No contact terms for the magnetic field in Lorentz- and CPT-violating electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schober, Karl; Altschul, Brett
2016-09-01
In a Lorentz- and CPT-violating modification of electrodynamics, the fields of a moving charge are known to have unusual singularities. This raises the question of whether the singular behavior may include δ-function contact terms, similar to those that appear in the fields of idealized dipoles. However, by calculating the magnetic field of an infinite straight wire in this theory, we demonstrate that there are no such contact terms in the magnetic field of a moving point charge.
Remarks on the Renormalization Properties of Lorentz- and CPT-Violating Quantum Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, Tiago R. S.; Sobreiro, Rodrigo F.
2016-08-01
In this work, we employ algebraic renormalization technique to show the renormalizability to all orders in perturbation theory of the Lorentz- and CPT-violating QED. Essentially, we control the breaking terms by using a suitable set of external sources. Thus, with the symmetries restored, a perturbative treatment can be consistently employed. After showing the renormalizability, the external sources attain certain physical values, which allow the recovering of the starting physical action. The main result is that the original QED action presents the three usual independent renormalization parameters. The Lorentz-violating sector can be renormalized by 19 independent parameters. Moreover, vacuum divergences appear with extra independent renormalization. Remarkably, the bosonic odd sector (Chern-Simons-like term) does not renormalize and is not radiatively generated. One-loop computations are also presented and compared with the existing literature.
CPT violation implies violation of Lorentz invariance.
Greenberg, O W
2002-12-01
A interacting theory that violates CPT invariance necessarily violates Lorentz invariance. On the other hand, CPT invariance is not sufficient for out-of-cone Lorentz invariance. Theories that violate CPT by having different particle and antiparticle masses must be nonlocal. PMID:12484997
CPT violation and B-meson oscillations
Kostelecky, V. Alan; Van Kooten, Richard J.
2010-11-15
Recent evidence for anomalous CP violation in B-meson oscillations can be interpreted as resulting from CPT violation. This yields the first sensitivity to CPT violation in the B{sub s}{sup 0} system, with the relevant coefficient for CPT violation constrained at the level of parts in 10{sup 12}.
Probing CPT violation in B systems
Kundu, Anirban; Patra, Sunando Kumar; Nandi, Soumitra
2010-04-01
We discuss how a possible violation of the combined symmetry CPT in the B meson system can be investigated at the LHC. We show how a tagged and an untagged analysis of the decay modes of both B{sub d} and B{sub s} mesons can lead not only to a possible detection of a CPT-violating new physics but also to an understanding of its precise nature. The implication of CPT violation to a large mixing phase in the B{sub s} system is also discussed.
CPT violation and particle-antiparticle asymmetry in cosmology
Dolgov, A. D.
2010-04-15
General features of generation of the cosmological charge asymmetry in CPT noninvariant world are discussed. If the effects of CPT violationmanifest themselves only inmass differences of particles and antiparticles, the baryon asymmetry of the Universe hardly can be explained solely by breaking of CPT invariance. However, CPT noninvariant theories may lead to a new effect of distorting the usual equilibrium distributions. If this takes place, CPT violation may explain the baryon asymmetry of the Universe.
LSND, SN1987A, and CPT violation
Murayama, Hitoshi; Yanagida, T.
2000-10-17
We point out that neutrino events observed at Kamiokande andIMB from SN1987A disfavor the neutrino oscillation parameters preferredby the LSND experiment. For Delta m2>0 (the light side), theelectron neutrinos from the neutronization burst would be lost, while thefirst event at Kamiokande is quite likely to be due to an electronneutrino. For Delta m2<0 (the dark side), the average energy of thedominantly bar nu e events is already lower than the theoreticalexpectations, which would get aggravated by a complete conversion frombar nu mu to bar nu e. If taken seriously, the LSND data are disfavoredindependent of the existence of a sterile neutrino. A possible remedy isCPT violation, which allows different mass spectra for neutrinos andanti-neutrinos and hence can accommodate atmospheric, solar and LSND datawithout a sterile neutrino. If this is the case, Mini-BooNE must run inbar nu rather than the planned nu mode to test the LSND signal. Wespeculate on a possible origin of CPT violation.
CPT Violation: What and where to look for
Mavromatos, Nick E.
2005-10-26
In this review I classify the possible ways of CPT violation, and I describe briefly their phenomenology, in both terrestrial and astrophysical experiments, including antimatter factories, neutral mesons and neutrinos, and discuss the various sensitivities. I also pay attention to disentangling genuine quantum-gravity induced CPT violation from 'fake' violation due to ordinary matter effects. A particularly interesting situation arises when the breaking of CPT invariance is through unitarity violations, in the sense of the matter theory being viewed as an effective field theory, entangled with decoherening quantum gravity 'environments'. In such a case the quantum mechanical CPT operator is ill defined due to another mathematical theorem, and one has novel effects associated with CPT Violating modifications of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen type correlations of entangled meson states in B and {phi} meson factories.
Lorentz- and CPT-violating signals in Penning traps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Yunhua; Kostelecký, Alan
2016-05-01
CPT and Lorentz symmetries are fundamental properties of the Standard Model. However, violation of these symmetries is possible in an underlying unified theory such as strings. This talk will focus on possible experimental effects for Lorentz and CPT violations. In particular, observable signals in measurements of anomaly and cyclotron frequencies of particles and antiparticles in a Penning trap will be discussed. New constraints from existing data will be presented and prospective sensitivities in future experiments will be outlined.
Parity-odd and CPT-even electrodynamics of the standard model extension at finite temperature
Casana, Rodolfo; Ferreira, Manoel M. Jr.; Silva, Madson R. O.
2010-05-15
This work examines the finite temperature properties of the CPT-even and parity-odd electrodynamics of the standard model extension. The starting point is the partition function computed for an arbitrary and sufficiently small tensor (k{sub F}){sub {alpha}{nu}{rho}{phi}} [see R. Casana, M. M. Ferreira, Jr., J. S. Rodrigues, and M. R. O. Silva, Phys. Rev. D 80, 085026 (2009).]. After specializing the Lorentz-violating tensor (k{sub F}){sub {alpha}{nu}{rho}{phi}}for the leading-order-nonbirefringent and parity-odd coefficients, the partition function is explicitly carried out, showing that it is a power of the Maxwell partition function. Also, it is observed that the Lorentz invariance violation coefficients induce an anisotropy in the black-body angular energy density distribution. Planck's radiation law retains its usual frequency dependence and the Stefan-Boltzmann law keeps the same form, except for a global proportionality constant.
Lorentz and CPT violation in the Standard-Model Extension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lehnert, Ralf
2013-03-01
Lorentz and CPT invariance are among the symmetries that can be investigated with ultrahigh precision in subatomic physics. Being spacetime symmetries, Lorentz and CPT invariance can be violated by minuscule amounts in many theoretical approaches to underlying physics that involve novel spacetime concepts, such as quantized versions of gravity. Regardless of the underlying mechanism, the low-energy effects of such violations are expected to be governed by effective field theory. This talk provides a survey of this idea and includes an overview of experimental efforts in the field.
Checking T and CPT violation with sterile neutrino
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pant, Yogita; Diwakar, Sujata; Singh, Jyotsna; Singh, R. B.
2016-08-01
Post LSND results, sterile neutrinos have drawn attention and motivated the high energy physics, astronomy and cosmology to probe physics beyond the standard model considering minimal 3 + 1 (3 active and 1 sterile) to 3 + N neutrino schemes. The analytical equations for neutrino conversion probabilities are developed in this work for 3 + 1 neutrino scheme. Here, we have tried to explore the possible signals of T and CPT violations with four flavor neutrino scheme at neutrino factory. Values of sterile parameters considered in this analysis are taken from two different types of neutrino experiments viz. long baseline experiments and reactor+atmospheric experiments. In this work golden and discovery channels are selected for the investigation of T violation. While observing T violation we stipulate that neutrino factory working at 50 GeV energy has the potential to observe the signatures of T violation through discovery channel if sterile parameter values are equal to that taken from reactor+atmospheric experiments. The ability of neutrino factory for constraining CPT violation is enhanced with increase in energy for normal neutrino mass hierarchy (NH). Neutrino factory with the exposure time of 500 kt-yr will be able to capture CPT violation with δc31 ≥ 3.6 ×10-23 GeV at 3σ level for NH and for IH with δc31 ≥ 4 ×10-23 GeV at 3σ level.
Neutron-antineutron transition as a test-bed for dynamical CPT violations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Addazi, Andrea
2016-05-01
We show a simple mechanism for a dynamical CPT violation in the neutron sector. In particular, we show a CPT-violating see-saw mechanism, generating a Majorana mass and a CPT-violating mass for the neutron. CPT-violating see-saw involves a sterile partner of the neutron, living in a hidden sector, in which CPT is spontaneously broken. In particular, neutrons (antineutrons) can communicate with the hidden sector through nonperturbative quantum gravity effects called exotic instantons. Exotic instantons dynamically break R-parity, generating one effective vertex between the neutron and its sterile partner. In this way, we show how a small CPT-violating mass term for the neutron is naturally generated. This model can be tested in the next generation of experiments in neutron-antineutron physics. This strongly motivates researches of CPT-violating effects in neutron-antineutron physics as a test-bed for dynamical CPT-violations in SM.
D0 Evidence for CP Violation and Implication for CPT Violation in B-Meson Mixing
Kooten, R.Van; /Indiana U.
2010-08-01
A D0 analysis measuring the charge asymmetry A{sub sl}{sup b} of like-sign dimuon events due to semileptonic b-hadron decays at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is described. It differs by 3.2 standard deviations from the Standard Model prediction to provide first evidence of CPT-invariant anomalous CP violation in the mixing of neutral B mesons, and is compared to the CP-violating phase obtained from a D0 analysis of the time-dependent decay angles in B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{phi}. If CPT violation is allowed, the dimuon asymmetry also yields the first sensitivity to CPT violation in the B{sub s}{sup 0} system.
Omnibus experiment: CPT and CP violation with sterile neutrinos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loo, K. K.; Novikov, N. Yu; Smirnov, M. V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Wurm, M.
2016-05-01
We propose to probe both the CPT and CP violation together with the search for sterile neutrinos in one do-it-all experiment. This omnibus experiment would utilize neutrino oscillometry with large scintillator detectors like LENA, JUNO or RENO-50 and manmade radioactive sources similar to the ones used by the GALLEX experiment. Our calculations indicate that such an experiment is realistic and could be performed in parallel to the main research plan for JUNO, LENA, or RENO-50. Assuming as the starting point the values of the oscillation parameters indicated by the current global fit (in 3 active + 1 sterile scenario) and requiring at least 5 sigma confidence level, we estimate that with the proposed experiment we would be able to detect CPT mass anomalies of the order of 1% or larger.
An efficient probe of the cosmological CPT violation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Gong-Bo; Wang, Yuting; Xia, Jun-Qing; Li, Mingzhe; Zhang, Xinmin
2015-07-01
We develop an efficient method based on the linear regression algorithm to probe the cosmological CPT violation using the CMB polarisation data. We validate this method using simulated CMB data and apply it to recent CMB observations. We find that a combined data sample of BICEP1 and BOOMERanG 2003 favours a nonzero isotropic rotation angle at 2.3σ confidence level, i.e., bar alpha=-3.3o±1.4o (68% CL) with systematics included.
Decoherence induced CPT violation and entangled neutral mesons
Bernabeu, J.; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Sarkar, Sarben
2006-08-15
We discuss two classes of semimicroscopic theoretical models of stochastic spacetime foam in quantum gravity and the associated effects on entangled states of neutral mesons, signalling an intrinsic breakdown of CPT invariance. One class of models deals with a specific model of foam, initially constructed in the context of noncritical (Liouville) string theory, but viewed here in the more general context of effective quantum-gravity models. The relevant Hamiltonian perturbation, describing the interaction of the meson with the foam medium, consists of off-diagonal stochastic metric fluctuations, connecting distinct mass eigenstates (or the appropriate generalization thereof in the case of K-mesons), and it is proportional to the relevant momentum transfer (along the direction of motion of the meson pair). There are two kinds of CPT-violating effects in this case, which can be experimentally disentangled: one (termed '{omega}-effect') is associated with the failure of the indistinguishability between the neutral meson and its antiparticle, and affects certain symmetry properties of the initial state of the two-meson system; the second effect is generated by the time evolution of the system in the medium of the spacetime foam, and can result in time-dependent contributions of the {omega}-effect type in the time profile of the two-meson state. Estimates of both effects are given, which show that, at least in certain models, such effects are not far from the sensitivity of experimental facilities available currently or in the near future. The other class of quantum-gravity models involves a medium of gravitational fluctuations which behaves like a 'thermal bath'. In this model both of the above-mentioned intrinsic CPT violation effects are not valid.
Nonlinear modes of the tensor Dirac equation and CPT violation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reifler, Frank J.; Morris, Randall D.
1993-01-01
Recently, it has been shown that Dirac's bispinor equation can be expressed, in an equivalent tensor form, as a constrained Yang-Mills equation in the limit of an infinitely large coupling constant. It was also shown that the free tensor Dirac equation is a completely integrable Hamiltonian system with Lie algebra type Poisson brackets, from which Fermi quantization can be derived directly without using bispinors. The Yang-Mills equation for a finite coupling constant is investigated. It is shown that the nonlinear Yang-Mills equation has exact plane wave solutions in one-to-one correspondence with the plane wave solutions of Dirac's bispinor equation. The theory of nonlinear dispersive waves is applied to establish the existence of wave packets. The CPT violation of these nonlinear wave packets, which could lead to new observable effects consistent with current experimental bounds, is investigated.
Feynman propagator for the nonbirefringent CPT-even electrodynamics of the standard model extension
Casana, Rodolfo; Ferreira, Manoel M. Jr.; Santos, Frederico E. P. dos; Gomes, Adalto R.
2010-12-15
The CPT-even gauge sector of the standard model extension is composed of 19 components comprised in the tensor (K{sub F}){sub {mu}{nu}{rho}{sigma}}, of which nine do not yield birefringence. In this work, we examine the Maxwell electrodynamics supplemented by these nine nonbirefringent CPT-even components in aspects related to the Feynman propagator and full consistency (stability, causality, unitarity). We adopt a prescription that parametrizes the nonbirefringent components in terms of a symmetric and traceless tensor, K{sub {mu}{nu}}, and second parametrization that writes K{sub {mu}{nu}} in terms of two arbitrary four-vectors, U{sub {mu}} and V{sub {nu}}. We then explicitly evaluate the gauge propagator of this electrodynamics in a tensor closed way. In the sequel, we show that this propagator and involved dispersion relations can be specialized for the parity-odd and parity-even sectors of the tensor (K{sub F}){sub {mu}{nu}{rho}{sigma}}. In this way, we reassess some results of the literature and derive some new outcomes showing that the parity-even anisotropic sector engenders a stable, noncausal and unitary electrodynamics.
Search for Violation of CPT and Lorentz Invariance in Bs(0) Meson Oscillations.
Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agnew, J P; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Askew, A; Atkins, S; Augsten, K; Avila, C; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bazterra, V; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Bellantoni, L; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bhat, P C; Bhatia, S; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Borysova, M; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brock, R; Bross, A; Brown, D; Bu, X B; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Buszello, C P; Camacho-Pérez, E; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Caughron, S; Chakrabarti, S; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapon, E; Chen, G; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Cuth, J; Cutts, D; Das, A; Davies, G; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; Déliot, F; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Deterre, C; DeVaughan, K; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Ding, P F; Dominguez, A; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fauré, A; Feng, L; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fuess, S; Garbincius, P H; Garcia-Bellido, A; García-González, J A; Gavrilov, V; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Ginther, G; Gogota, O; Golovanov, G; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guillemin, T; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haley, J; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De La Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hogan, J; Hohlfeld, M; Holzbauer, J L; Howley, I; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Ilchenko, Y; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jayasinghe, A; Jeong, M S; Jesik, R; Jiang, P; Johns, K; Johnson, E; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Joshi, J; Jung, A W; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Katsanos, I; Kaur, M; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Kiselevich, I; Kohli, J M; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurča, T; Kuzmin, V A; Lammers, S; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Lei, X; Lellouch, J; Li, D; Li, H; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, H; Liu, Y; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lopes de Sa, R; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Madar, R; Magaña-Villalba, R; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mansour, J; Martínez-Ortega, J; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Miconi, F; Mondal, N K; Mulhearn, M; Nagy, E; Narain, M; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nguyen, H T; Nunnemann, T; Orduna, J; Osman, N; Osta, J; Pal, A; Parashar, N; Parihar, V; Park, S K; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, Y; Petridis, K; Petrillo, G; Pétroff, P; Pleier, M-A; Podstavkov, V M; Popov, A V; Prewitt, M; Price, D; Prokopenko, N; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Ratoff, P N; Razumov, I; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rominsky, M; Ross, A; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santos, A S; Savage, G; Savitskyi, M; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schott, M; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shary, V; Shaw, S; Shchukin, A A; Simak, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Soustruznik, K; Stark, J; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, M; Suter, L; Svoisky, P; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tsai, Y-T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verkheev, A Y; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vesterinen, M; Vilanova, D; Vokac, P; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weichert, J; Welty-Rieger, L; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yamada, R; Yang, S; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, W; Ye, Z; Yin, H; Yip, K; Youn, S W; Yu, J M; Zennamo, J; Zhao, T G; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L
2015-10-16
We present the first search for CPT-violating effects in the mixing of Bs(0) mesons using the full Run II data set with an integrated luminosity of 10.4 fb(-1) of proton-antiproton collisions collected using the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We measure the CPT-violating asymmetry in the decay Bs(0)→μ(±)Ds(±) as a function of celestial direction and sidereal phase. We find no evidence for CPT-violating effects and place limits on the direction and magnitude of flavor-dependent CPT- and Lorentz-invariance violating coupling coefficients. We find 95% confidence intervals of Δa⊥<1.2×10(-12) GeV and (-0.8<ΔaT-0.396ΔaZ<3.9)×10(-13) GeV. PMID:26550864
Status and prospects for CPT and Lorentz invariance violation searches in neutral meson mixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Tilburg, Jeroen; van Veghel, Maarten
2015-03-01
An overview of current experimental bounds on CPT violation in neutral meson mixing is given. New values for the CPT asymmetry in the B0 and Bs0 systems are deduced from published BaBar, Belle and LHCb results. With dedicated analyses, LHCb will be able to further improve the bounds on CPT violation in the D0, B0 and Bs0 systems. Since CPT violation implies violation of Lorentz invariance in an interacting local quantum field theory, the observed CPT asymmetry will exhibit sidereal- and boost-dependent variations. Such CPT-violating and Lorentz-violating effects are accommodated in the framework of the Standard Model Extension (SME). The large boost of the neutral mesons produced at LHCb results in a high sensitivity to the corresponding SME coefficients. For the B0 and Bs0 systems, using existing LHCb results, we determine with high precision the SME coefficients that are not varying with sidereal time. With a full sidereal analysis, LHCb will be able to improve the existing SME bounds in the D0, B0 and Bs0 systems by up to two orders of magnitude.
Search for Violation of $CPT$ and Lorentz Invariance in $${B_s^0}$$ Meson Oscillations
Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich
2015-06-12
We present the first search for CPT-violating effects in the mixing of B0s mesons using the full Run II data set with an integrated luminosity of 10.4 fb-1 of proton-antiproton collisions collected using the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We measure the CPT-violating asymmetry in the decay B0s → µ±D±s as a function of celestial direction and sidereal phase. We find no evidence for CPT-violating effects and place limits on the direction and magnitude of flavor-dependent CPTand Lorentz-invariance violating coupling coefficients. We find 95% confidence intervals of Δa⊥ < 1.2 × 10-12 GeV and (-0.8 < ΔaT -more » 0.396ΔaZ < 3.9) × 10-13 GeV.« less
Casana, Rodolfo; Ferreira, Manoel M. Jr; Rodrigues, Josberg S.; Silva, Madson R. O.
2009-10-15
In this work, we examine the finite temperature properties of the CPT-even and Lorentz-invariance-violating (LIV) electrodynamics of the standard model extension, represented by the term W{sub {alpha}}{sub {nu}}{sub {rho}}{sub {phi}}F{sup {alpha}}{sup {nu}}F{sup {rho}}{sup {phi}}. We begin analyzing the Hamiltonian structure following the Dirac's procedure for constrained systems and construct a well-defined and gauge invariant partition function in the functional integral formalism. Next, we specialize for the nonbirefringent coefficients of the tensor W{sub {alpha}}{sub {nu}}{sub {rho}}{sub {phi}}. In the sequel, the partition function is explicitly carried out for the parity-even sector of the tensor W{sub {alpha}}{sub {nu}}{sub {rho}}{sub {phi}}. The modified partition function is a power of the Maxwell's partition function. It is observed that the LIV coefficients induce an anisotropy in the black body angular energy density distribution. The Planck's radiation law, however, retains its frequency dependence and the Stefan-Boltzmann law keeps the usual form, except for a change in the Stefan-Boltzmann constant by a factor containing the LIV contributions.
A Search for Lorentz Invariance and CPT Violation with the MINOS Far Detector
Adamson, P.; Auty, D.J.; Ayres, D.S.; Backhouse, C.; Barr, G.; Barrett, W.L.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bock, G.J.; Boehnlein, D.J.; Bogert, D.; /Fermilab /Indiana U.
2010-07-01
We searched for a sidereal modulation in the MINOS far detector neutrino rate. Such a signal would be a consequence of Lorentz and CPT violation as described by the Standard-Model Extension framework. It also would be the first detection of a perturbative effect to conventional neutrino mass oscillations. We found no evidence for this sidereal signature and the upper limits placed on the magnitudes of the Lorentz and CPT violating coefficients describing the theory are an improvement by factors of 20-510 over the current best limits found using the MINOS near detector.
Search for Lorentz Invariance and CPT Violation with the MINOS Far Detector
Adamson, P.; Bock, G. J.; Boehnlein, D. J.; Bogert, D.; Childress, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Harris, D.; Hatcher, R.; Hylen, J.; James, C.; Jensen, D.; Koizumi, G.; Kreymer, A.; Lucas, P.; Moore, C. D.; Plunkett, R. K.; Rebel, B.; Saoulidou, N.; Shanahan, P.; Smart, W.
2010-10-08
We searched for a sidereal modulation in the MINOS far detector neutrino rate. Such a signal would be a consequence of Lorentz and CPT violation as described by the standard-model extension framework. It also would be the first detection of a perturbative effect to conventional neutrino mass oscillations. We found no evidence for this sidereal signature, and the upper limits placed on the magnitudes of the Lorentz and CPT violating coefficients describing the theory are an improvement by factors of 20-510 over the current best limits found by using the MINOS near detector.
Bound on Lorentz and CPT Violating Boost Effects for the Neutron
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walsworth, Ronald
2003-01-01
A search for a sidereal annual variation in the frequency difference between co-located Xe-129 and He-3 Zeeman masers sets a limit of approximately 10(exp -27) GeV on the coupling of the neutron to the time component of a possible background Lorentz and CPT violating tensor field.
Search for CPT and Lorentz Violation in B0-B0bar Oscillations with Dilepton Events
Collaboration, The BABAR; Aubert, B.
2007-11-28
We report results of a search for CPT and Lorentz violation in B{sup 0}-{bar B}{sup 0} oscillations using inclusive dilepton events from 232 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays recorded by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B Factory at SLAC. We find 2.8{sigma} significance, compatible with no signal, for variations in the complex CPT violation parameter z at the Earth's sidereal frequency and extract values for the quantities {Delta}a{sub {mu}} in the general Lorentz-violating standard-model extension. The spectral powers for variations in z over the frequency range 0.26 year{sup -1} to 2.1 day{sup -1} are also compatible with no signal.
Novel type of CPT violation for correlated Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states of neutral mesons.
Bernabéu, J; Mavromatos, N; Papavassiliou, J
2004-04-01
We discuss modifications to the concept of an "antiparticle," induced by a breakdown of the CPT symmetry at a fundamental level, realized within an extended class of quantum gravity models. The resulting loss of particle-antiparticle identity in the neutral-meson system induces a breaking of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlation imposed by Bose statistics. This is parametrized by a complex parameter associated with the contamination by the "wrong symmetry" state. The physical consequences are studied, and novel observables of CPT violation in phi factories are proposed. PMID:15089595
Search for Violation of $CPT$ and Lorentz Invariance in ${B_s^0}$ Meson Oscillations
Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich
2015-06-12
We present the first search for CPT-violating effects in the mixing of B^{0}_{s} mesons using the full Run II data set with an integrated luminosity of 10.4 fb^{-1} of proton-antiproton collisions collected using the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We measure the CPT-violating asymmetry in the decay B^{0}_{s} → µ^{±}D^{±}_{s} as a function of celestial direction and sidereal phase. We find no evidence for CPT-violating effects and place limits on the direction and magnitude of flavor-dependent CPTand Lorentz-invariance violating coupling coefficients. We find 95% confidence intervals of Δa⊥ < 1.2 × 10^{-12} GeV and (-0.8 < ΔaT - 0.396Δa_{Z} < 3.9) × 10^{-13} GeV.
Search for Violation of CPT and Lorentz Invariance in B-s(0) Meson Oscillations
Abazov, V. M.
2015-10-14
We present the first search for CPT-violating effects in the mixing of B^{0}_{s} mesons using the full Run II data set with an integrated luminosity of 10.4 fb^{-1} of proton-antiproton collisions collected using the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We measure the CPT-violating asymmetry in the decay B^{0}_{s} → µ^{±}D^{±}_{s} as a function of celestial direction and sidereal phase. We find no evidence for CPT-violating effects and place limits on the direction and magnitude of flavor-dependent CPTand Lorentz-invariance violating coupling coefficients. We find 95% confidence intervals of Δa⊥ < 1.2 × 10^{-12} GeV and (-0.8 < ΔaT - 0.396Δa_{Z} < 3.9) × 10^{-13} GeV.
Aspects of CPT-even Lorentz-symmetry violating physics in a supersymmetric scenario
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belich, H.; Bernald, L. D.; Gaete, Patricio; Helayël-Neto, J. A.; Leal, F. J. L.
2015-06-01
Background fermion condensates in a landscape dominated by global supersymmetry are reassessed in connection with a scenario where Lorentz symmetry is violated in the bosonic sector (actually, the photon sector) by a CPT-even term. An effective photonic action is discussed that originates from the supersymmetric background fermion condensates. Also, the photino mass emerges in terms of a particular condensate contrary to what happens in the case of -violation. Finally, the interparticle potential induced by the effective photonic action is investigated and a confining profile is identified.
Search for Violations of Lorentz Invariance and CPT Symmetry in B_{(s)}^{0} Mixing.
