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Coxsackie A virus-associated herpetiform angina.  


Virological investigations were performed in 25 herpangina cases that occurred in a large urban centre in the summer season of 1982. Twelve Coxsackie A virus strains (10 Coxsackie A5 strains, one Coxsackie A4 and one Coxsackie A6 strain) could be isolated from 9 (36.0%) of the patients. PMID:6324449

Zavate, O; Avram, G; Pavlov, E; Burlea-Iriciuc, A; Ivan, A; Cotor, F



Coxsackie B3 virus: an unusual cause of unilateral mediastinal nodal enlargement.  


We report on a patient with febrile illness, right unilateral paratracheal widening, pulmonary infiltrates, pleural effusions, exanthema and diarrhea. The right paratracheal widening was due to lymph node enlargement confirmed by CT scan. Symptoms disappeared subsequently without specific treatment. On the basis of serological tests, we are able to diagnose a coxsackie B3 virus infection. No previous case report of unilateral mediastinal nodal enlargement contemporary to a coxsackie B3 virus infection was found in our review of the literature. PMID:2845536

Gris, P; Perlot, I; Flemale, A; Delmez, J P; Dierckx, J P



RNA Recombination Plays a Major Role in Genomic Change during Circulation of Coxsackie B Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA recombination has been shown to occur during circulation of enteroviruses, but most studies have focused on poliovirus. To examine the role of recombination in the evolution of the coxsackie B viruses (CVB), we determined the partial sequences of four genomic intervals for multiple clinical isolates of each of the six CVB serotypes isolated from 1970 to 1996. The regions

M. Steven Oberste; Silvia Penaranda; Mark A. Pallansch



Recombination between Polioviruses and Co-Circulating Coxsackie A Viruses: Role in the Emergence of Pathogenic  

E-print Network

1 Recombination between Polioviruses and Co-Circulating Coxsackie A Viruses: Role in the Emergence. Most cVDPVs were recombinants of mutated poliovaccine strains and other unidentified enteroviruses of this study was to investigate whether these CA17 isolates can act as recombination partners of poliovirus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de



PubMed Central

A series of embryonated eggs incubated from 6 to 18 days have been successfully infected by yolk sac inoculation with a strain of group A Coxsackie virus. The resulting pathologic changes are here described. The principal lesion consisted of widespread acute necrosis of striated muscle, apparently essentially identical in type and development with that characteristically produced by the virus in suckling mice. The infection was not itself lethal; some embryos with virtually complete destruction of skeletal muscle were found alive. The older the embryo at the time of inoculation, the less the severity and extent of the lesions; but susceptibility was sometimes not entirely lost in embryos 18 days old. Two embryos inoculated at this time hatched and lived for 4 and 11 days respectively. One showed minimal specific muscle lesions, and the other only some irregularity in muscle fiber size. The lessening of severity of the lesions was especially marked and abrupt in embryos inoculated on the 10th and the 12th day of incubation. In addition to the muscle lesions characteristic of infection with group A Coxsackie virus, there were regularly present in the more immature embryos extensive necrosis of epidermis and feathers and degeneration of feather follicles, believed to be probably a direct dermotropic effect of the virus infection. Other visceral lesions, chiefly liver necrosis, were occasionally observed but seemed not to have been due to direct virus action. As in suckling mice infected with group A Coxsackie virus, no lesions were observed in the central or peripheral nervous system nor in the heart muscle. No lesions deemed specific were seen in the few specimens of chorioallantoic membranes examined. PMID:14946325

Peers, James H.; Ransom, Sara E.; Huebner, Robert J.



Immunopathology of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. The demonstration of Coxsackie group B viral antigen in the myocardium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Immunopathologic studies were performed on heart tissue of patients with acute rheumatic fever with carditis and chronic rheumatic heart disease. Coxsackie group B viral antigen was demonstrated in 3 heart specimens of patients clinically compatible with active rheumatic fever. In two of these the pathologic findings were compatible with acute rheumatic carditis. Immunoglobulin was detected in 2 and complement in

B. Pongpanich; S. Boonpucknavig; C. Wasi; P. Tanphaichitr; V. Boonpucknavig




EPA Science Inventory

A seroepidemiological study was conducted to measure the antibody prevalence for eight different enteric viruses. These include seven 'classical' enteroviruses, ie, Coxsackie virus types A9, B1, B3, B4 and three ECHO virus types 4,7, and 9, as well as hepatitis A virus (HAV), rec...



EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of this research are to improve on the current analytical methods for quantitative detection of infective coxsackie and echo viruses in drinking water. The specific objectives of this research are to: (1) Improve the sensitivity and specificity of IMS-PCR for in...


The Interferon Inducer Ampligen [Poly(I)Poly(C12U)] Markedly Protects Mice against Coxsackie B3 Virus-Induced Myocarditis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral replication, as well as an immunopathological component, is assumed to be involved in coxsackie B virus-induced myocarditis. We evaluated the efficacy of the interferon inducer Ampligen on coxsackie B3 virus-induced myocarditis in C3H\\/HeNHsd mice. The efficacy of Ampligen was compared with that of the interferon inducer poly(inosinic acid)-poly(cytidylic acid) (poly(IC)), alpha interferon 2b (INTRON A), and pegylated alpha interferon

Elizaveta Padalko; Dieter Nuyens; Armando De Palma; Erik Verbeken; Joeri L. Aerts; Erik De Clercq; Peter Carmeliet; Johan Neyts



Coxsackie B4 virus infection of ? cells and natural killer cell insulitis in recent-onset type 1 diabetic patients  

PubMed Central

Type 1 diabetes is characterized by T cell-mediated autoimmune destruction of pancreatic ? cells. Several studies have suggested an association between Coxsackie enterovirus seroconversion and onset of disease. However, a direct link between ? cell viral infection and islet inflammation has not been established. We analyzed pancreatic tissue from six type 1 diabetic and 26 control organ donors. Immunohistochemical, electron microscopy, whole-genome ex vivo nucleotide sequencing, cell culture, and immunological studies demonstrated Coxsackie B4 enterovirus in specimens from three of the six diabetic patients. Infection was specific of ? cells, which showed nondestructive islet inflammation mediated mainly by natural killer cells. Islets from enterovirus-positive samples displayed reduced insulin secretion in response to glucose and other secretagogues. In addition, virus extracted from positive islets was able to infect ? cells from human islets of nondiabetic donors, causing viral inclusions and signs of pyknosis. None of the control organ donors showed signs of viral infection. These studies provide direct evidence that enterovirus can infect ? cells in patients with type 1 diabetes and that infection is associated with inflammation and functional impairment. PMID:17360338

Dotta, Francesco; Censini, Stefano; van Halteren, Astrid G. S.; Marselli, Lorella; Masini, Matilde; Dionisi, Sabrina; Mosca, Franco; Boggi, Ugo; Muda, Andrea Onetti; Prato, Stefano Del; Elliott, John F.; Covacci, Antonello; Rappuoli, Rino; Roep, Bart O.; Marchetti, Piero



ZEB1 limits adenoviral infectability by transcriptionally repressing the Coxsackie virus and Adenovirus Receptor  

PubMed Central

Background We have previously reported that RAS-MEK (Cancer Res. 2003 May 1;63(9):2088-95) and TGF-? (Cancer Res. 2006 Feb 1;66(3):1648-57) signaling negatively regulate coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) cell-surface expression and adenovirus uptake. In the case of TGF-?, down-regulation of CAR occurred in context of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process associated with transcriptional repression of E-cadherin by, for instance, the E2 box-binding factors Snail, Slug, SIP1 or ZEB1. While EMT is crucial in embryonic development, it has been proposed to contribute to the formation of invasive and metastatic carcinomas by reducing cell-cell contacts and increasing cell migration. Results Here, we show that ZEB1 represses CAR expression in both PANC-1 (pancreatic) and MDA-MB-231 (breast) human cancer cells. We demonstrate that ZEB1 physically associates with at least one of two closely spaced and conserved E2 boxes within the minimal CAR promoter here defined as genomic region -291 to -1 relative to the translational start ATG. In agreement with ZEB1's established role as a negative regulator of the epithelial phenotype, silencing its expression in MDA-MB-231 cells induced a partial Mesenchymal-to-Epithelial Transition (MET) characterized by increased levels of E-cadherin and CAR, and decreased expression of fibronectin. Conversely, knockdown of ZEB1 in PANC-1 cells antagonized both the TGF-?-induced down-regulation of E-cadherin and CAR and the reduction of adenovirus uptake. Interestingly, even though ZEB1 clearly contributes to the TGF-?-induced mesenchymal phenotype of PANC-1 cells, TGF-? did not seem to affect ZEB1's protein levels or subcellular localization. These findings suggest that TGF-? may inhibit CAR expression by regulating factor(s) that cooperate with ZEB1 to repress the CAR promoter, rather than by regulating ZEB1 expression levels. In addition to the negative E2 box-mediated regulation the minimal CAR promoter is positively regulated through conserved ETS and CRE elements. Conclusions This report provides evidence that inhibition of ZEB1 may improve adenovirus uptake of cancer cells that have undergone EMT and for which ZEB1 is necessary to maintain the mesenchymal phenotype. Targeting of ZEB1 may reverse some aspects of EMT including the down-regulation of CAR. PMID:21791114



Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a modifier of cardiac conduction and arrhythmia vulnerability in the setting of myocardial ischemia  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the modulatory effect of the Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) on ventricular conduction and arrhythmia vulnerability in the setting of myocardial ischemia. Background A heritable component in risk for ventricular fibrillation (VF) during myocardial infarction (MI) has been well established. A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) for VF during acute MI has led to the identification of a locus on chromosome 21q21 (rs2824292) in the vicinity of the CXADR gene. CXADR encodes the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR), a cell adhesion molecule predominantly located at intercalated discs of the cardiomyocyte. Methods The correlation between CAR transcript levels and rs2824292 genotype was investigated in human left ventricular samples. Electrophysiological studies and molecular analyses were performed CAR haploinsufficient mice (CAR+/?). Results In human left ventricular samples, the risk allele at the chr21q21 GWAS locus was associated with lower CXADR mRNA levels, suggesting that decreased cardiac levels of CAR predispose to ischemia-induced VF. Hearts from CAR+/? mice displayed ventricular conduction slowing in addition to an earlier onset of ventricular arrhythmias during the early phase of acute myocardial ischemia following LAD ligation. Connexin43 expression and distribution was unaffected, but CAR+/? hearts displayed increased arrhythmia susceptibility upon pharmacological electrical uncoupling. Patch-clamp analysis of isolated CAR+/? myocytes showed reduced sodium current magnitude specifically at the intercalated disc. Moreover, CAR co-precipitated with NaV1.5 in vitro, suggesting that CAR affects sodium channel function through a physical interaction with NaV1.5. Conclusion We identify CAR as a novel modifier of ventricular conduction and arrhythmia vulnerability in the setting of myocardial ischemia. Genetic determinants of arrhythmia susceptibility (such as CAR) may constitute future targets for risk stratification of potentially lethal ventricular arrhythmias in patients with coronary artery disease PMID:24291282

Marsman, Roos F.J.; Bezzina, Connie R.; Freiberg, Fabian; Verkerk, Arie O.; Adriaens, Michiel E.; Podliesna, Svitlana; Chen, Chen; Purfürst, Bettina; Spallek, Bastian; Koopmann, Tamara T.; Baczko, Istvan; dos Remedios, Cristobal G.; George, Alfred L.; Bishopric, Nanette H.; Lodder, Elisabeth M.; de Bakker, Jacques M.T.; Fischer, Robert; Coronel, Ruben; Wilde, Arthur A.M.; Gotthardt, Michael; Remme, Carol Ann



Outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease caused by Coxsackie A16 virus in a childcare centre in Croatia, February to March 2011.  


We describe an outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in a childcare centre in a district of Zagreb county, north-west Croatia. A total of eleven cases of HFMD occurred in the childcare centre and another nine were reported from nearby areas in the district. Coxsackie A16 virus was diagnosed in 13 clinical specimens obtained from 11 symptomatic and asymptomatic children. All cases resolved without complications. PMID:21632018

Ljubin-Sternak, S; Slavic-Vrzic, V; Vilibi?-?avlek, T; Aleraj, B; Gjenero-Margan, I



618. Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptor (CAR) Levels Can Be Increased in Human Xenografts Followed by Treatment with FK228, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient adenovirus infection requires the presence of coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) and ?v integrin on the surface of cells. Previously, we showed that treatment of several cancer cell lines with a low concentration of the histone deacetylase inhibitor FK228 (FR901228, depsipeptide) (1 ng\\/ml) caused an increase in the RNA levels of CAR and ?v-integrin. FK228 pre-treatment was associated with a 5–10

Alian Aguila; Merrill E. Goldsmith; Santhi J. Gollapalli; Michael C. Alley; William W. Waud; Susan Bates; Tito Fojo



Antiviral Activity of Total Flavonoid Extracts from Selaginella moellendorffii Hieron against Coxsackie Virus B3 In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

The antiviral activity of total flavonoid extracts from Selaginella moellendorffii Hieron and its main constituents amentoflavone were investigated against coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3). When added during or after viral infection, the extracts and amentoflavone prevented the cytopathic effect (CPE) of CVB3, as demonstrated in a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) from 19 ± 1.6 to 41 ± 1.2??g/mL and 25 ± 1.2 to 52 ± 0.8??g/mL, respectively. KM mice were used as animal models to test the extracts' activity in vivo. Oral administration of the total flavonoid extracts at 300?mg/kg/day significantly reduced mean viral titers in the heart and kidneys as well as mortality after infection for 15 days. The experimental results demonstrate that in vitro and in vivo the model mice infected with CVB3 can be effectively treated by the total flavonoid extracts from Selaginella moellendorffii Hieron. PMID:24963331

Yin, Dan; Li, Juan; Lei, Xiang; Liu, Yimei; Yang, Zhanqiu; Chen, Keli



In vivo and in vitro antiviral activities of calycosin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside against coxsackie virus B3.  


Calycosin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (CCGR) is the main isoflavonoid compound isolated from Astragalus membranaceus var. Mongholicu (BGE.) HSIAO, a Chinese herb medicine traditionally used to treat viral myocarditis. In this study, its antiviral activities against coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3) causing myocarditis were investigated. In vitro assay showed that CCGR displayed a low cytotoxicity and effectively inhibited CVB3-mediated cytopathic effects on Vero cells with an IC(50) value of 25 microg/ml. In an acute myocarditis murine model, treatment with 24 mg/kg CCGR for 14 d significantly improved the survival rate of mice infected with CVB3, alleviated pathological damages of cardiac muscles in the myocarditis mice, reduced the virus titers in the heart, decreased heart indexes and improved left ventricular function. These results showed that CCGR exerted significant antiviral activities against CVB3 both in vitro and in vivo, and identified CCGR as one of active ingredients in Astragalus membranaceus for the treatment of viral myocarditis. PMID:19122283

Zhu, Haiyan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Ye, Guan; Li, Zhixiong; Zhou, Pei; Huang, Chenggang



Targeting Adenoviral Vectors by Using the Extracellular Domain of the Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptor: Improved Potency via Trimerization  

PubMed Central

Adenovirus binds to mammalian cells via interaction of fiber with the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR). Redirecting adenoviral vectors to enter target cells via new receptors has the advantage of increasing the efficiency of gene delivery and reducing nonspecific transduction of untargeted tissues. In an attempt to reach this goal, we have produced bifunctional molecules with soluble CAR (sCAR), which is the extracellular domain of CAR fused to peptide-targeting ligands. Two peptide-targeting ligands have been evaluated: a cyclic RGD peptide (cRGD) and the receptor-binding domain of apolipoprotein E (ApoE). Human diploid fibroblasts (HDF) are poorly transduced by adenovirus due to a lack of CAR on the surface. Addition of the sCAR-cRGD or sCAR-ApoE targeting protein to adenovirus redirected binding to the appropriate receptor on HDF. However, a large excess of the monomeric protein was needed for maximal transduction, indicating a suboptimal interaction. To improve interaction of sCAR with the fiber knob, an isoleucine GCN4 trimerization domain was introduced, and trimerization was verified by cross-linking analysis. Trimerized sCAR proteins were significantly better at interacting with fiber and inhibiting binding to HeLa cells. Trimeric sCAR proteins containing cRGD and ApoE were more efficient at transducing HDF in vitro than the monomeric proteins. In addition, the trimerized sCAR protein without targeting ligands efficiently blocked liver gene transfer in normal C57BL/6 mice. However, addition of either ligand failed to retarget the liver in vivo. One explanation may be the large complex size, which serves to decrease the bioavailability of the trimeric sCAR-adenovirus complexes. In summary, we have demonstrated that trimerization of sCAR proteins can significantly improve the potency of this targeting approach in altering vector tropism in vitro and allow the efficient blocking of liver gene transfer in vivo. PMID:11799184

Kim, Jin; Smith,*, Theodore; Idamakanti, Neeraja; Mulgrew, Kathy; Kaloss, Michele; Kylefjord, Helen; Ryan, Patricia C.; Kaleko, Michael; Stevenson, Susan C.



Enhanced therapeutic efficacy of an adenovirus-PEI-bile-acid complex in tumors with low coxsackie and adenovirus receptor expression.  


Adenovirus (Ad) is a potential vehicle for cancer gene therapy. However, cells that express low levels of the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) demonstrate poor Ad infection efficiency. We developed a bile acid-conjugated poly(ethyleneimine) (DA3)-coated Ad complex (Ad/DA3) to enhance Ad transduction efficiency. The size distribution and zeta potential of Ad/DA3 increased to 324 ± 3.08 nm and 10.13 ± 0.21 mV, respectively, compared with those of naked Ad (108 ± 2.26 nm and -17.7 ± 1.5 mV). The transduction efficiency of Ad/DA3 increased in a DA3 polymer concentration-dependent manner. Enhanced gene transfer by Ad/DA3 was more evident in CAR-moderate and CAR-negative cancer cells. Competition assays with a CAR-specific antibody revealed that internalization of Ad/DA3 was not mediated primarily by CAR but involved clathrin-, caveolae-, and macropinocytosis-mediated endocytosis. Cancer cell death was significantly increased when oncolytic Ad and DA3 were complexed (RdB-KOX/DA3) compared to that of naked oncolytic Ad and was inversely proportional to CAR levels. Importantly, RdB-KOX/DA3 significantly enhanced apoptosis, reduced angiogenesis, reduced proliferation, and increased active viral replication in human tumor xenografts compared to that of naked Ad. These results demonstrate that a hybrid vector system can increase the efficacy of oncolytic Ad virotherapy, particularly in CAR-limited tumors. PMID:24731708

Lee, Cho-Hee; Kasala, Dayananda; Na, Youjin; Lee, Min Sang; Kim, Sung Wan; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Yun, Chae-Ok



The interferon inducer ampligen [poly(I)-poly(C12U)] markedly protects mice against coxsackie B3 virus-induced myocarditis.  


