Sample records for coxsackie b-adenovirus receptor-pseudotyped

  1. [Characteristics of Coxsackie A enteroviruses circulating in children in Azerbaijan].

    PubMed

    Rustamova, L I; Aliev, K N; Tagizade, F D; Mamedova, M N

    2008-01-01

    Spectrum of serotypes of Coxsackie A virus and several others markers of virions, which cause enterovirus infection in children in Azerbaijan, was determined. Symptom of myotropism was used as a clinical sign. It was shown that enteroviruses were most frequently detected (41.1%) in children aged registered as enterovirus monoinfection. All isolated strains were characterized by such markers as cytopathic effect, delayed formation of plaques under the layer of agar with low content of sodium bicarbonate. Both attenuated and avirulent virions of Coxsackie A enteroviruses were detected. PMID:19186556

  2. Hepatitiden bei Kindern mit komplementbindenden Coxsackie-Antikörper-Reaktionen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Albach

    1960-01-01

    Es wird darüber berichtet, daß 7 Kinder in den Monaten August–September 1957 wegen Hepatitis mit Gelbsucht zur stationären Behandlung eingewiesen worden waren und bald darauf klinische Zeichen von Coxsackieinfektion boten. Die Virusanzüchtung war in diesem Krankheitsstadium aussichtslos und gelang auch nicht. Die Coxsackie-KBR waren positiv und zeigten einen Titeranstieg, bei manchen bereits einen kontinuierlichen Titerabfall. Die Paul-Bunnellsche Reaktion wurde jeweils

  3. Differential diagnosis and genetic analysis of the antigenically related swine vesicular disease virus and Coxsackie viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Otfried Marquardt; Volker F. Ohlinger

    1995-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies directed against an isolate of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), characterized by virus neutralization tests and competition assays, were used to compare SVDV isolates and isolates of the antigenically related Coxsackie viruses by ELISA. Four SVDV-specific reaction patterns and one specific for Coxsackie viruses were observed. This provided a method for distinguishing between these enteroviruses. In addition, RT-PCRs

  4. A comparative electrophoretic examination of swine vesicular disease virus and Coxsackie B5 virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1977-01-01

    Summary Purified suspensions of Coxsackie B5 virus and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) were prepared by harvesting and purifying cell pack virus. Crossed immunoelectrophoresis was carried out with purified N and H antigen fractions (full and empty particles). Relative migration velocity (RMV) was calculated for the N antigen fraction of 3 SVD viruses (UKG72, HK71 and Italy66) and 2 Coxsackie

  5. Antenatal and Postnatal Diagnosis of Coxsackie B4 Infection: Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Jennifer C.; Schneider, Carol; Menticoglou, Savas; Herath, Jayantha; Del Bigio, Marc R.

    2011-01-01

    Enteroviruses are a common cause of neonatal infection. In particular, Coxsackie B viruses are often associated with severe, fatal disease. The antenatal diagnosis of Coxsackie B viral infections is uncommon. We present a unique case of Coxsackie B4 virus ventriculitis and myocarditis causing fetal hydrops at 22 weeks gestation. Transmission was inferred by viral isolation from the amniotic fluid and by placental pathology. We also describe two additional cases of fatal neonatal Coxsackie B4 infection complicated by myocarditis and encephalitis with cerebral necrosis in a 4-day-old female and by myocarditis, spinal leptomeningitis, and hepatitis in a 4-day-old male. Transplacental acquisition of infection carries a poor prognosis. We propose that Coxsackie B virus should be considered in the investigation of nonimmune hydrops, particularly in the presence of cardiac dysfunction. PMID:23946895

  6. Differential diagnosis and genetic analysis of the antigenically related swine vesicular disease virus and coxsackie viruses.

    PubMed

    Marquardt, O; Ohlinger, V F

    1995-06-01

    Monoclonal antibodies directed against an isolate of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), characterized by virus neutralization tests and competition assays, were used to compare SVDV isolates and isolates of the antigenically related Coxsackie viruses by ELISA. SVDV-specific reaction patterns and one specific for Coxsackie viruses were observed. This provided a method for distinguishing between these enteroviruses. In addition, RT-PCRs were undertaken with Coxsackie virus and SVDV genomes. Different product patterns were obtained which correlated with the genetic differences revealed by nucleotide sequence determination. RT-PCR distinguished between SVDV and Coxsackie viruses by pattern differences. Further SVDV-specific PCRs were carried out with clinical samples. Viral genomes were detected with a sensitivity equivalent to that of virus isolation in cell culture. Sequencing of the Coxsackie virus-derived 2A-coding PCR products resulted in a not previously described sequence of a B5 isolate and in SVDV-specific sequence of two Coxsackie virus A16 isolates. The differences of the isolates by ELISA and PCR reactivity, as well as the nucleotide sequence differences are consistent with the quasispecies concept of RNA viruses. PMID:7673387

  7. Comparison of Swine Vesicular Disease Virus and Coxsackie B5 Virus by Serological and RNA Hybridization Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Brown; T. F. Wild; L. W. Rowe; B. O. Underwood; T. J. R. Harris

    1976-01-01

    SUMMARY The relatedness of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and Coxsackie B5 virus has been studied by virus neutralization and immunodiffusion tests and by hybridization of the virus RNAs. Clearly defined differences between the two viruses were found by the three methods. Isolates of SVDV from several countries were very closely related but could be differentiated. Recent isolates of Coxsackie

  8. Integrin ? v and coxsackie adenovirus receptor expression in clinical bladder cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus D Sachs; Katherine A Rauen; Meera Ramamurthy; Jennifer L Dodson; Angelo M De Marzo; Mathew J Putzi; Mark P Schoenberg; Ronald Rodriguez

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the expression of the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) and ?v integrins in clinical specimens of bladder cancer to determine the susceptibility to adenoviral gene therapy. Efficient adenovirus-based gene therapy requires binding of the virus to CAR and involves the ?v integrins. Studies on bladder cancer cell lines have shown that low adenoviral transduction rates were associated

  9. Molecular Aspects of the Antigenic Variation of Swine Vesicular Disease and Coxsackie B5 Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. R. Harris; T. R. Doel; F. Brown

    1977-01-01

    SUMMARY The antigenic variation of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and Coxsackie B5 virus (CB5) has been examined at the molecular level by analysing the protein and nucleic acid of the virus particles. The tryptic peptides of carboxymethylated 35S-methionine labelled virus particles were very similar, although some minor differences were apparent. Competition hybridization experiments confirmed that there is variation in

  10. A recent epidemic of Coxsackie virus type A24 acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Singapore.

    PubMed Central

    Yin-Murphy, M; Baharuddin-Ishak; Phoon, M C; Chow, V T

    1986-01-01

    A recent epidemic of acute conjunctivitis in Singapore showed again the importance of Coxsackie virus type A24 variant as a causative agent of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC). Although the ocular manifestations appeared similar to those described for the 1970 and 1975 outbreaks, a markedly higher rate of respiratory involvements was noted. Not observed in previous epidemics were herpes-like vesicles in the conjunctiva and eyelids of one patient and vesicles in the buccal mucosa and lips of another from whom Coxsackie virus A24 was isolated. The most interesting finding in this study was the isolation of five wild (non-Sabin) poliovirus type 1 strains. Three strains were obtained from conjunctival and two from throat swabs of patients with mild to severe conjunctivitis. It is conceivable that the rare reports of polio-like paralysis or radiculomyelitis accompanying or following AHC in a few Asian countries could be attributed to concurrent infections with a poliovirus and either enterovirus type 70 or Coxsackie virus type A24. Images PMID:3024697

  11. Mycophenolate mofetil inhibits the development of Coxsackie B3-virus-induced myocarditis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Padalko, Elizaveta; Verbeken, Erik; Matthys, Patrick; Aerts, Joeri L; De Clercq, Erik; Neyts, Johan

    2003-01-01

    Background Viral replication as well as an immunopathological component are assumed to be involved in the development of coxsackie B virus (CBV)-induced myocarditis. We observed that mycophenolic acid (MPA), the active metabolite of the immunosuppressive agent mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), inhibits coxsackie B3 virus (CBV3) replication in primary Human myocardial fibroblasts. We therefore studied whether MMF, which is thus endowed with a direct antiviral as well as immunosuppressive effect, may prevent CBV-induced myocarditis in a murine model. Results Four week old C3H-mice were infected with CBV3 and received twice daily, for 7 consecutive days (from one day before to 5 days post-virus inoculation) treatment with MMF via oral gavage. Treatment with MMF resulted in a significant reduction in the development of CBV-induced myocarditis as assessed by morphometric analysis, i.e. 78% reduction when MMF was administered at 300 mg/kg/day (p < 0.001), 65% reduction at 200 mg/kg/day (p < 0.001), and 52% reduction at 100 mg/kg/day (p = 0.001). The beneficial effect could not be ascribed to inhibition of viral replication since titers of infectious virus and viral RNA in heart tissue were increased in MMF-treated animals as compared to untreated animals. Conclusion The immunosuppressive agent MMF results in an important reduction of CBV3-induced myocarditis in a murine model. PMID:14687413

  12. The Interferon Inducer Ampligen [Poly(I)Poly(C12U)] Markedly Protects Mice against Coxsackie B3 Virus-Induced Myocarditis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizaveta Padalko; Dieter Nuyens; Armando De Palma; Erik Verbeken; Joeri L. Aerts; Erik De Clercq; Peter Carmeliet; Johan Neyts

    2004-01-01

    Viral replication, as well as an immunopathological component, is assumed to be involved in coxsackie B virus-induced myocarditis. We evaluated the efficacy of the interferon inducer Ampligen on coxsackie B3 virus-induced myocarditis in C3H\\/HeNHsd mice. The efficacy of Ampligen was compared with that of the interferon inducer poly(inosinic acid)-poly(cytidylic acid) (poly(IC)), alpha interferon 2b (INTRON A), and pegylated alpha interferon

  13. Molecular Cloning of the Genome of a Cardiotropic Coxsackie B3 Virus: Full-Length Reverse-Transcribed Recombinant cDNA Generates Infectious Virus in Mammalian Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinhard Kandolf; Peter Hans Hofschneider

    1985-01-01

    The molecular cloning of double-stranded cDNA synthesized from the single-stranded RNA genome of the cardiotropic Coxsackie B3 virus (Nancy strain) is reported. Full-length reverse-transcribed cloned viral cDNA of ≈ 7500 nucleotides generated infectious antigenically identical Coxsackie B3 virus upon transfection of recombinant plasmid DNA into mammalian cells, demonstrating the molecular cloning of a biologically active viral cDNA copy. Furthermore, the

  14. Expression of the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor in human lung cancers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaoli; Wang, Qian; Sun, Jingran; Gu, Ankang; Jin, Min; Shen, Zhiqiang; Qiu, Zhigang; Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Xinwei; Zhan, Zhongli; Li, Jun-Wen

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study is to elucidate the relation between expression of coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) and formation of lung cancer. We investigated the expression of CAR by immunohistochemistry, Western blot and real-time RT-PCR in 120 lung cancers. We found that CAR expression in tumor tissues was significantly higher than that in normal lung tissues. CAR expression had a correlation with the histological grade of lung squamous cell carcinoma; however, there was no relationship between the CAR expression and the other clinical pathological features. In vitro, silencing or overexpression of CAR could significantly inhibit or promote colony formation, cell adhesion, and invasion in A549 cells. Our findings demonstrated that CAR may play an essential role in the formation of lung cancer. PMID:23307165

  15. Complete nucleotide sequence of a coxsackie B5 virus and its relationship to swine vesicular disease virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G; Wilsden, G; Knowles, N J; McCauley, J W

    1993-05-01

    We report the first complete nucleotide sequence of the picornavirus coxsackievirus B5 (CB5), strain 1954/UK/85, an isolate from a case of hand-foot-and-mouth disease. We have compared the sequence with those of other coxsackie B viruses, coxsackievirus A9, poliovirus and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV). The genes encoding the three major capsid proteins are most closely related to those of SVDV but the 5' and 3' noncoding regions and the P3 gene are more similar to the corresponding regions in the other coxsackie B viruses than to those of SVDV. These observations are considered in the light of the antigenic and biochemical relationships between SVDV and CB5. PMID:8388019

  16. Complete Nucleotide Sequence of a Coxsackie B5 Virus and its Relationship to Swine Vesicular Disease Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Zhang; Ginette Wilsden; Nicholas J. Knowles; John W. McCauley

    1993-01-01

    We report the first complete nucleotide sequence of the picornavirus coxsackievirus B5 (CB5), strain 1954\\/ UK\\/85, an isolate from a case of hand-foot-and-mouth disease. We have compared the sequence with those of other coxsackie B viruses, coxsackievirus A9, poliovirus and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV). The genes encoding the three major capsid proteins are most closely related to those of

  17. Correlation of polypeptide composition with antigenic variation in the swine vesicular disease and coxsackie B5 viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. R. Harris; F. Brown

    1975-01-01

    SINCE the observation by Graves1 that swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV)2 is neutralised by antiserum to coxsackie B5 (CB5) virus, an enterovirus infecting man, and observations3 that the swine virus can also infect man, there has been speculation about the relationship between the two viruses and the possible role of CB5 virus in the aetiology of the swine disease4. Further

  18. [Epidemiologic factors and serum antibody titer to Coxsackie B-4 virus in patients with type I diabetes].

    PubMed

    Tuszkiewicz-Misztal, E

    1991-03-01

    In 150 patients (aged 4-16) with type I diabetes, hospitalized in the Paediatric Institute in Lublin in the years 1968 bis 1979, some epidemiological data were analysed, including age, sex and the month of onset of diabetes. An increase of the number of onsets of diabetes type I was observed in the second half of the year, particularly in September and October, similarly to the occurrence of some virological infections, including Coxsackie B-4. Our question was if the Coxsackie B-4 virus could have triggered the onset of diabetes. In 66 children (2,5-14 years old) with recent onset of diabetes, the neutralising antibody titer to Coxsackie B-4 virus was determined. We found it possible to determine the titres of the antibodies in 34 of these patients 3-5 years after the first hospitalization. Titres were also determined, during the same season, in a control group consisting of 42 persons. Patients with recent onsets of type I diabetes had significantly higher titres than in the control group, namely P-0.01 titres 1:64-1:256 constituting 42.4% while the control group showed 14.3%. During the 3-5 year course of diabetes the titres decreased to the levels observed in the control group. Our observations confirmed the participation of Coxsakie B-4 virus in the evocation of IDDM. PMID:1647469

  19. PASSAGE OF COXSACKIE VIRUS (CONNECTICUT-5 STRAIN) IN ADULT MICE WITH PRODUCTION OF PANCREATIC DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Pappenheimer, Alwin M.; Kunz, Lawrence J.; Richardson, Sheila

    1951-01-01

    1. With Conn.-5 strain of Coxsackie virus, pancreatic disease can be regularly produced in adult mice. 2. The lesions consist of widespread necrosis, followed by repair; there occurs more or less complete loss of glandular acini, with fatty or fibrous replacement. The islands of Langerhans and pancreatic ducts persist. 3. Injection of virus suspensions by the intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, intramuscular, or intracerebral route is followed by selective necrosis of the pancreas. 4. The liver, in the earlier stages of the disease, is the seat of fat infiltration. There may be necrosis of individual hepatic cells, but the diffuse hepatitis described in suckling mice does not occur. In the later stages of the disease, the liver is not significantly altered. 5. Localized areas of fat necrosis, scattered through intra-abdominal adipose tissue, are usually present in the acute phase of the disease. These undergo fibrosis without calcification. 6. No lesions have been found in the skeletal muscle, even at the site of intramuscular injection. Central nervous system, heart, lungs, and peripheral fat lobules show no lesions comparable to those described in suckling mice. 7. Multiplication of virus takes place in the pancreas. Serial passage in adult mice, by injection of pancreas suspensions prepared from organs removed on the 4th day after infection, is readily accomplished. Five consecutive passages in adult mice have thus far been carried out. Pancreas suspension from 4th passage material produced typical disease in suckling mice when diluted 10–6. No virus could be demonstrated in pancreas obtained 25 days after inoculation. 8. Complete protection against the pancreatic disease is obtained when the virus is neutralized, before injection, with Conn.-5 antiserum. Normal mouse serum and antiserum against the Ohio-R strain of Coxsackie virus have no protective effect. 9. Mice surviving the initial necrotizing effect of the virus, develop chronic pancreatic insufficiency. This is manifested by extreme weight loss—in some cases, 40 per cent or more of the body weight—and by hypoproteinemia, sometimes leading to anasarca. 10. The substitution of fox-chow which has been predigested with hog pancreas brings about a restoration of weight. 11. The possibility is considered that similar lesions of the pancreas in human beings may be due to virus infection. PMID:14850635

  20. [Experimental therapy of Coxsackie B3 virus infection with immunomodulator contained in water-soluble Penthaphylloides fruticosa extract].

    PubMed

    Evstropov, A N; Burova, L G; Grek, O R; Zakharova, L N; Volkhonskaia, T A

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of using water-soluble substance extracted from P. fruticosa in experimental Coxsackie B3 virus infection in newborn mice was studied. The curative action of the extract was studied by its injection to the infected animals for 7 days and its prophylactic action--by introducing it 24 hours and, repeatedly, 1 hour before infection. The study revealed the increase of such characteristics as survival rate, mean survival time, body weight dynamics, as well as decreased level of virus accumulation in the brain, liver and heart tissues of the animalsunder experiment. The immunomodulating properties of the extract were shown. PMID:16028531

  1. Coxsackie B4 virus infection of ? cells and natural killer cell insulitis in recent-onset type 1 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Dotta, Francesco; Censini, Stefano; van Halteren, Astrid G. S.; Marselli, Lorella; Masini, Matilde; Dionisi, Sabrina; Mosca, Franco; Boggi, Ugo; Muda, Andrea Onetti; Prato, Stefano Del; Elliott, John F.; Covacci, Antonello; Rappuoli, Rino; Roep, Bart O.; Marchetti, Piero

    2007-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is characterized by T cell-mediated autoimmune destruction of pancreatic ? cells. Several studies have suggested an association between Coxsackie enterovirus seroconversion and onset of disease. However, a direct link between ? cell viral infection and islet inflammation has not been established. We analyzed pancreatic tissue from six type 1 diabetic and 26 control organ donors. Immunohistochemical, electron microscopy, whole-genome ex vivo nucleotide sequencing, cell culture, and immunological studies demonstrated Coxsackie B4 enterovirus in specimens from three of the six diabetic patients. Infection was specific of ? cells, which showed nondestructive islet inflammation mediated mainly by natural killer cells. Islets from enterovirus-positive samples displayed reduced insulin secretion in response to glucose and other secretagogues. In addition, virus extracted from positive islets was able to infect ? cells from human islets of nondiabetic donors, causing viral inclusions and signs of pyknosis. None of the control organ donors showed signs of viral infection. These studies provide direct evidence that enterovirus can infect ? cells in patients with type 1 diabetes and that infection is associated with inflammation and functional impairment. PMID:17360338

  2. [Assessment of clinical-instrumental, morphological data and expression of coxsackie adenovirus receptor in patients with inflammatory cardiac pathology].

    PubMed

    Gupalo, E M; Mironova, N A; Rogova, M M; Chumachenko, P V; Tkachev, G A; Naumova, M A; Narusov, O Iu; Gerasimova, V V; Bakalov, S A; Samko, A M; Buriachkovskaia, L I; Tereshchenko, S N; Golitsyn, S P

    2014-01-01

    In 22 patients with heart failure and/or ventricular arrhythmias presumably of inflammatory etiology the results of clinical and instrumental investigation were analyzed and compared to the endomyocardial biopsy data. In the subgroup of patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) we revealed features indicative of lesser contribution of inflammatory destruction in pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy. The only virus, detected in biopsy samples, was parvovirus B19. Its persistence in myocardium was not related to activity of inflammation and severity of clinical course. Increased expression of Coxsackie adenovirus receptor (CAR) was found in 20 patients. It was not related to inflammatory cells infiltration and virus persistence in myocardium. Patients with most prominent CAR expression were characteried by right heart dilatation, more severe heart failure and absence of LBBB. Enhancement of CAR expression could reflect the attempt of organism to repair intercellular communications between cardiomyocites and to protect cells from the products of necrotic lysis during long standing inflammation. PMID:25177881

  3. Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a modifier of cardiac conduction and arrhythmia vulnerability in the setting of myocardial ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Marsman, Roos F.J.; Bezzina, Connie R.; Freiberg, Fabian; Verkerk, Arie O.; Adriaens, Michiel E.; Podliesna, Svitlana; Chen, Chen; Purfürst, Bettina; Spallek, Bastian; Koopmann, Tamara T.; Baczko, Istvan; dos Remedios, Cristobal G.; George, Alfred L.; Bishopric, Nanette H.; Lodder, Elisabeth M.; de Bakker, Jacques M.T.; Fischer, Robert; Coronel, Ruben; Wilde, Arthur A.M.; Gotthardt, Michael; Remme, Carol Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the modulatory effect of the Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) on ventricular conduction and arrhythmia vulnerability in the setting of myocardial ischemia. Background A heritable component in risk for ventricular fibrillation (VF) during myocardial infarction (MI) has been well established. A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) for VF during acute MI has led to the identification of a locus on chromosome 21q21 (rs2824292) in the vicinity of the CXADR gene. CXADR encodes the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR), a cell adhesion molecule predominantly located at intercalated discs of the cardiomyocyte. Methods The correlation between CAR transcript levels and rs2824292 genotype was investigated in human left ventricular samples. Electrophysiological studies and molecular analyses were performed CAR haploinsufficient mice (CAR+/?). Results In human left ventricular samples, the risk allele at the chr21q21 GWAS locus was associated with lower CXADR mRNA levels, suggesting that decreased cardiac levels of CAR predispose to ischemia-induced VF. Hearts from CAR+/? mice displayed ventricular conduction slowing in addition to an earlier onset of ventricular arrhythmias during the early phase of acute myocardial ischemia following LAD ligation. Connexin43 expression and distribution was unaffected, but CAR+/? hearts displayed increased arrhythmia susceptibility upon pharmacological electrical uncoupling. Patch-clamp analysis of isolated CAR+/? myocytes showed reduced sodium current magnitude specifically at the intercalated disc. Moreover, CAR co-precipitated with NaV1.5 in vitro, suggesting that CAR affects sodium channel function through a physical interaction with NaV1.5. Conclusion We identify CAR as a novel modifier of ventricular conduction and arrhythmia vulnerability in the setting of myocardial ischemia. Genetic determinants of arrhythmia susceptibility (such as CAR) may constitute future targets for risk stratification of potentially lethal ventricular arrhythmias in patients with coronary artery disease PMID:24291282

  4. Coxsackie B viruses that use human DAF as a receptor infect pig cells via pig CAR and do not use pig DAF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Brad Spiller; Ian G. Goodfellow; David J. Evans; Stewart J. Hinchliffe; B. Paul Morgan

    Coxsackie B viruses (CVB) are enteroviruses belonging to the family Picornaviridae. Serotypes 1, 3 and 5 of CVB bind to the human membrane complement regulator decay-accelerating factor (DAF) and the coxsackievirus\\/adenovirus receptor (CAR), using either or both as receptors. These viruses are known to infect pig cell lines, but the receptor(s) involved has not been identified. We have recently characterized

  5. Identification of a putative shared epitope between Coxsackie virus B4 and alpha cardiac myosin heavy chain.

    PubMed Central

    Beisel, K W; Srinivasappa, J; Prabhakar, B S

    1991-01-01

    Molecular mimicry is an important postulated mechanism for autoimmunity in viral myocarditis. The 356-1 monoclonal antibody neutralizes Coxsackie virus B4 by binding to the VP1 protein and cross-reacts with mouse alpha cardiac myosin heavy chain. We used this monoclonal antibody to screen a lambda gt11 expression library made from CD-1 mouse hearts. Of the 48 positive plaques/10(6) recombinant phages examined, 14 of the strongest-reacting clones were purified for additional studies. The inserts were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and the amplified products ranged from about 150 to 1400 bp in size. Northern hybridization using these inserts demonstrated that 11 out of 14 reacted with a message equivalent to that of cardiac myosin in size. Additional Southern hybridization studies suggested that these 11 inserts contained overlapping sequences in the light meromyosin fragment of cardiac myosin. Sequence analysis confirmed that these 11 independent, recombinant clones contained a common sequence representing amino acid residues 1299-1647. Within this fragment only one isoform-specific site matched the observed reactivity pattern of 356-1 among hearts from various species. Thus, we were able to identify a putative shared epitope represented by residues 1632-1647. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1717188

  6. Novel splice variant CAR 4/6 of the coxsackie adenovirus receptor is differentially expressed in cervical carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dietel, Marit; Häfner, Norman; Jansen, Lars; Dürst, Matthias; Runnebaum, Ingo B

    2011-06-01

    The coxsackie adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a component of the tight junction complex and involved in cell adhesion. Loss of CAR expression can affect cell adhesion which in the context of carcinogenesis may influence both invasion and metastatic spread. Functional inactivation of CAR may also result from the interaction with its soluble isoforms. To relate alterations of CAR expression to tumor progression, we aimed to establish a highly specific real-time PCR protocol for quantification of all splice variants. In the process of cloning, we identified a novel splice variant termed CAR4/6 that lacked exon 5 but retained exon 6 encoding the transmembrane domain. Localization of CAR4/6 in the cell membrane was confirmed by ectopic expression in HT1080 cells. Expression analyses using cDNA arrays revealed that most normal tissues, including those of the female genital tract, express full-length CAR (CAR6/7) but not CAR4/6. Differential expression of both CAR splice variants was validated in microdissected epithelia (n = 66) derived from normal cervical ectodermal tissue, high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2/3) and invasive squamous cervical carcinoma. CAR4/6 was not expressed in normal cervical tissue but in 42% of CIN2/3 and in most cervical carcinomas (p < 0.001). In contrast, CAR6/7 was detected in all of the microdissected samples. As for CAR4/6 expression levels of CAR6/7 were significantly lower in normal tissue as compared with CIN2/3 and cancer (p < 0.01). Ectopic expression of CAR4/6 in different cell lines enhanced the proliferative and invasive properties indicating a possible role in cancer progression. PMID:21431326

  7. Enhanced therapeutic efficacy of an adenovirus-PEI-bile-acid complex in tumors with low coxsackie and adenovirus receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cho-Hee; Kasala, Dayananda; Na, Youjin; Lee, Min Sang; Kim, Sung Wan; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Yun, Chae-Ok

    2014-07-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) is a potential vehicle for cancer gene therapy. However, cells that express low levels of the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) demonstrate poor Ad infection efficiency. We developed a bile acid-conjugated poly(ethyleneimine) (DA3)-coated Ad complex (Ad/DA3) to enhance Ad transduction efficiency. The size distribution and zeta potential of Ad/DA3 increased to 324 ± 3.08 nm and 10.13 ± 0.21 mV, respectively, compared with those of naked Ad (108 ± 2.26 nm and -17.7 ± 1.5 mV). The transduction efficiency of Ad/DA3 increased in a DA3 polymer concentration-dependent manner. Enhanced gene transfer by Ad/DA3 was more evident in CAR-moderate and CAR-negative cancer cells. Competition assays with a CAR-specific antibody revealed that internalization of Ad/DA3 was not mediated primarily by CAR but involved clathrin-, caveolae-, and macropinocytosis-mediated endocytosis. Cancer cell death was significantly increased when oncolytic Ad and DA3 were complexed (RdB-KOX/DA3) compared to that of naked oncolytic Ad and was inversely proportional to CAR levels. Importantly, RdB-KOX/DA3 significantly enhanced apoptosis, reduced angiogenesis, reduced proliferation, and increased active viral replication in human tumor xenografts compared to that of naked Ad. These results demonstrate that a hybrid vector system can increase the efficacy of oncolytic Ad virotherapy, particularly in CAR-limited tumors. PMID:24731708

  8. Coxsackie B3 virus protein 2B contains cationic amphipathic helix that is required for viral RNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    van Kuppeveld, F J; Galama, J M; Zoll, J; van den Hurk, P J; Melchers, W J

    1996-01-01

    Enterovirus protein 2B has been shown to increase plasma membrane permeability. We have identified a conserved putative amphipathic alpha-helix with a narrow hydrophilic face and an arrangement of cationic residues that is typical for the so-called lytic polypeptides. To examine the functional and structural roles of this putative amphipathic alpha-helix, we have constructed nine coxsackie B3 virus mutants by site-directed mutagenesis of an infectious cDNA clone. Six mutants contained substitutions of the charged residues in the hydrophilic face of the alpha-helix. Three mutants contained insertions of leucine residues between the charged residues, causing a disturbance of the amphipathic character of the alpha-helix. The effect of the mutations on virus viability was assayed by transfection of cells with copy RNA transcripts. The effect on positive-strand RNA replication was examined by introduction of the mutations in a subgenomic luciferase replicon and analysis of luciferase accumulation following the transfection of BGM cells with RNA transcripts. It is shown that both the amphipathy of the domain and the presence of cationic residues in the hydrophilic face of the alpha-helix are required for virus growth. Mutations that disturbed either one of these features caused defects in viral RNA synthesis. In vitro translation reactions and the analysis of viral protein synthesis in vivo demonstrated that the mutations did not affect synthesis and processing of the viral polyprotein. These results suggest that a cationic amphipathic alpha-helix is a major determinant for a function of protein 2B, and possibly its precursor 2BC, in viral RNA synthesis. The potential role of the amphipathic alpha-helix in the permeabilization of cellular membranes is discussed. PMID:8648724

  9. Crosstalk between desmoglein-2/desmocollin-2/Src kinase and coxsackie and adenovirus receptor/ZO-1 protein complexes regulates blood-testis barrier dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Lie, Pearl P.Y.; Cheng, C. Yan; Mruk, Dolores D.

