Lesson is designed to introduce students to cranial nerves through the use of an introductory lecture. Students will then create a three-dimensional model of the cranial nerves. An information sheet will accompany the model in order to help students learn crucial aspects of the cranial nerves.
Juliann Garza (University of Texas-Pan American Physician Assistant Studies)
Imaging evaluation of cranial neuropathies requires thorough knowledge of the anatomic, physiologic, and pathologic features of the cranial nerves, as well as detailed clinical information, which is necessary for tailoring the examinations, locating the abnormalities, and interpreting the imaging findings. This article provides clinical, anatomic, and radiological information on lower (7th to 12th) cranial nerves, along with high-resolution magnetic resonance images as a guide for optimal imaging technique, so as to improve the diagnosis of cranial neuropathy. PMID:24210311
Soldatos, Theodoros; Batra, Kiran; Blitz, Ari M; Chhabra, Avneesh
Lesson is designed to introduce students to cranial nerves through the use of an introductory lecture. Students will then create a three-dimensional model of the cranial nerves. An information sheet will accompany the model in order to help students learn crucial aspects of the cranial nerves.
Juliann Garza (University of Texas-Pan American Physician Assistant Studies)
This article contains a brief review of the anatomy of the visual system, a survey of diseases of the retina, optic nerve and lesions of the optic chiasm, and other visual field defects of special interest to the psychiatrist. It also includes a presentation of the corticothalamic mechanisms, differential diagnosis, and various manifestations of visual illusions, and simple and complex visual hallucinations, as well as the differential diagnoses of these various visual phenomena. PMID:19855858
Gillig, Paulette Marie; Sanders, Richard D
We present a seven-year experience with cranial nerve injuries due to carotid artery endarterectomy. A total of 433 carotid endarterectomies were done on 355 patients by senior surgical residents, with a staff surgeon assisting. Thirteen cranial nerve injuries were identified, five of which were permanent. Knowledge of the anatomic features of the cranial nerves and their branches in the operative field, as well as technical maneuvers during surgery, can reduce such injuries to a minimum. PMID:3406783
Rogers, W; Root, H D
In a series of 109 carotid arterial reconstructions cranial nerve injury was observed in 14 of 102 patients. Ipsilateral peripheral hypoglossal nerve injury occurred in nine patients with carotid occlusive disease. The marginal mandibular nerve was injured in three patients and recurrent laryngeal nerve dysfunction was noted in four patients. Two cranial nerves were injured in two patients. Full recovery of hypoglossal dysfunction was seen within 2-52 weeks (average 20 weeks). The nerves are injured by retraction to clear the operative field or by postoperative haematoma. Risk factors include crossing of the hypoglossal nerve close to the carotid bifurcation or procedures requiring long arteriotomy or skeletonization of the internal carotid artery. Unilateral cranial nerve injury is usually mild but will require delay of controlateral carotid reconstruction to avoid severe bilateral cranial nerve palsy. PMID:6196459
Schmidt, D; Zuschneid, W; Kaiser, M
This article concludes the series on cranial nerves, with review of the final four (IX–XII). To summarize briefly, the most important and common syndrome caused by a disorder of the glossopharyngeal nerve (craniel nerve IX) is glossopharyngeal neuralgia. Also, swallowing function occasionally is compromised in a rare but disabling form of tardive dyskinesia called tardive dystonia, because the upper motor portion of the glossopharyngel nerve projects to the basal ganglia and can be affected by lesions in the basal ganglia. Vagus nerve funtion (craniel nerve X) can be compromised in schizophrenia, bulimia, obesity, and major depression. A cervical lesion to the nerve roots of the spinal accessory nerve (craniel nerve XI) can cause a cervical dystonia, which sometimes is misdiagnosed as a dyskinesia related to neuroleptic use. Finally, unilateral hypoglossal (craniel nerve XII) nerve palsy is one of the most common mononeuropathies caused by brain metastases. Supranuclear lesions of cranial nerve XII are involved in pseudobulbar palsy and ALS, and lower motor neuron lesions of cranial nerve XII can also be present in bulbar palsy and in ALS patients who also have lower motor neuron involvement. This article reviews these and other syndromes related to cranial nerves IX through XII that might be seen by psychiatry.
Sanders, Richard D.
During the past seven years 347 patients have been entered into a data bank at the Duke University Medical Center for evaluation of transient neurologic ischemia. One hundred fifty eight of these patients had carotid endarterectomies of whom 24 (15.1%) developed 26 (16.4%) peripheral cranial nerve palsies. Injury to the peripheral portion of the hypoglossal nerve was noted in 13 patients, to the cervical branch of the facial nerve in five and to the recurrent laryngeal nerve branch of the vagus in eight. Complete recovery of nerve function usually occurred within four months but residual deficit was present at one year in two patients with facial nerve and four with hypoglossal nerve involvement. Even though these complications of carotid endarterectomy are generally benign and transient, the frequency of occurrence can be reduced if careful attention is given to anatomic localization of the cranial nerves during surgery. PMID:6695421
Massey, E W; Heyman, A; Utley, C; Haynes, C; Fuchs, J
A 45-year-old woman reported multiple episodes of reversible left eye pain and diplopia stretching over 12 years. Ophthalmic examinations had repeatedly disclosed a left sixth cranial nerve palsy. Postcontrast brain MRI performed 3 weeks after clinical onset of the most recent episode demonstrated enhancement of the cisternal segment of the left sixth cranial nerve. Five months later, when symptoms and signs had largely abated, postcontrast brain MRI was normal. The clinical diagnosis satisfies the criteria for "ophthalmoplegic migraine." Although reversible cisternal enhancement of the third cranial nerve has been often described in this condition, this is the first report of cisternal enhancement of the sixth cranial nerve. PMID:19491643
Lavin, Patrick J M; Aulino, Joseph M; Uskavitch, David
In this article, we review the expected course of each of the 12 cranial nerves. Traditional magnetic resonance imaging depicts only the larger cranial nerves but SSFP sequences of magnetic resonance imaging are capable of depicting the cisternal segments of 12 cranial nerves and also provide submillimetric spatial resolution. PMID:24042398
Conforti, Renata; Marrone, Valeria; Sardaro, Angela; Faella, Pierluigi; Grassi, Roberta; Cappabianca, Salvatore
Stereotactic radiosurgery is becoming a more accepted treatment option for benign, deep seated intracranial lesions. However, little is known about the effects of large single fractions of radiation on cranial nerves. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of radiosurgery on the cranial nerves of the cavernous sinus. The authors examined the tolerance of cranial nerves (II-VI) following radiosurgery
Roy B Tishler; Jay S Loeffler; E. Alexander; H. M. Kooy; L. D. Lunsford; C. Duma; John C Flickinger
Our experience with patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy over a 10 year period has been retrospectively reviewed. Nerve injuries were detected by reviewing postoperative progress and clinic notes. One hundred twenty-nine procedures were performed on 112 patients, 12 of whom (9.3 percent) sustained major nerve injuries. These included five vagal nerve injuries causing ipsilateral vocal cord paralysis and hoarseness, four injuries of the marginal mandibular nerve, and three injuries of the hypoglossal nerve. Evidence of nerve dysfunction was not present preoperatively. None of the patients with nerve injury sustained a stroke as a result of carotid operation. Vocal cord paralysis was documented by indirect laryngoscopy. The incidence of cranial nerve injury during carotid endarterectomy appears to be higher than expected, particularly if asymptomatic patients are investigated; however, most injuries are transient and result not from transection but from trauma during dissection, retraction, and clamping of the vessels. The pertinent anatomy and techniques for preventing these injuries have been reviewed. PMID:3674303
Knight, F W; Yeager, R M; Morris, D M
The lower cranial nerves receive their arterial supply from an intricate network of tributaries derived from the external carotid, internal carotid, and vertebrobasilar territories. A contemporary, comprehensive literature review of the vascular supply of the lower cranial nerves was performed. The vascular supply to the trigeminal, facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus, spinal accessory, and hypoglossal nerves are illustrated with a special emphasis on clinical issues. Frequently the external carotid, internal carotid, and vertebrobasilar territories all contribute to the vascular supply of an individual cranial nerve along its course. Understanding of the vasculature of the lower cranial nerves is of great relevance for skull base surgery. PMID:24343775
Hendrix, Philipp; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Foreman, Paul; Loukas, Marios; Fisher, Winfield S; Rizk, Elias; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane
Otitis externa affects both children and adults. It is often treated with topical antibiotics, with good clinical outcomes. When a patient fails to respond to the treatment, otitis externa can progress to malignant otitis externa. The common symptoms of skull bone osteomyelitis include ear ache, facial pain, and cranial nerve palsies. However, an isolated cranial nerve is rare. Herein, we report a case of 54-year-old female who presented with left cranial nerve VI palsy due to skull base osteomyelitis which responded to antibiotic therapy.
Lipofibromatous hamartomas (LFHs) are rare benign tumors that typically present as slow-growing firm masses in the subcutaneous soft tissue of the extremities. These often develop in young adults on the volar aspects of the hands, wrists, and forearms along major nerves and their branches. Only a single case of LFH growth along a cranial nerve has been reported.A 41-year-old man presented with a subcutaneous soft mass of the cheek. Histologically, the mass consisted of a proliferating fibrofatty tissue that surrounded and infiltrated the nerve structure and it was confirmed to be an LFH. After surgical excision, the patient experienced mild facial numbness and motor disturbance on the side ipsilateral to the resection. Because complete excision of the mass can cause sensory or motor disturbances, an accurate diagnosis and proper subsequent treatment, such as partial decompression, are necessary. PMID:24926723
Chong, Yosep; Byeon, Jun Hee; Lee, Ahn Hee; Lee, Eun Jung
It has been known for over a century that these cranial nerves exist, and that they are not typographical errors nor a sensational event reported in the medical literature. A number of scientific articles on anatomy highlight how textbooks on descriptive anatomy do not always consider variables such as differences related to the geographical areas where people live, and these differences do exist. This is an important concept not only for surgeons, but also for all medical professionals who use manual techniques when treating their patients, ie, osteopaths, chiropractors, physiotherapists, and other manual therapists. This paper highlights the latest developments regarding these cranial nerves, offering at the same time some ideas for further reflection when looking at clinical scenarios that appear to bear little relationship to each other. Inclusion of these concepts in everyday anamnesis is encouraged.
Bordoni, Bruno; Zanier, Emiliano
We describe a patient in whom bilateral congenital third cranial nerve palsy was diagnosed at 2 weeks of age. The ptosis was treated at 3 weeks with bilateral eyelid suspension surgery, and surgical repair of the exotropia was done at 4 months. To our knowledge this is the fourth reported case of this condition. It was probably caused by a single lesion involving the oculomotor and possibly the trochlear nuclei in the brain stem. Magnetic resonance imaging scans supported this hypothesis and suggested other central nervous system anomalies. PMID:2713752
Flanders, M; Watters, G; Draper, J; O'Gorman, A
Motor activity affecting the direction of gaze, the position of the eyelids, and the size of the pupils are served by cranial nerves III, IV, and VI. Unusual oculomotor activity is often encountered in psychiatric patients and can be quite informative. Evaluation techniques include casual observation and simple tests that require no equipment in addition to the sophisticated methods used in specialty clinics and research labs. This article reviews pupil size, extraocular movements, nystagmus, lid retraction, lid lag, and ptosis. Beyond screening for diseases and localizing lesions, these tests yield useful information about the individual’s higher cortical function, extrapyramidal motor functioning, and toxic/pharmacologic state.
Sanders, Richard D.
Examination of the cranial nerves is an integral and important part of a complete neurological examination. Historically, these skills were crucial for diagnosing specific lesions. With the development of modern imaging modalities, the significance of clinical examination techniques has perhaps been undermined. The authors present an overview of each cranial nerve with a concise summary of examination techniques. PMID:24307604
Damodaran, Omprakash; Rizk, Elias; Rodriguez, Julian; Lee, Gabriel
We report a case of type F botulism in a patient with bilateral but asymmetric neurologic deficits. Cranial nerve demyelination was found during autopsy. Bilateral, asymmetric clinical signs, although rare, do not rule out botulism. Demyelination of cranial nerves might be underrecognized during autopsy of botulism patients.
Kattan, Jessica A.; Jitendranath, Lavanya; Smith, C. Gregory; Luquez, Carolina; Phan, Quyen N.; Fagan, Ryan P.
We report a case of type F botulism in a patient with bilateral but asymmetric neurologic deficits. Cranial nerve demyelination was found during autopsy. Bilateral, asymmetric clinical signs, although rare, do not rule out botulism. Demyelination of cranial nerves might be underrecognized during autopsy of botulism patients. PMID:22257488
Filozov, Alina; Kattan, Jessica A; Jitendranath, Lavanya; Smith, C Gregory; Lúquez, Carolina; Phan, Quyen N; Fagan, Ryan P
Cranial nerve injuries may result from carotid endarterectomy. From January 1984 to December 1987, a total of 336 carotid endarterectomies were performed at University Hospitals of Cleveland and Cleveland Veterans Administration Hospital. Forty-five cranial nerve injuries were documented (13.5%). Twenty patients (6%) had documented unilateral vocal cord paralysis, 16 (4.8%) had hypoglossal injuries, 8 (2.4%) had facial nerve paresis, and 1 (0.3%) had an injury to the spinal accessory nerve. Although most injuries were due to either retraction or edema of cranial nerves, long-term follow-up regarding recovery of function is very important. We feel that proper clinical evaluation of these patients should be routinely done preoperatively in order to document possible preexisting cranial nerve deficits. Postoperatively, if symptoms of possible cranial nerve abnormalities occur, these patients should have a thorough head and neck evaluation in order to identify possible lesions and institute further treatment to improve their quality of life. PMID:2022476
Maniglia, A J; Han, D P
Elongation of the vertebrobasilar system into the cerebellopontine angle may cause abnormalities of the cranial nerves. The diagnosis may be suspected at pneumoencephalography or with posterior fossa pantopaque studies and be confirmed by vertebral angiography.
C. W. Kerber; M. t. Margolis; T. H. Newton
Summary Ten normal human volunteers and 44 patients with pathology of the brainstem or cranial nerves were scanned using a. 3 Tesla\\u000a permanent MR imaging system. MR images were obtained of the cranial nerves and brainstem using various spin-echo pulse sequences\\u000a and scanning planes. 4 mm thick sections with .75 mm pixels on a 256 display matrix were used whenever possible.
R Lufkin; B D Flannigan; J R Bentson; G H Wilson; W Rauschning; W Hanafee
INTRODUCTION This is a retrospective case series analysis to compare the incidence of cranial nerve injuries in carotid endarterectomy by the retrojugular and anteromedial approaches. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data were extracted from a prospectively collected database. Ninety-one retrojugular carotid endarterectomies were compared with 145 anteromedial carotid endarterectomies. All were performed under local anaesthesia and used the eversion technique. Data were analysed using the chi-squared test. RESULTS Nine (3.8%) cases were complicated by cranial nerve injuries. In four cases, multiple nerves were involved. In total, 13 (5.5%) cranial nerves were injured. The affected nerves were: two (0.8%) marginal mandibular, two (0.8%) laryngeal, three (1.2%) accessory and six (2.5%) hypoglossal. There was no statistically significant difference in total or specific cranial nerve injuries between the two surgical approaches. CONCLUSIONS The risk of cranial nerve injuries was similar following either the retrojugular or anteromedial approach. Accessory nerve injuries were only seen in the retrojugular approach but this did not reach statistical significance.
Beasley, William D; Gibbons, Christopher P
To determine the incidence and nature of cranial nerve damage in connection with carotid artery surgery, 139 patients were studied before and after 162 operations. Nerve damage was detected in association with 19.8% of the operations. The hypoglossal nerve was most commonly affected. The injuries were of benign character and usually resolved within 4 to 6 weeks. Apart from damage to the great auricular nerve, all lesions resolved within 5 months. The incidence of nerve disturbance was greater than that found in a retrospective study from the same hospital. Gentleness of technique is important in carotid artery surgery, in order to avoid nerve damage. PMID:4090884
Forssell, C; Takolander, R; Bergqvist, D; Bergentz, S E; Gramming, P; Kitzing, P
In order to determine the incidence of cranial nerve injury during carotid endarterectomy, preoperative and postoperative otolaryngologic examinations were performed in a prospective series of 240 operations. Thirty patients experienced a total of 38 cranial nerve injuries, involving the recurrent laryngeal nerve in 14, the hypoglossal nerve in 13, the marginal mandibular nerve in six and the superior laryngeal nerve in five. Postoperative dysfunction affected one cranial nerve in 25 patients, two nerves in four and three nerves in one patient. Most cranial nerve injuries were asymptomatic or mild in severity, resolved in one to 12 months and probably were caused by intraoperative retraction. PMID:7444729
Hertzer, N R; Feldman, B J; Beven, E G; Tucker, H M
The sixth cranial nerve runs a long course from the brainstem to the lateral rectus muscle. Based on the location of an abnormality, other neurologic structures may be involved with the pathology related to this nerve. Sixth nerve palsy is frequently due to a benign process with full recovery within weeks, yet caution is warranted as it may portend a serious neurologic process. Hence, early diagnosis is often critical for some conditions that present with sixth nerve palsy. This article outlines a simple clinical approach to sixth nerve palsy based on its anatomy.
Azarmina, Mohsen; Azarmina, Hossein
Injury to the greater auricular, hypoglossal and superior laryngeal nerves during carotid endarterectomy is preventable. A knowledge of regional anatomy and the mechanisms of such injury allows prevention of this complication. Unilateral individual nerve injury is generally well tolerated, but bilateral or combined nerve injuries can pose a serious threat to life. Minor modifications in technique aid greatly in avoiding nerve injury. PMID:836092
Verta, M J; Applebaum, E L; McClusky, D A; Yao, J S; Bergan, J J
Injury to the greater auricular, hypoglossal and superior laryngeal nerves during carotid endarterectomy is preventable. A knowledge of regional anatomy and the mechanisms of such injury allows prevention of this complication. Unilateral individual nerve injury is generally well tolerated, but bilateral or combined nerve injuries can pose a serious threat to life. Minor modifications in technique aid greatly in avoiding nerve injury. Images Fig. 1.
Verta, M J; Applebaum, E L; McClusky, D A; Yao, J S; Bergan, J J
Carotid endarterectomy may be complicated by damage to the adjacent cranial and cervical nerves. The true incidence and severity of these complications is rarely reported. In a prospective study of 43 carotid endarterectomies there was a 25 per cent incidence of temporary vocal cord palsy, 5 per cent incidence of hypoglossal nerve damage and anaesthesia of the greater auricular and transverse cervical nerves was found in 60 per cent and 69 per cent of patients respectively 1 week postoperatively. There was some recovery of these nerve injuries over a 6-month period. PMID:6860913
Dehn, T C; Taylor, G W
We report here the first case of baroreflex failure due to a mixed cranial nerve neuroma in which the clinical manifestations (recurrent severe hypertensive crisis, hypotension) due to baroreflex arc impairment preceded the clinical diagnosis of brain tumour and neurosurgery by a few months. Given the clinical suspicion of baroreflex failure, even in the absence of iatrogenic clues, we propose
Luigina Guasti; Cinzia Simoni; Carlo Scamoni; Simona Sarzi Braga; Chiara Crespi; Mariagrazia Cimpanelli; Giovanni Gaudio; Roberto Pedretti; Luca T. Mainardi; Anna M. Grandi; Giustino Tomei; Achille Venco
Although the cranial nerves, their nuclei and related fiber tracts are crucial for a variety of oculomotor, somatomotor, somatosensory, auditory, vestibular-related, autonomic and ingestion-related functions, knowledge regarding the extent of their involvement in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) patients is incomplete. Accordingly, we performed a pathoanatomical analysis of these structures in six clinically diagnosed SCA2 patients. Unconventionally thick serial sections through the brainstem stained for lipofuscin pigment (aldehyde-fuchsin) and Nissl material (Darrow red) showed that all oculomotor, somatomotor, somatosensory, auditory, vestibular and autonomic cranial nerve nuclei may undergo neurodegeneration during SCA2. Similarly, examination of myelin-stained thick serial sections revealed that nearly all cranial nerves and associated fiber tracts may sustain atrophy and myelin loss in SCA2 patients. In view of the known functional role of the affected cranial nerves, their nuclei and associated fiber tracts, the present findings provide appropriate pathoanatomical explanations for some of the disease-related and unexplained symptoms seen in SCA2 patients: double vision, gaze palsy, slowing of saccades, ptosis, ingestion-related malfunctions, impairments of the optokinetic nystagmus and the vestibulo-ocular reaction, facial and tongue fasciculation-like movements, impaired centripetal transmission of temperature-related information from the face, dystonic posture of the neck, as well as abnormalities of the brainstem auditory evoked potentials. PMID:15906049
Gierga, K; Bürk, K; Bauer, M; Orozco Diaz, G; Auburger, G; Schultz, C; Vuksic, M; Schöls, L; de Vos, R A I; Braak, H; Deller, T; Rüb, U
Songbirds and humans use auditory feedback to acquire and maintain their vocalizations. The Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata domestica) is a songbird species that rapidly modifies its vocal output to adhere to an internal song memory. In this species, the left side of the bipartite vocal organ is specialized for producing louder, higher frequencies (?2.2kHz) and denervation of the left vocal muscles eliminates these notes. Thus, the return of higher frequency notes after cranial nerve injury can be used as a measure of vocal recovery. Either the left or right side of the syrinx was denervated by resection of the tracheosyringeal portion of the hypoglossal nerve. Histologic analyses of syringeal muscle tissue showed significant muscle atrophy in the denervated side. After left nerve resection, songs were mainly composed of lower frequency syllables, but three out of five birds recovered higher frequency syllables. Right nerve resection minimally affected phonology, but it did change song syntax; syllable sequence became abnormally stereotyped after right nerve resection. Therefore, damage to the neuromuscular control of sound production resulted in reduced motor variability, and Bengalese finches are a potential model for functional vocal recovery following cranial nerve injury. PMID:23276640
Urbano, Catherine M; Peterson, Jennifer R; Cooper, Brenton G
A susceptible individual exposed to herpes simplex virus (HSV) will develop latent infection in multiple cranial nerve ganglia. There are a few quantitative studies of the viral load within the trigeminal ganglion, but none that investigate other cranial nerve ganglia. In this study, human trigeminal, geniculate, vestibular (Scarpa's) and cochlear (spiral) ganglia were obtained from willed body donors. Real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the HSV DNA polymerase gene was performed on ipsilateral ganglion sets from the same individual. Viral load, expressed as HSV genomes per 105 cells, was significantly greater in the vestibular ganglion (mean +/- SD, 176705 +/- 255916) than in the geniculate (9948 +/- 22066), cochlear (3527 +/- 9360), or trigeminal (2017 +/- 5578) ganglia. There was not a significant correlation among ganglia from the same individual. The results support the hypothesis that neuronal subpopulations have variable susceptibility to HSV infection. PMID:15371151
Vrabec, Jeffrey T; Alford, Raye L
We report here the first case of baroreflex failure due to a mixed cranial nerve neuroma in which the clinical manifestations (recurrent severe hypertensive crisis, hypotension) due to baroreflex arc impairment preceded the clinical diagnosis of brain tumour and neurosurgery by a few months. Given the clinical suspicion of baroreflex failure, even in the absence of iatrogenic clues, we propose that the patient's study should include neuroradiologic evaluation of the ponto-cerebellar angulus. PMID:16798103
Guasti, Luigina; Simoni, Cinzia; Scamoni, Carlo; Sarzi Braga, Simona; Crespi, Chiara; Cimpanelli, Mariagrazia; Gaudio, Giovanni; Pedretti, Roberto; Mainardi, Luca T; Grandi, Anna M; Tomei, Giustino; Venco, Achille
Sphenoidal sinus mucoceles are indolent lesions that, when sufficiently large, can compress on the optic canal or superior orbital fissure, rapidly causing loss of vision, optic neuropathy, ptosis, pain, ophthalmoplegia, and diplopia. We herein report a 72-year-old gentleman who presented acutely with Cranial Nerve II, III, and IV palsies secondary to a sphenoidal sinus mucocele that was confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging and successfully treated with endoscopic drainage. This cause of orbital apex syndrome is important for clinicians to know as early diagnosis and treatment is critical in recovering visual potential.
Cheng, Clarissa S.M.; Sanjay, Srinivasan; Yip, Chee Chew; Yuen, Heng-Wai
Hymenoptera stings are self-limiting events or due to allergic reactions. Sometimes envenomation with Hymenoptera can cause rare complications such as acute encephalopathy, peripheral neuritis, acute renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, silent myocardial infarction, rhabdomyolysis, conjunctivitis, corneal infiltration, lens subluxation, and optic neuropathy. The mechanism of peripheral nervous system damage is not clearly known. In our studied case after bee sting on face between the eyebrows with little erythema and 1 × 1?cm in size, bilateral blindness developed and gradually improved. Lateral movement of eyes was restricted with no pain. Involvement of cranial nerves including II, V, and VI was found. With conservative therapy after a year significant improvement has been achieved.
Motamed, Hassan; Forouzan, Arash; Rasooli, Fatemeh; Majidi, Alireza; Maleki Verki, Mohammadreza
265 carotid endarterectomies in 210 patients (all vein patch in the carotid bifurcation) were investigated postoperatively for the presence and reversibility of cranial nerve palsy especially for N. facialis, N. hypoglossus, and N. vagus paresis. Additionally, the anatomical relationship between the affected cranial nerve and the carotid artery and the influence of surgical case load on the incidence of cranial nerve paresis were investigated. Altogether 28 (10.5%) cranial nerve injuries were registered. In 6 (2.2%) cases the hypoglossus nerve was injured, in 13 (4.9%) the vagal nerve (N. laryngeus recurrens) and in 9 (3.4%) facial nerve paresis occurred. Cranial nerves VII and X, which are not directly connected with the area operated on, show significantly more injuries than the hypoglossal nerve (p < 0.01), which is located closer to the carotid artery. Significantly lower rates of cranial nerve injuries (p < 0.01) were recorded in cases operated on by surgeons with greater experience (> 30 cases) than by surgeons with a case load below this threshold. Although different reasons for cranial nerve injuries such as direct pressure, retraction or edema are known, all pareses show an excellent spontaneous recovery rate within the period of one year. PMID:7785277
Krennmair, G; Moser, G; Pachinger, O; Deutsch, M
Objective Microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a safe and effective treatment with favorable outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of delayed cranirve ( VI, VII, and VIII ) palsy following MVD and its clinical courses. Methods Between January 1998 and December 2009, 1354 patients underwent MVD for HFS at our institution. Of them, 100 patients (7.4%) experienced delayed facial palsy (DFP), one developed sixth nerve palsy, and one patient had delayed hearing loss. Results DFP occurred between postoperative day number 2 and 23 (average 11 days). Ninety-two patients (92%) completely recovered; however, House-Brackmann grade II facial weakness remained in eight other patients (8%). The time to recovery averaged 64 days (range, 16 days to 9 months). Delayed isolated sixth nerve palsy recovered spontaneously without any medical or surgical treatment after 8 weeks, while delayed hearing loss did not improve. Conclusion Delayed cranial nerve (VI, VII, and VIII) palsies can occur following uncomplicated MVD for HFS. DFP is not an unusual complication after MVD, and prognosis is fairly good. Delayed sixth nerve palsy and delayed hearing loss are extremely rare complications after MVD for HFS. We should consider the possibility of development of these complications during the follow up for MVD.
Han, Jae-Suk; Lee, Jeong-Ah; Kong, Doo-Sik
Among the various forms of migraine headaches, ophthalmoplegic migraine is an uncommon and rare form, the incidence of which is approximately 0.7 per million. It presents predominantly with headache and ophthalmoplegia. One of more cranial nerves can be affected, however the third cranial nerve is most often affected. As a result, symptoms wise, mydriasis and ptosis are commonly seen. Patients generally recover completely within a few days or weeks, however residual deficits are known to occur in a minority of patients. One of the common generalised epilepsy syndromes is the juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), its prevalence being roughly up to 10% of all patients with epilepsy. It usually begins in the second decade of life. Generalised tonic-clonic seizures myoclonic jerks absences constitute the main seizure types in JME. Studies indicate a definite association of epilepsy with migraine headaches and a significant number of migraneurs are found to be epileptic. Conversely, patients with epilepsy are two times more likely to have migraine, as compared to their first degree relatives without migraine. We report a known case of a female patient of JME having a history of classical migraine with aura presenting to us with headache and ophthalmoplegia. She was extensively evaluated to rule out other causes of isolated third cranial nerve palsy, with all the investigations being negative for any obvious cause. She was treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the acute attack and was subsequently put on antimigraine medication, propranolol during her hospital stay, with which her ptosis recovered completely after 2 weeks. The patient was later started on tablet divalproex sodium, which the patient continues to take on a long-term basis, especially because of its efficacy as an antimigraine prophylaxis agent and a potent drug against JME. PMID:24296772
Shetty, Aakash; Khardenavis, Supriya; Deshpande, Anirudda
A 68-year-old man had an unremitting left sixth cranial nerve palsy immediately after completing a long bicycle trip. High-resolution (3 Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging disclosed a dolichoectatic vertebral artery that compressed the left sixth cranial nerve against the belly of the pons at its root exit zone. It was postulated that increased blood flow in the vessel during the unusually prolonged aerobic exercise precipitated the palsy. Compressive palsies of cranial nerves caused by a dolichoectatic basilar artery have often been documented; compressive palsy caused by a dolichoectatic vertebral artery is less well-recognized. PMID:15937439
Zhu, Ying; Thulborn, Keith; Curnyn, Kimberlee; Goodwin, James
The clinical and radiological findings of a patient affected by apoplexy of an adenoma located within cavernous sinus and presenting isolated Cranial Nerve (CN) VI palsy are reported. The differential diagnosis with other pathologies is debated, and pathogenesis of isolated abducens nerve palsy is investigated. The pertinent literature of this uncommon case of apoplexy is reviewed. A 59-year-old female presented sudden appearance of CN VI palsy associated to violent headache. Endocrinological assessment did not show pituitary insufficiency; MRI depicted an adenoma located within the left CS. She underwent an endoscopic endonasal procedure with extensive opening of the cavernous sinus, occupied by an ischemic adenoma. Afterward, neurological symptoms promptly resolved and the patient was discharged after 5 days. At 3 months follow-up MRI radical tumor removal was assessed, and the patient resulted neurologically intact. The review of the pertinent literature shows that apoplexy of pituitary tumor exclusively located within the Cavernous Sinus is a very uncommon event. The distinctive clinical presentation is represented by the sudden abducens nerve palsy and the absence of pituitary insufficiency and it could be explained by the vulnerability of the nerve along its course within the cavernous sinus, and by the sparing of the sellar content by the adenoma. PMID:21503686
Zoli, Matteo; Mazzatenta, Diego; Pasquini, Ernesto; Ambrosetto, Paolo; Frank, Giorgio
Successful identification of the cranial nerve and ocular muscle responsible for a subjective complaint of diplopia requires an evaluation of the type and character of the double vision and not infrequently the use of a red glass or Maddox rod, especially in incomplete and subtle cases. An isolated third nerve lesion is most commonly seen with a supraclinoid aneurysm (pupil dilated and fixed), vascular disease (pupil spared), and trauma. Mild frontal head trauma and vascular disease are the most common etiologies associated with an isolated fourth nerve paresis. Tumor, vascular disease and trauma should be prime considerations when a patient presents with an isolated sixth nerve paresis. A child's diagnostic possibilities will differ from the adult: third nerve (congenital), fourth nerve (congenital), and sixth nerve (brainstem glioma, postviral or inflammatory). Finally, myasthenia gravis can readily mask or mimic an isolated or mixed cranial nerve palsy. A Tensilon test is always indicated in unexplained diplopia with ophthalmoplegia and normal pupils. PMID:2486113
Carlow, T J
Cranial nerve injuries may result from carotid endarterectomy. In a retrospective study of 222 surgical procedures, from July 1982 through June 1990 only three cranial nerve injuries were documented (1.35%). In a prospective study of 79 carotid endarterectomies performed from July 1990 through June 1992, there were 11 nerve injuries (13.9%), fortunately most of them were temporary. We conclude that carotid endarterectomy is associated with a much higher incidence of local nerve injury than retrospective surveys would indicate. PMID:7991198
Vasquez, G; Mascoli, F; Buccoliero, F; Occhionorelli, S; Santini, M; Donini, I
Ophthalmoplegic migraine (OM) is a rare form of primary headache. Because of its rarity, only a few cases, mostly symptomatic, are reported. We analyse nine cases among 52 973 adults who suffer from headaches with an oculomotor palsy firstly considered as OM. The study was retrospective and multicentric in a database set up in France. The aim of our investigation was to describe the clinical and radiological aspects of these cases and to discuss the diagnosis of OM. We demonstrate that the characteristics of the headaches were identical to usual migraine without oculomotor nerve palsy for each case. The study emphasises the difficulty of the OM diagnosis even with the new IHS criteria because of the rarity of having all characteristics. A wide heterogeneity was noted in cranial imagery and blood tests. We suggest adding the code of probable OM in the IHS classification to increase the knowledge and detection of this type of headache. A biological blood test and an MRI are systematically required to help clinicians in their diagnosis and to exclude alternative aetiology of headache with palsy. PMID:17497265
Giraud, Pierric; Valade, Dominique; Lanteri-Minet, Michel; Donnet, Anne; Geraud, Gilles; Guégan-Massardier, Evelyne
A five year old female had an isolated abducens nerve palsy following closed head injury. There was no associated skull fracture, haematoma, or other cranial nerve injury. The significance, frequency, and differential diagnosis of traumatic sixth cranial nerve injury is discussed, particularly in paediatric patients. Management is symptomatic; occlusion with an eye pad may be used if diplopia is significant. In young children alternate day occlusion of each eye will help prevent amblyopia. Most cases improve within three months and many resolve by six months. Residual palsy at six months is likely to be permanent and surgical treatment may be needed.
Hollis, G J
The inclusion of a cranial root as a component of the accessory nerve is controversial with at least one recent study claiming that intracranial rootlets do not exist in humans. In response to this debate, the present study aimed to clarify this anatomy in a large cadaveric sample. In this study, 43 adult cadavers (86 sides) were dissected via a posterior approach to the craniocervical junction. Observations were made for the presence or absence of cranial roots of the accessory nerve, and when present, their lengths and diameters were measured. Relationships of these rootlets were documented. A cranial root of the accessory nerve was identified in 76% of sides. When identified, 1-6 cranial rootlets (mean 4.5) of the accessory nerve were observed. They ranged in diameter from 0.1 to 1.1 mm (mean 0.7 mm). The length of these nerves ranged from 8 to 24 mm with a mean of 17 mm. In general, the more superior rootlets were shorter and the more inferior rootlets were longer. Although there was a slight tendency for the cranial roots to be more numerous and larger on right sides and in males, this did not reach statistical significance. We believe this to be the largest study to date documenting the presence of a cranial root of the accessory nerve. Based on our findings, a cranial root exists in the majority of specimens. Neurosurgical procedures or high quality imaging of this area should enable the physician to see these structures. PMID:22855423
Tubbs, R Shane; Benninger, Brion; Loukas, Marios; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A
Purpose: To provide the types, frequency and clinical information on common cranial nerve palsies seen at the Eye Clinic at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: A chart review was performed of patients who presented with cranial nerve palsy at the Eye Clinic over a 3-year period (January 2009-December 2011). Data were collected on age, sex, type of cranial nerve palsy, a history of systemic disease such as diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension and cerebrovascular disease. Exclusion criteria included medical charts with incomplete data. Data was analyzed using Epi-info Version 6.04D. Statistical significance was indicated by P < 0.05. Results: Twenty-four patients had cranial nerve palsies. There were 11 males and 13 females with a mean age of 34.50 ± 18.41 years. Four patients (26.6%) had exotropia while three patients (20%) had esotropia. Complete ophthalmoplegia was noted in two patients (13.3%). The 3rd and 6th cranial nerves were affected in seven patients each (29.2%) and five patients (20.8%) had 7th cranial nerve palsy. Approximately 38% of patients with cranial nerve palsies had systemic disorders (16.7% systemic hypertension; 12.5% DM). The relationship between cranial nerve palsy and systemic disorder was statistically significant (P < 0.01). Conclusion: This is the first study in the literature on ocular cranial nerve palsies in Southern Nigeria. Third and sixth cranial nerve palsies were the most common cases to present to the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital Eye Clinic. There was a statistically significant association to systemic disorders such as hypertension and DM and majority of cases with 6th cranial nerve palsy.
Pedro-Egbe, Chinyere Nnenne; Fiebai, Bassey; Awoyesuku, Elizabeth Akon
The aim of the study was an assessment of the incidence of injury to cranial and peripheral nerves as complication of patency restoration of the internal carotid artery, and analysis of the effect of peripheral nerve injury on the results of carotid patency restoration. From Oct 1987 to Sept 1999 543 procedures were carried out for restoration of patency of the internal carotid artery. After the operation hypoglossus nerve injury was found in 7 cases (1.4%), vagus injury in 9 (1.8%). Signs of exclusively recurrent laryngeal nerve damage were found in 6 cases (1.2%). Glossopharyngeus nerve was damaged in 2 cases (0.4%), transient phrenic nerve palsy as a result of conduction anaesthesia was noted in 2 cases (0.4%). Damage to the transverse cervical nerve was found in 96 cases (60%). In 2 patients (1.2%) lower position of mouth angle was due to section of the mandibular ramus of the facial nerve. In another 2 cases skin sensation disturbances were a consequence of lesion of the auricularis magnus nerve and always they coexisted with signs of transverse cervical nerve damage. In conclusion: damage to the cranial nerves during operation for carotid patency restoration are frequent but mostly they are not connected with any health risks and often they regress spontaneously. PMID:11732265
Myrcha, P; Ciostek, P; Szopi?ski, P; Noszczyk, W
The incidence of local nerve injury among 192 consecutive carotid endarterectomies in 162 patients between 1977-1983 was determined from review of the medical records. Two facial nerve, 5 hypoglossal nerve, and 2 vagus nerve injuries were discovered for a total incidence of 4.7%. Only the 2 facial nerve injuries failed to improve over 2 years. Followup ranged from 1 to 60 months in this group of patients. Careful attention to details of tissue dissection at surgery should lower the incidence of nerve injury during carotid endarterectomy. PMID:4049454
Theodotou, B; Mahaley, M S
The lateral surgical approach to jugular foramen schwannomas (JFS) may result in complications such as temporary facial nerve\\u000a palsy (FNP) and hearing loss due to the complicated anatomical location. Ten patients with JFS surgically treated by variable\\u000a methods of lateral approach were retrospectively reviewed with emphasis on surgical methods, postoperative FNP, and lower\\u000a cranial nerve status. Gross total removal of
Yang-Sun Cho; Yoon Kyoung So; Kwan Park; Chung-Hwan Baek; Han-Sin Jeong; Sung Hwa Hong; Won-Ho Chung
Although glufosinate ammonium herbicides are considered safe when used properly, ingestion of the undiluted form can cause grave outcomes. Recently, we treated a 34-yr-old man who ingested glufosinate ammonium herbicide. In the course of treatment, the patient developed apnea, mental deterioration, and sixth cranial nerve palsy; he has since been discharged with full recovery after intensive care. This case report describes the clinical features of glufosinate intoxication with a focus on sixth cranial nerve palsy. Our observation suggests that neurologic manifestations after ingestion of a "low-grade toxicity herbicide" are variable and more complex than that was previously considered. PMID:24265537
Park, Jae-seok; Kwak, Soo-Jung; Gil, Hyo-wook; Kim, So-Young; Hong, Sae-yong
One hundred brains (first injected in cerebral arteries and veins with latex neoprene or India ink and studied under optic magnification) illustrate this anatomic chapter concerning the microsurgical anatomy of the cisternal segment, the neurovascular relationships, and the blood supply of the IIIrd to the XIIth cranial nerves. PMID:19328500
Mercier, P; Brassier, G; Fournier, H-D; Delion, M; Papon, X; Lasjaunias, P
The present investigation demonstrates that time-varying magnetic fields induced over the skull elicit distinct types of responses in muscles supplied by the cranial nerves both on the ipsilateral and the contralateral side. When the center of the copper coil was positioned 4 cm lateral to the vertex on a line from the vertex to the external auditory meatus, bilateral responses
R. Benecke; B.-U. Meyer; P. Schönle; B. Conrad
Summary The relationships of VII and VIII cranial nerves and related arteries are reviewed in 26 preparations by microdissection techniques. These vessels may be grouped in large (AICA, PICA), medium (LA, SA, CSA, RPI) and small calibre (vasa nervorum, radicullar and medullar branches). The importance of these structures in acoustic neuroma surgery, vestibular neurectomy and cross-compression syndromes is discussed. “Vascular
DB Brunsteins; AJM Ferreri
CONSIDERING the rarity and complexity of many neurological disorders, it is not surprising that neurology cases are often referred to specialist centres. However, this is certainly not the situation with regard to cranial nerves disorders, the majority of which can be readily identified and managed in practice. Initial assessment of these conditions is both quick and simple, and does not
A case of multiple cranial nerve palsy by herpes zoster was reported. A 79-year-old man showed fever, sore throat, and dysphagia. No vesicle was noted at ear and pharynx. The patient developed, later, left peripheral facial nerve palsy. The cerebrospinal fluid revealed pleocytosis with increased protein. The viral antibody titer of herpes zoster was significantly elevated both in cerebrospinal fluid and in serum. The left facial palsy was slightly improved. But his dysphagia didn't improve during at least 10 months after the onset. Among the cranial nerves, trigeminal and facial nerves are the most commonly affected by herpes zoster. But there are a few cases of the 9th and 10th cranial nerve involvement in the literature. However, dysphagia has rarely been reported in these previous cases, only four cases developed severe dysphagia like the present patient. All of these cases including our case were over sixty years old, while cases with slight dysphagia were under sixty years old. No other differentiating factor is noted between these two groups with regard to sites of vesicles, findings of cerebrospinal fluid and mode of therapy. PMID:1458731
Maeda, A; Shiojiri, T; Tsuchiya, K; Watabiki, S
We examined a 27-year-old woman who developed rapidly progressive quadriplegia and acute respiratory failure that required mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit. It was unclear whether this was a presentation of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) or acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (A-CIDP). Remarkable features included multiple cranial nerve involvement, respiratory failure, dysautonomia, and skin manifestations. Several autoantibodies were elevated, including antinuclear (ANA), anticardiolipin (aCL), thyroid, and calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) autoantibodies. The patient was initially diagnosed with GBS and treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). After almost complete recovery, relapse with quadriplegia and respiratory failure was observed 12 weeks after motor symptom onset. She then received IVIg and steroid pulse therapy followed by maintenance oral methylprednisolone and plasma exchange. She recovered completely 4 months after the relapse. The further clinical and serological course was consistent with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-associated CIDP. Herein we evaluate the association between A-CIDP and some biological markers of autoimmunity. PMID:19918775
Hantson, Philippe; Kevers, Luc; Fabien, Nicole; Van Den Bergh, Peter
Diplopia is one of the most vexing problems to confront a physician. When diplopia is binocular, it commonly results from dysfunction of one or more of the ocular motor nerves. Ocular motor dysfunction may result from injury anywhere along the neuraxis, from the ocular motor nucleus to the myoneural junction. Identifying the location of the lesion is important for determining the etiology and prognosis of third-, fourth-, and sixth-nerve injuries. In this article, an anatomic approach is presented for the diagnosis and treatment of ocular motor nerve lesions. Emphasis is placed on the identification of associated neurologic and ophthalmologic findings that are critical for management of patients with acquired and congenital ocular motor palsies. PMID:11370565
Bennett, J L; Pelak, V S
We report a rare case of multiple cranial nerve palsy associated with pregnancy, the cause of which remained to be clarified despite of extensive inspections. A 28-year-old woman with type 1 diabetes on insulin therapy developed left oculomotor nerve palsy in the fourth month of pregnancy. Her symptoms improved after one month's administration of vitamins B1 and B12. Numbness appeared in the left side of the face in the 8th month of pregnancy, and then moved to the right side in two weeks. Dysarthria and dysphagia occurred one month later. Bulbar symptoms were worsened, and she became unable to eat or drink. Neurological examination revealed disturbance of sensation in the right side of the face, soft palate paresis, and bilateral atrophy and fasciculation of the tongue. Extensive laboratory examinations including immunological and endocrinological studies, cerebrospinal fluid examination and brain magnetic resonance imaging were unremarkable. These symptoms remitted spontaneously after delivery, and the methylprednisolone pulse therapy accelerated the improvement. Neurological examination done one year after delivery showed complete recovery of the symptoms except for persistent tongue atrophy. PMID:18939478
Shindo, Akihiro; Taniguchi, Akira; Nakano, Chisako; Sasaki, Ryogen; Sugiyama, Takashi; Kuzuhara, Shigeki
The aim of the study was to establish the operative techniques and findings that can influence the reported incidence of cranial and cervical nerve injuries. Eight main studies comprising 1,616 carotid endarterectomies and published over the period from 1990 to October 2000 were reviewed. There were no statistically significant differences between neck incision (vertical or transverse) and number of injuries. In one study, multiple deficits were observed most frequently in patients treated by the eversion technique (P = 0.2). Additional prospective trials are needed in large numbers of patients to assess the incidence of cranial and cervical nerve injuries. Most injuries are transient and involve the vagus and hypoglossal nerves. A number of factors related to the operation, such as general anaesthesia, eversion technique and the surgeon's experience, may influence the incidence of such injuries. Repeat endarterectomy is associated with a high incidence of cranial and/or cervical nerve injuries. This is extremely important for establishing the real advantage of endovascular angioplasty or stenting of the carotid artery. PMID:11280832
Bartolucci, R; D'Andrea, V; Leo, E; De Antoni, E
... an ear or eye infection Bleeding within the brain Blockage of an artery supplying the nerve, as can result from diabetes, a stroke, a transient ischemic attack, or vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels) Wernicke encephalopathy (commonly due to chronic alcoholism) Benign ...
