated into a more complete understanding of the central role innate immunity plays in the pathogenesis of many human infectious and inflammatory diseases. It is particularly exciting that we are already seeing a return on these scientific investments with the emergence of novel therapies to harness the power of the innate immune system. In this review we explore the defining characteristics of the innate immune system, and through more detailed examples, we highlight recent breakthroughs that have advanced our understanding of the role of innate immunity in human health and disease. PMID:19932920

  8. Innate immunological function of TH2 cells in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Th2 cells produce IL-13 when stimulated by papain or house dust mites (HDM) and induce eosinophilic inflammation. This innate response of cells of the adaptive immune system is dependent on IL-33-, not T cell receptor-, based stimulation. While type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are the dominant ...

  9. Arguing about innateness.

    PubMed

    Valian, Virginia

    2014-07-01

    This paper lays out the components of a language acquisition model, the interconnections among the components, and the differing stances of nativism and empiricism about syntax. After demonstrating that parsimony cannot decide between the two stances, the paper analyzes nine examples of evidence that have been used to argue for or against nativism, concluding that most pieces of evidence are either irrelevant or suggest that language is special but need not invoke innate ideas. Two pieces of evidence - the development of home sign languages and the acquisition of Determiners - do show not just that language is special but that the child has innate syntactic content. The existential claim that nativism makes - there is at least one innate syntactic idea - is an easier claim to verify than the universal claim that empiricism makes - there are no innate syntactic ideas. PMID:25023498

  10. Approaching archetypes: reconsidering innateness.

    PubMed

    Goodwyn, Erik

    2010-09-01

    The question of innateness has hounded Jungian psychology since Jung originally postulated the archetype as an a priori structure within the psyche. During his life and after his death he was continually accused of Lamarckianism and criticized for his theory that the archetypes existed as prior structures. More recently, with the advent of genetic research and the human genome project, the idea that psychological structures can be innate has come under even harsher criticism even within Jungian thought. There appears to be a growing consensus that Jung's idea of innate psychological structures was misguided, and that perhaps the archetype-as-such should be abandoned for more developmental and 'emergent' theories of the psyche. The purpose of this essay is to question this conclusion, and introduce some literature on psychological innateness that appears relevant to this discussion. PMID:20883307

  11. Innate Immunity and Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Bonifati, Domenico Marco

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation of central nervous system (CNS) is usually associated with trauma and infection. Neuroinflammation occurs in close relation to trauma, infection, and neurodegenerative diseases. Low-level neuroinflammation is considered to have beneficial effects whereas chronic neuroinflammation can be harmful. Innate immune system consisting of pattern-recognition receptors, macrophages, and complement system plays a key role in CNS homeostasis following injury and infection. Here, we discuss how innate immune components can also contribute to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. PMID:23843682

  12. Innate Immunity to Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickx, Rodinde; Stichling, Nicole; Koelen, Jorien; Kuryk, Lukasz; Lipiec, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Human adenoviruses are the most widely used vectors in gene medicine, with applications ranging from oncolytic therapies to vaccinations, but adenovirus vectors are not without side effects. In addition, natural adenoviruses pose severe risks for immunocompromised people, yet infections are usually mild and self-limiting in immunocompetent individuals. Here we describe how adenoviruses are recognized by the host innate defense system during entry and replication in immune and nonimmune cells. Innate defense protects the host and represents a major barrier to using adenoviruses as therapeutic interventions in humans. Innate response against adenoviruses involves intrinsic factors present at constant levels, and innate factors mounted by the host cell upon viral challenge. These factors exert antiviral effects by directly binding to viruses or viral components, or shield the virus, for example, soluble factors, such as blood clotting components, the complement system, preexisting immunoglobulins, or defensins. In addition, Toll-like receptors and lectins in the plasma membrane and endosomes are intrinsic factors against adenoviruses. Important innate factors restricting adenovirus in the cytosol are tripartite motif-containing proteins, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like inflammatory receptors, and DNA sensors triggering interferon, such as DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 41 and cyclic guanosine monophosphate–adenosine monophosphate synthase. Adenovirus tunes the function of antiviral autophagy, and counters innate defense by virtue of its early proteins E1A, E1B, E3, and E4 and two virus-associated noncoding RNAs VA-I and VA-II. We conclude by discussing strategies to engineer adenovirus vectors with attenuated innate responses and enhanced delivery features. PMID:24512150

  13. Innate Immunity and BK Virus: Prospective Strategies.

    PubMed

    Kariminik, Ashraf; Yaghobi, Ramin; Dabiri, Shahriar

    2016-03-01

    Recent information demonstrated that BK virus reactivation is a dominant complication after kidney transplantation, which occurs because of immunosuppression. BK virus reactivation is the main reason of transplanted kidney losing. Immune response against BK virus is the major inhibitor of the virus reactivation. Therefore, improving our knowledge regarding the main parameters that fight against BK viruses can shed light on to direct new treatment strategies to suppress BK infection. Innate immunity consists of numerous cell systems and also soluble molecules, which not only suppress virus replication, but also activate adaptive immunity to eradicate the infection. Additionally, it appears that immune responses against reactivated BK virus are the main reasons for induction of BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKAN). Thus, improving our knowledge regarding the parameters and detailed mechanisms of innate immunity and also the status of innate immunity of the patients with BK virus reactivation and its complications can introduce new prospective strategies to either prevent or as therapy of the complication. Therefore, this review was aimed to collate the most recent data regarding the roles played by innate immunity against BK virus and also the status of innate immunity in the patients with reactivation BK virus and BKAN. PMID:26752693

  14. Innate Immune Function of TH2 Cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Liying; Huang, Yuefeng; Chen, Xi; Hu-Li, Jane; Urban, Joseph F.; Paul, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 helper T (TH) cells produce interleukin 13 (IL-13) when stimulated by papain or house dust mites (HDM) and induce eosinophilic inflammation. This innate response is dependent on IL-33 but not T cell antigen receptors (TCRs). While type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are the dominant innate producers of IL-13 in naïve animals, we show here that in helminth-infected mice, TH2 cell numbers increased and became major mediators of innate type II responses. TH2 cells made important contributions to HDM-induced antigen–non-specific eosinophilic inflammation and protected mice recovering from Ascaris suum infection against subsequent infection with the phylogenetically distant nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Our findings reveal a previously unappreciated role of effector TH2 cells during TCR-independent innate-like immune responses. PMID:26322482

  15. Cow's milk - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  16. Innate immunity and adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Akira, Shizuo

    2011-10-12

    Innate immunity was for a long time considered to be non-specific because the major function of this system is to digest pathogens and present antigens to the cells involved in acquired immunity. However, recent studies have shown that innate immunity is not non-specific, but is instead sufficiently specific to discriminate self from pathogens through evolutionarily conserved receptors, designated Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Indeed, innate immunity has a crucial role in early host defence against invading pathogens. Furthermore, TLRs were found to act as adjuvant receptors that create a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity, and to have important roles in the induction of adaptive immunity. This paradigm shift is now changing our thinking on the pathogenesis and treatment of infectious, immune and allergic diseases, as well as cancers. Besides TLRs, recent findings have revealed the presence of a cytosolic detector system for invading pathogens. I will review the mechanisms of pathogen recognition by TLRs and cytoplasmic receptors, and then discuss the roles of these receptors in the development of adaptive immunity in response to viral infection. PMID:21893536

  17. Innate immunity and adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Akira, Shizuo

    2011-01-01

    Innate immunity was for a long time considered to be non-specific because the major function of this system is to digest pathogens and present antigens to the cells involved in acquired immunity. However, recent studies have shown that innate immunity is not non-specific, but is instead sufficiently specific to discriminate self from pathogens through evolutionarily conserved receptors, designated Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Indeed, innate immunity has a crucial role in early host defence against invading pathogens. Furthermore, TLRs were found to act as adjuvant receptors that create a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity, and to have important roles in the induction of adaptive immunity. This paradigm shift is now changing our thinking on the pathogenesis and treatment of infectious, immune and allergic diseases, as well as cancers. Besides TLRs, recent findings have revealed the presence of a cytosolic detector system for invading pathogens. I will review the mechanisms of pathogen recognition by TLRs and cytoplasmic receptors, and then discuss the roles of these receptors in the development of adaptive immunity in response to viral infection. PMID:21893536

  18. Factors affecting pre-ovulatory follicle diameter and ovulation rate to GnRH in postpartum beef cows Part I: Cycling cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cows induced to ovulate small dominant follicles were reported to have reduced pregnancy rates compared to cows that ovulated large follicles. The reason for the presence of small dominant follicles at the time of GnRH-induced ovulation in timed AI protocols is unknown. Objectives of this experime...

  19. Ontogeny of Innate T Lymphocytes – Some Innate Lymphocytes are More Innate than Others

    PubMed Central

    Vermijlen, David; Prinz, Immo

    2014-01-01

    Innate lymphocytes have recently received a lot of attention. However, there are different ideas about the definition of what is “innate” in lymphocytes. Lymphocytes without V(D)J-rearranged antigen receptors are now termed innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and include cells formerly known as natural killer (NK) cells. Also, lymphocytes that are innate should be able to recognize microbial or stress-induced patterns and react rapidly without prior sensitization, as opposed to adaptive immune responses. Formally, genuine innate lymphocytes would be present before or at birth. Here, we review the ontogeny of human and mouse innate T lymphocyte populations. We focus on γδ T cells, which are prototype lymphocytes that often use their V(D)J rearrangement machinery to generate genetically encoded predetermined recombinations of antigen receptors. We make parallels between the development of γδ T cells with that of innate αβ T cells [invariant (i)NKT and mucosa-associated invariant T cells] and compare this with the ontogeny of innate B cells and ILCs (including NK cells). We conclude that some subsets are more innate than others, i.e., innate lymphocytes that are made primarily early in utero during gestation while others are made after birth. In practice, a ranking of innateness by ontogeny has implications for the reconstitution of innate lymphocyte subsets after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:25346734

  20. Innate Immune Recognition of EBV.

    PubMed

    Lünemann, Anna; Rowe, Martin; Nadal, David

    2015-01-01

    The ability of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) to establish latency despite specific immune responses and to successfully persist lifelong in the human host shows that EBV has developed powerful strategies and mechanisms to exploit, evade, abolish, or downsize otherwise effective immune responses to ensure its own survival. This chapter focuses on current knowledge on innate immune responses against EBV and its evasion strategies for own benefit and summarizes the questions that remain to be tackled. Innate immune reactions against EBV originate both from the main target cells of EBV and from nontarget cells, which are elements of the innate immune system. Thus, we structured our review accordingly but with a particular focus on the innate recognition of EBV in its two stages in its life cycle, latent state and lytic replication. Specifically, we discuss (I) innate sensing and resulting innate immune responses against EBV by its main target cells, focusing on (i) EBV transmission between epithelial cells and B cells and their life cycle stages; and (ii) elements of innate immunity in EBV's target cells. Further, we debate (II) the innate recognition and resulting innate immune responses against EBV by cells other than the main target cells, focusing on (iii) myeloid cells: dendritic cells, monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophil granulocytes; and (iv) natural killer cells. Finally, we address (III) how EBV counteracts or exploits innate immunity in its latent and lytic life cycle stages, concentrating on (v) TLRs; (vi) EBERs; and (vii) microRNAs. PMID:26428378

  1. [Do cows drink calcium?].

    PubMed

    Geishauser, T; Lechner, S; Plate, I; Heidemann, B

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how well cows drink the Propeller calcium drink, and it's effect on blood calcium concentration. Drinking was tested in 120 cows right after calving, before cows drank anything else. 60 cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or 20 liters of water. Cows drank the Propeller as good as water. 72% of all cows drank all 20 liters, 18% drank on average 8.2 liters and 10% drank less than 1 liter. Blood calcium concentration was studied in 16 cows right after calving. Eight cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or no calcium drink. Blood calcium significantly increased ten minutes after Propeller intake and stayed significantly elevated for 24 hours. Without calcium drink blood calcium levels decreased significantly. Advantages of the new Propeller calcium drink over calcium gels or boli could be that cows now drink calcium themselves and that the Propeller increases blood calcium concentration rapidly and long lasting. PMID:18429501

  2. Dissecting the COW

    SciTech Connect

    Linstadt, E.

    1985-10-01

    The COW, or Console On Wheels, is the primary operator interface to the SLC accelerator control system. A hardware and software description of the COW, a microcomputer based system with a color graphics display output and touchpanel and knob inputs, is given. The ease of development and expandability, due to both the modular nature of the hardware and the multitasking, interrupt driven software running in the COW, are described. Integration of the COW into the SLCNET communications network and SLC Control system is detailed.

  3. Dissecting the COW

    SciTech Connect

    Linstadt, E.

    1985-04-01

    The COW, or Console On Wheels, is the primary operator interface to the SLC accelerator control system. A hardware and software description of the COW, a microcomputer based system with a color graphics display output and touch-panel and knob inputs, is given. The ease of development and expandability, due to both the modular nature of the hardware and the multitasking, interrupt driven software running in the COW, are described. Integration of the COW into the SLCNET communications network and SLC Control system is detailed.

  4. Cow dung powder poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sherfudeen, Khaja Mohideen; Kaliannan, Senthil Kumar; Dammalapati, Pavan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital. PMID:26730123

  5. Social stressors and their effects on immunity and health of periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Chebel, Ricardo C; Silva, Paula R B; Endres, Márcia I; Ballou, Michael A; Luchterhand, Karen L

    2016-04-01

    Management practices during the periparturient period have been the focus of much research recently because during this period immune function, metabolism, and health of cows are severely challenged. Responses to stress are often classified as behavioral, immunological, neuroendocrine, and autonomic. In production systems, understanding all facets of stress response is important to correctly predict the consequences of stressors to the health and performance of animals and to prevent costly managerial changes that have minimal effect on animal well-being and performance. Common social stressors faced by periparturient animals are regrouping, overstocking, and for nulliparous animals, commingling with parous animals. In conventional dairies, feeding strategies during the periparturient period often require several group changes during the most challenging period of an animal's life. Traditional weekly regrouping of prepartum cows increases competitive behavior at the feed bunk but it does not affect immune and metabolic responses, health and production, as long as stocking density is not overwhelming, and nulliparous and parous animals are housed separately. Stocking density of prepartum animals may be overlooked because these are nonproductive animals. Severe overstocking (200% of feeding space) of commingled nulliparous and parous pregnant animals produces neuroendocrine and metabolic changes. On the other hand, when prepartum nulliparous and parous animals are housed separately, stocking densities of up to 120% do not seem to affect innate and adaptive immunity, metabolic responses, milk yield, and reproductive performance, despite increasing negative behavior among cows. In recent experiments, when animals were ranked based on feed bunk displacement, dominant animals were more likely to be diagnosed with metritis than subordinate animals. Importantly, dominant animals with large number of interactions with pen mates (displacement at the feed bunk) were

  6. Dominant resistance against plant viruses

    PubMed Central

    de Ronde, Dryas; Butterbach, Patrick; Kormelink, Richard

    2014-01-01

    To establish a successful infection plant viruses have to overcome a defense system composed of several layers. This review will overview the various strategies plants employ to combat viral infections with main emphasis on the current status of single dominant resistance (R) genes identified against plant viruses and the corresponding avirulence (Avr) genes identified so far. The most common models to explain the mode of action of dominant R genes will be presented. Finally, in brief the hypersensitive response (HR) and extreme resistance (ER), and the functional and structural similarity of R genes to sensors of innate immunity in mammalian cell systems will be described. PMID:25018765

  7. Cow's milk and children

    MedlinePlus

    Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...

  8. Hypomagnesaemia in suckler cows.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    Hypomagnesaemia in housed and grazing suckler cows. Coronavirus infection in cows. Suspected nitrite toxicity in lambs associated with feeding broccoli. Maedi visna in ewes. Mycotic pneumonia in a wildcat. These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for November 2015 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:26940414

  9. T Cells Going Innate.

    PubMed

    Seyda, Midas; Elkhal, Abdallah; Quante, Markus; Falk, Christine S; Tullius, Stefan G

    2016-08-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell receptors (NKRs) play a crucial role in the homeostasis of antigen-experienced T cells. Indeed, prolonged antigen stimulation may induce changes in the receptor repertoire of T cells to a profile that features NKRs. Chronic antigen exposure, at the same time, has been shown to trigger the loss of costimulatory CD28 molecules with recently reported intensified antigen thresholds of antigen-experienced CD8(+) T cells. In transplantation, NKRs have been shown to assist allograft rejection in a CD28-independent fashion. We discuss here a role for CD28-negative T cells that have acquired the competency of the NKR machinery, potentially promoting allorecognition either through T cell receptor (TCR) crossreactivity or independently from TCR recognition. Collectively, NKRs can bring about innate-like T cells by providing alternative costimulatory pathways that gain relevance in chronic inflammation, potentially leading to resistance to CD28-targeting immunosuppressants. PMID:27402226

  10. Fitting Cows to Your Operation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity in cattle can be used to improve efficiency of the cow herd. A cow that is optimum in one production system may not be the best cow for another production system. To improve cow efficiency, we need to optimize the ratio of output to inputs. The optimum ratio on biological bases ...

  11. Comparison of vaginal microbial community structure in healthy and endometritis dairy cows by PCR-DGGE and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Sun, Chengtao; Liu, Chang; Yang, Yujiang; Lu, Wenfa

    2016-04-01

    The normal vaginal microflora provides protection against infections of the reproductive tract. Previous studies have focused on the isolation and screening of probiotic strains from the vagina of cows; however, the vaginal microflora of postpartum cows is poorly characterized. The present study was conducted to evaluate and characterize the vaginal microflora of healthy postpartum cows in relation to postpartum cows with endometritis by using PCR followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and Real-time PCR. The study population comprised 5 healthy cows and 5 cows with endometritis. The results indicated that the vaginal bacterial microflora of healthy postpartum cows was dominated by Lactobacillus sakei subsp. and Weissella koreensis, while there were no dominant bacterial species in the vaginal microflora of postpartum cows with endometritis. Common microorganisms such as Bacteroides spp., Fusobacterium spp., Enterococcus spp., Prevotella spp., Clostridium perfringens strains, and Escherichia coli were detected in both groups of cows by Real-time PCR. The bacterial diversity in the vagina of cows with endometritis was significantly higher than that in healthy cows. The results indicated that the vaginal microflora of cows with endometritis was more diverse and lacked dominant bacterial species as compared to that of the healthy cows, suggesting that disruption of the normal vaginal microflora may contribute to the onset of endometritis. This microbial community analysis provided information that might be used to develop probiotics to treat endometritis in cows; however, further investigation is needed. PMID:26551525

  12. Innate and Adaptive Immunity Synergize to Trigger Inflammation in the Mammary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Rainard, Pascal; Cunha, Patricia; Gilbert, Florence B.

    2016-01-01

    The mammary gland is able to detect and react to bacterial intrusion through innate immunity mechanisms, but mammary inflammation can also result from antigen-specific adaptive immunity. We postulated that innate and adaptive immune responses could synergize to trigger inflammation in the mammary gland. To test this hypothesis, we immunized cows with the model antigen ovalbumin and challenged the sensitized animals with either Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as innate immunity agonist, ovalbumin as adaptive immunity agonist, or both agonists in three different udder quarters of lactating cows. There was a significant amplification of the initial milk leukocytosis in the quarters challenged with the two agonists compared to leukocytosis in quarters challenged with LPS or ovalbumin alone. This synergistic response occurred only with the cows that developed the ovalbumin-specific inflammatory response, and there were significant correlations between milk leukocytosis and production of IL-17A and IFN-γ in a whole-blood ovalbumin stimulation assay. The antigen-specific response induced substantial concentrations of IL-17A and IFN-γ in milk contrary to the response to LPS. Such a synergy at the onset of the reaction of the mammary gland suggests that induction of antigen-specific immune response with bacterial antigens could improve the initial immune response to infection, hence reducing the bacterial load and contributing to protection. PMID:27100324

  13. Innate immune memory in plants.

    PubMed

    Reimer-Michalski, Eva-Maria; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-08-01

    The plant innate immune system comprises local and systemic immune responses. Systemic plant immunity develops after foliar infection by microbial pathogens, upon root colonization by certain microbes, or in response to physical injury. The systemic plant immune response to localized foliar infection is associated with elevated levels of pattern-recognition receptors, accumulation of dormant signaling enzymes, and alterations in chromatin state. Together, these systemic responses provide a memory to the initial infection by priming the remote leaves for enhanced defense and immunity to reinfection. The plant innate immune system thus builds immunological memory by utilizing mechanisms and components that are similar to those employed in the trained innate immune response of jawed vertebrates. Therefore, there seems to be conservation, or convergence, in the evolution of innate immune memory in plants and vertebrates. PMID:27264335

  14. Pentraxins in humoral innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Inforzato, Antonio; Bottazzi, Barbara; Garlanda, Cecilia; Valentino, Sonia; Mantovani, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Innate immunity represents the first line of defence against pathogens and plays key roles in activation and orientation of the adaptive immune response. The innate immune system comprises both a cellular and a humoral arm. Components of the humoral arm include soluble pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) that recognise pathogens associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and initiate the immune response in coordination with the cellular arm, therefore acting as functional ancestors of antibodies. The long pentraxin PTX3 is a prototypic soluble PRM that is produced at sites of infection and inflammation by both somatic and immune cells. Gene targeting of this evolutionarily conserved protein has revealed a non-redundant role in resistance to selected pathogens. Moreover, PTX3 exerts important functions at the crossroad between innate immunity, inflammation and female fertility. Here we review the studies on PTX3, with emphasis on pathogen recognition and crosstalk with other components of the innate immune system. PMID:21948359

  15. What's Mad Cow Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What's Mad Cow Disease? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Mad ...

  16. Forage systems for cow/calf production in the Appalachian region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small cow/calf operations are common in the Appalachian region. Tall fescue is the dominant forage in these systems, for direct grazing as well as for stockpiling. Tall fescue combined with other forages and appropriate grazing management can supply the necessary nutrients for cow/calf production ...