    2010-01-01

    Morphological studies in the testis reported the presence of ‘desmosome-like’ junctions between Sertoli cells at the blood-testis barrier, whose function is also constituted by tight junctions and basal ectoplasmic specializations. Unfortunately, little is known about the role of desmosomes in blood-testis barrier dynamics. This study aims to fill this gap with the functional investigation of two desmosomal cadherins, desmoglein-2 and desmocollin-2, by their specific knockdown in Sertoli cells cultured in vitro. Reminiscent of the blood-testis barrier in vivo, desmosome-like structures were visible by electron microscopy when Sertoli cells were cultured at high density, thereby forming a polarized epithelium with functional cell junctions. At this point, we opted to focus our efforts on desmoglein-2 and desmocollin-2 based on results which illustrated desmosomal mRNAs to be expressed by Sertoli and germ cells, as well as on results which illustrated desmoglein-2 to co-immunoprecipitate with plakoglobin, c-Src and desmocollin-2. Simultaneous knockdown of desmoglein-2 and desmocollin-2 not only led to a reduction and mislocalization of zonula occludens-1, but also perturbed the localization of c-Src and coxsackie and adenovirus receptor at the cell-cell interface, resulting in disruption of tight junction permeability barrier. We hereby propose a novel regulatory protein complex composed of desmoglein-2, desmocollin-2, c-Src, coxsackie and adenovirus receptor and ZO-1 at the blood-testis barrier. PMID:20188849

  10. Coxsackie B and adenovirus receptor, integrin and major histocompatibility complex class I expression in human prostate cancer cell lines: implications for gene therapy strategies.

    PubMed

    Pandha, H S; Stockwin, L H; Eaton, J; Clarke, I A; Dalgleish, A G; Todryk, S M; Blair, G E

    2003-01-01

    Gene therapy strategies based on modifying tumour cells using high efficiency adenoviral vectors have shown promise in the clinic. Recently the Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) has been shown to mediate adenoviral entry into tumour cells, although previous studies also suggested a role for MHC class I heavy chain. Detailed evaluation of the expression of both CAR and MHC class I in prostate cancer cell lines would have important implications for therapeutic strategies. We have found that, unlike cell lines derived from other malignancies, in human and murine prostate cancer loss of CAR expression appears to be relatively infrequent and does not correlate with loss of MHC class I expression. These findings, together with the demonstration of appreciable levels of cell-surface expression of integrins, suggest that cancer vaccine strategies based on modifying whole prostate cancer cells should be feasible using the current generation of recombinant adenoviral vectors, without deleterious effects on either the virus vector or the target cell. PMID:12664058

  11. More recent swine vesicular disease virus isolates retain binding to coxsackie-adenovirus receptor, but have lost the ability to bind human decay-accelerating factor (CD55).

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Clavero, Miguel A; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Ley, Victoria; Spiller, O Brad

    2005-05-01

    Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) evolved from coxsackie B virus serotype 5 (CVB5) in the recent past, crossing the species barrier from humans to pigs. Here, SVDV isolates from early and recent outbreaks have been compared for their capacity to utilize the progenitor virus receptors coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) and decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55). Virus titre of CVB5 and SVDV isolates It'66 and UK'72 on human HeLa cells was reduced by pre-incubation with either anti-DAF or anti-CAR antibodies; however, recent SVDV isolates R1072, R1120 and SPA'93 did not infect HeLa cells lytically. CVB5 and SVDV infection of the pig cell line IB-RS-2 was inhibited completely by anti-CAR antibodies for all isolates, and no reduction was observed following pre-incubation of cells with anti-pig DAF antibodies. Expression of human DAF in the pig cell line IB-RS-2 enhanced the virus titre of early SVDV isolates by 25-fold, but had no effect on recent SVDV isolate titre. Binding of radiolabelled CVB5 to IB-RS-2 cells was increased seven- to eightfold by expression of human DAF and binding of early SVDV isolates was increased 1.2-1.3-fold, whereas no increase in binding by recent SVDV isolates was mediated by human DAF expression. Addition of soluble hDAF-Fc inhibited CVB5, but not SVDV, infection of pig cells. Pre-incubation of all viruses with soluble hCAR-Fc blocked infection of IB-RS-2 pig cells completely; titration of the amount of soluble hCAR-Fc required to block infection revealed that early isolate UK'72 was the least susceptible to inhibition, and the most recent isolate, SPA'93, was the most susceptible. PMID:15831949

  12. The interferon inducer ampligen [poly(I)-poly(C12U)] markedly protects mice against coxsackie B3 virus-induced myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Padalko, Elizaveta; Nuyens, Dieter; De Palma, Armando; Verbeken, Erik; Aerts, Joeri L; De Clercq, Erik; Carmeliet, Peter; Neyts, Johan

    2004-01-01

    Viral replication, as well as an immunopathological component, is assumed to be involved in coxsackie B virus-induced myocarditis. We evaluated the efficacy of the interferon inducer Ampligen on coxsackie B3 virus-induced myocarditis in C3H/HeNHsd mice. The efficacy of Ampligen was compared with that of the interferon inducer poly(inosinic acid)-poly(cytidylic acid) [poly(IC)], alpha interferon 2b (INTRON A), and pegylated alpha interferon 2b (PEG-INTRON-alpha-2b). Ampligen at 20 mg/kg of body weight/day was able to reduce the severity of virus-induced myocarditis, as assessed by morphometric analysis, by 98% (P = 3.0 x 10(-8)). When poly(IC) was administered at 15 mg/kg/day, it reduced the severity of virus-induced myocarditis by 93% (P = 5.6 x 10(-5)). Alpha interferon 2b (1 x 10(5) U/day) and pegylated alpha interferon 2b (5 x 10(5) U/day) were less effective and reduced the severity of virus-induced myocarditis by 66% (P = 0.0009) and 78% (P = 0.0002), respectively. The observed efficacies of Ampligen and poly(IC) were corroborated by the observation that the drugs also markedly reduced the virus titers in the heart, as detected by (i) quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR and (ii) titration for infectious virus content. Whereas the electrocardiograms for untreated mice with myocarditis were severely disturbed, the electrocardiographic parameters were normalized in Ampligen- and poly(IC)-treated mice. Even when start of treatment with Ampligen was delayed until day 2 postinfection, a time at which lesions had already appeared in untreated control animals, a marked protective effect on the development of viral myocarditis (as assessed at day 6 postinfection) was still noted. PMID:14693549

  13. Coxsackie- and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is expressed in lymphatic vessels in human skin and affects lymphatic endothelial cell function in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Vigl, Benjamin; Zgraggen, Claudia; Rehman, Nadia; Banziger-Tobler, Nadia E.; Detmar, Michael [Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli Str. 10, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Halin, Cornelia [Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli Str. 10, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)], E-mail: cornelia.halin@pharma.ethz.ch

    2009-01-15

    Lymphatic vessels play an important role in tissue fluid homeostasis, intestinal fat absorption and immunosurveillance. Furthermore, they are involved in pathologic conditions, such as tumor cell metastasis and chronic inflammation. In comparison to blood vessels, the molecular phenotype of lymphatic vessels is less well characterized. Performing comparative gene expression analysis we have recently found that coxsackie- and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is significantly more highly expressed in cultured human, skin-derived lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), as compared to blood vascular endothelial cells. Here, we have confirmed these results at the protein level, using Western blot and FACS analysis. Immunofluorescence performed on human skin confirmed that CAR is expressed at detectable levels in lymphatic vessels, but not in blood vessels. To address the functional significance of CAR expression, we modulated CAR expression levels in cultured LECs in vitro by siRNA- and vector-based transfection approaches. Functional assays performed with the transfected cells revealed that CAR is involved in distinct cellular processes in LECs, such as cell adhesion, migration, tube formation and the control of vascular permeability. In contrast, no effect of CAR on LEC proliferation was observed. Overall, our data suggest that CAR stabilizes LEC-LEC interactions in the skin and may contribute to lymphatic vessel integrity.

  14. Mechanism of increased coxsackie and adenovirus receptor gene expression and adenovirus uptake by phytoestrogen and histone deacetylase inhibitor in human bladder cancer cells and the potential clinical application.

    PubMed

    Pong, Rey-Chen; Roark, Ryan; Ou, Jiun-Yih; Fan, Jianhai; Stanfield, Jennifer; Frenkel, Eugene; Sagalowsky, Arthur; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong

    2006-09-01

    Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is known as a principal receptor for adenovirus commonly used as a gene delivery vector. Down-regulation of CAR is often detected in several cancer types. Epigenetic modifiers such as histone deacetylase inhibitor FK228 (depsipeptide) have been shown to increase CAR expression as well as the uptake of adenovirus in bladder cancer in vivo and in vitro, indicating that altered transcriptional regulation of CAR is the key mechanism responsible for the decreased CAR levels in this cancer. In this study, we screened agents that could induce CAR expression in bladder cancer cells. Fifty-eight drugs with various chemical properties were tested. Ipriflavone and plant isoflavones were found to exhibit the ability to induce CAR gene expression in combination with FK228. Genistein, the natural isoflavone found in soybean, when combined with FK228, exerts a synergistic effect on CAR gene and protein expression in bladder cancer cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation results showed an increased histone acetylation in the CAR promoter gene, which is due to the suppression of histone deacetylase activity by both agents. Also, our data indicated that combination treatment is a potent chemotherapeutic regimen for bladder cancer cells and the subsequent administration of recombinant adenovirus could further eliminate the remaining cells. Taken together, our results provide a strong rationale for combining chemotherapeutic and gene therapeutic agents to enhance the therapeutic efficacy in bladder cancer. PMID:16951199

  15. The transduction of Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-negative cells and protection against neutralizing antibodies by HPMA-co-oligolysine copolymer-coated adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chung-Huei K.; Chan, Leslie W.; Johnson, Russell N.; Chu, David S.H.; Shi, Julie; Schellinger, Joan G.; Lieber, Andre; Pun, Suzie H.

    2011-01-01

    Adenoviral (AdV) gene vectors offer efficient nucleic acid transfer into both dividing and non-dividing cells. However issues such as vector immunogenicity, toxicity and restricted transduction to receptor-expressing cells have prevented broad clinical translation of these constructs. To address this issue, engineered AdV have been prepared by both genetic and chemical manipulation. In this work, a polymer-coated Ad5 formulation is optimized by evaluating a series of N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA)-co-oligolysine copolymers synthesized by living polymerization techniques. This synthesis approach was used to generate highly controlled and well-defined polymers with varying peptide length (K5, K10 and K15), polymer molecular weight, and degradability to coat the viral capsid. The optimal formulation was not affected by the presence of serum during transduction and significantly increased Ad5 transduction of several cell types that lack the Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor (CAR) by up to 6-fold compared to unmodified AdV. Polymer-coated Ad5 also retained high transduction capability in the presence of Ad5 neutralizing antibodies. The critical role of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) in mediating cell binding and internalization of polymer-coated AdV was also demonstrated by evaluating transduction in HSPG-defective recombinant CHO cells. The formulations developed here are attractive vectors for ex vivo gene transfer in applications such as cell therapy. In addition, this platform for adenoviral modification allows for facile introduction of alternative targeting ligands. PMID:21959008

  16. Characterization of neutralization sites on the circulating variant of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV): a new site is shared by SVDV and the related coxsackie B5 virus.

    PubMed

    Borrego, Belén; Carra, Elena; García-Ranea, Juan Antonio; Brocchi, Emiliana

    2002-01-01

    Using a panel of new monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), five neutralizing, conformation-dependent sites have been identified on the antigenic variant of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) circulating currently. In studies on the antigenic conservation of these sites, the four antigenic/genetic groups of SVDV described showed distinguishable patterns, confirming this classification. By sequencing mAb-resistant mutants, the five sites have been mapped precisely and localized on a three-dimensional model of the SVDV capsid. All were found to be orientated, to a different extent, towards the external surface of the capsid. Three of the five sites, located in VP1, VP2 and VP3, correspond to epitopes identified previously in historic isolates as sites 1, 2a and 3b, respectively. Another site, site IV, which maps to position 258 of VP1, corresponds to an epitope reported recently and is described in this study to be specific for isolates of the most recent antigenic group of SVDV. A fifth site is described for the first time and corresponds to the unique neutralizing site that is common to both SVDV and coxsackie B5 virus; it maps to positions 95 and 98 of VP1, but may also include positions nearby that belong to site 1 on the BC-loop of VP1, suggesting the classification of site Ia. These results may have useful diagnostic and epidemiological applications, since mAbs to the new conserved site Ia provide universal reagents for SVDV detection systems, while the specificity of mAbs to site IV make them unique markers for the most recent strains of SVDV. PMID:11752698

  17. Mutagenesis of the coxsackie B3 virus 2B/2C cleavage site: determinants of processing efficiency and effects on viral replication.

    PubMed Central

    van Kuppeveld, F J; van den Hurk, P J; Zoll, J; Galama, J M; Melchers, W J

    1996-01-01

    The enterovirus 2B/2C cleavage site differs from the common cleavage site motif AxxQ/G by the occurrence of either polar residues at the P1' position or large aliphatic residues at the P4 position. To study (i) the putative contribution of these aberrant residues to the stability of precursor protein 2BC, (ii) the determinants of cleavage site specificity and efficiency of 3Cpro, and (iii) the importance of efficient cleavage at this site for viral replication, a mutational analysis of the coxsackie B3 virus (CBV3) 2B/2C cleavage site (AxxQ/N) was performed. Neither replacement of the P1' asparagine with a serine or a glycine nor replacement of the P4 alanine with a valine significantly affected 2B/2C cleavage efficiency, RNA replication, or virus growth. The introduction of a P4 asparagine, as can be found at the CBV3 3C/3D cleavage site, caused a severe reduction in 2B/2C cleavage and abolished virus growth. These data support the idea that a P4 asparagine is an unfavorable residue that contributes to a slow turnover of precursor protein 3CD but argue that it is unlikely that the aberrant 2B/2C cleavage site motifs serve to regulate 2B/2C processing efficiency and protein 2BC stability. The viability of a double mutant containing a P4 asparagine and a P1' glycine demonstrated that a P1' residue can compensate for the adverse effects of an unfavorable P4 residue. Poliovirus (or poliovirus-like) 2B/2C cleavage site motifs were correctly processed by CBV 3Cpro, albeit with a reduced efficiency, and yielded viable viruses. Analysis of in vivo protein synthesis showed that mutant viruses containing poorly processed 2B/2C cleavage sites were unable to completely shut off cellular protein synthesis. The failure to inhibit host translation coincided with a reduced ability to modify membrane permeability, as measured by the sensitivity to the unpermeant translation inhibitor hygromycin B. These data suggest that a critical level of protein 2B or 2C, or both, may be required to alter membrane permeability and, possibly as a consequence, to shut off host cell translation. PMID:8892883

  18. Genetic analysis of a hydrophobic domain of coxsackie B3 virus protein 2B: a moderate degree of hydrophobicity is required for a cis-acting function in viral RNA synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    van Kuppeveld, F J; Galama, J M; Zoll, J; Melchers, W J

    1995-01-01

    Coxsackie B virus protein 2B contains near its C terminus a hydrophobic domain with an amino acid composition that is characteristic for transmembrane regions. A molecular genetic approach was followed to define the role of this domain in virus reproduction and to study the structural and hydrophobic requirements of the domain. Nine substitution mutations were introduced in an infectious cDNA clone of coxsackie B3 virus. The effects of the mutations were studied in vivo by transfection of Buffalo green monkey cells with copy RNA transcripts. The results reported here suggest that a critical degree of hydrophobicity of the domain is essential for virus growth. The mutations S77M, C75M, I64S, and V66S, which caused either a small increase or decrease in mean hydrophobicity, yielded viable viruses. The double mutations S77M/C75M and I64S/V6-6S, which caused a more pronounced increase or decrease in hydrophobicity, were nonviable. Negatively charged residues (mutations A71E, I73E, and A71E/I73E) abolished virus growth. The mutations had no effect on the synthesis and processing of the viral polyprotein. Replication and complementation were studied by using a subgenomic coxsackievirus replicon containing the luciferase gene in place of the capsid coding region. Analysis of luciferase accumulation demonstrated that the mutations cause primary defects in viral RNA synthesis that cannot be complemented by wild-type protein 2B provided in trans. The hydrophobic domain is predicted by computer analysis to form a multimeric transmembrane helix. The proposed interaction with the membrane and the implications of the mutations on this interaction are discussed. PMID:7494289

  19. The role of the two E1a mRNA products of subgroup B adenoviruses in the regulation of early promoters of subgroup C adenoviruses.

    PubMed

    Leite, J P; Collard, J F; D'Halluin, J C

    1988-09-15

    HeLa cells were co-transfected with recombinant plasmids carrying adenovirus (Ad)2 or Ad3 E1a promoters fused to the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase gene (cat), and a plasmid encoding the Ad3 E1a promoter. Whereas no stimulating effect was observed on the Ad3 E1a promoter, the Ad2 promoter was inhibited. To determine which of the E1a gene products of Ad3 was responsible for the repressive effect, plasmids were constructed in which only the 13S or 12S mRNA product of Ad3 was expressed. Both the 12S and 13S mRNA products of Ad3 E1a were found to depress the transcription from the Ad2 E1a promoter. Each Ad3 E1a gene product was able to stimulate transcription from the Ad5 E2a early promoter in a manner similar to that of the Ad2 E1a gene products. In the case of the Ad5 E3 promoter, neither of the Ad3 E1a gene products stimulated transcription, but an inhibition was observed. These results suggest that both mRNA products of the Ad3 E1a region inhibit transcription at the TATA box transcription complex. PMID:2976011

  20. Model generation of viral channel forming 2B protein bundles from polio and coxsackie viruses

    E-print Network

    Watts, Anthony

    . Computational methods are a valuable tool model- ling structural and eventually also mechanistic fea- tures methods may serve to deliver this infor- mation until further experimental data are available. Several subunit' of larger bundles or pores (see also [21,22]). The protocol builds on a fast generation

  1. Recombination between Polioviruses and Co-Circulating Coxsackie A Viruses: Role in the Emergence of Pathogenic

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    outbreaks of poliomyelitis caused by pathogenic circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) have, poliomyelitis caused by wild polioviruses has disappeared from large parts of the world. However, poliomyelitis

  2. A Coxsackie B4 virus isolated in Yunnan in 2009 is a recombinant.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanju; Pan, Yue; Chen, Junying; Liu, Jiansheng; Chen, Wei; Ma, Shaohui

    2015-06-01

    Coxsackievirus B4 is a member of the species Enterovirus B in the Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family. So far, there are only seven complete genome sequences of CVB4 published in GenBank database. In the study, the complete genome analysis of a Coxsackievirus B4 strain A155/YN/CHN/2009 isolated from a child with aseptic meningitis in Yunnan Province was performed. It had 85.1 and 83.3 % nucleotide similarity with prototype strain J.V.B Benschoten in the VP1 region and the complete genome, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 region showed that A155/YN/CHN/2009 belongs to Genotype V circulating only in mainland of China. The results of Simplot and Bootscanning analysis implicated that A155 has recombined with other HEV-B viruses. PMID:25725901

  3. The Murine CAR Homolog Is a Receptor for Coxsackie B Viruses and Adenoviruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEFFREY M. BERGELSON; ANITA KRITHIVAS; LEO CELI; GUSTAVO DROGUETT; MARSHALL S. HORWITZ; THOMAS WICKHAM; RICHARD L. CROWELL

    1998-01-01

    Complementary DNA clones encoding the murine homolog (mCAR) of the human coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) were isolated. Nonpermissive CHO cells transfected with mCAR cDNA became susceptible to infection by coxsackieviruses B3 and B4 and showed increased susceptibility to adenovirus- mediated gene transfer. These results indicate that the same receptor is responsible for virus interactions with both murine and human

  4. Minimal hepatic toxicity of Onyx015: spatial restriction of coxsackie-adenoviral receptor in normal liver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Au; S Thorne; W M Korn; D Sze; D Kirn; T R Reid

    2007-01-01

    We administered an adenoviral vector, Onyx-015, into the hepatic artery of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer involving the liver. Thirty-five patients enrolled in this multi-institutional phase I\\/II trial received up to eight arterial infusions of up to 2 × 1012 viral particles. Hepatic toxicity was the primary dose-limiting toxicity observed in preclinical models. However, nearly 200 infusions of this adenoviral

  5. Human Adenovirus 52 Uses Sialic Acid-containing Glycoproteins and the Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor for Binding to Target Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lenman, Annasara; Liaci, A. Manuel; Liu, Yan; Årdahl, Carin; Rajan, Anandi; Nilsson, Emma; Bradford, Will; Kaeshammer, Lisa; Jones, Morris S.; Frängsmyr, Lars; Feizi, Ten; Stehle, Thilo; Arnberg, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Most adenoviruses attach to host cells by means of the protruding fiber protein that binds to host cells via the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) protein. Human adenovirus type 52 (HAdV-52) is one of only three gastroenteritis-causing HAdVs that are equipped with two different fiber proteins, one long and one short. Here we show, by means of virion-cell binding and infection experiments, that HAdV-52 can also attach to host cells via CAR, but most of the binding depends on sialylated glycoproteins. Glycan microarray, flow cytometry, surface plasmon resonance and ELISA analyses reveal that the terminal knob domain of the long fiber (52LFK) binds to CAR, and the knob domain of the short fiber (52SFK) binds to sialylated glycoproteins. X-ray crystallographic analysis of 52SFK in complex with 2-O-methylated sialic acid combined with functional studies of knob mutants revealed a new sialic acid binding site compared to other, known adenovirus:glycan interactions. Our findings shed light on adenovirus biology and may help to improve targeting of adenovirus-based vectors for gene therapy. PMID:25674795

  6. Paclitaxel resistance increases oncolytic adenovirus efficacy via upregulated CAR expression and dysfunctional cell cycle control.

    PubMed

    Ingemarsdotter, Carin K; Tookman, Laura A; Browne, Ashley; Pirlo, Katrina; Cutts, Rosalind; Chelela, Claude; Khurrum, Karisma F; Leung, Elaine Y L; Dowson, Suzanne; Webber, Lee; Khan, Iftekhar; Ennis, Darren; Syed, Nelofer; Crook, Tim R; Brenton, James D; Lockley, Michelle; McNeish, Iain A

    2015-04-01

    Resistance to paclitaxel chemotherapy frequently develops in ovarian cancer. Oncolytic adenoviruses are a novel therapy for human malignancies that are being evaluated in early phase trials. However, there are no reliable predictive biomarkers for oncolytic adenovirus activity in ovarian cancer. We investigated the link between paclitaxel resistance and oncolytic adenovirus activity using established ovarian cancer cell line models, xenografts with de novo paclitaxel resistance and tumour samples from two separate trials. The activity of multiple Ad5 vectors, including dl922-947 (E1A CR2-deleted), dl1520 (E1B-55K deleted) and Ad5 WT, was significantly increased in paclitaxel resistant ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo. This was associated with greater infectivity resulting from increased expression of the primary receptor for Ad5, CAR (coxsackie adenovirus receptor). This, in turn, resulted from increased CAR transcription secondary to histone modification in resistant cells. There was increased CAR expression in intraperitoneal tumours with de novo paclitaxel resistance and in tumours from patients with clinical resistance to paclitaxel. Increased CAR expression did not cause paclitaxel resistance, but did increase inflammatory cytokine expression. Finally, we identified dysregulated cell cycle control as a second mechanism of increased adenovirus efficacy in paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer. Ad11 and Ad35, both group B adenoviruses that utilise non-CAR receptors to infect cells, are also significantly more effective in paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cell models. Inhibition of CDK4/6 using PD-0332991 was able both to reverse paclitaxel resistance and reduce adenovirus efficacy. Thus, paclitaxel resistance increases oncolytic adenovirus efficacy via at least two separate mechanisms - if validated further, this information could have future clinical utility to aid patient selection for clinical trials. PMID:25560085

  7. First report of a Chinese strain of coxsackie B3 virus infection in a newborn in Germany in 2011: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Enteroviruses commonly encounter babies and children and infections present in a wide variety of symptoms ranging from asymptomatic infection, benign illness, and aseptic meningitis, hand-foot-and-mouth disease to severe life-threatening disease. Some newborns develop severe disease in the first 2 weeks of life and long-term sequelae may occur among survivors. Case presentation We present a case report of a Caucasian newborn baby boy with severe encephalitis and systemic coxsackievirus B3 infection. The coincidence of maternal infection as well as previous mild respiratory illness in his sister suggests either prenatal or horizontal postnatal transmission. An electroencephalogram showed a severe pathologic pattern with theta-delta-rhythm and spike-wave complexes on both hemispheres. We also observed an unusual prolonged viremia for a period of 6 weeks. Due to the lack of specific antiviral treatment options, the supportive management included ventilation and medical treatment of seizures. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a genogroup D2 virus previously exclusively detected in China and now described in Europe for the first time. Conclusions Enteroviral infection is an important differential diagnosis in neonatal encephalitis. Prolonged viremia must be taken into account and might correlate with disease severity. The newly observed enterovirus genotype D2 is spreading from Asia to other continents. PMID:24885145

  8. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Restore Cell Surface Expression of the Coxsackie Adenovirus Receptor and Enhance CMV Promoter Activity in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kasman, Laura; Onicescu, Georgiana; Voelkel-Johnson, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Adenoviral gene therapy using the death receptor ligand TRAIL as the therapeutic transgene can be safely administered via intraprostatic injection but has not been evaluated for efficacy in patients. Here we investigated the efficacy of adenoviral TRAIL gene therapy in a model of castration resistant prostate cancer and found that intratumoral injections can significantly delay tumor growth but cannot eliminate established lesions. We hypothesized that an underlying cause is inefficient adenoviral delivery. Using the LNCaP progression model of prostate cancer we show that surface CAR expression decreases with increasing tumorigenicity and that castration resistant C4-2b cells were more difficult to transduce with adenovirus than castration sensitive LNCaP cells. Many genes, including CAR, are epigenetically silenced during transformation but a new class of chemotherapeutic agents, known as histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), can reverse this process. We demonstrate that HDACi restore CAR expression and infectivity in C4-2b cells and enhance caspase activation in response to infection with a TRAIL adenovirus. We also show that in cells with high surface CAR expression, HDACi further enhance transgene expression from the CMV promoter. Thus HDACi have multiple beneficial effects, which may enhance not only viral but also non-viral gene therapy of castration resistant prostate cancer. PMID:22288017

  9. Structure of swine vesicular disease virus: mapping of changes occurring during adaptation of human coxsackie B5 virus to infect swine.

    PubMed

    Verdaguer, Núria; Jimenez-Clavero, Miguel A; Fita, Ignacio; Ley, Victoria

    2003-09-01

    The structure of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) was solved and refined at a 3.0-A resolution by X-ray crystallography to gain information about the role of sequence changes that occurred as this virus evolved from the parental human pathogen coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5). These amino acid substitutions can be clustered in five distinct regions: (i) the antigenic sites, (ii) the hydrophobic pocket of the VP1 beta-sandwich, (iii) the putative CAR binding site, (iv) the putative heparan sulfate binding site, and (v) the fivefold axis. The VP1 pocket is occupied by a branched pocket factor, apparently different from that present in the closely related virus CVB3 and in other picornaviruses. This finding may be relevant for the design of new antiviral compounds against this site. Density consistent with the presence of ions was observed on the fivefold and threefold axes. The structure also provided an accurate description of the putative receptor binding sites. PMID:12941886

  10. Structure of Swine Vesicular Disease Virus: Mapping of Changes Occurring during Adaptation of Human Coxsackie B5 Virus To Infect Swine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nuria Verdaguer; Miguel A. Jimenez-Clavero; Ignacio Fita; Victoria Ley

    2003-01-01

    The structure of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) was solved and refined at a 3.0-Aresolution by X-ray crystallography to gain information about the role of sequence changes that occurred as this virus evolved from the parental human pathogen coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5). These amino acid substitutions can be clustered in five distinct regions: (i) the antigenic sites, (ii) the hydrophobic pocket

  11. The coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) is used by reference strains and clinical isolates representing all six serotypes of coxsackievirus group B and by swine vesicular disease virus.