Aaij, R; Abellán Beteta, C; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baker, S; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Bel, L J; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bertolin, A; Betti, F; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Bird, T; Birnkraut, A; Bizzeti, A; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borgheresi, A; Borghi, S; Borisyak, M; Borsato, M; Boubdir, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; 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Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massacrier, L M; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathad, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mauri, A; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Melnychuk, D; Merk, M; Merli, A; Michielin, E; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Mitzel, D S; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monroy, I A; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Morris, A B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, D; Müller, J; Müller, K; Müller, V; Mussini, M; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nandi, A; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Niess, V; Nieswand, S; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Osorio Rodrigues, B; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Otto, A; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; 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Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wraight, K; Wright, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yin, H; Yu, J; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zheng, Y; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zhukov, V; Zucchelli, S
2016-06-17
Violations of CPT symmetry and Lorentz invariance are searched for by studying interference effects in B^{0} mixing and in B_{s}^{0} mixing. Samples of B^{0}→J/ψK_{S}^{0} and B_{s}^{0}→J/ψK^{+}K^{-} decays are recorded by the LHCb detector in proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb^{-1}. No periodic variations of the particle-antiparticle mass differences are found, consistent with Lorentz invariance and CPT symmetry. Results are expressed in terms of the standard model extension parameter Δa_{μ} with precisions of O(10^{-15}) and O(10^{-14}) GeV for the B^{0} and B_{s}^{0} systems, respectively. With no assumption on Lorentz (non)invariance, the CPT-violating parameter z in the B_{s}^{0} system is measured for the first time and found to be Re(z)=-0.022±0.033±0.005 and Im(z)=0.004±0.011±0.002, where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second systematic. PMID:27367382
Abouzaid, E.; Arenton, M.; Barker, A.R.; Barrio, M.; Bellantoni, L.; Blucher, E.; Bock, G.J.; Bown, C.; Cheu, E.; Coleman, R.; Corcoran, M.D.; /Rice U. /Virginia U.
2010-11-01
The authors present precise tests of CP and CPT symmetry based on the full dataset of K {yields} {pi}{pi} decays collected by the KTeV experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory during 1996, 1997, and 1999. this dataset contains 16 million K {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} and 69 million K {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays. They measure the direct CP violation parameter Re({epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon}) = (19.2 {+-} 2.1) x 10{sup -4}. They find the K{sub L}-K{sub S} mass difference {Delta}m = (5270 {+-} 12) x 10{sup 6} {h_bar}s{sup -1} and the K{sub S} lifetime {tau}{sub S} = (89.62 {+-} 0.05) x 10{sup -12} s. They also measure several parameters that test CPT invariance. They find the difference between the phase of the indirect CP violation parameter, {epsilon}, and the superweak phase, {phi}{sub {epsilon}} - {phi}{sub SW} = (0.40 {+-} 0.56){sup o}. They measure the difference of the relative phases between the CP violating and CP conserving decay amplitudes for K {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} ({phi}{sub +-}) and for K {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} ({phi}{sub 00}), {Delta}{phi} = (0.30 {+-} 0.35){sup o}. From these phase measurements, they place a limit on the mass difference between K{sup 0} and {bar K}{sup 0}, {Delta}M < 4.8 x 10{sup -19} GeV/c{sup 2} at 95% C.L. These results are consistent with those of other experiments, their own earlier measurements, and CPT symmetry.
Measurements of Direct CP Violation, CPT Symmetry, and Other Parameters in the Neutral Kaon System
Worcester, Elizabeth Turner; /Chicago U.
2007-12-01
The authors present precision measurements of the direct CP violation parameter, Re({epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon}), the kaon parameters, {Delta}m and {tau}{sub S}, and the CPT tests, {phi}{sub {+-}} and {Delta}{phi}, in neutral kaon decays. These results are based on the full dataset collected by the KTeV experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory during 1996, 1997, and 1999. This dataset contains {approx} 15 million K {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} decays and {approx} 69 million K {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays. They describe significant improvements to the precision of these measurements relative to previous KTeV analyses. They find Re({epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon}) = [19.2 {+-} 1.1(stat) {+-} 1.8(syst)] x 10{sup -4}, {Delta}m = (5265 {+-} 10) x 10{sup 6} hs{sup -1}, and {tau}{sub S} = (89.62 {+-} 0.05) x 10{sup -12} s. They measure {phi}{sub {+-}} = (44.09 {+-} 1.00){sup o} and {Delta}{phi} = (0.29 {+-} 0.31){sup o}; these results are consistent with CPT symmetry.
Cabella, Paolo; Silk, Joseph; Natoli, Paolo
2007-12-15
We perform a wavelet analysis of the temperature and polarization maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) delivered by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe experiment in search for a parity-violating signal. Such a signal could be seeded by new physics beyond the standard model, for which the Lorentz and CPT symmetries may not hold. Under these circumstances, the linear polarization direction of a CMB photon may get rotated during its cosmological journey, a phenomenon also called cosmological birefringence. Recently, Feng et al. have analyzed a subset of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and BOOMERanG 2003 angular power spectra of the CMB, deriving a constraint that mildly favors a nonzero rotation. By using wavelet transforms we set a tighter limit on the CMB photon rotation angle {delta}{alpha}=-2.5{+-}3.0 ({delta}{alpha}=-2.5{+-}6.0) at the one (two) {sigma} level, consistent with a null detection.
Limit on Lorentz and CPT Violation of the Neutron Using a Two-Species Noble-Gas Maser
Bear, D.; Stoner, R. E.; Walsworth, R. L.; Kostelecky, V. Alan; Lane, Charles D.
2000-12-11
A search for sidereal variations in the frequency difference between co-located {sup 129}Xe and {sup 3}He Zeeman masers sets the most stringent limit to date on leading-order Lorentz and CPT violation involving the neutron, consistent with no effect at the level of 10{sup -31} GeV .
TESTING FOR CPT VIOLATION IN B^{0s SEMILEPTONIC DECAYS}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kooten, R. Van
2014-01-01
A DØ analysis measuring the charge asymmetry A^{bsl of like-sign dimuon events due to semileptonic b-hadron decays at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider has shown indications of possible anomalous CP violation in the mixing of neutral B mesons. This result has been used to extract the first senstivity to CPT violation in the B0s system. An analysis to explore further this anomaly by specifically measuring the semileptonic charge asymmetry, assl, in B0s decays is described, as well as how a variant of this analysis can be used to explore a larger set of CPT-violating parameters in the B0s system for the first time.}
Search for CPT and lorentz violation in B0-B[over ]0 oscillations with dilepton events.
Aubert, B; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Lopez, L; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lopes Pegna, D; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Osipenkov, I L; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Tanabe, T; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Koch, H; Schroeder, T; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Barrett, M; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Vitug, G M; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Gabareen, A M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Klose, V; Kobel, M J; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Lombardo, V; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Watson, J E; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Panduro Vazquez, W; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Béquilleux, J; D'Orazio, A; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, L; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Burke, J P; Chavez, C A; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Paramesvaran, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Zheng, Y; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Knoepfel, K J; Losecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Sekula, S J; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Prendki, J; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Biesiada, J; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Baracchini, E; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Castelli, G; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Roethel, W; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; White, R M; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Macfarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; Nelson, S; O'Grady, C P; Ofte, I; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Ziegler, V; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Miyashita, T S; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Spanier, S M; Wogsland, B J; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Harrison, P F; Ilic, J; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Neal, H
2008-04-01
We report results of a search for CPT and Lorentz violation in B(0)-B[over ](0) oscillations using inclusive dilepton events from 232 x 10(6) Upsilon(4S)-->BB[over ] decays recorded by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B Factory at SLAC. We find 2.8sigma significance, compatible with no signal, for variations in the complex CPT violation parameter z at the Earth's sidereal frequency and extract values for the quantities Deltaa(micro) in the general Lorentz-violating standard-model extension. The spectral powers for variations in z over the frequency range 0.26 yr(-1) to 2.1 solar day(-1) are also compatible with no signal. PMID:18517935
Decoherence and CPT Violation in a Stringy Model of Space-Time Foam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mavromatos, Nick E.
2010-07-01
I discuss a model inspired from the string/brane framework, in which our Universe is represented (after perhaps appropriate compactification) as a three brane, propagating in a bulk space time punctured by D0-brane (D-particle) defects. As the D3-brane world moves in the bulk, the D-particles cross it, and from an effective observer on D3 the situation looks like a “space-time foam” with the defects “flashing” on and off (“D-particle foam”). The open strings, with their ends attached on the brane, which represent matter in this scenario, can interact with the D-particles on the D3-brane universe in a topologically non-trivial manner, involving splitting and capture of the strings by the D0-brane defects. Such processes are consistently described by logarithmic conformal field theories on the world-sheet of the strings. Physically, they result in effective decoherence of the string matter on the D3 brane, and as a result, of CPT Violation, but of a type that implies an ill-defined nature of the effective CPT operator. Due to electric charge conservation, only electrically neutral (string) matter can exhibit such interactions with the D-particle foam. This may have unique, experimentally detectable (in principle), consequences for electrically-neutral entangled quantum matter states on the brane world, in particular the modification of the pertinent Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) Correlation in neutral mesons in an appropriate meson factory. For the simplest scenarios, the order of magnitude of such effects might lie within the sensitivity of upgraded φ-meson factories.
Search for T, CP, and CPT violation in B0-B0 mixing with inclusive dilepton events.
Aubert, B; Barate, R; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Best, D S; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Latour, E; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Gaillard, J R; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro Vazquez, W; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Kelly, M P; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S Y; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Patel, P M; Potter, C T; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; del Re, D; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Galeazzi, F; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; Mayer, B; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Martinez-Vidal, F; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mellado, B; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Tan, P; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H
2006-06-30
We report the results of a search for T, CP, CPT, and violation in B0-B0 mixing using an inclusive dilepton sample collected by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II factory. Using a sample of 232 x 10(6) BB pairs, we measure the T and CP violation parameter |q/p| - 1 = (-0.8 +/- 2.7(stat) +/- 1.9(syst) x 10(-3), and the CPT and CP parameters Imz = (13.9 +/- 7.3(stat) +/- 3.2(syst)) x 10(-3) and Delta Gamma x Rez = (7.1 +/- 3.9(stat) +/- 2.0(stat)) x 10(-3) ps(-1). The statistical correlation between the measurements of Imz and Delta Gamma x Rez is 76%. PMID:16907295
Search for T, CP and CPT Violation in B0-B0bar Mixingwith Inclusive Dilepton Events
Aubert, B.
2006-03-31
The authors report the results of a search for T, CP and CPT violation in B{sup 0}-{bar B}{sup 0} mixing using an inclusive dilepton sample collected by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II B Factory. Using a sample of 232 million B{bar B} pairs, with a simultaneous likelihood fit of the same-sign and opposite-sign dileptons, they measure the T and Cp violation parameter |q/p|-1 = (-0.8 {+-} 2.7(stat.) {+-} 1.9(syst.)) x 10{sup -3}, and the CPT and CP parameters Im z = (-13.9 {+-} 7.3(stat.) {+-} 3.2(syst.)) x 10{sup -3} and {Delta}{Lambda} x Re z = (-7.1 {+-} 3.9(stat.) {+-} 2.0(syst.)) x 10{sup -3} ps{sup -1}. The statistical correlation between the measurements of Im z and {Delta}{Lambda} x Re z is 76%.
Lorentz and CPT violating corrections to hydrogen energy levels at order 2̂
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adkins, Gregory; Yoder, Theodore
2012-03-01
The standard model extension (SME) is an effective field theory for physics beyond the SM that contains non-SM effects such as Lorentz and CPT violation. The SME effective Lagrangian contains a number of coefficients that describe new interactions. These as-yet-unobserved coefficients must be small. One approach for the detection of the SME coefficients is to calculate their effect on observable physical quantities, particularly those measureable to high precision. We have calculated the effect of the SME interactions on the energy levels of hydrogen. Starting from the field theory effective Lagrangian we have obtained the Hamiltonian of an SME-extended Dirac equation and have applied a Foldy-Wouthuysen expansion to obtain a non-relativistic effective Hamiltonian correct through terms quadratic in the momentum 3-vector. This Hamiltonian, at the order of interest, has the form H'=(Ai j+Bi j kσk)p^i p^j where Ai j and Bi j k are linear combinations of the SME parameters. We have evaluated the energy level corrections due to H', which are of order 2̂ times the SME coefficients. Constraints on the combinations of SME coefficients found in Ai j and Bi j k can be obtained by comparison with experimental results.
Vacuum Cherenkov radiation in quantum electrodynamics with high-energy Lorentz violation
Anselmi, Damiano; Taiuti, Martina
2011-03-01
We study phenomena predicted by a renormalizable, CPT invariant extension of the standard model that contains higher-dimensional operators and violates Lorentz symmetry explicitly at energies greater than some scale {Lambda}{sub L}. In particular, we consider the Cherenkov radiation in vacuo. In a rather general class of dispersion relations, there exists an energy threshold above which radiation is emitted. The threshold is enhanced in composite particles by a sort of kinematic screening mechanism. We study the energy loss and compare the predictions of our model with known experimental bounds on Lorentz violating parameters and observations of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. We argue that the scale of Lorentz violation {Lambda}{sub L} (with preserved CPT invariance) can be smaller than the Planck scale, actually as small as 10{sup 14}-10{sup 15} GeV. Our model also predicts the Cherenkov radiation of neutral particles.
Search for CPT and Lorentz Violation in B0-B0bar Oscillations with Inclusive Dilepton Events
Aubert, B.
2006-09-26
We report preliminary results of a search for CPT and Lorentz violation in B{sup 0}-{bar B}{sup 0} oscillations using an inclusive dilepton sample collected by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II B Factory. Using a sample of 232 million B{bar B} pairs, we search for time-dependent variations in the complex CPT parameter z = z{sub 0} +z{sub 1} cos ({Omega}{cflx t} + {phi}) where {Omega} is the Earth's sidereal frequency and {cflx t} is sidereal time. We measure Imz{sub 0} = (-14.1 {+-} 7.3(stat.) {+-} 2.4(syst.)) x 10{sup -3}, {Delta}{Lambda} x Rez{sub 0} = (-7.2 {+-} 4.1(stat.) {+-} 2.1(syst.)) x 10{sup -3} ps{sup -1}, Im z{sub 1} = (-24.0 {+-} 10.7(stat.) {+-} 5.9(syst.)) x 10{sup -3}, and {Delta}{Lambda} x Re z{sub 1} = (-18.8 {+-} 5.5(stat.) {+-} 4.0(syst.)) x 10{sup -3} ps{sup -1}, where {Delta}{Lambda} is the difference between the decay rates of the neutral B mass eigenstates. The statistical correlation between the measurements of Imz{sub 0} and {Delta}{Lambda} x Rez{sub 0} is 76%; between Imz{sub 1} and {Delta}{Lambda} x Rez{sub 1} it is 79%. These results are used to evaluate expressions involving coefficients for Lorentz and CPT violation in the general Lorentz-violating standard-model extension. In a complementary approach, we examine the spectral power of periodic variations in z over a wide range of frequencies and find no significant signal.
Goncalves, Bruno; Shapiro, Ilya L.; Obukhov, Yuri N.
2009-12-15
We discuss the possibility to perform and use the exact Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation (EFWT) for the Dirac spinor coupled to different CPT and Lorentz violating terms. The classification of such terms is performed, selecting those of them which admit EFWT. For the particular example of an axial vector field, which can be associated with the completely antisymmetric torsion, we construct an explicit EFWT in the case when only a timelike component of this axial vector is present. In the cases when EFWT is not possible, one can still use the corresponding technique for deriving the perturbative Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation, as is illustrated in a particular example in the Appendix.
Laboratory-based limits on the Carroll-Field-Jackiw Lorentz-violating electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomes, Y. M. P.; Malta, P. C.
2016-07-01
The C P T -odd and Lorentz-violating Carroll-Field-Jackiw (CFJ) modification of electrodynamics is discussed, and we study its effects on the energy spectrum of hydrogen, as well as in the generation of a momentum-dependent electric dipole moment for charged leptons. We also briefly comment on the possibility of the detection of Lorentz violation in measurements of vacuum birefringence in resonant cavities. The bounds found are based on local laboratory experimental limits and are not competitive with the ones coming from astrophysical considerations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allmendinger, F.; Schmidt, U.; Heil, W.; Karpuk, S.; Sobolev, Yu.; Tullney, K.
2016-02-01
We performed a search for a Lorentz-invariance- and CPT-violating coupling of the 3He and 129Xe nuclear spins to posited background fields. Our experimental approach is to measure the free precession of nuclear spin polarized 3He and 129Xe atoms using SQUIDs as detectors. As the laboratory reference frame rotates with respect to distant stars, we look for a sidereal modulation of the Larmor frequencies of the co-located spin samples. As a result we obtain an upper limit on the equatorial component of the background field b˜⊥n < 8.4 ṡ 10‑34 GeV (68% C.L.). This experiment is currently the most precise test of spin anisotropy due to the excellent long spin-coherence time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakke, K.; Belich, H.
2015-11-01
We discuss the appearance of geometric quantum phases for a Dirac neutral particle in the context of relativistic quantum mechanics based on possible scenarios of the Lorentz symmetry violation tensor background in the CPT-even gauge sector of Standard Model Extension. We assume that the Lorentz symmetry breaking is determined by a tensor background given by (KF)μναβ, then, relativistic analogues of the Anandan quantum phase [J. Anandan, Phys. Lett. A 138, 347 (1989)] are obtained based on the parity-even and parity-odd sectors of the tensor (KF)μναβ.
Fourth Meeting on CPT and Lorentz Symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kostelecký, V. Alan
2008-03-01
Improved tests of Lorentz and CPT symmetry using noble-gas masers / A. Glenday, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth -- A modern Michelson-Morley experiment using actively rotated optical resonators / S. Herrmann et al. -- Rotating experiments to test Lorentz invariance in the photon sector / M. E. Tobar et al. -- Lorentz violation, electrodynamics, and the cosmic microwave background / M. Mewes -- High energy astrophysical tests of Lorentz invariance / B. Altschul -- Fundamental physics experiments in space (within ESA) / T. J. Sumner -- The experimental foundations of the Dirac equation / C. Lämmerzahl -- Perspectives on Lorentz and CPT violation / V. A. Kostelecký -- Search for Lorentz and CPT violation effects in muon spin precession / B. L. Roberts -- Lorentz violation in a diffeomorphism-invariant theory / R. Jackiw -- Studies of CPT symmetry with ASACUSA / R. S. Hayano -- Neutrino oscillations and Lorentz violation with MiniBooNE / R. Tayloe and T. Katori -- Testing Lorentz and CPT invariance with MINOS near detector neutrinos / B. J. Rebel and S. L. Mufson -- Einstein-ther gravity: theory and observational constraints / T. Jacobson -- Tests of Lorentz-invariance violation in neutrino oscillations / K. Whisnant -- Search for CPT violation in neutral kaons at KLOE: status and perspectives / A. Di Domenico et al. -- Search for CPT violation in B[symbol]-B¯[symbol] oscillations with BABAR / D. P. Stoker -- Theoretical topics in spacetime-symmetry violations / R. Lehnert -- A second-generation co-magnetometer for testing fundamental symmetries / S. J. Smullin et al. -- Nambu-Goldstone and massive modes in gravitational theories with spontaneous Lorentz breaking / R. Bluhm -- The ALPHA antihydrogen experiment / N. Madsen et al. -- Atom interferometry tests the isotropy of post-Newtonian gravity / H. Müller et al. -- Probing Lorentz symmetry with gravitationally coupled matter / J. D. Tasson -- Torsion balance test of preferred-frame and weak coupling to
Kryemadhi, Abaz
2004-12-01
This dissertation describes two different projects from two different experiments. We have performed a search for CPT violation in neutral charm meson oscillations using data from the FOCUS Experiment. While flavor mixing in the charm sector is predicted to be small in the Standard Model, it is still possible to investigate CPT violation through a study of the proper time dependence of a CPT asymmetry in right-sign decay rates for D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -} {pi}{sup +} and {bar D}{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}. This asymmetry is related to the CPT violating complex parameter {xi} and the mixing parameters x and y: A{sub CPT} {infinity} Re{xi}y - Im{xi}x. We determine a 95% confidence level limit of -0.0068 < Re{xi}y - Im{xi}x < 0.0234. Within the framework of the Standard Model Extension incorporating general CPT violation, we also find 95% confidence level limits for the expressions involving coefficients of Lorentz violation of (-2.8 < N(x,y,{delta}))({Delta}a{sub 0} + 0.6 {Delta}a{sub Z} < 4.8) x 10{sup -16} GeV, (-7.0 < N(x,y,{delta}){Delta}a{sub x} < 3.8) x 10{sup -16} GeV, and (-7.0 < N(x,y,{delta}){Delta}a{sub y} < 3.8) x 10{sup -16} GeV, where N(x,y,{delta}) is a normalization factor that incorporates mixing parameters x, y and the doubly Cabibbo suppressed to Cabibbo favored relative strong phase {delta}.
Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kral, J F; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Morgan, S E; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Deppermann, T; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Barlow, N R; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Mackay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Shen, B C; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Grenier, P; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Tinslay, J; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Biasini, M; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Pioppi, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Won, E; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S-J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Brigljević, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Forti, A C; Hart, P A; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Weatherall, J H; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Milek, M; Patel, P M; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Cote-Ahern, D; Hast, C; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; Stark, J; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Tanaka, H A; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yeche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Granges-Pous, E; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H
2004-05-01
Using events in which one of two neutral B mesons from the decay of an Upsilon(4S) meson is fully reconstructed, we determine parameters governing decay (DeltaGamma(d)/Gamma(d)), CP, and T violation (|q/p|), and CP and CPT violation (Re z,Im z). The results, obtained from an analysis of 88 x 10(6) Upsilon(4S) decays recorded by BABAR, are sgn(Re lambda(CP))DeltaGamma(d)/Gamma(d)=-0.008+/-0.037(stat)+/-0.018(syst)[-0.084,0.068],|q/p|=1.029+/-0.013(stat)+/-0.011(syst)[1.001,1.057],(Re lambda(CP)/|lambda(CP)|) Re z=0.014+/-0.035(stat)+/-0.034(syst)[-0.072,0.101],Im z=0.038+/-0.029(stat)+/-0.025(syst)[-0.028,0.104]. The values inside the square brackets indicate the 90% confidence-level intervals. These results are consistent with standard model expectations. PMID:15169483
Synchrotron radiation in Lorentz-violating electrodynamics: The Myers-Pospelov model
Montemayor, R.; Urrutia, L.F.
2005-08-15
We develop a detailed analysis of synchrotron radiation in the effective Lorentz invariance violating (LIV) model of Myers-Pospelov, considering explicitly both the dynamics of the charge producing the radiation and the dynamics of the electromagnetic field itself. Within the radiation approximation we compute exact expressions in the LIV parameters for the electric and magnetic fields, the angular distribution of the power spectrum, the total emitted power in the mth harmonic and the polarization. We also perform expansions of the exact results in terms of the LIV parameters to identify the dominant effects and study the main features of the high energy limit of the spectrum. A very interesting consequence is the appearance of rather unexpected and large amplifying factors associated with the LIV effects, which go along with the usual contributions of the expansion parameter. This opens up the possibility of looking for astrophysical sources where these amplifying factors are important to further explore the constraints imposed upon the LIV parameters by synchrotron radiation measurements. We briefly sketch some phenomenological applications in the case of supernova remnants and gamma ray bursts.
Neutrino experiments: Hierarchy, CP, CPT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Manmohan; Randhawa, Monika; Singh, Mandip
2016-07-01
We present an overview of our recent investigations regarding the prospects of ongoing neutrino experiments as well as future experiments in determining few of the most important unknowns in the field of neutrino physics, specifically the neutrino mass ordering and leptonic CP-violation phase. The effect of matter oscillations on the neutrino oscillation probabilities has been exploited in resolving the degeneracy between the neutrino mass ordering and the CP violation phase in the leptonic sector. Further, we estimate the extent of extrinsic CP and CPT violation in the experiments with superbeams as well as neutrino factories.
Gravity, CPT, and the standard-model extension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tasson, Jay D.
2015-08-01
Exotic atoms provide unique opportunities to search for new physics. The search for CPT and Lorentz violation in the context of the general field-theory based framework of the gravitational Standard-Model Extension (SME) is one such opportunity. This work summarizes the implications of Lorentz and CPT violation for gravitational experiments with antiatoms and atoms containing higher-generation matter as well as recent nongravitational proposals to test CPT and Lorentz symmetry with muons and muonic systems.
Hogan Nguyen
2002-01-14
I present several preliminary measurements from KTeV of the fundamental neutral K parameters, and their implications for CPT violation. A new limit is given on the sidereal time dependence of {phi}{sub +-}. The results are based on data collected in 1996-97.
Probing CPT in transitions with entangled neutral kaons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernabeu, J.; Di Domenico, A.; Villanueva-Perez, P.
2015-10-01
In this paper we present a novel CPT symmetry test in the neutral kaon system based, for the first time, on the direct comparison of the probabilities of a transition and its CPT reverse. The required interchange of in ↔ out states for a given process is obtained exploiting the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations of neutral kaon pairs produced at a ϕ-factory. The observable quantities have been constructed by selecting the two semileptonic decays for flavour tag, the ππ and 3 π 0 decays for CP tag and the time orderings of the decay pairs. The interpretation in terms of the standard Weisskopf-Wigner approach to this system, directly connects CPT violation in these observables to the violating ℜδ parameter in the mass matrix of {K}^0-{overline{K}}^0 , a genuine CPT violating effect independent of ΔΓ and not requiring the decay as an essential ingredient.
Theoretical Studies of Lorentz and CPT Symmetry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kostelecky, V. Alan
2005-01-01
The fundamental symmetries studied here are Lorentz and CPT invariance, which form a cornerstone of the relativistic quantum theories used in modern descriptions of nature. The results obtained during the reporting period focus on the idea, originally suggested by the P.I. and his group in the late 1980s, that observable CPT and Lorentz violation in nature might emerge from the qualitatively new physics expected to hold at the Planck scale. What follows is a summary of results obtained during the period of this grant.
Time-reversal violation in beta decay
Herczeg, P.
2003-01-01
At present there is no unambigous direct evidence for time-reversal (T) violation in the fundamental interactions. But T-violation is intimately connected with CP-violation by the CPT theorem. A stringent bound on possible violation of CPT invariance comes from the properties of K{sup 0} - {bar K}{sup 0} mixing [I]. In the following we shall assume that CPT violating interactions, if present, can be neglected, and use the terms 'T-violation' and 'CP-violation' interchangably.
Lorentz and CPT Tests with Spin-Polarized Solids
Bluhm, Robert; Kostelecky, V. Alan
2000-02-14
Experiments using macroscopic samples of spin-polarized matter offer exceptional sensitivity to Lorentz and CPT violation in the electron sector. Data from existing experiments with a spin-polarized torsion pendulum provide sensitivity in this sector rivaling that of all other existing experiments and could reveal spontaneous violation of Lorentz symmetry at the Planck scale. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greaves, Hilary; Thomas, Teruji
2014-02-01
We provide a careful development and rigorous proof of the CPT theorem within the framework of mainstream (Lagrangian) quantum field theory. This is in contrast to the usual rigorous proofs in purely axiomatic frameworks, and non-rigorous proof-sketches in the mainstream approach. We construct the CPT transformation for a general field directly, without appealing to the enumerative classification of representations, and in a manner that is clearly related to the requirements of our proof. Our approach applies equally in Minkowski spacetimes of any dimension at least three, and is in principle neutral between classical and quantum field theories: the quantum CPT theorem has a natural classical analogue. The key mathematical tool is that of complexification; this tool is central to the existing axiomatic proofs, but plays no overt role in the usual mainstream approaches to CPT.
Noce, T.E.; Holzer, T.L.