A 69-year-old woman developed ptosis and diplopia due to an isolated pupil-involving left oculomotor nerve palsy. General examination was unremarkable. Initial workup showed a mild increase in cerebrospinal fluid proteins. Imaging studies were remarkable for a left oculomotor nerve enhancement in brain MRI and hyperfixation along the nerve's pathway in full body single-photon emission CT. Assuming the possible diagnosis of neurosarcoidosis, the patient was started on high-dose methylprednisolone. Three months later she developed pancytopenia. A bone marrow biopsy was performed and histopathology revealed infiltration by Hodgkin's lymphoma. Adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine protocol chemotherapy was started and full haematological remission obtained after four cycles, despite mild oculomotor nerve palsy persisted. Isolated oculomotor palsy as the first presenting manifestation of a lymphoma is rare and alternative differential diagnosis must be considered in the absence of other lymphoma manifestations. In this case as with many rare initial manifestations of common diseases watchful waiting was crucial to the correct diagnosis and treatment strategy. PMID:24759607
Meireles, Joana; Garrett, Maria Carolina; Abreu, Pedro
Neuroanatomy teaching at the University of Leeds includes the examination of isolated brains by students working in small groups. This requires the prosected brains to exhibit all 12 pairs of cranial nerves. Traditional methods of removing the brain from the skull involve elevating the frontal lobes and cutting each cranial nerve as the brain is reflected posteriorly. This can leave a substantial length of each nerve attached to the skull base rather than to the removed brain. We have found a posterior approach more successful. In this study, five adult heads were disarticulated at the level of the thyroid cartilage and placed, prone, in a head stand. A wedge of bone from the occipital region was removed before the cerebellum and brainstem were elevated to visualize the cranial nerves associated with the medulla oblongata, cerebellopontine angle and mesencephalic-pontine junction prior to cutting them as close to the skull as possible. Five brains were successfully removed from the skull, each having a full complement of cranial nerves of good length attached to them. This approach significantly increases the length and number of cranial nerves remaining attached to the brain, which supports student education. For integration into head and neck dissection courses, careful consideration will be required to ensure the necks are suitably dissected and to decide whether the cranial nerves are best left attached to the skull base or brain. PMID:24318012
Long, Jennifer; Roberts, David J H; Pickering, James D
Pachymeningitis is a progressive disease resulting in a diffuse thickening of dura mater due to inflammation, tumor or autoimmune diseases, but most cases are idiopathic. Here, we report the case of a 60-year old man who had a progressive sensorineural hearing loss, visual disturbance and others cranial nerve involvement with an accompanying headache over several months. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed diffusely thickened dura mater, highly enhanced after gadolinium administration, which was consistent with pachymeningitis. It was assumed to be related to autoimmune pathogenesis on the basis of elevated serum myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody titers. After empirical steroid and cyclophosphamide therapy, the neurological problems were partially improved. Therefore, in the case of atypical sensorineural hearing loss accompanied by cranial nerve palsy or headache, pachymeningitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:24399188
El Aoud, S; Frikha, F; Ben Salah, R; Snoussi, M; Loukil, H; Bahloul, Z
Many typical neuroleptics carry a high risk for producing motor side effects in humans, and have significant affinities for\\u000a sigma (?) receptors. Sigma receptors are densely concentrated in cranial nerve nuclei that comprise the final common pathways\\u000a for lingual, facial and masticatory movements; thus, they may serve as important substrates for some of the unwanted movements\\u000a that can accompany neuroleptic
Thuytien T. Tran; Brian R. de Costa; R. R. Matsumoto
Intraoperative nerve monitoring (IONM) is a safe technique that is of clear clinical value in the preservation of cranial nerves in skull base surgery and is rapidly becoming the standard of care. Available nerve monitoring systems vary widely in capabilities and costs. A well-informed surgeon may best decide on monitoring needs based on surgical case selection, experience, operating room space, availability of monitoring personnel, and cost. Key system characteristics that should be reviewed in the decision-making process include the monitoring technique (electromyography, pressure transducer, direct nerve monitoring, brainstem auditory evoked potential) and the stimulus technique (stimulating parameters, probe selection). In the past, IONM has been primarily employed in posterior fossa and temporal bone surgery, but the value of IONM is being recognized in more skull base and head and neck surgeries. Suggested IONM strategies for specific surgeries are presented.
Selesnick, Samuel H.; Goldsmith, Daniel F.
An analysis of postoperative injuries to the recurrent laryngeal, hypoglossal, marginal mandibular, and superior laryngeal nerves was undertaken in 517 patients who underwent 535 carotid endarterectomies between April 1978 and March 1981 at The Cleveland Clinic Foundation. A review of the literature is presented followed by the results of this analysis and a discussion of the findings. Suggestions for decreasing or avoiding such injuries are made. Conclusions are drawn to help the otolaryngologist identify the endarterectomized patient with an impaired upper aerodigestive tract. PMID:6643076
Astor, F C; Santilli, P; Tucker, H M
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) cause substantial mortality and morbidity in both children and adults. Identification of poor prognostic factors at patient's admission could prepare physicians for more aggressive monitoring of patients with meningitis. The objective of this study was to determine the predictive value of neurological features to differentiate ABM and TBM. A retrospective study was conducted between patients affected with ABM or TBM admitted to three teaching hospitals during the last 14 years in Zahedan the central city of Sistan and Balouchestan province (Iran). The neurological features include seizure, level of consciousness, stroke, focal neurologic deficit and cranial nerve palsy at the time of admission. Mean age for patients with TBM and ABM were 41 ± 22.4 and 24 ± 18.5 years respectively. In univariate analysis, all measured variables revealed significant difference between ABM and TBM patients except for seizure episodes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed positive predictive effect of cranial nerve palsy (AOR=1.980, CI 95%: 1.161-3.376) on the diagnosis of TBM. In our study cranial nerve palsies was the most important neurological predictor factor to differentiate TBM from ABM. PMID:23585318
Moghtaderi, Ali; Alavi-Naini, Roya; Rashki, Saideh
Palsy of the abducens nerve is a neurological sign that has a wide range of causes due to the nerve's extreme vulnerability. Need of immediate neuroimaging is a matter of debate in the literature, despite the risks of delaying the diagnosis of a skull base tumor. The authors present 2 cases of skull base tumors in which the patients presented with recurrent and self-remitting episodes of sixth cranial nerve palsy (SCNP). In both cases the clinical history exceeded 1 year. In a 17-year-old boy the diagnosis was made because of the onset of headache when the tumor reached a very large size. In a 12-year-old boy the tumor was incidentally diagnosed when it was still small. In both patients surgery was performed and the postoperative course was uneventful. Pathological diagnosis of the tumor was consistent with that of a chondrosarcoma in both cases. Recurrent self-remitting episodes of SCNP, resembling transitory ischemic attacks, may be the presenting sign of a skull base tumor due to the anatomical relationships of these lesions with the petroclival segment of the sixth cranial nerve. Physicians should promptly recommend neuroimaging studies if SCNP presents with this peculiar course. PMID:24138144
Frassanito, Paolo; Massimi, Luca; Rigante, Mario; Tamburrini, Gianpiero; Conforti, Giulio; Di Rocco, Concezio; Caldarelli, Massimo
The third nerve palsies are not uncommon in adults and are usually the result of vascular or compressive lesions. However, they are uncommon in children and are usually congenital. Congenital oculomotor nerve palsies were generally thought to exist in isolation without associated abnormalities; however, there have been conflicting reports in the literature as to the associations of congenital oculomotor palsies. In this report, we present 2 cases of congenital third cranial nerve palsy with neurological deficits and central nervous system abnormalities. The first patient had initial presentations of inequality in pupil size, exodeviation of the affected eye, and extreme hypotropia of the contralateral eye, which was also complicated by profound neurological deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans disclosed hypoplasia of the right midbrain and corpus callosum. The second patient presented with an exodeviated right eye, and pupils non-reactive to light since birth. Computed tomography scans showed ventricular dilatation and absence of the septum pellucidum, which is compatible with septo-optic dysplasia (de Morsier syndrome). The clinical courses are presented, and we also review the literature concerning congenital third cranial nerve palsy associated with central nervous system anomalies. PMID:11416899
Sun, C C; Kao, L Y
Reversible T2-hyperintensities in cranial MRI have been recently observed in infants with infantile spasms, who were treated with vigabatrin. In most cases, this phenomenon is solely been reported in neuroimaging practice without clinical relevance. We report two patients with infantile spasms, who not only developed transient T2-hyperintensities, but also presented acute encephalopathy, and extrapyramidal symptoms under vigabatrin therapy. PMID:23199677
Dill, Patricia; Datta, Alexandre N; Weber, Peter; Schneider, Jacques
Anastomoses between lower cranial and upper cervical nerves: a comprehensive review with potential significance during skull base and neck operations, part I: trigeminal, facial, and vestibulocochlear nerves.
Descriptions of the anatomy of the neural communications among the cranial nerves and their branches is lacking in the literature. Knowledge of the possible neural interconnections found among these nerves may prove useful to surgeons who operate in these regions to avoid inadvertent traction or transection. We review the literature regarding the anatomy, function, and clinical implications of the complex neural networks formed by interconnections among the lower cranial and upper cervical nerves. A review of germane anatomic and clinical literature was performed. The review is organized in two parts. Part I concerns the anastomoses between the trigeminal, facial, and vestibulocochlear nerves or their branches with any other nerve trunk or branch in the vicinity. Part II concerns the anastomoses among the glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory and hypoglossal nerves and their branches or among these nerves and the first four cervical spinal nerves; the contribution of the autonomic nervous system to these neural plexuses is also briefly reviewed. Part I is presented in this article. An extensive anastomotic network exists among the lower cranial nerves. Knowledge of such neural intercommunications is important in diagnosing and treating patients with pathology of the skull base. PMID:24272859
Shoja, Mohammadali M; Oyesiku, Nelson M; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Radcliff, Virginia; Loukas, Marios; Chern, Joshua J; Benninger, Brion; Rozzelle, Curtis J; Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Tubbs, R Shane
The phenomena involved in paradoxical upper lid retraction have been observed during recovery from paralysis of the third cranial nerve (CN). One of these phenomena is pseudo-Graefe's sign or Fuch's sign, which is characterized by elevation or retraction of the upper eyelid when the eye is looking downwards and inwards. This synkinesis is caused by an aberrant regeneration of newly formed axons of the third CN that subsequently reach muscles not originally connected with them. Pseudo-Graefe's sign may occur after congenital or acquired diseases. Acquired forms occur more frequently and result from paralysis of the third CN following various intracranial diseases: aneurysms, traumas and tumors. PMID:8444362
Martorina, M; Porté, E
Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a benign bone disorder presenting with a variety of clinical manifestations. This is the first reported case of anosmia as presenting symptom of FD. We present the case of a 72-year-old female patient with a progressive olfactory dysfunction. Clinical examination revealed evidence of chronic rhinosinusitis; therefore the patient was treated with a course of oral corticosteroids. The patient had no improvement in her olfactory ability and imaging studies were ordered. Bony lesions characteristic of craniofacial FD were found, causing obstruction of the central olfactory pathway. This case emphasises the need to conduct further investigations in patients with rhinosinusitis and olfactory dysfunction especially when they present no response to oral steroid treatment. PMID:23893286
Tsakiropoulou, Evangelia; Konstantinidis, Iordanis; Chatziavramidis, Angelos; Constantinidis, Jannis
Background and Objectives:Surgical treatment of jugular foramen tumors can have significant complications such as facial nerve palsy due to complicated regional anatomy. In this study, we investigated the outcomes and complications of surgical approach to the jugular foramen tumors. Subjects and Method:Thirteen patients had operations for their tumors around jugular foramen with a mean follow-up period of 52 months. We
Yoon Kyoung So; Yang-Sun Cho; Chung-Hwan Baek; Han-Shin Jeong; Kye Hoon Park; Woo Young Lee
This concludes a series of descriptive statistical reports on discrete cranial traits in 81 human populations from around the world. Four variants classified as vessel and nerve related characters were investigated: patent condylar canal; supraorbital foramen; accessory infraorbital foramen; and accessory mental foramen. A significant asymmetric occurrence without any side preference was detected for the accessory mental foramen. Significant intertrait associations were found between the accessory infraorbital and supraorbital foramina in the panPacific region and Subsaharan African samples. The intertrait associations between the accessory infraorbital foramen and some traits classified as hypostotic were found mainly in the samples from the western part of the Old World, and those as hyperostotic traits in the samples from eastern Asian and the related population samples. With a few exceptions, the occurrence of a patent condylar canal and a supraorbital foramen was predominant in females, but the accessory infraorbital and accessory mental foramina were predominant in males. The frequency distributions of the traits showed interregional clinality and intraregional discontinuity. A temporal trend was found in the Northeast Asian region in the frequencies of the accessory infraorbital and accessory mental foramina. The diversity of modern human discrete cranial traits may at least in part be attributable to differential retention or intensification from an ancestral pattern.
HANIHARA, TSUNEHIKO; ISHIDA, HAJIME
Short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with cranial autonomic symptoms (SUNA) is a rare primary headache syndrome. The diagnostic criteria include attacks of unilateral orbital, supraorbital or temporal stabbing pain accompanied by one of the following: conjunctival injection and/or tearing, nasal congestion and/or rhinorrhea, and eyelid edema. The duration of pain is 2 seconds to 10 minutes, and the frequency of attacks is described as once a day or more. The etiology and pathology of SUNA has yet to be documented. We report an 18-year-old man with SUNA. Lomerizine hydrochloride which is used as a preventive medicine for migraine, improved his headaches. PMID:20009409
Tada, Yukiko; Ikuta, Naomi; Negoro, Kiyoshi
"? abducens nerve (cranial nerve VI) motor nerve innervating the lateral rectums muscle which abducts the eye lessons of the nucleus which is located in the dorsal pons produce a horizontal gaze pals nerve fibers exit the ventromedial pons and because of their long course are vulnerable to damage by mass lessons/increased intracranial pressure"
Did you mean: "? abducens nerve (cranial nerve VI) motor nerve innervating the lateral rectums muscle which abducts the eye lessons of the nucleus which is located in the dorsal pons produce a horizontal gaze pals nerve fibers exit the ventromedial pons and because of their long course are vulnerable to damage by mass lessons/increased intracranial pressure" ?
Since the widespread availability and use of antibiotics the prevalence of Lemierre syndrome (L.S.) has decreased. It is a well-described entity, consisting of postanginal septicaemia with thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein with metastatic infection, most commonly in the lungs. The most common causative agent is a gram-negative, non-spore-forming obligate anaerobic bacterium, Fusobacterium necrophorum (F.n.). We describe the unusual clinical features of a 12-year-old boy with Lemierre syndrome with isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy - the latter symptom is an extremely rare manifestation of this disease. PMID:23845534
Blessing, Kerstin; Toepfner, Nicole; Kinzer, Susanne; Möllmann, Cornelia; Geiger, Julia; Serr, Annerose; Hufnagel, Markus; Müller, Christoph; Krüger, Marcus; Ridder, Gerd J; Berner, Reinhard
Prolonged exposure to hand-held vibrating tools may cause a hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS), sometimes with individual susceptibility. The neurological symptoms seen in HAVS are similar to symptoms seen in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and there is a strong relationship between CTS and the use of vibrating tools. Vibration exposure to the hand is known to induce demyelination of nerve fibres and to reduce the density of myelinated nerve fibres in the nerve trunks. In view of current knowledge regarding the clinical effects of low nerve-fibre density in patients with neuropathies of varying aetiologies, such as diabetes, and that such a low density may lead to nerve entrapment symptoms, a reduction in myelinated nerve fibres may be a key factor behind the symptoms also seen in patients with HAVS and CTS. Furthermore, a reduced nerve-fibre density may result in a changed afferent signal pattern, resulting in turn in alterations in the brain, further prompting the symptoms seen in patients with HAVS and CTS. We conclude that a low nerve-fibre density lead to symptoms associated with nerve entrapment, such as CTS, in some patients with HAVS.
Objective To evaluate the value of free-run electromyography (f-EMG) monitoring of extraocular cranial nerves (EOCN) III, IV, and VI during expanded endonasal surgery (EES) of the skull base in reducing iatrogenic cranial nerve (CN) deficits. Design We retrospectively identified 200 patients out of 990 who had at least one EOCN monitored during EES. We further separated patients into groups according to the specific CN monitored. In each CN group, we classified patients who had significant (SG) f-EMG activity as Group I and those who did not as Group II. Results A total of 696 EOCNs were monitored. The number of muscles supplied by EOCNs that had SG f-EMG activity was 88, including CN III = 46, CN IV = 21, and CN VI = 21. There were two deficits involving CN VI in patients who had SG f-EMG activity during surgery. There were 14 deficits observed, including CN III = 3, CN IV = 2, and CN VI = 9 in patients who did not have SG f-EMG activity during surgery. Conclusions f-EMG monitoring of EOCN during EES can be useful in identifying the location of the nerve. It seems to have limited value in predicting postoperative neurological deficits. Future studies to evaluate the EMG of EOCN during EES need to be done with both f-EMG and triggered EMG.
Thirumala, Parthasarathy D.; Mohanraj, Santhosh Kumar; Habeych, Miguel; Wichman, Kelley; Chang, Yue-fang; Gardner, Paul; Snyderman, Carl; Crammond, Donald J.; Balzer, Jeffrey
This study evaluated the outcomes, complications, and recurrence rates of posterior cranial fossa meningiomas. We retrospectively reviewed our surgical experience with 64 posterior cranial fossa meningiomas. Mean age was 56 years with a female preponderance (67.2%). Headache was the most common symptom. Retrosigmoid approach was the commonest surgical procedure (23.4%). The incidence of cranial nerve related complications was 28%. Postoperatively facial nerve weakness was observed in 11%. The incidence of cerebrospinal fluid leak was 4.6%. Gross total resection was achieved in 37 patients (58%). Sixteen patients (25%) with residual tumors underwent Gamma knife radiosurgery. Recurrence or tumor progression was observed in 12 patients (18.7%). Operative mortality was 3.1%. At their last follow-up, 93% of the cases achieved Glasgow Outcome Scale scores 4 or 5. Total excision is the ideal goal which can be achieved with meningiomas located in certain location, such as lateral convexity, but for other posterior fossa meningiomas the close proximity of critical structures is a major obstacle in achieving this goal. In practicality, a balance between good functional outcome and extent of resection is important for posterior cranial fossa meningiomas in proximity to critical structures.
Javalkar, Vijayakumar; Banerjee, Anirban Deep; Nanda, Anil
Background: Cavernous malformations (CMs) confined to the cranial nerves (CN) are extremely rare lesions. Case Description: The authors report 2 cases of CMs, one involving the trigeminal nerve presenting with a 3 years history of a refractory right trigeminal neuralgia that was microsurgically resected by a retromastoid approach with resolution of the neuralgia; and another CM involving the chiasma with an abrupt onset of vision loss with acute intralesional bleeding that was removed through a right pterional approach with vision improvement. Conclusion: Surgical resection is recommended in the context of progressive significant neurological deficit, emergency decompression as a result of recent hemorrhage for symptomatic relief or increase in size on serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Pereira de Morais, Nuno Miguel; Mascarenhas, Antonio Lino Rodrigues; Soares-Fernandes, Joao Paulo; Moreira da Costa, Jose Antonio
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the common cancers in South China. It can easily invade into cranial nerves, especially in patients with local advanced disease. Despite the fact that the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings are not always consistent with the symptoms of CN palsy, MRI is recommended for the detection of CN involvement (CNI). However, the prognostic impact of MRI-detected CNI in NPC patients is still controversial. To investigate the prognostic value of MRI detected CNI, we performed a retrospective analysis on the clinical data of 375 patients with NPC who were initially diagnosed by MRI. All patients had T3-4 disease and received radical intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) as their primary treatment. The incidence of MRI-detected CNI was 60.8%. A higher incidence of MRI-detected CNI was observed in T4 disease compared with T3 disease (96.8% vs. 42.8%, P<0.001), and a higher incidence was also found in patients with Stage IV disease compared with those with Stage III disease (91.5% vs. 42.3%; P<0.001). The local relapse-free survival (LRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and overall survival (OS) of patients with T3 disease, with or without MRI-detected CNI, was superior to that of patients with T4 disease (P<0.05). No significant differences in LRFS, DMFS or OS were observed between T3 patients with or without MRI-detected CNI. The survival of Stage III patients with or without MRI-detected CNI was significantly superior to that of Stage IV patients (P<0.01), but there was no significant difference between Stage III patients with or without MRI-detected CNI for all endpoints. Therefore, when treated with IMRT, MRI-detected CNI in patients with NPC does not appear to affect the prognosis. In patients with clinical T3 disease, the presence of MRI-detected CNI is not sufficient evidence for defining T4 disease.
Zong, Jingfeng; Lin, Shaojun; Chen, Yunbin; Wang, Bingyi; Xiao, Youping; Lin, Jin; Li, Rui; Pan, Jianji
Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS) typically presents with ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia. Atypical MFS additionally includes bulbar impairment, affection of the limbs, or abortive presentations. Mostly, MFS follows an infection with Campylobacter jejunii. Aspergilloma has not been reported to trigger MFS. In a 48-year-old male tiredness, tinnitus, otalgia, parietal hyperaesthesia, coughing, plugged nose, hypoacusis, globus sensation, epipharyngeal pain, dysarthria, hypogeusia, arthralgia, lid cloni, facial hypaesthesia and tooth ache consecutively developed. There were occasional lid cloni, left-sided facial hypaesthesia, reduced gag reflex, divesting soft palate, and absent tendon reflexes. CSF investigations revealed normal cell-count but increased protein. Antibodies against GM1 and GQ1b were negative. Atypical MFS was diagnosed. Otolaryngological examinations revealed chronic sinusitis maxillaris from an aspergilloma. After immunoglobulins and resectioning of the aspergilloma, neurological abnormalities disappeared within 19d. MFS may manifest as unilateral lower cranial nerve lesions without affection of the upper cranial nerves or ataxia. Atypical MFS may be triggered by parasinusoidal aspergilloma. PMID:16081159
Finsterer, Josef; Niedermayr, Anton; Weigl, Peter G; Voigtländer, Till
Internal carotid artery (ICA) lesions in the parapharyngeal space (a dissection and a pseudoaneurysm) may present as isolated lower cranial nerves (IX, X, XI, and XII) palsy (Collet-Sicard syndrome). Some arteriopathies such as fibromuscular dysplasia and tortuosity make a vessel predisposed to dissection. Extreme vessel tortuosity makes the treatment by a stent graft impossible. Two Silk stents were used in a 46 year-old man with left lower cranial nerves (IX-XII) palsy for the treatment of left ICA spontaneous dissection with pseudoaneurysm. A follow-up angiogram 5 months later confirmed pseudoaneurysm thrombosis and patency of the left ICA. The patient recovered completely from the deficits. PMID:23070099
Zele?ák, Kamil; Zele?áková, Jana; DeRiggo, Július; Kur?a, Egon; Kantorová, Ema; Polá?ek, Hubert
Summary 30 cases of cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas, treated between 1983 and 1992, are reported. Twelve presented with an aggressive clinical couse including intracranial haemorrhage, progredient neurological deficit, medically intractable seizures, and cerebellar symptoms. The other 18 patients had a more benign clinical presentation with audible bruit, exophthalmus, chemosis, and cranial nerve dysfunction. One of the latter had symptoms of
G. Bavinzski; B. Richling; M. Killer; A. Gruber; D. Levy
During their migration to the periphery, cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) are repulsed by an ErbB4-dependent cue(s) in the mesenchyme adjoining rhombomeres (r) 3 and 5, which are segmented hindbrain neuromeres. ErbB4 has many ligands, but which ligand functions in the above system has not yet been clearly determined. Here we found that a cornichon-like protein/cornichon homolog 2 (CNIL/CNIH2) gene was expressed in the developing chick r3 and r5. In a cell culture system, its product facilitated the secretion of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF), one of the ligands of ErbB4. When CNIL function was perturbed in chick embryos by forced expression of a truncated form of CNIL, the distribution of NCCs was affected, which resulted in abnormal nerve fiber connections among the cranial sensory ganglia. Also, knockdown of CNIL or HB-EGF with siRNAs yielded a similar phenotype. This phenotype closely resembled that of ErbB4 knockout mouse embryos. Because HB-EGF was uniformly expressed in the embryonic hindbrain, CNIL seems to confine the site of HB-EGF action to r3 and r5 in concert with ErbB4.
Hoshino, Hideharu; Uchida, Tsukasa; Otsuki, Toshiaki; Kawamoto, Shoko; Okubo, Kousaku; Takeichi, Masatoshi
Leukemia cutis and facial nerve palsy are rare presenting symptoms of leukemia. This report describes a case of acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) presenting with only these two symptoms, a presentation of ALL that, to our knowledge, has not been previously described. It serves to alert physicians to look for underlying malignancy in the setting of cutaneous findings associated with facial nerve palsy. PMID:24602170
Gold, Heidi L; Grynspan, David; Kanigsberg, Nordau
In France, the main causes for unilateral laryngeal nerve paralysis in the adult patient are surgery and malignant tumors. Most of unilateral laryngeal nerve paralysis following thyroid surgery will recover within the first six postoperative months. At the time of unilateral laryngeal nerve paralysis, swallowing impairment and dyspnea occur in around 30% and 5% of cases, respectively. In the face of a unilateral laryngeal nerve paralysis occurring without a history of trauma of surgery, the main paraclinical examination to perform is a computed laryngeal nerve examination analyzing the whole length of the nerve involved. Speech therapy efficiency is related to the degree of severity of the symptoms related to unilateral laryngeal nerve paralysis. In the vast majority of cases, laryngeal medialization approaches improve dysphonia and swallowing impairment related to unilateral laryngeal paralysis, but not dyspnea. PMID:24525308
Laccourreye, Ollivier; Malinvaud, David; Ménard, Madeleine; Bonfils, Pierre
We report a patient with severe cranial polyneuropathy as well as sensory limb neuropathy. Biclonal serum IgM-kappa/IgM-lambda gammopathy was found and serum anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG)/sulfoglucuronyl paragloboside (SGPG) IgM antibody was also detected. Immunofluorescence analysis of a sural nerve biopsy specimen revealed binding of IgM and lambda-light chain on myelin sheaths. No amyloid deposition was detected in biopsied tissues except for the hard palate, suggesting that the amyloidosis was of the localized type and had no relation to the pathogenesis of cranial neuropathy. Our observations indicate that the anti-MAG/SGPG IgM antibody may be responsible for this patient's cranial polyneuropathy, which is a rare manifestation in anti-MAG/SGPG-associated neuropathy. PMID:16546215
Yoshida, Takuhiro; Yazaki, Masahide; Gono, Takahisa; Tazawa, Ko-ichi; Morita, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Masayuki; Funakoshi, Kei; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Ikeda, Shu-ichi
Summary: The case of a 61-year-old woman who presented with herpes labialis, subclinical meningitis, and sudden on- set of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss is presented. Con- trast-enhanced MR imaging showed marked bilateral en- hancement of the intracanalicular portion of the eighth cranial nerve, right cochlea, and left vestibule. Polymerase chain reaction was positive for human herpesvirus 1 ob- tained from
E. Saraf Lavi; Evelyn M. L. Sklar
Purpose To seek evidence of neurovascular compression of motor cranial nerve (CN) in otherwise idiopathic neuropathic strabismus using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Design Prospective, observational case series. Methods High-resolution, surface coil orbital MRI was performed in 10 strabismic patients with idiopathic oculomotor (CN3) or abducens (CN6) palsy. Relationships between CNs and intracranial arteries were demonstrated by 0.8 mm thick, 162 micron resolution, heavily T2 weighted MRI in fast imaging employing steady state acquisition sequence. Images were digitally analyzed to evaluate cross-sectional areas of extraocular muscles. Results In one patient with CN3 palsy, an ectatic posterior communicating artery markedly flattened and thinned the ipsilateral subarachnoid CN3. Cross-sections of the affected medial, superior and inferior rectus muscles 10 mm posterior to the globe-optic nerve junction were 17.2 ±2. 5 mm2, 15.5 ± 1.3 mm2, and 9.9 ± 0.8 mm2, significantly smaller than the values of 23.6 ± 1.9, 30.4 ± 4.1, 28.8 ± 4.6 mm2 of the unaffected side (P < 0.001). In two patients with otherwise unexplained CN6 palsy, ectatic basilar arteries contacted CN6. Mean cross-sections of affected lateral rectus muscles were 24.0 ± 2.3 and 29.8 ± 3.1 mm2, significantly smaller than the values of 33.5 ± 4.1 mm2 and 36.9 ± 1.6 mm2 in unaffected contralateral eyes (P < 0.05). Conclusions Non-aneurysmal motor CN compression should be considered as a cause of CN3 and CN6 paresis with neurogenic muscle atrophy, when MRI demonstrates vascular distortion of the involved CN. Demonstration of a benign vascular etiology can terminate continuing diagnostic investigations and expedite rational management of the strabismus.
Tsai, Tzu-Hsun; Demer, Joseph L.
It is generally accepted that hemifacial spasm (HFS) and trigeminal neuralgia are caused by compression of the facial nerve (seventh cranial nerve) or the trigeminal nerve (fifth cranial nerve) at the nerve's root exit (or entry) zone (REZ); thus, neurosurgeons generally perform neurovascular decompression at the REZ. Neurosurgeons tend to ignore vascular compression at distal portions of the seventh cranial nerve, even when found incidentally while performing neurovascular decompression at the REZ of that nerve, because compression of distal portions of the seventh cranial nerve has not been regarded as a cause of HFS. Recently the authors treated seven cases of HFS in which compression of the distal portion of the seventh cranial nerve produced symptoms. The anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) was the offending vessel in five of these cases. Great care must be taken not to stretch the internal auditory arteries during manipulation of the AICA because these small arteries are quite vulnerable to surgical manipulation and the patient may experience hearing loss postoperatively. It must be kept in mind that compression of distal portions of the seventh cranial nerve may be responsible for HFS in cases in which neurovascular compression at the REZ is not confirmed intraoperatively and in cases in which neurovascular decompression at the nerve's REZ does not cure HFS. Surgical procedures for decompression of the distal portion of the seventh cranial nerve as well as decompression at the REZ should be performed when a deep vascular groove is noticed at the distal site of compression of the nerve. PMID:9488322
Ryu, H; Yamamoto, S; Sugiyama, K; Uemura, K; Miyamoto, T
Alterations in histoarchitecture of the brainstem were examined immunohistochemically in 4-week-old rats with a single whole body X-irradiation at a dose of 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 Gy on embryonic day (ED) 15 using anti-heat shock protein 25 (HSP25). HSP25 immunostaining was seen in the neuronal perikarya of cranial nerve motoneurons, that is, the motor and mesencephalic nuclei of the trigeminal nerve, facial nucleus, abducens nucleus and accessory facial nucleus in the pons, and the ambiguous nucleus, dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve and hypoglossus nucleus in the medulla oblongata of intact controls. In 0.5 to 1.5 Gy-irradiated rats, HSP25 immunostaining in those neurons was more intense than in controls, while the most intense immunostaining was marked in 1.5 Gy-irradiated rats. HSP25 immunostaining was also apparent in the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve and facial nerve tracts in 0.5 to 1.5 Gy-irradiated rats, but was faint in controls. Interestingly, HSP25 immunostaining was aberrantly enhanced in dendritic arbors in the magnocellular region of medial vestibular nucleus of 0.5-1.5 Gy-irradiated rats. Those arbors were identified as excitatory secondary vestibulo-ocular neurons by double immunofluorescence for HSP25 and SMI-32. The results suggest an increase of HSP25 expression in cranial nerve motoneurons and their related fiber tracts from prenatal exposure to ionizing irradiation. This may be an adaptive response to chronic hypoxia due to malformed brain arteries caused by prenatal ionizing irradiation. PMID:24750554
Sawada, Kazuhiko; Saito, Shigeyoshi; Horiuchi-Hirose, Miwa; Murase, Kenya
We assessed feeding-related developmental anomalies in the LgDel mouse model of chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a common developmental disorder that frequently includes perinatal dysphagia--debilitating feeding, swallowing and nutrition difficulties from birth onward--within its phenotypic spectrum. LgDel pups gain significantly less weight during the first postnatal weeks, and have several signs of respiratory infections due to food aspiration. Most 22q11 genes are expressed in anlagen of craniofacial and brainstem regions critical for feeding and swallowing, and diminished expression in LgDel embryos apparently compromises development of these regions. Palate and jaw anomalies indicate divergent oro-facial morphogenesis. Altered expression and patterning of hindbrain transcriptional regulators, especially those related to retinoic acid (RA) signaling, prefigures these disruptions. Subsequently, gene expression, axon growth and sensory ganglion formation in the trigeminal (V), glossopharyngeal (IX) or vagus (X) cranial nerves (CNs) that innervate targets essential for feeding, swallowing and digestion are disrupted. Posterior CN IX and X ganglia anomalies primarily reflect diminished dosage of the 22q11DS candidate gene Tbx1. Genetic modification of RA signaling in LgDel embryos rescues the anterior CN V phenotype and returns expression levels or pattern of RA-sensitive genes to those in wild-type embryos. Thus, diminished 22q11 gene dosage, including but not limited to Tbx1, disrupts oro-facial and CN development by modifying RA-modulated anterior-posterior hindbrain differentiation. These disruptions likely contribute to dysphagia in infants and young children with 22q11DS. PMID:24357327
Karpinski, Beverly A; Maynard, Thomas M; Fralish, Matthew S; Nuwayhid, Samer; Zohn, Irene E; Moody, Sally A; LaMantia, Anthony-S
Summary Palsy of the third cranial nerve (oculomotor nerve, CNIII) is a well-known clinical presentation of posterior communicating artery (P-com) aneurysm. We report a series of 11 patients with partial or complete third nerve palsy secondary to P-com aneurysm. All were treated with endovascular embolization within seven days of symptom onset. Third nerve palsy symptoms resolved in 7/11 (64%), improved in 2/11 (18%) and did not change in 2/11 (18%) patients
Santillan, A.; Zink, W.E.; Knopman, J.; Riina, H.A.; Gobin, Y.P.
Significant data exist for the personal, environmental, and occupational risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome. Few data, however, explain the interrelationship of tissue morphology to these factors among patients with clinical presentation of median nerve pathology. Therefore, our primary objective was to examine the relationship of various risk factors that may be predictive of subjective reports of symptoms or functional deficits accounting for median nerve morphology. Using diagnostic ultrasonography, we observed real-time median nerve morphology among 88 participants with varying reports of symptoms or functional limitations resulting from median nerve pathology. Body mass index, educational level, and nerve morphology were the primary predictive factors. Monitoring median nerve morphology with ultrasonography may provide valuable information for clinicians treating patients with symptoms of median nerve pathology. Sonographic measurements may be a useful clinical tool for improving treatment planning and provision, documenting patient status, or measuring clinical outcomes of prevention and rehabilitation interventions. PMID:23245784
Roll, Shawn C; Evans, Kevin D; Li, Xiaobai; Sommerich, Carolyn M; Case-Smith, Jane
There is a broad community of health sciences professionals interested in the anatomy of the cranial nerves (CNs): specialists in neurology, neurosurgery, radiology, otolaryngology, ophthalmology, maxillofacial surgery, radiation oncology, and emergency medicine, as well as other related fields. Advances in neuroimaging using high-resolution images from computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) have made highly-detailed visualization of brain structures possible, allowing normal findings to be routinely assessed and nervous system pathology to be detected. In this article we present an integrated perspective of the normal anatomy of the CNs established by radiologists and neurosurgeons in order to provide a practical imaging review, which combines 128-slice dual-source multiplanar images from CT cisternography and 3T MR curved reconstructed images. The information about the CNs includes their origin, course (with emphasis on the cisternal segments and location of the orifices at the skull base transmitting them), function, and a brief listing of the most common pathologies affecting them. The scope of the article is clinical anatomy; readers will find specialized texts presenting detailed information about particular topics. Our aim in this article is to provide a helpful reference for understanding the complex anatomy of the cranial nerves. PMID:24302433
Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto; Martinez-Anda, Jaime J; Corona-Cedillo, Roberto
A 79-year-old woman was admitted complaining of progressive weakness and numbness of the right hand. The patient was otherwise healthy. The patient's history was unremarkable. Clinical and electrophysiological examination revealed a compression of the ulnar nerve in the ulnar sulcus and in Guyon's canal. Ultrasound evaluation showed a suspicious tumour proximal to the elbow close to the ulnar nerve. The ulnar sulcus was then released and an epineural and perineural lesion 3-4 cm proximal to the sulcus was excised under microscope. The histopathology confirmed the lesion as non-caseating sarcoid granulomas. The patient showed no other signs of systemic sarcoidosis, as neuropathy was the only symptom and the condition improved postoperatively. Sensory deficits and paraesthesia resolved fully. The extension of the minor finger remained slightly inferior compared with the not affected side. Sarcoid neuropathy is a rare neurological complication of sarcoidosis and has to be included in differential diagnosis of nerve conduction impairments. PMID:23192580
Mattiassich, Georg; Schubert, Heinrich; Hutarew, Georg; Wechselberger, Gottfried
Summary We report the outcome of endovascular treatment in a series of patients presenting with posterior communicating artery aneurysm causing ocular motor nerve palsy. A retrospective study was made of ten patients who were treated by coil embolization of posterior communicating artery aneurysm caused by oculomotor nerve palsy. The assessed parameters were as follows: patient’s age, presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage, aneurysm size, preoperative severity of symptoms, and timing of treatment after onset of symptoms. Improvement of oculomotor nerve palsy after treatment was noted in eight patients (80.0%). Complete recovery was noted in seven patients (70.0%), partial recovery in one patient (10.0%), and no recovery in two patients (20%). Clinical presentations with early management (?2 days) were significant in influencing recovery. Complete recovery from ocular motor nerve palsy was significantly higher in patients with initial incomplete palsy compared with initial complete palsy patients (6/6 versus 1/4). Early treatment and initial partial palsy are relevant to improving prognoses. Endovascular treatment is favored method for treating oculomotor palsy.
Ko, J.H.; Kim, Y-J.
Background To inform the clinical management of patients with suspected carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and case definition for CTS in epidemiological research, we explored the relation of symptoms and signs to sensory nerve conduction (SNC) measurements. Methods Patients aged 20–64 years who were referred to a neurophysiology service for investigation of suspected CTS, completed a symptom questionnaire (including hand diagrams) and physical examination (including Tinel’s and Phalen’s tests). Differences in SNC velocity between the little and index finger were compared according to the anatomical distribution of symptoms in the hand and findings on physical examination. Results Analysis was based on 1806 hands in 908 patients (response rate 73%). In hands with numbness or tingling but negative on both Tinel’s and Phalen’s tests, the mean difference in SNC velocities was no higher than in hands with no numbness or tingling. The largest differences in SNC velocities occurred in hands with extensive numbness or tingling in the median nerve sensory distribution and both Tinel’s and Phalen’s tests positive (mean 13.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 12.6-15.0 m/s). Hand pain and thumb weakness were unrelated to SNC velocity. Conclusions Our findings suggest that in the absence of other objective evidence of median nerve dysfunction, there is little value in referring patients of working age with suspected CTS for nerve conduction studies if they are negative on both Tinel’s and Phalen’s tests. Alternative case definitions for CTS in epidemiological research are proposed according to the extent of diagnostic information available and the relative importance of sensitivity and specificity.
Leksell GammaPlan (LGP) software was initially designed for Gamma Knife radiosurgery, but it can be successfully applied to planning of the open neurosurgical procedures as well. We present our initial experience of delineating the cranial nerves in the vicinity of skull base tumors, combined visualization of the implanted subdural electrodes and cortical anatomy to facilitate brain mapping, and fusion of structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging performed with the use of LGP before removal of intracranial neoplasms. Such preoperative information facilitated choosing the optimal approach and general surgical strategy, and corresponded well to the intraoperative findings. Therefore, LGP may be helpful for planning open neurosurgical procedures in cases of both extraaxial and intraaxial intracranial tumors. PMID:23417477
Tamura, Manabu; Konishi, Yoshiyuki; Tamura, Noriko; Hayashi, Motohiro; Nakao, Naoyuki; Uematsu, Yuji; Itakura, Toru; Régis, Jean; Mangin, Jean François; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Iseki, Hiroshi
Introduction Bilateral third nerve palsy secondary to a hemorrhagic stroke is exceptional. To the best of our knowledge, no similar case has been reported in the literature. Case presentation We describe the case of a 69-year-old Moroccan man who presented with isolated sudden bilateral third nerve palsy. Computed tomography (CT) of the brain revealed a midbrain hematoma. The oculomotor function gradually and completely improved over eight months of follow-up. Conclusion Stroke should be included in the differential diagnosis of sudden isolated oculomotor paralysis even when it is bilateral because of the severity of the underlying disease and the importance of its therapeutic implications.