Viral replication, as well as an immunopathological component, is assumed to be involved in coxsackie B virus-induced myocarditis. We evaluated the efficacy of the interferon inducer Ampligen on coxsackie B3 virus-induced myocarditis in C3H/HeNHsd mice. The efficacy of Ampligen was compared with that of the interferon inducer poly(inosinic acid)-poly(cytidylic acid) [poly(IC)], alpha interferon 2b (INTRON A), and pegylated alpha interferon 2b (PEG-INTRON-alpha-2b). Ampligen at 20 mg/kg of body weight/day was able to reduce the severity of virus-induced myocarditis, as assessed by morphometric analysis, by 98% (P = 3.0 x 10(-8)). When poly(IC) was administered at 15 mg/kg/day, it reduced the severity of virus-induced myocarditis by 93% (P = 5.6 x 10(-5)). Alpha interferon 2b (1 x 10(5) U/day) and pegylated alpha interferon 2b (5 x 10(5) U/day) were less effective and reduced the severity of virus-induced myocarditis by 66% (P = 0.0009) and 78% (P = 0.0002), respectively. The observed efficacies of Ampligen and poly(IC) were corroborated by the observation that the drugs also markedly reduced the virus titers in the heart, as detected by (i) quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR and (ii) titration for infectious virus content. Whereas the electrocardiograms for untreated mice with myocarditis were severely disturbed, the electrocardiographic parameters were normalized in Ampligen- and poly(IC)-treated mice. Even when start of treatment with Ampligen was delayed until day 2 postinfection, a time at which lesions had already appeared in untreated control animals, a marked protective effect on the development of viral myocarditis (as assessed at day 6 postinfection) was still noted. PMID:14693549

Padalko, Elizaveta; Nuyens, Dieter; De Palma, Armando; Verbeken, Erik; Aerts, Joeri L; De Clercq, Erik; Carmeliet, Peter; Neyts, Johan



Basolateral sorting of the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor through interaction of a canonical YXX? motif with the clathrin adaptors AP-1A and AP-1B  

PubMed Central

The coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) plays key roles in epithelial barrier function at the tight junction, a localization guided in part by a tyrosine-based basolateral sorting signal, 318YNQV321. Sorting motifs of this type are known to route surface receptors into clathrin-mediated endocytosis through interaction with the medium subunit (?2) of the clathrin adaptor AP-2, but how they guide new and recycling membrane proteins basolaterally is unknown. Here, we show that YNQV functions as a canonical Yxx? motif, with both Y318 and V321 required for the correct basolateral localization and biosynthetic sorting of CAR, and for interaction with a highly conserved pocket in the medium subunits (?1A and ?1B) of the clathrin adaptors AP-1A and AP-1B. Knock-down experiments demonstrate that AP-1A plays a role in the biosynthetic sorting of CAR, complementary to the role of AP-1B in basolateral recycling of this receptor. Our study illustrates how two clathrin adaptors direct basolateral trafficking of a plasma membrane protein through interaction with a canonical Yxx? motif. PMID:22343291

Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose Maria; Gravotta, Diego; Mattera, Rafael; Diaz, Fernando; Perez Bay, Andres; Roman, Angel C.; Schreiner, Ryan P.; Thuenauer, Roland; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique



Coxsackie- and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is expressed in lymphatic vessels in human skin and affects lymphatic endothelial cell function in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Lymphatic vessels play an important role in tissue fluid homeostasis, intestinal fat absorption and immunosurveillance. Furthermore, they are involved in pathologic conditions, such as tumor cell metastasis and chronic inflammation. In comparison to blood vessels, the molecular phenotype of lymphatic vessels is less well characterized. Performing comparative gene expression analysis we have recently found that coxsackie- and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is significantly more highly expressed in cultured human, skin-derived lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), as compared to blood vascular endothelial cells. Here, we have confirmed these results at the protein level, using Western blot and FACS analysis. Immunofluorescence performed on human skin confirmed that CAR is expressed at detectable levels in lymphatic vessels, but not in blood vessels. To address the functional significance of CAR expression, we modulated CAR expression levels in cultured LECs in vitro by siRNA- and vector-based transfection approaches. Functional assays performed with the transfected cells revealed that CAR is involved in distinct cellular processes in LECs, such as cell adhesion, migration, tube formation and the control of vascular permeability. In contrast, no effect of CAR on LEC proliferation was observed. Overall, our data suggest that CAR stabilizes LEC-LEC interactions in the skin and may contribute to lymphatic vessel integrity.

Vigl, Benjamin; Zgraggen, Claudia; Rehman, Nadia; Banziger-Tobler, Nadia E.; Detmar, Michael [Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli Str. 10, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Halin, Cornelia [Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli Str. 10, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)], E-mail:



Indolylarylsulfones bearing natural and unnatural amino acids. Discovery of potent inhibitors of HIV-1 non-nucleoside wild type and resistant mutant strains reverse transcriptase and coxsackie B4 virus.  


New potent indolylarylsulfone (IAS) HIV-1 NNRTIs were obtained by coupling natural and unnatural amino acids to the 2-carboxamide and introducing different electron-withdrawing substituents at position 4 and 5 of the indole nucleus. The new IASs inhibited the HIV-1 replication in human T-lymphocyte (CEM) cells at low/subnanomolar concentration and were weakly cytostatic. Against the mutant L100I, K103N, and Y181C RT HIV-1 strains in CEM cells, sulfones 3, 4, 19, 27, and 31 were comparable to EFV. The new IASs were inhibitors to Coxsackie B4 virus at low micromolar (2-9 microM) concentrations. Superimposition of PLANTS docked conformations of IASs 19 and 9 revealed different hydrophobic interactions of the 3,5-dimethylphenyl group, for which a staking interaction with Tyr181 aromatic side chain was observed. The binding mode of 19 was not affected by the L100I mutation and was consistent with the interactions reported for the WT strain. PMID:19281225

Piscitelli, Francesco; Coluccia, Antonio; Brancale, Andrea; La Regina, Giuseppe; Sansone, Anna; Giordano, Cesare; Balzarini, Jan; Maga, Giovanni; Zanoli, Samantha; Samuele, Alberta; Cirilli, Roberto; La Torre, Francesco; Lavecchia, Antonio; Novellino, Ettore; Silvestri, Romano



GYY4137, a hydrogen sulfide?releasing molecule, inhibits the inflammatory response by suppressing the activation of nuclear factor?kappa B and mitogen?activated protein kinases in Coxsackie virus B3?infected rat cardiomyocytes.  


GYY4137 is a water?soluble, small molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S)?release agent that possesses potent cardioprotective and anti?inflammatory properties in experimental models. Coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3) infection commonly causes viral myocarditis, which mainly involves immune cell infiltration, eventually resulting in heart failure. In the present study, the effects and underlying mechanisms of GYY4137 treatment of CVB3?induced myocarditis were investigated. The effects of GYY4137 on CVB3?induced nuclear factor?kappa B (NF??B) activity were examined by western blotting, immunofluorescence and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Mitogen?activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling protein expression levels were detected by western blotting. Cardiomyocyte damage?related enzyme activities, such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase MB (CK?MB), were measured by ELISA, as well as the production of proinflammatory cytokines. The results revealed that GYY4137 suppressed CVB3?induced secretion of LDH, CK?MB and pro?inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor??, interleukin (IL)?1? and IL?6. Furthermore, the activation of NF??B and the I?B? degradation induced by CVB3 were also inhibited by GYY4137. Notably, the phosphorylation of p38, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 induced by CVB3 was also inhibited by GYY4137. In conclusion, the data demonstrate that GYY4137 exerts anti?inflammatory effects in CVB3?infected cardiomyocytes. This anti?inflammatory mechanism may be associated with suppression of NF??B and MAPK signaling pathway activation. PMID:25377925

Wu, Zubo; Peng, Hua; Du, Qing; Lin, Wen; Liu, Yali



The Murine CAR Homolog Is a Receptor for Coxsackie B Viruses and Adenoviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complementary DNA clones encoding the murine homolog (mCAR) of the human coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) were isolated. Nonpermissive CHO cells transfected with mCAR cDNA became susceptible to infection by coxsackieviruses B3 and B4 and showed increased susceptibility to adenovirus- mediated gene transfer. These results indicate that the same receptor is responsible for virus interactions with both murine and human




IL-10-producing B cells involved in the pathogenesis of Coxsackie virus B3-induced acute viral myocarditis  

PubMed Central

Background: Interleukin-10 (IL-10)-producing B cells, a subset of regulatory B cells, play critical roles in autoimmune and infectious diseases. However, the role of IL-10-producing B cells in acute viral myocarditis (AVMC) remains unknown. Methods: BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally (i. p.) infected with coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) to establish AVMC models (AVMC group), while control mice (control group) were treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) i. p. According to the time after injection, the AVMC group mice or control group mice were randomly separated into 1 week and 2 week subgroup. Myocardial histopathological changes were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining and the frequency of splenic IL-10-producing B cells was measured by flow cytometry. Results: Histopathologic examination of heart tissues showed that mice infected with CVB3 developed AVMC. Compared with control group, the frequency of splenic IL-10-producing B cells was increased significantly in the AVMC group, with the 1 week AVMC subgroup (3.58 ± 0.47%) higher than the 2 week AVMC subgroup (2.50 ± 0.42%) (all P < 0.05). Conclusions: IL-10-producing B cells are increased in CVB3-induced AVMC, indicating that IL-10-producing B cells may play an important role in the pathogenesis of CVB3-induced AVMC. PMID:25755782

Cen, Zhihong; Guo, Yujie; Kong, Qing; Zhou, Qiuxi; Wu, Weifeng



Human Adenovirus 52 Uses Sialic Acid-containing Glycoproteins and the Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor for Binding to Target Cells  

PubMed Central

Most adenoviruses attach to host cells by means of the protruding fiber protein that binds to host cells via the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) protein. Human adenovirus type 52 (HAdV-52) is one of only three gastroenteritis-causing HAdVs that are equipped with two different fiber proteins, one long and one short. Here we show, by means of virion-cell binding and infection experiments, that HAdV-52 can also attach to host cells via CAR, but most of the binding depends on sialylated glycoproteins. Glycan microarray, flow cytometry, surface plasmon resonance and ELISA analyses reveal that the terminal knob domain of the long fiber (52LFK) binds to CAR, and the knob domain of the short fiber (52SFK) binds to sialylated glycoproteins. X-ray crystallographic analysis of 52SFK in complex with 2-O-methylated sialic acid combined with functional studies of knob mutants revealed a new sialic acid binding site compared to other, known adenovirus:glycan interactions. Our findings shed light on adenovirus biology and may help to improve targeting of adenovirus-based vectors for gene therapy. PMID:25674795

Lenman, Annasara; Liaci, A. Manuel; Liu, Yan; Årdahl, Carin; Rajan, Anandi; Nilsson, Emma; Bradford, Will; Kaeshammer, Lisa; Jones, Morris S.; Frängsmyr, Lars; Feizi, Ten; Stehle, Thilo; Arnberg, Niklas



Paclitaxel resistance increases oncolytic adenovirus efficacy via upregulated CAR expression and dysfunctional cell cycle control.  


Resistance to paclitaxel chemotherapy frequently develops in ovarian cancer. Oncolytic adenoviruses are a novel therapy for human malignancies that are being evaluated in early phase trials. However, there are no reliable predictive biomarkers for oncolytic adenovirus activity in ovarian cancer. We investigated the link between paclitaxel resistance and oncolytic adenovirus activity using established ovarian cancer cell line models, xenografts with de novo paclitaxel resistance and tumour samples from two separate trials. The activity of multiple Ad5 vectors, including dl922-947 (E1A CR2-deleted), dl1520 (E1B-55K deleted) and Ad5 WT, was significantly increased in paclitaxel resistant ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo. This was associated with greater infectivity resulting from increased expression of the primary receptor for Ad5, CAR (coxsackie adenovirus receptor). This, in turn, resulted from increased CAR transcription secondary to histone modification in resistant cells. There was increased CAR expression in intraperitoneal tumours with de novo paclitaxel resistance and in tumours from patients with clinical resistance to paclitaxel. Increased CAR expression did not cause paclitaxel resistance, but did increase inflammatory cytokine expression. Finally, we identified dysregulated cell cycle control as a second mechanism of increased adenovirus efficacy in paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer. Ad11 and Ad35, both group B adenoviruses that utilise non-CAR receptors to infect cells, are also significantly more effective in paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cell models. Inhibition of CDK4/6 using PD-0332991 was able both to reverse paclitaxel resistance and reduce adenovirus efficacy. Thus, paclitaxel resistance increases oncolytic adenovirus efficacy via at least two separate mechanisms - if validated further, this information could have future clinical utility to aid patient selection for clinical trials. PMID:25560085

Ingemarsdotter, Carin K; Tookman, Laura A; Browne, Ashley; Pirlo, Katrina; Cutts, Rosalind; Chelela, Claude; Khurrum, Karisma F; Leung, Elaine Y L; Dowson, Suzanne; Webber, Lee; Khan, Iftekhar; Ennis, Darren; Syed, Nelofer; Crook, Tim R; Brenton, James D; Lockley, Michelle; McNeish, Iain A



First report of a Chinese strain of coxsackie B3 virus infection in a newborn in Germany in 2011: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Enteroviruses commonly encounter babies and children and infections present in a wide variety of symptoms ranging from asymptomatic infection, benign illness, and aseptic meningitis, hand-foot-and-mouth disease to severe life-threatening disease. Some newborns develop severe disease in the first 2 weeks of life and long-term sequelae may occur among survivors. Case presentation We present a case report of a Caucasian newborn baby boy with severe encephalitis and systemic coxsackievirus B3 infection. The coincidence of maternal infection as well as previous mild respiratory illness in his sister suggests either prenatal or horizontal postnatal transmission. An electroencephalogram showed a severe pathologic pattern with theta-delta-rhythm and spike-wave complexes on both hemispheres. We also observed an unusual prolonged viremia for a period of 6 weeks. Due to the lack of specific antiviral treatment options, the supportive management included ventilation and medical treatment of seizures. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a genogroup D2 virus previously exclusively detected in China and now described in Europe for the first time. Conclusions Enteroviral infection is an important differential diagnosis in neonatal encephalitis. Prolonged viremia must be taken into account and might correlate with disease severity. The newly observed enterovirus genotype D2 is spreading from Asia to other continents. PMID:24885145



Expression of Coxsackie adenovirus receptor and alphav-integrin does not correlate with adenovector targeting in vivo indicating anatomical vector barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant adenoviral vectors are broadly applied in gene therapy protocols. However, adenovector-mediated gene transfer has limitations in vivo. One of these is the low gene transfer rate into organs other than the liver after systemic intravenous vector injection. Local direct injection into the target organ has been used as one possible solution, but increases necessary equipment and methodology and is

H Fechner; A Haack; H Wang; X Wang; K Eizema; M Pauschinger; R G Schoemaker; R van Veghel; A B Houtsmuller; H-P Schultheiss; J M J Lamers; W Poller



Enteroviral Syndromes in Toronto, 1964  

PubMed Central

Virological or serological investigations of 72 children in Toronto and environs, who were hospitalized between January and October 1964 with a variety of syndromes, revealed evidence of enteroviral infection in 29 subjects. Coxsackie B2 was the dominant enterovirus, being isolated from feces and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of three children with aseptic meningitis, three with pleurodynia, one with myalgia and one with pericarditis; four additional patients showed rising antibody titres to this virus. Coxsackie B1 virus, which has not been isolated in Toronto since 1950, was recovered from feces of three patients with pleurodynia, CSF of one patient with myalgia, and peritoneal fluid of a child with primary peritonitis; one patient with pericarditis showed a rising antibody titre to Coxsackie B1 virus. Coxsackie B3, B4 and Echo 23 viruses were associated with one case each of pleurodynia. Coxsackie B5 virus infected five patients with aseptic meningitis, and one each with pericarditis and myocarditis. PMID:14269435

McLean, D. M.; Larke, R. P. B.; McNaughton, G. A.; Best, Jennifer M.; Smith, Patricia



[Outbreak of acute enterovirus intestinal infection in Sakhalin region in August 2010].  


The investigation of cases of acute intestinal infections in the Sakhalin region of Russia in August, 2010 is described. Epidemiological and molecular biological studies were conducted. After initial PCR screening and determining the nucleotide sequences of the positive samples the following enteroviruses were found: Coxsackie A2 - 42 samples (45%), Coxsackie A4--31 sample (34%), Enterovirus 71--6 samples (6,5%), Coxsackievirus B5--6 samples (6,5%), Coxsackie B3--4 samples (4%) and Coxsackie B1--4 samples (4%). The phylogenetic analysis of sequences showed that the closest analogues for the nucleotide sequences of these genotypes were previously identified in Japan, Korea and China in 2000-2010. PMID:22642180

Demina, A V; Ternovo?, V A; Darizhapov, B B; Iakubich, T V; Sementsova, A O; Demina, O K; Protopopova, E V; Loktev, V B; Agafonov, A P; Netesov, S V



Altering the Ad5 Packaging Domain Affects the Maturation of the Ad Particles  

PubMed Central

We have previously described a new family of mutant adenoviruses carrying different combinations of attB/attP sequences from bacteriophage PhiC31 flanking the Ad5 packaging domain. These novel helper viruses have a significantly delayed viral life cycle and a severe packaging impairment, regardless of the presence of PhiC31 recombinase. Their infectious viral titers are significantly lower (100–1000 fold) than those of control adenovirus at 36 hours post-infection, but allow for efficient packaging of helper-dependent adenovirus. In the present work, we have analyzed which steps of the adenovirus life cycle are altered in attB-helper adenoviruses and investigated whether these viruses can provide the necessary viral proteins in trans. The entry of attB-adenoviral genomes into the cell nucleus early at early timepoints post-infection was not impaired and viral protein expression levels were found to be similar to those of control adenovirus. However, electron microscopy and capsid protein composition analyses revealed that attB-adenoviruses remain at an intermediate state of maturation 36 hours post-infection in comparison to control adenovirus which were fully mature and infective at this time point. Therefore, an additional 20–24 hours were found to be required for the appearance of mature attB-adenovirus. Interestingly, attB-adenovirus assembly and infectivity was restored by inserting a second packaging signal close to the right-end ITR, thus discarding the possibility that the attB-adenovirus genome was retained in a nuclear compartment deleterious for virus assembly. The present study may have substantive implications for helper-dependent adenovirus technology since helper attB-adenovirus allows for preferential packaging of helper-dependent adenovirus genomes. PMID:21611162

Alba, Raul; Cots, Dan; Ostapchuk, Philomena; Bosch, Assumpcio; Hearing, Patrick; Chillon, Miguel



Masticator myopathy.  


A 31-year-old woman developed low-grade fever and pain and swelling of the masticatory muscles. A T2-weighted magnetic resonance image showed high signal intensity in these muscles. Coxsackie B3 and echo 30 viruses were detected from a nasopharyngeal swab and feces, respectively. The clinical symptoms accompanied a marked decline in the serum immunoglobulin G level with progressive eosinophilia. Her symptoms disappeared by 8 weeks after onset. She was diagnosed as having masticator myopathy, which has rarely been reported in humans. The present case suggests that masticator myopathy is associated with coxsackie or echo virus infection. PMID:12811784

Yamada, Shigeo; Ogawa, Tomoko; Nishimiya, Jin; Yuasa, Tatsuhiko; Taketazu, Fumitoshi



The Molecular Interaction of CAR and JAML Recruits the Central Cell Signal Transducer PI3K  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is the primary cellular receptor for group B coxsackieviruses and most adenovirus serotypes and plays a crucial role in adenoviral gene therapy. Recent discovery of the interaction between junctional adhesion molecule-like protein (JAML) and CAR uncovered important functional roles in immunity, inflammation, and tissue homeostasis. Crystal structures of JAML ectodomain (2.2 angstroms) and its complex

Petra Verdino; Deborah A. Witherden; Wendy L. Havran; Ian A. Wilson




EPA Science Inventory

A quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for identification of viruses selected as representative water-borne viruses: poliovirus 1, echovirus 6, coxsackievirus A9, and coxsackie B viruses. Partially purified viral antigens or virus-specific antibodies we...