2003-01-01
The long-term stability of deep holes 1.75 inches. (4.4 cm) in diameter by 98.4 feet (30 m) created by cone penetration testing (CPT) was monitored at a site in California underlain by Holocene and Pleistocene age alluvial fan deposits. Portions of the holes remained open both below and above the 28.6-foot (8.7 m)-deep water table for approximately three years, when the experiment was terminated. Hole closure appears to be a very slow process that may take decades in the stiff soils studied here. Other experience suggests holes in softer soils may also remain open. Thus, despite their small diameter, CPT holes may remain open for years and provide paths for rapid migration of contaminants. The observations confirm the need to grout holes created by CPT soundings as well as other direct-push techniques in areas where protection of shallow ground water is important.
Search for CPT-odd decays of positronium
Vetter, Paul A.; Freedman, Stuart J.
2003-07-11
We have limited a CPT-violating correlation in annihilationsof polarized ortho-positronium. We searched for an asymmetry in thetriple correlations dot k1 cross k2, where k1 and k2 are the two largestphoton momenta, and s is the spin of the positronium. Using theGammasphere array of Compton-suppressed high-purity germanium detectors,we detected 2.65e7 events of ortho-Ps annihila tion. The amplitude of aCPT-violating asymmetry in the data set is found to be 0.0026 plus orminus 0.0031, a factor of 6 smaller than previousexperiments.
Photon propagator in skewon electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itin, Yakov
2016-01-01
Electrodynamics with a local and linear constitutive law is used as a framework for models violating Lorentz covariance. The constitutive tensor of such a construction is irreducibly decomposed into three independent pieces. The principal part is the anisotropic generalization of the standard electrodynamics. The two other parts, axion and skewon, represent nonclassical modifications of electrodynamics. We derive the expression for the photon propagator in the Minkowski spacetime endowed with a skewon field. For a relatively small (antisymmetric) skewon field, a modified Coulomb law is exhibited.
CPand t violation in neutrino oscillations
Hisakazu Minakata; Hiroshi Nunokawa; Stephen Parke
2003-09-18
In this short lecture, we discuss some basic phenomenological aspects of CP and T violation in neutrino oscillation. Using CP/T trajectory diagrams in the bi-probability space, we try to sketch out some essential features of the interplay between the effect of CP/T violating phase and that of the matter in neutrino oscillation.
Carroll-Field-Jackiw electrodynamics in the premetric framework
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itin, Yakov
2004-07-01
We analyze the Carroll-Field-Jackiw (CFJ) modification of electrodynamics reformulated as the ordinary Maxwell theory with an additional special axion field. In this form, the CFJ model appears as a special case of the premetric approach recently developed by Hehl and Obukhov. This embedding turns out to be nontrivial. Particularly, the premetric energy-momentum tensor does not depend on the axion. This is in contrast to the CFJ energy-momentum tensor which involves the axion addition explicitly. We show that the relation between these two quantities is similar to the correspondence between the Noether conserved tensor and the Hilbert symmetric tensor. As a result the CFJ energy-momentum tensor appears as the unique conserved closure of the premetric one. Another problem is in the description of the birefringence effect, which in the premetric framework does not depend on the axion. The comparison with the CFJ model shows that the corresponding wave propagation (Fresnel) equation has to be extended by a derivative term, which is nonzero for the axion field. In this way, the CFJ birefringence effect is derived in the metric-free approach. Consequently the Lorentz and CPT violating models can be embedded without contradictions in the premetric approach to electrodynamics. This correspondence can be useful for both constructions.
''CPT Theorem'' for Accelerators
Vladimir Shiltsev
2004-08-05
In this paper we attempt to reveal common features in evolution of various colliders' luminosity over commissioning periods. A simplified formula, ''CPT theorem'' or CP = T, is proposed which relates the time needed for commissioning T, the ''complexity'' of the machine C and performance increase goal P.
The Deepest Symmetries of Nature: CPT and SUSY
Horvath, Dezso'
2005-10-19
The structure of matter is related to symmetries on every level of study. CPT symmetry is one of the most important laws of field theory: it states the invariance of physical properties when one simultaneously changes the signs of the charge and of the spatial and time coordinates of particles. Although in general opinion CPT symmetry is not violated in Nature, there are theoretical attempts to develop CPT-violating models. The Antiproton Decelerator at CERN has been built to test CPT invariance.Several observations imply that there might be another deep symmetry, supersymmetry (SUSY), between basic fermions and bosons. SUSY assumes that every fermion and boson observed so far has supersymmetric partners of the opposite nature. In addition to some theoretical problems of the Standard Model of elementary particles, supersymmetry may provide solution to the constituents of the mysterious dark matter of the Universe. However, as opposed to CPT, SUSY is necessarily violated at low energies as so far none of the predicted supersymmetric partners of existing particles was observed experimentally. The LHC experiments at CERN aim to search for these particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bigi, I. I.; Sanda, A. I.
2009-04-01
Foreword; Part I. Basics of CP Violation: 1. Prologue; 2. Prelude: C, P and T in classical dynamics; 3. C, P and T in non-relativistic quantum mechanics; 4. C, P and T in relativistic quantum theories; 5. The arrival of strange particles; 6. Quantum mechanics of neutral particles; Part II. Theory and Experiments: 7. The quest for CP violation in K decays - a marathon; 8. The KM implementation of CP violation; 9. The theory of KL → ππ decays; 10. Paradigmatic discoveries in B physics; 11. Let the drama unfold - B CP phenomenology; 12. Rare K and B decays - almost perfect laboratories; 13. CPT violation - could it be in K and B decays?; 14. CP violation in charm decays - the dark horse; 15. The strong CP problem; Part III. Looking Beyond the Standard Model: 16. Quest for CP violation in the neutrino sector; 17. Possible corrections to the KM ansatz: right-handed currents and non-minimal Higgs dynamics; 18. CP violation without nonperturbative dynamics - top quarks and charged leptons; 19. SUSY - providing shelter for Higgs dynamics; 20. Minimal flavour violation and extra dimensions; 21. Baryogenesis in the universe; Part IV. Summary: 11. Summary and Perspectives; References; Index.
Antiprotonic helium and CPT invariance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayano, Ryugo S.; Hori, Masaki; Horváth, Dezso; Widmann, Eberhard
2007-12-01
We review recent progress in the laser and microwave spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium atoms (\\barpHe^+ \\equiv \\rme^\\--\\barp - He^{++}) carried out at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator facility (AD). Laser transitions were here induced between Rydberg states (n, ell) and (n ± 1, ell - 1) of \\barpHe^+ (n ~ 40 and ell ≲ n - 1 being the principal and orbital angular momentum quantum numbers of the antiproton orbit). Successive refinements in the experimental techniques improved the fractional precision on the \\barpHe^+ frequencies from 3 parts in 106 to ~1 part in 108. These included a radiofrequency quadrupole decelerator, which reduced the energy of the antiprotons from 5.3 MeV (the energy of the beam emerging from AD) to ~100 keV. This enabled the production of \\barpHe^+ in ultra-low density targets, where collisional effects with other helium atoms are negligible. A continuous wave pulse-amplified dye laser, stabilized against a femtosecond optical frequency comb, was then used to measure the \\barpHe^+ frequencies with ppb-scale precision. This progress in the experimental field was matched by similar advances in computing methods for evaluating the expected transition frequencies in three-body QED calculations. The comparison of experimental (νexp) and theoretical (νth) frequencies for seven transitions in \\barp^4He^+ and five in \\barp^3 He^+ yielded an antiproton-to-electron mass ratio of m_\\bar p/m_{\\rme} = 1836.152\\,674(5) . This agrees with the known proton-to-electron mass ratio at the level of ~2 × 10-9. The experiment also set a limit on any CPT-violating difference between the antiproton and proton charges and masses, (Q_p - |Q_{\\barp}|)/Q_p \\sim (m_p - m_{\\barp})/m_p < 2 \\times 10^{-9} to a 90% confidence level. If on the other hand we assume the validity of the CPT invariance, the m_{\\barp}/m_{\\rme} result can be taken to be equal to mp/me. This can be used as an input to future adjustments of fundamental constants. The hyperfine
Can the master time asymmetry in nature be electrodynamic in origin?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leiter, D.
1985-01-01
If the electrodynamic measurement process is operationally described by imposing measurement color onto classical electrodynamics, self-energy infinities are eliminated and a retarded electrodynamic time arrow emerges dynamically from internal dynamic-stability conditions. This occurs because the new formalism contains nonlocal radiation fields which carry a negative parity under mathematical time reversal. This result is shown to be compatible with an extended form of T and CPT symmetry which preserves the dynamically chosen retarded electrodynamic arrow of time in the measurement color electrodynamic formalism.
Constraints on relativity violations from gamma-ray bursts.
Kostelecký, V Alan; Mewes, Matthew
2013-05-17
Tiny violations of the Lorentz symmetry of relativity and the associated discrete CPT symmetry could emerge in a consistent theory of quantum gravity such as string theory. Recent evidence for linear polarization in gamma-ray bursts improves existing sensitivities to Lorentz and CPT violation involving photons by factors ranging from ten to a million. PMID:25167393
CPT symmetry and antimatter gravity in general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villata, M.
2011-04-01
The gravitational behavior of antimatter is still unknown. While we may be confident that antimatter is self-attractive, the interaction between matter and antimatter might be either attractive or repulsive. We investigate this issue on theoretical grounds. Starting from the CPT invariance of physical laws, we transform matter into antimatter in the equations of both electrodynamics and gravitation. In the former case, the result is the well-known change of sign of the electric charge. In the latter, we find that the gravitational interaction between matter and antimatter is a mutual repulsion, i.e. antigravity appears as a prediction of general relativity when CPT is applied. This result supports cosmological models attempting to explain the Universe accelerated expansion in terms of a matter-antimatter repulsive interaction.
Tests of Lorentz and CPT symmetry with hadrons and nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noordmans, J. P.; de Vries, J.; Timmermans, R. G. E.
2016-08-01
We explore the breaking of Lorentz and CPT invariance in strong interactions at low energy in the framework of chiral perturbation theory. Starting from the set of Lorentz-violating operators of mass-dimension five with quark and gluon fields, we construct the effective chiral Lagrangian with hadronic and electromagnetic interactions induced by these operators. We develop the power-counting scheme and discuss loop diagrams and the one-pion-exchange nucleon-nucleon potential. The effective chiral Lagrangian is the basis for calculations of low-energy observables with hadronic degrees of freedom. As examples, we consider clock-comparison experiments with nuclei and spin-precession experiments with nucleons in storage rings. We derive strict limits on the dimension-five tensors that quantify Lorentz and CPT violation.
Tests of CPT, Lorentz invariance and the WEP with antihydrogen
Holzscheiter, M.H.; ATHENA Collaboration
1999-03-01
Antihydrogen atoms, produced near rest, trapped in a magnetic well, and cooled to the lowest possible temperature (kinetic energy) could provide an extremely powerful tool for the search of violations of CPT and Lorentz invariance. Equally well, such a system could be used for searches of violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP) at high precision. The author describes his plans to form a significant number of cold, trapped antihydrogen atoms for comparative precision spectroscopy of hydrogen and antihydrogen and comment on possible first experiments.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stern, David P.
1990-01-01
The present one-dimensional model analysis of substorm electrodynamics proceeds from the standard scenario in which the plasma sheet collapses into a neutral sheet, and magnetic merging occurs between the two tail lobes; plasma flows into the neutral sheet from the lobes and the sides, undergoing acceleration in the dawn-dusk direction. The process is modified by the tendency of the accelerated plasma to unbalance charge neutrality, leading to an exchange of electrons with the ionosphere in order to maintain neutrality. The cross-tail current is weakened by the diversion: this reduces the adjacent lobe-field intensity, but without notable effects apart from a slight expansion of the tail boundary.
Lorentz-violating gravitoelectromagnetism
Bailey, Quentin G.
2010-09-15
The well-known analogy between a special limit of general relativity and electromagnetism is explored in the context of the Lorentz-violating standard-model extension. An analogy is developed for the minimal standard-model extension that connects a limit of the CPT-even component of the electromagnetic sector to the gravitational sector. We show that components of the post-Newtonian metric can be directly obtained from solutions to the electromagnetic sector. The method is illustrated with specific examples including static and rotating sources. Some unconventional effects that arise for Lorentz-violating electrostatics and magnetostatics have an analog in Lorentz-violating post-Newtonian gravity. In particular, we show that even for static sources, gravitomagnetic fields arise in the presence of Lorentz violation.
Crescimanno, M.; Hohensee, M.
2008-12-15
In a typical compact atomic time standard a current modulated semiconductor laser is used to create the optical fields that interrogate the atomic hyperfine transition. A pair of optical sidebands created by modulating the diode laser become the coherent population trapping (CPT) fields. At the same time, other pairs of optical sidebands may contribute to other multiphoton resonances, such as three-photon N-resonance [Phys. Rev. A 65, 043817 (2002)]. We analyze the resulting joint CPT and N-resonance (hereafter N+CPT) analytically and numerically. Analytically we solve a four-level quantum optics model for this joint resonance and perturbatively include the leading ac Stark effects from the five largest optical fields in the laser's modulation comb. Numerically we use a truncated Floquet solving routine that first symbolically develops the optical Bloch equations to a prescribed order of perturbation theory before evaluating. This numerical approach has, as input, the complete physical details of the first two excited-state manifolds of {sup 87}Rb. We test these theoretical approaches with experiments by characterizing the optimal clock operating regimes.
Quinn, H; /SLAC
2009-01-27
This talk briefly reviews three types of time-asymmetry in physics, which I classify as universal, macroscopic and microscopic. Most of the talk is focused on the latter, namely the violation of T-reversal invariance in particle physics theories. In sum tests of microscopic T-invariance, or observations of its violation, are limited by the fact that, while we can measure many processes, only in very few cases can we construct a matched pair of process and inverse process and observe it with sufficient sensitivity to make a test. In both the cases discussed here we can achieve an observable T violation making use of flavor tagging, and in the second case also using the quantum properties of an antisymmetric coherent state of two B mesons to construct a CP-tag. Both these tagging properties depend only on very general properties of the flavor and/or CP quantum numbers and so provide model independent tests for T-invariance violations. The microscopic laws of physics are very close to T-symmetric. There are small effects that give CP- and T-violating processes in three-generation-probing weak decays. Where a T-violating observable can be constructed we see the relationships between T-violation and CP-violation expected in a CPT conserving theory. These microscopic effects are unrelated to the 'arrow of time' that is defined by increasing entropy, or in the time direction defined by the expansion of our Universe.
Electrodynamic Tether Propulsion System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
This picture is an artist's concept of an orbiting vehicle using the Electrodynamic Tethers Propulsion System. Relatively short electrodynamic tethers can use solar power to push against a planetary magnetic field to achieve propulsion without the expenditure of propellant.
TESTING CPT SYMMETRY WITH CURRENT AND FUTURE CMB MEASUREMENTS
Li, Si-Yu; Zhang, Xinmin; Xia, Jun-Qing; Li, Hong; Li, Mingzhe
2015-02-01
In this paper, we use the current and future cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments to test the Charge-Parity-Time Reversal (CPT) symmetry. We consider a CPT-violating interaction in the photon sector L{sub cs}∼p{sub μ}A{sub ν} F-tilde {sup μν}, which gives rise to a rotation of the polarization vectors of the propagating CMB photons. By combining the 9 yr WMAP, BOOMERanG 2003, and BICEP1 observations, we obtain the current constraint on the isotropic rotation angle α-bar =−2.12±1.14 (1σ), indicating that the significance of the CPT violation is about 2σ. Here, we particularly take the systematic errors of CMB measurements into account. Then, we study the effects of the anisotropies of the rotation angle [Δα( n-hat )] on the CMB polarization power spectra in detail. Due to the small effects, the current CMB polarization data cannot constrain the related parameters very well. We obtain the 95% C.L. upper limit of the variance of the anisotropies of the rotation angle C {sup α}(0) < 0.035 from all of the CMB data sets. More interestingly, including the anisotropies of rotation angle could lower the best-fit value of r and relax the tension on the constraints of r between BICEP2 and Planck. Finally, we investigate the capabilities of future Planck polarization measurements on α-bar and Δα( n-hat ). Benefited from the high precision of Planck data, the constraints of the rotation angle can be significantly improved.
Testing CPT Symmetry with Current and Future CMB Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Si-Yu; Xia, Jun-Qing; Li, Mingzhe; Li, Hong; Zhang, Xinmin
2015-02-01
In this paper, we use the current and future cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments to test the Charge-Parity-Time Reversal (CPT) symmetry. We consider a CPT-violating interaction in the photon sector {L}_cs˜ p_μ A_ν \\tilde{F}μ ν , which gives rise to a rotation of the polarization vectors of the propagating CMB photons. By combining the 9 yr WMAP, BOOMERanG 2003, and BICEP1 observations, we obtain the current constraint on the isotropic rotation angle \\bar{α } = -2.12 +/- 1.14 (1σ), indicating that the significance of the CPT violation is about 2σ. Here, we particularly take the systematic errors of CMB measurements into account. Then, we study the effects of the anisotropies of the rotation angle [Δ {α }({\\hat{n}})] on the CMB polarization power spectra in detail. Due to the small effects, the current CMB polarization data cannot constrain the related parameters very well. We obtain the 95% C.L. upper limit of the variance of the anisotropies of the rotation angle C α(0) < 0.035 from all of the CMB data sets. More interestingly, including the anisotropies of rotation angle could lower the best-fit value of r and relax the tension on the constraints of r between BICEP2 and Planck. Finally, we investigate the capabilities of future Planck polarization measurements on \\bar{α } and Δ {α }({\\hat{n}}). Benefited from the high precision of Planck data, the constraints of the rotation angle can be significantly improved.
Remarks on nonlinear electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaete, Patricio; Helayël-Neto, José
2014-11-01
We consider both generalized Born-Infeld and exponential electrodynamics. The field energy of a point-like charge is finite only for Born-Infeld-like electrodynamics. However, both Born-Infeld-type and exponential electrodynamics display the vacuum birefringence phenomenon. Subsequently, we calculate the lowest-order modifications to the interaction energy for both classes of electrodynamics, within the framework of the gauge-invariant path-dependent variables formalism. These are shown to result in long-range (-type) corrections to the Coulomb potential. Once again, for their noncommutative versions, the interaction energy is ultraviolet finite.
Testing Lorentz Invariance and CPT Conservation with NuMI Neutrinos in the MINOS Near Detector
Adamson, P.; Baller, B.; Bernstein, R. H.; Bock, G. J.; Boehnlein, D. J.; Bogert, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Childress, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Grossman, N.; Harris, D.; Hatcher, R.; Hylen, J.; James, C.; Jensen, D.; Koizumi, G.; Kreymer, A.; Lucas, P.; Moore, C. D.; Morfin, J.
2008-10-10
A search for a sidereal modulation in the MINOS near detector neutrino data was performed. If present, this signature could be a consequence of Lorentz and CPT violation as predicted by the effective field theory called the standard-model extension. No evidence for a sidereal signal in the data set was found, implying that there is no significant change in neutrino propagation that depends on the direction of the neutrino beam in a sun-centered inertial frame. Upper limits on the magnitudes of the Lorentz and CPT violating terms in the standard-model extension lie between 10{sup -4} and 10{sup -2} of the maximum expected, assuming a suppression of these signatures by a factor of 10{sup -17}.
No Drama Quantum Electrodynamics?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akhmeteli, Andrey
2015-03-01
Is it possible to offer a ``no drama'' quantum electrodynamics, as simple (in principle) as classical electrodynamics - a theory described by a system of partial differential equations (PDE) in 3+1 dimensions, but reproducing unitary evolution of a quantum field theory in the Fock space? The following results suggest an affirmative answer: 1. The scalar field can be algebraically eliminated from scalar electrodynamics. 2. After introduction of a complex 4-potential (producing the same electromagnetic field (EMF) as the standard real 4-potential), the spinor field can be algebraically eliminated from spinor electrodynamics. 3. The resulting theories describe independent evolution of EMF and can be embedded into quantum field theories. Another fundamental result: in a general case, the Dirac equation is equivalent to a 4th order PDE for just one component, which can be made real by a gauge transform. Issues related to the Bell theorem and the connection with Barut's self-field electrodynamics are discussed.
CPT conservation and atmospheric neutrinos in the MINOS far detector
Becker, Bernard Raymond
2006-02-01
The MINOS Far Detector is a 5400 ton iron calorimeter located at the Soudan state park in Soudan Minnesota. The MINOS far detector can observe atmospheric neutrinos and separate charge current {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} interactions by using a 1.4 T magnetic field to identify the charge of the produced muon. The CPT theorem requires that neutrinos and anti-neutrinos oscillate in the same way. In a fiducial exposure of 5.0 kilo-ton years a total of 41 candidate neutrino events are observed with an expectation of 53.1 {+-} 7.6(system.) {+-} 7.2(stat.) unoscillated events or 31.6 {+-} 4.7(system.) {+-} 5.6(stat.) events with {Delta}m{sup 2} = 2.4 x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}, sin{sup 2}(2{theta}) = 1.0 as oscillation parameters. These include 28 events which can have there charge identified with high confidence. These 28 events consist of 18 events consistent with being produced by {nu}{sub {mu}} and 10 events being consistent with being produced by {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}}. No evidence of CPT violation is observed.
Traveling solitons in Lorentz and CPT breaking systems
Souza Dutra, A. de; Correa, R. A. C.
2011-05-15
In this work we present a class of traveling solitons in Lorentz and CPT breaking systems. In the case of Lorentz violating scenarios, as far as we know, only static solitonic configurations were analyzed up to now in the literature. Here it is shown that it is possible to construct some traveling solitons which cannot be mapped into static configurations by means of Lorentz boosts due to explicit breaking. In fact, the traveling solutions cannot be reached from the static ones by using something similar to a Lorentz boost in those cases. Furthermore, in the model studied, a complete set of exact solutions is obtained. The solutions present a critical behavior controlled by the choice of an arbitrary integration constant.
Kinetic-energy-momentum tensor in electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheppard, Cheyenne J.; Kemp, Brandon A.
2016-01-01
We show that the Einstein-Laub formulation of electrodynamics is invalid since it yields a stress-energy-momentum (SEM) tensor that is not frame invariant. Two leading hypotheses for the kinetic formulation of electrodynamics (Chu and Einstein-Laub) are studied by use of the relativistic principle of virtual power, mathematical modeling, Lagrangian methods, and SEM transformations. The relativistic principle of virtual power is used to demonstrate the field dynamics associated with energy relations within a relativistic framework. Lorentz transformations of the respective SEM tensors demonstrate the relativistic frameworks for each studied formulation. Mathematical modeling of stationary and moving media is used to illustrate the differences and discrepancies of specific proposed kinetic formulations, where energy relations and conservation theorems are employed. Lagrangian methods are utilized to derive the field kinetic Maxwell's equations, which are studied with respect to SEM tensor transforms. Within each analysis, the Einstein-Laub formulation violates special relativity, which invalidates the Einstein-Laub SEM tensor.
Galilean Podolsky Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pompeia, P. J.; de Montigny, M.; Khanna, F. C.
2009-09-01
We analyze non-relativistic limits of Podolsky generalized electrodynamics in the context of the 5-dimensional Galilean formalism. The 'electric' and 'magnetic' limits are studied in analogy with the work of Le Bellac and Levy-Leblond (1973).
Double-modulation CPT cesium compact clock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yun, Peter; Mejri, Sinda; Tricot, Francois; Abdel Hafiz, Moustafa; Boudot, Rodolphe; de Clercq, Emeric; Guérandel, Stéphane
2016-06-01
Double-modulation coherent population trapping (CPT) is based on a synchronous modulation of Raman phase and laser polarization, which allows the atomic population to accumulate in a common dark state. The high contrast signal obtained on the clock transition with a relative compact and robust laser system is interesting as basis of a high performance microwave clock. Here we study the parameters of a double-modulation CPT Cs clock working in cw mode. The optimal polarization modulation frequency and cell temperature for maximum contrast of clock transition are investigated. The parameters of the detection are also studied. With the optimal parameters, we observe a CPT signal with contrast of 10% and linewidth of 492 Hz, which is well suited for implementing a cw atomic clock.
Signals for Lorentz violation in atomic spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vargas, Arnaldo J.; Kostelecký, V. Alan
2015-05-01
A breakdown of Lorentz and CPT symmetry has been proposed as a possible signal in several candidate theories of quantum gravity. This talk discusses the prospects for detecting Lorentz and CPT violation via atomic spectroscopy, using the effective field theory known as the Standard-Model Extension and including operators of both renormalizable and nonrenormalizable mass dimensions. The discussion targets commonly measured atomic transitions in experiments with conventional matter and with more exotic atoms such as antihydrogen, muonium, and muonic hydrogen. Potential signals are identified and constraints from existing data are obtained.
No Drama Quantum Electrodynamics?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akhmeteli, Andrey
2014-03-01
Is it possible to offer a ``no drama'' quantum electrodynamics, as simple (in principle) as classical electrodynamics - a theory described by a system of partial differential equations (PDE) in 3+1 dimensions, but reproducing unitary evolution of a quantum field theory in the Fock space? The following results suggest an affirmative answer: 1. The scalar field can be algebraically eliminated from scalar electrodynamics. 2. After introduction of a complex 4-potential (producing the same electromagnetic field (EMF) as the standard real 4-potential), the spinor field can be algebraically eliminated from spinor electrodynamics. 3. The resulting theories describe independent evolution of EMF and can be embedded into quantum field theories. Another fundamental result: in a general case, the Dirac equation is equivalent to a 4th order PDE for just one component, which can be made real by a gauge transform. Issues related to the Bell theorem and the connection with Barut's self-field electrodynamics are discussed. A. Akhmeteli, Int'l Journal of Quantum Information, Vol. 9, Suppl., 17-26 (2011) A. Akhmeteli, Journal of Mathematical Physics, Vol. 52, 082303 (2011) A. Akhmeteli, quant-ph/1111.4630 A. Akhmeteli, European Physical Journal C, Vol. 73, 2371 (2013) (open access)
[ital CPT], strings, and meson factories
Kostelecky, V.A. ); Potting, R. )
1995-04-01
Spontaneous breaking of [ital CPT] is possible in string theory. We show that it can arise at a level within reach of experiments at meson factories currently being built or designed. For [phi], [ital B], and [tau]-charm factories, we discuss the likely experimental string signatures and provide estimates of the bounds that might be attained in these machines.
Structure of Aristotelian electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobson, Ted
2015-07-01
Aristotelian electrodynamics (AE) describes the regime of a plasma with a very strong electric field that is not shorted out, with the charge current determined completely by pair production and the balance of the Lorentz 4-force against the curvature radiation reaction. Here it is shown how the principal null directions and associated eigenvalues of the field tensor govern AE, and how force-free electrodynamics arises smoothly from AE when the eigenvalues (and therefore the electric field in some frame) vanish. A criterion for validity of AE and force-free electrodynamics is proposed in terms of a pair of "field curvature scalars" formed from the first derivative of the principal null directions.
First quantized electrodynamics
Bennett, A.F.
2014-06-15
The parametrized Dirac wave equation represents position and time as operators, and can be formulated for many particles. It thus provides, unlike field-theoretic Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), an elementary and unrestricted representation of electrons entangled in space or time. The parametrized formalism leads directly and without further conjecture to the Bethe–Salpeter equation for bound states. The formalism also yields the Uehling shift of the hydrogenic spectrum, the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron to leading order in the fine structure constant, the Lamb shift and the axial anomaly of QED. -- Highlights: •First-quantized electrodynamics of the parametrized Dirac equation is developed. •Unrestricted entanglement in time is made explicit. •Bethe and Salpeter’s equation for relativistic bound states is derived without further conjecture. •One-loop scattering corrections and the axial anomaly are derived using a partial summation. •Wide utility of semi-classical Quantum Electrodynamics is argued.