Abstract Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a rare, potentially blinding condition typically affecting immunocompetent individuals. It is defined by the clinical triad of vitreous inflammation, occlusive vasculopathy, and progressive retinal necrosis, usually located in peripheral retina with circumferential extension. Varicella zoster virus (VZV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and occasionally cytomegalovirus (CMV) are the common causative agents of ARN. Reports of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) associated with ocular inflammatory disease are extremely rare. We here report the case of a 22-year-old immunocompetent male who presented with acute bilateral ARN and fourth nerve palsy, following HHV6 infection of the CNS and EBV infectious mononucleosis. PMID:24328436
Papageorgiou, Eleni; Ch'ng, Soon; Kulkarni, Archana; Anwar, Samira; Empeslidis, Theodoros
Chondromas and chondrosarcomas of the cranial base are rare neoplastic diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnosis and microsurgical treatment of these difficult cranial base tumors. A total of 19 patients who underwent microsurgery were pathologically diagnosed with cranial base chondromas or chondrosarcomas and their clinical data was reviewed. The chondromas and chondrosarcomas of the cranial base in the present study commonly originated in the sphenopetrosal, sphenoclival or petroclival junctions, and the majority were located in the parasellar region of the middle cranial base extradurally. The most frequent symptoms were headaches and cranial nerve palsy, and the Karnofsky performance score (KPS), assessed pre-operatively, averaged at 87.1. A frontotemporal or preauricular subtemporal-infratemporal approach was used in 11 cases, a tempo-occipital transtentorial or presigmoid supratentorial-infratentorial approach was employed in six further cases, and the far-lateral or retrosigmoid approach was applied in the remaining two cases. A total or near-total tumor removal was secured in 13 cases, while a subtotal removal was obtained in another five and a partial removal was achieved in one case. The most common post-operative complications included cranial nerve palsy and cerebrospinal fluid leakage, but there were no post-operative fatalities. A total of 15 patients were followed up for a mean of 67.2 months (range, 5–140 months), and 13 (76.5%) of these patients were living normal lives (KPS, 80–90). There were two patients with recurrent tumors. The neuroradiological examinations and the presenting symptoms and signs allow the pre-operative diagnosis to be presumed for the majority of cranial base chondromas or chondrosarcomas. Surgical resection is the key treatment for these tumors, and this treatment is known to improve the survival rates.
GENG, SUMIN; ZHANG, JUNTING; ZHANG, LI-WEI; WU, ZHEN; JIA, GUIJUN; XIAO, XINRU; HAO, SHUYU
Although exercise can significantly reduce the prevalence and severity of diabetic complications, no studies have evaluated the impact of exercise on nerve function in people with diagnosed diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). The purpose of this pilot study was to examine feasibility and effectiveness of a supervised, moderately intense aerobic and resistance exercise program in people with DPN. We hypothesize that the exercise intervention can improve neuropathic symptoms, nerve function, and cutaneous innervation. Methods A pre-test post-test design was to assess change in outcome measures following participation in a 10-week aerobic and strengthening exercise program. Seventeen subjects with diagnosed DPN (8 males/9 females; age 58.4±5.98; duration of diabetes 12.4±12.2 years) completed the study. Outcome measures included pain measures (visual analog scale), Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) questionnaire of neuropathic symptoms, nerve function measures, and intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) density and branching in distal and proximal lower extremity skin biopsies. Results Significant reductions in pain (?18.1±35.5 mm on a 100 mm scale, p=0.05), neuropathic symptoms (?1.24±1.8 on MNSI, p=0.01), and increased intraepidermal nerve fiber branching (+0.11±0.15 branch nodes/fiber, p=?.008) from a proximal skin biopsy were noted following the intervention. Conclusions This is the first study to describe improvements in neuropathic and cutaneous nerve fiber branching following supervised exercise in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. These findings are particularly promising given the short duration of the intervention, but need to be validated by comparison with a control group in future studies.
Kluding, Patricia M.; Pasnoor, Mamatha; Singh, Rupali; Jernigan, Stephen; Farmer, Kevin; Rucker, Jason; Sharma, Neena; Wright, Douglas E.
Ophthalmoplegic migraine is a poorly understood neurologic syndrome characterized by recurrent bouts of head pain and ophthalmoplegia. By reviewing cases presenting to our centers in whom the phenotype has been carefully dissected, and systematically reviewing all published cases of ophthalmoplegic migraine in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) era, this review sets out to clearly define the syndrome and discuss possible etiologies. We found that in up to one-third of patients, the headache was not migrainous or associated with migrainous symptoms. In three-quarters of the cases involving the third nerve, there was focal nerve thickening and contrast enhancement on MRI. Observational data suggest systemic corticosteroids may be beneficial acutely. The etiology remains unclear, but may involve recurrent bouts of demyelination of the oculomotor nerve. "Ophthalmoplegic migraine" is a misnomer in that it is probably not a variant of migraine but rather a recurrent cranial neuralgia. A more appropriate name might be "ophthalmoplegic cranial neuropathy." PMID:22241707
Gelfand, Amy A; Gelfand, Jeffrey M; Prabakhar, Prab; Goadsby, Peter J
Ophthalmoplegic migraine is a poorly understood neurologic syndrome characterized by recurrent bouts of head pain and ophthalmoplegia. By reviewing cases presenting to our centers in whom the phenotype has been carefully dissected, and systematically reviewing all published cases of ophthalmoplegic migraine in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) era, this review sets out to clearly define the syndrome and discuss possible etiologies. We found that in up to one-third of patients, the headache was not migrainous or associated with migrainous symptoms. In three-quarters of the cases involving the third nerve, there was focal nerve thickening and contrast enhancement on MRI. Observational data suggest systemic corticosteroids may be beneficial acutely. The etiology remains unclear, but may involve recurrent bouts of demyelination of the oculomotor nerve. “Ophthalmoplegic migraine” is a misnomer in that it is probably not a variant of migraine but rather a recurrent cranial neuralgia. A more appropriate name might be “ophthalmoplegic cranial neuropathy.”
Gelfand, Amy A.; Gelfand, Jeffrey M.; Prabakhar, Prab; Goadsby, Peter J.
Discontinuity in the silicone insulation over an electrode of a left vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) allowed the aberrant leak of current to the phrenic nerve and other structures. This resulted in ipsilateral diaphragmatic dysfunction, inability to vocalize, and severe radiating pain into the jaw and upper incisor for the duration of each stimulation. The device was explanted and a new device was implanted. All stimulation-related symptoms ceased immediately. A similar discontinuity in the silicone insulation is the likely explanation for several prior reports of poorly understood pains and phrenic nerve stimulation in patients with VNSs. The findings and analysis of this case establish a rationale for consideration of replacement of the VNS lead in all similarly symptomatic patients. PMID:19558306
Spitz, Mark C; Winston, Ken R; Maa, Edward H; Ojemann, Steven G
Background: Idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis (IHCP) is a rare, poorly understood, inflammatory disease, usually involving the dura mater of skull base, tentorium, and falx, and presenting with headache, progressive cranial nerve palsies, and cerebellar dysfunction. Patients and Methods: In four patients, the diagnosis of IHCP has been made on the basis of extensive clinical, and radiological investigation, and confirmed by
Simone Rossi; Fabio Giannini; Alfonso Cerase; Sabina Bartalini; Sergio Tripodi; Nila Volpi; Giampaolo Vatti; Stefano Passero; Paolo Galluzzi; Monica Ulivelli
Background Skull base meningiomas commonly present with cranial neuropathies. Fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (FSRT) has been used to treat these tumors with excellent local control, but rates of improvement in cranial neuropathies have not been well defined. We review the experience at Thomas Jefferson University using FSRT in the management of these patients with a focus on symptom outcomes. Methods We identified 225 cases of skull base meningiomas treated with FSRT at Thomas Jefferson University from 1994 through 2009. The target volume was the enhancing tumor, treated to a standard prescription dose of 54 Gy. Symptoms at the time of RT were classified based on the cranial nerve affected. Logistic regression was performed to determine predictors of symptom improvement after FSRT. Results The median follow-up time was 4.4 years. In 92% of cases, patients were symptomatic at the time of RT; the most common were impaired visual field/acuity (58%) or extraocular movements (34%). After FSRT, durable improvement of at least one symptom occurred in 57% of cases, including 40% of visual acuity/visual field deficits, and 40% of diplopia/ptosis deficits. Of all symptomatic patients, 27% experienced improvement of at least one symptom within 2 months of the end of RT. Conclusions FSRT is very effective in achieving improvement of cranial neuropathies from skull base meningiomas, particularly visual symptoms. Over half of treated patients experience a durable improvement of at least one symptom, frequently within 2 months from the end of RT.
Purpose. Limited capability exists to predict when vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) battery deterioration becomes significant. Initial models last 2–5 years. We evaluated the first 18 patients with pharmacoresistent epilepsy after reimplantation to examine the clinical course observed during VNS end of service (EOS).Methods. Of 72 patients with VNS, 18 patients had generator replacement. EOS was estimated based on duration of
W. O. Tatum IV; J. A. Ferreira; S. R. Benbadis; L. S. Heriaud; M. Gieron; N. T. Rodgers-Neame; F. L. Vale
Foodborne botulism is a severe, potentially fatal disease characterized by cranial nerve palsies and descending paralysis. Little is known about signs and symptoms predictive of death from botulism. We studied patients with botulism in the Republic of Georgia, which has the highest reported rate of foodborne botulism in the world. After abstracting medical records of patients with botulism who were
Jay K. Varma; Guram Katsitadze; Maia Moiscrafishvili; Tamar Zardiashvili; Maia Chokheli; Natalia Tarkhashvili; Ekaterina Jhorjholiani; Maia Chubinidze; Teimuraz Kukhalashvili; Irakli Khmaladze; Nelli Chakvetadze; Paata Imnadze; Mike Hoekstra; Jeremy Sobel
Prenatal valproic acid (VPA) exposure results in neural tube defects and in the fetal valproate syndrome (FVS), associated with developmental delay. In the present study we investigate the alterations induced by VPA and one of its metabolite, 4-en-VPA, on specific neural structures: branchial nerves and ganglia. This study was performed on 8–9 pairs of somites mouse embryos exposed in vitro
F. Gofflot; G. ban Maele-Fabry; J. J. Picard
Sacral neuromodulation has been developed to treat chronic lower urinary tract symptoms, resistant to classical conservative therapy. The suspected mechanisms of action include afferent stimulation of the central nervous system and modulation of activity at the level of the brain. Typical neuromodulation is indicated both in overactivity and in underactivity of the lower urinary tract. In the majority of patients, a unilateral electrode in a sacral foramen and connected to a pulse generator is sufficient to achieve significant clinical results also on long term. In recent years, other urological indications have been explored. PMID:20972546
Van Kerrebroeck, Philip E V
Transcranial motor evoked potential (MEP) for the facial nerve (facial MEP) has been recognized as a good method for quantitative monitoring of facial nerve function in skull base surgery. To improve the feasibility and safety of facial MEP monitoring, a peg-screw electrode and a “threshold-level” method were investigated. From 2007 to 2009, intraoperative facial MEP monitoring with the peg-screw electrode and threshold-level method was successfully achieved in 26 of 29 patients who underwent surgery for the posterior fossa extra-axial tumor. The relationship between the change in the facial MEP threshold level and the postoperative function of the facial nerve was analyzed in 23 patients who had no facial palsy preoperatively. There were no complications associated with facial MEP monitoring. Nine patients who had stable facial MEP threshold had no facial palsy. Fourteen patients who had worsened but measurable facial MEP threshold had mild palsy at discharge. Two of three patients who had severely worsened and unmeasurable facial MEP threshold had severe facial palsy. The change in the facial MEP was well correlated with the postoperative facial function. The peg-screw electrode and threshold-level method are good options for facial MEP monitoring.
Goto, Tetsuya; Muraoka, Hisashi; Kodama, Kunihiko; Hara, Yosuke; Yako, Takehiro; Hongo, Kazuhiro
An unusual case of schwannoma arising from the third cranial nerve in a thirteen year old male is reported. The patient presented with paresis of the right oculomotor nerve and ipsilateral hemiparesis. The clinical features of this case are discussed and the pertinent medical literature reviewed. ImagesFigure 1p220-bFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6
Niazi, Wasim; Boggan, James E.
Complete resection with conservation of cranial nerves is the primary goal of contemporary surgery for lower cranial nerve tumors. We describe the case of a patient with a schwannoma of the left glossopharyngeal nerve, operated on in our Neurosurgical Unit. The far lateral approach combined with laminectomy of the posterior arch of C1 was done in two steps. The procedure allowed total tumor resection and was found to be better than classic unilateral suboccipital or combined supra- and infratentorial approaches. The advantages and disadvantages of the far lateral transcondylar approach, compared to the other more common approaches, are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2
Puzzilli, F.; Mastronardi, L.; Agrillo, U.; Nardi, P.
Abstract We describe the case of a 75-year-old woman who presented with acute loss of vision. She experienced subacute headache, hearing loss on the left side, hoarseness, and dysphagia during the previous 10 months. On admission, she had bilateral loss of vision, without any ophthalmological abnormalities, and multiple cranial nerve palsies, including left hearing loss and right IX, X, and XI nerve palsies. Head magnetic resonance imaging with contrast enhancement revealed hypertrophic pachymeningitis. Laboratory findings showed no abnormalities except for an increased sedimentation rate and increased C-reactive protein levels. A biopsy of the dura mater was performed, and histopathological analysis revealed inflammatory thickening of the dura mater with plasma cell infiltration; the infiltrating cells were immunoreactive to an anti-IgG4 antibody, thereby indicating an IgG4-related disorder. Furthermore, the histopathological analysis revealed evidence of vasculitis in both veins and arteries. After corticosteroid treatment, her visual acuity dramatically improved. Acute loss of vision with multiple cranial nerve palsies may be an uncommon presentation of IgG4-related hypertrophic pachymeningitis. However, it should be recognized that these conditions might be underdiagnosed. The possibility of central nervous system involvement in IgG4-related disorders should be considered in patients with multiple cranial nerve neuropathies associated with hypertrophic pachymeningitis, even in the absence of systemic sclerosis symptoms. In our case, early treatment with corticosteroids showed immediate effectiveness in correcting the visual symptoms. (Received October 3, 2013; Accepted November 13, 2013; Published July 1, 2014). PMID:24998832
Tsugawa, Jun; Ouma, Shinji; Fukae, Jiro; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Sakata, Noriyuki; Inoue, Toru
A 27-year-old woman presented with right spinal accessory juxtabulbar schwannoma, associated with hydrocephalus. The only specific clinical symptom was long-standing weakness of the right trapezius. C.T. scan evoked a cerebellar tumor, whilst the jugular foramen appeared normal. Vertebral angiography was not decisive. M.R.I. suggested an extra-axial tumor. Post-operative evolution was entirely favourable. Schwannomas of the 9th, 10th and 11th cranial nerves are generally located at the level of the jugular foramen but can also be observed along the extracranial path of these nerves. An intracranial paramedial, or so-called "intracisternal" localization is rare and is best diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:1461336
Fransen, P; Dooms, G; Mathurin, P; Thauvoy, C; Stroobandt, G
Surgical intervention in pathological formations of the posterior cranial fossa is particularly complex and can be accompanied by damage to vitally important anatomical structures . This is explained by the close relationship between volume-occupying processes and the brainstem, cranial nerves, and major vessels of the posterior cranial fossa. Current surgical approaches to tumors and other pathological processes at the base
A. A. Loit; A. V. Vereshchako; V. V. Remenets
Dysphagia secondary to peripheral cranial nerve injury originates from weak and uncoordinated contraction-relaxation of cricopharyngeal muscle. We report on two patients who suffered vagus nerve injury during surgery and showed sudden dysphagia by opening dysfunction of upper esophageal sphincter (UES). Videofluoroscopy-guided balloon dilatation of UES was performed. We confirmed an early improvement of the opening dysfunctions of UES, although other neurologic symptoms persisted. While we did not have a proper comparison of cases, the videofluoroscopy-guided balloon dilatation of UES is thought to be helpful for the early recovery of dysphagia caused by postoperative vagus nerve injury.
Jung, Bora; Choi, Ikjun; Lee, Nam Jae; Jung, Kwang-Ik; Yoo, Woo-Kyoung
Neurenteric cysts are rare congenital lesions of endodermal origin occurring in the spinal canal and infrequently in the posterior cranial fossa. The authors report the case of a 3-year-old child who presented with a recurrent third cranial nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large cystic mass lesion in the ambient cistern on the right side, with compression of the anterolateral aspect of the brainstem. The patient underwent a craniotomy, complete excision, and a primary third cranial nerve repair. While there have been 3 reported cases of neurenteric cysts arising from the oculomotor nerve, this is the first documented case with a primary nerve repair. PMID:22208320
Turner, Scott J; Dexter, Mark A; Smith, James E H; Ouvrier, Robert
Syphilis remains a common disease throughout the world, being neurosyphilis a relatively common manifestation. A case of a 34 years old male with HIV and neurosyphilis is presented, characterized by a clinical course evidenced by progressive palsy of cranial nerves. This case is unusual and a rare presentation of progressive cranial involvement with swallowing deficit, have found no similar data in the literature. PMID:23156895
Baccaro, Fernando; Moldes, Sofía; Novelli Poisson, Paola; Arduin, Julieta; Valerga, Mario
Summary Background This study sought to assess the vestibulocochlear organ in patients meeting radiologic criteria of vascular compression syndrome (VCS) of the eighth cranial nerve. Material/Methods The authors performed a retrospective analysis of 34 patients (18 women, 16 men; mean age, 49 years) treated in between 2000 and 2007, with VCS of the eighth cranial nerve by MRI. Contrasted magnetic resonance imaging identified an anterior inferior cerebellar artery vascular loop adhering to the vestibule-cochlear nerve in all 34 cases. All patients were given pure tone audiometry, distortion product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem response, and electroneurographic examinations. Results Most-common symptoms were unilateral hearing loss (82%), unilateral tinnitus (80%), and dizziness (74%). Most-frequent abnormalities in performed examinations were specific auditory brainstem response changes (interpreted according to Möller’s criteria) in 86% of cases and sensorineural hearing loss in pure tone audiometry (82%). Abnormal changes in electronystagmography were found in the absence (12%) or weakness (35%) of a caloric response. No patients were surgically treated. Conclusions Significantly, there is no more weakness or absence of the caloric response of a vestibular organ in a patient with vascular compression of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Despite an absence of electrophysiologic testing of vestibular organ dysfunction, most examined patients (meeting the radiologic criteria of VCS of the eighth cranial nerve) had subjective symptoms like vertigo and dizziness. Disabling positional vertigo should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vertigo when accompanied by tinnitus or deafness.
Markowski, Jaroslaw; Gierek, Tatiana; Kluczewska, Ewa; Witkowska, Malgorzata
Neuropathic cranial pain, i.e. pain due to central or peripheral nervous system damage localized in cranial area, is a clinical challenge for the neurologist. Despite major advances in knowledge of physiology and biochemistry of pain, relief for many patients suffering from neuropathic pain remains incomplete. Adjuvant analgesics play a key role in the management of neuropathic pain. The introduction in
B. Colombo; P. O. L. Annovazzi; G. Comi
The association of third cranial nerve palsy subsequent to an enlarging posterior communicating artery (P-Com A) aneurysm has been well described. In our current communication, we review the relevant literature and propose a classification system for the severity of the third cranial nerve palsy, correlating it to the postoperative recovery. Our four grade scale (I-IV) included the degree of the levator palpebrae muscle paresis, the presence of pupillary reaction and the impairment of the third nerve mediated extraocular muscle movement. We evaluated five patients with third nerve palsy secondary to non-ruptured, P-Com A aneurysm. Patients were re-evaluated at 2, 4, 8, 24 weeks postoperatively. Four of the five patients had complete recovery within 4-8 weeks after surgery. One patient had grade II third nerve paresis and complete resolution of the third nerve symptoms within 4 weeks, whereas three patients with grade III and IV had complete resolution 4-8 weeks after surgery. The fifth patient, with grade IV paresis, had minimal (grade III) improvement 6 weeks after surgery, and incomplete recovery (grade I) 6 months postoperatively. Our simple grading system of third nerve palsy associated with P-Com A aneurysms, can be a helpful tool for the initial evaluation and for the monitoring of recovery in these patients. PMID:15947958
Dimopoulos, Vassilios G; Fountas, Kostas N; Feltes, Carlos H; Robinson, Joe Sam; Grigorian, Arthur A
Two patients are described who had suffered for 12 years from episodes of painful ophthalmoplegia consistent with a Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS) alternating with palsies of cranial nerves other than the oculomotor (fifth motor and seventh on both sides). These two cases, as well as other similar ones previously reported in the literature, suggest that THS may sometimes be a variant
F. Barontini; S. Maurri; E. Marrapodi
The neurocutaneous syndromes or phakomatoses are a heterogeneous group of congenital disorders primarily involving structures derived from the embryological neuroectoderm. All of the syndromes involve the central nervous system (CNS). Peripheral nerves, skin and other organ systems may also be involved. Twenty to 30 disorders are now classified as neurocutaneous syndromes. This article reviews the intra-cranial imaging features of some
J. HERRON; R. DARRAH; G. QUAGHEBEUR
The facial nerve is one of the most commonly injured cranial nerves. Once injured, the effects on form, function, and psyche are profound. We review the anatomy of the facial nerve from the brain stem to its terminal branches. We also discuss the physical exam findings of facial nerve injury at various levels. Finally, we describe various reconstructive options for reanimating the face and restoring both form and function.
Birgfeld, Craig; Neligan, Peter
Objective To report three unique cases of cranial neuropathy after super-selective arterial embolization of jugular foramen vascular tumors with ethylene vinyl alcohol. Study Design Clinical capsule report Setting Three tertiary academic referral hospitals Patients Three patients who underwent superselective arterial embolization (SSE) of head and neck paragangliomas with ethylene vinyl alcohol are described. One individual was treated with primary SSE, while the remaining tumors were treated with preoperative SSE followed by surgical extirpation within 72 hours. All patients were found to have new cranial nerve deficits following SSE. Results One patient with isolated complete cranial nerve VII palsy demonstrated no return of function. One individual experienced cranial nerve VII, X, and XII palsies and demonstrated partial recovery of function of the involved facial nerve after 19 months. One subject experienced ipsilateral cranial nerve X and XI palsies after SSE and recovered full function of the spinal accessory nerve within one week, but failed to demonstrate mobility of the ipsilateral true vocal fold. Conclusion We present the first report documenting facial and lower cranial neuropathies after super-selective embolization of head and neck paragangliomas with EVA. Although it is difficult to draw conclusions from this small number of cases, it is plausible that use of ethylene vinyl alcohol during SSE may result in a higher risk of permanent cranial neuropathy than the use of other well-established and more temporary agents. Knowledge of the arterial supply to the cranial nerves can help the clinician to choose the embolization agent that will provide maximal occlusion while minimizing the risk of complications.
Gartrell, Brian C; Hansen, Marlan R; Gantz, Bruce J; Gluth, Michael B; Mowry, Sarah E; Aagaard-Kienitz, Beverly L; Baskaya, Mustafa K; Gubbels, Samuel P
We report a case of isolated unilateral hypoglossal nerve injury following ipsilateral acupuncture for migraines in a 53-year-old lady. The palsy was partial, with no associated dysarthria, and transient. Further examination and imaging was negative. Cranial nerve injuries secondary to acupuncture are not reported in the literature, but are a theoretical risk given the location of the cranial nerves in the neck. Anatomical knowledge is essential in those administering the treatment, and those reviewing patients with possible complications. PMID:24876519
Harrison, A M; Hilmi, O J
We report a case of isolated unilateral hypoglossal nerve injury following ipsilateral acupuncture for migraines in a 53-year-old lady. The palsy was partial, with no associated dysarthria, and transient. Further examination and imaging was negative. Cranial nerve injuries secondary to acupuncture are not reported in the literature, but are a theoretical risk given the location of the cranial nerves in the neck. Anatomical knowledge is essential in those administering the treatment, and those reviewing patients with possible complications.
Harrison, A.M.; Hilmi, O.J.
Background: A serious, albeit rare, sequel of therapeutic ionizing radiotherapy is delayed development of a new, histologically distinct neoplasm within the radiation field. Methods: We identified 27 cases, from a 10-year period, of intracranial tumors arising after cranial irradiation. The original lesions for which cranial radiation was used for treatment included: tinea capitis (1), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; 5), sarcoma (1), scalp hemangioma (1), cranial nerve schwannoma (1) and primary (13) and metastatic (1) brain tumors, pituitary tumor (1), germinoma (1), pinealoma (1), and unknown histology (1). Dose of cranial irradiation ranged from 1800 to 6500 cGy, with a mean of 4596 cGy. Age at cranial irradiation ranged from 1 month to 43 years, with a mean of 13.4 years. Results: Latency between radiotherapy and diagnosis of a radiation-induced neoplasm ranged from 4 to 47 years (mean 18.8 years). Radiation-induced tumors included: meningiomas (14), sarcomas (7), malignant astrocytomas (4), and medulloblastomas (2). Data were analyzed to evaluate possible correlations between gender, age at irradiation, dose of irradiation, latency, use of chemotherapy, and radiation-induced neoplasm histology. Significant correlations existed between age at cranial irradiation and development of either a benign neoplasm (mean age 8.5 years) versus a malignant neoplasm (mean age 20.3; P = 0.012), and development of either a meningioma (mean age 7.0 years) or a sarcoma (mean age 27.4 years; P = 0.0001). There was also a significant positive correlation between latency and development of either a meningioma (mean latency 21.8 years) or a sarcoma (mean latency 7.7 years; P = 0.001). The correlation between dose of cranial irradiation and development of either a meningioma (mean dose 4128 cGy) or a sarcoma (mean dose 5631 cGy) approached significance (P = 0.059). Conclusions: Our study is the first to show that younger patients had a longer latency period and were more likely to have lower-grade lesions (e.g. meningiomas) as a secondary neoplasm, while older patients had a shorter latency period and were more likely to have higher-grade lesions (e.g. sarcomas).
Chowdhary, Abhineet; Spence, Alex M.; Sales, Lindsay; Rostomily, Robert C.; Rockhill, Jason K.; Silbergeld, Daniel L.
Injury can occur to several of the cranial nerves during carotid endarterectomy. Among these, glossopharyngeal nerve injury is an uncommon complication because it is remote from the field of dissection in most carotid procedures. From more than 2000 carotid operations four cases of symptomatic ninth cranial nerve injury were identified. Analysis revealed that dissection cephalad to the level of the hypoglossal nerve was a common feature of each and severe functional disability can result from glossopharyngeal nerve paresis. When mobilization of this nerve and division of the posterior belly of the digastric muscle and styloid process become necessary for additional exposure, the risk of glossopharyngeal nerve injury increases. Specific recommendations are made regarding management and maneuvers to help reduce the incidence of this uncommon, yet potentially serious, complication. PMID:3509601
Rosenbloom, M; Friedman, S G; Lamparello, P J; Riles, T S; Imparato, A M
We report a 25-year-old man with a history of uncontrolled migrainous headaches who developed third nerve palsy and sensory loss over V1 distribution of trigeminal nerve, during an attack of severe migraine. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI of the brain and cavernous sinus was normal and did not disclose nerve enhancement. CT angiogram was also normal. The patient recovered uneventfully in 2 weeks on oral steroids. The commonest cranial nerve implicated in ophthalmoplegic migraine is the occulomotor nerve. Involvement of the fifth nerve has never been reported. PMID:23715838
Sharma, Bhawna; Sannegowda, Raghavendra Bakki; Kumar, Sunil; Dubey, Parul
We report a case of primary extracranial meningioma arising from the hypoglossal nerve in a 54-year-old man who presented with a 9-month history of hoarseness and progressive dysphagia. He had also noticed that his tongue was deviated to the left and, as a result, he was having difficulty pronouncing words. Examination revealed fasciculation and muscle wasting on the left side of the tongue. Other cranial nerve functions were normal. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography detected a heterogeneous mass that had arisen above the bifurcation of the left common carotid artery and had extended to near the skull base. Transcervical excision of the tumor was performed, and histopathology identified it as a meningioma of the hypoglossal nerve. The patient recovered uneventfully, and he was without recurrence at more than 2 years of follow-up. A primary extracranial meningioma is extremely rare, and its presentation may be subtle. A thorough investigation is necessary to avoid fatal compressive symptoms. PMID:23288802
Zulkiflee, Abu Bakar; Prepageran, Narayanan; Rahmat, Omar; Jayalaskhmi, Pailoor; Sharizal, Tengku
Purpose: Although the effectiveness of stereotactic radiosurgery for nonacoustic schwannomas is currently being assessed, there have been few studies on the efficacy of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for these tumors. We investigated the long-term outcome of SRT for nonacoustic intracranial nerve schwannomas. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients were treated between July 1994 and December 2006. Of these patients, 7 had schwannomas located in the jugular foramen, 5 in the trigeminal nerve, 4 in the facial nerve, and 1 in the oculomotor nerve. Radiotherapy was used as an initial treatment without surgery in 10 patients (59%) and after initial subtotal resection in the remaining patients. The tumor volume ranged from 0.3 to 31.3 mL (mean, 8.2 mL). The treatment dose was 40 to 54 Gy in 20 to 26 fractions. The median follow-up period was 59.5 months (range, 7.4-122.6 months). Local control was defined as stable or decreased tumor size on follow-up magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Tumor size was decreased in 3 patients, stable in 13, and increased in 1 after SRT. Regarding neurologic symptoms, 8 patients (47%) had improvement and 9 patients were unchanged. One patient had an increase in tumor size and received microsurgical resection at 32 months after irradiation. No patient had worsening of pre-existing neurologic symptoms or development of new cranial nerve deficits at the last follow-up. Conclusions: SRT is an effective alternative to surgical resection for patients with nonacoustic intracranial nerve schwannomas with respect to not only long-term local tumor control but also neuro-functional preservation.
Nishioka, Kentaro; Abo, Daisuke; Aoyama, Hidefumi [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Furuta, Yasushi [Department of Oto-laryngology, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Onimaru, Rikiya; Onodera, Shunsuke [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Sawamura, Yutaka [Department of Neuro-surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Ishikawa, Masayori [Department of Medical Physics, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Fukuda, Satoshi [Department of Oto-laryngology, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Shirato, Hiroki, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)
Involvement of a cranial nerve caries a poor prognosis for many malignancies. Recurrent or residual disease in the trigeminal or facial nerve after primary therapy poses a challenge due to the location of the nerve in the skull base, the proximity to the brain, brainstem, cavernous sinus, and optic apparatus and the resulting complex geometry. Surgical resection caries a high risk of morbidity and is often not an option for these patients. Stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy are potential treatment options for patients with cancer involving the trigeminal or facial nerve. These techniques can deliver high doses of radiation to complex volumes while sparing adjacent critical structures. In the current study, seven cases of cancer involving the trigeminal or facial nerve are presented. These patients had unresectable recurrent or residual disease after definitive local therapy. Each patient was treated with stereotactic radiation therapy using a linear accelerator based system. A multidisciplinary approach including neuroradiology and surgical oncology was used to delineate target volumes. Treatment was well tolerated with no acute grade 3 or higher toxicity. One patient who was reirradiated experienced cerebral radionecrosis with mild symptoms. Four of the seven patients treated had no evidence of disease after a median follow up of 12 months (range 2-24 months). A dosimetric analysis was performed to compare intensity modulated fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (IM-FSRT) to a 3D conformal technique. The dose to 90% (D90) of the brainstem was lower with the IM-FSRT plan by a mean of 13.5 Gy. The D95 to the ipsilateral optic nerve was also reduced with IM-FSRT by 12.2 Gy and the D95 for the optic chiasm was lower with FSRT by 16.3 Gy. Treatment of malignancies involving a cranial nerve requires a multidisciplinary approach. Use of an IM-FSRT technique with a micro-multileaf collimator resulted in a lower dose to the brainstem, optic nerves and chiasm for each case examined. PMID:22468993
Cuneo, K C; Zagar, T M; Brizel, D M; Yoo, D S; Hoang, J K; Chang, Z; Wang, Z; Yin, F F; Das, S K; Green, S; Ready, N; Bhatti, M T; Kaylie, D M; Becker, A; Sampson, J H; Kirkpatrick, J P
Although neurilemmomas are uncommon cervical neoplasms, they account for a significant percentage of parapharyngeal space tumors. These neoplasms may originate from any nerve traversing this space, but the vast majority arise from the vagus nerve and sympathetic chain. Satisfactory treatment of neurilemmomas consists of total excision which is best accomplished via an external approach. Immediate nerve grafting is advocated when a segment of cranial nerve must be sacrificed in order to achieve complete tumor removal. A case of a parapharyngeal neurilemmoma arising from the hypoglossal which required treatment in this manner is presented. Electromyographic studies performed 15 months postoperatively demonstrate reinervation of the lingual musculature via the nerve graft. PMID:933662
McCurdy, J A; Hays, L L; Johnson, G K
A 78 year old woman was admitted with symptoms of diabetes insipidus and was found to have a high ESR, the cause of which was uncertain. Five months later she presented with blindness, and cranial arteritis was confirmed by temporal artery biopsy. The endocrine abnormality returned to normal after steroid therapy. The association between these two conditions is discussed.
Background: Cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are a unique acquired neurovascular entity, which may develop in the dura mater and adjacent pial veins. These arteriovenous shunting lesions of the dura are quite distinct from archetypal cerebral arteriovenous malformations because of pathologic, pathogenetic, and clinicobiological criteria. There remains some confusion and debate regarding proper nomenclature, pathophysiology, and pathoetiologic mechanisms. Clinical symptoms
Introduction We report an unusual case of facial pain and swelling caused by compression of the facial and vestibulocochlear cranial nerves due to the tortuous course of a branch of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Although anterior inferior cerebellar artery compression has been well documented in the literature, compression caused by the posterior inferior cerebellar artery is rare. This case provided a diagnostic dilemma, requiring expertise from a number of specialties, and proved to be a learning point to clinicians from a variety of backgrounds. We describe the case in detail and discuss the differential diagnoses. Case presentation A 57-year-old Caucasian woman with a background of mild connective tissue disease presented to our rheumatologist with intermittent left-sided facial pain and swelling, accompanied by hearing loss in her left ear. An autoimmune screen was negative and a Schirmer’s test was normal. Her erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 6mm/h (normal range: 1 to 20mm/h) and her immunoglobulin G and A levels were mildly elevated. A vascular loop protocol magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a loop of her posterior inferior cerebellar artery taking a long course around the seventh and eighth cranial nerves into the meatus and back, resulting in compression of her seventh and eighth cranial nerves. Our patient underwent microvascular decompression, after which her symptoms completely resolved. Conclusion Hemifacial spasm is characterized by unilateral clonic twitching, although our patient presented with more unusual symptoms of pain and swelling. Onset of symptoms is mostly in middle age and women are more commonly affected. Differential diagnoses include trigeminal neuralgia, temporomandibular joint dysfunction, salivary gland pathology and migrainous headache. Botulinum toxin injection is recognized as an effective treatment option for primary hemifacial spasm. Microvascular decompression is a relatively safe procedure with a high success rate. Although a rare pathology, posterior inferior cerebellar artery compression causing facial pain, swelling and hearing loss should be considered as a differential diagnosis in similar cases.
Two cases of cerebellar tonsilar herniation due to shunt complications in idiopathic intracranial hypertension are reported in which both patients presented with visual symptoms. One patient had horizontal diplopia due to an acute sixth nerve palsy along with severe constriction of visual fields while the second patient had symptoms of blurred vision. Both patients required neurosurgery, one patient requiring surgery for tonsillar descent and revision of an over-draining lumbar peritoneal shunt and the second patient only requiring revision of his over-draining lumbar peritoneal shunt. Following surgery the visual signs of reduced vision, cranial nerve palsy, and visual field loss gradually resolved. Both patients had normal ocular movements and visual fields at final follow-up. PMID:23211144
Rowe, Fiona J
Summary Dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) of the anterior cranial fossa have traditionally been treated by open surgical disconnection. Safe navigation through the ophthalmic artery or fragile cortical veins has historically provided a barrier to effective endovascular occlusion of these lesions. Using current microcatheter technology and embolic materials, safe positioning within the distal ophthalmic artery, beyond the origin of the central retinal artery, is achievable. We describe two cases in which anterior cranial fossa dAVFs were treated by exclusively endovascular strategies, and highlight the pertinent technical and anatomic considerations. We discuss the clinical symptoms resulting from the differing venous drainage patterns.
Mack, W.J; Gonzalez, N.R.; Jahan, R.; Vinuela, F.
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a frequent cause of paroxysmal facial pain and headache in adults. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) is less common, but can cause severe episodic pain in the ear and throat. Neurovascular compression of the appropriate cranial nerve as it leaves the brain stem is responsible for the symptoms in many patients, and neurosurgical decompression of the nerve is now a well accepted treatment in adults with both TN and GPN who fail to respond to drug therapy. Neither TN nor GPN are routinely considered in the differential diagnosis when assessing children with paroxysmal facial or head pain, as they are not reported to occur in childhood. Case reports of three children with documented neurovascular compression causing severe neuralgic pain and disability are presented. The fact that these conditions do occur in the paediatric population, albeit rarely, is highlighted, and appropriate investigation and management are discussed.??
Childs, A; Meaney, J; Ferrie, C; Holland, P
Background: Autonomic neuropathy is a frequent diagnosis for the gastrointestinal symptoms or postural hypotension experienced by patients with longstanding diabetes. However, neuropathologic evidence to substantiate the diagnosis is limited. We hypothesized that quantification of nerves in gastric mucosa would confirm the presence of autonomic neuropathy. Methods: Mucosal biopsies from the stomach antrum and fundus were obtained during endoscopy from 15 healthy controls and 13 type 1 diabetic candidates for pancreas transplantation who had secondary diabetic complications affecting the eyes, kidneys, and nerves, including a diagnosis of gastroparesis. Neurologic status was evaluated by neurologic examination, nerve conduction studies, and skin biopsy. Biopsies were processed to quantify gastric mucosal nerves and epidermal nerves. Results: Gastric mucosal nerves from diabetic subjects had reduced density and abnormal morphology compared to control subjects (p < 0.05). The horizontal and vertical meshwork pattern of nerve fibers that normally extends from the base of gastric glands to the basal lamina underlying the epithelial surface was deficient in diabetic subjects. Eleven of the 13 diabetic patients had residual food in the stomach after overnight fasting. Neurologic abnormalities on clinical examination were found in 12 of 13 diabetic subjects and nerve conduction studies were abnormal in all patients. The epidermal nerve fiber density was deficient in skin biopsies from diabetic subjects. Conclusions: In this observational study, gastric mucosal nerves were abnormal in patients with type 1 diabetes with secondary complications and clinical evidence of gastroparesis. Gastric mucosal biopsy is a safe, practical method for histologic diagnosis of gastric autonomic neuropathy.
Selim, M.M.; Wendelschafer-Crabb, G.; Redmon, J.B.; Khoruts, A.; Hodges, J.S.; Koch, K.; Walk, D.; Kennedy, W.R.
The human cutaneous sensory map has been a work in progress over the past century, depicting sensory territories supplied by both the spinal and cranial nerves. Two critical discoveries, which shaped our understanding of cutaneous innervation, were sensory dermatome overlap between contiguous spinal levels and axial lines across areas where no sensory overlap exists. These concepts define current dermatome maps. We wondered whether the overlap between contiguous sensory territories was even tighter: if neural communications were present in the peripheral nerve territories consistently connecting contiguous spinal levels? A literature search using peer-reviewed articles and established anatomy texts was performed aimed at identifying the presence of communications between sensory nerves in peripheral nerve territories and their relationship to areas of adjacent and non-adjacent spinal or cranial nerves and axial lines (lines of discontinuity) in the upper and lower limbs, trunk and perineum, and head and neck regions. Our findings demonstrate the consistent presence of sensory nerve communications between peripheral nerve territories derived from spinal nerves within areas of axial lines in the upper and lower limbs, trunk and perineum, and head and neck. We did not find examples of communications crossing axial lines in the limbs or lines of discontinuity in the face, but did find examples crossing axial lines in the trunk and perineum. Sensory nerve communications are common. They unify concepts of cutaneous innervation territories and their boundaries, and refine our understanding of the sensory map of the human skin. Clin. Anat. 27:681-690, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23824984
Ladak, Adil; Tubbs, R Shane; Spinner, Robert J
Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is a well-documented neuroelectrical modality that has been proven effective in some good studies of fibromyalgia (FM) patients. CES is no panacea but, for some FM patients, the modality can be valuable. This article discusses aspects of both CES and FM and how they relate to the individual with the condition. FM frequently has many comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, insomnia and a great variety of different rheumatologic and neurological symptoms that often resemble multiple sclerosis, dysautonomias, chronic fatigue syndrome and others. However, despite long-standing criteria from the American College of Rheumatology for FM, some physicians believe there is probably no single homogeneous condition that can be labeled as FM. Whether it is a disease, a syndrome or something else, sufferers feel like they are living one disaster after another. Active self-involvement in care usually enhances the therapeutic results of various treatments and also improves the patient's sense of being in control of the condition. D-ribose supplementation may prove to significantly enhance energy, sleep, mental clarity, pain control and well-being in FM patients. A form of evoked potential biofeedback, the EPFX, is a powerful stress reduction technique which assesses the chief stressors and risk factors for illness that can impede the FM patient's built-in healing abilities. Future healthcare will likely expand the diagnostic criteria of FM and/or illuminate a group of related conditions and the ways in which the conditions relate to each other. Future medicine for FM and related conditions may increasingly involve multimodality treatment that features CES as one significant part of the therapeutic regimen. Future medicine may also include CES as an invaluable, cost-effective add-on to many facets of clinical pharmacology and medical therapeutics. PMID:17605684
Gilula, Marshall F
Möbius syndrome is typified by bilateral facial nerve palsies, usually with abducens palsies. We examined an infant with Möbius syndrome who had bifacial weakness and third nerve palsies, but intact abduction of both eyes. Lower cranial nerve involvement, leading to respiratory, swallowing, and cardiac difficulties, was also present. Pathologic examination of the brainstem showed absent or hypoplastic third, seventh, tenth, and twelfth nerve nuclei. The fourth, fifth, sixth, and eighth nerve nuclei were intact. In Möbius syndrome with ocular motor palsies, rarely the sixth nerve may be spared. PMID:9858013
Tran, D B; Wilson, M C; Fox, C A; Clancy, R; Teener, J W; Golden, J A; Liu, G T
The reported peripheral nerve complications of therapeutic irradiation in humans include brachial and lumbar plexus fibrosis and cranial and peripheral nerve atrophy. We have encountered 9 patients with malignant (7) and atypical (2) peripheral nerve tumors occurring in an irradiated site suggesting that such tumors represent another delayed effect of radiation treatment on peripheral nerve. In all instances the radio-theray was within an acceptable radiation dosage, yet 3 patients developed local radiation-induced skin and bony abnormalities. The malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors developed only in the radiation port. Animal studies support the clinical observation that malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors can occur as a delayed effect of irradiation.