    PubMed

    Martino, T A; Petric, M; Weingartl, H; Bergelson, J M; Opavsky, M A; Richardson, C D; Modlin, J F; Finberg, R W; Kain, K C; Willis, N; Gauntt, C J; Liu, P P

    2000-05-25

    Group B coxsackieviruses are etiologically linked to many human diseases, and cell surface receptors are postulated to play an important role in mediating their pathogenesis. The coxsackievirus adenovirus receptor (CAR) has been shown to function as a receptor for selected strains of coxsackievirus group B (CVB) serotypes 3, 4, and 5 and is postulated to serve as a receptor for all six serotypes. In this study, we demonstrate that CAR can serve as a receptor for laboratory reference strains and clinical isolates of all six CVB serotypes. Infection of CHO cells expressing human CAR results in a 1000-fold increase in CVB progeny virus titer compared to mock transfected cells. CAR was shown to be a functional receptor for swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), as CHO-CAR cells but not CHO mock transfected controls were susceptible to SVDV infection, produced progeny SVDV, and developed cytopathic effects. Moreover, SVDV infection could be specifically blocked by monoclonal antibody to CAR (RmcB). SVDV infection of HeLa cells was also inhibited by an anti-CD55 MAb, suggesting that this virus, like some CVB, may interact with CD55 (decay accelerating factor) in addition to CAR. Finally, pretreatment of CVB or SVDV with soluble CAR effectively blocks virus infection of HeLa cell monolayers. PMID:10814575

  12. Structure of Swine Vesicular Disease Virus: Mapping of Changes Occurring during Adaptation of Human Coxsackie B5 Virus To Infect Swine

    PubMed Central

    Verdaguer, Núria; Jimenez-Clavero, Miguel A.; Fita, Ignacio; Ley, Victoria

    2003-01-01

    The structure of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) was solved and refined at a 3.0-Å resolution by X-ray crystallography to gain information about the role of sequence changes that occurred as this virus evolved from the parental human pathogen coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5). These amino acid substitutions can be clustered in five distinct regions: (i) the antigenic sites, (ii) the hydrophobic pocket of the VP1 ?-sandwich, (iii) the putative CAR binding site, (iv) the putative heparan sulfate binding site, and (v) the fivefold axis. The VP1 pocket is occupied by a branched pocket factor, apparently different from that present in the closely related virus CVB3 and in other picornaviruses. This finding may be relevant for the design of new antiviral compounds against this site. Density consistent with the presence of ions was observed on the fivefold and threefold axes. The structure also provided an accurate description of the putative receptor binding sites. PMID:12941886

  13. Characterization of neutralization sites on the circulating variant of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV): a new site is shared by SVDV and the related coxsackie B5 virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Carra; Juan Antonio Garci; Emiliana Brocchi; Bruno Ubertini

    Using a panel of new monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), five neutralizing, conformation-dependent sites have been identified on the antigenic variant of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) circulating currently. In studies on the antigenic conservation of these sites, the four antigenic\\/ genetic groups of SVDV described showed distinguishable patterns, confirming this classification. By sequencing mAb-resistant mutants, the five sites have been mapped

  14. The Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptor (CAR) Is Used by Reference Strains and Clinical Isolates Representing All Six Serotypes of Coxsackievirus Group B and by Swine Vesicular Disease Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tami A. Martino; Martin Petric; Hana Weingartl; Jeffrey M. Bergelson; Mary Anne Opavsky; Christopher D. Richardson; John F. Modlin; Robert W. Finberg; Kevin C. Kain; Norman Willis; Charles J. Gauntt; Peter P. Liu

    2000-01-01

    Group B coxsackieviruses are etiologically linked to many human diseases, and cell surface receptors are postulated to play an important role in mediating their pathogenesis. The coxsackievirus adenovirus receptor (CAR) has been shown to function as a receptor for selected strains of coxsackievirus group B (CVB) serotypes 3, 4, and 5 and is postulated to serve as a receptor for

  15. Acute cerebellar ataxia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... weeks after an illness caused by a virus. Viral infections that may cause this include chickenpox , Coxsackie disease, ... multiple sclerosis) Cerebellar ataxia caused by a recent viral infection may not need treatment.

  16. [Outbreak of acute enterovirus intestinal infection in Sakhalin region in August 2010].

    PubMed

    Demina, A V; Ternovo?, V A; Darizhapov, B B; Iakubich, T V; Sementsova, A O; Demina, O K; Protopopova, E V; Loktev, V B; Agafonov, A P; Netesov, S V

    2012-01-01

    The investigation of cases of acute intestinal infections in the Sakhalin region of Russia in August, 2010 is described. Epidemiological and molecular biological studies were conducted. After initial PCR screening and determining the nucleotide sequences of the positive samples the following enteroviruses were found: Coxsackie A2 - 42 samples (45%), Coxsackie A4--31 sample (34%), Enterovirus 71--6 samples (6,5%), Coxsackievirus B5--6 samples (6,5%), Coxsackie B3--4 samples (4%) and Coxsackie B1--4 samples (4%). The phylogenetic analysis of sequences showed that the closest analogues for the nucleotide sequences of these genotypes were previously identified in Japan, Korea and China in 2000-2010. PMID:22642180

  17. Pericarditis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... often the result of an infection such as: Viral infections that cause a chest cold or pneumonia, such as echovirus or coxsackie virus (common in children) and influenza Infections with bacteria ( ...

  18. EFFECT OF PARTICULATES ON DISINFECTION OF ENTEROVIRUSES IN WATER BY CHLORINE DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The inactivation kinetics of ClO2 on two enteroviruses, poliovirus 1 (Mahoney) and coxsackie virus A9, and an enteric indicator of fecal pollution, Escherichia coli, were examined in laboratory studies. In addition, the disinfecting ability of ClO2 as affected by particulates (bo...

  19. Molecular evolution of swine vesicular disease virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Zhang; Daniel T. Haydon; Nick J. Knowles; John W. McCauley

    1999-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis was used to examine the evolutionary relationships within a group of coxsackie B viruses that contained representatives of the major serotypes of this group and 45 isolates of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) from Asia and Europe. Separate analyses of sequence data from two regions of the viral genomes encoding the VP1 and 3BC genes both revealed that

  20. Enhanced Gene Transfer to Rabbit Jugular Veins by an Adenovirus Containing a Cyclic RGD Motif in the HI Loop of the Fiber Knob

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl M. Hay; Hector De Leon; Jonathon D. Jafari; John L. Jakubczak; Christine A. Mech; Paul L. Hallenbeck; Sharon K. Powell; Gene Liau; Susan C. Stevenson

    2001-01-01

    Gene therapy using recombinant adenoviral vectors represents a promising therapeutic tool to prevent vein graft stenosis, the main complication of coronary artery bypass grafting. However, the low transduction efficiency of vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells (EC) is a potential limitation, presumably due to the low levels of functional adenovirus receptor (coxsackie:adenovirus receptor; CAR). Designing vectors specifically targeted to

  1. Infections and autoimmune diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-François Bach

    2005-01-01

    The high percentage of disease-discordant pairs of monozygotic twins demonstrates the central role of environmental factors in the etiology of autoimmune diseases. Efforts were first focussed on the search for triggering factors. The study of animal models has clearly shown that infections may trigger autoimmune diseases, as in the case of Coxsackie B4 virus in type I diabetes and the

  2. 286. Therapeutic Approach Using External Radiation and Suicide Gene Therapy Transduced by Chimeric Adenovirus Vector for Bladder Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazumasa Matsumoto; Norihiko Okuno; Bin S. Teh; Christian T. F. Freund; Julie X. Zhu; Maria T. Vlachaki; Alan R. Davis; Brian E. Butler; Seth P. Lerner

    2005-01-01

    Background: Radiation therapy is an established therapy for advanced bladder cancer. Interestingly, radiation therapy has been shown to improve both transduction efficiency and transgene expression. However, alteration of the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) poses a barrier to adenovirus-mediated gene therapy, particularly in higher grade and stage bladder cancers with potential for metastasis. We have previously shown the efficacy of

  3. In Vivo Molecular Chemotherapy and Noninvasive Imaging With an Infectivity-Enhanced Adenovirus

    E-print Network

    Hemminki, Akseli

    In Vivo Molecular Chemotherapy and Noninvasive Imaging With an Infectivity-Enhanced Adenovirus the req- uisite coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR), limiting the in vivo efficacy of gene therapy. Recently, a modified adenovi- rus that is not dependent on CAR expression for infectivity was developed. We

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLE A heparan sulfate-targeted conditionally replicative

    E-print Network

    Hemminki, Akseli

    in gene therapy, is the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR). CAR is expressed variably and often at low pathway-dependent CRAd, Ad5.pK7-D24, with a polylysine motif in the fiber C-terminus, enabling CAR cancer cell lines tested. Further, we utilized noninvasive, fluorescent imaging for analysis of antitumor

  5. Realms of the Viruses Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Viruses have evolved strategies for infecting all taxa, but most viruses are highly specific about their cellular host. In humans, viruses cause diverse diseases, from chronic but benign warts, to acute and deadly hemorrhagic fever. Viruses have entertaining names like Zucchini Yellow Mosaic, Semliki Forest, Coxsackie, and the original terminator,…

  6. CAR regulates epithelial cell junction stability through control of E-cadherin trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Penny E.; Hicks, Alexander; Nastos, Theodoros; Santis, George; Parsons, Maddy

    2013-01-01

    CAR (Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor) is the primary docking receptor for typeB coxsackie viruses and subgroup C adenoviruses. CAR is a member of the JAM family of adhesion receptors and is located to both tight and adherens junctions between epithelial cells where it can assemble adhesive contacts through homodimerisation in trans. However, the role of CAR in controlling epithelial junction dynamics remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that levels of CAR in human epithelial cells play a key role in determining epithelial cell adhesion through control of E-cadherin stability at cell-cell junctions. Mechanistically, we show that CAR is phosphorylated within the C-terminus by PKC? and that this in turn controls Src-dependent endocytosis of E-cadherin at cell junctions. This data demonstrates a novel role for CAR in regulating epithelial homeostasis. PMID:24096322

  7. Singleton reactors in the diagnosis of swine vesicular disease: the role of coxsackievirus B5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Moonen; F Van Poelwijk; R Moormann; A Dekker

    2000-01-01

    Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and Coxsackie B5 virus (CVB5) are closely related viruses that can infect swine and man and give rise to cross-reacting serum antibodies. It is, therefore, possible that SVD antibodies found in serologic screenings of pigs are induced by CVB5. Single positive animals found in screening programmes are generally referred to as singleton reactors (SR). To

  8. Evaluation of Antiviral and Cytotoxic Activities of Methanolic Extract of Thespesia Populnea (Malvaceae) Flowers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saravanakumar Arthanari; P. Renukadevi; J. Vanitha; K. Venkateshwaran; M. Ganesh; E. De Clercq

    2011-01-01

    Methanolic flower extracts of Thespesia populnea were evaluated for antiviral and cytotoxic activities using different virus strains cultured in four cell lines. Methanolic extracts showed the strongest antiviral activity against vesicular stomatitis virus, coxsackie B4, and respiratory syncytical viruses that is (EC50 = 20 ?g.mL) and moderate activity for others (EC50 = 100 ?g.mL). These activities may be due to

  9. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiviral activities of Retama raetam (Forssk.) Webb flowers growing in Tunisia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edziri Hayet; Mastouri Maha; Ammar Samia; Matieu Mata; Patrich Gros; Hiar Raida; Mahjoub Mohamed Ali; Ali Si Mohamed; Laurent Gutmann; Zine Mighri; Aouni Mahjoub

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiviral activities of flower extracts of Retama raetam Forssk. Webb (Fabaceae) were screened both from standard and isolated Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by solid medium\\u000a technique. Oxacillin, Amoxicillin, Ticarcillin, Cefotaxim, and Amphotericin were used as the control agents. The antiviral\\u000a activity was evaluated against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) strain AD-169 (ATCC Ref. VR 538) and coxsackie B virus

  10. Adenovirus triggers macropinocytosis and endosomal leakage together with its clathrin-mediated uptake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Meier; Karin Boucke; Silvija Vig Hammer; Stephan Keller; Robert P. Stidwill; Silvio Hemmi; Urs F. Greber

    2002-01-01

    denovirus type 2 (Ad2) binds the coxsackie B virus Ad receptor and is endocytosed upon activation of thev integrin coreceptors. Here, we demonstrate that expression of dominant negative clathrin hub, eps15, or K44A-dynamin (dyn) inhibited Ad2 uptake into epithe- lial cells, indicating clathrin-dependent viral endocytosis. Surprisingly, Ad strongly stimulated the endocytic uptake of fluid phase tracers, coincident with virus internalization

  11. Inactivation of Human Viruses by PovidoneIodine in Comparison with Other Antiseptics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Kawana; T. Kitamura; O. Nakagomi; I. Matsumoto; M. Arita; N. Yoshihara; K. Yanagi; A. Yamada; O. Morita; Y. Yoshida; Y. Furuya; S. Chiba

    1997-01-01

    Inactivation of a range of viruses, such as adeno-, mumps, rota-, polio- (types 1 and 3), coxsackie-, rhino-, herpes simplex, rubella, measles, influenza and human immunodeficiency viruses, by povidone-iodine (PVP-I) and other commercially available antiseptics in Japan was studied in accordance with the standardized protocol in vitro. In these experiments, antiseptics such as PVP-I solution, PVP-I gargle, PVP-I cream, chlorhexidine

  12. Psoriasis Herpeticum due to Varicella Zoster Virus: A Kaposi's Varicelliform Eruption in Erythrodermic Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Geeta; Thami, Gurvinder P

    2012-01-01

    Kaposi's varicelliform eruption (KVE) or eczema herpeticum is characterized by disseminated papulovesicular eruption caused by a number of viruses like Herpes simplex virus I and II, Coxsackie virus, and Vaccinia and Small pox viruses in patients with pre-existing skin disease. The occurrence of KVE with psoriasis has been reported recently as a new entity psoriasis herpeticum. The rare causation of psoriasis herpeticum due to Varicella zoster virus in a patient with underlying psoriasis is being reported for the first time. PMID:22707775

  13. Identification of a Series of Compounds with Potent Antiviral Activity for the Treatment of Enterovirus Infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Rhinovirus (genus enterovirus) infections are responsible for many of the severe exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Other members of the genus can cause life-threatening acute neurological infections. There is currently no antiviral drug approved for the treatment of such infections. We have identified a series of potent, broad-spectrum antiviral compounds that inhibit the replication of the human rhinovirus, Coxsackie virus, poliovirus, and enterovirus-71. The mechanism of action of the compounds has been established as inhibition of a lipid kinase, PI4KIII?. Inhibition of hepatitis C replication in a replicon assay correlated with enterovirus inhibition. PMID:24900715

  14. Antiviral activity of N-benzoylphenylisoserinates of Lactarius sesquiterpenoid alcohols in vitro.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Ewa; ?uczak, Miros?aw; Kobus, Miros?aw; Ba?ka, Dariusz; Daniewski, W?odzimierz

    2003-06-01

    Cytotoxic, antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal properties of a new, originally synthesised group of compounds: the N-benzoylphenylisoserinates of sesquiterpenoid alcohols - derivatives of taxol and various sesquiterpenes of Lactarius origin were evaluated in vitro. Among 16 compounds tested, 6 decreased HSV-1 titres. Selectivity indices ranged from 13.9 to 31.7. No activity against RNA viruses (parainfluenza 3, Coxsackie B3, vesicular stomatitis virus, and encephalomyocarditis virus), bacteria: Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium and Bacteroides fragilis and fungal strain of Candida albicans was detected. PMID:12865976

  15. Purification, crystallization and X-ray analysis of swine vesicular disease virus.

    PubMed

    Lin, W; Zhao, Q; Bartlam, M; Ding, Y; Li, D; Chen, Y; Bao, H; Xie, Q; Rao, Z

    2002-06-01

    Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) is the etiological agent of swine vesicular disease, a highly contagious disease in pigs, and is related to coxsackie B virus. Crystalline arrays of SVDV can be observed in the cytoplasm of cells 4.5 h after inoculation to porcine kidney cells (IBRS-2 cells). Crystals of the JX/78 strain of SVDV were obtained from virus in two wells of crystallization conditions and present preliminary X-ray data to 3.6 A resolution. PMID:12037316

  16. [Severe acute pancreatitis and infection by influenza A (H1N1) virus in a child: case report].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Schulz, Diego; Martínez, Agustina; Guzmán, María Belén; Robledo, Hugo; Capocasa, Patricia; Martínez, Luz; Garnero, Analía

    2015-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas, characterized by abdominal pain and high level of pancreatic enzymes. Pancreatitis is the most common disease of pancreas in children and adults. For the diagnosis we need 2 of 3 characteristics: abdominal pain characteristic of acute pancreatitis, amylase and/or lipase 3 times higher than the normal upper limit and characteristic findings in images. The etiologies are multiple: trauma, metabolic disease and infections: mixovirus, HIV, measles, coxsackie, hepatitis B, C, cytomegalovirus, varicella, herpes simplex. Three cases of PA associated with H1N1 Influenza virus were reported, only one in a child with uncomplicated features. PMID:26172021

  17. [Role of toxoplasma and viruses in polydermatomyositis].

    PubMed

    Serratrice, G

    1988-05-21

    The causes of polymyositis are imperfectly known. The role of Toxoplasma, the myotropism of which is significant in acute myositis, may be suspected on the ground of secondary serological data, but it has not yet been confirmed. On the other hand, the role of coxsackie virus, which until recently had been established only on morphological or serological data, has now been ascertained by molecular biology techniques. The best example of experimental viral polymyositis is the disease induced by inoculation of retrovirus to the monkey. This has led to the identification in man of polymyositis revealing an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. PMID:2967956

  18. Identification of a series of compounds with potent antiviral activity for the treatment of enterovirus infections.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Angus M; Mitchell, Dale R; Palmer, Nicholas J; Van de Poël, Hervé; Conrath, Katja; Andrews, Martin; Leyssen, Pieter; Neyts, Johan

    2013-07-11

    Rhinovirus (genus enterovirus) infections are responsible for many of the severe exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Other members of the genus can cause life-threatening acute neurological infections. There is currently no antiviral drug approved for the treatment of such infections. We have identified a series of potent, broad-spectrum antiviral compounds that inhibit the replication of the human rhinovirus, Coxsackie virus, poliovirus, and enterovirus-71. The mechanism of action of the compounds has been established as inhibition of a lipid kinase, PI4KIII?. Inhibition of hepatitis C replication in a replicon assay correlated with enterovirus inhibition. PMID:24900715

  19. Semisynthesis of the antiviral abietane diterpenoid jiadifenoic acid C from callitrisic acid (4-epidehydroabietic acid) isolated from sandarac resin.

    PubMed

    González, Miguel A; Zaragozá, Ramón J

    2014-09-26

    The semisynthesis of the antiviral abietane diterpenoid (+)-jiadifenoic acid C starting from the available methyl ester of callitrisic acid (4-epidehydroabietic acid) isolated from sandarac resin is reported. A protocol for the isolation of methyl callitrisate (methyl 4-epidehydroabietate) in gram quantities from sandarac resin is also described. Allylic C-17 oxygenation was introduced by regioselective dehydrogenation of the isopropyl group of methyl callitrisate with DDQ followed by selenium-catalyzed allylic oxidation. Ester hydrolysis afforded (+)-jiadifenoic acid C in 22% overall yield from methyl callitrisate. This semisynthetic route provides a convenient source of this anti-Coxsackie virus B natural product for further biological studies. PMID:25166492

  20. Characterization of a major histocompatibility complex class I antigen-binding glycoprotein from adenovirus type 35, a type associated with immunocompromised hosts.

    PubMed Central

    Flomenberg, P R; Chen, M; Horwitz, M S

    1987-01-01

    Adenovirus type 35 (Ad35) is a group B adenovirus that has been isolated primarily from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and other immunodeficiency disorders. We have studied the interaction of this unique adenovirus with the immune system by analyzing Ad35 early viral proteins in infected HeLa cells. We have identified a 29,000-Mr Ad35 early glycoprotein, E29, which associates with class I antigens of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in the endoplasmic reticulum. Ad35 E29 is analogous to the group C Ad2 early glycoprotein E3-19K (E19), which has been shown to interfere with the expression of class I antigens on the cell surface (H. Burgert and S. Kvist, Cell 41:987-997, 1985). In contrast to the Ad2 glycoprotein, Ad35 E29 was synthesized in much smaller amounts, was more extensively glycosylated, and did not cross-react with polyclonal antibody against the Ad2 protein. As a control, a class I antigen-binding glycoprotein from another group B adenovirus, Ad7, was also characterized and was found to have properties similar to those of Ad35 E29. Therefore, the differences in the glycosylation and quantity of class I antigen-binding glycoproteins between Ad35 and Ad2 are group related. Inhibition of the expression of MHC class I antigens, which are needed for cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte recognition of virus-infected cells, appears to play a vital role in the adenovirus life cycle in vivo. Our data indicate that this function has been conserved despite significant differences in the MHC class I antigen-binding glycoprotein and in the pathogenicity between serotypes. Images PMID:2960830

  1. Hand, foot, and mouth syndrome in an immunocompetent adult: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hand, foot, and mouth syndrome (HFMS) is a common acute illness. It is characterized by mild clinical symptoms including fever, blisters, and sores in the mouth and on the palms and soles following a 3- to 7-day incubation period. This syndrome is rarely seen in adults. Case presentation A 35-year-old male Caucasian patient had a history of multiple episodes of acute pharyngitis, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and occasional abdominal pain. He presented with polyarthralgia in the knees and hands and odynophagia, followed by fever, oral mucosal aphthous lesions, and vesicles on the palms and soles. Three weeks after presentation, he was admitted to the emergency room with acute myocarditis. The in-hospital evaluation revealed positive serology for coxsackie A9 (1:160), positive anti-transglutaminase and anti-gliadin antibodies, normal immunoglobulins, and human immunodeficiency virus negativity. Conclusion We herein describe a case of HFMS that was associated with coxsackie A9 infection complicated by acute myocarditis. Although an association between celiac disease and HFMS has not been described, this patient’s immunologic disruption could have favored the development of infection and ultimately HFMS. PMID:24180226

  2. Group Selection and Contribution of Minority Variants during Virus Adaptation Determines Virus Fitness and Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Bordería, Antonio V.; Henningsson, Rasmus; Agüera-González, Sonia; Organtini, Lindsey; Gnädig, Nina F.; Blanc, Hervé; Alcover, Andrés; Hafenstein, Susan; Fontes, Magnus; Shomron, Noam; Vignuzzi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how a pathogen colonizes and adapts to a new host environment is a primary aim in studying emerging infectious diseases. Adaptive mutations arise among the thousands of variants generated during RNA virus infection, and identifying these variants will shed light onto how changes in tropism and species jumps can occur. Here, we adapted Coxsackie virus B3 to a highly permissive and less permissive environment. Using deep sequencing and bioinformatics, we identified a multi-step adaptive process to adaptation involving residues in the receptor footprints that correlated with receptor availability and with increase in virus fitness in an environment-specific manner. We show that adaptation occurs by selection of a dominant mutation followed by group selection of minority variants that together, confer the fitness increase observed in the population, rather than selection of a single dominant genotype. PMID:25941809

  3. [Enterovirus infections in new disguise].

    PubMed

    Fohlman, J; Friman, G; Tuvemo, T

    1997-07-01

    Enteroviruses (Coxsackie A and B, echovirus, poliovirus) belong to a group of small RNA-viruses, picomavirus, which are widespread in nature. Enteroviruses cause a number of wellknown diseases and symptoms in humans, from subclinical infections and the common cold to poliomyelitis with paralysis. The development of polio vaccines is the greatest accomplishment within the field of enterovirus research and the background work was awarded the Nobel prize in 1954. New knowledge implies that enteroviruses play a more important part in the morbidity panorama than was previously thought. Chronic (persistent) enteroviruses were formerly unknown. Serologic and molecular biology techniques have now demonstrated that enteroviral genomes, in certain situations, persist after the primary infection (which is often silent). Persistent enteroviral infection or recurrent infections and/or virus-stimulated autoimmunity might contribute to the development of diseases with hitherto unexplained pathogenesis, such as post polio syndrome, dilated cardiomyopathy, juvenile (type 1) diabetes and possibly some cases of chronic fatigue syndrome. PMID:9254324

  4. The molecular interaction of CAR and JAML recruits the central cell signal transducer PI3K

    PubMed Central

    Verdino, Petra; Witherden, Deborah A.; Havran, Wendy L.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is the primary cellular receptor for group B coxsackieviruses and most adenovirus serotypes and plays a crucial role in adenoviral gene therapy. Recent discovery of the interaction between Junctional Adhesion Molecule-Like Protein (JAML) and CAR uncovered important functional roles in immunity, inflammation, and tissue homeostasis. Crystal structures of JAML ectodomain (2.2Å) and its complex with CAR (2.8Å) reveal an unusual Ig-domain assembly for JAML and a charged interface that confers high specificity. Biochemical and mutagenesis studies illustrate how CAR-mediated clustering of JAML recruits phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) to a JAML intracellular sequence motif as delineated for the ?? T cell costimulatory receptor CD28. Thus, CAR and JAML are cell signaling receptors of the immune system with implications for asthma, cancer, and chronic non-healing wounds. PMID:20813955

  5. The Molecular Interaction of CAR and JAML Recruits the Central Cell Signal Transducer PI3K

    SciTech Connect

    Verdino, Petra; Witherden, Deborah A.; Havran, Wendy L.; Wilson, Ian A. (Scripps)

    2010-11-15

    Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is the primary cellular receptor for group B coxsackieviruses and most adenovirus serotypes and plays a crucial role in adenoviral gene therapy. Recent discovery of the interaction between junctional adhesion molecule-like protein (JAML) and CAR uncovered important functional roles in immunity, inflammation, and tissue homeostasis. Crystal structures of JAML ectodomain (2.2 angstroms) and its complex with CAR (2.8 angstroms) reveal an unusual immunoglobulin-domain assembly for JAML and a charged interface that confers high specificity. Biochemical and mutagenesis studies illustrate how CAR-mediated clustering of JAML recruits phosphoinositide 3-kinase (P13K) to a JAML intracellular sequence motif as delineated for the {alpha}{beta} T cell costimulatory receptor CD28. Thus, CAR and JAML are cell signaling receptors of the immune system with implications for asthma, cancer, and chronic nonhealing wounds.

  6. Surmounting limited gene delivery into primary immune cell populations: Efficient cell type-specific adenoviral transduction by CAR.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Björn E; Brand, Anna; Karram, Khalad

    2015-06-01

    Ectopic gene expression studies in primary immune cells have been notoriously difficult to perform due to the limitations in conventional transfection and viral transduction methods. Although replication-defective adenoviruses provide an attractive alternative for gene delivery, their use has been hampered by the limited susceptibility of murine leukocytes to adenoviral infection, due to insufficient expression of the human coxsackie/adenovirus receptor (CAR). In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Heger et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2015. 45: XXXX-XXXX] report the generation of transgenic mice that enable conditional Cre/loxP-mediated expression of human CAR. The authors demonstrate that this R26/CAG-CAR?1(StopF) mouse strain facilitates the faithful monitoring of Cre activity in situ as well as the specific and efficient adenoviral transduction of primary immune cell populations in vitro. Further tweaking of the system towards more efficient gene transfer in vivo remains a future challenge. PMID:25903647

  7. Virus combinations and chemotherapy for the treatment of human cancers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shantanu; Gao, Lu; Yeagy, Brian; Reid, Tony

    2008-08-01

    Oncolytic viruses possess an inherent trophism for tumor cells or have been engineered in a variety of ways to selectively replicate in and destroy cancer cells. Because of the unique mode of tumor destruction, oncolytic virotherapy has the potential to augment the antineoplastic activity of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Many oncolytic viruses, such as adenovirus, HSV, vaccinia, measles, reovirus, Newcastle disease virus and coxsackie virus, have entered into clinical trials and their efficacy and safety have been demonstrated with few, minor, side effects. Data obtained from several clinical trials of the oncolytic adenovirus, ONYX-015, in patients with cancer have been described in detail. Some preclinical studies of oncolytic viruses have demonstrated promising results, mainly when administered in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs. In this review, the clinical use of oncolytic viruses in combination with chemotherapy and radiation therapy, and future directions to enhance the efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy, are discussed. PMID:18683102

  8. Detection of bioagents using a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave biosensor

    DOEpatents

    Larson, Richard S; Hjelle, Brian; Hall, Pam R; Brown, David C; Bisoffi, Marco; Brozik, Susan M; Branch, Darren W; Edwards, Thayne L; Wheeler, David

    2014-04-29

    A biosensor combining the sensitivity of surface acoustic waves (SAW) generated at a frequency of 325 MHz with the specificity provided by antibodies and other ligands for the detection of viral agents. In a preferred embodiment, a lithium tantalate based SAW transducer with silicon dioxide waveguide sensor platform featuring three test and one reference delay lines was used to adsorb antibodies directed against Coxsackie virus B4 or the negative-stranded category A bioagent Sin Nombre virus (SNV). Rapid detection of increasing concentrations of viral particles was linear over a range of order of magnitude for both viruses, and the sensor's selectivity for its target was not compromised by the presence of confounding Herpes Simplex virus type 1 The biosensor was able to delect SNV at doses lower than the load of virus typically found in a human patient suffering from hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS).