Mechanism of enterovirus involvement in epidemic neuropathy: hypothesis regarding pathophysiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the epidemic of optic and peripheral neuropathy which occurred in Cuba in 1992–1993, viruses antigenically related to the Coxsackie viruses were isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of patients. Concurrently with the virologic studies, epidemiologic, toxicologic, nutritional, immunologic, and histopathologic investigations were also carried out. Although it was demonstrated that the illness was associated with toxic and nutritional risk factors, it

P. Más Lago; M. Guadalupe Guzmán; L. Sarmiento; A. B. Pérez; M. Alvarez; V. Capó; I. Avalos; G. K. Flores



Realms of the Viruses Online  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Viruses have evolved strategies for infecting all taxa, but most viruses are highly specific about their cellular host. In humans, viruses cause diverse diseases, from chronic but benign warts, to acute and deadly hemorrhagic fever. Viruses have entertaining names like Zucchini Yellow Mosaic, Semliki Forest, Coxsackie, and the original terminator,…

Liu, Dennis




EPA Science Inventory

The inactivation kinetics of ClO2 on two enteroviruses, poliovirus 1 (Mahoney) and coxsackie virus A9, and an enteric indicator of fecal pollution, Escherichia coli, were examined in laboratory studies. In addition, the disinfecting ability of ClO2 as affected by particulates (bo...


Benzophenone C-glucosides and gallotannins from mango tree stem bark with broad-spectrum anti-viral activity.  


The high mutation rate of RNA viruses has resulted in limitation of vaccine effectiveness and increased emergence of drug-resistant viruses. New effective antivirals are therefore needed to control of the highly mutative RNA viruses. The n-butanol fraction of the stem bark of Mangifera indica exhibited inhibitory activity against influenza neuraminidase (NA) and coxsackie virus 3C protease. Bioassay guided phytochemical study of M. indica stem bark afforded two new compounds including one benzophenone C-glycoside (4) and one xanthone dimer (7), together with eleven known compounds. The structures of these isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidences and correlated with known compounds. Anti-influenza and anti-coxsackie virus activities were evaluated by determining the inhibition of anti-influenza neuraminidase (NA) from pandemic A/RI/5+/1957 H2N2 influenza A virus and inhibition of coxsackie B3 virus 3C protease, respectively. The highest anti-influenza activity was observed for compounds 8 and 9 with IC50 values of 11.9 and 9.2?M, respectively. Compounds 8 and 9 were even more potent against coxsackie B3 virus 3C protease, with IC50 values of 1.1 and 2.0?M, respectively. Compounds 8 and 9 showed weak cytotoxic effect against human hepatocellular carcinoma and human epithelial carcinoma cell lines through MTT assay. PMID:24613627

Abdel-Mageed, Wael M; Bayoumi, Soad A H; Chen, Caixia; Vavricka, Christopher J; Li, Li; Malik, Ajamaluddin; Dai, Huanqin; Song, Fuhang; Wang, Luoqiang; Zhang, Jingyu; Gao, George F; Lv, Yali; Liu, Lihong; Liu, Xueting; Sayed, Hanaa M; Zhang, Lixin



Collection and Testing of Respiratory Samples

QIAGEN ResPlex II Advanced Panel; Influenza A; Influenza B; Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections; Infection Due to Human Parainfluenza Virus 1; Parainfluenza Type 2; Parainfluenza Type 3; Parainfluenza Type 4; Human Metapneumovirus A/B; Rhinovirus; Coxsackie Virus/Echovirus; Adenovirus Types B/C/E; Coronavirus Subtypes 229E; Coronavirus Subtype NL63; Coronavirus Subtype OC43; Coronavirus Subtype HKU1; Human Bocavirus; Artus Influenza A/B RT-PCR Test; Influenza A, Influenza B,



Complete Genomic Sequencing Shows that Polioviruses and Members of Human Enterovirus Species C Are Closely Related in the Noncapsid Coding Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 65 human enterovirus serotypes are currently classified into five species: Poliovirus (3 serotypes), Human enterovirus A (HEV-A) (12 serotypes), HEV-B (37 serotypes), HEV-C (11 serotypes), and HEV-D (2 serotypes). Coxsackie A virus (CAV) serotypes 1, 11, 13, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, and 24 constitute HEV-C. We have determined the complete genome sequences for the remaining nine

Betty Brown; M. Steven Oberste; Kaija Maher; Mark A. Pallansch



The 39Untranslated Region of Picornavirus RNA: Features Required for Efficient Genome Replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the 3*untranslated region (3*UTR) in the replication of enteroviruses has been studied with a series of mutants derived from either poliovirus type 3 (PV3) or a PV3 replicon containing the reporter gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. Replication was observed when the PV3 3*UTR was replaced with that of either coxsackie B4 virus, human rhinovirus 14 (HRV14), bovine enterovirus, or




Adenoviral-encoded antigens are presented efficiently by a subset of dendritic cells expressing high levels of  v 3 integrins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendritic cells (DC) play a central role in antigen presentation and are often targeted by adenoviral (Ad)-based gene therapy. However, DC lack the coxsackie-Ad receptor, and little is known about the process by which they acquire and present Ad-encoded antigens. We examined the expression of 3 integrins (CD51\\/CD61) on mouse bone marrow-derived DC (BM-DC) and their susceptibility to transduction by

Airi Harui; Michael D. Roth; Darshni Vira; Mihir Sanghvi; Hiroyuki Mizuguchi; Saroj K. Basak



Myalgic encephalomyelitis--a persistent enteroviral infection?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myalgic encephalomyelitis is a common disability but frequently misinterpreted. Amongst 6,000 patients referred for general microbiological diagnosis between 1975 and 1987, 420 cases were recognized. Coxsackie B neutralization tests, in 205 of these, demonstrated significant titres in 103\\/205 (50%), while of 124 additionally investigated for enteroviral IgM, 38\\/124 (31%) were positive. This illness is distinguished from a variety of other

E. G. Dowsett; A. M. Ramsay; R. A. McCartney; E. J. Bell



Interaction between Mouse Adenovirus Type 1 and Cell Surface Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) derived vectors for cancer gene therapy has been limited by the poor cell surface expression, on some tumor cell types, of the primary Ad5 receptor, the coxsackie-adenovirus-receptor (CAR), as well as the accumulation of Ad5 in the liver following interaction with blood coagulation factor X (FX) and subsequent tethering of the FX-Ad5 complex

Liesbeth Lenaerts; Wim van Dam; Leentje Persoons; Lieve Naesens



Enterovirus type 71 2A protease functions as a transcriptional activator in yeast  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus type 71 (EV71) 2A protease exhibited strong transcriptional activity in yeast cells. The transcriptional activity of 2A protease was independent of its protease activity. EV71 2A protease retained its transcriptional activity after truncation of 40 amino acids at the N-terminus but lost this activity after truncation of 60 amino acids at the N-terminus or deletion of 20 amino acids at the C-terminus. Thus, the acidic domain at the C-terminus of this protein is essential for its transcriptional activity. Indeed, deletion of amino acids from 146 to 149 (EAME) in this acidic domain lost the transcriptional activity of EV71 2A protein though still retained its protease activity. EV71 2A protease was detected both in the cytoplasm and nucleus using confocal microscopy analysis. Coxsackie virus B3 2A protease also exhibited transcriptional activity in yeast cells. As expected, an acidic domain in the C-terminus of Coxsackie virus B3 2A protease was also identified. Truncation of this acidic domain resulted in the loss of transcriptional activity. Interestingly, this acidic region of poliovirus 2A protease is critical for viral RNA replication. The transcriptional activity of the EV71 or Coxsackie virus B3 2A protease should play a role in viral replication and/or pathogenesis. PMID:20682079



Mollolide A, a diterpenoid with a new 1,10:2,3-disecograyanane skeleton from the roots of Rhododendron molle.  


Mollolide A (1), a diterpenoid featuring a new 1,10:2,3-disecograyanane skeleton, was isolated from the roots of Rhododendron molle. Its structure was elucidated through extensive MS, IR, and NMR spectroscopy analyses. The absolute configuration was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction of its p-bromobenzoate derivative (1b). Compound 1 exhibits a significant analgesic effect at a dose of 20 mg/kg and antiviral activity against the Coxsackie B3 virus with an IC50 value of 27.7 ?M. PMID:23724861

Li, Yong; Liu, Yun-Bao; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Li, Yu-Huan; Jiang, Jian-Dong; Yu, Shi-Shan; Ma, Shuang-Gang; Qu, Jing; Lv, Hai-Ning




PubMed Central

A study has been made of the lesions produced in suckling mice by the following viruses: Powers, Matulaitis, DeMole, Kine, McCarthy, Conn. 5, Ohio R, High Point, WS No. 4, EMC, and Col. SK. Pathologic alterations have been found in myocardium, lungs, liver, pancreas, thymus, brain and spinal cord, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscles. A comparison of the lesions produced by the individual strains has disclosed certain differential features which are discussed in detail. Within the group of so called Coxsackie viruses, myositis has not proved to be a constant finding, and it may occur in suckling mice infected with other types of virus. PMID:15428585

Pappenheimer, Alwin M.; Daniels, Joan B.; Cheever, F. S.; Weller, T. H.



[Outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease in a day-nursery. A new clinical form? (author's transl)].  


Ten cases of vesicular eruption affecting primarily the hands (4/10) and feet (6/10) occurred in a day-nursery for infants. An enterovirus related to coxsackie A 16 virus was isolated from two vesicular fluids and nine stools. The fact that the outbreak took place in the winter, the rarity of pharyngeal lesions (2/10), the high incidence of foot lesions and the presence of listlessness as only associated symptom lead to a discussion of the relationship between this small epidemic and true hand, foot and mouth disease. PMID:6252539

Freymuth, F; Langeard, M M; Guihard, J; Delavenne, J; Leroy, D; Marteret, P; Valdazo, A



Microorganisms in the aetiology of atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Recent publications have suggested that infective pathogens might play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. This review focuses on these microorganisms in the process of atherosclerosis. The results of in vitro studies, animal studies, tissue studies, and serological studies will be summarised, followed by an overall conclusion concerning the strength of the association of the microorganism with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The role of the bacteria Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori, and the viruses human immunodeficiency virus, coxsackie B virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus, and measles virus will be discussed. Key Words: atherosclerosis • Chlamydia pneumoniae • Helicobacter pylori PMID:11041053

Morre, S; Stooker, W; Lagrand, W; van den Brule, A J C; Niessen, H



Transplacental infection of Coxsackievirus B3 pathological findings in the fetus.  


Coxsackievirus intrauterine infection has been documented mostly on the basis of indirect evidence of transplacental transmission, with neonatal manifestations ranging from asymptomatic infection to meningoencephalitis, myocarditis, and generalized sepsis. This is the first report of prenatal findings and fetoplacental pathology in a third trimester fetus with coxsackie B3 transplacental infection confirmed by molecular techniques. Prenatal ultrasound detected severe reduction of fetal movements at the 27th week. Late onset fetal akinesia deformation sequence with mild arthrogryposis, necrotic meningoencephalitis with vascular calcifications, interstitial pneumonitis, mild myocardial hypertrophy, and chronic monocytic placental villitis were the cardinal findings at fetal autopsy following interruption of the pregnancy. PMID:17457913

Konstantinidou, Anastasia; Anninos, Hector; Spanakis, Nikolaos; Kotsiakis, Xenophon; Syridou, Garyfallia; Tsakris, Athanassios; Patsouris, Efstratios



Assessment of antibody mediated cytolysis of adult cardiocytes isolated by centrifugation in a continuous gradient of Percoll in patients with acute myocarditis.  


Principal objections to conventional cytotoxicity assays in cardiac disease with myocytes as target cells are the use of fetal or neonatal myocardium, the cell-membrane of which does not express all antigenic determinants, and the use of trypsin as enzyme for isolation of the cells, since this alters the myolemmal membrane considerably. An improved and rapid procedure for the isolation of intact adult cardiocytes with collaggenase was developed. by means of a performed continuous self-generating silica sol and gradient centrifugation average enrichment of 81% vital myocytes was achieved by a single isopycnic procedure. The yield was improved to 94 +/- 3% vital cells by identical second centrifugation. Cardiocytes isolated by this method were used as target cells in an assay measuring the cytolytic activity of antibodies in the presence of complement: sera of patients suffering from acute viral myocarditis (Coxsackie B- and influenza-virus) with complement fixing antisacrolemmal antibodies (ASA) of the IgG- and IgM-type showed significant cardiocytolysis. ASA are postulated to play a role in the pathogenesis of acute Coxsackie B- and influenza-virus myocarditis. PMID:6268709

Maisch, B; Trostel-Soeder, R; Berg, P A; Kochsiek, K



Detection of bioagents using a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave biosensor  


A biosensor combining the sensitivity of surface acoustic waves (SAW) generated at a frequency of 325 MHz with the specificity provided by antibodies and other ligands for the detection of viral agents. In a preferred embodiment, a lithium tantalate based SAW transducer with silicon dioxide waveguide sensor platform featuring three test and one reference delay lines was used to adsorb antibodies directed against Coxsackie virus B4 or the negative-stranded category A bioagent Sin Nombre virus (SNV). Rapid detection of increasing concentrations of viral particles was linear over a range of order of magnitude for both viruses, and the sensor's selectivity for its target was not compromised by the presence of confounding Herpes Simplex virus type 1 The biosensor was able to delect SNV at doses lower than the load of virus typically found in a human patient suffering from hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS).

Larson, Richard S; Hjelle, Brian; Hall, Pam R; Brown, David C; Bisoffi, Marco; Brozik, Susan M; Branch, Darren W; Edwards, Thayne L; Wheeler, David



[Epidemiological characters of Yunnan sudden death syndrome and its research progress].  


Yunnan sudden death syndrome (YSDS) is an abruptly fatal disease of unknown etiology, found mostly in central or northwestern mountain area (with altitude between 1,815 and 2,225 meters) of Yunnan province from June to September every year. It occurs mostly in young female adults, with high incidences in Lisu, Yi and Miao ethnics and high familial aggregation. The clinical manifestation of YSDS is changeful and the pathological characteristic is lack of specificity. The pathogenesis may be attributed to several factors including poor hygiene and lower socioeconomic conditions, lack of Selenium or Chromium, infection of Coxsackie B virus, mushroom consumption and special geological conditions. This article reviews the epidemiologic features, clinical manifestations, pathological features, etiology and hypothesis in order to provide clues for the research of YSDS. PMID:25073321

Zheng, Jin-Xiang; Zhao, Su; Huang, Wen-Li; Huang, Lei; Tang, Shuang-Bai; Ben, Chi; Cheng, Jian-Ding



The Molecular Interaction of CAR and JAML Recruits the Central Cell Signal Transducer PI3K  

SciTech Connect

Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is the primary cellular receptor for group B coxsackieviruses and most adenovirus serotypes and plays a crucial role in adenoviral gene therapy. Recent discovery of the interaction between junctional adhesion molecule-like protein (JAML) and CAR uncovered important functional roles in immunity, inflammation, and tissue homeostasis. Crystal structures of JAML ectodomain (2.2 angstroms) and its complex with CAR (2.8 angstroms) reveal an unusual immunoglobulin-domain assembly for JAML and a charged interface that confers high specificity. Biochemical and mutagenesis studies illustrate how CAR-mediated clustering of JAML recruits phosphoinositide 3-kinase (P13K) to a JAML intracellular sequence motif as delineated for the {alpha}{beta} T cell costimulatory receptor CD28. Thus, CAR and JAML are cell signaling receptors of the immune system with implications for asthma, cancer, and chronic nonhealing wounds.

Verdino, Petra; Witherden, Deborah A.; Havran, Wendy L.; Wilson, Ian A. (Scripps)



The endosomal epsilon-coatomer protein is involved in human adenovirus type 5 internalisation.  


The effects of bafilomycin A1 and of the reduced level of endosomal epsilon-COP (coatomer protein) on the infectivity of human adenovirus type 5 were investigated in Coxsackie adenovirus receptor- (CAR-) transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The endosomal proton pump inhibitor bafilomycin A1 was able to cause only partial inhibition. Using Id1F cells (an epsilon-COP thermosensitive mutant CHO cell line) the reduction of epsilon-COP level also had partial inhibitory effect. Based on these results and comparing them to existing models of the adenovirus entry, we propose a refined model in which there are two pathways of adenoviral entry: the first one involves the epsilon-COP as the downstream effector of the acidification and can be blocked by bafilomycin A1 and the second one is a pH-independent pathway. PMID:12498152

Jeney, Cs; Banizs, Boglárka; Dobay, Orsolya; Glatz, Katalin; Huszár, T; Adám, Eva; Nász, I



Rethinking Molecular Mimicry in Rheumatic Heart Disease and Autoimmune Myocarditis: Laminin, Collagen IV, CAR, and B1AR as Initial Targets of Disease  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Molecular mimicry theory (MMT) suggests that epitope mimicry between pathogens and human proteins can activate autoimmune disease. Group A streptococci (GAS) mimics human cardiac myosin in rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and coxsackie viruses (CX) mimic actin in autoimmune myocarditis (AM). But myosin and actin are immunologically inaccessible and unlikely initial targets. Extracellular cardiac proteins that mimic GAS and CX would be more likely. Objectives: To determine whether extracellular cardiac proteins such as coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR), beta 1 adrenergic receptor (B1AR), CD55/DAF, laminin, and collagen IV mimic GAS, CX, and/or cardiac myosin or actin. Methods: BLAST 2.0 and LALIGN searches of the UniProt protein database were employed to identify potential molecular mimics. Quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure antibody cross-reactivity. Measurements: Similarities were considered to be significant if a sequence contained at least 5 identical amino acids in 10. Antibodies were considered to be cross-reactive if the binding constant had a Kd less than 10-9 M. Main results: Group A streptococci mimics laminin, CAR, and myosin. CX mimics actin and collagen IV and B1AR. The similarity search results are mirrored by antibody cross-reactivities. Additionally, antibodies against laminin recognize antibodies against collagen IV; antibodies against actin recognize antibodies against myosin, and antibodies against GAS recognize antibodies against CX. Thus, there is both mimicry of extracellular proteins and antigenic complementarity between GAS-CX in RHD/AM. Conclusion: Rheumatic heart disease/AM may be due to combined infections of GAS with CX localized at cardiomyocytes that may produce a synergistic, hyperinflammatory response that cross-reacts with laminin, collagen IV, CAR, and/or B1AR. Epitope drift shifts the immune response to myosin and actin after cardiomyocytes become damaged. PMID:25191648

Root-Bernstein, Robert



Development of a new cell culture-based method and optimized protocol for the detection of enteric viruses.  