  17. Mucin 1 and cytokines mRNA in endometrium of dairy cows with postpartum uterine disease or repeat breeding.

    PubMed

    Kasimanickam, R; Kasimanickam, V; Kastelic, J P

    2014-04-15

    Mucin (MUC) 1 is an inducible innate immune effector, an important component of defense against bacterial invasion, and is linked with infertility in humans. The objectives were to evaluate messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of MUC1 and cytokine genes in the endometrium of cows with various postpartum uterine inflammatory conditions or with a history of repeat breeding. Endometrial samples were collected from lactating dairy cows diagnosed with metritis (n = 4), endometritis (n = 4), subclinical endometritis (n = 4), or no uterine pathology (normal; n = 4). In addition, endometrial samples were collected from repeat breeder cows with (n = 4) or without (n = 4) subclinical endometritis, and unaffected cows (n = 4). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine mRNA abundances of MUC1, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, interleukin (IL) 1β, IL6, IL8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1, and IGF-binding protein (BP) 2. The mRNA expressions were significantly greater for cows with metritis and clinical endometritis compared with cows with no uterine inflammation, except for IL6. However, mRNA expressions for these target genes were not different for cows with subclinical endometritis, compared with cows without uterine inflammation, except for IL1β and TNFα mRNA (P < 0.01). All mRNA expressions were greater (P < 0.001) for repeat breeder cows with subclinical endometritis compared with normal cows. However, in repeat breeder cows without subclinical endometritis, only expressions of MUC1, IGF1, and IGF BP2 were greater compared with normal cows (P < 0.01). Based on functional protein networks, there were significant associations between these transcripts. In conclusion, endometrial expressions of MUC1 and cytokine genes differed among normal, fertile versus diseased, and subfertile dairy cows. Perhaps, these altered gene expressions contribute to endometrial insufficiency and consequently pregnancy wastage. PMID:24576715

  18. Parturition to resumption of ovarian cyclicity: comparative aspects of beef and dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Crowe, M A; Diskin, M G; Williams, E J

    2014-05-01

    There is a variable anoestrous period following parturition in the cow. Follicular growth generally resumes within 7 to 10 days in the majority of cows associated with a transient FSH rise that occurs within 3 to 5 days of parturition. Dairy cows that are not nutritionally stressed generally ovulate their first postpartum dominant follicle (~15 days), whereas beef suckler cows in good body condition normally have a mean of 3.2±0.2 dominant follicles (~30 days) to first ovulation; moreover, beef cows in poor body condition have a mean of 10.6±1.2 dominant follicles (~70 to 100 days) to first ovulation. The lack of ovulation of dominant follicles during the postpartum period is associated with infrequent LH pulses, with both maternal-offspring bonding and low body condition score (BCS) at calving being implicated as the predominant causes of delayed resumption of cyclicity in nursed beef cows. In dairy cows, the normal pattern of early resumption of ovulation may be delayed in high-yielding Holstein type cows generally owing to the effects of severe negative energy balance, dystocia, retained placental membranes and uterine infections. First ovulation, in both dairy and beef cows, is generally silent (i.e., no behavioural oestrus) and followed by a short inter-ovulatory interval (>70%). The key to optimizing the resumption of ovulation in both beef and dairy cows is appropriate pre-calving nutrition and management so that cows calve down in optimal body condition (BCS; 2.75 to 3.0) with postpartum body condition loss restricted to <0.5 BCS units. PMID:24680122

  19. Effect of the Ketone Body Beta-Hydroxybutyrate on the Innate Defense Capability of Primary Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Flinspach, Claudia; Pfaffl, Michael W.; Kliem, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Negative energy balance and ketosis are thought to cause impaired immune function and to increase the risk of clinical mastitis in dairy cows. The present in vitro study aimed to investigate the effect of elevated levels of the predominant ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate on the innate defense capability of primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (pbMEC) challenged with the mastitis pathogen Escherichia coli (E. coli). Therefore, pbMEC of healthy dairy cows in mid- lactation were isolated from milk and challenged in culture with 3 mM BHBA and E. coli. pbMEC stimulated with E. coli for 6 h or 30 h showed an up-regulation of several innate immune genes, whereas co-stimulation of pbMEC with 3 mM BHBA and E. coli resulted in the down-regulation of CCL2, SAA3, LF and C3 gene expression compared to the challenge with solely the bacterial stimulus. These results indicated that increased BHBA concentrations may be partially responsible for the higher mastitis susceptibility of dairy cows in early lactation. Elevated levels of BHBA in blood and milk during negative energy balance and ketosis are likely to impair innate immune function in the bovine mammary gland by attenuating the expression of a broad range of innate immune genes. PMID:27310007

  20. FEEDING AND MARKETING CULL COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sale of cull beef cows accounts for 15-25% of yearly gross revenues of cow-calf operations in the United States. Beef from market cows is widely used in the retail and food service sector in a variety of product forms, not all of which is ground. Producers should identify opportunities to add value...

  1. Innate Immune Activation in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lumeng, Carey N.

    2014-01-01

    The innate immune system is a prewired set of cellular and humoral components that has developed to sense perturbations in normal physiology and trigger responses to restore the system back to baseline. It is now understood that many of these components can also sense the physiologic changes that occur with obesity and be activated. While the exact reasons for this chronic immune response to obesity are unclear, there is strong evidence to suggest that innate inflammatory systems link obesity and disease. Based on this, anti-inflammatory therapies for diseases like type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome may form the core of future treatment plans. This review will highlight the components involved in the innate immune response and discuss the evidence that they contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-associated diseases. PMID:23068074

  2. The Innate Lymphoid Cell Precursor.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Isabel E; Constantinides, Michael G; Gudjonson, Herman; Bendelac, Albert

    2016-05-20

    The discovery of tissue-resident innate lymphoid cell populations effecting different forms of type 1, 2, and 3 immunity; tissue repair; and immune regulation has transformed our understanding of mucosal immunity and allergy. The emerging complexity of these populations along with compounding issues of redundancy and plasticity raise intriguing questions about their precise lineage relationship. Here we review advances in mapping the emergence of these lineages from early lymphoid precursors. We discuss the identification of a common innate lymphoid cell precursor characterized by transient expression of the transcription factor PLZF, and the lineage relationships of innate lymphoid cells with conventional natural killer cells and lymphoid tissue inducer cells. We also review the rapidly growing understanding of the network of transcription factors that direct the development of these lineages. PMID:27168240

  3. Plant Innate Immunity Multicomponent Model.

    PubMed

    Andolfo, Giuseppe; Ercolano, Maria R

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of plant-pathogen interactions is making rapid advances in order to address issues of global importance such as improving agricultural productivity and sustainable food security. Innate immunity has evolved in plants, resulting in a wide diversity of defense mechanisms adapted to specific threats. The postulated PTI/ETI model describes two perception layers of plant innate immune system, which belong to a first immunity component of defense response activation. To better describe the sophisticated defense system of plants, we propose a new model of plant immunity. This model considers the plant's ability to distinguish the feeding behavior of their many foes, such as a second component that modulates innate immunity. This hypothesis provides a new viewpoint highlighting the relevance of hormone crosstalk and primary metabolism in regulating plant defense against the different behaviors of pathogens with the intention to stimulate further interest in this research area. PMID:26617626

  4. Plant Innate Immunity Multicomponent Model

    PubMed Central

    Andolfo, Giuseppe; Ercolano, Maria R.

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of plant–pathogen interactions is making rapid advances in order to address issues of global importance such as improving agricultural productivity and sustainable food security. Innate immunity has evolved in plants, resulting in a wide diversity of defense mechanisms adapted to specific threats. The postulated PTI/ETI model describes two perception layers of plant innate immune system, which belong to a first immunity component of defense response activation. To better describe the sophisticated defense system of plants, we propose a new model of plant immunity. This model considers the plant’s ability to distinguish the feeding behavior of their many foes, such as a second component that modulates innate immunity. This hypothesis provides a new viewpoint highlighting the relevance of hormone crosstalk and primary metabolism in regulating plant defense against the different behaviors of pathogens with the intention to stimulate further interest in this research area. PMID:26617626

  5. GPCRs in invertebrate innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Reboul, Jerome; Ewbank, Jonathan J

    2016-08-15

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent a privileged point of contact between cells and their surrounding environment. They have been widely adopted in vertebrates as mediators of signals involved in both innate and adaptive immunity. Invertebrates rely on innate immune defences to resist infection. We review here evidence from a number of different species, principally the genetically tractable Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster that points to an important role for GPCRs in modulating innate immunity in invertebrates too. In addition to examples of GPCRs involved in regulating the expression of defence genes, we discuss studies in C. elegans addressing the role of GPCR signalling in pathogen aversive behaviour. Despite the many lacunae in our current knowledge, it is clear that GPCR signalling contributes to host defence across the animal kingdom. PMID:27262554

  6. Contrasting effects of progesterone on fertility of dairy and beef cows.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, J S; Lamb, G C

    2016-07-01

    The role of progesterone in maintaining pregnancy is well known in the bovine. Subtle differences exist between dairy and beef cows because of differing concentrations of progesterone during recrudescence of postpartum estrous cycles, rate of follicular growth and maturation, proportions of 2- and 3-follicular wave cycles, and other effects on pregnancy outcomes per artificial insemination (P/AI). Because proportions of anovulatory cows before the onset of the artificial insemination (AI) period are greater and more variable in beef (usually ranging from 30 to 70%) than dairy (25%) cows, AI programs were developed to accommodate anovulatory and cycling beef cows enrolled therein. Incorporating a progestin as part of an AI program in beef cows improved P/AI by reducing the proportion of cows having premature luteal regression and short post-AI luteal phases. In both genotypes, prolonged dominant follicle growth in a reduced progesterone milieu resulted in increased (1) LH pulses, (2) preovulatory follicle diameter, and (3) concentrations of estradiol and a subsequently larger corpora lutea (CL). In contrast, the progesterone milieu during growth of the ovulatory follicle in an ovulation control program does not seem to affect subsequent P/AI in beef cows, whereas in dairy cows follicle development in an elevated compared with a low progesterone environment increases P/AI. Progesterone status in beef cows at the onset of ovulation synchronization is not related to P/AI in multiparous cows, whereas P/AI was suppressed in primiparous cows that began a timed AI program in a low-progesterone environment. In timed AI programs, elevated concentrations of progesterone just before PGF2α and reduced concentrations at AI are critical to maximizing subsequent P/AI in dairy cows, but seemingly much less important in beef cows. By inducing ancillary CL and increasing concentrations of progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin may increase P/AI when administered to beef cows 7d

  7. Role of Cellular Immunity in Cow's Milk Allergy: Pathogenesis, Tolerance Induction, and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Garssen, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy is an aberrant immune-mediated reaction against harmless food substances, such as cow's milk proteins. Due to its very early introduction, cow's milk allergy is one of the earliest and most common food allergies. For this reason cow's milk allergy can be recognized as one of the first indications of an aberrant inflammatory response in early life. Classically, cow's milk allergy, as is true for most other allergies as well, is primarily associated with abnormal humoral immune responses, that is, elevation of specific immunoglobulin E levels. There is growing evidence indicating that cellular components of both innate and adaptive immunity play significant roles during the pathogenesis of cow's milk allergy. This is true for the initiation of the allergic phenotype (stimulation and skewing towards sensitization), development and outgrowth of the allergic disease. This review discusses findings pertaining to roles of cellular immunity in allergic inflammation, and tolerance induction against cow's milk proteins. In addition, a possible interaction between immune mechanisms underlying cow's milk allergy and other types of inflammation (infections and noncommunicable diseases) is discussed. PMID:25002754

  8. The microbiome and innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Thaiss, Christoph A; Zmora, Niv; Levy, Maayan; Elinav, Eran

    2016-07-01

    The intestinal microbiome is a signalling hub that integrates environmental inputs, such as diet, with genetic and immune signals to affect the host's metabolism, immunity and response to infection. The haematopoietic and non-haematopoietic cells of the innate immune system are located strategically at the host-microbiome interface. These cells have the ability to sense microorganisms or their metabolic products and to translate the signals into host physiological responses and the regulation of microbial ecology. Aberrations in the communication between the innate immune system and the gut microbiota might contribute to complex diseases. PMID:27383981

  9. Pathogen-dependent induction of cytokines and other soluble inflammatory mediators during intramammary infection of dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mastitis is a highly prevalent and costly disease of dairy cows that is commonly caused by intramammary bacterial infection. The innate immune response to bacterial penetration of the mammary gland is evoked within hours of infection and the rapidity and magnitude of this response have been demonst...

  10. Canadian media representations of mad cow disease.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Amanda D; Jardine, Cynthia G; Driedger, S Michelle

    2009-01-01

    A Canadian case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or "mad cow disease" was confirmed in May, 2003. An in-depth content analysis of newspaper articles was conducted to understand the portrayal of BSE and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the Canadian media. Articles in the "first 10 days" following the initial discovery of a cow with BSE in Canada on May 20, 2003, were examined based on the premise that these initial stories provide the major frames that dominate news media reporting of the same issue over time and multiple occurrences. Subsequent confirmed Canadian cases were similarly analyzed to determine if coverage changed in these later media articles. The results include a prominence of economic articles, de-emphasis of health aspects, and anchoring the Canadian outbreak to that of Britain's crisis. The variation in media representations between those in Canada and those documented in Britain are explored in this study. PMID:19697246

  11. Influence of repeated dinoprost treatment on ovarian activity in cycling dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Kazuyuki; Takagi, Nobuaki

    2014-02-01

    To study the ovarian response to the long-term effect of PGF2α, 16 cows were treated with 25 mg tromethamine dinoprost (Pronalgon F; Pfizer, Tokyo, Japan) for 21 days after natural ovulation. Five control cows were treated with sterile physiological saline. The follicle and corpus luteum (CL) development were monitored using a real-time ultrasound instrument. In addition, the plasma concentration of progesterone (P4) was determined. In nine of the 16 Pronalgon-treated cows, the first dominant follicle (1st DF), second dominant follicle (2nd DF), and third dominant follicle ovulated consecutively (group A). In five cows, the 1st and 2nd DFs ovulated consecutively (group B). The developing CL started to regress approximately 5 days after each ovulation without maturation in groups A and B. In the two remaining Pronalgon-treated cows, there was no further ovulation after natural ovulation (group C). In one cow in group C, the 1st DF became atretic and the 2nd DF became cystic with the diameter of the cystic follicle reaching 31.2 mm on Day 30. In another cow, the 1st DF became cystic with a diameter of 30.9 mm on Day 18. Although P4 began to increase after each ovulation in all of the Pronalgon-treated cows, it decreased immediately after each ovulation without a large increase, peaking at approximately 1 ng/mL. Furthermore, the number of days when P4 was >1 ng/mL from natural ovulation to Day 21 was 2.6 ± 0.7 days, which was significantly less than that in the control cows (16.0 ± 0.6 days). These results indicate that the long-term effect of PGF2α has an important role in ovulation of all dominant follicles and might induce cystic ovaries in cows. PMID:24286690

  12. Innate immune response in experimentally induced bovine intramammary infection with Staphylococcus simulans and S. epidermidis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are in several countries the most common bacteria isolated in subclinical mastitis. To investigate the innate immune response of cows to infections with two common mastitis-causing CNS species, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus simulans, experimental intramammary infection was induced in eight cows using a crossover design. The milk somatic cell count (SCC), N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activity, milk amyloid A (MAA), serum amyloid A (SAA) and proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were determined at several time points before and after challenge. All cows became infected and showed mild to moderate clinical signs of mastitis. The spontaneous elimination rate of the 16 infections was 31.3%, with no difference between species. Infections triggered a local cytokine response in the experimental udder quarters, but cytokines were not detected in the uninfected control quarters or in systemic circulation. The innate local immune response for S. simulans was slightly stronger, with significantly higher concentrations of IL-1β and IL-8. The IL-8 response could be divided into early, delayed, or combined types of response. The CNS species or persistency of infection was not associated with the type of IL-8 response. No significant differences were seen between spontaneously eliminated or persistent infections. PMID:21414189

  13. Taste Receptors in Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Taste receptors were first identified on the tongue, where they initiate a signaling pathway that communicates information to the brain about the nutrient content or potential toxicity of ingested foods. However, recent research has shown that taste receptors are also expressed in a myriad of other tissues, from the airway and gastrointestinal epithelia to the pancreas and brain. The functions of many of these extraoral taste receptors remain unknown, but emerging evidence suggests that bitter and sweet taste receptors in the airway are important sentinels of innate immunity. This review discusses taste receptor signaling, focusing on the G-protein coupled–receptors that detect bitter, sweet, and savory tastes, followed by an overview of extraoral taste receptors and in-depth discussion of studies demonstrating the roles of taste receptors in airway innate immunity. Future research on extraoral taste receptors has significant potential for identification of novel immune mechanisms and insights into host-pathogen interactions. PMID:25323130

  14. Development of innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Zook, Erin C; Kee, Barbara L

    2016-06-21

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a family of immune effector cells that have important roles in host defense, metabolic homeostasis and tissue repair but can also contribute to inflammatory diseases such as asthma and colitis. These cells can be categorized into three groups on the basis of the transcription factors that direct their function and the cytokines they produce, which parallel the effector functions of T lymphocytes. The hierarchy of cell-fate-restriction events that occur as common lymphoid progenitors become committed to each of the ILC lineages further underscores the relationship between these innate immune cells and T lymphocytes. In this Review we discuss the developmental program of ILCs and transcription factors that guide ILC lineage specification and commitment. PMID:27328007

  15. The Epitranscriptome and Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Mary A.; Mannion, Niamh M.; Keegan, Liam P.

    2015-01-01

    Our knowledge of the variety and abundances of RNA base modifications is rapidly increasing. Modified bases have critical roles in tRNAs, rRNAs, translation, splicing, RNA interference, and other RNA processes, and are now increasingly detected in all types of transcripts. Can new biological principles associated with this diversity of RNA modifications, particularly in mRNAs and long non-coding RNAs, be identified? This review will explore this question by focusing primarily on adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing by the adenine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes that have been intensively studied for the past 20 years and have a wide range of effects. Over 100 million adenosine to inosine editing sites have been identified in the human transcriptome, mostly in embedded Alu sequences that form potentially innate immune-stimulating dsRNA hairpins in transcripts. Recent research has demonstrated that inosine in the epitranscriptome and ADAR1 protein establish innate immune tolerance for host dsRNA formed by endogenous sequences. Innate immune sensors that detect viral nucleic acids are among the readers of epitranscriptome RNA modifications, though this does preclude a wide range of other modification effects. PMID:26658668

  16. Sex-linked dominant

    MedlinePlus

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... one of the sex chromosomes, which are the X and Y chromosomes. Dominant inheritance occurs when an ...

  17. Innate Lymphoid Cells: The Innate Counterpart to T Helper Cells.

    PubMed

    Padro Dietz, Caroline; Luong, Amber

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently discovered subset of innate immune cells that are capable of secreting great amounts of cytokines that have been found to influence effector cell activity. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in the absence (CRSsNP) or presence (CRSwNP) of nasal polyps has been characterized as type 1- and type 2-skewed, respectively, based on the presence of cytokines characteristic of type 1 and 2 immune responses. Based on the ability of type 1 ILCs to secrete interferon-x03B3;, a type 1 cytokine found elevated in CRSsNP and type 2 ILCs to secrete IL-5 and IL-13, type 2 cytokines found elevated in CRSwNP, it is essential to examine the role that ILCs may play in the pathogenesis of CRS. This chapter introduces each subset of ILC (type 1-3) and the non-CRS pathologies they have been associated with in both mouse and human models. It will discuss the current research into ILCs in CRS, particularly ILC2s and NK cells in CRSwNP. Finally, the chapter will consider the therapeutic implications of ILC involvement in CRS and highlight the needs for future research into the role that ILCs play in CRS. PMID:27466847

  18. Effectiveness of a recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone on the ovarian follicles, peripheral progesterone, estradiol-17β, and pregnancy rate of dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed; Moustafa M., Zeitoun

    2016-01-01

    Aims: This study aimed at elucidating the effects of recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (r-hFSH) on the ovarian follicular dynamics, progesterone, estradiol-17β profiles, and pregnancy of dairy cows. Materials and Methods: Three groups (G, n=5 cows) of multiparous dairy cows were used. G1 (C) control cows were given controlled internal drug release (CIDR) and prostaglandin F2α; G2 (L) cows were given low dose (525 IU and G3 (H) cows were given high dose (1800 IU) of r-hFSH on twice daily basis at the last 3 days before CIDR removal. All cows were ultrasonically scanned for follicular growth and dynamics, and blood samples were collected every other day for two consecutive estrus cycles for the determination of estradiol-17β and progesterone. Results: Estrus was observed in all C and L but not in H cows. Dominant follicle was bigger in L compared to C and H cows. Dominant follicle in C (16.00±2.5 mm) and L cows (17.40±2.3 mm) disappeared at 72 h after CIDR removal. However, in H cows, no ovulation has occurred during 7 days post-CIDR removal. Progesterone was not different (p>0.10) among groups, whereas estradiol-17β revealed significant (p<0.01) reduction in H (15.96±2.5 pg/ml) cows compared to C (112.26±26.1 pg/ml) and L (97.49±15.9 pg/ml) cows. Pregnancy rate was higher in L cows (60%) compared with C cows (20%). However, H cows were not artificially inseminated due to non-ovulation. Only a cow of C group has calved one calf, however, 2 of the L cows gave birth of twins and a cow gave single calf. Conclusion: Administration of a low dose (525 IU) of r-hFSH resulted in an optimal size of dominant follicle, normal values of progesterone and estradiol-17β, and 40% twinning rate, howeverusing 1800 IU of r-hFSH, have adverse effects on ovarian follicular dynamics and hormonal profiles with non-pregnancy of dairy cows raised under hot climate. PMID:27536029

  19. Cow's milk allergy: a complex disorder.

    PubMed

    Crittenden, Ross G; Bennett, Louise E

    2005-12-01

    Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is a complex disorder. Numerous milk proteins have been implicated in allergic responses and most of these have been shown to contain multiple allergenic epitopes. There is considerable heterogeneity amongst allergic individuals for the particular proteins and epitopes to which they react, and to further complicate matters, allergic reactions to cow's milk are driven by more than one immunological mechanism. Finally, the incidence and dominant allergic mechanisms change with age, with IgE-mediated reactions common in infancy and non-IgE-mediated reactions dominating in adults. The complexity of CMA has lead to many public misconceptions about this disorder, including confusion with lactose intolerance and frequent self-misdiagnosis. Indeed, the prevalence of self-diagnosed CMA in the community is 10-fold higher than the clinically proven incidence, suggesting a sizable population is unnecessarily eschewing dairy products. Avoidance of dairy foods, whether for true or perceived CMA, carries with it nutritional consequences and the provision of appropriate nutritional advice is important. In this review, the epidemiology and natural course of CMA is discussed along with our current understanding of its triggers and immunological mechanisms. We examine current strategies for the primary and secondary prevention of allergic sensitization and the ongoing search for effective therapies to ultimately cure CMA. PMID:16373958

  20. Sex-linked dominant

    MedlinePlus

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... type of chromosome that is affected (autosomal or sex chromosome). It also depends on whether the trait ...

  1. Genetic evaluation of dairy cow livability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predicted transmitting abilities (PTA) for cow livability (LIV) were developed to measure a cow's ability to stay alive while on the farm, whereas PTA for productive life (PL) measures a cow's ability to avoid either dying on the farm or being culled. About 20% of dairy cows die instead of being sol...

