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1

Isolated cranial nerve palsies in multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

During a 10 year period 24 patients with definite multiple sclerosis with isolated cranial nerve palsies were studied (third and fourth nerve: one patient each, sixth nerve: 12 patients, seventh nerve: three patients, eighth nerve: seven patients), in whom cranial nerve palsies were the presenting sign in 14 and the only clinical sign of an exacerbation in 10 patients. MRI was carried out in 20 patients and substantiated corresponding brainstem lesions in seven patients (third nerve: one patient, sixth nerve: four patients, eighth nerve: two patients). Additional abnormal findings of electro-oculography, or masseter reflex, or blink reflex, or combinations of these were found in 20 patients and interpreted in favour of a brainstem lesion at the level of the respective cranial nerve. In 11 of 14 patients with isolated cranial nerve palsies as the presenting sign of multiple sclerosis, dissemination in space was documented by MRI, and in the remaining three by evoked potentials. In patients with multiple sclerosis with isolated cranial nerve palsies, MRI is the most sensitive method of documenting dissemination in space and electrophysiological testing the most sensitive at disclosing brainstem lesions.?? PMID:9408116

Thomke, F.; Lensch, E.; Ringel, K.; Hopf, H. C.

1997-01-01

2

Multiple cranial nerve dysfunction caused by neurosarcoidosis.  

PubMed

Neurosarcoidosis is a rare identity and occurs in only 5% to 15% of patients with sarcoidosis. It can manifest in many different ways, and therefore, diagnosis may be complicated. We report a case presented in a very unusual manner with involvement of 3 cranial nerves; anosmia (NI), facial palsy (NVII), and hearing loss (NVIII). When cranial nerve dysfunction occurs, it is very important to take neurosarcoidosis into consideration. PMID:22154016

Loor, Rivkah G J; van Tongeren, Joost; Derks, Wynia

2012-01-01

3

Palsies of Cranial Nerves That Control Eye Movement  

MedlinePLUS

... Disorders 4 Palsies of Cranial Nerves That Control Eye Movement These disorders involve paralysis of one of the cranial nerves that control eye movement (the 3rd, 4th, or 6th nerve), impairing the ...

4

The cranial nerve skywalk: A 3D tutorial of cranial nerves in a virtual platform.  

PubMed

Visualization of the complex courses of the cranial nerves by students in the health-related professions is challenging through either diagrams in books or plastic models in the gross laboratory. Furthermore, dissection of the cranial nerves in the gross laboratory is an extremely meticulous task. Teaching and learning the cranial nerve pathways is difficult using two-dimensional (2D) illustrations alone. Three-dimensional (3D) models aid the teacher in describing intricate and complex anatomical structures and help students visualize them. The study of the cranial nerves can be supplemented with 3D, which permits the students to fully visualize their distribution within the craniofacial complex. This article describes the construction and usage of a virtual anatomy platform in Second Life™, which contains 3D models of the cranial nerves III, V, VII, and IX. The Cranial Nerve Skywalk features select cranial nerves and the associated autonomic pathways in an immersive online environment. This teaching supplement was introduced to groups of pre-healthcare professional students in gross anatomy courses at both institutions and student feedback is included. PMID:24678025

Richardson-Hatcher, April; Hazzard, Matthew; Ramirez-Yanez, German

2014-01-01

5

On the terminology of cranial nerves.  

PubMed

The present contribution adopts various points of view to discuss the terminology of the twelve nervi craniales. These are paired nerves and have dual names, terms with Roman ordinal numerals, i.e., the nerves are numbered in the top-to-bottom direction, and descriptive historical names. The time of origin and motivation behind the investigated terms are determined. The majority of terms come from the 17th and 18th centuries. The motivation behind most of them is (a) nerve localization, as this is in conformity with anatomical nomenclature in general, (b) nerve function, and rarely (c) nerve appearance. The occurrence of synonymous names and variants is also a focus of attention. In several cases, reference is made to the process called terminologization, meaning when a certain expression acquires technical meaning and the characteristic/feature of the term. PMID:21724380

Simon, František; Mare?ková-Štolcová, Elena; Pá?, Libor

2011-10-20

6

Capecitabine and sixth cranial nerve palsy.  

PubMed

Capecitabine is an oral chemotherapeutic agent converted to 5 fluorouracil (5-FU). Neurotoxicity associated with the medication encompasses both central and peripheral nervous systems. We describe a 60 year old man with colonic carcinoma who developed diplopia due to a sixth nerve palsy following the use of capecitabine which is an orally administered prodrug of 5-FU. An MRI of brain did not reveal a space occupying lesion or vascular insult to account for his cranial nerve palsy. The sixth nerve palsy resolved spontaneously once capecitabine was withdrawn. Physicians in all walks of life are increasingly likely to come across such patients and should familiarize themselves with toxicities consequent to chemotherapy. Further research is needed to elucidate the cause of capecitabine associated neurotoxicity. PMID:20479552

Dasgupta, Sonali; Adilieje, Chineme; Bhattacharya, Amlan; Smith, Bruce; Sheikh, Moeen ul Haq

2010-01-01

7

Cranial nerves XIII and XIV: nerves in the shadows  

PubMed Central

It has been known for over a century that these cranial nerves exist, and that they are not typographical errors nor a sensational event reported in the medical literature. A number of scientific articles on anatomy highlight how textbooks on descriptive anatomy do not always consider variables such as differences related to the geographical areas where people live, and these differences do exist. This is an important concept not only for surgeons, but also for all medical professionals who use manual techniques when treating their patients, ie, osteopaths, chiropractors, physiotherapists, and other manual therapists. This paper highlights the latest developments regarding these cranial nerves, offering at the same time some ideas for further reflection when looking at clinical scenarios that appear to bear little relationship to each other. Inclusion of these concepts in everyday anamnesis is encouraged. PMID:23516138

Bordoni, Bruno; Zanier, Emiliano

2013-01-01

8

Cranial nerve preservation after radiosurgery of vestibular schwannomas.  

PubMed

Radiosurgery is a management approach used to treat patients with vestibular schwannomas. The goals are long-term tumour growth control, maintenance of cranial nerve function and prevention of new deficiencies. We sought to determine long-term outcomes measuring the potential benefits against the neurological risks of primary radiosurgery. Gamma Knife radiosurgery was applied as a treatment modality for 289 patients with vestibular schwannomas from April 1992 to April 2002. The long-term results of 100 patients who underwent radiosurgery were evaluated. 60 patients received a primary treatment, 40 other cases presented with previously performed subtotal microsurgical resection or recurrence of disease (12-96 months, median 39). The median treatment volume was 3.4 ccm and the median dose to the tumour margin was 13 Gy. The median patient follow-up time was 76 months (range 60-120 months). Four tumours progressed after primary radiosurgery. Tumour control rate was 96%. Useful hearing (Gardner-Robertson I/II) was preserved in 16 patients (55%). Clinical neurological improvement occurred in 50%. Adverse effects comprised neurological symptoms (incomplete facial palsy) (House-Brackman II/III) in six cases (four recovered completely), mild transient trigeminal neuropathy in five cases, and morphological changes displaying rapid enlargement of preexisting macrocysts in two patients and tumour growth in two other patients. Microsurgical resection was performed in four cases (4%) and two patients underwent a shunting procedure because of hydrocephalus formation (2%). In patients who had undergone previous microsurgery, no new cranial nerve deficit was observed. Radiosurgery is an effective method for growth control of vestibular schwannomas and is associated with both a low mortality rate and a good quality of life. Accordingly, for the preservation of cranial nerve function radiosurgery is a useful method for the management of properly selected patients and is comparable to microsurgery. PMID:12379008

Unger, F; Walch, C; Schröttner, O; Eustacchio, S; Sutter, B; Pendl, G

2002-01-01

9

The Trigeminal (V) and Facial (VII) Cranial Nerves  

PubMed Central

There are close functional and anatomical relationships between cranial nerves V and VII in both their sensory and motor divisions. Sensation on the face is innervated by the trigeminal nerves (V) as are the muscles of mastication, but the muscles of facial expression are innervated mainly by the facial nerve (VII) as is the sensation of taste. This article briefly reviews the anatomy of these cranial nerves, disorders of these nerves that are of particular importance to psychiatry, and some considerations for differential diagnosis. PMID:20386632

Sanders, Richard D.

2010-01-01

10

ANCA-Negative Wegener's Granulomatosis with Multiple Lower Cranial Nerve Palsies  

PubMed Central

Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is a systemic vasculitis affecting small and medium-sized vessels with granulomatous formation. Though it is known for respiratory tract and kidney involvement, neurologic manifestation has been also reported. Herein we report a patient who suffered pansinusitis with multiple lower cranial nerve palsies but reached remission by immunosuppressant after the diagnosis of WG. A 54-yr-old female visited with headache, hearing difficulty, and progressive bulbar symptoms. She experienced endoscopic sinus surgeries due to refractory sinusitis. Neurologic examination revealed multiple lower cranial nerve palsies. Vasculitic markers showed no abnormality. Nasal biopsy revealed granulomatous inflammation and vasculitis involving small vessels. Given cyclophosphamide and prednisolone, her symptoms were prominently improved. WG should be considered in the patient with multiple cranial nerve palsies, especially those with paranasal sinus disease. Because WG can be lethal if delayed in treatment, prompt immunosuppressant is warranted after the diagnostic tissue biopsy. PMID:24265538

Kim, Sung-Hee; Park, Jin; Bae, Jung Ho; Cho, Min-Sun; Park, Kee Duk

2013-01-01

11

Primary neurolymphomatosis of the lower cranial nerves presenting as Dysphagia and hoarseness: a case report.  

PubMed

Primary neurolymphomatosis is an extremely rare tumor. We report the case of a 74-year-old patient presenting with dysphagia and hoarseness. Initial contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the head, neck, and chest did not reveal any lesions. His symptoms improved with short-term administration of prednisone but recurred and deteriorated. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a tumor along the ninth and tenth cranial nerves across the jugular foramen. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography indicated this was a primary tumor. Repeated MR imaging after 2 months revealed considerable tumor enlargement. A left suboccipital craniotomy was performed to remove the tumor that infiltrated the ninth and tenth cranial nerves. The histopathologic diagnosis was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Although focal radiation therapy was administered to ensure complete eradication of the tumor, the patient died of aspiration pneumonia with systemic metastasis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of primary neurolymphomatosis in the lower cranial nerves. PMID:25083392

Sakai, Naoto; Ito-Yamashita, Tae; Takahashi, Goro; Baba, Satoshi; Koizumi, Shinichiro; Yamasaki, Tomohiro; Tokuyama, Tsutomu; Namba, Hiroki

2014-08-01

12

Bony exostosis of the atlas with resultant cranial nerve palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of tenth and twelfth nerve compression secondary to a bony exostosis of the first cervical vertebra is described. This uncommon phenomenon serves to outline the importance of imaging the course of a cranial nerve when no intracranial abnormality is demonstrable on CT or MRI. The radiologic features of spinal osteochondromas are reviewed.

J. P. Slavotinek; B. P. Brophy; M. R. Sage

1991-01-01

13

The Six Syndromes of the Sixth Cranial Nerve  

PubMed Central

The sixth cranial nerve runs a long course from the brainstem to the lateral rectus muscle. Based on the location of an abnormality, other neurologic structures may be involved with the pathology related to this nerve. Sixth nerve palsy is frequently due to a benign process with full recovery within weeks, yet caution is warranted as it may portend a serious neurologic process. Hence, early diagnosis is often critical for some conditions that present with sixth nerve palsy. This article outlines a simple clinical approach to sixth nerve palsy based on its anatomy. PMID:23943691

Azarmina, Mohsen; Azarmina, Hossein

2013-01-01

14

Parapharyngeal branchial cleft cyst presenting with cranial nerve palsies.  

PubMed

The authors report a case of branchial cleft cyst for which the location and presentation of the lesion were unusual. This abnormality should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions of the parapharyngeal space. The presence of multiple cranial nerve palsies in association with a mass in this region does not necessarily indicate a neoplastic lesion. PMID:8149269

Durrant, T J; Sevick, R J; Lauryssen, C; MacRae, M E

1994-04-01

15

Shrapnel injury of isolated third cranial nerve.  

PubMed

Isolated third nerve palsy develops in numerous intracranial pathologies such as closed head trauma, tumor, and aneurysm. Isolated oculomotor nerve palsy caused by shrapnel injury is uncommon. After a penetrating intracranial shrapnel injury, our patient with oculomotor ophthalmoplegia underwent surgery. Microsurgery removed the shrapnel that was applying pressure on the third nerve, resulting in contusion. A partial recovery associated with regeneration was observed at month 9. Extraocular muscle surgery should be planned if palsy does not resolve over a prolonged period of time. PMID:25485217

Uluta?, Murat; Seçer, Mehmet

2014-12-01

16

Normal - Cranial Nerves Exam - Vestibulocochlear (CN VIII) Nerve Sub-exam - Patient 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video depicts the 'normal' patient responses that should occur during a cranial nerves exam. The patient in the video is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

Pearson, John C.

2009-06-08

17

Normal - Cranial Nerves Exam - Oculomotor, Trochlear, Abducens (CN III, IV, VI) Nerves Sub-exam  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video depicts a 'normal' cranial nerves exam. Patient is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

John C. Pearson, PhD

18

[The forgotten cranial nerve - clinical importance of olfaction.  

PubMed

Hyposmia is often undiagnosed despite the known negative effect on taste, appetite and life quality. However, a new focus on the first cranial nerve has emerged as a consequence of a discovered connection between neurodegenerative disorders and hyposmia. In Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease hyposmia is not only one of the earliest clinical presentations, the degree of hyposmia also correlates with the later progression of these two conditions. Hyposmia should not be ignored nor accepted; instead it should be integrated in any neurological examination, especially in elderly patients. PMID:25347335

Fjældstad, Alexander; Clausen, Christian H; Kjærgaard, Thomas; Ovesen, Therese

2014-01-27

19

[A case of herpetic facial paralysis in which cochleovestibular symptoms outweigh facial nerve symptoms].  

PubMed

A 42-year-old man presented with sensorineural hearing loss of acute onset, tinnitus, and vertigo. Physical examination revealed slight asymmetry in facial nerve functions and spontaneous nystagmus. Magnetic resonance imaging of the internal acoustic canal showed contrast enhancement consistent with edema-inflammation, being notable and diffuse in the seventh and eighth cranial nerve complex, and minimal in the cochlea. Non-hydropic cochleovestibular syndrome was considered and the patient was treated with antiviral and corticosteroid medications. A week later, facial paralysis improved and the acute hearing loss reversed. On the twelfth day of presentation, he had no complaints other than mild imbalance on abrupt changes in movement. In this type of herpetic facial paralysis in which cochleovestibular symptoms outweigh facial nerve symptoms, it might be argued that varicella zoster virus reactivation occurs in the spiral and/or vestibular ganglion. PMID:18443402

Avci, Suat; Kansu, Leyla; Akkuzu, Babür; Ozgirgin, Nuri; Ozlüo?lu, Levent

2008-01-01

20

Ophthalmoplegic migraine with isolated third cranial nerve palsy in a known case of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.  

PubMed

Among the various forms of migraine headaches, ophthalmoplegic migraine is an uncommon and rare form, the incidence of which is approximately 0.7 per million. It presents predominantly with headache and ophthalmoplegia. One of more cranial nerves can be affected, however the third cranial nerve is most often affected. As a result, symptoms wise, mydriasis and ptosis are commonly seen. Patients generally recover completely within a few days or weeks, however residual deficits are known to occur in a minority of patients. One of the common generalised epilepsy syndromes is the juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), its prevalence being roughly up to 10% of all patients with epilepsy. It usually begins in the second decade of life. Generalised tonic-clonic seizures myoclonic jerks absences constitute the main seizure types in JME. Studies indicate a definite association of epilepsy with migraine headaches and a significant number of migraneurs are found to be epileptic. Conversely, patients with epilepsy are two times more likely to have migraine, as compared to their first degree relatives without migraine. We report a known case of a female patient of JME having a history of classical migraine with aura presenting to us with headache and ophthalmoplegia. She was extensively evaluated to rule out other causes of isolated third cranial nerve palsy, with all the investigations being negative for any obvious cause. She was treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the acute attack and was subsequently put on antimigraine medication, propranolol during her hospital stay, with which her ptosis recovered completely after 2 weeks. The patient was later started on tablet divalproex sodium, which the patient continues to take on a long-term basis, especially because of its efficacy as an antimigraine prophylaxis agent and a potent drug against JME. PMID:24296772

Shetty, Aakash; Khardenavis, Supriya; Deshpande, Anirudda

2013-01-01

21

[First case described of isolated, complete and fluctuating cranial nerve III palsy heralding multiple myeloma].  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION. Multiple myeloma is the most common plasma-cell malignancy. To be incurable, treatment aims to obtain the longest non-clinical survival time. Cranial nerve palsy in multiple myeloma is extremely rare and is usually due to an intracranial plasmacytoma. We present a multiple myeloma case, with an intracranial plasmacytoma, which debuted clinically with isolated, complete and fluctuating cranial nerve III palsy. CASE REPORT. A 63-year-old woman presented an oscillating clinical picture, consisting of horizontal binocular diplopia and later, headache. The neuro-ophthalmologic examination revealed a complete cranial nerve III palsy of the right eye. An urgent cranial CT-scan was requested. It showed multiple diploic osteolytic lesions, associating soft-parts component in the right superior orbital fissure. The patient was admitted, being diagnosed subsequently of IgA-kappa multiple myeloma. After receiving induction-chemotherapy and undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation, she achieved full remission. CONCLUSIONS. Multiple myeloma is a rare cranial nerves disorder, very uncommon cause of cranial nerve III full isolated paralysis and even less fluctuating, not having found any case published with this clinical onset. Awareness of possible multiple myeloma neuro-ophthalmic manifestations may bring about an early diagnosis and a positive impact on the disease course. PMID:25624087

Leon-Ruiz, M; Benito-Leon, J; Sierra-Hidalgo, F; Garcia-Soldevilla, M A; Izquierdo-Esteban, L; Tejeiro-Martinez, J; Cabrera-Valdivia, F; Garcia-Albea Ristol, E

2015-02-01

22

Glufosinate Herbicide Intoxication Causing Unconsciousness, Convulsion, and 6th Cranial Nerve Palsy  

PubMed Central

Although glufosinate ammonium herbicides are considered safe when used properly, ingestion of the undiluted form can cause grave outcomes. Recently, we treated a 34-yr-old man who ingested glufosinate ammonium herbicide. In the course of treatment, the patient developed apnea, mental deterioration, and sixth cranial nerve palsy; he has since been discharged with full recovery after intensive care. This case report describes the clinical features of glufosinate intoxication with a focus on sixth cranial nerve palsy. Our observation suggests that neurologic manifestations after ingestion of a "low-grade toxicity herbicide" are variable and more complex than that was previously considered. PMID:24265537

Park, Jae-seok; Kwak, Soo-Jung; Gil, Hyo-wook; Kim, So-Young

2013-01-01

23

Cranial Nerves any nerve that emanates from the skull Motor = efferent  

E-print Network

foramen nXI ­ spinal accessory enters cranial cavity via foramen magnum cranial cavity via jugular foramen Vertebral arteries ­ foramen magnum of occipital bone Middle meningeal arteries ­ foramen spinosum

Houde, Peter

24

Sneddon syndrome presenting with unilateral third cranial nerve palsy.  

PubMed

Sneddon syndrome is a rare systemic vasculopathy affecting the skin as livedo racemosa and the central nervous system as stroke. A 31-year-old man with a history of livedo racemosa presented with a partial left third nerve palsy. Skin biopsy showed signs of endotheliitis with obliteration of dermal blood vessels due to intimal proliferation and fibrin thrombi consistent with Sneddon syndrome. The patient was treated with platelet antiaggregant therapy with complete resolution of his third nerve palsy. Clinicians should be aware of Sneddon syndrome because prompt diagnosis and treatment may prevent potential morbidity and mortality. PMID:24051423

Jiménez-Gallo, David; Albarrán-Planelles, Cristina; Linares-Barrios, Mario; González-Fernández, Julio A; Espinosa-Rosso, Raúl; Báez-Perea, José M

2014-03-01

25

Isolated III cranial nerve palsy: a Hodgkin's lymphoma?  

PubMed

A 69-year-old woman developed ptosis and diplopia due to an isolated pupil-involving left oculomotor nerve palsy. General examination was unremarkable. Initial workup showed a mild increase in cerebrospinal fluid proteins. Imaging studies were remarkable for a left oculomotor nerve enhancement in brain MRI and hyperfixation along the nerve's pathway in full body single-photon emission CT. Assuming the possible diagnosis of neurosarcoidosis, the patient was started on high-dose methylprednisolone. Three months later she developed pancytopenia. A bone marrow biopsy was performed and histopathology revealed infiltration by Hodgkin's lymphoma. Adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine protocol chemotherapy was started and full haematological remission obtained after four cycles, despite mild oculomotor nerve palsy persisted. Isolated oculomotor palsy as the first presenting manifestation of a lymphoma is rare and alternative differential diagnosis must be considered in the absence of other lymphoma manifestations. In this case as with many rare initial manifestations of common diseases watchful waiting was crucial to the correct diagnosis and treatment strategy. PMID:24759607

Meireles, Joana; Garrett, Maria Carolina; Abreu, Pedro

2014-01-01

26

Isolated Bilateral Fourth Cranial Nerve Palsies as the Presenting Sign of Hydrocephalus  

PubMed Central

Midbrain lesions leading to bilateral fourth nerve palsies are typically accompanied by other brainstem symptomatology. Here we report a case of a 29-year-old man with hydrocephalus and significant third ventricle dilation applying pressure on the dorsal midbrain and having as only manifestation isolated, bilateral fourth cranial nerve palsies. This finding, reported now for the first time, could be attributed to a partially working ventriculoperitoneal shunt previously placed to this patient, which was able to sporadically relieve the increases of the intraventricular pressure on the midbrain that would normally lead to other manifestations. PMID:21829403

Mantopoulos, Dimosthenis; Hunter, David G.; Cestari, Dean M.

2011-01-01

27

Cranial mononeuropathy III - diabetic type  

MedlinePLUS

Diabetic third nerve palsy; Pupil-sparing third cranial nerve palsy ... Cranial mononeuropathy III - diabetic type -- is a mononeuropathy . This means that only one nerve is damaged. The condition affects the third cranial (oculomotor) ...

28

Invasion of cranial nerves by salivary cylindroma: four cases treated by radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Four cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma (cylindroma) of accessory salivary tissue are described, and the diagnostic difficulties experienced are emphasized. The tumour infiltrates cranial and other nerves and may invade the central nervous system by this route. It is highly malignant and may metastasize widely both by haematogenous and lymphatic pathways. The tumour is radiosensitive and it is suggested that the treatment of choice is radiotherapy combined, when possible, with surgical excision of the primary lesion. Metastases should be treated with radiotherapy since useful remission may occur. Images PMID:4328886

Swash, Michael

1971-01-01

29

Normal - Cranial Nerves Exam - Facial Nerve (CN VII) Sub-exam - Patient 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video provides a demonstration of a patient's facial nerve examination. The patient is a female with no known neurological health problems who volunteered to act as a simulated patient in order to demonstrate 'normal' responses to exam techniques. Viewing the video requires installation of the free QuickTime Plug-in.

Pearson, John C.

2009-01-02

30

[A case of atypical Cogan's syndrome with a steroid-responsive headache and multiple cranial neuropathy as the initial symptoms].  

PubMed

Cogan's syndrome (CS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by non-syphilitic interstitial keratitis and progressive audiovestibular impairment. Haynes et al. modified diagnostic criteria for patients with other ocular or vestibular symptoms and suggested this to be atypical CS. We report the case of a 71-year-old man with atypical CS. He was referred to our hospital with a headache, bilateral facial nerve palsy, left episcleritis and bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Serological test results for syphilis and antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies were negative. Cerebral MRI revealed sinusitis and pituitary swelling. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the aorta demonstrated thickening of the wall and stenosis of the aorta with pathological uptake on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Biopsy of the sinus mucosa exhibited angiitis of the arterioles, capillaries, and venules. Atypical CS was diagnosed on the basis of episcleritis, progressive sensorineural hearing loss and exclusion of other inflammatory diseases. Intravenous injection of 500mg/day methylprednisolone for 3 days was effective for alleviating the patient's symptoms, except for hearing loss, but the disease recurred during the tapering of prednisolone (PSL). Combined therapy with PSL (10 mg/day) and methotrexate (6 mg/week) helped achieve remission of the disease. CS is causative of cranial polyneuropathy, but diagnosis of the former is not always straightforward as in the cases of cranial polyneuropathy. It has been considered that CS is a subtype of polyarteritis nodosa (PN); however, the clinical signs and size of the affected vessels in the present patient are different from those in PN. It is postulated that CS is a vasculitic syndrome that should be distinguishable from PN. PMID:21987570

Riku, Yuichi; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Fujino, Masahiko; Mano, Kazuo

2011-10-01

31

Cranial electrical stimulation improves symptoms and functional status in individuals with fibromyalgia.  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of microcurrent cranial electrical stimulation (CES) therapy on reducing pain and its associated symptoms in fibromyalgia (FM), we conducted a randomized, controlled, three-group (active CES device, sham device, and usual care alone [UC]), double-blind study to determine the potential benefit of CES therapy for symptom management in FM. Those individuals using the active CES device had a greater decrease in average pain (p = .023), fatigue (p = .071), and sleep disturbance (p = .001) than individuals using the sham device or those receiving usual care alone over time. Additionally, individuals using the active CES device had improved functional status versus the sham device and UC groups over time (p = .028). PMID:24315255

Taylor, Ann Gill; Anderson, Joel G; Riedel, Shannon L; Lewis, Janet E; Kinser, Patricia A; Bourguignon, Cheryl

2013-12-01

32

Lemierre syndrome associated with 12th cranial nerve palsy--a case report and review.  

PubMed

Since the widespread availability and use of antibiotics the prevalence of Lemierre syndrome (L.S.) has decreased. It is a well-described entity, consisting of postanginal septicaemia with thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein with metastatic infection, most commonly in the lungs. The most common causative agent is a gram-negative, non-spore-forming obligate anaerobic bacterium, Fusobacterium necrophorum (F.n.). We describe the unusual clinical features of a 12-year-old boy with Lemierre syndrome with isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy - the latter symptom is an extremely rare manifestation of this disease. PMID:23845534

Blessing, Kerstin; Toepfner, Nicole; Kinzer, Susanne; Möllmann, Cornelia; Geiger, Julia; Serr, Annerose; Hufnagel, Markus; Müller, Christoph; Krüger, Marcus; Ridder, Gerd J; Berner, Reinhard

2013-09-01

33

Lower cranial nerves function after surgical treatment of Fisch Class C and D tympanojugular paragangliomas.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to report the postoperative lower cranial nerves (LCNs) function in patients undergoing surgery for tympanojugular paraganglioma (TJP) and to evaluate risk factors for postoperative LCN dysfunction. A retrospective case review of 122 patients having Fisch class C or D TJP, surgically treated from 1988 to 2012, was performed. The follow-up of the series ranged from 12 to 156 months (mean, 39.4 ± 32.6 months). The infratemporal type A approach was the most common surgical procedure. Gross total tumor removal was achieved in 86 % of cases. Seventy-two percent of the 54 patients with preoperative LCN deficit had intracranial tumor extension. Intraoperatively, LCNs had to be sacrificed in 63 cases (51.6 %) due to tumor infiltration. Sixty-six patients (54.09 %) developed a new deficit of one or more of the LCNs. Of those patients who developed new LCN deficits, 23 of them had intradural extension. Postoperative follow-up of at least 1 year showed that the LCN most commonly affected was the CN IX (50 %). Logistic regression analysis showed that intracranial transdural tumor extension was correlated with the higher risk of LCN sacrifice (p < 0.05). Despite the advances in skull base surgery, new postoperative LCN deficits still represent a challenge. The morbidity associated with resection of the LCNs is dependent on the tumor's size and intradural tumor extension. Though no recovery of LCN deficits may be expected, on long-term follow-up, patients usually compensate well for their LCNs loss. PMID:24327081

Bacciu, Andrea; Medina, Marimar; Ait Mimoune, Hassen; D'Orazio, Flavia; Pasanisi, Enrico; Peretti, Giorgio; Sanna, Mario

2015-02-01

34

Clinical Features and Outcomes of Strabismus Treatment in Third Cranial Nerve Palsy during a 10-Year Period  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To evaluate the demographics and management outcomes of strabismus surgery in patients with third cranial nerve palsy. Methods: This retrospective study includes subjects with third cranial nerve palsy. We evaluated age, sex, laterality, severity of involvement, etiology, frequency of clinical findings, and types and results of treatments. Results: 52 patients including 29 male and 23 female subjects with mean age of 21.1±15.5 years were studied between January 1999 and January 2009. Etiologies of third nerve palsy included congenital in 16 (30.8%), trauma in 26 (50%) and other causes in 10 (19.2%) patients. In 24 patients (46.2%), the palsy was complete. The most common type of strabismus was exotropia associated with hypotropia (40%). Medical treatment was used in 25 (48%) and surgical treatment in 46 (88.4%) subjects. One time strabismus surgery was performed in 30 (65.2%), 2 times in 11 (24%) and 3 times in 5 (10.8%) subjects. The most common operation was large horizontal recession and resection in 78.2% of cases. Mean horizontal deviation in primary position was 66±29 prism diopters (PD) before surgery decreasing to 21±19, 13±12 and 6±8 PD after first, second and third surgery, respectively. Corresponding figures for mean vertical deviation were 13±15, 7±12, 4±6 and 1±2 PD, respectively. Abnormal head posture was 10-30° in 11 (21.1%) cases before treatment which completely resolved after surgery. Conclusion: Surgical management of strabismus in patients with third nerve palsy is difficult and challenging, however the majority of patients achieve ideal results with appropriate and stepwise surgical plans.

Bagheri, Abbas; Borhani, Morteza; Tavakoli, Mehdi; Salehirad, Shahram

2014-01-01

35

Enterovirus 71 can directly infect the brainstem via cranial nerves and infection can be ameliorated by passive immunization.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease may be complicated by encephalomyelitis. We investigated EV71 brainstem infection and whether this infection could be ameliorated by passive immunization in a mouse model. Enterovirus 71 was injected into unilateral jaw/facial muscles of 2-week-old mice, and hyperimmune sera were given before or after infection. Harvested tissues were studied by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and viral titration. In unimmunized mice, viral antigen and RNA were detected within 24 hours after infection only in ipsilateral cranial nerves, motor trigeminal nucleus, reticular formation, and facial nucleus; viral titers were significantly higher in the brainstem than in the spinal cord samples. Mice given preinfection hyperimmune serum showed a marked reduction of ipsilateral viral antigen/RNA and viral titers in the brainstem in a dose-dependent manner. With optimum hyperimmune serum given after infection, brainstem infection was significantly reduced in a time-dependent manner. A delay in disease onset and a reduction of disease severity and mortality were also observed. Thus, EV71 can directly infect the brainstem, including the medulla, via cranial nerves, most likely by retrograde axonal transport. This may explain the sudden cardiorespiratory collapse in human patients with fatal encephalomyelitis. Moreover, our results suggest that passive immunization may still benefit EV71-infected patients who have neurologic complications. PMID:25289894

Tan, Soon Hao; Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong

2014-11-01

36

Treatment of Cervical Internal Carotid Artery Spontaneous Dissection with Pseudoaneurysm and Unilateral Lower Cranial Nerves Palsy by Two Silk Flow Diverters  

SciTech Connect

Internal carotid artery (ICA) lesions in the parapharyngeal space (a dissection and a pseudoaneurysm) may present as isolated lower cranial nerves (IX, X, XI, and XII) palsy (Collet-Sicard syndrome). Some arteriopathies such as fibromuscular dysplasia and tortuosity make a vessel predisposed to dissection. Extreme vessel tortuosity makes the treatment by a stent graft impossible. Two Silk stents were used in a 46 year-old man with left lower cranial nerves (IX-XII) palsy for the treatment of left ICA spontaneous dissection with pseudoaneurysm. A follow-up angiogram 5 months later confirmed pseudoaneurysm thrombosis and patency of the left ICA. The patient recovered completely from the deficits.

Zelenak, Kamil, E-mail: zelenak@unm.sk [University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Slovakia); Zelenakova, Jana [University Hospital, Department of Neurology (Slovakia); DeRiggo, Julius [University Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery (Slovakia); Kurca, Egon; Kantorova, Ema [University Hospital, Department of Neurology (Slovakia); Polacek, Hubert [University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Slovakia)

2013-08-01

37

HINDBRAIN AND CRANIAL NERVE DYSMORPHOGENESIS RESULT FROM ACUTE MATERNAL ETHANOL ADMINISTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Acute exposure of mouse embryos to ethanol during stages of hindbrain segmentation results in excessive cell death in specific cell populations. This study details the ethanol-induced cell loss and defines the subsequent effects of this early insult on rhombomere and cranial ner...

38

A case of corticotroph carcinoma that caused multiple cranial nerve palsies, destructive petrosal bone invasion, and liver metastasis.  

PubMed

A 52-year-old woman experienced sudden onset of double vision due to a right abducens nerve palsy and was diagnosed as having a pituitary macroadenoma that invaded into the right cavernous sinus. Otherwise, she was asymptomatic despite marked elevation of ACTH (293 pg/ml) and cortisol (24.6 ?g/dl) levels. The patient underwent transsphenoidal surgery followed by ?-knife radiosurgery (GKR), which healed the diplopia and ameliorated the hypercortisolemia. The excised tumor was diffusely stained for ACTH with a high (15%) Ki-67 labeling index. Early tumor recurrence occurred twice thereafter, producing right lower cranial nerve palsies with petrosal bone destruction at 8 months and an ipsilateral oculomotor nerve palsy at 12 months after GKR; all palsies resolved completely with the second and third GKRs. Hypercortisolemia worsened rapidly soon after the third GKR, and the patient developed marked weight gain, hypokalemia, and hypertension. Multiple liver lesions were incidentally detected with computer tomography and identified as metastatic pituitary tumor on immunohistochemistry. An ACTH-producing adenoma should be followed carefully for early recurrence and/or metastatic spread when the tumor is an invasive macroadenoma with a high proliferation marker level. The unique aggressive behavior and high potential for malignant transformation of this case are discussed. PMID:21234708

Ono, Masami; Miki, Nobuhiro; Amano, Kosaku; Hayashi, Motohiro; Kawamata, Takakazu; Seki, Toshiro; Takano, Kazue; Katagiri, Satosi; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Nishikawa, Toshio; Kubo, Osami; Sano, Toshiaki; Hori, Tomokatsu; Okada, Yoshikazu

2011-03-01

39

Development of theXenopus laevis viiith cranial nerve: Increase in number and area of axons of the saccular and papillar branches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of three branches of the VIIIth cranial nerve was examined in the anuran, Xenopus laevis. Sectioned tissue from the saccular, amphibian papillar, and basilar papillar branches of stage 52 larvae, 1 day postmetamorphosis juveniles, and 2-year adult animals was analyzed under the light microscope with a digital image analysis system. Numbers and cross-sectional areas of myelinated axons were measured

Vincent L. López-Anaya; Daniel López-Maldonado; Elba E. Serrano

1997-01-01

40

Pseudo third cranial nerve palsy secondary to orbital ectopic lacrimal gland cyst: management with functional endoscopic sinus surgery.  

PubMed

An otherwise healthy 13-month-old girl was noted by her pediatrician to have developed a left head turn. The patient was referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist, who noticed signs of incomplete third cranial nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of an abnormal lesion in the inferonasal orbit that was abutting the ethmoid sinus. After consultation with an ENT specialist, the decision was made to remove the lesion via functional endoscopic sinus surgery because this approach was deemed to provide adequate access while limiting morbidity. Histology of the excised lesion identified it as true ectopic lacrimal gland tissue with cysts. We recognize and comment on the fact that in many reported cases of ectopic lacrimal gland cyst, the tissue was not ectopic at all but instead represented an extension of normal lacrimal gland tissue. PMID:24526481

Braich, Puneet S; Silbert, Jonathan E; Levada, Andrew J; Schiff, Neil R

2014-02-01

41

SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY OF SYMPTOMS AND PROVOCATIVE TESTS IN DIAGNOSING MEDIAN NERVE NEUROPATHY IN DOMINANT HANDS CONFIRMED BY NERVE CONDUCTION TESTING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population-based studies are needed to better define the effectiveness of commonly elicited symptoms and provocative testing in screening for and diagnosing median nerve neuropathy. This report details baseline sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value data of median nerve signs and symptoms from an ongoing prospective cohort study. Workers (n=851) from both Wisconsin and Utah have been enrolled in a prospective cohort

Laura R. Kaufman; Matthew S. Thiese; Kurt T. Hegmann

42

Non-aneurysmal Cranial Nerve Compression As Cause of Neuropathic Strabismus: Evidence from High-resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

Purpose To seek evidence of neurovascular compression of motor cranial nerve (CN) in otherwise idiopathic neuropathic strabismus using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Design Prospective, observational case series. Methods High-resolution, surface coil orbital MRI was performed in 10 strabismic patients with idiopathic oculomotor (CN3) or abducens (CN6) palsy. Relationships between CNs and intracranial arteries were demonstrated by 0.8 mm thick, 162 micron resolution, heavily T2 weighted MRI in fast imaging employing steady state acquisition sequence. Images were digitally analyzed to evaluate cross-sectional areas of extraocular muscles. Results In one patient with CN3 palsy, an ectatic posterior communicating artery markedly flattened and thinned the ipsilateral subarachnoid CN3. Cross-sections of the affected medial, superior and inferior rectus muscles 10 mm posterior to the globe-optic nerve junction were 17.2 ±2. 5 mm2, 15.5 ± 1.3 mm2, and 9.9 ± 0.8 mm2, significantly smaller than the values of 23.6 ± 1.9, 30.4 ± 4.1, 28.8 ± 4.6 mm2 of the unaffected side (P < 0.001). In two patients with otherwise unexplained CN6 palsy, ectatic basilar arteries contacted CN6. Mean cross-sections of affected lateral rectus muscles were 24.0 ± 2.3 and 29.8 ± 3.1 mm2, significantly smaller than the values of 33.5 ± 4.1 mm2 and 36.9 ± 1.6 mm2 in unaffected contralateral eyes (P < 0.05). Conclusions Non-aneurysmal motor CN compression should be considered as a cause of CN3 and CN6 paresis with neurogenic muscle atrophy, when MRI demonstrates vascular distortion of the involved CN. Demonstration of a benign vascular etiology can terminate continuing diagnostic investigations and expedite rational management of the strabismus. PMID:21861970

Tsai, Tzu-Hsun; Demer, Joseph L.

2011-01-01

43

Importance of Tissue Morphology Relative to Patient Reports of Symptoms and Functional Limitations Resulting From Median Nerve Pathology  

PubMed Central

Significant data exist for the personal, environmental, and occupational risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome. Few data, however, explain the interrelationship of tissue morphology to these factors among patients with clinical presentation of median nerve pathology. Therefore, our primary objective was to examine the relationship of various risk factors that may be predictive of subjective reports of symptoms or functional deficits accounting for median nerve morphology. Using diagnostic ultrasonography, we observed real-time median nerve morphology among 88 participants with varying reports of symptoms or functional limitations resulting from median nerve pathology. Body mass index, educational level, and nerve morphology were the primary predictive factors. Monitoring median nerve morphology with ultrasonography may provide valuable information for clinicians treating patients with symptoms of median nerve pathology. Sonographic measurements may be a useful clinical tool for improving treatment planning and provision, documenting patient status, or measuring clinical outcomes of prevention and rehabilitation interventions. PMID:23245784

Evans, Kevin D.; Li, Xiaobai; Sommerich, Carolyn M.; Case-Smith, Jane

2013-01-01

44

Dysphagia and disrupted cranial nerve development in a mouse model of DiGeorge (22q11) deletion syndrome  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT We assessed feeding-related developmental anomalies in the LgDel mouse model of chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a common developmental disorder that frequently includes perinatal dysphagia – debilitating feeding, swallowing and nutrition difficulties from birth onward – within its phenotypic spectrum. LgDel pups gain significantly less weight during the first postnatal weeks, and have several signs of respiratory infections due to food aspiration. Most 22q11 genes are expressed in anlagen of craniofacial and brainstem regions critical for feeding and swallowing, and diminished expression in LgDel embryos apparently compromises development of these regions. Palate and jaw anomalies indicate divergent oro-facial morphogenesis. Altered expression and patterning of hindbrain transcriptional regulators, especially those related to retinoic acid (RA) signaling, prefigures these disruptions. Subsequently, gene expression, axon growth and sensory ganglion formation in the trigeminal (V), glossopharyngeal (IX) or vagus (X) cranial nerves (CNs) that innervate targets essential for feeding, swallowing and digestion are disrupted. Posterior CN IX and X ganglia anomalies primarily reflect diminished dosage of the 22q11DS candidate gene Tbx1. Genetic modification of RA signaling in LgDel embryos rescues the anterior CN V phenotype and returns expression levels or pattern of RA-sensitive genes to those in wild-type embryos. Thus, diminished 22q11 gene dosage, including but not limited to Tbx1, disrupts oro-facial and CN development by modifying RA-modulated anterior-posterior hindbrain differentiation. These disruptions likely contribute to dysphagia in infants and young children with 22q11DS. PMID:24357327

Karpinski, Beverly A.; Maynard, Thomas M.; Fralish, Matthew S.; Nuwayhid, Samer; Zohn, Irene E.; Moody, Sally A.; LaMantia, Anthony-S.

2014-01-01

45

Cranial Nerve I  

PubMed Central

Olfactory (smell) testing is one of the most interesting and revealing individual neurologic tests in psychiatric research. It is also one of the most neglected tests in the clinical practice of psychiatry. There are several diagnostic applications of smell testing in clinical psychiatry. This review covers reasons for the psychiatrist to test olfaction, ways of testing olfaction, and how to interpret test results. PMID:19724767

Sanders, Richard D.

2009-01-01

46

Symptoms, signs and nerve conduction velocities in patients with suspected carpal tunnel syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background To inform the clinical management of patients with suspected carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and case definition for CTS in epidemiological research, we explored the relation of symptoms and signs to sensory nerve conduction (SNC) measurements. Methods Patients aged 20–64 years who were referred to a neurophysiology service for investigation of suspected CTS, completed a symptom questionnaire (including hand diagrams) and physical examination (including Tinel’s and Phalen’s tests). Differences in SNC velocity between the little and index finger were compared according to the anatomical distribution of symptoms in the hand and findings on physical examination. Results Analysis was based on 1806 hands in 908 patients (response rate 73%). In hands with numbness or tingling but negative on both Tinel’s and Phalen’s tests, the mean difference in SNC velocities was no higher than in hands with no numbness or tingling. The largest differences in SNC velocities occurred in hands with extensive numbness or tingling in the median nerve sensory distribution and both Tinel’s and Phalen’s tests positive (mean 13.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 12.6-15.0 m/s). Hand pain and thumb weakness were unrelated to SNC velocity. Conclusions Our findings suggest that in the absence of other objective evidence of median nerve dysfunction, there is little value in referring patients of working age with suspected CTS for nerve conduction studies if they are negative on both Tinel’s and Phalen’s tests. Alternative case definitions for CTS in epidemiological research are proposed according to the extent of diagnostic information available and the relative importance of sensitivity and specificity. PMID:23947775

2013-01-01

47

Chiropractic management of a patient with ulnar nerve compression symptoms: a case report  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe chiropractic management of a patient with arm and hand numbness and who was suspected to have ulnar nerve compression. Clinical Features A 41-year-old woman presented with hand weakness and numbness along the medial aspect of her right forearm and the 3 most medial fingers. The onset of symptoms presented suddenly, 3 weeks prior, when she woke up in the morning and assumed she had “slept wrong.” The patient’s posture showed protracted shoulders and moderate forward head carriage. Orthopedic assessment revealed symptomatic right elevated arm stress test, grip strength asymmetry, and a Tinel sign at the right cubital tunnel. Intervention and Outcome The patient was treated using chiropractic care, which consisted of manipulative therapy, myofascial therapy, and elastic therapeutic taping. Active home care included performing postural exercises and education about workstation ergonomics. She demonstrated immediate subjective improvement of her numbness and weakness after the first treatment. Over a series of 11 treatments, her symptoms resolved completely; and she was able to perform work tasks without dysfunction. Conclusion Chiropractic treatment consisting of manipulation, soft tissue mobilizations, exercise, and education of workstation ergonomics appeared to reduce the symptoms of ulnar nerve compression symptoms for this patient. PMID:24294148

Illes, Jennifer D.; Johnson, Theodore L.

2013-01-01

48

Modified three-dimensional skull base model with artificial dura mater, cranial nerves, and venous sinuses for training in skull base surgery: technical note.  

PubMed

Experience with dissection of the cavernous sinus and the temporal bone is essential for training in skull base surgery, but the opportunities for cadaver dissection are very limited. A modification of a commercially available prototype three-dimensional (3D) skull base model, made by a selective laser sintering method and incorporating surface details and inner bony structures such as the inner ear structures and air cells, is proposed to include artificial dura mater, cranial nerves, venous sinuses, and the internal carotid artery for such surgical training. The transpetrosal approach and epidural cavernous sinus surgery (Dolenc's technique) were performed on this modified model using a high speed drill or ultrasonic bone curette under an operating microscope. The model could be dissected in almost the same way as a real cadaver. The modified 3D skull base model provides a good educational tool for training in skull base surgery. PMID:19106500

Mori, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Takuji; Oyama, Kazutaka; Ueno, Hideaki; Nakao, Yasuaki; Honma, Keiichirou

2008-12-01

49

[Epidural hematomas in the posterior cranial fossa].  