The development of rapid and effective methods to detect water- and food-borne enteric viruses is important for the prevention and control of mass infection. This study represents an attempt to develop a reliable cell culture-based detection system and optimize an effective and rapid protocol for the assaying of environmental samples for the presence of infectious enteric viruses. Six enteric viruses were used in this study: poliovirus, Coxsackie virus A9, Coxsackie virus B5, human rotavirus G1, hepatitis A virus, and adenovirus type 41. Among the cell lines from humans (A549, HeLa, HEK293, and HFF) and other primates (Vero, BS-C-1, FRhK-4, BGMK, and MA104), a cytopathic effect (CPE) analysis indicated that the MA104 cell line was the most optimal for use in the detection of infectious enteric viruses. Both the sensitivity and specificity of virus detection in MA104 cells were similar to or higher than those in standard BGMK cells. Next, a method was developed for the determination of the infectiousness of enteric viruses using the colorimetric thiazolyl blue (MTT) assay. This assay utilizes 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide to yield % values based on colorimetric results. These results were compared with those from a conventional CPE-based TCID(50) assay, revealing no statistically significant difference between the two methods. The MTT% values in MA104 cells were comparable to those in BGMK cells. This MA104 cell-based MTT assay could substitute for the classical BGMK cell-based CPE assay for infectious enteric viruses. PMID:23578702

Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Gyu-Cheol; Kim, Jong Ik; Yi, Hyun Ah; Lee, Chan Hee



Infection With Viruses From Several Families Triggers Autoimmune Diabetes in LEW.1WR1 Rats  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The contribution of antecedent viral infection to the development of type 1 diabetes in humans is controversial. Using a newer rat model of the disease, we sought to 1) identify viruses capable of modulating diabetes penetrance, 2) identify conditions that increase or decrease the diabetogenicity of infection, and 3) determine whether maternal immunization would prevent diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS About 2% of LEW.1WR1 rats develop spontaneous autoimmune diabetes, but disease penetrance is much higher if weanling rats are exposed to environmental perturbants including Kilham rat virus (KRV). We compared KRV with other viruses for diabetogenic activity. RESULTS Both KRV and rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV) induced diabetes in up to 60% of LEW.1WR1 rats, whereas H-1, vaccinia, and Coxsackie B4 viruses did not. Simultaneous inoculation of KRV and RCMV induced diabetes in 100% of animals. Pretreatment of rats with an activator of innate immunity increased the diabetogenicity of KRV but not RCMV and was associated with a moderate rate of diabetes after Coxsackie B4 and vaccinia virus infection. Inoculation of LEW.1WR1 dams with both KRV and RCMV prior to pregnancy protected weanling progeny from virus-induced diabetes in a virus-specific manner. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to viruses can affect the penetrance of autoimmune diabetes in genetically susceptible animals. The diabetogenicity of infection is virus specific and is modified by immunomodulation prior to inoculation. Maternal immunization protects weanlings from virus-induced diabetes, suggesting that modification of immune responses to infection could provide a means of preventing islet autoimmunity. PMID:19794063

Tirabassi, Rebecca S.; Guberski, Dennis L.; Blankenhorn, Elizabeth P.; Leif, Jean H.; Woda, Bruce A.; Liu, Zhijun; Winans, Donald; Greiner, Dale L.; Mordes, John P.



Detection rate and clinical impact of respiratory viruses in children with Kawasaki disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this prospective case-control study was to survey the detection rate of respiratory viruses in children with Kawasaki disease (KD) by using multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and to investigate the clinical implications of the prevalence of respiratory viruses during the acute phase of KD. Methods RT-PCR assays were carried out to screen for the presence of respiratory syncytial virus A and B, adenovirus, rhinovirus, parainfluenza viruses 1 to 4, influenza virus A and B, metapneumovirus, bocavirus, coronavirus OC43/229E and NL63, and enterovirus in nasopharyngeal secretions of 55 KD patients and 78 control subjects. Results Virus detection rates in KD patients and control subjects were 32.7% and 30.8%, respectively (P=0.811). However, there was no significant association between the presence of any of the 15 viruses and the incidence of KD. Comparisons between the 18 patients with positive RT-PCR results and the other 37 KD patients revealed no significant differences in terms of clinical findings (including the prevalence of incomplete presentation of the disease) and coronary artery diameter. Conclusion A positive RT-PCR for currently epidemic respiratory viruses should not be used as an evidence against the diagnosis of KD. These viruses were not associated with the incomplete presentation of KD and coronary artery dilatation. PMID:23300502

Kim, Ja Hye; Lee, Jina; Kim, Mi-Na; Ko, Hong Ki; Choi, Hyung Soon; Kim, Young-Hwue; Ko, Jae-Kon



A Non-oncogenic HPV 16 E6/E7 Vaccine Enhances Treatment of HPV Expressing Tumors  

PubMed Central

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative factor for greater than 90% of cervical cancers and 25% of head and neck cancers. The incidence of HPV positive (+) head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) has greatly increased in the last 30 years. E6 and E7 are the two key viral oncoproteins that induce and propagate cellular transformation. An immune response generated during cisplatin/radiation therapy improves tumor clearance of HPV(+) cancers. Augmenting this induced response during therapy with an adenoviral HPV16 E6/E7 vaccine improves long term survival in preclinical models. Here we describe the generation of an HPV16 E6/E7 construct, which contains mutations that render E6/E7 non-oncogenic, while preserving antigenicity. These mutations do not allow E6/E7 to degrade p53, pRb, PTPN13, or activate telomerase. Non-oncogenic E6/E7 (E6?/E7?) expressed as a stable integrant, or in the [E1-, E2b-] adenovirus, lacks the ability to transform human cells while retaining the ability to induce an HPV specific immune response. Moreover, E6?/E7? plus chemotherapy/radiation statistically enhances clearance of established HPV(+) cancer in vivo. PMID:22918471

Wieking, Bryant G.; Vermeer, Daniel W.; Spanos, William C.; Lee, Kimberly M.; Vermeer, Paola; Lee, Walter T.; Xu, Younong; Gabitzsch, Elizabeth S.; Balcaitis, Stephanie; Balint, Joseph P.; Jones, Frank R.; Lee, John H.



Vascular endothelial growth factor signalling in endothelial cell survival: A role for NF{kappa}B  

SciTech Connect

Angiogenesis is the development of blood capillaries from pre-existing vessels. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of vessel growth and regression, and acts as an endothelial survival factor by protecting endothelial cells from apoptosis. Many genes involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis are regulated by the nuclear factor kappa B (NF{kappa}B) transcription factor family. This study aimed to address the hypothesis that VEGF-mediated survival effects on endothelium involve NF{kappa}B. Using an NF{kappa}B-luciferase reporter adenovirus, we observed activation of NF{kappa}B following VEGF treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. This was confirmed using electrophoretic mobility shift assay and found to involve nuclear translocation of NF{kappa}B sub-unit p65. However, NF{kappa}B activation occurred without degradation of inhibitory I{kappa}B proteins (I{kappa}B{alpha}, I{kappa}B{beta}, and I{kappa}B{epsilon}). Instead, tyrosine phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} was observed following VEGF treatment, suggesting NF{kappa}B activation was mediated by degradation-independent dissociation of I{kappa}B{alpha} from NF{kappa}B. Adenovirus-mediated over-expression of either native I{kappa}B{alpha}, or of I{kappa}B{alpha} in which tyrosine residue 42 was mutated to phenylalanine, inhibited induction of NF{kappa}B-dependent luciferase activity in response to VEGF. Furthermore, VEGF-induced upregulation of mRNA for the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and cell survival following serum withdrawal was reduced following I{kappa}B{alpha} over-expression. This study highlights that different molecular mechanisms of NF{kappa}B activation may be involved downstream of stimuli which activate the endothelial lining of blood vessels.

Grosjean, Jennifer [Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:; Kiriakidis, Serafim [Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Reilly, Kerri [Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Feldmann, Marc [Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Paleolog, Ewa [Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)



Oxidative stress in coronary artery disease: epigenetic perspective.  


The association between oxidative stress and coronary artery disease (CAD) is well documented. However, the role of epigenetic factors contributing to oxidative stress is relatively unexplored. In this study, we aimed to explore the impact of DNA methylation profile in BCL2/E1B adenovirus interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) on the oxidative stress in CAD. Further, the contribution of folate pathway genetic polymorphisms in regulating epigenome was elucidated. The expression of BNIP3, EC-SOD, and GSTP1 were studied by using Maxima@SYBR-green based real-time qPCR approach in peripheral blood samples. Combined bisulfite restriction analysis and methylation-specific PCR were used to study promoter CpG island methylation. Further, the effect of homocysteine on BNIP3 gene expression was studied in human aortic endothelial cells in vitro. CAD cases exhibited upregulation of BNIP3, downregulation of EC-SOD and GSTP1. Hypomethylation of BNIP3 and hypermethylation of EC-SOD were observed in CAD cases. The expression of BNIP3 was positively correlated with homocysteine, MDA, protein carbonyls, and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase C677T, while showing inverse association with cytosolic serine hydroxymethyl transferase C1420T. The expressions of EC-SOD and GSTP1 showed positive association with thymidylate synthase (TYMS) 2R3R, while inverse association with MDA, protein carbonyls, and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G. In vitro analysis showed homocysteine-dependent upregulation of BNIP3. The results of this study suggest that the aberrations in one-carbon metabolism appear to induce altered gene expression of EC-SOD, GSTP1, and BNIP3, and thus contribute to the increased oxidative stress and increased susceptibility to CAD. PMID:23160801

Lakshmi, Sana Venkata Vijaya; Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Reddy, Cheruku Apoorva; Saumya, Kankanala; Rao, Damera Seshagiri; Kotamraju, Srigiridhar; Kutala, Vijay Kumar



Borna disease virus nucleoprotein inhibits type I interferon induction through the interferon regulatory factor 7 pathway  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •IRF7 nuclear localisation was inhibited by BDV persistently infected. •BDV N protein resistant to IFN induction both in BDV infected OL cell and N protein plasmid transfected OL cell. •BDV N protein is related to the inhibition of IRF7 nuclear localisation. -- Abstract: The expression of type I interferon (IFN) is one of the most potent innate defences against viral infection in higher vertebrates. Borna disease virus (BDV) establishes persistent, noncytolytic infections in animals and in cultured cells. Early studies have shown that the BDV phosphoprotein can inhibit the activation of type I IFN through the TBK1–IRF3 pathway. The function of the BDV nucleoprotein in the inhibition of IFN activity is not yet clear. In this study, we demonstrated IRF7 activation and increased IFN-?/? expression in a BDV-persistently infected human oligodendroglia cell line following RNA interference-mediated BDV nucleoprotein silencing. Furthermore, we showed that BDV nucleoprotein prevented the nuclear localisation of IRF7 and inhibited endogenous IFN induction by poly(I:C), coxsackie virus B3 and IFN-?. Our findings provide evidence for a previously undescribed mechanism by which the BDV nucleoprotein inhibits type I IFN expression by interfering with the IRF7 pathway.

Song, Wuqi [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China) [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China); Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University (China); Kao, Wenping [The Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology, Heilongjiang Higher Education Institutions (China) [The Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology, Heilongjiang Higher Education Institutions (China); Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University (China); Zhai, Aixia [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China)] [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China); Qian, Jun; Li, Yujun [The Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology, Heilongjiang Higher Education Institutions (China)] [The Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology, Heilongjiang Higher Education Institutions (China); Zhang, Qingmeng [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China)] [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China); Zhao, Hong; Hu, Yunlong; Li, Hui [Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University (China)] [Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University (China); Zhang, Fengmin, E-mail: [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China) [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China); The Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology, Heilongjiang Higher Education Institutions (China); Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University (China)



Transgene expression is increased by photochemically mediated transduction of polycation-complexed adenoviruses.  


Poor efficiency of adenoviral gene transfer to target cells is a major limitation to adenoviral gene therapy. Inefficient gene transfer occurs in the absence of coxsackie- and adenovirus receptor (CAR) on the cell surface, and can be overcome by enhancing viral entry with cationic molecules. Recombinant adenovirus (Ad) noncovalently complexed with polycations imply a lack of transduction specificity. Therefore, we have investigated the potential of a novel light-specific treatment, named photochemical internalization (PCI), to enhance gene delivery of adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) complexed with the cationic agents poly-L-lysine (PLL) and SuperFect trade mark. Cell lines differing in their receptiveness to Ad5 were infected with amounts of virus transducing about 2% of the cells by conventional Ad infection. The combination of polycations and photochemical treatment enabled a substantial increase in reporter gene expression, resulting in up to 75% positive cells. The effect was most prominent in cell lines expressing moderate to low levels of CAR. Furthermore, we show that PCI enables proper gene delivery of fiberless Ad5 at viral concentrations and infection times where transduction of photochemically untreated cells was negligible, both in the absence and presence of PLL. Thus, we conclude that the photochemically induced transduction by adenoviral vectors complexed with polycations present an opportunity to obtain high cell-infectivity levels with low viral doses, also without the fiber-CAR interaction. PMID:14712299

Bonsted, A; Engesaeter, B Ø; Høgset, A; Maelandsmo, G M; Prasmickaite, L; Kaalhus, O; Berg, K



Isolation of enteroviruses from water, suspended solids, and sediments from Galveston Bay: survival of poliovirus and rotavirus adsorbed to sediments.  

PubMed Central

The distribution and quantitation of enteroviruses among water, suspended solids, and compact sediments in a polluted estuary are described. Samples were collected sequentially from water, suspended solids, fluffy sediments (uppermost layer of bottom sediments), and compact sediment. A total of 103 samples were examined of which 27 (26%) were positive for virus. Polioviruses were recovered most often, followed by coxsackie B viruses and echoviruses 7 and 29. Virus was found most often attached to suspended solids: 72% of these samples were positive, whereas only 14% of water samples without solids yielded virus. Fluffy sediments yielded virus in 47% of the samples, whereas only 5% of compact bottom-sediment samples were positive. When associated with solids, poliovirus and rotavirus retained their infectious quality for 19 days. The same viruses remained infectious for only 9 days when freely suspended in seawater. Collection of suspended solids at ambient water pH appears to be very useful for the detection of virus; it has advantages over collecting and processing large volumes of water, with accompanying pH adjustment and salt addition for processing. PMID:6091548

Rao, V C; Seidel, K M; Goyal, S M; Metcalf, T G; Melnick, J L



Broad-range inhibition of enterovirus replication by OSW-1, a natural compound targeting OSBP.  


Enteroviruses, e.g., polio-, coxsackie- and rhinoviruses, constitute a large genus within the Picornaviridae family of positive-strand RNA viruses and include many important pathogens linked to a variety of acute and chronic diseases. Despite their huge medical and economic impact, no approved antiviral therapy is yet available. Recently, the oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) was implicated as a host factor for enterovirus replication. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of the natural compound OSW-1, a ligand of OSBP that is under investigation as an anti-cancer drug. OSW-1 potently inhibited the replication of all enteroviruses tested, with IC50 values in the low nanomolar range, acted at the genome replication stage and was effective in all tested cell types of three different species. Importantly, OSBP overexpression rescued viral replication, demonstrating that the antiviral effect of OSW-1 is due to targeting OSBP. Together, we here report the anti-enterovirus activity of the natural anti-cancer compound OSW-1. PMID:25752737

Albulescu, Lucian; Strating, Jeroen R P M; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; van der Linden, Lonneke; Shair, Matthew D; Neyts, Johan; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M



Pinellia pedatisecta Agglutinin Targets Drug Resistant K562/ADR Leukemia Cells through Binding with Sarcolemmal Membrane Associated Protein and Enhancing Macrophage Phagocytosis  

PubMed Central

Pinelliapedatisecta agglutinin (PPA) has previously been used in labeling fractions of myeloid leukemia cells in our laboratory. We report here that a bacterial expressed recombinant PPA domain b tagged with soluble coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (sCAR-PPAb) preferentially recognized drug resistant cancer cells K562/ADR and H460/5Fu, as compared to their parental cell lines. Pretreatment of K562/ADR cells with sCAR-PPAb significantly enhanced phagocytosis of K562/ADR by macrophages in vivo. Meanwhile, in a K562/ADR xenograft model, intratumoral injection of sCAR-PPAb induced macrophage infiltration and phagocytosis. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry and Western blot identified the membrane target of PPA on K562/ADR as sarcolemmal membrane associated protein (SLMAP). An antibody against SLMAP significantly promoted the phagocytosis of K562/ADR by macrophages in vitro. These findings suggest that PPA not only could be developed into a novel agent that can detect drug resistant cancer cells and predict chemotherapy outcome, but also it has potential value in immunotherapy against drug resistant cancer cells through inducing the tumoricidal activity of macrophages. PMID:24019967

Chen, Kan; Yang, Xinyan; Wu, Liqin; Yu, Meilan; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Na; Wang, Shuanghui; Li, Gongchu



A novel immunocompetent murine model for replicating oncolytic adenoviral therapy  

PubMed Central

Oncolytic adenoviruses are under investigation as a promising novel strategy for cancer immunotherapeutics. Unfortunately, there is no immunocompetent mouse cancer model to test oncolytic adenovirus because murine cancer cells are generally unable to produce infectious viral progeny from human adenoviruses. We find that the murine K-ras-induced lung adenocarcinoma cell line ADS-12 supports adenoviral infection and generates infectious viral progeny. ADS-12 cells express the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor and infected ADS-12 cells express the viral protein E1A. We find that our previously described oncolytic virus, adenovirus TAV-255 (AdTAV-255), kills ADS-12 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We investigated ADS-12 cells as an in-vivo model system for replicating oncolytic adenoviruses. Subcutaneous injection of ADS-12 cells into immunocompetent 129 mice led to tumor formation in all injected mice. Intratumoral injection of AdTAV-255 in established tumors causes a significant reduction in tumor growth. This model system represents the first fully immunocompetent mouse model for cancer treatment with replicating oncolytic adenoviruses, and therefore will be useful to study the therapeutic effect of oncolytic adenoviruses in general and particularly immunostimulatory viruses designed to evoke an antitumor immune response. PMID:25525035

Zhang, L; Hedjran, F; Larson, C; Perez, G L; Reid, T



Infectious muscle disease.  


Infectious muscle diseases have very different aetiologies. The viral myositides are proved by clinical and laboratory evidences in various etiologic settings (Influenza A and B, Coxsackie and HIV). The bacterial myositis was considered in the near past a tropical disease, but in our days with migration of people from South to North and the endemia of AIDS it became a problem of the "civilized" world. On the other hand, tuberculous endemia in Central-Eastern Europe, including Romania, results in quite high incidence of osteoarticular tuberculosis. In this section the authors take into consideration some clinical entities, such as psoas abscess, postanginal sepsis, beta-haemolytic streptococcus infection and that caused by Koch bacillus. Other rare musculoskeletal infections such as gas gangrene and non-clostridial anaerobic myonecrosis are also reviewed. Immune depression caused by underlying diseases, therapies, alcoholism or old age is often encountered. The parasitic aetiologies include infestations with Trichinella spiralis, Cysticercus cellulosae, Toxoplasma and Amoeba. The contribution of imagistic methods to diagnosis is emphasised. Ultrasonography associated with CT imaging are usually used, while MRI should be reserved for cases in which axial skeleton is involved. The management is based on appropriate antibiotic therapy and surgery. PMID:17236294

Parasca, I; Damian, Laura; Albu, Adriana



HER3 targeting of adenovirus by fiber modification increases infection of breast cancer cells in vitro, but not following intratumoral injection in mice.  