Anomalous electrodynamic explosions in liquids
Aspden, H.
1986-06-01
The recently reported Graneau experiments on electrodynamic explosions in liquids, which reveal anomalous longitudinal electrodynamic forces of the order of 10/sup 4/ times greater than expected, verify the need for a term in the law of electrodynamics that corresponds to the ion/electron mass ratio. This confirms an earlier theoretical interpretation of the anomalous cathode reaction forces found in the vacuum arc.
Electrodynamics panel presentation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccoy, J.
1986-01-01
The Plasma Motor Generator (PMG) concept is explained in detail. The PMG tether systems being used to calculate the estimated performance data is described. The voltage drops and current contact geometries involved in the operation of an electrodynamic tether are displayed illustrating the comparative behavior of hollow cathodes, electron guns, and passive collectors for current coupling into the ionosphere. The basic PMG design involving the massive tether cable with little or no satellite mass at the far end(s) are also described. The Jupiter mission and its use of electrodynamic tethers are given. The need for demonstration experiments is stressed.
Electrodynamics, wind and temperature
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmidlin, F. J.
1988-01-01
This RTOP provides for correlative meteorological wind and temperature measurements with atmospheric electrodynamic measurements. Meteorological rocketsondes were launched as part of a number of electrodynamic investigations in Alaska, Norway, Peru, Sweden, and at the Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Virginia. Measurements obtained as part of the MAC/Epsilon campaign during October 1987 from Andoya, Norway, were in conjunction with electric field, ion mobility, conductivity, and energy deposition studies. The measurements obtained between 30 and 90 km are to evaluate and correlate changes in the atmospheric electrical structure caused by the neutral wind and temperature, or changes in the neutral atmosphere resulting from electrical anomalies.
Galilean conformal electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bagchi, Arjun; Basu, Rudranil; Mehra, Aditya
2014-11-01
Maxwell's Electrodynamics admits two distinct Galilean limits called the Electric and Magnetic limits. We show that the equations of motion in both these limits are invariant under the Galilean Conformal Algebra in D = 4, thereby exhibiting non-relativistic conformal symmetries. Remarkably, the symmetries are infinite dimensional and thus Galilean Electrodynamics give us the first example of an infinitely extended Galilean Conformal Field Theory in D > 2. We examine details of the theory by looking at purely non-relativistic conformal methods and also use input from the limit of the relativistic theory.
CP violation experiment at Fermilab
Hsiung, Yee B.
1990-07-01
The E731 experiment at Fermilab has searched for direct'' CP violation in K{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{pi}, which is parametrized by {var epsilon}{prime}/{var epsilon}. For the first time, in 20% of the data set, all four modes of the K{sub L,S} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}} ({pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}) were collected simultaneously, providing a great check on the systematic uncertainty. The result is Re({var epsilon}{prime}/{var epsilon}) = {minus}0.0004 {plus minus} 0.0014 (stat) {plus minus} 0.0006(syst), which provides no evidence for direct'' CP violation. The CPT symmetry has also been tested by measuring the phase difference {Delta}{phi} = {phi}{sub 00} {minus} {phi}{sub {plus minus}} between the two CP violating parameters {eta}{sub 00} and {eta}{sub {plus minus}}. We fine {Delta}{phi} = {minus}0.3{degrees} {plus minus} 2.4{degree}(stat) {plus minus} 1.2{degree}(syst). Using this together with the world average {phi}{sub {plus minus}}, we fine that the phase of the K{sup 0}-{bar K}{sup 0} mixing parameter {var epsilon} is 44.5{degree} {plus minus} 1.5{degree}. Both of these results agree well with the predictions of CPT symmetry. 17 refs., 10 figs.
Causality in Classical Electrodynamics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Savage, Craig
2012-01-01
Causality in electrodynamics is a subject of some confusion, especially regarding the application of Faraday's law and the Ampere-Maxwell law. This has led to the suggestion that we should not teach students that electric and magnetic fields can cause each other, but rather focus on charges and currents as the causal agents. In this paper I argue…
New two-sided bound on the isotropic Lorentz-violating parameter of modified Maxwell theory
Klinkhamer, F. R.; Schreck, M.
2008-10-15
There is a unique Lorentz-violating modification of the Maxwell theory of photons, which maintains gauge invariance, CPT, and renormalizability. Restricting the modified-Maxwell theory to the isotropic sector and adding a standard spin-(1/2) Dirac particle p{sup {+-}} with minimal coupling to the nonstandard photon {gamma}-tilde, the resulting modified-quantum-electrodynamics model involves a single dimensionless 'deformation parameter', {kappa}-tilde{sub tr}. The exact tree-level decay rates for two processes have been calculated: vacuum Cherenkov radiation p{sup {+-}}{yields}p{sup {+-}}{gamma}-tilde for the case of positive {kappa}-tilde{sub tr} and photon decay {gamma}-tilde{yields}p{sup +}p{sup -} for the case of negative {kappa}-tilde{sub tr}. From the inferred absence of these decays for a particular high-quality ultrahigh-energy-cosmic-ray event detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory and a well-established excess of TeV gamma-ray events observed by the High Energy Stereoscopic System telescopes, a two-sided bound on {kappa}-tilde{sub tr} is obtained, which improves by 8 orders of magnitude upon the best direct laboratory bound. The implications of this result are briefly discussed.
Recent Results on T and CP Violation at BABAR
Perez Perez, Alejandro
2015-02-06
CP-violation (CPV) and Time-reversal violation (TRV) are intimately related through the CPT theorem: if one of these discrete symmetries is violated the other one has to be violated in such a way to conserve CPT. Although CPV in the B^{0}B^{0}-bar system has been established by the B-factories, implying indirectly TRV, there is still no direct evidence of TRV. We report on the observation of TRV in the B-meson system performed with a dataset of 468 × 10^{6} BB-bar pairs produced in Υ(4S) decays collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e^{+}e^{-} collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We also report on other CPV measurements recently performed on the B-meson system
Accretion disk electrodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coroniti, F. V.
1985-01-01
Accretion disk electrodynamic phenomena are separable into two classes: (1) disks and coronas with turbulent magnetic fields; (2) disks and black holes which are connected to a large-scale external magnetic field. Turbulent fields may originate in an alpha-omega dynamo, provide anomalous viscous transport, and sustain an active corona by magnetic buoyancy. The large-scale field can extract energy and angular momentum from the disk and black hole, and be dynamically configured into a collimated relativistic jet.
On generalized logarithmic electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kruglov, S. I.
2015-02-01
The generalized logarithmic electrodynamics with two parameters and is considered. The indexes of refraction of light in the external magnetic field are calculated. In the case we come to results obtained by Gaete and Helayël-Neto (Eur Phys J C 74:2816, 2014). The bound on the values of , was obtained from the Biréfringence Magnétique du Vide (BMV) experiment. The symmetrical Belinfante energy-momentum tensor and dilatation current are found.
Reiss, H.R.
2012-01-01
A modification of electrodynamics is proposed, motivated by previously unremarked paradoxes that can occur in the standard formulation. It is shown by specific examples that gauge transformations exist that radically alter the nature of a problem, even while maintaining the values of many measurable quantities. In one example, a system with energy conservation is transformed to a system where energy is not conserved. The second example possesses a ponderomotive potential in one gauge, but this important measurable quantity does not appear in the gauge-transformed system. A resolution of the paradoxes comes from noting that the change in total action arising from the interaction term in the Lagrangian density cannot always be neglected, contrary to the usual assumption. The problem arises from the information lost by employing an adiabatic cutoff of the field. This is not necessary. Its replacement by a requirement that the total action should not change with a gauge transformation amounts to a supplementary condition for gauge invariance that can be employed to preserve the physical character of the problem. It is shown that the adiabatic cutoff procedure can also be eliminated in the construction of quantum transition amplitudes, thus retaining consistency between the way in which asymptotic conditions are applied in electrodynamics and in quantum mechanics. The ‘gauge-invariant electrodynamics’ of Schwinger is shown to depend on an ansatz equivalent to the condition found here for maintenance of the ponderomotive potential in a gauge transformation. Among the altered viewpoints required by the modified electrodynamics, in addition to the rejection of the adiabatic cutoff, is the recognition that the electric and magnetic fields do not completely determine a physical problem, and that the electromagnetic potentials supply additional information that is required for completeness of electrodynamics. PMID:23105173
The Changing Face of Healthcare: 2016 CPT Changes and Beyond.
Thelian, Jacqueline
2016-01-01
This article reviews the changes to CPT 2016, with emphasis on the way CPT services will be provided in the future. Some of the newer codes are designed for reimbursable services provided by the medical clinical staff. In addition to the CPT changes, there are changes to the Medicare fee-for service Physician Fee Schedule. Review of these changes provides the reader with a snapshot of how healthcare will be provided and reimbursed in the future. PMID:27249875
Genuine T, CP, CPT asymmetry parameters for the entangled B d system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernabéu, José; Botella, Francisco J.; Nebot, Miguel
2016-06-01
The precise connection between the theoretical T, CP, CPT asymmetries, in terms of transition probabilities between the filtered neutral meson B d states, and the experimental asymmetries, in terms of the double decay rate intensities for Flavour-CP eigenstate decay products in a B-factory of entangled states, is established. This allows the identification of genuine Asymmetry Parameters in the time distribution of the asymmetries and their measurability by disentangling genuine and possible fake terms. We express the nine asymmetry parameters — three different observables for each one of the three symmetries — in terms of the ingredients of the Weisskopf-Wigner dynamical description of the entangled B d -meson states and we obtain a global fit to their values from the BaBar collaboration experimental results. The possible fake terms are all compatible with zero and the information content of the nine asymmetry parameters is indeed different. The non-vanishing [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] and [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] are impressive separate direct evidence of Time-Reversal-violation and CP-violation in these transitions and compatible with Standard Model expectations. An intriguing 2 σ effect for the Re( θ) parameter responsible of CPT-violation appears which, interpreted as an upper limit, leads to |{M}_{{overline{B}}^0{overline{B}}^0}-{M}_B{{{}{^0}}_B}{^0}|<4.0× 1{0}^{-5} eV at 95% C.L. for the diagonal flavour terms of the mass matrix. It contributes to the CP-violating [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] asymmetry parameter in an unorthodox manner — in its cos(Δ M t) time dependence —, and it is accessible in facilities with non-entangled B d 's, like the LHCb experiment.
Nonlinear electrodynamics at Cinvestav
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bretón, Nora
2012-02-01
After a brief introduction to the original aims of Nonlinear electrodynamics (NLED), a review on NLED research that has been developed in the Physics Department at Cinvestav-IPN is addressed: from the seminal work by Jerzy Plebañski, which was followed by S. Hacyan and S. Alarcón, afterwards by A. García and H. Salazar; and more recently by E. Ayón-Beato and N. Bretón. We conclude by pointing to the current streams of research.
Semi-classical Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lestone, John
2016-03-01
Quantum electrodynamics is complex and its associated mathematics can appear overwhelming for those not trained in this field. We describe semi-classical approaches that can be used to obtain a more intuitive physical feel for several QED processes including electro-statics, Compton scattering, pair annihilation, the anomalous magnetic moment, and the Lamb shift, that could be taught easily to undergraduate students. Any physicist who brings their laptop to the talk will be able to build spread sheets in less than 10 minutes to calculate g/2 =1.001160 and a Lamb shift of 1057 MHz.
Limits on nonlinear electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fouché, M.; Battesti, R.; Rizzo, C.
2016-05-01
In this paper we set a framework in which experiments whose goal is to test QED predictions can be used in a more general way to test nonlinear electrodynamics (NLED) which contains low-energy QED as a special case. We review some of these experiments and we establish limits on the different free parameters by generalizing QED predictions in the framework of NLED. We finally discuss the implications of these limits on bound systems and isolated charged particles for which QED has been widely and successfully tested.
Electrodynamic force law controversy.
Graneau, P; Graneau, N
2001-05-01
Cavalleri et al. [Phys. Rev. E 52, 2505 (1998); Eur. J. Phys. 17, 205 (1996)] have attempted to resolve the electrodynamic force law controversy. This attempt to prove the validity of either the Ampère or Lorentz force law by theory and experiment has revealed only that the two are equivalent when predicting the force on part of a circuit due to the current in the complete circuit. However, in our analysis of internal stresses, only Ampère's force law agrees with experiment. PMID:11415053
Galilean limit of electrodynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reula, O. A.; Hamity, V. H.; Frittelli, S.
The final interest of the authors' work is to study the Newtonian limit as an approximation to General Relativity. In this paper they show, using the Galilean limit of electrodynamics with external sources as a test model, some of the problems that they will be confronted with, and the techniques that are introduced to attack them. The crucial physical issue, to define an asymptotic expansion of a class of solutions, is the selection of initial data which results of imposing regularity conditions in the nonrelativistic limit. The authors' model is an example of a more general class of systems which includes, hopefully, the gravitational field plus matter.
Cassem, B.R.
1993-06-15
Applied Research Associated, Inc. (ARA), under contract to Argonne National Laboratory to perform work for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), conducted Peizo Cone Penetration (P-CPT) Tests as part of an investigation of the fine-textured soils at the McGee Ranch Site. The purpose of the investigation was to characterize a potential borrow area for fine-textured soil materials that would be used to construct multi-layer closure covers on the Hanford Site. As part of the investigation, WHC conducted non auger-drill borings on the site during September 1992. ARA`s objective was to characterize the soils at the McGee Ranch site using the cone penetrometer and compare the findings with the lithologic characterization obtained from geologic boring logs. This report documents ARA`s site investigation efforts, test techniques, and analysis of the data for field work conducted April 14 and 15, 1993.
New ACS Guidelines Approved by CPT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polik, William F.; Larive, Cynthia K.
2008-04-01
The American Chemical Society (ACS) Guidelines for Bachelor's Degree Programs have been revised in 2008 by the Committee on Professional Training (CPT) to reflect changes that are occurring in the chemistry profession and chemistry education. The goals of these changes are to promote modern and innovative chemistry curricula, encourage pedagogical innovation that enhances student learning and success, define faculty and infrastructure attributes of excellent chemistry programs, and streamline the procedures for program approval and review by ACS. The curriculum guidelines for an ACS-certified bachelor's degree are described in terms of foundation coursework, in-depth coursework, and laboratory requirements. Chemistry departments are encouraged to develop degree tracks to target emerging areas of interest within chemistry. The importance of developing student skills and regular program self-evaluation is emphasized. Finally, the procedures for approving and reviewing chemistry programs by ACS are summarized.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Araujo, Jonas B.; Casana, Rodolfo; Ferreira, Manoel M.
2016-09-01
In this letter, we examine a new class of CPT-even nonminimal interactions, between fermions and photons, deprived of higher order derivatives, that yields electric dipole moment (EDM) and magnetic dipole moment (MDM) in the context of the Dirac equation. The couplings are dimension-five CPT-even and Lorentz-violating nonminimal structures, composed of a rank-2 tensor, Tμν, the electromagnetic tensor, and gamma matrices, being addressed in its axial and non-axial Hermitian versions, and also comprising general possibilities. We then use the electron's anomalous magnetic dipole moment and electron electric dipole moment measurements to reach upper bounds of 1 part in 1020 and 1025 (eV) - 1.
Electrodynamic tether system study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1987-01-01
The purpose of this program is to define an Electrodynamic Tether System (ETS) that could be erected from the space station and/or platforms to function as an energy storage device. A schematic representation of the ETS concept mounted on the space station is presented. In addition to the hardware design and configuration efforts, studies are also documented involving simulations of the Earth's magnetic fields and the effects this has on overall system efficiency calculations. Also discussed are some preliminary computer simulations of orbit perturbations caused by the cyclic/night operations of the ETS. System cost estimates, an outline for future development testing for the ETS system, and conclusions and recommendations are also provided.
Middle atmospheric electrodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelley, M. C.
1983-01-01
A review is presented of the advances made during the last few years with respect to the study of the electrodynamics in the earth's middle atmosphere. In a report of the experimental work conducted, attention is given to large middle atmospheric electric fields, the downward coupling of high altitude processes into the middle atmosphere, and upward coupling of tropospheric processes into the middle atmosphere. It is pointed out that new developments in tethered balloons and superpressure balloons should greatly increase the measurement duration of earth-ionospheric potential measurements and of stratospheric electric field measurements in the next few years. Theoretical work considered provides an excellent starting point for study of upward coupling of transient and dc electric fields. Hays and Roble (1979) were the first to construct a model which included orographic features as well as the classical thunderstorm generator.
Gilman, F.J.
1989-12-01
Predictions for CP violation in the three generation Standard Model are reviewed based on what is known about the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. Application to the K and B meson systems are emphasized. 43 refs., 13 figs.
Timelike Momenta In Quantum Electrodynamics
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Brodsky, S. J.; Ting, S. C. C.
1965-12-01
In this note we discuss the possibility of studying the quantum electrodynamics of timelike photon propagators in muon or electron pair production by incident high energy muon or electron beams from presently available proton or electron accelerators.
Two applications of axion electrodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilczek, Frank
1987-01-01
The equations of axion electrodynamics are studied. Variations in the axion field can give rise to peculiar distributions of charge and current. These effects provide a simple understanding of the fractional electric charge on dyons and of some recently discovered oddities in the electrodynamics of antiphase boundaries in PbTe. Some speculations regarding the possible occurrence of related phenomena in other solids are presented.
Electrodynamic Arrays Having Nanomaterial Electrodes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trigwell, Steven (Inventor); Biris, Alexandru S. (Inventor); Calle, Carlos I. (Inventor)
2013-01-01
An electrodynamic array of conductive nanomaterial electrodes and a method of making such an electrodynamic array. In one embodiment, a liquid solution containing nanomaterials is deposited as an array of conductive electrodes on a substrate, including rigid or flexible substrates such as fabrics, and opaque or transparent substrates. The nanomaterial electrodes may also be grown in situ. The nanomaterials may include carbon nanomaterials, other organic or inorganic nanomaterials or mixtures.
Properties of noncommutative axionic electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaete, Patricio; Schmidt, Iván
2007-07-01
Using the gauge-invariant but path-dependent variables formalism, we compute the static quantum potential for noncommutative axionic electrodynamics, and find a radically different result than the corresponding commutative case. We explicitly show that the static potential profile is analogous to that encountered in both non-Abelian axionic electrodynamics and in Yang-Mills theory with spontaneous symmetry breaking of scale symmetry.
Atom interferometry tests of local Lorentz invariance in gravity and electrodynamics
Chung, Keng-Yeow; Chiow, Sheng-wey; Herrmann, Sven; Chu, Steven; Mueller, Holger
2009-07-01
We present atom-interferometer tests of the local Lorentz invariance of post-Newtonian gravity. An experiment probing for anomalous vertical gravity on Earth, which has already been performed, uses the highest-resolution atomic gravimeter so far. The influence of Lorentz violation in electrodynamics is also taken into account, resulting in combined bounds on Lorentz violation in gravity and electrodynamics. Expressed within the standard model extension or Nordtvedt's anisotropic universe model, we limit 12 linear combinations of seven coefficients for Lorentz violation at the part per billion level, from which we derive limits on six coefficients (and seven when taking into account additional data from lunar laser ranging). We also discuss the use of horizontal interferometers, including atom-chip or guided-atom devices, which potentially allow the use of longer coherence times in order to achieve higher sensitivity.
Clinically symptomatic heterozygous carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency.
Joshi, Pushpa Raj; Deschauer, Marcus; Zierz, Stephan
2012-12-01
Two symptomatic patients with heterozygous carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency are reported. Patient 1, a 21-year-old female professional tennis player, suffered from exercise-induced attacks of muscle pain, burning sensations and proximal weakness. Patient 2, a 30-year-old male amateur marathon runner developed muscle cramps and rhabdomyolysis upon extensive exercise and insolation-induced fever. In both patients, the common p.S113L mutation was found in heterozygote state. No second mutation could be found upon sequencing of all the exons of CPT2 gene including exon-intron boundaries. Biochemically, residual CPT activity in muscle homogenate upon inhibition by malonyl-CoA and Triton-X-100 was intermediate between controls and patients with mutations on both alleles. Although CPT II deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder, the reported patients indicate that heterozygotes might also have typical attacks of myalgia, pareses or rhabdomyolysis. PMID:23184072
Kolodziej, M P; Crilly, P J; Corstorphine, C G; Zammit, V A
1992-01-01
The [3H]tetradecylglycidyl-CoA (TDG-CoA)-binding protein (Mr approx. 88,000) of purified outer membranes from rat liver mitochondria was identified by SDS/PAGE. The region in which it migrated was shown to contain another protein which stained strongly with periodic acid-Schiff reagent and could be removed from membrane extracts by incubation with Sepharose-concanavalin A. Amounts of TDG-CoA-binding protein were prepared from lectin-treated extracts using preparative SDS/PAGE and used to raise a polyclonal antibody in a sheep. The IgG fraction purified from this anti-serum reacted strongly with a protein of Mr approximately 88,000 on Western blots, and much more weakly with two other proteins of Mr approximately 76,000 and Mr approximately 53,000 in extracts of rat liver mitochondrial outer membranes. The crude IgG fraction and immunopurified IgG both removed carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I activity from very pure outer membrane extracts, suggesting that the TDG-CoA-binding protein against which the antiserum was raised also expresses CPT I activity. This was confirmed by the demonstration of a strong positive correlation between CPT I activity and the amount of immunoreactive protein of Mr approximately 88,000 in mitochondria prepared from rats in different physiological states. By contrast, the antibody did not react with CPT II either in mitochondria or in purified form. Similarly, an anti-(CPT II) antibody did not cross-react with CPT I on Western blots, proving conclusively that CPT I and CPT II are immunologically distinct proteins, as well as being of different functional molecular sizes [Zammit, Corstophine & Kelliher (1988) Biochem. J. 250, 415-420]. Immunoblots of mitochondrial proteins obtained from different tissues indicated that, of the rat tissues tested, only kidney cortex mitochondria contain the same isoform of CPT I as that in liver. Heart, skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue mitochondria contain a slightly smaller isoform which was
DEVELOPMENT OF A WIRELINE CPT SYSTEM FOR MULTIPLE TOOL USAGE
Stephen P. Farrington; Martin L. Gildea; J. Christopher Bianchi
1999-08-01
The first phase of development of a wireline cone penetrometer system for multiple tool usage was completed under DOE award number DE-AR26-98FT40366. Cone penetrometer technology (CPT) has received widespread interest and is becoming more commonplace as a tool for environmental site characterization activities at several Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Although CPT already offers many benefits for site characterization, the wireline system can improve CPT technology by offering greater utility and increased cost savings. Currently the use of multiple CPT tools during a site characterization (i.e. piezometric cone, chemical sensors, core sampler, grouting tool) must be accomplished by withdrawing the entire penetrometer rod string to change tools. This results in multiple penetrations being required to collect the data and samples that may be required during characterization of a site, and to subsequently seal the resulting holes with grout. The wireline CPT system allows multiple CPT tools to be interchanged during a single penetration, without withdrawing the CPT rod string from the ground. The goal of the project is to develop and demonstrate a system by which various tools can be placed at the tip of the rod string depending on the type of information or sample desired. Under the base contract, an interchangeable piezocone and grouting tool was designed, fabricated, and evaluated. The results of the evaluation indicate that success criteria for the base contract were achieved. In addition, the wireline piezocone tool was validated against ASTM standard cones, the depth capability of the system was found to compare favorably with that of conventional CPT, and the reliability and survivability of the system were demonstrated.
CPT Test with (anti)proton Magnetic Moments Based on Quantum Logic Cooling and Readout
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niemann, M.; Paschke, A.-G.; Dubielzig, T.; Ulmer, S.; Ospelkaus, C.
2014-01-01
Dehmelt and VanDyck's famous 1987 measurement of the electron and positron g-factor is still the most precise g-factor comparison in the lepton sector, and a sensitive test of possible CPT violation. A complementary g-factor comparison between the proton and the antiproton is highly desirable to test CPT symmetry in the baryon sector. Current experiments, based on Dehmelt's continuous Stern-Gerlach effect and the double Penning-trap technique, are making rapid progress. They are, however, extremely difficult to carry out because ground state cooling using cryogenic techniques is virtually impossible for heavy baryons, and because the continous Stern-Gerlach effect scales as μ/m, where m is the mass of the particle and μ its magnetic moment. Both difficulties will ultimately limit the accuracy. We discuss experimental prospects of realizing an alternative approach to a g-factor comparison with single (anti)protons, based on quantum logic techniques proposed by Heinzen and Wineland and by Wineland et al. The basic idea is to cool, control and measure single (anti)protons through interaction with a well-controlled atomic ion.
Cook, G A; Edwards, T L; Jansen, M S; Bahouth, S W; Wilcox, H G; Park, E A
2001-02-01
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I (CPT-I) is a major control point for fatty acid oxidation. Two kinetically different isoforms, CPT-I alpha and CPT-I beta, have been identified. Cardiac ventricular myocytes are the only cells known to express both CPT-I isoforms. In this study, we characterized the differential regulation of CPT-I alpha and CPT-I beta expression in the heart. Expression of the CPT-I alpha gene was very high in the fetal heart and declined following birth. CPT-I beta was also highly expressed in fetal myocytes and remained so throughout development. CPT-I alpha mRNA abundance was increased in both the liver and heart of diabetic or fasted rats, but CPT-I beta mRNA levels were not altered in these states. A high fat diet elevated expression of the CPT-I alpha gene in the liver but not in the heart. The fat content of the diet did not affect the expression of CPT-I beta. Cultures of neonatal rat cardiac myocytes were transfected with luciferase reporter genes driven by CPT-I alpha or CPT-I beta promoters. Two regions of the CPT-I alpha promoter, including an upstream region (-1300/-960) and a region in the proximal promoter (-193/-52) contributed equally to basal expression in cardiac myocytes. Basal transcription of CPT-I alpha was dependent on Sp1 sites and a CCAAT box in the proximal promoter. Our data indicate that the CPT-I beta gene is expressed in a tissue specific manner, but that it is not subject to the same developmental or hormonal controls imposed on CPT-I alpha. In addition some aspects of CPT-I alpha expression are confined to the liver. The data presented here thus suggest that two types of differential regulation of CPT-I genes exist: (a) differential control of CPT-I alpha and CPT-I beta gene expression in the heart and (b) differential regulation of CPT-I alpha expression in the heart and liver. PMID:11162136
Crystal structure of rat carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II)
Hsiao, Yu-Shan; Jogl, Gerwald; Esser, Victoria; Tong, Liang
2010-01-01
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II) has a crucial role in the β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in mitochondria. We report here the crystal structure of rat CPT-II at 1.9 Å resolution. The overall structure shares strong similarity to those of short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, although detailed structural differences in the active site region have a significant impact on the substrate selectivity of CPT-II. Three aliphatic chains, possibly from a detergent that is used for the crystallization, were found in the structure. Two of them are located in the carnitine and CoA binding sites, respectively. The third aliphatic chain may mimic the long-chain acyl group in the substrate of CPT-II. The binding site for this aliphatic chain does not exist in the short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, due to conformational differences among the enzymes. A unique insert in CPT-II is positioned on the surface of the enzyme, with a highly hydrophobic surface. It is likely that this surface patch mediates the association of CPT-II with the inner membrane of the mitochondria. PMID:16781677
Crystal Structure of Rat Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II)
Hsiao,Y.; Jogl, G.; Esser, V.; Tong, L.