  9. Molecular evolution of swine vesicular disease virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G; Haydon, D T; Knowles, N J; McCauley, J W

    1999-03-01

    Phylogenetic analysis was used to examine the evolutionary relationships within a group of coxsackie B viruses that contained representatives of the major serotypes of this group and 45 isolates of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) from Asia and Europe. Separate analyses of sequence data from two regions of the viral genomes encoding the VP1 and 3BC genes both revealed that the SVDV belonged to a single monophyletic group which could be clearly distinguished from all other sampled coxsackieviruses. Regression analysis revealed that within the SVDV clade at least 80% of the synonymous variation in evolutionary divergence between isolates was explained by time, indicating the existence of an approximate molecular clock. Calibration of this clock according to synonymous substitutions per year indicated the date of occurrence of a common ancestor for the SVDV clade to be between 1945 and 1965. PMID:10092004

  10. Investigation of the influence of EPs® 7630, a herbal drug preparation from Pelargonium sidoides, on replication of a broad panel of respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Michaelis, Martin; Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2011-03-15

    The Pelargonium sidoides extract EPs® 7630 is an approved drug for the treatment of acute bronchitis in Germany. The postulated mechanisms underlying beneficial effects of EPs® 7630 in bronchitis patients include immunomodulatory and cytoprotective effects, inhibition of interaction between bacteria and host cells, and increase of cilliary beat frequency on respiratory cells. Here, we investigated the influence of EPs® 7630 on replication of a panel of respiratory viruses. Determination of virus-induced cytopathogenic effects and virus titres revealed that EPs® 7630 at concentrations up to 100 ?g/ml interfered with replication of seasonal influenza A virus strains (H1N1, H3N2), respiratory syncytial virus, human coronavirus, parainfluenza virus, and coxsackie virus but did not affect replication of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1), adenovirus, or rhinovirus. Therefore, antiviral effects may contribute to the beneficial effects exerted by EPs® 7630 in acute bronchitis patients. PMID:21036571

  11. Postinfectious Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome in a 41-Year-Old Patient-Visualizing Hyperactivation in Deep Cerebellar Nuclei by Cerebral [(18) F]-FDG- PET.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Mona; Levin, Johannes; Schöberl, Florian; Rominger, Axel

    2015-07-01

    A 41-year-old woman presented with acute onset headache, vertigo, nausea, and gait disorder, initially interpreted as a common cold. Within 2 weeks, she developed a severe opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome with truncal ataxia. Cerebrospinal fluid examination and serological findings suggested a recent infection with Coxsackie B3 virus. [(18) F]-FDG-PET proved to be the only imaging tool to identify the underlying pathology depicting hyperactivation in the vestibulo- and spinocerebellum as well as hyperactivation of the ocular muscles. At the clinical follow-up 4 months later, the patient's symptoms were considerably improved with only intermittent low-frequency opsoclonus. Corresponding PET findings were able to depict the response to therapy in the ocular muscles and the inferior vermis, whereas the deep cerebellar nuclei were still hyperactivated, however, to a lesser extent. This finding highlights the usefulness of functional/metabolic brain imaging to study the pathophysiology of this type of disorder. PMID:25510336

  12. Rethinking Molecular Mimicry in Rheumatic Heart Disease and Autoimmune Myocarditis: Laminin, Collagen IV, CAR, and B1AR as Initial Targets of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Root-Bernstein, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Molecular mimicry theory (MMT) suggests that epitope mimicry between pathogens and human proteins can activate autoimmune disease. Group A streptococci (GAS) mimics human cardiac myosin in rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and coxsackie viruses (CX) mimic actin in autoimmune myocarditis (AM). But myosin and actin are immunologically inaccessible and unlikely initial targets. Extracellular cardiac proteins that mimic GAS and CX would be more likely. Objectives: To determine whether extracellular cardiac proteins such as coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR), beta 1 adrenergic receptor (B1AR), CD55/DAF, laminin, and collagen IV mimic GAS, CX, and/or cardiac myosin or actin. Methods: BLAST 2.0 and LALIGN searches of the UniProt protein database were employed to identify potential molecular mimics. Quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure antibody cross-reactivity. Measurements: Similarities were considered to be significant if a sequence contained at least 5 identical amino acids in 10. Antibodies were considered to be cross-reactive if the binding constant had a Kd less than 10-9 M. Main results: Group A streptococci mimics laminin, CAR, and myosin. CX mimics actin and collagen IV and B1AR. The similarity search results are mirrored by antibody cross-reactivities. Additionally, antibodies against laminin recognize antibodies against collagen IV; antibodies against actin recognize antibodies against myosin, and antibodies against GAS recognize antibodies against CX. Thus, there is both mimicry of extracellular proteins and antigenic complementarity between GAS-CX in RHD/AM. Conclusion: Rheumatic heart disease/AM may be due to combined infections of GAS with CX localized at cardiomyocytes that may produce a synergistic, hyperinflammatory response that cross-reacts with laminin, collagen IV, CAR, and/or B1AR. Epitope drift shifts the immune response to myosin and actin after cardiomyocytes become damaged. PMID:25191648

  13. Structural basis for antiviral inhibition of the main protease, 3C, from human enterovirus 93.

    PubMed

    Costenaro, Lionel; Kaczmarska, Zuzanna; Arnan, Carme; Janowski, Robert; Coutard, Bruno; Solà, Maria; Gorbalenya, Alexander E; Norder, Heléne; Canard, Bruno; Coll, Miquel

    2011-10-01

    Members of the Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family are abundant, with common human pathogens that belong to the rhinovirus (HRV) and enterovirus (EV) species, including diverse echo-, coxsackie- and polioviruses. They cause a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe diseases with neurological and/or cardiac manifestations. Pandemic outbreaks of EVs may be accompanied by meningitis and/or paralysis and can be fatal. However, no effective prophylaxis or antiviral treatment against most EVs is available. The EV RNA genome directs the synthesis of a single polyprotein that is autocatalytically processed into mature proteins at Gln?Gly cleavage sites by the 3C protease (3C(pro)), which has narrow, conserved substrate specificity. These cleavages are essential for virus replication, making 3C(pro) an excellent target for antivirus drug development. In this study, we report the first determination of the crystal structure of 3C(pro) from an enterovirus B, EV-93, a recently identified pathogen, alone and in complex with the anti-HRV molecules compound 1 (AG7404) and rupintrivir (AG7088) at resolutions of 1.9, 1.3, and 1.5 Å, respectively. The EV-93 3C(pro) adopts a chymotrypsin-like fold with a canonically configured oxyanion hole and a substrate binding pocket similar to that of rhino-, coxsackie- and poliovirus 3C proteases. We show that compound 1 and rupintrivir are both active against EV-93 in infected cells and inhibit the proteolytic activity of EV-93 3C(pro) in vitro. These results provide a framework for further structure-guided optimization of the tested compounds to produce antiviral drugs against a broad range of EV species. PMID:21835784

  14. Structural Basis for Antiviral Inhibition of the Main Protease, 3C, from Human Enterovirus 93 ?

    PubMed Central

    Costenaro, Lionel; Kaczmarska, Zuzanna; Arnan, Carme; Janowski, Robert; Coutard, Bruno; Solà, Maria; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.; Norder, Heléne; Canard, Bruno; Coll, Miquel

    2011-01-01

    Members of the Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family are abundant, with common human pathogens that belong to the rhinovirus (HRV) and enterovirus (EV) species, including diverse echo-, coxsackie- and polioviruses. They cause a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe diseases with neurological and/or cardiac manifestations. Pandemic outbreaks of EVs may be accompanied by meningitis and/or paralysis and can be fatal. However, no effective prophylaxis or antiviral treatment against most EVs is available. The EV RNA genome directs the synthesis of a single polyprotein that is autocatalytically processed into mature proteins at Gln?Gly cleavage sites by the 3C protease (3Cpro), which has narrow, conserved substrate specificity. These cleavages are essential for virus replication, making 3Cpro an excellent target for antivirus drug development. In this study, we report the first determination of the crystal structure of 3Cpro from an enterovirus B, EV-93, a recently identified pathogen, alone and in complex with the anti-HRV molecules compound 1 (AG7404) and rupintrivir (AG7088) at resolutions of 1.9, 1.3, and 1.5 Å, respectively. The EV-93 3Cpro adopts a chymotrypsin-like fold with a canonically configured oxyanion hole and a substrate binding pocket similar to that of rhino-, coxsackie- and poliovirus 3C proteases. We show that compound 1 and rupintrivir are both active against EV-93 in infected cells and inhibit the proteolytic activity of EV-93 3Cpro in vitro. These results provide a framework for further structure-guided optimization of the tested compounds to produce antiviral drugs against a broad range of EV species. PMID:21835784

  15. Infection With Viruses From Several Families Triggers Autoimmune Diabetes in LEW.1WR1 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tirabassi, Rebecca S.; Guberski, Dennis L.; Blankenhorn, Elizabeth P.; Leif, Jean H.; Woda, Bruce A.; Liu, Zhijun; Winans, Donald; Greiner, Dale L.; Mordes, John P.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The contribution of antecedent viral infection to the development of type 1 diabetes in humans is controversial. Using a newer rat model of the disease, we sought to 1) identify viruses capable of modulating diabetes penetrance, 2) identify conditions that increase or decrease the diabetogenicity of infection, and 3) determine whether maternal immunization would prevent diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS About 2% of LEW.1WR1 rats develop spontaneous autoimmune diabetes, but disease penetrance is much higher if weanling rats are exposed to environmental perturbants including Kilham rat virus (KRV). We compared KRV with other viruses for diabetogenic activity. RESULTS Both KRV and rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV) induced diabetes in up to 60% of LEW.1WR1 rats, whereas H-1, vaccinia, and Coxsackie B4 viruses did not. Simultaneous inoculation of KRV and RCMV induced diabetes in 100% of animals. Pretreatment of rats with an activator of innate immunity increased the diabetogenicity of KRV but not RCMV and was associated with a moderate rate of diabetes after Coxsackie B4 and vaccinia virus infection. Inoculation of LEW.1WR1 dams with both KRV and RCMV prior to pregnancy protected weanling progeny from virus-induced diabetes in a virus-specific manner. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to viruses can affect the penetrance of autoimmune diabetes in genetically susceptible animals. The diabetogenicity of infection is virus specific and is modified by immunomodulation prior to inoculation. Maternal immunization protects weanlings from virus-induced diabetes, suggesting that modification of immune responses to infection could provide a means of preventing islet autoimmunity. PMID:19794063

  16. Molecular Evolution of the Human Enteroviruses: Correlation of Serotype with VP1 Sequence and Application to Picornavirus Classification

    PubMed Central

    Oberste, M. Steven; Maher, Kaija; Kilpatrick, David R.; Pallansch, Mark A.

    1999-01-01

    Sixty-six human enterovirus serotypes have been identified by serum neutralization, but the molecular determinants of the serotypes are unknown. Since the picornavirus VP1 protein contains a number of neutralization domains, we hypothesized that the VP1 sequence should correspond with neutralization (serotype) and, hence, with phylogenetic lineage. To test this hypothesis and to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among the human enteroviruses, we determined the complete VP1 sequences of the prototype strains of 47 human enterovirus serotypes and 10 antigenic variants. Our sequences, together with those available from GenBank, comprise a database of complete VP1 sequences for all 66 human enterovirus serotypes plus additional strains of seven serotypes. Phylogenetic trees constructed from complete VP1 sequences produced the same four major clusters as published trees based on partial VP2 sequences; in contrast to the VP2 trees, however, in the VP1 trees strains of the same serotype were always monophyletic. In pairwise comparisons of complete VP1 sequences, enteroviruses of the same serotype were clearly distinguished from those of heterologous serotypes, and the limits of intraserotypic divergence appeared to be about 25% nucleotide sequence difference or 12% amino acid sequence difference. Pairwise comparisons suggested that coxsackie A11 and A15 viruses should be classified as strains of the same serotype, as should coxsackie A13 and A18 viruses. Pairwise identity scores also distinguished between enteroviruses of different clusters and enteroviruses from picornaviruses of different genera. The data suggest that VP1 sequence comparisons may be valuable in enterovirus typing and in picornavirus taxonomy by assisting in the genus assignment of unclassified picornaviruses. PMID:9971773

  17. [Hand-foot-mouth disease pathogen separation and EV71 VP1 gene analysis in Sanmenxia City, Henan Province, China].

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-xing; Wu, Jing-fu; Yang, Jie; Wei, Hai-yan; Xu, Yu-ling; Huang, Xue-yong

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the enterovirus types and biological features of pediatric cases of HFMD in Sanmenxia City during 2011, and compare the latter to a cohort of healthy children. Stool samples of 55 cases of HFMD and 60 healthy children were collected for the isolation and identification of enteroviruses using RNA extraction and real-time RT-PCR assays. EV71 and CA16 were identified by nucleotide sequencing using virus-specific VP1 primers; for the other enteroviruses, 012/011 and 008/013 primers were used for amplification and sequencing. The results were analysed by sequence alignment with known sequences, and the characteristics of the EV71 VP1 gene were also analyzed. The detection rates for enteroviruses in cases of HFMD and healthy children were 52.73% (29/55) and 18.33% (11/60), respectively. Among these, there were 22 cases of EV71, four cases of CA16 and three cases of other enteroviruses in the cases with HFMD. Eleven healthy children had intestinal viruses, of which nine were Coxsackie B virus strains (81.82%, 9/11). Gene sequencing of the 19 EV71 strains illustrated that they were all subgenotype C4a, but the evolutionary tree showed an obvious clustering between cases from Lingbao City and Lushi County. This study demonstrates that the EV71 subgenotype C4a and CA16 strains were the most common cause of HFMD in Sanmenxia City in 2011, and that Coxsackie B strains were prevalent in healthy children. This finding may indicate that there is a widespread source of recessive infection in the community. PMID:25868277

  18. GRP78/Dna K Is a Target for Nexavar/Stivarga/Votrient in the Treatment of Human Malignancies, Viral Infections and Bacterial Diseases.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jane L; Tavallai, Mehrad; Nourbakhsh, Aida; Fidanza, Abigail; Cruz-Luna, Tanya; Smith, Elizabeth; Siembida, Paul; Plamondon, Pascale; Cycon, Kelly A; Doern, Christopher D; Booth, Laurence; Dent, Paul

    2015-10-01

    Prior tumor cell studies have shown that the drugs sorafenib (Nexavar) and regorafenib (Stivarga) reduce expression of the chaperone GRP78. Sorafenib/regorafenib and the multi-kinase inhibitor pazopanib (Votrient) interacted with sildenafil (Viagra) to further rapidly reduce GRP78 levels in eukaryotes and as single agents to reduce Dna K levels in prokaryotes. Similar data were obtained in tumor cells in vitro and in drug-treated mice for: HSP70, mitochondrial HSP70, HSP60, HSP56, HSP40, HSP10, and cyclophilin A. Prolonged 'rafenib/sildenafil treatment killed tumor cells and also rapidly decreased the expression of: the drug efflux pumps ABCB1 and ABCG2; and NPC1 and NTCP, receptors for Ebola/Hepatitis A and B viruses, respectively. Pre-treatment with the 'Rafenib/sildenafil combination reduced expression of the Coxsackie and Adenovirus receptor in parallel with it also reducing the ability of a serotype 5 Adenovirus or Coxsackie virus B4 to infect and to reproduce. Sorafenib/pazopanib and sildenafil was much more potent than sorafenib/pazopanib as single agents at preventing Adenovirus, Mumps, Chikungunya, Dengue, Rabies, West Nile, Yellow Fever, and Enterovirus 71 infection and reproduction. 'Rafenib drugs/pazopanib as single agents killed laboratory generated antibiotic resistant E. coli which was associated with reduced Dna K and Rec A expression. Marginally toxic doses of 'Rafenib drugs/pazopanib restored antibiotic sensitivity in pan-antibiotic resistant bacteria including multiple strains of blakpc Klebsiella pneumoniae. Thus, Dna K is an antibiotic target for sorafenib, and inhibition of GRP78/Dna K has therapeutic utility for cancer and for bacterial and viral infections. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 2552-2578, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25858032

  19. Screening for adenoviruses in haematological neoplasia: High prevalence in mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kosulin, Karin; Rauch, Margit; Ambros, Peter F; Pötschger, Ulrike; Chott, Andreas; Jäger, Ulrich; Drach, Johannes; Nader, Alexander; Lion, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Human adenoviruses possess oncogenic capacity which is well documented in mammalian animal models, but their possible implication in human malignancy has remained enigmatic. Following primary infection, adenoviruses can persist in a latent state in lymphocytes where the virus is apparently able to evade immune surveillance. In the present study, we have employed a broad-spectrum adenovirus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to systematically screen more than 200 diagnostic specimens of different lymphoid malignancies including acute lymphocytic leukaemia (n=50), chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (n=50), various types of malignant lymphoma (n=100) and multiple myeloma (n=11) for the presence of adenoviral sequences. While most entities analysed revealed negative findings in virtually all specimens tested, adenoviral DNA was detected in 15/36 (42%) mantle cell lymphomas investigated. The most prevalent adenoviral species detected was C, and less commonly B. Adenovirus-positive findings in patients with mantle cell lymphoma were made at different sites including bone marrow (n=7), intestine (n=5), lymph nodes (n=2) and tonsillar tissue (n=1). The presence of adenoviral sequences identified by PCR was confirmed in individual cells by fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH). The frequent observation of adenoviruses in mantle cell lymphoma is intriguings, and raises questions about their possible involvement in the pathogenesis of this lymphoid malignancy. PMID:24246703

  20. Genomic structures of viral agents in relation to the biosynthesis of selenoproteins.

    PubMed

    Taylor, E W; Nadimpalli, R G; Ramanathan, C S

    1997-01-01

    The genomes of both bacteria and eukaryotic organisms are known to encode selenoproteins, using the UGA codon for seleno-cysteine (SeC), and a complex cotranslational mechanism for SeC incorporation into polypeptide chains, involving RNA stem-loop structures. These common features and similar codon usage strongly suggest that this is an ancient evolutionary development. However, the possibility that some viruses might also encode selenoproteins remained unexplored until recently. Based on an analysis of the genomic structure of the human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1, we demonstrated that several regions overlapping known HIV genes have the potential to encode selenoproteins (Taylor et al. [31], J. Med. Chem. 37, 2637-2654 [1994]). This is provocative in the light of overwhelming evidence of a role for oxidative stress in AIDS pathogenesis, and the fact that a number of viral diseases have been linked to selenium (Se) deficiency, either in humans or by in vitro and animal studies. These include HIV-AIDS, hepatitis B linked to liver disease and cancer, Coxsackie virus B3, Keshan disease, and the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV), against which Se is a potent chemoprotective agent. There are also established biochemical mechanisms whereby extreme Se deficiency can induce a proclotting or hemorrhagic effect, suggesting that hemorrhagic fever viruses should also be examined for potential virally encoded selenoproteins. In addition to the RNA stem-loop structures required for SeC insertion at UGA codons, genomic structural features that may be required for selenoprotein synthesis can also include ribosomal frameshift sites and RNA pseudoknots if the potential selenoprotein module overlaps with another gene, which may prove to be the rule rather than the exception in viruses. One such pseudoknot that we predicted in HIV-1 has now been verified experimentally; a similar structure can be demonstrated in precisely the same location in the reverse transcriptase coding region of hepatitis B virus. Significant new findings reported here include the existence of highly distinctive glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)-related sequences in Coxsackie B viruses, new theoretical data related to a previously proposed potential selenoprotein gene overlapping the HIV protease coding region, and further evidence in support of a novel frameshift site in the HIV nef gene associated with a well-conserved UGA codon in the 1-reading frame. PMID:9152512

  1. Human adenovirus-host cell interactions: comparative study with members of subgroups B and C.

    PubMed

    Defer, C; Belin, M T; Caillet-Boudin, M L; Boulanger, P

    1990-08-01

    Host cell interactions of human adenovirus serotypes belonging to subgroups B (adenovirus type 3 [Ad3] and Ad7) and C (Ad2 and Ad5) were comparatively analyzed at three levels: (i) binding of virus particles with host cell receptors; (ii) cointernalization of macromolecules with adenovirions; and (iii) adenovirus-induced cytoskeletal alterations. The association constants with human cell receptors were found to be similar for Ad2 and Ad3 (8 x 10(9) to 9 x 10(9) M-1), and the number of receptor sites per cell ranged from 5,000 (Ad2) to 7,000 (Ad3). Affinity blottings, competition experiments, and immunofluorescence stainings suggested that the receptor sites for adenovirus were distinct for members of subgroups B and C. Adenovirions increased the permeability of cells to macromolecules. We showed that this global effect could be divided into two distinct events: (i) cointernalization of macromolecules and virions into endocytotic vesicles, a phenomenon that occurred in a serotype-independent way, and (ii) release of macromolecules into the cytoplasm upon adenovirus-induced lysis of endosomal membranes. The latter process was found to be type specific and to require unaltered and infectious virus particles of serotype 2 or 5. Perinuclear condensation of the vimentin filament network was observed at early stages of infection with Ad2 or Ad5 but not with Ad3, Ad7, and noninfectious particles of Ad2 or Ad5, obtained by heat inactivation of wild-type virions or with the H2 ts1 mutant. This phenomenon appeared to be a cytological marker for cytoplasmic transit of infectious virions within adenovirus-infected cells. It could be experimentally dissociated from vimentin proteolysis, which was found to be serotype dependent, occurring only with members of subgroup C, regardless of the infectivity of the input virus. PMID:2196380

  2. Human adenovirus-host cell interactions: comparative study with members of subgroups B and C.

    PubMed Central

    Defer, C; Belin, M T; Caillet-Boudin, M L; Boulanger, P

    1990-01-01

    Host cell interactions of human adenovirus serotypes belonging to subgroups B (adenovirus type 3 [Ad3] and Ad7) and C (Ad2 and Ad5) were comparatively analyzed at three levels: (i) binding of virus particles with host cell receptors; (ii) cointernalization of macromolecules with adenovirions; and (iii) adenovirus-induced cytoskeletal alterations. The association constants with human cell receptors were found to be similar for Ad2 and Ad3 (8 x 10(9) to 9 x 10(9) M-1), and the number of receptor sites per cell ranged from 5,000 (Ad2) to 7,000 (Ad3). Affinity blottings, competition experiments, and immunofluorescence stainings suggested that the receptor sites for adenovirus were distinct for members of subgroups B and C. Adenovirions increased the permeability of cells to macromolecules. We showed that this global effect could be divided into two distinct events: (i) cointernalization of macromolecules and virions into endocytotic vesicles, a phenomenon that occurred in a serotype-independent way, and (ii) release of macromolecules into the cytoplasm upon adenovirus-induced lysis of endosomal membranes. The latter process was found to be type specific and to require unaltered and infectious virus particles of serotype 2 or 5. Perinuclear condensation of the vimentin filament network was observed at early stages of infection with Ad2 or Ad5 but not with Ad3, Ad7, and noninfectious particles of Ad2 or Ad5, obtained by heat inactivation of wild-type virions or with the H2 ts1 mutant. This phenomenon appeared to be a cytological marker for cytoplasmic transit of infectious virions within adenovirus-infected cells. It could be experimentally dissociated from vimentin proteolysis, which was found to be serotype dependent, occurring only with members of subgroup C, regardless of the infectivity of the input virus. Images PMID:2196380

  3. Vascular endothelial growth factor signalling in endothelial cell survival: A role for NF{kappa}B

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, Jennifer [Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: Jennifer.grosjean@imperial.ac.uk; Kiriakidis, Serafim [Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Reilly, Kerri [Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Feldmann, Marc [Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Paleolog, Ewa [Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2006-02-17

    Angiogenesis is the development of blood capillaries from pre-existing vessels. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of vessel growth and regression, and acts as an endothelial survival factor by protecting endothelial cells from apoptosis. Many genes involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis are regulated by the nuclear factor kappa B (NF{kappa}B) transcription factor family. This study aimed to address the hypothesis that VEGF-mediated survival effects on endothelium involve NF{kappa}B. Using an NF{kappa}B-luciferase reporter adenovirus, we observed activation of NF{kappa}B following VEGF treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. This was confirmed using electrophoretic mobility shift assay and found to involve nuclear translocation of NF{kappa}B sub-unit p65. However, NF{kappa}B activation occurred without degradation of inhibitory I{kappa}B proteins (I{kappa}B{alpha}, I{kappa}B{beta}, and I{kappa}B{epsilon}). Instead, tyrosine phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} was observed following VEGF treatment, suggesting NF{kappa}B activation was mediated by degradation-independent dissociation of I{kappa}B{alpha} from NF{kappa}B. Adenovirus-mediated over-expression of either native I{kappa}B{alpha}, or of I{kappa}B{alpha} in which tyrosine residue 42 was mutated to phenylalanine, inhibited induction of NF{kappa}B-dependent luciferase activity in response to VEGF. Furthermore, VEGF-induced upregulation of mRNA for the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and cell survival following serum withdrawal was reduced following I{kappa}B{alpha} over-expression. This study highlights that different molecular mechanisms of NF{kappa}B activation may be involved downstream of stimuli which activate the endothelial lining of blood vessels.

  4. Neutrophil-derived JAML Inhibits Repair of Intestinal Epithelial Injury During Acute Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Dominique A.; Sumagin, Ronen; McCall, Ingrid C.; Leoni, Giovanna; Neumann, Philipp A.; Andargachew, Rakieb; Brazil, Jennifer C.; Medina-Contreras, Oscar; Denning, Timothy L.; Nusrat, Asma; Parkos, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophil transepithelial migration (TEM) during acute inflammation is associated with mucosal injury. Using models of acute mucosal injury in-vitro and in-vivo, we describe a new mechanism by which neutrophils infiltrating the intestinal mucosa disrupt epithelial homeostasis. We report that junctional adhesion molecule-like protein (JAML) is cleaved from neutrophil surface by zinc-metalloproteases during TEM. Neutrophil-derived soluble JAML bound to the epithelial tight junction protein coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) resulting in compromised barrier and inhibition of wound repair, through decreased epithelial proliferation. The deleterious effects of JAML on barrier and wound repair were reversed with an anti-JAML mAb that inhibits JAML-CAR binding. Thus, JAML released from transmigrating neutrophils across inflamed epithelia can promote recruitment of leukocytes and aid in clearance of invading microorganisms. However, sustained release of JAML under pathologic conditions associated with persistence of large numbers of infiltrated neutrophil would compromise intestinal barrier and inhibit mucosal healing. Targeting JAML-CAR interactions may thus improve mucosal healing responses under conditions of dysregulated neutrophil recruitment. PMID:24621992

  5. [Factors causing damage and destruction of beta-cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas].