PubMed

In the course of twenty years 92 patients with intracranial epidural haematomas (EH) were operated. In five these patients, i.e. 5.4%, the EH was in the posterior cranial fossa (EHPF). Focal symptoms of compression of the cerebellum and the lower cranial nerves developed only in subacute EHPF. In acute EHPF it was masked by manifestations of an affection of the brain stem. Direct evidence of EHPF was produced by AG. The best diagnostic method is computed tomography. Attention to EHPF can be however, drawn also clinical sings of injury of the bask of the skull or the finding of a fracture of the occipital bone on an X-ray picture of the skull. Evacuation of the EHPF provides favourable perspectives of a normal future life even on patients who are in a poor condition incl. signs of and impaired respiration. PMID:2237649

Steno, J; Fröhlich, J; Bízik, I

1990-06-01

50

Simultaneous transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation mitigates simulator sickness symptoms in healthy adults: a crossover study  

PubMed Central

Background Flight simulators have been used to train pilots to experience and recognize spatial disorientation, a condition in which pilots incorrectly perceive the position, location, and movement of their aircrafts. However, during or after simulator training, simulator sickness (SS) may develop. Spatial disorientation and SS share common symptoms and signs and may involve a similar mechanism of dys-synchronization of neural inputs from the vestibular, visual, and proprioceptive systems. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), a maneuver used for pain control, was found to influence autonomic cardiovascular responses and enhance visuospatial abilities, postural control, and cognitive function. The purpose of present study was to investigate the protective effects of TENS on SS. Methods Fifteen healthy young men (age: 28.6?±?0.9 years, height: 172.5?±?1.4 cm, body weight: 69.3?±?1.3 kg, body mass index: 23.4?±?1.8 kg/m2) participated in this within-subject crossover study. SS was induced by a flight simulator. TENS treatment involved 30 minutes simultaneous electrical stimulation of the posterior neck and the right Zusanli acupoint. Each subject completed 4 sessions (control, SS, TENS, and TENS?+?SS) in a randomized order. Outcome indicators included SS symptom severity and cognitive function, evaluated with the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) and d2 test of attention, respectively. Sleepiness was rated using the Visual Analogue Scales for Sleepiness Symptoms (VAS-SS). Autonomic and stress responses were evaluated by heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary stress biomarkers (salivary alpha-amylase activity and salivary cortisol concentration). Results Simulator exposure increased SS symptoms (SSQ and VAS-SS scores) and decreased the task response speed and concentration. The heart rate, salivary stress biomarker levels, and the sympathetic parameter of HRV increased with simulator exposure, but parasympathetic parameters decreased (p?symptom severity significantly decreased and the subjects were more able to concentrate and made fewer cognitive test errors (p?symptoms and alleviating cognitive impairment. Trial registration number Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register: http://ACTRN12612001172897 PMID:23587135

2013-01-01

51

Polychondritis presenting with oculomotor and abducens nerve palsies as the initial manifestation.  

PubMed

We treated a patient with relapsing polychondritis (RP) who presented with intermittent oculomotor and abducens nerve palsies as the first manifestation. Ear swelling and laryngeal edema emerged 7 months later, which led us to diagnose him with RP. Moderate doses of glucocorticoid resolved all symptoms. Our experience with RP accompanied by oculomotor nerve palsy suggests that RP should be considered in patients with cranial nerve palsies so that they may be promptly diagnosed and treated. PMID:24884407

Akiyama, Mitsuhiro; Kaneko, Yuko; Hanaoka, Hironari; Kuwana, Masataka; Takeuchi, Tsutomu

2014-06-01

52

Functional Anatomy of Cranial Synostosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of how sutural growth processes relate to the totality of cranial growth is necessary to cure the cause and not just the symptoms of cranial synostosis. There is no direct genetic determination for the origin, growth, size, shape or maintenance of bones. Rather, phenotypic expression of skeletal tissues is regulated via genetic information encoded in the cells of

Melvin L. Moss

1975-01-01

53

Prevention of upper limb symptoms and signs of nerve afflictions in computer operators: The effect of intervention by stretching  

PubMed Central

Background In a previous study of computer operators we have demonstrated the relation of upper limb pain to individual and patterns of neurological findings (reduced function of muscles, sensory deviations from normal and mechanical allodynia of nerve trunks). The identified patterns were in accordance with neural afflictions at three specific locations (brachial plexus at chord level, posterior interosseous and median nerve on elbow level). We have introduced an intervention program aiming to mobilize nerves at these locations and tested its efficacy. Methods 125 and 59, respectively, computer operators in two divisions of an engineering consultancy company were invited to answer a questionnaire on upper limb symptoms and to undergo a blinded neurological examination. Participants in one division were subsequently instructed to participate in an upper limb stretching course at least three times during workdays in a six month period. Subjects from the other division served as controls. At the end of the intervention both groups were invited to a second identical evaluation by questionnaire and physical examination. Symptoms and findings were studied in the right upper limb. Perceived changes of pain were recorded and individual and patterns of physical findings assessed for both groups at baseline and at follow-up. In subjects with no or minimal preceding pain we additionally studied the relation of incident pain to the summarized findings for parameters contained in the definition of nerve affliction at the three locations. Results Summarized pain was significantly reduced in the intervention group but unchanged in controls. After the intervention, fewer neurological abnormalities in accordance with nerve affliction were recorded for the whole material but no conclusion could be drawn regarding the relation to the intervention of this reduction. Incident pain correlated to findings in accordance with the three locations of nerve affliction. Conclusion A six month course of stretching seems to reduce upper limb symptoms in computer operators but we could not demonstrate an influence on neurological physical findings in this sample. The relation of incident symptoms to identified neurological patterns provides additional support to the construct validity of the employed neurological examination. PMID:18179682

Jepsen, Jorgen R; Thomsen, Gert

2008-01-01

54

Cranial fasciitis.  

PubMed

A 26-year-old man presented with an 18-month history of a subcutaneous mass on his forehead that occurred shortly after being struck by a blunt object. Histopathologic examination showed a proliferation of bland spindle cells and a collagenous stroma that was consistent with cranial fasciitis. Cranial fasciitis, which is a variant of nodular fasciitis, is a benign fibroblastic neoplasm that overlies the skull and often is associated with trauma. Although its rapid onset may give the clinical impression of a malignant condition, cranial fasciitis typically is cured by simple excision without further sequelae. PMID:25526336

Ginsberg, Brian; Ng, Elise; Hu, Stephanie W; Meehan, Shane A

2014-01-01

55

Overview of the Cranial Nerves  

MedlinePLUS

... do simple tasks, such as to follow a moving target with the eyes. Imaging of the brain with ... or movement from the corners of the eyes. Detection of ... moved by the examiner. Narrowing (constriction) or widening ( ...

56

Ear pain following temporomandibular surgery originating from the temporomandibular joint or the cranial nervous tissue? A case report.  

PubMed

A patient presenting with local pain and limitation of movement in the temporomandibular region following surgery of the left temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is described. Manual techniques like distraction of the TMJ combined with motor control exercises to restore TMJ function were not sufficient to relieve the patient's symptoms and her orofacial functions. However, during manual assessment and treatment of cranial nervous tissue, in this case the auriculotemporal nerve and its interface, pain was relieved and orofacial functions improved. PMID:24948551

Geerse, Wouter K; von Piekartz, Harry J M

2015-02-01

57

[Idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis associated with Horner's syndrome. A case report].  

PubMed

A 64-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for recurrence of visual disturbance and double vision experienced 1 year previously. He was alert and oriented. Bilateral light perception in a vision test, the third to the sixth cranial nerve palsies on the left side, and neck stiffness were observed. The patient exhibited left blepharoptosis, anisocoria and a left miotic pupil. After a pupillary drug test, a diagnosis of Horner's syndrome was made. Laboratory tests revealed hypoalbuminemia, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, positive rheumatoid factor, and elevated p-ANCA. Examination of the cerebrospinal fluid showed increased initial pressure and pleocytosis, but its bacterial and fungal cultures were negative. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging after intravenous administration of gadolinium revealed mild brain edema and marked hypertrophy of the left tentorium cerebelli, bilateral frontal dura and falx. Marked hypertrophy of the dura accompanied by cellular infiltration was observed in biopsied dura specimens. The patient was given a diagnosis as idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis (IHCP). His ocular symptoms gradually improved with methylprednisolone pulse therapy and oral prednisolone. This is the first reported case of IHCP associated with Horner's syndrome. Previous anatomical findings of the cavernous sinus suggest that Horner syndrome in this patient might be due to a mechanism other than constrictive compression of the cranial nerves by the hypertrophic dura mater. PMID:9248338

Shindo, K; Nitta, K; Nagasaka, T; Shiozawa, Z

1997-04-01

58

Primary glioblastoma of the trigeminal nerve root entry zone: case report.  

PubMed

Gliomas of the cranial nerve root entry zone are rare clinical entities. There have been 11 reported cases in the literature, including only 2 glioblastomas. The authors report the case of a 67-year-old man who presented with isolated facial numbness and was found to have a glioblastoma involving the trigeminal nerve root entry zone. After biopsy the patient completed treatment with conformal radiation and concomitant temozolomide, and at 23 weeks after surgery he demonstrated symptom progression despite the treatment described. This is the first reported case of a glioblastoma of the trigeminal nerve root entry zone. PMID:25380115

Breshears, Jonathan D; Ivan, Michael E; Cotter, Jennifer A; Bollen, Andrew W; Theodosopoulos, Phillip V; Berger, Mitchel S

2015-01-01

59

Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... swallowing Shortness of breath or wheezing Turning blue Drop in blood pressure (feeling faint, confused, weak, passing ... Resources About Anaphylaxis Allergens Peanut Tree Nuts Milk Egg Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Other Symptoms Diagnosis & Testing ...

60

[Clinical usefulness of thallium-201 single-photon emission CT in the patient with hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis].  

PubMed

We report a 54-year-old female with rheumatoid factor-positive hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis. At age of 51 years she developed headache, hearing loss, right vagal nerve palsy, and right accessory nerve palsy. MRI revealed thickening and gadolinium-enhancement of the cranial dura mater. The initial symptoms significantly improved with corticosteroid therapy. Two years later, she presented with severe headache and neck pain. Although gadolinium-enhanced MR images failed to show any change compared with those before recurrence, 201Tl single-photon emission CT (SPECT) showed a remarkable accumulation of thallium-201 in the dura mater. Furthermore, the abnormal uptake of thallium-201 returned to normal after treatment with corticosteroid. 201T1-SPECT was a useful tool for the evaluation of disease activity in the patient with hypertrophic pachymeningitis. PMID:15024834

Suzuki, Masahiro; Koide, Reiji; Kagamihara, Yasuhiro; Yagishita, Akira; Hayashi, Hideaki

2004-01-01

61

A study of Guillain–Barré syndrome with reference to cranial neuropathy and its prognostic implication  

PubMed Central

Background: Focused studies on cranial neuropathy in Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) and its prognostic implication are not done previously. Aim: To study the clinical profile of GBS patients with special reference to cranial neuropathy and its prognostic implication. Materials and Methods: The study included 61 patients with GB syndrome, fulfilling Asbury Cornblath's criteria for GB syndrome. A pre-designed semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain data regarding demographic profile and clinical profile. All patients underwent detailed neurological examination, investigations including nerve conduction studies and CSF examination and treated according to the severity of the illness. Patients were followed up for 6 months. During analysis two groups were made depending on cranial nerve involvement, and compared with respect to various parameters. Results: Out of 61 patients 38 (62.3%) patients had cranial nerve palsies, in that 25 had multiple cranial nerve palsies, and 13 had single isolated nerve palsy. A majority of 30 (49.2%) had bulbar palsy, 28 (46%) had facial nerve palsy, and all had bilateral involvement except 3 patients who had unilateral palsy. Hypoglossal nerve involvement was seen in six (10%) patients and four (6.5%) patients had ophthalmoplegia. Only one had bilateral vestibulocochlear nerve palsy. On comparing various clinico-electrophysiological parameters among patients of GB syndrome with and without cranial nerve involvement, the presence of respiratory paralysis, IVIg and ventilatory support requirement had significant association with cranial nerve involvement in GBS. Conclusion: Our study found a correlation between cranial nerve palsies and severity of the illness. Cranial nerve innervated muscles recover earlier as compared to distal limb muscles. No association was found between outcome at 6 months and cranial nerve involvement. PMID:25540538

Bhargava, Amita; Banakar, Basavaraj F.; Pujar, Guruprasad S.; Khichar, Shubhakaran

2014-01-01

62

Multiple schwannomas of the sciatic nerve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schwannomas are rare benign tumours of nerve sheath cells of neural crest origin. Often these tumours are solitary and encapsulated. Multiple schwannomas can arise from the peripheral nervous system including cranial nerves, spinal roots, the brachial and lumbar–sacral plexus or major peripheral nerves. We report an extremely rare case of schwannomatosis of the sciatic nerve in a young female and

J. Huang; R. Mobbs; C. Teo

2003-01-01

63

Videofluoroscopy-Guided Balloon Dilatation for the Opening Dysfunction of Upper Esophageal Sphincter by Postoperative Vagus Nerve Injury: A Report on Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Dysphagia secondary to peripheral cranial nerve injury originates from weak and uncoordinated contraction-relaxation of cricopharyngeal muscle. We report on two patients who suffered vagus nerve injury during surgery and showed sudden dysphagia by opening dysfunction of upper esophageal sphincter (UES). Videofluoroscopy-guided balloon dilatation of UES was performed. We confirmed an early improvement of the opening dysfunctions of UES, although other neurologic symptoms persisted. While we did not have a proper comparison of cases, the videofluoroscopy-guided balloon dilatation of UES is thought to be helpful for the early recovery of dysphagia caused by postoperative vagus nerve injury. PMID:24639936

Jung, Bora; Choi, Ikjun; Lee, Nam Jae; Jung, Kwang-Ik; Yoo, Woo-Kyoung

2014-01-01

64

[Congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles (CFEOM) and other phenotypes of congenital cranial dysinnervation syndromes (CCDD)].  

PubMed

Currently, different syndromes with congenital, nonprogressive, sporadic, or familial developmental abnormalities of the cranial nerves and its nuclei are classified as congenital cranial dysinnervation syndromes (CCDD). One of these syndromes, congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles (CFEOM), is characterized mainly by bilateral ophthalmoplegia of the oculomotor and trochlear nerves. Within the scope of an overview, the case of a 60-year-old patient with congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1) with autosomal dominant inheritance and typical phenotype, but additional progression of the ocular symptoms, is presented. Symptoms were caused by the common C2860-->T mutation in exon 21 of the KIF21A gene on chromosome 12. Further CCDD syndromes include the following phenotypes: congenital ptosis, Duane syndrome, horizontal gaze palsy, Möbius' syndrome, and congenital facial palsy. There are 13 different known gene loci for one of these phenotypes. Five gene products have been identified: the kinesin motor protein Kif21a, the transcription factors ARIX and SALL4, and the carboxypeptidase CPAH. PMID:15221064

Hanisch, Frank; Bau, Viktoria; Zierz, Stephan

2005-04-01

65

Differences in risk factors for neurophysiologically confirmed carpal tunnel syndrome and illness with similar symptoms but normal median nerve function: a case–control study  

PubMed Central

Background To explore whether risk factors for neurophysiologically confirmed carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) differ from those for sensory symptoms with normal median nerve conduction, and to test the validity and practical utility of a proposed definition for impaired median nerve conduction, we carried out a case–control study of patients referred for investigation of suspected CTS. Methods We compared 475 patients with neurophysiological abnormality (NP+ve) according to the definition, 409 patients investigated for CTS but classed as negative on neurophysiological testing (NP-ve), and 799 controls. Exposures to risk factors were ascertained by self-administered questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated by logistic regression. Results NP+ve disease was associated with obesity, use of vibratory tools, repetitive movement of the wrist or fingers, poor mental health and workplace psychosocial stressors. NP-ve illness was also related to poor mental health and occupational psychosocial stressors, but differed from NP+ve disease in showing associations also with prolonged use of computer keyboards and tendency to somatise, and no relation to obesity. In direct comparison of NP+ve and NP-ve patients (the latter being taken as the reference category), the most notable differences were for obesity (OR 2.7, 95 % CI 1.9-3.9), somatising tendency (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9), diabetes (OR 1.6, 95% CI 0.9-3.1) and work with vibratory tools (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.9-2.2). Conclusions When viewed in the context of earlier research, our findings suggest that obesity, diabetes, use of hand-held vibratory tools, and repeated forceful movements of the wrist and hand are causes of impaired median nerve function. In addition, sensory symptoms in the hand, whether from identifiable pathology or non-specific in origin, may be rendered more prominent and distressing by hand activity, low mood, tendency to somatise, and psychosocial stressors at work. These differences in associations with risk factors support the validity of our definition of impaired median nerve conduction. PMID:23947720

2013-01-01

66

Multiple schwannomas of the sciatic nerve.  

PubMed

Schwannomas are rare benign tumours of nerve sheath cells of neural crest origin. Often these tumours are solitary and encapsulated. Multiple schwannomas can arise from the peripheral nervous system including cranial nerves, spinal roots, the brachial and lumbar-sacral plexus or major peripheral nerves. We report an extremely rare case of schwannomatosis of the sciatic nerve in a young female and include a comprehensive literature review. Treatment options are discussed. PMID:12763357

Huang, J; Mobbs, R; Teo, C

2003-05-01

67

Painful ophthalmoplegia with normal cranial imaging  

PubMed Central

Background Painful ophthalmoplegia with normal cranial imaging is rare and confined to limited etiologies. In this study, we aimed to elucidate these causes by evaluating clinical presentations and treatment responses. Methods Cases of painful ophthalmoplegia with normal cranial MRI at a single center between January 2001 and June 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Diagnoses of painful ophthalmoplegia were made according to the recommendations of the International Headache Society. Results Of the 58 painful ophthalmoplegia cases (53 patients), 26 (44.8%) were diagnosed as ocular diabetic neuropathy, 27 (46.6%) as benign Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS), and 5 (8.6%) as ophthalmoplegic migraine (OM). Patients with ocular diabetic neuropathy were significantly older (62.8?±?7.8 years) than those with benign THS (56.3 ±12.0 years) or OM (45.8?±?23.0 years) (p?Cranial nerve involvement was similar among groups. Pupil sparing was dominant in each group. Patients with benign THS and OM responded exquisitely to glucocorticoid treatment with resolved diplopia, whereas patients with ocular diabetic neuropathy didn’t (p?cranial imaging. Patient outcomes were generally good. PMID:24400984

2014-01-01

68

Neuromuscular hamartoma of the sciatic nerve: Case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background: Neuromuscular hamartomas are rare benign tumors with mature skeletal elements mixed with mature neural elements. They present typically as solitary lesions in childhood and have been reported to be associated with cranial nerves or large peripheral nerves such as the brachial plexus, median nerve, and sciatic nerve. To date, eight cases of sciatic nerve neuromuscular hamartomas have been reported. We present a case along with an outline for the natural history of the disease with a review of the literature of the reported cases dating back to 1895. Case Description: An 11-year-old boy presented with progressive right lower extremity pain and atrophy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large right sciatic nerve mass, and electromyography demonstrated evidence of ongoing denervation and reinnervation. Initial computed tomography-guided biopsy was unrevealing and subsequent open biopsy was consistent with neuromuscular choristoma. Conclusion: Neuromuscular choristomas represent a rare disease. Symptoms of foot deformity, leg size discrepancy, and pain merit a complete work-up including spinal and peripheral nerve etiologies. PMID:23493803

Lam, Sandi; Grandhi, Ramesh; Wong, Ricky; Hamilton, Ronald; Greene, Stephanie

2013-01-01

69

Optical stimulation of the facial nerve: a surgical tool?  

Microsoft Academic Search

One sequela of skull base surgery is the iatrogenic damage to cranial nerves. Devices that stimulate nerves with electric current can assist in the nerve identification. Contemporary devices have two main limitations: (1) the physical contact of the stimulating electrode and (2) the spread of the current through the tissue. In contrast to electrical stimulation, pulsed infrared optical radiation can

Claus-Peter Richter; Ingo Ulrik Teudt; Adam E. Nevel; Agnella D. Izzo; Joseph T. Walsh Jr.

2008-01-01

70

Regulation of Cranial Suture Morphogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cranial sutures are the primary sites of bone formation during skull growth. Morphogenesis and phenotypic maintenance of the cranial sutures are regulated by tissue interactions, especially those with the underlying dura mater. Removal of the dura mater in fetuses causes abnormal suture development and premature suture obliteration. The dura mater interacts with overlying tissues of the cranial vault by

Roy C. Ogle; Sunil S. Tholpady; Kathryn A. McGlynn; Rebecca A. Ogle

2004-01-01

71

Spinal accessory nerve schwannomas masquerading as a fourth ventricular lesion  

PubMed Central

Schwannomas are benign lesions that arise from the nerve sheath of cranial nerves. The most common schwannomas arise from the 8th cranial nerve (the vestibulo-cochlear nerve) followed by trigeminal and facial nerves and then from glossopharyngeal, vagus, and spinal accessory nerves. Schwannomas involving the oculomotor, trochlear, abducens and hypoglossal nerves are very rare. We report a very unusual spinal accessory nerve schwannoma which occupied the fourth ventricle and extended inferiorly to the upper cervical canal. The radiological features have been detailed. The diagnostic dilemma was due to its midline posterior location mimicking a fourth ventricular lesion like medulloblastoma and ependymoma. Total excision is the ideal treatment for these tumors. A brief review of literature with tabulations of the variants has been listed. PMID:25552867

Krishnan, Shyam Sundar; Bojja, Sivaram; Vasudevan, Madabhushi Chakravarthy

2015-01-01

72

Spinal accessory nerve schwannomas masquerading as a fourth ventricular lesion.  

PubMed

Schwannomas are benign lesions that arise from the nerve sheath of cranial nerves. The most common schwannomas arise from the 8(th) cranial nerve (the vestibulo-cochlear nerve) followed by trigeminal and facial nerves and then from glossopharyngeal, vagus, and spinal accessory nerves. Schwannomas involving the oculomotor, trochlear, abducens and hypoglossal nerves are very rare. We report a very unusual spinal accessory nerve schwannoma which occupied the fourth ventricle and extended inferiorly to the upper cervical canal. The radiological features have been detailed. The diagnostic dilemma was due to its midline posterior location mimicking a fourth ventricular lesion like medulloblastoma and ependymoma. Total excision is the ideal treatment for these tumors. A brief review of literature with tabulations of the variants has been listed. PMID:25552867

Krishnan, Shyam Sundar; Bojja, Sivaram; Vasudevan, Madabhushi Chakravarthy

2015-01-01

73

Facial nerve compression by the posterior inferior cerebellar artery causing facial pain and swelling: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction We report an unusual case of facial pain and swelling caused by compression of the facial and vestibulocochlear cranial nerves due to the tortuous course of a branch of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Although anterior inferior cerebellar artery compression has been well documented in the literature, compression caused by the posterior inferior cerebellar artery is rare. This case provided a diagnostic dilemma, requiring expertise from a number of specialties, and proved to be a learning point to clinicians from a variety of backgrounds. We describe the case in detail and discuss the differential diagnoses. Case presentation A 57-year-old Caucasian woman with a background of mild connective tissue disease presented to our rheumatologist with intermittent left-sided facial pain and swelling, accompanied by hearing loss in her left ear. An autoimmune screen was negative and a Schirmer’s test was normal. Her erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 6mm/h (normal range: 1 to 20mm/h) and her immunoglobulin G and A levels were mildly elevated. A vascular loop protocol magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a loop of her posterior inferior cerebellar artery taking a long course around the seventh and eighth cranial nerves into the meatus and back, resulting in compression of her seventh and eighth cranial nerves. Our patient underwent microvascular decompression, after which her symptoms completely resolved. Conclusion Hemifacial spasm is characterized by unilateral clonic twitching, although our patient presented with more unusual symptoms of pain and swelling. Onset of symptoms is mostly in middle age and women are more commonly affected. Differential diagnoses include trigeminal neuralgia, temporomandibular joint dysfunction, salivary gland pathology and migrainous headache. Botulinum toxin injection is recognized as an effective treatment option for primary hemifacial spasm. Microvascular decompression is a relatively safe procedure with a high success rate. Although a rare pathology, posterior inferior cerebellar artery compression causing facial pain, swelling and hearing loss should be considered as a differential diagnosis in similar cases. PMID:24661509

2014-01-01

74

Chiari Malformation: Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... the back of the head, is the defining Chiari symptom Chiari headaches are usually described as starting ... and upper back is another common problem with Chiari due to several causes: nerves are compressed by ...

75

Petrositis With Bilateral Abducens Nerve Palsies complicated by Acute Otitis Media  

PubMed Central

Petrous apicitis is a rare but fatal complication of otitis media. An infection within the middle ear can extend within the temporal bone into the air cells of the petrous apex. With only the thin dura mater separating the trigeminal ganglion and the 6th cranial nerve from the bony petrous apex, they are vulnerable to inflammatory processes, resulting in deep facial pain, lateral rectus muscle paralysis, and diplopia. In 1904, Gradenigo described a triad of symptoms related to petrous apicitis, including acute suppurative otitis media, deep facial pain resulting from trigeminal involvement, and abducens nerve palsy. It has traditionally been treated with surgery, but recent advances in imaging, with improved antibiotic treatment, allow conservative management. In this case report, we describe a clinical and neuroradiological evolution of a child with a petrous apicitis after acute otitis media, which was managed medically with a positive outcome. PMID:24587883

Choi, Kyu Young

2014-01-01

76

Third nerve palsy associated with preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome.  

PubMed

Preeclampsia can cause myriad organ dysfunction, including cranial nerve palsies that pose diagnostic and management dilemmas. We present an unusual case of third nerve palsy, (presenting as diplopia, ptosis) with hypertension, hyperreflexia, proteinuria, easy bruising in a parturient at 34 + 6/52 weeks of twins gestation. She was treated as for severe preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome; intravenous magnesium sulphate and labetalol commenced and emergent cesarean delivery performed under general anesthesia due to concerns of low platelets and for airway protection should her glascow coma scale (GCS) deteriorate. Postoperatively, stroke, aneurysm and intra-cerebral causes of third nerve palsy were excluded, with subsequent recovery of symptoms upon blood pressure normalization. The eye signs are postulated to be due to two preeclamptic mechanisms involving disordered cerebral autoregulation: (1) hyperperfusion and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier that occurs with rising hypertension, causing fluid/blood product extravasation into brain parenchyma, or (2) focal reactive vasoconstriction and local hypoperfusion, contributed to by endothelial dysfunction. PMID:23478950

Chutatape, Anuntapon; Teoh, Wendy H L

2013-10-01

77

Cranial mononeuropathy III  

MedlinePLUS

... dilated) pupil of the affected eye Eye movement abnormalities Eyes that are not aligned Your health care provider ... to reduce swelling and relieve pressure on the nerve (when caused by a tumor or injury) Eye patch or glasses with prisms to reduce double ...

78

[Dynamics of lagophthalmos depending on facial nerve repair and its intraoperative monitoring in neurosurgical patients].  

PubMed

Over 200 patients with acoustic neuromas and over 100 patients with posterior cranial fossa meningiomas are annually operated on at the N.N. Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute. Intraoperative monitoring of the facial nerve function is used in most patients with tumors of the posterior cranial fossa to identify the facial nerve in the surgical wound. If the anatomical integrity of the facial nerve in the cranial cavity cannot be retained, facial nerve repair is performed to restore the facial muscle function. Intraoperative electrical stimulation of the facial nerve has a great prognostic significance to evaluate the dynamics of lagophthalmos in the late postoperative period and to select the proper method for lagophthalmos correction. When the facial nerve was reinnervated by the descending branch or trunk of the hypoglossal nerve, sufficient eyelid closure was observed only in 3 patients out of 17. PMID:25406811

Tabachnikova, T V; Serova, N K; Shimansky, V N

2014-01-01

79

Evolution of Nerve Development in Frogs; pp. 112–128  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use whole-mount immunohistochemistry to describe the pattern of development of cranial nerves and muscles in the direct-developing leptodactylid frog Eleutherodactylus coqui. Comparison with nerve development in the biphasically developing frogs Physalaemus pustulosus (Leptodactylidae) and Discoglossus pictus (Discoglossidae; described in a companion paper) allows us to infer the ancestral leptodactylid ontogenetic pattern and the extent to which it has been

Gerhard Schlosser; Gerhard Roth

1997-01-01

80

Evolution of Nerve Development in Frogs; pp. 94–112  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use whole-mount immunohistochemistry to describe the pattern of development of cranial nerves and muscles in the direct-developing leptodactylid frog Eleutherodactylus coqui. Comparison with nerve development in the biphasically developing frogs Physalaemus pustulosus (Leptodactylidae) and Discoglossus pictus (Discoglossidae; described in a companion paper) allows us to infer the ancestral leptodactylid ontogenetic pattern and the extent to which it has been

Gerhard Schlosser; Gerhard Roth

1997-01-01

81

ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN FAMILY HISTORY OF CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME AND ABNORMAL MEDIAN NERVE CONDUCTION WITH AND WITHOUT SYMPTOMS OF CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Few studies have examined the relationship between family history and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) on a population basis. Methods: Workers (N=841) completed a questionnaire, structured interview, two standardized physical examinations, and a bilateral nerve conduction study (NCS). Self-reported family history of CTS was recorded from the questionnaire. Results: 37.0 % of subjects with CTS by a case definition (abnormal

Hannah Edwards; Kurt T. Hegmann

82

An unusual case of isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy secondary to osteophytic projection from the atlanto-occipital joint.  

PubMed

We describe an unusual and rare case of isolated left hypoglossal nerve palsy secondary to compression from a prominent degenerative osteophyte from the left atlanto-occipital joint. The hypoglossal nerve is a purely motor cranial nerve innervating the tongue musculature. Palsy of the hypoglossal nerve is frequently associated with other cranial nerve palsies and can be related to vascular, neoplastic, infectious or traumatic conditions. Isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy is quite rare and very few cases have been reported in the literature to date. PMID:24976205

Patro, Satya Narayana; Torres, Carlos; Riascos, Roy

2014-06-01

83

[Babies with cranial deformity].  

PubMed

Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option. PMID:19857299

Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J

2009-01-01

84

Posterior cranial vault distraction osteogenesis: evolution of technique.  

PubMed

The rapid growth of the brain in the first few years of life drives the expansion of the cranial vault. This expansion occurs primarily at the cranial sutures; premature fusion of these results in growth restriction perpendicular to the axis of the suture. The result of this is physical deformation of the cranial and facial skeleton, as well as the distortion of the underling brain and its physiology. These patients can present with symptoms of raised intracranial pressure, neurodevelopmental delay, as well as the morphological features of craniosynostosis. Acquired conditions such as the slit ventricle syndrome may also result in cephalocranial disproportion with these clinical features. Traditional vault remodeling surgery is able to correct the physical abnormalities as well as correcting cephalocranial disproportion. Its limitations include the degree of scalp expansion achievable as well as resulting defects in the bone. The use of distraction osteogenesis of the cranial vault permits a controlled expansion in a predetermined vector in a gradual manner. When used in the calvarium, this combines the benefits of tissue expansion on the scalp, as well as stimulating the production of new bone, reducing the defects resulting from expansion. In this review, the authors describe some of the surgical considerations important to the use of this technique. This includes the relevant anatomy and technical aspects illustrated with the use of clinical cases. Finally, they present a summary of their experience and discuss the complications associated with cranial vault distraction osteogenesis. PMID:25383052

Ong, Juling; Harshbarger, Raymond J; Kelley, Patrick; George, Timothy

2014-11-01

85

Burkholderia pseudomallei penetrates the brain via destruction of the olfactory and trigeminal nerves: implications for the pathogenesis of neurological melioidosis.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Melioidosis is a potentially fatal disease that is endemic to tropical northern Australia and Southeast Asia, with a mortality rate of 14 to 50%. The bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent which infects numerous parts of the human body, including the brain, which results in the neurological manifestation of melioidosis. The olfactory nerve constitutes a direct conduit from the nasal cavity into the brain, and we have previously reported that B. pseudomallei can colonize this nerve in mice. We have now investigated in detail the mechanism by which the bacteria penetrate the olfactory and trigeminal nerves within the nasal cavity and infect the brain. We found that the olfactory epithelium responded to intranasal B. pseudomallei infection by widespread crenellation followed by disintegration of the neuronal layer to expose the underlying basal layer, which the bacteria then colonized. With the loss of the neuronal cell bodies, olfactory axons also degenerated, and the bacteria then migrated through the now-open conduit of the olfactory nerves. Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that B. pseudomallei migrated through the cribriform plate via the olfactory nerves to enter the outer layer of the olfactory bulb in the brain within 24 h. We also found that the bacteria colonized the thin respiratory epithelium in the nasal cavity and then rapidly migrated along the underlying trigeminal nerve to penetrate the cranial cavity. These results demonstrate that B. pseudomallei invasion of the nerves of the nasal cavity leads to direct infection of the brain and bypasses the blood-brain barrier. IMPORTANCE Melioidosis is a potentially fatal tropical disease that is endemic to northern Australia and Southeast Asia. It is caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, which can infect many organs of the body, including the brain, and results in neurological symptoms. The pathway by which the bacteria can penetrate the brain is unknown, and we have investigated the ability of the bacteria to migrate along nerves that innervate the nasal cavity and enter the frontal region of the brain by using a mouse model of infection. By generating a mutant strain of B. pseudomallei which is unable to survive in the blood, we show that the bacteria rapidly penetrate the cranial cavity using the olfactory (smell) nerve and the trigeminal (sensory) nerve that line the nasal cavity. PMID:24736221

St John, James A; Ekberg, Jenny A K; Dando, Samantha J; Meedeniya, Adrian C B; Horton, Rachel E; Batzloff, Michael; Owen, Suzzanne J; Holt, Stephanie; Peak, Ian R; Ulett, Glen C; Mackay-Sim, Alan; Beacham, Ifor R

2014-01-01

86

Analysis and Visualization of Nerve Vessel Contacts for Neurovascular Decompression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neurovascular compression syndromes are caused by a pathological contact between cranial nerves and vascular structures at the surface of the brainstem. Aiming at improved pre-operative analysis of the target structures, we propose calculating distance fields to provide quantitative information of the important nerve-vessel contacts. Furthermore, we suggest reconstructing polygonal models for the nerves and vessels. Color-coding with the respective distance information is used for enhanced visualization. Overall, our new strategy contributes to a significantly improved clinical understanding.

Süßmuth, Jochen; Piazza, Alexander; Enders, Frank; Naraghi, Ramin; Greiner, Günther; Hastreiter, Peter

87

Clinical image and pathology of hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the clinical findings, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), pathological features, and treatment experiments of patients with hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis (HCP). The clinical findings, MRI, and pathological appearances of 9 patients with HCP were analyzed retrospectively. The thickened dura mater was markedly enhanced after contrast media injection. The lesion near the brain hemisphere presented long regions of T1- and T2-weighted abnormal signal intensities. The abnormal signal intensities of the brain tissue were decreased significantly. Pathological examination demonstrated chronic inflammation changes, with cerebral dura mater fibrous tissue showing obvious hyperplasia, and the periphery of the blood vessel showing a great quantity of infiltrating phlegmonosis cells. HCP mainly presents headache and paralysis of multiple cranial nerves. The distinctive signs on brain MRIs involve strengthening the signal in the cerebral dura. PMID:25511033

Shi, C H; Niu, S T; Zhang, Z Q

2014-01-01

88

Nerve excitability properties in early preclinical diabetic neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetic polyneuropathy can be easily diagnosed when the nerve conduction studies are affected. Strength Duration Time (SDTc) reflects nerve excitability properties and was previously used several times to demonstrate the excitability properties of the nerves in the existence of electrophysiologically developed diabetic polyneuropathy. But as we all know, diabetic patients may experience neuropathic symptoms even though their routine nerve conduction

Ça?da? Erdo?an; Mehmet Yücel; Eylem De?irmenci; O?uzhan Öz; Hakan Akgün; Zeki Odaba??

2011-01-01

89

Alarin in cranial autonomic ganglia of human and rat.  

PubMed

Extrinsic and intrinsic sources of the autonomic nervous system contribute to choroidal innervation, thus being responsible for the control of choroidal blood flow, aqueous humor production or intraocular pressure. Neuropeptides are involved in this autonomic control, and amongst those, alarin has been recently introduced. While alarin is present in intrinsic choroidal neurons, it is not clear if these are the only source of neuronal alarin in the choroid. Therefore, we here screened for the presence of alarin in human cranial autonomic ganglia, and also in rat, a species lacking intrinsic choroidal innervation. Cranial autonomic ganglia (i.e., ciliary, CIL; pterygopalatine, PPG; superior cervical, SCG; trigeminal ganglion, TRI) of human and rat were prepared for immunohistochemistry against murine and human alarin, respectively. Additionally, double staining experiments for alarin and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), tyrosine hydroxilase (TH), substance P (SP) were performed in human and rat ganglia for unequivocal identification of ganglia. For documentation, confocal laser scanning microscopy was used, while quantitative RT-PCR was applied to confirm immunohistochemical data and to detect alarin mRNA expression. In humans, alarin-like immunoreactivity (alarin-LI) was detected in intrinsic neurons and nerve fibers of the choroidal stroma, but was lacking in CIL, PPG, SCG and TRI. In rat, alarin-LI was detected in only a minority of cranial autonomic ganglia (CIL: 3.5%; PPG: 0.4%; SCG: 1.9%; TRI: 1%). qRT-PCR confirmed the low expression level of alarin mRNA in rat ganglia. Since alarin-LI was absent in human cranial autonomic ganglia, and only present in few neurons of rat cranial autonomic ganglia, we consider it of low impact in extrinsic ocular innervation in those species. Nevertheless, it seems important for intrinsic choroidal innervation in humans, where it could serve as intrinsic choroidal marker. PMID:25497346

Schrödl, Falk; Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Trost, Andrea; Strohmaier, Clemens; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Bruckner, Daniela; Krefft, Karolina; Kofler, Barbara; Brandtner, Herwig; Reitsamer, Herbert A

2015-02-01

90

Evidence for cranial endothermy in the opah (Lampris guttatus).  

PubMed

Cranial endothermy evolved independently in lamnid sharks, billfishes and tunas, and is thought to minimize the effects of ambient temperature change on both vision and neural function during deep dives. The opah, Lampris guttatus, is a large epipelagic-mesopelagic predator that makes repeated dives into cool waters to forage. To determine if L. guttatus exhibits cranial endothermy, we measured cranial temperatures in live, decked fish and identified potential sources of heat and mechanisms to conserve heat. In 40 opah (95.1+/-7.6 cm fork length), the temperature of the tissue behind the eye was elevated by a mean (+/-s.e.m.) of 2.1+/-0.3 degrees C and a maximum of 6.3 degrees C above myotomal muscle temperature (T(m)), used as a proxy for ambient temperature. Cranial temperature varied significantly with T(m) and temperature elevation was greater at lower T(m). The proximal region of the paired lateral rectus extraocular muscle appears to be the primary source of heat. This muscle is the largest extraocular muscle, is adjacent to the optic nerve and brain and is separated from the brain only by a thin layer of bone. The proximal lateral rectus muscle is darker red in color and has a higher citrate synthase activity, indicating a higher capacity for aerobic heat production, than all other extraocular muscles. Furthermore, this muscle has a layer of fat insulating it from the gill cavity and is perfused by a network of arteries and veins that forms a putative counter-current heat exchanger. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that the opah can maintain elevated cranial temperatures. PMID:19181893

Runcie, Rosa M; Dewar, Heidi; Hawn, Donald R; Frank, Lawrence R; Dickson, Kathryn A

2009-02-01

91

Congenital innervation dysgenesis syndrome (CID)/congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDDs)  

PubMed Central

Congenital loss of innervation to the extra-ocular muscles (EOMs) can have a profound effect on the target muscle. This has been well recognised in Duane's retraction syndrome. However, it has been less emphasised in other congenital oculo-motor disorders. Such congenital ocular motor defects have been expanded to include DRS, congenital fibrosis of EOMs, monocular elevation defect, Möbius syndrome, as well as several other non-ocular muscles supplied by cranial nerves such as facial muscles. Such loss of innervation to motor muscles can be unified as a defined clinical entity, which can be labelled as congenital innervation dysgenesis syndrome or CID for short. CID may also affect other muscles supplied by nerves other than the cranial nerves and may be sensory as well as motor. PMID:21720410

Assaf, A A

2011-01-01

92

Ancient legacy of cranial surgery.  

PubMed

Cranial injury, as it is known today, is not a new concern of modern medicine. On stepping on the earth, the man was in reality encountered with various types of injuries, particularly those of a cranial nature. Leading a life, whether wild or civilized, has always been associated with injuries for human race from the very beginning of birth. Therefore, managing cases of this type has gradually forced him to establish and fix strategies and approaches to handle the dilemma. This study is thus focused on tracing the first documented traumatized cranial cases ever reported, ranging from those trials attributed to our ancient predecessors to the identical examples in the present time. PMID:24396747

Ghannaee Arani, Mohammad; Fakharian, Esmaeil; Sarbandi, Fahimeh

2012-01-01

93

Stroke Awareness in Luxemburg: Deficit Concerning Symptoms and Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Awareness of stroke risk factors is important for stroke prevention. Knowledge of stroke symptoms and awareness regarding the necessity of seeking urgent stroke treatment are vital to provide rapid admission to a stroke unit. Data on this specific knowledge in Luxemburg are lacking. METHODS We investigated 420 patients from the Department of Neurology and their relatives using a questionnaire. There were 44% men and 56% women; 25% were immigrants and 75% Luxemburgish nationals; 13% already had had a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA); and the mean age was 55 years ranging from 18 to 87 years. RESULTS A total of 88% of participants knew that a stroke occurs in the head/brain. In all, 10% of participants did not know any symptom of a stroke. The most frequently quoted symptoms (>15%) were paralysis/weakness (36%), speech disorders (32%), cranial nerve deficit (16%), vertigo (15%), and visual disorders (15%). Sensory deficits were mentioned by only 4% of patients. Known risk factors (>15%) were smoking (40%), hypertension (32%), alcohol (32%), poor nutrition (28%), high cholesterol (26%), stress (23%), and lack of exercise (19%). Age (4%), diabetes (6%), carotid stenosis (2%), and heart disease (1%) were less frequently known. In all, 11% of participants did not know any risk factor of a stroke. A total of 89% of participants would correctly call the 112 (emergency phone number). The following groups were better informed: Luxemburgish nationals, younger people, and participants with higher education level. Stroke/TIA patients were better informed concerning stroke symptoms, but unfortunately not concerning how to react in the case of a stroke. There was no relevant gender difference. DISCUSSION Although most of the participants knew what to do in the case of a stroke, they did not know the relevant stroke symptoms and risk factors. Future campaigns should therefore focus on risk factors and symptoms, and should address immigrants, elderly persons, less-educated persons, and patients who had already suffered a stroke/TIA. PMID:25452703

Droste, Dirk W; Safo, Jacqueline; Metz, René J; Osada, Nani

2014-01-01

94

Cranial Kinesis in Lepidosaurs: Skulls in Motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter reviews various aspects of cranial kinesis, or the presence of moveable joints within the cranium, with a concentration on lepidosaurs. Previous studies tend to focus on morphological correlates of cranial kinesis, without taking into account experimental evidence supporting or refuting the presence of the various forms of cranial kinesis in these taxa. By reviewing experimental and anatomical evidence,

Keith Metzger

95

Cranial electrotherapy stimulation and fibromyalgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is a well-documented neuroelectrical modality that has been proven effective in some good studies of fibromyalgia (FM) patients. CES is no panacea but, for some FM patients, the modality can be valuable. This article discusses aspects of both CES and FM and how they relate to the individual with the condition. FM frequently has many comorbidities

Marshall F Gilula

2007-01-01

96

Recent Progress in Understanding Congenital Cranial Dysinnervation Disorders  

PubMed Central

Background In 2002 the new term congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder (CCDD) was proposed as a substitute for the traditional concept of congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles based on mounting genetic, neuropathology, and imaging evidence suggesting that many, if not all, of these disorders result from a primary neurologic maldevelopment rather than from a muscle abnormality. This report provides an update eight years after that original report. Evidence acquisition Review of pertinent articles published from Jan 2003 until June 2010 describing CCDD variants identified under PubMed MeSH terms congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles, congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders, individual phenotypes included under the term CCDD, and congenital ocular motility disorders. Results At present a total of seven disease genes and 10 phenotypes fall under the CCDD umbrella. A number of additional loci and phenotypes still await gene elucidation, with the anticipation that more syndromes and genes will be identified in the future. Identification of genes and their function, along with advances in neuro-imaging, have expanded our understanding of the mechanisms underlying several anomalous eye movement patterns. Conclusions Current evidence still supports the concept that the CCDDs are primarily due to neurogenic disturbances of brainstem or cranial nerve development. Several CCDDs are now known to have non-ophthalmologic associations involving neurologic, neuroanatomic, cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, and skeletal abnormalities. PMID:21317732

Oystreck, Darren T.; Engle, Elizabeth C.; Bosley, Thomas M.

2012-01-01

97

Electrical Stimulation as a Therapeutic Option to Improve Eyelid Function in Chronic Facial Nerve Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. TO establish whether it is possible to improve orbicularis oculi muscle function in the eyelids of patients with a chronic seventh cranial nerve palsy by using transcutaneous electrical stimulation to the point at which electrical stimulation induces a functional blink. METHODS. Ten subjects (one woman, nine men) aged 36 to 76 with chronic, moderate to severe facial nerve palsy

John Gittins; Kevin Martin; James Sbeldrick; Ashwin Reddy; Leonard Tbean

98

Endoscopic endonasal cranial base surgery simulation using an artificial cranial base model created by selective laser sintering.  