  2. Space allowance and barriers influence cow competition for mixed rations fed on a feed-pad between bouts of grazing.

    PubMed

    Hetti Arachchige, A D; Fisher, A D; Wales, W J; Auldist, M J; Hannah, M C; Jongman, E C

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate how feeding space allowance and provision of feed barriers interact to affect feeding and social behavior of dairy cows fed a partial mixed ration on a feed-pad. The treatments were factorial with 3 feeding space allowances (0.6, 0.75, or 1.0m of trough space per cow) and feed troughs that were either open or had head barriers that physically separated adjacent cows to reduce interactions during feeding. One hundred and forty-four Holstein-Friesian cows in mid lactation were allocated into 12 groups of 12 cows, with 1 of 6 treatments (3 × 2) randomly assigned to 2 groups out of 12. Treatments were changed weekly over 3 wk according to a row-column, crossover design, with week corresponding to rows and group corresponding to columns. Thus, the design included 2 replicated groups per treatment in each week. Grazed pasture intake was approximately 6.1 kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day, supplemented with 3.5 kg of DM/cow per day of wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain fed during milking and 10.7 kg of DM/cow per day of a mixed ration offered on the feed-pad after each milking. The experiment comprised a 7-d pre-experimental period followed by a 21-d experimental period. The social hierarchy within each group was determined before the experiment commenced. Feeding and social behaviors of cows were analyzed using video recordings and the changes in heart rate and heart rate variability were determined using heart rate monitors. Data were analyzed using mixed effect models by REML. When feeding space allowance was increased, we observed an increase in the time a cow spent feeding and a decrease in the number of feeding bouts in relation to the total time feed was available, particularly in subordinate cows. The number of aggressive behaviors and displacements decreased when space allowance increased. In addition, HR was reduced and the reduction was more pronounced in subordinate cows compared with dominant cows. Use of feed

  3. Has innate immunity evolved through different routes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrinello, Nicolò

    2010-03-01

    Invertebrate self/non-self recognition, defense responses, mating and development share innate immune surveillance and functions challenged by competition and linked to fitness. Independent evolutionary branches of immune responses may use conserved gene traits. On the other hand immunity genes may be conserved due to their role in development. Finally, upregulation of innate immunity genes during ascidian metamorphosis supports the danger hypothesis.

  4. [Innate immunity, Toll receptor and sepsis].

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Esper, Raúl

    2003-01-01

    The innate immune response is the first line of defense against infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize bacterial lipopolysaccharide and other pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Intracellular signals initiated by interaction between Toll receptors and specific PAMPs results in inflammatory response. Sepsis and septic shock are the result of an exaggerated inflammatory systemic response induced by innate immune dysregulation. PMID:14617415

  5. Influence of varied progestogen treatments on ovarian follicle status and subsequent ovarian superstimulatory responses in cows.

    PubMed

    D'Occhio, M J; Niasari-Naslaji, A; Kinder, J E

    1997-01-01

    The influence of ovarian follicle status and follicle dominance on the response to superstimulatory treatment with FSH was examined in cows. In Experiment 1, oestrus was synchronised using Crestar and on Days 4-6 of the ensuing oestrous cycle cows were assigned to: Group NO (n = 9), control, endogenous CL and no treatment; Group N1 (n = 15), injected with a luteolytic dose of cloprostenol (500 micrograms) and implanted with one implant (3 mg) of the synthetic progestogen, norgestomet; Group N8 (n = 18), injected with 500 micrograms cloprostenol and implanted with eight (24 mg) implants of norgestomet. On Days 9-11, seven implants were removed from six cows in Group N8 and these cows, plus eight Group N1 and all Group N0 cows, were superstimulated with porcine FSH (Folltropin-V) over 4 days (360 mg total dose). The remaining implants were removed from cows in Groups N1 and N8 on Days 11-13, and all cows received 500 micrograms cloprostenol. Numbers and sizes of ovarian follicles, and CL, were recorded by trans-rectal ultrasonography; the largest follicle > 10 mm in diameter was considered morphologically dominant (DF). On Days 9-11, the proportions of cows with a DF were: Group N0, 3/9; Group N1, 14/15; Group N8, 0/18. Total follicles on the 4th day of FSH treatment were greater (P < 0.05) for cows in Group N1 (21.6 +/- 4.2) compared with Group N0 (10.9 +/- 2.4), with cows in Group N8 (13.2 +/- 0.9) not different from the other two groups. Subsequent numbers of CL were lower (P < 0.05) for cows in Group N1 (5.0 +/- 1.3) compared with Group N0 (9.4 +/- 2.0), with cows in Group N8 (8.5 +/- 1.0) not different from the other two groups. In Experiment 2, oestrus was synchronised in cows and on Days 4-6, cows were assigned to: Group C0 (n = 7), control, endogenous CL and no treatment; Group C3 (n = 6), received three CIDR-B intra-vaginal devices that delivered progesterone. On Days 9-11, two CIDR-B were removed from cows in Group C3 and all cows treated with FSH as in

  6. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. PMID:24029787

  7. Innate immunity underlies symbiotic relationships.

    PubMed

    Kisseleva, E P

    2014-12-01

    Here, the modern data regarding interactions between normal microbiota and barrier tissues in plants, humans and animals are reviewed. The main homeostatic mechanisms responsible for interactions between epithelium and innate immune cells with symbiotic bacteria are described. A key step in this process is recognition of soluble microbial products by ligation to pattern-recognition receptors expressed on the host cells. As a result, epithelial cells secrete mucus, antibacterial peptides and immunoregulatory molecules. The main outcomes from immunological reactions towards symbiotic bacteria involve development of conditions for formation and maintenance of microbial biocenosis as well as providing safety for the host. Also, it is considered important to preserve and transfer beneficial bacteria to progeny. PMID:25716721

  8. Innate Defense against Fungal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Rebecca A.; Gaffen, Sarah L.; Hise, Amy G.; Brown, Gordon D.

    2014-01-01

    Human fungal infections have been on the rise in recent years and proved increasingly difficult to treat as a result of the lack of diagnostics, effective antifungal therapies, and vaccines. Most pathogenic fungi do not cause disease unless there is a disturbance in immune homeostasis, which can be caused by modem medical interventions, disease induced immunosuppression, and naturally occurring human mutations. The innate im mune system is weII equipped to recognize and destroy pathogeni cf ungi through speciaIized cells expressing a broad range of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). This review will outline the cells and PRRs required for effective antifungal immunity, with a special focus on the major antifungal cytokine IL-17 and recently characterized antifungal inflammasomes. PMID:25384766

  9. Innate immunity in vertebrates: an overview.

    PubMed

    Riera Romo, Mario; Pérez-Martínez, Dayana; Castillo Ferrer, Camila

    2016-06-01

    Innate immunity is a semi-specific and widely distributed form of immunity, which represents the first line of defence against pathogens. This type of immunity is critical to maintain homeostasis and prevent microbe invasion, eliminating a great variety of pathogens and contributing with the activation of the adaptive immune response. The components of innate immunity include physical and chemical barriers, humoral and cell-mediated components, which are present in all jawed vertebrates. The understanding of innate defence mechanisms in non-mammalian vertebrates is the key to comprehend the general picture of vertebrate innate immunity and its evolutionary history. This is also essential for the identification of new molecules with applications in immunopharmacology and immunotherapy. In this review, we describe and discuss the main elements of vertebrate innate immunity, presenting core findings in this field and identifying areas that need further investigation. PMID:26878338

  10. Innate immune activation in intestinal homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Oliver J; Maloy, Kevin J

    2011-01-01

    Loss of intestinal immune regulation leading to aberrant immune responses to the commensal microbiota are believed to precipitate the chronic inflammation observed in the gastrointestinal tract of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Innate immune receptors that recognize conserved components derived from the microbiota are widely expressed by both epithelial cells and leucocytes of the gastrointestinal tract and play a key role in host protection from infectious pathogens; yet precisely how pathogenic and commensal microbes are distinguished is not understood. Furthermore, aberrant innate immune activation may also drive intestinal pathology, as patients with IBD exhibit extensive infiltration of innate immune cells to the inflamed intestine, and polymorphisms in many innate immunity genes influence susceptibility to IBD. Thus, a balanced interaction between the microbiota and innate immune activation is required to maintain a healthy mutualistic relationship between the microbiota and the host, which when disturbed can result in intestinal inflammation. PMID:21912101

  11. Atrial Fibrillation in Ten Cows

    PubMed Central

    Brightling, P.; Townsend, H. G. G.

    1983-01-01

    An irregular cardiac rhythm was identified in ten adult cows during auscultation of the heart and was subsequently characterized as atrial fibrillation by electrocardiography. The occurrence of the arrhythmia was associated with primary, organic disease of the heart in two animals which had valvular endocarditis. In seven of the other cows secondary or “functional” atrial fibrillation occurred in association with disorders of abdominal origin, six gastrointestinal disorders and one uterine torsion. Spontaneous conversion to normal sinus rhythm occurred in six cows after elimination of the primary disease. ImagesFigure 1b.Figure 3a.Figure 3b. PMID:17422324

  12. Dairy cows increase ingestive mastication and reduce ruminative chewing when grazing chicory and plantain.

    PubMed

    Gregorini, P; Minnee, E M K; Griffiths, W; Lee, J M

    2013-01-01

    Although the nutritive value of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) has been thoroughly studied, little is known about the grazing behavior of cattle feeding on chicory and plantain swards. The objective of the present study was to assess and describe the grazing behavior of dairy cows as affected by dietary proportions of chicory and plantain fed as monocultures for part of the day. Ninety Holstein-Friesian cows (489±42 kg of body weight; 4.1±0.3 body condition score, and 216±15 d in milk) were randomly assigned to 15 groups (6 cows per group) and grazed according to 7 treatments: control (CTL, 3 groups), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) dominant sward (24-h pasture strip); 3 chicory treatments comprising 20, 40, and 60% of the diet, strip-grazing a monoculture of chicory to a fixed postgrazing residual before strip-grazing a perennial ryegrass dominant sward (2 groups of cows per treatment); and 3 plantain treatments comprising 20, 40, and 60% of the diet, strip-grazing a monoculture of plantain to a fixed postgrazing residual before strip-grazing a perennial ryegrass dominant sward (2 groups of cows per treatment). Four focal animals per group were equipped with 3-dimensional motion sensors, which provided the number of steps taken at each minute of the day. These cows were also fitted with automatic jaw-movement recorders that identified bites, mastication during ingestion, chewing during rumination, and determined grazing, rumination and idling times and bouts. Daily grazing time and bouts were not affected by treatments but rumination time differed and was reduced by up to 90 min when cows were allocated to chicory and plantain as 60% of their diet. Ruminative chewing was reduced in cows grazing chicory and plantain by up to 20% in cows allocated to the 60% treatments. Compared with perennial ryegrass, as the dietary proportion of chicory and plantain increased, cows spent more time idling and less time ruminating

  13. Genetic merit for fertility traits in Holstein cows: II. Ovarian follicular and corpus luteum dynamics, reproductive hormones, and estrus behavior.

    PubMed

    Cummins, S B; Lonergan, P; Evans, A C O; Butler, S T

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the estrous cycle of cows with similar proportions of Holstein genetics, similar genetic merit for milk production traits, but with good (Fert+) or poor (Fert-) genetic merit for fertility traits. In total, 37 lactating cows were enrolled on a protocol to synchronize estrus. Nineteen Fert+ and 12 Fert- cows that successfully ovulated a dominant follicle and established a corpus luteum underwent daily transrectal ultrasonography. Blood sampling was carried out at 8-h intervals from d 0 to 6 and from d 15 to ovulation, and once daily from d 7 to 15. Blood samples were analyzed for progesterone, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone. Estrus behavior was recorded using neck activity collars and mounting pads. The Fert+ cows tended to have fewer follicular waves (2.2 vs. 2.7) and had a shorter estrous cycle (21.0 vs. 25.1 d) than Fert- cows. We observed no effect of genotype on day of first-wave emergence or day of first-wave dominant follicle peak diameter, but the peak diameter of the first-wave dominant follicle tended to be larger in Fert- cows. During the first 13 d of the cycle, Fert+ cows developed a corpus luteum that was 16% larger than that in Fert- cows. Circulating progesterone concentrations were 34% greater in Fert+ than in Fert- cows (5.15 vs. 3.84ng/mL, respectively) from d 5 to 13. During the final follicular wave, the interval from preovulatory follicle emergence to ovulation and the interval from preovulatory follicle dominance to ovulation were similar in both genotypes. Maximum preovulatory follicle diameter was larger in Fert+ than Fert- cows (17.9 vs. 16.8mm, respectively); however, circulating concentrations of estradiol were not different between genotypes. A greater proportion of Fert- cows ovulated to a silent heat than Fert+ cows (22 vs. 2%, respectively). Of cows that showed behavioral estrus, Fert+ cows had 41% greater mean activity count; however, no difference was

  14. Mad Cow Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... versions of the disease can affect certain other animals, like goats and sheep. BSE is an incurable ... it affects a cow's nervous system, causing the animal to act strangely and lose control of its ...

  15. Small Heterodimer Partner and Innate Immune Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hyo Sun

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear receptor superfamily consists of the steroid and non-steroid hormone receptors and the orphan nuclear receptors. Small heterodimer partner (SHP) is an orphan family nuclear receptor that plays an essential role in the regulation of glucose and cholesterol metabolism. Recent studies reported a previously unidentified role for SHP in the regulation of innate immunity and inflammation. The innate immune system has a critical function in the initial response against a variety of microbial and danger signals. Activation of the innate immune response results in the induction of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines to promote anti-microbial effects. An excessive or uncontrolled inflammatory response is potentially harmful to the host, and can cause tissue damage or pathological threat. Therefore, the innate immune response should be tightly regulated to enhance host defense while preventing unwanted immune pathologic responses. In this review, we discuss recent studies showing that SHP is involved in the negative regulation of toll-like receptor-induced and NLRP3 (NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3)-mediated inflammatory responses in innate immune cells. Understanding the function of SHP in innate immune cells will allow us to prevent or modulate acute and chronic inflammation processes in cases where dysregulated innate immune activation results in damage to normal tissues. PMID:26754583

  16. Small Heterodimer Partner and Innate Immune Regulation.

    PubMed

    Yuk, Jae Min; Jin, Hyo Sun; Jo, Eun Kyeong

    2016-03-01

    The nuclear receptor superfamily consists of the steroid and non-steroid hormone receptors and the orphan nuclear receptors. Small heterodimer partner (SHP) is an orphan family nuclear receptor that plays an essential role in the regulation of glucose and cholesterol metabolism. Recent studies reported a previously unidentified role for SHP in the regulation of innate immunity and inflammation. The innate immune system has a critical function in the initial response against a variety of microbial and danger signals. Activation of the innate immune response results in the induction of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines to promote anti-microbial effects. An excessive or uncontrolled inflammatory response is potentially harmful to the host, and can cause tissue damage or pathological threat. Therefore, the innate immune response should be tightly regulated to enhance host defense while preventing unwanted immune pathologic responses. In this review, we discuss recent studies showing that SHP is involved in the negative regulation of toll-like receptor-induced and NLRP3 (NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3)-mediated inflammatory responses in innate immune cells. Understanding the function of SHP in innate immune cells will allow us to prevent or modulate acute and chronic inflammation processes in cases where dysregulated innate immune activation results in damage to normal tissues. PMID:26754583

  17. Alopecia areata in Eringer cows.

    PubMed

    Timm, Katrin; Rüfenacht, Silvia; von Tscharner, Claudia; Bornand, Valérie F; Doherr, Marcus G; Oevermann, Anna; Flury, Christine; Rieder, Stefan; Hirsbrunner, Gaby; Drögemüller, Cord; Roosje, Petra J

    2010-12-01

    Alopecia areata is a hair loss disorder in humans, dogs and horses with a suspected autoimmune aetiology targeting anagen hair follicles. Alopecia areata is only sporadically reported in cows. Recently, we observed several cases of suspected alopecia areata in Eringer cows. The aim of this study was to confirm the presumptive diagnosis of alopecia areata and to define the clinical phenotype and histopathological patterns, including characterization of the infiltrating inflammatory cells. Twenty Eringer cows with alopecia and 11 Eringer cows without skin problems were included in this study. Affected cows had either generalized or multifocal alopecia or hypotrichosis. The tail, forehead and distal extremities were usually spared. Punch biopsies were obtained from the centre and margin of alopecic lesions and normal haired skin. Histological examination revealed several alterations in anagen hair bulbs. These included peri- and intrabulbar lymphocytic infiltration, peribulbar fibrosis, degenerate matrix cells with clumped melanosomes and pigmentary incontinence. Mild lymphocytic infiltrative mural folliculitis was seen in the inferior segment and isthmus of the hair follicles. Hair shafts were often unpigmented and dysplastic. The large majority of infiltrating lymphocytes were CD3(+) T cells, whereas only occasional CD20(+) lymphocytes were present in the peribulbar infiltrate. Our findings confirm the diagnosis of T-cell-mediated alopecia areata in these cows. Alopecia areata appears to occur with increased frequency in the Eringer breed, but distinct predisposing factors could not be identified. PMID:20626715

  18. [Innate immunity primary immunodeficiencies and infections].

    PubMed

    Duchamp, M; Miot, C; Bustamante, J C; Picard, C

    2016-07-01

    The diagnosis of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) is important for the early and adaptive care of patients and their families. Among the various known PIDs, a number of them concern the innate immune system, which involve a set of cells and mechanisms involved in the host defense by a nonspecific and fast response. The majority of patients with innate immunity defects have a predisposition to one isolated type of infection (bacterial, viral, or fungal), dependent on the genetic defect involved. This article describes the different PIDs involving innate immunity and the immunological investigations allowing for their diagnosis. PMID:27266636

  19. Metagenomic assessment of the functional potential of the rumen microbiome in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pitta, Dipti W; Indugu, Nagaraju; Kumar, Sanjay; Vecchiarelli, Bonnie; Sinha, Rohini; Baker, Linda D; Bhukya, Bhima; Ferguson, James D

    2016-04-01

    The microbial ecology of the rumen microbiome is influenced by the diet and the physiological status of the dairy cow and can have tremendous influence on the yield and components of milk. There are significant differences in milk yields between first and subsequent lactations of dairy cows, but information on how the rumen microbiome changes as the dairy cow gets older has received little attention. We characterized the rumen microbiome of the dairy cow for phylogeny and functional pathways by lactation group and stage of lactation using a metagenomics approach. Our findings revealed that the rumen microbiome was dominated by Bacteroidetes (70%), Firmicutes (15-20%) and Proteobacteria (7%). The abundance of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were independently influenced by diet and lactation. Bacteroidetes contributed to a majority of the metabolic functions in first lactation dairy cows while the contribution from Firmicutes and Proteobacteria increased incrementally in second and third lactation dairy cows. We found that nearly 70% of the CAZymes were oligosaccharide breaking enzymes which reflect the higher starch and fermentable sugars in the diet. The results of this study suggest that the rumen microbiome continues to evolve as the dairy cow advances in lactations and these changes may have a significant role in milk production. PMID:26700882

  20. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vallentin, Blandine; Barlogis, Vincent; Piperoglou, Christelle; Cypowyj, Sophie; Zucchini, Nicolas; Chéné, Matthieu; Navarro, Florent; Farnarier, Catherine; Vivier, Eric; Vély, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    The world of lymphocytes has recently expanded. A group of cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILC), has been defined. It includes lymphoid cells that have been known for decades, such as natural killer (NK) cells and lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells. NK cells recognize a vast array of tumor cells, which they help to eliminate through cytotoxicity and the production of cytokines, such as IFNγ. Advances in our understanding of NK-cell biology have led to a growing interest in the clinical manipulation of these cells in cancer. The other ILCs are found mostly in the mucosae and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues, where they rapidly initiate immune responses to pathogens without the need for specific sensitization. Here, we outline the basic features of ILCs and review the role of ILCs other than NK cells in cancer. Much of the role of these ILCs in cancer remains unknown, but several findings should lead to further efforts to dissect the contribution of different ILC subsets to the promotion, maintenance, or elimination of tumors at various anatomic sites. This will require the development of standardized reagents and protocols for monitoring the presence and function of ILCs in human blood and tissue samples. PMID:26438443

  1. New thinking, innateness and inherited representation

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The New Thinking contained in this volume rejects an Evolutionary Psychology that is committed to innate domain-specific psychological mechanisms: gene-based adaptations that are unlearnt, developmentally fixed and culturally universal. But the New Thinking does not simply deny the importance of innate psychological traits. The problem runs deeper: the concept of innateness is not suited to distinguishing between the New Thinking and Evolutionary Psychology. That points to a more serious problem with the concept of innateness as it is applied to human psychological phenotypes. This paper argues that the features of recent human evolution highlighted by the New Thinking imply that the concept of inherited representation, set out here, is a better tool for theorizing about human cognitive evolution. PMID:22734066

  2. Innate intelligence: its origins and problems

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Lon

    1998-01-01

    Animal Magnetism and Radionics were among several occult practices used during the 19th century for the treatment of disease. D.D. Palmer was exposed to these teachings and derived many of his ideas about health from the folk medicine practices of his time. As a ‘magnetic healer’ Palmer believed he was correcting an undefined fifth force in the body that is otherwise unknown to science. Palmer believed he could influence this fifth force, termed Innate Intelligence, and that it was the explanation for the presence or absence of health. Today, Innate Intelligence remains an untestable enigma that isolates chiropractic and impedes its acceptance as a legitimate health science. The concept of Innate is derived directly from the occult practices of another era. It carries a high penalty in divisiveness and lack of logical coherence. The chiropractic profession must decide whether the concept of Innate should be retained.

  3. The Innate Immune System in Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Oberbarnscheidt, Martin H.; Zecher, Daniel; Lakkis, Fadi G.