    PubMed

    And?l, Michal; N?mcová, Vlasta; Pavlíková, Nela; Urbanová, Jana; Cecháková, Marie; Havlová, Andrea; Straková, Radka; Ve?e?ová, Livia; Mandys, Václav; Ková?, Jan; Heneberg, Petr; Trnka, Jan; Polák, Jan

    2014-09-01

    Insulin secretion in patients with manifested diabetes mellitus tends to disappear months to decades after the diagnosis, which is a clear sign of a gradual loss of pancreatic islet beta-cells. In our sample of 30 type 2 diabetic patients, whose disease manifested between 30 and 45 years of age, about a half have retained or even increased insulin secretion 30 years later, while the other half exhibit a much diminished or lost insulin secretion. Factors that can damage or destroy beta-cells can be divided into the following groups: Metabolic factors: hyperglycemia and glucotoxicity, lipotoxicity, hypoxia, reactive oxygen species; Pharmacological factors: antimicrobial medication pentamidine, SSRI antidepressants; Factors related to impaired insulin secretion: MODY type diabetes; Environmental toxic factors: rat poison Vacor, streptozotocin, polychlorinated and polybrominated hydrocarbons; Disorders of the exocrine pancreas: tumor infiltration, fibrous infiltration, chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis; Infections, inflammation, autoimmunity, viral factors: Coxsackie viruses, H1N1 influenza, enteroviruses. We are currently working on finding other factors leading to beta-cell damage, studying their effect on apoptosis and necrosis and looking for possible protective factors to prevent this damage. We our increasing knowledge about the mechanisms of beta-cell damage and destruction we come ever closer to suggest measures for their prevention. In this review we offer a brief and simplified summary of some of the findings related to this area.Key words: pancreatic islet beta-cells of Langerhans - factors damaging or destroying beta-cells - insulin secretion. PMID:25294754

  6. Borna disease virus nucleoprotein inhibits type I interferon induction through the interferon regulatory factor 7 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Wuqi [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China) [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China); Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University (China); Kao, Wenping [The Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology, Heilongjiang Higher Education Institutions (China) [The Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology, Heilongjiang Higher Education Institutions (China); Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University (China); Zhai, Aixia [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China)] [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China); Qian, Jun; Li, Yujun [The Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology, Heilongjiang Higher Education Institutions (China)] [The Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology, Heilongjiang Higher Education Institutions (China); Zhang, Qingmeng [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China)] [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China); Zhao, Hong; Hu, Yunlong; Li, Hui [Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University (China)] [Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University (China); Zhang, Fengmin, E-mail: fengminzhang@ems.hrbmu.edu.cn [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China) [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China); The Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology, Heilongjiang Higher Education Institutions (China); Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University (China)

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •IRF7 nuclear localisation was inhibited by BDV persistently infected. •BDV N protein resistant to IFN induction both in BDV infected OL cell and N protein plasmid transfected OL cell. •BDV N protein is related to the inhibition of IRF7 nuclear localisation. -- Abstract: The expression of type I interferon (IFN) is one of the most potent innate defences against viral infection in higher vertebrates. Borna disease virus (BDV) establishes persistent, noncytolytic infections in animals and in cultured cells. Early studies have shown that the BDV phosphoprotein can inhibit the activation of type I IFN through the TBK1–IRF3 pathway. The function of the BDV nucleoprotein in the inhibition of IFN activity is not yet clear. In this study, we demonstrated IRF7 activation and increased IFN-?/? expression in a BDV-persistently infected human oligodendroglia cell line following RNA interference-mediated BDV nucleoprotein silencing. Furthermore, we showed that BDV nucleoprotein prevented the nuclear localisation of IRF7 and inhibited endogenous IFN induction by poly(I:C), coxsackie virus B3 and IFN-?. Our findings provide evidence for a previously undescribed mechanism by which the BDV nucleoprotein inhibits type I IFN expression by interfering with the IRF7 pathway.

  7. Presence of the Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor (CAR) in human neoplasms: a multitumour array analysis

    PubMed Central

    Reeh, M; Bockhorn, M; Görgens, D; Vieth, M; Hoffmann, T; Simon, R; Izbicki, J R; Sauter, G; Schumacher, U; Anders, M

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Coxsackie- and Adenovirus Receptor (CAR) has been assigned two crucial attributes in carcinomas: (a) involvement in the regulation of growth and dissemination and (b) binding for potentially therapeutic adenoviruses. However, data on CAR expression in cancer types are conflicting and several entities have not been analysed to date. Methods: The expression of CAR was assessed by immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays (TMA) containing 3714 specimens derived from 100 malignancies and from 273 normal control tissues. Results: The expression of CAR was detected in all normal organs, except in the brain. Expression levels, however, displayed a broad range from being barely detectable (for example, in the thymus) to high abundance expression (for example, in the liver and gastric mucosa). In malignancies, a high degree of variability was notable also, ranging from significantly elevated CAR expression (for example, in early stages of malignant transformation and several tumours of the female reproductive system) to decreased CAR expression (for example, in colon and prostate cancer types). Conclusion: Our results provide a comprehensive insight into CAR expression in neoplasms and indicate that CAR may offer a valuable target for adenovirus-based therapy in a subset of carcinomas. Furthermore, these data suggest that CAR may contribute to carcinogenesis in an entity-dependent manner. PMID:24022195

  8. RGD-modifided oncolytic adenovirus exhibited potent cytotoxic effect on CAR-negative bladder cancer-initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Xu, H; Shen, J; Yang, Y; Wu, S; Xiao, J; Xu, Y; Liu, X-Y; Chu, L

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-initiating cell (CIC) is critical in cancer development, maintenance and recurrence. The reverse expression pattern of coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) and ?? integrin in bladder cancer decreases the infection efficiency of adenovirus. We constructed Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-modified oncolytic adenovirus, carrying EGFP or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) gene (Onco(Ad).RGD-hTERT-EGFP/TRAIL), and applied them to CAR-negative bladder cancer T24 cells and cancer-initiating T24 sphere cells. Onco(Ad).RGD-hTERT-EGFP had enhanced infection ability and cytotoxic effect on T24 cells and T24 sphere cells, but little cytoxicity on normal urothelial SV-HUC-1 cells compared with the unmodified virus Onco(Ad).hTERT-EGFP. Notably, Onco(Ad).RGD-hTERT-TRAIL induced apoptosis in T24 cells and T24 sphere cells. Furthermore, it completely inhibited xenograft initiation established by the oncolytic adenovirus-pretreated T24 sphere cells, and significantly suppressed tumor growth by intratumoral injection. These results provided a promising therapeutic strategy for CAR-negative bladder cancer through targeting CICs. PMID:25973680

  9. Human platelets express CAR with localization at the sites of intercellular interaction.

    PubMed

    Gupalo, Elena; Buriachkovskaia, Liudmila; Othman, Maha

    2011-01-01

    Adenovirus has a wide tissue tropism. The virus attaches to the surface of cells via the fiber protein knob binding to the Coxsackie and Adenovirus receptor known as CAR. Virus entry inside cells is facilitated by integrins ?V?3 and ?V?5. Mice platelets are shown to be the predominant Ad binding blood cell type and the virus is documented inside platelets. CAR was identified on human platelets in one study yet contradicted in another. The presence of CAR appears to be the most reasonable initial step for virus entry into platelets and is a key to the understanding of platelet adenovirus interaction. This study aimed to re investigate the presence of CAR on human platelets. Platelets were tested by indirect immune-fluorescence using rabbit H-300 polyclonal anti-CAR antibody and goat anti-rabbit IgG F(ab')2 Texas Red antibodies, alongside with CAR positive and negative controls. Platelets were found to express CAR on their surface and in contrast to the previous study only 3.5 ± 1.9% of the tested platelets did express CAR. In addition, CAR was seen within intracellular aggregates localized at the sites of cell-cell contacts indicating that CAR expression might be upregulated in response to platelet stimulation. We confirm the presence of CAR on human platelets, we provide explanation to some of the discrepancies in this regards and we add that this receptor is localized at the sites of intercellular interaction. PMID:21962080

  10. Development of a recombinant CHO cell model for the investigation of CAR and DAF role during early steps of echovirus 6 infection.

    PubMed

    Renois, Fanny; Hong, Saw-See; Le Naour, Richard; Gafa, Valérie; Talmud, Déborah; Andréoletti, Laurent; Lévêque, Nicolas

    2011-06-01

    The early steps of echovirus 6 (E6) infection remain poorly understood and the only described receptor for haemagglutinating E6 strains is the decay accelerating factor (DAF). There is, however, accumulating evidence suggesting that E6 interaction with DAF is necessary but not sufficient for infection. In this report, we investigated the role of the coxsackie-adenovirus-receptor (CAR) as a potential DAF co-receptor during E6 infection. Using stably transfected Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells expressing CAR and DAF receptors, we found that DAF expression allowed attachment of both haemagglutinating and non-haemagglutinating E6 strains but was not sufficient for promoting E6 cell entry. Interestingly, the co-expression of DAF and CAR rendered 0.1-0.2% of cells permissive to some E6 strains' infection. Although our results did not show a major role of the CAR/DAF cooperation for E6 infection, it nevertheless indicated the use of CAR in the cell entry step of some minor E6 quasispecies. Moreover, the present report validates the use of recombinant CHO cells as valuable cellular model for the further characterisation of E6 receptors. PMID:21420451

  11. Human platelets express CAR with localization at the sites of intercellular interaction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Adenovirus has a wide tissue tropism. The virus attaches to the surface of cells via the fiber protein knob binding to the Coxsackie and Adenovirus receptor known as CAR. Virus entry inside cells is facilitated by integrins ?V?3 and ?V?5. Mice platelets are shown to be the predominant Ad binding blood cell type and the virus is documented inside platelets. CAR was identified on human platelets in one study yet contradicted in another. The presence of CAR appears to be the most reasonable initial step for virus entry into platelets and is a key to the understanding of platelet adenovirus interaction. This study aimed to re investigate the presence of CAR on human platelets. Platelets were tested by indirect immune-fluorescence using rabbit H-300 polyclonal anti-CAR antibody and goat anti-rabbit IgG F(ab')2 Texas Red antibodies, alongside with CAR positive and negative controls. Platelets were found to express CAR on their surface and in contrast to the previous study only 3.5 ± 1.9% of the tested platelets did express CAR. In addition, CAR was seen within intracellular aggregates localized at the sites of cell-cell contacts indicating that CAR expression might be upregulated in response to platelet stimulation. We confirm the presence of CAR on human platelets, we provide explanation to some of the discrepancies in this regards and we add that this receptor is localized at the sites of intercellular interaction. PMID:21962080

  12. Impairment of Myocardial Mitochondria in Viral Myocardial Disease and Its Reflective Window in Peripheral Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jin; Gao, Deng-Feng; Wang, Hao; Yan, Rui; Liu, Zhi-Quan; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Liu, Jian; Chen, Ming-Xia

    2014-01-01

    Background Viral myocardial disease (VMD) is a common disease inducing heart failure. It has not been clear the roles of mitochondrial damage in the pathological changes of cardiomyocytes in VMD. Methods Myocardial tissues and lymphocytes were collected from 83 VMD patients. Control groups included 12 cases of healthy accidental death with myocardial autopsy and 23 healthy blood donors. The mouse model of viral myocarditis (VMC) was established by Coxsackie virus B3 infection and myocardial tissues and skeletal muscle were collected. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion rate was quantitatively determined using polymerase chain reaction. Results There was significantly difference of myocardial mitochondrial DNA deletion rate between VMD or VMC group and control group (P<0.05). Moreover, the loss of mitochondrial membrane phospholipids was significantly different between VMD or VMC group and control group. In VMC mice, there were negative correlations between myocardial mtDNA3867 deletion rate and left ventricular peak systolic pressure (LVPSP) (r?=??0.66, P<0.05), and between myocardial mtDNA3867 deletion rate and +dp/dtmax (r?=??0.79, P<0.05), while there was positive correlation between myocardial mtDNA3867 deletion rate and ?dp/dtmax (r?=?0.80, P<0.05). Conclusion Mitochondrial damage is an important pathophysiological mechanism leading to myocardial injury and cardiac dysfunction. The mitochondrial damage in the skeletal muscle and lymphocytes reflect a “window” of myocardial mitochondrial damage. PMID:25551390

  13. JAM-related proteins in mucosal homeostasis and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Luissint, Anny-Claude; Nusrat, Asma; Parkos, Charles A

    2014-03-01

    Mucosal surfaces are lined by epithelial cells that form a physical barrier protecting the body against external noxious substances and pathogens. At a molecular level, the mucosal barrier is regulated by tight junctions (TJs) that seal the paracellular space between adjacent epithelial cells. Transmembrane proteins within TJs include junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs) that belong to the cortical thymocyte marker for Xenopus family of proteins. JAM family encompasses three classical members (JAM-A, JAM-B, and JAM-C) and related molecules including JAM4, JAM-like protein, Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR), CAR-like membrane protein and endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule. JAMs have multiple functions that include regulation of endothelial and epithelial paracellular permeability, leukocyte recruitment during inflammation, angiogenesis, cell migration, and proliferation. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the roles of the JAM family members in the regulation of mucosal homeostasis and leukocyte trafficking with a particular emphasis on barrier function and its perturbation during pathological inflammation. PMID:24667924

  14. A novel immunocompetent murine model for replicating oncolytic adenoviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, L; Hedjran, F; Larson, C; Perez, G L; Reid, T

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic adenoviruses are under investigation as a promising novel strategy for cancer immunotherapeutics. Unfortunately, there is no immunocompetent mouse cancer model to test oncolytic adenovirus because murine cancer cells are generally unable to produce infectious viral progeny from human adenoviruses. We find that the murine K-ras-induced lung adenocarcinoma cell line ADS-12 supports adenoviral infection and generates infectious viral progeny. ADS-12 cells express the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor and infected ADS-12 cells express the viral protein E1A. We find that our previously described oncolytic virus, adenovirus TAV-255 (AdTAV-255), kills ADS-12 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We investigated ADS-12 cells as an in-vivo model system for replicating oncolytic adenoviruses. Subcutaneous injection of ADS-12 cells into immunocompetent 129 mice led to tumor formation in all injected mice. Intratumoral injection of AdTAV-255 in established tumors causes a significant reduction in tumor growth. This model system represents the first fully immunocompetent mouse model for cancer treatment with replicating oncolytic adenoviruses, and therefore will be useful to study the therapeutic effect of oncolytic adenoviruses in general and particularly immunostimulatory viruses designed to evoke an antitumor immune response. PMID:25525035

  15. HER3 targeting of adenovirus by fiber modification increases infection of breast cancer cells in vitro, but not following intratumoral injection in mice.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, S H; Elgadi, M M; Bossi, G; Sankar, U; Pisio, A; Agopsowicz, K; Sharon, D; Graham, F L; Hitt, M M

    2012-12-01

    Despite the tremendous potential of adenovirus (Ad) as a delivery vector for cancer gene therapy, its use in clinical settings has been limited, mainly as a result of the limited infectivity in many tumors and the wide tissue tropism associated with Ad. To modify the tropism of the virus, we have inserted the epidermal growth factor-like domain of the human heregulin-? (HRG) into the HI loop of Ad5 fiber. This insertion had no adverse effect on fiber trimerization nor did it affect incorporation of the modified fiber into infectious viral particles. Virions bearing modified fiber displayed growth characteristics and viral yields indistinguishable from those of wild-type (wt) virus. Most importantly, HRG-tagged virions showed enhanced infection of cells expressing the cognate receptors HER3/ErbB3 and HER4/ErbB4. This was significantly reduced in the presence of soluble HRG. Furthermore, HER3-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were transduced by the HRG-modified virus, but not by wt virus. In contrast, CHO cells expressing the coxsackie-Ad receptor were transduced with both viruses. However, infection of an in vivo breast cancer xenograft model after intratumoral injection was similar with both viruses, suggesting that the tumor microenvironment and/or the route of delivery have important roles in infection of target cells with fiber-modified Ads. PMID:23099884

  16. Cleavage of eukaryotic initiation factor eIF5B by enterovirus 3C proteases

    PubMed Central

    de Breyne, Sylvain; Bonderoff, Jennifer M.; Chumakov, Konstantin M.; Lloyd, Richard E.; Hellen, Christopher U. T.

    2008-01-01

    The enteroviruses poliovirus (PV), Coxsackie B virus (CVB) and rhinovirus (HRV) are members of Picornaviridae that inhibit host cell translation early in infection. Enterovirus translation soon predominates in infected cells, but eventually also shuts off. This complex pattern of modulation of translation suggests regulation by a multifactorial mechanism. We report here that eIF5B is proteolytically cleaved during PV and CVB infection of cultured cells, beginning at 3 hours post-infection and increasing thereafter. Recombinant PV, CVB and HRV 3Cpro cleaved purified native rabbit eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 5B in vitro at a single site (VVEQ?G, equivalent to VMEQ?G479in human eIF5B) that is consistent with the cleavage specificity of enterovirus 3C proteases. Cleavage separates the N-terminal domain of eIF5B from its essential conserved central GTPase and C-terminal domains. 3Cpro-mediated cleavage of eIF5B may thus play an accessory role in the shut-off of translation that occurs in enterovirus-infected cells. PMID:18572216

  17. A novel Cre recombinase reporter mouse strain facilitates selective and efficient infection of primary immune cells with adenoviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Heger, Klaus; Kober, Maike; Rieß, David; Drees, Christoph; de Vries, Ingrid; Bertossi, Arianna; Roers, Axel; Sixt, Michael; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Replication-deficient recombinant adenoviruses are potent vectors for the efficient transient expression of exogenous genes in resting immune cells. However, most leukocytes are refractory to efficient adenoviral transduction as they lack expression of the coxsackie/adenovirus receptor (CAR). To circumvent this obstacle, we generated the R26/CAG-CAR?1(StopF) (where R26 is ROSA26 and CAG is CMV early enhancer/chicken ? actin promoter) knock-in mouse line. This strain allows monitoring of in situ Cre recombinase activity through expression of CAR?1. Simultaneously, CAR?1 expression permits selective and highly efficient adenoviral transduction of immune cell populations, such as mast cells or T cells, directly ex vivo in bulk cultures without prior cell purification or activation. Furthermore, we show that CAR?1 expression dramatically improves adenoviral infection of in vitro differentiated conventional and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs), basophils, mast cells, as well as Hoxb8-immortalized hematopoietic progenitor cells. This novel dual function mouse strain will hence be a valuable tool to rapidly dissect the function of specific genes in leukocyte physiology. PMID:25787118

  18. Podocyte-Specific Deletion of Murine CXADR Does Not Impair Podocyte Development, Function or Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Schell, Christoph; Kretz, Oliver; Bregenzer, Andreas; Rogg, Manuel; Helmstädter, Martin; Lisewski, Ulrike; Gotthardt, Michael; Tharaux, Pierre-Louis; Huber, Tobias B.; Grahammer, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The coxsackie- and adenovirus receptor (CXADR) is a member of the immunoglobulin protein superfamily, present in various epithelial cells including glomerular epithelial cells. Beside its known function as a virus receptor, it also constitutes an integral part of cell-junctions. Previous studies in the zebrafish pronephros postulated a potential role of CXADR for the terminal differentiation of glomerular podocytes and correct patterning of the elaborated foot process architecture. However, due to early embryonic lethality of constitutive Cxadr knockout mice, mammalian data on kidney epithelial cells have been lacking. Interestingly, Cxadr is robustly expressed during podocyte development and in adulthood in response to glomerular injury. We therefore used a conditional transgenic approach to elucidate the function of Cxadr for podocyte development and stress response. Surprisingly, we could not discern a developmental phenotype in podocyte specific Cxadr knock-out mice. In addition, despite a significant up regulation of CXADR during toxic, genetic and immunologic podocyte injury, we could not detect any impact of Cxadr on these injury models. Thus these data indicate that in contrast to lower vertebrate models, mammalian podocytes have acquired molecular programs to compensate for the loss of Cxadr. PMID:26076477

  19. [Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis in Belarus].

    PubMed

    Samo?lovich, E O; Ermolovich, M A; Kotova, I F; Svirchevskaia, E Iu; Shimanovich, V P; Kozhemiakin, A K; Protas, I I; Fel'dman, E V

    2007-01-01

    The ten-years experience of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance in Belarus has been summarized. Among 456 AFP cases reported from 1996 to 2005, 11 were classified as vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP), 445--as non-polio AFP. The risk of VAPP for the period 1996-2001 was 1 case per 745,000 used doses of oral poliovaccine (OPV). For the recipients of OPV the risk was 1 case per 911,700 doses and for the first-dose recipients--1 case per 96,000 doses. The high incidence of VAPP was a reason for implementation of sequential polio vaccination schedule in 2000. Guillain-Barre syndrome dominated among non-polio AFP (39.3% of cases); more rare were traumatic neuritis (27.9% of cases), transient monoparalysis (12.1%), myelitis (7.6%). Non-polio AFP differed from VAPP by following epidemiological and virological characteristics: predominance of previously repeatedly vaccinated against poliomyelitis; development of paralysis in long-term period after vaccination; isolation of non-polio viruses belonged to three serotypes of Coxsackie B viruses (B1, B4, B6) and six serotypes of Echo viruses (6, 7, 11, 14, 24, 25) in 8.1% of cases; absence of typical for polio residual paralyses in patients who excreted vaccine polioviruses. PMID:17523475

  20. Swine vesicular disease, studies on pathogenesis, diagnosis, and epizootiology: a review.

    PubMed

    Dekker, A

    2000-10-01

    Swine vesicular disease (SVD) is a contagious viral disease of swine. It causes vesicular lesions indistinguishable from those observed of foot-and-mouth disease. Infection with SVD virus (SVDV) can lead to viraemia within 1 day and can produce clinical signs 2 days after a pig has come into contact with infected pigs or a virus-contaminated environment. Virus can be detected 3.5 hours after infection using immunohistochemistry. In these in vitro studies, this technique was superior to in-situ hybridization. In SVDV-infected tissues, however, more infected cells were positive using in-situ hybridization, and these were already seen 4.5 hours after infection. For serological diagnosis of SVD several new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA's) have been developed. The newest ELISAs, based on monoclonal antibodies, are superior to the previous tests. The new tests produce fewer less false-negative results and enable large-scale serological screening. In screening programmes a small percentage of false positive reactors have been detected. The cause of these false-positive reactions has not been identified, though infections with human Coxsackie B5 virus can be excluded. PMID:11087127

  1. Heparan sulphate mediates swine vesicular disease virus attachment to the host cell.

    PubMed

    Escribano-Romero, Estela; Jimenez-Clavero, Miguel Angel; Gomes, Paula; García-Ranea, Juan Antonio; Ley, Victoria

    2004-03-01

    Heparan sulphate (HS) has been found to serve as receptor for initial cell binding of numerous viruses. Different glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), including heparin and HS, were analysed for their ability to bind swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), a picornavirus with close homology to human coxsackie B5 virus. Binding of SVDV was established by heparin-affinity chromatography. In addition, infection of IB-RS-2 epithelial porcine cells was inhibited by treating the virus with soluble HS, heparin, and chondroitin sulphate B (CS-B), as well as by enzymic digestion of cell surface GAGs. Analysis of the infection course showed that SVDV uses cellular HS for its binding to the cell surface and that this interaction occurs during attachment of the virus, prior to its internalization into the cell. Sequence analysis of SVDV variants selected for their lack of sensitivity to heparin inhibition in vitro led to the identification of two residues (A2135V and I1266K) potentially involved in heparin/HS interaction. The location of these residues in a three-dimensional model shows that they are clustered in a well-exposed region of the capsid, providing a physical mechanism that could account for the heparin-binding phenotype. PMID:14993651

  2. Development of a minor groove binder assay for real-time one-step RT-PCR detection of swine vesicular disease virus.

    PubMed

    McMenamy, M J; McKillen, J; Reid, S M; Hjertner, B; King, D P; Adair, B; Allan, G

    2011-01-01

    The design and development of a 5' conjugated minor groove binder (MGB) probe real-time RT-PCR assay are described for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) RNA. The assay is designed to target the 2C gene of the SVDV genome and is capable of detecting 2×10(2) copies of an RNA standard per reaction. It does not detect any of the other RNA viruses that cause vesicular disease in pigs, or the human enterovirus, Coxsackie B5 virus (CVB5) which is closely related antigenically to SVDV. The linear range of this test was from 2×10(2) to 2×10(8) copies/?l. The assay is rapid and can detect SVDV RNA in just over 3.5 h including the time required for nucleic acid extraction. The development of this assay provides a useful tool for the differential diagnosis of SVD or for the detection of SVDV in research applications. This study demonstrates the suitability of MGB probes as a real-time PCR chemistry for the diagnosis of swine vesicular disease. PMID:21073902

  3. Highly sensitive detection of swine vesicular disease virus based on a single tube RT-PCR system and DIG-ELISA detection.

    PubMed

    Callens, M; De Clercq, K

    1999-01-01

    A highly sensitive detection of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) based on a single tube RT-PCR system and digoxigenin (DIG)-PCR-ELISA detection was developed. Using a one tube RT-PCR system, optimisation of the PCR conditions and optimisation of the microwell hybridisation and colourimetric detection of the amplicons resulted in a method that could detect viral RNA in infected tissue culture fluid with a titre as low as 0.1 TCID50/100 microl. The same sensitivity was obtained with SVDV-spiked faeces, if the samples were pre-treated with 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane/chloroform and subsequently concentrated using an ultrafiltration system and RNA extracted with the Purescript kit. The specificity of the test was validated on 27 SVDV strains belonging to four different groups. No cross-reactivity with genetically and symptomatically related viruses was detected using RNA of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), porcine enterovirus (PEV), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), Coxsackie B5 virus (CV-B5) and encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). The test was validated successfully on clinical samples, being slightly more sensitive and much faster than virus isolation on cell cultures. Moreover the possibility of automating the procedure will allow the processing of large numbers of clinical samples. PMID:10029329

  4. Oral administration of interferon-?2b-transformed Bifidobacterium longum protects BALB/c mice against coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Multiple reports have claimed that low-dose orally administered interferon (IFN)-? is beneficial in the treatment of many infectious diseases and provides a viable alternative to high-dose intramuscular treatment. However, research is needed on how to express IFN stably in the gut. Bifidobacterium may be a suitable carrier for human gene expression and secretion in the intestinal tract for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. We reported previously that Bifidobacterium longum can be used as a novel oral delivery of IFN-?. IFN-transformed B. longum can exert an immunostimulatory role in mice; however the answer to whether this recombinant B. longum can be used to treat virus infection still remains elusive. Here, we investigated the efficacy of IFN-transformed B. longum administered orally on coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis in BALB/c mice. Our data indicated that oral administration of IFN-transformed B. longum for 2 weeks after virus infection reduced significantly the severity of virus-induced myocarditis, markedly down regulated virus titers in the heart, and induced a T helper 1 cell pattern in the spleen and heart compared with controls. Oral administration of the IFN-transformed B. longum, therefore, may play a potential role in the treatment of CVB3-induced myocarditis. PMID:22151967

  5. Human enterovirus 71 epidemics: what's next?

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Cyril C. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2013-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) epidemics have affected various countries in the past 40 years. EV71 commonly causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children, but can result in neurological and cardiorespiratory complications in severe cases. Genotypic changes of EV71 have been observed in different places over time, with the emergence of novel genotypes or subgenotypes giving rise to serious outbreaks. Since the late 1990s, intra- and inter-typic recombination events in EV71 have been increasingly reported in the Asia-Pacific region. In particular, ‘double-recombinant’ EV71 strains belonging to a novel genotype D have been predominant in mainland China and Hong Kong over the last decade, though co-circulating with a minority of other EV71 subgenotypes and coxsackie A viruses. Continuous surveillance and genome studies are important to detect potential novel mutants or recombinants in the near future. Rapid and sensitive molecular detection of EV71 is of paramount importance in anticipating and combating EV71 outbreaks. PMID:24119538

  6. Dietary selenium in adjuvant therapy of viral and bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Steinbrenner, Holger; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Dkhil, Mohamed A; Wunderlich, Frank; Sies, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Viral and bacterial infections are often associated with deficiencies in macronutrients and micronutrients, including the essential trace element selenium. In selenium deficiency, benign strains of Coxsackie and influenza viruses can mutate to highly pathogenic strains. Dietary supplementation to provide adequate or supranutritional selenium supply has been proposed to confer health benefits for patients suffering from some viral diseases, most notably with respect to HIV and influenza A virus (IAV) infections. In addition, selenium-containing multimicronutrient supplements improved several clinical and lifestyle variables in patients coinfected with HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Selenium status may affect the function of cells of both adaptive and innate immunity. Supranutritional selenium promotes proliferation and favors differentiation of naive CD4-positive T lymphocytes toward T helper 1 cells, thus supporting the acute cellular immune response, whereas excessive activation of the immune system and ensuing host tissue damage are counteracted through directing macrophages toward the M2 phenotype. This review provides an up-to-date overview on selenium in infectious diseases caused by viruses (e.g., HIV, IAV, hepatitis C virus, poliovirus, West Nile virus) and bacteria (e.g., M. tuberculosis, Helicobacter pylori). Data from epidemiologic studies and intervention trials, with selenium alone or in combination with other micronutrients, and animal experiments are discussed against the background of dietary selenium requirements to alter immune functions. PMID:25593145

  7. Pseudotyping the adenovirus serotype 5 capsid with both the fibre and penton of serotype 35 enhances vascular smooth muscle cell transduction

    PubMed Central

    Parker, A L; White, K M; Lavery, C A; Custers, J; Waddington, S N; Baker, A H

    2013-01-01

    Ex vivo gene therapy during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) holds great potential to prevent excessive smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, neointima formation and graft failure. The most successful preclinical strategies to date have utilised vectors based on the species C adenovirus, Ad5, which engages the Coxsackie and Adenovirus receptor (CAR) as its primary attachment receptor. Profiling receptors on human SMCs demonstrated the absence of CAR but substantial expression of the species B receptor CD46. We performed transduction experiments using Ad5 and the CD46-utilising adenovirus Ad35, and found Ad35 significantly more efficient at transducing SMCs. To evaluate whether transduction could be further augmented, we evaluated chimeric CD46-utilising Ad5/Ad35 vectors comprising the Ad5 capsid pseudotyped with the Ad35 fibre alone (Ad5/F35) or in combination with the Ad35 penton (Ad5/F35/P35). In human smooth muscle cells (hSMCs), Ad5/F35/P35 mediated significantly higher levels of transduction than either parental vector or Ad5/F35. Ex vivo transduction experiments using mouse aortas from CD46 transgenics demonstrated that Ad5/F35/P35 was significantly more efficient at transducing SMCs than the other vectors tested. Finally, ex vivo transduction and immunofluorescent colocalisation experiments using human tissue from CABG procedures confirmed the preclinical potential of Ad5/F35/P35 as an efficient vector for vascular transduction during CABG. PMID:24005577

  8. Improving gene transfer in human renal carcinoma cells: Utilization of adenovirus vectors containing chimeric type 5 and type 35 fiber proteins.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Bishnu; Terao, Shuji; Suzuki, Toru; Naoe, Michio; Hamada, Katsuyuki; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Gotoh, Akinobu

    2010-05-01

    The transduction efficacy of adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vector in human renal carcinoma cells is generally low due to the down-regulated expression of Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) in target cells. By contrast, the infectivity of adenovirus serotype 35 vectors depends on the binding rate to CD46 receptor, independent of CAR. In this study, we examined whether an adenovirus vector containing chimeric type 5 and type 35 fiber proteins (Ad5/F35) increases transduction efficiency compared to Ad5 vector in human renal carcinoma cells in vitro. The expression of CAR was much lower in the human renal carcinoma cells than in control HEK293 cells. By contrast, the expression of CD46 was similar and perhaps at a higher level in the human renal carcinoma cells than in the HEK293 cells. The transduction efficacy of Ad5/F35 vector was dramatically higher compared to that of Ad5 in human renal carcinoma cells, and was correlated to the expression of CD46. Thus, Ad5/35 vector may be useful for the development of novel gene therapy approaches to renal cell carcinoma. PMID:22993573

  9. Pseudotyping the adenovirus serotype 5 capsid with both the fibre and penton of serotype 35 enhances vascular smooth muscle cell transduction.