PubMed

Mastery of the expanded endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) requires anatomical knowledge and surgical skills; the learning curve for this technique is steep. To a great degree, these skills can be gained by cadaveric dissections; however, ethical, religious, and legal considerations may interfere with this paradigm in different regions of the world. We assessed an artificial cranial base model for the surgical simulation of EEA and compared its usefulness with that of cadaveric specimens. The model is made of both polyamide nylon and glass beads using a selective laser sintering (SLS) technique to reflect CT-DICOM data of the patient's head. It features several artificial cranial base structures such as the dura mater, venous sinuses, cavernous sinuses, internal carotid arteries, and cranial nerves. Under endoscopic view, the model was dissected through the nostrils using a high-speed drill and other endonasal surgical instruments. Anatomical structures around and inside the sphenoid sinus were accurately reconstructed in the model, and several important surgical landmarks, including the medial and lateral optico-carotid recesses and vidian canals, were observed. The bone was removed with a high-speed drill until it was eggshell thin and the dura mater was preserved, a technique very similar to that applied in patients during endonasal cranial base approaches. The model allowed simulation of almost all sagittal and coronal plane EEA modules. SLS modeling is a useful tool for acquiring the anatomical knowledge and surgical expertise for performing EEA while avoiding the ethical, religious, and infection-related problems inherent with use of cadaveric specimens. PMID:25323096

Oyama, Kenichi; Ditzel Filho, Leo F S; Muto, Jun; de Souza, Daniel G; Gun, Ramazan; Otto, Bradley A; Carrau, Ricardo L; Prevedello, Daniel M

2015-01-01

99

Cranial aspergilloma masquerading as meningioma  

PubMed Central

Cranial aspergillosis may present as meningitis, cerebral abscess, cerebral infarcts/haemorrhages or extra-axial mass. Extra-axial cranial aspergilloma may mimic meningioma owing to mass-like characteristics and intense contrast enhancement on MRI there by delaying the diagnosis and further worsening the already bad prognosis in these patients. We present a 45-year-old gentleman who presented with signs of raised intracranial hypertension, secondary optic atrophy and a contrast-enhancing mass arising from the planum sphenoidale. Postoperatively, mass was diagnosed as aspergilloma on histopathology and culture. Despite antifungal treatment, patient could not be saved due to large artery infarcts in the immediate postoperative period. We discuss the clinical and MRI features that could help to have sufficient and early suspicion of fungal aetiology in these patients. PMID:23307467

Verma, Ritu; Singh, Prabhat; Kumar, Achal; Paliwal, Vimal Kumar

2013-01-01

100

A case of idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis presenting high values of matrix metalloproteinase  

PubMed Central

This report concerns a 53-year-old male patient with idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis who presented with multiple cranial nerve palsies (I, II, III, IV, V, VI). Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse thickening and gadolinium enhancement of the cerebral dura mater. A biopsy of the cerebral dura mater showed granulomatous vasculitis with histiocyte infiltration. Although both the serum rheumatoid factor (RF) and matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) were high, the patient showed no signs of arthritis. He was anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody negative, which makes the presence of comorbid chronic rheumatoid arthritis (RA) unlikely. The aetiology of the pachymeningitis was unknown, which led to the diagnosis of idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis. Steroid pulse therapy successfully diminished the patient’s pachymeningitis and lowered both RF and MMP-3. High values of RF suggest the possible involvement of an autoimmune mechanism, and the MMP value may be an important indicator of the aetiology of pachymeningitis with granulomatous vasculitis. PMID:22368690

Nakamagoe, Kiyotaka; Hosaka, Ai; Kondo, Yuzuru; Ishikawa, Eiichi; Tamaoka, Akira

2010-01-01

101

Spontaneous intraneural hematoma of the sural nerve.  

PubMed

Symptomatic intraneural hemorrhage occurs rarely. It presents with pain and/or weakness in the distribution following the anatomic innervation pattern of the involved nerve. When a purely sensory nerve is affected, the symptoms can be subtle. We present a previously healthy 36-year-old female who developed an atraumatic, spontaneous intraneural hematoma of her sural nerve. Sural dysfunction was elicited from the patient's history and physical examination. The diagnosis was confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging, and surgical decompression provided successful resolution of her preoperative symptoms. To our knowledge, this entity has not been reported previously. Our case highlights the importance of having a high index of suspicion for nerve injury or compression in patients whose complaints follow a typical peripheral nerve distribution. Prior studies have shown that the formation of intraneural hematoma and associated compression of nerve fibers result in axonal degeneration, and surgical decompression decreases axonal degeneration and aids functional recovery. PMID:25311865

Richardson, Shawn S; McLawhorn, Alexander S; Mintz, Douglas N; DiCarlo, Edward F; Weiland, Andrew J

2015-04-01

102

A novel form of aberrant innervation in congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder.  

PubMed

Certain forms of congenital incomitant strabismus are associated with abnormal cranial nerve development and resultant abnormal orbital innervation (eg, Duane retraction syndrome, congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles [CFEOM]); such conditions can be considered congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDDs). In addition to duction limitation and/or ptosis, orbital CCDD phenotypes include inappropriate extraocular muscle and/or levator innervation by nerves intended for innervation of other structures (eg, some of the innervation intended for the medial rectus muscle inappropriately innervating the ipsilateral lateral rectus muscle in Duane retraction syndrome). This report documents a unique orbital dysinnervational pattern-supraduction during attempted adduction and infraduction during attempted abduction in the left affected eye of a girl with exotropia and enophthalmos. PMID:18930669

Khan, Arif O

2009-02-01

103

Differential sensitivity of cranial and limb motor function to nigrostriatal dopamine depletion  

PubMed Central

The present study determined the differential effects of unilateral striatal dopamine depletion on cranial motor versus limb motor function. Forty male Long Evans rats were first trained on a comprehensive motor testing battery that dissociated cranial versus limb motor function and included: cylinder forepaw placement, single pellet reaching, vermicelli pasta handling; sunflower seed opening, pasta biting acoustics, and a licking task. Following baseline testing, animals were randomized to either a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) (n = 20) or control (n = 20) group. Animals in the 6-OHDA group received unilateral intrastriatal 6-OHDA infusions to induce striatal dopamine depletion. Six-weeks following infusion, all animals were re-tested on the same battery of motor tests. Near infrared densitometry was performed on sections taken through the striatum that were immunohistochemically stained for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Animals in the 6-OHDA condition showed a mean reduction in TH staining of 88.27%. Although 6-OHDA animals were significantly impaired on all motor tasks, limb motor deficits were more severe than cranial motor impairments. Further, performance on limb motor tasks was correlated with degree of TH depletion while performance on cranial motor impairments showed no significant correlation. These results suggest that limb motor function may be more sensitive to striatal dopaminergic depletion than cranial motor function and is consistent with the clinical observation that therapies targeting the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in Parkinson’s disease are more effective for limb motor symptoms than cranial motor impairments. PMID:23018122

Plowman, Emily K.; Maling, Nicholas; Rivera, Benjamin J.; Larson, Krista; Thomas, Nagheme J.; Fowler, Stephen C.; Manfredsson, Fredric P.; Shrivastav, Rahul; Kleim, Jeffrey A.

2012-01-01

104

Cardiac musculature of the cranial vena cava in the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis).  

PubMed Central

Cardiac musculature of the cranial vena cava in the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) was examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. The common tree shrew has well developed cardiac myocyte layers in the tunica media of the cranial vena cava, extending from the right atrium to the root of the subclavian vein. Because the common tree shrew belongs to a primitive group of mammals, the occurrence of cardiac musculature in the cranial vena cava may be a common feature in lower mammals. The development of this musculature indicates that active contraction of the cranial vena cava wall occurs in this species. Electron micrographs showed the typical ultrastructure of myocytes and nerve endings. These observations suggest that this musculature may serve as a regulatory pump for the return of venous blood to the right atrium and as a blood reservoir system under conditions of rapid heart rate. Additionally, the presence of atrial natriuretic polypeptide (ANP) was also demonstrated in the myocytes of the vena cava immunohistochemically. These findings show that the cardiac endocrine organ for ANP develops even in the principal veins including the cranial vena cava. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:7591997

Endo, H; Maeda, S; Kimura, J; Yamada, J; Rerkamnuaychoke, W; Chungsamarnyart, N; Tanigawa, M; Kurohmaru, M; Hayashi, Y; Nishida, T

1995-01-01

105

The management of cranial injuries in antiquity and beyond.  

PubMed

Cranial injuries were among the earliest neurosurgical problems faced by ancient physicians and surgeons. In this review, the authors trace the development of neurosurgical theory and practice for the treatment of cranial injuries beginning from the earliest ancient evidence available to the collapse of the Greco-Roman civilizations. The earliest neurosurgical procedure was trephination, which modern scientists believe was used to treat skull fractures in some civilizations. The Egyptian papyri of Edwin Smith provide a thorough description of 27 head injuries with astute observations of clinical signs and symptoms, but little information on the treatment of these injuries. Hippocrates offered the first classification of skull fractures and discussion of which types required trephining, in addition to refining this technique. Hippocrates was also the first to understand the basis of increased intracranial pressure. After Hippocrates, the physicians of the Alexandrian school provided further insight into the clinical evaluation of patients with head trauma, including the rudiments of a Glasgow Coma Scale. Finally, Galen of Pergamon, a physician to fallen gladiators, substantially contributed to the understanding of the neuroanatomy and physiology. He also described his own classification system for skull fractures and further refined the surgical technique of trephination. From the study of these important ancient figures, it is clearly evident that the knowledge and experience gained from the management of cranial injuries has laid the foundation not only for how these injuries are managed today, but also for the development of the field of neurosurgery. PMID:17961060

Kshettry, Varun R; Mindea, Stefan A; Batjer, H Hunt

2007-01-01

106

Ocular complications after posterior superior alveolar nerve block: a case of trochlear nerve palsy.  

PubMed

Many intraoperative complications occurring during third molar surgery are described in the literature. Unilateral trochlear nerve palsy secondary to dental anaesthesia is a rare complication. We report the case of a 36-year-old healthy man, ASA I classification, requiring upper third molar extraction. Articaine 1:200,000 epinephrine for right posterior superior alveolar (PSA) nerve block was administered locally in the mucobuccal fold above the upper third molar. A few minutes after PSA nerve block the patient experienced double-vision. The patient was subsequently visited by an ophthalmologist and the condition was diagnosed as transient unilateral vertical diplopia due to temporary paralysis of the superior oblique muscle as a result of the anaesthetic solution involving the IV cranial nerve. The authors report this unusual case and discuss the possible anatomical pathways that might explain this rare phenomenon. PMID:23809987

Chisci, G; Chisci, C; Chisci, V; Chisci, E

2013-12-01

107

Surgical implications of an unusual anomaly of the infraorbital nerve.  

PubMed

The infraorbital nerve is a direct extension of the maxillary division of the Vth cranial nerve. It typically courses anteriorly through a canal within the bone of the orbital floor. We describe an unusual anatomic variation of this canal that to our knowledge has not been previously described in the literature. This anomaly may have significant implications during surgery on the paranasal sinuses and maxillofacial skeleton. Careful preoperative assessment of the course of the infraorbital nerve is necessary to prevent iatrogenic hypoesthesia, paresthesia, or neuralgia. PMID:15628633

Chandra, Rakesh K; Kennedy, David W

2004-11-01

108

Prolonged bilateral reactive miosis as a symptom of severe insulin intoxication.  

PubMed

Background Miosis occurs following exposure to toxins that decrease the sympathomimetic tone, increase the cholinergic tone, or exert sedative-hypnotic effects, but has not been reported in insulin poisoning. Case Report A 64-year- old woman without co-morbidities was found unconscious next to an empty insulin pen. Her Glasgow Coma Scale was 3 with absent reflexes, bilateral reactive miosis, and injection marks across the abdominal wall. The patient was endotracheally intubated, mechanically ventilated, and transferred to this hospital. At admission, the blood glucose level was 34 mg/dL. Glasgow Coma Scale remained at 3, with persistent bilateral reactive miosis. The toxicology screening was negative for ethanol, barbiturates, tricyclic antidepressants, phenothiazines, amphetamines, cannabinoids, salicylates, acetaminophen, and cocaine. Cranial computed tomography with angiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) did not show any structural brain lesions. Intravenous glucose was continued at 6-14 g/h for 3 days. On repeated neurological examinations, the patient remained deeply comatose, with partial loss of cranial nerve function. Bilateral reactive miosis persisted for 4 days. From day 5 on, the patient awoke progressively. At discharge, the patient was fully alert and orientated, without a focal neurological deficit. Conclusions Prolonged bilateral reactive miosis can be a clinical symptom accompanying metabolic encephalopathy in severe insulin poisoning. Functional impairment of the pons due to relative hypoperfusion during hypoglycemia may serve as a reasonable pathophysiologic explanation for this phenomenon. PMID:25556593

Gradwohl-Matis, Ilse; Pann, Jakob; Schmittinger, Christian A; Brunauer, Andreas; Dankl, Daniel; Duenser, Martin W

2015-01-01

109

Cranial base evolution within the hominin clade  

PubMed Central

The base of the cranium (i.e. the basioccipital, the sphenoid and the temporal bones) is of particular interest because it undergoes significant morphological change within the hominin clade, and because basicranial morphology features in several hominin species diagnoses. We use a parsimony analysis of published cranial and dental data to predict the cranial base morphology expected in the hypothetical last common ancestor of the Pan–Homo clade. We also predict the primitive condition of the cranial base for the hominin clade, and document the evolution of the cranial base within the major subclades within the hominin clade. This analysis suggests that cranial base morphology has continued to evolve in the hominin clade, both before and after the emergence of the genus Homo. PMID:18380865

Nevell, L; Wood, B

2008-01-01

110

Symptom Management  

Cancer.gov

Symptom Management & Quality of Life Concept Design This video covers a variety of practical considerations for developing a symptom management concept for clinical research.. Co-sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Symptom Management and Health

111

A boy with homozygous microdeletion of NEUROG1 presents with a congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder [Moebius syndrome variant  

PubMed Central

Background We report on a 6-year-old Turkish boy with profound sensorineural deafness, balance disorder, severe disorder of oral motor function, and mild developmental delay. Further findings included scaphocephaly, plagiocephaly, long palpebral fissures, high narrow palate, low-set posteriorly rotated ears, torticollis, hypoplastic genitalia and faulty foot posture. Parents were consanguineous. Methods and results Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral single widened cochlear turn, narrowing of the internal auditory canal, and bilateral truncation of the vestibulo-cochlear nerve. Microarray analysis and next generation sequencing showed a homozygous deletion of chromosome 5q31.1 spanning 115.3 kb and including three genes: NEUROG1 (encoding neurogenin 1), DCNP1 (dendritic cell nuclear protein 1, C5ORF20) and TIFAB (TIFA-related protein). The inability to chew and swallow, deafness and balance disorder represented congenital palsies of cranial nerves V (trigeminal nerve) and VIII (vestibulo-cochlear nerve) and thus a congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder. Conclusions Based on reported phenotypes of neurog1 null mutant mice and other vertebrates, we strongly propose NEUROG1 as the causative gene in this boy. The human NEUROG1 resides within the DFNB60 locus for non-syndromic autosomal recessive deafness on chromosome 5q22-q31, but linkage data have excluded it from being causative in the DFNB60 patients. Given its large size (35 Mb, >100 genes), the 5q22-q31 area could harbor more than one deafness gene. We propose NEUROG1 as a new gene for syndromic autosomal recessive hearing loss and congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder including cranial nerves V and VIII. PMID:23419067

2013-01-01

112

[Regeneration of the facial nerve in comparison to other peripheral nerves : from bench to bedside].  

PubMed

Despite increasing knowledge of cellular and molecular mechanisms determining the success or failure of peripheral nerve regeneration, no effective treatments for peripheral nerve injury exist. Newly developed and validated approaches for precise numerical assessment of motor deficits have recently allowed testing of novel strategies in experimental animals. One of these approaches is the daily manual stimulation of the denervated musculature. This treatment is effective in cases of cranial nerve lesions with preservation of the sensory input (facial or hypoglossal nerve) and has the potential of direct translation in clinical settings. However, manual stimulation appears to be ineffective for the treatment of mixed peripheral nerve injuries. Generally, no long-term improvement of functional recovery is achieved by electrical stimulation in rodents. While short-term post-traumatic stimulation of the proximal nerve stump has no negative effects, direct electrical stimulation of the muscle during the period of de- and reinnervation appears to hinder muscle fibre reinnervation. Finally, experimental evidence suggests that application of peptides known as glycomimetics, which mimic functional properties of carbohydrate molecules, may provide significant benefits after injuries of mixed peripheral nerves. PMID:20454881

Irintchev, A; Angelov, D N; Guntinas-Lichius, O

2010-05-01

113

Cranial change in Americans: 1850-1975.  

PubMed

This paper examines the pattern and magnitude of craniofacial change in American blacks and whites over the past 125 years. Standard metric data from 885 crania were used to document the changes from 1850 to 1975. Data from 19th century crania were primarily from anatomical collections, and 20th century data were available from the forensic anthropology data bank. Canonical correlation was used to obtain a linear function of cranial variables that correlates maximally with year of birth. Canonical correlations of year of birth with the linear function of cranial measurements ranged from 0.55 to 0.71, demonstrating that cranial morphology is strongly dependent on year of birth. During the 125 years under consideration, cranial vaults have become markedly higher, somewhat narrower, with narrower faces. The changes in cranial morphology are probably in large part due to changes in growth at the cranial base due to improved environmental conditions. The changes are likely a combination of phenotypic plasticity and genetic changes over this period. PMID:11451056

Jantz, R L

2001-07-01

114

Peripheral nerve fibromyxoid sarcoma.  

PubMed

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare soft-tissue neoplasm with metastatic potential and needs to be recognized as such, because it can be mistaken for other types of sarcoma due to its unremarkable appearance. This 49-year-old man presented with an approximately 5-cm mass on the anteromedial aspect of his left thigh that slowly increased over 10 years. Clinical symptoms were limited to local discomfort and intermittent distal numbness. Due to the location, imaging findings, and lack of serious symptoms, the initial differential diagnosis favored a schwannoma. An initial biopsy revealed histopathological findings consistent with a perineurioma, although with atypical features. The patient elected to have the mass excised, and the tumor, which arose from a branch of the saphenous nerve, could be separated well from the surrounding soft tissue. Histopathological investigation of the mass displayed characteristic features of a fibromyxoid sarcoma, which was confirmed by subsequent fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. Due to concerns about infiltration beyond the margins, radical reexcision was advocated and performed, resulting in definite clear surgical margins. At follow-up, the patient had regained full strength with no residual neurological symptoms or any new deficits. He has since been healthy and disease free for a total of 4 years in follow-up. This case documents, to the authors' knowledge, the first observation of an LGFMS associated with a peripheral nerve. It also supports the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis as an essential diagnostic method in establishing the diagnosis of LGFMS. PMID:24766104

Alter, Raanan Y; Wamsley, Christina C; Mullen, John T; Haile, Winta Z; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D; Kasper, Ekkehard M

2014-09-01

115

The nerves around the shoulder.  

PubMed

Neuropathies of the shoulder are considered to be entrapment syndromes. They are relatively common, accounting for about 2% of cases of sport-related shoulder pain. Many instances involve suprascapular neuropathy, but the clinical diagnosis is often delayed because of nonspecific symptoms. Classically, EMG is the gold standard investigation but MRI currently reveals muscular abnormality in 50% of cases. Muscle edema, the most characteristic symptom, is nonspecific. In general, the topography of edema, the presence of a lesion compressing the nerve and clinical history contribute to the diagnosis. Although atrophy and fatty degeneration may persist after the disappearance of edema, they are rarely symptomatic. The main differential diagnosis is Parsonage-Turner syndrome. Evidence of a cyst pressing on a nerve may prompt puncture-infiltration guided by ultrasonography or CT-scan. PMID:21546184

Blum, Alain; Lecocq, Sophie; Louis, Matthias; Wassel, Johnny; Moisei, Andreea; Teixeira, Pedro

2013-01-01

116

Prolonged Bilateral Reactive Miosis as a Symptom of Severe Insulin Intoxication  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 64 Final Diagnosis: Insulin self poisoning Symptoms: Coma Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Supportive care Specialty: Critical Care Medicine Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Miosis occurs following exposure to toxins that decrease the sympathomimetic tone, increase the cholinergic tone, or exert sedative-hypnotic effects, but has not been reported in insulin poisoning. Case Report: A 64-year- old woman without co-morbidities was found unconscious next to an empty insulin pen. Her Glasgow Coma Scale was 3 with absent reflexes, bilateral reactive miosis, and injection marks across the abdominal wall. The patient was endotracheally intubated, mechanically ventilated, and transferred to this hospital. At admission, the blood glucose level was 34 mg/dL. Glasgow Coma Scale remained at 3, with persistent bilateral reactive miosis. The toxicology screening was negative for ethanol, barbiturates, tricyclic antidepressants, phenothiazines, amphetamines, cannabinoids, salicylates, acetaminophen, and cocaine. Cranial computed tomography with angiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) did not show any structural brain lesions. Intravenous glucose was continued at 6–14 g/h for 3 days. On repeated neurological examinations, the patient remained deeply comatose, with partial loss of cranial nerve function. Bilateral reactive miosis persisted for 4 days. From day 5 on, the patient awoke progressively. At discharge, the patient was fully alert and orientated, without a focal neurological deficit. Conclusions: Prolonged bilateral reactive miosis can be a clinical symptom accompanying metabolic encephalopathy in severe insulin poisoning. Functional impairment of the pons due to relative hypoperfusion during hypoglycemia may serve as a reasonable pathophysiologic explanation for this phenomenon. PMID:25556593

Gradwohl-Matis, Ilse; Pann, Jakob; Schmittinger, Christian A.; Brunauer, Andreas; Dankl, Daniel; Dünser, Martin W.

2015-01-01

117

Endoscopic ulnar nerve release and transposition.  

PubMed

The most common site of ulnar nerve compression is within the cubital tunnel. Surgery has historically involved an open cubital tunnel release with or without transposition of the nerve. A comparative study has demonstrated that endoscopic decompression is as effective as open decompression and has the advantages of being less invasive, utilizing a smaller incision, producing less local symptoms, causing less vascular insult to the nerve, and resulting in faster recovery for the patient. Ulnar nerve transposition is indicated with symptomatic ulnar nerve instability or if the ulnar nerve is located in a "hostile bed" (eg, osteophytes, scarring, ganglions, etc.). Transposition has previously been performed as an open procedure. The authors describe a technique of endoscopic ulnar nerve release and transposition. Extra portals are used to allow retractors to be inserted, the medial intermuscular septum to be excised, cautery to be used, and a tape to control the position of the nerve. In our experience this minimally invasive technique provides good early outcomes. This report details the indications, contraindications, surgical technique, and rehabilitation of the endoscopic ulnar nerve release and transposition. PMID:24296546

Morse, Levi P; McGuire, Duncan T; Bain, Gregory I

2014-03-01

118

Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Pilot Study of Two Military Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study investigated the effects of cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) on the prevalence and intensity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and self- perceived improvement of performance and satisfaction in daily activities in war veterans. Two male Caucasian veterans (ages 54 and 38) diagnosed with PTSD participated in these case studies with a pretest–posttest design. The Canadian Occupational Performance

Alfred G. Bracciano; Wen-Pin Chang; Stephanie Kokesh; Abe Martinez; Melissa Meier; Kathleen Moore

2012-01-01

119

Sox2 and Mitf cross-regulatory interactions consolidate progenitor and melanocyte lineages in the cranial neural crest  

PubMed Central

The cellular origin and molecular mechanisms regulating pigmentation of head and neck are largely unknown. Melanocyte specification is controlled by the transcriptional activity of Mitf, but no general logic has emerged to explain how Mitf and progenitor transcriptional activities consolidate melanocyte and progenitor cell fates. We show that cranial melanocytes arise from at least two different cellular sources: initially from nerve-associated Schwann cell precursors (SCPs) and later from a cellular source that is independent of nerves. Unlike the midbrain-hindbrain cluster from which melanoblasts arise independently of nerves, a large center of melanocytes in and around cranial nerves IX-X is derived from SCPs, as shown by genetic cell-lineage tracing and analysis of ErbB3-null mutant mice. Conditional gain- and loss-of-function experiments show genetically that cell fates in the neural crest involve both the SRY transcription factor Sox2 and Mitf, which consolidate an SCP progenitor or melanocyte fate by cross-regulatory interactions. A gradual downregulation of Sox2 in progenitors during development permits the differentiation of both neural crest- and SCP-derived progenitors into melanocytes, and an initial small pool of nerve-associated melanoblasts expands in number and disperses under the control of endothelin receptor B (Ednrb) and Wnt5a signaling. PMID:22186729

Adameyko, Igor; Lallemend, Francois; Furlan, Alessandro; Zinin, Nikolay; Aranda, Sergi; Kitambi, Satish Srinivas; Blanchart, Albert; Favaro, Rebecca; Nicolis, Silvia; Lübke, Moritz; Müller, Thomas; Birchmeier, Carmen; Suter, Ueli; Zaitoun, Ismail; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Ernfors, Patrik

2012-01-01

120

Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of nerve. A clinicopathologic analysis of 26 cases.  

PubMed

Nineteen cases of fibrolipomatous hamartoma of nerve without macrodactyly and seven cases with macrodactyly are discussed. Twenty-five involved the hand, wrist, palm, and finger, and one case involved the foot. Nineteen patients had isolated fibrofatty enlargement of nerve, while seven had macrodactyly in addition to the peripheral nerve changes. Involved nerves included the median nerve, ulnar nerve, an unidentified nerve near the elbow, and a nerve on the dorsum of the foot. Four of nine patients with neurologic symptoms of pain or paresthesias had physical findings compatible with compression neuropathy, and two others were described as having carpal tunnel syndrome. Most patients had been aware of a mass for several years. Microscopically, the lesion was characterized by fibrofatty enlargement of nerve with massive epineural and perineural fibrosis. In two of the cases with macrodactyly, the fibrofatty enlargement of the nerve was associated with overgrowth of bone and the surrounding subcutaneous tissues. In one case, the perineural fibrosis was associated with metaplastic bone. The histogenesis of fibrofatty overgrowth of nerve has been disputed. Mature fat cells have been described within the normal nerve sheath, and it is thought that proliferation of these cells leads to the fatty enlargement of the nerve and its coverings. The relationship of these neural changes to the development of macrodactyly remains controversial. Follow-up in 18 patients (69%) reveals a benign course following biopsy, limited excision, or division of the flexor retinaculum in the wrist. PMID:3970300

Silverman, T A; Enzinger, F M

1985-01-01

121

Nerve Impulses in Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes research done on the resting and action potential of nerve impulses, electrical excitation of nerve cells, electrical properties of Nitella, and temperature effects on action potential. (GS)

Blatt, F. J.

1974-01-01

122

Follow-up evaluation with ultrasonography of peripheral nerve injuries after an earthquake  

PubMed Central

Published data on earthquake-associated peripheral nerve injury is very limited. Ultrasonography has been proven to be efficient in the clinic to diagnose peripheral nerve injury. The aim of this study was to assess the role of ultrasound in the evaluation of persistent peripheral nerve injuries 1 year after the Wenchuan earthquake. Thirty-four patients with persistent clinical symptoms and neurologic signs of impaired nerve function were evaluated with sonography prior to surgical repair. Among 34 patients, ultrasonography showed that 48 peripheral nerves were entrapped, and 11 peripheral nerves were disrupted. There was one case of misdiagnosis on ultrasonography. The concordance rate of ultrasonographic findings with those of surgical findings was 98%. A total of 48 involved nerves underwent neurolysis and the symptoms resolved. Only five nerves had scar tissue entrapment. Preoperative and postoperative clinical and ultrasonographic results were concordant, which verified that ultrasonography is useful for preoperative diagnosis and postoperative evaluation of injured peripheral nerves. PMID:25206859

Lu, Man; Wang, Yue; Yue, Linxian; Chiu, Jack; He, Fanding; Wu, Xiaojing; Zang, Bin; Lu, Bin; Yao, Xiaoke; Jiang, Zirui

2014-01-01

123

Entrapment of the suprascapular nerve: anatomy, etiology, diagnosis, treatment.  

PubMed

Entrapment of the suprascapular nerve is a rare peripheral neuropathy, which can be easily overlooked in the differential diagnosis of shoulder pain and dysfunction. Entrapment of the suprascapular nerve can occur at different locations along the pathway of the nerve. The primary symptoms are pain, weakness, and atrophy of the supraspinate and infraspinate muscles. Differential diagnosis should include brachial plexopathy, disorders of the cervical spine, cervical discopathy, glenohumeral pathology, tendonitis, and rotator cuff tear. Accurate diagnosis facilitates appropriate and timely treatment. PMID:17514177

Gosk, Jerzy; Urban, Maciej; Rutowski, Roman

2007-01-01

124

38 CFR 4.123 - Neuritis, cranial or peripheral.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Disorders § 4.123 Neuritis, cranial or peripheral. Neuritis, cranial or peripheral, characterized by loss of reflexes, muscle atrophy, sensory disturbances, and constant pain, at times excruciating, is to be rated on the scale...

2010-07-01

125

38 CFR 4.123 - Neuritis, cranial or peripheral.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Disorders § 4.123 Neuritis, cranial or peripheral. Neuritis, cranial or peripheral, characterized by loss of reflexes, muscle atrophy, sensory disturbances, and constant pain, at times excruciating, is to be rated on the scale...

2013-07-01

126

38 CFR 4.123 - Neuritis, cranial or peripheral.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Disorders § 4.123 Neuritis, cranial or peripheral. Neuritis, cranial or peripheral, characterized by loss of reflexes, muscle atrophy, sensory disturbances, and constant pain, at times excruciating, is to be rated on the scale...

2011-07-01

127

38 CFR 4.123 - Neuritis, cranial or peripheral.  

...Disorders § 4.123 Neuritis, cranial or peripheral. Neuritis, cranial or peripheral, characterized by loss of reflexes, muscle atrophy, sensory disturbances, and constant pain, at times excruciating, is to be rated on the scale...

2014-07-01

128

38 CFR 4.123 - Neuritis, cranial or peripheral.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Disorders § 4.123 Neuritis, cranial or peripheral. Neuritis, cranial or peripheral, characterized by loss of reflexes, muscle atrophy, sensory disturbances, and constant pain, at times excruciating, is to be rated on the scale...

2012-07-01

129

Intermittent Axillary Nerve Palsy Caused by a Humeral Exostosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an uncommon case of intermittent axillary nerve palsy caused by a humeral exostosis in an 11-year-old boy. After excision of the cartilagenous exostosis of the proximal end of the left humerus, the pre-operative symptoms of axillary nerve compression were alleviated.

J. WITTHAUT; K. J. STEFFENS; E. KOOB

1994-01-01

130

Bilateral third and unilateral sixth nerve palsies as early presenting signs of metastatic prostatic carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose To report four cases of cranial nerve palsy, which presented to the ophthalmologist as the only or one of the earliest manifestations of prostatic carcinoma. This is an infrequent complication of metastatic prostatic carcinoma usually only occurring late in the disease process in those with a history of prostatic carcinoma.Methods The case records of four patients with a history

C E McAvoy; S Kamalarajab; R Best; S Rankin; J Bryars; K Nelson

2002-01-01

131

Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of nerve.  

PubMed

Fibrolipomatous hamartomas of nerve are rare, benign, fibrofatty malformations of peripheral nerves, most commonly affecting the median nerve. Lower extremity cases are extremely rare. The authors present a very rare case of a fibrolipomatous hamartoma involving the superficial peroneal nerve, and review the literature regarding its clinical presentation and surgical management. PMID:8161996

Bibbo, C; Warren, A M

1994-01-01

132

Cranial Anatomy and Baboon CLIFFORD JOLLY*  

E-print Network

COMMENTARY Cranial Anatomy and Baboon Diversity CLIFFORD JOLLY* Department of Anthropology, New. The baboons are a particularly interesting example of mammalian evolution in tropical Africa. They have been, the study of baboons has the added interest that the place, time-frame, and ecological setting

Delson, Eric

133

Miniature piezoelectric triaxial accelerometer measures cranial accelerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tiny triaxial accelerometer whose sensing elements are piezoelectric ceramic beams measures human cranial accelerations when a subject is exposed to a centrifuge or other simulators of g environments. This device could be considered for application in dental, medical, and automotive safety research.

Deboo, G. J.; Rogallo, V. L.

1966-01-01

134

Fractal Dimensions of Cranial Sutures and Waveforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two quite different shapes of cranial sutures ostensibly yield fractal dimensions. The rare, intricate sutures yield the more valid fractal dimensions because self-similar scaling provides a double-log plot of negative slope. These sutures are fractals over a range of several r values. Some of the highly folded, wavy sutures in humans also fill space except at very tiny values of

C. A. Long; J. E. Long

1992-01-01

135

Adult Peripheral Nerve Disorders—Nerve Entrapment, Repair, Transfer and Brachial Plexus Disorders  

PubMed Central

Learning Objectives After reviewing this article the reader should be able to: 1. Describe the pathophysiologic bases for nerve injury and how it applies to patient evaluation and management. 2. Realize the wide variety of injury patterns and associated patient complaint and physical findings associated with peripheral nerve pathology. 3. Evaluate and recommend further tests to aid in defining the diagnosis. 4. Specify treatment options and potential risks and benefits. Summary Peripheral nerve disorders comprise a gamut of problems ranging from entrapment neuropathy, to direct open traumatic injury and closed brachial plexus injury. The pathophysiology of injury defines the patient symptoms, exam findings and treatment options and is critical to accurate diagnosis and treatment. Goals of treatment include management of often associated pain and improvement of sensory and motor function. Understanding peripheral nerve anatomy is critical to adopting novel nerve transfer procedures, which may provide superior options for a variety of injury patterns. PMID:21532404

Fox, Ida K.; Mackinnon, Susan E.

2011-01-01

136

[Endonasal treatment of iatrogenic or spontaneous cerebrospinal rhinorrhea of the anterior cranial fossa].  

PubMed

There is a 25% risk of meningitis in case of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea from the anterior cranial fossa. Treatment usually is based on neurosurgery when medical management is unsuccessful. The risk of morbidity and mortality in such operations is important and recurrence is observed in 25% of the cases. The development of endonasal surgery has increased the incidence of iatrogenic breaches but has also allowed the development of new techniques for closing breaches. Certain authors recently published a recent series of patients treated via the endonasal route. We present here six cases of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea from the anterior cranial fossa treated at the Foch Hospital. Etiology was iatrogenic in 4 cases, trauma in 1 and spontaneous in 1. The operative technique and mid-term results are presented. Cure was achieved in all cases after a mean follow-up of 2 years. One patient with osteopetrosis of the cranial floor who underwent neurosurgical decompression of the optic nerve complained of recurrent rhinorrhoea which could not be confirmed by endoscopy nor by imaging. Early endoscopic treatment of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea should be the first intention option as it preserves olfactive function, limits operative morbidity and mortality and leaves open the option of neurosurgery in case of failure. PMID:8729399

Coiffier, T; Cabanes, J; Visot, A; Dupuy, M; Freche, C; Chabolle, F

1995-01-01

137

Simultaneous discovery of cranial and spinal intradural chordomas: case report.  

PubMed

The present case illustrates the unexpected occurrence of intradural chordomas that were simultaneously discovered in cranial and spinal locations. A 63-year-old female presented with weakness in the left upper extremity. The patient visited a local doctor and underwent brain computerized tomography (CT). CT revealed a brain tumor, and she was referred to our hospital. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a midline intradural retroclival tumor in addition to an intradural extramedullary mass lesion at the level of C1-C2. The patient developed a spastic gait disturbance that forced her to use a cane. She underwent laminectomy at C1-C2 along with total removal of the tumor and showed no remarkable symptoms after surgery. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of chordoma. One month after the cervical surgery, the intracranial tumor was subtotally removed in intracranial surgery via the right subtemporal approach. Histopathological data were identical to that of the cervical tumor. The patient consulted another hospital and underwent gamma-knife surgery. Her neurological examination is relatively unchanged 20 months after the cervical surgery. This case suggests that neuroradiological evaluation should also be performed for an intradural spinal chordoma when an intracranial chordoma is detected. Careful determination of the tumor responsible for the symptoms is necessary if an intradural spinal chordoma is simultaneously detected with an intracranial chordoma. PMID:24477062

Kawanabe, Yoshifumi; Ueda, Shigeo; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Hoshimaru, Minoru

2014-01-01

138

Frizzled3 controls axonal development in distinct populations of cranial and spinal motor neurons  

PubMed Central

Disruption of the Frizzled3 (Fz3) gene leads to defects in axonal growth in the VIIth and XIIth cranial motor nerves, the phrenic nerve, and the dorsal motor nerve in fore- and hindlimbs. In Fz3?/? limbs, dorsal axons stall at a precise location in the nerve plexus, and, in contrast to the phenotypes of several other axon path-finding mutants, Fz3?/? dorsal axons do not reroute to other trajectories. Affected motor neurons undergo cell death 2 days prior to the normal wave of developmental cell death that coincides with innervation of muscle targets, providing in vivo evidence for the idea that developing neurons with long-range axons are programmed to die unless their axons arrive at intermediate targets on schedule. These experiments implicate planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling in motor axon growth and they highlight the question of how PCP proteins, which form cell–cell complexes in epithelia, function in the dynamic context of axonal growth. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01482.001 PMID:24347548

Hua, Zhong L; Smallwood, Philip M; Nathans, Jeremy

2013-01-01

139

Rotavirus Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Rotavirus Vaccine Program American Academy of Pediatrics Symptoms Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir Español: SÃntomas Rotavirus ... PATH's Rotavirus Vaccine Program American Academy of Pediatrics Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

140

Syphilis Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Syphilis Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ... occurs in four stages that sometimes overlap. Primary Syphilis The first symptom of primary syphilis is often ...

141

Mechanisms of premature closure of cranial sutures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Craniosynostosis is defined as premature closure of the sutures of the skull, resulting in cranial deformity. Since Virchow’s\\u000a original paper describing the relationship between premature suture closure and skull morphology, we have learned much about\\u000a the underlying mechanisms and consequences of premature suture closure. In this paper we will describe the biology of suture\\u000a closure, the rules governing the resulting

Tord D. Alden; Kant Y. Lin; John A. Jane

1999-01-01

142

Repair of peripheral nerve with vein wrapping*  

PubMed Central

Objective The post–traumatic neuro-anastomosis must be protected from the surrounding environment. This barrier must be biologically inert, biodegradable, not compressing but protecting the nerve. Formation of painful neuroma is one of the major issues with neuro-anastomosis; currently there is no consensus on post-repair neuroma prevention. Aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of neuroanastomosis performed with venous sheath to reduce painful neuromas formation, improve the electrical conductivity of the repaired nerve, and reduce the discrepancies of the sectioned nerve stumps. Patients and methods From a trauma population of 320 patients treated in a single centre between January 2008 and December 2011, twenty-six patients were identified as having an injury to at least one of the peripheral nerves of the arm and enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into two groups. In the group A (16 patients) the end-to-end nerve suture was wrapped in a vein sheath and compared with the group B (10 patients) in which a simple end-to-end neurorrhaphy was performed. The venous segment used to cover the nerve micro-suture was harvested from the superficial veins of the forearm. The parameters analyzed were: functional recovery of motor nerves, sensitivity and pain. Results Average follow-up was 14 months (range: 12–24 months). The group A showed a more rapid motor and sensory recovery and a reduction of the painful symptoms compared to the control group (B). Conclusions The Authors demonstrated that, in their experience, the venous sheath provides a valid solution to avoid the dispersion of the nerve fibres, to prevent adherent scars and painful neuromas formation. Moreover it can compensate the different size of two nerve stumps, allowing, thereby, a more rapid functional and sensitive recovery without expensive devices. PMID:24841688

LEUZZI, S.; ARMENIO, A.; LEONE, L.; DE SANTIS, V.; DI TURI, A.; ANNOSCIA, P.; BUFANO, L.; PASCONE, M.

2014-01-01

143

Nerve conduction velocity  

MedlinePLUS

... to determine the speed of the nerve signals. Electromyography (recording from needles placed into the muscles) is ... Often, the nerve conduction test is followed by electromyography (EMG). In this test, needles are placed into ...

144

Electromechanical Nerve Stimulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nerve stimulator applies and/or measures precisely controlled force and/or displacement to nerve so response of nerve measured. Consists of three major components connected in tandem: miniature probe with spherical tip; transducer; and actuator. Probe applies force to nerve, transducer measures force and sends feedback signal to control circuitry, and actuator positions force transducer and probe. Separate box houses control circuits and panel. Operator uses panel to select operating mode and parameters. Stimulator used in research to characterize behavior of nerve under various conditions of temperature, anesthesia, ventilation, and prior damage to nerve. Also used clinically to assess damage to nerve from disease or accident and to monitor response of nerve during surgery.

Tcheng, Ping; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.; Prass, Richard L.

1993-01-01

145

Use of an infrared camera to improve the outcome of facial nerve monitoring.  

PubMed

Intraoperative cranial nerve neuromonitoring (IONM) has significantly reduced morbidity historically associated with skull-base procedures. It provides the surgeon with immediate feedback to preserve both anatomic and physiologic function of monitored nerves. However, when the surgeon cauterizes tissue near the nerve, the monitoring equipment is saturated by the cautery signal, eliminating IONM information at a critical time. The use of an infrared camera under the drapes to observe the face for movement due to nerve stimulation is an invaluable adjunct to traditional IONM. Monitoring may also be improved by contralateral electrode placement to help identify artifact from nerve stimulation, using the microscope's video output to compare the surgeon's hand movements to recorded activity, and learning basic anatomy of the inner ear and skull base in order to know when heightened attention is important. PMID:18459631

Murphy, Emily K

2008-03-01

146

Microscopic characteristics of the acoustic tumor in relationship of its nerve of origin.  

PubMed

The microscopic characteristics of a 0.9 cm vestibular schwannoma en bloc resected with its nerve of origin which occurred in a 54-year-old white woman presenting with a two-year history of a unilateral progressive sensori-neural hearing loss is described. The tumor originated in the inferior vestibular portion of the vestibular division of the VIIIth cranial nerve just medial to the internal auditory canal meatus at approximately the level of the glial-non-glial junction. The tumor demonstrated two distinctly different, yet simultaneous, modes of involvement with its nerve of origin: 1. inseparable cellular continuity; and 2. peripheral compression of the remainder of the nerve within the tumor capsule. Despite only slight microscopic continuity of the nerve histologically, electronystagmography showed no unilateral weakness on bithermal caloric testing, and pure tone and speech audiometry was only moderately depressed. PMID:933694

Neely, J G; Britton, B H; Greenberg, S D

1976-07-01

147

Rare isolated trigeminal nerve sarcoidosis mimicking schwannoma.  

PubMed

Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disorder of unknown etiology involving multiple organ systems. Isolated neurosarcoidosis is exceedingly rare. This case report presents isolated trigeminal nerve sarcoidosis mimicking schwannoma in a patient presenting with symptoms of trigeminal neuralgia. Neuroimaging revealed a mass associated with trigeminal nerve which prospectively thought to represent schwannoma. However, surgical pathology was consistent with sarcoidosis. Given great overlap in imaging characteristic of tumors in the Meckel's cave intraoperative frozen section biopsy may be considered to rule out an inflammatory lesion. PMID:25457541

Bangiyev, Lev; Kornacki, Susan; Mikolaenko, Irina

2015-01-01

148

Injury of the Inferior Alveolar Nerve during Implant Placement: a Literature Review  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of present article was to review aetiological factors, mechanism, clinical symptoms, and diagnostic methods as well as to create treatment guidelines for the management of inferior alveolar nerve injury during dental implant placement. Material and Methods Literature was selected through a search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane electronic databases. The keywords used for search were inferior alveolar nerve injury, inferior alveolar nerve injuries, inferior alveolar nerve injury implant, inferior alveolar nerve damage, inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia and inferior alveolar nerve repair. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1972 to November 2010. Additionally, a manual search in the major anatomy, dental implant, periodontal and oral surgery journals and books were performed. The publications there selected by including clinical, human anatomy and physiology studies. Results In total 136 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. Aetiological factors of inferior alveolar nerve injury, risk factors, mechanism, clinical sensory nerve examination methods, clinical symptoms and treatment were discussed. Guidelines were created to illustrate the methods used to prevent and manage inferior alveolar nerve injury before or after dental implant placement. Conclusions The damage of inferior alveolar nerve during the dental implant placement can be a serious complication. Clinician should recognise and exclude aetiological factors leading to nerve injury. Proper presurgery planning, timely diagnosis and treatment are the key to avoid nerve sensory disturbances management. PMID:24421983

Wang, Hom-Lay; Sabalys, Gintautas

2011-01-01

149

Studies on experimental malignant nerve sheath tumors maintained in tissue and organ culture systems II. Electron microscopy observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequential electron microscopic features of six malignant nerve sheath tumors (three cranial and three spinal) induced in rats by transplacental ethylnitrosourea and maintained in organ culture systems were compared with those of a human acoustic Schwannoma similarly cultured. After 4 weeks in vitro, the malignant tumor cells often showed progressive elongation of their processes, with the development of an

Frances K. Conley; Lucien J. Rubinstein; Alexander M. Spence

1976-01-01

150

Pasteurella multocida infection involving cranial air spaces in White Leghorn chickens.  

PubMed

Seven 18-wk-old pullets from a commercial layer flock experiencing increased mortality associated with neurologic and respiratory symptoms were submitted to the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System at the Turlock Branch for necropsy. Clinical signs included depression, torticollis, swollen eyelids, conjunctivitis, and sinusitis. Meningoencephalitis and suppurative inflammation of the cranial air spaces were found on histopathology. The brain, sinuses, and air spaces of the cranium were infected with Pasteurella multocida. Complicating the condition was Mycoplasma gallisepticum infecting the sinus and paramyxovirus-I affecting the trachea. PMID:9645337

Gustafson, C R; Cooper, G L; Charlton, B R; Bickford, A A

1998-01-01

151

Menopausal symptoms  

PubMed Central

Introduction Menopause is a physiological event. In the UK, the median age for onset of menopausal symptoms is 45.5 to 47.5 years. Although endocrine changes are permanent, menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, which are experienced by about 70% of women, usually resolve with time, although they can persist for decades in some women. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of medical treatments for menopausal symptoms? What are the effects of non-prescribed treatments for menopausal symptoms? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 68 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: agnus castus, antidepressants, black cohosh, clonidine, oestrogens, phyto-oestrogens, progestogens, testosterone, and tibolone. PMID:21718582

2010-01-01

152

Menopausal symptoms  

PubMed Central

Introduction Menopause is a physiological event. In the UK, the median age for onset of menopausal symptoms is 45.5 to 47.5 years. Although endocrine changes are permanent, menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, which are experienced by about 70% of women, usually resolve with time, although they can persist for decades in some women. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of medical treatments for menopausal symptoms? What are the effects of non-prescribed treatments for menopausal symptoms? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 79 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: agnus castus, antidepressants, black cohosh, clonidine, oestrogens, phyto-oestrogens, progestogens, testosterone, and tibolone. PMID:21696644

2011-01-01

153

Social stigmatization in patients with cranial and cervical dystonia.  