Foley, K.M.; Woodruff, J.M.; Ellis, F.T.; Posner, J.B.
Differential diagnosis of facial nerve palsy in children is extensive. We report on three pediatric cases presenting with facial nerve palsy caused by hyperostosis corticalis generalisata (Van Buchem disease). This autosomal recessive disease is characterized by progressive bone overgrowth, with narrowing of the neuroforamina in the skull causing cranial neuropathies. These three new cases of Van Buchem disease are of interest because of exceptionally early presentation of symptoms. Furthermore, this is the first report describing bilateral papilledema in a child with Van Buchem disease. Head computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed thickened calvarium, skull base and mandible in all three children, with narrowed facial nerve canals. Bone mineral density (BMD) was markedly increased at all measured points and biochemical markers of bone formation were significantly elevated. Diagnosis of Van Buchem disease was genetically confirmed. The cases are unique in that these are the first well-documented pediatric cases of Van Buchem disease. PMID:22445802
van Egmond, M E; Dikkers, F G; Boot, A M; van Lierop, A H J M; Papapoulos, S E; Brouwer, O F
Our experience with patients undergoing carotid endoarteriectomy over a 10 year period has been retrospectively reviewed. Nerve injuries were detected by reviewing postoperative progress and clinical notes. One hundred thirty-four procedures were performed on 120 patients, to 15 of whom (9%) occurred major nerve injuries. These included seven vagal nerve injuries causing ipsilateral vocal cord paralysis and hoarseness, five injuries of the marginal mandibular nerve and three injuries of the hypoglossal nerve. None of the patients with nerve injury had a stroke as a result of carotid operation. Vocal cord paralysis was documented by laryngoscopy. The incidence of cranial nerve injury during carotid endoarteriectomy appears to be higher than expected, particularly if asymptomatic patients are controlled. PMID:2234452
Pegoraro, M; Barile, C; Nessi, F; Bertoldo, U
Preeclampsia can cause myriad organ dysfunction, including cranial nerve palsies that pose diagnostic and management dilemmas. We present an unusual case of third nerve palsy, (presenting as diplopia, ptosis) with hypertension, hyperreflexia, proteinuria, easy bruising in a parturient at 34 + 6/52 weeks of twins gestation. She was treated as for severe preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome; intravenous magnesium sulphate and labetalol commenced and emergent cesarean delivery performed under general anesthesia due to concerns of low platelets and for airway protection should her glascow coma scale (GCS) deteriorate. Postoperatively, stroke, aneurysm and intra-cerebral causes of third nerve palsy were excluded, with subsequent recovery of symptoms upon blood pressure normalization. The eye signs are postulated to be due to two preeclamptic mechanisms involving disordered cerebral autoregulation: (1) hyperperfusion and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier that occurs with rising hypertension, causing fluid/blood product extravasation into brain parenchyma, or (2) focal reactive vasoconstriction and local hypoperfusion, contributed to by endothelial dysfunction. PMID:23478950
Chutatape, Anuntapon; Teoh, Wendy H L
A patient is reported who suffered from a fixed, non-progressive encephalopathy caused by a lesion involving the left portion of both the mesencephalon and basal ganglia; the lesion was caused by an acquired prenatal vascular insult. The clinical expression of third cranial nerve palsy corresponds to a nuclear syndrome of the left oculomotor nerve, affecting both eyes asymmetrically, later developing into aberrant reinnervation. PMID:7605557
Prats, J M; Monzon, M J; Zuazo, E; Garaizar, C
In 1984 Jannetta et al. introduced a new term-disabling positional vertigo (DPV). DPV is a term used to describe syndrome of cochleo-vestibular organ impairment during vascular compression syndrome of eight cranial nerve. They introduced this term to distinct this syndrome from other established vertigo syndromes on the basis of recognized in angio - MRI exam compression of VIII nerve by vessel and clinical and electrophysiological criteria. Existence of DPV syndrome is still not universally accepted, because it is difficult to diagnose vertigo as vascular compression syndrome of the eight cranial nerve when there are no specific finding to detect this syndrome. Only Moller proposed specific ABR abnormalities as a criterion in DPV diagnosis (prolongation of I - III interval). The authors performed retrospective analysis of 28 patients (16 female, 12 men, average age 43) with recognized on basis angio - MRI vascular compression syndrome of eight cranial nerve. Contrasted magnetic resonance imaging identified a vascular loop near to cochleo - vestibular nerve in all 28 cases. All patients were performed pure tone audiometry, DPOAE, ABR and ENG exam. The most common symptoms were unilateral tinnitus (89% cases), unilateral hearing loss (86%) and dizziness (61%). The most frequent abnormalities in above mentioned exams were sensorineural hearing loss in pure tone audiometry (92%). ABR data were interpreted with respect to Mollerís criteria and asymmetry of the I - III, III - V and I - V interval and prolongation of V waves in the auditory brainstem response was found in 36% cases. Abnormal changes in electronystagmography were found: absence (10%) or weakness (36%) of caloric response. The differential diagnosis of DPV syndrome are discussed. We could not find any specific clinical findings valuable for DPV diagnosis. There is no significantly more weakness or absence of caloric response of vestibular organ in patients with DPV. Disabling positional vertigo is the syndrome which should be considered in differential diagnosis in every case of vertigo. PMID:16117398
Gierek, Tatiana; Markowski, Jaros?aw; Majzel, Krystyna; Wardas, Piotr
Fifty-four patients with oculomotor nerve palsy who presented over a 21-year period at our institution were reviewed retrospectively. There were 38 isolated third nerve lesions, and 16 with additional cranial nerve involvement. Eleven cases were congenital in origin, and 43 were acquired. Of the acquired group, 31 were traumatic, 7 infection-related, 3 attributed to migraine or other vascular causes, and 2 neoplastic. Average follow up was 36 months. The congenital lesions were predominantly right-sided; amblyopia, although common, responded well to treatment. Trauma and bacterial meningitis accounted for more cases of isolated oculomotor nerve palsy than seen in the previous literature. In distinct contrast to the adult population, no cases of diabetes, posterior communicating artery aneurysms, metastatic tumors, or pituitary lesions were found. PMID:1287170
Ing, E B; Sullivan, T J; Clarke, M P; Buncic, J R
A patient on chronic haemodialysis because of renal failure developed progressive visual field loss and eventual blindness. A postmortem examination indicated that the blindness was caused by granulomatous thickening of the pachymeninges which constricted the optic nerves as they passed through the optic foramina. Exhaustive bacteriological and histopathological studies failed to identify a specific cause for this hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis.
E R Feringa; L Weatherbee
To evaluate the results of facial nerve reanimation after facial nerve injury by means of hypoglossal to facial nerve anastomosis. Retrospective case review. Private neuro-otologic and cranial base quaternary referral center. Sixty patients underwent hypoglossal to facial nerve anastomosis for facial nerve reanimation between April 1987 and December 2010. Only forty patients completed a minimal follow up of 24 months at the time of evaluation and were included in the study population. Facial nerve paralysis was present for a mean duration of 11.3 months (range 2-42 months) and all the patients had a HB grade VI prior their surgery. Final facial nerve motor function. The most common cause of facial paralysis was vestibular Schwannoma surgery. All the patients achieved a postoperative HB grade III or IV after a mean follow-up time of 20 months. The facial movements were detected after a period that ranged from ranged from 5 to 9 months. Only 4 patients suffered from difficulties during eating and drinking and three of them had associated lower cranial nerve deficit. Despite the various techniques in facial reanimation following total facial nerve paralysis, the end to end of hypoglossal to facial nerve anastomosis remains one of the best treatments in cases of viable distal facial stump and nonatrophic musculature. PMID:24427588
Tanbouzi Husseini, Sami; Kumar, David Victor; De Donato, Giuseppe; Almutair, Tamama; Sanna, Mario
Only 0.5 to 2% of hydatid cysts are localized in the skeleton and of these, 3 to 4% are found in the skull. In this paper, the authors report a case of primary hydatidosis involving the cranial vault revealed by a bulging mass of the forehead and symptoms of raised intracranial pressure that occurred in a 22-year-old woman who came from a rural area. Through this case and literature review, the authors analyse the epidemiological, clinical and radiological aspects of skull hydatidosis. They conclude that hydatid cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any soft tissue swelling or osteolytic lesion in the scalp of patients living in endemic areas. PMID:20009285
Limaiem, Faten; Bellil, Selma; Bellil, Khadija; Chelly, Ines; Mekni, Amina; Kallel, Jalel; Haouet, Slim; Zitouna, Moncef; Kchir, Nidhameddine
This review of hypoglossal nerve, spinal accessory nerve, and spinomedullary region intraoperative monitoring details pertinent central and extramedullary anatomy, an updated understanding of proper free-run EMG recording methods and recent developments in stimulation technique and instrumentation. Mapping and monitoring the floor of the fourth ventricle, especially the vagal/hypoglossal trigone region, are emphasized. Although cranial nerve transcranial electrical motor evoked potential recordings can afford appreciation of corticobulbar/corticospinal tract function and secure a more dependable measure of proximate extramedullary somatoefferents, the sometimes difficult implementation and the, as yet, unresolved alert criteria of these recordings demand critical appraisal. Nearby and intimately associated cardiochronotropic and barocontrol neural networks are described; their better understanding is recommended as an important adjunct to "routine" neural monitoring. Finally, an Illustrative case is presented to highlight the many strengths and weaknesses of "state of the art" lower cranial nerve/spinomedullary region monitoring. PMID:22146361
Skinner, Stanley A
Olfactory groove schwannomas are extremely uncommon and less than 30 cases are reported in the literature. We report a 21-year-old developmentally-retarded boy who experienced severe headache and aggressive behaviour for 5 months. Imaging showed a cystic mass in the subfrontal region, which was removed by craniotomy. The lesion had a vascular supply from the anterior ethmoidal arteries and it was noted to be attached to the right olfactory nerve. It was removed completely and histology showed it to be a schwannoma. Olfactory groove schwannomas are rare lesions and should be differentiated from meningiomas, neuroblastomas and dural-based metastatic lesions of the anterior cranial base. PMID:18661322
Daglioglu, E; Okay, Onder; Dalgic, Ali; Albayrak, Ahmet Levent; Ergungor, Fikret
A 59-year-old woman with a long-standing diagnosis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) developed facial numbness and exophthalmos. Sural nerve biopsy revealed onion bulb formation consistent with CIDP. Neurologic examinations revealed distal dominant muscle atrophy with areflexia and impairment of all sensory modalities; cranial nerve involvement, including bilateral exophthalmos, left-side facial palsy, and left-side periorbital hypoesthesia; and swelling of the sural and subclavian nerves. MRI demonstrated marked thickening of bilateral ophthalmic nerves (figure). Such a finding has been reported rarely in the literature.(1) Neurologists should be aware that patients with CIDP might show exophthalmos due to ophthalmic nerve hypertrophy. PMID:24778284
Okuzumi, Ayami; Hatano, Taku; Nakahara, Toshiki; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Hattori, Nobutaka
Paralysis of the hypoglossal nerve, the twelfth (XII) cranial nerve, leads to atrophy, deviation of the tongue to the affected side, and varying degrees of fasciculation. The injury to the nerve can occur from its origin to the tongue itself. The causes of hypoglossal nerve palsy are well documented, but idiopathic, isolated nerve palsy that does not recover, is rare. To our knowledge we describe the first case that failed to resolve, and discuss the importance of meticulous investigation to make a diagnosis and rule out sinister disease. PMID:24834809
Sayan, Anna; Abeysinghe, A H M K; Brennan, Peter A; Ilankovan, Velupillai
Congenital loss of innervation to the extra-ocular muscles (EOMs) can have a profound effect on the target muscle. This has been well recognised in Duane's retraction syndrome. However, it has been less emphasised in other congenital oculo-motor disorders. Such congenital ocular motor defects have been expanded to include DRS, congenital fibrosis of EOMs, monocular elevation defect, Möbius syndrome, as well as several other non-ocular muscles supplied by cranial nerves such as facial muscles. Such loss of innervation to motor muscles can be unified as a defined clinical entity, which can be labelled as congenital innervation dysgenesis syndrome or CID for short. CID may also affect other muscles supplied by nerves other than the cranial nerves and may be sensory as well as motor.
Assaf, A A
To characterize the relationship between bruxism and dystonia, 79 patients (28 men and 51 women) with cranial-cervical dystonia were studied. Sixty-two patients (78.5%), 22 men and 40 women, had bruxism. The mean age at onset of dystonia in patients with bruxism was 52.4 +/- 12.6 years (range 14-80), similar to patients with cranial-cervical dystonia without bruxism. Involuntary oromandibular movements (46 patients) and blepharospasm (34 patients) were the most common initial symptoms among patients with dystonia. About one-fourth of bruxism patients had associated dental problems including TMD (21%) and tooth wear (5%). A majority (58%) of the bruxism patients had diurnal bruxism and 12% had nocturnal bruxism. The bruxism patients were compared to 100 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), cervical dystonia, cranial dystonia, and normal controls, respectively. The prevalence of bruxism was much higher in the cranial-cervical dystonia patients when compared to normal controls (P < 0.001); however, this difference was not significant between other diseased groups and controls. Medications and botulinum toxin injections, used in the treatment of focal dystonia also provided effective relief of bruxism. PMID:10650407
Watts, M W; Tan, E K; Jankovic, J
Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is a well-documented neuroelectrical modality that has been proven effective in some good studies of fibromyalgia (FM) patients. CES is no panacea but, for some FM patients, the modality can be valuable. This article discusses aspects of both CES and FM and how they relate to the individual with the condition. FM frequently has many comorbidities
Marshall F Gilula
Fungi can cause serious cranial infections in immunocompromised and diabetic patients. Common pathogens mainly include Aspergillus and Mucor. These organisms cause tissue invasion and destruction of adjacent structures (e.g. orbit, ethmoid, sphenoid, maxillary & cavernous sinuses). Mortality and morbidity rate is high despite combined surgical, antifungal and antidiabetic treatment. We present our experience of six cases with such infection.
Kumbhkar, Tapas; Bansal, Shaifali; Jindal, Sushil; Saxena, Vivek; Baghel, Vijay Singh; Kapoor, Anil
A case of a cavernous hemangioma of the optic nerve is presented. Cavernous malformations of the cranial nerves are quite rare and have been reported to involve the third nerve, the seventh nerve in the temporal bone, the seventh and the eighth nerves in the internal auditory canal as well as the optic chiasm and optic nerve. We present a case of a patient with a cavernous hemangioma within the right optic nerve, which could be removed by microsurgery with preservation and improvement of vision. Literature on this rare location of cavernoma is reviewed. PMID:22855320
Ramina, Kristofer; Ebner, Florian H; Ernemann, Ulrike; Tatagiba, Marcos
A case of bilateral optic nerve meningioma is reported. The onset of the clinical symptoms, at age 27, resembled unilateral optic neuritis with papilledema, leading to bilateral amaurosis with optic atrophy 4 years later. Skull X-ray revealed a ‘blistering’ type of bone reaction. In the carotid angiogram, the ophthalmic artery appeared quite enlarged and displaced. The CT scan showed a
H. Liaño; C. Garcia-Alix; M. Lousa; M. Marquez; L. Nombela; J. de Miguel
Background In 2002 the new term congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder (CCDD) was proposed as a substitute for the traditional concept of congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles based on mounting genetic, neuropathology, and imaging evidence suggesting that many, if not all, of these disorders result from a primary neurologic maldevelopment rather than from a muscle abnormality. This report provides an update eight years after that original report. Evidence acquisition Review of pertinent articles published from Jan 2003 until June 2010 describing CCDD variants identified under PubMed MeSH terms congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles, congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders, individual phenotypes included under the term CCDD, and congenital ocular motility disorders. Results At present a total of seven disease genes and 10 phenotypes fall under the CCDD umbrella. A number of additional loci and phenotypes still await gene elucidation, with the anticipation that more syndromes and genes will be identified in the future. Identification of genes and their function, along with advances in neuro-imaging, have expanded our understanding of the mechanisms underlying several anomalous eye movement patterns. Conclusions Current evidence still supports the concept that the CCDDs are primarily due to neurogenic disturbances of brainstem or cranial nerve development. Several CCDDs are now known to have non-ophthalmologic associations involving neurologic, neuroanatomic, cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, and skeletal abnormalities.
Oystreck, Darren T.; Engle, Elizabeth C.; Bosley, Thomas M.
Sarcoidosis is a disease process which predominantly affects the lungs but can involve virtually any organ in the human body. Neurosarcoidosis is a rare manifestation which can present in a variety of ways. There is no single diagnostic test for sarcoidosis; hence, the diagnosis is based on combined clinical, laboratorial, and radiological grounds. We describe a rare case where a patient presented with dysphagia, hoarseness, hearing loss, and unsteadiness.
Ahmad, Zahoor; Snow, Barry
PURPOSE: To investigate the etiology, sensory, motor, and cosmetic results of treatment for oculomotor (CNIII) palsy in children. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of the clinical records of children with a diagnosis of CNIII palsy who were followed up in our practice between 1981 and 1996. RESULTS: During the 15-year period, 49 children with 53 affected eyes were followed for a mean of 5.5 years. CNIII palsy was congenital in one third of cases and secondary to postnatal trauma in another third. Thirty-three of the eyes were affected before visual maturation (age 8 years) and 27 eyes developed amblyopia. None of the 6 eyes with amblyopia in which visual acuity could be quantitated had measurable improvement of Snellen acuity after treatment. Overall, visual acuity was between 6/5 and 6/12 at the last follow-up visit in 56% of affected eyes. Ocular alignment was greatly improved after recess-resect procedures on the horizontal rectus muscles, but binocular function was difficult to preserve or restore. Blepharoptosis improved after levator palpebrae muscle resection or eyelid suspension procedures. CONCLUSIONS: CNIII palsy may undergo partial resolution in children, but surgical treatment is frequently necessary. Although surgery can result in cosmetically acceptable alignment of the eyes, it rarely results in restoration or achievement of binocular function. Multiple procedures are often necessary to maintain good ocular alignment. Several surgical procedures may be needed to correct related blepharoptosis and maintain an acceptable eyelid position. Treatment of amblyopia is only effective in maintaining the level of visual acuity present at the onset of the CNIII palsy, and improvement in acuity is difficult to achieve.
Schumacher-Feero, L A; Yoo, K W; Solari, F M; Biglan, A W
Sarcoidosis is a disease process which predominantly affects the lungs but can involve virtually any organ in the human body. Neurosarcoidosis is a rare manifestation which can present in a variety of ways. There is no single diagnostic test for sarcoidosis; hence, the diagnosis is based on combined clinical, laboratorial, and radiological grounds. We describe a rare case where a patient presented with dysphagia, hoarseness, hearing loss, and unsteadiness. PMID:24790763
Rose, Oliver; Ahmad, Zahoor; Snow, Barry
Twenty patients with meningomyelocele (MMC) and shunted hydrocephalus, ranging in age from 3 to 23 years old, underwent serial recording of short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) to median nerve stimulation, on the basis of which to assess the evolution of dysfunction in the brainstem and its connections (cervical spinal cord, cervical nerve roots, lower cranial nerves). Eighteen patients had Chiari
Toshihiko Nishimura; Koreaki Mori
\\u000a Together, the relationship between the mechanical response of neural tissues and the related mechanisms of injury provide\\u000a a foundation for defining relevant thresholds for injury. The nerves and nerve roots are biologic structures with specific\\u000a and important functions, and whose response to mechanical loading can have immediate, long-lasting and widespread consequences.\\u000a In particular, when nerves or nerve roots are mechanically
Kristen J. Nicholson; Beth A. Winkelstein
Segmental demyelination and axonal degeneration of motor nerves induced by lead exposure is well known in man, and animals. The effect of lead acetate exposure to man may involve the cranial nerves, since vertigo and sensory neuronal deafness have been reported among lead workers. However, there are few reports concerning the dose-effects of lead acetate both to the peripheral nerve and the cranial VII nerve with measurement of blood lead concentration. The authors investigated the effects of lead acetate to the cochlea and the VIII nerve using CM (cochlear microphonics) and AP (action potential) of the guinea pigs. The effects of lead acetate to the sciatic nerve were measured by MCV of the sciatic nerve with measurement of blood lead concentration.
Yamamura, K.; Maehara, N.; Terayama, K.; Ueno, N.; Kohyama, A.; Sawada, Y.; Kishi, R.
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) arising from cranial nerves are rare and usually affect adults. Here we report the clinicopathologic features of a young adult patient with a trigeminal nerve MPNST, in whom another tumor involving the oculomotor nerve on the contralateral side was evident. The patient, an 18-year-old woman, had suffered recurrent paroxysmal sharp stabbing pain over her cheek and forehead on the right side for 1 month. A brain MRI study disclosed a mass, 35 mm in diameter, in the right Meckel's cave, and another mass, 10 mm in diameter, involving the intracranial portion of the left oculomotor nerve. Following gadolinium administration, the former and latter tumors exhibited strong and weak enhancement, respectively. The patient had no clinical stigmata characteristic of neurofibromatosis type 1. Following a tentative diagnosis of schwannoma, total resection of the trigeminal nerve tumor was performed. Histologically, the tumor consisted of highly cellular, spindle-shaped cells arranged in a fascicular pattern, with occasional mitotic figures, nuclear pleomorphism and necrosis. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells showed variable intensities and frequencies of reactivity for S-100 protein, myelin basic protein, CD34, podoplanin and p53, but no reactivity for Smarcb1. Thus, the tumor exhibited features of MPNST. This case appears to provide information that is useful for accurate diagnosis and surgical planning in patients with bilateral or multiple cranial nerve tumors. PMID:23279368
Nakayama, Yoko; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Kenji; Usuda, Hiroyuki; Emura, Iwao; Ogura, Ryosuke; Shiga, Atsushi; Toyoshima, Yasuko; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Kawaguchi, Tadashi; Kakita, Akiyoshi
Cranial nerve involvement in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is rare, though there are a number of CMT syndromes in which vocal cord paralysis is a characteristic feature. CMT disease due to mutations in the ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 1 gene (GDAP1) has been reported to be associated with vocal cord and diaphragmatic palsy. In order to address the prevalence of these complications in patients with GDAP1 mutations we evaluated vocal cord and respiratory function in nine patients from eight unrelated families with this disorder. Hoarseness of the voice and inability to speak loudly were reported by eight patients and one had associated symptoms of respiratory insufficiency. Patients were investigated by means of peripheral and phrenic nerve conduction studies, flexible laryngoscopy, pulmonary function studies and polysomnography. Nerve conduction velocities and pathological studies were compatible with axonal CMT (CMT2). Flexible laryngoscopy showed left vocal cord palsy in four cases, bilateral cord palsies in four cases and was normal in one case. Restrictive respiratory dysfunction was seen in the eight patients with vocal cord paresis who were all chair-bound. These eight had confirmed phrenic nerve dysfunction on neurophysiology evaluation. The patient with normal vocal cord and pulmonary function had a less severe clinical course.This study shows that CMT patients with GDAP1 mutations develop severe disability due to weakness of limb muscles and that laryngeal and respiratory muscle involvement occurs late in the disease process when significant proximal upper limb weakness has developed. The early and predominant involvement of the left vocal cord innervated by the longer left recurrent laryngeal nerve suggests a length dependent pattern of nerve degeneration. In GDAP1 neuropathy, respiratory function should be thoroughly investigated because life expectancy can be compromised due to respiratory failure. PMID:18812441
Sevilla, Teresa; Jaijo, Teresa; Nauffal, Dolores; Collado, Diego; Chumillas, María José; Vilchez, Juan J; Muelas, Nuria; Bataller, Luis; Domenech, Rosalía; Espinós, Carmen; Palau, Francesc
Knowledge of the possible neural interconnections found between the lower cranial and upper cervical nerves may prove useful to surgeons who operate on the skull base and upper neck regions in order to avoid inadvertent traction or transection. We review the literature regarding the anatomy, function, and clinical implications of the complex neural networks formed by interconnections between the lower cranial and upper cervical nerves. A review of germane anatomic and clinical literature was performed. The review is organized into two parts. Part I discusses the anastomoses between the trigeminal, facial, and vestibulocochlear nerves or their branches and other nerve trunks or branches in the vicinity. Part II deals with the anastomoses between the glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory and hypoglossal nerves and their branches or between these nerves and the first four cervical spinal nerves; the contribution of the autonomic nervous system to these neural plexuses is also briefly reviewed. Part II is presented in this article. Extensive and variable neural anastomoses exist between the lower cranial nerves and between the upper cervical nerves in such a way that these nerves with their extra-axial communications can be collectively considered a plexus. PMID:24272888
Shoja, Mohammadali M; Oyesiku, Nelson M; Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Chern, Joshua J; Rizk, Elias B; Loukas, Marios; Miller, Joseph H; Tubbs, R Shane
When it comes to restoring impaired neural function by means of surgical reconstruction, sensory nerves have always been in the role of the neglected child when compared with motor nerves. Especially in the head and neck area, with its either sensory, motor or mixed cranial nerves, an impaired sensory function can cause severe medical conditions. When performing surgery in the head and neck area, sustaining neural function must not only be highest priority for motor but also for sensory nerves. In cases with obvious neural damage to sensory nerves, an immediate neural repair, if necessary with neural interposition grafts, is desirable. Also in cases with traumatic trigeminal damage, an immediate neural repair ought to be considered, especially since reconstructive measures at a later time mostly require for interposition grafts. In terms of the trigeminal neuralgia, commonly thought to arise from neurovascular brainstem compression, a pharmaceutical treatment is considered as the state of the art in terms of conservative therapy. A neurovascular decompression of the trigeminal root can be an alternative in some cases when surgical treatment is sought after. Besides the above mentioned therapeutic options, alternative treatments are available.
Iro, Heinrich; Bumm, Klaus; Waldfahrer, Frank
Modulation of brain activity via trigeminal nerve stimulation is an emerging therapy in drug-resistant epilepsy. This cranial nerve also projects to structures implicated in depression (such as the nucleus tractus solitarius and locus coeruleus). We examined the effects of external trigeminal nerve stimulation in major depressive disorder as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy. Five adults (mean age 49.6, SD 10.9, three females and two males) participated in an 8-week open-label outpatient trial; all had persistent symptoms despite adequate pharmacotherapy, with a mean score on the 28-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale of 25.4 (SD=3.9) at entry. Nightly stimulation over the V(1) branch was well tolerated. Both the clinician-rated 28-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (P=0.006) and the self-rated Beck Depression Inventory (P=0.0004) detected significant symptomatic improvement. This novel neuromodulation approach may have use as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy in major depressive disorder. Additional larger trials are needed to delineate efficacy and tolerability with greater reliability. PMID:21820361
Schrader, Lara M; Cook, Ian A; Miller, Patrick R; Maremont, Eve R; DeGiorgio, Christopher M
The aim of this study was to retrospectively review the clinical presentation, diagnostic features, in particular cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs), and the outcomes of surgical repair for superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome (SSCDS). SSCDS is a well-described syndrome of auditory and vestibular symptoms due to a bony dehiscence of the superior semicircular canal in the middle cranial fossa.
D. J. Phillips; M. A. Souter; J. Vitkovitch; R. J. Briggs
Summary Traumatic injury resulting in isolated dysfunction of the hypoglossal nerve is relatively rare and described in few case reports. We present a patient with isolated unilateral palsy of the twelfth cranial nerve (CN XII) resulting from recurrent airway intervention following extensive burn injuries. The differential diagnosis for paralysis of the CN XII is also discussed herein. This case illustrates the significance of comprehensive diagnostic evaluation and the need for refined airway manipulation in patients that require multiple endotracheal intubations
Weissman, O.; Weissman, O.; Farber, N.; Berger, E.; Grabov Nardini, G.; Zilinsky, I.; Winkler, E.; Haik, J.
We describe a vertical lid split orbitotomy approach to perform optic nerve sheath fenestration which was done in a patient with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. A vertical lid split incision was used to enter the superomedial orbit and approach the optic nerve sheath. This approach resulted in a successful nerve sheath fenestration, with improvement in the patient's symptoms. The vertical lid split incision provides access to the optic nerve sheath with minimal morbidity and may be an option for optic nerve sheath decompression.
Prabhakaran, Venkatesh C; Selva, Dinesh
Seventy-two patients suffering from meningo-encephalitis were studied, clinically, biochemically, microbiologically and virologically. Evidence of rising titre in serum and CSF of antibodies to Japanese encephalitis were present in 50% of cases, and recent past infection in 20% of cases. Cranial nerve involvement particularly the "8th" was present in 70% of cases though there was a 2.5% involvement of the 2nd, 3rd and 6th nerves. All the patients belonged to plain Tribal population and all had a history of eating pork 7-10 days prior to development of the infection. PMID:7860547
Talukdar, C K; Talukdar, S; Patgiri, S N
\\u000a Peripheral nerve tumors (PNTs) are rare soft tissue lesions that can arise anywhere on the body and as a result have a wide\\u000a differential diagnosis, which is often confirmed to be a PNT only at surgery. PNTs occur both sporadically and within the\\u000a context of genetically predisposing syndromes; hence, a thorough history of the mass and associated symptoms, with a
Joseph Wiley; Asis Kumar Bhattacharyya; Gelareh Zadeh; Patrick Shannon; Abhijit Guha
This study examines the extent to which the major dimensions of the cranial base (maximum length, maximum breadth, and flexion) interact with brain volume to influence major proportions of the neurocranium and face. A model is presented for developmental interactions that occur during ontogeny between the brain and the cranial base and neurocranium, and between the neurobasicranial complex (NBC) and
Daniel E. Lieberman; Osbjorn M. Pearson; Kenneth M. Mowbray
The base of the cranium (i.e. the basioccipital, the sphenoid and the temporal bones) is of particular interest because it undergoes significant morphological change within the hominin clade, and because basicranial morphology features in several hominin species diagnoses. We use a parsimony analysis of published cranial and dental data to predict the cranial base morphology expected in the hypothetical last common ancestor of the Pan–Homo clade. We also predict the primitive condition of the cranial base for the hominin clade, and document the evolution of the cranial base within the major subclades within the hominin clade. This analysis suggests that cranial base morphology has continued to evolve in the hominin clade, both before and after the emergence of the genus Homo.
Nevell, L; Wood, B
Cranial placodes are transient ectodermal structures contributing to the paired sensory organs and ganglia of the vertebrate head. Placode progenitors are initially spread and intermixed within a continuous embryonic territory surrounding the anterior neural plate, the so-called pan-placodal region, which progressively breaks into distinct and compact placodal structures. The mechanisms driving the formation of these discrete placodes from the initial scattered distribution of their progenitors are poorly understood, and the implication of cell fate changes, local sorting out or massive cell movements is still a matter of debate. Here, we discuss different models that could account for placode assembly and review recent studies unraveling novel cellular and molecular aspects of this key event in the construction of the vertebrate head. PMID:24860990
Breau, Marie Anne; Schneider-Maunoury, Sylvie
Advances in the field of peripheral nerve surgery have increased our understanding of the complex cellular and molecular events involved in nerve injury and repair. Application of these important discoveries has led to important developments in the techniques of nerve repair, nerve grafting, nerve allografts, end-to-side repairs, and nerve-to-nerve transfers. As our understanding of this dynamic field increases, further improvement in functional outcomes after nerve injury and repair can be expected. PMID:12737353
Dvali, Linda; Mackinnon, Susan
The aim of this study was to retrospectively review the clinical presentation, diagnostic features, in particular cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs), and the outcomes of surgical repair for superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome (SSCDS). SSCDS is a well-described syndrome of auditory and vestibular symptoms due to a bony dehiscence of the superior semicircular canal in the middle cranial fossa. A series of six procedures on five patients with SSCDS who underwent surgical repair via a middle fossa craniotomy were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative and postoperative audiometric and vestibular symptoms as well as investigation findings were reviewed. Auditory and vestibular symptoms improved and hearing was preserved in all patients. The low frequency pseudo-conductive loss was corrected in four out of five patients, and the lowered preoperative cVEMP thresholds normalised following successful middle cranial fossa repair. In this series, middle fossa repair of SSCD was safe and effective with excellent sensorineural hearing preservation. PMID:20074960
Phillips, D J; Souter, M A; Vitkovic, J; Vitkovitch, J; Briggs, R J
Survival rates of extremely preterm infants have risen dramatically, paralleling improvements in prenatal and neonatal care. Cranial sonography is the primary imaging technique for the evaluation of brain injury in these patients. Extremely preterm infants have some unique features related to ongoing maturation, and associated findings on cranial sonography should be considered for accurate and early diagnosis. The aim of this pictorial essay is to illustrate normal anatomy, normal variants, and pitfalls that lead to misinterpretation of cranial sonography in extremely preterm infants. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 42:283-290, 2014. PMID:24585484
Pekcevik, Yeliz; Ozer, Esra Arun; Guleryuz, Handan
The objectives of this study were to describe the topographical anatomy of the pudendal nerve and to develop techniques of its blocking in adult male dromedary camels. Two cadavers and 30 adult male dromedary camels were used for the description of topographical anatomy and pudendal nerve block techniques, respectively. Results revealed that the pudendal nerve arises from the ventral branches of the 2(nd) and 3(rd) sacral spinal nerves. The nerve had three divisions; dorsal, middle, and ventral. The caudal rectal nerve was a branch of the dorsal division. Three blocking techniques were developed according to the results of topographical anatomy. The first technique was 15 cm cranial to the tail base and 7 cm lateral to the midline. The second was 12 cm cranial to the tail base and 7 cm lateral to the midline. The third was about 3 cm on either sides of the anus. Details and complications of each technique were reported. In conclusion, the anatomy of the pudendal nerve was different from that of cattle and horse. The second technique (12 cm cranial to the tail base and 7 cm lateral to the midline) for pudendal nerve block was superior among the three methods. Duration of nerve blocking was suitable for examination and for performing some surgical procedures in male dromedary camels. PMID:21705059
Ahmed, A F; Al-Sobayil, F A; Al-Halag, M A
Growth patterns of the cranium measured directly as head circumference have been well documented. With the availability of computed tomography (CT) , cranial dimensions can be obtained easily. The objective of this project was to establish the mean values and their normal variance of CT cranial area of subjects at different ages. Cranial area and its long and short axes were measured on CT scans for 215 neurologic patients of a wide age range who presented no evidence of abnormal growth of head size. Growth patterns of the cranial area as well as the numeric product of it linear dimensions were determined via a curve fitting process. The patterns resemble that of the head circumference growth chart, with the most rapid growth observed in the first 12 months of age and reaching full size during adolescence.
Hahn, F.J.; Chu, W.K.; Cheung, J.Y.
...improve cranial symmetry and/or shape in infants from 3 to 18 months of age, with moderate to severe nonsynostotic positional plagiocephaly, including infants with plagiocephalic-, brachycephalic-, and scaphocephalic-shaped heads. (b)...
...improve cranial symmetry and/or shape in infants from 3 to 18 months of age, with moderate to severe nonsynostotic positional plagiocephaly, including infants with plagiocephalic-, brachycephalic-, and scaphocephalic-shaped heads. (b)...
Fifty patients with optic nerve sheath meningiomas have been reviewed with a follow-up of up to 15 years. The median age at onset of their symptoms was 40.0 years. The majority were middle aged females with a slowly progressive lesion. More aggressive lesions were encountered in a younger, predominantly male group of patients with frequent intracranial involvement. Our experience indicates
J E Wright; A A McNab; W I McDonald
The authors report on the first experiences with the prototype of a surgical tool for cranial remodeling. The device enables the surgeon to transfer statistical information, represented in a model, into the disfigured bone. The model is derived from a currently evolving databank of normal head shapes. Ultimately, the databank will provide a set of standard models covering the statistical range of normal head shapes, thus providing the required template for any standard remodeling procedure as well as customized models for intended overcorrection. To date, this technique has been used in the surgical treatment of 14 infants (age range 6-12 months) with craniosynostosis. In all 14 cases, the designated esthetic result, embodied by the selected model, has been achieved, without morbidity or mortality. Frame-based reconstruction provides the required tools to precisely realize the surgical reproduction of the model shape. It enables the establishment of a self-referring system, feeding back postoperative growth patterns, recorded by 3D follow-up, into the model design. PMID:24437987
Hochfeld, Mascha; Lamecker, Hans; Thomale, Ulrich-W; Schulz, Matthias; Zachow, Stefan; Haberl, Hannes
A 52-year-old Caucasian man presented with sudden onset of difficulty in moving his tongue to the left with preceding left-sided headache with no neck pain. Earlier, he had self-limiting chest infection without rashes or tonsillar enlargement. His medical and surgical history was unremarkable with no recent trauma. Oral examination revealed difficulty in protruding his tongue to the left with muscle bulk loss and fasciculation on the same side, suggesting left hypoglossal nerve palsy. Examination of the rest of the cranial nerves and nervous system was normal. The patient's oropharyngeal and laryngeal examination was unremarkable with no cervical lymphadenopathy. He had normal laboratory investigations and cerebrospinal fluid examination. Extensive imaging of the head, neck and chest failed to reveal any pathology. Further review by an otorhinologist and rheumatologist ruled out any other underlying pathology. He made a good recovery without treatment. English literature search revealed very few cases of idiopathic, transient, unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy. PMID:24969070
Ahmed, Syed Viqar; Akram, Muhammad Saqub
BACKGROUND: Perineodynia (vulvodynia, perineal pain, proctalgia), anal and urinary incontinence are the main symptoms of the pudendal canal syndrome (PCS) or entrapment of the pudendal nerve. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of bilateral pudendal nerve decompression (PND) on the symptoms of the PCS, on three clinical signs (abnormal sensibility, painful Alcock's canal, painful \\
Jacques Beco; Daniela Climov; Michèle Bex
An anatomical study of the extraforaminal attachments of the thoracic spinal nerves was performed using human spinal columns. The objectives of the study are to identify and describe the existence of ligamentous structures at each thoracic level that attach spinal nerves to structures at the extraforaminal region. During the last 120 years, several mechanisms have been described to protect the spinal nerve against traction. All the described structures were located inside the spinal canal proximal to the intervertebral foramen. Ligaments with a comparable function just outside the intervertebral foramen are mentioned ephemerally. No studies are available about ligamentous attachments of thoracic spinal nerves to the spine. Five embalmed human thoracic spines (Th2–Th11) were dissected. Bilaterally, the extraforaminal region was dissected to describe and measure anatomical structures and their relationships with the thoracic spinal nerves. Histology was done at the sites of attachment of the ligaments to the nerves and along the ligaments. The thoracic spinal nerves are attached to the transverse process of the vertebrae cranial and caudal to the intervertebral foramen. The ligaments consist mainly of collagenous fibers. In conclusion, at the thoracic level, direct ligamentous connections exist between extraforaminal thoracic spinal nerves and nearby structures. They may serve as a protective mechanism against traction and compression of the nerves by positioning the nerve in the intervertebral foramen.
Hoogland, P. V. J. M.; Wuisman, P. I. J. M.
The authors present the unusual case of a 37-year-old man, with a history of hepatitis C, presenting with a 3 year history of progressive trigeminal, facial and vestibular nerve defects. Intracranial imaging demonstrated a cystic middle and posterior fossa lesion, that was ultimately diagnosed as a cystic trigeminal schwannoma. Due to the uncertainties of diagnosis he was managed in two stages with an open biopsy and then a subsequent partial resection. Surveillance of the tumour remnant is planned. The rare nature of this diagnosis is discussed, along with the more common findings in intracranial schwannoma, and the wide differential to be considered. Briefly, the authors describe the surgical option for a complex multi-fossa schwannoma and the importance of the multi-disciplinary team in the diagnosis and management of such patients.
Acharya, Vikas; Williams, Adam; Adams, William; Hilton, David; Whitfield, Peter C
A 78-year-old Japanese male noticed a difficulty in the beginning of standing up, followed by 7a progressive numbness of extremities with pain, Bell’s palsy, dysarthria, and difficulty in swallowing. A clinician had suspected cancer of unknown primary origin, accompanied by the diverse and elusive neurological symptoms, likely presenting as painful mononeuropathy simplex and cranial neuropathy. He developed dysbasia over weeks and died 1?month after the symptom onset. At autopsy, an ill-defined large and soft tumor mass in the right lobe of the liver with direct invasion into the right adrenal gland was observed. The left adrenal gland or right iliopsoas muscle was also involved. Microscopic findings showed a monotonous proliferation of medium-sized to large atypical lymphoid cells, which were diffusely positive for CD20 in immunohistochemistry, consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL). Furthermore, the lymphoma cells aggressively infiltrated endoneurial and subperineurial spaces not only in the peripheral nerves and plexuses, but partly in the spinal nerve roots, and intravascular spaces in various tissues. Therefore, systemic lymphoma (DLBL) complicated with neurolymphomatosis (NL) and intravascular lymphoma (IVL) was diagnosed. Very early diagnosis and treatment are necessary for the NL patients with poor prognosis. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/5862472377020448.
A nine-week-old Caucasian male presented with right ptosis and right exotropia due to a third cranial nerve palsy. Symmetrical macular lesions and a paramacular hyperpigmented lesion with overlying vitreous cells in the left eye were compatible with congenital toxoplasmosis. Computer tomography demonstrated calcifications in the periventricular and midbrain regions where the oculomotor nerve exits the brainstem. The diagnosis was confirmed by the toxoplasma indirect fluorescent antibody titer greater than 1:2048 for the infant and greater than 1:512 for the mother. Treatment was instituted with pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine and folinic acid. Neurologic sequelae included a right hemiparesis, infantile seizures, and generalized developmental delay. A Mueller's muscle resection (RUL) combined with 9-mm recession of the right lateral rectus and 7-mm resection of the right medial rectus muscles produced minimal ptosis and right exotropia one year later. the child now prefers to fix with the right eye and a vertical nystagmus is evident in the left eye. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of an infant with noncomitant strabismus due to congenital toxoplasma cranial nerve involvement. The finding of an acquired third cranial nerve palsy accompanied by progressive neurologic sequelae warrants consideration of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:7175624
Perry, D D; Marritt, J C; Greenwood, R S; Collier, A M; Tennison, M B
This case study investigated the effects of cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) on the prevalence and intensity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and self- perceived improvement of performance and satisfaction in daily activities in war veterans. Two male Caucasian veterans (ages 54 and 38) diagnosed with PTSD participated in these case studies with a pretest–posttest design. The Canadian Occupational Performance
Alfred G. Bracciano; Wen-Pin Chang; Stephanie Kokesh; Abe Martinez; Melissa Meier; Kathleen Moore
The cellular origin and molecular mechanisms regulating pigmentation of head and neck are largely unknown. Melanocyte specification is controlled by the transcriptional activity of Mitf, but no general logic has emerged to explain how Mitf and progenitor transcriptional activities consolidate melanocyte and progenitor cell fates. We show that cranial melanocytes arise from at least two different cellular sources: initially from nerve-associated Schwann cell precursors (SCPs) and later from a cellular source that is independent of nerves. Unlike the midbrain-hindbrain cluster from which melanoblasts arise independently of nerves, a large center of melanocytes in and around cranial nerves IX-X is derived from SCPs, as shown by genetic cell-lineage tracing and analysis of ErbB3-null mutant mice. Conditional gain- and loss-of-function experiments show genetically that cell fates in the neural crest involve both the SRY transcription factor Sox2 and Mitf, which consolidate an SCP progenitor or melanocyte fate by cross-regulatory interactions. A gradual downregulation of Sox2 in progenitors during development permits the differentiation of both neural crest- and SCP-derived progenitors into melanocytes, and an initial small pool of nerve-associated melanoblasts expands in number and disperses under the control of endothelin receptor B (Ednrb) and Wnt5a signaling.