    PubMed

    Parker, A L; White, K M; Lavery, C A; Custers, J; Waddington, S N; Baker, A H

    2013-12-01

    Ex vivo gene therapy during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) holds great potential to prevent excessive smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, neointima formation and graft failure. The most successful preclinical strategies to date have utilised vectors based on the species C adenovirus, Ad5, which engages the Coxsackie and Adenovirus receptor (CAR) as its primary attachment receptor. Profiling receptors on human SMCs demonstrated the absence of CAR but substantial expression of the species B receptor CD46. We performed transduction experiments using Ad5 and the CD46-utilising adenovirus Ad35, and found Ad35 significantly more efficient at transducing SMCs. To evaluate whether transduction could be further augmented, we evaluated chimeric CD46-utilising Ad5/Ad35 vectors comprising the Ad5 capsid pseudotyped with the Ad35 fibre alone (Ad5/F35) or in combination with the Ad35 penton (Ad5/F35/P35). In human smooth muscle cells (hSMCs), Ad5/F35/P35 mediated significantly higher levels of transduction than either parental vector or Ad5/F35. Ex vivo transduction experiments using mouse aortas from CD46 transgenics demonstrated that Ad5/F35/P35 was significantly more efficient at transducing SMCs than the other vectors tested. Finally, ex vivo transduction and immunofluorescent colocalisation experiments using human tissue from CABG procedures confirmed the preclinical potential of Ad5/F35/P35 as an efficient vector for vascular transduction during CABG. PMID:24005577

  10. Rapid and highly sensitive detection of Enterovirus 71 by using nanogold-enhanced electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hsing-Yuan; Tseng, Shing-Hua; Cheng, Tsai-Mu; Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Lu, Yu-Ning; Wang, Fang-Yu; Tsai, Li-Yun; Shieh, Juo-Yu; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Juan, Chien-Chang; Tu, Lung-Chen; Chang, Chia-Ching

    2013-07-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection is an emerging infectious disease causing neurological complications and/or death within two to three days after the development of fever and rash. A low viral titre in clinical specimens makes the detection of EV71 difficult. Conventional approaches for detecting EV71 are time consuming, poorly sensitive, or complicated, and cannot be used effectively for clinical diagnosis. Furthermore, EV71 and Coxsackie virus A16 (CA16) may cross react in conventional assays. Therefore, a rapid, highly sensitive, specific, and user-friendly test is needed. We developed an EV71-specific nanogold-modified working electrode for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the detection of EV71. Our results show that EV71 can be distinguished from CA16, Herpes simplex virus, and lysozyme, with the modified nanogold electrode being able to detect EV71 in concentrations as low as 1 copy number/50 ?l reaction volume, and the duration between sample preparation and detection being 11 min. This detection platform may have the potential for use in point-of-care diagnostics.

  11. High sensitivity and label-free detection of Enterovirus 71 by nanogold modified electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang-Yu; Li, Hsing-Yuan; Tseng, Shing-Hua; Cheng, Tsai-Mu; Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Chang, Chia-Ching

    2013-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), which is the most fulminant and invasive species of enterovirus, can cause children neurologic complications and death within 2-3 days after fever and rash developed. Besides, EV71 has high sequence similarity with Coxsackie A 16 (CA16) that makes differential diagnosis difficult in clinic and laboratory. Since conventional viral diagnostic method cannot diagnose EV71 quickly and EV71 can transmit at low viral titer, the patients might delay in treatment. A quick, high sensitive, and high specific test for EV71 detection is pivotal. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been applied for detecting bio-molecules as biosensors recently. In this study, we try to build a detection platform for EV71 detection by nanogold modified EIS probe. The result shows that our probe can detect 3.6 VP1/50 ?l (one EV71 particle has 60 VP1) in 3 minutes. The test can also distinguish EV71 from CA16 and lysozyme. Diagnosis of enterovirus 71 by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has the potential to apply in clinic.

  12. Cleavage of eukaryotic initiation factor eIF5B by enterovirus 3C proteases.

    PubMed

    de Breyne, Sylvain; Bonderoff, Jennifer M; Chumakov, Konstantin M; Lloyd, Richard E; Hellen, Christopher U T

    2008-08-15

    The enteroviruses poliovirus (PV), Coxsackie B virus (CVB) and rhinovirus (HRV) are members of Picornaviridae that inhibit host cell translation early in infection. Enterovirus translation soon predominates in infected cells, but eventually also shuts off. This complex pattern of modulation of translation suggests regulation by a multifactorial mechanism. We report here that eIF5B is proteolytically cleaved during PV and CVB infection of cultured cells, beginning at 3 hours post-infection and increasing thereafter. Recombinant PV, CVB and HRV 3Cpro cleaved purified native rabbit eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 5B in vitro at a single site (VVEQG, equivalent to VMEQG479 in human eIF5B) that is consistent with the cleavage specificity of enterovirus 3C proteases. Cleavage separates the N-terminal domain of eIF5B from its essential conserved central GTPase and C-terminal domains. 3Cpro-mediated cleavage of eIF5B may thus play an accessory role in the shutoff of translation that occurs in enterovirus-infected cells. PMID:18572216

  13. The post-viral syndrome: a review

    PubMed Central

    Archer, M.I.

    1987-01-01

    The post-viral syndrome is described and its aetiology is discussed. Many features of the syndrome point to hysteria and altered medical perception as causes but much evidence for organic disease is also presented. Current interest focuses on recent or persisting infection with Coxsackie viruses. A balanced view of the syndrome as a mixture of organic and psychiatric dysfunction is offered. Widely differing estimates of incidence are quoted, possibly owing to varying medical awareness of the syndrome. Many drug therapies have been tried without success and management of the post-viral syndrome is hampered by the reluctance of patients to accept psychiatric support once the diagnosis is known. Many names have been proposed for the syndrome, some implying a purely physical or purely psychogenic aetiology: post-viral syndrome is suggested as the most appropriate term. Increased awareness of the syndrome will lead to an increase in its diagnosis in general practice: the role of the Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Association in promoting a combined psychiatric and organic view of the disease among sufferers is emphasized. PMID:3320358

  14. Broad-range inhibition of enterovirus replication by OSW-1, a natural compound targeting OSBP.

    PubMed

    Albulescu, Lucian; Strating, Jeroen R P M; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; van der Linden, Lonneke; Shair, Matthew D; Neyts, Johan; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

    2015-05-01

    Enteroviruses, e.g., polio-, coxsackie- and rhinoviruses, constitute a large genus within the Picornaviridae family of positive-strand RNA viruses and include many important pathogens linked to a variety of acute and chronic diseases. Despite their huge medical and economic impact, no approved antiviral therapy is yet available. Recently, the oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) was implicated as a host factor for enterovirus replication. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of the natural compound OSW-1, a ligand of OSBP that is under investigation as an anti-cancer drug. OSW-1 potently inhibited the replication of all enteroviruses tested, with IC50 values in the low nanomolar range, acted at the genome replication stage and was effective in all tested cell types of three different species. Importantly, OSBP overexpression rescued viral replication, demonstrating that the antiviral effect of OSW-1 is due to targeting OSBP. Together, we here report the anti-enterovirus activity of the natural anti-cancer compound OSW-1. PMID:25752737

  15. Enhanced prostate cancer gene transfer and therapy using a novel serotype chimera cancer terminator virus (Ad.5/3-CTV).

    PubMed

    Azab, Belal M; Dash, Rupesh; Das, Swadesh K; Bhutia, Sujit K; Sarkar, Siddik; Shen, Xue-Ning; Quinn, Bridget A; Dent, Paul; Dmitriev, Igor P; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Curiel, David T; Pellecchia, Maurizio; Reed, John C; Sarkar, Devanand; Fisher, Paul B

    2014-01-01

    Few options are available for treating patients with advanced prostate cancer (PC). As PC is a slow growing disease and accessible by ultrasound, gene therapy could provide a viable option for this neoplasm. Conditionally replication-competent adenoviruses (CRCAs) represent potentially useful reagents for treating PC. We previously constructed a CRCA, cancer terminator virus (CTV), which showed efficacy both in vitro and in vivo for PC. The CTV was generated on a serotype 5-background (Ad.5-CTV) with infectivity depending on Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptors (CARs). CARs are frequently reduced in many tumor types, including PCs thereby limiting effective Ad-mediated therapy. Using serotype chimerism, a novel CTV (Ad.5/3-CTV) was created by replacing the Ad.5 fiber knob with the Ad.3 fiber knob thereby facilitating infection in a CAR-independent manner. We evaluated Ad.5/3-CTV in comparison with Ad.5-CTV in low CAR human PC cells, demonstrating higher efficiency in inhibiting cell viability in vitro. Moreover, Ad.5/3-CTV potently suppressed in vivo tumor growth in a nude mouse xenograft model and in a spontaneously induced PC that develops in Hi-myc transgenic mice. Considering the significant responses in a Phase I clinical trial of a non-replicating Ad.5-mda-7 in advanced cancers, Ad.5/3-CTV may exert improved therapeutic benefit in a clinical setting. PMID:23868767

  16. Calcium Gluconate in Phosphate Buffered Saline Increases Gene Delivery with Adenovirus Type 5

    PubMed Central

    Ahonen, Marko T.; Diaconu, Iulia; Pesonen, Sari; Kanerva, Anna; Baumann, Marc; Parviainen, Suvi T.; Spiller, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Background Adenoviruses are attractive vectors for gene therapy because of their stability in vivo and the possibility of production at high titers. Despite exciting preclinical data with various approaches, there are only a few examples of clear efficacy in clinical trials. Effective gene delivery to target cells remains the key variable determining efficacy and thus enhanced transduction methods are important. Methods/Results We found that heated serum could enhance adenovirus 5 mediated gene delivery up to twentyfold. A new protein-level interaction was found between fiber knob and serum transthyretin, but this was not responsible for the observed effect. Instead, we found that heating caused the calcium and phosphate present in the serum mix to precipitate, and this was responsible for enhanced gene delivery. This finding could have relevance for designing preclinical experiments with adenoviruses, since calcium and phosphate are present in many solutions. To translate this into an approach potentially testable in patients, we used calcium gluconate in phosphate buffered saline, both of which are clinically approved, to increase adenoviral gene transfer up to 300-fold in vitro. Gene transfer was increased with or without heating and in a manner independent from the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor. In vivo, in mouse studies, gene delivery was increased 2-, 110-, 12- and 13-fold to tumors, lungs, heart and liver and did not result in increased pro-inflammatory cytokine induction. Antitumor efficacy of a replication competent virus was also increased significantly. Conclusion In summary, adenoviral gene transfer and antitumor efficacy can be enhanced by calcium gluconate in phosphate buffered saline. PMID:20927353

  17. A pathogenic mechanism of chronic ongoing myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, H; Yamamura, T; Fukuta, S; Matsumori, A; Matsuzaki, M

    1996-08-01

    To clarify the pathogenetic mechanism of chronic ongoing myocarditis, we produced Coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis in A/J mice and immunopathologically examined the microcirculation in the chronic phase of myocarditis. Forty-two 3-week-old A/J mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with Coxsackievirus B3 (Nancy strain) 2 x 10(4) PFU (plaque-forming units) and sacrificed 7, 14, 21, 50, 90, or 120 days later. To evaluate myocardial microcirculation, 18 of the hearts were perfused from the thoracic aorta with warm 2% gelatin/carbon solution. The remaining hearts were quickly frozen for immunologic analysis with an enzyme immunostaining assay using monoclonal antibodies against CD4, CD8, macrophages, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and major histocompatibility complex class I or II. The presence of viral RNA genome in the myocardium at 40, 50, or 60 days after inoculation was evaluated using the polymerase chain reaction. The lesions in chronic ongoing myocarditis consisted of myocardial damage, myocardial calcification, interstitial fibrosis, and infiltration of mononuclear cells. These infiltrated lymphocytes were predominantly CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, microvascular abnormalities, including dilatation, tortuosity, constriction, and abrupt termination, were observed around the lesions. There was marked infiltration by mononuclear cells around the microvessels. ICAM-1 was strongly expressed in the endothelial cells of the vessels. Coxsackie B3 viral genome was not detected in the myocardium of mice with chronic ongoing myocarditis in each stage examined. These results suggest that an autoimmune mechanism is involved in the persistent inflammation seen in chronic ongoing myocarditis. PMID:8889664

  18. Safety profiles and antitumor efficacy of oncolytic adenovirus coated with bioreducible polymer in the treatment of a CAR negative tumor model.

    PubMed

    Jung, Soo-Jung; Kasala, Dayananda; Choi, Joung-Woo; Lee, Soo-Hwan; Hwang, June Kyu; Kim, Sung Wan; Yun, Chae-Ok

    2015-01-12

    Adenovirus (Ad) vectors show promise as cancer gene therapy delivery vehicles, but immunogenic safety concerns and coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR)-dependency have limited their use. Alternately, biocompatible and bioreducible nonviral vectors, including arginine-grafted cationic polymers, have been shown to deliver nucleic acids through a cell penetration peptide (CPP) and protein transduction domain (PTD) effect. We utilized the advantages of both viral and nonviral vectors to develop a hybrid gene delivery vehicle by coating Ad with mPEG-PEI-g-Arg-S-S-Arg-g-PEI-mPEG (Ad/PPSA). Characterization of Ad/PPSA particle size and zeta potential showed an overall size and cationic charge increase in a polymer concentration-dependent manner. Ad/PPSA also showed a marked transduction efficiency increase in both CAR-negative and -positive cells compared to naked Ad. Competition assays demonstrated that Ad/PPSA produced higher transgene expression levels than naked Ad and achieved CAR-independent transduction. Oncolytic Ad (DWP418)/PPSA was able to overcome the nonspecificity of polymer-only therapies by demonstrating cancer-specific killing effects. Furthermore, the DWP418/PPSA nanocomplex elicited a 2.24-fold greater antitumor efficacy than naked Ad in vivo. This was supported by immunohistochemical confirmation of Ad E1As accumulation in MCF7 xenografted tumors. Lastly, intravenous injection of DWP418/PPSA elicited less innate immune response compared to naked Ad, evaluated by interleukin-6 cytokine release into the serum. The increased antitumor effect and improved vector targeting to both CAR-negative and -positive cells make DWP418/PPSA a promising tool for cancer gene therapy. PMID:25400213

  19. Integrin ?v?5 is a primary receptor for adenovirus in CAR-negative cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Viruses bind to specific cellular receptors in order to infect their hosts. The specific receptors a virus uses are important factors in determining host range, cellular tropism, and pathogenesis. For adenovirus, the existing model of entry requires two receptor interactions. First, the viral fiber protein binds Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor (CAR), its primary cellular receptor, which docks the virus to the cell surface. Next, viral penton base engages cellular integrins, coreceptors thought to be required exclusively for internalization and not contributing to binding. However, a number of studies reporting data which conflicts with this simple model have been published. These observations have led us to question the proposed two-step model for adenovirus infection. Results In this study we report that cells which express little to no CAR can be efficiently transduced by adenovirus. Using competition experiments between whole virus and soluble viral fiber protein or integrin blocking peptides, we show virus binding is not dependent on fiber binding to cells but rather on penton base binding cellular integrins. Further, we find that binding to low CAR expressing cells is inhibited specifically by a blocking antibody to integrin ?v?5, demonstrating that in these cells integrin ?v?5 and not CAR is required for adenovirus attachment. The binding mediated by integrin ?v?5 is extremely high affinity, in the picomolar range. Conclusions Our data further challenges the model of adenovirus infection in which binding to primary receptor CAR is required in order for subsequent interactions between adenovirus and integrins to initiate viral entry. In low CAR cells, binding occurs through integrin ?v?5, a receptor previously thought to be used exclusively in internalization. We show for the first time that integrin ?v?5 can be used as an alternate binding receptor. PMID:20615244

  20. Enhanced delivery of mda-7/IL-24 using a serotype chimeric adenovirus (Ad.5/3) in combination with the Apogossypol derivative BI-97C1 (Sabutoclax) improves therapeutic efficacy in low CAR colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Belal; Dash, Rupesh; Das, Swadesh K.; Bhutia, Sujit K.; Shen, Xue-Ning; Quinn, Bridget A.; Sarkar, Siddik; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Hedvat, Michael; Dmitriev, Igor P.; Curiel, David T.; Grant, Steven; Dent, Paul; Reed, John C.; Pellecchia, Maurizio; Sarkar, Devanand; Fisher, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    Adenovirus (Ad)-based gene therapy represents a potentially viable strategy for treating colorectal cancer. The infectivity of serotype 5 adenovirus (Ad.5), routinely used as a transgene delivery vector, is dependent on Coxsackie-adenovirus receptors (CAR). CAR expression is downregulated in many cancers thus preventing optimum therapeutic efficiency of Ad.5-based therapies. To overcome the low CAR problem, a serotype chimerism approach was used to generate a recombinant Ad (Ad.5/3) that is capable of infecting cancer cells via Ad.3 receptors in a CAR-independent manner. We evaluated the improved transgene delivery and efficacy of Ad.5/3 recombinant virus expressing melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24), an effective wide-spectrum cancer-selective therapeutic. In low CAR human colorectal cancer cells RKO, wild-type Ad.5 virus expressing mda-7/IL-24 (Ad.5-mda-7) failed to infect efficiently resulting in lack of expression of MDA-7/IL-24 or induction of apoptosis. However, a recombinant Ad.5/3 virus expressing mda-7/IL-24 (Ad.5/3-mda-7) efficiently infected RKO cells resulting in higher MDA-7/IL-24 expression and inhibition of cell growth both in vitro and in nude mice xenograft models. Addition of the novel Bcl-2 family pharmacological inhibitor Apogossypol derivative BI-97C1 (Sabutoclax) significantly augmented the efficacy of Ad.5/3-mda-7. A combination regimen of suboptimal doses of Ad.5/3-mda-7 and BI-97C1 profoundly enhanced cytotoxicity in RKO cells both in vitro and in vivo. Considering the fact that Ad.5-mda-7 has demonstrated significant objective responses in a Phase I clinical trial for advanced solid tumors, Ad.5/3-mda-7 alone or in combination with BI-97C1 would be predicted to exert significantly improved therapeutic efficacy in colorectal cancer patients. PMID:21780116

  1. Integrin targeted oncolytic adenoviruses Ad5-D24-RGD and Ad5-RGD-D24-GMCSF for treatment of patients with advanced chemotherapy refractory solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Pesonen, Sari; Diaconu, Iulia; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Escutenaire, Sophie; Raki, Mari; Kangasniemi, Lotta; Nokisalmi, Petri; Dotti, Gianpietro; Guse, Kilian; Laasonen, Leena; Partanen, Kaarina; Karli, Eerika; Haavisto, Elina; Oksanen, Minna; Karioja-Kallio, Aila; Hannuksela, Päivi; Holm, Sirkka-Liisa; Kauppinen, Satu; Joensuu, Timo; Kanerva, Anna; Hemminki, Akseli

    2012-04-15

    The safety of oncolytic viruses for treatment of cancer has been shown in clinical trials while antitumor efficacy has often remained modest. As expression of the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor may be variable in advanced tumors, we developed Ad5-D24-RGD, a p16/Rb pathway selective oncolytic adenovirus featuring RGD-4C modification of the fiber. This allows viral entry through alpha-v-beta integrins frequently highly expressed in advanced tumors. Advanced tumors are often immunosuppressive which results in lack of tumor eradication despite abnormal epitopes being present. Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF) is a potent activator of immune system with established antitumor properties. To stimulate antitumor immunity and break tumor associated immunotolerance, we constructed Ad5-RGD-D24-GMCSF, featuring GMCSF controlled by the adenoviral E3 promoter. Preliminary safety of Ad5-D24-RGD and Ad5-RGD-D24-GMCSF for treatment of human cancer was established. Treatments with Ad5-D24-RGD (N = 9) and Ad5-RGD-D24-GMCSF (N = 7) were well tolerated. Typical side effects were grade 1-2 fatigue, fever and injection site pain. 77% (10/13) of evaluable patients showed virus in circulation for at least 2 weeks. In 3 out of 6 evaluable patients, disease previously progressing stabilized after a single treatment with Ad5-RGD-D24-GMCSF. In addition, 2/3 patients had stabilization or reduction in tumor marker levels. All patients treated with Ad5-D24-RGD showed disease progression in radiological analysis, although 3/6 had temporary reduction or stabilization of marker levels. Induction of tumor and adenovirus specific immunity was demonstrated with ELISPOT in Ad5-RGD-D24-GMCSF treated patients. RGD modified oncolytic adenoviruses with or without GMCSF seem safe for further clinical development. PMID:21630267

  2. A fiber-modified adenovirus co-expressing HSV-TK and Coli.NTR enhances antitumor activities in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yang; Yu, Bin; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Hai-Hong; Wu, Hao; Feng, Xiao; Geng, Ran-Shen; Kong, Wei; Yu, Xiang-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancers especially in late and metastatic stages remain refractory to treatment despite advances in surgical techniques and chemotherapy. Suicide gene therapy based on adenoviral technology will be promising strategies for such advanced diseases. We previously showed that co-expression of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) and Escherichia coli nitroreductase (Coli.NTR) by an hTERT-driven adenovirus vector resulted in additive anti-tumor effects in breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. As many tumor tissue and cancer cells express low level of coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR), which is the functional receptor for the fiber protein of human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5), novel Ad5 vectors containing genetically modifi ed fiber are attractive vehicles for achieving targeted gene transfer and improving suicide gene expression in these cancer cells. In the present study, we first built a simplified Ad5 vector platform for fiber modification and quick detection for gene transfer. Then a fiber-modified adenovirus vector containing an RGD motif in the HI loop of the fiber knob was constructed. After recombined with HSV-TK and Coli.NTR gene, this fiber-modified Ad5 vector (Ad-RGD-hT-TK/NTR) was compared with that of our previously constructed Ad5 vector (Ad-hT-TK/NTR) for its therapeutic effects in human breast cancer cell lines. The anti-tumor activity of Ad-RGD-hT-TK/NTR was significantly enhanced compared with Ad-hT-TK/NTR both in vitro and in vivo. This new vector platform provided a robust and simplified approach for capsid modification, and the fiber-modified Ad5 with double suicide genes under the control of hTERT promoter would be a useful gene therapy strategy for breast cancer. PMID:25031704

  3. Differential Susceptibility and Response of Primary Human Myeloid BDCA1+ Dendritic Cells to Infection with Different Enteroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Barbara M.; Kers-Rebel, Esther D.; Prosser, Amy C.; Galama, Jochem M. D.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.; Adema, Gosse J.