    2012-01-01

    The vertebrate innate immune system consists of inflammatory cells and soluble mediators that comprise the first line of defense against microbial infection and, importantly, trigger antigen-specific T and B cell responses that lead to lasting immunity. The molecular mechanisms responsible for microbial non-self recognition by the innate immune system have been elucidated for a large number of pathogens. How the innate immune system recognizes non-microbial non-self, such as organ transplants, is less clear. In this review, we approach this question by describing the principal mechanisms of non-self, or ‘damaged’ self, recognition by the innate immune system (pattern recognition receptors, the missing self theory, and the danger hypothesis) and discussing whether and how these mechanisms apply to allograft rejection. PMID:21723740

  4. Innate Immune Effectors in Mycobacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Saiga, Hiroyuki; Shimada, Yosuke; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis, which is caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains one of the major bacterial infections worldwide. Host defense against Mtb is mediated by a combination of innate and adaptive immune responses. In the last 15 years, the mechanisms for activation of innate immunity have been elucidated. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been revealed to be critical for the recognition of pathogenic microorganisms including mycobacteria. Subsequent studies further revealed that NOD-like receptors and C-type lectin receptors are responsible for the TLR-independent recognition of mycobacteria. Several molecules, such as active vitamin D3, secretary leukocyte protease inhibitor, and lipocalin 2, all of which are induced by TLR stimulation, have been shown to direct innate immune responses to mycobacteria. In addition, Irgm1-dependent autophagy has recently been demonstrated to eliminate intracellular mycobacteria. Thus, our understanding of the mechanisms for the innate immune response to mycobacteria is developing. PMID:21274449

  5. Structural similarities of human and mammalian lipocalins, and their function in innate immunity and allergy.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Jarolim, E; Pacios, L F; Bianchini, R; Hofstetter, G; Roth-Walter, F

    2016-03-01

    Owners and their domestic animals via skin shedding and secretions, mutually exchange microbiomes, potential pathogens and innate immune molecules. Among the latter especially lipocalins are multifaceted: they may have an immunomodulatory function and, furthermore, they represent one of the most important animal allergen families. The amino acid identities, as well as their structures by superposition modeling were compared among human lipocalins, hLCN1 and hLCN2, and most important animal lipocalin allergens, such as Can f 1, Can f 2 and Can f 4 from dog, Fel d 4 from cats, Bos d 5 from cow's milk, Equ c 1 from horses, and Mus m 1 from mice, all of them representing major allergens. The β-barrel fold with a central molecular pocket is similar among human and animal lipocalins. Thereby, lipocalins are able to transport a variety of biological ligands in their highly conserved calyx-like cavity, among them siderophores with the strongest known capability to complex iron (Fe(3+) ). Levels of human lipocalins are elevated in nonallergic inflammation and cancer, associated with innate immunoregulatory functions that critically depend on ligand load. Accordingly, deficient loading of lipocalin allergens establishes their capacity to induce Th2 hypersensitivity. Our similarity analysis of human and mammalian lipocalins highlights their function in innate immunity and allergy. PMID:26497994

  6. Innate Immune Sensing and Response to Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Pulendran, Bali; Maddur, Mohan S.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza viruses pose a substantial threat to human and animal health worldwide. Recent studies in mouse models have revealed an indispensable role for the innate immune system in defense against influenza virus. Recognition of the virus by innate immune receptors in a multitude of cell types activates intricate signaling networks, functioning to restrict viral replication. Downstream effector mechanisms include activation of innate immune cells and, induction and regulation of adaptive immunity. However, uncontrolled innate responses are associated with exaggerated disease, especially in pandemic influenza virus infection. Despite advances in the understanding of innate response to influenza in the mouse model, there is a large knowledge gap in humans, particularly in immunocom-promised groups such as infants and the elderly. We propose here, the need for further studies in humans to decipher the role of innate immunity to influenza virus, particularly at the site of infection. These studies will complement the existing work in mice and facilitate the quest to design improved vaccines and therapeutic strategies against influenza. PMID:25078919

  7. Consider a spherical cow

    SciTech Connect

    Harte, J.

    1985-01-01

    Consider a Spherical Cow describes relatively simple mathematical methods for developing quantitative answers to often complex environmental problems. Early chapters provide systematic insights into problem solving and identifying mathematical tools and models that lead to back of the envelope answers. Subsequent chapters treat increasingly complex problems. Solutions are sought at different levels, e.g., informed guesses, quantitative solutions based on detailed analytical models, and ultimately, critical evaluation of the consequences of removing simplifying assumptions from the models. The vehicle employed is a collection of 44 challenging problems, with clearly worked out solutions, plus ample exercises. The book, though directed at environmentalists, should appeal to chemists. Many of the problems are rooted in chemistry, including acid rain, the CO/sub 2/ greenhouse effect, chemical contamination, and the disturbing of cyclical chemical balances. Readers feeling a civic responsibility to think and speak more clearly on environmental issues will find the essential modeling and quantitative approaches valuable assets beyond the help provided by the usual courses in science and mathematics. In fact, the techniques of problem solving have broad applicability beyond the specific environmental examples covered in this text.

  8. Endocrine milieu and developmental dynamics of ovarian cysts and persistent follicles in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Roth, Z; Biran, D; Lavon, Y; Dafni, I; Yakobi, S; Braw-Tal, R

    2012-04-01

    Ovarian follicular cysts and persistent follicles are follicular pathologies involved in reduced fertility of dairy cows. Two separate experiments were performed on high-yielding Holstein cows to characterize ovarian cyclicity and evaluate the developmental dynamics of follicle pathologies postpartum. In experiment 1, 58 cows were monitored by ultrasonography twice weekly from d 18±1 to 69±2 postpartum. First ovulation occurred 38±3, 27±2, 20±1, and 25±3 d postpartum in cows with 1 cycle (n=11), 2 cycles (n=21), 3 cycles (n=13), and 4 cycles (n=7), respectively. Follicular pathologies were developed in cows that were either acyclic (n=6) or had 1 or 2 cycles, but not in cows with more than 2 cycles. In experiment 2, 47 cows were monitored twice weekly from 10 d postpartum to second ovulation. Follicles ≥17 mm in diameter in 2 consecutive scans were aspirated, and concentrations of various hormones were measured. Cows were defined as cyclic (n=30; 64%) or with the potential to develop follicular pathology (n=17; 36%). Aspirated follicles (n=27) were classified into 3 main groups based on follicular growth rate, follicular diameter, and ovarian activity before and after follicular aspiration. Dominant follicles (n=4) were defined as large follicles (20 mm in diameter) with growth rate ≤1 mm/d and normal ovarian activity. Persistent follicles (n=6) had the same growth rate and diameter as the dominant follicles, but persisted at the same diameter for ≥10 d. Ovarian cysts (n=17) were defined as the largest follicular structures (19 to 32 mm in diameter), with abnormal growth rate (>1 mm/d) and abnormal ovarian activity. Single or turnover cysts did not differ in their growth parameters and were therefore combined and further classified according to follicular-fluid hormone concentrations. Estradiol-dominant cysts (n=7) were characterized by normal estradiol (284 to 659 ng/mL) and progesterone (20 to 113 ng/mL) concentrations, similar to those of the

  9. Innate inflammation in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Susanne M; Henschel, Angela M; Hessner, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is an autoimmune disease often diagnosed in childhood that results in pancreatic β-cell destruction and life-long insulin dependence. T1D susceptibility involves a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors and has historically been attributed to adaptive immunity, although there is now increasing evidence for a role of innate inflammation. Here, we review studies that define a heightened age-dependent innate inflammatory state in T1D families that is paralleled with high fidelity by the T1D-susceptible biobreeding rat. Innate inflammation may be driven by changes in interactions between the host and environment, such as through an altered microbiome, intestinal hyperpermeability, or viral exposures. Special focus is put on the temporal measurement of plasma-induced transcriptional signatures of recent-onset T1D patients and their siblings as well as in the biobreeding rat as it defines the natural history of innate inflammation. These sensitive and comprehensive analyses have also revealed that those who successfully managed T1D risk develop an age-dependent immunoregulatory state, providing a possible mechanism for the juvenile nature of T1D. Therapeutic targeting of innate inflammation has been proven effective in preventing and delaying T1D in rat models. Clinical trials of agents that suppress innate inflammation have had more modest success, but efficacy may be improved by the addition of combinatorial approaches that target other aspects of T1D pathogenesis. An understanding of innate inflammation and mechanisms by which this susceptibility is both potentiated and mitigated offers important insight into T1D progression and avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25980926

  10. Lgt Processing Is an Essential Step in Streptococcus suis Lipoprotein Mediated Innate Immune Activation

    PubMed Central

    Wichgers Schreur, Paul J.; Rebel, Johanna M. J.; Smits, Mari A.; van Putten, Jos P. M.; Smith, Hilde E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Streptococcus suis causes invasive infections in pigs and occasionally in humans. The host innate immune system plays a major role in counteracting S. suis infections. The main components of S. suis able to activate the innate immune system likely include cell wall constituents that may be released during growth or after cell wall integrity loss, however characterization of these components is still limited. Methology/Principal Findings A concentrated very potent innate immunity activating supernatant of penicillin-treated S. suis was SDS-PAGE fractionated and tested for porcine peripheral blood mononucleated cell (PBMC) stimulating activity using cytokine gene transcript analysis. More than half of the 24 tested fractions increased IL-1β and IL-8 cytokine gene transcript levels in porcine PBMCs. Mass spectrometry of the active fractions indicated 24 proteins including 9 lipoproteins. Genetic inactivation of a putative prolipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase (Lgt) gene resulted in deficient lipoprotein synthesis as evidenced by palmitate labeling. The Lgt mutant showed strongly reduced activation of porcine PBMCs, indicating that lipoproteins are dominant porcine PBMC activating molecules of S. suis. Conclusion/Significance This study for the first time identifies and characterizes lipoproteins of S. suis as major activators of the innate immune system of the pig. In addition, we provide evidence that Lgt processing of lipoproteins is required for lipoprotein mediated innate immune activation. PMID:21811583

  11. Body temperature in early postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V S; Voigtsberger, R; Bonk, S; Heuwieser, W

    2014-07-01

    A strategy widely adopted in the modern dairy industry is the introduction of postpartum health monitoring programs by trained farm personnel. Within these fresh cow protocols, various parameters (e.g., rectal temperature, attitude, milk production, uterine discharge, ketones) are evaluated during the first 5 to 14 days in milk (DIMs) to diagnose relevant diseases. It is well documented that 14% to 66% of healthy cows exhibit at least one temperature of 39.5 °C or greater within the first 10 DIM. Although widely adopted, data on diagnostic performance of body temperature (BT) measurement to diagnose infectious diseases (e.g., metritis, mastitis) are lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify possible factors associated with BT in postpartum dairy cows. A study was conducted on a commercial dairy farm including 251 cows. In a total of 217 cows, a vaginal temperature logger was inserted from DIM 2 to 10, whereas 34 cows did not receive a temperature logger as control. Temperature loggers measured vaginal temperature every 10 minutes. Rectal temperature was measured twice daily in all cows. On DIM 2, 5, and 10, cows underwent a clinical examination. Body temperature was influenced by various parameters. Primiparous cows had 0.2 °C higher BT than multiparous cows. Multiparous cows that calved during June and July had higher BT than those that calved in May. In primiparous cows, this effect was only evident from DIM 7 to 10. Furthermore, abnormal calving conditions (i.e., assisted calving, dead calf, retained placenta, twins) affected BT in cows. This effect was more pronounced in multiparous cows. Abnormal vaginal discharge did increase BT in primiparous and multiparous cows. Primiparous cows suffering from hyperketonemia (beta-hydroxybutyrat ≥ 1.4 mmol/L) had higher BT than those not affected. In multiparous cows, there was no association between hyperketonemia and BT. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that BT is influenced

  12. Corruption of Innate Immunity by Bacterial Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Potempa, Jan; Pike, Robert N.

    2009-01-01

    The innate immune system of the human body has developed numerous mechanisms to control endogenous and exogenous bacteria and thus prevent infections by these microorganisms. These mechanisms range from physical barriers such as the skin or mucosal epithelium to a sophisticated array of molecules and cells that function to suppress or prevent bacterial infection. Many bacteria express a variety of proteases, ranging from non-specific and powerful enzymes that degrade many proteins involved in innate immunity to proteases that are extremely precise and specific in their mode of action. Here we have assembled a comprehensive picture of how bacterial proteases affect the host’s innate immune system to gain advantage and cause infection. This picture is far from being complete since the numbers of mechanisms utilized are as astonishing as they are diverse, ranging from degradation of molecules vital to innate immune mechanisms to subversion of the mechanisms to allow the bacterium to hide from the system or take advantage of it. It is vital that such mechanisms are elucidated to allow strategies to be developed to aid the innate immune system in controlling bacterial infections. PMID:19756242

  13. Innate lymphoid cells in the airways.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jennifer A; McKenzie, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    The airways, similar to other mucosal surfaces, are continuously exposed to the outside environment and a barrage of antigens, allergens, and microorganisms. Of critical importance therefore is the ability to mount rapid and effective immune responses to control commensal and pathogenic microbes, while simultaneously limiting the extent of these responses to prevent immune pathology and chronic inflammation. The function of the adaptive immune response in controlling these processes at mucosal surfaces has been well documented but the important role of the innate immune system, particularly the recently identified family of innate lymphoid cells, has only lately become apparent. In this review, we give an overview of the innate lymphoid cells that exist in the airways and examine the evidence pertaining to their emerging roles in airways immunity, inflammation, and homeostasis. PMID:22678892

  14. Humoral innate immune response and disease

    PubMed Central

    Shishido, Stephanie N.; Varahan, Sriram; Yuan, Kai; Li, Xiangdong; Fleming, Sherry D.

    2012-01-01

    The humoral innate immune response consists of multiple components, including the naturally occurring antibodies (NAb), pentraxins and the complement and contact cascades. As soluble, plasma components, these innate proteins provide key elements in the prevention and control of disease. However, pathogens and cells with altered self proteins utilize multiple humoral components to evade destruction and promote pathogy. Many studies have examined the relationship between humoral immunity and autoimmune disorders. This review focuses on the interactions between the humoral components and their role in promoting the pathogenesis of bacterial and viral infections and chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancer. Understanding the beneficial and detrimental aspects of the individual components and the interactions between proteins which regulate the innate and adaptive response will provide therapeutic targets for subsequent studies. PMID:22771788

  15. Innate predator recognition in giant pandas.

    PubMed

    Du, Yiping; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Hemin; Li, Desheng; Yang, Bo; Wei, Ming; Zhou, Yingmin; Liu, Yang

    2012-02-01

    Innate predator recognition confers a survival advantage to prey animals. We investigate whether giant pandas exhibit innate predator recognition. We analyzed behavioral responses of 56 naive adult captive giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), to urine from predators and non-predators and water control. Giant pandas performed more chemosensory investigation and displayed flehmen behaviors more frequently in response to predator urine compared to both non-predator urine and water control. Subjects also displayed certain defensive behaviors, as indicated by vigilance, and in certain cases, fleeing behaviors. Our results suggest that there is an innate component to predator recognition in captive giant pandas, although such recognition was only slight to moderate. These results have implications that may be applicable to the conservation and reintroduction of this endangered species. PMID:22303845

  16. Ion Channels in Innate and Adaptive Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Feske, Stefan; Wulff, Heike; Skolnik, Edward Y.

    2016-01-01

    Ion channels and transporters mediate the transport of charged ions across hydrophobic lipid membranes. In immune cells, divalent cations such as calcium, magnesium, and zinc have important roles as second messengers to regulate intracellular signaling pathways. By contrast, monovalent cations such as sodium and potassium mainly regulate the membrane potential, which indirectly controls the influx of calcium and immune cell signaling. Studies investigating human patients with mutations in ion channels and transporters, analysis of gene-targeted mice, or pharmacological experiments with ion channel inhibitors have revealed important roles of ionic signals in lymphocyte development and in innate and adaptive immune responses. We here review the mechanisms underlying the function of ion channels and transporters in lymphocytes and innate immune cells and discuss their roles in lymphocyte development, adaptive and innate immune responses, and autoimmunity, as well as recent efforts to develop pharmacological inhibitors of ion channels for immunomodulatory therapy. PMID:25861976

  17. How to reintroduce cow's milk?

    PubMed

    Dupont, Christophe

    2013-11-01

    In a child that is allergic to milk, the natural next step, following the elimination diet, is the reintroduction of cow's milk. Several questions may arise. When feasible, this reintroduction has many benefits for the child and his family. However, the disease needs to be well defined by physicians and explained to parents. They need to understand that there are different types of allergy to cow's milk, specifically IgE- and non-IgE-mediated, and each of these may exhibit both a variable duration and frequently an incomplete recovery. Deciding where to first reintroduce cow's milk to a child who has previously followed a milk-free diet, whether it be at home or in a hospital, also frequently presents an issue. Following this first reintroduction, the progressive increase of milk into the diet needs to be managed properly, as not all children will go back to a normal dairy products intake. Recent studies show that most children with milk allergy tolerate products containing baked milk and that their consumption might speed up recovery. Hence, the purpose of the milk challenge in a child on a milk-free diet is becoming, even in a child still reactive to milk, the first step of gradual and individually adapted reintroduction of milk or dairy products. When reintroduction of cow's milk does not work, immunotherapy becomes an option, and this is carried out in specialized centers. PMID:24112424

  18. Genetic evaluation for cow livability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When genetic evaluations for Productive Life were introduced by USDA in 1994, U.S. dairy producers had an opportunity to produce healthier cows, and it happened. The genetic evaluations were incorporated into selection programs and the deterioration occurring in pregnancy rate and somatic cell score...

  19. Intracranial Schwannoma in a Cow

    PubMed Central

    Mitcham, S. A.; Kasari, T. R.; Parent, J. M.; Naylor, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    A nine year old Hereford crossbred cow with a history of progressive neurological signs was referred to the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon. A large intracranial mass, histologically identified as a schwannoma, was found to be compressing the left brain stem and appeared to have arisen from the left fifth cranial nerve. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:17422375

  20. Preovulatory estradiol and the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in suckled beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In postpartum beef cows, GnRH-induced ovulation of small dominant follicles decreased pregnancy rates and increased late embryonic/fetal mortality. In Exp. 1, single ovulation reciprocal embryo transfer (ET) was utilized to examine the relationship between preovulatory serum concentrations of estrad...

  1. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false COW operations: Changed... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations: Changed characteristics. The COW system may be operated with characteristics that do not meet...

  2. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false COW operations: Changed... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations: Changed characteristics. The COW system may be operated with characteristics that do not meet...

  3. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false COW equipment: Removal. 157.170... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a) Whenever a deck mounted COW machine is removed from the tank, the master shall ensure that: (1) The...

  4. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false COW equipment: Removal. 157.170... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a) Whenever a deck mounted COW machine is removed from the tank, the master shall ensure that: (1) The...

  5. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false COW operations: Changed... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations: Changed characteristics. The COW system may be operated with characteristics that do not meet...

  6. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false COW equipment: Removal. 157.170... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a) Whenever a deck mounted COW machine is removed from the tank, the master shall ensure that: (1) The...

  7. Differentiation of human innate lymphoid cells (ILCs).

    PubMed

    Juelke, Kerstin; Romagnani, Chiara

    2016-02-01

    During the last years, a high complexity in innate lymphoid lineages now collectively referred to as innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) has been revealed. ILCs can be grouped according to their effector functions and transcriptional requirements into three main groups, termed group 1, 2 and 3 ILCs. The differentiation of ILC lineages from hematopoietic precursors and the molecular switches guiding their developmental fate have started to be characterized both in mice and humans. In this review, we discuss the origin, differentiation stages and plasticity of human ILC subsets as well as the signals that drive ILC lineage commitment and acquisition of their unique effector programs. PMID:26707651

  8. The innate immune response in human tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Thomas R.; Borel, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Summary M ycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection can be cleared by the innate immune system before the initiation of an adaptive immune response. This innate protection requires a variety of robust cell autonomous responses from many different host immune cell types. However, Mtb has evolved strategies to circumvent some of these defences. In this mini‐review, we discuss these host–pathogen interactions with a focus on studies performed in human cells and/or supported by human genetics studies (such as genome‐wide association studies). PMID:26135005

  9. Fungal glycans and the innate immune recognition

    PubMed Central

    Barreto-Bergter, Eliana; Figueiredo, Rodrigo T.

    2014-01-01

    Polysaccharides such as α- and β-glucans, chitin, and glycoproteins extensively modified with both N- and O-linked carbohydrates are the major components of fungal surfaces. The fungal cell wall is an excellent target for the action of antifungal agents, since most of its components are absent from mammalian cells. Recognition of these carbohydrate-containing molecules by the innate immune system triggers inflammatory responses and activation of microbicidal mechanisms by leukocytes. This review will discuss the structure of surface fungal glycoconjugates and polysaccharides and their recognition by innate immune receptors. PMID:25353009

  10. Immunological memory within the innate immune system

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Joseph C; Ugolini, Sophie; Vivier, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Immune memory has traditionally been the domain of the adaptive immune system, present only in antigen-specific T and B cells. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence for immunological memory in lower organisms (which are not thought to possess adaptive immunity) and within specific cell subsets of the innate immune system. A special focus will be given to recent findings in both mouse and humans for specificity and memory in natural killer (NK) cells, which have resided under the umbrella of innate immunity for decades. The surprising longevity and enhanced responses of previously primed NK cells will be discussed in the context of several immunization settings. PMID:24674969

  11. InnateDB: facilitating systems-level analyses of the mammalian innate immune response

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, David J; Winsor, Geoffrey L; Chan, Calvin; Richard, Nicolas; Laird, Matthew R; Barsky, Aaron; Gardy, Jennifer L; Roche, Fiona M; Chan, Timothy H W; Shah, Naisha; Lo, Raymond; Naseer, Misbah; Que, Jaimmie; Yau, Melissa; Acab, Michael; Tulpan, Dan; Whiteside, Matthew D; Chikatamarla, Avinash; Mah, Bernadette; Munzner, Tamara; Hokamp, Karsten; Hancock, Robert E W; Brinkman, Fiona S L

    2008-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in dissecting the signaling pathways involved in the innate immune response, it is now apparent that this response can no longer be productively thought of in terms of simple linear pathways. InnateDB (www.innatedb.ca) has been developed to facilitate systems-level analyses that will provide better insight into the complex networks of pathways and interactions that govern the innate immune response. InnateDB is a publicly available, manually curated, integrative biology database of the human and mouse molecules, experimentally verified interactions and pathways involved in innate immunity, along with centralized annotation on the broader human and mouse interactomes. To date, more than 3500 innate immunity-relevant interactions have been contextually annotated through the review of 1000 plus publications. Integrated into InnateDB are novel bioinformatics resources, including network visualization software, pathway analysis, orthologous interaction network construction and the ability to overlay user-supplied gene expression data in an intuitively displayed molecular interaction network and pathway context, which will enable biologists without a computational background to explore their data in a more systems-oriented manner. PMID:18766178

  12. InnateDB: facilitating systems-level analyses of the mammalian innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Lynn, David J; Winsor, Geoffrey L; Chan, Calvin; Richard, Nicolas; Laird, Matthew R; Barsky, Aaron; Gardy, Jennifer L; Roche, Fiona M; Chan, Timothy H W; Shah, Naisha; Lo, Raymond; Naseer, Misbah; Que, Jaimmie; Yau, Melissa; Acab, Michael; Tulpan, Dan; Whiteside, Matthew D; Chikatamarla, Avinash; Mah, Bernadette; Munzner, Tamara; Hokamp, Karsten; Hancock, Robert E W; Brinkman, Fiona S L

    2008-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in dissecting the signaling pathways involved in the innate immune response, it is now apparent that this response can no longer be productively thought of in terms of simple linear pathways. InnateDB (www.innatedb.ca) has been developed to facilitate systems-level analyses that will provide better insight into the complex networks of pathways and interactions that govern the innate immune response. InnateDB is a publicly available, manually curated, integrative biology database of the human and mouse molecules, experimentally verified interactions and pathways involved in innate immunity, along with centralized annotation on the broader human and mouse interactomes. To date, more than 3500 innate immunity-relevant interactions have been contextually annotated through the review of 1000 plus publications. Integrated into InnateDB are novel bioinformatics resources, including network visualization software, pathway analysis, orthologous interaction network construction and the ability to overlay user-supplied gene expression data in an intuitively displayed molecular interaction network and pathway context, which will enable biologists without a computational background to explore their data in a more systems-oriented manner. PMID:18766178