Adameyko, Igor; Lallemend, Francois; Furlan, Alessandro; Zinin, Nikolay; Aranda, Sergi; Kitambi, Satish Srinivas; Blanchart, Albert; Favaro, Rebecca; Nicolis, Silvia; Lubke, Moritz; Muller, Thomas; Birchmeier, Carmen; Suter, Ueli; Zaitoun, Ismail; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Ernfors, Patrik
Cranial fasciitis is a rare lesion of young children characterized by proliferation of fibroblastic spindle cells. Most are scalp masses and are only rarely intracranial, where an association with radiation therapy is exceptional. We report a 32-month-old toddler with a facial rhabdomyosarcoma, diagnosed at 3 months of age, and treated with surgery, chemotherapy and brachytherapy. Brain MRI at 28 months revealed a large, left parasagittal, dural-based, T2 hyperintense and T1 hypointense enhancing mass with superior sagittal sinus compression and bony hyperostosis. The mass was completely resected during an open craniotomy. Histologically, the lesion was comprised of loosely and haphazardly arranged bland spindle cells embedded in a myxoid background. Thick hyalinized collagen bundles were especially prominent. The spindle cells reacted for vimentin but not SMA, myogenin, MyoD1 or EMA. A diagnosis of cranial fasciitis was rendered. The role of radiation therapy in the pathogenesis of intracranial cranial fasciitis is discussed. PMID:24283661
Hattab, Eyas M; Dvorscak, Lauren E; Boaz, Joel C; Douglas, Annette C; Ulbright, Thomas M
Up to now, dural neurogenic inflammation (DNI) has been studied primarily as a part of migraine pain pathophysiology. A recent study from our laboratory demonstrated the occurrence of DNI in response to peripheral trigeminal nerve injury. In this report, we characterize the occurrence of DNI after different peripheral nerve injuries in and outside of the trigeminal region. We have used the infraorbital nerve constriction injury model (IoNC) as a model of trigeminal neuropathic pain. Greater occipital nerve constriction injury (GoNC), partial transection of the sciatic nerve (ScNT) and sciatic nerve constriction injury (SCI) were employed to characterize the occurrence of DNI in response to nerve injury outside of the trigeminal region. DNI was measured as colorimetric absorbance of Evans blue plasma protein complexes. In addition, cellular inflammatory response in dural tissue was histologically examined in IoNC and SCI models. In comparison to the strong DNI evoked by IoNC, a smaller but significant DNI has been observed following the GoNC. However, DNI has not been observed either in cranial or in lumbar dura following ScNT and SCI. Histological evidence has demonstrated a dural proinflammatory cell infiltration in the IoNC model, which is in contrast to the SCI model. Inflammatory cell types (lymphocytes, plasma cells, and monocytes) have indicated the presence of sterile cellular inflammatory response in the IoNC model. To our knowledge, this is the first observation that the DNI evoked by peripheral neuropathic pain is specific to the trigeminal area and the adjacent occipital area. DNI after peripheral nerve injury consists of both plasma protein extravasation and proinflammatory cell infiltration. PMID:24366531
Filipovi?, B; Matak, I; Lackovi?, Z
Cranial defects result either from trauma or after intentional osteocraniotomies or external decompression craniectomies. These defects occur most frequently during wartime, but their incidence during peacetime, as a result of accident or disease, makes knowledge of cranioplasty useful to the interested practitioner. Most cranial defects will have some variable proportion of cosmetic and mechanical aspects, and the decision regarding cranioplasty must be influenced by the patient's age, prognosis, activity level and the specific conditions of the scalp and calvarium. This case report is oriented towards post-traumatic restoration of large cranial defect with alloplastic heat-cure poly methyl methacrylate resin material. PMID:24757358
Goyal, Shelly; Goyal, Mukesh Kumar
Grafts of optic nerve were placed end-toend with the proximal stumps of severed common peroneal nerves in inbred mice. It was found that fraying the proximal end of adult optic nerve grafts to disrupt the glia limitans increased their chances of being penetrated by regenerating peripheral nerve fibres. Suturing grafts to the proximal stump also enhanced their penetration by axons.
P. N. Anderson; P. Woodham; M. Turmaine
Background Essential tremor (ET) is often familial and phenotypic features may be shared within families. Cranial (neck, voice, jaw) tremor is an important feature of ET. We examined whether cranial tremor aggregates in ET families, after controlling for other factors (age, tremor severity and duration). Methods Among ET probands and relatives enrolled in a genetic study at Columbia University (95 subjects in 28 families), we assessed the degree to which occurrence of cranial tremor in the proband predicted occurrence of cranial tremor in affected relatives. Results Forty-five (47.4%) subjects had cranial tremor on neurological examination (probands 66.7%, relatives 39.7%). Among 28 families, 23 (82.1%) contained individuals with and individuals without cranial tremor, indicating a high degree of within-family heterogeneity. In comparison to subjects without cranial tremor, those with cranial tremor had higher total tremor scores (p<0.001), were older (p=0.003), and had tremor of longer duration (p=0.01). In logistic regression models, the odds of cranial tremor in a relative was not related to occurrence of cranial tremor in the proband (p>0.24). Conclusions Cranial tremor did not aggregate in families with ET; the major predictor of this disease feature was tremor severity rather than presence of cranial tremor in another family member.
Louis, Elan D.; Hernandez, Nora; Clark, Lorraine N.; Ottman, Ruth
Modern archosaurs have extensive pneumatic diverticula originating from paranasal and tympanic sinuses. This complex anatomy is present in many fossil archosaurs, but few descriptions of the complete cranial pneumatic system exist. The cranial pneumatic morphology of birds and non-avian theropods are the best studied, but complete description of this anatomy for an ornithomimid was lacking. We describe the cranial pneumaticity
Rui Tahara; Hans C. E. Larsson
Dural arteriovenous fistulae(dAVF) in the anterior cranial fossa comprise about 6% of all dAVFs, and is usually detected after intracranial hemorrhage. However, non-hemorrhagic symptoms are uncommon. We encountered two patients with hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic dAVF in the anterior cranial fossa. Both cases were successfully treated using craniotomy and histopathological examination was performed. A 71-year-old male experienced sudden onset of nausea and headache, followed by progression of left hemiparesis and disturbance of consciousness due to intracerebral and subdural hematoma in 2005. Intracerebral venous aneurysm adjacent to the intracerebral hematoma originated from the draining cortical red vein was identified and successfully treated by operation. Histopathological examination revealed disappearance of the internal elastic lamina and scant muscle tissue in the venous aneurysmal wall originating from draining cortical vein. A 69-year-old male suffered sudden onset of mild headache, followed by progression of bruits in 2005. MRI suggested dAVF in the left anterior cranial fossa. 123I-IMP SPECT revealed an area of low perfusion in the left frontotemporal region. Histopathological examination after surgical treatment revealed thickening of the intima and an indistinct lamina elastica interna, indicating progressive degenerative changes of the arterialized vein likely to result in hemorrhage. Surgical obliteration of fistulae is reasonable even in the dAVF of the anterior cranial fossa with ischemic onset. PMID:16359034
Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Takeuchi, Yasuharu; Nakayama, Kenji; Arakawa, Masahiro; Shigemori, Minoru
Aims: (1) To assess the value of cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in the investigation of girls with central precocious puberty (CPP); and (2) to determine the clinical predictors of abnormal cranial MRI scans in these patients. Methods: A retrospective study of 67 girls diagnosed with CPP who underwent cranial MRI scans at diagnosis. Patients with neurological signs or symptoms at presentation were excluded. Results: The mean age of onset of puberty was 6.2 years (range 2.0–7.9). Intracranial abnormalities were present in 10 (15%) patients (MR+), while 57 (85%) had no abnormalities (MR-). There was no statistical difference between MR+ patients and MR- patients at presentation with respect to age of onset of puberty, pubertal stage, bone age advance, pelvic ultrasound findings, or height or body mass index standard deviation scores (SDS). Conclusion: Girls with CPP should have a cranial MRI scan as part of their assessment since clinical features, including age, are not helpful in predicting those with underlying pathology. Implementation of such an approach may have a substantial effect on clinical practice and healthcare cost.
Ng, S; Kumar, Y; Cody, D; Smith, C; Didi, M; Donaldson, M
System for monitoring of fluidic pressures in cranial cavity uses a miniaturized pressure sensing transducer, combined with suitable amplification means, a meter with scale calibrated in terms of pressures between minus 100 and plus 900 millimeters of water, and a miniaturized chart recorder covering similar range of pressures.
Fager, C. A., Jr.; Long, L. E.; Trent, R. L.
Summary The authors report 67 cases of meningioma of the anterior cranial fossa floor treated surgically between 1978 and 1992. The olfactory groove and tuberculum sellae were the most frequent locations. Mean duration of the clinical history was 30 months. Seventy-three per cent of the tumours were large (>4 cm). All patients were examined with computed tomography and 18 with
G. Rubin; U. Ben David; M. Gornish; Z. H. Rappaport
Tiny triaxial accelerometer whose sensing elements are piezoelectric ceramic beams measures human cranial accelerations when a subject is exposed to a centrifuge or other simulators of g environments. This device could be considered for application in dental, medical, and automotive safety research.
Deboo, G. J.; Rogallo, V. L.
Family caregivers of persons with dementia and their care recipients frequently experience sleep and mood disturbances throughout their caregiving and disease trajectories. Because conventional pharmacologic treatments of sleep and mood disturbances pose numerous risks and adverse effects to elderly persons, the investigation of other interventions is warranted. As older adults use complementary and alternative medicine interventions for the relief of sleep and mood disturbances, cranial electrical stimulation, an energy-based complementary and alternative medicine, may be a viable intervention. The proposed mechanism of action and studies that support cranial electrical stimulation as a modality to reduce distressing symptoms are reviewed. Directions for research are proposed.
Rose, Karen M.; Taylor, Ann Gill; Bourguignon, Cheryl; Utz, Sharon W.; Goehler, Lisa E.
We report the first case of direct surgical injury to a pudendal nerve branch during radical perineal prostatectomy. A 65-year-old patient presented with typical symptoms of a pudendal nerve lesion after radical perineal prostatectomy. As the patient did not respond to conservative treatment, surgical exploration and exeresis of the injured sensory branch of the pudendal nerve was necessary, resulting in pain improvement. Urologic surgeons should be aware of the typical symptoms after iatrogenic injury to the pudendal nerve or its branches. Early diagnosis and neurosurgical intervention are important to obtain a more favorable outcome. PMID:16461104
Gillitzer, R; Hampel, C; Wiesner, C; Pahernik, S; Melchior, S W; Thüroff, J W
Intraneural and perineural spread of squamous carcinoma from the face to the cranial cavity is an important cause of delayed cranial nerve palsies after local excision of a skin tumour. As exemplified in reports of two cases, signs of this type of centripetal spread of squamous cell tumour along the branches and trunk of the supraorbital nerve are (i) severe unremitting orbital and forehead pain with associated hypoaesthesia, (ii) palpable or radiological evidence of thickening of the nerve at the supraorbital notch and (iii) evolution of ophthalmoplegia, blindness, and sensory loss in the first division of the trigeminal nerve. Appearance of severe supraorbital neuralgia months or years after excision of a skin tumour from the forehead should alert the clinician to extension of tumour cells along the supraorbital nerve. This may enable him to institute timely treatment before a complete orbital apex syndrome has developed. PMID:950937
Moore, C E; Hoyt, W F; North, J B
Sciatic nerve injuries associated with acetabular fractures may be a result of the initial trauma or injury at the time of\\u000a surgical reconstruction. Patients may present with a broad range of symptoms ranging from radiculopathy to foot drop. There\\u000a are several posttraumatic, perioperative, and postoperative causes for sciatic nerve palsy including fracture–dislocation\\u000a of the hip joint, excessive tension or inappropriate
Paul S. Issack; David L. Helfet
This study was conducted to validate an ultrasound-guided technique to block the sciatic nerve in cats. An anatomical study was first carried out in four feline cadavers to evaluate the feasibility of the glutea (cranial and caudal), femoris and poplitea ultrasonographical approaches for the sciatic nerve block. The results showed that the femoris approach was optimal because the region was free of vascular and bony structures, and the needle was easily visualised in-plane. Then, the efficacy of the femoris ultrasonographical approach to block the sciatic nerve was tested in six healthy adult experimental cats. A dose of 2 mg/kg lidocaine 2% diluted in saline to a final volume of 1 ml was administered in all cats. The blockade was successful in all cases and the cats recovered uneventfully. This study shows the usefulness of the femoris approach in performing an ultrasound-guided blockade of the sciatic nerve in cats. PMID:22453303
Haro, Paulina; Laredo, Francisco; Gil, Francisco; Belda, Eliseo; Ayala, María D; Soler, Marta; Agut, Amalia
Supraorbital neuralgia is a rare disorder accounting for 4% of incidence with hallmark of localized pain in or above the eyebrow, clinically characterized by the following triad: (1) forehead pain in the area supplied by the supraorbital nerve, (2) tenderness on either the supraorbital notch and (3) absolute, but transitory relief of symptoms upon supraorbital nerve blockade. The pain presents with a chronic or intermittent pattern. The persistence of protracted unilateral forehead/occular pain, tenderness over the nerve and repeated blockade effect strongly suggest the diagnosis. Surgical treatment can be used when the medical treatment fails or in patients who do not tolerate the pharmacological treatment. PMID:22442595
Agrawal, Shaila M; Kambalimath, Deepashri H
The authors reviewed the surgical experience and operative technique in a series of 11 patients with middle fossa tumors who underwent surgery using the transzygomatic approach and intraoperative neuromonitoring (IOM) at a single institution. This approach was applied to trigeminal schwannomas (n?=?3), cavernous angiomas (n?=?3), sphenoid wing meningiomas (n?=?3), a petroclival meningioma (n?=?1), and a hemangiopericytoma (n?=?1). An osteotomy of the zygoma, a low-positioned frontotemporal craniotomy, removal of the remaining squamous temporal bone, and extradural drilling of the sphenoid wing made a flat trajectory to the skull base. Total resection was achieved in 9 of 11 patients. Significant motor pathway damage can be avoided using a change in motor-evoked potentials as an early warning sign. Four patients experienced cranial nerve palsies postoperatively, even though free-running electromyography of cranial nerves showed normal responses during the surgical procedure. A simple transzygomatic approach provides a wide surgical corridor for accessing the cavernous sinus, petrous apex, and subtemporal regions. Knowledge of the middle fossa structures is essential for anatomic orientation and avoiding injuries to neurovascular structures, although a neuronavigation system and IOM helps orient neurosurgeons.
Son, Byung Chul; Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Sup; Hong, Jae Taek; Sung, Jae Hoon; Yang, Seung-Ho
We report herein a case of a radiation-induced aneurysm. A 69-year-old woman presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Eight years previously, she had undergone cranial radiation therapy (total dose of 59.4 Gy) as adjuvant therapy after surgical resection for a chondrosarcoma that was destroying her sphenoid sinus. The patient underwent catheter angiography, which revealed an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery and luminal narrowing and irregularity in the petrous and lacerum segments of the right internal carotid artery. We attempted surgical clipping of the aneurysm, but there was repeated bleeding. Finally the aneurysm was treated with endovascular trapping. Potentially fatal bleeding also occurred from her internal carotid artery, which had also been irradiated during the previous cranial radiation therapy. We stopped the bleeding with endovascular coil embolization. Because of diffuse vascular changes of the cerebral vessels within irradiated fields, special attention must be paid to their treatment. PMID:23346546
Huh, Won; Bang, Jae Seung; Oh, Chang Wan; Kwon, O-Ki; Hwang, Gyojun
Disruption of the Frizzled3 (Fz3) gene leads to defects in axonal growth in the VII(th) and XII(th) cranial motor nerves, the phrenic nerve, and the dorsal motor nerve in fore- and hindlimbs. In Fz3(-/-) limbs, dorsal axons stall at a precise location in the nerve plexus, and, in contrast to the phenotypes of several other axon path-finding mutants, Fz3(-/-) dorsal axons do not reroute to other trajectories. Affected motor neurons undergo cell death 2 days prior to the normal wave of developmental cell death that coincides with innervation of muscle targets, providing in vivo evidence for the idea that developing neurons with long-range axons are programmed to die unless their axons arrive at intermediate targets on schedule. These experiments implicate planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling in motor axon growth and they highlight the question of how PCP proteins, which form cell-cell complexes in epithelia, function in the dynamic context of axonal growth. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01482.001. PMID:24347548
Hua, Zhong L; Smallwood, Philip M; Nathans, Jeremy
Nine dogs were diagnosed with cranial mediastinal carcinomas. Based on histological and immunohistochemical analysis, four dogs were diagnosed with ectopic follicular cell thyroid carcinomas, one dog with ectopic medullary cell thyroid carcinoma, two dogs with neuroendocrine carcinomas and two dogs with anaplastic carcinomas. Clinical signs and physical examination findings were associated with a space-occupying mass, although one dog was diagnosed with functional hyperthyroidism. Surgical resection was attempted in eight dogs. The cranial mediastinal mass was invasive either into the heart or into the cranial vena cava in three dogs. Resection was complete in six dogs and unresectable in two dogs. All dogs survived surgery, but four dogs developed pulmonary thromboembolism and two dogs died of respiratory complications postoperatively. Adjunctive therapies included pre-operative radiation therapy (n=1) and postoperative chemotherapy (n=3). Three dogs had metastasis at the time of diagnosis, but none developed metastasis following surgery. The overall median survival time was 243 days. Local invasion, pleural effusion and metastasis did not have a negative impact on survival time in this small case series. PMID:19178660
Liptak, J M; Kamstock, D A; Dernell, W S; Ehrhart, E J; Rizzo, S A; Withrow, S J
Introduction: Hyperglycemia associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) has adverse impacts on peripheral nerve connective tissue structure, and there is preliminary evidence that nerve biomechanics may be altered. Methods: Ultrasound imaging was utilized to quantify the magnitude and timing of tibial nerve excursion during ankle dorsiflexion in patients with DM and matched healthy controls. Results: Tibial nerve longitudinal excursion at the ankle and knee was reduced, and timing was delayed at the ankle in the DM group. Severity of neuropathy was correlated with larger reductions in longitudinal excursion. Nerve cross-sectional area was increased at the ankle in the DM group. Conclusions: Larger tibial nerve size within the tarsal tunnel in patients with DM may restrict longitudinal excursion, which was most evident with more severe neuropathy. It is hypothesized that these alterations may be related to painful symptoms during functional activities that utilize similar physiological motions through various biomechanical and physiological mechanisms. Muscle Nerve 50:216-223, 2014. PMID:24375463
Boyd, Benjamin S; Dilley, Andrew
This report describes a patient with sudden sensorineural hearing loss who was found to have a megadolichoectasia vertebrobasilar system that appeared to be causing compression of the ipsilateral facial and vestibulocochlear nerves. The patient was treated conservatively for 4 months, during which time no hearing returned. He then underwent microvascular decompression of the affected nerves. At surgery, marked compression of the cranial nerves VII-VIII complex and the pons was observed. Postoperatively, the patient experienced a gradual return of useful hearing. We suggest that vascular compression may be a rare, but treatable, cause of sensorineural hearing loss. PMID:8238278
Rosseau, G L; Jannetta, P J; Hirsch, B; Møller, M B; Møller, A R
Cerebellopontine angle arachnoid cysts are usually asymptomatic, but are frequently found incidentally because of increased use of neuroimaging. Nevertheless, as these cysts enlarge, they may compress surrounding structures and cause neurological symptoms. Patients may present with vague, nonspecific symptoms such as headache, nausea, vomiting, and vertigo. Cranial nerve palsies, including sensorineural hearing loss and facial weakness, although rare, have also been reported in association with posterior fossa arachnoid cysts. Although surgery for these entities is controversial, arachnoid cysts can be treated surgically with open craniotomy for cyst removal, fenestration into adjacent arachnoid spaces, shunting of cyst contents, or endoscopic fenestration. Reversal of sensorineural hearing loss following open craniotomy treatment has been described in the literature in only 1 adult and 1 pediatric case. Improvement in facial weakness has also been reported after open craniotomy and arachnoid cyst fenestration. The authors report the first case of complete recovery from sensorineural hearing loss and facial weakness following endoscopic fenestration in a patient with a cerebellopontine angle arachnoid cyst. PMID:21284461
Olaya, Joffre E; Ghostine, Michelle; Rowe, Mark; Zouros, Alexander
PURPOSE: Pudendal neuralgia caused by nerve compression may be improved by surgical decompression of the pudendal nerve. This study was undertaken to determine if clinical symptoms, electrophysiological investigations, and the efficacy of preoperative pudendal nerve blocks could be used to predict the efficacy of surgery. METHODS: Twelve consecutive patients complaining of anal pain, genital pain, or both, exacerbated in the
J. Mauillon; D. Thoumas; A. M. Leroi; P. Freger; F. Michot; P. Denis
From 1982 to 1985 65 patients with a fracture of the cranial and middle portion of the visceral skull underwent surgical reconstruction using mini-plate osteosynthesis (Champy set). In this group we can distinguish four typical fractures where plate osteosynthesis with functional stability has proved successful (e.g.: piece fracture of the inferior margin of the orbita, bursting fracture of the zygomatic bone, impression fracture of the anterior wall of the frontal sinus, comminuted fracture of the interorbital region). The technical details of surgery are given special emphasis and possible complications are discussed. PMID:3762275
Haug, H; Terrahe, K; Meyer, H J
Summary Two cases with huge dumbbell type jugular foramen meningioma with extension into the parapharyngeal space are reported. A\\u000a well co-ordinated surgical strategy for total resection to this high risk tumour with neurosurgeons, otolaryngologists and\\u000a plastic surgeons is mandatory to minimise operative complications. Both of our patients presented with a cervical mass and\\u000a lower cranial nerve palsies, and had huge
N. Kawahara; T. Sasaki; K. Nibu; M. Sugasawa; K. Ichimura; T. Nakatsuka; A. Yamada; T. Kirino
... silent” heart disease. Diabetes -related nerve damage that blunts heart pain may explain why symptoms aren't ... blood clot forms in a coronary artery and blocks blood flow to part of the heart muscle. ...
...scale provided for injury of the nerve involved, with a maximum equal to severe, incomplete, paralysis. See nerve involved for diagnostic code number...will be that for moderate, or with sciatic nerve involvement, for moderately...
A patient with silastic radiocarpal and ulnar head replacement arthroplasty presented six years after the operation with symptoms of ulnar neuropathy. Bone resorption of the distal ulna resulted in volar subluxation of the ulnar head implant which compressed the ulnar nerve at its entrance into Guyon's canal. Removal of the implant and decompression of the nerve resulted in recovery of ulnar nerve funcions. Compression neuropathy of the ulnar nerve should be considered a potential complication of the use of silastic ulnar head replacements. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2
El-Gammal, Tarek A.; Blair, William F.
As a form of cranial deformation, obelionic flattening is rare. Originally named and described by Stewart (J Wash Acad Sci 29 (1939) 460-465), based on a small sample from Florida, it has been little noted since. Previously [Nelson and Madimenos, Paper presented at the Paleopathology Association annual meeting (2007)], we reported the discovery of two individuals from the Pueblo III Gallina site of Cañada Simon I who exhibit flattening of this type. Although technically undescribed in the Southwest before now, there are tantalizing clues in the literature that it occurred in low frequencies throughout the Ancestral Pueblo world. To determine whether the obelionic flattening found at Cañada Simon I was isolated or an indication of a more widespread phenomenon, we undertook a survey of crania from other Gallina sites, Chaco Canyon, and the literature (type of deformation can be determined on lateral photographs of crania properly positioned along the Frankfort Horizontal). We examined 146 crania (78 firsthand) of which seven exhibit obelionic flattening. Our results indicate that obelionic flattening should be added to the suite of cranial deformations that occur in the Southwest. Here, we propose parameters by which obelionic flattening can be described and differentiated from the more common lambdoidal and occipital forms and suggest that the three types of flattening form a continuum of cradleboard induced deformation, although the exact mechanism for obelionic flattening remains elusive. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20623677
Nelson, Greg C; Madimenos, Felicia C
It has been suggested that the large theropod dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex was capable of producing extremely powerful bite forces and resisting multi-directional loading generated during feeding. Contrary to this suggestion is the observation that the cranium is composed of often loosely articulated facial bones, although these bones may have performed a shock-absorption role. The structural analysis technique finite element analysis (FEA) is employed here to investigate the functional morphology and cranial mechanics of the T. rex skull. In particular, I test whether the skull is optimized for the resistance of large bi-directional feeding loads, whether mobile joints are adapted for the localized resistance of feeding-induced stress and strain, and whether mobile joints act to weaken or strengthen the skull overall. The results demonstrate that the cranium is equally adapted to resist biting or tearing forces and therefore the 'puncture-pull' feeding hypothesis is well supported. Finite-element-generated stress-strain patterns are consistent with T. rex cranial morphology: the maxilla-jugal suture provides a tensile shock-absorbing function that reduces localized tension yet 'weakens' the skull overall. Furthermore, peak compressive and shear stresses localize in the nasals rather than the fronto-parietal region as seen in Allosaurus, offering a reason why robusticity is commonplace in tyrannosaurid nasals.
Rayfield, Emily J.
A system of roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) has been developed and its value in studies of cranial growth in both man and the experimental animal (rabbit) has been delineated. This method is based on measurements from metal bone marker images on roentgenograms. Two roentgen tubes simultaneously expose the object, which is placed in one of two types of calibration cages. The object position does not need to be identical from one examination to the next. The cage, holding indicators of predetermined internal positions (in two or four planes), defines a laboratory coordinate system. Two-dimensional image coordinates are obtained by means of a highly accurate cartographic instrument. By computer reconstruction of the x-ray beams through the markers, 3-D object coordinates are calculated. For subsequent analysis of growth processes, extensive software is necessary. To control intrasegmental stability (routinely performed at each examination), a minimum of two markers is required, whereas three markers are needed in each skeletal segment for kinematic analysis using the rigid-body concept. Careful planning of marker placement before implantation minimizes implant loss and instability that otherwise might be a problem. Complications other than bone marker loosening have been nonexistent. The technical accuracy is high. Consequently, roentgen stereophotogrammetry, with the aid of metallic implants, is a superior means to obtain biometric information on cranial growth with relative ease.
Selvik, G.; Alberius, P.; Fahlman, M.
Surgical approaches to the anterior cranial base have changed considerably with the introduction of endonasal endoscopic surgery. This study aims to define the factors which help in selecting the optimal surgical approach for the treatment of anterior cranial base encephaloceles. Patients who received treatment for anterior cranial base encephaloceles at our department between 1996 and 2011 were included in the study. Patients' charts were reviewed retrospectively to collect the necessary data. Treatment periods were classified as before 2000, between 2000 and 2005, and after 2005. The relationship between the treatment period, localization of encephalocele, symptoms related with the lesion, size of skull base defect, and selected treatment modality were investigated. Twenty-five patients, aged between 1 and 61 years with anterior encephaloceles were included in the study. Patients with small asymptomatic frontonasal and trans-ethmoidal encephaloceles (n = 5) were followed without surgery. An external approach with or without subfrontal craniotomy was mainly preferred for resection of sincipital encephaloceles (n = 10), especially with facial deformity. A subfrontal craniotomy approach was used for resection of basal encephaloceles in two cases before 2000. Two cases with sincipital encephaloceles and six cases with basal encephaloceles underwent pure endonasal endoscopic surgery after 2000. Cranial base defects of every size could be repaired using the endoscopic approach. Hydrocephalus and meningitis were the two complications seen after craniotomy in a follow-up period of 13-26 (mean 14.5) months. An external approach with or without craniotomy is needed for encephaloceles with external mass and facial deformity. Otherwise, sincipital and basal encephaloceles can be repaired successfully using the endonasal endoscopic approach. PMID:22948862
Gun, Ramazan; Tosun, Fuat; Durmaz, Abdullah; Yorgancilar, Ediz; Bakir, Salih; Kamasak, Kaan; Gocmez, Cuneyt
Objectives: The Dynamic Orthotic Cranioplasty (DOC) BandTM is a cranial orthosis used to treat deformational plagiocephaly. The ability of this device to redirect growth and thus, improve craniofacial asymmetry has raised concerns regarding the potential restriction of cranial growth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the growth of the head during correction of plagiocephaly. Methods: The study sample
Kevin M. Kelly; Timothy R. Littlefield; Jeanne K. Pomatto; Kim H. Manwaring; Stephen P. Beals
Surgical reconstruction of cranial deformities and synostosis is occasionally accompanied by incomplete bone growth to cover all areas of cranial vault that have been exposed in the correction. The restrictive nature of some forms of synostosis require more bone in the repair than is available using the child’s natural skull for autogenous bone cranioplasty. Rib and iliac crest autografts have
David Moss; Edward Joganic; Kim H. Manwaring; Steven P. Beals
Metacercariae of Diplostomum mordax were found in the cranial cavity of Orestias agasii, Orestias olivaceous, Orestias luteus, and Basilichthys bonariensis, fishes from Lake Titicaca, Peru. Metacercariae were not found in Oncorhynchus mykiss introduced into the lake during 1939 and 1940. Compression of neural tissue within and on the surface of the brain was observed in all infected fishes. Metacercariae migrating into the cerebrum and cerebellum of the piscine host caused hemorrhaging, cell necrosis, inflammation, fiber formation, and nerve fiber disruption. The presence of D. mordax in B. bonariensis and the 3 species of Orestias constitute new host records. Infections in the cerebrum and cerebellum add new information on specific parasite location. PMID:1597806
Heckmann, R A
Neurosurgical procedures involving the skull base and structures within can pose a significant risk of damage to the brain stem and cranial nerves. This can have life-threatening consequences and/or result in devastating neurologic deficits. Over the past decade, intraoperative neurophysiology has significantly evolved and currently offers a great tool for live monitoring of the integrity of nervous structures. Thus, dysfunction can be identified early and prompt modification of the surgical management or operating conditions, leads to avoidance of permanent structural damage.Along these lines, the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) and, to a greater extent, the auditory pathways as they pass through the brain stem are especially at risk during cerebelopontine angle (CPA), posterior/middle fossa, or brain stem surgery. CN VIII can be damaged by several mechanisms, from vascular compromise to mechanical injury by stretch, compression, dissection, and heat injury. Additionally, cochlea itself can be significantly damaged during temporal bone drilling, by noise, mechanical destruction, or infarction, and because of rupture, occlusion, or vasospasm of the internal auditory artery.CN VIII monitoring can be successfully achieved by live recording of the function of one of its parts, the cochlear or auditory nerve (AN), using the brain stem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs), electrocochleography (ECochG), and compound nerve action potentials (CNAPs) of the cochlear nerve.This is a review of these techniques, their principle, applications, methodology, interpretation of the evoked responses, and their change from baseline, within the context of surgical and anesthesia environments, and finally the appropriate management of these changes. PMID:22146352
Simon, Mirela V
Facial nerve palsy results in the loss of facial expression and is most commonly caused by a benign, self-limiting inflammatory condition known as Bell palsy. However, there are other conditions that may cause facial paralysis, such as neoplastic conditions of the facial nerve, traumatic nerve injury, and temporal bone lesions. We present a case of facial nerve palsy concurrent with a benign cystic lesion of the temporal bone, adjacent to the tympanic segment of the facial nerve. The patient's symptoms subsided after facial nerve decompression via a transmastoid approach. PMID:24652558
Kim, Na Hyun; Shin, Seung-Ho
Fifty patients with optic nerve sheath meningiomas have been reviewed with a follow-up of up to 15 years. The median age at onset of their symptoms was 40.0 years. The majority were middle aged females with a slowly progressive lesion. More aggressive lesions were encountered in a younger, predominantly male group of patients with frequent intracranial involvement. Our experience indicates that a more aggressive surgical approach to these lesions is needed to prevent this sequence of events. Meningiomas in older individuals often do not need treatment, though radiotherapy can be beneficial. Images
Wright, J E; McNab, A A; McDonald, W I
Objectives/Hypothesis One sequela of skull base surgery is iatrogenic damage to cranial nerves, which can be prevented if the nerve is identified. Devices that stimulate nerves with electric current assist in nerve identification. Contemporary devices have two main limitations: 1) the physical contact of the stimulating electrode and (2) the spread of the current through the tissue. In contrast to electrical stimulation, pulsed infrared optical radiation can be used to safely and selectively stimulate neural tissue and might be valuable for screening. Methods The gerbil facial nerve was exposed to 250 microsecond pulses of 2.12 ?m radiation delivered via a 600-?m-diameter optical fiber at a repetition rate of 2 Hz. With use of 27 GA, 12-mm intradermal electrodes, muscle action potentials were recorded. Nerve samples were examined for possible tissue damage. Results Eight facial nerves were stimulated with radiant exposures between 0.71 and 1.77 J/cm2, resulting in compound muscle action potentials (CmAPs) that were simultaneously measured at the m. orbicularis oculi, m. levator nasolabialis, and m. orbicularis oris. Resulting CmAP amplitudes were 0.3 to 0.4 mV, 0.15 to 1.4 mV, and 0.3 to 2.3 mV, respectively, depending on the radial location of the optical fiber and the radiant exposure. Individual nerve branches were also stimulated, resulting in CmAP amplitudes between 0.2 and 1.6 mV. Histology revealed tissue damage at radiant exposures of 2.2 J/cm2 but no apparent damage at radiant exposures of 2.0 J/cm2. Conclusions The experiments showed that selective muscle action potentials can be evoked optically in the gerbil facial nerve without direct physical contact.
Teudt, Ingo Ulrik; Nevel, Adam E.; Izzo, Agnella D.; Walsh, Joseph T.; Richter, Claus-Peter
Over a two-year period this study evaluated the condition of 65 athletes with nerve injuries. These injuries represent the spectrum of nerve injuries likely to be encountered in sports medicine clinics. (Author/MT)
Collins, Kathryn; And Others
Nerve stimulator applies and/or measures precisely controlled force and/or displacement to nerve so response of nerve measured. Consists of three major components connected in tandem: miniature probe with spherical tip; transducer; and actuator. Probe applies force to nerve, transducer measures force and sends feedback signal to control circuitry, and actuator positions force transducer and probe. Separate box houses control circuits and panel. Operator uses panel to select operating mode and parameters. Stimulator used in research to characterize behavior of nerve under various conditions of temperature, anesthesia, ventilation, and prior damage to nerve. Also used clinically to assess damage to nerve from disease or accident and to monitor response of nerve during surgery.
Tcheng, Ping; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.; Prass, Richard L.
A personal field chemical warfare nerve agent detector has therein a transducer having two microchemical cantilever oscillators. One of the cantilever oscillators has deposited, as an end-mass, a chemically selective substance on the cantilever. The nerve...
E. S. Kolesar
A prospective study was performed in patients treated with cisplatin to evaluate the occurrence and degree of central, peripheral and autonomic neuropathy and to determine the most accurate method to study this neuropathy. Twelve patients were examined before, during and after treatment. Evaluation included neurologic examination, conventional nerve conduction studies of the median and peroneal nerves and short latency somatosensory evoked potentials (SSER) after median and tibial nerve stimulation. Valsalva maneuvers before and during treatment were performed in 11 patients. Symptoms of peripheral neuropathy paralleled clinical signs. Conventional nerve conduction studies did not seem to be more accurate than clinical examination in determining peripheral neuropathy. SSER appeared to be the most sensitive method for the detection of peripheral nerve impairment. A slowing of central conduction velocity occurred after cumulative doses of 200-400 mg/m2 as measured by SSER. In two patients also some involvement of the autonomic nerves was suggested. PMID:2128320
Boogerd, W; ten Bokkel Huinink, W W; Dalesio, O; Hoppenbrouwers, W J; van der Sande, J J
Current approaches for treating peripheral nerve injury have resulted in promising, yet insufficient functional recovery compared to the clinical standard of care, autologous nerve grafts. In order to design a construct that can match the regenerative potential of the autograft, all facets of nerve tissue must be incorporated in a combinatorial therapy. Engineered biomaterial scaffolds in the future will have to promote enhanced regeneration and appropriate reinnervation by targeting the highly sensitive response of regenerating nerves to their surrounding microenvironment. PMID:23790730
Marquardt, Laura M; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E
Primary cranial mediastinal hemangiosarcomas are uncommon tumors. A 30-kg, 2-year-old, intact female German shepherd was presented for evaluation of cachexia and respiratory distress of a few days’ duration. Lateral radiographic projection of the thorax revealed significant pleural effusion. Computed tomography revealed a cranial mediastinal mass effect adjacent to the heart. On surgical exploration, a pedunculated mass attached to the esophagus, trachea, brachiocephalic trunk, left subclavian artery and cranial vena cava without attachment to the right atrium and auricular appendage was removed and debrided by use of blunt dissection and dry gauzes, respectively. Histopathology results described the cranial mediastinal mass as hemangiosarcoma. At 8 months and 5 days post-operatively, the patient died. Primary cranial mediastinal hemangiosarcomas, although a seemingly rare cause of thoracic pathology in young dogs, should be considered in the differential diagnosis for pleural effusion and soft tissue mass effect in the cranial mediastinum. This is the first case report in a dog to describe primary cranial mediastinal hemangiosarcoma.
Despite much data, there is no unanimity over how to define Homo sapiens in the fossil record. Here, we examine cranial variation among Pleistocene and recent human fossils by using a model of cranial growth to identify unique derived features (autapomorphies) that reliably distinguish fossils attributed to “anatomically modern” H. sapiens (AMHS) from those attributed to various taxa of “archaic” Homo spp. (AH) and to test hypotheses about the changes in cranial development that underlie the origin of modern human cranial form. In terms of pattern, AMHS crania are uniquely characterized by two general structural autapomorphies: facial retraction and neurocranial globularity. Morphometric analysis of the ontogeny of these autapomorphies indicates that the developmental changes that led to modern human cranial form derive from a combination of shifts in cranial base angle, cranial fossae length and width, and facial length. These morphological changes, some of which may have occurred because of relative size increases in the temporal and possibly the frontal lobes, occur early in ontogeny, and their effects on facial retraction and neurocranial globularity discriminate AMHS from AH crania. The existence of these autapomorphies supports the hypothesis that AMHS is a distinct species from taxa of “archaic” Homo (e.g., Homo neanderthalensis).
Lieberman, Daniel E.; McBratney, Brandeis M.; Krovitz, Gail
Despite much data, there is no unanimity over how to define Homo sapiens in the fossil record. Here, we examine cranial variation among Pleistocene and recent human fossils by using a model of cranial growth to identify unique derived features (autapomorphies) that reliably distinguish fossils attributed to "anatomically modern" H. sapiens (AMHS) from those attributed to various taxa of "archaic" Homo spp. (AH) and to test hypotheses about the changes in cranial development that underlie the origin of modern human cranial form. In terms of pattern, AMHS crania are uniquely characterized by two general structural autapomorphies: facial retraction and neurocranial globularity. Morphometric analysis of the ontogeny of these autapomorphies indicates that the developmental changes that led to modern human cranial form derive from a combination of shifts in cranial base angle, cranial fossae length and width, and facial length. These morphological changes, some of which may have occurred because of relative size increases in the temporal and possibly the frontal lobes, occur early in ontogeny, and their effects on facial retraction and neurocranial globularity discriminate AMHS from AH crania. The existence of these autapomorphies supports the hypothesis that AMHS is a distinct species from taxa of "archaic" Homo (e.g., Homo neanderthalensis). PMID:11805284
Lieberman, Daniel E; McBratney, Brandeis M; Krovitz, Gail
ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of present article was to review aetiological factors, mechanism, clinical symptoms, and diagnostic methods as well as to create treatment guidelines for the management of inferior alveolar nerve injury during dental implant placement. Material and Methods Literature was selected through a search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane electronic databases. The keywords used for search were inferior alveolar nerve injury, inferior alveolar nerve injuries, inferior alveolar nerve injury implant, inferior alveolar nerve damage, inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia and inferior alveolar nerve repair. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1972 to November 2010. Additionally, a manual search in the major anatomy, dental implant, periodontal and oral surgery journals and books were performed. The publications there selected by including clinical, human anatomy and physiology studies. Results In total 136 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. Aetiological factors of inferior alveolar nerve injury, risk factors, mechanism, clinical sensory nerve examination methods, clinical symptoms and treatment were discussed. Guidelines were created to illustrate the methods used to prevent and manage inferior alveolar nerve injury before or after dental implant placement. Conclusions The damage of inferior alveolar nerve during the dental implant placement can be a serious complication. Clinician should recognise and exclude aetiological factors leading to nerve injury. Proper presurgery planning, timely diagnosis and treatment are the key to avoid nerve sensory disturbances management.
Wang, Hom-Lay; Sabalys, Gintautas
Menopause is considered to be a major turning point in a women's life. It is accompanied by a variety of physical and psychological\\u000a changes that can significantly impair one's quality of life. Menopausal symptoms among cancer survivors often occur at an\\u000a earlier age, and can be more frequent, last longer, and be more severe than are seen in women experiencing
Debra L. Barton; Aditya Bardia; Charles Loprinzi
The safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal hand and cranial dystonias are well-established. Studies of these adult-onset focal dystonias reveal both shared features, such as the dystonic phenotype of muscle hyperactivity and overflow muscle contraction and divergent features, such as task specificity in focal hand dystonia which is not a common feature of cranial dystonia. The physiologic effects of botulinum toxin in these 2 disorders also show both similarities and differences. This paper compares and contrasts the physiology of focal hand and cranial dystonias and of botulinum toxin in the management of these disorders.
Karp, Barbara Illowsky
Background Endoscopic cystocisternotomy is one of three surgical methods used to treat middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts. There is\\u000a debate about which method is the best.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of endoscopic cystocisternotomy for treatment of arachnoid\\u000a cysts of the middle cranial fossa.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Thirty-two patients with arachnoid cysts of the middle cranial fossa
Song-bai Gui; Xin-sheng Wang; Xu-yi Zong; Chu-zhong Li; Bo Li; Ya-zhuo Zhang
The archaeological evidence of ancient cranial surgery is limited to cases of trepanation and cauterization. I report here on the only known case of cranial surgery in direct association with the osseous image of a non-trauma-induced soft tissue lesion (sinus pericranii). This case, from Alameda County, California (Late Middle Period, ca. 300-500 AD), is the earliest and only definitive evidence of invasive surgery from prehistoric North America. Because this individual presents the only bony evidence of cranial surgery other than trepanation or cauterization, it contributes substantially to our extremely limited understanding of medical practices in preliterate societies. PMID:8644880
Richards, G D
One sequela of skull base surgery is the iatrogenic damage to cranial nerves. Devices that stimulate nerves with electric current can assist in the nerve identification. Contemporary devices have two main limitations: (1) the physical contact of the stimulating electrode and (2) the spread of the current through the tissue. In contrast to electrical stimulation, pulsed infrared optical radiation can be used to safely and selectively stimulate neural tissue. Stimulation and screening of the nerve is possible without making physical contact. The gerbil facial nerve was irradiated with 250-?s-long pulses of 2.12 ?m radiation delivered via a 600-?m-diameter optical fiber at a repetition rate of 2 Hz. Muscle action potentials were recorded with intradermal electrodes. Nerve samples were examined for possible tissue damage. Eight facial nerves were stimulated with radiant exposures between 0.71-1.77 J/cm2, resulting in compound muscle action potentials (CmAPs) that were simultaneously measured at the m. orbicularis oculi, m. levator nasolabialis, and m. orbicularis oris. Resulting CmAP amplitudes were 0.3-0.4 mV, 0.15-1.4 mV and 0.3-2.3 mV, respectively, depending on the radial location of the optical fiber and the radiant exposure. Individual nerve branches were also stimulated, resulting in CmAP amplitudes between 0.2 and 1.6 mV. Histology revealed tissue damage at radiant exposures of 2.2 J/cm2, but no apparent damage at radiant exposures of 2.0 J/cm2.