    2013-01-01

    Coxsackie B viruses (CVBs) and echoviruses (EVs) form the Human Enterovirus-B (HEV-B) species within the family Picornaviridae. HEV-B infections are widespread and generally cause mild disease; however, severe infections occur and HEV-B are associated with various chronic diseases such as cardiomyopathy and type 1 diabetes. Dendritic cells (DCs) are the professional antigen-presenting cells of our immune system and initiate and control immune responses to invading pathogens, yet also maintain tolerance to self-antigens. We previously reported that EVs, but not CVBs, can productively infect in vitro generated monocyte-derived DCs. The interactions between HEV-B and human myeloid DCs (mDCs) freshly isolated from blood, however, remain unknown. Here, we studied the susceptibility and responses of BDCA1+ mDC to HEV-B species and found that these mDC are susceptible to EV, but not CVB infection. Productive EV7 infection resulted in massive, rapid cell death without DC activation. Contrary, EV1 infection, which resulted in lower virus input at the same MOI, resulted in DC activation as observed by production of type I interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), upregulation of co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules (CD80, CD86, PDL1) and production of IL-6 and TNF-?, with a relative moderate decrease in cell viability. EV1-induced ISG expression depended on virus replication. CVB infection did not affect DC viability and resulted in poor induction of ISGs and CD80 induction in part of the donors. These data show for the first time the interaction between HEV-B species and BDCA1+ mDCs isolated freshly from blood. Our data indicate that different HEV-B species can influence DC homeostasis in various ways, possibly contributing to HEV-B associated pathology. PMID:23638101

  4. Regulation of the Heme Oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide system by hydrogen sulfide in murine coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Wu, T; Xia, T; Rong, X; Wu, T; Chu, M; Wu, R

    2015-01-01

    To explore the impact of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on the heme oxygenase—1 (HO—1)/carbon monoxide (CO) system in coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3)—induced myocarditis. A total of 80 Balb/c mice were divided randomly into four groups designated N, C, P and S. Group N served as the negative control while groups C, P, and S were infected with CVB3 to induce myocarditis. Group P was additionally treated with DL—propargylglycine (PAG) to inhibit the generation of H2S while Group S was treated with NaHS, an H2S donor. Ten days after infection, heart sections were scored for histopathology. We also measured carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels in the blood and HO—1 expression by immunohistochemistry. 1. Each CVB3—infected group (C, P, and S) exhibited increased pathology, COHb levels, and HO—1 expression compared to uninfected controls. 2. Regarding histopathology, the score of group P was worse, while that of group S was better, than that of group C. 3. The P group COHb level was lower than group C, while the S group COHb level was higher than group C. 4. Positive HO—1 expression was seen in group C with reduced expression in group P and increased expression in group S. 5. A positive correlation was observed between the COHb concentration and HO—1expression; alternatively, a negative correlation was found between the histopathologic scores and both the concentration of COHb and the expression level of HO—1. Modulation of H2S can play a regulatory role in the pathogenesis of VMC by impacting the HO—1/CO pathway. PMID:26025406

  5. Mutation in fiber of adenovirus serotype 5 gene therapy vector decreases liver tropism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Baoming; Lou, Junfang; Yan, Jingyi; Gao, Lei; Geng, Ranshen; Yu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant adenovirus (Ad) vectors are widely used for both in vitro and in vivo gene transfer. However, intravenous administration of Ad vectors results mainly in hepatocyte transduction and subsequent hepatotoxicity. Coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) and ?v? integrins, which are functional receptors for the fiber and penton proteins, respectively, are the tropism determinants of Ad type 5 (Ad5). We previously developed a system for rapid construction of fiber-modified Ad5 vectors. We also constructed a fiber-modified Ad5 containing an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif in the HI-loop and showed that it could enhance anti-tumor effects in vitro and in vivo. Here, we constructed a novel Ad5 vector containing two amino acid mutations in the AB loop of the fiber-modified Ad5 fiber knob and showed that it could significantly reduce liver tropism and increase gene transfer in low-CAR or CAR-deficient cancer cells following intravascular delivery. However, anti-tumor effects of the fiber-mutated Ad5 expressing HSV-TK under control of the hTERT promoter was not found when compared with an unmodified Ad5 vector in cancer lines expressing different levels of CAR, likely due to the activity of the hTERT promoter being lower than that of the CMV promoter. Nevertheless, this study describes an enhanced Ad5 vector for intravascular gene delivery, and further modifications such as changes in the promoter may facilitate the development of this vector for cancer treatment. PMID:25663991

  6. Viremic HIV controllers exhibit high plasmacytoid dendritic cell\\reactive opsonophagocytic IgG antibody responses against HIV-1 p24 associated with greater antibody isotype diversification

    PubMed Central

    Tjiam, M. Christian; Taylor, James P. A.; Morshidi, Mazmah A.; Sariputra, Lucy; Burrows, Sally; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Deeks, Steven G.; Tan, Dino B.A.; Lee, Silvia; Fernandez, Sonia; French, Martyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the mechanisms of natural control of HIV-1 infection could lead to novel approaches to prevent or cure HIV infection. Several studies have associated natural control of HIV-1 infection with IgG antibodies against HIV-1 Gag proteins (e.g. p24) and/or production of IgG2 antibodies against HIV-1 proteins. These antibodies likely exert their effect by activating anti-viral effector cell responses rather than virus neutralization. We hypothesized that an opsonophagocytic IgG antibody response against HIV-1 p24 that activates plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) through Fc?RIIa would be associated with control of HIV and that this would be enhanced by antibody isotype diversification. Using the Gen2.2 pDC cell line, we demonstrated that pDC-reactive opsonophagocytic IgG antibody responses against HIV-1 p24 were higher in HIV controllers (HIV RNA <2000 copies/mL) than non-controllers (HIV RNA >10,000 copies/mL) particularly in controllers with low but detectable viremia (HIV RNA 75–2000 copies/mL). Opsonophagocytic antibody responses correlated with plasma levels of IgG1 and IgG2 anti-HIV-1 p24 and notably, correlated inversely with plasma HIV RNA levels in viremic HIV patients. Phagocytosis of these antibodies was mediated via Fc?RIIa. Isotype diversification (towards IgG2) was greatest in HIV controllers and depletion of IgG2 from immunoglobulin preparations indicated that IgG2 antibodies to HIV-1 p24 do not enhance phagocytosis, suggesting that they enhance other aspects of antibody function, such as antigen opsonization. Our findings emulate those for pDC-reactive opsonophagocytic antibody responses against coxsackie, picorna and influenza viruses and demonstrate a previously undefined immune correlate of HIV-1 control that may be relevant to HIV vaccine development. PMID:25911748

  7. [Construction and sequencing of full-length cDNA clone of swine vesicular disease virus strain HK'1/70].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hai-Xue; Liu, Xiang-Tao; Shang, You-Jun; Zhang, Miao-Tao; Feng, Xia; Bai, Xing-Wen; Wu, Jin-Yan; Lv, Jian-Liang; Sun, Shi-Qi; Yin, Shuang-Hui; Guo, Jian-Hong; Xie, Qin-Ge

    2007-01-01

    By RACE, 2 overlapping cDNA fragments (3'PCR and 5'PCR fragments) covering the full genome of swine vesicular disease virus strain HK'1/70 were amplified from total RNA extracted from experimentally infected suckling mice. These fragments were cloned into pGEM-T Easy vector, respectively. 5'PCR fragment was digested by enzymes of Aat II and BssH II, and the Aat II-BssH II-digested 5'PCR fragment was obtained and cloned into the recombinant pGEM-T Easy vector containing 3'PCR fragment,the recombinant plasmid encoding full-length cDNA of SVDV HK'I/70 strain was then obtained and sequenced. The results showed that the complete genome of HK'1/70 was 7401 nucleotides (nts) long (excluding the poly (A) tract) which encodes a single polyprotein of 2185 amino acids, a 5'u ntranslating region (UTR) of 743 nts, a 3'UTR of 102 nts and a poly (A) tail at least 74 adenines. T' promoter was added at the 5'e nd of the full-length cDNA and an additional Pspl406I restriction site was added at the 3'e nd of poly (A) tail. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences were compared and phylogenetic analysis was used to examine the evolutionary relationships. The results showed that HK'1 /70 belonged to the second antigenic group. SVD virus was antigenically closely related to Coxsackie B5 virus, and located on the branches of CB5 evolutionary tree. Successful construction of full-length cDNA clone of SVDV HK'1/70 strain lays foundation for rescuing SVDV effectively and enables further research of SVDV on molecular level. PMID:17886721

  8. A RT-PCR assay for the differential diagnosis of vesicular viral diseases of swine.

    PubMed

    Núñez, J I; Blanco, E; Hernández, T; Gómez-Tejedor, C; Martín, M J; Dopazo, J; Sobrino, F

    1998-06-01

    A RT-PCR assay based on specific amplification of RNA sequences from each of the etiological agents of three important vesicular diseases that affect swine, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), was developed. Genotype-specific primers that amplified DNA fragments of differential size from SVDV 3D gene or VSV L gene were selected with the aid of a computer program. Experimental testing of the primers predicted as SVDV-specific identified a primer pair, SA2/SS4, that rendered a specific product from SVDV RNAs, but did not amplify RNA from either FMDV or coxsackie B5 virus (CV-B5), a highly related picornavirus. Primers SA2/SS4 were used in combination with primers 3D2/3D1, which amplify a product of different size on FMDV 3D gene (Rodriguez et al., 1992). This combined RT-PCR reaction allowed a sensitive and specific differential detection of FMDV and SVDV RNAs in a single tube, by means of the analysis of the amplified products in agarose gels. The results obtained were similar when RNA extracted from viral stocks or plastic wells coated with either viral supernatants or extracts from lesions of infected animals, were used as starting material in the reactions. Using a similar approach, VSV serotype-specific primers IA/IS and NA/NS were selected for the specific amplification of VSV-Indiana and VSV-New Jersey RNAs, respectively. The combined use of SVDV, FMDV and VSV specific primers in a single reaction resulted in a genotype-specific amplification of each of the viral RNAs. Thus, differential diagnosis of FMDV from SVDV and/or VSV can be carried out in a single RT-PCR reaction, using a rapid and simplified methodology. PMID:9694330

  9. Singleton reactors in the diagnosis of swine vesicular disease: the role of coxsackievirus B5.

    PubMed

    Moonen, P; Van Poelwijk, F; Moormann, R; Dekker, A

    2000-10-01

    Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and Coxsackie B5 virus (CVB5) are closely related viruses that can infect swine and man and give rise to cross-reacting serum antibodies. It is, therefore, possible that SVD antibodies found in serologic screenings of pigs are induced by CVB5. Single positive animals found in screening programmes are generally referred to as singleton reactors (SR). To determine whether SR in SVDV screenings are induced by CVB5 infection, virus neutralisation tests (VNTs) and radioimmunoprecipitation assays (RIPA) were carried out on sera of SR, sera of pigs experimentally infected with SVDV, and sera from pigs vaccinated with CVB5 isolates. The SR sera reacted repeatedly positive in the SVDV UKG/27/72 VNT, but reacted differently in three other VNTs (SVDV NET/1/92, CVB5A, and CVB5B). The VNT titres obtained with the SR sera revealed a correlation between both SVDV strains, and also between both CVB5 stains, but no correlation was found between SVD and CVB5 VNT titres. Sera of experimentally infected (SVDV) or vaccinated (CVB5) pigs showed titres in all four neutralisation tests. In the RIPA, the reaction patterns of the SR sera varied considerably with all four antigens used, in contrast to sera from pigs experimentally infected with SVDV that reacted with all antigens used, and sera from pigs vaccinated with CVB5 that reacted only with CVB5 antigens. The results presented in this paper show that neither CVB5 nor SVDV infections are the only cause of the SR phenomenon. Testing for CVB5 specific antibodies can reduce the number of SR sera in the serodiagnosis of SVDV. PMID:10973703

  10. Recombination in Circulating Enteroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Lukashev, Alexander N.; Lashkevich, Vasilii A.; Ivanova, Olga E.; Koroleva, Galina A.; Hinkkanen, Ari E.; Ilonen, Jorma

    2003-01-01

    Recombination is a well-known phenomenon for enteroviruses. However, the actual extent of recombination in circulating nonpoliovirus enteroviruses is not known. We have analyzed the phylogenetic relationships in four genome regions, VP1, 2A, 3D, and the 5? nontranslated region (NTR), of 40 enterovirus B strains (coxsackie B viruses and echoviruses) representing 11 serotypes and isolated in 1981 to 2002 in the former Soviet Union states. In the VP1 region, strains of the same serotype expectedly grouped with their prototype strain. However, as early as the 2A region, phylogenetic grouping differed significantly from that in the VP1 region and indicated recombination within the 2A region. Moreover, in the 5? NTR and 3D region, only 1 strain of 40 grouped with its prototype strain. Instead, we observed a major group in both the 5? NTR and the 3D region that united most (in the 5? NTR) or all (in the 3D region) of the strains studied, regardless of the serotype. Subdivision within that major group in the 3D region correlated with the time of virus isolation but not with the serotype. Therefore, we conclude that a majority, if not all, circulating enterovirus B strains are recombinants relative to the prototype strains, isolated mostly in the 1950s. Moreover, the ubiquitous recombination has allowed different regions of the enterovirus genome to evolve independently. Thus, a novel model of enterovirus genetics is proposed: the enterovirus genome is a stable symbiosis of genes, and enterovirus species consist of a finite set of capsid genes responsible for different serotypes and a continuum of nonstructural protein genes that seem to evolve in a relatively independent manner. PMID:12970427

  11. Crystal Structure of Swine Vesicular Disease Virus and Implications for Host Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Elizabeth E.; Knowles, Nick J.; Newman, John W. I.; Wilsden, Ginette; Rao, Zihe; King, Andrew M. Q.; Stuart, David I.

    2003-01-01

    Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) is an Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae that causes symptoms indistinguishable from those of foot-and-mouth disease virus. Phylogenetic studies suggest that it is a recently evolved genetic sublineage of the important human pathogen coxsackievirus B5 (CBV5), and in agreement with this, it has been shown to utilize the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) for cell entry. The 3.0-Å crystal structure of strain UK/27/72 SVDV (highly virulent) reveals the expected similarity in core structure to those of other picornaviruses, showing most similarity to the closest available structure to CBV5, that of coxsackievirus B3 (CBV3). Features that help to cement together and rigidify the protein subunits are extended in this virus, perhaps explaining its extreme tolerance of environmental factors. Using the large number of capsid sequences available for both SVDV and CBV5, we have mapped the amino acid substitutions that may have occurred during the supposed adaptation of SVDV to a new host onto the structure of SVDV and a model of the SVDV/CAR complex generated by reference to the cryo-electron microscopy-visualized complex of CBV3 and CAR. The changes fall into three clusters as follows: one lines the fivefold pore, a second maps to the CAR-binding site and partially overlaps the site for decay accelerating factor (DAF) to bind to echovirus 7 (ECHO7), and the third lies close to the fivefold axis, where the low-density lipoprotein receptor binds to the minor group of rhinoviruses. Later changes in SVDV (post-1971) map to the first two clusters and may, by optimizing recognition of a pig CAR and/or DAF homologue, have improved the adaptation of the virus to pigs. PMID:12692248

  12. Crystal structure of Swine vesicular disease virus and implications for host adaptation.

    PubMed

    Fry, Elizabeth E; Knowles, Nick J; Newman, John W I; Wilsden, Ginette; Rao, Zihe; King, Andrew M Q; Stuart, David I

    2003-05-01

    Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) is an Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae that causes symptoms indistinguishable from those of foot-and-mouth disease virus. Phylogenetic studies suggest that it is a recently evolved genetic sublineage of the important human pathogen coxsackievirus B5 (CBV5), and in agreement with this, it has been shown to utilize the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) for cell entry. The 3.0-A crystal structure of strain UK/27/72 SVDV (highly virulent) reveals the expected similarity in core structure to those of other picornaviruses, showing most similarity to the closest available structure to CBV5, that of coxsackievirus B3 (CBV3). Features that help to cement together and rigidify the protein subunits are extended in this virus, perhaps explaining its extreme tolerance of environmental factors. Using the large number of capsid sequences available for both SVDV and CBV5, we have mapped the amino acid substitutions that may have occurred during the supposed adaptation of SVDV to a new host onto the structure of SVDV and a model of the SVDV/CAR complex generated by reference to the cryo-electron microscopy-visualized complex of CBV3 and CAR. The changes fall into three clusters as follows: one lines the fivefold pore, a second maps to the CAR-binding site and partially overlaps the site for decay accelerating factor (DAF) to bind to echovirus 7 (ECHO7), and the third lies close to the fivefold axis, where the low-density lipoprotein receptor binds to the minor group of rhinoviruses. Later changes in SVDV (post-1971) map to the first two clusters and may, by optimizing recognition of a pig CAR and/or DAF homologue, have improved the adaptation of the virus to pigs. PMID:12692248

  13. Proteomic and biochemical analyses reveal the activation of unfolded protein response, ERK-1/2 and ribosomal protein S6 signaling in experimental autoimmune myocarditis rat model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To investigate the molecular and cellular pathogenesis underlying myocarditis, we used an experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM)-induced heart failure rat model that represents T cell mediated postinflammatory heart disorders. Results By performing unbiased 2-dimensional electrophoresis of protein extracts from control rat heart tissues and EAM rat heart tissues, followed by nano-HPLC-ESI-QIT-MS, 67 proteins were identified from 71 spots that exhibited significantly altered expression levels. The majority of up-regulated proteins were confidently associated with unfolded protein responses (UPR), while the majority of down-regulated proteins were involved with the generation of precursor metabolites and energy metabolism in mitochondria. Although there was no difference in AKT signaling between EAM rat heart tissues and control rat heart tissues, the amounts and activities of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 and ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) were significantly increased. By comparing our data with the previously reported myocardial proteome of the Coxsackie viruses of group B (CVB)-mediated myocarditis model, we found that UPR-related proteins were commonly up-regulated in two murine myocarditis models. Even though only two out of 29 down-regulated proteins in EAM rat heart tissues were also dysregulated in CVB-infected rat heart tissues, other proteins known to be involved with the generation of precursor metabolites and energy metabolism in mitochondria were also dysregulated in CVB-mediated myocarditis rat heart tissues, suggesting that impairment of mitochondrial functions may be a common underlying mechanism of the two murine myocarditis models. Conclusions UPR, ERK-1/2 and S6RP signaling were activated in both EAM- and CVB-induced myocarditis murine models. Thus, the conserved components of signaling pathways in two murine models of acute myocarditis could be targets for developing new therapeutic drugs or methods aimed at treating enigmatic myocarditis. PMID:22014063

  14. CD123 targeting oncolytic adenoviruses suppress acute myeloid leukemia cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Li, G; Li, X; Wu, H; Yang, X; Zhang, Y; Chen, L; Wu, X; Cui, L; Wu, L; Luo, J; Liu, X Y

    2014-01-01

    We report here a novel strategy to redirect oncolytic adenoviruses to CD123 by carry a soluble coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (sCAR)-IL3 expression cassette in the viral genome to form Ad.IL3, which sustainably infected acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells through CD123. Ad.IL3 was further engineered to harbor gene encoding manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) or mannose-binding plant lectin Pinellia pedatisecta agglutinin (PPA), forming Ad.IL3-MnSOD and Ad.IL3-PPA. As compared with Ad.IL3 or Ad.sp-E1A control, Ad.IL3-MnSOD and Ad.IL3-PPA significantly suppressed in vitro proliferation of HL60 and KG-1 cells. Elevated apoptosis was detected in HL60 and KG-1 cells treated with either Ad.IL3-MnSOD or Ad.IL3-PPA. The caspase-9–caspase-7 pathway was determined to be activated by Ad.IL3-MnSOD as well as by Ad.IL3-PPA in HL60 cells. In an HL60/Luc xenograft nonobese diabetic/severe-combined immunodeficiency mice model, Ad.IL3-MnSOD and Ad.IL3-PPA suppressed cancer cell growth as compared with Ad.IL3. A significant difference of cancer cell burden was detected between Ad.IL3 and Ad.IL3-PPA groups at day 9 after treatment. Furthermore, Ad.IL3-MnSOD significantly prolonged mouse survival as compared with Ad.sp-E1A. These findings demonstrated that Ad.IL3-gene could serve as a novel agent for AML therapy. Harboring sCAR-ligand expression cassette in the viral genome may provide a universal method to redirect oncolytic adenoviruses to various membrane receptors on cancer cells resisting serotype 5 adenovirus infection. PMID:24658372

  15. The HDAC inhibitor FK228 enhances adenoviral transgene expression by a transduction-independent mechanism but does not increase adenovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Angelika; Dzojic, Helena; Rashkova, Victoria; Cheng, Wing-Shing; Essand, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    The histone deacetylase inhibitor FK228 has previously been shown to enhance adenoviral transgene expression when cells are pre-incubated with the drug. Upregulation of the coxsackie adenovirus receptor (CAR), leading to increased viral transduction, has been proposed as the main mechanism. In the present study, we found that the highest increase in transgene expression was achieved when non-toxic concentrations of FK228 were added immediately after transduction, demonstrating that the main effect by which FK228 enhances transgene expression is transduction-independent. FK228 had positive effects both on Ad5 and Ad5/f35 vectors with a variety of transgenes and promoters, indicating that FK228 works mainly by increasing transgene expression at the transcriptional level. In some cases, the effects were dramatic, as demonstrated by an increase in CD40L expression by FK228 from 0.3% to 62% when the murine prostate cancer cell line TRAMP-C2 was transduced with Ad[CD40L]. One unexpected finding was that FK228 decreased the transgene expression of an adenoviral vector with the prostate cell-specific PPT promoter in the human prostate adenocarcinoma cell lines LNCaP and PC-346C. This is probably a consequence of alteration of the adenocarcinoma cell lines towards a neuroendocrine differentiation after FK228 treatment. The observations in this study indicate that FK228 enhances adenoviral therapy by a transduction-independent mechanism. Furthermore, since histone deacetylase inhibitors may affect the differentiation of cells, it is important to keep in mind that the activity and specificity of tissue- and tumor-specific promoters may also be affected. PMID:21379379

  16. Transient overexpression of kappa and mu opioid receptors using recombinant adenovirus vectors.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Zhu; Bradel-Tretheway, Birgit G; Dewhurst, Stephen; Bidlack, Jean M

    2004-07-30

    In order to study the trafficking and signal transduction mechanisms of the multiple opioid receptors, these receptors are expressed either transiently or stably in cell lines. Often, it is difficult to express receptors at a sufficiently high density to obtain reproducible results. To achieve a high density of receptors, replication-defective adenovirus (rAd5) vectors encoding the mu (MOR) and kappa (KOR) opioid receptors, both in their native form and as fusion proteins bearing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) at their C-terminus, were constructed. These vectors efficiently and reproducibly infected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that stably express the human coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (hCAR), with up to 90% of cells becoming infected at a low multiplicity of infection (MOI). Saturation receptor binding studies using mu- and kappa-selective agonists, [3H][D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]enkephalin (DAMGO) and [3H](5alpha7alpha,8beta)-(-)-N-methyl-N-(7-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-oxaspiro(4,5)dec-8-yl)benzeneacetamide (U69,593), respectively, and a nonselective antagonist, [3H]diprenorphine, revealed that rAd5-transduced cells expressed MOR and KOR for at least 3 days, at levels which exceeded those present on widely-used CHO sublines that stably express MOR or KOR. Expression levels were highest for the vectors encoding native MOR or KOR, and slightly reduced for the GFP fusion proteins. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of using rAd5 vectors to express opioid receptors at high densities, which may facilitate opioid receptor studies. PMID:15183265

  17. Modeling Adenovirus Latency in Human Lymphocyte Cell Lines ? †

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yange; Huang, Wen; Ornelles, David A.; Gooding, Linda R.

    2010-01-01

    Species C adenovirus establishes a latent infection in lymphocytes of the tonsils and adenoids. To understand how this lytic virus is maintained in these cells, four human lymphocytic cell lines that support the entire virus life cycle were examined. The T-cell line Jurkat ceased proliferation and died shortly after virus infection. BJAB, Ramos (B cells), and KE37 (T cells) continued to divide at nearly normal rates while replicating the virus genome. Viral genome numbers peaked and then declined in BJAB cells below one genome per cell at 130 to 150 days postinfection. Ramos and KE37 cells maintained the virus genome at over 100 copies per cell over a comparable period of time. BJAB cells maintained the viral DNA as a monomeric episome. All three persistently infected cells lost expression of the cell surface coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) within 24 h postinfection, and CAR expression remained low for at least 340 days postinfection. CAR loss proceeded via a two-stage process. First, an initial loss of cell surface staining for CAR required virus late gene expression and a CAR-binding fiber protein even while CAR protein and mRNA levels remained high. Second, CAR mRNA disappeared at around 30 days postinfection and remained low even after virus DNA was lost from the cells. At late times postinfection (day 180), BJAB cells could not be reinfected with adenovirus, even when CAR was reintroduced to the cells via retroviral transduction, suggesting that the expression of multiple genes had been stably altered in these cells following infection. PMID:20573817

  18. Identification of novel small molecule inhibitors of adenovirus gene transfer using a high throughput screening approach.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Margaret R; Parker, Alan L; Kalkman, Eric R; White, Katie; Kovalskyy, Dmytro; Kelly, Sharon M; Baker, Andrew H

    2013-08-28

    Due to many favourable attributes adenoviruses (Ads) are the most extensively used vectors for clinical gene therapy applications. However, following intravascular administration, the safety and efficacy of Ad vectors are hampered by the strong hepatic tropism and induction of a potent immune response. Such effects are determined by a range of complex interactions including those with neutralising antibodies, blood cells and factors, as well as binding to native cellular receptors (coxsackie adenovirus receptor (CAR), integrins). Once in the bloodstream, coagulation factor X (FX) has a pivotal role in determining Ad liver transduction and viral immune recognition. Due to difficulties in generating a vector devoid of multiple receptor binding motifs, we hypothesised that a small molecule inhibitor would be of value. Here, a pharmacological approach was implemented to block adenovirus transduction pathways. We developed a high throughput screening (HTS) platform to identify small molecule inhibitors of FX-mediated Ad5 gene transfer. Using an in vitro fluorescence and cell-based HTS, we evaluated 10,240 small molecules. Following sequential rounds of screening, three compounds, T5424837, T5550585 and T5660138 were identified that ablated FX-mediated Ad5 transduction with low micromolar potency. The candidate molecules possessed common structural features and formed part of the one pharmacophore model. Focused, mini-libraries were generated with structurally related molecules and in vitro screening revealed novel hits with similar or improved efficacy. The compounds did not interfere with Ad5:FX engagement but acted at a subsequent step by blocking efficient intracellular transport of the virus. In vivo, T5660138 and its closely related analogue T5660136 significantly reduced Ad5 liver transgene expression at 48 h post-intravenous administration of a high viral dose (1×10¹¹ vp/mouse). Therefore, this study identifies novel and potent small molecule inhibitors of the Ad5 transduction which may have applications in the Ad gene therapy setting. PMID:23702233

  19. Prevalence of human enteroviruses among apparently healthy nursery school children in Accra

    PubMed Central

    Attoh, Juliana; Obodai, Evangeline; Adiku, Theophilus; Odoom, John Kofi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Human enteroviruses are common in children causing asymptomatic infections ranging from mild to severe illnesses. In Ghana, information on the prevalence of non-polio enterovirus causing acute flaccid paralysis is available but data on surveillance of these viruses in school children is scanty. Here, the prevalence of human enteroviruses among apparently healthy children in selected school in Accra was studied. Methods Stool samples from 273 apparently healthy children less than eight years of age in 9 selected nursery schools were collected between December 2010 and March 2011and processed for human enteroviruses on L20B, RD and Hep-2 cell lines. Positive Isolates were characterized by microneutralisation assay with antisera pools from RIVM, the Netherlands according to standard methods recommended by WHO. Results Of the 273 samples processed, 66 (24.2%) non-polio enteroviruses were isolated. More growth was seen on Hep-2C (46%) only than RD (18%) only and on both cell lines (34%). No growth was seen on L20B even after blind passage. Excretion of non-polio enteroviruses was found in all the schools with majority in BD school. Serotyping of the isolates yielded predominantly Coxsackie B viruses followed by echoviruses 13 and 7. More than half of the isolates could not be typed by the antisera pools. Conclusion The study detected 13 different serotypes of non-polio enteroviruses in circulation but no poliovirus was found. BD school was found to have the highest prevalence of NPEV. Complete identification through molecular methods is essential to establish the full range of NPEVs in circulation in these schools. PMID:25400833

  20. RNASEK is required for internalization of diverse acid-dependent viruses.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Brent A; Yasunaga, Ari; Panda, Debasis; Tartell, Michael A; Hopkins, Kaycie C; Hensley, Scott E; Cherry, Sara

    2015-06-23

    Viruses must gain entry into cells to establish infection. In general, viruses enter either at the plasma membrane or from intracellular endosomal compartments. Viruses that use endosomal pathways are dependent on the cellular factors that control this process; however, these genes have proven to be essential for endogenous cargo uptake, and thus are of limited value for therapeutic intervention. The identification of genes that are selectively required for viral uptake would make appealing drug targets, as their inhibition would block an early step in the life cycle of diverse viruses. At this time, we lack pan-antiviral therapeutics, in part because of our lack of knowledge of such cellular factors. RNAi screening has begun to reveal previously unknown genes that play roles in viral infection. We identified dRNASEK in two genome-wide RNAi screens performed in Drosophila cells against West Nile and Rift Valley Fever viruses. Here we found that ribonuclease kappa (RNASEK) is essential for the infection of human cells by divergent and unrelated positive- and negative-strand-enveloped viruses from the Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, Bunyaviridae, and Orthomyxoviridae families that all enter cells from endosomal compartments. In contrast, RNASEK was dispensable for viruses, including parainfluenza virus 5 and Coxsackie B virus, that enter at the plasma membrane. RNASEK is dispensable for attachment but is required for uptake of these acid-dependent viruses. Furthermore, this requirement appears specific, as general endocytic uptake of transferrin is unaffected in RNASEK-depleted cells. Therefore, RNASEK is a potential host cell Achilles' heel for viral infection. PMID:26056282

  1. The pseudopeptide HB-19 binds to cell surface nucleolin and inhibits angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nucleolin is a protein over-expressed on the surface of tumor and endothelial cells. Recent studies have underlined the involvement of cell surface nucleolin in tumor growth and angiogenesis. This cell surface molecule serves as a receptor for various ligands implicated in pathophysiological processes such as growth factors, cell adhesion molecules like integrins, selectins or laminin-1, lipoproteins and viruses (HIV and coxsackie B). HB-19 is a synthetic multimeric pseudopeptide that binds cell surface expressed nucleolin and inhibits both tumor growth and angiogenesis. Methodology/principal findings In the present work, we further investigated the biological actions of pseudopeptide HB-19 on HUVECs. In a previous work, we have shown that HB-19 inhibits the in vivo angiogenesis on the chicken embryo CAM assay. We now provide evidence that HB-19 inhibits the in vitro adhesion, migration and proliferation of HUVECs without inducing their apoptosis. The above biological actions seem to be regulated by SRC, ERK1/2, AKT and FAK kinases as we found that HB-19 inhibits their activation in HUVECs. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play crucial roles in tumor growth and angiogenesis, so we investigated the effect of HB-19 on the expression of MMP-2 and we found that HB-19 downregulates MMP-2 in HUVECs. Finally, down regulation of nucleolin using siRNA confirmed the implication of nucleolin in the biological actions of these peptides. Conclusions/significance Taken together, these results indicate that HB-19 could constitute an interesting tool for tumor therapy strategy, targeting cell surface nucleolin. PMID:23265284

  2. Dual tumor targeting with pH-sensitive and bioreducible polymer-complexed oncolytic adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Moon, Chang Yoon; Choi, Joung-Woo; Kasala, Dayananda; Jung, Soo-Jung; Kim, Sung Wan; Yun, Chae-Ok

    2015-02-01

    Oncolytic adenoviruses (Ads) have shown great promise in cancer gene therapy but their efficacy has been compromised by potent immunological, biochemical, and specific tumor-targeting limitations. To take full advantage of the innate cancer-specific killing potency of oncolytic Ads but also exploit the subtleties of the tumor microenvironment, we have generated a pH-sensitive and bio-reducible polymer (PPCBA)-coated oncolytic Ad. Ad-PPCBA complexes showed higher cellular uptake at pH 6.0 than pH 7.4 in both high and low coxsackie and adenovirus receptor-(CAR)-expressing cells, thereby demonstrating Ad-PPCBA's ability to target the low pH hypoxic tumor microenvironment and overcome CAR dependence for target cell uptake. Endocytic mechanism studies indicated that Ad-PPCBA internalization is mediated by macropinocytosis instead of the CAR-dependent endocytic pathway that internalizes naked Ad. VEGF-specific shRNA-expressing oncolytic Ad complexed with PPCBA (RdB/shVEGF-PPCBA) elicited much more potent suppression of U87 human brain cancer cell VEGF gene expression in vitro, and human breast cancer MCF7 cell/Matrigel plug vascularization in a mouse model, when cancer cells had been previously infected at pH 6.0 versus pH 7.4. Moreover, intratumorally and intravenously injected RdB/shVEGF-PPCBA nanocomplexes elicited significantly higher therapeutic efficacy than naked virus in U87-tumor mouse xenograft models, reducing IL-6, ALT, and AST serum levels. These data demonstrated PPCBA's biocompatibility and capability to shield the Ad surface to prevent innate immune response against Ad after both intratumoral and systemic administration. Taken together, these results demonstrate that smart, tumor-specific, oncolytic Ad-PPCBA complexes can be exploited to treat both primary and metastatic tumors. PMID:25522965

  3. [Virus diseases of the mouth mucosa].