  13. Effects of Full-Length Kisspeptin Administration on Follicular Development in Japanese Black Beef Cows

    PubMed Central

    NANIWA, Yousuke; NAKATSUKASA, Keisuke; SETSUDA, Shohei; OISHI, Shinya; FUJII, Nobutaka; MATSUDA, Fuko; UENOYAMA, Yoshihisa; TSUKAMURA, Hiroko; MAEDA, Kei-ichiro; OHKURA, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Kisspeptin is a key molecule that stimulates gonadotropin secretion via release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). In the present study, our aim was to investigate whether kisspeptin has stimulatory effects on follicular development via GnRH/gonadotropin secretion in cows. Japanese Black beef cows were intravenously injected with full-length bovine kisspeptin [Kp-53 (0.2 or 2 nmol/kg)] or vehicle 5 days after they exhibited standing estrus (Day 0). In cows injected with Kp-53 at 2 nmol/kg, the follicular sizes of the first dominant follicles increased on Day 6 and thereafter. Ovulation of the first dominant follicle occurred in 1 out of 4 cows treated with Kp-53 at 2 nmol/kg. Injection of Kp-53 at 2 nmol/kg increased the concentration of plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) but not follicle-stimulating hormone, over a 4-h period following injection in all cows. The present study suggests that administration of full-length kisspeptin causes LH secretion, which is sustained for a few hours, and it is capable of stimulating follicular development and/or ovulation. PMID:24107742

  14. Vitamin D3 toxicity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Littledike, E T; Horst, R L

    1982-05-01

    Large parenteral doses of vitamin D3 (15 to 17.5 x 10(6) IU vitamin D3) were associated with prolonged hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and large increases of vitamin D3 and its metabolites in the blood plasma of nonlactating nonpregnant and pregnant Jersey cows. Calcium concentrations 1 day postpartum were higher in cows treated with vitamin D3 about 32 days prepartum (8.8 mg/100 ml) than in control cows (5.5 mg/100 ml). None of the cows treated with vitamin D3 showed signs of milk fever during the peripartal period; however, 22% of the control cows developed clinical signs of milk fever during this period. Signs of vitamin D3 toxicity were not observed in nonlactating nonpregnant cows; however, pregnant cows commonly developed severe signs of vitamin D3 toxicity and 10 of 17 cows died. There was widespread metastatic calcification in the cows that died. Because of the extreme toxicity of vitamin D3 in pregnant Jersey cows and the low margin of safety between doses of vitamin D3 that prevent milk fever and doses that induce milk fever, we concluded that vitamin D3 cannot be used practically to prevent milk fever when injected several weeks prepartum. PMID:6286738

  15. Chitin Modulates Innate Immune Responses of Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Koller, Barbara; Müller-Wiefel, Alisa Sophie; Rupec, Rudolph; Korting, Hans Christian; Ruzicka, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background Chitin, after cellulose the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature, is an essential component of exoskeletons of crabs, shrimps and insects and protects these organisms from harsh conditions in their environment. Unexpectedly, chitin has been found to activate innate immune cells and to elicit murine airway inflammation. The skin represents the outer barrier of the human host defense and is in frequent contact with chitin-bearing organisms, such as house-dust mites or flies. The effects of chitin on keratinocytes, however, are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We hypothesized that chitin stimulates keratinocytes and thereby modulates the innate immune response of the skin. Here we show that chitin is bioactive on primary and immortalized keratinocytes by triggering production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Chitin stimulation further induced the expression of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) TLR4 on keratinocytes at mRNA and protein level. Chitin-induced effects were mainly abrogated when TLR2 was blocked, suggesting that TLR2 senses chitin on keratinocytes. Conclusions/Significance We speculate that chitin-bearing organisms modulate the innate immune response towards pathogens by upregulating secretion of cytokines and chemokines and expression of MyD88-associated TLRs, two major components of innate immunity. The clinical relevance of this mechanism remains to be defined. PMID:21383982

  16. Adrenergic regulation of innate immunity: a review

    PubMed Central

    Scanzano, Angela; Cosentino, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system has a major role in the brain-immune cross-talk, but few information exist on the sympathoadrenergic regulation of innate immune system. The aim of this review is to summarize available knowledge regarding the sympathetic modulation of the innate immune response, providing a rational background for the possible repurposing of adrenergic drugs as immunomodulating agents. The cells of immune system express adrenoceptors (AR), which represent the target for noradrenaline and adrenaline. In human neutrophils, adrenaline and noradrenaline inhibit migration, CD11b/CD18 expression, and oxidative metabolism, possibly through β-AR, although the role of α1- and α2-AR requires further investigation. Natural Killer express β-AR, which are usually inhibitory. Monocytes express β-AR and their activation is usually antiinflammatory. On murine Dentritic cells (DC), β-AR mediate sympathetic influence on DC-T cells interactions. In human DC β2-AR may affect Th1/2 differentiation of CD4+ T cells. In microglia and in astrocytes, β2-AR dysregulation may contribute to neuroinflammation in autoimmune and neurodegenerative disease. In conclusion, extensive evidence supports a critical role for adrenergic mechanisms in the regulation of innate immunity, in peripheral tissues as well as in the CNS. Sympathoadrenergic pathways in the innate immune system may represent novel antiinflammatory and immunomodulating targets with significant therapeutic potential. PMID:26321956

  17. The evolution of innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Vivier, Eric; van de Pavert, Serge A; Cooper, Max D; Belz, Gabrielle T

    2016-06-21

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are the most recently discovered group of immune cells. Understanding their biology poses many challenges. We discuss here the current knowledge on the appearance of ILC subsets during evolution and propose how the connection between ILCs and T cells contributes to the robustness of immunity and hence to the fitness of the hosts. PMID:27328009

  18. Rainbow Trout Innate Immunity against Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum infection is associated with significant loss of rainbow trout production in the U.S. and other parts of the world. In 2005, a selective breeding program was initiated at the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture to improve rainbow trout innate resistance ...

  19. Lipids in innate anti-viral defense

    PubMed Central

    Schoggins, John W.; Randall, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Summary It is becoming apparent that infections by a major class of viruses, those with envelopes, can be inhibited during their entry at the step of fusion with cellular membranes. In this review, we discuss multiple innate immune mechanisms that have evolved to modify the lipid composition of cellular and viral membranes to inhibit virion fusion of enveloped viruses. PMID:24139397

  20. Assessing Bilingual Dominance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flege, James Emil; Mackay, Ian R. A.; Piske, Thorsten

    2002-01-01

    Used two methods to assess bilingual dominance in four groups of Italian-English bilinguals. Ratios were derived from bilinguals' self-rating of ability to speak and understand Italian compared to English. Dominance in Italian was associated with a relatively high level of performance in Italian (assessed in a translation task) and relatively poor…

  1. Genetic Dominance & Cellular Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seager, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    In learning genetics, many students misunderstand and misinterpret what "dominance" means. Understanding is easier if students realize that dominance is not a mechanism, but rather a consequence of underlying cellular processes. For example, metabolic pathways are often little affected by changes in enzyme concentration. This means that…

  2. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations... recorded in the Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual approved under § 157.112; and (c)...

  3. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations... recorded in the Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual approved under § 157.112; and (c)...

  4. Modeling heat loss from the udder of a dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Gebremedhin, Kifle G; Wu, Binxin

    2016-07-01

    A mechanistic model that predicts sensible and latent heat fluxes from the udder of a dairy cow was developed. The prediction of the model was spot validated against measured data from the literature, and the result agreed within 7% of the measured value for the same ambient temperature. A dairy cow can lose a significant amount of heat (388W/m(2)) from the udder. This suggests that the udder could be considered as a heat sink. The temperature profile through the udder tissue (core to skin) approached the core temperature for an air temperature ≥37°C whereas the profile decreased linearly from the core to skin surface for an air temperature less than 37°C. Sensible heat loss was dominant when ambient air temperature was less than 37.5°C but latent heat loss was greater than sensible heat loss when air temperature was ≥37.5°C. The udder could lose a total (sensible + latent) heat flux of 338W/m(2) at an ambient temperature of 35°C and blood-flow rate of 3.2×10(-3)m(3)/(sm(3) tissue). The results of this study suggests that, in time of heat stress, a dairy cow could be cooled by cooling the udder only (e.g., using an evaporative cooling jacket). PMID:27264885

  5. The evolution of dominance.

    PubMed

    Bourguet, D

    1999-07-01

    The evolution of dominance has been subject to intensive debate since Fisher first argued that modifiers would be selected for if they made wild-type alleles more dominant over mutant alleles. An alternative explanation, put forward by Wright, is that the commonly observed dominance of wild-type alleles is simply a physiological consequence of metabolic pathways. Wright's explanation has gained support over the years, largely ending the debate over the general recessivity of deleterious mutations. Nevertheless there is reason to believe that dominance relationships have been moulded by natural selection to some extent. First, the metabolic pathways are themselves products of evolutionary processes that may have led them to be more stable to perturbations, including mutations. Secondly, theoretical models and empirical experiments suggest that substantial selection for dominance modifiers exists during the spread of adaptive alleles or when a polymorphism is maintained either by overdominant selection or by migration-selection balance. PMID:10447697

  6. Natural History of Innate Host Defense Peptides.

    PubMed

    Linde, A; Wachter, B; Höner, O P; Dib, L; Ross, C; Tamayo, A R; Blecha, F; Melgarejo, T

    2009-12-01

    Host defense peptides act on the forefront of innate immunity, thus playing a central role in the survival of animals and plants. Despite vast morphological changes in species through evolutionary history, all animals examined to date share common features in their innate immune defense strategies, hereunder expression of host defense peptides (HDPs). Most studies on HDPs have focused on humans, domestic and laboratory animals. More than a thousand different sequences have been identified, yet data on HDPs in wild-living animals are sparse. The biological functions of HDPs include broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and immunomodulation. Natural selection and coevolutionary host-pathogen arms race theory suggest that the extent and specificity of the microbial load influences the spectrum and potency of HDPs in different species. Individuals of extant species-that have lived for an extended period in evolutionary history amid populations with intact processes of natural selection-likely possess the most powerful and well-adapted "natural antibiotics". Research on the evolutionary history of the innate defense system and the host in context of the consequences of challenges as well as the efficacy of the innate immune system under natural conditions is therefore of immediate interest. This review focuses on evolutionary aspects of immunophysiology, with emphasis on innate effector molecules. Studies on host defense in wild-living animals may significantly enhance our understanding of inborn immune mechanisms, and help identify molecules that may assist us to cope better with the increasing microbial challenges that likely follow from the continuous amplification of biodiversity levels on Earth. PMID:26783164

  7. Inhaled innate immune ligands to prevent pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Scott E; Tuvim, Michael J; Fox, Cory J; Sachdev, Nidhi; Gibiansky, Leonid; Dickey, Burton F

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial surfaces throughout the body continuously sample and respond to environmental stimuli. The accessibility of lung epithelium to inhaled therapies makes it possible to stimulate local antimicrobial defences with aerosolized innate immune ligands. This strategy has been shown to be effective in preclinical models, as delivery of innate immune ligands to the lungs of laboratory animals results in protection from subsequent challenge with microbial pathogens. Survival of the animal host in this setting correlates directly with killing of pathogens within the lungs, indicating the induction of a resistance mechanism. Resistance appears to be mediated primarily by activated epithelial cells rather than recruited leucocytes. Resistance reaches a peak within hours and persists for several days. Innate immune ligands can interact synergistically under some circumstances, and synergistic combinations of innate ligands delivered by aerosol are capable of inducing a high level of broad host resistance to bacteria, fungi and viruses. The induction of innate antimicrobial resistance within the lungs could have clinical applications in the prevention of lower respiratory tract infection in subjects transiently at high risk. These include cancer patients undergoing myeloablative chemotherapy, intubated patients being mechanically ventilated, vulnerable individuals during seasonal influenza epidemics, asthmatic subjects experiencing a respiratory viral infection, and healthy subjects exposed to virulent pathogens from a bioterror attack or emergent pandemic. In summary, stimulation of the lung epithelium to induce localized resistance to infection is a novel strategy whose clinical utility will be assessed in the near future. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Respiratory Pharmacology. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.163.issue-1 PMID:21250981

  8. Physiologic, health, and production responses of dairy cows supplemented with an immunomodulatory feed ingredient during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Brandão, A P; Cooke, R F; Corrá, F N; Piccolo, M B; Gennari, R; Leiva, T; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2016-07-01

    insulin-like growth factor-I. Cows receiving OMN had greater milk yield (30.3 vs. 27.1kg/d) and percentage of PMN cells in endometrial cell population (12.2 vs. 3.9%) compared with CON cows. After LPS administration, cows receiving OMN had greater mean serum haptoglobin (212 vs. 94 µg/mL), as well as greater serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor α at 1, 2, and 3 h relative to LPS injection compared with CON cows. In conclusion, OMN supplementation during the transition period enhanced innate immunity parameters and increased milk production in dairy cows. PMID:27085398

  9. Modulation of the Bovine Trophoblastic Innate Immune Response by Brucella abortus▿

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho Neta, Alcina V.; Stynen, Ana P. R.; Paixão, Tatiane A.; Miranda, Karina L.; Silva, Fabiana L.; Roux, Christelle M.; Tsolis, Renée M.; Everts, Robin E.; Lewin, Harris A.; Adams, L. Garry; Carvalho, Alex F.; Lage, Andrey P.; Santos, Renato L.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is still a widespread zoonotic disease. Very little is known about the interaction between Brucella abortus and trophoblastic cells, which is essential for better understanding the pathogenesis of the Brucella-induced placentitis and abortion, a key event for transmission of the disease. The goal of this study was to evaluate the profile of gene expression by bovine trophoblastic cells during infection with B. abortus. Explants of chorioallantoic membranes were inoculated with B. abortus strain 2308. Microarray analysis was performed at 4 h after infection, and expression of cytokines and chemokines by trophoblastic cells was assessed by real-time reverse transcription-PCR at 6 and 12 h after inoculation. In addition, cytokine and chemokine expression in placentomes from experimentally infected cows was evaluated. Expression of proinflammatory genes by trophoblastic cells was suppressed at 4 h after inoculation, whereas a significant upregulation of CXC chemokines, namely, CXCL6 (GCP-2) and CXCL8 (interleukin 8), was observed at 12 but not at 6 h after inoculation. Placentomes of experimentally infected cows had a similar profile of chemokine expression, with upregulation of CXCL6 and CXCL8. Our data indicate that B. abortus modulates the innate immune response by trophoblastic cells, suppressing the expression of proinflammatory mediators during the early stages of infection that is followed by a delayed and mild expression of proinflammatory chemokines, which is similar to the profile of chemokine expression in the placentomes of experimentally infected cows. This trophoblastic response is likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of B. abortus-induced placentitis. PMID:18316388

  10. Memory CD8+ T Cells: Orchestrators and Key Players of Innate Immunity?

    PubMed

    Lauvau, Grégoire; Goriely, Stanislas

    2016-09-01

    Over the past decades, the dichotomy between innate and adaptive immune responses has largely dominated our understanding of immunology. Upon primary encounter with microbial pathogens, differentiation of adaptive immune cells into functional effectors usually takes several days or even longer, making them contribute to host protection only late during primary infection. However, once generated, antigen-experienced T lymphocytes can persist in the organism and constitute a pool of memory cells that mediate fast and effective protection to a recall infection with the same microbial pathogen. Herein, we challenge this classical paradigm by highlighting the "innate nature" of memory CD8+ T cells. First, within the thymus or in the periphery, naïve CD8+ T cells may acquire phenotypic and functional characteristics of memory CD8+ T cells independently of challenge with foreign antigens. Second, both the "unconventional" and the "conventional" memory cells can rapidly express protective effector functions in response to sets of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines signals, independent of cognate antigen triggering. Third, memory CD8+ T cells can act by orchestrating the recruitment, activation, and licensing of innate cells, leading to broad antimicrobial states. Thus, collectively, memory CD8+ T cells may represent important actors of innate immune defenses. PMID:27584152

  11. Staring us in the face? An embodied theory of innate face preference.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Nick; Paikan, Ali; Gredebäck, Gustaf; Rea, Francesco; Metta, Giorgio

    2014-11-01

    Human expertise in face perception grows over development, but even within minutes of birth, infants exhibit an extraordinary sensitivity to face-like stimuli. The dominant theory accounts for innate face detection by proposing that the neonate brain contains an innate face detection device, dubbed 'Conspec'. Newborn face preference has been promoted as some of the strongest evidence for innate knowledge, and forms a canonical stage for the modern form of the nature-nurture debate in psychology. Interpretation of newborn face preference results has concentrated on monocular stimulus properties, with little mention or focused investigation of potential binocular involvement. However, the question of whether and how newborns integrate the binocular visual streams bears directly on the generation of observable visual preferences. In this theoretical paper, we employ a synthetic approach utilizing robotic and computational models to draw together the threads of binocular integration and face preference in newborns, and demonstrate cases where the former may explain the latter. We suggest that a system-level view considering the binocular embodiment of newborn vision may offer a mutually satisfying resolution to some long-running arguments in the polarizing debate surrounding the existence and causal structure of newborns' 'innate knowledge' of faces. PMID:24946990

  12. Ruminal Methanogen Community in Dairy Cows Fed Agricultural Residues of Corn Stover, Rapeseed, and Cottonseed Meals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengpeng; Zhao, Shengguo; Wang, Xingwen; Zhang, Yangdong; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-07-13

    The purpose was to reveal changes in the methanogen community in the rumen of dairy cows fed agricultural residues of corn stover, rapeseed, and cottonseed meals, compared with alfalfa hay or soybean meal. Analysis was based on cloning and sequencing the methyl coenzyme M reductase α-subunit gene of ruminal methanogens. Results revealed that predicted methane production was increased while population of ruminal methanogens was not significantly affected when cows were fed diets containing various amounts of agricultural residues. Richness and diversity of methanogen community were markedly increased by addition of agricultural residues. The dominant ruminal methanogens shared by all experimental groups belonged to rumen cluster C, accounting for 71% of total, followed by the order Methanobacteriales (29%). Alterations of ruminal methanogen community and prevalence of particular species occurred in response to fed agricultural residue rations, suggesting the possibility of regulating target methanogens to control methane production by dairy cows fed agricultural residues. PMID:27322573

  13. Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Packard, René R. S.; Lichtman, Andrew H.; Libby, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disorder, involves both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response that mediate the initiation, progression, and ultimate thrombotic complications of atherosclerosis. Most fatal thromboses, which may manifest as acute myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke, result from frank rupture or superficial erosion of the fibrous cap overlying the atheroma, processes that occur in inflammatorily active, rupture-prone plaques. Appreciation of the inflammatory character of atherosclerosis has led to the application of C-reactive protein as a biomarker of cardiovascular risk, and the characterization of the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory actions of the statin class of drugs. An improved understanding of the pathobiology of atherosclerosis and further studies of its immune mechanisms provide avenues for the development of future strategies directed toward better risk stratification of patients as well as the identification of novel anti-inflammatory therapies. This review retraces leukocyte subsets involved in innate and adaptive immunity and their contributions to atherogenesis. PMID:19449008

  14. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  15. Antibody Fc: Linking Adaptive and Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Janice M.

    2014-01-01

    Antibody Fc: Linking Adaptive and Innate Immunity, edited by Margaret E. Ackerman and Falk Nimmerjahn and published by Academic Press, provides a highly detailed examination of the involvement of the antibody Fc in mechanisms critical to both innate and adaptive immune responses. Despite a recent increase in format diversity, most marketed antibodies are full-length IgG molecules and the majority of the commercial clinical pipeline of antibody therapeutics is composed of Fc-containing IgG molecules, which underscores the importance of understanding how the Fc domain affects biological responses. The book is divided into six sections that include a total of 20 chapters. In order of their appearance, the sections provide extensive coverage of effector mechanisms, effector cells, Fc receptors, variability of the Fc domain, genetic associations, and evolving areas.

  16. Revisiting the innate preference for consonance.

    PubMed

    Plantinga, Judy; Trehub, Sandra E

    2014-02-01

    The origin of the Western preference for consonance remains unresolved, with some suggesting that the preference is innate. In Experiments 1 and 2 of the present study, 6-month-old infants heard six different consonant/dissonant pairs of stimuli, including those tested in previous research. In contrast to the findings of others, infants in the present study failed to listen longer to consonant stimuli. After 3 minutes of exposure to consonant or dissonant stimuli in Experiment 3, 6-month-old infants listened longer to the familiar stimulus, whether consonant or dissonant. Our findings are inconsistent with innate preferences for consonant stimuli. Instead, the effect of short-term exposure is consistent with the view that familiarity underlies the origin of the Western preference for consonant intervals. PMID:23815480

  17. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  18. Long noncoding RNAs in innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Cao, Xuetao

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play important roles in immune cell development and immune responses through different mechanisms, such as dosage compensation, imprinting, enhancer function, and transcriptional regulation. Although the functions of most lncRNAs are unclear, some lncRNAs have been found to control transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses via new methods of protein–protein interactions or pairing with DNA and RNA. Interestingly, increasing evidence has elucidated the importance of lncRNAs in the interaction between hosts and pathogens. In this review, an overview of the lncRNAs modes of action, as well as the important and diversified roles of lncRNAs in immunity, are provided, and an emerging paradigm of lncRNAs in regulating innate immune responses is highlighted. PMID:26277893

  19. CNS Remyelination and the Innate Immune System

    PubMed Central

    McMurran, Christopher E.; Jones, Clare A.; Fitzgerald, Denise C.; Franklin, Robin J. M.

    2016-01-01

    A misguided inflammatory response is frequently implicated in myelin damage. Particularly prominent among myelin diseases, multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune condition, with immune–mediated damage central to its etiology. Nevertheless, a robust inflammatory response is also essential for the efficient regeneration of myelin sheaths after such injury. Here, we discuss the functions of inflammation that promote remyelination, and how these have been experimentally disentangled from the pathological facets of the immune response. We focus on the contributions that resident microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages make to remyelination and compare the roles of these two populations of innate immune cells. Finally, the current literature is framed in the context of developing therapies that manipulate the innate immune response to promote remyelination in clinical myelin disease. PMID:27200350

  20. Innate immunity, decidual cells, and preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chang-Ching; Chao, Kuan-Chong; Huang, S Joseph

    2013-04-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) manifested by hypertension and proteinuria complicates 3% to 8% of pregnancies and is a leading cause of fetal-maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. It may lead to intrauterine growth restriction, preterm delivery, and long-term sequelae in women and fetuses, and consequently cause socioeconomic burden to the affected families and society as a whole. Balanced immune responses are required for the maintenance of successful pregnancy. Although not a focus of most studies, decidual cells, the major resident cell type at the fetal-maternal interface, have been shown to modulate the local immune balance by interacting with other cell types, such as bone marrow derived-immune cells, endothelial cells, and invading extravillous trophoblasts. Accumulating evidence suggests that an imbalanced innate immunity, facilitated by decidual cells, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PE. Thus, this review will discuss the role of innate immunity and the potential contribution of decidual cells in the pathogenesis of PE. PMID:22814099

  1. Age-dependent dysregulation of innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Albert C.; Goldstein, Daniel R.; Montgomery, Ruth R.