Despite the tremendous potential of adenovirus (Ad) as a delivery vector for cancer gene therapy, its use in clinical settings has been limited, mainly as a result of the limited infectivity in many tumors and the wide tissue tropism associated with Ad. To modify the tropism of the virus, we have inserted the epidermal growth factor-like domain of the human heregulin-? (HRG) into the HI loop of Ad5 fiber. This insertion had no adverse effect on fiber trimerization nor did it affect incorporation of the modified fiber into infectious viral particles. Virions bearing modified fiber displayed growth characteristics and viral yields indistinguishable from those of wild-type (wt) virus. Most importantly, HRG-tagged virions showed enhanced infection of cells expressing the cognate receptors HER3/ErbB3 and HER4/ErbB4. This was significantly reduced in the presence of soluble HRG. Furthermore, HER3-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were transduced by the HRG-modified virus, but not by wt virus. In contrast, CHO cells expressing the coxsackie-Ad receptor were transduced with both viruses. However, infection of an in vivo breast cancer xenograft model after intratumoral injection was similar with both viruses, suggesting that the tumor microenvironment and/or the route of delivery have important roles in infection of target cells with fiber-modified Ads. PMID:23099884

MacLeod, S H; Elgadi, M M; Bossi, G; Sankar, U; Pisio, A; Agopsowicz, K; Sharon, D; Graham, F L; Hitt, M M



Infectious triggers in type 1 diabetes: is there a case for epitope mimicry?  


Environmental factors are the main contributors to type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis, yet they remain unidentified. Enteroviruses are proposed candidate triggers due to temporal correlations between infection and T1D autoimmunity and to detection of viral proteins in diseased islets. However, such correlations are not universal and may be relatively uncommon. Furthermore, evidence of a cause-effect relationship is lacking, as infection of non-obese diabetic mice with Coxsackie enteroviruses can either trigger or blunt disease. The proposed mechanisms are either non-antigen-specific (i.e. ?-cell destruction and release of sequestered antigens, islet inflammation) or antigen-specific (i.e. epitope mimicry, by which immune responses to enteroviruses may be diverted against homologous ?-cell antigens). The case for the latter mechanisms is even less stringent, as there is little evidence of promiscuous antigen recognition at the single T-cell level. Other infectious agents may thus be implicated. Demonstration of their role will require fulfilling the Koch's postulates, namely isolation of the agent preferentially in T1D patients, including before disease onset; and T1D induction when the agent is inoculated into mice. The same is needed for cross-reactive T cells to support epitope mimicry mechanisms. Generation of alternative (humanized) mouse models that could be challenged with candidate microbes is needed. PMID:24003924

Afonso, G; Mallone, R



Enhanced transduction of CAR-negative cells by protein IX-gene deleted adenovirus 5 vectors.  


In human adenoviruses (HAdV), 240 copies of the 14.3-kDa minor capsid protein IX stabilize the capsid. Three N-terminal domains of protein IX form triskelions between hexon capsomers. The C-terminal domains of four protein IX monomers associate near the facet periphery. The precise biological role of protein IX remains enigmatic. Here we show that deletion of the protein IX gene from a HAdV-5 vector enhanced the reporter gene delivery 5 to 25-fold, specifically to Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor (CAR)-negative cell lines. Deletion of the protein IX gene also resulted in enhanced activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The mechanism for the enhanced transduction is obscure. No differences in fiber loading, integrin-dependency of transduction, or factor-X binding could be established between protein IX-containing and protein IX-deficient particles. Our data suggest that protein IX can affect the cell tropism of HAdV-5, and may function to dampen the innate immune responses against HAdV particles. PMID:21130482

de Vrij, Jeroen; van den Hengel, Sanne K; Uil, Taco G; Koppers-Lalic, Danijela; Dautzenberg, Iris J C; Stassen, Oscar M J A; Bárcena, Montserrat; Yamamoto, Masato; de Ridder, Corrina M A; Kraaij, Robert; Kwappenberg, Kitty M; Schilham, Marco W; Hoeben, Rob C



Impairment of Myocardial Mitochondria in Viral Myocardial Disease and Its Reflective Window in Peripheral Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Viral myocardial disease (VMD) is a common disease inducing heart failure. It has not been clear the roles of mitochondrial damage in the pathological changes of cardiomyocytes in VMD. Methods Myocardial tissues and lymphocytes were collected from 83 VMD patients. Control groups included 12 cases of healthy accidental death with myocardial autopsy and 23 healthy blood donors. The mouse model of viral myocarditis (VMC) was established by Coxsackie virus B3 infection and myocardial tissues and skeletal muscle were collected. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion rate was quantitatively determined using polymerase chain reaction. Results There was significantly difference of myocardial mitochondrial DNA deletion rate between VMD or VMC group and control group (P<0.05). Moreover, the loss of mitochondrial membrane phospholipids was significantly different between VMD or VMC group and control group. In VMC mice, there were negative correlations between myocardial mtDNA3867 deletion rate and left ventricular peak systolic pressure (LVPSP) (r?=??0.66, P<0.05), and between myocardial mtDNA3867 deletion rate and +dp/dtmax (r?=??0.79, P<0.05), while there was positive correlation between myocardial mtDNA3867 deletion rate and ?dp/dtmax (r?=?0.80, P<0.05). Conclusion Mitochondrial damage is an important pathophysiological mechanism leading to myocardial injury and cardiac dysfunction. The mitochondrial damage in the skeletal muscle and lymphocytes reflect a “window” of myocardial mitochondrial damage. PMID:25551390

Wei, Jin; Gao, Deng-Feng; Wang, Hao; Yan, Rui; Liu, Zhi-Quan; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Liu, Jian; Chen, Ming-Xia



Inactivation of human viruses by povidone-iodine in comparison with other antiseptics.  


Inactivation of a range of viruses, such as adeno-, mumps, rota-, polio- (types 1 and 3), coxsackie-, rhino-, herpes simplex, rubella, measles, influenza and human immunodeficiency viruses, by povidone-iodine (PVP-I) and other commercially available antiseptics in Japan was studied in accordance with the standardized protocol in vitro. In these experiments, antiseptics such as PVP-I solution, PVP-I gargle, PVP-I cream, chlorhexidine gluconate, alkyldiaminoethyl-glycine hydrochloride, benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and benzethonium chloride (BEC) were used. PVP-I was effective against all the virus species tested. PVP-I drug products, which were examined in these experiments, inactivated all the viruses within a short period of time. Rubella, measles, mumps viruses and HIV were sensitive to all of the antiseptics, and rotavirus was inactivated by BAC and BEC, while adeno-, polio- and rhinoviruses did not respond to the other antiseptics. PVP-I had a wider virucidal spectrum, covering both enveloped and nonenveloped viruses, than the other commercially available antiseptics. PMID:9403252

Kawana, R; Kitamura, T; Nakagomi, O; Matsumoto, I; Arita, M; Yoshihara, N; Yanagi, K; Yamada, A; Morita, O; Yoshida, Y; Furuya, Y; Chiba, S



Pyrazole-related nucleosides. Synthesis and antiviral/antitumor activity of some substituted pyrazole and pyrazolo[4,3-d]-1,2,3-triazin-4-one nucleosides.  


Several pyrazole and pyrazolo[4,3-d]-1,2,3-triazin-4-one ribonucleosides were prepared and tested for antiviral/antitumor activities. Appropriate heterocyclic bases were prepared by standard methodologies. Glycosylation of pyrazoles 6a-e,g,i and of pyrazolo[4,3-d]-1,2,3-triazin-4-ones 12f-1 mediated by silylation with hexamethyldisilazane, with 1-beta-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-D-ribofuranose, gave in good yields the corresponding glycosides 7a-e,g, 8g,i, 13f,h,k, and 14f, but could not be applied to compounds 12g,i,j,l. To overcome this occurrence, a different strategy involving the preparation, diazotization, and in situ cyclization of opportune pyrazole glycosides 9 and 10 was required. Moreover derivatives having the general formula 5 were considered not only as synthetic intermediates in the synthesis of 3 but also as carbon bioisosteres of ribavirin 4. All compounds were evaluated in vitro for cytostatic and antiviral activity. The pyrazolo[4,3-d]-1,2,3-triazin-4-one nucleosides that resulted were substantially devoid of any activity; only 15h,k showed a moderate cytostatic activity against T-cells. However, pyrazole nucleosides 9b,c,e were potent and selective cytotoxic agents against T-lymphocytes, whereas 9e showed a selective, although not very potent, activity against coxsackie B1. PMID:1548681

Manfredini, S; Bazzanini, R; Baraldi, P G; Guarneri, M; Simoni, D; Marongiu, M E; Pani, A; Tramontano, E; La Colla, P



Retargeted adenoviral cancer gene therapy for tumour cells overexpressing epidermal growth factor receptor or urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor  

PubMed Central

We have assessed the ability of bispecific fusion proteins to improve adenovirus-mediated transfer of therapeutic and marker transgenes. We constructed an expression vector that can be easily modified to synthesize a variety of fusion proteins for retargeting adenoviral gene therapy vectors to cell surface markers, which are differentially expressed between normal and cancer cells. Adenoviral transduction can be improved in a number of tumour cell lines which overexpress EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) or uPAR (urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor), but which have only low levels of endogenous hCAR (human coxsackie B and adenovirus receptor) expression. Up to 40-fold improvement in ?-galactosidase transgene expression was seen using an EGFR retargeting protein, and up to 16-fold using a second fusion protein targeting uPAR. In vitro, our uPAR retargeting fusion protein improved the sensitivity to adenoviral herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir by an order of magnitude, whereas in vivo, our EGFR retargeting protein is able to significantly delay tumour growth in rodent animal models in a dose-dependent manner. The ‘cassette’ design of our fusion protein constructs offers a flexible method for the straightforward synthesis of multiple adenoviral retargeting proteins, directed against a variety of tumour-associated antigens, for use in clinical trials. PMID:20410926

Harvey, TJ; Burdon, D; Steele, L; Ingram, N; Hall, GD; Selby, PJ; Vile, RG; Cooper, PA; Shnyder, SD; Chester, JD



Nuclear factor-kappaB activation in alveolar macrophages requires IkappaB kinase-beta, but not nuclear factor-kappaB inducing kinase.  


Cytokine mediated activation of alveolar macrophages (AMs) is an important event in the pathogenesis of fibrosing alveolitis (FA). Through membrane-associated antigens, cytokines (e.g., tumor necrosis-factor-alpha and interleukin-1) are believed to activate a common kinase cascade that initiates the cytoplasmic degradation of IkappaB and nuclear translocation of "nuclear factor-kappaB" (NF-kappaB). In the nucleus, NF-kappaB promotes the transcription of genes encoding chemokines and cytokines involved in chronic inflammation. Preventing cytokine-mediated NF-kappaB activation is a potential strategy for attenuating the lung injury that occurs in FA. Previously, we have demonstrated that, unlike AMs from healthy volunteers, AMs from patients with inflammatory lung diseases express the coxsackie/adenovirus receptor and the alphav integrins required for adenovirus (Adv) infection. This property allows Adv-mediated transgene delivery to diseased, but not normal, AMs and analysis of molecular pathways involved in gene transcription. In this study, AMs were infected with Adv constructs expressing a defective beta subunit of IkappaB kinase (AdvIKKbetakd) and a defective NF-kappaB inducing kinase (AdvNIKkd) to investigate the contribution of these molecules to NF-kappaB activation. We observed that IKKbeta, but not NIK, was required for NF-kappaB activation. The results of this study identify IKKbeta, but not NIK, as a potential therapeutic target in diseases that involve NF-kappaB-dependent gene transcription. PMID:11934728

Conron, Matthew; Andreakos, Evangelos; Pantelidis, Panagiotis; Smith, Clive; Beynon, Huw L C; Dubois, Roland M; Foxwell, Brian M J



Sushi domain-containing protein 4 (SUSD4) inhibits complement by disrupting the formation of the classical C3 convertase.  


Recently discovered Sushi domain-containing protein 4 (SUSD4) contains several Sushi or complement control protein domains; therefore, we hypothesized that it may act as complement inhibitor. Two isoforms of human SUSD4, fused to the Fc part of human IgG, were recombinantly expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The secreted soluble isoform of SUSD4 (SUSD4b) inhibited the classical and lectin complement pathways by 50% at a concentration of 0.5 ?M. This effect was due to the fact that 1 ?M SUSD4b inhibited the formation of the classical C3 convertase by 90%. The membrane-bound isoform (SUSD4a) inhibited the classical and alternative complement pathways when expressed on the surface of CHO cells but not when expressed as a soluble, truncated protein. In all functional studies, we used known complement inhibitors as positive controls, while Coxsackie adenovirus receptor, which has no effect on complement, expressed with Fc tag, was a negative control. We also studied the mRNA expression of both isoforms of SUSD4 in a panel of human tissues using quantitative PCR and primarily found SUSD4a in esophagus and brain, while SUSD4b was highly expressed in esophagus, ovary, and heart. Overall, our results show that SUSD4 is a novel complement inhibitor with restricted expression. PMID:23482636

Holmquist, Emelie; Okroj, Marcin; Nodin, Björn; Jirström, Karin; Blom, Anna M



The novel complement inhibitor human CUB and Sushi multiple domains 1 (CSMD1) protein promotes factor I-mediated degradation of C4b and C3b and inhibits the membrane attack complex assembly.  


CUB and Sushi multiple domains 1 (CSMD1) is a transmembrane protein containing 15 consecutive complement control protein (CCP) domains, which are characteristic for complement inhibitors. We expressed a membrane-bound fragment of human CSMD1 composed of the 15 C-terminal CCP domains and demonstrated that it inhibits deposition of C3b by the classical pathway on the surface of Chinese hamster ovary cells by 70% at 6% serum and of C9 (component of membrane attack complex) by 90% at 1.25% serum. Furthermore, this fragment of CSMD1 served as a cofactor to factor I-mediated degradation of C3b. In all functional assays performed, well-characterized complement inhibitors were used as positive controls, whereas Coxsackie adenovirus receptor, a protein with no effect on complement, was a negative control. Moreover, attenuation of expression in human T47 breast cancer cells that express endogenous CSMD1 significantly increased C3b deposition on these cells by 45% at 8% serum compared with that for the controls. Furthermore, by expressing a soluble 17-21 CCP fragment of CSMD1, we found that CSMD1 inhibits complement by promoting factor I-mediated C4b/C3b degradation and inhibition of MAC assembly at the level of C7. Our results revealed a novel complement inhibitor for the classical and lectin pathways. PMID:23964079

Escudero-Esparza, Astrid; Kalchishkova, Nikolina; Kurbasic, Emila; Jiang, Wen G; Blom, Anna M



Oral administration of interferon-?2b-transformed Bifidobacterium longum protects BALB/c mice against coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis  

PubMed Central

Multiple reports have claimed that low-dose orally administered interferon (IFN)-? is beneficial in the treatment of many infectious diseases and provides a viable alternative to high-dose intramuscular treatment. However, research is needed on how to express IFN stably in the gut. Bifidobacterium may be a suitable carrier for human gene expression and secretion in the intestinal tract for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. We reported previously that Bifidobacterium longum can be used as a novel oral delivery of IFN-?. IFN-transformed B. longum can exert an immunostimulatory role in mice; however the answer to whether this recombinant B. longum can be used to treat virus infection still remains elusive. Here, we investigated the efficacy of IFN-transformed B. longum administered orally on coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis in BALB/c mice. Our data indicated that oral administration of IFN-transformed B. longum for 2 weeks after virus infection reduced significantly the severity of virus-induced myocarditis, markedly down regulated virus titers in the heart, and induced a T helper 1 cell pattern in the spleen and heart compared with controls. Oral administration of the IFN-transformed B. longum, therefore, may play a potential role in the treatment of CVB3-induced myocarditis. PMID:22151967



Pleuropericarditis and pericardial tamponade associated with inflammatory bowel disease.  


Extraintestinal manifestations have been described with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Cardiac involvement in IBD is rare and may present as pericardial effusion, myopericarditis and conduction defects. Here we present a case of IBD with asymptomatic pericardial tamponade. A 37-year-old African-American man with ulcerative colitis with history of previous colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis was hospitalized for resection of the stricture of ileorectal anastomosis. The patient was afebrile with stable vitals and modest jugular venous distension, but no pulsus paradoxus. Cardiopulmonary examination was normal. A CT scan done to evaluate rise in liver function tests following removal of stricture showed a large 3.1 cm pericardial effusion. A transthoracic 2-D echocardiogram showed a moderate-sized posterior pericardial effusion limiting left ventricular filling. Central venous pressure was 18 mm Hg and the patient underwent drainage of 300 ml of old bloody pericardial effusion. Pericardial biopsy showed organizing fibrinohemorrhagic chronically inflamed pericardium without granuloma or neoplastic process. Serologies for EBV, Coxsackie virus and hepatitides were negative. Drug-related pericarditis seems less likely as the patient was not on sulfasalazine, and ANA, dsDNA and rheumatoid factor titers were negative. The patient was diagnosed to have pericardial tamponade associated with IBD. PMID:16032926

Bansal, Darpan; Chahoud, Georges; Ison, Keith; Gupta, Ekta; Montgomery, Matthew; Garza, Luis; Mehta, J L



Highly sensitive detection of swine vesicular disease virus based on a single tube RT-PCR system and DIG-ELISA detection.  


A highly sensitive detection of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) based on a single tube RT-PCR system and digoxigenin (DIG)-PCR-ELISA detection was developed. Using a one tube RT-PCR system, optimisation of the PCR conditions and optimisation of the microwell hybridisation and colourimetric detection of the amplicons resulted in a method that could detect viral RNA in infected tissue culture fluid with a titre as low as 0.1 TCID50/100 microl. The same sensitivity was obtained with SVDV-spiked faeces, if the samples were pre-treated with 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane/chloroform and subsequently concentrated using an ultrafiltration system and RNA extracted with the Purescript kit. The specificity of the test was validated on 27 SVDV strains belonging to four different groups. No cross-reactivity with genetically and symptomatically related viruses was detected using RNA of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), porcine enterovirus (PEV), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), Coxsackie B5 virus (CV-B5) and encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). The test was validated successfully on clinical samples, being slightly more sensitive and much faster than virus isolation on cell cultures. Moreover the possibility of automating the procedure will allow the processing of large numbers of clinical samples. PMID:10029329

Callens, M; De Clercq, K



Cytotoxic and viral neutralizing antibodies crossreact with streptococcal M protein, enteroviruses, and human cardiac myosin.  

PubMed Central

The development of autoimmunity in certain instances is related to infectious agents. In this report, cytotoxic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize epitopes on both enteroviruses and the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes are described. Murine anti-streptococcal mAbs that were crossreactive with streptococcal M protein, human cardiac myosin, and other alpha-helical coiled-coil molecules were found to neutralize coxsackieviruses B3 and B4 or poliovirus type 1. The viral-neutralizing anti-streptococcal mAbs were also cytotoxic for heart and fibroblast cell lines and reacted with viral capsid proteins on a Western immunoblot. Alignment of amino acid sequences shared between streptococcal M protein, coxsackie-virus B3 capsid protein VP1, and myosin revealed 40% identity in a 14- to 15-amino acid overlap. Synthetic peptides containing these sequences blocked mAb reactivity with streptococcal M protein. The data show that antibodies against alpha-helical structures of bacterial and viral antigens can lead to cytotoxic reactions and may be one mechanism to explain the origin of autoimmune heart disease. Images PMID:1311095

Cunningham, M W; Antone, S M; Gulizia, J M; McManus, B M; Fischetti, V A; Gauntt, C J



The system of fucoidans from the brown seaweed Dictyota dichotoma: chemical analysis and antiviral activity.  