2006-01-01
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II) has a crucial role in the {beta}-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in mitochondria. We report here the crystal structure of rat CPT-II at 1.9 Angstroms resolution. The overall structure shares strong similarity to those of short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, although detailed structural differences in the active site region have a significant impact on the substrate selectivity of CPT-II. Three aliphatic chains, possibly from a detergent that is used for the crystallization, were found in the structure. Two of them are located in the carnitine and CoA binding sites, respectively. The third aliphatic chain may mimic the long-chain acyl group in the substrate of CPT-II. The binding site for this aliphatic chain does not exist in the short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, due to conformational differences among the enzymes. A unique insert in CPT-II is positioned on the surface of the enzyme, with a highly hydrophobic surface. It is likely that this surface patch mediates the association of CPT-II with the inner membrane of the mitochondria.
Experiments with Electrodynamic Wheels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaul, Nathan; Corey, Daniel; Cordrey, Vincent; Majewski, Walerian
2015-04-01
Our experiments were involving inductive magnetic levitation. A Halbach array is a system in which a series of magnets is arranged in a manner such that the magnetic field is cancelled on one side of the array while strengthening the field on the other. We constructed two circular Halbach wheels, making the strong magnetic field on the outer rim of the ring. Such system is usually dubbed as an Electrodynamic Wheel (EDW). Rotating this wheel around a horizontal axis above a flat conducting surface should induce eddy currents in said surface through the variable magnetic flux. The eddy currents produce, in turn, their own magnetic fields which interact with the magnets of the EDW. We demonstrated that these interactions produce both drag and lift forces on the EDW which can theoretically be used for lift and propulsion of the EDW. The focus of our experiments is determining how to maximize the lift-to-drag ratio by the proper choice of the induction element. We will also describe our experiments with a rotating circular Halbach array having the strong magnetic field of about 1 T on the flat side of the ring, and acting as a hovercraft.
Summary Presentation of the Electrodynamics Interactions Panel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stone, N. H.
1985-01-01
Technological and scientific uses of electrodynamic tethers in space are considered. Areas of concern for such applications of electrodynamic tethers are enumerated. Thrust and power generation using tethers are discussed.
Covariant Electrodynamics in Vacuum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilhelm, H. E.
1990-05-01
The generalized Galilei covariant Maxwell equations and their EM field transformations are applied to the vacuum electrodynamics of a charged particle moving with an arbitrary velocity v in an inertial frame with EM carrier (ether) of velocity w. In accordance with the Galilean relativity principle, all velocities have absolute meaning (relative to the ether frame with isotropic light propagation), and the relative velocity of two bodies is defined by the linear relation uG = v1 - v2. It is shown that the electric equipotential surfaces of a charged particle are compressed in the direction parallel to its relative velocity v - w (mechanism for physical length contraction of bodies). The magnetic field H(r, t) excited in the ether by a charge e moving uniformly with velocity v is related to its electric field E(r, t) by the equation H=ɛ0(v - w)xE/[ 1 +w • (t>- w)/c20], which shows that (i) a magnetic field is excited only if the charge moves relative to the ether, and (ii) the magnetic field is weak if v - w is not comparable to the velocity of light c0 . It is remarkable that a charged particle can excite EM shock waves in the ether if |i> - w > c0. This condition is realizable for anti-parallel charge and ether velocities if |v-w| > c0- | w|, i.e., even if |v| is subluminal. The possibility of this Cerenkov effect in the ether is discussed for terrestrial and galactic situations
Electrodynamics payloads for small rockets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Croskey, C. L.; Hale, L. C.; Mitchell, J. D.; Mccarthy, S. P.; Goodnow, K. J.; Li, C.; Goldberg, R. A.
1992-01-01
Totally integrated design facilitates electrical cleanliness and light weight, which are necessary in subsonic parachute-borne payloads for electrodynamics investigations. 'Blunt' probes measure ion conductivity, as do Gerdien condensers. Recent finite-element computer analyses combining flow and electrodynamics have resolved problems in determining ion densities and mobilities from Gerdien data. Three-axis electric fields are measured with deployable boom-mounted electrodes from dc through VLF. Splitting the cylindrical payload with an insulator and measuring the current between halves has provided a vertical Maxwell current detector mechanically rigid enough to measure, at ELF, energy related to coupling. A nose tip 'Smith' probe turbulence measurement is usually performed on ascent. Other instrumentation, such as photo-ionization sources and X-ray detectors, can also be included. These electrodynamic measurement payloads are about one meter in length and have a mass of about 9 kg. They can be launched with an Orion-class or smaller vehicle.
Quantization of general linear electrodynamics
Rivera, Sergio; Schuller, Frederic P.
2011-03-15
General linear electrodynamics allow for an arbitrary linear constitutive relation between the field strength 2-form and induction 2-form density if crucial hyperbolicity and energy conditions are satisfied, which render the theory predictive and physically interpretable. Taking into account the higher-order polynomial dispersion relation and associated causal structure of general linear electrodynamics, we carefully develop its Hamiltonian formulation from first principles. Canonical quantization of the resulting constrained system then results in a quantum vacuum which is sensitive to the constitutive tensor of the classical theory. As an application we calculate the Casimir effect in a birefringent linear optical medium.
Disentangling forms of Lorentz violation with complementary clock comparison experiments
Altschul, Brett
2009-03-15
Atomic clock comparisons provide some of the most precise tests of Lorentz and CPT symmetries in the laboratory. With data from multiple such experiments using different nuclei, it is possible to constrain new regions of the parameter space for Lorentz violation. Relativistic effects in the nuclei allow us to disentangle forms of Lorentz violation which could not be separately measured in purely nonrelativistic experiments. The disentangled bounds in the neutron sectors are at the 10{sup -28} GeV level, far better than could be obtained with any other current technique.
CPT: an open system that describes all that you do.
Thorwarth, William T
2008-04-01
The American Medical Association, with the cooperation of multiple major medical specialty societies, including the ACR, responded in 1966 to the need for a complete coding system for describing medical procedures and services with the first publication of Current Procedural Terminology (CPT). This system, now CPT IV, forms the basis of reporting of virtually all inpatient and outpatient services performed by physicians and nonphysician health care providers as well as facilities. This coding system and its maintenance process have evolved in complexity and sophistication, particularly in the past decade, such that it is now integral to all facets of health care, including tracking new and investigational procedures and reporting and monitoring performance measures (read "pay for performance"), in addition to its long-standing use for reporting for reimbursement. To paraphrase a recent automobile commercial, "This is not your father's CPT." The author describes the development of CPT as it exists today, examining the forces that molded its current form, the input opportunities available to medical specialty societies and others, the ever increasing transparency of the CPT maintenance process, and the availability of resources allowing all to stay current. Understanding this system, critical to the practice of all of medicine, including radiology, will aid all health care providers in maintaining the quality, efficiency, and accuracy of their practices' business operations as well as assist them in a world of increasingly complex reporting requirements. PMID:18359442
Electrodynamic Dust Shield Demonstrator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stankie, Charles G.
2013-01-01
The objective of the project was to design and manufacture a device to demonstrate a new technology developed by NASA's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory. The technology itself is a system which uses magnetic principles to remove regolith dust from its surface. This project was to create an enclosure that will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the invention to The Office of the Chief Technologist. ONE of the most important challenges of space exploration is actually caused by something very small and seemingly insignificant. Dust in space, most notably on the moon and Mars, has caused many unforeseen issues. Dirt and dust on Earth, while a nuisance, can be easily cleaned and kept at bay. However, there is considerably less weathering and erosion in space. As a result, the microscopic particles are extremely rough and abrasive. They are also electrostatically charged, so they cling to everything they make contact with. This was first noted to be a major problem during the Apollo missions. Dust would stick to the spacesuits, and could not be wiped off as predicted. Dust was brought back into the spacecraft, and was even inhaled by astronauts. This is a major health hazard. Atmospheric storms and other events can also cause dust to coat surfaces of spacecraft. This can cause abrasive damage to the craft. The coating can also reduce the effectiveness of thermal insulation and solar panels.' A group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory have developed a new technology, called the Electrodynamic Dust Shield, to help alleviate these problems. It is based off of the electric curtain concept developed at NASA in 1967. "The EDS is an active dust mitigation technology that uses traveling electric fields to transport electrostatically charged dust particles along surfaces. To generate the traveling electric fields, the EDS consists of a multilayer dielectric coating with an embedded thin electrode grid
High Pressure CPT Signals using Intensity Modulated Light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Post, Amber; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Miron, Eli; Romalis, Michael; Kuzma, Nicholas; Happer, William
2004-05-01
Coherent Population Trapping (CPT) is a promising technique for use in miniature atomic clocks, since it uses modulated light to detect clock resonances rather than microwaves. This method typically uses frequency-modulated light to probe cells with low buffer gas pressure, in which the ground-state hyperfine structure is clearly resolved. However, conventional frequency-modulated CPT fails at the higher pressures needed to inhibit wall collisions in miniature cells. We present theory and supporting experimental results of high-pressure CPT signals using intensity-modulated light. Circularly polarized light tuned to the Rb D1 line traps most of the atoms in the F=2, m_F=2, where the microwave ``end resonance"^2 is excited. We will show experimental data and briefly discuss linewidth broadening mechanisms. 2 Y.-Y. Jau, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. (in press, 2004).
Diagnostic pitfall in antenatal manifestations of CPT II deficiency.
Boemer, F; Deberg, M; Schoos, R; Caberg, J-H; Gaillez, S; Dugauquier, C; Delbecque, K; François, A; Maton, P; Demonceau, N; Senterre, G; Ferdinandusse, S; Debray, F-G
2016-02-01
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT2) deficiency is a rare inborn error of mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism associated with various phenotypes. Whereas most patients present with postnatal signs of energetic failure affecting muscle and liver, a small subset of patients presents antenatal malformations including brain dysgenesis and neuronal migration defects. Here, we report recurrence of severe cerebral dysgenesis with Dandy-Walker malformation in three successive pregnancies and review previously reported antenatal cases. Interestingly, we also report that acylcarnitines profile, tested retrospectively on the amniotic fluid of last pregnancy, was not sensitive enough to allow reliable prenatal diagnosis of CPT2 deficiency. Finally, because fetuses affected by severe cerebral malformations are frequently aborted, CPT2 deficiency may be underestimated and fatty acid oxidation disorders should be considered when faced with a fetus with Dandy-Walker anomaly or another brain dysgenesis. PMID:25827434
The Origin and Diversity of Cpt1 Genes in Vertebrate Species
Lopes-Marques, Mónica; Delgado, Inês L. S.; Ruivo, Raquel; Torres, Yan; Sainath, Sri Bhashyam; Rocha, Eduardo; Cunha, Isabel; Santos, Miguel M.; Castro, L. Filipe C.
2015-01-01
The Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (Cpt1) gene family plays a crucial role in energy homeostasis since it is required for the occurrence of fatty acid β-oxidation in the mitochondria. The exact gene repertoire in different vertebrate lineages is variable. Presently, four genes are documented: Cpt1a, also known as Cpt1a1, Cpt1a2; Cpt1b and Cpt1c. The later is considered a mammalian innovation resulting from a gene duplication event in the ancestor of mammals, after the divergence of sauropsids. In contrast, Cpt1a2 has been found exclusively in teleosts. Here, we reassess the overall evolutionary relationships of Cpt1 genes using a combination of approaches, including the survey of the gene repertoire in basal gnathostome lineages. Through molecular phylogenetics and synteny studies, we find that Cpt1c is most likely a rapidly evolving orthologue of Cpt1a2. Thus, Cpt1c is present in other lineages such as cartilaginous fish, reptiles, amphibians and the coelacanth. We show that genome duplications (2R) and variable rates of sequence evolution contribute to the history of Cpt1 genes in vertebrates. Finally, we propose that loss of Cpt1b is the likely cause for the unusual energy metabolism of elasmobranch. PMID:26421611
CP-violating Moments in Few-body Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayes, Anna
2010-02-01
The existence of a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) would reflect direct violation of time-reversal (T) and parity (P), and thus CP-violation through the CPT theorem. Several experimental programs are pushing the limits on EDMs in the neutron, nuclei, and atoms. There are two mechanisms for P,T-violation in the nucleus; one driven by P,T-violation in the individual nucleons, and a second by a P,T-violating nucleon-nucleon (N-N) interaction. Searches for EDMs in neutral atoms are sensitive the CP-violation in the nucleus only through the screened Schiff moment. The latter is suppressed in light nuclei and enhanced in some heavy nuclei, rendering light nuclei unsuitable for this class of experiments. However, a new scheme for measuring EDMS of stripped nuclei in a magnetic storage ring suggests that few-body nuclei could be used to set accurate limits on the CP-violation N-N interaction. In this talk, I review the situation in few-body versus many-body systems, and examine the physics determining the different CP-violating moments in nuclei. )
Understanding parity violation in molecular systems.
Faglioni, Francesco; Lazzeretti, Paolo
2002-01-01
Parity-violation energy (E(PV)) due to weak nuclear interactions between nucleons and electrons in chiral molecular systems provides a fundamental tool to verify our understanding of electronic behavior in complex systems. We used both a relativistic and a nonrelativistic approach to study a number of simple molecules and analyze the corresponding E(PV) in terms of intuitive electrodynamic concepts. We developed a qualitative model to predict the sign of E(PV) and its behavior against selected geometric distortions. Our model provides a valuable tool to screen large sets of molecules and select interesting candidates for more expensive investigations. PMID:11800715
Acute L-CPT1 Overexpression Recapitulates Reduced Palmitate Oxidation of Cardiac Hypertrophy
Lewandowski, E. Douglas; Fischer, Susan K.; Fasano, Matthew; Banke, Natasha H.; Walker, Lori A.; Huqi, Alda; Wang, Xuerong; Lopaschuk, Gary D.; O’Donnell, J. Michael
2012-01-01
Rationale Muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (M-CPT1) is predominant in heart, but the liver isoform (L-CPT1) is elevated in hearts with low long chain fatty acid (LCFA) oxidation, such as fetal and hypertrophied hearts. Objective This work examined the effect of acute L-CPT1 expression has on the regulation of palmitate oxidation and energy metabolism in intact functioning rat hearts for comparison to findings in hypertrophied hearts. Methods and Results L-CPT1 was expressed in vivo in rat hearts by coronary perfusion of Adv.cmv.L-CPT1 (L-CPT1, n=15) versus PBS infusion (PBS, n=7) or empty virus (EMPTY, n=5). L-CPT1 was elevated 5-fold at 72 hours after Adv.cmv.L-CPT1 infusion (P<0.05), but M-CPT1 was unaffected. Despite similar tricarboxylic acid cycle rates, palmitate oxidation rates were reduced with L-CPT1 (1.12±0.29 micromole/min/g dw, mean ± SE) vs PBS (1.6±0.34). Acetyl CoA production from palmitate was reduced with L-CPT1 (69%±0.02, P<0.05; PBS= 79%±0.01, Empty=81%±0.02), similar to what occurs in hypertrophied hearts and with no difference in malonyl CoA content. Glucose oxidation was elevated with L-CPT1 (by 60%). Surprisingly, L-CPT1 hearts contained elevated atrial natriuretic peptide, indicating induction of hypertrophic signaling. Conclusions The results link L-CPT1 expression to reduced palmitate oxidation in a non-diseased, adult heart, recapitulating the phenotype of reduced LCFA oxidation in cardiac hypertrophy. The implications are that L-CPT1 expression induces metabolic remodeling hypertrophic signaling, and that regulatory factors beyond malonyl-CoA in the heart regulate LCFA oxidation via L-CPT1. PMID:22982985
Search for Lorentz invariance and CPT violation with muon antineutrinos in the MINOS Near Detector
Adamson, P.; et al.
2012-02-01
We have searched for sidereal variations in the rate of antineutrino interactions in the MINOS Near Detector. Using antineutrinos produced by the NuMI beam, we find no statistically significant sidereal modulation in the rate. When this result is placed in the context of the Standard Model Extension theory we are able to place upper limits on the coefficients defining the theory. These limits are used in combination with the results from an earlier analysis of MINOS neutrino data to further constrain the coefficients.
Beauty for pedestrians toy models for CP violation and baryon asymmetry
Lipkin, H.J. ||
1995-12-01
Why are particles different from antiparticles? C and P Violation - 1956; CP Violation - 1964. Why so little new experimental information in thirty years? Where has all the antimatter gone? Toy models are presented showing: (1) How CPT and {Delta}I = 1/2 make life difficult in kaon physics by requiring equal K{sup {plus_minus}} total widths and also equal partial widths to many exclusive channels. (2) How to understand and get around CPT restrictions. (3) How CP asymmetries can occur in exclusive partial widths and still add up to equal total widths. (4) Sakharov`s 1966 scenario for how CP Violation + proton decay can explain baryon asymmetry (5) How B physics can help.
Pyroshock testing-electrodynamic shakers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smallwood, David O.
2002-05-01
Far field pyroshock (accelerations less than a few hundred grams, and bandwidths less than a few kHz) can be simulated on electrodynamic shakers. Typically, the specification is in terms of the shock response spectrum (SRS). Wave forms are synthesized which will match the required SRS. The process is not unique, as many wave forms can have essentially the same SRS. Sometimes additional restrictions are placed on the synthesized wave form. Most common are restrictions on the duration of the wave form. The process of synthesizing wave forms, which will match an SRS and conform to the limitations of electrodynamic shakers, will be described. The methods used to reproduce these wave forms on the shaker will then be discussed.
Carl Neumann's Contributions to Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlote, Karl-Heinz
2004-09-01
I examine the publications of Carl Neumann (1832 1925) on electrodynamics, which constitute a major part of his work and which illuminate his approach to mathematical physics. I show how Neumann contributed to physics at an important stage in its development and how his work led to a polemic with Hermann Helmholtz (1821 1894). Neumann advanced and extended the ideas of the Königsberg school of mathematical physics. His investigations were aimed at founding a mathematically exact physical theory of electrodynamics, following the approach of Carl G.J. Jacobi (1804 1851) on the foundation of a physical theory as outlined in Jacobi’s lectures on analytical mechanics. Neumann’s work also shows how he clung to principles that impeded him in appreciating and developing new ideas such as those on field theory that were proposed by Michael Faraday (1791 1867) and James Clerk Maxwell (1831 1879).
C75 activates malonyl-CoA sensitive and insensitive components of the CPT system.
Nicot, Carine; Napal, Laura; Relat, Joana; González, Silvia; Llebaria, Amadeu; Woldegiorgis, Gebre; Marrero, Pedro F; Haro, Diego
2004-12-17
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-I) and II (CPT-II) enzymes are components of the carnitine palmitoyltransferase shuttle system which allows entry of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix for subsequent oxidation. This system is tightly regulated by malonyl-CoA levels since this metabolite is a strong reversible inhibitor of the CPT-I enzyme. There are two distinct CPT-I isotypes (CPT-Ialpha and CPT-Ibeta), that exhibit different sensitivity to malonyl-CoA inhibition. Because of its ability to inhibit fatty acid synthase, C75 is able to increase malonyl-CoA intracellular levels. Paradoxically it also activates long-chain fatty acid oxidation. To identify the exact target of C75 within the CPT system, we expressed individually the different components of the system in the yeast Pichia pastoris. We show here that C75 acts on recombinant CPT-Ialpha, but also on the other CPT-I isotype (CPT-Ibeta) and the malonyl-CoA insensitive component of the CPT system, CPT-II. PMID:15541339
Accelerator and electrodynamics capability review
Jones, Kevin W
2010-01-01
Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses capability reviews to assess the science, technology and engineering (STE) quality and institutional integration and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of the STE. Capability reviews address the STE integration that LANL uses to meet mission requirements. The Capability Review Committees serve a dual role of providing assessment of the Laboratory's technical contributions and integration towards its missions and providing advice to Laboratory Management. The assessments and advice are documented in reports prepared by the Capability Review Committees that are delivered to the Director and to the Principal Associate Director for Science, Technology and Engineering (PADSTE). Laboratory Management will use this report for STE assessment and planning. LANL has defined fifteen STE capabilities. Electrodynamics and Accelerators is one of the seven STE capabilities that LANL Management (Director, PADSTE, technical Associate Directors) has identified for review in Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. Accelerators and electrodynamics at LANL comprise a blend of large-scale facilities and innovative small-scale research with a growing focus on national security applications. This review is organized into five topical areas: (1) Free Electron Lasers; (2) Linear Accelerator Science and Technology; (3) Advanced Electromagnetics; (4) Next Generation Accelerator Concepts; and (5) National Security Accelerator Applications. The focus is on innovative technology with an emphasis on applications relevant to Laboratory mission. The role of Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) in support of accelerators/electrodynamics will be discussed. The review provides an opportunity for interaction with early career staff. Program sponsors and customers will provide their input on the value of the accelerator and electrodynamics capability to the Laboratory mission.
Electrodynamics on extrasolar giant planets
Koskinen, T. T.; Yelle, R. V.; Lavvas, P.; Cho, J. Y-K.
2014-11-20
Strong ionization on close-in extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) suggests that their atmospheres may be affected by ion drag and resistive heating arising from wind-driven electrodynamics. Recent models of ion drag on these planets, however, are based on thermal ionization only and do not include the upper atmosphere above the 1 mbar level. These models are also based on simplified equations of resistive magnetohydrodynamics that are not always valid in extrasolar planet atmospheres. We show that photoionization dominates over thermal ionization over much of the dayside atmosphere above the 100 mbar level, creating an upper ionosphere dominated by ionization of H and He and a lower ionosphere dominated by ionization of metals such as Na, K, and Mg. The resulting dayside electron densities on close-in exoplanets are higher than those encountered in any planetary ionosphere of the solar system, and the conductivities are comparable to the chromosphere of the Sun. Based on these results and assumed magnetic fields, we constrain the conductivity regimes on close-in EGPs and use a generalized Ohm's law to study the basic effects of electrodynamics in their atmospheres. We find that ion drag is important above the 10 mbar level where it can also significantly alter the energy balance through resistive heating. Due to frequent collisions of the electrons and ions with the neutral atmosphere, however, ion drag is largely negligible in the lower atmosphere below the 10 mbar level for a reasonable range of planetary magnetic moments. We find that the atmospheric conductivity decreases by several orders of magnitude in the night side of tidally locked planets, leading to a potentially interesting large-scale dichotomy in electrodynamics between the day and night sides. A combined approach that relies on UV observations of the upper atmosphere, phase curve and Doppler measurements of global dynamics, and visual transit observations to probe the alkali metals can potentially be
Instantaneous fields in classical electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heras, J. A.
2005-01-01
In this paper we express the retarded fields of Maxwell's theory in terms of the instantaneous fields of a Galilei-invariant electromagnetic and we find the vector function χL whose spatial and temporal derivatives transform the Euclidean fields into the retarded ones. We conclude that the instantaneous fields can formally be introduced as unphysical objects into classical electrodynamics which can be used to find the physical retarded fields.
Yu, G S; Lu, Y C; Gulick, T
1998-01-01
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-I) catalyses the rate-determining step in mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation. The enzyme has two cognate structural genes that are preferentially expressed in liver (alpha) or fat and muscle (beta). We hypothesized the existence of additional isoforms in heart to account for unique kinetic characteristics of enzyme activity in this tissue. Hybridization and PCR screening of a human cardiac cDNA library revealed the expression of two novel CPT-I isoforms generated by alternative splicing of the CPT-Ibeta transcript, in addition to the beta and alpha cDNA species previously described. Ribonuclease protection and reverse transcriptase-mediated PCR assays confirmed the presence of mRNA species of each splicing variant in heart, skeletal muscle and liver, with differing relative concentrations in the tissues. The novel splicing variants omit exons or utilize a cryptic splice donor site within an exon. Deduced polypeptide sequences of the novel enzymes include omissions in the region of putative membrane-spanning and malonyl-CoA regulatory domains compared with the previously described CPT-Is, implying that the encoded enzymes will exhibit unique features with respect to outer mitochondrial membrane topology and response to physiological and pharmacological inhibitors. PMID:9693124
Weber electrodynamics, part I. general theory, steady current effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wesley, J. P.
1990-10-01
The original Weber action at a distance theory, valid for slowly varying effects, is extended to time-retarded fields, valid for rapidly varying effects including radiation. A new law for the force on a charge moving in this field is derived (replacing the Lorentz force which violates Newton's third law). The limitations of the Maxwell theory are discussed. The Weber theory, in addition to predicting all of the usual electrodynamic results, predicts the following crucial results for slowly varying effects (where Maxwell theory fails): 1) the force on Ampere's bridge in agreement with the measurements of Moyssides and Pappas, 2) the tension required to rupture current carrying wires as observed by Graneau, 3) the force to drive the Graneau-Hering submarine, 4) the force to drive the mercury in Hering's pump, and 5) the force to drive the oscillations in a current carrying mercury wedge as observed by Phipps.
Some Considerations about Podolsky-Axionic Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaete, Patricio
For a Podolsky-axionic electrodynamics, we compute the interaction potential within the structure of the gauge-invariant but path-dependent variables formalism. The result is equivalent to that of axionic electrodynamics from a new noncommutative approach, up to first-order in θ.
Tomographic Site Characterization Using CPT, ERT, and GPR
Rexford M. Morey
1997-05-23
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the cleanup of inactive DOE sites and for bringing DOE sites and facilities into compliance with federal, state and local laws and regulations. The DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) needs advanced technologies that can make environmental restoration and waste management operations more efficient and less costly. These techniques are required to better characterize the physical, hydrogeological, and chemical properties of the subsurface while minimizing and optimizing the use of boreholes and monitoring wells. Today the cone penetrometer technique (CPT) is demonstrating the value of a minimally invasive deployment system fix site characterization. Applied Research Associates is developing two new sensor packages for site characterization and monitoring. The two new methods are: . Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and . Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) Tomography. These sensor systems are now integrated with the Cone Penetrometer Technique (CPT). The results of this program now make it possible to install ERT and GPR units by CPT methods and thereby reduce installation costs and total costs for ERT and GPR surveys. These two techniques can complement each other in regions of low resistivity where ERT is more effective and regions of high resistivity where GPR is more effective. The results show that CPT-installed GeoWells can be used in both ERT and GPR borehole tomographic subsurface imaging. These two imaging techniques can be used for environmental site characterization and environmental remediation monitoring. Technologies used for site characterization and monitoring have numerous and diverse applications within site clean-up and waste management operations.
Quantum Electrodynamics for Vector Mesons
Djukanovic, Dalibor; Schindler, Matthias R.; Scherer, Stefan; Gegelia, Jambul
2005-07-01
Quantum electrodynamics for {rho} mesons is considered. It is shown that, at the tree level, the value of the gyromagnetic ratio of the {rho}{sup +} is fixed to 2 in a self-consistent effective quantum field theory. Further, the mixing parameter of the photon and the neutral vector meson is equal to the ratio of electromagnetic and strong couplings, leading to the mass difference M{sub {rho}}{sub {sup 0}}-M{sub {rho}}{sub {sup {+-}}}{approx}1 MeV at tree order.
A model of nonlinear electrodynamics
Kruglov, S.I.