    2014-01-01

    Preface As we age, the innate immune system becomes dysregulated and is characterized by persistent inflammatory responses that involve multiple immune and non-immune cell types, and that vary depending on the cell activation state and tissue context. This ageing-associated basal inflammation, particularly in humans, is thought to be induced by factors including the reactivation of latent viral infections and the release of endogenous damage-associated ligands of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Innate immune cell functions, such as cell migration and PRR signalling, that are required to respond to pathogens or vaccines are also impaired in aged individuals. This immune dysregulation may affect conditions associated with chronic inflammation, such as atherosclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24157572

  2. Innate immunity to influenza virus: implications for future therapy

    PubMed Central

    White, Mitchell R; Doss, Mona; Boland, Patrick; Tecle, Tesfaldet; Hartshorn, Kevan L

    2009-01-01

    Innate immunity is critical in the early containment of influenza virus infection. The innate response is surprisingly complex. A variety of soluble innate inhibitors in respiratory secretions provide an initial barrier to infection. Dendritic cells, phagocytes and natural killer cells mediate viral clearance and promote further innate and adaptive responses. Toll-like receptors 3 and 7 and cytoplasmic RNA sensors are critical for activating these responses. In general, the innate response restricts viral replication without injuring the lung; however, the 1918 pandemic and H5N1 strains cause more profound, possibly harmful, innate responses. In this review, we discuss the implications of burgeoning knowledge of innate immunity for therapy of influenza. PMID:19756245

  3. N-glycan profiling of bovine follicular fluid at key dominant follicle developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Tharmalingam-Jaikaran, T; Walsh, S W; McGettigan, P A; Potter, O; Struwe, W B; Evans, A C O; Rudd, P M; Carrington, S D

    2014-12-01

    Follicular fluid (FF), an important microenvironment for the development of oocytes, contains many proteins that are glycosylated with N-linked glycans. This study aimed i) to present an initial analysis of the N-linked glycan profile of bovine FF using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, anion exchange chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based separations and subsequent liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis; ii) to determine differences in the N-glycan profile between FF from dominant and subordinate follicles from dairy heifers and lactating dairy cows and iii) to identify alterations in the N-glycan profile of FF during preovulatory follicle development using newly selected, differentiated (preovulatory) and luteinised dominant follicles from dairy heifers and lactating cows. We found that the majority of glycans on bovine FF are based on biantennary hypersialylated structures, where the glycans are sialylated on both the galactose and N-acetylglucosamine terminal sugars. A comparison of FF N-glycans from cows and heifers indicated higher levels of nonsialylated glycans with a lower proportion of sialylated glycans in cows than in heifers. Overall, as the follicle develops from Selection, Differentiation and Luteinisation in both cows and heifers, there is an overall decrease in sialylated structures on FF N-glycans. PMID:25212784

  4. Ontogeny of Intestinal Epithelial Innate Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hornef, Mathias W.; Fulde, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that processes during postnatal development might significantly influence the establishment of mucosal host-microbial homeostasis. Developmental and adaptive immunological processes but also environmental and microbial exposure early after birth might thus affect disease susceptibility and health during adult life. The present review aims at summarizing the current understanding of the intestinal epithelial innate immune system and its developmental and adaptive changes after birth. PMID:25346729

  5. Heme on innate immunity and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Fabianno F.; Bozza, Marcelo T.

    2014-01-01

    Heme is an essential molecule expressed ubiquitously all through our tissues. Heme plays major functions in cellular physiology and metabolism as the prosthetic group of diverse proteins. Once released from cells and from hemeproteins free heme causes oxidative damage and inflammation, thus acting as a prototypic damage-associated molecular pattern. In this context, free heme is a critical component of the pathological process of sterile and infectious hemolytic conditions including malaria, hemolytic anemias, ischemia-reperfusion, and hemorrhage. The plasma scavenger proteins hemopexin and albumin reduce heme toxicity and are responsible for transporting free heme to intracellular compartments where it is catabolized by heme-oxygenase enzymes. Upon hemolysis or severe cellular damage the serum capacity to scavenge heme may saturate and increase free heme to sufficient amounts to cause tissue damage in various organs. The mechanism by which heme causes reactive oxygen generation, activation of cells of the innate immune system and cell death are not fully understood. Although heme can directly promote lipid peroxidation by its iron atom, heme can also induce reactive oxygen species generation and production of inflammatory mediators through the activation of selective signaling pathways. Heme activates innate immune cells such as macrophages and neutrophils through activation of innate immune receptors. The importance of these events has been demonstrated in infectious and non-infectious diseases models. In this review, we will discuss the mechanisms behind heme-induced cytotoxicity and inflammation and the consequences of these events on different tissues and diseases. PMID:24904418

  6. Bacterial RNAs activate innate immunity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boyoung; Park, Yong-Soon; Lee, Soohyun; Song, Geun Cheol; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    The common molecular patterns of microbes play a critical role in the regulation of plant innate immunity. However, little is known about the role of nucleic acids in this process in plants. We pre-infiltrated Arabidopsis leaves with total RNAs from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pto DC3000) and subsequently inoculated these plants with the same bacterial cells. Total Pto DC3000 RNAs pre-infiltrated into Arabidopsis leaves elicited plant immune responses against Pto DC3000. However, sheared RNAs and RNase A application failed to induce immunity, suggesting that intact bacterial RNAs function in plant innate immunity. This notion was supported by the positive regulation of superoxide anion levels, callose deposition, two mitogen-activated protein kinases and defense-related genes observed in bacterial RNA-pre-treated leaves. Intriguingly, the Pto DC3000 population was not compromised in known pattern recognition receptor mutants for chitin, flagellin and elongation factor-Tu (EF-Tu). Plant defense-related mutant analyses further revealed that bacterial RNA-elicited innate immunity was normally required for salicylic and jasmonic acid signaling. Notably, among total RNAs, the abundant bacterial RNA species 16S and 23S ribosomal RNAs were the major determinants of this response. Our findings provide evidence that bacterial RNA serves as a microbe-associated molecular pattern in plants. PMID:26499893

  7. Microbial safety control of compost material with cow dung by heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chun-ming

    2007-01-01

    Various kinds of pathogenic bacteria derived from the intestinal tract of animals exist in compost material like cow dung. In order to sterilize the pathogenic bacteria completely in compost material, the cow dung was put into a heat treatment machine in pilot plan, and harmless condition in short time was examined. The results indicated, pathogenic indicator bacteria such as coliform bacteria, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli and salmonella were all 106 cfu/g dw at the beginning, died rapidly when cow dung temperature rose to above 50 degrees C, and not detected at 54-68 degrees C for 6-24 h heat treatment. Coliform bacteria and salmonella in heated cow dung were not detected by re-growth culture and enrichment culture examination. Moreover, it was hardly influenced on the fermentation ability of composting microbe, organic decomposition bacteria. During heat treatment, the mesophile decreased rapidly and the thermophile stabilized or increased, and the most of composting microbe were bacillus in cow dung by fluorescence microscope, this indicated that bacillus was dominator and composting microbe in composting process. PMID:17966859

  8. Dairy cow manure digester and cogenerator performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pigg, D.L.; Vetter, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    A 94 m/sup 3/ mesophilic digester with a 15 kW engine-generator was monitored. The average manure collected was 6.48 kg VS/cow/day. An ultimate methane yield (Bo) of 0.25 L CH4/g VS was calculated. The potential gross energy production was determined to be 3 kWh/cow/day.

  9. Improving cow herd production through early weaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early weaning, in spring calving production systems, has intrigued many producers to consider this alternative management practice especially during extended droughts and as a tool to promote stayability within a cow herd for young developing cows. The first objective of this study was to evaluate ...

  10. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  11. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  12. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  13. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  14. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  15. Language after dominant hemispherectomy

    PubMed Central

    Gott, Piggy S.

    1973-01-01

    Linguistic and related cognitive abilities were investigated two years after dominant left hemispherectomy for cerebral malignancy in a 12 year old female. Auditory comprehension of speech was superior to other modes of language abilities with expressive speech being the least developed. Findings suggested an isolation or non-communication between the systems for speaking and for writing and visual perception. It was concluded that language mechanisms in the right hemisphere were not just at a low level of development of the functions found in the dominant hemisphere but were modified as a result of interference by preexistent spatioperceptual systems. Images PMID:4772723

  16. Autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy (ADVIRC).

    PubMed Central

    Blair, N P; Goldberg, M F; Fishman, G A; Salzano, T

    1984-01-01

    We report the second family recognised to have autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy. The clinical features were (1) autosomal dominant inheritance; (2) peripheral, coarse pigmentary degeneration of the fundus for 360 degrees, with a relatively discrete posterior border in the equatorial region (this finding may be pathognomonic); (3) superficial punctate yellowish-white opacities in the retina; (4) various vascular abnormalities; (5) breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier; (6) retinal neovascularisation; (7) vitreous abnormalities; and (8) choroidal atrophy. Visual reduction was mainly due to macular oedema or vitreous haemorrhage. Images PMID:6689931

  17. Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nyman, A-K; Persson Waller, K; Bennedsgaard, T W; Larsen, T; Emanuelson, U

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if and how cow factors and intramammary infection (IMI) are associated with 4 different udder-health indicators in dairy cows as a first step in investigating whether the diagnostic performance of these indicators can be improved. The investigated indicators were somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) measured in milk. In this cross-sectional study, approximately 1,000 cows from 25 dairy herds were sampled for bacteriology (quarter milk samples) during 3 consecutive days: the day before test milking, at the day of test milking, and at the day after test milking. The whole-udder test milking sample was analyzed for milk composition, SCC, LDH, NAGase, and AP. Cow data (parity, breed, milk yield, percentage of milk fat and protein, milk urea concentration, and days in milk from the sampled test milking) were collected from the Swedish milk-recording scheme. Of the sampled cows 485 were considered IMI negative and were used in multivariable mixed-effect linear regression models to investigate associations between cow factors and the udder-health indicators. A second modeling including all cows, both IMI negative and IMI positive (256 cows), was also performed. The results showed that all udder-health indicators were affected by cow factors but that different cow factors were associated with different indicators. Intramammary-infection status was significantly associated with all udder-health indicators except AP. Parity and milk urea concentration were the only cow factors associated with all indicators in all models. The significant cow factors explained 23% of the variation in SCC and >30% of the variation in LDH, NAGase, and AP in IMI-negative cows, showing that LDH, NAGase, and AP are more affected than SCC by cow factors. The IMI status explained 23% of the variation in SCC in the model with all cows but only 7% of the variation in

  18. Management of Young Cows for Maximum Reproductive Performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most common problem that cow calf producers face in the U.S. is low rebreeding performance among two- and three-year old cows. In Brazil, however, most cows are not bred until at least 2 years of age. However, the underlying reason that young cows in both countries have difficulty re-breeding ...

  19. Massive vulvar edema in 2 prepartum dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Soon Hon; Gilbert, Robert O.

    2014-01-01

    Two late gestation Holstein cows about to begin the third lactation developed massive vulvar edema. These were the only affected animals in the herd of 500 milking cows. The vulvar edema spontaneously regressed postpartum for both cows. Massive vulvar swelling is seldom observed in dairy cows in advanced pregnancy and is not described in the literature. PMID:24790232

  20. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank....

  1. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false COW system: Evidence for... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW system... inspector evidence that the COW system has been installed in accordance with the plans accepted under §...

  2. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank....

  3. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false COW system: Evidence for... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW system... inspector evidence that the COW system has been installed in accordance with the plans accepted under §...

  4. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false COW system: Evidence for... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW system... inspector evidence that the COW system has been installed in accordance with the plans accepted under §...

  5. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false COW system: Evidence for... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW system... inspector evidence that the COW system has been installed in accordance with the plans accepted under §...

  6. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW system: Evidence for... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW system... inspector evidence that the COW system has been installed in accordance with the plans accepted under §...

  7. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank....

  8. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank....

  9. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank....

  10. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a... removed from a cargo tank for the carriage of cargoes other than crude oil and then reinstalled, the master shall ensure that, before COW operations are conducted, the system has no crude oil leakage....

  11. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a... removed from a cargo tank for the carriage of cargoes other than crude oil and then reinstalled, the master shall ensure that, before COW operations are conducted, the system has no crude oil leakage....

  12. Iron dominated magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, G.E.

    1985-07-01

    These two lectures on iron dominated magnets are meant for the student of accelerator science and contain general treatments of the subjects design and construction. The material is arranged in the categories: General Concepts and Cost Considerations, Profile Configuration and Harmonics, Magnetic Measurements, a few examples of ''special magnets'' and Materials and Practices. Extensive literature is provided.

  13. Improving Productive and Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cows through Dry Period Management

    PubMed Central

    Safa, S.; Soleimani, A.; Heravi Moussavi, A.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effects of dry period (DP) length on milk yield, milk composition, some blood metabolites, complete blood count (CBC), body weight and score and follicular status, twenty five primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to a completely randomized design with DP-60 (n = 13) and DP-20 (n = 12) dry period lengths. Cows in the DP-60 produced more milk, protein, SNF, serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta hydroxyl butyrate acid (BHBA) compared with cows in DP-20 (p≤0.05). Serum glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urea, and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) were all similar among the treatments. Body Condition Score (BCS), body weight (BW), complete blood count (CBC) and health problems were similar between the treatments. Diameter of the first dominant follicle and diameter of the dominant follicle on d 14 were different among the treatments. Thus, results of this study showed that reducing the dry period length to DP-20 had a negative effect on milk production, milk composition and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows. PMID:25049832

  14. Treatment of clinical endometritis in dairy cows by previously used controlled internal drug release devices.

    PubMed

    Eslami, Mohsen; Bolourchi, Mahmoud; Seifi, Hesam A; Asadi, Farzad; Akbari, Rahmat

    2015-08-01

    than in CIDR-14 (87.07%) and PG-2 (87.85%) cows (P = 0.02). In conclusion, reused CIDR would be contributed to the treatment of CE by promotion of follicle growth and induction of sustainable sources of endogenic estrogen secreted by the dominant follicle. PMID:25952078

  15. Social and breed effects on the expression of a PGF2alpha induced oestrus in beef cows.

    PubMed

    Landaeta-Hernández, A J; Palomares-Naveda, R; Soto-Castillo, G; Atencio, A; Chase, C C; Chenoweth, P J

    2004-10-01

    Social organization and breed effects following PGF2alpha were studied in mature Angus, Brahman and Senepol cows allocated into two groups (each A = 5, B = 5 and S = 5). Variables including interval to oestrus onset (IEO), oestrous duration (DE), total mounts received (TMR), and oestrous intensity (IE) were derived via HeatWatch. Breed-type influenced IEO (B = 42.6 +/- 6.7 h; S = 54.6 +/- 6.0 h; and A = 27.8 +/- 5.8 h; p < 0.003). Within breeds, dominant B (69.4 +/- 13.3 h) and S (65.5 +/- 7.4 h) cows were slower (p < 0.05) to be detected in oestrus than subordinate (38.1 +/- 4.4 h) and intermediate (40.6 +/- 6.0 h). However, within A, dominant cows (16.4 +/- 12.5 h) were detected in oestrus earlier (p < 0.05) than intermediate (44.3 +/- 9.2 h) and subordinates (32.7 +/- 5.1 h). Angus (21.5 +/- 2.4 h) and B (22.1 +/- 3.0 h) cows had longer (p < 0.01) DE than S (9.1 +/- 2.8 h). Dominants (20.4 +/- 3.0) and intermediates (20.2 +/- 2.3 h) cows had longer DE (p < 0.04) than subordinates (12.1 +/- 2.1 h) although the interaction breed x social order showed that dominant S had shorter DE than dominant A and B (10.1 +/- 3.3; 34.8 +/- 6.0 h; and 20.0 +/- 6.4 h, respectively; p < 0.001). Angus cows had less TMR than B (p < 0.02) and tended to be less than S cows (p < 0.06). Overall, greatest (p < 0.008) IE occurred in the first 9 h after onset of oestrus with no breed effect (p > 0.05). Dominant cows tended (p < 0.10) to have less TMR (3.2 +/- 0.7 mounts) than subordinate (4.1 +/- 0.4 mounts) and intermediate (4.7 +/- 0.6 mounts) throughout, especially 3-6 h after oestrus onset (p < 0.07). Breed and social order both influence PGF2alpha-induced oestrus behaviour. PMID:15367263

  16. Effect of ovulatory follicle size on steroidogenic capacity and molecular markers of oocyte competence prior to GnRH-induced ovulation in non-lactating beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced ovulation of small dominant follicles decreased pregnancy rates and increased late embryonic/fetal mortality in beef cows. Inadequate oocyte competence, as affected by the physiological status of the dominant follicle, is a potential explanation for the...

  17. 33 CFR 157.156 - COW operations: Meeting manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false COW operations: Meeting manual... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.156 COW operations... COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) that has the Crude Oil...

  18. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false COW operations: General. 157.155... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.155 COW operations: General. (a) The master of a tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2)...

  19. 33 CFR 157.156 - COW operations: Meeting manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false COW operations: Meeting manual... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.156 COW operations... COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2), or § 157.10c(b)(2) that has the Crude Oil...

  20. 33 CFR 157.156 - COW operations: Meeting manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false COW operations: Meeting manual... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.156 COW operations... COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) that has the Crude Oil...

  1. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false COW operations: General. 157.155... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.155 COW operations: General. (a) The master of a tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2)...

  2. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false COW operations: General. 157.155... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.155 COW operations: General. (a) The master of a tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2)...

  3. 33 CFR 157.156 - COW operations: Meeting manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.156 COW operations... COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) that has the Crude Oil Washing....10c(b)(2) shall ensure that during each COW operation— (a) The procedures listed in the Crude...

  4. 33 CFR 157.156 - COW operations: Meeting manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.156 COW operations... COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) that has the Crude Oil Washing....10c(b)(2) shall ensure that during each COW operation— (a) The procedures listed in the Crude...

  5. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Dairy Cows and Their Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, S.; Holzinger, R.; Mitloehner, F.; Goldstein, A.

    2005-12-01

    Biogenic VOCs are typically defined as those directly emitted from plants, but approximately 6% of global net primary production is consumed by cattle that carry out enteric fermentation and then emit VOCs that could also be considered biogenic. Current regulatory estimates suggest that dairy cattle in central California emit VOCs at rates comparable to those from passenger vehicles in the region, and thus contribute significantly to the extreme non-attainment of ozone standards there. We report PTR-MS measurements of ammonia and VOCs, and cavity-enhanced-absorption gas analyzer (Los Gatos Research, Inc.) measurements of CH4, emitted from dairy cattle in various stages of pregnancy/lactation and their waste. Experiments were conducted in chambers at UC Davis that simulate freestall cow housing conditions. CH4 fluxes ranged from 125-374 lb/cow/year. The compounds with the highest fluxes from '3 cows+waste' treatments were: ammonia (1-18), methanol (0-2.3), acetone+propanal (0.2-0.7), dimethylsulfide (0-0.4), and mass 109 (likely ID = p-cresol; 0-0.3) in lb/cow/year. Mass 60 (likely ID = trimethylamine) and acetic acid were also abundant. There were 10s of additional compounds with detectable, but small, emissions. A few compounds that were likely emitted (i.e. ethanol, formaldehyde, and dimethylamine) were not quantified by the PTR-MS. The total flux for all measured organic gases (TOG = CH4 + PTR-MS VOCs(including acetone+propanal)) averaged 246±45 lb/cow/year for '3 cows+waste' treatments, and was dominated by methane (>98%). TOG flux for 'waste only' treatments averaged 1.1±0.1 lb/cow/year, and was instead dominated by VOC (>84%). The PTR-MS VOCs as a percent of TOG (0.6±0.2%) emitted from '3 cows+waste' treatments in chamber conditions was a factor of 10 smaller than that currently estimated by the California Air Resources Board. In addition, the ozone forming potentials of the most abundant VOCs are only about 10% those of typical combustion or plant

  6. Innate immune cells in the pathogenesis of primary systemic vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Misra, Durga Prasanna; Agarwal, Vikas

    2016-02-01

    Innate immune system forms the first line of defense against foreign substances. Neutrophils, eosinophils, erythrocytes, platelets, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, γδ T cells, natural killer and natural killer T cells comprise the innate immune system. Genetic polymorphisms influencing the activation of innate immune cells predispose to development of vasculitis and influence its severity. Abnormally activated innate immune cells cross-talk with other cells of the innate immune system, present antigens more efficiently and activate T and B lymphocytes and cause tissue destruction via cell-mediated cytotoxicity and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These secreted cytokines further recruit other cells to the sites of vascular injury. They are involved in both the initiation as well as the perpetuation of vasculitis. Evidences suggest reversal of aberrant activation of immune cells in response to therapy. Understanding the role of innate immune cells in vasculitis helps understand the potential of therapeutic modulation of their activation to treat vasculitis. PMID:26403285

  7. Post-Translational Modification Control of Innate Immunity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Qian, Cheng; Cao, Xuetao

    2016-07-19

    A coordinated balance between the positive and negative regulation of pattern-recognition receptor (PRR)-initiated innate inflammatory responses is required to ensure the most favorable outcome for the host. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of innate sensors and downstream signaling molecules influence their activity and function by inducing their covalent linkage to new functional groups. PTMs including phosphorylation and polyubiquitination have been shown to potently regulate innate inflammatory responses through the activation, cellular translocation, and interaction of innate receptors, adaptors, and downstream signaling molecules in response to infectious and dangerous signals. Other PTMs such as methylation, acetylation, SUMOylation, and succinylation are increasingly implicated in the regulation of innate immunity and inflammation. In this review, we focus on the roles of PTMs in controlling PRR-triggered innate immunity and inflammatory responses. The emerging roles of PTMs in the pathogenesis and potential treatment of infectious and inflammatory immune diseases are also discussed. PMID:27438764