PubMed

Patients with cranial and cervical dystonia (CCD) suffer from visible involuntary facial, head, and neck movements. Therefore, the social appearance of patients with CCD may be seriously affected and self-perceived stigma can be a major source of disability. The present study investigated enacted social stigmatization of patients with CCD. In a pilot study, a semantic differential scale for assessment of stigma was constructed and validated. The final scale contained eight items representing personality traits to be rated on a seven-point scale (-3 negative extreme to 3 positive extreme). Short video sequences (15 seconds) of patients with various types of CCD and age- and sex-matched healthy controls were presented to a sample of 80 biology students (mean age, 19.8 +/- 2.3 years). Immediately after presentation of each video sequence, the students were asked to perform stigma ratings. Significant differences between CCD patients and controls were found on all eight items (P < 0.001 for each). CCD patients were rated as less accountable for their actions, less likeable, less trustworthy, less attractive, less self-confident, more odd and different, more reserved, and more piteous than controls. CCD patients are subject to serious prejudice and enacted stigmatization. There is a need for informing the public about the nature and symptoms of this disorder and a need to support patients to cope with stigmatization. PMID:16856133

Rinnerthaler, Martina; Mueller, Joerg; Weichbold, Viktor; Wenning, Gregor K; Poewe, Werner

2006-10-01

154

Reversible acute axonal polyneuropathy associated with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: impaired physiological nerve conduction due to thiamine deficiency?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute axonal polyneuropathy and Wernicke-Korsakoff encephalopathy developed simultaneously in three patients. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) detected markedly decreased compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) with minimal conduction slowing; sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) were also notably decreased. Sural nerve biopsies showed only mild axonal degeneration with scattered myelin ovoid formation. The symptoms of neuropathy lessened within

S Ishibashi; T Yokota; T Shiojiri; T Matunaga; H Tanaka; K Nishina; H Hirota; A Inaba; M Yamada; T Kanda; H Mizusawa

2003-01-01

155

3D Geometric Morphometric Analysis of Hylobatid Cranial Ontogeny: Implications for Interpreting the Evolutionary Hstory of Hominoid Cranial Growth.  

E-print Network

??Research in hominoid cranial ontogeny has provided significant insight into the similarities and differences between apes and humans. Additionally, questions about within-species variability, allometry, and… (more)

Kozakowski, Stephanie

2014-01-01

156

Host records and tissue locations for Diplostomum mordax (metacercariae) inhabiting the cranial cavity of fishes from Lake Titicaca, Peru.  

PubMed

Metacercariae of Diplostomum mordax were found in the cranial cavity of Orestias agasii, Orestias olivaceous, Orestias luteus, and Basilichthys bonariensis, fishes from Lake Titicaca, Peru. Metacercariae were not found in Oncorhynchus mykiss introduced into the lake during 1939 and 1940. Compression of neural tissue within and on the surface of the brain was observed in all infected fishes. Metacercariae migrating into the cerebrum and cerebellum of the piscine host caused hemorrhaging, cell necrosis, inflammation, fiber formation, and nerve fiber disruption. The presence of D. mordax in B. bonariensis and the 3 species of Orestias constitute new host records. Infections in the cerebrum and cerebellum add new information on specific parasite location. PMID:1597806

Heckmann, R A

1992-06-01

157

Optical stimulation of the facial nerve: a surgical tool?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One sequela of skull base surgery is the iatrogenic damage to cranial nerves. Devices that stimulate nerves with electric current can assist in the nerve identification. Contemporary devices have two main limitations: (1) the physical contact of the stimulating electrode and (2) the spread of the current through the tissue. In contrast to electrical stimulation, pulsed infrared optical radiation can be used to safely and selectively stimulate neural tissue. Stimulation and screening of the nerve is possible without making physical contact. The gerbil facial nerve was irradiated with 250-?s-long pulses of 2.12 ?m radiation delivered via a 600-?m-diameter optical fiber at a repetition rate of 2 Hz. Muscle action potentials were recorded with intradermal electrodes. Nerve samples were examined for possible tissue damage. Eight facial nerves were stimulated with radiant exposures between 0.71-1.77 J/cm2, resulting in compound muscle action potentials (CmAPs) that were simultaneously measured at the m. orbicularis oculi, m. levator nasolabialis, and m. orbicularis oris. Resulting CmAP amplitudes were 0.3-0.4 mV, 0.15-1.4 mV and 0.3-2.3 mV, respectively, depending on the radial location of the optical fiber and the radiant exposure. Individual nerve branches were also stimulated, resulting in CmAP amplitudes between 0.2 and 1.6 mV. Histology revealed tissue damage at radiant exposures of 2.2 J/cm2, but no apparent damage at radiant exposures of 2.0 J/cm2.

Richter, Claus-Peter; Teudt, Ingo Ulrik; Nevel, Adam E.; Izzo, Agnella D.; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.

2008-02-01

158

Evolution of nerve development in frogs. II. Modified development of the peripheral nervous system in the direct-developing frog Eleutherodactylus coqui (Leptodactylidae).  

PubMed

We use whole-mount immunohistochemistry to describe the pattern of development of cranial nerves and muscles in the direct-developing leptodactylid frog Eleutherodactylus coqui. Comparison with nerve development in the biphasically developing frogs Physalaemus pustulosus (Leptodactylidae) and Discoglossus pictus (Discoglossidae; described in a companion paper) allows us to infer the ancestral leptodactylid ontogenetic pattern and the extent to which it has been modified during the evolution of direct development in Eleutherodactylus. While early embryonic development of cranial nerves and muscles is remarkably conserved in E. coqui, most transitory embryonic and larval characters (e.g., occipital and spinal myotomes together with their innervation, the distorted course of trigeminal and facial nerves, ventral branchial arch muscles, a subset of branchial-nerve rami and the lateral-line system) never develop. However, a few larva-typical characters are recapitulated, including Rohon-Beard cells and an anastomosis between the vagal and hypoglossal nerve. In addition to the abbreviation of ontogeny by loss of larva-specific traits, dramatic dissociations and heterochronic shifts of characters can be observed in E. coqui. The onset of development of limb and trunk innervation has been pre-displaced to early embryonic stage. Moreover, the reorientation of cranial muscles and nerves corresponding to late metamorphic events in biphasically developing anurans occurs relatively much earlier and is less pronounced in E. coqui resulting in an extreme condensation of ontogeny. PMID:9261555

Schlosser, G; Roth, G

1997-01-01

159

Postoperative Hydrocephalus in Cranial Base Surgery  

PubMed Central

The incidence of postoperative hydrocephalus and factors relating to it were analyzed in 257 patients undergoing cranial base surgery for tumor resection. A total of 21 (8%) patients developed postoperative hydrocephalus, and all required shunting, Forty-two (17%) patients developed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak that required placement of external drainage systems (ventriculostomy or lumbar drain, or both); 10 (23%) of these 42 patients eventually needed shunt placement to stop the leak because of hydrocephalus. Prior craniotomy, prior radiation therapy, and postoperative CSF infection were also associated with an increased risk of developing hydrocephalus (48% versus 6%, 19% versus 8%, and 14% versus 7%, respectively). Prior radiation and postoperative CSF infection increased the risk of CSF leak in patients with hydrocephalus (30% versus 18% and 30% versus 9%, respectively). CSF leak and hydrocephalus commonly occurred in patients who underwent resection of a glomus tumor. In conclusion, 8% of patients who underwent cranial base surgery for tumors developed de novo hydrocephalus; half of them also had CSF leak in addition to hydrocephalus; and all required shunt placement for CSF diversion. PMID:17171147

Duong, Duc H.; O'Malley, Sean; Sekhar, Laligam N.; Wright, Donald G.

2000-01-01

160

Cranial mechanics and feeding in Tyrannosaurus rex.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that the large theropod dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex was capable of producing extremely powerful bite forces and resisting multi-directional loading generated during feeding. Contrary to this suggestion is the observation that the cranium is composed of often loosely articulated facial bones, although these bones may have performed a shock-absorption role. The structural analysis technique finite element analysis (FEA) is employed here to investigate the functional morphology and cranial mechanics of the T. rex skull. In particular, I test whether the skull is optimized for the resistance of large bi-directional feeding loads, whether mobile joints are adapted for the localized resistance of feeding-induced stress and strain, and whether mobile joints act to weaken or strengthen the skull overall. The results demonstrate that the cranium is equally adapted to resist biting or tearing forces and therefore the 'puncture-pull' feeding hypothesis is well supported. Finite-element-generated stress-strain patterns are consistent with T. rex cranial morphology: the maxilla-jugal suture provides a tensile shock-absorbing function that reduces localized tension yet 'weakens' the skull overall. Furthermore, peak compressive and shear stresses localize in the nasals rather than the fronto-parietal region as seen in Allosaurus, offering a reason why robusticity is commonplace in tyrannosaurid nasals. PMID:15306316

Rayfield, Emily J

2004-07-22

161

Peripheral nerve injuries in baseball players.  

PubMed

Baseball players place significant stress across their shoulders and elbows during the throwing motion, causing unique patterns of injuries in the overhead throwing athlete. Specific nerve injuries include suprascapular neuropathy, quadrilateral space syndrome, and cubital tunnel syndrome. Nonoperative treatment includes cessation of throwing and symptom management. As symptoms improve, athletes should start rehabilitation, focusing on restoring shoulder and trunk flexibility and strength. The final rehabilitation phase involves an interval throwing program with attention directed at proper mechanics, with the goal of returning the athlete to competitive throwing. Surgery may assist in a positive outcome in particular patients who fail to improve with nonoperative treatment. Additional indications for surgery may include more profound neuropathy and nerve compression by a mass lesion. PMID:19084770

Cummins, Craig A; Schneider, David S

2009-02-01

162

Peripheral nerve injuries in baseball players.  

PubMed

Baseball players place significant stress across their shoulders and elbows during the throwing motion, causing unique patterns of injuries in the overhead throwing athlete. Specific nerve injuries include suprascapular neuropathy, quadrilateral space syndrome, and cubital tunnel syndrome. Nonoperative treatment includes cessation of throwing and symptom management. As symptoms improve, athletes should start rehabilitation, focusing on restoring shoulder and trunk flexibility and strength. The final rehabilitation phase involves an interval throwing program with attention directed at proper mechanics, with the goal of returning the athlete to competitive throwing. Surgery may assist in a positive outcome in particular patients who fail to improve with nonoperative treatment. Additional indications for surgery may include more profound neuropathy and nerve compression by a mass lesion. PMID:18295091

Cummins, Craig A; Schneider, David S

2008-02-01

163

Ontogeny of cranial epi-ossifications in Triceratops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, the scarcity of non-adult Triceratops fossils collected from Upper Cretaceous sediments of North America limited our understanding and promoted controversy with regard to the morphology, and presence or absence of cranial epi-ossifications in this widely known horned dinosaur. The recent discovery of several exceptionally well preserved juvenile and subadult Triceratops skulls and numerous juvenile, subadult, and adult cranial elements,

John R. Horner; Mark B. Goodwin

2008-01-01

164

Cranial Drilling Tool with Retracting Drill Bit Upon Skull Penetration  

E-print Network

) Enclosed device drilling 5mm bovine bone sample 2 Methods This handheld, portable, cranial drilling device with casing open (right) Enclosed device drilling 5mm bovine bone sample handheld, portable, cranial drilling penetration, the retraction mechanism successfully withdraws the drill bit before damaging soft tissue beneath

165

CRANIAL ANATOMY, TAXONOMIC IMPLICATIONS AND PALAEOPATHOLOGY OF AN UPPER JURASSIC  

E-print Network

CRANIAL ANATOMY, TAXONOMIC IMPLICATIONS AND PALAEOPATHOLOGY OF AN UPPER JURASSIC PLIOSAUR (REPTILIA find. The specimen shows most of the cranial and mandibular anatomy, as well as a series is probably female. The large size of the animal, the extent of sutural fusion and the pathologies suggest

Benton, Michael

166

Familial idiopathic hypertrophic osteoarthropathy and cranial suture defects in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three children with idiopathic hypertrophic osteoarthropathy and cranial suture defects are reported. The syndrome was recognized after birth and in the two oldest siblings, the cranial defects and subperiosteal bone formation resolved almost completely by age 4 and 6 years. The joint swelling and clubbing persisted and mild bone reabsorption of the distal phalanges became apparent at an older age.

Antonio J. Reginato; Virgilio Schiapachasse; Rosario Guerrero

1982-01-01

167

Radiological anatomy of the vascularization of cranial dural arteriovenous malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Knowledge of the radiological anatomy of the cranial durai vascularization allows a flexible and appropriate approach to the pretherapeutic investigation of cranial durai arteriovenous malformations. The variability of the origin of these arteries requires that several possible sources of vascular supply be investigated — internal carotid, internal maxillary, ascending pharyngeal, occipital and vertebral — and that each of their

P. Lasjaunias; L. Lopez-Ibor; A. Abanou; Ph. Halimi

1984-01-01

168

Cranial Growth Unrestricted during Treatment of Deformational Plagiocephaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The Dynamic Orthotic Cranioplasty (DOC) BandTM is a cranial orthosis used to treat deformational plagiocephaly. The ability of this device to redirect growth and thus, improve craniofacial asymmetry has raised concerns regarding the potential restriction of cranial growth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the growth of the head during correction of plagiocephaly. Methods: The study sample

Kevin M. Kelly; Timothy R. Littlefield; Jeanne K. Pomatto; Kim H. Manwaring; Stephen P. Beals

1999-01-01

169

Stimulation of the human auditory nerve with optical radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel, spatially selective method to stimulate cranial nerves has been proposed: contact free stimulation with optical radiation. The radiation source is an infrared pulsed laser. The Case Report is the first report ever that shows that optical stimulation of the auditory nerve is possible in the human. The ethical approach to conduct any measurements or tests in humans requires efficacy and safety studies in animals, which have been conducted in gerbils. This report represents the first step in a translational research project to initiate a paradigm shift in neural interfaces. A patient was selected who required surgical removal of a large meningioma angiomatum WHO I by a planned transcochlear approach. Prior to cochlear ablation by drilling and subsequent tumor resection, the cochlear nerve was stimulated with a pulsed infrared laser at low radiation energies. Stimulation with optical radiation evoked compound action potentials from the human auditory nerve. Stimulation of the auditory nerve with infrared laser pulses is possible in the human inner ear. The finding is an important step for translating results from animal experiments to human and furthers the development of a novel interface that uses optical radiation to stimulate neurons. Additional measurements are required to optimize the stimulation parameters.

Fishman, Andrew; Winkler, Piotr; Mierzwinski, Jozef; Beuth, Wojciech; Izzo Matic, Agnella; Siedlecki, Zygmunt; Teudt, Ingo; Maier, Hannes; Richter, Claus-Peter

2009-02-01

170

Cranial muscles in amphibians: development, novelties and the role of cranial neural crest cells  

PubMed Central

Our research on the evolution of the vertebrate head focuses on understanding the developmental origins of morphological novelties. Using a broad comparative approach in amphibians, and comparisons with the well-studied quail-chicken system, we investigate how evolutionarily conserved or variable different aspects of head development are. Here we review research on the often overlooked development of cranial muscles, and on its dependence on cranial cartilage development. In general, cranial muscle cell migration and the spatiotemporal pattern of cranial muscle formation appears to be very conserved among the few species of vertebrates that have been studied. However, fate-mapping of somites in the Mexican axolotl revealed differences in the specific formation of hypobranchial muscles (tongue muscles) in comparison to the chicken. The proper development of cranial muscles has been shown to be strongly dependent on the mostly neural crest-derived cartilage elements in the larval head of amphibians. For example, a morpholino-based knock-down of the transcription factor FoxN3 in Xenopus laevis has drastic indirect effects on cranial muscle patterning, although the direct function of the gene is mostly connected to neural crest development. Furthermore, extirpation of single migratory streams of cranial neural crest cells in combination with fate-mapping in a frog shows that individual cranial muscles and their neural crest-derived connective tissue attachments originate from the same visceral arch, even when the muscles attach to skeletal components that are derived from a different arch. The same pattern has also been found in the chicken embryo, the only other species that has been thoroughly investigated, and thus might be a conserved pattern in vertebrates that reflects the fundamental nature of a mechanism that keeps the segmental order of the head in place despite drastic changes in adult anatomy. There is a need for detailed comparative fate-mapping of pre-otic paraxial mesoderm in amphibians, to determine developmental causes underlying the complicated changes in cranial muscle development and architecture within amphibians, and in particular how the novel mouth apparatus in frog tadpoles evolved. This will also form a foundation for further research into the molecular mechanisms that regulate rostral head morphogenesis. Our empirical studies are discussed within a theoretical framework concerned with the evolutionary origin and developmental basis of novel anatomical structures in general. We argue that a common developmental origin is not a fool-proof guide to homology, and that a view that sees only structures without homologs as novel is too restricted, because novelties must be produced by changes in the same framework of developmental processes. At the level of developmental processes and mechanisms, novel structures are therefore likely to have homologs, and we need to develop a hierarchical concept of novelty that takes this into account. PMID:22780231

Schmidt, Jennifer; Piekarski, Nadine; Olsson, Lennart

2013-01-01

171

Pulfrich’s phenomenon in optic nerve hypoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is a congenital deficiency of retinal ganglion cells and their axons that form the optic nerve.\\u000a The condition is associated with visual deficits ranging from no light perception in severe cases, to vision within normal\\u000a range in mild cases of ONH. We report here a case of mild ONH with normal vision and with visual symptoms

Gordon Heron; Gordon N. Dutton; Daphne L. McCulloch; Stewart Stanger

2008-01-01

172

A fate-map for cranial sensory ganglia in the sea lamprey.  

PubMed

Cranial neurogenic placodes and the neural crest make essential contributions to key adult characteristics of all vertebrates, including the paired peripheral sense organs and craniofacial skeleton. Neurogenic placode development has been extensively characterized in representative jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) but not in jawless fishes (agnathans). Here, we use in vivo lineage tracing with DiI, together with neuronal differentiation markers, to establish the first detailed fate-map for placode-derived sensory neurons in a jawless fish, the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus, and to confirm that neural crest cells in the lamprey contribute to the cranial sensory ganglia. We also show that a pan-Pax3/7 antibody labels ophthalmic trigeminal (opV, profundal) placode-derived but not maxillomandibular trigeminal (mmV) placode-derived neurons, mirroring the expression of gnathostome Pax3 and suggesting that Pax3 (and its single Pax3/7 lamprey ortholog) is a pan-vertebrate marker for opV placode-derived neurons. Unexpectedly, however, our data reveal that mmV neuron precursors are located in two separate domains at neurula stages, with opV neuron precursors sandwiched between them. The different branches of the mmV nerve are not comparable between lampreys and gnatho-stomes, and spatial segregation of mmV neuron precursor territories may be a derived feature of lampreys. Nevertheless, maxillary and mandibular neurons are spatially segregated within gnathostome mmV ganglia, suggesting that a more detailed investigation of gnathostome mmV placode development would be worthwhile. Overall, however, our results highlight the conservation of cranial peripheral sensory nervous system development across vertebrates, yielding insight into ancestral vertebrate traits. PMID:24513489

Modrell, Melinda S; Hockman, Dorit; Uy, Benjamin; Buckley, David; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Bronner, Marianne E; Baker, Clare V H

2014-01-15

173

[Nerve conduction studies of suprascapular nerve for site-of-lesion diagnosis].  

PubMed

Shoulder pain is a common symptom, resulting not only from bone and shoulder joint diseases, but also from neurogenic lesions. Entrapment neuropathy of the suprascapular nerve also causes shoulder symptoms. Conduction of the suprascapular nerve was studied in 12 healthy control subjects and 25 patients suffering from shoulder pain and/or dysfunction. Surface stimulation was performed at Erb's point, and compound muscle action potentials(M waves) were recorded from the supraspinatus and the infraspinatus muscles with concentric needle electrodes. To determine the optimal site for recording M waves from the infraspinatus muscle, simultaneous multi-channel recordings of M waves using pairs of surface electrodes were obtained from different sites over the infraspinatus muscle. In two patients, latency of the M waves to the infraspinatus muscle was prolonged, whereas that to the supraspinatus muscle was normal. These findings indicate entrapment neuropathy at the spinoglenoid notch. In three patients, the latency to the infraspinatus and supraspinatus muscles was prolonged. These findings are compatible with entrapment neuropathy at the suprascapular notch. The latency to the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles was prolonged in patients with brachial plexus injury and in those with suprascapular nerve injury. In patients with myopathy, those with neuralgic amyotrophy and those with cervical radiculopathy, the latency was normal. Thus, conduction studies of the suprascapular nerve using multiple-channel recordings are useful, especially for the diagnosis of entrapment neuropathy of the suprascapular nerve. PMID:12166080

Ito, Junko

2002-06-01

174

Management of peripheral facial nerve palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) may (secondary FNP) or may not have a detectable cause (Bell’s palsy). Three quarters\\u000a of peripheral FNP are primary and one quarter secondary. The most prevalent causes of secondary FNP are systemic viral infections,\\u000a trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immunological disorders, or drugs. The diagnosis of FNP relies upon the\\u000a presence of typical symptoms

Josef Finsterer

2008-01-01

175

Sudden cochlear hearing loss as presenting symptom of arachnoid cyst of the posterior fossa  

PubMed Central

Summary Arachnoid cysts account for almost 1% of neoformations located in the cerebellopontine angle. The aetiopathogenesis is unknown. Arachnoid cysts of the cranial posterior fossa may produce symptoms typical of a tumour such as headache, dizziness, tinnitus and progressive sensorineural hearing loss. Management of these lesions is still controversial; if the arachnoid cyst is symptomatic, surgical treatment is usually recommended. The case is described of an adult female with sudden unilateral cochlear hearing loss as presenting symptom of an arachnoid cyst in the cranial posterior fossa. PMID:16886854

Cadoni, G; Agostino, S; Volante, M; Scipione, MS

2006-01-01

176

Sudden cochlear hearing loss as presenting symptom of arachnoid cyst of the posterior fossa.  

PubMed

Arachnoid cysts account for almost 1% of neoformations located in the cerebellopontine angle. The aetiopathogenesis is unknown. Arachnoid cysts of the cranial posterior fossa may produce symptoms typical of a tumour such as headache, dizziness, tinnitus and progressive sensorineural hearing loss. Management of these lesions is still controversial; if the arachnoid cyst is symptomatic, surgical treatment is usually recommended. The case is described of an adult female with sudden unilateral cochlear hearing loss as presenting symptom of an arachnoid cyst in the cranial posterior fossa. PMID:16886854

Cadoni, G; Agostino, S; Volante, M; Scipione, M S

2006-04-01

177

The furcal nerve revisited.  

PubMed

Atypical sciatica and discrepancy between clinical presentation and imaging findings is a dilemma for treating surgeon in management of lumbar disc herniation. It also constitutes ground for failed back surgery and potential litigations thereof. Furcal nerve (Furcal = forked) is an independent nerve with its own ventral and dorsal branches (rootlets) and forms a link nerve that connects lumbar and sacral plexus. Its fibers branch out to be part of femoral and obturator nerves in-addition to the lumbosacral trunk. It is most commonly found at L4 level and is the most common cause of atypical presentation of radiculopathy/sciatica. Very little is published about the furcal nerve and many are unaware of its existence. This article summarizes all the existing evidence about furcal nerve in English literature in an attempt to create awareness and offer insight about this unique entity to fellow colleagues/professionals involved in spine care. PMID:25317309

Harshavardhana, Nanjundappa S; Dabke, Harshad V

2014-08-01

178

Myosin-X is required for cranial neural crest cell migration in Xenopus laevis  

PubMed Central

Myosin-X (MyoX) belongs to a large family of unconventional, non-muscle, actin-dependent motor proteins. We show that MyoX is predominantly expressed in cranial neural crest (CNC) cells in embryos of Xenopus laevis and is required for head and jaw cartilage development. Knockdown of MyoX expression using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides resulted in retarded migration of CNC cells into the pharyngeal arches, leading to subsequent hypoplasia of cartilage and inhibited outgrowth of the CNC-derived trigeminal nerve. In vitro migration assays on fibronectin using explanted CNC cells showed significant inhibition of filopodia formation, cell attachment, spreading and migration, accompanied by disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. These data support the conclusion that MyoX has an essential function in CNC migration in the vertebrate embryo. PMID:19718754

Hwang, Yoo-Seok; Luo, Ting; Xu, Yanhua; Sargent, Thomas D.

2010-01-01

179

Ulnar Nerve Compression at Guyon's Canal by an Arteriovenous Malformation  

PubMed Central

Guyon's canal at the wrist is not the common site of ulnar nerve compression. Ganglion, lipoma, anomalous tendon and muscles, trauma related to an occupation, arthritis, and carpal bone fracture can cause ulnar nerve compression at the wrist. However, ulnar nerve compression at Guyon's canal by vascular lesion is rare. Ulnar artery aneurysm, tortous ulnar artery, hemangioma, and thrombosis have been reported in the literature as vascular lesions. The authors experienced a case of ulnar nerve compression at Guyon's canal by an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and the patient's symptom was improved after surgical resection. We can not easily predict vascular lesion as a cause of ulnar nerve compression at Guyon's canal. However, if there is not obvious etiology, we should consider vascular lesion as another possible etiology. PMID:19242575

Kim, Sung Soo; Kang, Hee In; Lee, Seung Jin

2009-01-01

180

Nerve and Blood Vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the histologic point of view, nerves are round or flattened cords, with a complex internal structure made of myelinated\\u000a and unmyelinated nerve fibers, containing axons and Schwann cells grouped in fascicles (Fig. 4.1a) (Erickson 1997). Along the course of the nerve, fibers can traverse from one fascicle to another and fascicles can split and merge. Based\\u000a on the fascicular

Maura Valle; Maria Pia Zamorani

181

The extracisternal approach in vestibular schwannoma surgery and facial nerve preservation.  

PubMed

The classical surgical technique for the resection of vestibular schwannomas (VS) has emphasized the microsurgical anatomy of cranial nerves. We believe that the focus on preservation of the arachnoid membrane may serve as a safe guide for tumor removal. Method The extracisternal approach is described in detail. We reviewed charts from 120 patients treated with this technique between 2006 and 2012. Surgical results were evaluated based on the extension of resection, tumor relapse, and facial nerve function. Results Overall gross total resection was achieved in 81% of the patients. The overall postoperative facial nerve function House-Brackmann grades I-II at one year was 93%. There was no recurrence in 4.2 years mean follow up. Conclusion The extracisternal technique differs from other surgical descriptions on the treatment of VS by not requiring the identification of the facial nerve, as long as we preserve the arachnoid envelope in the total circumference of the tumor. PMID:25465777

Vellutini, Eduardo A S; Beer-Furlan, André; Brock, Roger S; Gomes, Marcos Q T; Stamm, Aldo; Cruz, Oswaldo Laercio M

2014-12-01

182

[Cranial computer tomography in children. Correlation of echoencephalography and EEG to cranial computer tomography].  

PubMed

The results of cranial ultrasound (A-scan) and computerized tomography (CT) in 81 children were corresponding in 90%, when ventricular diameter was determined, in 85% of intracerebral dysplasias, and in 12,5% of neonatal intracranial hemorrhagia. Comparison of EEG and CT findings in 70 of these children were corresponding in 54% of the cases with respect to "normal" and "abnormal". On the basis of these results routine one-dimensional ultrasound scanning still seems to be a useful procedure. PMID:7372257

Laub, M C; Kugler, J

1980-03-01

183

The rabbit brachial plexus as a model for nerve repair surgery-histomorphometric analysis.  

PubMed

One of the most devastating injuries to the upper limb is trauma caused by the avulsion. The anatomical structure of the rabbit's brachial plexus is similar to the human brachial plexus. The aim of our study was to analyze the microanatomy and provide a detailed investigation of the rabbit's brachial plexus. The purpose of our research project was to evaluate the possibility of utilizing rabbit's plexus as a research model in studying brachial plexus injury. Studies included histomorphometric analysis of sampled ventral branches of spinal nerves C5, C6, C7, C8, and Th1, the cranial trunk, the medial part of the caudal trunk, the lateral part of the caudal trunk and peripheral nerve. Horizontal and vertical analysis was done considering following features: the axon diameter, fiber diameter and myelin sheath. The number of axons, nerve area, myelin fiber density and minimal diameter of myelin fiber, minimal axon diameter and myelin area was marked for each element. The changes between ventral branches of spinal nerves C5-Th1, trunks and peripheral nerve in which the myelin sheath, axon diameter and fiber diameter was assessed were statistically significant. It was found that the g-ratio has close value in the brachial plexus as in the peripheral nerve. The peak of these parameters was found in nerve trunks, and then decreased coherently with the nerves travelling peripherally. Anat Rec, 298:444-454, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25284580

Reichert, Pawe?; Kie?bowicz, Zdzis?aw; Dzi?giel, Piotr; Pu?a, Bartosz; Kuryszko, Jan; Gosk, Jerzy; Boche?ska, Aneta

2015-02-01

184

Fibrolipomatous Hamartoma of the Nerve Arising in the Neck: A Case Report With Review of the Literature and Differential Diagnosis.  

PubMed

: We report an unusual case of a fibrolipomatous hamartoma that arose in a nuchal nerve. Typically, fibrolipomatous hamartoma, otherwise known as a neural fibrolipoma or lipomatosis of nerve, arises in the median nerve, brachial plexus, cranial nerves, or plantar nerves. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes benign and malignant spindle cell lesions, such as spindle cell lipoma, perineurioma, and myxoid liposarcoma. We were able to identify the lesion based on the typical histology, including triphasic composition with spindle cell, neural, and adipocytic components and whorled architecture. Because of the atypical location in the neck, detailed immunohistochemical staining was performed. The lesional spindle cells were negative for SMA, CD10, CD68, EMA, S100, PGP9.5, CD34, CD56, and beta-catenin. Colloidal iron stain highlighted marked intralesional mucin deposition. This detailed immunohistochemical profile is a useful diagnostic aid and to our knowledge has not been previously described. PMID:25033011

Philp, Lauren; Naert, Karen A; Ghazarian, Danny

2014-07-15

185

[Nerve sheath tumours].  

PubMed

Peripheral nerve sheath tumors are common neoplasms in daily practice. Diagnosis and classification of most conventional peripheral nerve sheath tumors are relatively straightforward for the experienced observer; but on occasion, they are diagnostically challenging (especially with locally aggressive and malignant tumors). This article aims to provide an update of the data (clinical, histological, immunohistochemistry and genomic) of benign, intermediate and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, thanks to the latest WHO "Classification of Tumors of Soft Tissue and Bone", published in 2013, which includes a new chapter on "Nerve Sheath Tumors". Advances in molecular biology have provided new insights into the nature of the various peripheral nerve sheath tumors, and have begun to suggest novel targeted therapeutic approaches. PMID:25541115

Le Guellec, Sophie

2015-01-01

186

Atypical Goldenhar syndrome presenting with an additional cranial bone.  

PubMed

A cranial gap was detected in the left frontal area of a 24-week fetus. Reconstruction of the frontal bones and metopic suture using 3D ultrasound revealed the presence of an additional xiphoid bone extending from the anterior fontanelle to the nasal region between the frontal bones, without other major findings. Postnatal examination confirmed the cranial findings and additionally revealed a coloboma in the left eyelid and bilateral preauricular tags. This is an atypical case of Goldenhar syndrome, highlighting the importance of not adhering to the typical clefting and hemifacial microsomia pattern looking for minor detectable signs (colobomas, tags) when a cranial deformity, however atypical for Goldenhar, is detected. PMID:25042723

Sotiriadis, Alexandros; Diamanti, Elisavet; Chatzinikolaou, Fotios

2014-07-17

187

Familial idiopathic hypertrophic osteoarthropathy and cranial suture defects in children  

SciTech Connect

Three children with idiopathic hypertrophic osteoarthropathy and cranial suture defects are reported. The syndrome was recognized after birth and in the two oldest siblings, the cranial defects and subperiosteal bone formation resolved almost completely by age 4 and 6 years. The joint swelling and clubbing persisted and mild bone reabsorption of the distal phalanges became apparent at an older age. Two siblings and both parents had normal bone X-rays and no clubbing. This study confirms the association of cranial sutural defects and familial idopathic hypertrophic osteoarthropathy.

Reginato, A.J.; Schiapachasse, V.; Guerrero, R.

1982-05-01

188

Botulinum Toxin Physiology in Focal Hand and Cranial Dystonia  

PubMed Central

The safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal hand and cranial dystonias are well-established. Studies of these adult-onset focal dystonias reveal both shared features, such as the dystonic phenotype of muscle hyperactivity and overflow muscle contraction and divergent features, such as task specificity in focal hand dystonia which is not a common feature of cranial dystonia. The physiologic effects of botulinum toxin in these 2 disorders also show both similarities and differences. This paper compares and contrasts the physiology of focal hand and cranial dystonias and of botulinum toxin in the management of these disorders. PMID:23202323

Karp, Barbara Illowsky

2012-01-01

189

Pulfrich’s phenomenon in optic nerve hypoplasia: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is a congenital deficiency of retinal ganglion cells and their axons that form the optic nerve. The condition is associated with visual deficits ranging from no light perception in severe cases, to vision within normal range in mild cases of ONH. We report here a case of mild ONH with normal vision and with visual symptoms

Gordon Heron; Gordon N. Dutton; Daphne L. McCulloch; Stewart Stanger

2008-01-01

190

Spontaneous nerve torsion: unusual cause of radial nerve palsy.  

PubMed

Spontaneous nerve torsion is a rare cause of nerve palsy. We describe a case of nerve torsion affecting the radial nerve in order to inform radiologists of the existence of this condition and subtle features on cross-sectional imaging that can suggest the diagnosis preoperatively. PMID:25244923

Endo, Yoshimi; Miller, Theodore T; Carlson, Erik; Wolfe, Scott W

2015-03-01

191

[Multiple erythema migrans and facial nerve paralysis: clinical manifestations of early disseminated Lyme borreliosis].  

PubMed

Lyme borreliosis is a common vector-borne disease in Europe. The infection follows different stages with a broad variability of clinical symptoms and manifestations in different organs. A 49-year-old man presented with flu-like symptoms, facial nerve paralysis and multiple erythematous macular on his trunk and extremities. We diagnosed Lyme disease (stage II) with facial nerve paralysis and multiple erythema migrans. Intravenous ceftriaxone led to complete healing of hissymptoms within 2 weeks. PMID:24700023

Braun, S A; Baran, A M; Boettcher, C; Kieseier, B C; Reifenberger, J

2014-04-01

192

Advances in nerve repair.  

PubMed

Patients with peripheral nerve injuries face unpredictable and often suboptimal functional outcome, even following standard microsurgical nerve repair. The challenge of improving such outcomes following nerve surgical procedures has interested many research teams, in both clinical and fundamental fields. Some innovative treatments are presently being applied to a widening range of patients, whereas others will require further development before translation to human subjects. This article presents several recent advances in emerging therapies at various stages of clinical application. Nerve transfers have been successfully used in clinical settings, but new indications are being described, enlarging the range of patients who might benefit from them. Brief direct nerve electrical stimulation has been shown to improve nerve regeneration and outcome in animal models and in a small cohort of patients. Further clinical trials are warranted to prove the efficacy of this exciting and easily applicable approach. Animal studies also suggest a tremendous potential for stem and precursor cell therapy. Further studies will lead to a better understanding of their mechanisms of action in nerve repair and potential applications for human patients. PMID:23250767

Khuong, Helene T; Midha, Rajiv

2013-01-01

193

21 CFR 882.4360 - Electric cranial drill motor.  

...electric cranial drill motor is an electrically operated power source used with removable rotating surgical cutting tools or drill bits on a patient's skull. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2014-04-01

194

21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated power source used with removable rotating surgical cutting tools or drill bits on a patient's skull. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2013-04-01

195

21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated power source used with removable rotating surgical cutting tools or drill bits on a patient's skull. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2012-04-01

196

21 CFR 882.4360 - Electric cranial drill motor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...electric cranial drill motor is an electrically operated power source used with removable rotating surgical cutting tools or drill bits on a patient's skull. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2013-04-01

197

21 CFR 882.4360 - Electric cranial drill motor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...electric cranial drill motor is an electrically operated power source used with removable rotating surgical cutting tools or drill bits on a patient's skull. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2010-04-01

198

21 CFR 882.4360 - Electric cranial drill motor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...electric cranial drill motor is an electrically operated power source used with removable rotating surgical cutting tools or drill bits on a patient's skull. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2011-04-01

199

21 CFR 882.4360 - Electric cranial drill motor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...electric cranial drill motor is an electrically operated power source used with removable rotating surgical cutting tools or drill bits on a patient's skull. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2012-04-01

200

21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated power source used with removable rotating surgical cutting tools or drill bits on a patient's skull. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2010-04-01

201

21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.  

...pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated power source used with removable rotating surgical cutting tools or drill bits on a patient's skull. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2014-04-01

202

21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated power source used with removable rotating surgical cutting tools or drill bits on a patient's skull. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2011-04-01

203

21 CFR 882.5800 - Cranial electrotherapy stimulator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Identification . A cranial electrotherapy stimulator is a device that applies electrical current to a patient's head to treat insomnia, depression, or anxiety. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date a PMA or notice...

2011-04-01

204

21 CFR 882.5800 - Cranial electrotherapy stimulator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Identification . A cranial electrotherapy stimulator is a device that applies electrical current to a patient's head to treat insomnia, depression, or anxiety. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date a PMA or notice...

2010-04-01

205

Changes in nerve microcirculation following peripheral nerve compression?  

PubMed Central

Following peripheral nerve compression, peripheral nerve microcirculation plays important roles in regulating the nerve microenvironment and neurotrophic substances, supplying blood and oxygen and maintaining neural conduction and axonal transport. This paper has retrospectively analyzed the articles published in the past 10 years that addressed the relationship between peripheral nerve compression and changes in intraneural microcirculation. In addition, we describe changes in different peripheral nerves, with the aim of providing help for further studies in peripheral nerve microcirculation and understanding its protective mechanism, and exploring new clinical methods for treating peripheral nerve compression from the perspective of neural microcirculation. PMID:25206398

Gao, Yueming; Weng, Changshui; Wang, Xinglin

2013-01-01

206

Anterior interosseous nerve syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective: We sought to determine lesion sites and spatial lesion patterns in spontaneous anterior interosseous nerve syndrome (AINS) with high-resolution magnetic resonance neurography (MRN). Methods: In 20 patients with AINS and 20 age- and sex-matched controls, MRN of median nerve fascicles was performed at 3T with large longitudinal anatomical coverage (upper arm/elbow/forearm): 135 contiguous axial slices (T2-weighted: echo time/repetition time 52/7,020 ms, time of acquisition: 15 minutes 48 seconds, in-plane resolution: 0.25 × 0.25 mm). Lesion classification was performed by visual inspection and by quantitative analysis of normalized T2 signal after segmentation of median nerve voxels. Results: In all patients and no controls, T2 lesions of individual fascicles were observed within upper arm median nerve trunk and strictly followed a somatotopic/internal topography: affected were those motor fascicles that will form the anterior interosseous nerve further distally while other fascicles were spared. Predominant lesion focus was at a mean distance of 14.6 ± 5.4 cm proximal to the humeroradial joint. Discriminative power of quantitative T2 signal analysis and of qualitative lesion rating was high, with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity (p < 0.0001). Fascicular T2 lesion patterns were rated as multifocal (n = 17), monofocal (n = 2), or indeterminate (n = 1) by 2 independent observers with strong agreement (kappa = 0.83). Conclusion: It has been difficult to prove the existence of fascicular/partial nerve lesions in spontaneous neuropathies using clinical and electrophysiologic findings. With MRN, fascicular lesions with strict somatotopic organization were observed in upper arm median nerve trunks of patients with AINS. Our data strongly support that AINS in the majority of cases is not a surgically treatable entrapment neuropathy but a multifocal mononeuropathy selectively involving, within the main trunk of the median nerve, the motor fascicles that continue distally to form the anterior interosseous nerve. PMID:24415574

Bäumer, Philipp; Meinck, Hans-Michael; Schiefer, Johannes; Weiler, Markus; Bendszus, Martin; Kele, Henrich

2014-01-01

207

Cranial nerve palsy revealing an occipitovertebral metastasis from carcinoma of the uterine cervix.  

PubMed

A 37-year-old woman had a histologically documented occipitovertebral metastasis from an invasive epidermoid carcinoma of the uterine cervix. The metastasis was found 3 months after the primary and was treated by local radiation therapy followed by systemic chemotherapy. Radiation therapy was highly effective in relieving the pain but was not associated with changes in magnetic resonance imaging findings. Lymph node involvement and local extension occurred. The patient died 1 year after the diagnosis of the metastasis. Involvement of the occipitovertebral junction by uterine cervix carcinoma metastasis is exceedingly rare. The relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:11324934

Ferroir, J P; Le Breton, C; Khalil, A; Antoine, J M; Ponnelle, T; Billy, C; Judet, T

2001-03-01

208

EMBRYOLOGICAL ORIGIN FOR AUTISM: DEVELOPMENTAL ANOMALIES OF THE CRANIAL NERVE MOTOR NUCLEI. (R824758)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

209

Development of a Computer-Assisted Cranial Nerve Simulation From the Visible Human Dataset  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes the development of a three-dimensional model of the skull, brainstem and thalamus. The development of the model and learning modules are discussed. The goal of this project was to provide medical students with another tool to improve their visual spatial reasoning skills.

2011-03-01

210

Development of a Computer-Assisted Cranial Nerve Simulation from the Visible Human Dataset  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advancements in technology and personal computing have allowed for the development of novel teaching modalities such as online web-based modules. These modules are currently being incorporated into medical curricula and, in some paradigms, have been shown to be superior to classroom instruction. We believe that these modules have the potential of…

Yeung, Jeffrey C.; Fung, Kevin; Wilson, Timothy D.

2011-01-01

211

The Effect of Hair on Infection after Cranial Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  ?Objective. Reports of large series of patients who had undergone successful cranial neurosurgery without hair removal led part of our\\u000a team to abandon the practice of shaving patients' heads preoperatively. The aim of this study was to assess whether this change\\u000a in routine, which was implemented in 1992, has affected the rate of postoperative infection in our cranial surgery patients.

A. Bekar; E. Korfal?; ?. Do?an; S. Y?lmazlar; Z. Ba?kan; K. Aksoy

2001-01-01

212

High-resolution sonography of the abnormal cranial suture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The purpose of this investigation is to elucidate the sonographic features of abnormal major cranial sutures. Materials and methods. Eight excised synostosed suture specimens were evaluated. The high-resolution sonographic appearance was correlated with\\u000a the histological section, plain radiographs, CT and MRI. Diastatic and molded sutures were also evaluated with sonography\\u000a and compared with the normal cranial suture appearance. Results.

Don Soboleski; Ben Mussari; Deb McCloskey; Eric Sauerbrei; Franco Espinosa; Al Fletcher

1998-01-01

213

Contributions to the cranial morphology of selected Australian Leptodactylidae (Anura)  

E-print Network

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE CRANIAL MORPHOLOGY OF SELECTED AUSTRALIAN LEPTODACTYLIDAE (A?JRA) A Thesis by CLARENCE ALFRED BASSINGER, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1969 Major Subject VILDLIFE SCIENCE CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE CRANIAL MORPHOLOGY OF SELECTED AUSTRALIAN LEPTODACTYI IDAE (ANURA) A Thesis by CLARENCE ALFRED BASSINGER& JR. Approved as to style and content by: (Chairm...

Bassinger, Clarence Alfred

1969-01-01

214

Development of a Human Cranial Bone Surrogate for Impact Studies.  

PubMed

In order to replicate the fracture behavior of the intact human skull under impact it becomes necessary to develop a material having the mechanical properties of cranial bone. The most important properties to replicate in a surrogate human skull were found to be the fracture toughness and tensile strength of the cranial tables as well as the bending strength of the three-layer (inner table-diplöe-outer table) architecture of the human skull. The materials selected to represent the surrogate cranial tables consisted of two different epoxy resins systems with random milled glass fiber to enhance the strength and stiffness and the materials to represent the surrogate diplöe consisted of three low density foams. Forty-one three-point bending fracture toughness tests were performed on nine material combinations. The materials that best represented the fracture toughness of cranial tables were then selected and formed into tensile samples and tested. These materials were then used with the two surrogate diplöe foam materials to create the three-layer surrogate cranial bone samples for three-point bending tests. Drop tower tests were performed on flat samples created from these materials and the fracture patterns were very similar to the linear fractures in pendulum impacts of intact human skulls, previously reported in the literature. The surrogate cranial tables had the quasi-static fracture toughness and tensile strength of 2.5?MPa? m and 53?±?4.9?MPa, respectively, while the same properties of human compact bone were 3.1?±?1.8?MPa? m and 68?±?18?MPa, respectively. The cranial surrogate had a quasi-static bending strength of 68?±?5.7?MPa, while that of cranial bone was 82?±?26?MPa. This material/design is currently being used to construct spherical shell samples for drop tower and ballistic tests. PMID:25023222

Roberts, Jack C; Merkle, Andrew C; Carneal, Catherine M; Voo, Liming M; Johannes, Matthew S; Paulson, Jeff M; Tankard, Sara; Uy, O Manny

2013-01-01

215

[Transplantation of nerve tissue].  

PubMed

The results of transplantation of various parts of the central and peripheral nervous system are considered. Transplantation of nerve trunks is used clinically, and heterogenous regeneration of the nerves results in reinnervation of tissues and organs. The spinal ganglion transplantation is successfully used in experiments with both embryonic and mature differentiated neurons. Transplantation of different parts of the cortex, some subcortical structures, hyppocampus, hypothalamus, cerebellum and the spinal cord is made using immature neurons. Some attempts have been made to transplant the nerve tissue grown in vitro into a host. PMID:6998434

Chumasov, E I; Chalisova, N I

1980-01-01

216

Suprascapular nerve entrapment.  

PubMed

It is important to be aware of neuropathy involving the suprascapular nerve. While direct trauma to the suprascapular nerve is the usual cause (direct blow to the base of the neck or posterior shoulder, shoulder dislocation or fracture), the problem may result from overuse injuries (such as repetitive tennis serving or spiking of a volley ball), excessive horizontal adduction, weight lifting, backpacking or no apparent reason. These last three years we have operated 8 cases of suprascapular nerve neurolysis at the level of suprascapular incision, and section of the transverse scapular ligament through the back supraspinal approach. PMID:15830964

Corò, L; Azuelos, A; Alexandre, A

2005-01-01

217

Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of median nerve.  