Room-temperature acid (pH 2) extraction of Dictyota dichotoma thalli yielded 2.2% of sulfated polysaccharides. Further extraction with the same solvent at 70°C was conducted sequentially for nine times, with a total yield of 7.2%. Fucose was the main monosaccharide only in the room-temperature extract (EAR) and in the first 70°C extract (EAH1). The remaining fractions showed increasing amounts of mannose (the main neutral monosaccharide), xylose and uronic acids. Fractionation by means of cetrimide precipitation and redissolution in increasing sodium chloride solutions has allowed obtaining several subfractions from each extract. The fractions redissolved at lower NaCl concentrations have large amounts of uronic acids and lesser sulfate contents, whereas those redissolved at higher NaCl concentrations are heavily sulfated and have low uronic acid contents. For the fucose-rich extracts (EAR and EAH1), fractionation leads to uronoxylomannofucan-rich and galactofucan-rich fractions. The remaining extracts gave rise to complex mixtures, with mannose and uronic acid-rich polysaccharides. Moderate inhibitory effect against herpes virus (HSV-1) and Coxsackie virus (CVB3) were found for the galactofucan-rich fractions. Most of the other fractions were inactive against both viruses, although some xylomannan-rich fractions were also active against HSV-1. PMID:24299842

Rabanal, Melissa; Ponce, Nora M A; Navarro, Diego A; Gómez, Ricardo M; Stortz, Carlos A



Fidelity Variants of RNA Dependent RNA Polymerases Uncover an Indirect, Mutagenic Activity of Amiloride Compounds  

PubMed Central

In a screen for RNA mutagen resistance, we isolated a high fidelity RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) variant of Coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3). Curiously, this variant A372V is also resistant to amiloride. We hypothesize that amiloride has a previously undescribed mutagenic activity. Indeed, amiloride compounds increase the mutation frequencies of CVB3 and poliovirus and high fidelity variants of both viruses are more resistant to this effect. We hypothesize that this mutagenic activity is mediated through alterations in intracellular ions such as Mg2+ and Mn2+, which in turn increase virus mutation frequency by affecting RdRp fidelity. Furthermore, we show that another amiloride-resistant RdRp variant, S299T, is completely resistant to this mutagenic activity and unaffected by changes in ion concentrations. We show that RdRp variants resist the mutagenic activity of amiloride via two different mechanisms: 1) increased fidelity that generates virus populations presenting lower basal mutation frequencies or 2) resisting changes in divalent cation concentrations that affect polymerase fidelity. Our results uncover a new antiviral approach based on mutagenesis. PMID:21060812

Beaucourt, Stéphanie; McPherson, Malia J.; Baron, Bruno; Arnold, Jamie J.; Vignuzzi, Marco



Enhanced prostate cancer gene transfer and therapy using a novel serotype chimera cancer terminator virus (Ad.5/3-CTV).  


Few options are available for treating patients with advanced prostate cancer (PC). As PC is a slow growing disease and accessible by ultrasound, gene therapy could provide a viable option for this neoplasm. Conditionally replication-competent adenoviruses (CRCAs) represent potentially useful reagents for treating PC. We previously constructed a CRCA, cancer terminator virus (CTV), which showed efficacy both in vitro and in vivo for PC. The CTV was generated on a serotype 5-background (Ad.5-CTV) with infectivity depending on Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptors (CARs). CARs are frequently reduced in many tumor types, including PCs thereby limiting effective Ad-mediated therapy. Using serotype chimerism, a novel CTV (Ad.5/3-CTV) was created by replacing the Ad.5 fiber knob with the Ad.3 fiber knob thereby facilitating infection in a CAR-independent manner. We evaluated Ad.5/3-CTV in comparison with Ad.5-CTV in low CAR human PC cells, demonstrating higher efficiency in inhibiting cell viability in vitro. Moreover, Ad.5/3-CTV potently suppressed in vivo tumor growth in a nude mouse xenograft model and in a spontaneously induced PC that develops in Hi-myc transgenic mice. Considering the significant responses in a Phase I clinical trial of a non-replicating Ad.5-mda-7 in advanced cancers, Ad.5/3-CTV may exert improved therapeutic benefit in a clinical setting. PMID:23868767

Azab, Belal M; Dash, Rupesh; Das, Swadesh K; Bhutia, Sujit K; Sarkar, Siddik; Shen, Xue-Ning; Quinn, Bridget A; Dent, Paul; Dmitriev, Igor P; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Curiel, David T; Pellecchia, Maurizio; Reed, John C; Sarkar, Devanand; Fisher, Paul B



Does the major histocompatibility complex serve as a specific receptor for Semliki Forest virus?  


Murine F9 and PCC4 teratoma cells do not express H-2 major transplantation antigens according to virus-specific T-lymphocyte cytotoxic or serological assays. However, such cells can be infected with and readily replicate many types of viruses (coxsackie B 3, mouse hepatitis, Sindbis, Semliki Forest [SFV], lymphocytic choriomeningitis, Pichinde, vesicular stomatitis, herpes simplex type 1) to the same extent as do murine F12 teratoma cells and mouse embryo fibroblasts, all of which express the H-2 determinants. In contrast, F9 and PCC4 cells are not productively infected with murine cytomegalovirus, whereas F12 and mouse embryo fibroblast cells are. In addition to replicating in H-2-negative murine teratoma cells, SFV replicates in H-2-negative murine lymphoblastoid cells. The ability of SFV to infect cells without H-2 antigens and then to effect viral antigenic expression in the cells' cytoplasm and on their surface with similar kinetics and in equivalent amounts as cells with H-2 antigens indicates that the H-2 receptor is not needed for SFV infection. Daudi cells, which lack HLA antigens, block the replication of SFV. This occurs at some point after receptor binding, as demonstrated by diminished viral mRNA. In addition, a possible membrane defect precludes viral exit in Daudi cells transfected with SFV infectious RNA. These results indicate that a cell's possession of H-2 antigens is not a requirement for SFV infection and that major histocompatibility complex antigens are not specific receptors for this virus. PMID:7373708

Oldstone, M B; Tishon, A; Dutko, F J; Kennedy, S I; Holland, J J; Lampert, P W



The post-viral syndrome: a review  

PubMed Central

The post-viral syndrome is described and its aetiology is discussed. Many features of the syndrome point to hysteria and altered medical perception as causes but much evidence for organic disease is also presented. Current interest focuses on recent or persisting infection with Coxsackie viruses. A balanced view of the syndrome as a mixture of organic and psychiatric dysfunction is offered. Widely differing estimates of incidence are quoted, possibly owing to varying medical awareness of the syndrome. Many drug therapies have been tried without success and management of the post-viral syndrome is hampered by the reluctance of patients to accept psychiatric support once the diagnosis is known. Many names have been proposed for the syndrome, some implying a purely physical or purely psychogenic aetiology: post-viral syndrome is suggested as the most appropriate term. Increased awareness of the syndrome will lead to an increase in its diagnosis in general practice: the role of the Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Association in promoting a combined psychiatric and organic view of the disease among sufferers is emphasized. PMID:3320358

Archer, M.I.



Restricted variability of a 17 nucleotide stretch within the 5'-noncoding region of poliovirus genome.  

PubMed Central

The outbreak of poliomyelitis in Finland in 1984 was caused by a wild strain of poliovirus 3 with uncommon molecular and antigenic properties. We prepared a synthetic oligonucleotide probe complementary to nucleotides 494-510 in the 5'-noncoding part of the genome of a representative strain of the outbreak. This short nucleotide stretch was found to be relatively well conserved within the outbreak and uncommon among 82 independent poliovirus isolates. It may thus be a useful marker for screening isolates to identify those requiring more detailed genetic comparison. The sequences of the corresponding region of the genome are known for 32 separate poliovirus strains and 3 coxsackie B virus strains and show 6 fully conserved nucleotides that could assume a constant hairpin-loop position in a hypothetical secondary structure of the RNA. This could explain the persistence of a particular 17 nucleotide sequence for 40 years in nature in this highly variable region of the poliovirus genome. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:2558034

Pöyry, T.; Kinnunen, L.; Hovi, T.



Neutrophil-derived JAML Inhibits Repair of Intestinal Epithelial Injury During Acute Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Neutrophil transepithelial migration (TEM) during acute inflammation is associated with mucosal injury. Using models of acute mucosal injury in-vitro and in-vivo, we describe a new mechanism by which neutrophils infiltrating the intestinal mucosa disrupt epithelial homeostasis. We report that junctional adhesion molecule-like protein (JAML) is cleaved from neutrophil surface by zinc-metalloproteases during TEM. Neutrophil-derived soluble JAML bound to the epithelial tight junction protein coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) resulting in compromised barrier and inhibition of wound repair, through decreased epithelial proliferation. The deleterious effects of JAML on barrier and wound repair were reversed with an anti-JAML mAb that inhibits JAML-CAR binding. Thus, JAML released from transmigrating neutrophils across inflamed epithelia can promote recruitment of leukocytes and aid in clearance of invading microorganisms. However, sustained release of JAML under pathologic conditions associated with persistence of large numbers of infiltrated neutrophil would compromise intestinal barrier and inhibit mucosal healing. Targeting JAML-CAR interactions may thus improve mucosal healing responses under conditions of dysregulated neutrophil recruitment. PMID:24621992

Weber, Dominique A.; Sumagin, Ronen; McCall, Ingrid C.; Leoni, Giovanna; Neumann, Philipp A.; Andargachew, Rakieb; Brazil, Jennifer C.; Medina-Contreras, Oscar; Denning, Timothy L.; Nusrat, Asma; Parkos, Charles A.



Solution Structure of the 2A Protease from a Common Cold Agent, Human Rhinovirus C2, Strain W12  

PubMed Central

Human rhinovirus strains differ greatly in their virulence, and this has been correlated with the differing substrate specificity of the respective 2A protease (2Apro). Rhinoviruses use their 2Apro to cleave a spectrum of cellular proteins important to virus replication and anti-host activities. These enzymes share a chymotrypsin-like fold stabilized by a tetra-coordinated zinc ion. The catalytic triad consists of conserved Cys (C105), His (H34), and Asp (D18) residues. We used a semi-automated NMR protocol developed at NMRFAM to determine the solution structure of 2Apro (C105A variant) from an isolate of the clinically important rhinovirus C species (RV-C). The backbone of C2 2Apro superimposed closely (1.41–1.81 Å rmsd) with those of orthologs from RV-A2, coxsackie B4 (CB4), and enterovirus 71 (EV71) having sequence identities between 40% and 60%. Comparison of the structures suggest that the differential functional properties of C2 2Apro stem from its unique surface charge, high proportion of surface aromatics, and sequence surrounding the di-tyrosine flap. PMID:24937088

Lee, Woonghee; Watters, Kelly E.; Troupis, Andrew T.; Reinen, Nichole M.; Suchy, Fabian P.; Moyer, Kylie L.; Frederick, Ronnie O.; Tonelli, Marco; Aceti, David J.; Palmenberg, Ann C.; Markley, John L.



Rapid and highly sensitive detection of Enterovirus 71 by using nanogold-enhanced electrochemical impedance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection is an emerging infectious disease causing neurological complications and/or death within two to three days after the development of fever and rash. A low viral titre in clinical specimens makes the detection of EV71 difficult. Conventional approaches for detecting EV71 are time consuming, poorly sensitive, or complicated, and cannot be used effectively for clinical diagnosis. Furthermore, EV71 and Coxsackie virus A16 (CA16) may cross react in conventional assays. Therefore, a rapid, highly sensitive, specific, and user-friendly test is needed. We developed an EV71-specific nanogold-modified working electrode for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the detection of EV71. Our results show that EV71 can be distinguished from CA16, Herpes simplex virus, and lysozyme, with the modified nanogold electrode being able to detect EV71 in concentrations as low as 1 copy number/50 ?l reaction volume, and the duration between sample preparation and detection being 11 min. This detection platform may have the potential for use in point-of-care diagnostics.

Li, Hsing-Yuan; Tseng, Shing-Hua; Cheng, Tsai-Mu; Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Lu, Yu-Ning; Wang, Fang-Yu; Tsai, Li-Yun; Shieh, Juo-Yu; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Juan, Chien-Chang; Tu, Lung-Chen; Chang, Chia-Ching



High sensitivity and label-free detection of Enterovirus 71 by nanogold modified electrochemical impedance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enterovirus 71 (EV71), which is the most fulminant and invasive species of enterovirus, can cause children neurologic complications and death within 2-3 days after fever and rash developed. Besides, EV71 has high sequence similarity with Coxsackie A 16 (CA16) that makes differential diagnosis difficult in clinic and laboratory. Since conventional viral diagnostic method cannot diagnose EV71 quickly and EV71 can transmit at low viral titer, the patients might delay in treatment. A quick, high sensitive, and high specific test for EV71 detection is pivotal. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been applied for detecting bio-molecules as biosensors recently. In this study, we try to build a detection platform for EV71 detection by nanogold modified EIS probe. The result shows that our probe can detect 3.6 VP1/50 ?l (one EV71 particle has 60 VP1) in 3 minutes. The test can also distinguish EV71 from CA16 and lysozyme. Diagnosis of enterovirus 71 by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has the potential to apply in clinic.

Wang, Fang-Yu; Li, Hsing-Yuan; Tseng, Shing-Hua; Cheng, Tsai-Mu; Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Chang, Chia-Ching



Isolation of enteroviruses from water, suspended solids, and sediments from Galveston Bay: survival of poliovirus and rotavirus adsorbed to sediments.  


The distribution and quantitation of enteroviruses among water, suspended solids, and compact sediments in a polluted estuary are described. Samples were collected sequentially from water, suspended solids, fluffy sediments (uppermost layer of bottom sediments), and compact sediment. A total of 103 samples were examined of which 27 (26%) were positive for virus. Polioviruses were recovered most often, followed by coxsackie B viruses and echoviruses 7 and 29. Virus was found most often attached to suspended solids: 72% of these samples were positive, whereas only 14% of water samples without solids yielded virus. Fluffy sediments yielded virus in 47% of the samples, whereas only 5% of compact bottom-sediment samples were positive. When associated with solids, poliovirus and rotavirus retained their infectious quality for 19 days. The same viruses remained infectious for only 9 days when freely suspended in seawater. Collection of suspended solids at ambient water pH appears to be very useful for the detection of virus; it has advantages over collecting and processing large volumes of water, with accompanying pH adjustment and salt addition for processing. PMID:6091548

Rao, V C; Seidel, K M; Goyal, S M; Metcalf, T G; Melnick, J L



T cell-independent restimulation of FVIII-specific murine memory B cells is facilitated by dendritic cells together with toll-like receptor 7 agonist.  


Memory B cells are involved in long-term maintenance of antibody-dependent immunologic disorders. Therefore, it is essential to understand how the restimulation of FVIII-specific memory B cells in hemophilia A with FVIII inhibitors is regulated. We asked whether concurrent activation of the innate immune system by an agonist for toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 is able to facilitate the differentiation of FVIII-specific memory B cells in the absence of T-cell help. TLR7 recognizes single-stranded RNA as contained in RNA viruses such as influenza, Sendai, and Coxsackie B viruses. Our results indicate that highly purified murine memory B cells do not differentiate into FVIII-specific antibody-secreting cells in the presence of FVIII and the TLR7 agonist when cultured in the absence of CD4(+) T cells. However, CD11c(+) dendritic cells facilitate the T cell-independent differentiation of FVIII-specific memory B cells but only in the presence of FVIII and the TLR7 agonist. In contrast to T cell-dependent restimulation, the antibody response after T cell-independent restimulation of FVIII-specific memory B cells is skewed toward IgG2a, an antibody subclass that is efficient in activating the complement system and in inducing Fc-receptor-mediated effector functions, both are required for effective immune responses against pathogens. PMID:21788339

Pordes, Aniko G; Baumgartner, Christina K; Allacher, Peter; Ahmad, Rafi U; Weiller, Markus; Schiviz, Alexandra N; Schwarz, Hans Peter; Reipert, Birgit M



In vitro activity of expanded-spectrum pyridazinyl oxime ethers related to pirodavir: novel capsid-binding inhibitors with potent antipicornavirus activity.  


Picornaviruses (PV) include human rhinovirus (HRV), the primary cause of the common cold, and the enteroviruses (EV), which cause serious diseases such as poliomyelitis, meningoencephalitis, and systemic neonatal disease. Although no compounds for PV infections have been approved in the United States, pirodavir was one of the most promising capsid-binding compounds to show efficacy in human clinical trials for chemoprophylaxis of the common cold. Susceptibility to hydrolysis precluded its use as an oral agent. We have developed orally bioavailable pyridazinyl oxime ethers that are as potent as pirodavir. Compounds BTA39 and BTA188 inhibited a total of 56 HRV laboratory strains and three clinical isolates as determined by neutral red uptake assay. At concentrations of <100 nM, BTA39 inhibited 69% of the HRV serotypes and isolates evaluated, BTA188 inhibited 75%, and pirodavir inhibited 59% of the serotypes and isolates. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) for the two compounds ranged from 0.5 nM to 6,701 nM. The compounds also inhibited EV, including coxsackie A and B viruses (IC(50) = 773 to 3,608 nM) and echoviruses (IC(50) = 193 to 5,155 nM). BTA39 only inhibited poliovirus strain WM-1 at 204 nM, and BTA188 only inhibited poliovirus strain Chat at 82 nM. EV 71 was inhibited by BTA39 and BTA188, with IC(50)s of 1 and 82 nM, respectively. Both compounds were relatively nontoxic in actively growing cells (50% cytotoxic doses, >/=4,588 nM). These data suggest that these oxime ethers warrant further investigation as potential agents for treating selected PV infections. PMID:15105133

Barnard, D L; Hubbard, V D; Smee, D F; Sidwell, R W; Watson, K G W; Tucker, S P T; Reece, P A R



pH-sensitive oncolytic adenovirus hybrid targeting acidic tumor microenvironment and angiogenesis.  


Although oncolytic adenoviruses (Ads) are an attractive option for cancer gene therapy, the intravenous administration of naked Ad still encounters unfavorable host responses, non-specific interactions, and heterogeneity in targeted cancer cells. To overcome these obstacles and achieve specific targeting of the tumor microenvironment, Ad was coated with the pH-sensitive block copolymer, methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(l-histidine-co-l-phenylalanine) (PEGbPHF). The physicochemical properties of the generated nanocomplex, Ad/PEGbPHF, were assessed. At pH6.4, GFP-expressing Ad/PEGbPHF induced significantly higher GFP expression than naked Ad in both coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR)-positive and -negative cells. To assess the therapeutic efficacy of the Ad/PEGbPHF complex platform, an oncolytic Ad expressing VEGF promoter-targeting transcriptional repressor (KOX) was used to form complexes. At pH6.4, KOX/PEGbPHF significantly suppressed VEGF gene expression, cancer cell migration, vessel sprouting, and cancer cell killing effect compared to naked KOX or KOX/PEGbPHF at pH7.4, demonstrating that KOX/PEGbPHF can overcome the lack of CAR that is frequently observed in tumor tissues. The antitumor activity of KOX/PEGbPHF systemically administered to a tumor xenograft model was significantly higher than that of naked KOX. Furthermore, KOX/PEGbPHF showed lower hepatic toxicity and did not induce an innate immune response against Ad. Altogether, these results demonstrate that pH-sensitive polymer-coated Ad complex significantly increases net positive charge upon exposure to hypoxic tumor microenvironment, allowing passive targeting to the tumor tissue. It may offer superior potential for systemic therapy, due to its improved tumor selectivity, increased therapeutic efficacy, and lower toxicity compared to naked KOX. PMID:25575865

Choi, Joung-Woo; Jung, Soo-Jung; Kasala, Dayananda; Hwang, June Kyu; Hu, Jun; Bae, You Han; Yun, Chae-Ok



Broad-spectrum antiviral activity of the IMP dehydrogenase inhibitor VX-497: a comparison with ribavirin and demonstration of antiviral additivity with alpha interferon.  