  8. Engineered metal based nanoparticles and innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Petrarca, Claudia; Clemente, Emanuela; Amato, Valentina; Pedata, Paola; Sabbioni, Enrico; Bernardini, Giovanni; Iavicoli, Ivo; Cortese, Sara; Niu, Qiao; Otsuki, Takemi; Paganelli, Roberto; Di Gioacchino, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Almost all people in developed countries are exposed to metal nanoparticles (MeNPs) that are used in a large number of applications including medical (for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes). Once inside the body, absorbed by inhalation, contact, ingestion and injection, MeNPs can translocate to tissues and, as any foreign substance, are likely to encounter the innate immunity system that represent a non-specific first line of defense against potential threats to the host. In this review, we will discuss the possible effects of MeNPs on various components of the innate immunity (both specific cells and barriers). Most important is that there are no reports of immune diseases induced by MeNPs exposure: we are operating in a safe area. However, in vitro assays show that MeNPs have some effects on innate immunity, the main being toxicity (both cyto- and genotoxicity) and interference with the activity of various cells through modification of membrane receptors, gene expression and cytokine production. Such effects can have both negative and positive relevant impacts on humans. On the one hand, people exposed to high levels of MeNPs, as workers of industries producing or applying MeNPs, should be monitored for possible health effects. On the other hand, understanding the modality of the effects on immune responses is essential to develop medical applications for MeNPs. Indeed, those MeNPs that are able to stimulate immune cells could be used to develop of new vaccines, promote immunity against tumors and suppress autoimmunity. PMID:26180517

  9. Systems integration of innate and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Zak, Daniel E; Aderem, Alan

    2015-09-29

    The pathogens causing AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis have proven too complex to be overcome by classical approaches to vaccination. The complexities of human immunology and pathogen-induced modulation of the immune system mandate new approaches to vaccine discovery and design. A new field, systems vaccinology, weds holistic analysis of innate and adaptive immunity within a quantitative framework to enable rational design of new vaccines that elicit tailored protective immune responses. A key step in the approach is to discover relationships between the earliest innate inflammatory responses to vaccination and the subsequent vaccine-induced adaptive immune responses and efficacy. Analysis of these responses in clinical studies is complicated by the inaccessibility of relevant tissue compartments (such as the lymph node), necessitating reliance upon peripheral blood responses as surrogates. Blood transcriptomes, although indirect to vaccine mechanisms, have proven very informative in systems vaccinology studies. The approach is most powerful when innate and adaptive immune responses are integrated with vaccine efficacy, which is possible for malaria with the advent of a robust human challenge model. This is more difficult for AIDS and tuberculosis, given that human challenge models are lacking and efficacy observed in clinical trials has been low or highly variable. This challenge can be met by appropriate clinical trial design for partially efficacious vaccines and by analysis of natural infection cohorts. Ultimately, systems vaccinology is an iterative approach in which mechanistic hypotheses-derived from analysis of clinical studies-are evaluated in model systems, and then used to guide the development of new vaccine strategies. In this review, we will illustrate the above facets of the systems vaccinology approach with case studies. PMID:26102534

  10. Forage systems for cow-calf production in the Appalachian region.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, G; Swecker, W S; Fontenot, J P; Fiske, D; Fike, J H; Abaye, A O; Peterson, P R; Clapham, W; Hall, J B

    2008-08-01

    Small cow-calf operations are common in the Appalachian region. Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S. J. Darbyshire] is the dominant forage in these systems for direct grazing as well as for stockpiling. The present study was conducted from 2001 to 2005. A total of 108 Angus and Angus crossbred cows were allotted randomly to 6 forage systems and then to 3 replicates within each system. In brief, system 1 had a stocking rate of 0.91 ha/cow in a Middleburg 3-paddock (A, B, and C) system. System 2 was similar to system 1 except for a stocking rate of 0.71 ha/cow. A stocking rate of 0.71 ha/cow also was used in systems 3 through 6. All A paddocks had tall fescue, whereas B paddocks had tall fescue/white clover (Trifolium repens L.) except in system 6, which had tall fescue/lespedeza [Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don]. System 3 evaluated a 2-paddock (A and B) rotational grazing system, and system 4 evaluated a 3-paddock (A, B, and C) rotational grazing system, with paddock C containing orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Systems 5 and 6 differed from system 2 in the areas of paddocks B and C as well as in the forage mixtures used. In paddock C, system 5 had switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and system 6 had tall fescue and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). System 1 had the greatest average herbage availability from weaning until breeding (P < 0.05) with the least amount of hay fed (P = 0.03) when compared with the remainder of the systems. Differences (P > 0.05) in percentage of ground cover were not detected among systems. There was no year x system interaction effect on the cow or calf performance variables evaluated and no treatment effect on cow performance variables. There was a treatment effect on calf performance variables. System 2 produced the greatest adjusted weaning weight, kilograms of calf weaned per hectare, and kilograms of calf per kilograms of cow at weaning (P < 0.05). Numerical ranking for

  11. [Dominant Thalamus and Aphasia].

    PubMed

    Nakano, Akiko; Shimomura, Tatsuo

    2015-12-01

    Many studies have shown that lesions of the dominant thalamus precipitate language disorders in a similar manner to transcortical aphasias, in a phenomenon known as "thalamic aphasia." In some cases, however, aphasia may not occur or may appear transiently following thalamic lesions. Furthermore, dominant thalamic lesions can produce changes in character, as observed in patients with amnesic disorder. Previous work has explored the utility of thalamic aphasia as a discriminative feature for classification of aphasia. Although the thalamus may be involved in the function of the brainstem reticular activating system and play a role in attentional network and in memory of Papez circuit or Yakovlev circuit, the mechanism by which thalamic lesion leads to the emergence of aphasic disorders is unclear. In this review, we we survey historical and recent literature on thalamic aphasia in an attempt to understand the neural processes affected by thalamic lesions. PMID:26618763

  12. [Dominant, motivation and behavior].

    PubMed

    Batuev, A S

    1982-01-01

    It was shown in experiments on cats with elaborated conditioned running to the left (with fresh food) and right (with salted food) feeding troughs that conditioned signals may change the current behaviour in spite of real unconditioned stimuli. The fresh food signal produces a conditioned "freshening" of the salt meat, which may be regarded as a successful physiological model of gustatory illusions. With a free choice of different salinity of food from different cups of each feeding though, behaviour is corrected by unconditioned factors, i.e. real salinity of food. As a result the thresholds of eating salt food from both feeding troughs are equalized. The facts are discussed in the light of the dominant principle, i.e. that central program which is built on the basis of the dominant motivation, of previous experience and current analysis of surroundings. PMID:7164569

  13. Systems-Level Analysis of Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zak, Daniel E.; Tam, Vincent C.; Aderem, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Systems-level analysis of biological processes strives to comprehensively and quantitatively evaluate the interactions between the relevant molecular components over time, thereby enabling development of models that can be employed to ultimately predict behavior. Rapid development in measurement technologies (omics), when combined with the accessible nature of the cellular constituents themselves, is allowing the field of innate immunity to take significant strides toward this lofty goal. In this review, we survey exciting results derived from systems biology analyses of the immune system, ranging from gene regulatory networks to influenza pathogenesis and systems vaccinology. PMID:24655298

  14. Concept Innateness, Concept Continuity, and Bootstrapping

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The commentators raised issues relevant to all three important theses of The Origin of Concepts (TOOC). Some questioned the very existence of innate representational primitives, and others questioned my claims about their richness and whether they should be thought of as concepts. Some questioned the existence of conceptual discontinuity in the course of knowledge acquisition and others argued that discontinuity is much more common than portrayed in TOOC. Some raised issues with my characterization of Quinian bootstrapping, and others questioned the dual factor theory of concepts motivated by my picture of conceptual development. PMID:23264705

  15. Respiratory epithelial cells orchestrate pulmonary innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Alenghat, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial surfaces of the lungs are in direct contact with the environment and are subjected to dynamic physical forces as airway tubes and alveoli are stretched and compressed during ventilation. Mucociliary clearance in conducting airways, reduction of surface tension in the alveoli, and maintenance of near sterility have been accommodated by the evolution of a multi-tiered innate host-defense system. The biophysical nature of pulmonary host defenses are integrated with the ability of respiratory epithelial cells to respond to and 'instruct' the professional immune system to protect the lungs from infection and injury. PMID:25521682

  16. Transcriptional analysis of the innate immune response using the avian innate immunity microarray

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The avian innate immunity microarray (AIIM) is a genomics tool designed to study the transcriptional activity of the avian immune response (Cytogenet. Genome Res. 117:139-145, 2007). It is an avian cDNA microarray representing 4,959 avian genes spotted in triplicate. The AIIM contains 25 avian int...

  17. Effect of ovulatory follicle size and estradiol supplementation during the preovulatory period on pregnancy rates in postpartum beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In postpartum beef cows, GnRH-induced ovulation of small dominant follicles decreased pregnancy rates and increased late embryonic/fetal mortality; however, ovulatory follicle size had no apparent effect on the establishment or maintenance of pregnancy when ovulation occurred spontaneously. Further...

  18. Factors affecting pre-ovulatory follicle diameter and ovulation rate following GnRH administration in anestrous beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induced ovulation of small dominant follicles (< 12 mm) was associated with reduced pregnancy rates and increased late embryonic/fetal loss in beef cows. Factors affecting ovulatory follicle size following follicular wave synchrony remain unclear. The objective of the present study was to determin...

  19. Diversity and Succession of Bacterial Communities in the Uterine Fluid of Postpartum Metritic, Endometritic and Healthy Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Thiago M. A.; Bicalho, Rodrigo C.

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of the uterine bacterial composition in dairy cows is still poorly understood, although the emerging picture has shown to be increasingly complex. Understanding the complexity and ecology of microorganisms in the uterus of postpartum dairy cows is critical for developing strategies to block their action in reproductive disorders, such as metritis/endometritis. Here, we used PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and DNA pyrosequencing to provide a comprehensive description of the uterine bacterial diversity and compare its succession in healthy, metritic and endometritic Holstein dairy cows at three intervals following calving. Samples were collected from 16 dairy cows housed in a dairy farm located in upstate New York. PCR-DGGE revealed a complex profile with extensive differences in the community structure. With few exceptions, clustering analysis grouped samples from cows presenting the same health status. Analysis of >65,000 high-quality 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the uterine bacterial consortia, regardless of the health status, is mainly composed of members of the phyla Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Tenericutes. In addition to these co-dominant phyla, sequences from Spirochaetes, Synergistetes, and Actinobacteria appear less frequently. It is possible that some sequences detected in the uterine fluid resulted from the presence of fecal or vaginal contaminants. Overall, the bacterial core community was different in uterine fluid of healthy cows, when compared to cows suffering from postpartum diseases, and the phylogenetic diversity in all the combined samples changed gradually over time. Particularly at the 34–36 days postpartum (DPP), the core community seemed to be specific for each health status. Our finding reveals that the uterine microbiota in dairy cows varies according with health status and DPP. Also, it adds further support to the hypothesis that there is uterine contamination with

  20. Differences during the first lactation between cows cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer and noncloned cows.

    PubMed

    Montazer-Torbati, F; Boutinaud, M; Brun, N; Richard, C; Neveu, A; Jaffrézic, F; Laloë, D; LeBourhis, D; Nguyen, M; Chadi, S; Jammes, H; Renard, J-P; Chat, S; Boukadiri, A; Devinoy, E

    2016-06-01

    Lactation performance is dependent on both the genetic characteristics and the environmental conditions surrounding lactating cows. However, individual variations can still be observed within a given breed under similar environmental conditions. The role of the environment between birth and lactation could be better appreciated in cloned cows, which are presumed to be genetically identical, but differences in lactation performance between cloned and noncloned cows first need to be clearly evaluated. Conflicting results have been described in the literature, so our aim was to clarify this situation. Nine cloned Prim' Holstein cows were produced by the transfer of nuclei from a single fibroblast cell line after cell fusion with enucleated oocytes. The cloned cows and 9 noncloned counterparts were raised under similar conditions. Milk production and composition were recorded monthly from calving until 200d in milk. At 67d in milk, biopsies were sampled from the rear quarter of the udder, their mammary epithelial cell content was evaluated, and mammary cell renewal, RNA, and DNA were then analyzed in relevant samples. The results showed that milk production did not differ significantly between cloned and noncloned cows, but milk protein and fat contents were less variable in cloned cows. Furthermore, milk fat yield and contents were lower in cloned cows during early lactation. At around 67 DIM, milk fat and protein yields, as well as milk fat, protein, and lactose contents, were also lower in cloned cows. These lower yields could be linked to the higher apoptotic rate observed in cloned cows. Apoptosis is triggered by insulin-like factor growth binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI), which both interact with CSN1S2. During our experiments, CSN1S2 transcript levels were lower in the mammary gland of cloned cows. The mammary cell apoptotic rate observed in cloned cows may have been related to the higher levels of DNA (cytosine-5

  1. Short-term energy restriction during late gestation of beef cows decreases postweaning calf humoral immune response to vaccination.

    PubMed

    Moriel, P; Piccolo, M B; Artioli, L F A; Marques, R S; Poore, M H; Cooke, R F

    2016-06-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate the pre- and postweaning growth and measurements of innate and humoral immune response of beef calves born to cows fed 70 or 100% of NEm requirements during the last 40 d of gestation. On d 0 (approximately 40 d before calving), 30 multiparous Angus cows pregnant to embryo transfer (BW = 631 ± 15 kg; age = 5.2 ± 0.98 yr; BCS = 6.3 ± 0.12) were randomly allocated into 1 of 10 drylot pens (3 cows/pen). Treatments were randomly assigned to pens (5 pens/treatment) and consisted of cows limit-fed (d 0 to calving) isonitrogenous, total-mixed diets formulated to provide 100 (CTRL) or 70% (REST) of daily NEm requirements of a 630-kg beef cow at 8 mo of gestation. Immediately after calving, all cow-calf pairs were combined into a single management group and rotationally grazed on tall fescue pastures (6 pastures; 22 ha/pasture) until weaning (d 266). All calves were assigned to a 40-d preconditioning period in a drylot from d 266 to 306 and vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), , and spp. on d 273 and 287. Blood samples from jugular vein were collected from cows on d 0, 17, and 35 and from calves within 12 h of birth and on d 266, 273, 274, 276, 279, and 287. By design, REST cows consumed less ( ≤ 0.002) total DMI, TDN, and NEm but had similar CP intake ( = 0.67), which tended ( = 0.06) to increase BW loss from d 0 to calving, than CTRL cows (-1.09 vs. -0.70 ± 0.14 kg/d, respectively). However, gestational NEm intake did not affect ( ≥ 0.30) plasma concentrations of cortisol, insulin, and glucose during gestation and BCS at calving as well as postcalving pregnancy rate, BW, and BCS change of cows. Calf serum IgG concentrations and plasma concentrations of haptoglobin and cortisol at birth as well as calf pre- and postweaning BW and ADG did not differ ( ≥ 0.15) between calves born to REST and CTRL cows. However, calf postweaning overall plasma concentrations of cortisol; plasma

  2. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells and asthma.

    PubMed

    Kabata, Hiroki; Moro, Kazuyo; Koyasu, Shigeo; Asano, Koichiro

    2015-07-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are recently identified cell populations that produce type 2 cytokines such as IL-5 and IL-13 in response to epithelial cell-derived cytokines. Although ILC2s were initially reported to play a key role in the anti-helminth innate immunity, we now have greater interest in their role in asthma and other allergic diseases. In various asthma mouse models, ILC2s provoke eosinophilic inflammation accompanied by airway hyperresponsiveness independent of acquired immunity. Moreover, recent mouse studies show that ILC2s also promote acquired immunity and Th2 polarization, and various cytokines and lipid mediators influence the functions of ILC2s. Although ILC2s have also been identified in humans, studies on the role of human ILC2s in asthma are very limited. Thus far, human studies have shown that there is a slight difference in responsiveness and production of cytokines between mouse and human ILC2s, and it has been suggested that ILC2s are involved in allergic-type asthma and the exacerbation of asthma. In this review, we focus on mouse and human ILC2s, and discuss their role in asthma. PMID:26117253

  3. Human Urinary Exosomes as Innate Immune Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Hiemstra, Thomas F.; Charles, Philip D.; Gracia, Tannia; Hester, Svenja S.; Gatto, Laurent; Al-Lamki, Rafia; Floto, R. Andres; Su, Ya; Skepper, Jeremy N.

    2014-01-01

    Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles, approximately 50 nm in diameter, derived from the endocytic pathway and released by a variety of cell types. Recent data indicate a spectrum of exosomal functions, including RNA transfer, antigen presentation, modulation of apoptosis, and shedding of obsolete protein. Exosomes derived from all nephron segments are also present in human urine, where their function is unknown. Although one report suggested in vitro uptake of exosomes by renal cortical collecting duct cells, most studies of human urinary exosomes have focused on biomarker discovery rather than exosome function. Here, we report results from in-depth proteomic analyses and EM showing that normal human urinary exosomes are significantly enriched for innate immune proteins that include antimicrobial proteins and peptides and bacterial and viral receptors. Urinary exosomes, but not the prevalent soluble urinary protein uromodulin (Tamm–Horsfall protein), potently inhibited growth of pathogenic and commensal Escherichia coli and induced bacterial lysis. Bacterial killing depended on exosome structural integrity and occurred optimally at the acidic pH typical of urine from omnivorous humans. Thus, exosomes are innate immune effectors that contribute to host defense within the urinary tract. PMID:24700864

  4. Innate immunomodulation to trypanosomatid parasite infections.

    PubMed

    Dos-Santos, A L A; Carvalho-Kelly, L F; Dick, C F; Meyer-Fernandes, J R

    2016-08-01

    The recognition of invading pathogens by the innate immune system is essential for host protection against human parasites and the initiation of an effective adaptive immune response. Innate immune cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are involved in the first line of defense against protozoan parasites via sensing the invaders through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Activation of macrophages and dendritic cells starts with the interaction between microbial ligands (pathogen-associated molecular patterns - PAMPs) and PRRs, and these activated cells influence the overall immune response. Trypanosomatid PAMPs are sensed by TLRs; for example, TLR2 recognizes alkylacylglycerol and lipophosphoglycan in Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania, respectively; TLR2/TLR4 recognize glycoisnositolphospholipids and glycosylphosphatidyl inositol in Trypanosoma species; and TLR9 recognizes genomic DNA in Trypanosoma. TLR signaling includes the recruitment of different adaptor molecules that activate various transcription factors, such as NF-kB, IRF3/7, and MAP kinases, to induce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and type I interferons. Moreover, activated macrophages and dendritic cells produce ROS and NOS, which limit pathogen survival, and large amounts of cytokines; additionally, antigen presentation enhances the adaptive immune response. In this review, we highlight the recent findings on PAMP recognition in trypanosomatid infections and the signaling pathways activated by PRRs. PMID:27223816

  5. Innate cation sensitivity in a semiconducting polymer.

    PubMed

    Althagafi, Talal M; Algarni, Saud A; Grell, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Water-gated organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) using the hole transporting semiconducting polymer, poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (PBTTT), show an innate response of their threshold voltage to the addition of divalent metal cations to the gating water, without deliberately introducing an ion-sensitive component. A similar threshold response is shown for several divalent cations, but is absent for monovalent cations. Response is absent for transistors using the inorganic semiconductor ZnO, or the similar organic semiconductor poly(3-hexylthiophene) (rrP3HT), instead of PBTTT. We assign innate cation sensitivity to residues of the organometallic Pd(0) complex used as catalyst in PBTTT synthesis which bears strong resemblance to typical metal chelating agents. Organometallic Pd(0) residues are absent from ZnO, and also from rrP3HT which is polymerised with a different type of catalyst. However, when Pd(0) complex is deliberately added to rrP3HT casting solutions, resulting OTFTs also display threshold response to a divalent cation. PMID:27343580

  6. Relationships between Circulating Urea Concentrations and Endometrial Function in Postpartum Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhangrui; Oguejiofor, Chike F.; Swangchan-Uthai, Theerawat; Carr, Susan; Wathes, D. Claire

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Dairy cows fed high levels of protein to increase milk yield tend to have reduced fertility but the reasons behind this are unclear. Differing dietary protein levels are reflected in altered urea concentrations in both blood and other tissues including the uterus. We showed that the circulating urea concentration was highly correlated to changed expression levels of many genes in the endometrium shortly after calving. These were predominantly associated with tissue repair, innate immunity and lipid metabolism. A subsequent study found no effect of altered urea concentration on endometrial gene expression in vitro implying that the dietary influence is indirect. Abstract Both high and low circulating urea concentrations, a product of protein metabolism, are associated with decreased fertility in dairy cows through poorly defined mechanisms. The rate of involution and the endometrial ability to mount an adequate innate immune response after calving are both critical for subsequent fertility. Study 1 used microarray analysis to identify genes whose endometrial expression 2 weeks postpartum correlated significantly with the mean plasma urea per cow, ranging from 3.2 to 6.6 mmol/L. The biological functions of 781 mapped genes were analysed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. These were predominantly associated with tissue turnover (e.g., BRINP1, FOXG1), immune function (e.g., IL17RB, CRISPLD2), inflammation (e.g., C3, SERPINF1, SERPINF2) and lipid metabolism (e.g., SCAP, ACBD5, SLC10A). Study 2 investigated the relationship between urea concentration and expression of 6 candidate genes (S100A8, HSP5A, IGF1R, IL17RB, BRINP1, CRISPLD2) in bovine endometrial cell culture. These were treated with 0, 2.5, 5.0 or 7.5 mmol/L urea, equivalent to low, medium and high circulating values with or without challenge by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS increased S100A8 expression as expected but urea treatment had no effect on expression of any tested gene

  7. Prepartum and Postpartum Rumen Fluid Microbiomes: Characterization and Correlation with Production Traits in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Fabio S.; Oikonomou, Georgios; Lima, Svetlana F.; Bicalho, Marcela L. S.; Ganda, Erika K.; de Oliveira Filho, Jose C.; Lorenzo, Gustavo; Trojacanec, Plamen

    2014-01-01

    Microbes present in the rumen of dairy cows are essential for degradation of cellulosic and nonstructural carbohydrates of plant origin. The prepartum and postpartum diets of high-producing dairy cows are substantially different, but in what ways the rumen microbiome changes in response and how those changes may influence production traits are not well elucidated. Here, we sequenced the 16S and 18S rRNA genes using the MiSeq platform to characterize the prepartum and postpartum rumen fluid microbiomes in 115 high-producing dairy cows, including both primiparous and multiparous animals. Discriminant analysis identified differences between the microbiomes of prepartum and postpartum samples and between primiparous and multiparous cows. 18S rRNA sequencing revealed an overwhelming dominance of the protozoan class Litostomatea, with over 90% of the eukaryotic microbial population belonging to that group. Additionally, fungi were relatively more prevalent and Litostomatea relatively less prevalent in prepartum samples than in postpartum ones. The core rumen microbiome (common to all samples) consisted of 64 bacterial taxa, of which members of the genus Prevotella were the most prevalent. The Chao1 richness index was greater for prepartum multiparous cows than for postpartum multiparous cows. Multivariable models identified bacterial taxa associated with increased or reduced milk production, and general linear models revealed that a metagenomically based prediction of productivity is highly associated with production of actual milk and milk components. In conclusion, the structure of the rumen fluid microbiome shifts between the prepartum and first-week postpartum periods, and its profile within the context of this study could be used to accurately predict production traits. PMID:25501481

  8. Characterization of the Vaginal Microbiota of Ewes and Cows Reveals a Unique Microbiota with Low Levels of Lactobacilli and Near-Neutral pH

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Jeffrey D.; Lachman, Medora; Westveer, Kelsey; O’Neill, Thomas; Geary, Thomas; Kott, Rodney W.; Berardinelli, James G.; Hatfield, Patrick G.; Thomson, Jennifer M.; Roberts, Andy; Yeoman, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of common reproductive disorders in livestock involve bacterial infection, very little is known about their normal vaginal microbiota. Therefore, we sought to determine the species composition of sheep and cattle vaginal microbiota. Twenty Rambouillet ewes and twenty crossbred cows varying in age and reproductive status were sampled by ectocervicovaginal lavage. We amplified and sequenced the V3–V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) contents yielding a total of 907,667 high-quality reads. Good’s Coverage estimates indicated that we obtained data on 98 ± 0.01% of the total microbial genera present in each sample. Cow and ewe vaginal microbiota displayed few differences. Cow microbiota exhibited greater (P ≤ 0.05) α-diversity compared to the ewe microbiota. Both livestock species differed (P ≤ 0.05) from all previously reported vaginal communities. While bacteria were numerically dominant, Archaea were detected in 95% of cow and ewe samples, mainly of the order Desulfurococcales. Both ewes and cows were predominately colonized by the bacterial phyla Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, and Proteobacteria. The most abundant genera were Aggregatibacter spp., and Streptobacillus spp. Lactobacillus spp. were detected in 80% of ewe and 90% of cow samples, but only at very low abundances. Bacteria previously described from culture-based studies as common to the cow and ewe vaginal tract, except for Escherichia, were variably present, and only in low abundance. Ewe and cow pH differed (P ≤ 0.05), with means (±SD) of 6.7 ± 0.38 and 7.3 ± 0.63, respectively. In conclusion, 16S rRNA sequencing of cow and ewe vaginal ectocervicovaginal lavages showed that cow and ewe vaginal microbiota differ from culture-led results, revealing a microbiota distinct from previously described vaginal ecosystems. PMID:26664918

  9. Thermophoretically Dominated Aerosol Coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosner, Daniel E.; Arias-Zugasti, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    A theory of aerosol coagulation due to size-dependent thermophoresis is presented. This previously overlooked effect is important when local temperature gradients are large, the sol population is composed of particles of much greater thermal conductivity than the carrier gas, with mean diameters much greater than the prevailing gas mean free path, and an adequate “spread” in sizes (as in metallurgical mists or fumes). We illustrate this via a population-balance analysis of the evolution of an initially log-normal distribution when this mechanism dominates ordinary Brownian diffusion.