PubMed

Fibrolipomaous hamartoma is a benign neoplasm of nerves, resulting from anomalous growth of fibroadipose tissue of the nerve sheath. The median nerve is the most commonly involved nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features are pathognomonic, showing a coaxial cable-like appearance on axial images and spaghetti-like appearance on coronal images. Preferred management of the lesion is conservative. PMID:17875173

Jain, T P; Srivastava, D N; Mittal, R; Gamanagatti, S

2007-10-01

218

Cranial tip suture in nasal tip contouring.  

PubMed

The creation of both a functionally and aesthetically pleasing nasal tip contour is demanding and depends on various different parameters. Typically, procedures are performed with emphasis on narrowing the nasal tip structure. Excisional techniques alone inevitably lead to a reduction in skeletal support and are often prone to unpredictable deformities. But also long-term results of classical suture techniques have shown unfavorable outcomes. Particularly, pinching of the ala and a displacement of the caudal margin of the lateral crus below the cephalic margin belong to this category. A characteristic loss of structural continuity between the domes and the alar lobule and an undesirable shadowing occur. These effects lead to an unnatural appearance of the nasal tip and frequently to impaired nasal breathing. Stability and configuration of the alar cartilages alone do not allow for an adequate evaluation of the nasal tip contour. Rather a three-dimensional approach is required to describe all nasal tip structures. Especially, the rotational angle of the alar surface as well as the longitudinal axis of the lateral crus in relation to cranial septum should be considered in the three-dimensional analysis. Taking the various parameters into account, the authors present new aspects in nasal tip surgery which contribute to the creation of a functionally and aesthetically pleasing as well as durable nasal tip contour. PMID:25536137

Kovacevic, Milos; Wurm, Jochen

2014-12-01

219

Cervical Radiculopathy (Pinched Nerve)  

MedlinePLUS

... nerve. The medical term for this condition is cervical radiculopathy. Understanding your spine and how it works can help you better understand cervical radiculopathy. Learn more about your spine online at Spine Basics: http://orthoinfo. org/topic. ...

220

Diabetic Nerve Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... at the wrong times. This damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Over half of people with diabetes get ... you change positions quickly Your doctor will diagnose diabetic neuropathy with a physical exam and nerve tests. ...

221

Peroneal nerve dysfunction after total knee arthroplasty: characterization and treatment.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to report on the presentation, evaluation, treatment, and outcome of patients who had a peroneal nerve dysfunction after total knee arthroplasty. Six patients were unable to achieve adequate range of motion after physical therapy, and the remaining 5 patients had sensory symptoms that interfered with daily activities despite adequate range of motion. All 11 patients had abnormal electrodiagnostic testing but had intact motor strength and were treated with surgical decompression of the nerve. The patients with motion problems had a mean increase in range of motion of 40 ° (range, 20 °-70 °) at final follow-up. All patients with dominant sensory symptoms had a resolution of leg and foot pain after treatment. Orthopedic surgeons should be aware of peroneal nerve dysfunction as a possible cause of unsatisfactory rehabilitation and/or persistent atypical lateral leg pain after total knee arthroplasty. PMID:20570090

Zywiel, Michael G; Mont, Michael A; McGrath, Mike S; Ulrich, Slif D; Bonutti, Peter M; Bhave, Anil

2011-04-01

222

Intraneural hemangioma of the median nerve: A case report  

PubMed Central

Hemangiomas of the median nerve are very rare and, so far, only ten cases of intraneural hemangioma of this nerve have been reported in the literature. We present a case of 14-year-old girl who had a soft tissue mass in the region of the left wrist with signs and symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. Total removal of the mass was achieved using microsurgical epineural and interfasicular dissection. The symptoms were relieved completely, after this procedure, without any neurologic deficit. On follow-up two years later, no recurrence was observed. Whenever a child or young adult patient presents with CTS the possibility of a hemangioma involving the median nerve should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis. PMID:18294368

2008-01-01

223

[Rosai-Dorfman disease with spinal and cranial tumors. A clinical case reported].  

PubMed

Rosai-Dorfman disease, known as well as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy, is a histiocytic proliferative disorder which may affect, with an extranodal presentation, the central nervous system, in 5 % of cases with exceptional reports of simultaneous development of spinal and cranial tumors. When it affects the central nervous system it appears more in men and it is shown as a mass in the cranial dura mater or in the spinal cord. The clinical symptoms of Rosai-Dorfman disease are fever, general malayse, weight loss, and nocturnal diaphoresis. Also, when Rosai-Dorfman disease affects the spinal cord, it has an impact on the thoracic spine, which causes paraparesis, quadriparesis, and sensory disorder. Histopathologically, the lymph nodes show emperipolesis. The diagnosis of Rosai-Dorfman disease is usually good, since 40 % of the patients present a spontaneous remission if they are treated with oral corticosteroids, even though the lesion can be managed with fractionated radiotherapy or with radical surgery. We report the case of a 34-year-old male who started with spinal injuries, and a year later showed intracranial lesions. PMID:24758863

Molina-Carrión, Luis Enrique; Mendoza-Álvarez, Sergio Alberto; Vera-Lastra, Olga Lidia; Caldera-Duarte, Agustín; Lara-Torres, Héctor; Hernández-González, Claudia

2014-01-01

224

Lipofibromatous hamartoma of the median nerve  

PubMed Central

Lipofibromatous hamartoma is a rare tumour of peripheral nerves which is characterised by an excessive infiltration of the epineurium and perineurium by fibroadipose tissue. To the best of our knowledge, only approximately 88 cases are reported in the literature. We report a rare case of lipofibromatous hamartoma of the median nerve causing secondary carpal tunnel syndrome in a 25 year old patient. This patient was treated conservatively with decompression and biopsy and experienced a complete resolution of symptoms post-operatively. Magnetic resonance imaging may be used to diagnose this lesion as it has very distinctive characteristics. Multiple conditions have been associated with this lesion and a greater understanding of these associations may clarify the pathogenesis. The architecture of the tumour makes excision very challenging and the surgical management remains controversial. A review of the literature regarding the etiology, pathogenesis and surgical management of lipofibromatous hamartoma is included. PMID:20920178

2010-01-01

225

Histopathological effects of radiosurgery on a human trigeminal nerve  

PubMed Central

Background: Radiosurgery is a well-established treatment modality for medically refractory trigeminal neuralgia. The exact mechanism of pain relief after radiosurgery is not clearly understood. Histopathology examination of the trigeminal nerve in humans after radiosurgery is rarely performed and has produced controversial results. Case Description: We report on a 45-year-old female who received radiosurgery treatment for trigeminal neuralgia by Cyberknife. A 6-mm portion of the cisternal segment of trigeminal nerve received a dose of 60 Gy. The clinical benefit started 10 days after therapy and continued for 8 months prior to a recurrence of her previous symptoms associated with mild background pain. She underwent microvascular decompression and partial sensory root sectioning. Atrophied trigeminal nerve rootlets were grossly noted intraoperatively under surgical microscope associated with changes in trigeminal nerve color to gray. A biopsy from the inferolateral surface of the nerve proximal to the midcisternal segment showed histological changes in the form of fibrosis and axonal degeneration. Conclusion: This case study supports the evidence of histological damage of the trigeminal nerve fibers after radiosurgery therapy. Whether or not the presence and degree of nerve damage correlate with the degree of clinical benefit and side effects are not revealed by this study and need to be explored in future studies. PMID:24605252

Al-Otaibi, Faisal; Alhindi, Hindi; Alhebshi, Adnan; Albloushi, Monirah; Baeesa, Saleh; Hodaie, Mojgan

2013-01-01

226

Middle fossa arachnoid cysts and inner ear symptoms: Are they related?  

PubMed Central

Background: Arachnoid cysts most frequently occur in the middle cranial fossa and when they are symptomatic, patients present with central nervous symptoms. Nevertheless, a large proportion of arachnoid cysts are incidentally diagnosed during neuroimaging in cases with nonspecific symptoms. Report of cases: The cases of two males with middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts with nonspecific inner ear symptoms were retrospectively reviewed. The first patient presented with mild headache, nausea, vertigo, unsteadiness, and tinnitus on the left ear while the second patient’s main complaint was left sided tinnitus. Both patients (initially managed for peripheral disorders) underwent a thorough clinical and electrophysiological evaluation. Because of the patients’ persistent clinical symptoms, and indications of CNS disorder in the first case, neuroimaging by brain MRI was performed revealing a middle cranial fossa arachnoid cyst in both patients. Conclusion: Occasionally, patients with arachnoid cysts may present with mild, atypical or intermittent and irrelevant symptoms which can mislead diagnosis. Otorhinolaryngologists should be aware of the fact that atypical, recurrent or intermittent symptoms may masquerade a CNS disorder. Hippokratia 2014; 18 (2):168-171. PMID:25336883

Proimos, E; Chimona, TS; Memtsas, Z; Papadakis, CE

2014-01-01

227

A review of hedgehog signaling in cranial bone development  

PubMed Central

During craniofacial development, the Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway is essential for mesodermal tissue patterning and differentiation. The HH family consists of three protein ligands: Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), Indian Hedgehog (IHH), and Desert Hedgehog (DHH), of which two are expressed in the craniofacial complex (IHH and SHH). Dysregulations in HH signaling are well documented to result in a wide range of craniofacial abnormalities, including holoprosencephaly (HPE), hypotelorism, and cleft lip/palate. Furthermore, mutations in HH effectors, co-receptors, and ciliary proteins result in skeletal and craniofacial deformities. Cranial suture morphogenesis is a delicate developmental process that requires control of cell commitment, proliferation and differentiation. This review focuses on both what is known and what remains unknown regarding HH signaling in cranial suture morphogenesis and intramembranous ossification. As demonstrated from murine studies, expression of both SHH and IHH is critical to the formation and fusion of the cranial sutures and calvarial ossification. SHH expression has been observed in the cranial suture mesenchyme and its precise function is not fully defined, although some postulate SHH to delay cranial suture fusion. IHH expression is mainly found on the osteogenic fronts of the calvarial bones, and functions to induce cell proliferation and differentiation. Unfortunately, neonatal lethality of IHH deficient mice precludes a detailed examination of their postnatal calvarial phenotype. In summary, a number of basic questions are yet to be answered regarding domains of expression, developmental role, and functional overlap of HH morphogens in the calvaria. Nevertheless, SHH and IHH ligands are integral to cranial suture development and regulation of calvarial ossification. When HH signaling goes awry, the resultant suite of morphologic abnormalities highlights the important roles of HH signaling in cranial development. PMID:23565096

Pan, Angel; Chang, Le; Nguyen, Alan; James, Aaron W.

2013-01-01

228

Symptoms of Pneumocystis pneumonia  

MedlinePLUS

... gov . Fungal Diseases Share Compartir Symptoms of Pneumocystis pneumonia The symptoms of PCP are fever, dry cough, ... Diagnosis & Testing Treatment & Outcomes Statistics Additional Information Pneumocystis pneumonia Definition Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & ...

229

Nerve conduction velocity study of the upper limb in Raynaud's phenomenon.  

PubMed

A prospective study of upper limb nerve conduction velocity was performed in 39 subjects (9 males, 30 females, mean age 46.8 years) with idiopathic Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) and 18 patients (3 males, 15 females, mean age 49.9 years) with RP secondary to systemic sclerosis (SS). Five subjects with idiopathic RP (13%) showed slowing of sensory conduction velocity (SCV) of the distal median nerve, associated with delayed distal motor latency (DML) of the same nerve in three patients, without clinical signs or symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Three patients with secondary RP (17%) had reduction of SCV of the distal median nerve, associated with increased DML of the same nerve in one and with clinically silent slowing of SCV of the ulnar nerve in two (11%). Mean distal SCVs of the median nerve were significantly lower and mean DMLs were significantly higher in both groups with respect to a control group. Mean distal conduction of the ulnar nerve was significantly slower only in the group with secondary RP. No slowing was observed in the proximal part of any nerve. It seems likely that patients with idiopathic RP have slowing of conduction in the distal part of the median nerve, along the carpal tunnel. Since slowing does not occur in all parts of the nerves of the hand, it cannot be related to acral vasomotor disturbances, but to local or systemic factors. In contrast, patients with secondary RP had slowing of median and ulnar nerve conduction velocity, presumably related to subclinical distal peripheral neuropathy. A nerve conduction study of the hand could be useful in cases of suspected secondary origin of RP. In idiopathic RP, slowing of conduction may only affect the median nerve, whereas in secondary RP it may affect other nerves of the hand. PMID:10984133

Mondelli, M; Romano, C; De Stefano, R; Cioni, R

2000-01-01

230

Repair of sciatic nerve defects using tissue engineered nerves  

PubMed Central

In this study, we constructed tissue-engineered nerves with acellular nerve allografts in Sprague-Dawley rats, which were prepared using chemical detergents-enzymatic digestion and mechanical methods, in combination with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells of Wistar rats cultured in vitro, to repair 15 mm sciatic bone defects in Wistar rats. At postoperative 12 weeks, electrophysiological detection results showed that the conduction velocity of regenerated nerve after repair with tissue-engineered nerves was similar to that after autologous nerve grafting, and was higher than that after repair with acellular nerve allografts. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that motor endplates with acetylcholinesterase-positive nerve fibers were orderly arranged in the middle and superior parts of the gastrocnemius muscle; regenerated nerve tracts and sprouted branches were connected with motor endplates, as shown by acetylcholinesterase histochemistry combined with silver staining. The wet weight ratio of the tibialis anterior muscle at the affected contralateral hind limb was similar to the sciatic nerve after repair with autologous nerve grafts, and higher than that after repair with acellular nerve allografts. The hind limb motor function at the affected side was significantly improved, indicating that acellular nerve allografts combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell bridging could promote functional recovery of rats with sciatic nerve defects. PMID:25206507

Zhang, Caishun; Lv, Gang

2013-01-01

231

Is the term "fasciculus opticus cerebralis" more justifiable than the term "optic nerve"?  

PubMed

The terminology of the optic nerve had already been changed three times, since 1895 until 1955 when the term "nervus opticus" was introduced in the "Terminologia Anatomica". Following our study we claim that, from the aspect of phylogenetic evolution of binocular vision development as well as optical embryogenesis where opticus is evidently presented as a product of diencephalic structures, the addition of the term "nervus" to opticus is not adequate and justified. From the clinical aspect the term "nervus opticus" is also inadequate, both as a "nerve" that has no functional regenerative properties, unlike other cranial nerves, as well as from a pedagogical and didactical aspect of educating future physicians. We suggest that the term "Fasciculus Opticus Cerebralis" should be used as it much better explains the origin as well as its affiliation to the central nervous system. PMID:23837214

Vojnikovi?, Bojo; Bajek, Snjezana; Bajek, Goran; Strenja-Lini?, Ines; Grubesi?, Aron

2013-04-01

232

Typewriter tinnitus: a carbamazepine-responsive syndrome related to auditory nerve vascular compression.  

PubMed

Six subjects with similar unilateral tinnitus that was fully suppressed by carbamazepine have been identified. Their ages at the time of the sudden onset of their tinnitus ranged from 39 to 87 years (mean 67). The 3 men had right ear tinnitus. Two of the 3 women had left ear tinnitus. All 6 described a staccato quality of their intermittent tinnitus ('like a typewriter in the background, pop corn, Morse code'). Five of the 6 subjects had no other hearing or vestibular complaints; their audiograms were symmetric and consistent with their ages. Vascular compression of the auditory nerve ipsilateral to the tinnitus was detected in 4 of the 5 subjects imaged. The similarities between typewriter tinnitus and other cranial nerve syndromes associated with vascular compression (trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm, and glossopharyngeal neuralgia) suggest that surgical decompression of the auditory nerve can relieve medication-refractive cases of typewriter tinnitus. PMID:16514262

Levine, Robert Aaron

2006-01-01

233

Attentional ability among survivors of leukaemia treated without cranial irradiation  

PubMed Central

Background: Previous research has indicated that children who have received treatment for leukaemia which includes cranial irradiation exhibit deficits in their ability to focus attention. It has been suggested that the use of cranial irradiation may have a role to play in long term sequelae. Aims: To investigate neuropsychological functioning among children treated for leukaemia without cranial irradiation. Methods: In a cross sectional study, 17 leukaemic patients and their sibling controls were assessed using a neuropsychological model of attention. All were treated on the UKALL XI protocol and none had received cranial irradiation. Participants completed the Arithmetic subtest and Digit Span subtest of the Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children–Revised to assess focus–encode elements of attention; the Coding subtest and the Speed of Information subtest of the BAS to assess focus–execute aspects of attention; the VIGIL computerised battery to assess sustain elements of attention; and the Wisconsin Card Sorting test to assess the ability to shift attention. Results: These children did not exhibit the deficits witnessed in previous cohorts, and were performing at comparable levels to their controls on all measures of attention Conclusions: These findings suggest that children who have received treatment for leukaemia without the use of cranial irradiation do not show the neuropsychological insult found in earlier treatment groups. PMID:12538320

Rodgers, J; Marckus, R; Kearns, P; Windebank, K

2003-01-01

234

Calvarial reconstruction using high-density porous polyethylene cranial hemispheres  

PubMed Central

Aims: Cranial vault reconstruction can be performed with a variety of autologous or alloplastic materials. We describe our experience using high-density porous polyethylene (HDPE) cranial hemisphere for cosmetic and functional restoration of skull defects. The porous nature of the implant allows soft tissue ingrowth, which decreases the incidence of infection. Hence, it can be used in proximity to paranasal sinuses and where previous alloplastic cranioplasties have failed due to implant infection. Materials and Methods: We used the HDPE implant in seven patients over a three-year period for reconstruction of moderate to large cranial defects. Two patients had composite defects, which required additional soft tissue in the form of free flap and tissue expansion. Results: In our series, decompressive craniectomy following trauma was the commonest aetiology and all defects were located in the fronto-parieto-temporal region. The defect size was 10 cm on average in the largest diameter. All patients had good post-operative cranial contour and we encountered no infections, implant exposure or implant migration. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the biocompatibility and flexibility of the HDPE cranial hemisphere implant make it an excellent alternative to existing methods of calvarial reconstruction. PMID:22279274

Mokal, Nitin J.; Desai, Mahinoor F.

2011-01-01

235

Symptoms of Parkinson's  

MedlinePLUS

... Secondary Motor Symptoms Nonmotor Symptoms Causes Progression Medications & Treatments Clinical Trials Statistics on Parkinson's Chasing the Cure National HelpLine Educational Publications Online ...

236

Contralateral facial nerve palsy following mandibular second molar removal: is there co-relation or just coincidence?  

PubMed Central

Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) is the most common cranial nerves neuropathy. It is very rare during dental treatment. Classically, it begins immediately after the injection of local anaesthetic into the region of inferior dental foramen and it's homolateral to the injection. Recovery takes a few hours, normally as long the anaesthetic lasts. The authors present a 44-year-old patient who presented a contralateral delayed-onset facial paralysis arising from dental procedure and discuss the plausible pathogenesis mechanism of happen and a possible relationship between dental procedure and contralateral FNP. PMID:25419300

Zalagh, Mohammed; Boukhari, Ali; Attifi, Hicham; Hmidi, Mounir; Messary, Abdelhamid

2014-01-01

237

Reduction of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure activity in awake rats by seizure-triggered trigeminal nerve stimulation.  

PubMed

Stimulation of the vagus nerve has become an effective method for desynchronizing the highly coherent neural activity typically associated with epileptic seizures. This technique has been used in several animal models of seizures as well as in humans suffering from epilepsy. However, application of this technique has been limited to unilateral stimulation of the vagus nerve, typically delivered according to a fixed duty cycle, independently of whether ongoing seizure activity is present. Here, we report that stimulation of another cranial nerve, the trigeminal nerve, can also cause cortical and thalamic desynchronization, resulting in a reduction of seizure activity in awake rats. Furthermore, we demonstrate that providing this stimulation only when seizure activity begins results in more effective and safer seizure reduction per second of stimulation than with previous methods. Seizure activity induced by intraperitoneal injection of pentylenetetrazole was recorded from microwire electrodes in the thalamus and cortex of awake rats while the infraorbital branch of the trigeminal nerve was stimulated via a chronically implanted nerve cuff electrode. Continuous unilateral stimulation of the trigeminal nerve reduced electrographic seizure activity by up to 78%, and bilateral trigeminal stimulation was even more effective. Using a device that automatically detects seizure activity in real time on the basis of multichannel field potential signals, we demonstrated that seizure-triggered stimulation was more effective than the stimulation protocol involving a fixed duty cycle, in terms of the percent seizure reduction per second of stimulation. In contrast to vagus nerve stimulation studies, no substantial cardiovascular side effects were observed by unilateral or bilateral stimulation of the trigeminal nerve. These findings suggest that trigeminal nerve stimulation is safe in awake rats and should be evaluated as a therapy for human seizures. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that seizure-triggered trigeminal nerve stimulation is technically feasible and could be further developed, in conjunction with real-time seizure-predicting paradigms, to prevent seizures and reduce exposure to nerve stimulation. PMID:11050139

Fanselow, E E; Reid, A P; Nicolelis, M A

2000-11-01

238

Bedside saccadometry as an objective and quantitative measure of hemisphere-specific neurological function in patients undergoing cranial surgery.  

PubMed

Cranial surgery continues to carry a significant risk of neurological complications. New bedside tools that can objectively and quantitatively evaluate cerebral function may allow for earlier detection of such complications, more rapid initiation of therapy, and improved patient outcomes. We assessed the potential of saccadic eye movements as a measure of cerebral function in patients undergoing cranial surgery peri-operatively. Visually evoked saccades were measured in 20 patients before (-12hours) and after (+2 and +5days) undergoing cranial surgery. Hemisphere specific saccadic latencies were measured using a simple step-task and saccadic latency distributions were compared using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Saccadic latency values were incorporated into an empirically validated mathematical model (Linear Approach to Threshold with Ergodic Rate [LATER] model) for further analysis (using Wilcoxon signed rank test). Thirteen males and seven females took part in our study (mean age 55±4.9years). Following cranial surgery, saccades initiated by the cerebral hemisphere on the operated side demonstrated significant deteriorations in function after 2days (p<0.01) that normalised after 5days. Analysis using the LATER model confirmed these findings, highlighting decreased cerebral information processing as a potential mechanism for noted changes (p<0.05). No patients suffered clinical complications after surgery. To conclude, bedside saccadometry can demonstrate hemisphere-specific changes after surgery in the absence of clinical symptoms. The LATER model confirms these findings and offers a mechanistic explanation for this change. Further work will be necessary to assess the practical validity of these changes in relation to clinical complications after surgery. PMID:25282394

Saleh, Y; Marcus, H J; Iorga, R; Nouraei, R; Carpenter, R H; Nandi, D

2015-02-01

239

Cosinor analysis of circadian rhythm of transcription in nerve cell populations in various parts of the rat nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

conditions (light:darkness = 12 h: 12 h; light from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m.) were kept in an insulated room. The test object consisted of nerve cells from the cranial cervical sympathetic ganglion (CCSG) spinal ganglion L5 (SG), Purkinje cells (PC) of the cerebellum, cells of the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus (SCH), spinal motoneurons (SM), and also neurons of

A. G. Mustafin; D. B. Lebedev; V. N. Yarigin; S. V. Vladimirov; G. V. Obrezkov

1990-01-01

240

Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the inferior calcaneal nerve (Baxter nerve).  

PubMed

Fibrolipomatous hamartoma (FLH) is a rare, benign lesion of the peripheral nerves most frequently involving the median nerve and its digital branches (80 %). Pathognomonic MR features of FLH such as coaxial-cable-like appearance on axial planes and a spaghetti-like appearance on coronal planes have been described by Marom and Helms, obviating the need for diagnostic biopsy. We present a case of fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the inferior calcaneal nerve (Baxter nerve) with associated subcutaneous fat proliferation. PMID:22526881

Zeng, Rong; Frederick-Dyer, Katherine; Ferguson, N Lynn; Lewis, James; Fu, Yitong

2012-09-01

241

Solitary sciatic nerve lymphoma as an initial manifestation of diffuse neurolymphomatosis. Case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Solitary peripheral nerve lymphomas are exceedingly rare primary manifestations of diffuse peripheral nervous system or central nervous system (CNS) lymphomatosis. A 52-year-old man presented with progressive weakness in gastrocnemius and anterior tibial muscle function, which was associated with radiating pain in the right leg. Magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a solitary fusiform tumor, extending from the sciatic nerve, at the level of the lesser trochanter of the femur, into the posterior tibial nerve below the popliteal fossa. Intraoperative gross examination found that the tumor diffusely expanded the nerve, but did not extend from or into surrounding muscle or tendons. The final histological diagnosis was a solitary extranodal lymphoma (Burkittlike high-grade B-cell lymphoma). Postoperative staging did not reveal evidence of lymphomatous involvement of other organs, but additional chemo- and radiotherapies were administered. Four months after the surgical biopsy, the patient presented with a right facial nerve palsy. The results of cytological examination of cerebrospinal fluid were positive for the presence of atypical lymphocytes, which was consistent with apparently progressive neurolymphomatosis; however, the results of radiological studies were negative for systemic progression. The patient underwent intrathecal chemotherapy followed by systemic myelosuppressive chemotherapy with bone marrow rescue, but died of respiratory failure while still receiving treatment. Postmortem examination revealed extensive lymphomatosis in the peripheral nerves and spinal nerve roots without evidence of cranial nerve, CNS, or other organ system involvement. The aggressive biological characteristics of these tumors, their management, and pertinent literature are reviewed. PMID:10616097

Quiñones-Hinojosa, A; Friedlander, R M; Boyer, P J; Batchelor, T T; Chiocca, E A

2000-01-01

242

Cyclic sciatica from extrapelvic endometriosis affecting the sciatic nerve.  

PubMed

Sciatic (catamenial) radiculopathy, waxing and waning with the menstrual cycle, is an uncommon condition typically caused by pelvic endometriosis affecting the lumbosacral plexus or proximal sciatic nerve. The authors describe a woman with catamenial sciatica caused by endometriosis affecting the sciatic nerve trunk in the upper thigh. Symptomatic with leg pain for 5 years, this patient developed gluteal atrophy and sensory loss and decreased strength in the L-5 dermatomyotome, a distribution confirmed by electromyography. Magnetic resonance imaging suggested thickening of the sciatic nerve at and distal to the sciatic notch. At operation the nerve showed extrinsic and intrinsic abnormality, proven to be endometriosis. Her symptoms improved, and she began gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist therapy for further suppression. This very unusual case shows that endometriosis can affect the sciatic nerve over a range of territory inside and outside the pelvis, and that surgery must be appropriately directed to avoid negative exploration. Surgical decompression achieves good relief of symptoms, and medical therapy also allows sustained suppression of this disease. PMID:21184633

Floyd, John R; Keeler, Elizabeth R; Euscher, Elizabeth D; McCutcheon, Ian E

2011-02-01

243

Facial Pain Followed by Unilateral Facial Nerve Palsy: A Case Report with Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Peripheral facial nerve palsy is the commonest cranial nerve motor neuropathy. The causes range from cerebrovascular accident to iatrogenic damage, but there are few reports of facial nerve paralysis attributable to odontogenic infections. In majority of the cases, recovery of facial muscle function begins within first three weeks after onset. This article reports a unique case of 32-year-old male patient who developed facial pain followed by unilateral facial nerve paralysis due to odontogenic infection. The treatment included extraction of the associated tooth followed by endodontic treatment of the neighboring tooth which resulted in recovery of facial nerve plasy. A thorough medical history and physical examination are the first steps in making any diagnosis. It is essential to rule out other causes of facial paralysis before making the definitive diagnosis, which implies the intervention. The authors hereby, report a case of 32-year-old male patient who developed unilateral facial nerve paralysis due to odontogenic infection with a good prognosis after appropriate treatment. PMID:25302280

GV, Sowmya; Goel, Saurabh; Singh, Mohit Pal; Astekar, Madhusudan

2014-01-01

244

Morphological pattern of intrinsic nerve plexus distributed on the rabbit heart and interatrial septum.  

PubMed

Although the rabbit is routinely used as the animal model of choice to investigate cardiac electrophysiology, the neuroanatomy of the rabbit heart is not well documented. The aim of this study was to examine the topography of the intrinsic nerve plexus located on the rabbit heart surface and interatrial septum stained histochemically for acetylcholinesterase using pressure-distended whole hearts and whole-mount preparations from 33 Californian rabbits. Mediastinal cardiac nerves entered the venous part of the heart along the root of the right cranial vein (superior caval vein) and at the bifurcation of the pulmonary trunk. The accessing nerves of the venous part of the heart passed into the nerve plexus of heart hilum at the heart base. Nerves approaching the heart extended epicardially and innervated the atria, interatrial septum and ventricles by five nerve subplexuses, i.e. left and middle dorsal, dorsal right atrial, ventral right and left atrial subplexuses. Numerous nerves accessed the arterial part of the arterial part of the heart hilum between the aorta and pulmonary trunk, and distributed onto ventricles by the left and right coronary subplexuses. Clusters of intrinsic cardiac neurons were concentrated at the heart base at the roots of pulmonary veins with some positioned on the infundibulum. The mean number of intrinsic neurons in the rabbit heart is not significantly affected by aging: 2200 ± 262 (range 1517-2788; aged) vs. 2118 ± 108 (range 1513-2822; juvenile). In conclusion, despite anatomic differences in the distribution of intrinsic cardiac neurons and the presence of well-developed nerve plexus within the heart hilum, the topography of all seven subplexuses of the intrinsic nerve plexus in rabbit heart corresponds rather well to other mammalian species, including humans. PMID:24527844

Saburkina, Inga; Gukauskiene, Ligita; Rysevaite, Kristina; Brack, Kieran E; Pauza, Audrys G; Pauziene, Neringa; Pauza, Dainius H

2014-05-01

245

Cranial and spinal magnetic resonance imaging: A guide and atlas  

SciTech Connect

This atlas provides a clinical guide to interpreting cranial and spinal magnetic resonance images. The book includes coverage of the cerebrum, temporal bone, and cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, with more than 400 scan images depicting both normal anatomy and pathologic findings. Introductory chapters review the practical physics of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, offer guidelines for interpreting cranial MR scans, and provide coverage of each anatomic region of the cranium and spine. For each region, scans accompanied by captions, show normal anatomic sections matched with MR images. These are followed by MR scans depicting various disease states.

Daniels, D.L.; Haughton, V.M.

1987-01-01

246

Treatment of cranial synostosis: the directive growth approach.  

PubMed

Reconstruction for single sutural synostosis typically involves cranial reshaping to correct for compensatory growth changes. Current remodeling techniques involve obliteration of both pathologic and normal sutures. Presented here is a case report describing a new approach to the treatment of single cranial synostosis. The concept involves excision of the offending suture and transient plating of the remaining functional sutures. Compensatory sutures are then allowed to direct the growth forces to the area of the synostosis, leading to the reversal of the compensatory shape deformity. This more natural approach leaves functioning sutures intact and allows for their active participation in the reshaping process. PMID:25006948

Mann, Robert J; Burton, Michael E

2014-07-01

247

Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for treatment of anxiety, depression, and insomnia.  

PubMed

Cranial electrotherapy stimulation is a prescriptive medical device that delivers a mild form of electrical stimulation to the brain for the treatment of anxiety, depression, and insomnia. It is supported by more than 40 years of research demonstrating its effectiveness in several mechanistic studies and greater than 100 clinical studies. Adverse effects are rare (<1%), mild, and self-limiting, consisting mainly of skin irritation under the electrodes and headaches. Often used as a stand-alone therapy, because results are usually seen from the first treatment, cranial electrotherapy stimulation may also be used as an adjunctive therapy. PMID:23538086

Kirsch, Daniel L; Nichols, Francine

2013-03-01

248

Optic nerve hypoplasia in children.  

PubMed Central

Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is characterised by a diminished number of optic nerve fibres in the optic nerve(s) and until recently was thought to be rare. It may be associated with a wide range of other congenital abnormalities. Its pathology, clinical features, and the conditions associated with it are reviewed. Neuroendocrine disorders should be actively sought in any infant or child with bilateral ONH. Early recognition of the disorder may in some cases be life saving. Images PMID:2191713

Zeki, S. M.; Dutton, G. N.

1990-01-01

249

Peroneal nerve entrapment in runners  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a practice involving large groups of athletes, seven runners and one soccer player with peroneal nerve compression neuropathy secondary to exercise have been found. Running incited pain, numbness and tin gling to varying degrees in all patients, and examination after running revealed muscle weakness and a positive percussion test as the nerve winds around the fibular neck. Nerve conduction

Robert E. Leach; Michael B. Purnell; Akiyoshi Saito

1989-01-01

250

Fibrolipoma of the median nerve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural fibrolipoma or fibrolipomatous hamartoma is an uncommon benign tumor that usually arises in the median nerve. Fibrofatty tissue proliferates around the nerve and infiltrates the epineurium and perineurium. We report a case of fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the left median nerve in an 18-year-old woman. Our objective was to describe the pathognomonic magnetic resonance imaging features, whose presence obviates the

Kais Nouira; Hend Belhiba; Sofiène Baccar; Anissa Miaaoui; Monia Ben Messaoud; Imène Turki; Ilhem Cheour; Emna Menif

2007-01-01

251

Vagus Nerve Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a safe and reliable treatment adjunct for patients with medically intractable epilepsy. It is both a preventive and an abortive form of therapy, potentially effective against both partial and generalized seizures in adults and children. VNS also has a number of serendipitous effects on mood, memory, and attention and has been approved for the treatment

Arun Paul Amar; Michael L. Levy; Charles Y. Liu; Michael L. J. Apuzzo

2008-01-01

252

Ischemic Nerve Block.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment investigated the capability for movement and muscle spindle function at successive stages during the development of ischemic nerve block (INB) by pressure cuff. Two male subjects were observed under six randomly ordered conditions. The duration of index finger oscillation to exhaustion, paced at 1.2Hz., was observed on separate…

Williams, Ian D.

253

Segmental thoracic lipomatosis of nerve with nerve territory overgrowth.  

PubMed

Lipomatosis of nerve (LN), or fibrolipomatous hamartoma, is a rare condition of fibrofatty enlargement of the peripheral nerves. It is associated with bony and soft tissue overgrowth in approximately one-third to two-thirds of cases. It most commonly affects the median nerve at the carpal tunnel or digital nerves in the hands and feet. The authors describe a patient with previously diagnosed hemihypertrophy of the trunk who had a history of large thoracic lipomas resected during infancy, a thoracic hump due to adipose proliferation within the thoracic paraspinal musculature, and scoliotic deformity. She had fatty infiltration in the thoracic spinal nerves on MRI, identical to findings pathognomonic of LN at better-known sites. Enlargement of the transverse processes at those levels and thickened ribs were also found. This case appears to be directly analogous to other instances of LN with overgrowth, except that this case involved axial nerves rather than the typical appendicular nerves. PMID:24506247

Mahan, Mark A; Amrami, Kimberly K; Howe, B Matthew; Spinner, Robert J

2014-05-01

254

Amplitude of sensory nerve action potential in early stage diabetic peripheral neuropathy: an analysis of 500 cases  

PubMed Central

Early diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy is important for the successful treatment of diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we recruited 500 diabetic patients from the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University in China from June 2008 to September 2013: 221 cases showed symptoms of peripheral neuropathy (symptomatic group) and 279 cases had no symptoms of peripheral impairment (asymptomatic group). One hundred healthy control subjects were also recruited. Nerve conduction studies revealed that distal motor latency was longer, sensory nerve conduction velocity was slower, and sensory nerve action potential and amplitude of compound muscle action potential were significantly lower in the median, ulnar, posterior tibial and common peroneal nerve in the diabetic groups compared with control subjects. Moreover, the alterations were more obvious in patients with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Of the 500 diabetic patients, neural conduction abnormalities were detected in 358 cases (71.6%), among which impairment of the common peroneal nerve was most prominent. Sensory nerve abnormality was more obvious than motor nerve abnormality in the diabetic groups. The amplitude of sensory nerve action potential was the most sensitive measure of peripheral neuropathy. Our results reveal that varying degrees of nerve conduction changes are present in the early, asymptomatic stage of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. PMID:25221597

Zhang, Yunqian; Li, Jintao; Wang, Tingjuan; Wang, Jianlin

2014-01-01

255

New Scaphocephaly Severity Indices of Sagittal Craniosynostosis: A Comparative Study With Cranial Index Quantifications  

E-print Network

With Cranial Index Quantifications Salvador Ruiz-Correa, Ph.D., Raymond W. Sze, M.D., Jacqueline R. Starr, Ph) and compare their sensitivity and specificity with those of the traditional cranial index (CI). Methods of CI. Conclusions: Measurements of cranial width and length derived from planes that are defined

Washington at Seattle, University of

256

Flexion and Metric Age Changes of the Cranial Base in the Macaca mulatta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flexion of the cranial base and ontogenic migration of the foramen magnum in Macaca mulatto were investigated. Longitudinal cephalometric studies were carried out in infant and juvenile groups. Significant ontogenie changes of the cranial base were observed only in juvenile age group. The infant group did not exhibit any changes of the cranial base angle or migration of the

Maria Michejda; D. Lamey

1971-01-01

257

Evaluation of Image Quality and Lens's Radiation Dose of a Low-Dose Cranial CT Scan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the lowest miliampere-second (mAs) of a cranial computed tomography (CT) scan that can maintain acceptable image quality on cranial CT scan which might help reducing the risk of cataract formation. Material and Method: The present study was performed on the 148 patients in routine daily practice sent for diagnosis of intracranial conditions by a cranial CT scan.

Pipat Chiewvit; Jitladda Ananwattanasuk; Manus Mongkolsuk; Chulaluk Boonma; Suthisak Suthipongchai

258

Sensory nerve conduction of the plantar nerve compared with other nerve conduction tests in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveIn rats the available techniques for evaluation of sensory nerve conduction are limited. We report a new method of sensory nerve conduction of the plantar nerve using needle electrodes as the recording electrodes behind the medial malleolus and ring electrodes as the stimulating electrodes around the three middle toes.

Katsumi Kurokawa; Diogo F de Almeida; Yun Zhang; Charles D Hébert; John G Page; Karen M Schweikart; Shin J Oh

2004-01-01

259

Brain Size, Cranial Morphology, Climate, and Time Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

INCREASING CRANIAL CAPACITY has historically been associ- ated with increasing complexity of society. The resultant ten- dency has been to think of humans with larger brains as mentally more capable. Gene-pool (racial affinity) and somatic (body- size) explanations have also been advanced to account for the braincase variation. We offer an alternative hypothesis that suggests that hominid expansion into regions

Kenneth L. Beals; Courtland L. Smith; Stephen M. Dodd

1984-01-01

260

Cranial Radiation Therapy and Damage to Hippocampal Neurogenesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cranial radiation therapy is associated with a progressive decline in cognitive function, prominently memory function. Impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis is thought to be an important mechanism underlying this cognitive decline. Recent work has elucidated the mechanisms of radiation-induced failure of neurogenesis. Potential therapeutic…

Monje, Michelle

2008-01-01

261

RESEARCH ARTICLE Evolution of Cranial Shape in Caecilians (Amphibia  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Evolution of Cranial Shape in Caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) Emma Sherratt of morphological variation in the skull of caecilian amphibians, a major clade of verte- brates. Because caecilians cor- respond to the main caecilian clades, and each cluster is separated by unoccupied morphospace

Klingenberg, Christian Peter

262

RESEARCH Open Access Trans-cranial focused ultrasound without hair  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Trans-cranial focused ultrasound without hair shaving: feasibility study made of human hair was sonicated using 220- and 710-kHz head transducers to evaluate the feasibility. Results showed that the hair had a negligible effect on focal spot thermal rise at 220 kHz and a 17% drop

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

263

Cranial sutures and craniometric points detected on MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal of the study was to determine on MRI the cranial sutures, the craniometric points and craniometric measurements, and to correlate these results with classical anthropometric measurements. For this purpose, we reviewed 150 cerebral MRI examinations considered as normal (Caucasian population aged 20?49 years). For each examination we individualized 11 craniometric landmarks (Glabella, Bregma, Lambda, Opisthocranion, Opisthion, Basion, Inion,

François Cotton; Fernando Ramirez Rozzi; Bernard Vallee; Chahin Pachai; Marc Hermier; Anne-Marie Guihard-Costa; Jean-Claude Froment

2005-01-01

264

RESEARCH ARTICLE Ontogeny of feeding behavior and cranial morphology  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Ontogeny of feeding behavior and cranial morphology in the whitespotted development of the feeding apparatus over early ontogeny can profoundly affect the ability of an organism a strike decreased over ontogeny and the feeding modality became more suction-dominated. Kinematic

Motta, Philip J.

265

Cranial trauma and the assessment of posttraumatic survival time.  

PubMed

Assessment of trauma on skeletal remains can be very difficult, especially when it comes to the estimation of posttraumatic survival time in partially healed lesions. The ability to reliably estimate the time an individual has survived after sustaining an injury is especially important in cases of child abuse and torture, but can also aid in determining the association between an injury and eventual death. Here a case from South Africa is reported, where the skeletal remains of an unknown individual were found with cranial and scapular fractures. These fractures all presented with macroscopic features indicative of healing. Using recently published data on the timing of fractures by De Boer et al., the two sets of cranial trauma and the scapular fracture were assessed by means of radiology, histology and microCT scanning. This was primarily done in order to obtain more information on the events surrounding the death of this individual, but also to assess the usability of the published methods on cranial fractures. It was found that the initial trauma was most likely sustained at least two weeks before death, whilst a neurosurgical procedure was performed at least one week before death. It seems that cranial fractures, especially if stable, may show some different healing features than postcranial fractures. The individual has since been identified, but unfortunately as is often the case in South Africa, limited information is available and the medical records could not be found. PMID:25217847

Steyn, M; De Boer, H H; Van der Merwe, A E

2014-11-01

266

FGF9 can induce endochondral ossification in cranial mesenchyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The flat bones of the skull (i.e., the frontal and parietal bones) normally form through intramembranous ossification. At these sites cranial mesenchymal cells directly differentiate into osteoblasts without the formation of a cartilage intermediate. This type of ossification is distinct from endochondral ossification, a process that involves initial formation of cartilage and later replacement by bone. RESULTS: We have

Venkatesh Govindarajan; Paul A Overbeek

2006-01-01

267

ORIGINAL PAPERS Cranial Morphology of a Pantolestid Eutherian Mammal  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPERS Cranial Morphology of a Pantolestid Eutherian Mammal from the Eocene Bridger is a eutherian subfamily of mammals whose members are known from the middle early Paleocene through at least and extant mammals. Semicircular canal morphology is used to test locomotor hypotheses. YPM 13525 lacks

Boyer, Doug M.

268

Pediatric primary leptomeningeal lymphoma treated without cranial radiotherapy.  

PubMed

We report a case of primary leptomenigeal lymphoma (PLML) in an 11-year-old boy presenting with headache, vomiting, and diplopia. The patient was treated on an advanced non-Hodgkin lymphoma protocol with systemic/intrathecal chemotherapy without cranial radiotherapy. He remains in complete remission 33 months after treatment. PMID:16411209

Taga, Takashi; Sakaue, Yuko; Anzai, Yuko; Takeuchi, Yoshihiro; Ohta, Shigeru

2007-04-01

269

The cranial anatomy of the neornithischian dinosaur Thescelosaurus neglectus.  

PubMed

Though the dinosaur Thescelosaurus neglectus was first described in 1913 and is known from the relatively fossiliferous Lance and Hell Creek formations in the Western Interior Basin of North America, the cranial anatomy of this species remains poorly understood. The only cranial material confidently referred to this species are three fragmentary bones preserved with the paratype, hindering attempts to understand the systematic relationships of this taxon within Neornithischia. Here the cranial anatomy of T. neglectus is fully described for the first time based on two specimens that include well-preserved cranial material (NCSM 15728 and TLAM.BA.2014.027.0001). Visual inspection of exposed cranial elements of these specimens is supplemented by detailed CT data from NCSM 15728 that enabled the examination of otherwise unexposed surfaces, facilitating a complete description of the cranial anatomy of this species. The skull of T. neglectus displays a unique combination of plesiomorphic and apomorphic traits. The premaxillary and 'cheek' tooth morphologies are relatively derived, though less so than the condition seen in basal iguanodontians, suggesting that the high tooth count present in the premaxillae, maxillae, and dentaries may be related to the extreme elongation of the skull of this species rather than a retention of the plesiomorphic condition. The morphology of the braincase most closely resembles the iguanodontians Dryosaurus and Dysalotosaurus, especially with regard to the morphology of the prootic. One autapomorphic feature is recognized for the first time, along with several additional cranial features that differentiate this species from the closely related and contemporaneous Thescelosaurus assiniboiensis. Published phylogenetic hypotheses of neornithischian dinosaur relationships often differ in the placement of the North American taxon Parksosaurus, with some recovering a close relationship with Thescelosaurus and others with the South American taxon Gasparinisaura, but never both at the same time. The new morphological observations presented herein, combined with re-examination of the holotype of Parksosaurus, suggest that Parksosaurus shares a closer relationship with Thescelosaurus than with Gasparinisaura, and that many of the features previously cited to support a relationship with the latter taxon are either also present in Thescelosaurus, are artifacts of preservation, or are the result of incomplete preparation and inaccurate interpretation of specimens. Additionally, the overall morphology of the skull and lower jaws of both Thescelosaurus and Parksosaurus also closely resemble the Asian taxa Changchunsaurus and Haya, though the interrelationships of these taxa have yet to be tested in a phylogenetic analysis that includes these new morphological data for T. neglectus. PMID:25405076

Boyd, Clint A

2014-01-01

270

Patterns of cranial shape variation in the Papionini (Primates: Cercopithecinae).  