2015-02-15
A new model of nonlinear electrodynamics with two parameters is investigated. We also consider a model with one dimensional parameter. It was shown that the electric field of a point-like charge is not singular at the origin and there is the finiteness of the static electric energy of point-like charged particle. We obtain the canonical and symmetrical Belinfante energy–momentum tensors and dilatation currents. It is demonstrated that the dilatation symmetry and dual symmetry are broken in the models suggested. We have calculated the static electric energy of point-like particles.
Electrodynamics at the highest energies
Klein, Spencer R.
2002-06-17
At very high energies, the bremsstrahlung and pair production cross sections exhibit complex behavior due to the material in which the interactions occur. The cross sections in dense media can be dramatically different than for isolated atoms. This writeup discusses these in-medium effects, emphasizing how the cross section has different energy and target density dependencies in different regimes. Data from SLAC experiment E-146 will be presented to confirm the energy and density scaling. Finally, QCD analogs of the electrodynamics effects will be discussed.
Electrodynamic convection in silicon floating zones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mühlbauer, A.; Erdmann, W.; Keller, W.
1983-12-01
Using a simplified Navier-Stokes equation it has been possible to compute the electrodynamic convection generated by a radio frequency coil field for the modern needle-eye float-zone growth of silicon. The calculated electrodynamic force in such a zone shows maximum values up to 11.7 N/cm 3 and generates flow velocities between 25 and 100 cm/s. As only superficial convection can be brought about by electrodynamic forces, the axial and radial dopant incorporation will not be influenced strongly. A comparison of electrodynamic forces with the other forces possibly causing flow in silicon floating zones shows that the electrodynamic forces exceed all other forces by several orders of magnitude.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krawczynski, Henric; Kislat, Fabian; Beilicke, Matthias; Zajczyk, Anna
2014-01-01
X-ray and gamma-ray observations of astrophysical objects at cosmological distances can be used to probe the energy dependence of the speed of light with high accuracy and to search for violations of Lorentz invariance and CPT symmetry at the Planck energy scale. In this conference contribution, we discuss these searches in the theoretical framework of the Standard-Model Extension. We present new limits on the dispersion relation governed by operators of mass dimension d = 5 and d = 6, and we discuss avenues for future progress.
Electrodynamic radioactivity detector for microparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ward, T. L.; Davis, E. J.; Jenkins, R. W., Jr.; McRae, D. D.
1989-03-01
A new technique for the measurement of the radioactive decay of single microparticles has been demonstrated. Although the experiments were made with droplets of order 20 μm in diameter, microparticles in the range 0.1-100 μm can be accommodated. An electrodynamic balance and combination light-scattering photometer were used to measure the charge-loss rate and size of a charged microsphere suspended in a laser beam by superposed ac and dc electrical fields. The charged particle undergoes charge loss in the partially ionized gas atmosphere which results from radioactive decay of 14C-tagged compounds, and the rate of charge loss is proportional to the rate of decay here. The charge on a particle was determined by measuring the dc voltage necessary to stably suspend the particle against gravity while simultaneously determining the droplet size by light-scattering techniques. The parameters which affect the operation of the electrodynamic balance as a radioactivity detector are examined, and the limits of its sensitivity are explored. Radioactivity levels as low as 120 pCi have been measured, and it appears that by reducing the background contamination inside our balance activity levels on the order of 10 pCi can be detected. This new technique has application in the measurement of activity levels and source discrimination of natural and man-made aerosols and smokes and is also useful for studies involving specifically labeled radio-chemical probes.
Entropic information for travelling solitons in Lorentz and CPT breaking systems
Correa, R.A.C.; Rocha, Roldão da; Souza Dutra, A. de
2015-08-15
In this work we group four research topics apparently disconnected, namely solitons, Lorentz symmetry breaking, supersymmetry, and entropy. Following a recent work (Gleiser and Stamatopoulos, 2012), we show that it is possible to construct in the context of travelling wave solutions a configurational entropy measure in functional space, from the field configurations. Thus, we investigate the existence and properties of travelling solitons in Lorentz and CPT breaking scenarios for a class of models with two interacting scalar fields. Here, we obtain a complete set of exact solutions for the model studied which display both double and single-kink configurations. In fact, such models are very important in applications that include Bloch branes, Skyrmions, Yang–Mills, Q-balls, oscillons and various superstring-motivated theories. We find that the so-called Configurational Entropy (CE) for travelling solitons shows that the best value of parameter responsible to break the Lorentz symmetry is one where the energy density is distributed equally around the origin. In this way, the information-theoretical measure of travelling solitons in Lorentz symmetry violation scenarios opens a new window to probe situations where the parameters responsible for breaking the symmetries are arbitrary. In this case, the CE selects the best value of the parameter in the model.
Electrodynamic studies of upper and lower atmospheric coupling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chiu, Y. T.; Cornwall, J. M.; Edgar, B. C.; Schulz, M.; Sharp, L. R.
1981-01-01
Theoretical interprotations and data interpretations of electrodynamical studies in upper and lower atmosphere coupling are reported. The following topics are discussed: (1) magnetosphere/ionosphere/atmosphere coupling in auroral electrodynamics; (2) middle atmosphere electrodynamics; (3) thermosphere troposphere coupling; and (4) tropospheric electrodynamics. Understanding of the near Earth space environment shows the interrelationships between various components of the Earth's atmosphere.
Atmospheric electrodynamics in the U.S. - 1987-1990
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holzworth, R. H.
1991-01-01
Atmospheric electrodynamics research is summarized, focusing on three general areas: the ionosphere as a source for middle atmospheric electrodynamics, regional and global scale electrodynamics, and thunderstorms and lightning. New or improved instrumentation techniques which have furthered atmospheric electrodynamics research are also discussed.
Atmospheric electrodynamics in the U. S. - 1987-1990
Holzworth, R.H. )
1991-01-01
Atmospheric electrodynamics research is summarized, focusing on three general areas: the ionosphere as a source for middle atmospheric electrodynamics, regional and global scale electrodynamics, and thunderstorms and lightning. New or improved instrumentation techniques which have furthered atmospheric electrodynamics research are also discussed. 93 refs.
Renormalization of high-energy Lorentz-violating QED
Anselmi, Damiano; Taiuti, Martina
2010-04-15
We study a QED extension that is unitary, CPT invariant, and super-renormalizable, but violates Lorentz symmetry at high energies, and contains higher-dimension operators (LVQED). Divergent diagrams are only one- and two-loop. We compute the one-loop renormalizations at high and low energies and analyze the relation between them. It emerges that the powerlike divergences of the low-energy theory are multiplied by arbitrary constants, inherited by the high-energy theory, and therefore can be set to zero at no cost, bypassing the hierarchy problem.
Report of the Electrodynamic Interactions Panel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stone, N. H.; Taylor, R. S.; Benford, S.; Binsack, J. H.; Dobrowolny, M.; Finnegan, P.; Grossi, M. D.; Hudson, M.; Intriligator, D.; Kaminskas, R.
1985-01-01
A wide range of opportunities is provided by the electrodynamic tether to more fully understand the generation of waves in plasmas, the behavior of field aligned currents, the behavior of large body-space plasma interactions, and for process simulation, using the electrodynamic tether to study processes and phenomena relevant to solar system and astrophysics plasma physics. The electrodynamic tether offers a means of study and experimentation in space which will provide a rich yield in new scientific results and will enhance the understanding of space plasma physics. It also has promising technological applications (e.g., the generation of electrical power and thrust) which may be highly significant to future space operations.
Primordial magnetic fields and nonlinear electrodynamics
Kunze, Kerstin E.
2008-01-15
The creation of large scale magnetic fields is studied in an inflationary universe where electrodynamics is assumed to be nonlinear. After inflation ends electrodynamics becomes linear and thus the description of reheating and the subsequent radiation dominated stage are unaltered. The nonlinear regime of electrodynamics is described by Lagrangians having a power-law dependence on one of the invariants of the electromagnetic field. It is found that there is a range of parameters for which primordial magnetic fields of cosmologically interesting strengths can be created.
Virmani, Ashraf; Pinto, Luigi; Bauermann, Otto; Zerelli, Saf; Diedenhofen, Andreas; Binienda, Zbigniew K; Ali, Syed F; van der Leij, Feike R
2015-10-01
The carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) system is a multiprotein complex with catalytic activity localized within a core represented by CPT1 and CPT2 in the outer and inner membrane of the mitochondria, respectively. Two proteins, the acyl-CoA synthase and a translocase also form part of this system. This system is crucial for the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. CPT1 has two well-known isoforms, CPT1a and CPT1b. CPT1a is the hepatic isoform and CPT1b is typically muscular; both are normally utilized by the organism for metabolic processes throughout the body. There is a strong evidence for their involvement in various disease states, e.g., metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, and in diabetes mellitus type 2. Recently, a new, third isoform of CPT was described, CPT1c. This is a neuronal isoform and is prevalently localized in brain regions such as hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus. These brain regions play an important role in control of food intake and neuropsychiatric and neurological diseases. CPT activity has been implicated in several neurological and social diseases mainly related to the alteration of insulin equilibrium in the brain. These pathologies include Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and schizophrenia. Evolution of both Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease is in some way linked to brain insulin and related metabolic dysfunctions with putative links also with the diabetes type 2. Studies show that in the CNS, CPT1c affects ceramide levels, endocannabionoids, and oxidative processes and may play an important role in various brain functions such as learning. PMID:26041663
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dymnikova, Irina; Galaktionov, Evgeny
2016-03-01
In nonlinear electrodynamics minimally coupled to gravity, regular spherically symmetric electrically charged solutions satisfy the weak energy condition and have obligatory de Sitter center. By the Gürses-Gürsey algorithm they are transformed to regular axially symmetric solutions asymptotically Kerr-Newman for a distant observer. Rotation transforms de Sitter center into de Sitter equatorial disk embedded as a bridge into a de Sitter vacuum surface. The de Sitter surfaces satisfy p = -ρ and have properties of a perfect conductor and ideal diamagnetic. The Kerr ring singularity is replaced with the superconducting current which serves as a non-dissipative electromagnetic source of the asymptotically Kerr-Newman geometry. Violation of the weak energy condition is prevented by the basic requirement of electrodynamics of continued media.
Regular black holes in f (R ) gravity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodrigues, Manuel E.; Junior, Ednaldo L. B.; Marques, Glauber T.; Zanchin, Vilson T.
2016-07-01
We obtain a class of regular black hole solutions in four-dimensional f (R ) gravity, R being the curvature scalar, coupled to a nonlinear electromagnetic source. The metric formalism is used and static spherically symmetric spacetimes are assumed. The resulting f (R ) and nonlinear electrodynamics functions are characterized by a one-parameter family of solutions which are generalizations of known regular black holes in general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics. The related regular black holes of general relativity are recovered when the free parameter vanishes, in which case one has f (R )∝R . We analyze the regularity of the solutions and also show that there are particular solutions that violate only the strong energy condition.
Systems analysis of electrodynamic tethers
Samantha, R.I.; Hastings, D.E.; Ahedo, E. )
1992-06-01
A dynamic simulation model is developed and employed in a new system study to investigate the performance of electrodynamic tethers, both as power generators and thrusters. The electron collection performance of a contactor and a bare wire tether, both separately and in combination, are compared and contrasted. The power and thrust generated by a bare wire tether is found to have a higher dependence on the geomagnetic and ionospheric fluctuations. However, depending on the performance of the contactor, the combination of a bare tether and contactor can substantially boost performance for power generation. As a pure thruster, the contactor tether is examined at constant current, voltage, thrust, and power. It is found that the best mode of operation is with constant power, with resulting power/thrust ratios better than those for ion or magnetoplasmadynamic engines. It is concluded that tethers offer greater potential than previously envisioned. 13 refs.
Planar Multilayer Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minev, Z. K.; Serniak, K.; Pop, I. M.; Leghtas, Z.; Sliwa, K.; Hatridge, M.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Devoret, M. H.
2016-04-01
Experimental quantum information processing with superconducting circuits is rapidly advancing, driven by innovation in two classes of devices, one involving planar microfabricated (2D) resonators, and the other involving machined three-dimensional (3D) cavities. We demonstrate that circuit quantum electrodynamics can be implemented in a multilayer superconducting structure that combines 2D and 3D advantages. We employ standard microfabrication techniques to pattern each layer, and rely on a vacuum gap between the layers to store the electromagnetic energy. Planar qubits are lithographically defined as an aperture in a conducting boundary of the resonators. We demonstrate the aperture concept by implementing an integrated, two-cavity-mode, one-transmon-qubit system.
Fluctuational electrodynamics of hyperbolic metamaterials
Guo, Yu; Jacob, Zubin
2014-06-21
We give a detailed account of equilibrium and non-equilibrium fluctuational electrodynamics of hyperbolic metamaterials. We show the unifying aspects of two different approaches; one utilizes the second kind of fluctuation dissipation theorem and the other makes use of the scattering method. We analyze the near-field of hyperbolic media at finite temperatures and show that the lack of spatial coherence can be attributed to the multi-modal nature of super-Planckian thermal emission. We also adopt the analysis to phonon-polaritonic super-lattice metamaterials and describe the regimes suitable for experimental verification of our predicted effects. The results reveal that far-field thermal emission spectra are dominated by epsilon-near-zero and epsilon-near-pole responses as expected from Kirchoff's laws. Our work should aid both theorists and experimentalists to study complex media and engineer equilibrium and non-equilibrium fluctuations for applications in thermal photonics.
Determinants of CPT-11 and SN-38 activities in human lung cancer cells.
van Ark-Otte, J.; Kedde, M. A.; van der Vijgh, W. J.; Dingemans, A. M.; Jansen, W. J.; Pinedo, H. M.; Boven, E.; Giaccone, G.
1998-01-01
Irinotecan (CPT-11) is a semisynthetic camptothecin derivative with a broad spectrum of anti-tumour activity. Carboxylesterase (CE) catalyses the conversion of CPT-11 to SN-38 (7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin), the active form of CPT-11. The antiproliferative effects of CPT-11 and SN-38, CE-activity and topoisomerase I protein expression were investigated in five human small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines and four human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. Antiproliferative activity, expressed as IC50 values, was determined using the MTT assay. CPT-11 was significantly more active in SCLC than in NSCLC cell lines (P = 0.0036), whereas no significant difference between histological types was observed with SN-38. A significant correlation (r2 = 0.52, P = 0.028) was observed between CE activity and chemosensitivity to CPT-11 but not to SN-38, and significantly higher CE activity was observed in SCLC compared with NSCLC cell lines (P = 0.025). Western blotting experiments showed topoisomerase I protein expressions within a factor of 2, and a granular nuclear staining was detectable in all cell lines by immunocytochemistry of cytospins. No correlation was observed between protein expression and sensitivity to CPT-11 or SN-38. Cellular and medium concentrations of CPT-11 and SN-38 were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in one SCLC cell line with high CE activity and high sensitivity to CPT-11, and one NSCLC cell line with low sensitivity to CPT-11 and CE activity. Intracellular concentrations of CPT-11 and SN-38 were higher in the SCLC cell line, and this was associated with an increase in cellular uptake of CPT-11 compared with the medium, and an increased intracellular formation of SN-38. In conclusion, CE activity appears to be associated with higher sensitivity to CPT-11 in human lung cancer cell lines and may partly explain the difference in the in vitro sensitivity to CPT-11 between SCLC and NSCLC cells. The assessment of CE
Irinotecan (CPT-11)-induced elevation of bile acids potentiates suppression of IL-10 expression.
Fang, Zhong-Ze; Zhang, Dunfang; Cao, Yun-Feng; Xie, Cen; Lu, Dan; Sun, Dong-Xue; Tanaka, Naoki; Jiang, Changtao; Chen, Qianming; Chen, Yu; Wang, Haina; Gonzalez, Frank J
2016-01-15
Irinotecan (CPT-11) is a first-line anti-colon cancer drug, however; CPT-11-induced toxicity remains a key factor limiting its clinical application. To search for clues to the mechanism of CPT-11-induced toxicity, metabolomics was applied using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg of CPT-11 induced loss of body weight, and intestine toxicity. Changes in gallbladder morphology suggested alterations in bile acid metabolism, as revealed at the molecular level by analysis of the liver, bile, and ileum metabolomes between the vehicle-treated control group and the CPT-11-treated group. Analysis of immune cell populations further showed that CPT-11 treatment significantly decreased the IL-10-producing CD4 T cell frequency in intestinal lamina propria lymphocytes, but not in spleen or mesenteric lymph nodes. In vitro cell culture studies showed that the addition of bile acids deoxycholic acid and taurodeoxycholic acid accelerated the CPT-11-induced suppression of IL-10 secretion by activated CD4(+) naive T cells isolated from mouse splenocytes. These results showed that CPT-11 treatment caused metabolic changes in the composition of bile acids that altered CPT-11-induced suppression of IL-10 expression. PMID:26706406
The PROPEL Electrodynamic Tether Demonstration Mission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bilen, Sven G.; Johnson, C. Les; Wiegmann, Bruce M.; Alexander, Leslie; Gilchrist, Brian E.; Hoyt, Robert P.; Elder, Craig H.; Fuhrhop, Keith P.; Scadera, Michael
2012-01-01
The PROPEL ("Propulsion using Electrodynamics") mission will demonstrate the operation of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system in low Earth orbit and advance its technology readiness level for multiple applications. The PROPEL mission has two primary objectives: first, to demonstrate the capability of electrodynamic tether technology to provide robust and safe, near-propellantless propulsion for orbit-raising, de-orbit, plane change, and station keeping, as well as to perform orbital power harvesting and formation flight; and, second, to fully characterize and validate the performance of an integrated electrodynamic tether propulsion system, qualifying it for infusion into future multiple satellite platforms and missions with minimal modification. This paper provides an overview of the PROPEL system and design reference missions; mission goals and required measurements; and ongoing PROPEL mission design efforts.
AMPAR interacting protein CPT1C enhances surface expression of GluA1-containing receptors
Gratacòs-Batlle, Esther; Yefimenko, Natalia; Cascos-García, Helena; Soto, David
2015-01-01
AMPARs mediate the vast majority of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain and their biophysical and trafficking properties depend on their subunit composition and on several posttranscriptional and posttranslational modifications. Additionally, in the brain AMPARs associate with auxiliary subunits, which modify the properties of the receptors. Despite the abundance of AMPAR partners, recent proteomic studies have revealed even more interacting proteins that could potentially be involved in AMPAR regulation. Amongst these, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C (CPT1C) has been demonstrated to form an integral part of native AMPAR complexes in brain tissue extracts. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether CPT1C might be able to modulate AMPAR function. Firstly, we confirmed that CPT1C is an interacting protein of AMPARs in heterologous expression systems. Secondly, CPT1C enhanced whole-cell currents of GluA1 homomeric and GluA1/GluA2 heteromeric receptors. However, CPT1C does not alter the biophysical properties of AMPARs and co-localization experiments revealed that AMPARs and CPT1C are not associated at the plasma membrane despite a strong level of co-localization at the intracellular level. We established that increased surface GluA1 receptor number was responsible for the enhanced AMPAR mediated currents in the presence of CPT1C. Additionally, we revealed that the palmitoylable residue C585 of GluA1 is important in the enhancement of AMPAR trafficking to the cell surface by CPT1C. Nevertheless, despite its potential as a depalmitoylating enzyme, CPT1C does not affect the palmitoylation state of GluA1. To sum up, this work suggests that CPT1C plays a role as a novel regulator of AMPAR surface expression in neurons. Fine modulation of AMPAR membrane trafficking is fundamental in normal synaptic activity and in plasticity processes and CPT1C is therefore a putative candidate to regulate neuronal AMPAR physiology. PMID:25698923
Middle Atmosphere Electrodynamics (MAE). Middle atmospheric electrodynamics during MAP
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldberg, R. A.
1989-01-01
The recent revival and strong motivation for research in middle atmospheric electrodynamics can be attributed, in large part, to the discovery of large (V/m) electric fields within the lower mesosphere during the decade prior to MAP. Subsequent rocket soundings appeared to verify the preliminary findings. During the MAP era, more sophisticated techniques have been employed to obtain measurements which respond positively to criticisms of earlier results, and which provide more insight regarding the character of the fields. The occurrence of mesospheric V/m electric fields now seems to require the presence of aerosols, of local winds and related dynamics, and of an atmospheric electrical conductivity less than 10(-10)S/m. Furthermore, new theoretical ideas describing the origin of the V/m fields are consistent with the measurements. The current status of results regarding V/m fields in the middle atmosphere is reviewed in light of the more widely accepted electric field structure for this region from rocket, balloon and modeling results.
Conjunctions and Collision Avoidance with Electrodynamic Tethers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levin, E.
2013-09-01
Electrodynamic propulsion technology is currently in development by NASA, ESA, and JAXA for the purpose of affordable removal of large debris objects from LEO. At the same time, the Naval Research Laboratory is preparing a 3U CubeSat with a 1-km electrodynamic tether for a flight demonstration of electrodynamic propulsion. This type of propulsion does not require fuel. The electrodynamic thrust is the Lorentz force acting on the electric current in a long conductor (tether) in the geomagnetic field. Electrons are collected from the ambient plasma on one end and emitted back into the plasma from the other end. The electric current loop is closed through the ionosphere, as demonstrated in two previous flights. The vehicle is solar powered. To support safe navigation of electrodynamic tethers, proper conjunction analysis and collision avoidance strategies are needed. The typical lengths of electrodynamic tethers for near-term applications are measured in kilometers, and the conjunction geometry is very different from the geometry of conjunctions between compact objects. It is commonly thought that the collision cross-section in a conjunction between a tether and a compact object is represented by the product of the tether length and the size of the object. However, rigorous analysis shows that this is not the case, and that the above assumption leads to grossly overestimated collision probabilities. The paper will present the results of a detailed mathematical analysis of the conjunction geometry and collision probabilities in close approaches between electrodynamic tethers and compact objects, such as satellites, rocket bodies, and debris fragments. Electrodynamic spacecraft will not require fuel, and therefore, can thrust constantly. Their orbit transfers can take many days, but can result in major orbit changes, including large rotations of the orbital plane, both in the inclination and the node. During these orbit transfers, the electrodynamic spacecraft will
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norbury, John W.
1989-01-01
The invariance of classical electromagnetism under charge-conjugation, parity, and time-reversal (CPT) is studied by considering the motion of a charged particle in electric and magnetic fields. Upon applying CPT transformations to various physical quantities and noting that the motion still behaves physically demonstrates invariance.
Electrodynamics of the Duskside Aurora
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shue, J.; Newell, P. T.; Liou, K.; Meng, C.; Germany, G. A.; Hairston, M. R.; Rich, F. J.
2002-12-01
Shue et al. [2002] reported that an auroral feature, which is called the two-cell aurora, was identified from Polar Ultraviolet Imager auroral images. The characteristics of the two-cell aurora are azimuthal elongation over extended local times with gaps at noon and midnight. Its electrodynamic association with the convection, particle precipitation, and field-aligned currents has not been fully understood. In conjunctions with DMSP F12 spacecraft on the duskside branch of the aurora, we are able to investigate the association of auroral emissions with convection reversals, upward field-aligned currents, and energy fluxes and average energy of particles. It is found that the location of the convection reversal is colocated with the upward field-aligned currents. The maximum auroral emissions occur at or poleward of the convection reversals. The energy flux and average energy derived from auroral images are consistent with observations from DMSP in a region mapped to the plasma sheet. However, inconsistency occurs in a region mapped to the plasma sheet boundary layer. Shue, J.-H., P. T. Newell, K. Liou, C.-I. Meng, Y. Kamide, and R. P. Lepping, Two-component auroras, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(10), 10.1029/2002GL14657, 2002.
Nonlinear electrodynamics and CMB polarization
Cuesta, Herman J. Mosquera; Lambiase, G. E-mail: lambiase@sa.infn.it
2011-03-01
Recently WMAP and BOOMERanG experiments have set stringent constraints on the polarization angle of photons propagating in an expanding universe: Δα = (−2.4±1.9)°. The polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation (CMB) is reviewed in the context of nonlinear electrodynamics (NLED). We compute the polarization angle of photons propagating in a cosmological background with planar symmetry. For this purpose, we use the Pagels-Tomboulis (PT) Lagrangian density describing NLED, which has the form L ∼ (X/Λ{sup 4}){sup δ−1} X, where X = ¼F{sub αβ}F{sup αβ}, and δ the parameter featuring the non-Maxwellian character of the PT nonlinear description of the electromagnetic interaction. After looking at the polarization components in the plane orthogonal to the (x)-direction of propagation of the CMB photons, the polarization angle is defined in terms of the eccentricity of the universe, a geometrical property whose evolution on cosmic time (from the last scattering surface to the present) is constrained by the strength of magnetic fields over extragalactic distances.
Optimal Electrodynamic Tether Phasing Maneuvers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bitzer, Matthew S.; Hall, Christopher D.
2007-01-01
We study the minimum-time orbit phasing maneuver problem for a constant-current electrodynamic tether (EDT). The EDT is assumed to be a point mass and the electromagnetic forces acting on the tether are always perpendicular to the local magnetic field. After deriving and non-dimensionalizing the equations of motion, the only input parameters become current and the phase angle. Solution examples, including initial Lagrange costates, time of flight, thrust plots, and thrust angle profiles, are given for a wide range of current magnitudes and phase angles. The two-dimensional cases presented use a non-tilted magnetic dipole model, and the solutions are compared to existing literature. We are able to compare similar trajectories for a constant thrust phasing maneuver and we find that the time of flight is longer for the constant thrust case with similar initial thrust values and phase angles. Full three-dimensional solutions, which use a titled magnetic dipole model, are also analyzed for orbits with small inclinations.
Global electrodynamics from superpressure balloons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holzworth, R. H.; Hu, H.
1995-01-01
Electric field and conductivity measurements in the stratosphere between November 1992 and March 1993 have been made using superpressure balloons in the southern hemisphere. Over 400 payload-days of data have been made during a record setting experiment called ELBBO (Extended Life Balloon Borne Observatories). This experiment resulted in 4 flights aloft simultaneously for over 2 months including one flight which lasted over 4 months. Electrodynamical coupling between the atmosphere and ionosphere is studied using the measured electric fields, and a simple empirical model of the stratospheric conductivity. Altitude profiles of conductivity have been obtained from several superpressure balloon flights using the large end-of-flight altitude swings on the last few days of each flight (as the balloon begins to loose superpressure). Coupling between the fields and atmospheric inertial waves has been observed. Effects and dynamics of the global circuit suggest that standard models are missing significant phenomena. Large scale ionospheric convection activity has been studied from the polar cap to the middle latitudes. Cusp latitude fields have been continuously measured for many days in a row.
Orbital applications of electrodynamic propulsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Irwin, Troy
1993-12-01
Electrodynamic propulsion (EDP) uses forces resulting from electric currents in conductors as a spacecraft travels through a magnetic field. A vehicle-independent expression for the specific power required for any maneuver is derived and used to assess EDP feasibility. Analytical expressions for the accelerations and combined current-conductor vector required to change the orbital plane or the argument of perigee are developed based on Lagrange's planetary equations. Solutions to the forced Clohessy-Wiltshire equations are developed to study iii-plane rendezvous. Results show EDP can change inclination or right ascension of the ascending mode at approximately 0.4 degrees/day with current spacecraft specific power technology. The effects of the Earth's oblateness on a 24 hour, 90 degree inclination Molniya orbit can be negated. Rendezvous is possible with EDP, and approaches along the target velocity vector with no attitude change are possible with current spacecraft specific power. Approaches involving altitude changes will be possible when modest spacecraft power improvements are made. EDP allows a soft dock - velocities and accelerations decay to zero as the chase vehicle the target - and there is no thruster plume to impart momentum or contaminate the target.