The enzyme IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH) catalyzes an essential step in the de novo biosynthesis of guanine nucleotides, namely, the conversion of IMP to XMP. The major event occurring in cells exposed to competitive IMPDH inhibitors such as ribavirin or uncompetitive inhibitors such as mycophenolic acid (MPA) is a depletion of the intracellular GTP and dGTP pools. Ribavirin is approved as an inhaled antiviral agent for treatment of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and orally, in combination with alpha interferon (IFN-alpha), for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. VX-497 is a potent, reversible uncompetitive IMPDH inhibitor which is structurally unrelated to other known IMPDH inhibitors. Studies were performed to compare VX-497 and ribavirin in terms of their cytotoxicities and their efficacies against a variety of viruses. They included DNA viruses (hepatitis B virus [HBV], human cytomegalovirus [HCMV], and herpes simplex virus type 1 [HSV-1]) and RNA viruses (respiratory syncytial virus [RSV], parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus [VEEV], dengue virus, yellow fever virus, coxsackie B3 virus, encephalomyocarditis virus [EMCV], and influenza A virus). VX-497 was 17- to 186-fold more potent than ribavirin against HBV, HCMV, RSV, HSV-1, parainfluenza-3 virus, EMCV, and VEEV infections in cultured cells. The therapeutic index of VX-497 was significantly better than that of ribavirin for HBV and HCMV (14- and 39-fold, respectively). Finally, the antiviral effect of VX-497 in combination with IFN-alpha was compared to that of ribavirin with IFN-alpha in the EMCV replication system. Both VX-497 and ribavirin demonstrated additivity when coapplied with IFN-alpha, with VX-497 again being the more potent in this combination. These data are supportive of the hypothesis that VX-497, like ribavirin, is a broad-spectrum antiviral agent. PMID:10722482

Markland, W; McQuaid, T J; Jain, J; Kwong, A D



Safety profiles and antitumor efficacy of oncolytic adenovirus coated with bioreducible polymer in the treatment of a CAR negative tumor model.  


Adenovirus (Ad) vectors show promise as cancer gene therapy delivery vehicles, but immunogenic safety concerns and coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR)-dependency have limited their use. Alternately, biocompatible and bioreducible nonviral vectors, including arginine-grafted cationic polymers, have been shown to deliver nucleic acids through a cell penetration peptide (CPP) and protein transduction domain (PTD) effect. We utilized the advantages of both viral and nonviral vectors to develop a hybrid gene delivery vehicle by coating Ad with mPEG-PEI-g-Arg-S-S-Arg-g-PEI-mPEG (Ad/PPSA). Characterization of Ad/PPSA particle size and zeta potential showed an overall size and cationic charge increase in a polymer concentration-dependent manner. Ad/PPSA also showed a marked transduction efficiency increase in both CAR-negative and -positive cells compared to naked Ad. Competition assays demonstrated that Ad/PPSA produced higher transgene expression levels than naked Ad and achieved CAR-independent transduction. Oncolytic Ad (DWP418)/PPSA was able to overcome the nonspecificity of polymer-only therapies by demonstrating cancer-specific killing effects. Furthermore, the DWP418/PPSA nanocomplex elicited a 2.24-fold greater antitumor efficacy than naked Ad in vivo. This was supported by immunohistochemical confirmation of Ad E1As accumulation in MCF7 xenografted tumors. Lastly, intravenous injection of DWP418/PPSA elicited less innate immune response compared to naked Ad, evaluated by interleukin-6 cytokine release into the serum. The increased antitumor effect and improved vector targeting to both CAR-negative and -positive cells make DWP418/PPSA a promising tool for cancer gene therapy. PMID:25400213

Jung, Soo-Jung; Kasala, Dayananda; Choi, Joung-Woo; Lee, Soo-Hwan; Hwang, June Kyu; Kim, Sung Wan; Yun, Chae-Ok



Sudden unexpected death related to enterovirus myocarditis: histopathology, immunohistochemistry and molecular pathology diagnosis at post-mortem  

PubMed Central

Background Viral myocarditis is a major cause of sudden unexpected death in children and young adults. Until recently, coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) has been the most commonly implicated virus in myocarditis. At present, no standard diagnosis is generally accepted due to the insensitivity of traditional diagnostic tests. This has prompted health professionals to seek new diagnostic approaches, which resulted in the emergence of new molecular pathological tests and a more detailed immunohistochemical and histopathological analysis. When supplemented with immunohistochemistry and molecular pathology, conventional histopathology may provide important clues regarding myocarditis underlying etiology. Methods This study is based on post-mortem samples from sudden unexpected death victims and controls who were investigated prospectively. Immunohistochemical investigations for the detection of the enteroviral capsid protein VP1 and the characterization and quantification of myocardial inflammatory reactions as well as molecular pathological methods for enteroviral genome detection were performed. Results Overall, 48 sudden unexpected death victims were enrolled. As for controls, 37 cases of unnatural traffic accident victims were studied. Enterovirus was detected in 6 sudden unexpected death cases (12.5?%). The control samples were completely enterovirus negative. Furthermore, the enteroviral capsid protein VP1 in the myocardium was detected in enterovirus-positive cases revealed by means of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Unlike control samples, immunohistochemical investigations showed a significant presence of T and B lymphocytes in sudden unexpected death victims. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate clearly a higher prevalence of viral myocarditis in cases of sudden unexpected death compared to control subjects, suggesting that coxsackie B enterovirus may contribute to myocarditis pathogenesis significantly. PMID:22966951



Differential susceptibility and response of primary human myeloid BDCA1(+) dendritic cells to infection with different Enteroviruses.  


Coxsackie B viruses (CVBs) and echoviruses (EVs) form the Human Enterovirus-B (HEV-B) species within the family Picornaviridae. HEV-B infections are widespread and generally cause mild disease; however, severe infections occur and HEV-B are associated with various chronic diseases such as cardiomyopathy and type 1 diabetes. Dendritic cells (DCs) are the professional antigen-presenting cells of our immune system and initiate and control immune responses to invading pathogens, yet also maintain tolerance to self-antigens. We previously reported that EVs, but not CVBs, can productively infect in vitro generated monocyte-derived DCs. The interactions between HEV-B and human myeloid DCs (mDCs) freshly isolated from blood, however, remain unknown. Here, we studied the susceptibility and responses of BDCA1(+) mDC to HEV-B species and found that these mDC are susceptible to EV, but not CVB infection. Productive EV7 infection resulted in massive, rapid cell death without DC activation. Contrary, EV1 infection, which resulted in lower virus input at the same MOI, resulted in DC activation as observed by production of type I interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), upregulation of co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules (CD80, CD86, PDL1) and production of IL-6 and TNF-?, with a relative moderate decrease in cell viability. EV1-induced ISG expression depended on virus replication. CVB infection did not affect DC viability and resulted in poor induction of ISGs and CD80 induction in part of the donors. These data show for the first time the interaction between HEV-B species and BDCA1(+) mDCs isolated freshly from blood. Our data indicate that different HEV-B species can influence DC homeostasis in various ways, possibly contributing to HEV-B associated pathology. PMID:23638101

Schulte, Barbara M; Kers-Rebel, Esther D; Prosser, Amy C; Galama, Jochem M D; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Adema, Gosse J



Alveolar macrophages and T cells from sarcoid, but not normal lung, are permissive to adenovirus infection and allow analysis of NF-kappa b-dependent signaling pathways.  


Adenovirus (Adv)-mediated gene transfer requires efficient infection of target cells. The objective of this study was to establish whether alveolar macrophages (AM) and T cells (AT) from sarcoid patients were permissive to infection with Adv vectors and if this property could be used to investigate cytokine gene regulation. Sarcoid and normal bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens infected with Adv vectors expressing either beta-galactosidase or a green fluorescent protein were analyzed for transgene expression by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) and direct immunofluorescence, respectively. Expression of surface antigens previously associated with Adv infection, the coxsackie/adenovirus receptor (CAR), alpha v beta 3, and alpha v beta 5 integrins, was also assessed using FACS analysis. Sarcoid AM and AT were found to efficiently express Adv transgenes, unlike AM from normal volunteers, peripheral blood monocytes, and peripheral blood T cells. Cells permissive to Adv infection expressed the CAR and alpha v beta 5 integrin (also alpha v beta 3 integrin for AM). The data indicate that the upregulation of Adv receptors and the ability to infect sarcoid AM and AT are related to the inflammatory environment within the lung. Having demonstrated efficient Adv-mediated transgene delivery to sarcoid AM and AT, a construct encoding porcine I kappa B alpha was then used to investigate the requirement for nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B in the regulation of cytokine gene expression in pulmonary sarcoidosis. Overexpression of I kappa B alpha in sarcoid BAL specimens indicated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 production by AM and interferon (IFN)-gamma production by AT is NF-kappa B dependent, whereas IL-4 production by AT is NF-kappa B independent. This is the first occasion that the requirement for NF-kappa B in IFN-gamma gene expression within primary human T cells has been demonstrated. The results of this study have implications for the future investigation of molecular pathways in inflammatory lung disease. PMID:11509322

Conron, M; Bondeson, J; Pantelidis, P; Beynon, H L; Feldmann, M; duBois, R M; Foxwell, B M



Multimodality Diagnostic Imaging in Unilateral Acute Idiopathic Maculopathy  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the clinical features and imaging characteristics in unilateral acute idiopathic maculopathy (UAIM). Methods This is a retrospective review of four patients diagnosed with UAIM. Clinical characteristics (age, symptoms, Snellen visual acuity (VA), and funduscopic features) and images from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fluorescein (FA), and indocyanine green (ICG) angiography were analyzed. Results The median age at presentation was 31 years (range 27–52 years). The median interval between symptom onset and presentation was four weeks (range 1–20 weeks). Associated systemic findings included a viral prodrome (50%), orchitis (50%), hand-foot-mouth disease (25%), and positive Coxsackie virus titers (50%). The median presenting VA was 20/400 (range 20/70–1/400), which improved to 20/30 (range 20/20–20/60) at final follow-up. The median follow-up time was 6 weeks (range 0–8 weeks). Early in the disease course, the central macula developed irregular, circular areas of white-grey discoloration. Following recovery, the macula had a stippled retinal pigment epithelium characterized by rarefaction and hyperplasia. FA demonstrated irregular early hyperfluorescence and late subretinal hyperfluorescence. SD-OCT showed a partially reversible disruption of the outer photoreceptor layer. FAF initially revealed stippled autofluorescence that eventually became more hypoautofluorescent. ICG showed “moth-eaten” appearing choroidal vasculature, suggestive of choroidal inflammation. Conclusions The imaging characteristics highlight the structural changes during the active and resolution phases of UAIM. The visual recovery correlates with structural changes and suggests that the pathogenesis involves inflammation of the inner choroid, retinal pigment epithelium, and outer photoreceptor complex that is partially reversible. PMID:22232475

Jung, Cecilia S.; Payne, John F.; Bergstrom, Chris S.; Cribbs, Blaine E.; Yan, Jiong; Hubbard, G. Baker; Olsen, Timothy W.; Yeh, Steven



Primary Murine CD4+ T Cells Fail to Acquire the Ability to Produce Effector Cytokines When Active Ras Is Present during Th1/Th2 Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Constitutive Ras signaling has been shown to augment IL-2 production, reverse anergy, and functionally replace many aspects of CD28 co-stimulation in CD4+ T cells. These data raise the possibility that introduction of active Ras into primary T cells might result in improved functionality in pathologic situations of T cell dysfunction, such as cancer or chronic viral infection. To test the biologic effects of active Ras in primary T cells, CD4+ T cells from Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptor Transgenic mice were transduced with an adenovirus encoding active Ras. As expected, active Ras augmented IL-2 production in naive CD4+ T cells. However, when cells were cultured for 4 days under conditions to promote effector cell differentiation, active Ras inhibited the ability of CD4+ T cells to acquire a Th1 or Th2 effector cytokine profile. This differentiation defect was not due to deficient STAT4 or STAT6 activation by IL-12 or IL-4, respectively, nor was it associated with deficient induction of T-bet and GATA-3 expression. Impaired effector cytokine production in active Ras-transduced cells was associated with deficient demethylation of the IL-4 gene locus. Our results indicate that, despite augmenting acute activation of naïve T cells, constitutive Ras signaling inhibits the ability of CD4+ T cells to properly differentiate into Th1/Th2 effector cytokine-producing cells, in part by interfering with epigenetic modification of effector gene loci. Alternative strategies to potentiate Ras pathway signaling in T cells in a more regulated fashion should be considered as a therapeutic approach to improve immune responses in vivo. PMID:25397617

Janardhan, Sujit V.; Marks, Reinhard; Gajewski, Thomas F.



Prevalence of human enteroviruses among apparently healthy nursery school children in Accra  

PubMed Central

Introduction Human enteroviruses are common in children causing asymptomatic infections ranging from mild to severe illnesses. In Ghana, information on the prevalence of non-polio enterovirus causing acute flaccid paralysis is available but data on surveillance of these viruses in school children is scanty. Here, the prevalence of human enteroviruses among apparently healthy children in selected school in Accra was studied. Methods Stool samples from 273 apparently healthy children less than eight years of age in 9 selected nursery schools were collected between December 2010 and March 2011and processed for human enteroviruses on L20B, RD and Hep-2 cell lines. Positive Isolates were characterized by microneutralisation assay with antisera pools from RIVM, the Netherlands according to standard methods recommended by WHO. Results Of the 273 samples processed, 66 (24.2%) non-polio enteroviruses were isolated. More growth was seen on Hep-2C (46%) only than RD (18%) only and on both cell lines (34%). No growth was seen on L20B even after blind passage. Excretion of non-polio enteroviruses was found in all the schools with majority in BD school. Serotyping of the isolates yielded predominantly Coxsackie B viruses followed by echoviruses 13 and 7. More than half of the isolates could not be typed by the antisera pools. Conclusion The study detected 13 different serotypes of non-polio enteroviruses in circulation but no poliovirus was found. BD school was found to have the highest prevalence of NPEV. Complete identification through molecular methods is essential to establish the full range of NPEVs in circulation in these schools. PMID:25400833

Attoh, Juliana; Obodai, Evangeline; Adiku, Theophilus; Odoom, John Kofi



Molecular Epidemiology of Human Enterovirus Associated with Aseptic Meningitis in Shandong Province, China, 2006–2012  

PubMed Central

Background Human enteroviruses (HEVs) are common causes of acute meningitis. However, there is limited information about HEV associated with aseptic meningitis in mainland China because it has not been classified as a notifiable disease. Objectives To characterize the HEVs associated with sporadic aseptic meningitis in China and to analyze their genetic features. Study Design Cerebrospinal fluid, throat swab and feces specimens were collected from patients with aseptic meningitis in 5 sentinel hospitals in Shandong Province, China between 2006 and 2012. Virological investigation (viral isolation and molecular identification) and phylogenetic analysis were performed. Results A total of 437 hospitalized patients were reported, and enteroviruses were detected in the specimens from 84 patients (19.2%) and were identified into 17 serotypes. The nine main serotypes were echovirus (E) 30 (27.4%), EV71 (13.1%), coxsackievirus (CV) B1 (9.5%), CVB3 (7.1%), CVB5 (7.1%), E6 (7.1%), E9 (7.1%), CVA9 (6.0%), and CVA10 (3.6%). Monthly distribution of isolated enteroviruses revealed a major peak in summer-fall season and a small second peak in winter constituted totally by EV71. Sequence analysis on VP1 coding region suggested Shandong strains had great genetic divergence with isolates from other countries. Conclusions Multiple serotypes were responsible for enterovirus meningitis in mainland China. Aseptic meningitis caused by EV71 and coxsackie A viruses–the predominant pathogens for the hand, foot, and mouth disease–is currently an important concern in mainland China. PMID:24587020

Liu, Guifang; Xu, Aiqiang; Lin, Xiaojuan; Song, Lizhi; Ji, Feng; Wang, Suting; Cui, Ning; Song, Yanyan



Proteomic and biochemical analyses reveal the activation of unfolded protein response, ERK-1/2 and ribosomal protein S6 signaling in experimental autoimmune myocarditis rat model  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate the molecular and cellular pathogenesis underlying myocarditis, we used an experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM)-induced heart failure rat model that represents T cell mediated postinflammatory heart disorders. Results By performing unbiased 2-dimensional electrophoresis of protein extracts from control rat heart tissues and EAM rat heart tissues, followed by nano-HPLC-ESI-QIT-MS, 67 proteins were identified from 71 spots that exhibited significantly altered expression levels. The majority of up-regulated proteins were confidently associated with unfolded protein responses (UPR), while the majority of down-regulated proteins were involved with the generation of precursor metabolites and energy metabolism in mitochondria. Although there was no difference in AKT signaling between EAM rat heart tissues and control rat heart tissues, the amounts and activities of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 and ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) were significantly increased. By comparing our data with the previously reported myocardial proteome of the Coxsackie viruses of group B (CVB)-mediated myocarditis model, we found that UPR-related proteins were commonly up-regulated in two murine myocarditis models. Even though only two out of 29 down-regulated proteins in EAM rat heart tissues were also dysregulated in CVB-infected rat heart tissues, other proteins known to be involved with the generation of precursor metabolites and energy metabolism in mitochondria were also dysregulated in CVB-mediated myocarditis rat heart tissues, suggesting that impairment of mitochondrial functions may be a common underlying mechanism of the two murine myocarditis models. Conclusions UPR, ERK-1/2 and S6RP signaling were activated in both EAM- and CVB-induced myocarditis murine models. Thus, the conserved components of signaling pathways in two murine models of acute myocarditis could be targets for developing new therapeutic drugs or methods aimed at treating enigmatic myocarditis. PMID:22014063



Nonhomologous Recombination between Defective Poliovirus and Coxsackievirus Genomes Suggests a New Model of Genetic Plasticity for Picornaviruses  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Most of the circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) implicated in poliomyelitis outbreaks in Madagascar have been shown to be recombinants between the type 2 poliovirus (PV) strain of the oral polio vaccine (Sabin 2) and another species C human enterovirus (HEV-C), such as type 17 coxsackie A virus (CA17) in particular. We studied intertypic genetic exchanges between PV and non-PV HEV-C by developing a recombination model, making it possible to rescue defective type 2 PV RNA genomes with a short deletion at the 3? end by the cotransfection of cells with defective or infectious CA17 RNAs. We isolated over 200 different PV/CA17 recombinants, using murine cells expressing the human PV receptor (PVR) and selecting viruses with PV capsids. We found some homologous (H) recombinants and, mostly, nonhomologous (NH) recombinants presenting duplications of parental sequences preferentially located in the regions encoding proteins 2A, 2B, and 3A. Short duplications appeared to be stable, whereas longer duplications were excised during passaging in cultured cells or after multiplication in PVR-transgenic mice, generating H recombinants with diverse sites of recombination. This suggests that NH recombination events may be a transient, intermediate step in the generation and selection of the fittest H recombinants. In addition to the classical copy-choice mechanism of recombination thought to generate mostly H recombinants, there may also be a modular mechanism of recombination, involving NH recombinant precursors, shaping the genomes of recombinant enteroviruses and other picornaviruses. PMID:25096874

Holmblat, Barbara; Jégouic, Sophie; Muslin, Claire; Blondel, Bruno; Joffret, Marie-Line



Dual tumor targeting with pH-sensitive and bioreducible polymer-complexed oncolytic adenovirus.  