Richter, Claus-Peter; Teudt, Ingo Ulrik; Nevel, Adam E.; Izzo, Agnella D.; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.
In transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for pituitary tumors, the use of endoscopes allows approach to the lateral sides in and around the cavernous sinus. However, this approach is often associated with a risk of cranial nerve dysfunction causing impaired extraocular movement. We employed a novel, simple, and real-time monitoring system using electrooculography during TSS to avoid postoperative extraocular motor nerve dysfunction. A conventional electroencephalograph, which is available in every hospital, was used to detect effects induced by intraoperative manipulation on the cranial nerves related to extraocular movement (EOM) during TSS for pituitary adenomas. One hundred patients with pituitary adenomas who underwent endonasal endoscope-assisted TSS with EOM monitoring were included in the present study. When the extraocular motor nerves were stimulated mechanically directly or even indirectly by surgical procedures, abnormal extraocular muscle responses [electrooculograms (EOGm)] appeared on the monitor screen. When repeated or continuous EOGm were recorded, surgical procedures were discontinued briefly for around 5 to 10 s. The EOGm disappeared promptly when surgical procedures were stopped. Permanent extraocular dysfunction did not occur in the present series of patients. One, who was the fifth patient in the present series, of 100 patients (1.0 %) had transient delayed diplopia after TSS. We have not experienced any more postoperative EOM dysfunction since the first case. EOM monitoring during TSS is a novel, efficient, and simple method to prevent postoperative cranial nerve palsy related to EOM. PMID:23196421
Kawamata, Takakazu; Ishii, Nobuaki; Amano, Kosaku; Namioka, Takahiro; Hori, Tomokatsu; Okada, Yoshikazu
Fourteen patients with aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve were examined using self-developing photographs, motion pictures, and pupillography. These pupillary phenomena were noted: (1) sector contractions of the iris sphincter in response to light, (2) sector contractions of the iris sphincter associated with eye movements, and (3) an abnormal pupillary unrest. The observations strongly support the concept that after injury, fibers regenerate and sprout collateral branches that finally reach muscles of the oculomotor group other than those originally innervated. PMID:687202
Czarnecki, J S; Thompson, H S
A change in the type of cranial deformities (plagiocephaly) presenting to certain clinics has occurred. The purpose of this study was to compare infant head shapes against head shapes of their biologic parents to explore the roles of heredity and environment on cranial shape. Standardized family photographs and anthropometric measurements demonstrated that 30% of the infants had cranial widths 2 standard deviations above norm, while 4.6% had widths exceeding 3 standard deviations. Despite a mean age of only 8 months, 11.6% had widths that were already greater than that of 1 parent. These results demonstrate that plagiocephaly has taken on a new configuration, presenting not only with asymmetry, but also with excessive cranial width. PMID:16429217
Pomatto, Jeanne K; Calcaterra, Jennifer; Kelly, Kevin M; Beals, Stephen P; Manwaring, Kim H; Littlefield, Timothy R
...Identification . A cranial electrotherapy stimulator is a device that applies electrical current to a patient's head to treat insomnia, depression, or anxiety. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date a PMA or notice...
... . A cranial electrotherapy stimulator is a device that applies electrical current to a patient's head to treat insomnia, depression, or anxiety. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date a PMA or notice of completion...
A novel, spatially selective method to stimulate cranial nerves has been proposed: contact free stimulation with optical radiation. The radiation source is an infrared pulsed laser. The Case Report is the first report ever that shows that optical stimulation of the auditory nerve is possible in the human. The ethical approach to conduct any measurements or tests in humans requires efficacy and safety studies in animals, which have been conducted in gerbils. This report represents the first step in a translational research project to initiate a paradigm shift in neural interfaces. A patient was selected who required surgical removal of a large meningioma angiomatum WHO I by a planned transcochlear approach. Prior to cochlear ablation by drilling and subsequent tumor resection, the cochlear nerve was stimulated with a pulsed infrared laser at low radiation energies. Stimulation with optical radiation evoked compound action potentials from the human auditory nerve. Stimulation of the auditory nerve with infrared laser pulses is possible in the human inner ear. The finding is an important step for translating results from animal experiments to human and furthers the development of a novel interface that uses optical radiation to stimulate neurons. Additional measurements are required to optimize the stimulation parameters.
Fishman, Andrew; Winkler, Piotr; Mierzwinski, Jozef; Beuth, Wojciech; Izzo Matic, Agnella; Siedlecki, Zygmunt; Teudt, Ingo; Maier, Hannes; Richter, Claus-Peter
Vasculitis affecting the peripheral nerves predominantly manifests as subacute, progressive, asymmetric sensorimotor polyneuropathy or mononeuritis multiplex, and more rarely as painful mononeuropathy, pure sensory neuropathy, neuropathy of the cranial nerves, plexopathy, or as autonomic neuropathy. Vasculitic neuropathy may occur isolated or non-isolated (systemic) together with involvement of other organs. Systemic vasculitis with involvement of the peripheral nerves is further subdivided into primary (Takayasu syndrome, giant cell arteritis, classical panarteritis nodosa, thrombangitis obliterans, Kawasaki disease, Churg-Strauss syndrome, Wegener granulomatosis, cryoglobulinemic vasculitis, Behcet disease, microscopic polyangitis, Schoenlein Henoch purpura) or secondary systemic vasculitis (autoimmune connective tissue diseases, vasculitis from infection, sarcoidosis, malignancy, drugs, radiation, or diabetes). In addition to routine laboratory investigations and nerve conduction studies, nerve biopsy is essential for diagnosing the condition and to delineate it from differentials, although its sensitivity is only approximately 60%. Therapy of non-viral vasculitic neuropathy is based on corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide alone or in combination. Additional options include azathioprine, methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil, or rituximab. In single cases immunoglobulins, immunoadsorbtion, or plasma exchange have been successfully applied. In case of virus-associated vasculitis interferon-alpha plus lamivudine or ribaverin may be beneficial. PMID:19681441
The usefulness of cranial morphology in reconstructing the phylogeny of closely related taxa is often questioned due to the\\u000a possibility of convergence or parallelism and epigenetic response to the environment. However, it has been suggested that\\u000a different cranial regions preserve phylogenetic information differentially. Some parts of the face and neurocranium are thought\\u000a to be relatively developmentally flexible, and therefore to
K. Harvati; T. D. WEAVER
Ninety-one patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung were given a shortened, intensive course of prophylactic cranial irradiation consisting of 2,000 rad in five fractions. The CNS relapse rate was 21%, but in only one of 91 patients was the brain the first and only site of relapse. Acute toxicities consisting of headache (16%) and nausea and vomiting (15%) were observed. Results are compared with previous results from other studies of cranial irradiation.
Feld, R.; Clamon, G.H.; Blum, R.; Moran, E.; Weiner, R.; Kramer, B.; Evans, W.K.; Herman, J.G.; Hoffman, F.; Burmeister, L.
In order to replicate the fracture behavior of the intact human skull under impact it becomes necessary to develop a material having the mechanical properties of cranial bone. The most important properties to replicate in a surrogate human skull were found to be the fracture toughness and tensile strength of the cranial tables as well as the bending strength of the three-layer (inner table-diplöe-outer table) architecture of the human skull. The materials selected to represent the surrogate cranial tables consisted of two different epoxy resins systems with random milled glass fiber to enhance the strength and stiffness and the materials to represent the surrogate diplöe consisted of three low density foams. Forty-one three-point bending fracture toughness tests were performed on nine material combinations. The materials that best represented the fracture toughness of cranial tables were then selected and formed into tensile samples and tested. These materials were then used with the two surrogate diplöe foam materials to create the three-layer surrogate cranial bone samples for three-point bending tests. Drop tower tests were performed on flat samples created from these materials and the fracture patterns were very similar to the linear fractures in pendulum impacts of intact human skulls, previously reported in the literature. The surrogate cranial tables had the quasi-static fracture toughness and tensile strength of 2.5?MPa? m and 53?±?4.9?MPa, respectively, while the same properties of human compact bone were 3.1?±?1.8?MPa? m and 68?±?18?MPa, respectively. The cranial surrogate had a quasi-static bending strength of 68?±?5.7?MPa, while that of cranial bone was 82?±?26?MPa. This material/design is currently being used to construct spherical shell samples for drop tower and ballistic tests.
Roberts, Jack C.; Merkle, Andrew C.; Carneal, Catherine M.; Voo, Liming M.; Johannes, Matthew S.; Paulson, Jeff M.; Tankard, Sara; Uy, O. Manny
Cranial neurulation is the embryonic process responsible for formation of the brain primordium. In the mouse embryo, cranial neurulation is a piecemeal process with several initiation sites and two neuropores. Variation in the pattern of cranial neurulation occurs in different mouse strains, and a simpler version of this morphogenetic scheme has been described in human embryos. Exencephaly is more common in females than in males, an unexplained phenomenon seen in both mice and humans. As the cranial neural tube closes, a critical morphogenetic event is the formation of dorsolateral bending points near the neural fold tips, which enables subsequent midline fusion of the neural folds. Many mutant and gene-targeted mouse strains develop cranial neural tube defects, and analysis of the underlying molecular defects identifies several requirements for normal dorsolateral bending. These include a functional actin cytoskeleton, emigration of the cranial neural crest, spatio-temporally regulated apoptosis, and a balance between cell proliferation and the onset of neuronal differentiation. A small number of mouse mutants exhibit craniorachischisis, a combined brain and spine neurulation defect. Recent studies show that disturbance of a single molecular signalling cascade, the planar cell polarity pathway, is implicated in mutants with this defect.
Copp, Andrew J
Intraoperative motor evoked potentials (MEP) and electromyography (EMG) monitoring in patients with spinal and cranial lesions is a valuable tool for prevention of postoperative motor deficits. The purpose of this study was to determine whether electrophysiological monitoring during skull base, spinal cord, and spinal surgery might be useful for predicting postoperative motor deterioration. From January 2012 to March 2013, thirty-three consecutive patients were studied using intraoperative monitoring (Nuvasive NV-M5 System) to check the integrity of brainstem, spinal cord, and nerve roots, recording transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEPs) and electromyography. Changes in MEPs and EMGs were related to postoperative deficits. Preoperative diagnosis included skull base and brainstem lesions (6 patients), spinal tumors (11 patients), spinal deformity (16 cases). Using TcMEPs and EMG is a practicable and safe method. MEPs are useful in any surgery in which the brainstem and spinal cord are at risk. EMG stimulation helps to identify an optimal trans-psoas entry point for an extreme lateral lumbar interbody fusion (XLIF) approach to protect against potential nerve injury. This neural navigation technique via a surgeon-interpreted interface assists the surgical team in safely removing lesions and accessing the intervertebral disc space for minimally invasive spinal procedures. PMID:24085510
Gazzeri, Roberto; Faiola, Andrea; Neroni, Massimiliano; Fiore, Claudio; Callovini, Giorgio; Pischedda, Mauro; Galarza, Marcelo
Bell's palsy is the sudden onset of unilateral transient paralysis of facial muscles resulting from dysfunction of the seventh cranial nerve. Presented here is a 26-year-old female patient with right lower motor neurone facial palsy following hepatitis B vaccination. Readers' attention is drawn to an uncommon cause of Bell's palsy, as a possible rare complication of hepatitis B vaccination, and steps taken to manage such a presentation. PMID:24457866
Paul, R; Stassen, L F A
Summary Cluster headache is a strictly unilateral headache that occurs in association with cranial autonomic features. We report a patient with a trigeminal nerve section who continued to have attacks. A 59-year-old man described a 14-year history of left-sided episodes of excruciating pain centred on the retro-orbital and orbi- tal regions. These episodes lasted 1-4 h, recurring 2-3 times daily.
Manjit S. Matharu; Peter J. Goadsby
Schwannoma is an uncommon, peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the neck that can occur either as an isolated lesion or multiple lesions. Multiple schwannomas, as seen in neurofibromatosis, occur less frequently. The rare occurrence and poorly defined symptoms of these tumors often make their preoperative diagnosis difficult. This report describes an unusual case of recurrent nerve Schwannoma which was successfully identified by color Doppler sonography. PMID:18612788
Varaldo, Emanuela; Crespi, Giovanni; Ansaldo, Gian Luca; Borgonovo, Giacomo; Boccardo, Francesco; Torre, Giancarlo
Peripheral nerve biopsy is now an established, valuable investigative procedure, but as it can give rise to significant residual\\u000a symptoms it should only be undertaken after careful consideration of the indications and with informed consent from the patient.\\u000a Nerve biopsies should only be processed and evaluated in a laboratory with the relevant particular expertise. It is generally\\u000a recommended that a
J. Michael Schröder
Neuronal vacuolation and spinocerebellar degeneration in young Rottweiler dogs is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by neuronal vacuolation of several nuclei in the central nervous system and degeneration of the spinal cord white matter. Here, we describe the morphologic and ultrastructural findings in laryngeal muscles and peripheral nerves of a 16-week-old female and a 32-week-old female Rottweiler dog affected by progressive ataxia and tetraparesis associated with laryngeal paralysis. Lesions were characterized by neurogenic muscle atrophy of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles, and a loss of large myelinated fibers in the recurrent laryngeal nerve, accompanied by demyelinating/remyelinating features affecting the small myelinated fibers. No significant changes were detected in the cranial laryngeal, vagus, phrenic, ulnar, or peroneal nerves. These findings were indicative of a selective distal neuropathy of the recurrent laryngeal nerve with early severe axonal degeneration, mainly of the large myelinated fibers. PMID:16301586
Salvadori, C; Tartarelli, C L; Baroni, M; Mizisin, A; Cantile, C
Ethylene glycol (EG) may be consumed accidentally or intentionally, usually in the form of antifreeze products or as an ethanol substitute. EG is metabolized to toxic metabolites. These metabolites cause metabolic acidosis with increased anion gap, renal failure, oxaluria, damage to the central nervous system and cranial nerves, and cardiovascular instability. Early initiation of treatment can reduce the mortality and morbidity but different clinical presentations can cause delayed diagnosis and poor prognosis. Herein, we report a case with the atypical presentation of facial paralysis, hematuria, and kidney failure due to EG poisoning which progressed to end stage renal failure and permanent right peripheral facial nerve palsy.
Eroglu, Eray; Kocyigit, Ismail; Bahcebasi, Sami; Unal, Aydin; Sipahioglu, Murat Hayri; Kocyigit, Merva; Tokgoz, Bulent; Oymak, Oktay
From the histologic point of view, nerves are round or flattened cords, with a complex internal structure made of myelinated\\u000a and unmyelinated nerve fibers, containing axons and Schwann cells grouped in fascicles (Fig. 4.1a) (Erickson 1997). Along the course of the nerve, fibers can traverse from one fascicle to another and fascicles can split and merge. Based\\u000a on the fascicular
Maura Valle; Maria Pia Zamorani
Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) may (secondary FNP) or may not have a detectable cause (Bell’s palsy). Three quarters\\u000a of peripheral FNP are primary and one quarter secondary. The most prevalent causes of secondary FNP are systemic viral infections,\\u000a trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immunological disorders, or drugs. The diagnosis of FNP relies upon the\\u000a presence of typical symptoms
Modern crocodylians possess a derived sense of face touch, in which numerous trigeminal nerve-innervated dome pressure receptors speckle the face and mandible and sense mechanical stimuli. However, the morphological features of this system are not well known, and it remains unclear how the trigeminal system changes during ontogeny and how it scales with other cranial structures. Finally, when this system evolved within crocodyliforms remains a mystery. Thus, new morphological insights into the trigeminal system of extant crocodylians may offer new paleontological tools to investigate this evolutionary transformation. A cross-sectional study integrating histological, morphometric, and 3D imaging analyses was conducted to identify patterns in cranial nervous and bony structures of Alligator mississippiensis. Nine individuals from a broad size range were CT-scanned followed by histomorphometric sampling of mandibular and maxillary nerve divisions of the trigeminal nerve. Endocast volume, trigeminal fossa volume, and maxillomandibular foramen size were compared with axon counts from proximal and distal regions of the trigeminal nerves to identify scaling properties of the structures. The trigeminal fossa has a significant positive correlation with skull length and endocast volume. We also found that axon density is greater in smaller alligators and total axon count has a significant negative correlation with skull size. Six additional extant and fossil crocodyliforms were included in a supplementary scaling analysis, which found that size was not an accurate predictor of trigeminal anatomy. This suggests that phylogeny or somatosensory adaptations may be responsible for the variation in trigeminal ganglion and nerve size in crocodyliforms. PMID:23408584
George, Ian D; Holliday, Casey M
Occipital condylar fractures (OCFs) are rare and difficult to diagnose. The routine use of computed tomography (CT) scan in traumatology has however now made their diagnosis easier, with an estimated frequency of 4 to 19% of craniospinal traumatized patients and 0.4 to 0.7% of all severe traumatized patients in emergencies. This paper describes a patient who was not diagnosed with OCF during his first hospitalization after a road accident. However, 15 days later a left sided hypoglossal nerve palsy occurred. In this case report, we underline that an examination of the cranial nerve is a quick and easy procedure to screen each head trauma patient for occipital foramen fractures. Also, careful attention must be paid to X-Rays, CT scans and magnetic resonance imaging of the craniocervical junction. PMID:24475495
Rué, M; Jecko, V; Dautheribes, M; Vignes, J-R
Major peripheral nerve injuries in the upper extremities can result in significant morbidity. Understanding the pathophysiology of these injuries aids in the assessment and planning of appropriate treatment. With limited nerve mobilization, tension-free repairs can often be performed using sutures, fibrin glue, or nerve connectors. Acellular allograft and autograft reconstruction are better for bridging any gaps greater than a few millimeters. Adherence to proper principles of nerve repair improves the chances of achieving a favorable result, although in general these injuries portend a guarded prognosis. PMID:23895717
Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction\\u000a (PROPELLER)-based diffusion tensor fiber tractography (DTT) at 3T to visualize infratentorial small fiber structures that\\u000a cannot be visualized adequately using a conventional single shot echo planar imaging (ssEPI)-based pulse sequence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods Four healthy male volunteers were examined in this study.
Hiroyuki Kabasawa; Yoshitaka Masutani; Shigeki Aoki; Osamu Abe; Tomohiko Masumoto; Naoto Hayashi; Kuni Ohtomo
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Advancements in technology and personal computing have allowed for the development of novel teaching modalities such as online web-based modules. These modules are currently being incorporated into medical curricula and, in some paradigms, have been shown to be superior to classroom instruction. We believe that these modules have the potential of…
Yeung, Jeffrey C.; Fung, Kevin; Wilson, Timothy D.
Neurological manifestations in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus can significantly increase overall morbidity and mortality. These complications are neither limited to a specific location in the nervous system nor a focal time period in the disease's progression. A literature review yielded several cases of peripheral facial palsy associated with HIV seropositivity, but few cases have been reported where the patient had bilateral peripheral facial palsy. In this paper, we present a patient with bilateral peripheral facial palsy and aseptic meningitis in the context of newly diagnosed HIV.
Ruiz, Lisa M.; Kirmani, Batool
Neurological manifestations in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus can significantly increase overall morbidity and mortality. These complications are neither limited to a specific location in the nervous system nor a focal time period in the disease's progression. A literature review yielded several cases of peripheral facial palsy associated with HIV seropositivity, but few cases have been reported where the patient had bilateral peripheral facial palsy. In this paper, we present a patient with bilateral peripheral facial palsy and aseptic meningitis in the context of newly diagnosed HIV. PMID:22934208
Ruiz, Lisa M; Kirmani, Batool
A 20 year old girl presented with a history of neck and occipital pain for six weeks, which was found to be due to a unicameral bone cyst of the left occipital condylar region. The differential diagnosis of bone cysts in the skull is discussed. Six months after the operation, the patient again presented with backache due to adhesive arachnoiditis.
W. G. Bradley; R. M. Kalbag; P. S. Ramani; B. E. Tomlinson
Perimesencephalic subarachnoid haemorrhage is usually asymptomatic other than meningeal irritation sign. The authors report a case of subarachnoid haemorrhage at the quadrigeminal cistern showing ipsilateral trochlear nerve palsy and discuss the pathogenesis. A 71-year-old man with a history of diabetes mellitus and acute myocardial infarction presented with diplopia. He underwent CT, which revealed subarachnoid haemorrhage at the left quadrigeminal cistern. Neurological examination revealed left isolated trochlear nerve palsy, with results otherwise normal. The diagnosis of perimesencephalic subarachnoid haemorrhage was established on neuroimaging. The amount of haemorrhage is related to symptoms. A dense clot in the quadrigeminal cistern might have been the cause of trochlear nerve palsy.
Adachi, Koji; Hironaka, Kouhei; Suzuki, Hisaharu; Oharazawa, Hideaki
Traumatic brain injury resulting from an explosive blast is one of the most serious wounds suffered by warfighters, yet the effects of explosive blast overpressure directly impacting the head are poorly understood. We developed a rodent model of direct cranial blast injury (dcBI), in which a blast overpressure could be delivered exclusively to the head, precluding indirect brain injury via thoracic transmission of the blast wave. We constructed and validated a Cranium Only Blast Injury Apparatus (COBIA) to deliver blast overpressures generated by detonating .22 caliber cartridges of smokeless powder. Blast waveforms generated by COBIA replicated those recorded within armored vehicles penetrated by munitions. Lethal dcBI (LD(50) ? 515?kPa) was associated with: (1) apparent brainstem failure, characterized by immediate opisthotonus and apnea leading to cardiac arrest that could not be overcome by cardiopulmonary resuscitation; (2) widespread subarachnoid hemorrhages without cortical contusions or intracerebral or intraventricular hemorrhages; and (3) no pulmonary abnormalities. Sub-lethal dcBI was associated with: (1) apnea lasting up to 15?sec, with transient abnormalities in oxygen saturation; (2) very few delayed deaths; (3) subarachnoid hemorrhages, especially in the path of the blast wave; (4) abnormal immunolabeling for IgG, cleaved caspase-3, and ?-amyloid precursor protein (?-APP), and staining for Fluoro-Jade C, all in deep brain regions away from the subarachnoid hemorrhages, but in the path of the blast wave; and (5) abnormalities on the accelerating Rotarod that persisted for the 1 week period of observation. We conclude that exposure of the head alone to severe explosive blast predisposes to significant neurological dysfunction. PMID:21639724
Kuehn, Reed; Simard, Philippe F; Driscoll, Ian; Keledjian, Kaspar; Ivanova, Svetlana; Tosun, Cigdem; Williams, Alicia; Bochicchio, Grant; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc
During craniofacial development, the Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway is essential for mesodermal tissue patterning and differentiation. The HH family consists of three protein ligands: Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), Indian Hedgehog (IHH), and Desert Hedgehog (DHH), of which two are expressed in the craniofacial complex (IHH and SHH). Dysregulations in HH signaling are well documented to result in a wide range of craniofacial abnormalities, including holoprosencephaly (HPE), hypotelorism, and cleft lip/palate. Furthermore, mutations in HH effectors, co-receptors, and ciliary proteins result in skeletal and craniofacial deformities. Cranial suture morphogenesis is a delicate developmental process that requires control of cell commitment, proliferation and differentiation. This review focuses on both what is known and what remains unknown regarding HH signaling in cranial suture morphogenesis and intramembranous ossification. As demonstrated from murine studies, expression of both SHH and IHH is critical to the formation and fusion of the cranial sutures and calvarial ossification. SHH expression has been observed in the cranial suture mesenchyme and its precise function is not fully defined, although some postulate SHH to delay cranial suture fusion. IHH expression is mainly found on the osteogenic fronts of the calvarial bones, and functions to induce cell proliferation and differentiation. Unfortunately, neonatal lethality of IHH deficient mice precludes a detailed examination of their postnatal calvarial phenotype. In summary, a number of basic questions are yet to be answered regarding domains of expression, developmental role, and functional overlap of HH morphogens in the calvaria. Nevertheless, SHH and IHH ligands are integral to cranial suture development and regulation of calvarial ossification. When HH signaling goes awry, the resultant suite of morphologic abnormalities highlights the important roles of HH signaling in cranial development.
Pan, Angel; Chang, Le; Nguyen, Alan; James, Aaron W.
Transnasal endoscopic surgery has remained at the forefront of surgical management of sinogenic complications involving the frontal sinus, orbit, and anterior skull base. However, the difficulty in accessing certain areas of these anatomical regions can potentially limit its use. Transorbital neuroendoscopic surgery (TONES) was recently introduced to transgress the limits of transnasal endoscopic surgery; the access that it provides could add additional surgical pathways for treating sinogenic complications involving the frontal sinus, orbit, and anterior cranial fossa. We describe a prospective series of 13 patients who underwent TONES for the management of various sinogenic complications, including epidural abscess, orbital abscess, and fronto-orbital mucocele or mucopyocele, as well as subperiosteal abscess presenting with orbital apex syndrome. The primary outcome measurement was the efficacy of TONES in treating these pathologies. TONES provided effective access to the frontal sinus, orbit, and the anterior cranial fossa. All patients demonstrated postoperative resolution of initial clinical symptoms with well-hidden surgical scars. There were no ophthalmologic complications or recurrence of pathology. Based on our experience, TONES appears to provide a valuable addition to the current surgical armamentarium for treating selected complications of sinusitis. PMID:24294556
Lim, Jae H; Sardesai, Maya G; Ferreira, Manuel; Moe, Kris S
Rosai-Dorfman disease, known as well as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy, is a histiocytic proliferative disorder which may affect, with an extranodal presentation, the central nervous system, in 5 % of cases with exceptional reports of simultaneous development of spinal and cranial tumors. When it affects the central nervous system it appears more in men and it is shown as a mass in the cranial dura mater or in the spinal cord. The clinical symptoms of Rosai-Dorfman disease are fever, general malayse, weight loss, and nocturnal diaphoresis. Also, when Rosai-Dorfman disease affects the spinal cord, it has an impact on the thoracic spine, which causes paraparesis, quadriparesis, and sensory disorder. Histopathologically, the lymph nodes show emperipolesis. The diagnosis of Rosai-Dorfman disease is usually good, since 40 % of the patients present a spontaneous remission if they are treated with oral corticosteroids, even though the lesion can be managed with fractionated radiotherapy or with radical surgery. We report the case of a 34-year-old male who started with spinal injuries, and a year later showed intracranial lesions. PMID:24758863
Molina-Carrión, Luis Enrique; Mendoza-Álvarez, Sergio Alberto; Vera-Lastra, Olga Lidia; Caldera-Duarte, Agustín; Lara-Torres, Héctor; Hernández-González, Claudia
A new compression syndrome of the deep branch of the radial nerve is described, in which a sudden anterior displacement of a part of this nerve under maximal tension is followed by an axonotmesis. This happens in an area in which the deep branch of the radial nerve crossed some narrow structures which are unyielding and have more compression strength (tense cords of connective tissue Fig. 3). The operative finding of a torsion of the injured fascicles justifies the correctness of the immediate operative revision; otherwise the nerve regeneration would be impaired by the torted empty endoneural tubes. This description is a further constribution not observed before to the compression syndromes of the radial nerve, since in 1970 the author was able to give an explanation for the pathogenesis of compression palsies of the radial nerve, unclear up to that time but observed after forceful muscle contractions again and again since the beginning of this century. This observation gives the evidence that the occurrence of a peripheral compression lesion of nerves is not bound absolutely on the existence of a "physiological narrowness" (fibrous or osteofibrous tunnel etc.). This is also true for the median nerve. PMID:992486
The number of cranial deformities has increased considerably since international efforts of pediatricians to recommend parents putting their babies to sleep in the supine position as a strategy to reduce sudden death syndrome of the newborn. On the one hand, this program has demonstrated very efficient results at reducing deaths and, on the other hand, such recommendation has increased the incidence of cranial asymmetries. In addition, infants are kept too long in one position, much of this due to abusive use of strollers, baby carriers, car seats, swings and other devices. Among resulting asymmetries, the most frequently found are plagiocephaly (parallelogram shaped skull, with posterior unilateral flattening with the opposite frontal area also flattened) and brachycephaly (occipital bilateral flattening). The present study is a case report of a patient with brachycephaly associated with deformational plagiocephaly treated with cranial orthosis. The same physician clinically evaluated the patient before and after treatment using photographic recording and a laser scanning device, which allows the accurate measurement of variables determining asymmetries. It became clear during treatment that there was significant improvement in cranial symmetry documented by decrease in the cephalic index, diagonal difference and volume gain in the quadrant that was flattened. The authors conclude that orthotic therapy is a safe and effective therapeutic modality for position cranial asymmetries. PMID:23579755
Schreen, Gerd; Matarazzo, Carolina Gomes
Anatomical findings from 28 breast specimens of female corpses have shown a thin horizontal fibrous septum, originating from the pectoral fascia along the level of the fifth rib, heading toward the nipple. This fibrous septum lies in between a cranial and a caudal vascular network, and being mesentery-like, it is responsible for the supply of the nipple areola complex. The cranial vascular sheet is supplied by the thoracoacromial artery and a branch of the lateral thoracic artery, whereas the caudal sheet is supplied by perforating branches from anastomoses of intercostal arteries. The fibrous septum is also a guiding structure for the main supplying nerve of the nipple. At its borders the septum curves upward into a vertical medial and lateral ligament, which attach the breast to the sternum and the lateral edge of pectoralis minor. These ligaments also contain a regular nerve and vascular supply. In their total, the fibrous septum and its ligaments form a sling of dense connective tissue that acts as a brassiere-like suspensory system. These two structures, the fibrous sling and the vascular and nervous membranes attached to it, are consistent anatomical findings, which have not been described before. Their knowledge could be of value and relevance in clinical application. PMID:9583477
Würinger, E; Mader, N; Posch, E; Holle, J
In treating the three main surgical problems of peripheral nerves--nerve sheath tumors, entrapment neuropathies, and acute nerve injuries--the overriding consideration is the preservation and restoration of neurologic function. Because of this, certain other principles may need to be compromised. These include achieving a gross total excision of benign tumors, employing conservative therapy as long as a disease process is not clearly progressing, and delaying repair of a nerve transection until the skin wound has healed. Only three pathophysiologic processes need be considered: neurapraxia (focal segmental dymyelination), axonotmesis (wallerian degeneration caused by a lesion that does not disrupt fascicles of nerve fibers), and neurotmesis (wallerian degeneration caused by a lesion that interrupts fascicles). With nerve sheath tumors and entrapment neuropathies, the goal is minimize the extent to which neurapraxia progresses to axonotmesis. The compressive force is relieved without carrying out internal neurolysis, a procedure that is poorly tolerated, presumably because a degree of nerve ischemia exists with any long-standing compression. When the nerve has sustained blunt trauma (through acute compression, percussion, or traction), the result can be a total loss of function and an extensive neuroma-in-continuity (scarring within the nerve). However, the neural pathophysiology may amount to nothing more than axonotmesis. Although this lesion, in time, leads to full and spontaneous recovery, it must be differentiated from the neuroma-in-continuity that contains disrupted fascicles requiring surgery. Finally, with open nerve transection, the priority is to match the fascicles of the proximal stump with those of the distal stump, a goal that is best achieved if primary neurorrhaphy is carried out. PMID:2991727
McQuarrie, I G
Peripheral nerve compression syndromes most often produce neuropathic changes that are recordable by conventional electrophysiologic testing techniques. Occasionally, a patient exhibits all the appropriate clinical signs, symptoms, and history of a compartment syndrome, such as a carpal tunnel syndrome, but electrophysiologic testing procedures will be normal, thus seeming to identify no neuropathic component to the syndrome. Researchers have reasonably concluded that wrist position or hand activity can have an adverse affect on intracompartmental carpal pressures, with resultant ischemic changes in epineural blood supply and subsequent compromise in nerve conduction parameters during and for a short time after the ischemic event. The stress testing protocol presented here identifies such changes, which would otherwise go undetected or undocumented and which may lead to unsuccessful clinical decisions regarding management. Sample tracings of actual cases are presented to demonstrate actual changes produced by the use of the protocol. This test protocol is used only when conventional testing is normal in the presence of appropriate clinical symptomatology. PMID:1939357
Read, R L
Multiple tumours of the peripheral nerves are seen only in neurofibromatosis. They are hereditary. They present and develop in a variety of different ways. Three main groups are distinguished: von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis or type 1; bilateral acoustic neurofibromatosis or type 2 and schwannomatosis recently defined as type 3. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical outcome of neurofibromatosis. The diagnosis is made purely on clinical grounds. Cranial MRI and slit lamp examination are useful for classification. Surgical management for peripheral nerve tumours is similar. Any new and rapid change noted at clinical examination (increase in volume, pain or neurological deficit) requires surgery because of potential malignant transformation of the neurofibroma into neurofibrosarcoma (type 1 only). The definitive treatment depends on the resectable character of the tumour which is usually only known after epineurotomy under operating microscope. In the event of resectable tumour (schwannoma) enucleation must be performed, preserving nerve continuity. In the event of unresectable tumour (neurofibroma), tumour resection is impossible without sacrificing nerve tissue. An epineurotomy must be performed. It prevents further deterioration. Interfascicular biopsy confirms the histological type. Our results are similar to those in other recorded studies. The unpredictable clinical course of neurofibromatosis makes prolonged follow-up mandatory. PMID:12889267
Chick, G; Alnot, J Y; Silbermann-Hoffman, O
Nonmetric cranial variation and facial flatness of the Pacific and circum-Pacific populations are investigated. The peoples of the Marianas, eastern Polynesia and Hawaii form a cluster and show affinities in terms of nonmetric cranial variation with the Southeast and East Asians rather than with the Jomon-Ainu, a view which is widely supported by others. Facial flatness analysis also indicates that Polynesians have different patterns of facial prominence as compared with the Jomon-Ainu. These results increase the difficulty of accepting the Jomon-Pacific cluster proposed by Brace and his coworkers. Although genetic and nonmetric cranial variation reveal relatively close relationships, the Mariana skeletons are markedly different in facial flatness and limb bone morphology from those of Polynesians. PMID:9408544
Ishida, H; Dodo, Y
OBJECTIVE Cranial base malignancies involving the infratemporal fossa have been considered unresectable. Advanced operative techniques have made tumor resection feasible in an en bloc fashion with negative histological margins, but there are limited data regarding outcome analysis in patients who have undergone resection of malignant tumors in this area. METHODS At Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 25 patients underwent anterolateral cranial base resections for tumors that involved the infratemporal fossa during a 7-year period. The most common tumors were sarcoma (n = 9), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 6), and adenoid cystic carcinoma (n = 3). The median size of the tumors was 6 cm, and 12 tumors involved the anterior cranial base and/or orbit. Tumor resections were divided into three types. Twelve patients underwent Type 1 dissection for tumors involving only the infratemporal fossa and maxillary sinus; 2 patients underwent Type 2 dissections involving the infratemporal fossa and anterior cranial base; and 11 patients underwent Type 3 dissection, which included the infratemporal fossa, anterior cranial base, and orbit. All patients required free flap reconstruction, 22 of which were rectus abdominis free flaps. RESULTS Complications occurred in seven patients, including a single mortality resulting from a myocardial infarction. The 2-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 69, 63, and 56%, respectively. The relapse-free survival rates were 47% at 2 and 3 years and 41% at 5 years. Recurrences were local in nine patients and distant in four patients. CONCLUSION Despite the extensive nature of many infratemporal fossa tumors, they can be resected with acceptable morbidity. Survival rates approach those of anterior cranial base malignancies without infratemporal fossa involvement.
Bilsky, Mark H.; Bentz, Brandon; Vitaz, Todd; Shah, Jatin; Kraus, Dennis
Persons with allergies present with symptoms that often are the result of alterations in the nervous system. Neuronally based symptoms depend on the organ in which the allergic reaction occurs but can include red itchy eyes, sneezing, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, coughing, bronchoconstriction, airway mucus secretion, dysphagia, altered gastrointestinal motility, and itchy swollen skin. These symptoms occur because mediators released during an allergic reaction can interact with sensory nerves, change processing in the central nervous system, and alter transmission in sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric autonomic nerves. In addition, evidence supports the idea that in some subjects this neuromodulation is, for reasons poorly understood, upregulated such that the same degree of nerve stimulus causes a larger effect than seen in healthy subjects. There are distinctions in the mechanisms and nerve types involved in allergen-induced neuromodulation among different organ systems, but general principles have emerged. The products of activated mast cells, other inflammatory cells, and resident cells can overtly stimulate nerve endings, cause long-lasting changes in neuronal excitability, increase synaptic efficacy, and also change gene expression in nerves, resulting in phenotypically altered neurons. A better understanding of these processes might lead to novel therapeutic strategies aimed at limiting the suffering of those with allergies. PMID:24433703
Undem, Bradley J; Taylor-Clark, Thomas
Since 1985, the authors have been using madreporic coral fragments (genera Porites) as a bone graft substitute. Of the 167 coral grafts implanted, 150 were coral "corks" used to obliterate burr holes (diameter 10 mm), five were large implants (length 20 to 40 mm) to repair skull defects, and 12 were coral blocks to reconstruct the floor of the anterior cranial fossa. Previous experimental studies suggested that coral grafts would be well tolerated and become partially reossified as the calcific skeleton was resorbed. The authors describe their experience and detail the main biological properties of these materials, which appear to be very promising for use in cranial reconstructive surgery. PMID:2901466
Roux, F X; Brasnu, D; Loty, B; George, B; Guillemin, G
Bladder contractions evoked by pudendal nerve stimulation in both spinal intact and spinal transected cats support the possibility of restoring urinary function in persons with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). However, electrically evoked bladder responses in persons with SCI were limited to transient contractions at relatively low pressures. This prompted the present study, which presents a detailed quantification of the responses evoked by selective stimulation of individual branches of the pudendal nerve at different stimulation frequencies. In spinal intact cats anesthetized with ?-chloralose, selective frequency dependent electrical activation of the sensory (2 Hz ? f ? 50 Hz), cranial sensory (f ? 5 Hz), dorsal genital (f ? 20 Hz) and rectal perineal (f ? 10 Hz) branches of the pudendal nerve evoked sustained bladder contractions dependent on the stimulation frequency. Contractions evoked by selective electrical stimulation resulted in significant increases in voiding efficiency compared to bladder emptying by distension evoked contractions (pANOVA < 0.05). Acute spinal transection abolished reflex bladder contractions evoked by low frequency stimulation of the cranial sensory or rectal perineal branches, whereas contractions evoked by high frequency stimulation of the dorsal genital branch remained intact. This study presents evidence for two distinct micturition pathways (spino-bulbo-spinal vs. spinal reflexes) activated by selective afferent pudendal nerve stimulation, the latter of which may be applied to restore bladder function in persons with SCI.
Yoo, Paul B.; Woock, John P.; Grill, Warren M.