Nanofriction in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics.
Fogarty, T; Cormick, C; Landa, H; Stojanović, Vladimir M; Demler, E; Morigi, Giovanna
2015-12-01
The dynamics of cold trapped ions in a high-finesse resonator results from the interplay between the long-range Coulomb repulsion and the cavity-induced interactions. The latter are due to multiple scatterings of laser photons inside the cavity and become relevant when the laser pump is sufficiently strong to overcome photon decay. We study the stationary states of ions coupled with a mode of a standing-wave cavity as a function of the cavity and laser parameters, when the typical length scales of the two self-organizing processes, Coulomb crystallization and photon-mediated interactions, are incommensurate. The dynamics are frustrated and in specific limiting cases can be cast in terms of the Frenkel-Kontorova model, which reproduces features of friction in one dimension. We numerically recover the sliding and pinned phases. For strong cavity nonlinearities, they are in general separated by bistable regions where superlubric and stick-slip dynamics coexist. The cavity, moreover, acts as a thermal reservoir and can cool the chain vibrations to temperatures controlled by the cavity parameters and by the ions' phase. These features are imprinted in the radiation emitted by the cavity, which is readily measurable in state-of-the-art setups of cavity quantum electrodynamics. PMID:26684118
Electrodynamics of superconducting pnictide superlattices
Perucchi, A.; Pietro, P. Di; Capitani, F.; Lupi, S.; Lee, S.; Kang, J. H.; Eom, C. B.; Jiang, J.; Weiss, J. D.; Hellstrom, E. E.; Dore, P.
2014-06-02
It was recently shown that superlattices where layers of the 8% Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} superconducting pnictide are intercalated with non superconducting ultrathin layers of either SrTiO{sub 3} or of oxygen-rich BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, can be used to control flux pinning, thereby increasing critical fields and currents, without significantly affecting the critical temperature of the pristine superconducting material. However, little is known about the electron properties of these systems. Here, we investigate the electrodynamics of these superconducting pnictide superlattices in the normal and superconducting state by using infrared reflectivity, from THz to visible range. We find that multigap structure of these superlattices is preserved, whereas some significant changes are observed in their electronic structure with respect to those of the original pnictide. Our results suggest that possible attempts to further increase the flux pinning may lead to a breakdown of the pnictide superconducting properties.
Nanofriction in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fogarty, T.; Cormick, C.; Landa, H.; Stojanović, Vladimir M.; Demler, E.; Morigi, Giovanna
2015-12-01
The dynamics of cold trapped ions in a high-finesse resonator results from the interplay between the long-range Coulomb repulsion and the cavity-induced interactions. The latter are due to multiple scatterings of laser photons inside the cavity and become relevant when the laser pump is sufficiently strong to overcome photon decay. We study the stationary states of ions coupled with a mode of a standing-wave cavity as a function of the cavity and laser parameters, when the typical length scales of the two self-organizing processes, Coulomb crystallization and photon-mediated interactions, are incommensurate. The dynamics are frustrated and in specific limiting cases can be cast in terms of the Frenkel-Kontorova model, which reproduces features of friction in one dimension. We numerically recover the sliding and pinned phases. For strong cavity nonlinearities, they are in general separated by bistable regions where superlubric and stick-slip dynamics coexist. The cavity, moreover, acts as a thermal reservoir and can cool the chain vibrations to temperatures controlled by the cavity parameters and by the ions' phase. These features are imprinted in the radiation emitted by the cavity, which is readily measurable in state-of-the-art setups of cavity quantum electrodynamics.
Lethal carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) II deficiency in newborns: A molecular-genetic study
Taroni, F.; Gellera, C.; Cavadini, P.
1994-09-01
Classically, CPT II deficiency presents in young adults with recurrent episodes of paroxysmal myoglobinuria triggered by prolonged exercise, cold, or fever. More severe forms of CPT II deficiency have recently been observed in children and newborns. Here, were present biochemical and molecular studies of lethal neonatal CPT II deficiency in a premature Haitian infant of nonconsanguineous parents. He presented at birth with severe respiratory distress, cardiac arrhythmia and heart failure. His condition worsened and he died on the 4th day of life. Postmortem examination showed hypertrophied, dilated heart, and lipid storage in liver, heart and kidney. An older sibling had died unexpectantly at 4 days of age with postmortem evidence of fatty infiltration of liver, kidney, heart and muscle. Biochemical study of cultured fibroblasts demonstrated dramatic reduction of palmitate oxidation (to < 3%) and very low residual CPT II activity ({le}15%). No CPT II protein was detected by Western blot analysis of fibroblasts. However, immunoprecitation of cells pulse-labeled with L-[{sup 35}S] methionine demonstrated normal amounts of newly synthesized CPT II, thus suggesting altered stability of the enzyme. To identify the molecular defect in his patient, individual CPT II exons were amplified by genomic PCR and directly sequenced. A missense mutation was found in exon 4, resulting in the nonconservative amino acid substitution at codon 227 (Pro227Leu). SSCP analysis of a genomic PCR fragment encompassing the mutation demonstrated that the patient was homozygous and the parents were heterozygous for this mutation. The mutation was detected neither in a large number of controls nor in other CPT II deficient patients. Finally, CPT II activity in COS-1 cells transfected with mutated CPT II cDNA was <8% than that in cells transfected with wild-type cDNA, thus demonstrating the pathogenic role of this mutation.
Brown, N F; Hill, J K; Esser, V; Kirkland, J L; Corkey, B E; Foster, D W; McGarry, J D
1997-01-01
The outer mitochondrial membrane enzyme carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) represents the initial and regulated step in the beta-oxidation of fatty acids. It exists in at least two isoforms, denoted L (liver) and M (muscle) types, with very different kinetic properties and sensitivities to malonyl-CoA. Here we have examined the relative expression of the CPT I isoforms in two different models of adipocyte differentiation and in a number of rat tissues. Adipocytes from mice, hamsters and humans were also evaluated. Primary monolayer cultures of undifferentiated rat preadipocytes expressed solely L-CPT I, but significant levels of M-CPT I emerged after only 3 days of differentiation in vitro; in the mature cell M-CPT I predominated. In sharp contrast, the murine 3T3-L1 preadipocyte expressed essentially exclusively L-CPT I, both in the undifferentiated state and throughout the differentiation process in vitro. This was also true of the mature mouse white fat cell. Fully developed adipocytes from the hamster and human behaved similarly to those of the rat. Thus the mouse white fat cell differs fundamentally from those of the other species examined in terms of tis choice of a key regulatory enzyme in fatty acid metabolism. In contrast, brown adipose tissue from all three rodents displayed the same isoform profiles, each expressing overwhelmingly M-CPT I. Northern blot analysis of other rat tissues established L-CPT I as the dominant isoform not only in liver but also in kidney, lung, ovary, spleen, brain, intestine and pancreatic islets. In addition to its primacy in skeletal muscle, heart and fat, M-CPT I was also found to dominate the testis. The same inter-tissue isoform pattern (with the exception of white fat) was found in the mouse. Taken together, the data bring to light an intriguing divergence between white adipocytes of the mouse and other mammalian species. They also raise a cautionary note that should be considered in the choice of animal model used
Confinement in Maxwell-Chern-Simons planar quantum electrodynamics and the 1/N approximation
Hofmann, Christoph P.; Raya, Alfredo; Madrigal, Saul Sanchez
2010-11-01
We study the analytical structure of the fermion propagator in planar quantum electrodynamics coupled to a Chern-Simons term within a four-component spinor formalism. The dynamical generation of parity-preserving and parity-violating fermion mass terms is considered, through the solution of the corresponding Schwinger-Dyson equation for the fermion propagator at leading order of the 1/N approximation in Landau gauge. The theory undergoes a first-order phase transition toward chiral symmetry restoration when the Chern-Simons coefficient {theta} reaches a critical value which depends upon the number of fermion families considered. Parity-violating masses, however, are generated for arbitrarily large values of the said coefficient. On the confinement scenario, complete charge screening - characteristic of the 1/N approximation - is observed in the entire (N,{theta})-plane through the local and global properties of the vector part of the fermion propagator.
Renormalizable Electrodynamics of Scalar and Vector Mesons. Part II
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Salam, Abdus; Delbourgo, Robert
1964-01-01
The "gauge" technique" for solving theories introduced in an earlier paper is applied to scalar and vector electrodynamics. It is shown that for scalar electrodynamics, there is no {lambda}φ*2φ2 infinity in the theory, while with conventional subtractions vector electrodynamics is completely finite. The essential ideas of the gauge technique are explained in section 3, and a preliminary set of rules for finite computation in vector electrodynamics is set out in Eqs. (7.28) - (7.34).
Nyman, Lara R; Tian, Liqun; Hamm, Doug A; Schoeb, Trenton R; Gower, Barbara A; Nagy, Tim R; Wood, Philip A
2011-08-22
BACKGROUND: Abnormal fatty acid metabolism is an important feature in the mechanisms of insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1a (CPT-1a, liver isoform) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. We investigated the role of CPT-1a in the development of impaired glucose tolerance using a mouse model for CPT-1a deficiency when challenged by either a high-carbohydrate (HCD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for a total duration of up to 46 weeks. METHODS: Insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance were assessed in heterozygous CPT-1a deficient (CPT-1a+/-) male mice after being fed either a HCD or a HFD for durations of 28 weeks and 46 weeks. Both glucose and insulin tolerance tests were used to investigate beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity. Differences in islet insulin content and hepatic steatosis were evaluated by morphological analysis. RESULTS: CPT-1a+/- mice were more insulin sensitive than CPT-1a+/+ mice when fed either HCD or HFD. The increased insulin sensitivity was associated with an increased expression of Cpt-1b (muscle isoform) in liver, as well as increased microvesicular hepatic steatosis compared to CPT-1a+/+ mice. CPT-1a+/- mice were more glucose tolerant than CPT-1a+/+ mice when fed the HCD, but there was no significant difference when fed HFD. Moreover, CPT-1a+/- mice fed HFD or HCD had fewer and smaller pancreatic islets than CPT-1a+/+ mice. CONCLUSIONS: CPT-1a deficiency preserved insulin sensitivity when challenged by long term feeding of either diet. Furthermore, CPT-1a deficient mice had distinct phenotypes dependent on the diet fed demonstrating that both diet and genetics collectively play a role in the development of impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:22229081
Emil Cohn's electrodynamics of moving bodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darrigol, Olivier
1995-10-01
A now forgotten figure, Emil Cohn was one of the leading experts in electrodynamics at the turn of the century. Unsatisfied with Lorentz's electron theory, he proposed an alternative electrodynamics of moving bodies based on a modification of Maxwell's macroscopic field equations that managed to account for all relevant electrodynamic and optical experiments, including that of Michelson and Morley. Some of his insights foreshadow aspects of Einstein's relativity theory, especially the elimination of the ether and the criticism of Lorentz's implicit distinction between true and measured coordinates of space and time. However, Cohn did not believe in the general validity of the relativity principle, and did not require a revision of the usual concepts of space and time.
Ampere-Neumann electrodynamics of metals
Graneau, P.
1985-01-01
Maxwell described Ampere's force law as the cardinal formula of electrodynamics. This law predicts longitudinal mechanical forces along current streamlines in metallic conductors. The Ampere forces set up tension in wires and busbars and compression in liquid metal. At normal current densities they are negligible but, increasing with the square of current, they become dominant in pulse power circuits. Ampere tension and compression have been revealed by exploding wire experiments, in liquid metal jets at solid - liquid interfaces, and with an electrodynamic pendulum. Ampere stresses are already playing an important role in the development of railguns, fuses, current limiters, opening switches, pulse magnets, and a host of other pulse-power devices. This book outlines the electrodynamic action-at-a-distance theory developed by Ampere, Neumann, Weber and, to some extent, by Maxwell. One chapter describes the 20th century extensions of the theory by Graneau and others.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romero, Juan M.; Santiago, José A.; González-Gaxiola, O.; Zamora, Adolfo
We study an electrodynamics consistent with anisotropic transformations of spacetime with an arbitrary dynamic exponent z. The equations of motion and conserved quantities are explicitly obtained. We show that the propagator of this theory can be regarded as a quantum correction to the usual propagator. Moreover, we obtain that both the momentum and angular momentum are not modified, but their conservation laws do change. We also show that in this theory the speed of light and the electric charge are modified with z. The magnetic monopole in this electrodynamics and its duality transformations are also investigated. For that we found that there exists a dual electrodynamics, with higher derivatives in the electric field, invariant under the same anisotropic transformations.
Tests of Lorentz and CPT Invariance in Space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mewes, Matthew
2003-01-01
I give a brief overview of recent work concerning possible signals of Lorentz violation in sensitive clock-based experiments in space. The systems under consideration include atomic clocks and electromagnetic resonators of the type planned for flight on the International Space Station.
The tethered satellite electrodynamics experiment project
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Price, John M.
1988-01-01
NASA and Italy's PSN have undertaken the Tethered Satellite Electrodynamics Experiment, in which two tethered bodies will be equipped with data-collecting scientific instruments, as the first stage of the development of the Tethered Satellite System that can be deployed by the Space Shuttle. The experiment will give attention to the electromagnetic interaction between the satellite/tether/orbiter system and the ambient space plasma, and should demonstrate the operation of both satellite- and Shuttle-borne electrodynamic instruments with a conductive tether.
Electrodynamic treatment of reversed-type emulsions
Skachkov, A.E.; Lavrov, I.S.; Timonov, S.M.
1985-11-01
The authors have produced an inhomogeneous electric field in processing reversed emulsions by using the oscillations of conducting spheres in an electric field; this is known as the electrical pendulum effect. The apparatus for the electrodynamic treatment of reversed-type emulsion is shown and the physical characteristics (density, kinematic viscosity, dielectric constant) are shown for the hydrocarbons used: hexane, octane, hexadecane and diesel fuel. It is shown that there is a minimum in the dependence of the residual water content after electrodynamic treatment on the external field strength; the minimum shifts to larger external field strength as the viscosity increases.
Zhang, Yi; Qu, Suping; Gu, Sihong
2012-03-12
We have developed and experimentally studied a coherent population trapping (CPT) state preparation scheme for atomic clock application with co-propagating left and right circularly polarized lasers. With realization of constructive interference and spin-polarized dark state free in CPT state preparation, we have obtained CPT resonance signal 3 times larger than that of the conventional scheme used in atomic clock. Polarization fluctuations and CPT signal sensitivity to laser power behaviors are both improved with the scheme. Our study reveals that it is a promising candidate for both normal-size and chip-scale CPT atomic clocks. PMID:22418521
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reiser, Andreas; Schubert, Klaus R.; Stiewe, Jürgen
2012-08-01
Weak interactions break time-reversal (T) symmetry in the two-state system of neutral K-mesons. We present and discuss a two-state mechanical system, i.e. a Foucault-type pendulum on a rotating table, for a full representation of {K^0}{{\\overlineK}{}^0} transitions by the pendulum motions including T violation. The pendulum moves with two different oscillation frequencies and two different magnetic dampings. Its equation of motion is identical to the differential equation for the real part of the CPT-symmetric K-meson wavefunction. The pendulum is able to represent microscopic CP and T violation with CPT symmetry owing to the macroscopic Coriolis force, which breaks the symmetry under reversal-of-motion. Video clips of the pendulum motions are given as supplementary material.
Polymeric Coatings for Electrodynamic Tethers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vaughn, Jason A.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Schuler, Peter
2000-01-01
Two polymeric coatings have been developed for the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) mission. ProSEDS is designed to provide an on-orbit demonstration of the electrodynamic propulsion capabilities of tethers in space. The ProSEDS experiment will be a secondary payload on a Delta II unmanned expendable booster scheduled for launch in August 2000. A 5-km conductive tether is attached to the Delta 11 second stage and collects current from the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma to facilitate de-orbit of the spent stage. The conductive tether is attached to a 10-km non-conductive tether, the other end of which is attached to an endmass containing several scientific instruments. A bare metal tether would have the best conductivity but thermal concerns preclude this design. A conductive polymer developed by Triton Systems has been optimized for conductivity and thermo-optical properties. The current design for the ProSEDS conductive tether is seven strands of 28 AWG aluminum wire individually coated with 8.7 micrometers (0.35 mil) of an atomic oxygen-resistant conductive polymer composed of a mixture of 87% Clear Oxygen-Resistant polymer (COR) and 13% polyanaline (PANi), wrapped around a braided Kevlar (TM) 49 core. Extensive testing has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to qualify this material for flight on ProSEDS. Atomic oxygen exposure was performed, with solar absorptance and infrared emittance measured before and after exposure. Conductivity was measured before and after atomic oxygen exposure. High voltage tests, up to 1500 V, of the current collecting ability of the COR/PANi have been completed. Approximately 160 meters of the conductive tether closest to the Delta 11 second stage is insulated to prevent any electron reconnection to the tether from the plasma contactor. The insulation is composed of polyimide overcoated with TOR-BP, another polymeric coating developed by Triton for this mission. TOR-BP acts as both insulator
Charmless Three-Body B-decays: final state interaction and CP violation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alvarenga Nogueira, J. H.; Bediaga, I.; Cavalcante, A. B. R.; Frederico, T.; Lourenço, O.
2016-04-01
We obtain an explicit expression for the charge-parity violation (CPV) considering final state interactions (FSI) and the ρ(770) and f 0(980) resonances in the B± → π± π+π‑ decay. In addition, we investigate the channel coupled by the strong interaction B± → π± K+ K-. dictated by the CPT constraint. We use our model to fit experimental data of such decays [1], For the interfering resonant contributions to the CP asymmetry, we show that locally CPT constraint seems to be valid in the B± → π± π+π‑ channel. Our work suggests, in agreement with the CPT constraint, that the CP asymmetry in coupled channels are related and have opposite signs. Our formula for the CP asymmetry fairly fit the LHCb data improving our understanding of the interplay between the FSI and CP violation. For more complete and detailed studies for the channels K± K+ K-, K± π+π‑, π± K+ K- and π± π+π‑ see Ref. [2],
Lamb Shift in Nonrelativistic Quantum Electrodynamics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grotch, Howard
1981-01-01
The bound electron self-energy or Lamb shift is calculated in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics. Retardation is retained and also an interaction previously dropped in other nonrelativistic approaches is kept. Results are finite without introducing a cutoff and lead to a Lamb shift in hydrogen of 1030.9 MHz. (Author/JN)
Electrodynamic Tethers for Novel LEO Missions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kantner, Michael; Hoyt, Robert; Scardera, Michael; Johnson, Charles
2011-01-01
The exponential increase of launch system size - and cost - with deltaV makes missions requiring large total impulse cost prohibitive. Northrop Grumman and partners have matured a fundamentally different method for generating propulsion using electrodynamic tethers (EDTs) that escapes the limitations of the rocket equation. With essentially unlimited delta V, we can perform new classes of missions that are currently unaffordable or unfeasible.
Students' Difficulties with Vector Calculus in Electrodynamics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; De Cock, Mieke
2015-01-01
Understanding Maxwell's equations in differential form is of great importance when studying the electrodynamic phenomena discussed in advanced electromagnetism courses. It is therefore necessary that students master the use of vector calculus in physical situations. In this light we investigated the difficulties second year students at KU Leuven…
Quantum Hall effect in quantum electrodynamics
Penin, Alexander A.
2009-03-15
We consider the quantum Hall effect in quantum electrodynamics and find a deviation from the quantum-mechanical prediction for the Hall conductivity due to radiative antiscreening of electric charge in an external magnetic field. A weak dependence of the universal von Klitzing constant on the magnetic field strength, which can possibly be observed in a dedicated experiment, is predicted.
Strong field electrodynamics of a thin foil
Bulanov, Sergei V.; Esirkepov, Timur Zh.; Kando, Masaki; Bulanov, Stepan S.; Rykovanov, Sergey G.; Pegoraro, Francesco
2013-12-15
Exact solutions describing the nonlinear electrodynamics of a thin double layer foil are presented. These solutions correspond to a broad range of problems of interest for the interaction of high intensity laser pulses with overdense plasmas, such as frequency upshifting, high order harmonic generation, and high energy ion acceleration.
Nonlinear quantum electrodynamics in vacuum and plasmas
Brodin, Gert; Lundin, Joakim; Marklund, Mattias
2010-12-14
We consider high field physics due to quantum electrodynamics, in particular those that can be studied in the next generation of laser facilities. Effective field theories based on the Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian are briefly reviewed, and examples involving plasma- and vacuum physics are given.
Electrodynamics in One Dimension: Radiation and Reflection
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Asti, G.; Coisson, R.
2011-01-01
Problems involving polarized plane waves and currents on sheets perpendicular to the wavevector involve only one component of the fields, so it is possible to discuss electrodynamics in one dimension. Taking for simplicity linearly polarized sinusoidal waves, we can derive the field emitted by currents (analogous to dipole radiation in three…
Linear Response Laws and Causality in Electrodynamics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yuffa, Alex J.; Scales, John A.
2012-01-01
Linear response laws and causality (the effect cannot precede the cause) are of fundamental importance in physics. In the context of classical electrodynamics, students often have a difficult time grasping these concepts because the physics is obscured by the intermingling of the time and frequency domains. In this paper, we analyse the linear…
Quantum electrodynamics with complex fermion mass
McKellar, B.J.H. . School of Physics); Wu, D.D. . School of Physics Academia Sinica, Beijing, BJ . Inst. of High Energy Physics Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX )
1991-08-01
The quantum electrodynamics (QED) with a complex fermion mass -- that is, a fermion mass with a chiral phase -- is restudied, together with its chirally rotated version. We show how fake electric dipole moment can be obtained and how to avoid it. 10 refs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dymnikova, Irina; Galaktionov, Evgeny
2015-08-01
In non-linear electrodynamics coupled to gravity, regular spherically symmetric electrically charged solutions satisfy the weak energy condition and have an obligatory de Sitter center. By the Gürses-Gürsey algorithm they are transformed to spinning electrically charged solutions that are asymptotically Kerr-Newman for a distant observer. Rotation transforms the de Sitter center into a de Sitter vacuum surface which contains the equatorial disk r = 0 as a bridge. We present a general analysis of the horizons, ergoregions and de Sitter surfaces, as well as the conditions of the existence of regular solutions to the field equations. We find asymptotic solutions and show that de Sitter vacuum surfaces have properties of a perfect conductor and ideal diamagnetic, violation of the weak energy condition is prevented by the basic requirement of electrodynamics of continued media, and the Kerr ring singularity is replaced with the superconducting current.
Search for a Lorentz-violating sidereal signal with atmospheric neutrinos in IceCube
IceCube; etal, Abbasi, R,
2010-11-11
A search for sidereal modulation in the flux of atmospheric muon neutrinos in IceCube was performed. Such a signal could be an indication of Lorentz-violating physics. Neutrino oscillationmodels, derivable from extensions to the Standard Model, allow for neutrino oscillations that depend on the neutrino's direction of propagation. No such direction-dependent variation was found. Adiscrete Fourier transform method was used to constrain the Lorentz and CPT-violating coefficients in one of these models. Due to the unique high energy reach of IceCube, it was possible to improveconstraints on certain Lorentz-violating oscillations by three orders of magnitude with respect to limits set by other experiments.
Low-energy phenomenology of scalarless standard-model extensions with high-energy Lorentz violation
Anselmi, Damiano; Ciuffoli, Emilio
2011-03-01
We consider renormalizable standard model extensions that violate Lorentz symmetry at high energies, but preserve CPT, and do not contain elementary scalar fields. A Nambu-Jona-Lasinio mechanism gives masses to fermions and gauge bosons and generates composite Higgs fields at low energies. We study the effective potential at the leading order of the large-N{sub c} expansion, prove that there exists a broken phase, and study the phase space. In general, the minimum may break invariance under boosts, rotations, and CPT, but we give evidence that there exists a Lorentz invariant phase. We study the spectrum of composite bosons and the low-energy theory in the Lorentz phase. Our approach predicts relations among the parameters of the low-energy theory. We find that such relations are compatible with the experimental data within theoretical errors. We also study the mixing among generations, the emergence of the CKM matrix, and neutrino oscillations.
Low-energy phenomenology of scalarless standard-model extensions with high-energy Lorentz violation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anselmi, Damiano; Ciuffoli, Emilio
2011-03-01
We consider renormalizable standard model extensions that violate Lorentz symmetry at high energies, but preserve CPT, and do not contain elementary scalar fields. A Nambu-Jona-Lasinio mechanism gives masses to fermions and gauge bosons and generates composite Higgs fields at low energies. We study the effective potential at the leading order of the large-Nc expansion, prove that there exists a broken phase, and study the phase space. In general, the minimum may break invariance under boosts, rotations, and CPT, but we give evidence that there exists a Lorentz invariant phase. We study the spectrum of composite bosons and the low-energy theory in the Lorentz phase. Our approach predicts relations among the parameters of the low-energy theory. We find that such relations are compatible with the experimental data within theoretical errors. We also study the mixing among generations, the emergence of the CKM matrix, and neutrino oscillations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belich, H.; Bakke, K.
2015-07-01
We start by investigating the arising of a spin-orbit coupling and a Darwin-type term that stem from Lorentz symmetry breaking effects in the CPT-odd sector of the Standard Model Extension. Then, we establish a possible scenario of the violation of the Lorentz symmetry that gives rise to a linear confining potential and an effective electric field in which determines the spin-orbit coupling for a neutral particle analogous to the Rashba coupling [E. I. Rashba, Sov. Phys. Solid State 2, 1109 (1960)]. Finally, we confine the neutral particle to a quantum dot [W.-C. Tan and J. C. Inkson, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11, 1635 (1996)] and analyze the influence of the linear confining potential and the spin-orbit coupling on the spectrum of energy.