PubMed

Traditional classifications of the Old World monkey tribe Papionini (Primates: Cercopithecinae) recognized the mangabey genera Cercocebus and Lophocebus as sister taxa. However, molecular studies have consistently found the mangabeys to be diphyletic, with Cercocebus and Mandrillus forming a clade to the exclusion of all other papionins. Recent studies have identified cranial and postcranial features which distinguish the Cercocebus-Mandrillus clade, however the detailed similarities in cranial shape between the mangabey genera are more difficult to reconcile with the molecular evidence. Given the large size differential between members of the papionin molecular clades, it has frequently been suggested that allometric effects account for homoplasy in papionin cranial form. A combination of geometric morphometric, bivariate, and multivariate methods was used to evaluate the hypothesis that allometric scaling contributes to craniofacial similarities between like-sized papionin taxa. Patterns of allometric and size-independent cranial shape variation were subsequently described and related to known papionin phylogenetic relationships and patterns of development. Results confirm that allometric scaling of craniofacial shape characterized by positive facial allometry and negative neurocranial allometry is present across adult papionins. Pairwise comparisons of regression lines among genera revealed considerable homogeneity of scaling within the Papionini, however statistically significant differences in regression lines also were noted. In particular, Cercocebus and Lophocebus exhibit a shared slope and significant vertical displacement of their allometric lines relative to other papionins. These findings give no support to narrowly construed hypotheses of uniquely shared patterns of allometric scaling, either between sister taxa or across all papionins. However, more general allometric trends do appear to account for a substantial proportion of papionin cranial shape variation, most notably in those features which have influenced traditional morphological phylogenies. Examination of size-uncorrelated shape variation gives no clear support to molecular phylogenies, but underscores the absence of morphometric similarities between the mangabey genera when size effects are controlled. Patterns of allometric and size-uncorrelated shape variation indicate conservatism of cranial form in non- Theropithecus papionins, and suggest that Papio represents the primitive morphometric pattern for the African papionins. Lophocebus exhibits a divergent morphometric pattern, clearly distinguishable from other papionins, most notably Cercocebus. These results clarify patterns of cranial shape variation among the extant Papionini and lay the groundwork for studies of related fossil taxa. PMID:11969297

Singleton, Michelle

2002-05-01

271

[Optic nerve sheath meningioma with 17 years amaurosis].  

PubMed

Amaurosis of the right eye occurred in an 18-year-old woman. 17 years later the healthy patient was referred for diagnosis, showing an amaurotic pupil, no protrusion, normal motility and corneal sensitivity, normal morphology of the anterior segment. In ophthalmoscopy optic atrophy with typical retinociliary collateral vessels, calcified and obliterated vessels throughout to the posterior pole and a macular scar. In fluorescein angiography normal choroidal filling, greatly diminished retinal capillary filling, hypofluorescent optical disc with venous shunt to retinociliary collaterals, no preretinal neovascularizations. On cranial CT and nuclear magnetic imaging pathognomonic meningioma of the optic nerve sheaths with tram-tracking lines. Inspite of suprasellar extension no indication to surgical therapy because of normal hormone production. PMID:8114471

Beck, B C; Schönherr, U; Meythaler, F H

1993-10-01

272

Myological variability in a decoupled skeletal system: batoid cranial anatomy.  

PubMed

Chondrichthyans (sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) have simple feeding mechanisms owing to their relatively few cranial skeletal elements. However, the indirect association of the jaws to the cranium (euhyostylic jaw suspension) has resulted in myriad cranial muscle rearrangements of both the hyoid and mandibular elements. We examined the cranial musculature of an abbreviated phylogenetic representation of batoid fishes, including skates, guitarfishes and with a particular focus on stingrays. We identified homologous muscle groups across these taxa and describe changes in gross morphology across developmental and functional muscle groups, with the goal of exploring how decoupling of the jaws from the skull has effected muscular arrangement. In particular, we focus on the cranial anatomy of durophagous and nondurophagous batoids, as the former display marked differences in morphology compared to the latter. Durophagous stingrays are characterized by hypertrophied jaw adductors, reliance on pennate versus fusiform muscle fiber architecture, tendinous rather than aponeurotic muscle insertions, and an overall reduction in mandibular kinesis. Nondurophagous stingrays have muscles that rely on aponeurotic insertions onto the skeletal structure, and display musculoskeletal specialization for jaw protrusion and independent lower jaw kinesis, relative to durophagous stingrays. We find that among extant chondrichthyans, considerable variation exists in the hyoid and mandibular muscles, slightly less so in hypaxial muscles, whereas branchial muscles are overwhelmingly conserved. As chondrichthyans occupy a position sister to all other living gnathostomes, our understanding of the structure and function of early vertebrate feeding systems rests heavily on understanding chondrichthyan cranial anatomy. Our findings highlight the incredible variation in muscular complexity across chondrichthyans in general and batoids in particular. PMID:24652648

Kolmann, Matthew A; Huber, Daniel R; Dean, Mason N; Grubbs, R Dean

2014-08-01

273

Cranial base deviation in hemifacial microsomia by craniometric analysis.  

PubMed

Although facial asymmetry in hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is well documented in the literature, no studies have concentrated on the morphology of the cranial base. This study aimed to evaluate the endocranial morphology in patients with HFM. Consecutive patients with unilateral HFM treated at a craniofacial center from 2000 to 2012 were included. The patients were grouped according to severity on the basis of the Kaban-Pruzansky classification: mild (0-1), moderate (2a), and severe (2b-3). Skull base angulation and transverse craniometric measures were recorded and then compared with those of age-matched controls.A total of 30 patients (14 males, 16 females) averaging 7.5 years of age (range, 1.1-15.7 y) were included. Four patients were classified as mild; 12, as moderate; and 14, as severe. The mean cranial base angle was found to be between 179 and 181 degrees with no significant difference between the severity groups (P = 0.57). The mean cranial base angle did not differ significantly in the patients compared with the controls(179.6 vs 180.0; P = 0.51) No significant differences between the affected and unaffected sides in the patients were found in distances from the midline to hypoglossal canal, internal acoustic meatus, lateral carotid canal, medial carotid canal, foramen ovale, and rotundum. There were no significant differences in transverse measurements between the severity classes using the same landmarks (P = 0.46, P = 0.30, P = 0.40, P = 0.25, P = 0.57, and P = 0.76, respectively). The cranial base axis is not deviated in the patients with HFM compared with the age-matched controls, and there exists little difference in endocranial morphologic measurements with increasing severity of HFM. These data are interesting, given the role of the cranial base in facial growth and the varying hypotheses regarding the mechanism of disease in HFM. PMID:25569421

Paliga, James Thomas; Tahiri, Youssef; Wink, Jason; Bartlett, Scott P; Taylor, Jesse A

2015-01-01

274

Use of a jugular vein autograft for reconstruction of the cranial vena cava in a dog with invasive thymoma and cranial vena cava syndrome.  

PubMed

A spayed female dog was evaluated because of edema of the ventral cervical region, lethargy, cough, and reduced exercise tolerance. Invasive thymoma and cranial vena cava syndrome were diagnosed by use of ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy and contrast-enhanced helical computed tomography. Resection of the cranial vena cava and an autogenous jugular vein graft were used for restoration of normal venous return to the right atrium and alleviation of the cranial vena cava syndrome. PMID:15521441

Holsworth, Ian G; Kyles, Andrew E; Bailiff, Nathan L; Hopper, Kate; Long, Craig; Ilkiw, Jan E

2004-10-15

275

Three-dimensional Anatomical Analysis of Surgical Landmarks for the Middle Cranial Fossa Approach.  

PubMed

This study describes the microsurgical anatomy of the middle cranial fossa approach using temporal bone three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) reconstruction, which should contribute to determining the drilling point for the internal auditory meatus (IAM) when bony landmarks are absent. Thirty temporal bone CT scans were reviewed retrospectively. We measured the shortest and longest distances to IAM from the petrous ridge, and measured the angle between the facial nerve and various labyrinth structures. Three-dimensional reconstructed images were obtained using high-resolution axial temporal bone CT (0.7-mm-thick slices, FOV 90 × 90, KVp 120, 305 mA, width 2,800, and level 800). The mean shortest and longest distances to IAM from the petrous ridge were 5.22 and 10.1 mm, respectively. The mean distance to the IAM from the cochlea was 9.91 mm. The mean angle between the IAM and superior semicircular canal was 47.21°, which was more acute than previously reported. The mean angle between the IAM and geniculate ganglion (GG) and external auditory canal was 113.8°, and the mean distance from the GG to the IAM was 15.44 mm. Understanding the 3D relationships among the microsurgical structures will help to decide the drilling point for the IAM when bony landmarks are absent. A preoperative evaluation might be useful for preserving important neurovascular structures while approaching the middle fossa. PMID:25032122

Choi, Bong Jin; Kim, Min Ju; Chang, Ki-Hong; Yeo, Sang Won; Jun, Beom Cho

2014-09-01

276

Ultrasound of Peripheral Nerves  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade, neuromuscular ultrasound has emerged as a useful tool for the diagnosis of peripheral nerve disorders. This article reviews sonographic findings of normal nerves including key quantitative ultrasound measurements that are helpful in the evaluation of focal and possibly generalized peripheral neuropathies. It also discusses several recent papers outlining the evidence base for the use of this technology, as well as new findings in compressive, traumatic, and generalized neuropathies. Ultrasound is well suited for use in electrodiagnostic laboratories where physicians, experienced in both the clinical evaluation of patients and the application of hands-on technology, can integrate findings from the patient’s history, physical examination, electrophysiological studies, and imaging for diagnosis and management. PMID:23314937

Suk, Jung Im; Walker, Francis O.; Cartwright, Michael S.

2013-01-01

277

Vitiligo: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases and treatments U - W Vitiligo Signs, symptoms Vitiligo: Signs and symptoms Vitiligo causes loss of color. ... amount of color loss or type of vitiligo. Vitiligo has types and subtypes If you are diagnosed ...

278

Shingles: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases and treatments Q - T Shingles Signs, symptoms Shingles: Signs and symptoms Shingles tends to cause more ... painful before the shingles appeared. Learn more about shingles: Shingles Shingles: Who gets, causes Shingles: Diagnosis, treatment, ...

279

E. coli Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. E. coli Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Symptoms Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) can cause the following symptoms: Nausea ...

280

Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Informed Cancer Home What Are the Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir Gynecologic cancer symptoms diaries Ovarian cancer may cause one or more of these ...

281

Rosacea: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases and treatments Q - T Rosacea Signs, symptoms Rosacea: Signs and symptoms Rosacea causes more than a ... ophthalmologist (doctor who specializes in treating eye diseases). Rosacea can affect quality of life Rosacea can affect ...

282

Prostate Cancer Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... About the Prostate Risk Factors Prevention Symptoms Early Detection & Screening Living With Prostate Cancer Newly Diagnosed Treatment ... About the Prostate Risk Factors Prevention Symptoms Early Detection & Screening Living With Prostate Cancer Newly Diagnosed Treatment ...

283

Moyamoya syndrome after cranial irradiation for bone marrow transplantation in a patient with acute leukemia.  

PubMed

It is well known that radiation-induced vasculopathy and arteritis are two of the complications of whole brain radiation therapy. Moyamoya syndromes after cranial irradiation among patients with brain tumors were previously reported. However, we could find only three cases of prophylactic cranial irradiation for hematological disorders and no case of cranial irradiation before bone marrow transplantation in patients with acute leukemia. We recently treated a boy who developed moyamoya vessels 1.5 years after cranial irradiation for bone marrow transplantation for acute leukemia. This is the first report of moyamoya syndrome after cranial irradiation for bone marrow transplantation. The mechanism and incidence of vasculopathy after cranial irradiation are unclear. It would be useful to accumulate data and reveal the etiology of moyamoya vessels formation after cranial irradiation. PMID:17357039

Ishikawa, N; Tajima, G; Yofune, N; Nishimura, S; Kobayashi, M

2006-12-01

284

Bilateral facial nerve palsy secondary to the administration of high-dose paclitaxel.  

PubMed

Bilateral facial nerve palsy is an uncommon occurrence. We describe a case of bilateral facial nerve palsy secondary to a single cycle of high-dose paclitaxel therapy (825 mg/m2), in a woman with breast cancer. Prior to her high-dose therapy, she had a residual grade 2 peripheral neuropathy following treatment with ten cycles of standard-dose paclitaxel (total dose 3200 mg). The features of the peripheral neuropathy due to standard-dose paclitaxel, which can be both motor and sensory, are well described. Cumulative paclitaxel dose is considered a risk factor for development of the neuropathy. Although facial nerve palsy secondary to paclitaxel is not previously reported, other cranial nerve toxicity has been described. Consistent with reports of the reversibility of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy, the facial nerve palsies in our patient resolved over 23 months. Ongoing studies of high-dose paclitaxel warrant close attention to its cumulative neurotoxic effects, particularly in patients previously treated with neurotoxic chemotherapy. PMID:10586344

Lee, R T; Oster, M W; Balmaceda, C; Hesdorffer, C S; Vahdat, L T; Papadopoulos, K P

1999-10-01

285

Cranial and mandibular morphometry in Leontopithecus Lesson, 1840 (Callitrichidae, primates).  

PubMed

In this paper, we report on a craniometric analysis comparing the species of lion tamarins, Leontopithecus Lesson, 1840. Seventeen cranial and mandibular measures were taken on skulls of 59 adult crania: 20 L. rosalia (14 females and 6 males); 13 L. chrysomelas (6 females and 7 males); 23 L. chrysopygus (8 females and 15 males), and 3 L. caissara (1 female and 2 males). All specimens were from the Rio de Janeiro Primate Center (CPRJ-FEEMA, Brazil), except the specimens of L. caissara. Statistical treatment involved a one-way analysis of variance (the Bonferroni test) and discriminant analysis, comparing cranium and mandibles separately to determine variables which best distinguished groups and to group the specimens, using size corrected methods. The Mahalanobis distance was computed from the centroids of each group. Seven measures distinguished females of L. chrysopygus with L. rosalia, six to L. rosalia with L. chrysomelas, and L. chrysopygus with L. chrysomelas. In males, the numbers of measures statistically different were 5, 4, and 3 of the pairwise comparisons above mentioned. Cranial base length and orbital breadth were the only measures that were significantly different in all three dyads, considering both sexes. For the cranium, function 1 of the Discriminant Analysis accounted for 52.4% of the variance and function 2 accounted for 40.3%. Both functions exhibited a significant value for Wilks' lambda (P<0.0001) and 96.6% of specimens were correctly classified. For the mandible, the first two functions provided a significant discrimination 51.1% and 44.9%, respectively, and 69.5% of the correct classification. Orbital breadth and cranial base length contributed most in the cranial analysis, while mandibular length and mandibular body height to mandibular ones. The analyses performed in this study (univariate and multivariate) demonstrated that cranial and mandibular morphology is significantly different among species of Leontopithecus. Despite of sample size, L. caissara shows morphological distances to L. chrysopygus in cranial analysis. However, other investigations are necessary to confirm this. PMID:10380994

Burity, C H; Mandarim-De-Lacerda, C A; Pissinatti, A

1999-01-01

286

Nerve allografts and conduits in peripheral nerve repair.  

PubMed

Since the last update on nerve conduits and allograft in 2000, investigations have established the efficacy of these alternatives to autograft in the repair of small sensory neural gaps. However, limited insights into the biology of the regenerating nerve continue to preclude intelligent conduit design. Ongoing discoveries in neuroscience and biomaterial engineering hold promise for the eventual development of allograft and conduits with potential of surpassing nerve autografts in clinical efficacy. In this review, we summarize the history, recent advances, and emerging developments in nerve conduits and allograft. PMID:23895714

Lin, Michael Y; Manzano, Givenchy; Gupta, Ranjan

2013-08-01

287

Reversible acute axonal polyneuropathy associated with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: impaired physiological nerve conduction due to thiamine deficiency?  

PubMed

Acute axonal polyneuropathy and Wernicke-Korsakoff encephalopathy developed simultaneously in three patients. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) detected markedly decreased compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) with minimal conduction slowing; sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) were also notably decreased. Sural nerve biopsies showed only mild axonal degeneration with scattered myelin ovoid formation. The symptoms of neuropathy lessened within two weeks after an intravenous thiamine infusion. CMAPs, SNAPs, and SSRs also increased considerably. We suggest that this is a new type of peripheral nerve impairment: physiological conduction failure with minimal conduction delay due to thiamine deficiency. PMID:12700319

Ishibashi, S; Yokota, T; Shiojiri, T; Matunaga, T; Tanaka, H; Nishina, K; Hirota, H; Inaba, A; Yamada, M; Kanda, T; Mizusawa, H

2003-05-01

288

[Mucoid pseudo-cysts of the sheath of the external popliteal sciatic nerve. Apropos of 2 cases].  

PubMed

Two cases of paralysis of the etxernal popliteal sciatic nerve are described. They are secondary to the development of a pseudo-cyst containing mucoid matter within the connective tissue sheath of the nerve itself. The authors describe the pathological anatomy of these lesions and discuss their aetiology, favouring the theory of mucoid degeneration of the connective tissues of the nerve sheath. They give brief indication of the clinical symptoms and emphasize the need for early but simplified surgery, ruling out any nerve resection. PMID:1241153

Faivre, J; Chatel, M; Le Beguec, P; Sabouraud, O; Jan, M; Ramée, M P

1975-10-01

289

[A complication of inferior dental nerve block: temporary ocular palsy].  

PubMed

An interesting case of temporary ocular palsy, a complication of inferior dental nerve block was reported. Symptom, sign and proper management were described. Several updated literatures on this topic were reviewed and concluded that this complication might be explained by accidental intra-arterial injection of anesthetic solution. To prevent this serious complication, aspirating before each injection by an aspirated syringe was strongly recommended. PMID:2635191

Hotrabhavanond, P; Meksupa, L

1989-01-01

290

?-Synuclein Pathology and Axonal Degeneration of the Peripheral Motor Nerves Innervating Pharyngeal Muscles in Parkinson’s Disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease primarily characterized by cardinal motor symptoms and central nervous system pathology. As current drug therapies can often stabilize these cardinal motor symptoms attention has shifted to the other motor and non-motor symptoms of PD which are resistant to drug therapy. Dysphagia in PD is perhaps the most important drug resistant symptom as it leads to aspiration and pneumonia, the leading cause of death. Here, we present direct evidence for degeneration of the pharyngeal motor nerves in PD. In this study, we examined the cervical vagal (X) nerve, pharyngeal branch of the X nerve (Ph-X), and pharyngeal plexus innervating the pharyngeal muscles in 14 postmortem specimens, 10 subjects with PD and 4 age-matched control subjects. Synucleinopathy in the pharyngeal nerves was detected using an immunohistochemical method for phosphorylated ?-synuclein. ?-Synuclein aggregates were revealed in the X nerve and Ph-X and immunoreactive intramuscular nerve twigs and axon terminals within the neuromuscular junctions were identified in all the PD subjects and in none of the controls. These findings indicate that the motor nervous system of the pharynx is involved in the pathological process of PD. Notably, PD subjects with dysphagia had a higher density of ?-synuclein aggregates in the pharyngeal nerves as compared with those without dysphagia. Motor involvement of the pharynx in PD appears to be one of the factors leading to oropharyngeal dysphagia commonly seen in PD patients. PMID:23334595

Mu, Liancai; Sobotka, Stanislaw; Chen, Jingming; Su, Hungxi; Sanders, Ira; Adler, Charles H.; Shill, Holly A.; Caviness, John N.; Samanta, Johan E.; Beach, Thomas G.

2012-01-01

291

Accessory Branch of Median Nerve Supplying the Brachialis Muscle: A Case Report and Clinical Significance  

PubMed Central

A very rare case of an accessory branch of the median nerve taking its origin in the region of the right arm was observed to supply the infero-medial portion of the brachialis muscle in a male cadaver. Simultaneously, the ipsilateral musculocutaneous nerve was innervating the muscles of the anterior compartment of the arm. Such an aberrant muscular branch of the median nerve for the brachialis muscle is very rarely reported in the literature. Lesion of the median nerve proximal to the branch’s origin site could induce weak flexion of the elbow, whereas injury of the musculocutaneous nerve could lead to misinterpretation of symptoms. We discuss the patterns of brachialis muscle innervation as well as the clinical applications of such a variant. PMID:25653932

Anastasopoulos, Nikolaos; Nitsa, Zoi; Kitsoulis, Panagiotis; Spyridakis, Ioannis

2014-01-01

292

Fibrolipoma of the median nerve.  

PubMed

Neural fibrolipoma or fibrolipomatous hamartoma is an uncommon benign tumor that usually arises in the median nerve. Fibrofatty tissue proliferates around the nerve and infiltrates the epineurium and perineurium. We report a case of fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the left median nerve in an 18-year-old woman. Our objective was to describe the pathognomonic magnetic resonance imaging features, whose presence obviates the need for a diagnostic biopsy. PMID:17178460

Nouira, Kais; Belhiba, Hend; Baccar, Sofiène; Miaaoui, Anissa; Ben Messaoud, Monia; Turki, Imène; Cheour, Ilhem; Menif, Emna

2007-01-01

293

Cranial radiation in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Neuropsychologic sequelae  

SciTech Connect

A battery of neuropsychologic tests was administered ''blindly'' to 18 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who had been randomly assigned to treatment regimens with or without cranial radiation. These children were all in complete continuous remission for more than 3 1/2 years and were no longer receiving therapy. The results indicated no substantial differences between groups as a function of radiation therapy. However, decreased neuropsychologic performance was found when the entire sample was compared with population norms. These data do not support the hypothesis that cranial radiation therapy is responsible for the neuropsychologic sequelae seen in these survivors of ALL. Post hoc multiple regression analysis indicated that parental education levels accounted for more of the neuropsychologic variability seen in these children than other factors such as age at diagnosis, type of therapy, or sex of child.

Whitt, J.K.; Wells, R.J.; Lauria, M.M.; Wilhelm, C.L.; McMillan, C.W.

1984-08-01

294

Blunt force cranial trauma in the Cambodian killing fields.  

PubMed

In this paper we present a unique pattern of blunt force cranial trauma that was observed in 10 of a sample of 85 crania from a Cambodian skeletal collection comprised of Khmer Rouge victims. Initial examination of the trauma, which presents as substantial damage to the occipital with fractures extending to the cranial base, suggested the pattern was classifiable as a basilar or ring fracture. However, further investigation, including trauma analysis and historical research, revealed that this fracture type is distinctive from basilar and ring fractures. Historical data indicate that a particular execution method was the likely source of the trauma. Recognition of this trauma pattern is significant because it exemplifies the distinct fracture configuration resulting from an apparently categorical and methodical execution technique. Identification of this fracture type could potentially assist forensic investigators in the recognition of specific methods of murder or execution. PMID:17018075

Ta'ala, Sabrina C; Berg, Gregory E; Haden, Kathryn

2006-09-01

295

Moyamoya syndrome after prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphocytic leukemia.  

PubMed

A 9-year-old boy presented with an episode of syncope, and MR imaging revealed bilateral internal carotid artery stenosis with moyamoya vessel formation. He had had prophylactic cranial irradiation at a total dose of 24 Gy for the treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia at the age of 4. Following this, he was in a complete state of remission for 6 years. During an observation period of a year after the onset of syncope, MR imaging showed development of multiple ischemic lesions in both hemispheres. He developed a transient ischemic attack of mild motor weakness in his arm and an indirect anastomosis was performed on the severely affected side at the age of 10. Radiation-induced vasculopathies are known to be associated with primary diseases of intracranial tumors, but the frequency is unclear. Ours is the third case in whom prophylactic cranial irradiation for a hematological disorder might have induced cerebral vasculopathies. PMID:14512691

Kondoh, Takeshi; Morishita, Akitsugu; Kamei, Masahito; Okamura, Yusuke; Tamaki, Masahiro; Kohmura, Eiji

2003-11-01

296

Design of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulator and Analyzing It with EEG  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a To design a portable low cost Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulator (CES) and to study the corresponding brain activity electrically.\\u000a The designed stimulator was used as an external trigger and the impact was analyzed using 20 lead EEG electrode system with\\u000a standard recording protocol. Subjects were tested under this and their corresponding normal and varying EEG with CES were\\u000a noted. Result showed

Gopalakrishnan Narayanamurthy; Mahesh Veezhinathan

297

Quantitative analysis of the electroencephalogram during cranial electrotherapy stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Normal individuals were used to quantitate electroencephalographic (EEG) changes during concurrent administration of 0.5 and 100 Hz cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES).Methods: Twelve normal, right-handed males were used in a randomized, double-blind crossover design study. A 3 amplifier system incorporating noise-cancellation was used to collect one channel of EEG (O1-Cz configuration) for 30 min. Either 0.5, 100 Hz, or sham

M. j. Schroeder; R. e. Barr

2001-01-01

298

Development and Tissue Origins of the Mammalian Cranial Base  

PubMed Central

The vertebrate cranial base is a complex structure composed of bone, cartilage and other connective tissues underlying the brain; it is intimately connected with development of the face and cranial vault. Despite its central importance in craniofacial development, morphogenesis and tissue origins of the cranial base have not been studied in detail in the mouse, an important model organism. We describe here the location and time of appearance of the cartilages of the chondrocranium. We also examine the tissue origins of the mouse cranial base using a neural crest cell lineage cell marker, Wnt1-Cre/R26R, and a mesoderm lineage cell marker, Mesp1-Cre/R26R. The chondrocranium develops between E11 and E16 in the mouse, beginning with development of the caudal (occipital) chondrocranium, followed by chondrogenesis rostrally to form the nasal capsule, and finally fusion of these two parts via the midline central stem and the lateral struts of the vault cartilages. X-Gal staining of transgenic mice from E8.0 to 10 days post-natal showed that neural crest cells contribute to all of the cartilages that form the ethmoid, presphenoid, and basisphenoid bones with the exception of the hypochiasmatic cartilages. The basioccipital bone and non-squamous parts of the temporal bones are mesoderm derived. Therefore the prechordal head is mostly composed of neural crest-derived tissues, as predicted by the New Head Hypothesis. However, the anterior location of the mesoderm-derived hypochiasmatic cartilages, which are closely linked with the extra-ocular muscles, suggests that some tissues associated with the visual apparatus may have evolved independently of the rest of the “New Head”. PMID:18680740

Iseki, S.; Bamforth, S. D.; Olsen, B. R.; Morriss-Kay, G. M.

2008-01-01

299

Twist1 dimer selection regulates cranial suture patterning and fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saethre-Chotzen syndrome is associated with haploinsufficiency of the basic-helix-loop- helix (bHLH) transcription factor TWIST1 and is characterized by premature closure of the cranial sutures, termed craniosynostosis; however, the mechanisms underlying this defect are unclear. Twist1 has been shown to play both positive and negative roles in mesenchymal specification and differentiation, and here we show that the activity of Twist1 is

Jeannette Connerney; Viktoria Andreeva; Yael Leshem; Christian Muentener; Miguel A. Mercado; Douglas B. Spicer

2006-01-01

300

On the measurement of cranial thickness at nasion on cephalographs.  

PubMed

Cranial bone thickness at nasion is difficult to measure by the conventional method of drawing a line at right angles to the tangent at nasion on the outer table. The difficulty arises from a lack of uniformity of the arc in this region. The proposed use of a constructed line, drawn at 30 degrees to the anterior projection of the Frankfort horizontal plane, provides an accurate, easily reproducible, and compatible alternative method of measurement. PMID:6517158

Einy, S; Smith, P; Becker, A

1984-11-01

301

Nerve stimulation for chronic pelvic pain and bladder pain syndrome: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) and bladder pain syndrome (BPS) can have a negative impact on quality of life. Neuromodulation has been suggested as a possible treatment for refractory pain. To assess the effectiveness of tibial and sacral nerve stimulation in the treatment of BPS and CPP. We searched until July 2012: the Cochrane Library, EMBASE (1980-2012), Medline (1950-2012), Web of knowledge (1900-2012), LILACS (1982-2012) and SIGLE (1990-2012) with no language restrictions. We manually searched through bibliographies and conference proceedings of the International Continence Society. Randomized and prospective quasi-randomized controlled studies vs. sham nerve stimulation treatment or usual care of patients with CPP and BPS who underwent sacral or tibial nerve stimulation were included. Any studies involving transcutaneous stimulation were excluded. The outcome was a cure or improvement in symptoms. Three studies with 169 patients treated with tibial nerve stimulation were included; two for CPP and one for BPS. There were improvements in pain, urinary and quality of life scores. There were no reported data for sacral nerve stimulation. There is scanty literature reporting variable success of posterior tibial nerve stimulation in improving pain, urinary symptoms and quality of life in CPP and BPS. In view of the dearth of quality literature, a large multi-centered clinical trial investigating the effectiveness of electrical nerve stimulation to treat BPS and CPP along with the cost-analysis of this treatment is recommended. PMID:23710833

Tirlapur, Seema A; Vlismas, Antonis; Ball, Elizabeth; Khan, Khalid S

2013-08-01

302

Brief communication: Artificial cranial modification in Kow Swamp and Cohuna.  

PubMed

The crania from Kow Swamp and Cohuna have been important for a number of debates in Australian paleoanthropology. These crania typically have long, flat foreheads that many workers have cited as evidence of genetic continuity with archaic Indonesian populations, particularly the Ngandong sample. Other scientists have alleged that at least some of the crania from Kow Swamp and the Cohuna skull have been altered through artificial modification, and that the flat foreheads possessed by these individuals are not phylogenetically informative. In this study, several Kow Swamp crania and Cohuna are compared to known modified and unmodified comparative samples. Canonical variates analyses and Mahalanobis distances are generated, and random expectation statistics are used to calculate statistical significance for these tests. The results of this study agree with prior work indicating that a portion of this sample shows evidence for artificial modification of the cranial vault. Many Kow Swamp crania and Cohuna display shape similarities with a population of known modified individuals from New Britain. Kow Swamp 1, 5, and Cohuna show the strongest evidence for modification, but other individuals from this sample also show evidence of culturally manipulated changes in cranial shape. This project provides added support for the argument that at least some Pleistocene Australian groups were practicing artificial cranial modification, and suggests that caution should be used when including these individuals in phylogenetic studies. PMID:24964764

Durband, Arthur C

2014-09-01

303

Virtual assessment of perimortem and postmortem blunt force cranial trauma.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to investigate the potential use of reconstructed three-dimensional multi-detector computed tomography (3D MDCT) imagery to distinguish between perimortem cranial trauma and postmortem cranial damage. A total of 45 crania were initially examined for the purpose of this study. The postmortem group consists of 14 crania from a Medieval Scottish population while the perimortem group consists of 31 CT scans of perimortem trauma cases from the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete. Six crania belonging to the perimortem group could not be assessed for the purposes of this study. Each of the remaining 39 crania was examined under the following criteria: preponderant texture, preponderant outline, edge morphology, fracture angle, fracture relationship to path of least resistance, evidence of plastic response and the presence of hinging. As edge morphology could not be determined for any of the crania this criterion was not considered for statistical computations. Statistical analysis demonstrated the five of the six criteria (preponderant texture, preponderant outline, fracture relationship to least resistance path, plastic response and the presence of hinging) subjected to statistical analysis bore statistical significance in distinguishing between perimortem trauma and postmortem damage when using 3D CT images. This study, therefore, demonstrated that the timing of cranial fractures can be determined using 3D CT images and thus can complement and add to existing methods for trauma assessment in both forensic and archaeological settings. PMID:23601150

Fleming-Farrell, Dara; Michailidis, Konstantinos; Karantanas, Apostolos; Roberts, Neil; Kranioti, Elena F

2013-06-10

304

In vivo nerve-macrophage interactions following peripheral nerve injury  

PubMed Central

In vertebrates, the peripheral nervous system has retained its regenerative capacity, enabling severed axons to reconnect with their original synaptic targets. While it is well documented that a favorable environment is critical for nerve regeneration, the complex cellular interactions between injured nerves with cells in their environment, as well as the functional significance of these interactions, have not been determined in vivo and in real time. Here we provide the first minute-by-minute account of cellular interactions between laser transected motor nerves and macrophages in live intact zebrafish. We show that macrophages arrive at the lesion site long before axon fragmentation, much earlier than previously thought. Moreover, we find that axon fragmentation triggers macrophage invasion into the nerve to engulf axonal debris, and that delaying nerve fragmentation in a Wlds model does not alter macrophage recruitment but induces a previously unknown ‘nerve scanning’ behavior, suggesting that macrophage recruitment and subsequent nerve invasion are controlled by separate mechanisms. Finally, we demonstrate that macrophage recruitment, thought to be dependent on Schwann cell derived signals, occurs independently of Schwann cells. Thus, live cell imaging defines novel cellular and functional interactions between injured nerves and immune cells. PMID:22423110

Rosenberg, Allison; Wolman, Marc A.; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara; Granato, Michael

2012-01-01

305

Peripheral nerve repair with nerve growth factor and fibrin matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fibrin sealant matrix (FS) with or without a nerve growth factor (NGF) has been used to improve the recovery of severed peripheral nerves, and these have been compared with the results of using only the standard epineural suture (SUT). Regeneration in the early phase (up to 6 days) was measured by the pinch test. The functional recovery process (up

L. Zeng; A. Worseg; H. Redl; G. Schlag

1994-01-01

306

Nerve-pulse interactions  

SciTech Connect

Some recent experimental and theoretical results on mechanisms through which individual nerve pulses can interact are reviewed. Three modes of interactions are considered: (1) interaction of pulses as they travel along a single fiber which leads to velocity dispersion; (2) propagation of pairs of pulses through a branching region leading to quantum pulse code transformations; and (3) interaction of pulses on parallel fibers through which they may form a pulse assembly. This notion is analogous to Hebb's concept of a cell assembly, but on a lower level of the neural hierarchy.

Scott, A.C.

1982-01-01

307

38 CFR 4.124 - Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...same scale, with a maximum equal to moderate incomplete paralysis. See nerve involved for diagnostic code number and rating. Tic douloureux, or trifacial neuralgia, may be rated up to complete paralysis of the affected...

2013-07-01

308

38 CFR 4.124 - Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral.  

...same scale, with a maximum equal to moderate incomplete paralysis. See nerve involved for diagnostic code number and rating. Tic douloureux, or trifacial neuralgia, may be rated up to complete paralysis of the affected...

2014-07-01

309

38 CFR 4.124 - Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...same scale, with a maximum equal to moderate incomplete paralysis. See nerve involved for diagnostic code number and rating. Tic douloureux, or trifacial neuralgia, may be rated up to complete paralysis of the affected...

2010-07-01

310

38 CFR 4.124 - Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...same scale, with a maximum equal to moderate incomplete paralysis. See nerve involved for diagnostic code number and rating. Tic douloureux, or trifacial neuralgia, may be rated up to complete paralysis of the affected...

2011-07-01

311

38 CFR 4.124 - Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...same scale, with a maximum equal to moderate incomplete paralysis. See nerve involved for diagnostic code number and rating. Tic douloureux, or trifacial neuralgia, may be rated up to complete paralysis of the affected...

2012-07-01

312

Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Nerve Changes  

MedlinePLUS

... institutes of health Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Nerve Changes “My fingers and toes felt numb and tingly. ... getting cuts, I always wore shoes.” About nerve changes Some chemotherapy can cause nerve problems. You may ...

313

Effects of nerve growth factor on nerve regeneration after corneal nerve damage  

PubMed Central

The study aims to determine the relation between the effects of mouse nerve growth factor (mNGF) and nerve regeneration after corneal surgery nerve damage. Mechanical nerve injury animal model was established by LASIK (the excimer laser keratomileusis) surgery in 12 Belgian rabbits. mNGF and the balanced salt solution (BBS) were alternatively administered in the left and right eye two times every day for 8 weeks. The morphous and growth of the sub-basal nerve plexus and superficial stroma were observed by in vivo confocal microscopy at the end of weeks 1, 2, 4 and 8 after the surgery. The animal model is successfully established. The morphology and density of corneal nerve have been observed and demonstrated by confocal microscopy. A systematic administration of mNGF can significantly promote the nerve regeneration at the end of weeks 1, 2, 4 and 8, which comparing to the administration of balanced salt solution (P < 0.05). mNGF has effect on sub-basal nerve plexus and superficial stroma after corneal nerve damage which is caused by LASIK. The experimental results suggested that the mNGF may solve the problem of dry eye after LASIK. PMID:25550989

Ma, Ke; Yan, Naihong; Huang, Yongzhi; Cao, Guiqun; Deng, Jie; Deng, Yingping

2014-01-01

314

Preoperative anemia increases postoperative morbidity in elective cranial neurosurgery  

PubMed Central

Background: Preoperative anemia may affect postoperative mortality and morbidity following elective cranial operations. Methods: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database was used to identify elective cranial neurosurgical cases (2006-2012). Morbidity was defined as wound infection, systemic infection, cardiac, respiratory, renal, neurologic, and thromboembolic events, and unplanned returns to the operating room. For 30-day postoperative mortality and morbidity, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were estimated with multivariable logistic regression. Results: Of 8015 patients who underwent elective cranial neurosurgery, 1710 patients (21.4%) were anemic. Anemic patients had an increased 30-day mortality of 4.1% versus 1.3% in non-anemic patients (P < 0.001) and an increased 30-day morbidity rate of 25.9% versus 14.14% in non-anemic patients (P < 0.001). The 30-day morbidity rates for all patients undergoing cranial procedures were stratified by diagnosis: 26.5% aneurysm, 24.7% sellar tumor, 19.7% extra-axial tumor, 14.8% intra-axial tumor, 14.4% arteriovenous malformation, and 5.6% pain. Following multivariable regression, the 30-day mortality in anemic patients was threefold higher than in non-anemic patients (4.1% vs 1.3%; OR = 2.77; 95% CI: 1.65-4.66). The odds of postoperative morbidity in anemic patients were significantly higher than in non-anemic patients (OR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.03-1.61). There was a significant difference in postoperative morbidity event odds with a hematocrit level above (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.78-1.48) and below (OR = 2.30; 95% CI: 1.55-3.42) 33% [hemoglobin (Hgb) 11 g/dl]. Conclusions: Preoperative anemia in elective cranial neurosurgery was independently associated with an increased risk of 30-day postoperative mortality and morbidity when compared to non-anemic patients. A hematocrit level below 33% (Hgb 11 g/dl) was associated with a significant increase in postoperative morbidity. PMID:25422784

Bydon, Mohamad; Abt, Nicholas B.; Macki, Mohamed; Brem, Henry; Huang, Judy; Bydon, Ali; Tamargo, Rafael J.

2014-01-01

315

[A new method of anastomosing severed nerves].  

PubMed

Nerve anastomoses glued with "Fribrinkleber" can be protected from tissue plasminogen-activators both by natural and synthetic inhibitors of fibrinolysis whether administered locally or systemically. The glued nerve-anastomoses do not attain the bond strength of sutured nerves, but show less foreign body reaction. Gluing nerves with Fibrinkleber" combined with inhibition of fibrinolysis would seem to be a good method for reuniting severed nerves. It may be especially useful in nerve transplantation if tension is avoided. PMID:376235

Duspiva, W; Blümel, G; Haas-Denk, S; Wriedt-Lübbe, I

1977-04-01

316

Unruptured Internal Carotid-Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm Splitting the Oculomotor Nerve: A Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Objective?To report a rare case of unruptured internal carotid-posterior communicating artery (IC-PC) aneurysm splitting the oculomotor nerve treated by clipping and to review the previously published cases. Case Presentation?A 42-year-old man suddenly presented with left oculomotor paresis. Three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography (3D DSA) demonstrated a left IC-PC aneurysm with a bulging part. During surgery, it was confirmed that the bulging part split the oculomotor nerve. After the fenestrated oculomotor nerve was dissected from the bulging part with a careful microsurgical technique, neck clipping was performed. After the operation, the symptoms of oculomotor nerve paresis disappeared within 2 weeks. Conclusions?We must keep in mind the possibility of an anomaly of the oculomotor nerve, including fenestration, and careful observation and manipulation should be performed to preserve the nerve function during surgery, even though it is very rare. PMID:25083381

Toyota, Shingo; Taki, Takuyu; Wakayama, Akatsuki; Yoshimine, Toshiki

2014-01-01

317

Unruptured internal carotid-posterior communicating artery aneurysm splitting the oculomotor nerve: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Objective?To report a rare case of unruptured internal carotid-posterior communicating artery (IC-PC) aneurysm splitting the oculomotor nerve treated by clipping and to review the previously published cases. Case Presentation?A 42-year-old man suddenly presented with left oculomotor paresis. Three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography (3D DSA) demonstrated a left IC-PC aneurysm with a bulging part. During surgery, it was confirmed that the bulging part split the oculomotor nerve. After the fenestrated oculomotor nerve was dissected from the bulging part with a careful microsurgical technique, neck clipping was performed. After the operation, the symptoms of oculomotor nerve paresis disappeared within 2 weeks. Conclusions?We must keep in mind the possibility of an anomaly of the oculomotor nerve, including fenestration, and careful observation and manipulation should be performed to preserve the nerve function during surgery, even though it is very rare. PMID:25083381

Toyota, Shingo; Taki, Takuyu; Wakayama, Akatsuki; Yoshimine, Toshiki

2014-08-01

318

Preactivation of the quadriceps muscle could limit cranial tibial translation in a cranial cruciate ligament deficient canine stifle.  

PubMed

Cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) deficiency is the leading cause of lameness of the canine stifle. Application of tension in the quadriceps muscle could trigger cranial tibial translation in case of CrCL rupture. We replaced the quadriceps muscle and the gastrocnemius muscle by load cells and turn-buckles. First, eight canine limbs were placed in a servo-hydraulic testing machine, which applied 50% of body weight (BW). In a second phase, the CrCL was transected, and the limbs were tested in a similar manner. In a third phase, a quadriceps pretension of 15% BW was applied and limbs were again tested in a similar manner. Cranial tibial translation was significantly decreased in CrCL deficient stifles (p?

Ramirez, Juan M; Lefebvre, Michael; Böhme, Beatrice; Laurent, Cédric; Balligand, Marc

2015-02-01

319

Peripheral nerve lengthening as a regenerative strategy  

PubMed Central

Peripheral nerve injury impairs motor, sensory, and autonomic function, incurring substantial financial costs and diminished quality of life. For large nerve gaps, proximal lesions, or chronic nerve injury, the prognosis for recovery is particularly poor, even with autografts, the current gold standard for treating small to moderate nerve gaps. In vivo elongation of intact proximal stumps towards the injured distal stumps of severed peripheral nerves may offer a promising new strategy to treat nerve injury. This review describes several nerve lengthening strategies, including a novel internal fixator device that enables rapid and distal reconnection of proximal and distal nerve stumps. PMID:25317163

Vaz, Kenneth M.; Brown, Justin M.; Shah, Sameer B.

2014-01-01

320

Nerve Growth Factor and Diabetic Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Neuropathy is one of the most debilitating complications of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, with estimates of prevalence between 50–90% depending on the means of detection. Diabetic neuropathies are heterogeneous and there is variable involvement of large myelinated fibers and small, thinly myelinated fibers. Many of the neuronal abnormalities in diabetes can be duplicated by experimental depletion of specific neurotrophic factors, their receptors or their binding proteins. In experimental models of diabetes there is a reduction in the availability of these growth factors, which may be a consequence of metabolic abnormalities, or may be independent of glycemic control. These neurotrophic factors are required for the maintenance of the neurons, the ability to resist apoptosis and regenerative capacity. The best studied of the neurotrophic factors is nerve growth factor (NGF) and the related members of the neurotrophin family of peptides. There is increasing evidence that there is a deficiency of NGF in diabetes, as well as the dependent neuropeptides substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) that may also contribute to the clinical symptoms resulting from small fiber dysfunction. Similarly, NT3 appears to be important for large fiber and IGFs for autonomic neuropathy. Whether the observed growth factor deficiencies are due to decreased synthesis, or functional, e.g. an inability to bind to their receptor, and/or abnormalities in nerve transport and processing, remains to be established. Although early studies in humans on the role of neurotrophic factors as a therapy for diabetic neuropathy have been unsuccessful, newer agents and the possibilities uncovered by further studies should fuel clinical trials for several generations. It seems reasonable to anticipate that neurotrophic factor therapy, specifically targeted at different nerve fiber populations, might enter the therapeutic armamentarium. PMID:14668049

Vinik, Aaron

2003-01-01

321

Prevention of hemodynamic instability in extra-cranial carotid angioplasty and stenting using temporary transvenous cardiac pacemaker.  

PubMed

Hemodynamic instability is a common condition during extra-cranial carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of prophylactic placement of temporary cardiac pacemaker during extra-cranial CAS for the prevention of hemodynamic instability. For this, forty-seven carotid artery stents were deployed in 41 high-risk patients. Temporary transvenous cardiac pacemakers were inserted before CAS procedure. The pacers were set to capture a heart rate <60 bpm. Clinical symptoms, blood pressure, heart rate, and pacing activation were monitored and data were collected. We found that pacing occurred in 25 carotid lesions during balloon predilatation; pacemakers were activated transiently in 25 patients. The longest pacing continued for 1 day. Among cases with pacemaker activation, 1 patient developed post-procedural symptomatic hypotension that lasted for 4 days. No related complications were observed. It was, therefore, concluded that pacing was technically effective in producing electrical ventricular responses and was hemodynamically effective in 25 carotid lesions which underwent balloon predilatation. The prophylactic use of a temporary transvenous cardiac pacemaker during CAS was rapid and effective in controlling peri-operative hemodynamic instability and preventing stroke and other complications. The prophylactic use of temporary pacemaker is particularly recommended for patients at high risk for developing hemodynamic instability. PMID:23090784

Liu, Juan; Yao, Guo-en; Zhou, Hua-dong; Jiang, Xiao-jiang; Chen, Qiao

2013-03-01

322

What is called symptom?  

PubMed

There is one concept in medicine which is prominent, the symptom. The omnipresence of the symptom seems, however, not to be reflected by an equally prominent curiosity aimed at investigating this concept as a phenomenon. In classic, traditional or conventional medical diagnostics and treatment, the lack of distinction with respect to the symptom represents a minor problem. Faced with enigmatic conditions and their accompanying labels such as chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, medically unexplained symptoms, and functional somatic syndromes, the contestation of the symptom and its origin is immediate and obvious and calls for further exploration. Based on a description of the diagnostic framework encompassing medically unexplained conditions and a brief introduction to how such symptoms are managed both within and outside of the medical clinic, we argue on one hand how unexplained conditions invite us to reconsider and re-think the concept we call a "symptom" and on the other hand how the concept "symptom" is no longer an adequate and necessary fulcrum and must be enriched by socio-cultural, phenomenological and existential dimensions. Consequently, our main aim is to expand both our interpretative horizon and the linguistic repertoire in the face of those appearances we label medically unexplained symptoms. PMID:23877313

Eriksen, Thor Eirik; Risør, Mette Bech

2014-02-01

323

Frontotemporal Disorders: Common Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Information for Patients, Families, and Professionals Understanding Alzheimer's Disease: What You Need to ... Symptoms Treatment and Management Caring for a Person with a Frontotemporal Disorder Conclusion ...