Oncolytic adenoviruses (Ads) have shown great promise in cancer gene therapy but their efficacy has been compromised by potent immunological, biochemical, and specific tumor-targeting limitations. To take full advantage of the innate cancer-specific killing potency of oncolytic Ads but also exploit the subtleties of the tumor microenvironment, we have generated a pH-sensitive and bio-reducible polymer (PPCBA)-coated oncolytic Ad. Ad-PPCBA complexes showed higher cellular uptake at pH 6.0 than pH 7.4 in both high and low coxsackie and adenovirus receptor-(CAR)-expressing cells, thereby demonstrating Ad-PPCBA's ability to target the low pH hypoxic tumor microenvironment and overcome CAR dependence for target cell uptake. Endocytic mechanism studies indicated that Ad-PPCBA internalization is mediated by macropinocytosis instead of the CAR-dependent endocytic pathway that internalizes naked Ad. VEGF-specific shRNA-expressing oncolytic Ad complexed with PPCBA (RdB/shVEGF-PPCBA) elicited much more potent suppression of U87 human brain cancer cell VEGF gene expression in vitro, and human breast cancer MCF7 cell/Matrigel plug vascularization in a mouse model, when cancer cells had been previously infected at pH 6.0 versus pH 7.4. Moreover, intratumorally and intravenously injected RdB/shVEGF-PPCBA nanocomplexes elicited significantly higher therapeutic efficacy than naked virus in U87-tumor mouse xenograft models, reducing IL-6, ALT, and AST serum levels. These data demonstrated PPCBA's biocompatibility and capability to shield the Ad surface to prevent innate immune response against Ad after both intratumoral and systemic administration. Taken together, these results demonstrate that smart, tumor-specific, oncolytic Ad-PPCBA complexes can be exploited to treat both primary and metastatic tumors. PMID:25522965

Moon, Chang Yoon; Choi, Joung-Woo; Kasala, Dayananda; Jung, Soo-Jung; Kim, Sung Wan; Yun, Chae-Ok



Characterization of the dengue virus-induced helper cytokine.  

PubMed Central

Dengue type 2 virus (DV) induces a subpopulation of T lymphocytes of mouse spleen to secrete a soluble helper cytokine (HF) which enhances the DV-specific IgM antibody plaque forming cells (PFC). The present study undertaken to purify and characterize HF shows that it can be purified by low pressure liquid chromatography (LPLC) using Sephacryl S-200 column. HF consisted of two subunits, having a M(r) of 65-68 kDa on SDS-PAGE, and both had similar activity. The isoelectric point of HF was 6.5. HF-specific antisera (HFAS) raised in mice neutralized the activity of HF in mice, reacted with it in a Western blot assay, and bound HF in an immunosorbent column. HF bound to DV-antigen in an immunosorbent column and enhanced only the DV-specific PFC. HF had no effect on PFC against heterologous antigens such as Japanese encephalitis virus, Coxsackie B4 virus or sheep red blood cells. HF generated in mice of H-2k haplotype, enhanced DV-specific PFC in the same strain of mice but had no effect on that in the H-2d or H-2q haplotype strains of mice. Thus, DV-induced HF with a M(r) of 65-68 kDa, antigen-specificity and genetic-restriction differs from most of the similarly acting cytokines but appears similar to the cell-free form of T cell receptor alpha beta dimer. Images Fig. 4 PMID:1377930

Chaturvedi, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Chaturvedi, U. C.; Mathur, A.



Human Enteroviruses isolated during acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in Ghana: implications for the post eradication era  

PubMed Central

Introduction Surveillance of acute flaccid surveillance (AFP) has been used world-wide to monitor the control and eradication of circulating wild polioviruses. The Polio Laboratory since its accreditation in 1996 has supported the Disease Surveillance Department for AFP surveillance. This study aims to isolate and characterize human enteroviruses from patients with AFP in Ghana. Method Stool suspension was prepared from 308 samples received in 2009 from the surveillance activities throughout the country and inoculated on both RD and L20B cell lines. Isolates that showed growth on L20B were selected for real-time RT-PCR using degenerate and non-degenerate primers and probes. RD isolates were however characterized by microneutralisation technique with antisera pools from RIVM, The Netherlands and viruses that were untypable subjected to neutralization assay using antibodies specific for E71. Results Of the 308 samples processed, 17 (5.5%) grew on both L20B and RD cells while 32 (10.4%) grew on RD only. All 28 isolates from L20B were characterized by rRT-PCR as Sabin-like polioviruses. No wild poliovirus or VDPV was found. However from the microneutralisation assay, six different enteroviruses were characterized. Among these, Coxsackie B viruses were most predominant followed by Echovirus. Three children from whom non-polio enteroviruses were isolated had residual paralysis while one child with VAPP found. The non-polio enteroviruses circulated throughout the country with the majority (20.7%) from Ashanti region. Conclusion This study showed the absence of wild or vaccine-derived poliovirus circulation in the country. However, the detection of three non-polio enteroviruses and one Sabin-like poliovirus with residual paralysis call for continuous surveillance even in the post polio eradication era. PMID:23077695

Odoom, John Kofi; Obodai, Evangeline; Barnor, Jacob Samson; Ashun, Miriam; Arthur-Quarm, Jacob; Osei-Kwasi, Mubarak



Neutralized Adenovirus-Immune Complexes Can Mediate Effective Gene Transfer via an Fc Receptor-Dependent Infection Pathway  

PubMed Central

Neutralization of adenovirus (Ad) by anti-Ad neutralizing antibodies in serum involves formation of Ad-immune complexes that prevent the virus from interacting with target cells. We hypothesized that Ad-immune complexes likely contain viable Ad vectors which, although no longer capable of gaining access to receptors on target cells, may be able to express transgenes in cells bearing Fc receptors for immunoglobulins, i.e., that antibody-based “neutralization” of Ad vectors may be circumvented by the Fc receptor pathway. To test this hypothesis, we expressed the Fc? receptor IIA (Fc?R) in A549 lung epithelial cells or human dermal fibroblasts and evaluated gene transfer in the presence of human neutralizing anti-Ad serum. Fc?R-expressing cells bound and internalized copious amounts of Ad, with a distinct population of internalized Ad trafficking to the nucleus. The dose-response curves for inhibition of gene transfer revealed that Fc?R-expressing cells required a more-than-10-fold higher concentration of anti-Ad serum to achieve 50% inhibition of Ad-encoded ?-galactosidase expression compared with non-Fc?R-expressing cells. The discrepancy between neutralization of Ad during infection of Fc?R-expressing cells and neutralization of Ad during infection of non-Fc?R-expressing cells occurred with either heat-inactivated or non-heat-inactivated sera, was blocked by addition of purified Fc domain protein, and did not require the cytoplasmic domain of Fc?R, suggesting that immune complex internalization proceeded via endocytosis rather than phagocytosis. Fc?R-mediated infection by Ad-immune complexes did not require expression of the coxsackie virus-Ad receptor (CAR) since similar data were obtained when CAR-deficient human dermal fibroblasts were engineered to express Fc?R. However, interaction of the Ad penton base with cell surface integrins contributed to the difference in neutralization between Fc?R-expressing and non-Fc?R-expressing cells. The data indicate that complexes formed from Ad and anti-Ad neutralizing antibodies, while compromised with respect to infection of non-Fc?R-expressing target cells, maintain the potential to transfer genes to Fc?R-expressing cells, with consequent expression of the transgene. The formation of Ad-immune complexes that can target viable virus to antigen-presenting cells may account for the success of Ad-based vaccines administered in the presence of low levels of neutralizing anti-Ad antibody. PMID:17005701

Leopold, Philip L.; Wendland, Rebecca L.; Vincent, Theresa; Crystal, Ronald G.



Distribution of enteroviruses in hospitalized children with hand, foot and mouth disease and relationship between pathogens and nervous system complications  

PubMed Central

Background To explore the relationship between enteroviruses and hospitalized children with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) complicated with nervous system disease. 234 hospitalized HFMD patients treated in Shengjing Hospital, Liaoning Province were analyzed retrospectively. Based on the presence and severity of nervous system disease, the patients were grouped as follows: general patients, severely ill patients, critically ill patients and fatal patients. Based on the detected pathogen, the patients were grouped as follows: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection, coxsackie A16 (CA16) infection and other enterovirus (OE) infection. Results Of the 423 hospitalized patients, most were admitted in July 2010(129/423, 30.5%). Enteroviruses were detected in 177(41.8%). 272/423 patients were male (64.3%), and fatal patients had the greatest proportion of male patients (p < 0.05). EV71 infection was found in 89/423 patients (21%). CA16 infection was detected in 8/423 patients (16.1%). Compared to group CA16, patients in group EV71 were hospitalized earlier, and the duration of hospitalization was longer (p < 0.05). Of the 92 patients with nervous system damage, 65 were infected with EV71 and 19 were infected with CA16. Among these CA16 infected patients, 2 had brainstem encephalitis and 1 had AFP. There were more patients with nervous system dysfunction in group EV71 than in groups CA16 or OE (p < 0.05). The 5 fatalities all occurred in group EV71 patients (p < 0.05). Infection with EV71 was most likely to cause neurogenic pulmonary edema (p < 0.05). Patients in group EV71 had a higher rate of suffering from coma and limb movement disorder than patients in groups CA16 or OE (p < 0.05). Conclusion The disease progresses faster in EV71-infected HFMD patients. These patients are more likely to suffer nervous system damage, neurogenic pulmonary edema, severe sequelae or death. CA16 and other enteroviruses can also cause HFMD with severe nervous system complications. PMID:22230340



Health evaluation of free-ranging and semi-captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) in Sabah, Malaysia.  


Baseline data on health of free-ranging wildlife is essential to evaluate impacts of habitat transformation and wildlife translocation, rehabilitation, and reintroduction programs. Health information on many species, especially great apes, is extremely limited. Between 1996 and 1998, 84 free-ranging orangutans captured for translocation, underwent a complete health evaluation. Analogous data were gathered from 60 semi-captive orangutans in Malaysia. Baseline hematology and serology; vitamin, mineral and pesticide levels; and results of health evaluations, including physical examination, provide a baseline for future monitoring. Free-ranging and semi-captive orangutans shared exposure to 11 of 47 viruses. The semi-captive orangutans had significantly higher prevalence of antibodies to adenovirus (P < 0.0005) and rota (SA 11) virus (P < 0.008). More free-ranging than semi-captive animals had antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus (P < 0.08) and foamy virus (P = 0.05). Exposure to parainfluenza and langat viruses was detected exclusively in semi-captive animals and exposure to sinbis virus was only found in free-ranging orangutans. There was evidence of exposure to respiratory syncytial virus, coxsackie virus, dengue virus, and zika virus in both groups. Ebstein-Barr virus was ubiquitous in both groups. Prevalence of antibodies against mumps virus changed from 0% in 1996 to 45% in 1998. No antibodies were detected to many important zoonotic viral pathogens, including herpesvirus and hepatitis virus. Prevalence of Balantidium coli and Plasmodium pitheci infections and exposure to mycobacterium was higher in the semi-captive animals. Differences in exposure to pathogens between the groups may be due to environmental factors including differences in exposures to other species, habitat quality, nutritional status, and other potential stressors. Differences in health parameters between captive and free-ranging orangutans need to be considered when planning conservation areas, translocation procedures, and rehabilitation protocols. Because survival of the orangutan is linked to animal and ecosystem health, results of this study will assist wildlife conservation programs by providing baseline health information. PMID:12685070

Kilbourn, Annelisa M; Karesh, William B; Wolfe, Nathan D; Bosi, Edwin J; Cook, Robert A; Andau, Mahedi



Production of EV71 vaccine candidates.  


Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia and with Coxsackie virus (CV) it is the other major causative agent of hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD). Effective medications and/or prophylactic vaccines against HFMD are urgently needed. From a scientific (the feasibility of bioprocess, immunological responses and potency in animal challenge model) and business development (cost of goods) points of view, we in this review address and discuss the pros and cons of different EV71 vaccine candidates that have been produced and evaluated in animal models. Epitope-based synthetic peptide vaccine candidates containing residues 211-225 of VP1 formulated with Freund's adjuvant (CFA/IFA) elicited low EV71 virus neutralizing antibody responses, but were protective in the suckling mouse challenge model. Among recombinant EV71 subunits (rVP1, rVP2 and rVP3) expressed in E. coli, purified and formulated with CFA/IFA, only VP1 elicited mouse antibody responses with measurable EV71-specific virus neutralization titers. Immunization of mice with either a DNA plasmid containing VP1 gene or VP1 expressed in Salmonella typhimurium also generated neutralizing antibody responses and protected animals against a live EV71 challenge. Recombinant EV71 virus-like particles (rVLP) produced from baculovirus formulated either with CFA/IFA or alum elicited good virus neutralization titers in both mice and non-human primates, and were found to be protective in the suckling mouse EV71 challenge model. Synthetic peptides or recombinant EV71 subunit vaccines (rVP1 and rVLP) formulated in alum were found to be poorly immunogenic in rabbits. Only formalin-inactivated (FI) EV71 virions formulated in alum elicited cross-neutralizing antibodies against different EV71 genotypes in mice, rabbits and non-human primates but induced weak neutralizing responses against CAV16. From a regulatory, economic and market acceptability standpoint, FI-EV71 virion vaccines are the most promising candidates and are currently being evaluated in human clinical trials. We further describe and analyze some new bioprocesses technologies that have great potential applications in EV71 vaccine development. This review also demonstrates the opportunities and challenges that the Asian vaccine industry faces today. PMID:22992566

Chong, Pele; Hsieh, Shih-Yang; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Chang, Jui-Yuan; Wu, Suh-Chin; Liu, Shih-Jen; Chow, Yen-Hung; Su, Ih-Jen; Klein, Michel



Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in China: Patterns of Spread and Transmissibility during 2008-2009  

PubMed Central

Background Large outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) were observed in both 2008 and 2009 in China. Methods Using the national surveillance data since May 2, 2008, epidemiological characteristics of the outbreaks are summarized, and the transmissibility of the disease and the effects of potential risk factors were evaluated via a susceptible-infectious-recovered transmission model. Results Children of 1.0–2.9 years were the most susceptible group to HFMD (odds ratios [OR] > 2.3 as compared to other age groups). Infant cases had the highest incidences of severe disease (ORs > 1.4) and death (ORs > 2.4), as well as the longest delay from symptom onset to diagnosis (2.3 days). Males were more susceptible to HFMD than females (OR=1.56 [95% confidence interval=1.56, 1.57]). An one day delay in diagnosis was associated with increases in the odds of severe disease by 40.3% [38.7%, 41.9%] and in the odds of death by 53.7% [43.6%, 64.5%]. Compared to Coxsackie A16, enterovirus (EV) 71 is more strongly associated with severe disease (OR=15.6 [13.4, 18.1]) and death (OR=40.7 [13.0, 127.3]). The estimated local effective reproductive numbers among prefectures ranged from 1.4 to 1.6 (median=1.4) in spring and stayed below 1.2 in other seasons. A higher risk of transmission was associated with temperatures in the range of 70-80F, higher relative humidity, wind speed, precipitation, population density, and the periods in which schools were open. Conclusion HFMD is a moderately transmittable infectious disease, mainly among pre-school children. EV71 was responsible for most severe cases and fatalities. Mixing of asymptomatically infected children in schools might have contributed to the spread of HFMD. Timely diagnosis may be a key to reducing the high mortality rate in infants. PMID:21968769

Wang, Yu; Feng, Zijian; Yang, Yang; Self, Steve; Gao, Yongjun; Longini, Ira M.; Wakefield, Jon; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Liping; Chen, Xi; Yao, Lena; Stanaway, Jeffrey D.; Wang, Zijun; Yang, Weizhong



Short communication: Glucagon-like peptide-2 and coccidiosis alter tight junction gene expression in the gastrointestinal tract of dairy calves.  


Tight junction (TJ) proteins are integral factors involved in gut barrier function, and therapy with glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) enhances gut integrity. Our aim was to assess effects of GLP-2 treatment on mRNA expression of 8 TJ complex proteins in the intestine of dairy calves not infected or infected with Eimeria bovis at 11±3d of age. Mucosal epithelium from jejunum, ileum, and cecum was collected at slaughter from Holstein bull calves assigned to 4 groups: noninfected, buffer-treated (n=5); noninfected, GLP-2 treated (n=4); E. bovis-infected, buffer-treated (n=5); and E. bovis-infected, GLP-2-treated (n=4). Infected calves were orally dosed with 100,000 to 200,000 sporulated E. bovis oocysts on d 0; GLP-2-treated calves received 50 µg of GLP-2/kg of body weight subcutaneously twice daily for 10d beginning on d 18; and buffer-treated calves received an equal injection volume of 0.01 M Na bicarbonate buffer. All calves were killed on d 28. The mRNA expression of coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CXADR), claudins 1, 2, and 4 (CLDN1, CLDN2, and CLDN4), F11 receptor (F11R), junction adhesion molecule 2 (JAM2), occludin (OCLN), and tight junction protein ZO-1 (TJP1) was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. In jejunum and ileum, an interaction of E. bovis infection and GLP-2 treatment on gene expression was noted. In jejunum of noninfected calves, GLP-2 increased CXADR, CLDN2, OCLN, and TJP1 mRNA expression but had no effect on mRNA expression in infected calves. Treatment with GLP-2 also increased tight junction protein ZO-1 protein expression in jejunum of noninfected calves as determined by immunohistochemistry. In ileum, E. bovis decreased expression of JAM2, OCLN, and TJP1 in buffer-treated calves, and GLP-2 increased TJP1 expression in infected calves. In cecum, E. bovis infection reduced expression of CXADR, CLDN4, F11R, and OCLN, and GLP-2 therapy increased expression of CLDN4, F11R, OCLN, and TJP1. Results are consistent with studies in nonruminants showing decreased expression of TJ complex proteins in the intestinal tract during pathogen-induced diarrhea and increased TJ protein expression in intestinal tissues in response to GLP-2 treatment. In conclusion, E. bovis reduces gene expression of TJ proteins primarily in cecum of calves 28d postinfection, and GLP-2 increases expression of selected TJ genes in intestinal tissues. Use of GLP-2 to improve gut barrier function in ruminants during pathogen-induced diarrhea warrants additional study. PMID:25726101

Walker, M P; Evock-Clover, C M; Elsasser, T H; Connor, E E