  10. Peripartum heart disease in cows.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, N; Okada, H; Koiwa, M; Kudo, K; Matsuo, N; Naito, Y

    1995-11-01

    Thirteen Holstein dairy cows aged 5.1-10.6 years died or were killed as a result of severe illness during the peripartum period, associated with lateral recumbency, moaning, tachycardia and dyspnoea. They were all high milk producers (> 9000 kg/year) and had experienced at least three pregnancies. The average duration of the clinical course was 2.5 +/- 1.7 days. Electro-cardiography revealed marked tachycardia associated with atrial fibrillation or atrioventricular dissociation. Serum clinical chemistry showed severe hypocalcaemia (3.6 +/- 1.3 mg/dl) and at necropsy multifocal myocardial necrosis was invariably found. Myocardial necrosis was accompanied by neutrophilic and mononuclear cellular infiltrates with interstitial fibrosis. The cause of this lesion was not established. PMID:8746959

  11. Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Uchida, Mona; Tomioka, Michiko; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreased until the waning crescent phase. There was a statistically significant peak between the waxing gibbous and full moon phases compared with those between the last quarter and the waning crescent. These changes were clearly observed in deliveries among multiparous cows, whereas they were not evident in deliveries among nulliparous cows. These data suggest the utility of dairy cows as models for bio-meteorological studies, and indicate that monitoring lunar phases may facilitate comprehensive understanding of parturition. PMID:27580019

  12. Marine worms (genus Osedax) colonize cow bones

    PubMed Central

    Jones, William J; Johnson, Shannon B; Rouse, Greg W; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax colonized and grew on cow bones deployed at depths ranging from 385 to 2893 m in Monterey Bay, California. Colonization occurred as rapidly as two months following deployment of the cow bones, similar to the time it takes to colonize exposed whalebones. Some Osedax females found on the cow bones were producing eggs and some hosted dwarf males in their tubes. Morphological and molecular examinations of these worms confirmed the presence of six Osedax species, out of the eight species presently known from Monterey Bay. The ability of Osedax species to colonize, grow and reproduce on cow bones challenges previous notions that these worms are ‘whale-fall specialists.’ PMID:18077256

  13. Synchronization of ovulation in beef cows (Bos indicus) using GnRH, PGF2alpha and estradiol benzoate.

    PubMed

    Barros, C M; Moreira, M B; Figueiredo, R A; Teixeira, A B; Trinca, L A

    2000-03-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate protocols for synchronizing ovulation in beef cattle. In Experiment 1, Nelore cows (Bos indicus) at random stages of the estrous cycle were assigned to 1 of the following treatments: Group GP controls (nonlactating, n=7) received GnRH agonist (Day 0) and PGF2alpha (Day 7); while Groups GPG (nonlactating, n=8) and GPG-L (lactating, n=9) cows were given GnRH (Day 0), PGF2alpha (Day 7) and GnRH again (Day 8, 30 h after PGF2alpha). A new follicular wave was observed 1.79+/-0.34 d after GnRH in 19/24 cows. After PGF2alpha, ovulation occurred in 19/24 cows (6/7 GP, 6/8 GPG, 7/9 GPG-L). Most cows (83.3%) exhibited a dominant follicle just before PGF2alpha, and 17/19 ovulatory follicles were from a new follicular wave. There was a more precise synchrony of ovulation (within 12 h) in cows that received a second dose of GnRH (GPG and GPG-L) than controls (GP, ovulation within 48 h; P<0.01). In Experiment 2, lactating Nelore cows with a visible corpus luteum (CL) by ultrasonography were allocated to 2 treatments: Group GPE (n=10) received GnRH agonist (Day 0), PGF2alpha (Day 7) and estradiol benzoate (EB; Day 8, 24 h after PGF2alpha); while Group EPE (n=11), received EB (Day 0), PGF2alpha (Day 9) and EB (Day 10, 24 h after PGF2alpha). Emergence of a new follicular wave was observed 1.6+/-0.31 d after GnRH (Group GPE). After EB injection (Day 8) ovulation was observed at 45.38+/-2.03 h in 7/10 cows within 12 h. In Group EPE the emergence of a new follicular wave was observed later (4.36+/-0.31 d) than in Group GEP (1.6+/-0.31 d; P<0.001). After the second EB injection (Day 10) ovulation was observed at 44.16+/-2.21 h within 12 (7/11 cows) or 18 h (8/11 cows). All 3 treatments were effective in synchronizing ovulation in beef cows. However, GPE and, particularly, EPE treatments offer a promising alternative to the GPG protocol in timed artificial insemination of beef cattle, due to the low cost of EB compared with GnRH agonists. PMID

  14. Mustard bran in lactating dairy cow diets.

    PubMed

    Maiga, H A; Bauer, M L; Dahlen, C R; Badaruddin, M; Scholljegerdes, E J

    2011-06-01

    Two trials using lactating Holstein cows were conducted to evaluate effects of a diet containing oriental mustard bran on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk components, and organoleptic properties. In experiment 1, 34 lactating cows (24 multiparous and 10 primiparous; days in milk ≥ 50 d) were used in a switchback design to determine the lactational response and organoleptic quality of milk when the diet contained 8% oriental mustard bran (MB) versus a control diet (CON). Mustard bran replaced a portion of soybean meal and all the beet pulp in the CON diet. Milk yields were greater for cows fed the MB diet; however, no differences were found in DMI, 3.5% fat- (FCM) or solids-corrected milk. Milk components and components production were not affected by treatment. Milk organoleptic qualities were not affected by diet. In experiment 2, 22 lactating cows (16 multiparous and 6 primiparous; days in milk ≥ 21 d) were assigned randomly within parity to receive MB or CON from wk 4 to 19 postpartum in a randomized complete block design. Cows were fed CON wk 1 to 3 postpartum. The MB diet contained the same ingredients as the CON, except sunflower seed and a portion of soybean meal were replaced with mustard bran. Milk and components data were collected during wk 3 postpartum and used as covariates to adjust treatment means. Intake was greater for cows fed the MB diet; however, daily milk, 3.5% FCM, and solids-corrected milk yields were not different between diets. Milk components and component yields were not affected by treatment. Milk urea concentration was less for cows fed the MB diet. Although cows fed the MB diet had greater DMI, this was not translated into a higher milk 3.5% FCM/DMI production efficiency ratio. During experiment 2, many cows fed MB experienced minor to severe hemolysis with bloody urine. This hemolysis believed to be caused by the S-methyl-cysteine sulfoxide contained in mustard bran could have affected milk production efficiency

  15. Ovarian function in Nelore (Bos taurus indicus) cows after post-ovulation hormonal treatments.

    PubMed

    Machado, R; Bergamaschi, M A C M; Barbosa, R T; de Oliveira, C A; Binelli, M

    2008-04-15

    Maternal recognition of pregnancy in the cow requires successful signaling by the conceptus to block luteolysis. Conceptus growth and function depend on an optimal uterine environment, regulated by luteal progesterone. The objective of this study was to test strategies to optimize luteal function, as well as prevent a dominant follicle from initiating luteolysis. Nelore (Bos taurus indicus) beef cows (n=40) were submitted to a GnRH/PGF(2alpha)/GnRH protocol. Cows that ovulated from a dominant ovarian follicle (ovulation=Day 0) were allocated to receive: no additional treatment (G(C); n=7); 3000IU of hCG on Day 5 (G(hCG); n=5); 5mg of estradiol-17beta on Day 12 (G(E2); n=6); or 3000IU of hCG on Day 5 and 5mg of estradiol-17beta on Day 12 (G(hCG/E2); n=5). Ultrasonographic imaging of the ovaries, assessment of plasma progesterone concentration, and detection of estrus were done daily from Day 5 to the day of subsequent ovulation. Treatment with hCG induced an accessory CL, increased CL volume, and plasma progesterone concentration throughout the luteal phase (P<0.01). Estradiol-17beta induced atresia and recruitment of a new wave of follicular growth; it eliminated a potentially estrogen-active, growing ovarian follicle within the critical period for maternal recognition of pregnancy, but it also hastened luteolysis (Days 16 or 17 vs. Days 18 or 19 in non-treated cows). In conclusion, the approaches tested enhanced luteal function (hCG) and altered ovarian follicular dynamics (estradiol-17beta), but were unable to extend the life-span of the CL in Nelore cows. PMID:18336896

  16. Oral calcium supplementation in peripartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Oetzel, Garrett R

    2013-07-01

    Hypocalcemia in dairy cattle around parturition can be manifest as clinical milk fever or subclinical hypocalcemia. Subclinical hypocalcemia has the greatest economic effect because it affects a much higher proportion of cows. Oral calcium supplements are used to mitigate the effects of both forms of hypocalcemia. Oral calcium supplements are appropriate for cows displaying early clinical signs of hypocalcemia and prophylactically to lessen the negative impacts of hypocalcemia. PMID:23809900

  17. Innate immunity and the normal microflora.

    PubMed

    Boman, H G

    2000-02-01

    This paper discusses the following ten subtitles with the contents indicated. 1. To meet a microbe: discusses the four alternatives in host-microbe interactions. 2. Receptors and signal transduction giving gene activation: discusses the lipopolysaccharide receptor and the limitations of cell cultures versus use of live animals. 3. Effector molecules--antimicrobial peptides with and without cysteines. A data base exists with over 500 sequences. This paper gives a general overview of five classes of gene-encoded effector molecules, based on the absence or presence of cysteines. These molecules are peptide antibiotics with wide spectra against different microbes. They are synthesized as propeptides and post-translational modifications are common. 4. Effectors of innate immunity--lethal action without host damage: evaluates current opinions about the mode of action of peptide antibiotics and the fact that these effectors do not create host damage. 5. Genes, introns and movable elements. Two cecropin genes containing movable elements and the human cathelicidin gene for proFALL-39/hCAP18 are discussed. 6. The natural microflora. Hippos or frogs as model systems. This section includes the isolation of bacteria from the normal flora of frogs; Aeromonas hydrophila, the bacterium found on all five frog species studied; arguments and selected examples of frog-microbe interactions in vivo and in vitro; and the use of glucocorticoids as control for nuclear factor-kappa B/I kappa B alpha regulation of effector genes. 7. The use of germ-free mice--hard facts from hard work: summarizes new findings which indicate that germ-free mice are born with a set of antibacterial peptides in their small intestine. The intestine of germ-free mice monoinfected with A. hydrophila have peptide patterns that differ depending on a pretreatment with cortisone. 8. Looking back--an evolutionary perspective on innate immunity: arguments for an early evolutionary need for gene-encoded antibacterial

  18. Role of α-synuclein in inducing innate and adaptive immunity in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Allen Reish, Heather E.; Standaert, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is central to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). Gene duplications, triplications and point mutations in SNCA1, the gene encoding α-syn, cause autosomal dominant forms of PD. Aggregated and post-translationally modified forms of α-syn are present in Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites in both sporadic and familial PD, and recent work has emphasized the prion-like ability of aggregated α-syn to produce spreading pathology. Accumulation of abnormal forms of α-syn is a trigger for PD, but recent evidence suggests that much of the downstream neurodegeneration may result from inflammatory responses. Components of both the innate and adaptive immune systems are activated in PD, and influencing interactions between innate and adaptive immune components has been shown to modify the pathological process in animal models of PD. Understanding the relationship between α-syn and subsequent inflammation may reveal novel targets for neuroprotective interventions. In this review, we examine the role of α-syn and modified forms of this protein in the initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:25588354

  19. Innatism, Concept Formation, Concept Mastery and Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winch, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This article will consider the claim that the possession of concepts is innate rather than learned. Innatism about concept learning is explained through consideration of the work of Fodor and Chomsky. First, an account of concept formation is developed. Second the argument against the claim that concepts are learned through the construction of a…

  20. Evolutionary responses of innate Immunity to adaptive immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Innate immunity is present in all metazoans, whereas the evolutionarily more novel adaptive immunity is limited to jawed fishes and their descendants (gnathostomes). We observe that the organisms that possess adaptive immunity lack diversity in their innate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), rais...

  1. Four Pathways Involving Innate Immunity in the Pathogenesis of Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Bounds, Kelsey R.; Newell-Rogers, M. Karen; Mitchell, Brett M.

    2015-01-01

    The maternal innate immune system plays an important role both in normal pregnancy as well as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy including preeclampsia (PE). We propose four pathways that involve excessive innate immunity that lead to most forms of PE. Pre-existing endothelial dysfunction plus pregnancy leads to an excessive innate immune response resulting in widespread inflammation, placental and renal dysfunction, vasoconstriction, and PE. Placental dysfunction due to shallow trophoblast invasion, inadequate spiral artery remodeling, and/or low placental perfusion initiates an innate immune response leading to excessive inflammation, endothelial and renal dysfunction, and PE. A heightened innate immune system due to pre-existing or acquired infections plus the presence of a paternally derived placenta and semi-allogeneic fetus cause an excessive innate immune response which manifests as PE. Lastly, an abnormal and excessive maternal immune response to pregnancy leads to widespread inflammation, organ dysfunction, and PE. We discuss the potential role of innate immunity in each of these scenarios, as well as the overlap, and how targeting the innate immune system might lead to therapies for the treatment of PE. PMID:26664892

  2. Innate resistance to avian influenza: Of MHC's and Mx proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is an economically important virus of poultry that has significant impact on global trade. Recently, increased attention to animal genomics has been applied to enhance innate resistance to infectious diseases in poultry. Two known contributors to innate resistance are the host m...

  3. Innate B Cells Tell ILC How It's Done.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trang T T; Baumgarth, Nicole

    2016-07-19

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are known as first responders to infections and as instructors of subsequent CD4(+) T cell cytokine profiles. In this issue of Immunity, Fan and colleagues now demonstrate that even earlier responding innate-like B cells (NKB) induce these protective ILC responses. PMID:27438761

  4. Rings dominate western Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal L., Francisco V.; Vidal L., Victor M. V.; Molero, José María Pérez

    Surface and deep circulation of the central and western Gulf of Mexico is controlled by interactions of rings of water pinched from the gulf's Loop Current. The discovery was made by Mexican oceanographers who are preparing a full-color, 8-volume oceanographic atlas of the gulf.Anticyclonic warm-core rings pinch off the Loop Current at a rate of about one to two per year, the scientists of the Grupo de Estudios Oceanográficos of the Instituto de Investigaciones Eléctricas (GEO-IIE) found. The rings migrate west until they collide with the continental shelf break of the western gulf, almost always between 22° and 23°N latitude. On their westward travel they transfer angular momentum and vorticity to the surrounding water, generating cyclonic circulations and vortex pairs that completely dominate the entire surface and deep circulation of the central and western gulf.

  5. Frequency of wet brewers grains supplementation during late gestation of beef cows and its effects on offspring postnatal growth and immunity.

    PubMed

    Moriel, P; Artioli, L F A; Piccolo, M B; Marques, R S; Poore, M H; Cooke, R F

    2016-06-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate postnatal growth and measurements of innate and humoral immunity of beef calves born to dams fed wet brewers grains (WBG) daily or 3 times weekly during late gestation. On d 0 (approximately 60 d before calving), 28 multiparous, spring-calving Angus cows (BW = 578 ± 19 kg; age = 4.7 ± 0.65 yr; BCS = 7.0 ± 0.18) were stratified by sire, age, BW, and BCS and then randomly allocated into 1 of 14 drylot pens (2 cows/pen; 18 by 3 m; 27 m/cow). Cows were offered ground tall fescue hay ad libitum and received similar weekly WBG supplementation (DMI = 0.5% of BW multiplied by 7 d). Treatments were randomly assigned to pens (7 pens/treatment) and consisted of cows receiving WBG supplementation daily (S7; weekly DMI of WBG divided by 7 d) or 3 times weekly (S3; weekly DMI of WBG divided by 3 d; Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays) from d 0 until calving. Cow-calf pairs were managed as a single group on tall fescue pastures from calving to weaning (d 226). Calves were immediately submitted to a preconditioning period from d 226 to 266 and vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, , and on d 231 and 245. Decreasing the frequency of WBG supplementation did not impact ( ≥ 0.21) precalving intake of total DM, CP, and TDN; BW and BCS change; overall plasma cortisol concentrations; and postcalving growth and pregnancy rate of cows. Overall plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin did not differ ( ≥ 0.28) between S3 and S7 cows, whereas S3 cows had greater ( = 0.002) plasma glucose concentrations and tended ( = 0.06) to have greater plasma insulin concentrations on days they were not fed WBG vs. days of WBG supplementation. Calf plasma concentrations of haptoglobin and cortisol at birth but not serum IgG ( = 0.63) tended ( = 0.10) to be greater for S3 vs. S7 calves. However, additional calf growth and immunity variables obtained during pre- and postweaning phases did not differ between S3 and S7 calves

  6. Endocannabinoid signalling in innate and adaptive immunity

    PubMed Central

    Chiurchiù, Valerio; Battistini, Luca; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    The immune system can be modulated and regulated not only by foreign antigens but also by other humoral factors and metabolic products, which are able to affect several quantitative and qualitative aspects of immunity. Among these, endocannabinoids are a group of bioactive lipids that might serve as secondary modulators, which when mobilized coincident with or shortly after first-line immune modulators, increase or decrease many immune functions. Most immune cells express these bioactive lipids, together with their set of receptors and of enzymes regulating their synthesis and degradation. In this review, a synopsis of the manifold immunomodulatory effects of endocannabinoids and their signalling in the different cell populations of innate and adaptive immunity is appointed, with a particular distinction between mice and human immune system compartments. PMID:25585882

  7. Innateness, evolution, and genetics of language.

    PubMed

    Ganger, J; Stromswold, K

    1998-04-01

    Our goal in this article is to review a debate over the evolution of language and to suggest some keys to its resolution. We begin with a review of some of the theoretical and empirical evidence for the innateness of language that has caused renewed interest in the evolution of language. In a second section we review some prominent theories of the evolution of language, focusing on the controversy over whether language could have been adapted for some purpose. We argue that for evolutionary studies of language to advance, theorists must make more persuasive arguments for the purpose of language, and, furthermore, linguists must continue to develop a detailed theory of syntax. Finally, we suggest ways that behavioral and population genetics could help to inform studies of the evolution of language. PMID:9549236

  8. Innate immune evasion strategies of influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Benjamin G; Albrecht, Randy A; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2010-01-01

    Influenza viruses are globally important human respiratory pathogens. These viruses cause seasonal epidemics and occasional worldwide pandemics, both of which can vary significantly in disease severity. The virulence of a particular influenza virus strain is partly determined by its success in circumventing the host immune response. This article briefly reviews the innate mechanisms that host cells have evolved to resist virus infection, and outlines the plethora of strategies that influenza viruses have developed in order to counteract such powerful defences. The molecular details of this virus–host interplay are summarized, and the ways in which research in this area is being applied to the rational design of protective vaccines and novel antivirals are discussed. PMID:20020828

  9. Ocular Surface as Barrier of Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Bolaños-Jiménez, Rodrigo; Navas, Alejandro; López-Lizárraga, Erika Paulina; de Ribot, Francesc March; Peña, Alexandra; Graue-Hernández, Enrique O; Garfias, Yonathan

    2015-01-01

    Sight is one of the most important senses that human beings possess. The ocular system is a complex structure equipped with mechanisms that prevent or limit damage caused by physical, chemical, infectious and environmental factors. These mechanisms include a series of anatomical, cellular and humoral factors that have been a matter of study. The cornea is not only the most powerful and important lens of the optical system, but also, it has been involved in many other physiological and pathological processes apart from its refractive nature; the morphological and histological properties of the cornea have been thoroughly studied for the last fifty years; drawing attention in its molecular characteristics of immune response. This paper will review the anatomical and physiological aspects of the cornea, conjunctiva and lacrimal apparatus, as well as the innate immunity at the ocular surface. PMID:26161163

  10. Innate intersubjectivity: newborns' sensitivity to communication disturbance.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Emese

    2008-11-01

    In most of our social life we communicate and relate to others. Successful interpersonal relating is crucial to physical and mental well-being and growth. This study, using the still-face paradigm, demonstrates that even human neonates (n = 90, 3-96 hr after birth) adjust their behavior according to the social responsiveness of their interaction partner. If the interaction partner becomes unresponsive, newborns will also change their behavior, decrease eye contact, and display signs of distress. Even after the interaction partner resumes responsiveness, the effects of the communication disturbance persist as a spillover. These results indicate that even newborn infants sensitively monitor the behavior of others and react as if they had innate expectations regarding rules of interpersonal interaction. PMID:18999338