324

Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update  

PubMed Central

Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers) and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type) are being presented. PMID:25489251

Arslantunali, D; Dursun, T; Yucel, D; Hasirci, N; Hasirci, V

2014-01-01

325

Gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumor of the stomach  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 32 Final Diagnosis: Gastrintestinal Autonomic Nerve Tumor (GANT) Symptoms: anemia • anorexia • fatigue • fever • hearburn • nausea • weight loss Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumors (GANT) are extremely rare tumors that are related to gastrointestinal autonomic nervous plexuses. They are distinguished from stromal tumors by their unique ultrastructural features. Hence, their diagnosis is usually made on electron microscopy and immunohistochemical analyses. Although they are apparently slow-growing tumors, they run an aggressive clinical course and often associated with poor prognosis which eventually leads to death. Case Report: We report on a case of gastric GANT in a young female who was treated surgically by total gastrectomy. The disease, however ran an aggressive course with the development of distant (nodal, liver, lung, adrenal and musculo-skeletal) metastases two months after the radical resection. Conclusions: We believe this could be the first reported case of adrenal and musculo-skeletal metastases from gastric GANT soon after the radical gastric resection. PMID:24454975

Meshikhes, Abdul-Wahed N.; Al-Garni, Ayed A.; Al-Momen, Sami A.; Al-Nahawi, Mamdouh; Abu Subaih, Jawad

2014-01-01

326

Transcription factor AP2 essential for cranial closure and craniofacial development  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING closure of the neural tube in the mouse, transcription factor AP-2 (refs 1-4) is expressed in ectoderm and in neural-crest cells migrating from the cranial neural folds5. Cranial neural crest cells provide patterning information for craniofacial morphogenesis, generate most of the skull bones, and, together with placodal ectoderm, form the cranial ganglia6-8. To study the role of AP-2 during

Hubert Schorle; Pascal Meier; Michael Buchert; Rudolf Jaenisch; Pamela J. Mitchell

1996-01-01

327

Population Structure and Demographic History of Human Arctic Populations Using Quantitative Cranial Traits.  

E-print Network

??The Arctic of North America provides an excellent laboratory for examining human population movement and differentiation. This research utilizes cranial morphological variation from 27 discrete… (more)

Maley, Blaine

2011-01-01

328

The impact of cranial irradiation on the growth of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia  

SciTech Connect

Heights, height velocities, weights, and weight velocities were measured serially in 21 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who had survived three to five years in continuous complete remission. These patients were assigned randomly to treatment regimens that varied according to whether cranial irradiation was used. Patients receiving cranial irradiation had lower height velocities during therapy than normal subjects and patients not receiving cranial irradiation. Twenty-two other children with ALL, who were irradiated but not randomized, exhibited similar alterations in growth. These results indicate that cranial irradiation, and not leukemia or antileukemia chemotherapy, causes reduced growth.

Wells, R.J.; Foster, M.B.; D'Ercole, A.J.; McMillan, C.W.

1983-01-01

329

Occipital nerve stimulation.  

PubMed

Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) is a form of neuromodulation therapy aimed at treating intractable headache and craniofacial pain. The therapy utilizes neurostimulating electrodes placed subcutaneously in the occipital region and connected to a permanently implanted programmable pulse generator identical to those used for dorsal column/spinal cord stimulation. The presumed mechanisms of action involve modulation of the trigeminocervical complex, as well as closure of the physiologic pain gate. ONS is a reversible, nondestructive therapy, which can be tailored to a patient's individual needs. Typically, candidates for successful ONS include those patients with migraines, Chiari malformation, or occipital neuralgia. However, recent MRSA infections, unrealistic expectations, and psychiatric comorbidities are generally contraindications. As with any invasive procedure, complications may occur including lead migration, infection, wound erosion, device failure, muscle spasms, and pain. The success of this therapy is dependent on careful patient selection, a preimplantation trial, meticulous implantation technique, programming strategies, and complication avoidance. PMID:25411143

Mammis, Antonios; Agarwal, Nitin; Mogilner, Alon Y

2015-01-01

330

Physical symptoms of depression.  

PubMed

The incidence of physical symptoms in depression was studied in 51 drug-free patients and in an age and sex-matched control group. Mean symptom intensity and number of symptoms were significantly higher in the patient than in the control group. The subjects' personality structure and relationships between their symptoms and degrees of depression and anxiety were examined using the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI), the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. Of the variables studied, only the N score of the EPI was shown to influence the symptoms significantly. The effect of such non-specific factors as age, gender, use of alcohol, coffee, tea, and cigarettes was also evaluated and found to be minimal. PMID:7326538

Mathew, R J; Weinman, M L; Mirabi, M

1981-10-01

331

Peripheral nerve injury of various types, for example complete nerve transection or loose nerve constrictions (Bennett model), results in  

E-print Network

Summary Peripheral nerve injury of various types, for example complete nerve transection or loose-protein-coupled receptors, ion channels, enzymes, and other types of molecules. Peripheral nerve injuries are often transmission. It has been postulated that nerve injury causes sprouting of large-diameter primary afferents

Sandini, Giulio

332

The border between the central and the peripheral nervous system in the cat cochlear nerve: a light and scanning electron microscopical study.  

PubMed

The transition between the central (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) in cranial and spinal nerve roots, referred to here as the CNS-PNS border, is of relevance to nerve root disorders and factors that affect peripheral-central regeneration. Here, this border is described in the cat cochlear nerve using light microscopical sections, and scanning electron microscopy of the CNS-PNS interfaces exposed by fracture of the nerve either prior to or following critical point drying. The CNS-PNS border represents an abrupt change in type of myelin, supporting elements, and vascularization. Because central myelin is formed by oligodendrocytes and peripheral myelin by Schwann cells, the myelinated fibers are as a rule equipped with a node of Ranvier at the border passage. The border is shallower and smoother in cat cochlear nerve than expected from other nerves, and the borderline nodes are largely in register. The loose endoneurial connective tissue of the PNS compartment is closed at the border by a compact glial membrane, the mantle zone, of the CNS compartment. The mantle zone is penetrated by the nerve fibers, but is otherwise composed of astrocytes and their interwoven processes like the external limiting membrane of the brain surface with which it is continuous. The distal surface of the mantle zone is covered by a fenestrated basal lamina. Only occasional vessels traverse the border. From an anatomical point of view, the border might be expected to be a weak point along the cochlear nerve and thus vulnerable to trauma. In mature animals, the CNS-PNS border presents a barrier to regrowth of regenerating nerve fibers and to invasion of the CNS by Schwann cells. An understanding of this region in the cochlear nerve is therefore relevant to head injuries that lead to hearing loss, to surgery on acoustic Schwannomas, and to the possibility of cochlear nerve regeneration. PMID:21447373

Osen, Kirsten K; Furness, David N; Hackney, Carole M

2011-07-01

333

Trigeminal impingement syndrome: the relationship between atypical trigeminal symptoms and anteromedial disk displacement.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine if compression of the mandibular nerve and its branches could be caused by antero-medial disk displacement, resulting in atypical facial pain. Sixteen temporomandibular joints (TMJ) were dissected and injected with an autopolymerizing solution into the superior compartment, which produced an artificial capsular swelling that caused disk displacement. In all specimens, the TMJ capsule was close to the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve after the intracapsular injection. Thus, capsular distension or antero-medial disk displacement, as seen in various temporomandibular disorders (TMD), could result in nerve compression and facial pain symptoms. PMID:20806735

Cascone, Piero; Fatone, Flavia Maria Graziana; Paparo, Francesco; Arangio, Paolo; Iannetti, Giorgio

2010-07-01

334

On application of fractal analysis to cranial sutures  

E-print Network

Fractal exponents ($d$) for human cranial sutures are calculated using the box counting method. The results were found around $d = 1.5$ (within the range $1.3\\div 1.7$), supporting the random walk model for the suture formation process. However, the calculated dispersion above the estimated accuracy suggests that other mechanisms are also present. Similar numbers were obtained for both the sagittal and coronal sutures, with the coronal sutures displaying a better scaling. Our results are compared with estimations published by other authors.

Andrzej Z. Gorski; Janusz Skrzat

2004-12-17

335

Nanofibrous nerve conduit-enhanced peripheral nerve regeneration.  

PubMed

Fibre structures represent a potential class of materials for the formation of synthetic nerve conduits due to their biomimicking architecture. Although the advantages of fibres in enhancing nerve regeneration have been demonstrated, in vivo evaluation of fibre size effect on nerve regeneration remains limited. In this study, we analyzed the effects of fibre diameter of electrospun conduits on peripheral nerve regeneration across a 15-mm critical defect gap in a rat sciatic nerve injury model. By using an electrospinning technique, fibrous conduits comprised of aligned electrospun poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL) microfibers (981?±?83 nm, Microfiber) or nanofibers (251?±?32 nm, Nanofiber) were obtained. At three months post implantation, axons regenerated across the defect gap in all animals that received fibrous conduits. In contrast, complete nerve regeneration was not observed in the control group that received empty, non-porous PCL film conduits (Film). Nanofiber conduits resulted in significantly higher total number of myelinated axons and thicker myelin sheaths compared to Microfiber and Film conduits. Retrograde labeling revealed a significant increase in number of regenerated dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons in the presence of Nanofiber conduits (1.93 ± 0.71 × 10(3) vs. 0.98 ± 0.30 × 10(3) in Microfiber, p?nerve regeneration. These results could provide useful insights for future nerve guide designs. PMID:22700359

Jiang, Xu; Mi, Ruifa; Hoke, Ahmet; Chew, Sing Yian

2014-05-01

336

Endometriotic lesions of the lower troncular nerves.  

PubMed

Although exceptional, endometriotic lesions of the troncular nerves of the lower limb may occur and are often diagnosed with delay. We report, hereby, the first case of femoral nerve endometriosis the treatment of which consisted of radical resection with femoral nerve transplant. We completed a review of the literature on sciatic nerve endometriotic lesions and discussed the physiopathology and surgical treatment. PMID:25267476

Niro, J; Fournier, M; Oberlin, C; Le Tohic, A; Panel, P

2014-10-01

337

Targeting Peripheral Afferent Nerve Terminals for Cough and Dyspnea  

PubMed Central

Chronic unproductive coughing and dyspnea are symptoms that severely diminish the quality of life in a substantial proportion of the population. There are presently few if any drugs that effectively treat these symptoms. Rational drug targets for cough and dyspnea have emerged over the recent years based on developments in our understanding of the innervation of the respiratory tract. These drug targets can be subcategorized into those that target the vagal afferent nerve endings, and those that target neural activity within the CNS. This review focuses on targets presumed to be in the peripheral terminals of afferent nerves within the airways. Conceptually, the activity of peripheral afferent nerves involved with unwanted urge-to-cough or dyspnea sensations can be inhibited by limiting the intensity of the stimulus, inhibiting the amplitude of the stimulus-induced generator potential, or inhibiting the transduction between the generator potential and action potential discharge and conduction. These mechanisms reveal many therapeutic strategies for anti-tussive and anti-dyspnea drug development with peripheral sites of action. PMID:21705272

Muroi, Yukiko; Undem, Bradley J.

2011-01-01

338

Regeneration of perivascular adrenergic innervation in rat tibial nerve after nerve crush  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adrenergic innervation of blood vessels in the rat tibial nerve during degeneration and regeneration was studied using the formaldehyde-induced fluorescence method. The left sciatic nerve was crushed with suture threads to produce a 4-mm length of crushed nerve. At 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 56 and 84 days after nerve crush, degenerative and regenerative changes in the nerve were verified

J. Koistinaho; K. C. Wadhwani; A. Balbo; S. I. Rapoport

1991-01-01

339

Video-Gait Analysis of Functional Recovery of Nerve Repaired with Chitosan Nerve Guides  

E-print Network

Video-Gait Analysis of Functional Recovery of Nerve Repaired with Chitosan Nerve Guides MINAL PATEL assessment of functional sciatic nerve recovery treated with chitosan nerve guides. We used video to functional nerve recovery. The chitosan group showed increased functional improvement compared to the control

VandeVord, Pamela

340

Spectrum of optic nerve hypoplasia.  

PubMed Central

Optic nerve hypoplasia is a non-progressive condition characterised by subnormal vision and a subnormal number of optic nerve axons. It may be unilateral or bilateral, isolated or combined with other defects. Analysis of fundus photographs from a series of 7 patients with a stationary abnormality of different degrees showed that the functional defects could be closely correlated with defects in the retinal nerve fibre layer. Our observations show that the condition has a wide range of both functional and anatomical defects and that a subnormal diameter of the optic disc is not a requisite for the diagnosis. Presumably, there is also a wide variety of causes, not only a primary failure of development of retinal ganglion cells. We suggest that optic nerve hypoplasia can be viewed as a non-specific manifestation of damage to the visual system, sustained any time before its full development. Images PMID:629914

Frisén, L.; Holmegaard, L.

1978-01-01

341

Ion Channels in Nerve Membranes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses research that indicates that nerve membranes, which play a key role in the conduction of impulses, are traversed by protein channels with ion pathways opened and closed by the membrane electric field. (Author/MLH)

Ehrenstein, Gerald

1976-01-01

342

Overview of Optic Nerve Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals ... Papilledema Optic Neuritis Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Toxic Amblyopia Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Eye Disorders > Optic Nerve Disorders ...

343

The role of the mesenchyme in cranial neural fold elevation  

SciTech Connect

It has been previously postulated that the expansion of an hyaluronate-rich extracellular matrix in the fold mesenchyme is responsible for neural fold elevation. In this study we provide evidence that such expansions may play an important role in cranial neural fold elevation by pushing the folds towards the dorsal midline to assist in their elevation. For mesenchymal expansion to result in fold elevation, hyaluronate (HA) and mesenchymal cells must be non-randomly distributed within the mesenchyme. Patterns of mesenchymal cell distribution and cell proliferation were analyzed using the computer-assisted method of smoothed spatial averaging. The distribution of Alcian blue-stained and {sup 3}H-glucosamine-labelled HA was also analyzed during cranial neural fold elevation using established image processing techniques. Analysis of the distribution of {sup 3}H-thymidine-labelled mesenchymal cells indicated that differential mitotic activity was not responsible for decreased mesenchymal cell density. Likewise, analysis of distribution patterns of {sup 3}H-glucosamine-labelled HA indicated that decreased HA concentration was not produced by regional differences in HA synthesis. These results suggest that decreases in mesenchymal cell density and HA concentration that occur during neural fold elevation are produced by mesenchymal expansion.

Morris-Wiman, J.A.

1988-01-01

344

Growth of cranial synchondroses and sutures requires polycystin-1  

PubMed Central

In vertebrates, coordinated embryonic and postnatal growth of the craniofacial bones and the skull base is essential during the expansion of the rostrum and the brain. Identification of molecules that regulate skull growth is important for understanding the nature of craniofacial defects and for development of non-invasive biologically based diagnostics and therapies. Here we report on spatially restricted growth defects at the skull base and in craniofacial sutures of mice deficient for polycystin-1 (Pkd1). Mutant animals reveal a premature closure of both presphenoid and sphenooccipital synchondroses at the cranial base. Furthermore, knockout mice lacking Pkd1 in neural crest cells are characterised by impaired postnatal growth at the osteogenic fronts in craniofacial sutures that are subjected to tensile forces. Our data suggest that polycystin-1 is required for proliferation of subpopulations of cranial osteochondroprogenitor cells of both mesodermal and neural crest origin during skull growth. However, the Erk1/2 signalling pathway is up-regulated in the Pkd1-deficient skeletal tissue, similarly to that previously reported for polycystic kidney. PMID:18652813

Kolpakova-Hart, Elona; McBratney-Owen, Brandeis; Hou, Bo; Fukai, Naomi; Nicolae, Claudia; Zhou, Jing; Olsen, Bjorn R.

2008-01-01

345

Early effects of cranial irradiation on hypothalamic-pituitary function  

SciTech Connect

Hypothalamic-pituitary function was studied in 31 patients before and after cranial irradiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The estimated radiotherapy (RT) doses to the hypothalamus and pituitary were 3979 +/- 78 (+/- SD) and 6167 +/- 122 centiGrays, respectively. All patients had normal pituitary function before RT. One year after RT, there was a significant decrease in the integrated serum GH response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. In the male patients, basal serum FSH significantly increased, while basal serum LH and testosterone did not change. Moreover, in response to LHRH, the integrated FSH response was increased while that of LH was decreased. Such discordant changes in FSH and LH may be explained by a defect in LHRH pulsatile release involving predominantly a decrease in pulse frequency. The peak serum TSH response to TRH became delayed in 28 patients, suggesting a defect in TRH release. Twenty-one patients were reassessed 2 yr after RT. Their mean basal serum T4 and plasma cortisol levels had significantly decreased. Hyperprolactinemia associated with oligomenorrhoea was found in 3 women. Further impairment in the secretion of GH, FSH, LH, TSH, and ACTH had occurred, and 4 patients had hypopituitarism. Thus, progressive impairment in hypothalamic-pituitary function occurs after cranial irradiation and can be demonstrated as early as 1 yr after RT.

Lam, K.S.; Tse, V.K.; Wang, C.; Yeung, R.T.; Ma, J.T.; Ho, J.H.

1987-03-01

346

Activated mast cells in proximity to colonic nerves correlate with abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: The mechanisms underlying abdominal pain perception in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are poorly understood. Intestinal mast cell infiltration may perturb nerve function leading to symptom perception. We assessed colonic mast cell infiltration, mediator release, and spatial interactions with mucosal innervation and their correlation with abdominal pain in IBS patients. Methods: IBS patients were diagnosed according to Rome

Giovanni Barbara; Vincenzo Stanghellini; Roberto De Giorgio; Cesare Cremon; Graeme S. Cottrell; Donatella Santini; Gianandrea Pasquinelli; Antonio M. Morselli-Labate; Eileen F. Grady; Nigel W. Bunnett; Stephen M. Collins; Roberto Corinaldesi

2004-01-01

347

Human cranial anatomy and the differential preservation of population history and climate signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cranial morphology is widely used to reconstruct evolutionary rela- tionships, but its reliability in reflecting phylogeny and population history has been questioned. Some cranial regions, particularly the face and neu- rocranium, are believed to be influenced by the environment and prone to convergence. Others, such as the temporal bone, are thought to reflect more accurately phylogenetic relationships. Direct testing of

Katerina Harvati; Timothy D. Weaver

2006-01-01

348

Roentgen Stereophotogrammetric Analysis of Growth at Cranial Vault Sutures in the Rabbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biometric characterization of rabbit cranial vault bone separation was attempted to further elucidate sutural growth mechanisms. The internasal and frontonasal sutures, connected to the facial skeleton, were also investigated. 17 male New Zealand white rabbits were studied from age 4 to 21 weeks using roentgen stereophotogrammetry with tantalum implants. A uniform cranial growth pattern with successively decreasing rates was observed,

Per Alberius; Goran Selvik

1983-01-01

349

Microfocal CT: a method for evaluating murine cranial sutures in situ  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe murine model is a well-established surrogate for studying human cranial suture biology. In mice, all sutures with the exception of the posterior frontal (PF) suture remain patent throughout life. Histology is regarded as the gold standard for analyzing sutures. On this basis, PF suture fusion begins on day of life 25 and is complete by day 45. Cranial suture

René F. Recinos; Christopher C. Hanger; Richard B. Schaefer; Christopher A. Dawson; Arun K. Gosain

2004-01-01

350

Tissue-engineered Rabbit Cranial Suture from Autologous Fibroblasts and BMP2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Craniosynostosis is a congenital disorder of premature ossification of cranial sutures, occurring in one of approximately every 2500 live human births. This work addressed a hypothesis that a cranial suture can be tissue-engineered from autologous cells. Dermal fibroblasts were isolated subcutaneously from growing rabbits, culture-expanded, and seeded in a gelatin scaffold. We fabricated a composite tissue construct by sandwiching the

L. Hong; J. J. Mao

2004-01-01

351

THE SMALLEST KNOWN TRICERATOPS SKULL: NEW OBSERVATIONS ON CERATOPSID CRANIAL ANATOMY AND ONTOGENY  

E-print Network

THE SMALLEST KNOWN TRICERATOPS SKULL: NEW OBSERVATIONS ON CERATOPSID CRANIAL ANATOMY AND ONTOGENY squamosals. Previous assessments of ontogeny in Triceratops are based on an isolated juvenile postorbital of Triceratops ontogeny based on a very complete cranial growth series in the collections of the MOR and UCMP

Goodwin, Mark B.

352

Major cranial changes during Triceratops ontogeny John R. Horner1,* and Mark B. Goodwin2  

E-print Network

Major cranial changes during Triceratops ontogeny John R. Horner1,* and Mark B. Goodwin2 1 Museum ontogeny, curve posteriorly in juveniles, straighten in subadults and recurve anteriorly in adults, and signal their attainment of sexual maturity. Keywords: dinosaurs; cranial ontogeny; Triceratops; Late

Goodwin, Mark B.

353

Module 3 – Symptoms  

Cancer.gov

Module three of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study Original Version presents approaches to and management of commonly encountered symptoms and syndromes of cancer patients.

354

Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... type "leukemia" or "lymphoma" in the search box) Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Symptoms Swollen, painless lymph nodes in the neck, ... A lymph node biopsy is used to diagnose non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Sometimes the diagnosis may be delayed because enlarged ...

355

Symptoms of Tickborne Illness  

MedlinePLUS

... symptoms include headache, fatigue, and muscle aches. With Lyme disease you may also experience joint pain. The severity ... disease and the patient's personal tolerance level. Rash: Lyme disease , southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI) , Rocky Mountain ...

356

Acne: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Signs, symptoms Who gets, causes Diagnosis, treatment Tips Acne scars Actinic keratosis Alopecia areata Atopic dermatitis Basal cell ... skin. When a nodule heals, it leaves an acne scar. Acne cyst An acne cyst forms when the ...

357

Depression symptoms during pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Pregnancy impacts common symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), such as energy, appetite, weight change, and sleep and\\u000a somatic complaints. However, it is not known whether the presentation of depression during pregnancy is different from that\\u000a at other times in women’s lives. This study compares the severity of symptoms of depression in 61 pregnant women with MDD\\u000a (PD), 50 nonpregnant

R. Manber; C. Blasey; J. J. B. Allen

2008-01-01

358

Nerve conduction during Wallerian degeneration in the baboon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conduction in the lateral popliteal nerve of the baboon was studied during the course of Wallerian degeneration. Six nerves were examined. In each case the muscle response to nerve stimulation and the ascending nerve action potential were recorded daily until the nerve became inexcitable. The muscle response to nerve stimulation disappeared after four to five days, but ascending nerve action

R. W. Gilliatt; R. J. Hjorth

1972-01-01

359

Optic Nerve Monitoring  

PubMed Central

Orbital and anterior skull base surgery is generally performed close to the prechiasmatic visual pathway, and clear strategies for detecting and handling visual pathway damage are essential. To overcome the common problem of a missed clinical examination because of an uncooperative or unresponsive patient, flash visual evoked potentials and electroretinograms should be used. These electrophysiologic examination techniques can provide evidence of intact, pathologic, or absent conductivity of the visual pathway when clinical assessment is not feasible. Visual evoked potentials and electroretinograms are thus essential diagnostic procedures not only for primary diagnosis but also for intraoperative evaluation. A decision for or against treatment of a visual pathway injury has to be made as fast as possible due to the enormous importance of the time elapsed with such injuries; this can be achieved additionally using multislice spiral computed tomography. The first-line conservative treatment of choice for such injuries is megadose methylprednisolone therapy. Surgery is used to decompress the orbital compartment by exposure of the intracanalicular part of the optic nerve in the case of optic canal compression. Modern craniomaxillofacial surgery requires detailed consideration of the diagnosis and treatment of traumatic visual pathway damage with the ultimate goal of preserving visual acuity. PMID:24436741

Schumann, Paul; Kokemüller, Horst; Tavassol, Frank; Lindhorst, Daniel; Lemound, Juliana; Essig, Harald; Rücker, Martin; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius

2013-01-01

360

24-year-old woman with an internal auditory canal mass. Hybrid peripheral nerve sheath tumor with schwannoma/perineurioma components.  

PubMed

Benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors are divided into schwannomas, neurofibromas and perineuriomas. In recent years, tumors with hybrid features, composed of multiple, discrete areas of different histological types, were described. These tumors may represent a diagnostic challenge. A 24-year-old woman with multiple sclerosis was found to have a 1.3 cm TV × 0.7 cm AP T2 intermediate lesion within the left internal auditory canal. Gross examination revealed a tan-white, well circumscribed mass. Histologic examination demonstrated a well demarcated, cellular, solid neoplasm with a biphasic pattern. Most of the tumor was composed of spindle cells arranged in fascicles with focal Verocay body formation and diffuse S100 positivity. A second, minor area showed concentric proliferation of neoplastic spindle cells around one or more axons. Tumor cells in this area were positive for perineurial markers, claudin-1 and Glut-1, and focally immunopositive for CD34.We present here a case of a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor with histological and immunohistochemical features consistent with a dual pattern of differentiation of schwannoma and perineurioma, in the VIIIth cranial nerve. This is, to our knowledge, the first case of a hybrid perineurioma/schwannoma reported in a cranial nerve. PMID:23587143

Las Heras, Facundo; Martuza, Robert; Caruso, Paul; Rincon, Sandra; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat

2013-05-01

361

Therapeutic Management of Hypothenar Hammer Syndrome Causing Ulnar Nerve Entrapment  

PubMed Central

Introduction. The hypothenar hammer syndrome is a rare traumatic vascular disease of the hand. Method and Materials. We report the case of a 43-years-old man with a painful tumefaction of the left hypothenar region. The ulnar artery appeared thrombosed clinically and radiologically. The patient underwent surgery to resolve the ulnar nerve compression and revascularise the artery. Results. The symptoms disappeared immediately after surgery. The arterial flow was reestablished. Postoperatively on day 20, a new thrombosis of the ulnar artery occurred. Conclusion. Hypothenar hammer syndrome is caused by repetitive trauma to the heel of the hand. The alterations of the vessel due to its chronic inflammation caused an acute compression of the ulnar nerve at the Guyon's canal and, in our case, do not allow a permanent revascularisation of the ulnar artery. PMID:22567229

Cigna, Emanuele; Spagnoli, Anna Maria; Tarallo, Mauro; De Santo, Liliana; Monacelli, Giampaolo; Scuderi, Nicolò

2010-01-01

362

Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in migraine  

PubMed Central

Background Headache is one of the most disturbing symptoms with common neurological signs. Variations in optic nerve perfusion quality or retinal microcirculation may end up in ganglion cell damage in patients with migraine. Methods Sixty patients diagnosed with migraine and thirty normal individuals were evaluated in groups including migraine with aura, migraine without aura and controls. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness was measured using stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT™) and then was compared in case and control groups. Results RNFL thickness was only significantly thinner in nasal quadrant in migraineurs compared to the control group. Other parameters showed no difference between the two groups and besides there was no statistically difference between the two migraine subgroups. Conclusion Given the significant difference in nasal quadrant RNFL thickness between the migraineurs and normal individuals, we might be able to defend the retinal blood flow decrease theory in migraine; however, multicentre studies with larger samples seem mandatory. PMID:24250902

Sorkhabi, Rana; Mostafaei, Somaiyeh; Ahoor, Mohammadhosein

2013-01-01

363

Pathology of Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors: Diagnostic Overview and Update on Selected Diagnostic Problems  

PubMed Central

Peripheral nerve sheath tumors are common neoplasms, with classic identifiable features, but on occasion, they are diagnostically challenging. Although well defined subtypes of peripheral nerve sheath tumors were described early in the history of surgical pathology, controversies regarding the classification and grading of these tumors persist. Advances in molecular biology have provided new insights into the nature of the various peripheral nerve sheath tumors, and have begun to suggest novel targeted therapeutic approaches. In this review we discuss current concepts and problematic areas in the pathology of peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Diagnostic criteria and differential diagnosis for the major categories of nerve sheath tumors are proposed, including neurofibroma, schwannoma, and perineurioma. Diagnostically challenging variants, including plexiform, cellular and melanotic schwannomas are highlighted. A subset of these affects the childhood population, and has historically been interpreted as malignant, although current evidence and outcome data suggests they represent benign entities. The growing current literature and the authors experience with difficult to classify borderline or “hybrid tumors” are discussed and illustrated. Some of these classification gray zones occur with frequency in the gastrointestinal tract, an anatomical compartment that must always be entertained when examining these neoplasms. Other growing recent areas of interest include the heterogeneous group of pseudoneoplastic lesions involving peripheral nerve composed of mature adipose tissue and/or skeletal muscle, such as the enigmatic neuromuscular choristoma. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) represent a diagnostically controversial group; difficulties in grading and guidelines to separate “atypical neurofibroma” from MPNST are provided. There is an increasing literature of MPNST mimics which neuropathologists must be aware of, including synovial sarcoma and ossifying fibromyxoid tumor. Finally, we discuss entities that are lacking from the section on cranial and paraspinal nerves in the current WHO classification, and that may warrant inclusion in future classifications. In summary, although the diagnosis and classification of most conventional peripheral nerve sheath tumors are relatively straightforward for the experienced observer, borderline and difficult to classify neoplasms continue to be problematic. In the current review, we attempt to provide some useful guidelines for the surgical neuropathologist to help navigate these persistent, challenging problems. PMID:22327363

Rodriguez, Fausto J.; Folpe, Andrew L.; Giannini, Caterina; Perry, Arie

2013-01-01

364

Ultrasound of the nerves of the knee region: Technique of examination and normal US appearance  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of disorders of the peripheral nerves (PN) has traditionally been based on clinical and electrophysiological data since nerve tissue cannot be visualized on standard radiographs. More recently, however, nerve structures have been evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US). The former modality is expensive and not available in all institutions. There are also some contraindications to its use, and the assessment of long nerves can be time-consuming since different coils must be used. Thanks to recent advances in sonographic software and hardware, US can now be used for in-depth assessment of the PN of the upper and lower limbs. Most knee disorders involve lesions to the cruciate ligaments and/or the menisci, which are difficult to evaluate with US. However, similar symptoms may be caused by compression of one or more nerves in the knee region or intrinsic disorders involving these structures. Because of their superficial positions, the nerves around the knee can be clearly visualized with US. A thorough knowledge of the normal anatomy of this region and a careful scanning technique are essential for a successful diagnostic US examination. In this article, we will review the normal gross and microscopic anatomy of the nerves in the knee region, the US technique used for their examination, and their normal US appearance. PMID:23396637

Bianchi, S.; Martinoli, C.; Demondion, X.

2007-01-01

365

Lipofibromatous Hamartoma of the Median Nerve in Association with or without Macrodactyly.  

PubMed

Lipofibromatous hamartoma is a rare tumour-like condition involving the peripheral nerves, particularly the median nerve. It commonly affects the volar aspect of the hands, wrists and forearms of young adults. Most patients present either early with macrodactyly or later with a forearm mass lesion or symptoms consistent with compressive neuropathy of the involved nerve. The clinical and histomorphological findings of five patients with lipofibromatous hamartoma of the median nerve are analysed. The presentation, pathological features and differential diagnosis of neural lipofibromas are discussed along with a brief review of the literature. Of the five cases of lipofibromatous hamartoma, all were seen to involve the median nerve, occurring in four women and one man. Three of these cases had associated macrodactyly which was congenital in two and was seen from childhood in one. Microscopic examination showed fibrofatty tissue surrounding and infiltrating along the epineurium and perineurium. The nerve bundles were splayed apart by the infiltrating adipose tissue. Neural fibrolipomatous hamartoma is a benign condition. Most respond to conservative management with surgical exploration, biopsy and carpal tunnel release to decompress the nerve. Correct diagnosis of this uncommon lesion is important as surgical excision of the lesion may lead to loss of neurological function. PMID:25371022

Kini, Jyoti R; Kini, Hema; Rau, Aarathi; Kamath, Jagannath; Kini, Anand

2014-11-01

366

Entrapment of the saphenous nerve at the adductor canal affecting the infrapatellar branch – a report on two cases  

PubMed Central

Objective: To present 2 cases of entrapment of the saphenous nerve at the adductor canal affecting the infrapatellar branch, and to provide insight into the utilization of nerve tension testing for the diagnosis of nerve entrapments in a clinical setting. Rationale: Saphenous nerve entrapments are a very rare condition within today’s body of literature, and the diagnosis remains controversial. Clinical Features: Two cases of chronic knee pain that were unresponsive to previous treatment. The patients were diagnosed with an entrapment of the saphenous nerve at the adductor canal affecting the infrapatellar branch using nerve tension techniques along with a full clinical examination. Intervention and Outcome: Manual therapy and rehabilitation programs were initiated including soft tissue therapy, nerve gliding techniques and gait retraining which resulted in 90% improvement in one case and complete resolution of symptoms in the second. Conclusion: Nerve tension testing may prove to be an aid in the diagnosis of saphenous nerve entrapments within a clinical setting in order to decrease time to diagnosis and proper treatment. PMID:24302782

Porr, Jason; Chrobak, Karen; Muir, Brad

2013-01-01

367

Contact Dermatitis: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... treatments A - D Contact dermatitis Signs and symptoms Contact dermatitis: Signs and symptoms Allergic contact dermatitis : Testing ... these symptoms, you need immediate medical care. Allergic contact dermatitis This skin condition occurs when you have ...

368

Neurosteroid 3?-Androstanediol Efficiently Counteracts Paclitaxel-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy and Painful Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Painful peripheral neuropathy belongs to major side-effects limiting cancer chemotherapy. Paclitaxel, widely used to treat several cancers, induces neurological symptoms including burning pain, allodynia, hyperalgesia and numbness. Therefore, identification of drugs that may effectively counteract paclitaxel-induced neuropathic symptoms is crucial. Here, we combined histopathological, neurochemical, behavioral and electrophysiological methods to investigate the natural neurosteroid 3?-androstanediol (3?-DIOL) ability to counteract paclitaxel-evoked peripheral nerve tissue damages and neurological symptoms. Prophylactic or corrective 3?-DIOL treatment (4 mg/kg/2days) prevented or suppressed PAC-evoked heat-thermal hyperalgesia, cold-allodynia and mechanical allodynia/hyperalgesia, by reversing to normal, decreased thermal and mechanical pain thresholds of PAC-treated rats. Electrophysiological studies demonstrated that 3?-DIOL restored control values of nerve conduction velocity and action potential peak amplitude significantly altered by PAC-treatment. 3?-DIOL also repaired PAC-induced nerve damages by restoring normal neurofilament-200 level in peripheral axons and control amount of 2’,3’-cyclic-nucleotide-3’-phosphodiesterase in myelin sheaths. Decreased density of intraepidermal nerve fibers evoked by PAC-therapy was also counteracted by 3?-DIOL treatment. More importantly, 3?-DIOL beneficial effects were not sedation-dependent but resulted from its neuroprotective ability, nerve tissue repairing capacity and long-term analgesic action. Altogether, our results showing that 3?-DIOL efficiently counteracted PAC-evoked painful symptoms, also offer interesting possibilities to develop neurosteroid-based strategies against chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. This article shows that the prophylactic or corrective treatment with 3?-androstanediol prevents or suppresses PAC-evoked painful symptoms and peripheral nerve dysfunctions in rats. The data suggest that 3?-androstanediol-based therapy may constitute an efficient strategy to explore in humans for the eradication of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. PMID:24260511

Taleb, Omar; Mensah-Nyagan, Ayikoe Guy

2013-01-01

369

THE PRODUCTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE BY NERVE  

PubMed Central

1. A modified Osterhout respiratory apparatus for the detection of CO2 from nerve is described. 2. The lateral-line nerve from the dogfish discharges CO2 at first with a gush for half an hour or so and then steadily at a lower rate for several hours. 3. Simple handling of the nerve does not increase the output of CO2; cutting it revives gush. 4. The CO2 produced by nerve is not escaping simply from a reservoir but is a true nervous metabolite. 5. The rate of discharge of CO2 from a quiescent nerve varied from 0.0071 to 0.0128 mg. per gram of nerve per minute and averaged 0.0095 mg. 6. Stimulated nerve showed an increased rate of CO2 production of 15.8 percent over that of quiescent nerve. 7. The results of these studies indicate that chemical change is a factor in nerve transmission. PMID:19872167

Parker, G. H.

1925-01-01

370

Robust frameless stereotactic localization in extra-cranial radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

In the field of extra-cranial radiotherapy, several inaccuracies can make the application of frameless stereotactic localization techniques error-prone. When optical tracking systems based on surface fiducials are used, inter- and intra-fractional uncertainties in marker three-dimensional (3D) detection may lead to inexact tumor position estimation, resulting in erroneous patient setup. This is due to the fact that external fiducials misdetection results in deformation effects that are poorly handled in a rigid-body approach. In this work, the performance of two frameless stereotactic localization algorithms for 3D tumor position reconstruction in extra-cranial radiotherapy has been specifically tested. Two strategies, unweighted versus weighted, for stereotactic tumor localization were examined by exploiting data coming from 46 patients treated for extra-cranial lesions. Measured isocenter displacements and rotations were combined to define isocentric procedures, featuring 6 degrees of freedom, for correcting patient alignment (isocentric positioning correction). The sensitivity of the algorithms to uncertainties in the 3D localization of fiducials was investigated by means of 184 numerical simulations. The performance of the implemented isocentric positioning correction was compared to conventional point-based registration. The isocentric positioning correction algorithm was tested on a clinical dataset of inter-fractional and intra-fractional setup errors, which was collected by means of an optical tracker on the same group of patients. The weighted strategy exhibited a lower sensitivity to fiducial localization errors in simulated misalignments than those of the unweighted strategy. Isocenter 3D displacements provided by the weighted strategy were consistently smaller than those featured by the unweighted strategy. The peak decrease in median and quartile values of isocenter 3D displacements were 1.4 and 2.7 mm, respectively. Concerning clinical data, the weighted strategy isocentric positioning correction provided the reduction of fiducial registration errors, featuring up to 61.7% decrease in median values (versus 46.8% for the unweighted strategy) of initial displacements. The weighted strategy proved high performance in minimizing the effects of fiducial localization errors, showing a great potential in improving patient setup. The clinical data analysis revealed that the application of a robust reconstruction algorithm may provide high-quality results in patient setup verification, by properly managing external fiducials localization errors.

Riboldi, Marco; Baroni, Guido; Spadea, Maria Francesca; Bassanini, Fabio; Tagaste, Barbara; Garibaldi, Cristina; Orecchia, Roberto; Pedotti, Antonio [TBMLab, Department of Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano University, P.za Leonardo da Vinci 32, Milan 20133 (Italy); Medical Physics, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, Milan 20141 (Italy); Radiotherapy Division, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, Milan 20141 (Italy) and Instituto di Scienze Radiologiche, Polo Universitario H S. Paolo, Via Rudini 8, Milan 20142 (Italy); TBMLab, Department of Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano University, P.za Leonardo da Vinci 32, Milan 20133 (Italy)

2006-04-15

371

Deafness from eighth cranial nerve involvement in a patient with large-cell transformation of mycosis fungoides.  

PubMed

Central nervous system (CNS) involvement by mycosis fungoides (MF) is rare and is usually seen in advanced stages with lymph node or visceral involvement. We describe a patient with advanced stage MF in large-cell transformation who presented with profound hearing loss after chemotherapy. Despite an initial differential diagnosis of vincristine-related neurotoxicity based on clinical, audiometric, and MRI investigations, CSF examination revealed lymphomatous leptomeningeal involvement. This case illustrates the importance of an awareness of the possibility of CNS involvement by MF and underlines the need for a complete neurologic evaluation including CSF examination in a patient with underlying MF who presents with a new neurological problem. PMID:10863980

Chua, S L; Seymour, J F; Prince, H M

2000-05-01

372

Two immigrants with tuberculosis of the ear, nose, and throat region with skull base and cranial nerve involvement.  

PubMed

We report two immigrants with tuberculosis of the skull base and a review of the literature. A Somalian man presented with bilateral otitis media, hearing loss, and facial and abducens palsy. Imaging showed involvement of both mastoid and petrous bones, extending via the skull base to the nasopharynx, suggesting tuberculosis which was confirmed by characteristic histology and positive auramine staining, while Ziehl-Neelsen staining and PCR were negative. A Sudanese man presented with torticollis and deviation of the uvula due to paresis of N. IX and XI. Imaging showed a retropharyngeal abscess and lysis of the clivus. Histology, acid-fast staining, and PCR were negative. Both patients had a positive Quantiferon TB Gold in-tube result and improved rapidly after empiric treatment for tuberculosis. Cultures eventually yielded M. tuberculosis. These unusual cases exemplify the many faces of tuberculosis and the importance to include tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of unexplained problems. PMID:21541186

Richardus, Renate A; Jansen, Jeroen C; Steens, Stefan C A; Arend, Sandra M

2011-01-01

373

Ipsilateral facial sensory and motor responses to basal fronto-temporal cortical stimulation: Evidence suggesting direct activation of cranial nerves  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify the generator mechanism of sensory and motor facial responses ipsilateral to electrical stimulation of the inferior fronto-temporal cortex in epilepsy patients. Out of 30 patients who have been evaluated with chronically implanted subdural electrodes for medically intractable partial seizure or brain tumor involving the basal frontal or temporal cortex, 4 patients (age ranging 24–57 years) showed sensory and

Tahamina Begum; Akio Ikeda; Masao Matsuhashi; Nobuhiro Mikuni; Susumu Miyamoto; Nobuo Hashimoto; Takashi Nagamine; Hidenao Fukuyama; Hiroshi Shibasaki

2006-01-01

374

Cranial malformations in related white lions (Panthera leo krugeri).  

PubMed

White lions (Panthera leo krugeri) have never been common in the wild, and at present, the greatest population is kept in zoos where they are bred for biological and biodiversity conservation. During the years 2003 to 2008 in a zoological garden in northern Italy, 19 white lions were born to the same parents, who were in turn paternally consanguineous. Out of the 19 lions, 4 (21%) were stillborn, 13 (69%) died within 1 month, and 1 (5%) was euthanatized after 6 months because of difficulty with prehension of food. Six lions (32%) showed malformations involving the head (jaw, tongue, throat, teeth, and cranial bones). One lion (5%) still alive at 30 months revealed an Arnold-Chiari malformation upon submission for neurological evaluation of postural and gait abnormalities. Paternal consanguinity of the parents, along with inbreeding among white lions in general, could account for the high incidence of congenital malformations of the head in this pride of white lions. PMID:20826844

Scaglione, F E; Schröder, C; Degiorgi, G; Zeira, O; Bollo, E

2010-11-01

375

Cranial irradiation compromises neuronal architecture in the hippocampus  

PubMed Central

Cranial irradiation is used routinely for the treatment of nearly all brain tumors, but may lead to progressive and debilitating impairments of cognitive function. Changes in synaptic plasticity underlie many neurodegenerative conditions that correlate to specific structural alterations in neurons that are believed to be morphologic determinants of learning and memory. To determine whether changes in dendritic architecture might underlie the neurocognitive sequelae found after irradiation, we investigated the impact of cranial irradiation (1 and 10 Gy) on a range of micromorphometric parameters in mice 10 and 30 d following exposure. Our data revealed significant reductions in dendritic complexity, where dendritic branching, length, and area were routinely reduced (>50%) in a dose-dependent manner. At these same doses and times we found significant reductions in the number (20–35%) and density (40–70%) of dendritic spines on hippocampal neurons of the dentate gyrus. Interestingly, immature filopodia showed the greatest sensitivity to irradiation compared with more mature spine morphologies, with reductions of 43% and 73% found 30 d after 1 and 10 Gy, respectively. Analysis of granule-cell neurons spanning the subfields of the dentate gyrus revealed significant reductions in synaptophysin expression at presynaptic sites in the dentate hilus, and significant increases in postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95) were found along dendrites in the granule cell and molecular layers. These findings are unique in demonstrating dose-responsive changes in dendritic complexity, synaptic protein levels, spine density and morphology, alterations induced in hippocampal neurons by irradiation that persist for at least 1 mo, and that resemble similar types of changes found in many neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:23858442

Parihar, Vipan Kumar; Limoli, Charles L.

2013-01-01

376

In vivo porcine training model for cranial neurosurgery.  

PubMed

Supplemental education is desirable for neurosurgical training, and the use of human cadaver specimen and virtual reality models is routine. An in vivo porcine training model for cranial neurosurgery was introduced in 2005, and our recent experience with this unique model is outlined here. For the first time, porcine anatomy is illustrated with particular respect to neurosurgical procedures. The pros and cons of this model are described. The aim of the course was to set up a laboratory scenery imitating an almost realistic operating room in which anatomy of the brain and neurosurgical techniques in a mentored environment free from time constraints could be trained. Learning objectives of the course were to learn about the microsurgical techniques in cranial neurosurgery and the management of complications. Participants were asked to evaluate the quality and utility of the programme via standardized questionnaires by a grading scale from A (best) to E (worst). In total, 154 residents have been trained on the porcine model to date. None of the participants regarded his own residency programme as structured. The bleeding and complication management (97 %), the realistic laboratory set-up (89 %) and the working environment (94 %) were favoured by the vast majority of trainees and confirmed our previous findings. After finishing the course, the participants graded that their skills in bone drilling, dissecting the brain and preserving cerebral vessels under microscopic magnification had improved to level A and B. In vivo hands-on courses, fully equipped with microsurgical instruments, offer an outstanding training opportunity in which bleeding management on a pulsating, vital brain represents a unique training approach. Our results have shown that education programmes still lack practical training facilities in which in vivo models may act as a complementary approach in surgical training. PMID:25240530

Regelsberger, Jan; Eicker, Sven; Siasios, Ioannis; Hänggi, Daniel; Kirsch, Matthias; Horn, Peter; Winkler, Peter; Signoretti, Stefano; Fountas, Kostas; Dufour, Henry; Barcia, Juan A; Sakowitz, Oliver; Westermaier, Thomas; Sabel, Michael; Heese, Oliver

2015-01-01

377

Surface smoothing and template partitioning for cranial implant CAD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Employing patient-specific prefabricated implants can be an effective treatment for large cranial defects (i.e., > 25 cm2). We have previously demonstrated the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) software that starts with the patient"s 3D head CT-scan. A template is accurately matched to the pre-detected skull defect margin. For unilateral cranial defects the template is derived from a left-to-right mirrored skull image. However, two problems arise: (1) slice edge artifacts generated during isosurface polygonalization are inherited by the final implant; and (2) partitioning (i.e., cookie-cutting) the implant surface from the mirrored skull image usually results in curvature discontinuities across the interface between the patient"s defect and the implant. To solve these problems, we introduce a novel space curve-to-surface partitioning algorithm following a ray-casting surface re-sampling and smoothing procedure. Specifically, the ray-cast re-sampling is followed by bilinear interpolation and low-pass filtering. The resulting surface has a highly regular grid-like topological structure of quadrilaterally arranged triangles. Then, we replace the regions to be partitioned with predefined sets of triangular elements thereby cutting the template surface to accurately fit the defect margin at high resolution and without surface curvature discontinuities. Comparisons of the CAD implants for five patients against the manually generated implant that the patient actually received show an average implant-patient gap of 0.45mm for the former and 2.96mm for the latter. Also, average maximum normalized curvature of interfacing surfaces was found to be smoother, 0.043, for the former than the latter, 0.097. This indicates that the CAD implants would provide a significantly better fit.