Peripheral nerve injuries are a common clinical problem and can represent a major challenge, especially after trauma. In order to achieve optimal therapy, an early and adequate diagnosis with subsequent therapy is critical for functional preservation and restoration. Especially after complete severance of a peripheral nerve, the surgical techniques for nerve coaptation are an important prerequisite for peripheral nerve regeneration. The importance and necessity of adequate nerve coaptation and nerve transplantation are presented in detail. In addition, the types of primary and secondary nerve reconstruction procedures are described as well as the optimal time point of nerve repair. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the possibilities for diagnosis and intervention after nerve injury, additionally including an algorithm for surgical intervention. Furthermore, possible pitfalls and factors for improving the functional outcome are presented to optimize results with trauma-related nerve injury. PMID:24903504
Radtke, C; Vogt, P M
Purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the frequency and appearance of median nerve neuropathy following perilunate dislocation injuries with respect to the preceding surgical decompression and the clinical outcome. Patients and Methods: 32 patients were followed for a mean of 65 months after surgery for perilunate dislocation, including carpal tunnel release in 13 patients. 10 of 11 patients with clinical symptoms of median nerve affection at follow-up had additionally an electrophysiological examination. Median neuropathy was assumed if 2 or more parameters were pathologic. Patients with and without median neuropathy were compared. The DASH score, pain, wrist motion, grip strength and the Mayo wrist score were used to rate the outcome. Results: In 6 patients, neuropathy of the median nerve persisted since injury in spite of carpal tunnel release in 5 of them. 3 patients showed secondary, delayed median nerve affection. Patients with median neuropathy had a worse result with regard to pain at rest, grip force, the DASH score, and the Mayo wrist score. The difference was statistically significant for pain with activities. Conclusion: Median neuropathy following perilunar dislocation injuries is frequent. It appears rather like a chronic neural lesion than a typical compression syndrome. A primary carpal tunnel release cannot always prevent persistent neural disorders. PMID:24940631
Mühldorfer-Fodor, M; Hohendorff, B; Saalabian, A A; Hahne, M; van Schoonhoven, J; Prommersberger, K-J
Ophthalmoplegic migraine (OM) is a rare variant of migraine characterized by recurrent attacks of severe headache followed by oculomotor nerve palsy. The recent revision of the International Headache Classification has reclassified OM from a subtype of migraine, defined as a functional headache, to the neuralgia category. We describe a case of an 11-year-old girl with pathologically confirmed oculomotor nerve schwannoma who had been suffering from symptoms mimicking OM. For five years, she has been under treatment for OM, an initial diagnosis which was corroborated by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Usually, most OM attacks occur during one period in a lifetime and remit completely. In contrast, however, her attacks became more frequent and were not controlled by medication. After surgery, the frequency of OM attacks was reduced. From this experience, we hypothesize that optic nerve tumor is one condition that can mimic OM, without apparent signs suggestive of intracranial mass. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe a pathologically confirmed case of oculomotor nerve schwannoma mimicking OM. PMID:16429381
Murakami, T; Funatsuka, M; Komine, M; Hirayama, Y; Suzuki, H; Shishikura, K; Aihara, Y; Shibata, K; Hori, T; Kobayashi, M; Osawa, M
Sensory nerves innervating the lung and airways play an important role in regulating various cardiopulmonary functions and maintaining homeostasis under both healthy and disease conditions. Their activities conducted by both vagal and sympathetic afferents are also responsible for eliciting important defense reflexes that protect the lung and body from potential health-hazardous effects of airborne particulates and chemical irritants. This article reviews the morphology, transduction properties, reflex functions, and respiratory sensations of these receptors, focusing primarily on recent findings derived from using new technologies such as neural immunochemistry, isolated airway-nerve preparation, cultured airway neurons, patch-clamp electrophysiology, transgenic mice, and other cellular and molecular approaches. Studies of the signal transduction of mechanosensitive afferents have revealed a new concept of sensory unit and cellular mechanism of activation, and identified additional types of sensory receptors in the lung. Chemosensitive properties of these lung afferents are further characterized by the expression of specific ligand-gated ion channels on nerve terminals, ganglion origin, and responses to the action of various inflammatory cells, mediators, and cytokines during acute and chronic airway inflammation and injuries. Increasing interest and extensive investigations have been focused on uncovering the mechanisms underlying hypersensitivity of these airway afferents, and their role in the manifestation of various symptoms under pathophysiological conditions. Several important and challenging questions regarding these sensory nerves are discussed. Searching for these answers will be a critical step in developing the translational research and effective treatments of airway diseases. PMID:24692141
Lee, Lu-Yuan; Yu, Jerry
The current concept of recruiting residual function of an inadequate pelvic organ by electrostimulation involves stimulation of the sacral spinal nerves at the level of the sacral canal. The rationale for applying SNS to fecal incontinence was based on clinical observations of its effect on bowel habits and anorectal continence function in urologic patients (increased anorectal angulation and anal canal closure pressure) and on anatomic considerations: dissection demonstrated a dual peripheral nerve supply of the striated pelvic floor muscles that govern these functions. Because the sacral spinal nerve site is the most distal common location of this dual nerve supply, stimulating here can elicit both functions. Since the first application of SNS in fecal incontinence in 1994, this technique has been improved, the patient selection process modified, and the spectrum of indications expanded. At present SNS has been applied in more than 1300 patients with fecal incontinence limited. PMID:15771288
Matzel, K E; Stadelmaier, U; Besendörfer, M
1. The central end of the distally cut left carotid sinus nerve was sutured to the tunica media of the external carotid artery, 1 cm cranial to the carotid bifurcation, in nineteen rabbits. The carotid body was removed in fourteen of these rabbits but left in situ in the remaining five. After 56-165 days of recovery a neuroma was identified at the site of the suture. Ventilatory reflexes mediated by both sinus nerves were tested and afferent activity recorded from the regenerated nerve. 2. Ventilatory reflex responses to hypoxia and sodium cyanide were abolished on sectioning the right sinus nerve, whilst the hypercapnic response was maintained. 3. Electrical stimulation of the regenerated sinus nerve caused hypotension and hyperventilation. These responses were attenuated compared to stimulation of the right sinus nerve. 4. A level of afferent activity equivalent to that found in non-regeneration experiments was recorded from all regenerated sinus nerves. Whole-nerve afferent activity was modulated by changes in carotid sinus blood pressure but not by changes in Pa,O2, Pa,CO2 (arterial O2 and CO2 pressures) or intracarotid injection of sodium cyanide. 5. A minimum of thirty single afferent fibres was identified in each experiment, the vast majority of which were mechanoreceptors. In only nine experiments were chemoreceptor fibres found and only twelve chemoreceptor fibres (1.7% of total) were identified in these nine experiments. In ten experiments no chemoreceptor fibres could be found. Leaving the carotid body in situ increased the incidence of chemoreceptive preparations. A small number of fibres unresponsive to mechanical stimulation and asphyxia was also identified. 6. The responses of regenerated chemoreceptor fibres to physiological and pharmacological stimuli were generally similar to those found in control carotid body preparations. Fibres unresponsive to mechanical stimulation and asphyxia did not respond to sodium cyanide, dopamine or isoprenaline; some of these fibres were excited by nicotine. 7. The receptive fields of mechanosensitive fibres were localized on or up to 2 cm away from the neuroma. Surface application of 20-40 microliters sodium cyanide (200 micrograms ml-1) was used to localize the receptive fields of seven of the twelve chemoreceptor fibres. All seven were localized to the site of the carotid body. 8. The neuroma and site of the carotid body were examined under light and electron microscopy. Glomus tissue was absent from the neuroma but was found at the site of the carotid body. 9. In conclusion, recovery of chemoreceptor function after carotid sinus nerve section appears to be associated with reinnervation of glomus tissue. Images Fig. 5
Ponte, J; Sadler, C L
Introduction: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic syndrome characterized by widespread pain often accompanied by other symptoms suggestive of neuropathic pain. We evaluated patients for small fiber neuropathy (SFN) who were referred for fibromyalgia (FM). Methods: We studied 20 consecutive subjects with primary FM. Patients underwent neurological examination, nerve conduction studies, and skin biopsies from distal leg and thigh. Results: Electrodiagnostic studies were normal in all patients. SFN was diagnosed in 6 patients by reduced epidermal nerve fiber density. These patients also showed abnormalities of both adrenergic and cholinergic fibers. Conclusions: A subset of FM subjects have SFN, which may contribute to their sensory and autonomic symptoms. Skin biopsy should be considered in the diagnostic work-up of FM. Muscle Nerve 49: 757-759, 2014. PMID:24469976
Giannoccaro, Maria Pia; Donadio, Vincenzo; Incensi, Alex; Avoni, Patrizia; Liguori, Rocco
Surgical reconstruction of cranial deformities and synostosis is occasionally accompanied by incomplete bone growth to cover all areas of cranial vault that have been exposed in the correction. The restrictive nature of some forms of synostosis require more bone in the repair than is available using the child's natural skull for autogenous bone cranioplasty. Rib and iliac crest autografts have been used with success. These grafts must be harvested form a remote site with increased morbidity. A split-thickness skull autograft is the cranioplasty material of choice but children under the age of 6 years may lack the skull thickness needed to use this technique. Perforated demineralized bone matrix has been transplanted in 46 operations in 42 patients from 1990 to 1995 for repair of residual skull defects in children having previously undergone craniofacial repairs, for primary reconstruction of the cranial vault for patients with synostosis and for repair of skull defects resulting from trauma and skull tumor excisions. The vast majority of grafts have resulted in complete closure of the defect, providing a matrix for new bone formation. These patients are presented. Surgical techniques of cranial defect repair with perforated demineralized bone matrix are discussed. PMID:8835210
Moss, S D; Joganic, E; Manwaring, K H; Beals, S P
This study tested the hypothesis that developmental heterogeneity in cranial base morphology increases the prevalence of Class III malocclusion and mandibular prognathism in Asians. Thin-plate spline (TPS) graphical analysis of lateral cephalometric radiographs of the cranial base and the upper midface configuration were compared between a European-American group (24 females and 31 males) and four Asian ethnic groups (100 Chinese, 100 Japanese, 100 Korean and 100 Taiwanese; 50 females and 50 males per group) of young adults with clinically acceptable occlusion and facial profiles. Procrustes analysis was performed to identify statistically significant differences in each configuration of landmarks (P < 0.001). The TPS graphical analysis revealed that the greatest differences of Asians were the horizontal compression and vertical expansion in the anterior portion of the cranial base and upper midface region. The most posterior cranial base region also showed horizontal compression between the basion and Bolton point, with forward displacement of the articulare. Facial flatness and anterior displacement of the temporomandibular joint, resulting from a relative retrusion of the nasomaxillary complex and a relative forward position of the mandible were also noted. These features that tend to cause a prognathic mandible and/or retruded midface indicate a morphologic predisposition of Asian populations for Class III malocclusion. PMID:23377841
Chang, Hong-Po; Liu, Pao-Hsin; Tseng, Yu-Chuan; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Pan, Chin-Yun; Chou, Szu-Ting
The second of these teacher-physicians is William Garner Sutherland (1873-1954), who founded Osteopathy in the Cra- nial Field (OCF). Dr. Sutherland was a student of Still and became imbued with Still's thinking, methods, and practice. Sutherland formulated his first cranial hypothesis as a student in 1899 while examining a temporal bone from a disarticulated skull. The thought struck him that
John M. McPartland; Evelyn Skinner
Cranial radiation therapy is associated with a progressive decline in cognitive function, prominently memory function. Impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis is thought to be an important mechanism underlying this cognitive decline. Recent work has elucidated the mechanisms of radiation-induced failure of neurogenesis. Potential therapeutic…
Decompression of the posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) was performed in 111 cases of tennis elbow. After a median follow-up time of 5 years, 85% showed improvement and 30% were almost completely relieved of their symptoms, the latter figure being considered to represent the real frequency of PIN entrapment. It thus seems that the PIN is one etiological factor in tennis
P. Jalovaara; R. V. Lindholm
Background Obesity is a risk factor for glucose intolerance, but the independent role of obesity in the development of peripheral neuropathy is unclear. This study assessed the impact of body size trajectories on prevalent nerve dysfunction in community-dwelling women with and without glucose intolerance. Methods Annual (1996–2008) anthropometric measures of weight, height, waist circumference, and body mass index (BMI, weight[kg]/height[m2]) were assessed in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation – Michigan site. Glucose intolerance was defined annually based on current use of diabetes medications, self-reported diabetes diagnosis, and, when available, fasting glucose. Peripheral nerve dysfunction in 2008 was defined as abnormal monofilament testing or ?4 symptoms or signs. Linear mixed models were used to determine trajectories of anthropometry by subsequently-identified nerve dysfunction status. Results Mean BMI was 32.4 kg/m2 at baseline and 27.8% of women had nerve dysfunction in 2008. BMI, weight, and waist circumference increased over time. Women who would have nerve dysfunction were significantly larger than women without dysfunction, independent of glucose intolerance. At mean baseline age of 46, BMI, weight, and waist circumference differed significantly (p-value<0.01) by subsequent nerve dysfunction status, independent of glucose intolerance and hypertension. These body size differences were maintained but not exacerbated over time. Conclusions Peripheral nerve dysfunction is prevalent among community-dwelling women. Twelve years before the nerve assessment, anthropometry differed between women who would and would not have nerve dysfunction, differences that were maintained over time. Obesity deserves attention as an important and potentially modifiable risk factor for peripheral nerve dysfunction.
Ylitalo, Kelly R.; Herman, William H.; Harlow, Sioban D.
... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Symptoms of Pneumocystis pneumonia The symptoms of PCP are fever, dry cough, ... Diagnosis & Testing Treatment & Outcomes Statistics Additional Information Pneumocystis pneumonia Definition Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & ...
Eight patients with extensive petrous bone cholesteatomas that invaded the labyrinth and fallopian canal are presented. The eight cases are added to a tabulation of prior literature reports to elucidate concepts of routes of extension of medially invasive temporal bone cholesteatoma. Medially invasive petrous bone cholesteatoma develops insidiously, often without symptoms other than facial palsy and/or unilateral deafness. Typically, a history of chronic ear disease can be obtained. While hearing is unlikely to be preserved in this group of patients, facial nerve function can usually be preserved, and a facial nerve graft was not necessary in our series. Acute facial nerve palsy or facial nerve paresis progressing to palsy in patients with a history of chronic ear disease should be studied radiographically for petrous bone cholesteatoma, even if there is no physical evidence of cholesteatoma. PMID:2018289
Bartels, L J
In summary we have examined the morphology of the normal peripheral nerve, presented the types of mechanical nerve injury and associated histopathology, and discussed possible mechanisms responsible for symptoms of pain, paresthesiae, and weakness associated with these lesions. Neurapraxia consists of intussusception of axon and myelin through the nodes of Ranvier resulting in prolonged nerve conduction block. Axonotmesis and neurotmesis describe more severe disruptions of nerve fiber architecture, are difficult to distinguish electrophysiologically, and have poorer prognoses for functional regenerative repair. Chronic entrapment lesions consist of telescoping myelin internodes and tapering of the sheaths with bulbous polarization of internodes away from the site of injury. Both acute and chronic lesions chiefly involve large myelinated fibers and both may create neuralgia, although the mechanism by which this occurs is poorly understood. Presently, increasing evidence suggests ectopic impulse generators and ephaptic transmission may be responsible for sensorimotor phenomena in these lesions. PMID:6323088
Castaldo, J E; Ochoa, J L
Chondrichthyans (sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) have simple feeding mechanisms owing to their relatively few cranial skeletal elements. However, the indirect association of the jaws to the cranium (euhyostylic jaw suspension) has resulted in myriad cranial muscle rearrangements of both the hyoid and mandibular elements. We examined the cranial musculature of an abbreviated phylogenetic representation of batoid fishes, including skates, guitarfishes and with a particular focus on stingrays. We identified homologous muscle groups across these taxa and describe changes in gross morphology across developmental and functional muscle groups, with the goal of exploring how decoupling of the jaws from the skull has effected muscular arrangement. In particular, we focus on the cranial anatomy of durophagous and nondurophagous batoids, as the former display marked differences in morphology compared to the latter. Durophagous stingrays are characterized by hypertrophied jaw adductors, reliance on pennate versus fusiform muscle fiber architecture, tendinous rather than aponeurotic muscle insertions, and an overall reduction in mandibular kinesis. Nondurophagous stingrays have muscles that rely on aponeurotic insertions onto the skeletal structure, and display musculoskeletal specialization for jaw protrusion and independent lower jaw kinesis, relative to durophagous stingrays. We find that among extant chondrichthyans, considerable variation exists in the hyoid and mandibular muscles, slightly less so in hypaxial muscles, whereas branchial muscles are overwhelmingly conserved. As chondrichthyans occupy a position sister to all other living gnathostomes, our understanding of the structure and function of early vertebrate feeding systems rests heavily on understanding chondrichthyan cranial anatomy. Our findings highlight the incredible variation in muscular complexity across chondrichthyans in general and batoids in particular. J. Morphol. 275:862-881, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24652648
Kolmann, Matthew A; Huber, Daniel R; Dean, Mason N; Grubbs, R Dean
Research on cranial suture biology suggests there is biological and taxonomic information to be garnered from the heritable pattern of suture synostosis. Suture synostosis along with brain growth patterns, diet, and biomechanical forces influence phenotypic variability in cranial vault morphology. This study was designed to determine the pattern of ectocranial suture synostosis in skeletal populations from the Aleutian Islands. We address the hypothesis that ectocranial suture synostosis pattern will differ according to cranial vault shape. Ales Hrdlicka identified two phenotypes in remains excavated from the Aleutian Island. The Paleo-Aleutians, exhibiting a dolichocranic phenotype with little prognathism linked to artifacts distinguished from later inhabitants, Aleutians, who exhibited a brachycranic phenotype with a greater amount of prognathism. A total of 212 crania representing Paleo-Aleuts and Aleutian as defined by Hrdlicka were investigated for suture synostosis pattern following standard methodologies. Comparisons were performed using Guttmann analyses. Results revealed similar suture fusion patterns for the Paleo-Aleut and Aleutian, a strong anterior to posterior pattern of suture fusion for the lateral-anterior suture sites, and a pattern of early termination at the sagittal suture sites for the vault. These patterns were found to differ from that reported in the literature. Because these two populations with distinct cranial shapes exhibit similar patterns of suture synostosis it appears pattern is independent of cranial shape in these populations of Homo sapiens. These findings suggest that suture fusion patterns may be population dependent and that a standardized methodology, using suture fusion to determine age-at-death, may not be applicable to all populations. PMID:21328563
Cray, James; Mooney, Mark P; Siegel, Michael I
Objectives We analyzed the outcomes following clinical management of parotid masses that were determined to be malignant tumors after parotidectomy. Methods We evaluated data from 70 patients with parotid malignancies between November 1994 and December 2005. Results Among salivary histotypes (n=49), the most significant prognostic parameter was cT4 stage at diagnosis (P=0.0055, log-rank) both for clinical involvement of the facial nerve and for invasion of other structures. The main cause of cancer-related death was a distant metastasis. Conclusion The present series confirms that the main prognostic parameter in salivary parotid malignancies was cT4 classification at diagnosis, often due to clinical involvement of the facial nerve. The oncological outcome of salivary malignancies was influenced by distant metastasis more than most other head and neck sites. We recommend dissecting and preserving the functioning VIIth cranial nerve during surgery for parotid malignancies.
Rigante, Mario; Giglia, Veronica; Bastanza, Giovanni; De Corso, Eugenio; Almadori, Giovanni; Paludetti, Gaetano
The peripheral autonomic nervous system reaches far throughout the body and includes neurons of diverse functions, such as sympathetic and parasympathetic. We show that the parasympathetic system in mice--including trunk ganglia and the cranial ciliary, pterygopalatine, lingual, submandibular, and otic ganglia--arise from glial cells in nerves, not neural crest cells. The parasympathetic fate is induced in nerve-associated Schwann cell precursors at distal peripheral sites. We used multicolor Cre-reporter lineage tracing to show that most of these neurons arise from bi-potent progenitors that generate both glia and neurons. This nerve origin places cellular elements for generating parasympathetic neurons in diverse tissues and organs, which may enable wiring of the developing parasympathetic nervous system. PMID:24925909
Dyachuk, Vyacheslav; Furlan, Alessandro; Shahidi, Maryam Khatibi; Giovenco, Marcela; Kaukua, Nina; Konstantinidou, Chrysoula; Pachnis, Vassilis; Memic, Fatima; Marklund, Ulrika; Müller, Thomas; Birchmeier, Carmen; Fried, Kaj; Ernfors, Patrik; Adameyko, Igor
Hemifacial spasm is an uncommon disorder manifesting as a unilateral, involuntary, sporadic contraction of the musculature innervated by the seventh cranial nerve. Although debated, the etiology of hemifacial spasm is generally accepted as compression of the facial nerve by vessels of the posterior circulation. Early surgical techniques were ineffective and fraught with morbidity. Over the past 25 years microvascular decompression surgery has allowed the safe and effective treatment of hemifacial spasm. Recent reports combining microsurgical and endoscopic techniques have documented the advantages of the endoscope in exposing the anatomy of this region. Enhanced visualization allows a less traumatic dissection and increases the surgeon's ability to locate nerve-vessel conflicts often difficult to identify through the limited view of the microscope. This article reviews the history of hemifacial spasm and describes the first three cases of fully endoscopic vascular decompression for hemifacial spasm, emphasizing the advantages of this novel surgical approach. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4
Eby, Joseph B.; Cha, Sung Tae; Shahinian, Hrayr K.
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common complications of chronic diabetes mellitus. Pathological characteristics of DPN include axonal atrophy, nerve demyelination, and delayed regeneration of peripheral sensory nerve fibers. The goal of treatment in DPN is not only to ameliorate neurological symptoms but also to slow or reverse the underlying neurodegenerative process. Schwann cells and neurotrophic factors play important roles in the repair and regeneration of peripheral nerves. The present paper reviews current studies and evidence regarding the neurological effects of traditional Chinese medicine, with an emphasis on recent developments in the area of nerve repair and regeneration in DPN.
Piao, Yuanlin; Liang, Xiaochun
Objective The frequency and type of neuropathy in vitamin B12 deficiency neurological syndrome (VBDNS) is controversial. This study reports the frequency and type of nerve dysfunction in VBDNS using nerve conduction and sural nerve biopsy and its response to treatment. Method Sixty-six patients with VBDNS diagnosed on the basis of low serum vitamin B12 level and/or megaloblastic bone marrow were subjected to clinical evaluation, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, thyroid function test, HIV serology, and vasculitic profile. Peroneal motor and sural sensory nerve conduction studies were done. Sural nerve biopsy was done in six patients. The patients were treated with cyanocobalamin injection and followed up clinically and with nerve conduction study at 3 and 6 months. Results The median age of the patients was 46 (12-80) years and 11 patients were females. The duration of symptoms was 1-96 (median 7) months. Clinical features of neuropathy were present in 46 (69.7%) patients and nerve conduction was abnormal in 36 (54.5%) patients. On nerve conduction study, 8 (22.2%) patients had axonal, 4 (11.1%) had demyelinating, and 24 (66.7%) had mixed features. Nerve biopsy revealed acute axonal degeneration in early stage and chronic axonopathy with demyelination in the late stages of disease. The nerve conduction parameters improved at 6 months along with clinical recovery. Conclusion Nearly 70% patients with VBDNS had evidence of neuropathy which is mainly axonal with some demyelinating features. PMID:24256995
Kalita, Jayantee; Chandra, Satish; Bhoi, Sanjeev K; Agarwal, Ritu; Misra, Usha Kant; Shankar, Surala K; Mahadevan, Anita
This study describes the microsurgical anatomy of the middle cranial fossa approach using temporal bone three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) reconstruction, which should contribute to determining the drilling point for the internal auditory meatus (IAM) when bony landmarks are absent. Thirty temporal bone CT scans were reviewed retrospectively. We measured the shortest and longest distances to IAM from the petrous ridge, and measured the angle between the facial nerve and various labyrinth structures. Three-dimensional reconstructed images were obtained using high-resolution axial temporal bone CT (0.7-mm-thick slices, FOV 90 × 90, KVp 120, 305 mA, width 2,800, and level 800). The mean shortest and longest distances to IAM from the petrous ridge were 5.22 and 10.1 mm, respectively. The mean distance to the IAM from the cochlea was 9.91 mm. The mean angle between the IAM and superior semicircular canal was 47.21°, which was more acute than previously reported. The mean angle between the IAM and geniculate ganglion (GG) and external auditory canal was 113.8°, and the mean distance from the GG to the IAM was 15.44 mm. Understanding the 3D relationships among the microsurgical structures will help to decide the drilling point for the IAM when bony landmarks are absent. A preoperative evaluation might be useful for preserving important neurovascular structures while approaching the middle fossa. PMID:25032122
Choi, Bong Jin; Kim, Min Ju; Chang, Ki-Hong; Yeo, Sang Won; Jun, Beom Cho
The authors report 67 cases of meningioma of the anterior cranial fossa floor treated surgically between 1978 and 1992. The olfactory groove and tuberculum sellae were the most frequent locations. Mean duration of the clinical history was 30 months. Seventy-three percent of the tumors were large (> 4 cm). All patients were examined with computed tomography and 18 with magnetic resonance imaging as well. Complete removal was performed in 56 cases (84%); in the remaining 11 (16%), partial removal was performed because of encasement of the carotid artery, cavernous sinus, or optic nerves by the tumour. Mortality was 9%. Results at follow-up of the 61 survivors were good in 56 (84%), fair in four (6%), and poor in one (1%). The clinical results were correlated to tumor location and dimension. After review of the literature, the management of these difficult tumours and the preferred surgical technique are discussed. The authors stress the importance of early diagnosis for improving the surgical results. PMID:7998492
Rubin, G; Ben David, U; Gornish, M; Rappaport, Z H
Stimulation of the vagus nerve has become an effective method for desynchronizing the highly coherent neural activity typically associated with epileptic seizures. This technique has been used in several animal models of seizures as well as in humans suffering from epilepsy. However, application of this technique has been limited to unilateral stimulation of the vagus nerve, typically delivered according to a fixed duty cycle, independently of whether ongoing seizure activity is present. Here, we report that stimulation of another cranial nerve, the trigeminal nerve, can also cause cortical and thalamic desynchronization, resulting in a reduction of seizure activity in awake rats. Furthermore, we demonstrate that providing this stimulation only when seizure activity begins results in more effective and safer seizure reduction per second of stimulation than with previous methods. Seizure activity induced by intraperitoneal injection of pentylenetetrazole was recorded from microwire electrodes in the thalamus and cortex of awake rats while the infraorbital branch of the trigeminal nerve was stimulated via a chronically implanted nerve cuff electrode. Continuous unilateral stimulation of the trigeminal nerve reduced electrographic seizure activity by up to 78%, and bilateral trigeminal stimulation was even more effective. Using a device that automatically detects seizure activity in real time on the basis of multichannel field potential signals, we demonstrated that seizure-triggered stimulation was more effective than the stimulation protocol involving a fixed duty cycle, in terms of the percent seizure reduction per second of stimulation. In contrast to vagus nerve stimulation studies, no substantial cardiovascular side effects were observed by unilateral or bilateral stimulation of the trigeminal nerve. These findings suggest that trigeminal nerve stimulation is safe in awake rats and should be evaluated as a therapy for human seizures. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that seizure-triggered trigeminal nerve stimulation is technically feasible and could be further developed, in conjunction with real-time seizure-predicting paradigms, to prevent seizures and reduce exposure to nerve stimulation. PMID:11050139
Fanselow, E E; Reid, A P; Nicolelis, M A
Optic nerve glioma is the most common optic nerve tumour. However, it has an unpredictable natural history. The treatment of optic nerve gliomas has changed considerably over the past few years. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy can now stabilize and in some cases improve the vision of patients with optic nerve gliomas. The treatment of optic nerve glioma requires a multi-disciplinary approach where all treatment options may have to be implemented in a highly individualized manner. The aim of this review article is to present current diagnostic and treatment protocols for optic nerve glioma. PMID:24736941
Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Pathak, Rima S; Iyer, Veena R; Gandhi, Rashmin A
Objective: To study the clinical profile and outcome of surgery for injection nerve palsies. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients with INP who were treated at our institute during May 2000 to May 2009. Clinical, electroneuromyography (ENMG), and operative findings were noted. Intraoperative nerve action potential monitoring was not used in any case. Outcome of patients who were followed was reviewed. Results: INP comprised 92 (11%) of 837 nerve injury patients. Seventy one patients were children less than 16 years. The nerves involved were sciatic in 80 patients, radial in 8, and others in four. Fifty seven patients had power, grade 0/5. ENMG studies revealed absent compound muscle action potential in 64 and absent sensory nerve action potential in 67 patients. Thirty nine (42.3%) of 92 patients underwent surgery. The mean duration since injury in these patients was 5.2 months (3 months to 11 months). All underwent neurolysis. Only 18 patients who underwent surgery had a follow up of more than 3 months. Ten (55.5%) patients had good or fair outcome after surgery. Except for grade of motor deficit prior to surgery, none of the variables were found to significantly affect the outcome. Conclusion: The outcome of INP is generally good and many patients recover spontaneously. The outcome of surgery is dependent on preoperative motor power.
Kakati, Arindhom; Bhat, Dhananjaya; Devi, Bhagavathula Indira; Shukla, Dhaval
Summary Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVF) with cortical venous reflux may become symptomatic due to venous congestion or intracranial hemorrhage. Venous congestion in the orbit can also occur resulting in proptosis, chemosis, double vision and progressive visual loss. The transvenous approach has been used for selective disconnection of the venous drainage to eliminate the venous congestion and future risk of intracranial bleeding and/or neurological deficit. Hydrogel coated coils (HydroCoil®) expand after contact with blood causing the coils to swell up to five to 11 times a standard 10-system bare platinum coil. Due to this property, HydroCoils could have an advantage over platinum coils in the transvenous approach to embolization of DAVFs. Ten patients with symptomatic cranial DAVF underwent a transvenous embolization using HydroCoils as the only embolic agent or in a combination with bare platinum coils. The patients' characteristics, symptoms, angioarchitecture of the DAVF, treatment, complications and results were analyzed. All the treated DAVFs were disconnected at the end of the procedure. All the patients with orbital symptoms had complete or significant improvement. There were no periprocedural complications. Nine patients had radiological follow-up showing cure. HydroCoils can be used effectively and safely to treat intracranial DAVFs transvenously. The volume expansion of Hydrocoils may have significant advantage over bare platinum coils given the large venous spaces that need to be filled. The use of HydroCoils may decrease the procedure time and consequently reduce the radiation dose to the patient.
Klurfan, P.; Gunnarsson, T.; Shelef, I.; terBrugge, K.G.; Willinsky, R.A.
Objective Cranial nerve injury involves loss of central neural cells in the brain stem and surrounding support matrix, leading to severe functional impairment. Therapeutically targeting cellular replacement and enhancing structural support may promote neural regeneration. We examined the combinatorial effect of neural precursor cells (NPC) and self assembling peptide (SAP) administration on nerve regeneration. Methods Nerve injury was induced by clip compression of the rodent spinal cord. SAPs were injected immediately into the injured cord and NPCs at 2 weeks post-injury. Behavioral analysis was done weekly and rats were sacrificed at 11 weeks post injury. LFB-H&E staining was done on cord tissue to assess cavitation volume. Motor evoked potentials (MEP) were measured at week 11 to assess nerve conduction and Kaplan meier curves were created to compare survival estimates. Results NPCs and SAPs were distributed both caudal and rostral to the injury site. Behavioral analysis showed that SAP?+?NPC transplantation significantly improved locomotor score p <0.03) and enhanced survival (log rank test, p?=?0.008) compared to control. SAP?+?NPC treatment also improved nerve conduction velocity (p?=?0.008) but did not affect cavitation volume (p?=?0.73). Conclusion Combinatorial NPC and SAP injection into injured nerve tissue may enhance neural repair and regeneration.
Four cases of redundant nerve roots of the cauda equina are reported, and the pertinent literature is reviewed. This disorder mainly affects males. The clinical history ranges from months to decades. The illness often starts with low back pain or sciatica, or both. Motor and sensory impairment of the legs dominate the further course of the disease. Serpentine filling defects in the column of contrast are a characteristic (but inconstant) feature on myelograms. Abatement of signs and symptoms occurs following adequate decompression of the redundant roots. PMID:6272439
Pau, A; Viale, E S; Turtas, S; Viale, G L
Quantitative craniometrical traits have been successfully incorporated into population genetic methods to provide insight into human population structure. However, little is known about the degree of genetic and non-genetic influences on the phenotypic expression of functionally based traits. Many studies have assessed the heritability of craniofacial traits, but complex patterns of correlation among traits have been disregarded. This is a pitfall as the human skull is strongly integrated. Here we reconsider the evolutionary potential of craniometric traits by assessing their heritability values as well as their patterns of genetic and phenotypic correlation using a large pedigree-structured skull series from Hallstatt (Austria). The sample includes 355 complete adult skulls that have been analysed using 3D geometric morphometric techniques. Heritability estimates for 58 cranial linear distances were computed using maximum likelihood methods. These distances were assigned to the main functional and developmental regions of the skull. Results showed that the human skull has substantial amounts of genetic variation, and a t-test showed that there are no statistically significant differences among the heritabilities of facial, neurocranial and basal dimensions. However, skull evolvability is limited by complex patterns of genetic correlation. Phenotypic and genetic patterns of correlation are consistent but do not support traditional hypotheses of integration of the human shape, showing that the classification between brachy- and dolicephalic skulls is not grounded on the genetic level. Here we support previous findings in the mouse cranium and provide empirical evidence that covariation between the maximum widths of the main developmental regions of the skull is the dominant factor of integration in the human skull.
Martinez-Abadias, Neus; Esparza, Mireia; Sj?vold, Torstein; Gonzalez-Jose, Rolando; Santos, Mauro; Hernandez, Miquel
Advances in the field of microsurgery have improved the results after peripheral nerve surgery and have extended the types of nerve repair that can be accomplished. Innovative techniques using microsurgical dissection, such as nerve transfers and end-to-side repairs are direct consequences of these advances. PMID:17478254
Dvali, Linda; Mackinnon, Susan
The sural nerve is a small sensory nerve innervating the lateral aspect of the ankle and foot. Clinical symptoms of pathology may present as atypical sensory changes in this region. We present the normal anatomy and ultrasound technique for examination of the sural nerve based on an anatomical dissection, as well as imaging in a normal volunteer. We also present a case series (n=10) of different conditions of the sural nerve that we encountered based on a review of interesting cases from 4 institutions. The pathological conditions included neuropathy related to stripping or venous laser surgery, compression by abscess, Lyme disease, nerve tumors, traumatic transsection, and encasement by fibrous plaque and edema. Ultrasound with its exquisite resolution is the preferred imaging method for examining the sural nerve in patients with unexplained sensory changes at the lateral aspect of the ankle and foot. PMID:23809918
Belsack, Dries; Jager, Tjeerd; Scafoglieri, Aldo; Vanderdood, Kurt; Van Hedent, Eddy; Vanhoenacker, Filip; Marcelis, Stefaan; De Maeseneer, Michel
Results are described of 86 intracranial operations for the repair of nasal encephalocoele children at the Lahore Neurosurgical Centre in the last 13 years. These midline lesions at the base of the anterior cranial fossa have been considered in the past to be inoperable and even when operable, unpleasantly difficult. The intracranial approach has made it possible to treat this condition satisfactorily with comparatively few complications. Attempts at extra-cranial repair have met little success as they do not take into account the basic embryology and anatomy of the condition and fail to tackle the sac at the patent foramen caecum, the neck of the sac. This paper describes the embryology, anatomy, basic pathology and clinical features of the condition with characteristic X-rays showing the patent foramen caecum and outlines the operative repair. PMID:448396
Rahman, N U
This study reviewed confirmed cases of concurrent chylothorax and cranial vena caval (CrVC) thrombosis in dogs and cats, and determined predisposing factors for the development of chylothorax associated with CrVC thrombosis. The extent and location of the thrombus, the treatment regime, and the outcome are described. In all 4 cases, implantation of a jugular device was a predisposing factor to thrombosis of the CrVC, and there was extensive thrombosis of the CrVC extending from at least 1 jugular vein to just cranial to the heart. Chylothorax resolved in 3 of the 4 cases after medical and/or surgical intervention. The development of chylothorax concurrently with thrombosis of the CrVC in dogs and cats is likely dependent on the extent and location of the thrombus. Veterinary patients with indwelling jugular devices that develop acute respiratory signs should be assessed for chylothorax associated with thrombosis of the CrVC.
Singh, Ameet; Brisson, Brigitte A.
This study reviewed confirmed cases of concurrent chylothorax and cranial vena caval (CrVC) thrombosis in dogs and cats, and determined predisposing factors for the development of chylothorax associated with CrVC thrombosis. The extent and location of the thrombus, the treatment regime, and the outcome are described. In all 4 cases, implantation of a jugular device was a predisposing factor to thrombosis of the CrVC, and there was extensive thrombosis of the CrVC extending from at least 1 jugular vein to just cranial to the heart. Chylothorax resolved in 3 of the 4 cases after medical and/or surgical intervention. The development of chylothorax concurrently with thrombosis of the CrVC in dogs and cats is likely dependent on the extent and location of the thrombus. Veterinary patients with indwelling jugular devices that develop acute respiratory signs should be assessed for chylothorax associated with thrombosis of the CrVC. PMID:21037884
Singh, Ameet; Brisson, Brigitte A
The origins and affinities of Japanese were analysed by means of cluster analysis using nine cranial measurements which were statistically selected as those representing a large proportion of the variance. As a result, the following hypotheses are proposed: Japanese are basically descendants of Jomon people, a fairly large amount of admixture between migrants from the Korean Peninsula and Jomon people took place during the Yayoi and protohistoric ages, particularly in western Japan, the migrants were close to north Asians in cranial morphology, Ainu and Ryukyus (Okinawan people) seem to be direct descendants of Jomon people without any or with very little influence of the migrants and geographical variations in modern Japanese quite likely are the result of differences in the magnitude of admixture. PMID:6537211
Repair of cranial defects for brain protection and aesthetics is currently a surgical problem for which there is no completely satisfactory solution. Material used for repair of cranial defects should ideally be incorporated by the body and provided a blood supply. No substance to date, including autologous bone, consistently achieves this. Hydroxylapatite is a polycrystalline, nonresorptive, biocompatible ceramic that allows osseous tissue ingrowth and ultimate transformation into vascularized bone. The authors have used granular hydroxylapatite successfully for reconstructing calvarial defects, but have experienced problems with migration of granules, prolonged mobility, and, in one patient, resorption of an underlying supporting bone graft. The use of hydroxylapatite in block form precludes most of these problems. Porous block or strips are easily contoured and can be fixed at the margin of the calvarial defect, providing immediate stability. Ingrowth of osteoblastic and fibrous tissue provides added strength and stability. This paper describes our experience with porous hydroxylapatite blocks for reconstructive cranioplasty. PMID:2549443
Waite, P D; Morawetz, R B; Zeiger, H E; Pincock, J L
A battery of neuropsychologic tests was administered ''blindly'' to 18 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who had been randomly assigned to treatment regimens with or without cranial radiation. These children were all in complete continuous remission for more than 3 1/2 years and were no longer receiving therapy. The results indicated no substantial differences between groups as a function of radiation therapy. However, decreased neuropsychologic performance was found when the entire sample was compared with population norms. These data do not support the hypothesis that cranial radiation therapy is responsible for the neuropsychologic sequelae seen in these survivors of ALL. Post hoc multiple regression analysis indicated that parental education levels accounted for more of the neuropsychologic variability seen in these children than other factors such as age at diagnosis, type of therapy, or sex of child.
Whitt, J.K.; Wells, R.J.; Lauria, M.M.; Wilhelm, C.L.; McMillan, C.W.
BackgroundThere has been no study assessing cranial ultrasound (cUS) scans in newborn infants born in equatorial Africa.ObjectiveTo assess the cUS scans of apparently well newborn term Ugandan infants and to correlate the findings with perinatal data.MethodsAn observational study of apparently healthy postnatal ward term Ugandan infants at Mulago Hospital, Makerere University Hospital, Kampala, Uganda.ResultsData from 112 infants scanned at a
CF Hagmann; NJ Robertson; D. Acolet; D. Chan; S. Onda; N. Nyombi; M. Nakakeeto; FM Cowan
The neurosurgical keyhole operation which is a new concept developed recently, especially characterized by the supraorbital\\u000a subfrontal eyebrow approach, has be widely applied for intracranial tumors and aneurysms [1–3]. However, big craniotomies with large incisions are still predominant in the surgical treatments of posterior cranial fossa\\u000a lesions. There are few reports about modern keyhole techniques used in this field, although
Qing Lan; Zhigang Gong; Zhiyuan Qian; Jian Chen; Shihai Liu; Zhaohui Lu; Qiang Huang
: To address possible differences in the resorbability of cranial and postcranial bone, slices of equine frontal bone and leg\\u000a (first phalanx or third metacarpus) were seeded with embryonic chick bone cells and cultured for 20–24 h. After removing the\\u000a cells and drying the specimens, the areas and volumes of more than 800 resorption pits in each set were measured
Virginia J. Kingsmill; Colin Gray; Alan Boyde
Arachnoid cyst of the middle cranial fossa has never been reported to present with sensorineural hearing impairment. We report the case of a 15-year-old girl who complained of progressive hearing loss on the right side for 4 years. The pure tone audiometry revealed sensorineural hearing loss with an average of 63 dB, and the auditory brain stem response demonstrated absence of all
The vertebrate cranial base is a complex structure composed of bone, cartilage and other connective tissues underlying the brain; it is intimately connected with development of the face and cranial vault. Despite its central importance in craniofacial development, morphogenesis and tissue origins of the cranial base have not been studied in detail in the mouse, an important model organism. We describe here the location and time of appearance of the cartilages of the chondrocranium. We also examine the tissue origins of the mouse cranial base using a neural crest cell lineage cell marker, Wnt1-Cre/R26R, and a mesoderm lineage cell marker, Mesp1-Cre/R26R. The chondrocranium develops between E11 and E16 in the mouse, beginning with development of the caudal (occipital) chondrocranium, followed by chondrogenesis rostrally to form the nasal capsule, and finally fusion of these two parts via the midline central stem and the lateral struts of the vault cartilages. X-Gal staining of transgenic mice from E8.0 to 10 days post-natal showed that neural crest cells contribute to all of the cartilages that form the ethmoid, presphenoid, and basisphenoid bones with the exception of the hypochiasmatic cartilages. The basioccipital bone and non-squamous parts of the temporal bones are mesoderm derived. Therefore the prechordal head is mostly composed of neural crest-derived tissues, as predicted by the New Head Hypothesis. However, the anterior location of the mesoderm-derived hypochiasmatic cartilages, which are closely linked with the extra-ocular muscles, suggests that some tissues associated with the visual apparatus may have evolved independently of the rest of the “New Head”.
Iseki, S.; Bamforth, S. D.; Olsen, B. R.; Morriss-Kay, G. M.
\\u000a To design a portable low cost Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulator (CES) and to study the corresponding brain activity electrically.\\u000a The designed stimulator was used as an external trigger and the impact was analyzed using 20 lead EEG electrode system with\\u000a standard recording protocol. Subjects were tested under this and their corresponding normal and varying EEG with CES were\\u000a noted. Result showed
Gopalakrishnan Narayanamurthy; Mahesh Veezhinathan
Objective: Normal individuals were used to quantitate electroencephalographic (EEG) changes during concurrent administration of 0.5 and 100 Hz cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES).Methods: Twelve normal, right-handed males were used in a randomized, double-blind crossover design study. A 3 amplifier system incorporating noise-cancellation was used to collect one channel of EEG (O1-Cz configuration) for 30 min. Either 0.5, 100 Hz, or sham
M. j. Schroeder; R. e. Barr
Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is characterised by a diminished number of optic nerve fibres in the optic nerve(s) and until recently was thought to be rare. It may be associated with a wide range of other congenital abnormalities. Its pathology, clinical features, and the conditions associated with it are reviewed. Neuroendocrine disorders should be actively sought in any infant or child with bilateral ONH. Early recognition of the disorder may in some cases be life saving. Images
Zeki, S. M.; Dutton, G. N.
Glossopharyngeal neuralgia is a condition in which there are repeated episodes of severe pain in the tongue, throat, ear, ... Glossopharyngeal neuralgia is believed to be caused by irritation of the ninth cranial nerve, called the glossopharyngeal nerve. Symptoms ...
Quantitative analysis of morphology allows for identification of subtle evolutionary patterns or convergences in anatomy that can aid ecological reconstructions of extinct taxa. This study explores diversity and convergence in cranial morphology across living and fossil primates using geometric morphometrics. 33 3D landmarks were gathered from 34 genera of euprimates (382 specimens), including the Eocene adapiforms Adapis and Leptadapis and Quaternary lemurs Archaeolemur, Palaeopropithecus, and Megaladapis. Landmark data was treated with Procrustes superimposition to remove all nonshape differences and then subjected to principal components analysis and linear discriminant function analysis. Haplorhines and strepsirrhines were well separated in morphospace along the major components of variation, largely reflecting differences in relative skull length and width and facial depth. Most adapiforms fell within or close to strepsirrhine space, while Quaternary lemurs deviated from extant strepsirrhines, either exploring new regions of morphospace or converging on haplorhines. Fossil taxa significantly increased the area of morphospace occupied by strepsirrhines. However, recent haplorhines showed significantly greater cranial disparity than strepsirrhines, even with the inclusion of the unusual Quaternary lemurs, demonstrating that differences in primate cranial disparity are likely real and not simply an artefact of recent megafaunal extinctions.
Bennett, C. Verity; Goswami, Anjali
Quantitative analysis of morphology allows for identification of subtle evolutionary patterns or convergences in anatomy that can aid ecological reconstructions of extinct taxa. This study explores diversity and convergence in cranial morphology across living and fossil primates using geometric morphometrics. 33 3D landmarks were gathered from 34 genera of euprimates (382 specimens), including the Eocene adapiforms Adapis and Leptadapis and Quaternary lemurs Archaeolemur, Palaeopropithecus, and Megaladapis. Landmark data was treated with Procrustes superimposition to remove all nonshape differences and then subjected to principal components analysis and linear discriminant function analysis. Haplorhines and strepsirrhines were well separated in morphospace along the major components of variation, largely reflecting differences in relative skull length and width and facial depth. Most adapiforms fell within or close to strepsirrhine space, while Quaternary lemurs deviated from extant strepsirrhines, either exploring new regions of morphospace or converging on haplorhines. Fossil taxa significantly increased the area of morphospace occupied by strepsirrhines. However, recent haplorhines showed significantly greater cranial disparity than strepsirrhines, even with the inclusion of the unusual Quaternary lemurs, demonstrating that differences in primate cranial disparity are likely real and not simply an artefact of recent megafaunal extinctions. PMID:22611497
Bennett, C Verity; Goswami, Anjali
Studies of morphological integration provide valuable information on the correlated evolution of traits and its relationship to long-term patterns of morphological evolution. Thus far, studies of morphological integration in mammals have focused on placentals and have demonstrated that similarity in integration is broadly correlated with phylogenetic distance and dietary similarity. Detailed studies have also demonstrated a significant correlation between developmental relationships among structures and adult morphological integration. However, these studies have not yet been applied to marsupial taxa, which differ greatly from placentals in reproductive strategy and cranial development and could provide the diversity necessary to assess the relationships among phylogeny, ecology, development, and cranial integration. This study presents analyses of morphological integration in 20 species of australodelphian marsupials, and shows that phylogeny is significantly correlated with similarity of morphological integration in most clades. Size-related correlations have a significant affect on results, particularly in Peramelia, which shows a striking decrease in similarity of integration among species when size is removed. Diet is not significantly correlated with similarity of integration in any marsupial clade. These results show that marsupials differ markedly from placental mammals in the relationships of cranial integration, phylogeny, and diet, which may be related to the accelerated development of the masticatory apparatus in marsupials.