    PubMed

    Nasemann, T

    1976-01-01

    In accordance with the system of viral species, viral disorders of the oral mucosa may be classified with regard to their intensity of affection. There are but few viral infections exclusively affecting the oral mucosa like e.g. 1. Glossitis papulosa of Michelson, representing a special form of vaccinia inoculata, 2. Gingivo-stomatitis herpetica and 3. warts of the mucosa or condyloma-like papillomas of the oral mucosa including oral papillomatosis, that, itself shows morphological and clinical similarities to laryngeal papilloma. A second group of disorders mainly affecting the oral mucosa includes the "Aphthoid of Pospischill and Feyrter", Zahorsky's herpangina and other viral infections by the Coxsackie group, like vesicular stomatitis. The 3rd group represents viral infections of other organs in which affection of the oral mucosa is a prerogative, e.g. smallpox, varicella, foot-and-mouth disease and pharyngo-conjunctival fever. A 4th group includes those viral infections of the organs in which co-affection of oral mucosa occurs frequently or once in a while (at occasions). Here, we find eczema vaccinatum, herpes zoster, herpes simplex of the oral mucosa mostly on the hard palate, eczema herpeticatum, post-herpetic Erythema exsudativum multiforme, Mononucleosis infectiosa Pfeiffer, viral flu, German measles, parotitis epidemica, rubeola and ECHO-exanthema. A 5th and last group is made up by viral infections of other organs, in which affection of the oral mucosa hardly occurs at all. This group contains paravaccinal Ecthyma contagiosum, poliomyelitis, viral infection of the city of Marburg and some Arbovirus infections. Relatively few viral disorders never co-exist with lesions on the oral mucosa like e.g. Virus-hepatitis or some viral encephalitides. Groups 1 and 2, most important of all, are presented in detail regarding clinics, diagnostics, differential-diagnosis and therapy. The disorders within the other 3 groups are discussed only regarding their importance in the field of ENT-related symptoms of the oral mucosa. A number of pictures and tables completes important clinical details and give further hints to their differential-diagnosis. PMID:830106

  4. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in China: Patterns of Spread and Transmissibility during 2008-2009

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Feng, Zijian; Yang, Yang; Self, Steve; Gao, Yongjun; Longini, Ira M.; Wakefield, Jon; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Liping; Chen, Xi; Yao, Lena; Stanaway, Jeffrey D.; Wang, Zijun; Yang, Weizhong

    2011-01-01

    Background Large outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) were observed in both 2008 and 2009 in China. Methods Using the national surveillance data since May 2, 2008, epidemiological characteristics of the outbreaks are summarized, and the transmissibility of the disease and the effects of potential risk factors were evaluated via a susceptible-infectious-recovered transmission model. Results Children of 1.0–2.9 years were the most susceptible group to HFMD (odds ratios [OR] > 2.3 as compared to other age groups). Infant cases had the highest incidences of severe disease (ORs > 1.4) and death (ORs > 2.4), as well as the longest delay from symptom onset to diagnosis (2.3 days). Males were more susceptible to HFMD than females (OR=1.56 [95% confidence interval=1.56, 1.57]). An one day delay in diagnosis was associated with increases in the odds of severe disease by 40.3% [38.7%, 41.9%] and in the odds of death by 53.7% [43.6%, 64.5%]. Compared to Coxsackie A16, enterovirus (EV) 71 is more strongly associated with severe disease (OR=15.6 [13.4, 18.1]) and death (OR=40.7 [13.0, 127.3]). The estimated local effective reproductive numbers among prefectures ranged from 1.4 to 1.6 (median=1.4) in spring and stayed below 1.2 in other seasons. A higher risk of transmission was associated with temperatures in the range of 70-80F, higher relative humidity, wind speed, precipitation, population density, and the periods in which schools were open. Conclusion HFMD is a moderately transmittable infectious disease, mainly among pre-school children. EV71 was responsible for most severe cases and fatalities. Mixing of asymptomatically infected children in schools might have contributed to the spread of HFMD. Timely diagnosis may be a key to reducing the high mortality rate in infants. PMID:21968769

  5. Transduction of Brain Dopamine Neurons by Adenoviral Vectors Is Modulated by CAR Expression: Rationale for Tropism Modified Vectors in PD Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Travis B.; Glasgow, Joel N.; Glandon, Anya M.; Curiel, David T.; Standaert, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Gene-based therapy is a new paradigm for the treatment of Parkinson disease (PD) and offers considerable promise for precise targeting and flexibility to impact multiple pathobiological processes for which small molecule agents are not available. Some success has been achieved utilizing adeno-associated virus for this approach, but it is likely that the characteristics of this vector system will ultimately create barriers to progress in clinical therapy. Adenovirus (Ad) vector overcomes limitations in payload size and targeting. The cellular tropism of Ad serotype 5 (Ad5)–based vectors is regulated by the Ad attachment protein binding to its primary cellular receptor, the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR). Many clinically relevant tissues are refractory to Ad5 infection due to negligible CAR levels but can be targeted by tropism-modified, CAR-independent forms of Ad. Our objective was to evaluate the role of CAR protein in transduction of dopamine (DA) neurons in vivo. Methodology/Principal Findings Ad5 was delivered to the substantia nigra (SN) in wild type (wt) and CAR transgenic animals. Cellular tropism was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the SN and striatal terminals. CAR expression was assessed by western blot and IHC. We found in wt animals, Ad5 results in robust transgene expression in astrocytes and other non-neuronal cells but poor infection of DA neurons. In contrast, in transgenic animals, Ad5 infects SNc neurons resulting in expression of transduced protein in their striatal terminals. Western blot showed low CAR expression in the ventral midbrain of wt animals compared to transgenic animals. Interestingly, hCAR protein localizes with markers of post-synaptic structures, suggesting synapses are the point of entry into dopaminergic neurons in transgenic animals. Conclusions/Significance These findings demonstrate that CAR deficiency limits infection of wild type DA neurons by Ad5 and provide a rationale for the development of tropism-modified, CAR-independent Ad-vectors for use in gene therapy of human PD. PMID:20862245

  6. The role of infection in atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease: a new therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Ismail, A; Khosravi, H; Olson, H

    1999-01-01

    There is growing evidence that inflammatory processes may be involved in the development of atherosclerosis and its complications. Viral and bacterial pathogens have been implicated as possible causative factors in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD) and restenosis after angioplasty. Antibiotic trials are now in progress to examine whether treatment of infection can prevent the complications of CAD. Atherosclerosis, the primary pathologic process in coronary artery disease (CAD), carotid artery disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and peripheral vascular disease, is no longer considered to be an obscure, slowly progressive, degenerative disease. Indeed, recent molecular studies on the atherosclerotic plaque have shown that the initiation, progression, and acute sequelae of atherosclerosis can be explained in part by a low-grade inflammatory process. Studies show that mediators of inflammation can be found at all stages of the life cycle of the atherosclerotic plaque. These include activated macrophages and lymphocytes, cytokines, growth factors, matrix degenerating proteinases, and tissue factor. It is hypothesized that risk factors such as hypertension, smoking, or elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol result in injury to the endothelial cell of the artery, and this injury initiates the inflammatory process. However, many patients with vascular disease do not have these established risk factors, and this observation has galvanized efforts to find new risk factors. Because inflammation is now considered to be an operative paradigm for atherosclerosis, it is not a major leap to the hypothesis that infectious agents, such as viral or bacterial, may play a role. Certainly this is not a new concept, and with the recent discovery that peptic ulcer disease, heretofore considered a disease of excess acid and reduced mucosal resistance, is caused by the ubiquitous bacterium Helicobacter pylori, interest in finding an infectious etiology for atherosclerosis has increased. Accordingly, the purpose of this discussion is to review in a historical manner the evidence that infectious agents-including herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Enterovirus (adenovirus, Coxsackie virus), Chlamydia pneumoniae, and H. pylori-may play a role in atherosclerosis and its manifestations, especially as they relate to CAD. PMID:11720630

  7. Production of EV71 vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Chong, Pele; Hsieh, Shih-Yang; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Chang, Jui-Yuan; Wu, Suh-Chin; Liu, Shih-Jen; Chow, Yen-Hung; Su, Ih-Jen; Klein, Michel

    2012-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia and with Coxsackie virus (CV) it is the other major causative agent of hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD). Effective medications and/or prophylactic vaccines against HFMD are urgently needed. From a scientific (the feasibility of bioprocess, immunological responses and potency in animal challenge model) and business development (cost of goods) points of view, we in this review address and discuss the pros and cons of different EV71 vaccine candidates that have been produced and evaluated in animal models. Epitope-based synthetic peptide vaccine candidates containing residues 211-225 of VP1 formulated with Freund's adjuvant (CFA/IFA) elicited low EV71 virus neutralizing antibody responses, but were protective in the suckling mouse challenge model. Among recombinant EV71 subunits (rVP1, rVP2 and rVP3) expressed in E. coli, purified and formulated with CFA/IFA, only VP1 elicited mouse antibody responses with measurable EV71-specific virus neutralization titers. Immunization of mice with either a DNA plasmid containing VP1 gene or VP1 expressed in Salmonella typhimurium also generated neutralizing antibody responses and protected animals against a live EV71 challenge. Recombinant EV71 virus-like particles (rVLP) produced from baculovirus formulated either with CFA/IFA or alum elicited good virus neutralization titers in both mice and non-human primates, and were found to be protective in the suckling mouse EV71 challenge model. Synthetic peptides or recombinant EV71 subunit vaccines (rVP1 and rVLP) formulated in alum were found to be poorly immunogenic in rabbits. Only formalin-inactivated (FI) EV71 virions formulated in alum elicited cross-neutralizing antibodies against different EV71 genotypes in mice, rabbits and non-human primates but induced weak neutralizing responses against CAV16. From a regulatory, economic and market acceptability standpoint, FI-EV71 virion vaccines are the most promising candidates and are currently being evaluated in human clinical trials. We further describe and analyze some new bioprocesses technologies that have great potential applications in EV71 vaccine development. This review also demonstrates the opportunities and challenges that the Asian vaccine industry faces today. PMID:22992566

  8. Foot- and-mouth disease as zoonosis.

    PubMed

    Bauer, K

    1997-01-01

    Man's susceptibility to the virus of foot- and-mouth disease (FMD) was debated for many years. Today the virus has been isolated and typed (type O, followed by type C and rarely A) in more than 40 human cases. So no doubt remains that FMD is a zoonosis. Considering the high incidence of the disease (in animals) in the past and in some areas up to date, occurrence in man is quite rare. In the past when FMD was endemic in Central Europe many cases of diseases in man showing vesicles in the mouth or on the hands and feet were called FMD. The first suggestion of a human infection with FMD was reported in 1695 by Valentini in Germany [7]. All reports before 1897, the year of the discovery of the virus of FMD by Loeffler and Frosch [2], were not of course confirmed either by isolation of the virus or by identification of immunoglobulins after infection. Nevertheless the successful self-infection reported by Hertwig in 1834 most likely seems to have been FMD in man: each of three veterinarians drank 250 ml of milk from infected cows on four consecutive days. The three men developed clinical manifestations. The diseases most often confused with FMD are infections with several viruses of the Coxsackie A group (this infection is referred to as "hand and mouth disease"), herpes simplex and sometimes vesicular stomatitis. Beginning in 1921 up to 1969 at least 38 papers were published, which described clinically manifest FMD in man in more than 40 proven cases. One further reported described an asymptomatic infection with FMD in man [10]. Criteria for establishing a diagnosis of FMD in man are the isolation of the virus from the patient and/or identification of specific antibodies after infection. Laboratory tests for diagnosis of human FMD are the same as for animals. Proven cases of FMD in man have occurred in several countries in Europe, Africa and South America. The type of virus most frequently isolated man is type O followed by type C and rarely A. The incubation period in man, although somewhat variable, has not been found to be less than two days and rarely more than six days. PMID:9413529

  9. Nucleotide sequences and mutations of the 5'-nontranslated region (5'NTR) of natural isolates of an epidemic echovirus 11' (prime).

    PubMed

    Szendrõi, A; El-Sageyer, M; Takács, M; Mezey, I; Berencsi, G

    2000-01-01

    An echovirus 11' (prime) virus caused an epidemic in Hungary in 1989. The leading clinical form of the diseases was myocarditis. Hemorrhagic hepatitis syndroms were also caused, however, with lethal outcome in 13 newborn babies. Altogether 386 children suffered from registered clinical disease. No accumulation of serous meningitis cases and intrauterine death were observed during the epidemic, and the monovalent oral poliovirus vaccination campaign has prevented the further circulation of the virus. The 5'-nontranslated region (5'-NTR) of 12 natural isolates were sequenced (nucleotides: 260-577). The 5'-NTR was found to be different from that of the prototype Gregory strain (X80059) of EV11 (less than 90% identity), but related to the swine vesicular disease virus (D16364) SVDV and EV9 (X92886) as indicated by the best fitting dendogram. The examination of the variable nucleotides in the internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) revealed, that the nucleotide sequence of a region of the epidemic 5'-NTR was identical to that of coxsackievirus B2. Five of the epidemic isolates were found to carry mutations. Seven EV11' IRES elements possessed identical sequences indicating, that the virus has evolved before its arrival to Hungary. The comparative examination of the suboptimal secondary structures revealed, that no one of the mutations affected the secondary structure of stem-loop structures IV and V in the IRES elements. Although it has been shown previously, that the echovirus group is genetically coherent and related to coxsackie B viruses the sequence differences in the epidemic isolates resulted in profound modification of the central stem (residues 477-529) of stem-loop structure No.V known to be affecting neurovirulence of polioviruses. Two alternate cloverleaf (stem-loop) structures were also recognised (nucleotides 376 to 460 and 540 to 565) which seem to mask both regions of the IRES element complementary to the 3'-end of the 18 S rRNA (460 to 466 and 561 to 570), thus probably diminishing initiation of translation. The possible biological importance of the alternative cloverleaf structures is supported by the fact that neither the 17 variable nucleotides nor the two mutations of epidemic isolates within the regions seem to modify the predicted alternative secondary structures in EV11, SVDV and CBV1-4. PMID:11205106

  10. The Low-Cost Compound Lignosulfonic Acid (LA) Exhibits Broad-Spectrum Anti-HIV and Anti-HSV Activity and Has Potential for Microbicidal Applications

    PubMed Central

    D’huys, Thomas; Petrova, Mariya I.; Lebeer, Sarah; Snoeck, Robert; Andrei, Graciela; Schols, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Lignosulfonic acid (LA), a low-cost lignin-derived polyanionic macromolecule, was extensively studied for its anti-HIV and anti-HSV activity in various cellular assays, its mechanism of viral inhibition and safety profile as potential microbicide. Results LA demonstrated potent inhibitory activity of HIV replication against a wide range of R5 and X4 HIV strains and prevented the uptake of HIV by bystander CD4+ T cells from persistently infected T cells in vitro (IC50: 0.07 – 0.34 ?M). LA also inhibited HSV-2 replication in vitro in different cell types (IC50: 0.42 – 1.1 ?M) and in rodents in vivo. Furthermore, LA neutralized the HIV-1 and HSV-2 DC-SIGN-mediated viral transfer to CD4+ T cells (IC50: ?1 ?M). In addition, dual HIV-1/HSV-2 infection in T cells was potently blocked by LA (IC50: 0.71 ?M). No antiviral activity was observed against the non-enveloped viruses Coxsackie type B4 and Reovirus type 1. LA is defined as a HIV entry inhibitor since it interfered with gp120 binding to the cell surface of T cells. Pretreatment of PBMCs with LA neither increased expression levels of cellular activation markers (CD69, CD25 and HLA-DR), nor enhanced HIV-1 replication. Furthermore, we found that LA had non-antagonistic effects with acyclovir, PRO2000 or LabyA1 (combination index (CI): 0.46 – 1.03) in its anti-HSV-2 activity and synergized with tenofovir (CI: 0.59) in its anti-HIV-1 activity. To identify mechanisms of LA resistance, we generated in vitro a mutant HIV-1 NL4.3LAresistant virus, which acquired seven mutations in the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins: S160N, V170N, Q280H and R389T in gp120 and K77Q, N113D and H132Y in gp41. Additionally, HIV-1 NL4.3LAresistant virus showed cross-resistance with feglymycin, enfuvirtide, PRO2000 and mAb b12, four well-described HIV binding/fusion inhibitors. Importantly, LA did not affect the growth of vaginal Lactobacilli strains. Conclusion Overall, these data highlight LA as a potential and unique low-cost microbicide displaying broad anti-HIV and anti-HSV activity. PMID:26132818

  11. The HDAC Inhibitors Scriptaid and LBH589 Combined with the Oncolytic Virus Delta24-RGD Exert Enhanced Anti-Tumor Efficacy in Patient-Derived Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Berghauser Pont, Lotte M.E.; Kleijn, Anne; Kloezeman, Jenneke J.; van den Bossche, Wouter; Kaufmann, Johanna K.; de Vrij, Jeroen; Leenstra, Sieger; Dirven, Clemens M.F.; Lamfers, Martine L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background A phase I/II trial for glioblastoma with the oncolytic adenovirus Delta24-RGD was recently completed. Delta24-RGD conditionally replicates in cells with a disrupted retinoblastoma-pathway and enters cells via ?v?3/5 integrins. Glioblastomas are differentially sensitive to Delta24-RGD. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) affect integrins and share common cell death pathways with Delta24-RGD. We studied the combination treatment effects of HDACi and Delta24-RGD in patient-derived glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSC), and we determined the most effective HDACi. Methods SAHA, Valproic Acid, Scriptaid, MS275 and LBH589 were combined with Delta24-RGD in fourteen distinct GSCs. Synergy was determined by Chou Talalay method. Viral infection and replication were assessed using luciferase and GFP encoding vectors and hexon-titration assays. Coxsackie adenovirus receptor and ?v?3 integrin levels were determined by flow cytometry. Oncolysis and mechanisms of cell death were studied by viability, caspase-3/7, LDH and LC3B/p62, phospho-p70S6K. Toxicity was studied on normal human astrocytes. MGMT promotor methylation status, TCGA classification, Rb-pathway and integrin gene expression levels were assessed as markers of responsiveness. Results Scriptaid and LBH589 acted synergistically with Delta24-RGD in approximately 50% of the GSCs. Both drugs moderately increased ?v?3 integrin levels and viral infection in responding but not in non-responding GSCs. LBH589 moderately increased late viral gene expression, however, virus titration revealed diminished viral progeny production by both HDACi, Scriptaid augmented caspase-3/7 activity, LC3B conversion, p62 and phospho-p70S6K consumption, as well as LDH levels. LBH589 increased LDH and phospho-p70S6K consumption. Responsiveness correlated with expression of various Rb-pathway genes and integrins. Combination treatments induced limited toxicity to human astrocytes. Conclusion LBH589 and Scriptaid combined with Delta24-RGD revealed synergistic anti-tumor activity in a subset of GSCs. Both HDACi moderately augmented viral infection and late gene expression, but slightly reduced progeny production. The drugs differentially activated multiple cell death pathways. The limited toxicity on astrocytes supports further evaluation of the proposed combination therapies. PMID:25993039

  12. Detection of enteroviruses in untreated and treated drinking water supplies in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, M M; Grabow, W O K; Pavlov, D N

    2005-06-01

    Enteric viruses have been detected in many drinking water supplies all over the world. A meaningful number of these supplies were treated and disinfected according to internationally acceptable methods. In addition, counts of bacterial indicators (coliform bacteria and heterotrophic plate count organisms) in these water supplies were within limits generally recommended for treated drinking water and these findings have been supported by epidemiological data on infections associated with drinking water. The shortcomings of conventional treatment methods and indicator organisms to confirm the absence of enteric viruses from drinking water, was generally ascribed to the exceptional resistance of these viruses. In this study, the prevalence of enteroviruses detected from July 2000 to June 2002 in sewage, river-, borehole-, spring- and dam water as well as drinking water supplies treated and disinfected according to international specifications for the production of safe drinking water was analysed. A glass wool adsorption-elution technique was used to recover viruses from 10--20 l of sewage as well as environmental water samples, in the case of drinking water from more than 100 l. Recovered enteroviruses were inoculated onto two cell culture types (BGM and PLC/PRF/5 cells) for amplification of viral RNA with nested-PCR being used to detect the amplified viral RNA. Results from the study demonstrated the presence of enteroviruses in 42.5% of sewage and in 18.7% of treated drinking water samples. Furthermore, enteroviruses were detected in 28.5% of river water, in 26.7% of dam/spring water and in 25.3% of borehole water samples. The high prevalence of coxsackie B viruses found in this study suggested, that a potential health risk and a burden of disease constituted by these viruses might be meaningful. These findings indicated that strategies, other than end-point analysis of treated and disinfected drinking water supplies, may be required to ensure the production of drinking water that does not exceed acceptable health risks. More reliable approaches to ensure acceptable safety of drinking water supplies may be based on control by multiple-barrier principles from catchment to tap using hazard assessment and critical control point (HACCP) principles. PMID:15919105

  13. Probing the structure and function of biopolymer-carbon nanotube hybrids with molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Robert R.

    2009-12-01

    Nanoscience deals with the characterization and manipulation of matter on the atomic/molecular size scale in order to deepen our understanding of condensed matter and develop revolutionary technology. Meeting the demands of the rapidly advancing nanotechnological frontier requires novel, multifunctional nanoscale materials. Among the most promising nanomaterials to fulfill this need are biopolymer-carbon nanotube hybrids (Bio-CNT). Bio-CNT consists of a single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) coated with a self-assembled layer of biopolymers such as DNA or protein. Experiments have demonstrated that these nanomaterials possess a wide range of technologically useful properties with applications in nanoelectronics, medicine, homeland security, environmental safety and microbiology. However, a fundamental understanding of the self-assembly mechanics, structure and energetics of Bio-CNT is lacking. The objective of this thesis is to address this deficiency through molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, which provides an atomic-scale window into the behavior of this unique nanomaterial. MD shows that Bio-CNT composed of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) self-assembles via the formation of high affinity contacts between DNA bases and the CNT sidewall. Calculation of the base-CNT binding free energy by thermodynamic integration reveals that these contacts result from the attractive pi--pi stacking interaction. Binding affinities follow the trend G > A > T > C. MD reveals that long ssDNA sequences are driven into a helical wrapping about CNT with a sub-10 nm pitch by electrostatic and torsional interactions in the backbone. A large-scale replica exchange molecular dynamics simulation reveals that ssDNA-CNT hybrids are disordered. At room temperature, ssDNA can reside in several low-energy conformations that contain a sequence-specific arrangement of bases detached from CNT surface. MD demonstrates that protein-CNT hybrids composed of the Coxsackie-adenovirus receptor are biologically active and function as a nanobiosensor with specific recognition of Knob proteins from the adenovirus capsid. Simulation also shows that the rigid CNT damps structural fluctuations in bound proteins, which may have important ramifications for biosensing devices composed of protein-CNT hybrids. These results expand current knowledge of Bio-CNT and demonstrate the effectiveness of MD for investigations of nanobiomolecular systems.

  14. Production of EV71 vaccine candidates

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Pele; Hsieh, Shih-Yang; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Chang, Jui-Yuan; Wu, Suh-Chin; Liu, Shih-Jen; Chow, Yen-Hung; Su, Ih-Jen; Klein, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia and with Coxsackie virus (CV) it is the other major causative agent of hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD). Effective medications and/or prophylactic vaccines against HFMD are urgently needed. From a scientific (the feasibility of bioprocess, immunological responses and potency in animal challenge model) and business development (cost of goods) points of view, we in this review address and discuss the pros and cons of different EV71 vaccine candidates that have been produced and evaluated in animal models. Epitope-based synthetic peptide vaccine candidates containing residues 211–225 of VP1 formulated with Freund’s adjuvant (CFA/IFA) elicited low EV71 virus neutralizing antibody responses, but were protective in the suckling mouse challenge model. Among recombinant EV71 subunits (rVP1, rVP2 and rVP3) expressed in E. coli, purified and formulated with CFA/IFA, only VP1 elicited mouse antibody responses with measurable EV71-specific virus neutralization titers. Immunization of mice with either a DNA plasmid containing VP1 gene or VP1 expressed in Salmonella typhimurium also generated neutralizing antibody responses and protected animals against a live EV71 challenge. Recombinant EV71 virus-like particles (rVLP) produced from baculovirus formulated either with CFA/IFA or alum elicited good virus neutralization titers in both mice and non-human primates, and were found to be protective in the suckling mouse EV71 challenge model. Synthetic peptides or recombinant EV71 subunit vaccines (rVP1 and rVLP) formulated in alum were found to be poorly immunogenic in rabbits. Only formalin-inactivated (FI) EV71 virions formulated in alum elicited cross-neutralizing antibodies against different EV71 genotypes in mice, rabbits and non-human primates but induced weak neutralizing responses against CAV16. From a regulatory, economic and market acceptability standpoint, FI-EV71 virion vaccines are the most promising candidates and are currently being evaluated in human clinical trials. We further describe and analyze some new bioprocesses technologies that have great potential applications in EV71 vaccine development. This review also demonstrates the opportunities and challenges that the Asian vaccine industry faces today. PMID:22992566

  15. Chemoprevention gene therapy (CGT) of pancreatic cancer using perillyl alcohol and a novel chimeric serotype cancer terminator virus.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, S; Azab, B; Quinn, B A; Shen, X; Dent, P; Klibanov, A L; Emdad, L; Das, S K; Sarkar, D; Fisher, P B

    2014-01-01

    Conditionally replication competent adenoviruses (Ads) that selectively replicate in cancer cells and simultaneously express a therapeutic cytokine, such as melanoma differentiation associated gene- 7/Interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24), a Cancer Terminator Virus (CTV-M7), hold potential for treating human cancers. To enhance the efficacy of the CTV-M7, we generated a chimeric Ad.5 and Ad.3 modified fiber bipartite CTV (Ad.5/3-CTV-M7) that can infect tumor cells in a Coxsackie Adenovirus receptor (CAR) independent manner, while retaining high infectivity in cancer cells containing high CAR. Although mda-7/IL-24 displays broad-spectrum anticancer properties, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells display an intrinsic resistance to mda-7/IL-24-mediated killing due to an mda-7/IL-24 mRNA translational block. However, using a chemoprevention gene therapy (CGT) approach with perillyl alcohol (POH) and a replication incompetent Ad to deliver mda-7/IL-24 (Ad.mda-7) there is enhanced conversion of mda-7/IL-24 mRNA into protein resulting in pancreatic cancer cell death in vitro and in vivo in nude mice containing human PDAC xenografts. This combination synergistically induces mda-7/IL-24-mediated cancer-specific apoptosis by inhibiting anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 protein expression and inducing an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response through induction of BiP/GRP-78, which is most evident in chimeric-modified non-replicating Ad.5/3- mda-7- and CTV-M7-infected PDAC cells. Moreover, Ad.5/3-CTV-M7 in combination with POH sensitizes therapy-resistant MIA PaCa-2 cell lines over-expressing either Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL to mda-7/IL-24-mediated apoptosis. Ad.5/3-CTV-M7 plus POH also exerts a significant antitumor 'bystander' effect in vivo suppressing both primary and distant site tumor growth, confirming therapeutic utility of Ad.5/3-CTV-M7 plus POH in PDAC treatment, where all other current treatment strategies in clinical settings show minimal efficacy. PMID:24236457