Preliminary numerical modeling results - cone penetrometer (CPT) tip used as an electrode
Ramirez, A L
2006-12-19
Figure 1 shows the resistivity models considered in this study; log10 of the resistivity is shown. The graph on the upper left hand side shows a hypothetical resisitivity well log measured along a well in the upper layered model; 10% Gaussian noise has been added to the well log data. The lower model is identical to the upper one except for one square area located within the second deepest layer. Figure 2 shows the electrode configurations considered. The ''reference'' case (upper frame) considers point electrodes located along the surface and along a vertical borehole. The ''CPT electrode'' case (middle frame) assumes that the CPT tip serves as an electrode that is electrically connected to the push rod; the surface electrodes are used in conjuction with the moving CPT electrode. The ''isolated CPT electrode'' case assumes that the electrode at the CPT tip is electrically isolated from the pushrod. Note that the separate CPT push rods in the middle and lower frames are shown separated to clarify the figure; in reality, there is only one pushrod that is changing length as the probe advances. Figure 3 shows three pole-pole measurement schemes were considered; in all cases, the ''get lost'' electrodes were the leftmost and rightmost surface electrodes. The top frame shows the reference scheme where all surface and borehole electrodes can be used. The middle frame shows two possible configurations available when a CPT mounted electrode is used. Note that only one of the four poles can be located along the borehole at any given time; electrode combinations such as the one depicted in blue (upper frame) are not possible in this case. The bottom frame shows a sample configuration where only the surface electrodes are used. Figure 4 shows the results obtained for the various measurement schemes. The white lines show the outline of the true model (shown in Figure 1, upper frame). The starting initial model for these inversions is based on the electrical resistivity log
He, Lan; Kim, Teayoun; Long, Qinqiang; Liu, Jian; Wang, Peiyong; Zhou, Yiqun; Ding, Yishu; Prasain, Jeevan; Wood, Philip A.; Yang, Qinglin
2012-01-01
Background Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1(CPT1) is a rate-limiting step of mitochondrial β-oxidation by controlling the mitochondrial uptake of long-chain acyl-CoAs. The muscle isoform, CPT1b, is the predominant isoform expressed in the heart. It has been suggested that inhibiting CPT-1 activity by specific CPT-1 inhibitors exerts protective effects against cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. However, clinical and animal studies have shown mixed results, thereby posting concerns on the safety of this class of drugs. Preclinical studies using genetically modified animal models should provide a better understanding of targeting CPT1 in order to evaluate it as a safe and effective therapeutic approach. Methods and Results Heterozygous CPT1b knockout mice (CPT1b+/−) were subjected to transverse aorta constriction (TAC)-induced pressure-overload. These mice showed overtly normal cardiac structure/function under the basal condition. Under a severe pressure-overload condition induced by two weeks of transverse aorta constriction (TAC), CPT1b+/− mice were susceptible to premature death with congestive heart failure. Under a milder pressure-overload condition, CPT1b+/− mice exhibited exacerbated cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling compared with that in wild-type littermates. There were more pronounced impairments of cardiac contraction with greater eccentric cardiac hypertrophy in CPT1b+/− than in controlled mice. Moreover, the CPT1b+/− heart exhibited exacerbated mitochondrial abnormalities and myocardial lipid accumulation with elevated triglycerides and ceramide content, leading to greater cardiomyocytes apoptosis. Conclusions We conclude that CPT1b deficiency can cause lipotoxicity in the heart under pathological stress, leading to exacerbation of cardiac pathology. Therefore, caution should be applied in the clinical use of CPT-1 inhibitors. PMID:22932257
Topologically induced local P and CP violation in hot QCD
Kharzeev,D.E.
2009-02-01
Very stringent experimental bounds exist on the amount of P and CP violation in strong interactions. Nevertheless, the presence of non-Abelian topological solutions and the axial anomaly make the issue of CP invariance in QCD non-trivial ('the strong CP problem'). Even in the absence of a global P and CP violation the fluctuations of topological charge in the QCD vacuum are expected to play an important role in the breaking of chiral symmetry, and in the mass spectrum and other properties of hadrons. Here I argue that topological fluctuations in hot QCD matter can become directly observable in the presence of a very intense external magnetic field by inducing local P- and CP-odd effects. These local parity-violating phenomena can be described by using the Maxwell-Chern-Simons, or axion, electrodynamics as an effective theory. Local P and CP violation in hot QCD matter can be observed in experiment through the 'chiral magnetic effect' - the separation of electric charge along the axis of magnetic field that is created by the colliding relativistic ions. There is a recent evidence for the electric charge separation relative to the reaction plane of heavy ion collisions from the STAR Collaboration at RHIC.
Magnetic Levitation Experiments with the Electrodynamic Wheel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cordrey, Vincent; Gutarra-Leon, Angel; Gaul, Nathan; Majewski, Walerian
Our experiments explored inductive magnetic levitation using circular Halbach arrays with the strong variable magnetic field on the outer rim of the ring. Such a system is usually called an Electrodynamic Wheel (EDW). Rotating this wheel around a horizontal axis above a flat conducting surface should induce eddy currents in said surface through the variable magnetic flux. The eddy currents produce, in turn, their own magnetic fields which interact with the magnets of the EDW. We constructed two Electrodynamic Wheels with different diameters and demonstrated that the magnetic interactions produce both lift and drag forces on the EDW which can be used for levitation and propulsion of the EDW. The focus of our experiments is the direct measurement of lift and drag forces to compare with theoretical models using wheels of two different radii. Supported by Grants from the Virginia Academy of Science, Society of Physics Students, Virginia Community College System, and the NVCC Educational Foundation.
Electrodynamics of planar Archimedean spiral resonator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maleeva, N.; Averkin, A.; Abramov, N. N.; Fistul, M. V.; Karpov, A.; Zhuravel, A. P.; Ustinov, A. V.
2015-07-01
We present a theoretical and experimental study of electrodynamics of a planar spiral superconducting resonator of a finite length. The resonator is made in the form of a monofilar Archimedean spiral. By making use of a general model of inhomogeneous alternating current flowing along the resonator and specific boundary conditions on the surface of the strip, we obtain analytically the frequencies fn of resonances which can be excited in such system. We also calculate corresponding inhomogeneous RF current distributions ψ n ( r ) , where r is the coordinate across a spiral. We show that the resonant frequencies and current distributions are well described by simple relationships f n = f 1 n and ψ n ( r ) ≃ sin [ π n ( r / R e ) 2 ] , where n = 1 , 2... and Re is the external radius of the spiral. Our analysis of electrodynamic properties of spiral resonators' is in good agreement with direct numerical simulations and measurements made using specifically designed magnetic probe and laser scanning microscope.
Alternative formulations of magnetospheric plasma electrodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cragin, B. L.; Heikkila, W. J.
1981-01-01
The fundamental equations of magnetospheric plasma electrodynamics are considered from a theoretical standpoint that stresses the basic equivalence of various seemingly different formal representations. The mathematical properties of vector fields are reviewed, and their implications in electrodynamics are studied. The irrotational and solenoidal parts of the electric field are associated with two physically distinct types of sources. Relativistic covariance and gauge invariance in electromagnetic theory are reviewed and discussed in the context of an approach in which the mathematical properties of vector fields are taken as primary concepts. Special attention is given to the use and interpretation of the Coulomb gauge potential functions. This choice of gauge is sometimes regarded with undue suspicion, possibly because of a certain paradox concerning causality. The paradox is discussed and resolved. Useful properties of the Coulomb gauge are identified. These need not be limited to the case of slow time variations and can extend beyond the limits of validity of ideal MHD theory.
Middle Atmosphere Electrodynamics During a Thunderstorm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Croskey, Charles L.
1996-01-01
Rocket-based instrumentation investigations of middle atmospheric electrodynamics during thunderstorms were conducted in coordination with balloon-measurements at Wallops Island, Virginia. Middle atmosphere electrodynamics and energy coupling are of particular importance to associated electrical processes at lower and higher altitudes. Objectives of this research effort included: (1) investigation of thunderstorm effects on middle atmosphere electrical structure, including spatial and temporal dependence; (2) characterization of electric field transients and the associated energy deposited at various altitudes; (3) evaluation of the vertical Maxwell current density over a thunderstorm to study the coupling of energy to higher altitudes; and (4) investigation of the coupling of energy to the ionosphere and the current supplied to the 'global circuit.'
Students' difficulties with vector calculus in electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; De Cock, Mieke
2015-12-01
Understanding Maxwell's equations in differential form is of great importance when studying the electrodynamic phenomena discussed in advanced electromagnetism courses. It is therefore necessary that students master the use of vector calculus in physical situations. In this light we investigated the difficulties second year students at KU Leuven encounter with the divergence and curl of a vector field in mathematical and physical contexts. We have found that they are quite skilled at doing calculations, but struggle with interpreting graphical representations of vector fields and applying vector calculus to physical situations. We have found strong indications that traditional instruction is not sufficient for our students to fully understand the meaning and power of Maxwell's equations in electrodynamics.
Modified Nonlinear Model of Arcsin-Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kruglov, S. I.
2016-07-01
A new modified model of nonlinear arcsin-electrodynamics with two parameters is proposed and analyzed. We obtain the corrections to the Coulomb law. The effect of vacuum birefringence takes place when the external constant magnetic field is present. We calculate indices of refraction for two perpendicular polarizations of electromagnetic waves and estimate bounds on the parameter γ from the BMV and PVLAS experiments. It is shown that the electric field of a point-like charge is finite at the origin. We calculate the finite static electric energy of point-like particles and demonstrate that the electron mass can have the pure electromagnetic nature. The symmetrical Belinfante energy-momentum tensor and dilatation current are found. We show that the dilatation symmetry and dual symmetry are broken in the model suggested. We have investigated the gauge covariant quantization of the nonlinear electrodynamics fields as well as the gauge fixing approach based on Dirac's brackets.
Continuum mechanics, stresses, currents and electrodynamics.
Segev, Reuven
2016-04-28
The Eulerian approach to continuum mechanics does not make use of a body manifold. Rather, all fields considered are defined on the space, or the space-time, manifolds. Sections of some vector bundle represent generalized velocities which need not be associated with the motion of material points. Using the theories of de Rham currents and generalized sections of vector bundles, we formulate a weak theory of forces and stresses represented by vector-valued currents. Considering generalized velocities represented by differential forms and interpreting such a form as a generalized potential field, we present a weak formulation of pre-metric, p-form electrodynamics as a natural example of the foregoing theory. Finally, it is shown that the assumptions leading to p-form electrodynamics may be replaced by the condition that the force functional is continuous with respect to the flat topology of forms. PMID:27002071
EMC Test Report Electrodynamic Dust Shield
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carmody, Lynne M.; Boyette, Carl B.
2014-01-01
This report documents the Electromagnetic Interference E M I evaluation performed on the Electrodynamic Dust Shield (EDS) which is part of the MISSE-X System under the Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center. Measurements are performed to document the emissions environment associated with the EDS units. The purpose of this report is to collect all information needed to reproduce the testing performed on the Electrodynamic Dust Shield units, document data gathered during testing, and present the results. This document presents information unique to the measurements performed on the Bioculture Express Rack payload; using test methods prepared to meet SSP 30238 requirements. It includes the information necessary to satisfy the needs of the customer per work order number 1037104. The information presented herein should only be used to meet the requirements for which it was prepared.
Search for T violation in charm meson decays
Link, J.M.; Yager, P.M.; Anjos, J.C.; Bediaga, I.; Castromonte, C.; Machado, A.A.; Magnin, J.; Massafferri, A.; de Miranda, J.M.; Pepe, I.M.; Polycarpo, E.; dos Reis, A.C.; Carrillo, S.; Casimiro, E.; Cuautle, E.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Uribe, C.; Vazquez, F.; Agostino, L.; Cinquini, L.; Cumalat, J.P.; /Colorado U. /Fermilab /Frascati /Guanajuato U. /Illinois U., Urbana /Indiana U. /Korea U. /Kyungpook Natl. U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /North Carolina U. /Pavia U. /INFN, Pavia /Rio de Janeiro, Pont. U. Catol. /Puerto Rico U., Mayaguez /South Carolina U. /Tennessee U. /Vanderbilt U. /Wisconsin U., Madison
2005-06-01
Using data from the FOCUS (E831) experiment, they have searched for T violation in charm meson decays using the four-body decay channels D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}K{sup +} {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}, D{sup +} {yields} K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}, and D{sub s}{sup +} {yields} K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}. The T violation asymmetry is obtained using triple-product correlations and assuming the validity of the CPT theorem. They find the asymmetry values to be A{sub T{sub viol}}(D{sup 0}) = 0.010 {+-} 0.057(stat.) {+-} 0.037(syst.), A{sub T{sub viol}}(D{sup +}) = 0.023 {+-} 0.062(stat.) {+-} 0.022(syst.), and A{sub T{sub viol}}(D{sub s}{sup +}) = -0.036 {+-} 0.067(stat.) {+-} 0.023(syst.). Each measurement is consistent with no T violation. New measurements of the CP asymmetries for some of these decay modes are also presented.
Middle atmospheric electrodynamics - Status and future
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldberg, R. A.
1984-01-01
Recent theoretical and observational studies of middle atmosphere electrodynamics are reviewed. Attention is given to observations of large electric fields in the mesosphere and stratosphere which suggest magnitudes of about one volt per sq m. Recommendations are offered with respect to areas of future study, with emphasis on studies of the morphology of large electric fields, and their relationship with external influences such as magnetospheric electric fields and tropospheric thunderstorms.
Quantum Electrodynamics in the POINCARÉ Gauge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galvão, Carlos A. P.; Gaete, Patricio; Pimentel, B. M.
We consider the description of quantum electrodynamics in the Poincaré gauge. Dirac brackets and the U matrix are constructed. The U matrix has the same formal structure as that found in the Coulomb gauge. We consider a modified version of the Poincaré gauge conditions which restrict only the nonphysical components of the gauge potential. We show that the resulting description of QED turns out to be analogous to the Coulomb gauge.
Topological solitons in 8-spinor mie electrodynamics
Rybakov, Yu. P.
2013-10-15
We investigate the effective 8-spinor field model suggested earlier as the generalization of nonlinear Mie electrodynamics. We first study in pure spinorial model the existence of topological solitons endowed with the nontrivial Hopf invariant Q{sub H}, which can be interpreted as the lepton number. Electromagnetic field being included as the perturbation, we estimate the energy and the spin of the localized charged configuration.
Effect of Cellular Location of Human Carboxylesterase 2 on CPT-11 Hydrolysis and Anticancer Activity
Hsieh, Yuan-Ting; Lin, Hsuan-Pei; Chen, Bing-Mae; Huang, Ping-Ting; Roffler, Steve R.
2015-01-01
CPT-11 is an anticancer prodrug that is clinically used for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Hydrolysis of CPT-11 by human carboxylesterase 2 (CE2) generates SN-38, a topoisomerase I inhibitor that is the active anti-tumor agent. Expression of CE2 in cancer cells is under investigation for the tumor-localized activation of CPT-11. CE2 is normally expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells but can be engineered to direct expression of active enzyme on the plasma membrane or as a secreted form. Although previous studies have investigated different locations of CE2 expression in cancer cells, it remains unclear if CE2 cellular location affects CPT-11 anticancer activity. In the present study, we directly compared the influence of CE2 cellular location on substrate hydrolysis and CPT-11 cytotoxicity. We linked expression of CE2 and enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP) via a foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A (F2A) peptide to facilitate fluorescence-activated cell sorting to achieve similar expression levels of ER-located, secreted or membrane-anchored CE2. Soluble CE2 was detected in the medium of cells that expressed secreted and membrane-anchored CE2, but not in cells that expressed ER-retained CE2. Cancer cells that expressed all three forms of CE2 were more sensitive to CPT-11 as compared to unmodified cancer cells, but the membrane-anchored and ER-retained forms of CE2 were consistently more effective than secreted CE2. We conclude that expression of CE2 in the ER or on the membrane of cancer cells is suitable for enhancing CPT-11 anticancer activity. PMID:26509550
Assimilative Mapping of Interhemispheric Polar Ionospheric Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuo, T.; Richmond, A. D.; Knipp, D. J.; McGranaghan, R. M.
2015-12-01
The Earth's main magnetic field is asymmetric between hemispheres due to its non-dipolar component, leading to various hemispherical differences in the coupling among the solar wind, magnetosphere and ionosphere. Manifestation of the asymmetric coupling through different electrodynamic parameters reported in past studies is considerably diverse. To fill the gap in our current understanding, obtained so far by analyzing individual parameters separately and comparing statistical behaviors of the parameters, we quantify the degree of instantaneous inter-hemispheric imbalance of electromagnetic energy deposition (Poynting flux), field-aligned currents, and convection electric fields though global and self-consistent analysis of electrodynamic variables at both polar regions, by means of data assimilation. Inter-hemispheric assimilative maps of different high-latitude electrodynamical parameters are obtained from simultaneous analysis of multiple types of space-based and ground-based observations made available though the AMPERE, SuperDARN, SuperMAG and DMSP programs with rigorous consideration of the uncertainty associated with each observation.
The ElectroDynamic Delivery Experiment (EDDE)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pearson, Jerome; Levin, Eugene; Oldson, John; Carroll, Joseph
2001-02-01
The ElectroDynamic Delivery Experiment (EDDE) is proposed for a space demonstration. EDDE consists of an autonomous space vehicle powered by lightweight solar arrays, a bi-directional electrodynamic tether, and batteries for power leveling. The EDDE vehicle can modify its orbit repeatedly without rocket fuel, and can change all six orbital parameters by modulating and reversing the current flow in the conducting tether. The base spacecraft is connected to the service module by a 6-km-long electrodynamic tether, and is designed for 2 kW of power and a total mass of 180 kg. Tether lifetime of several years is achieved with a two-strand caduceus, with the strands connected every few meters. Tether libration is minimized by mass distribution and by active current control. The vehicle and tether system concepts are developed, the operational envelopes are examined, and potential applications are evaluated. The EDDE vehicle is about twice as fast as ion rockets for high-inclination orbital plane changes, and has much higher maximum delta-V capability. A proof-of-concept experiment is proposed for a low-cost space demonstration. This on-orbit experiment could include additional secondary payloads; for example, EDDE could place low-ΔV, free-flying inspectors into arbitrary orbits from which they could approach selected objects without concern for tether dynamics or interference. .
Coulomb's Law Modification in Nonlinear and in Noncommutative Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaete, Patricio; Schmidt, Iván
We study the lowest-order modifications of the static potential for Born-Infeld electrodynamics and for the θ-expanded version of the noncommutative U(1) gauge theory, within the framework of the gauge-invariant but path-dependent variables formalism. The calculation shows a long-range correction (1/r5-type) to the Coulomb potential in Born-Infeld electrodynamics. However, the Coulomb nature of the potential (to order e2) is preserved in noncommutative electrodynamics.
CPT-based probabilistic and deterministic assessment of in situ seismic soil liquefaction potential
Moss, R.E.S.; Seed, R.B.; Kayen, R.E.; Stewart, J.P.; Der Kiureghian, A.; Cetin, K.O.
2006-01-01
This paper presents a complete methodology for both probabilistic and deterministic assessment of seismic soil liquefaction triggering potential based on the cone penetration test (CPT). A comprehensive worldwide set of CPT-based liquefaction field case histories were compiled and back analyzed, and the data then used to develop probabilistic triggering correlations. Issues investigated in this study include improved normalization of CPT resistance measurements for the influence of effective overburden stress, and adjustment to CPT tip resistance for the potential influence of "thin" liquefiable layers. The effects of soil type and soil character (i.e., "fines" adjustment) for the new correlations are based on a combination of CPT tip and sleeve resistance. To quantify probability for performancebased engineering applications, Bayesian "regression" methods were used, and the uncertainties of all variables comprising both the seismic demand and the liquefaction resistance were estimated and included in the analysis. The resulting correlations were developed using a Bayesian framework and are presented in both probabilistic and deterministic formats. The results are compared to previous probabilistic and deterministic correlations. ?? 2006 ASCE.
Realization of Simple Quantum Algorithms with Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dicarlo, Leonardo
2010-03-01
Superconducting circuits have made considerable progress in the requirements of quantum coherence, universal gate operations and qubit readout necessary to realize a quantum computer. However, simultaneously meeting these requirements makes the solid-state realization of few-qubit processors, as previously implemented in nuclear magnetic resonance, ion-trap and optical systems, an exciting challenge. We present the realization of a two-qubit superconducting processor based on circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED), and report progress by the Yale cQED team towards a four-qubit upgrade. The architecture employs a microwave transmission-line cavity as a quantum bus coupling multiple transmon qubits. Unitary control is achieved by concatenation of high-fidelity single-qubit rotations induced via resonant microwave tones, and multi-qubit adiabatic phase gates realized by local flux control of qubit frequencies. Qubit readout uses the cavity as a quadratic detector, such that a single, calibrated measurement channel gives direct access to multi-qubit correlations. We present generation of Bell states; entanglement quantification by strong violation of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities; and implementations of the Grover search and Deutsch-Jozsa algorithms. We report experimental progress in extending adiabatic phase gates and joint readout to four qubits, and improving qubit coherence on the road to realizing more complex quantum algorithms. Research done in collaboration with J. M. Chow, J. M. Gambetta, Lev S. Bishop, B. R. Johnson, D. I. Schuster, A. Nunnenkamp, J. Majer, A. Blais, L. Frunzio, M. H. Devoret, S. M. Girvin, and R. J. Schoelkopf.
Schaber, Patricia; Stallings, Emily; Brogan, Collette; Ali, Fouzia
2016-01-01
The rigor of occupation-based standardized assessments that rely on observational scoring procedures depends on proven reliability among test administrators. This study measured interrater reliability of the Cognitive Performance Test (CPT), a standardized, occupation-based assessment that measures cognitive-functional capacity in older adults with neurocognitive disorders. To capture a range of experience among test administrators, two sets of raters-four expert and three novice-scored video recordings of 10 patients administered the CPT. Interrater reliability results were strong among all raters (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = .93), with expert raters (ICC = .97) yielding higher coefficients than novice raters (ICC = .93). Spearman's ρ correlation coefficients were high among all raters (rs = .92-1.00). Practitioners can be confident that results of the CPT give accurate and consistent information to the health care team, family members, and patients when administered with fidelity using standardized protocols. PMID:27548871
Bacteriophage CP-T1 of Vibrio cholerae. Identification of the cell surface receptor.
Guidolin, A; Manning, P A
1985-11-15
The attachment site on the cell surface of Vibrio cholerae for the bacteriophage CP-T1 has been determined. Purified lipopolysaccharide from the Inaba and Ogawa serotypes, and of both the Classical and El Tor biotype of strains of V. cholerae show equal phage-inactivating capacities. Lipopolysaccharide extracted from a CP-T1-resistant mutant has no phage-inactivating capacity. Such mutants lack O-antigen as demonstrated by bactericidal assays utilizing a monoclonal antibody directed against O-antigen side chain of V. cholerae lipopolysaccharide. Radiolabelling of lipopolysaccharide with 33P and analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis also revealed the absence of O-antigen in phage-resistant strains. A number of V. cholerae typing phage show cross-resistance with phage CP-T1. PMID:4065151
The effects of adenosine ligands R-PIA and CPT on ethanol withdrawal.
Gatch, M B; Wallis, C J; Lal, H
1999-08-01
The potential anxiogenic or anxiolytic effects of R(-)-N6-(2-phenylisopropyl)adenosine (R-PIA), an adenosine agonist, and 8-cyclopentyl-1,3,dimethylxanthine (CPT), an adenosine antagonist, were tested during chronic exposure to ethanol and to ethanol-induced withdrawal in rats. Effects on anxiety were measured by the elevated plus maze and dark-light box. Ethanol consumption and preference was tested in an additional experiment. In testing of elevated plus maze performance during withdrawal from ethanol, R-PIA produced no change in the anxiety-related behaviors of total arm entries and percent open arm entries, but produced a significant decrease in percent open arm time. CPT produced at least partial recovery from the anxiogenic effects of ethanol withdrawal on all three measures of elevated plus maze performance, although peak effects were seen at the intermediate dose of CPT (0.08 mg/kg) for total arm entries and percent open arm time. CPT also showed anxiolytic effects at low to intermediate doses (0.04, 0.08 mg/kg) in the dark-light box. CPT did not reduce the preference for ethanol over water or the total consumption of ethanol over a range of ethanol doses. In summary, the adenosine agonist, R-PIA, exacerbated the effects of ethanol withdrawal, whereas the adenosine antagonist, CPT, at least partially blocked the anxiogenic effects produced by ethanol withdrawal. These results suggest that adenosine antagonists, at least at some doses, may be useful for ameliorating the anxiogenic effects produced by ethanol withdrawal, although it does not appear useful for reducing consumption. PMID:10487382
Effective Lagrangian in nonlinear electrodynamics and its properties of causality and unitarity
Shabad, Anatoly E.; Usov, Vladimir V.
2011-05-15
In nonlinear electrodynamics, by implementing the causality principle as the requirement that the group velocity of elementary excitations over a background field should not exceed the speed of light in the vacuum c=1, and the unitarity principle as the requirement that the residue of the propagator should be nonnegative, we establish the positive convexity of the effective Lagrangian on the class of constant fields, also the positivity of all characteristic dielectric and magnetic permittivity constants that are derivatives of the effective Lagrangian with respect to the field invariants. Violation of the general principles by the one-loop approximation in QED at exponentially large magnetic field is analyzed, resulting in complex energy ghosts that signal the instability of the magnetized vacuum. Superluminal excitations (tachyons) appear, too, but for the magnetic field exceeding its instability threshold. Also other popular Lagrangians are tested to establish that the ones leading to spontaneous vacuum magnetization possess wrong convexity.
Modelling of auroral electrodynamical processes: Magnetosphere to mesosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chiu, Y. T.; Gorney, D. J.; Kishi, A. M.; Newman, A. L.; Schulz, M.; Walterscheid, R. L.; CORNWALL; Prasad, S. S.
1982-01-01
Research conducted on auroral electrodynamic coupling between the magnetosphere and ionosphere-atmosphere in support of the development of a global scale kinetic plasma theory is reviewed. Topics covered include electric potential structure in the evening sector; morning and dayside auroras; auroral plasma formation; electrodynamic coupling with the thermosphere; and auroral electron interaction with the atmosphere.
Modelling of auroral electrodynamical processes: Magnetosphere to mesosphere. Final Report
Chiu, Y.T.; Gorney, D.J.
1982-01-01
Research conducted on auroral electrodynamic coupling between the magnetosphere and ionosphere-atmosphere in support of the development of a global scale kinetic plasma theory is reviewed. Topics covered include electric potential structure in the evening sector, morning and dayside auroras, auroral plasma formation, electrodynamic coupling with the thermosphere, and auroral electron interaction with the atmosphere.
Gilman, F.J.
1989-05-01
Recent theoretical and experimental progress on the manifestation of CP violation in K decays, and toward understanding whether CP violation originates in a phase, or phases, in the weak mixing matrix of quarks is reviewed. 23 refs., 10 figs.
Equations of motion for variational electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Luca, Jayme
2016-04-01
We extend the variational problem of Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics by generalizing the electromagnetic functional to a local space of absolutely continuous trajectories possessing a derivative (velocities) of bounded variation. We show here that the Gateaux derivative of the generalized functional defines two partial Lagrangians for variations in our generalized local space, one for each particle. We prove that the critical-point conditions of the generalized variational problem are: (i) the Euler-Lagrange equations must hold Lebesgue-almost-everywhere and (ii) the momentum of each partial Lagrangian and the Legendre transform of each partial Lagrangian must be absolutely continuous functions, generalizing the Weierstrass-Erdmann conditions.
Efficient Toffoli Gate in Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reed, Matthew; Dicarlo, Leonardo; Sun, Luyan; Frunzio, Luigi; Schoelkopf, Robert
2011-03-01
The fidelity of quantum gates in circuit quantum electrodynamics is typically limited by qubit decoherence. As such, significant improvements can be realized by shortening gate duration. The three-qubit Toffoli gate, also called the controlled-controlled NOT, is an important operation in basic quantum error correction. We report a scheme for a Toffoli gate that exploits interactions with non-computational excited states of transmon qubits which can be executed faster than an equivalent construction using one- and two-qubit gates. The application of this gate to efficient measurement-free quantum error correction will be discussed. Research supported by NSF, NSA, and ARO.
Soliton configurations in generalized Mie electrodynamics
Rybakov, Yu. P.
2011-07-15
The generalization of the Mie electrodynamics within the scope of the effective 8-spinor field model is suggested, with the Lagrangian including Higgs-like potential and higher degrees of the invariant A{sub Micro-Sign }A{sup Micro-Sign }. Using special Brioschi 8-spinor identity, we show that the model includes the Skyrme and the Faddeev models as particular cases. We investigate the large-distance asymptotic of static solutions and estimate the electromagnetic contribution to the energy of the localized charged configuration.