Lipomatosis of nerve (LN), or fibrolipomatous hamartoma, is a rare condition of fibrofatty enlargement of the peripheral nerves. It is associated with bony and soft tissue overgrowth in approximately one-third to two-thirds of cases. It most commonly affects the median nerve at the carpal tunnel or digital nerves in the hands and feet. The authors describe a patient with previously diagnosed hemihypertrophy of the trunk who had a history of large thoracic lipomas resected during infancy, a thoracic hump due to adipose proliferation within the thoracic paraspinal musculature, and scoliotic deformity. She had fatty infiltration in the thoracic spinal nerves on MRI, identical to findings pathognomonic of LN at better-known sites. Enlargement of the transverse processes at those levels and thickened ribs were also found. This case appears to be directly analogous to other instances of LN with overgrowth, except that this case involved axial nerves rather than the typical appendicular nerves. PMID:24506247
Mahan, Mark A; Amrami, Kimberly K; Howe, B Matthew; Spinner, Robert J
An unusual case of a posterior fossa arachnoid cyst containing atypical fluid is described in a patient presenting with an isolated ipsilateral twelfth nerve paresis. Despite the chronicity of symptoms, surgical decompression resulted in a satisfactory functional recovery. PMID:1651196
Cartwright, M J; Eisenberg, M B; Page, L K
Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) may (secondary FNP) or may not have a detectable cause (Bell’s palsy). Three quarters of peripheral FNP are primary and one quarter secondary. The most prevalent causes of secondary FNP are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immunological disorders, or drugs. The diagnosis of FNP relies upon the presence of typical symptoms and signs, blood chemical investigations, cerebro-spinal-fluid-investigations, X-ray of the scull and mastoid, cerebral MRI, or nerve conduction studies. Bell’s palsy may be diagnosed after exclusion of all secondary causes, but causes of secondary FNP and Bell’s palsy may coexist. Treatment of secondary FNP is based on the therapy of the underlying disorder. Treatment of Bell’s palsy is controversial due to the lack of large, randomized, controlled, prospective studies. There are indications that steroids or antiviral agents are beneficial but also studies, which show no beneficial effect. Additional measures include eye protection, physiotherapy, acupuncture, botulinum toxin, or possibly surgery. Prognosis of Bell’s palsy is fair with complete recovery in about 80% of the cases, 15% experience some kind of permanent nerve damage and 5% remain with severe sequelae.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ophthalmoplegic migraine is a rare condition character- ized by the association of headaches and an oculomotor nerve palsy. We report six patients with typical clinical features of this disorder in whom enhancement of the cisternal segment of the oculomotor nerve developed during the acute phase, followed by resolution of enhancement over several weeks as the symptoms resolved.
Alexander S. Mark; Jan Casselman; Douglas Brown; Joao Sanchez; Martin Kolsky; Theodore C. Larsen; Patrick Lavin; Blaise Ferraraccio
...same scale, with a maximum equal to moderate incomplete paralysis. See nerve involved for diagnostic code number and rating. Tic douloureux, or trifacial neuralgia, may be rated up to complete paralysis of the affected...
...characterized by loss of reflexes, muscle atrophy, sensory disturbances, and constant pain, at times excruciating, is to be rated on the scale provided for injury of the nerve involved, with a maximum equal to severe, incomplete,...
...characterized by loss of reflexes, muscle atrophy, sensory disturbances, and constant pain, at times excruciating, is to be rated on the scale provided for injury of the nerve involved, with a maximum equal to severe, incomplete,...
...characterized by loss of reflexes, muscle atrophy, sensory disturbances, and constant pain, at times excruciating, is to be rated on the scale provided for injury of the nerve involved, with a maximum equal to severe, incomplete,...
During routine dissection of a 60 years male cadaver, it was observed that the two divisions of sciatic nerve were separate in the gluteal region on both the sides with the tibial nerve passing below the piriformis and the common peroneal nerve piercing the piriformis muscle. The abnormal passage of the sciatic nerve (SN), the common peroneal nerve (CPN), and the tibial nerve (TN), either through the piriformis or below the superior gemellus may facilitate compression of these nerves. Knowledge of such patterns is also important for surgeons dealing with piriformis syndrome which affects 5-6% of patients referred for the treatment of back and leg pain. A high division may also account for frequent failures reported with the popliteal block. PMID:22049898
Sharma, T; Singla, R K; Lalit, M
The specific symptoms that have been felt to characterize schizophrenia have varied widely over time and across cultures, as has the diagnostic and prognostic importance placed on these symptoms. In this report, the historical concepts of what constitutes the \\
Nancy C. Andreasen; Michael Flaum
... Disclaimer policy. Print page View page in Español (Spanish) Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ... Pertussis Homepage About Pertussis Causes & Transmission Causes & Transmission-Spanish Signs & Symptoms Symptoms-Spanish Complications Complications-Spanish Diagnosis & ...
The recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) branches from the vagus cranial nerve to innervate structures important for voicing and swallowing. Damage to this nerve, commonly associated with surgery or idiopathic etiologies that largely occur with aging, results in impaired voicing and swallowing. Sunderland proposed a model of peripheral nerve damage whereby a nerve’s ability to resist damage from stretch and compression is determined by the quantity and composition of its epineurial connective tissues. Thus, it would be expected that epineurium differs depending upon the forces imposed on a nerve within its anatomical setting. The purpose of this study was to investigate RLN epineurium quantity and composition with development. A porcine model (piglet vs. juvenile) was used because of the similarity between porcine and human laryngeal innervation, anatomy, and function. The entire RLN was excised bilaterally, and stereological methods were used to quantify the composition of epineurial connective tissues. Compared to the piglet, the juvenile pig RLN was double in diameter. While the piglet had no differences in the percent of epineurial collagen and adipose between proximal and distal segments of both sides of the RLN, the juvenile pig had a greater percent of collagen in the proximal segment of both sides of the RLN and a greater percent of adipose in the distal segment of the left RLN compared to the proximal segment. In addition, unlike the piglet, the juvenile pig had a greater number of fascicles in the proximal than distal segment of the RLN, regardless of nerve side. These findings are consistent with predicted patterns associated with the different anatomical settings of the left and right RLN, show that the RLN changes with age, and support Sunderland’s model.
Campbell, Ellen O.; Samlan, Robin A.; McMullen, Nathaniel T.; Cook, Sarah; Smiley-Jewell, Suzette; Barkmeier-Kraemer, Julie
AIMS/BACKGROUND--Visual symptoms are a common but not invariable feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and such symptoms appear to become more pronounced as the severity of the dementia increases. Pathology in both the pregeniculate and cortical parts of the visual system has been suggested to underlie the visual deficits in AD. In order to investigate the former possibility, the effect of AD on the optic nerve was investigated. METHODS--Intraorbital segments of optic nerve were taken at autopsy from nine patients with AD and seven patients with no history of psychiatric or neurological disease and no abnormal neuropathology. All patients had functional vision before death and appeared free of retinal, optic nerve, or microvascular disease. The optic nerves were processed into resin, semi-thin sections cut perpendicular to the long axis of each optic nerve, and stained with paraphenylenediamine. The sections were then investigated using an image analysis system and standard morphometric techniques. RESULTS--There was no significant difference in the mean cross sectional neural area of AD compared with control optic nerves. Neither were there any significant differences between myelinated axon surface density, total axon number, or mean cross sectional axon area in AD compared with control optic nerves. CONCLUSION--These results indicate that optic nerve degeneration is not a feature of AD and suggest that the visual deficits in the disease result from cortical dysfunction. This view is supported by the fact that visuospatial dysfunction appears to be the most common visual problem in AD. Images
Davies, D C; McCoubrie, P; McDonald, B; Jobst, K A
Epiduroscopic laser discectomy and neural decompression (ELND) is known as an effective treatment for intractable lumbar pain and radiating pain which develop after lumbar surgery, as well as for herniation of the intervertebral disk and spinal stenosis. However, various complications occur due to the invasiveness of this procedure and epidural adhesion, and rarely, cranial nerve damage can occur due to increased intracranial pressure. Here, the authors report case in which double vision occurred after epiduroscopic laser discectomy and neural decompression in a patient with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS).
Lee, Eun Ha; Kim, Su Hwa; Noh, Mi Sun
Contrecoup fractures of the base of the skull are regarded as rare in the clinical literature. In our material (n = 171 falls on the same level and on or from stairs), the overall frequency of contrecoup fractures of the anterior cranial fossa in fatal cranio-cerebral trauma due to falls was 12%, as compared to 24% with occipital point of impact of the head. The relationships between the impact site on the head, form of fracture at the point of impact with involvement of the skull cap and/or the base of the skull, coup and contrecoup injuries of the brain, localization of contrecoup fractures in the anterior cranial fossa and the occurrence of monocle and spectacle haematomas display a major variability. Fractures occur in the form of simple fractures and as impression fractures (fracture fragments or fracture boundaries displaced to the inside). Clinical diagnosis is difficult because of the concealed position of the anterior skull base. Contrecoup fractures become of forensic medical significance when symptoms of a frontobasal injury occur for the first time after trauma which has occurred some time in the past and when the question arises as to the causal connection with the original trauma. In investigation of living persons, it may be difficult to decide whether haemorrhages in the region of the orbit and its vicinity result from a direct blunt force or derive from fractures of the base of the skull, especially contrecoup fractures. PMID:2239375
Hein, P M; Schulz, E
Hemodynamic instability is a common condition during extra-cranial carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of prophylactic placement of temporary cardiac pacemaker during extra-cranial CAS for the prevention of hemodynamic instability. For this, forty-seven carotid artery stents were deployed in 41 high-risk patients. Temporary transvenous cardiac pacemakers were inserted before CAS procedure. The pacers were set to capture a heart rate <60 bpm. Clinical symptoms, blood pressure, heart rate, and pacing activation were monitored and data were collected. We found that pacing occurred in 25 carotid lesions during balloon predilatation; pacemakers were activated transiently in 25 patients. The longest pacing continued for 1 day. Among cases with pacemaker activation, 1 patient developed post-procedural symptomatic hypotension that lasted for 4 days. No related complications were observed. It was, therefore, concluded that pacing was technically effective in producing electrical ventricular responses and was hemodynamically effective in 25 carotid lesions which underwent balloon predilatation. The prophylactic use of a temporary transvenous cardiac pacemaker during CAS was rapid and effective in controlling peri-operative hemodynamic instability and preventing stroke and other complications. The prophylactic use of temporary pacemaker is particularly recommended for patients at high risk for developing hemodynamic instability. PMID:23090784
Liu, Juan; Yao, Guo-en; Zhou, Hua-dong; Jiang, Xiao-jiang; Chen, Qiao
The central nervous system is derived from the neural plate that undergoes a series of complex morphogenetic events resulting in formation of the neural tube in a process known as neurulation. The cellular behaviors driving neurulation in the cranial region involve forces generated by the neural tissue itself as well as the surrounding epithelium and mesenchyme. Of interest, the cranial mesenchyme underlying the neural plate undergoes stereotypical rearrangements hypothesized to drive elevation of the neural folds. As the neural folds rise, the hyaluronate-rich extracellular matrix greatly expands resulting in increased space between individual cranial mesenchyme cells. Based on inhibitor studies, expansion of the extracellular matrix has been implicated in driving neural fold elevation; however, since the surrounding neural and epidermal ectoderm were also affected by inhibitor exposure, these studies are inconclusive. Similarly, treatment of neurulating embryos with teratogenic doses of retinoic acid results in altered organization of the cranial mesenchyme but alterations in surrounding tissues are also observed. The strongest evidence for a critical role for the cranial mesenchyme in neural fold elevation comes from studies of genes expressed exclusively in the cranial mesenchyme that when mutated result in exencephaly associated with abnormal organization of the cranial mesenchyme. Twist is the best studied of these and is expressed in both the paraxial mesoderm and neural crest derived cranial mesenchyme. Here we review the evidence implicating the cranial mesenchyme in providing a driving force for neural fold elevation to evaluate whether there is sufficient data to support this hypothesis.
Zohn, Irene E.; Sarkar, Anjali A.
Summary Introduction: Epidermoid and dermoid cysts are among the most benign intra cranial tumors. Their malignant transformation into squamous cell carcinoma is rare. The authors reviewed the literature.
Abderrahmane Hamlat; Zhi-Fen Hua; Stephan Saikali; Jean François Laurent; Daniel Gedouin; Mohamed Ben-Hassel; Yvon Guegan
Heights, height velocities, weights, and weight velocities were measured serially in 21 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who had survived three to five years in continuous complete remission. These patients were assigned randomly to treatment regimens that varied according to whether cranial irradiation was used. Patients receiving cranial irradiation had lower height velocities during therapy than normal subjects and patients not receiving cranial irradiation. Twenty-two other children with ALL, who were irradiated but not randomized, exhibited similar alterations in growth. These results indicate that cranial irradiation, and not leukemia or antileukemia chemotherapy, causes reduced growth.
Wells, R.J.; Foster, M.B.; D'Ercole, A.J.; McMillan, C.W.
Over the last decade, neuromuscular ultrasound has emerged as a useful tool for the diagnosis of peripheral nerve disorders. This article reviews sonographic findings of normal nerves including key quantitative ultrasound measurements that are helpful in the evaluation of focal and possibly generalized peripheral neuropathies. It also discusses several recent papers outlining the evidence base for the use of this technology, as well as new findings in compressive, traumatic, and generalized neuropathies. Ultrasound is well suited for use in electrodiagnostic laboratories where physicians, experienced in both the clinical evaluation of patients and the application of hands-on technology, can integrate findings from the patient’s history, physical examination, electrophysiological studies, and imaging for diagnosis and management.
Suk, Jung Im; Walker, Francis O.; Cartwright, Michael S.
The optimal stimulus position for a figure-8-shaped coil for magnetic stimulation of the ulnar nerve at the wrist was not coincident with the optimal electrical stimulus point but was shifted 18.3 mm to the ulnar side (P < 0.01). For the median nerve the optimal stimulus site was 9.6 mm radial to the optimal position for electrical stimulation (P < 0.05). This shift of the stimulus point for magnetic stimulation is significantly smaller after interposition of a homogenous electrically conducting medium between coil and arm but not changed after interposition of distilled water. This so-called boundary effect is therefore due to the different conductivities of the medium interposed between coil and nerve. It may also distort precise localisation of other excitable structures such as cranial nerves, nerve roots and cortical areas by means of magnetic stimuli. The amplitudes of the compound muscle action potentials elicited with identical magnetic stimulus strength were larger after the interposition of isotonic solution between coil and skin but not after interposition of distilled water. Consideration of the boundary effect provided an improved response amplitude to magnetic stimulation, but this could not adequately compensate for its poor localisation compared to electrical stimulation. PMID:7489685
Mathis, J; Seemann, U; Weyh, T; Jakob, C; Struppler, A
Non-pharmacological and non-surgical transcranial modulation of the nerve function may provide new opportunities in evaluation and treatment of cranial nerve diseases. This study investigates the possibility of using low-intensity transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) to selectively stimulate the rat abducens nerve located above the base of the skull. FUS (frequencies of 350 kHz and 650 kHz) operating in a pulsed mode was applied to the abducens nerve of Sprague-Dawley rats under stereotactic guidance. The abductive eyeball movement ipsilateral to the side of sonication was observed at 350 kHz, using the 0.36 msec tone burst duration (TBD), 1.5 kHz pulse repetition frequency (PRF), and the overall sonication duration of 200 msec. Histological and behavioral monitoring showed no signs of disruption in the blood brain barrier (BBB) as well as no damage to the nerves and adjacent brain tissue resulting from the sonication. As a novel functional neuro-modulatory modality, the pulsed application of FUS has potential in diagnostic and therapeutic applications in diseases of the peripheral nervous system.
Kim, Hyungmin; Taghados, Seyed Javid; Fischer, Krisztina; Maeng, Lee-So; Park, Shinsuk; Yoo, Seung-Schik
Objectives: Our first objective was to explore the value of estimating 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of epidermal nerve fibers (ENFs)/mm for number of sections to be evaluated and for confidently judging normality or abnormality. Our second objective was to introduce a new continuous measure combining nerve conduction and ENFs/mm. Methods: The 95% CI studies were performed on 1, 1–2, 1–3 - - - 1–10 serial skip sections of 3-mm punch biopsies of leg and thigh of 67 healthy subjects and 23 patients with diabetes mellitus. Results: Variability of differences of ENFs/mm counts (and 95% CIs) from evaluation of 1, 1–2, 1–3 - - - 1–9 compared with 1–10 serial skip sections decreased progressively without a break point with increasing numbers of sections evaluated. Estimating 95% CIs as sections are evaluated can be used to judge how many sections are needed for adequate evaluation, i.e., only a few when counts and 95% CIs are well within the range of normality or abnormality and more when values are borderline. Also provided is a methodology to combine results of nerve conduction and ENFs/mm as continuous measures of normality or abnormality. Conclusion: Estimating 95% CIs of ENFs/mm is useful to judge how many sections should be evaluated to confidently declare counts to be normal or abnormal. Also introduced is a continuous measure of both large-fiber (nerve conduction) and small-fiber (ENFs/mm) normal structures/functions spanning the range of normality and abnormality for use in therapeutic trials.
Engelstad, JaNean K.; Taylor, Sean W.; Witt, Lawrence V.; Hoebing, Belinda J.; Herrmann, David N.; Klein, Christopher J.; Johnson, David M.; Davies, Jenny L.; Carter, Rickey E.
Historically, phantom limb pain (PLP) develops in 50–80% of amputees and may arise within days following an amputation for reasons presently not well understood. Our case involves a 29-year-old male with previous surgical amputation who develops PLP after the performance of a femoral nerve block. Although there have been documented cases of reactivation of PLP in amputees after neuraxial technique, there have been no reported events associated with femoral nerve blockade. We base our discussion on the theory that symptoms of phantom limb pain are of neuropathic origin and attempt to elaborate the link between regional anesthesia and PLP. Further investigation and understanding of PLP itself will hopefully uncover a relationship between peripheral nerve blocks targeting an affected limb and the subsequent development of this phenomenon, allowing physicians to take appropriate steps in prevention and treatment.
Sifonios, Anthony N.; Martinez, Marc E.; Eloy, Jean D.; Kaufman, Andrew G.
Nerve repair after transection has variable and unpredictable outcomes. In addition to advancements in microvascular surgical techniques, nerve allografts and conduits are available options in peripheral nerve reconstruction. When tensionless nerve repair is not feasible, or in chronic injuries, autografts have been traditionally used. As substitute to autografts, decellularized allografts and conduits have become available. These conduits can reduce donor site morbidity, functional loss at the donor area in cases where autografts are used, and immune reaction from transplants or unprocessed allografts. The development of new biomaterials for use in conduits, as well as use of cytokines, growth factors, and other luminal fillers, may help in the treatment of acute and chronic nerve injuries. The indications and properties of nerve conduits and allografts are detailed in this article. PMID:20670808
Rivlin, Michael; Sheikh, Emran; Isaac, Roman; Beredjiklian, Pedro K
Background We conducted a clinical trial to test whether prophylactic cranial irradiation could be omitted in all children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods A total of 498 evaluable patients were enrolled. Treatment intensity was based on presenting features and the level of minimal residual disease after remission induction treatment. Continuous complete remission was compared between the 71 patients who previously would have received prophylactic cranial irradiation and the 56 historical controls who received it. Results The 5-year event-free and overall survival probabilities (95% confidence interval) for all 498 patients were 85.6% (79.9% to 91.3%) and 93.5% (89.8% to 97.2%), respectively. The 5-year cumulative risk of isolated central-nervous-system (CNS) relapse was 2.7% (1.1% to 4.2%), and that of any CNS relapse (isolated plus combined) was 3.9% (1.9% to 5.9%). The 71 patients had significantly better continuous complete remission than the 56 historical controls (P=0.04). All 11 patients with isolated CNS relapse remain in second remission for 0.4 to 5.5 years. CNS leukemia (CNS-3 status) or a traumatic lumbar puncture with blasts at diagnosis and a high level of minimal residual disease (? 1%) after 6 weeks of remission induction were significantly associated with poorer event-free survival. Risk factors for CNS relapse included the presence of the t(1;19)[TCF3-PBX1], any CNS involvement at diagnosis, and T-cell immunophenotype. Common adverse effects included allergic reactions to L-asparaginase, osteonecrosis, thrombosis, and disseminated fungal infection. Conclusions With effective risk-adjusted chemotherapy, prophylactic cranial irradiation can be safely omitted in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Pui, Ching-Hon; Campana, Dario; Pei, Deqing; Bowman, W. Paul; Sandlund, John T.; Kaste, Sue C.; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E.; Raimondi, Susana C.; Onciu, Mihaela; Coustan-Smith, Elaine; Kun, Larry E.; Jeha, Sima; Cheng, Cheng; Howard, Scott C.; Simmons, Vickey; Bayles, Amy; Metzger, Monika L.; Boyett, James M.; Leung, Wing; Handgretinger, Rupert; Downing, James R.; Evans, William E.; Relling, Mary V.
Wilson's disease, a rare autosomal recessive disorder of hepatic copper transport, is characterized by a varying pattern of hepatic, neurologic and psychiatric symptoms. Currently, about 250 causative mutations of the ATP 7B gene are known. However, a correlation between genotype and phenotype according to these mutations is not yet clear. To elucidate a possible correlation in this study 39 patients with Wilson's disease were subdivided into three groups according to the underlying mutation in group I for homocygote respectively group II for compound heterocygote mutation in H1069Q and group III for other mutations. Clinical subtype and extent of neurologic disturbance as well as epidemiologic aspects, presence of psychiatric symptoms, results of acustically evoked potentials (Wave III, interpeak latency III-V) and findings of cranial MRI were considered. While psychopathological symptoms, the results of acustically evoked potentials and cranial MRI show a correlation to the clinical subtype of Wilson's disease there was no genotype-phenotype correlation on the basis of the mutation in H1069Q. The qualitative and quantitative pattern of results do not show any significant differences in the three groups of genotype. Thus, the time of treatment onset still has most influence on the extent of clinical manifestation and reversibility of the toxic copper accumulation. PMID:16586257
Hermann, W; Günther, P; Schneider, J P; Villmann, T; Kühn, H J; Eichelkraut, S
All modern birds have kinetic skulls in which the upper bill can move relative to the braincase, but the biomechanics and motion dynamics of cranial kinesis in birds are poorly understood. In this paper, we model the dynamics of avian cranial kinesis, such as prokinesis and proximal rhynchokinesis in which the upper jaw pivots around the nasal-frontal (N-F) hinge. The purpose of this paper is to present to the biological community an approach that demonstrates the application of sophisticated predictive mathematical modeling tools to avian kinesis. The generality of the method, however, is applicable to the advanced study of the biomechanics of other skeletal systems. The paper begins with a review of the relevant biological literature as well as the essential morphology of avian kinesis, especially the mechanical coupling of the upper and lower jaw by the postorbital ligament. A planar model of the described bird jaw morphology is then developed that maintains the closed kinematic topology of the avian jaw mechanism. We then develop the full nonlinear equations of motion with the assumption that the M. protractor pterygoideus and M. depressor mandibulae act on the quadrate as a pure torque, and the nasal frontal hinge is elastic with damping. The mechanism is shown to be a single degree of freedom device due to the holonomic constraints present in the quadrate-jugal bar-upper jaw-braincase-quadrate kinematic chain as well as the quadrate-lower jaw-postorbital ligament-braincase-quadrate kinematic chain. The full equations are verified via simulation and animation using the parameters of a Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea). Next we develop a simplified analytical model of the equations by power series expansion. We demonstrate that this model reproduces the dynamics of the full model to a high degree of fidelity. We proceed to use the harmonic balance technique to develop the frequency response characteristics of the jaw mechanism. It is shown that this avian cranial kinesis model exhibits the characteristics of a hardening Duffing oscillator. Beyond the identification of the characteristics of the underlying dynamics, which provides insight into the behavior of the system, the model and methodology presented here provides other potential benefits. A framework has been developed that could be utilized to study the biomechanics of feeding and bite force as well the effects of cranial kinesis on the frequency and modulation of bird songs. PMID:16242730
Meekangvan, Preeda; A Barhorst, Alan; Burton, Thomas D; Chatterjee, Sankar; Schovanec, Lawrence
Tricholemmal squamous cell carcinoma is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma thought to follow a more benign course. The authors present the case of a 67-year-old man with a giant tricholemmal squamous cell carcinoma on his scalp. Further investigations demonstrated a skull destruction and cranial invasion. Curative treatment was impossible, but tumor mass reduction and wound closure by sandwich split-thickness skin mesh graft transplantation using a dermal template was performed. Problems of advanced squamous cell carcinoma on the scalp are discussed.
Bayyoud, Yousef; Kittner, Thomas; Durig, Eberhard
Aim We decided to study the relationship between brain volume and cranial capacity and the relationship between brain volume and\\u000a age on a series of CT from healthy adults.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Fifty-eight healthy volunteers (27 women, 31 men, age range 18–95 years) were examined using our imaging protocols. The volunteers\\u000a had no present or past neuropsychiatric illness and no abuse of alcohol or illicit
Anne-Sophie Ricard; Pascal Desbarats; Mathieu Laurentjoye; Michel Montaudon; Philippe Caix; Vincent Dousset; Claire Majoufre-Lefebvre; Bruno Maureille
This brief note announces the publication of a nonmetric cranial trait database as a freely available resource on the Internet at: http://library.queensu.ca/webdoc/ssdc/cntd. The files were constructed in the program Excel, and are available also in comma-delimited format. These one-observer data on 38 traits were recorded in 1963-2003 in skeletal collections curated at many museums. The 8,016 crania represent individuals from a broad geographic and temporal range of recent human populations, with regions best represented being the Arctic and northwestern North America. PMID:24122086
Ossenberg, Nancy Suzanne
Purpose Based on our institution’s initial results that reflected reduced postoperative pain using a modified pudendal nerve block\\u000a technique, we conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind study to investigate whether a combination of general anesthesia\\u000a and bilateral nerve stimulator guided pudendal nerve blocks could provide better postoperative pain relief compared to general\\u000a anesthesia alone or in combination with placebo nerve blocks.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Following
Zouheir Naja; Mohammad Fouad Ziade; Per-Arne Lönnqvist
Hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis (HCP) is an uncommon disorder that causes a localized or diffuse thickening of the dura mater and has been reported to be infrequently associated with systemic autoimmune disorders such as Wegener's granulomatosis, rheumatoid arthritis, sarcoidosis, Behçet's disease, Sjögren syndrome, and temporal arteritis. Here, we report a case of HCP initially presented with scleritis and headache in a patient with undifferenciated connective tissue disease (UCTD). HCP was initially suspected on brain magnetic resonance imaging and defined pathologically on meningial biopsy. Immunologic studies showed the presence of anti-RNP antibody. After high dose corticosteroid therapy, the patient's symptoms and radiologic abnormalities of brain were improved. Our case suggested that HCP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of headache in a patient with UCTD presenting with scleritis.
Kim, Ji-Hyeon; Joo, Young-Bin; Kim, Jeana
Research on infarct detection by noncontrast cranial computed tomography (CCT) in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) is sparse. However, the aims of this study are to determine the frequency of new infarcts in patients with TIA, to evaluate the independent predictors of infarct detection, and to investigate the association between a new infarct and early short-term risk of stroke during hospitalization. We prospectively evaluated 1533 consecutive patients (mean age, 75.3 ± 11 years; 54% female; mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score, 1.7 ± 2.9) with TIA who were admitted to hospital within 48 h of symptom onset. A new infarct was detected by CCT in 47 (3.1%) of the 1533 patients. During hospitalization, 17 patients suffered a stroke. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed the following independent predictors for infarct detection: NIHSS score ?10 (odds ratio [OR], 4.8), time to CCT assessment >6 h (OR 2.2), and diabetes (OR 2.3). The evidence of a new infarct was not associated with the risk of stroke after TIA. The frequency of a new infarct in patients with TIA using CCT is low. The use of the CCT tool to predict the stroke risk during hospitalization in patients with TIA is found to be inappropriate. The estimated clinical predictors are easy to use and may help clinicians in the TIA work up.
Al-Khaled, Mohamed; Matthis, Christine; Munte, Thomas F; Eggers, Jurgen
Paranasal sinus mucocele is the cystic formation lined by inflammatory changed mucoperiosteum. This is slow-growing pathology with a tendency to bone erosion. The symptoms are dependent on the direction of the penetration, and are as follows: increasing headaches, deformations of frontal or orbital region, ophthalmic manifestations such as lacrimation, decreased visual acuity, exophthalmos, ocular movement limitation, diplopia. The most common location of the mucocele is fronto-ethmoid region. The most useful diagnostic tests are a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a computed tomography (CT) which show the progress of the disease and bone destructions. Surgery is the only method of treatment (external approach or FESS). This paper reports the case of a 74-year-old woman with ethmoid mucocele penetrating into the orbit, frontal sinus and anterior cranial fossa with compression of frontal lobe of the brain. The patient underwent CT and MRI and was treated with endoscopic intranasal marsupialization of the cyst. There are no clinical signs of disease recurrence 7 months after surgery. The endoscopic surgical management in treatment of sinus mucocele is a good alternative to the operation from external approach because of its low invasiveness, low complication risk, rapid healing and good therapeutic effects. PMID:24021830
Paradowska-Opa?ka, Beata; Kawczy?ski, Maciej; Jaworowska, Ewa
Background and Objectives: We describe the use of mandibular nerve block for the management of bilateral trismus associated with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Case Report: The patient was a 65-year-old man with bilateral trismus due to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Despite his impaired consciousness, we performed fluoroscopically guided bilateral mandibular nerve block. The bilateral symptoms were sufficiently improved, without obvious side effects, by injecting
Hiroshi Takemura; Yutaka Masuda; Ryo Yatsushiro; Norimasa Yamamoto; Akiyoshi Hosoyamada
A 27-year-old woman developed a haematoma-related compressive neuropathy of the right sciatic nerve following the harvesting of a bone graft from the posterior aspect of the right iliac crest. The nerve was compressed in an enclosed compartment between the sciatic notch and the piriformis muscle, which is thought to be involved in the piriformis syndrome. The symptoms improved once the
K. J. Stevens; M. Banuls
Loss of nerve function occurs when a nerve is severed. Any significant loss of nerve tissue requires a graft to restore continuity and promote nerve regeneration and recovery of function. Presently, there is no acceptable nerve grafting method for the rep...
D. F. Muir
In patients with primary cubital tunnel syndrome, we hypothesize that using a vascularized adipose sling to secure the ulnar nerve during anterior subcutaneous transposition will lead to improved patient outcomes. The adipose flap is designed to surround the ulnar nerve with a pliable, vascularized fat envelope, mimicking the natural fatty environment of peripheral nerves. This technique may offer advantages in securing the anteriorly transposed ulnar nerve and reducing instances of postoperative perineural scarring. Patients experience good functional outcomes; most experience resolution of symptoms. PMID:24503232
Danoff, Jonathan R; Lombardi, Joseph M; Rosenwasser, Melvin P
Recovery after peripheral nerve injuries in children is more complete than in adults and is inversely related to the age of the patient. The prognosis for the return of sensation following laceration of the median, ulnar, or digital nerve depends upon recovery of two point discrimination (in millimeters approximately equal to the child's age) at the time of nerve repair. The better results in children probably reflect the greater adaptability of the immature central nervous system to the nerve injury. Operative exploration of an open wound when there is a potential for nerve injury in an uncooperative child is the only sure way of determining the status of the nerves. Primary repair of cleanly divided nerves in tidy wounds is advocated if it can be done competently. Secondary repair is indicated for avulsion injuries, gunshot wounds, crush injuries, and human or animal bites. Delicate, atraumatic technique and accurate repair of the divided nerve are stressed. The more exacting technique of funicular repair may yield better results. Interfascicular cable grafting is a new and useful alternative to extensive mobilization in closing nerve gaps. Nonoperative treatment of nerve injuries associated with closed fractures is advocated unless there are no signs of nerve regeneration in two to three months. Obstetrical brachial plexus injuries of the upper plexus carry a better prognosis than lower plexus or total plexus injury. Early range of motion exercises to prevent contractures are stressed. Maximal recovery takes place within two years. The acute nerve compression syndrome should be considered an emergency and may require surgical decompression if it is severe and if rapid return of function does not occur following reduction of the fracture. PMID:958691
Frykman, G K
Neural fibrolipoma or fibrolipomatous hamartoma is an uncommon benign tumor that usually arises in the median nerve. Fibrofatty tissue proliferates around the nerve and infiltrates the epineurium and perineurium. We report a case of fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the left median nerve in an 18-year-old woman. Our objective was to describe the pathognomonic magnetic resonance imaging features, whose presence obviates the need for a diagnostic biopsy. PMID:17178460
Nouira, Kais; Belhiba, Hend; Baccar, Sofiène; Miaaoui, Anissa; Ben Messaoud, Monia; Turki, Imène; Cheour, Ilhem; Menif, Emna
Isolated oculomotor nerve palsy (ONP) attributable to mild closed head trauma is a distinct rarity. Its diagnosis places high demands on the radiologist and the clinician. The authors describe this condition in a 36-year-old woman who slipped while walking and struck her face. Initial computed tomography did not reveal any causative cerebral and vascular lesions or orbital and cranial fractures. Enhancement and swelling of the cisternal segment of the oculomotor nerve was seen during the subacute phase on thin-sectioned contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images. The current case received corticosteroid therapy, and then recovered fully in 13 months after injury. Possible mechanism of ONP from minor head injury is proposed and previous reports in the literature are reviewed. PMID:24379954
Kim, Ealmaan; Chang, Hyukwon
Purpose: A young patient of ophthalmoplegic migraine with recurrent oculomotor nerve palsy is reported.Case: A 4-year-old girl came to our hospital complaining of recurrent left ptosis and double vision which completely resolved within a few days. She had a history of drowsiness after vomiting every two months. Left oculomotor nerve palsy with internal ophthalmoplegia was observed. Electroencephalography revealed mild changes, but computed tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, and cerebrovascular Doppler-ultrasound examination demonstrated no abnormalities. This oculomotor nerve palsy completely improved on the next day.Results: Thereafter, left episodic mydriasis and oculomotor nerve palsy occurred twice each. However, the frequency and symptoms of migraine were remarkably reduced by topical administration of 0.25% timolol maleate twice daily to both eyes.Conclusion: In isolated oculomotor nerve palsy in childhood, ophthalmoplegic migraine should be also considered. We emphasize that a detailed case history is very important to its diagnosis. PMID:11033160
Ishikawa; Yoshihara; Mizuki; Kashima
Sciatic pain caused by endometriosis of the sciatic nerve is an uncommon clinical finding and seems to have been verified histologically in only a few cases. Patients complain of typical signs and symptoms of common sciatica that are cyclic in nature. Suggested compression of lumbar root or sciatic nerve or its plexus could be confirmed by electromyography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging, and by prompt response to hormonal suppression of ovarian function with regression of the radiologic findings. Patients often have required radical surgery with total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. However, conservative surgery with excision of the endometriosis from the nerve can be successful in selected patients who wish to preserve reproductive function. We report a case of sciatic nerve involvement explored by magnetic resonance imaging, with endometriosis in contact with the nerve in the right sciatic trunk. PMID:12394671
Papapietro, N; Gulino, G; Zobel, B Beomonte Beomonte; Di Martino, A; Denaro, V
The extended middle cranial fossa approach includes removal of the petrous bone from its subtemporal surface in order to expose widely the internal auditory canal and the posterior fossa dura around its porus while preserving all the important and closely related anatomical structures. We have dissected 25 temporal bones and five fresh cadavers in order to define the limits of this approach. Measurements were obtained between the different structures to find reliable angles and distances that could guide working in this area. A new method of identification of the internal auditory canal is discussed based on the measurements taken. The results of the present work showed wide variations in the different structures. The arcuate eminence was coincident with the superior semicircular canal in only 48% of bones. Dehiscence of the geniculate ganglion and of the internal carotid artery was noted in 16% and 20% of specimens, respectively. The angles measured between the different structures showed great variations. However, the angle between the internal auditory canal and superior petrosal sinus was constant. Though the extended middle cranial fossa is a versatile approach, it affords a limited access to the cerebellopontine angle. A thorough understanding of the complex and variable anatomy of this area is necessary should this approach be utilized. ImagesFigure 1p183-bFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5
Aristegui, Miguel; Cokkeser, Yasar; Saleh, Essam; Naguib, Maged; Landolfi, Mauro; Taibah, Abdel; Sanna, Mario
Cultural reshaping (artificial deformation or modification) of the neurocranial vault provides an artificially increased range of morphological variability within which the relationship between the growing neurocranium and face can be investigated. We analyze crania which have been fronto-occipitally compressed to ascertain possible morphological effects on the mandible. We collected measures of mandibular breadth, length, and height from 82 modified (N = 48) and unmodified (N = 34) crania from a Peruvian Ancon series. Angle classification was also scored in order to investigate whether or not occlusal relationships were affected by neurocranial reshaping. Only intercondylar distance (posterior mandibular breadth) exhibited significant differences between unmodified and modified groups, though this difference was relatively small compared with vault deformation. The modified crania had a higher frequency of normal occlusion (Class I) than the unmodified crania. Increased intercondylar breadth in modified skulls is due to a cascade of effects which begin with a direct effect of the fronto-occipital deforming device on neurocranial shape (increased neurocranial width). The increase in mandibular breadth may be a compensatory response to increased cranial base breadth and maintains articulation between the cranial base and mandible. The increased posterior breadth, coupled with a slight decrease in mandibular depth, may contribute to the change in occlusal relationships suggested for this sample. PMID:1543243
Cheverud, J M; Midkiff, J E
In the present study, the frequency distributions of 20 discrete cranial traits in 70 major human populations from around the world were analyzed. The principal-coordinate and neighbor-joining analyses of Smith's mean measure of divergence (MMD), based on trait frequencies, indicate that 1). the clustering pattern is similar to those based on classic genetic markers, DNA polymorphisms, and craniometrics; 2). significant interregional separation and intraregional diversity are present in Subsaharan Africans; 3). clinal relationships exist among regional groups; 4). intraregional discontinuity exists in some populations inhabiting peripheral or isolated areas. For example, the Ainu are the most distinct outliers of the East Asian populations. These patterns suggest that founder effects, genetic drift, isolation, and population structure are the primary causes of regional variation in discrete cranial traits. Our results are compatible with a single origin for modern humans as well as the multiregional model, similar to the results of Relethford and Harpending ( Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 95:249-270). The results presented here provide additional measures of the morphological variation and diversification of modern human populations. PMID:12772212
Hanihara, Tsunehiko; Ishida, Hajime; Dodo, Yukio
Background It is known that nonsynostotic plagiocephaly does not spontaneously improve, and the craniofacial deformities that result from it. This study was conducted to analyze the effectiveness of helmet therapy for the nonsynostotic plagiocephaly patient, and to suggest a new treatment strategy based on this analysis. Methods A total of 108 pediatric patients who had undergone helmet therapy after being diagnosed with nonsynostotic plagiocephaly were included in this study. The patients were classified according to the initiation age of the helmet therapy, severity, and helmet wearing time. The treatment effect was compared using cranial vault asymmetry (CVA) and the cranial vault asymmetry index (CVAI), which were obtained from diagonal measurements before and after therapy. Results The discrepancy of CVA and CVAI of all the patients significantly decreased after helmet therapy. According to the initiation time of helmet therapy, the treatment effect was best at 5 months old or less. The helmet wearing time per day was proportional to the treatment effect up to 20 hours. In addition, the rate of the successful treatment (final CVA ?5 mm) significantly decreased when the initiation age was 9.1 months or older and the treatment period was less than 7.83 months. Conclusions This study showed the effectiveness of the helmet therapy for nonsynostotic plagiocephaly patients. Based on analysis of this study, helmet therapy should be started at the age of 9 months or younger for 7.83 months or more, and the helmet wearing time should be more than 20 hours a day.
Yoo, Han-Su; Rah, Dong Kyun
The early Pliocene African hominoid Ardipithecus ramidus was diagnosed as a having a unique phylogenetic relationship with the Australopithecus + Homo clade based on nonhoning canine teeth, a foreshortened cranial base, and postcranial characters related to facultative bipedality. However, pedal and pelvic traits indicating substantial arboreality have raised arguments that this taxon may instead be an example of parallel evolution of human-like traits among apes around the time of the chimpanzee-human split. Here we investigated the basicranial morphology of Ar. ramidus for additional clues to its phylogenetic position with reference to African apes, humans, and Australopithecus. Besides a relatively anterior foramen magnum, humans differ from apes in the lateral shift of the carotid foramina, mediolateral abbreviation of the lateral tympanic, and a shortened, trapezoidal basioccipital element. These traits reflect a relative broadening of the central basicranium, a derived condition associated with changes in tympanic shape and the extent of its contact with the petrous. Ar. ramidus shares with Australopithecus each of these human-like modifications. We used the preserved morphology of ARA-VP 1/500 to estimate the missing basicranial length, drawing on consistent proportional relationships in apes and humans. Ar. ramidus is confirmed to have a relatively short basicranium, as in Australopithecus and Homo. Reorganization of the central cranial base is among the earliest morphological markers of the Ardipithecus + Australopithecus + Homo clade. PMID:24395771
Kimbel, William H; Suwa, Gen; Asfaw, Berhane; Rak, Yoel; White, Tim D
In vertebrates, coordinated embryonic and postnatal growth of the craniofacial bones and the skull base is essential during the expansion of the rostrum and the brain. Identification of molecules that regulate skull growth is important for understanding the nature of craniofacial defects and for development of non-invasive biologically based diagnostics and therapies. Here we report on spatially restricted growth defects at the skull base and in craniofacial sutures of mice deficient for polycystin-1 (Pkd1). Mutant animals reveal a premature closure of both presphenoid and sphenooccipital synchondroses at the cranial base. Furthermore, knockout mice lacking Pkd1 in neural crest cells are characterised by impaired postnatal growth at the osteogenic fronts in craniofacial sutures that are subjected to tensile forces. Our data suggest that polycystin-1 is required for proliferation of subpopulations of cranial osteochondroprogenitor cells of both mesodermal and neural crest origin during skull growth. However, the Erk1/2 signalling pathway is up-regulated in the Pkd1-deficient skeletal tissue, similarly to that previously reported for polycystic kidney.
Kolpakova-Hart, Elona; McBratney-Owen, Brandeis; Hou, Bo; Fukai, Naomi; Nicolae, Claudia; Zhou, Jing; Olsen, Bjorn R.