Min, Kyoung-june; Dean, David

2005-04-01

378

An electrical cause of stridor: Pediatric vagal nerve stimulators.  

PubMed

Vagal nerve stimulators (VNS) are surgically implantable medical devices which are approved by the food and drug administration (FDA) for treatment of medically refractory epilepsy in children. Two children with seizures disorders presented to the pediatric otolaryngology clinic with complaints of stridor and sleep apnea following implantation of VNS devices. Both children were evaluated with flexible laryngoscopy, direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy. The children were noted to have contraction of their vocal folds and supraglottis and the settings of their VNS were adjusted until no further contractions were noted. Each child had resolution of their symptoms following adjustment. PMID:25500186

Kelts, Gregory; O'Connor, Peter D; Hussey, Richard W; Maturo, Stephen

2015-02-01

379

Asthma Outcomes: Asthma Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Background Respiratory symptoms are commonly used to assess the impact of patient-centered interventions. Objective At the request of National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes and other federal agencies, an expert group was convened to propose which measurements of asthma symptoms should be used as a standardized measure in future clinical research studies. Methods Asthma symptom instruments were classified as daily diaries (prospectively recording symptoms between research visits) or retrospective questionnaires (completed at research visits). We conducted a systematic search in PubMed and a search for articles that cited key studies describing development of instruments. We classified outcome instruments as either core (required in future studies), supplemental (used according to study aims and standardized), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an NIH-organized workshop in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results Four instruments (3 daily diaries, 1 for adults and 2 for children; and 1 retrospective questionnaire for adults) were identified. Minimal clinically important differences have not been established for these instruments, and validation studies were only conducted in a limited number of patient populations. Validity of existing instruments may not be generalizable across racial-ethnic or other subgroups. Conclusions An evaluation of symptoms should be a core asthma outcome measure in clinical research. However, available instruments have limitations that preclude selection of a core instrument. The working group participants propose validation studies in diverse populations, comparisons of diaries versus retrospective questionnaires, and evaluations of symptom assessment alone versus composite scores of asthma control. PMID:22386505

Krishnan, Jerry A.; Lemanske, Robert F.; Canino, Glorisa J.; Elward, Kurtis S.; Kattan, Meyer; Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Mitchell, Herman; Sutherland, E. Rand; Minnicozzi, Michael

2014-01-01

380

Early manifestations of pancreatic cancer: the effect of cancer-nerve interaction.  

PubMed

Clinical manifestation is important for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer (PanCa). No typical symptoms have been identified that clearly indicate the early stage of PanCa, although most patients with PanCa have symptoms before the cancer is diagnosed. These symptoms are often regarded as common gastrointestinal symptoms and are ignored. The pancreas is richly supplied with nerves, and neuro-cancer interactions begin prior to PanCa cell migration. We hypothesise that the cancer-nerve interaction does generate typical symptoms such as pseudomorphous satiety and mild pain in early PanCa. Constant satiety leads to weight loss. This biological behaviour allows the cancer to progress without attention from the cancer-bearing host. Cancer cells also target the endocrine pancreas, generating a hyperglycaemic state that results in increased energy for cancer cells. The combination of the so-called common gastrointestinal symptoms and diabetes may represent early typical symptoms of PanCa that can be used to improve early diagnosis. PMID:23751314

Li, Junhui; Li, Yiming; Cao, Gang; Guo, Kun; Zhang, Li; Ma, Qingyong

2013-08-01

381

Cranial musculature in the larva of the caecilian, Ichthyophis kohtaoensis (Lissamphibia: Gymnophiona).  

PubMed

Within the Gymnophiona (caecilians) oviparous species with biphasic life-cycles possess a free living semi-aquatic larval stage that feeds in aquatic habitats. The larvae pass through a metamorphosis to a purely terrestrial adult stage. It is likely that the cranial morphology of caecilian larvae has specializations for aquatic feeding. However, little is known about the cranial morphology, and the cranial musculature is especially neglected in the literature. This study provides a detailed description of the jaw and hyobranchial musculature in larval stages of a caecilian. We studied late embryonic and early larval specimens of Ichthyophis kohtaoensis. Furthermore, we compared and homologized the cranial muscles found in larval I. kohtaoensis with the muscles described for adult caecilians. Most cranial muscles of larval I. kohtaoensis are also present in the adult, except for the m. levator mandibulae externus and the m. subarcualis obliquus II. Our results were compared with the data available for larval frogs and salamanders in order to hypothesize the cranial musculature in the larva of the most recent common ancestor of the Lissamphibia. Larval caecilians, frog tadpoles, and salamander larvae share many characters in their cranial musculature, which, consequently, can be assigned to the lissamphibian ground pattern. However, the m. pterygoideus and the m. levator quadrati are unique to the Gymnophiona. PMID:17154285

Kleinteich, Thomas; Haas, Alexander

2007-01-01

382

Prefabricated Patient-Matched Cranial Implants for Reconstruction of Large Skull Defects  

PubMed Central

Cranial defects can be caused by injury, infection, or tumor invasion. Large defects should be reconstructed to protect the brain and normalize the cerebral hemodynamics. The conventional method is to cover the defect with bone cement. Custom-made implants designed for the individual patient are now available. We report our experience with one such product in patients with large cranial defects (>7.6 cm in diameter). A CT scan with 2 mm slices and a three-dimensional reconstruction were obtained from the patient. This information was dispatched to the company and used as a template to form the implant. The cranial implant was received within four weeks. From 2005 to 2010, custom-made cranial implants were used in 13 patients with large cranial defects. In 10 of the 13 patients, secondary deep infection was the cause of the cranial defect. All the implants fitted well or very well to the defect. No infections were seen after implantation; however, one patient was reoperated on for an epidural hematoma. A custom-made cranial implant is considerably more expensive than an implant made of bone cement, but ensures that the defect is optimally covered. The use of custom-made implants is straightforward and timesaving, and they provide an excellent medical and cosmetic result. PMID:23650475

Sundseth, Jarle; Berg-Johnsen, Jon

2013-01-01

383

Burkholderia pseudomallei Penetrates the Brain via Destruction of the Olfactory and Trigeminal Nerves: Implications for the Pathogenesis of Neurological Melioidosis  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Melioidosis is a potentially fatal disease that is endemic to tropical northern Australia and Southeast Asia, with a mortality rate of 14 to 50%. The bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent which infects numerous parts of the human body, including the brain, which results in the neurological manifestation of melioidosis. The olfactory nerve constitutes a direct conduit from the nasal cavity into the brain, and we have previously reported that B. pseudomallei can colonize this nerve in mice. We have now investigated in detail the mechanism by which the bacteria penetrate the olfactory and trigeminal nerves within the nasal cavity and infect the brain. We found that the olfactory epithelium responded to intranasal B. pseudomallei infection by widespread crenellation followed by disintegration of the neuronal layer to expose the underlying basal layer, which the bacteria then colonized. With the loss of the neuronal cell bodies, olfactory axons also degenerated, and the bacteria then migrated through the now-open conduit of the olfactory nerves. Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that B. pseudomallei migrated through the cribriform plate via the olfactory nerves to enter the outer layer of the olfactory bulb in the brain within 24 h. We also found that the bacteria colonized the thin respiratory epithelium in the nasal cavity and then rapidly migrated along the underlying trigeminal nerve to penetrate the cranial cavity. These results demonstrate that B. pseudomallei invasion of the nerves of the nasal cavity leads to direct infection of the brain and bypasses the blood-brain barrier. PMID:24736221

St. John, James A.; Ekberg, Jenny A. K.; Dando, Samantha J.; Meedeniya, Adrian C. B.; Horton, Rachel E.; Batzloff, Michael; Owen, Suzzanne J.; Holt, Stephanie; Peak, Ian R.; Ulett, Glen C.; Mackay-Sim, Alan; Beacham, Ifor R.

2014-01-01

384

The relationship between the cranial base and jaw base in a Chinese population  

PubMed Central

Introduction The cranial base plays an important role in determining how the mandible and maxilla relate to each other. This study assessed the relationship between the cranial base and jaw base in a Chinese population. Methods This study involved 83 subjects (male: 27; female: 56; age: 18.4?±?4.2 SD years) from Hong Kong, who were classified into 3 sagittal discrepancy groups on the basis of their ANB angle. A cephalometric analysis of the angular and linear measurements of their cranial and jaw bases was carried out. The morphological characteristics of the cranial and jaw bases in the three groups were compared and assessments were made as to whether a relationship existed between the cranial base and the jaw base discrepancy. Results Significant differences were found in the cranial base angles of the three groups. Skeletal Class II cases presented with a larger NSBa, whereas skeletal Class III cases presented with a smaller NSBa (P?cranial base angle NSBa and the SNB for the whole sample, (r?=?-0.523, P?cranial base appears to have a certain correlation with the jaw base relationship in a southern Chinese population. The correlation between cranial base and jaw base tends to be closer in skeletal Class III cases. PMID:25129070

2014-01-01

385

Neuromodulation of the suprascapular nerve.  

PubMed

The shoulder joint is an enarthrodial or ball-and-socket joint. A complex network of anatomic structures endows the human shoulder with tremendous mobility, greater than any other joint in the body. Many pathologies can been found in those patients with chronic shoulder pain. The painful limitation of shoulder motion affects hand and arm motion as well; therefore, it significantly influences work performance and everyday activities as well as the quality of life. Therefore, the treatment of patients with chronic shoulder pain has major social and health economic implications. In this article we present a patient with a complex history of shoulder pathology including 7 surgeries that left the patient with chronic debilitating shoulder pain. She was suffering from chronic pain and limited mobility of the shoulder joint due to adhesive shoulder capsulitis. She was treated with a multimodality approach with the goals of increasing shoulder range of motion and decreasing her pain. This did not provide significant improvement. The suprascapular nerve supplies motor and sensory innervation to the shoulder, and can be easily accessible in the supraspinatus fossa. A suprascapular nerve block dramatically decreased her pain. This clinical observation along with confirmatory nerve block play an important role during the decision-making process for a trial period of electrical neuromodulation. She was followed for 3 months after the permanent implantation of a suprascapular nerve stimulator. Her pain and shoulder range of motion in all planes improved dramatically. Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) of the suprascapular nerve, in addition to multimodality pain management, is one approach to the difficult task of treating adhesive capsulitis with accompanying pain and the inability to move the shoulder. We conducted a literature review on PubMed and found no case describing a similar patient to our knowledge. PMID:25415792

Elahi, Foad; Reddy, Chandan G

2014-12-01

386

A pilot controlled trial of a combination of dense cranial electroacupuncture stimulation and body acupuncture for post-stroke depression  

PubMed Central

Background Our previous studies have demonstrated the treatment benefits of dense cranial electroacupuncture stimulation (DCEAS), a novel brain stimulation therapy in patients with major depression, postpartum depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The purpose of the present study was to further evaluate the effectiveness of DCEAS combined with body acupuncture and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in patients with post-stroke depression (PSD). Methods In a single-blind, randomized controlled trial, 43 patients with PSD were randomly assigned to 12 sessions of DCEAS plus SSRI plus body electroacupuncture (n?=?23), or sham (non-invasive cranial electroacupuncture, n-CEA) plus SSRI plus body electroacupuncture (n?=?20) for 3 sessions per week over 4 weeks. Treatment outcomes were measured using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17), the Clinical Global Impression - Severity scale (CGI-S) and Barthel Index (BI), a measure used to evaluate movement ability associated with daily self-caring activity. Results DCEAS produced a significantly greater reduction of both HAMD-17 and CGI-S as early as week 1 and CGI-S at endpoint compared to n-CEA, but subjects of n-CEA group exhibited a significantly greater improvement on BI at week 4 than DCEAS. Incidence of adverse events was not different in the two groups. Conclusions These results indicate that DCEAS could be effective in reducing stroke patients’ depressive symptoms. Superficial electrical stimulation in n-CEA group may be beneficial in improving movement disability of stroke patients. A combination of DCEAS and body acupuncture can be considered a treatment option for neuropsychiatric sequelae of stroke. Trial registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01174394. PMID:25038733

2014-01-01

387

Nerve lesioning with direct current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spastic hypertonus (muscle over-activity due to exaggerated stretch reflexes) often develops in people with stroke, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Lesioning of nerves, e.g. with phenol or botulinum toxin is widely performed to reduce spastic hypertonus. We have explored the use of direct electrical current (DC) to lesion peripheral nerves. In a series of animal experiments, DC reduced muscle force by controlled amounts and the reduction could last several months. We conclude that in some cases controlled DC lesioning may provide an effective alternative to the less controllable molecular treatments available today.

Ravid, E. Natalie; Shi Gan, Liu; Todd, Kathryn; Prochazka, Arthur

2011-02-01

388

Median Nerve Stimulation in a Patient with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type II  

PubMed Central

A 54-year-old man experienced injury to the second finger of his left hand due to damage from a paintball gun shot 8 years prior, and the metacarpo-phalangeal joint was amputated. He gradually developed mechanical allodynia and burning pain, and there were trophic changes of the thenar muscle and he reported coldness on his left hand and forearm. A neuroma was found on the left second common digital nerve and was removed, but his symptoms continued despite various conservative treatments including a morphine infusion pump on his left arm. We therefore attempted median nerve stimulation to treat the chronic pain. The procedure was performed in two stages. The first procedure involved exposure of the median nerve on the mid-humerus level and placing of the electrode. The trial stimulation lasted for 7 days and the patient's symptoms improved. The second procedure involved implantation of a pulse generator on the left subclavian area. The mechanical allodynia and pain relief score, based on the visual analogue scale, decreased from 9 before surgery to 4 after surgery. The patient's activity improved markedly, but trophic changes and vasomotor symptom recovered only moderately. In conclusion, median nerve stimulation can improve chronic pain from complex regional pain syndrome type II. PMID:19844632

Jeon, Ik-Chan; Kim, Min-Su

2009-01-01

389

Bullying and PTSD Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PTSD symptoms related to school bullying have rarely been investigated, and never in national samples. We used data from a national survey to investigate this among students from grades 8 and 9 (n = 963). The prevalence estimates of exposure to bullying were within the range of earlier research findings. Multinomial logistic regression showed that…

Idsoe, Thormod; Dyregrov, Atle; Idsoe, Ella Cosmovici

2012-01-01

390

Take Charge of Your Diabetes (Nerve Damage)  

MedlinePLUS

... gov . Diabetes Public Health Resource Share Compartir Take Charge of Your Diabetes Some Signs of Diabetic Nerve ... There’s a lot you can do to take charge and prevent nerve damage. A recent study shows ...

391

Nerve blocks in the treatment of headache.  

PubMed

Nerve blocks and neurostimulation are reasonable therapeutic options in patients with head and neck neuralgias. In addition, these peripheral nerve procedures can also be effective in primary headache disorders, such as migraine and cluster headaches. Nerve blocks for headaches are generally accomplished by using small subcutaneous injections of amide-type local anesthetics, such as lidocaine and bupivicaine. Targets include the greater occipital nerve, lesser occipital nerve, auriculotemporal nerve, supratrochlear and supraorbital nerves, sphenopalatine ganglion, cervical spinal roots, and facet joints of the upper cervical spine. Although definitive studies examining the usefulness of nerve blocks are lacking, reports suggest that this area deserves further attention in the hope of acquiring evidence of effectiveness. PMID:20430319

Levin, Morris

2010-04-01

392

Symptom burden in cancer survivorship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The subjective experience of cancer survivorship can be assessed by various patient-reported outcome (PRO) methods, including\\u000a measures of symptom burden and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Symptom burden includes the presence and severity of\\u000a multiple symptoms and the level of distress caused by symptoms that go untreated or unrelieved. The concept of symptom burden\\u000a is more limited in scope than

V. Shannon Burkett; Charles S. Cleeland

2007-01-01

393

Mania following vagus nerve stimulation: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an increasingly used therapy for patients with treatment-refractory epilepsy and depression. Hypomanic and manic symptoms are a rare but recognized adverse effect of VNS treatment. Here we describe a case in which VNS treatment in a patient with epilepsy and unipolar depression was associated with the rapid development of manic symptoms. The patient's manic symptoms resolved with temporary discontinuation of the VNS current, and the patient was eventually able to resume VNS treatment with good effect and without further manic symptoms. Mania is a rare but serious side effect of VNS; however, in this case and in the majority of reported cases of VNS-associated mania, symptoms resolve and VNS can be safely administered. PMID:21167787

Gerson, Ruth; Murray, Evan; Price, Bruce; Frankel, Mark; Douglass, Laurie M; Cunningham, Miles

2011-01-01

394

Proximal Sciatic Nerve Intraneural Ganglion Cyst  

PubMed Central

Intraneural ganglion cysts are nonneoplastic, mucinous cysts within the epineurium of peripheral nerves which usually involve the peroneal nerve at the knee. A 37-year-old female presented with progressive left buttock and posterior thigh pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sciatic nerve mass at the sacral notch which was subsequently revealed to be an intraneural ganglion cyst. An intraneural ganglion cyst confined to the proximal sciatic nerve has only been reported once prior to 2009. PMID:20069041

Swartz, Karin R.; Wilson, Dianne; Boland, Michael; Fee, Dominic B.

2009-01-01

395

Scanning pattern of diffusion tensor tractography and an analysis of the morphology and function of spinal nerve roots  

PubMed Central

Radiculopathy, commonly induced by intervertebral disk bulging or protrusion, is presently diagnosed in accordance with clinical symptoms because there is no objective quantitative diagnostic criterion. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor tractography revealed the characterization of anisotropic diffusion and displayed the anatomic form of nerve root fibers. This study included 18 cases with intervertebral disc degeneration-induced unilateral radiculopathy. Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging was creatively used to reveal the scanning pattern of fiber tracking of the spinal nerve root. A scoring system of nerve root morphology was used to quantitatively assess nerve root morphology and functional alteration after intervertebral disc degeneration. Results showed that after fiber tracking, compared with unaffected nerve root, fiber bundles gathered together and interrupted at the affected side. No significant alteration was detected in the number of fiber bundles, but the cross-sectional area of nerve root fibers was reduced. These results suggest that diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging-based tractography can be used to quantitatively evaluate nerve root function according to the area and morphology of fiber bundles of nerve roots. PMID:25206637

Tian, Xin; Liu, Huaijun; Geng, Zuojun; Yang, Hua; Wang, Guoshi; Yang, Jiping; Wang, Chunxia; Li, Cuining; Li, Ying

2013-01-01

396

Oculomotor Nerve Palsy following Cardiac Tamponade with Churg-Strauss Syndrome: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

A 57-year-old man with a history of more than 10 years of bronchial asthma and chronic sinusitis complained of double vision which developed 18 days after cardiac tamponade with eosinophil-rich fluid (eosinophils 30%). He had oculomotor nerve palsy, and a blood test revealed eosinophilia (12,700/mm3) and elevation of both C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor. He was diagnosed as having Churg-Strauss syndrome. His symptoms were relieved by corticosteroid therapy. Our case and previous cases in the literature revealed that oculomotor nerve palsy in Churg-Strauss syndrome is associated with pupil involvement and may be relieved by corticosteroid treatment. PMID:22125528

Suganuma, Kazuki; Hashimoto, Takao; Sato, Hiromasa; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Sakurai, Shunpei

2011-01-01

397

Fibrolipomatous Hamartoma of the Median Nerve in the Elbow: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

A fibrolipomatous hamartoma—also known as a fibrofatty overgrowth, perineural lipoma, intraneural lipoma, and lipomatous hamartoma—is a rare, benign, congenital lesion most commonly found in the median nerve, usually at the level of the wrist or hand. To our knowledge, no published cases report a hamartoma arising from the median nerve at the level of the elbow. We report a case of a fibrolipomatous hamartoma in a 55-year-old woman that necessitated a surgical intervention because of its size and associated neurologic symptoms. PMID:22778681

Ha, Jennifer Fong; Teh, Bing Mei; Abeysuriya, Disna Thushangi Dahanayake; Luo, Daniel Y. W.

2012-01-01

398

Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the median nerve in the elbow: a case report.  

PubMed

A fibrolipomatous hamartoma-also known as a fibrofatty overgrowth, perineural lipoma, intraneural lipoma, and lipomatous hamartoma-is a rare, benign, congenital lesion most commonly found in the median nerve, usually at the level of the wrist or hand. To our knowledge, no published cases report a hamartoma arising from the median nerve at the level of the elbow. We report a case of a fibrolipomatous hamartoma in a 55-year-old woman that necessitated a surgical intervention because of its size and associated neurologic symptoms. PMID:22778681

Ha, Jennifer Fong; Teh, Bing Mei; Abeysuriya, Disna Thushangi Dahanayake; Luo, Daniel Y W

2012-01-01

399

Electrical Conduction through Nerve and DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to analyse electric resistivity at different ambient temperatures between 300 to 20K in the frog sciatic nerve and salmon sperm DNA. When the electrical contacts were leaned just into the sciatic nerve, an increase of the sciatic nerve resistivity was observed for 240 K < T < 300 K and a rise of

H. Abdelmelek; A. El-May; Ben Hamouda; M. Ben Salem; J. M. Pequignot; M. Sakly

2003-01-01

400

Peripheral nerve complications following burn injury  

SciTech Connect

The involvement of peripheral nerves in burn injury is not common, but when nerves are involved, prompt therapeutic intervention is necessary to avoid increased morbidity. Aside from the direct effects of the trauma, the burn team must anticipate dangerously excessive edema from circumferential burns, and avoid secondary nerve damage from inappropriate splinting, exercises or traction.

Salisbury, R.E.; Dingeldein, G.P.

1982-03-01

401

Effects of Electroacupuncture on Facial Nerve Function and HSV-1 DNA Quantity in HSV-1 Induced Facial Nerve Palsy Mice  

PubMed Central

Acupuncture is a common and effective therapeutic method to treat facial nerve palsy (FNP). However, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of electroacupuncture on symptoms and content of HSV-1 DNA in FNP mice. Mice were randomized into four groups, an electroacupuncture treatment group, saline group, model animal group, and blank control group. Electroacupuncture was applied at Jiache (ST6) and Hegu (LI4) in electroacupuncture group once daily for 14 days, while electroacupuncture was not applied in model animal group. In electroacupuncture group, mice recovered more rapidly and HSV-1 DNA content also decreased more rapidly, compared with model animal group. We conclude that electroacupuncture is effective to alleviate symptoms and promote the reduction of HSV-1 in FNP. PMID:24991226

Tang, Hongzhi; Feng, Shuwei; Chen, Jiao; Yang, Mingxiao; Zhong, Zhendong; Li, Ying; Liang, Fanrong

2014-01-01

402

The Optical Stretcher Nerve Regeneration  

E-print Network

!"# $ %& ' "!((! )# The Optical Stretcher Nerve Regeneration Cells as Optical Fibres Novel Imaging-throughput cell analysis method for cancer diagnosis and stem cell sorting. The deformability of cells) and a cancerous cellhealthy (left) and a cancerous cell (right). The cancerous cell is more(right). The cancerous

Steiner, Ullrich

403

21 CFR 882.4300 - Manual cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories are bone cutting and drilling instruments that are used without a power source on a patient's skull. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2010-04-01

404

21 CFR 882.4300 - Manual cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories are bone cutting and drilling instruments that are used without a power source on a patient's skull. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2011-04-01

405

21 CFR 882.4300 - Manual cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories  

...cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories are bone cutting and drilling instruments that are used without a power source on a patient's skull. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2014-04-01

406

21 CFR 882.4300 - Manual cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories are bone cutting and drilling instruments that are used without a power source on a patient's skull. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2012-04-01

407

21 CFR 882.4300 - Manual cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories are bone cutting and drilling instruments that are used without a power source on a patient's skull. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2013-04-01

408

Ontogeny of the cranial skeleton in a Darwin's finch (Geospiza fortis)  

E-print Network

Ontogeny of the cranial skeleton in a Darwin's finch (Geospiza fortis) Annelies Genbrugge,1,2 Anne morphology; Darwin's finches; ontogeny. Introduction From a single common ancestor, 14 species of Darwin

Gent, Universiteit

409

Disabling Vertigo and Tinnitus Caused by Intrameatal Compression of the Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery on the Vestibulocochlear Nerve: A Case Report, Surgical Considerations, and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Microvascular compression of the vestibulocochlear nerve is known as a cause of tinnitus and vertigo in the literature, but our review of the literature shows that the compression is usually located in the cerebellopontine angle and not intrameatal. We present a case of intrameatal compression of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) on the vestibulocochlear nerve of a 40-year-old woman with symptoms of disabling vertigo and intermittent high-frequency tinnitus on the left side without any hearing loss for ? 4 years. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain did not show any abnormality, but magnetic resonance angiography showed a left intrameatal AICA loop as a possible cause of the disabling symptoms. After the exclusion of other possible reasons for disabling vertigo, surgery was indicated. The intraoperative findings proved the radiologic findings. The large AICA loop was found extending into the internal auditory canal and compressing the vestibulocochlear nerve. The AICA loop was mobilized and separated from the vestibulocochlear nerve. The patient's symptoms resolved immediately after surgery, and no symptoms were noted during 2 years of follow-up in our clinic. Her hearing was not affected by the surgery. In addition to other common reasons, such as acoustic neuroma, disabling vertigo and tinnitus can occur from an intrameatal arterial loop compression of the vestibulocochlear nerve and may be treated successfully by drilling the internal acoustic meatus and separating the arterial conflict from the vestibulocochlear nerve. PMID:25083388

Borghei-Razavi, Hamid; Darvish, Omid; Schick, Uta

2013-01-01

410

[Dissociative symptoms and sleep].  

PubMed

There is a widespread view among psychiatrists that dissociative experiences such as depersonalisation, derealisation, absorption, and psychogenic amnesia have a traumatic etiology. This view is subjected to a critical evaluation. We also discuss an alternative interpretation namely that dissociative experiences are caused by a labile sleep-wake rhythm. We evaluated this alternative view in two exploratory studies. In study 1 we looked at the relationship between the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES) and the Iowa Sleep Experiences Survey (ISES) and in study 2, we checked this relationship when the response bias was controlled for. Dissociative experiences (measured with the DES) correlated with the ISES. The correlation between DES and ISES remained completely intact even when we controlledfor response bias. Our findings show that dissociative symptoms are associated with typical sleep experiences such as nightmares and strange dreams. The association is not the by-product of the positive response bias which generally characterises persons with dissociative symptoms. PMID:16956084

Giesbrecht, T; Merckelbach, H

2006-01-01

411

Safety and efficacy of continuous morphine infusions following pediatric cranial surgery in a surgical ward setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Morphine is avoided by many neurosurgeons following cranial surgery. There exists a concern regarding the potential complications\\u000a and a perception that cranial surgery is less painful than other surgical procedures. At British Columbia Children’s Hospital\\u000a continuous morphine infusions (CMI) have been used to control pain in pediatric neurosurgical patients. The purpose of this\\u000a study was to compare the safety and

Daniel T. Warren; Tim Bowen-Roberts; Christine Ou; Robert Purdy; Paul Steinbok

2010-01-01

412

[Depressive symptoms and sexuality].  

PubMed

The mutually reinforcing dyad of depressive symptoms and erectile dysfunction is scientifically established. The cure of depression improves sexual dysfunction (SD) and the treatment of SD induces improvement of depression. Most of anti-depressants induce negative sexual side effects that lead to non-compliance of these treatments. The knowledge of interrelation between depression, anti-depressants and sexuality is of great importance in clinical practice. PMID:25148948

Porto, Robert

2014-10-01

413

[The nerve agent sarin: history, clinical manifestations, and treatment].  

PubMed

Organic phosphate pesticides were used worldwide after World War II and experiences on poisoning and treatment have been accumulated. An organic phosphate "nerve agent" Sarin was used in two terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990s. Sarin effects on humans were well documented in these two incidents. Sarin gas inhalation caused instantaneous death by respiratory arrest in several victims in Matsumoto. Severely injured victims presenting with coma and generalized convulsion were resuscitated and recovered rapidly without sequelae. Miosis and blurred-dark vision, ocular pain, copious secretions from respiratory and gastrointestinal tract (muscarinic effects), and headache were common in severely to slightly affected victims. Plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity decreased in parallel with the severity of signs and symptoms in victims. Oximes, atropine sulphate, diazepam, and ample intravenous infusion were effective treatments. Follow-up examinations on victims were conducted up to 10 years in Matsumoto, and 5 years in Tokyo. No neurological sequelae or abnormalities were observed after 1 year, except for a few EEG abnormalities or delay in sensory nerve conduction velocity. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was observed in several of the victims in the 5-year follow up, irrespective of the severity of poisoning at Matsumoto. Psychological symptoms continue in victims of both incidents. PMID:24807372

Yanagisawa, Nobuo

2014-05-01

414

Being prepared: emergency treatment following a nerve agent release.  

PubMed

Nerve agents are extremely toxic and are some of the most lethal substances on earth. This group of chemicals consists of sarin, cyclosarin, soman, tabun, VX, and VR. It is currently unknown how many countries possess these chemicals and in what quantities. These agents work through altering the transmission and breakdown of acetylcholine by binding to, and inactivating, acetylcholinesterase. This results in an uncontrolled and overwhelming stimulation of both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. Receptor activation at these sites can lead to a wide variety of clinical symptoms, with death frequently resulting from pulmonary edema. Antidotal therapy in this setting largely consists of atropine, pralidoxime, and benzodiazepines, all of which must be administered emergently to limit the progression of symptoms and prevent the enzyme inactivation from becoming permanent. This article reviews the mechanism of action of the nerve agents and their effects on the human body, the currently available therapies to mitigate their impact, and important therapeutic considerations for health care practitioners in the emergency department. PMID:24487260

Bailey, Abby M; Baker, Stephanie N; Baum, Regan A; Chandler, Hannah E; Weant, Kyle A

2014-01-01

415

ADHD Symptoms and Subtypes: Relationship between Childhood and Adolescent Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study aims to examine attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) symptoms and subtypes in childhood and adolescence. The results conclude the persistence of ADHD from childhood to adolescence with specific symptoms contributing to persistent ADHD.

Hurtig, Tuula; Ebeling, Hanna; Taanila, Anja; Miettunen, Jouko; Smalley, Susan L.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Moilanen, Irma K.

2007-01-01

416

Morphological integration between the cranial base and the face in children and adults  

PubMed Central

The primary aim of the present study was to assess morphological covariation between the face and the basicranium (midline and lateral), and to evaluate patterns of integration at two specific developmental stages. A group of 71 children (6–10 years) was compared with a group of 71 adults (20–35 years). Lateral cephalometric radiographs were digitized and a total of 28 landmarks were placed on three areas; the midline cranial base, the lateral cranial base and the face. Geometric morphometric methods were applied and partial least squares analysis was used to evaluate correlation between the three shape blocks. Morphological integration was tested both with and without removing the effect of allometry. In children, mainly the midline and, to a lesser extent, the lateral cranial base were moderately correlated to the face. In adults, the correlation between the face and the midline cranial base, which ceases development earlier than the lateral base, was reduced. However, the lateral cranial base retained and even strengthened its correlation to the face. This suggests that the duration of common developmental timing is an important factor that influences integration between craniofacial structures. However, despite the apparent switch of primary roles between the cranial bases during development, the patterns of integration remained stable, thereby supporting the role of genetics over function in the establishment and development of craniofacial shape. PMID:21323666

Gkantidis, Nikolaos; Halazonetis, Demetrios J

2011-01-01

417

Cranial dural arteriovenous shunts. Part 1. Anatomy and embryology of the bridging and emissary veins.  

PubMed

We reviewed the anatomy and embryology of the bridging and emissary veins aiming to elucidate aspects related to the cranial dural arteriovenous fistulae. Data from relevant articles on the anatomy and embryology of the bridging and emissary veins were identified using one electronic database, supplemented by data from selected reference texts. Persisting fetal pial-arachnoidal veins correspond to the adult bridging veins. Relevant embryologic descriptions are based on the classic scheme of five divisions of the brain (telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, myelencephalon). Variation in their exact position and the number of bridging veins is the rule and certain locations, particularly that of the anterior cranial fossa and lower posterior cranial fossa are often neglected in prior descriptions. The distal segment of a bridging vein is part of the dural system and can be primarily involved in cranial dural arteriovenous lesions by constituting the actual site of the shunt. The veins in the lamina cribriformis exhibit a bridging-emissary vein pattern similar to the spinal configuration. The emissary veins connect the dural venous system with the extracranial venous system and are often involved in dural arteriovenous lesions. Cranial dural shunts may develop in three distinct areas of the cranial venous system: the dural sinuses and their interfaces with bridging veins and emissary veins. The exact site of the lesion may dictate the arterial feeders and original venous drainage pattern. PMID:25468011

Baltsavias, Gerasimos; Parthasarathi, Venkatraman; Aydin, Emre; Al Schameri, Rahman A; Roth, Peter; Valavanis, Anton

2014-12-01

418

Cold stress induces lower urinary tract symptoms.  

PubMed

Cold stress as a result of whole-body cooling at low environmental temperatures exacerbates lower urinary tract symptoms, such as urinary urgency, nocturia and residual urine. We established a model system using healthy conscious rats to explore the mechanisms of cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. In this review, we summarize the basic findings shown by this model. Rats that were quickly transferred from room temperature (27 ± 2°C) to low temperature (4 ± 2°C) showed detrusor overactivity including increased basal pressure and decreased voiding interval, micturition volume, and bladder capacity. The cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity is mediated through a resiniferatoxin-sensitve C-fiber sensory nerve pathway involving ?1-adrenergic receptors. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 channels, which are sensitive to thermal changes below 25-28°C, also play an important role in mediating the cold stress responses. Additionally, the sympathetic nervous system is associated with transient hypertension and decreases of skin surface temperature that are closely correlated with the detrusor overactivity. With this cold stress model, we showed that ?1-adrenergic receptor antagonists have the potential to treat cold stress-exacerbated lower urinary tract symptoms. In addition, we showed that traditional Japanese herbal mixtures composed of Hachimijiogan act, in part, by increasing skin temperature and reducing the number of cold sensitive transient receptor potential melastatin channels in the skin. The effects of herbal mixtures have the potential to treat and/or prevent the exacerbation of lower urinary tract symptoms by providing resistance to the cold stress responses. Our model provides new opportunities for utilizing animal disease models with altered lower urinary tract functions to explore the effects of novel therapeutic drugs. PMID:23441811

Imamura, Tetsuya; Ishizuka, Osamu; Nishizawa, Osamu

2013-07-01

419

VAGUS NERVE STIMULATION REGULATES HEMOSTASIS IN SWINE  

PubMed Central

The central nervous system regulates peripheral immune responses via the vagus nerve, the primary neural component of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokine release in response to endotoxin, I/R injury, and hypovolemic shock and protects against lethal hypotension. To determine the effect of vagus nerve stimulation on coagulation pathways, anesthetized pigs were subjected to partial ear resection before and after electrical vagus nerve stimulation. We observed that electrical vagus nerve stimulation significantly decreased bleeding time (pre–electrical vagus nerve stimulation = 1033 ± 210 s versus post–electrical vagus nerve stimulation = 585 ± 111 s; P < 0.05) and total blood loss (pre–electrical vagus nerve stimulation = 48.4 ± 6.8 mL versus post–electrical vagus nerve stimulation = 26.3 ± 6.7 mL; P < 0.05). Reduced bleeding time after vagus nerve stimulation was independent of changes in heart rate or blood pressure and correlated with increased thrombin/antithrombin III complex generation in shed blood. These data indicate that electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve attenuates peripheral hemorrhage in a porcine model of soft tissue injury and that this protective effect is associated with increased coagulation factor activity. PMID:19953009

Czura, Christopher J.; Schultz, Arthur; Kaipel, Martin; Khadem, Anna; Huston, Jared M.; Pavlov, Valentin A.; Redl, Heinz; Tracey, Kevin J.

2010-01-01

420

Nerve conduction studies in early tuberculoid leprosy  

PubMed Central

Context: Hansen's disease is a chronic illness; besides involving skin and peripheral nerves, it affects multiple organs. Nerve involvement is always present in leprosy, and it may be present much before the patient manifests clinically. Aims: To assess nerve conduction parameters in thickened and contralateral non-thickened nerves in early tuberculoid leprosy Materials and Methods: Fifty new untreated male patients with tuberculoid and borderline tuberculoid leprosy in the age group of 15-50 years with thickened peripheral nerves on one side were included in the study. Nerve conduction studies consisting of sensory and motor velocity (NCV), distal latencies, and amplitude were carried out on thickened ulnar, common peroneal, and posterior tibial nerves and contralateral normal nerves. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean values along with coefficient of variation were obtained for various parameters. These were compared with normal values of the control population. P value was used to verify statistical significance. Results: Nerve conduction parameters were deranged in most of the thickened nerves. Sensory parameters were affected early in the disease process. Conclusion: Additional parameters are required to assess nerve damage in early cases, where it is more in slow conducting fibers (average velocity fibers). Change in conduction velocity may not be marked; this calls for the measurement of fast fibers separately because potentials recorded are mainly from myelinated fibers. PMID:25593812

Vashisht, Deepak; Das, Arjun Lal; Vaishampayan, Sanjeev S; Vashisht, Surbhi; Joshi, Rajneesh

2014-01-01

421

Different Cranial Ontogeny in Europeans and Southern Africans  

E-print Network

Modern human populations differ in developmental processes and in several phenotypic traits. However, the link between ontogenetic variation and human diversification has not been frequently addressed. Here, we analysed craniofacial ontogenies by means of geometric-morphometrics of Europeans and Southern Africans, according to dental and chronological ages. Results suggest that different adult cranial morphologies between Southern Africans and Europeans arise by a combination of processes that involve traits modified during the prenatal life and others that diverge during early postnatal ontogeny. Main craniofacial changes indicate that Europeans differ from Southern Africans by increasing facial developmental rates and extending the attainment of adult size and shape. Since other studies have suggested that native subsaharan populations attain adulthood earlier than Europeans, it is probable that facial ontogeny is linked with other developmental mechanisms that control the timing of maturation in other variables. Southern Africans appear as retaining young features in adulthood. Facial ontogeny in Europeans produces taller and narrower noses, which seems as an adaptation to colder environments. The lack of these morphological traits in Neanderthals, who lived in cold environments, seems a paradox, but it is probably the consequence of a warm-adapted faces together with precocious maturation. When modern Homo sapiens migrated into Asia and Europe, colder environments might establish pressures that constrained facial growth and development in order to depart from the warm-adapted morphology. Our results provide some answers about

Marina L. Sardi; O V. Ramírez Rozzi

2011-01-01

422

Positional cranial deformity-the parents' point of view.  

PubMed

The parents' point of view regarding positional cranial deformities and helmet therapy has not been the subject of scientific interest yet. However, carer acceptance is a key factor for therapeutic success. We therefore investigated parental perception. The parents of 218 infants were included in a telephone survey; 122 children had undergone helmet therapy and 96 had not. Satisfaction with the outcome, treatment-associated problems, and parental stress were investigated using a structured questionnaire. The great majority (90.8%) of caregivers were satisfied with the outcome, regardless of whether or not helmet therapy was used. Retrospectively, 76% of the parents of infants who had not undergone helmet therapy would decide against helmet therapy again. Therapy was either temporarily stopped (27.0%) or terminated (4.9%) in 31.9% of infants treated with a helmet. Major problems were sweating (51.1%) and skin lacerations (30.9%). The parents indicated minor (54.9%) or even great (25.4%) personal strain. Conflict with others (38.5%), stress for the child (30.3%), and a financial burden (36.9%) were mentioned most frequently. There appear to be more parental problems than expected associated with helmet therapy. Medical experts should take this into consideration. The indication for a helmet should be evaluated critically and the potential parental burdens should be addressed during counselling. PMID:25457830

Kluba, S; Lypke, J; Kraut, W; Peters, J P; Calgeer, B; Haas-Lude, K; Krimmel, M; Reinert, S

2015-01-01

423

Is Rolandic Epilepsy Associated With Abnormal Findings On Cranial MRI?  

PubMed Central

Rolandic epilepsy (RE) is designated an idiopathic epilepsy syndrome, and hence no lesional abnormalities are expected on MRI exam. Recent reports suggest that MRI abnormalities are not only common, but may be specific for temporal lobe epilepsy, and lateralized to the side of EEG discharges. However, no controlled study has been performed to test the hypothesis of association between MRI abnormalities and Rolandic epilepsy. We performed an unmatched case-control study to test the hypothesis of association between MRI abnormalities and Rolandic epilepsy, using 25 typical RE cases and 25 children with migraine. Two independent examiners rated the MRIs for abnormalities. Examiners were blinded to the study hypothesis and identity of case and control exams. Fifty-two percent of RE exams contained at least one abnormality: peri/hippocampal abnormality (1 case), non-localized congenital malformation (7 cases), subcortical parenchymal hyperintensities (2 cases), periventricular parenchymal hyperintensities (1 case), dilated perivascular spaces (6 cases). There was no difference between the number or type of abnormalities in cases and controls. No type of abnormality lateralized to the hemisphere from which the EEG spikes emanated. The odds ratio of association between MRI abnormalities and RE was 0.87, 95% CI: 0.18–4.33 after adjusting for potential demographic and technical factors. We conclude that routine cranial MRI abnormalities are common in RE, but no more common than in controls, and not specific for RE. PMID:17624735

Boxerman, Jerrold L.; Hawash, Karameh; Bali, Bhavna; Clarke, Tara; Rogg, Jeffrey; Pal, Deb K

2007-01-01

424

Mechanics of cranial sutures using the finite element method.  

PubMed

To investigate how cranial suture morphology and the arrangement of sutural collagen fibres respond to compressive and tensile loads, an idealised bone-suture-bone complex was analysed using a two-dimensional finite element model. Three suture morphologies were simulated with an increasing interdigitation index (I.I.): butt-ended, moderate interdigitated, and complex interdigitated. The collagen matrix within all sutures was modelled as an isotropic material, and as an orthotropic material in the interdigitated sutures with fibre alignment as reported in studies of miniature pigs. Static uniform compressive or tensile loading was applied to the complex. In interdigitated sutures with isotropic material properties, the orientation of the maximum (tensile) principal stresses within the suture matched the collagen fibre orientation observed in compressed and tensed sutures of miniature pigs. This suggests that randomly arranged sutural collagen fibres could optimise to an orientation most appropriate to withstand the predominant type of loading. A compression-resistant fibre arrangement imparted the highest suture strain energy relative to the isotropic and tension-resistant arrangements, indicating that this configuration maximises energy storage. A comparison across the different suture morphologies indicated that bone strain energy generally decreased with a decrease in I.I., irrespective of the sutural fibre arrangement. However, high bone stress at the interdigitation apices shifted to the limbs of the suture with an increase in I.I. These combined findings highlight the importance of suture morphology and anisotropy as properties having a significant influence on sutural mechanics. PMID:20825945

Jasinoski, S C; Reddy, B D; Louw, K K; Chinsamy, A

2010-12-01

425

Cranial neural crest: migratory cell behavior and regulatory networks.  

PubMed

Defects of the head and neck region account for a substantial portion of all human birth disorders. The high incidence of malformations in this region may be attributed in part to the intricate means by which the facial region is assembled during embryonic development. The starting constituent for the majority of skeletal and connective tissues in the face is a pluripotent population of cells, the cranial neural crest (CNC) cells. This population of cells exhibit remarkable migratory abilities and diversity of potential cell types. This review draws on extensive research that has been done in the field, focusing specifically on findings generated in the last decade on cell behavior and the gene regulatory networks of migratory CNC cells. In the later part of this review, the importance of the CNC cells in the overall development of the craniofacial region will be illustrated with a discussion of a craniofacial birth defect, the Treacher Collins syndrome. The next decade will most likely herald in an era of greater understanding of the integrative molecular networks at different stages of the development of the CNC cells. Such new information is essential towards a better understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of the many craniofacial birth defects and will ultimately lead to new therapeutic modalities. PMID:24680987

Gong, Siew-Ging

2014-07-15

426

Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Variation in Baboon Cranial Morphology  

PubMed Central

The development, function, and integration of morphological characteristics are all hypothesized to influence the utility of traits for phylogenetic reconstruction by affecting the way in which morphological characteristics evolve. We use a baboon model to test the hypotheses about phenotypic and quantitative genetic variation of traits in the cranium that bear on a phenotype’s propensity to evolve. We test the hypotheses that: 1) individual traits in different functionally and developmentally defined regions of the cranium are differentially environmentally, genetically, and phenotypically variable; 2) genetic covariance with other traits constrains traits in one region of the cranium more than those in others; 3) and regions of the cranium subject to different levels of mechanical strain differ in the magnitude of variation in individual traits. We find that the levels of environmental and genetic variation in individual traits are randomly distributed across regions of the cranium rather than being structured by developmental origin or degree of exposure to strain. Individual traits in the cranial vault tend to be more constrained by covariance with other traits than those in other regions. Traits in regions subject to high degrees of strain during mastication are not any more variable at any level than other traits. If these results are generalizable to other populations, they indicate that there is no reason to suppose that individual traits from any one part of the cranium are intrinsically less useful for reconstructing patterns of evolution than those from any other part. PMID:20623673

Roseman, Charles C.; Willmore, Katherine E.; Rogers, Jeffrey; Hildebolt, Charles; Sadler, Brooke E.; Richtsmeier, Joan T.; Cheverud, James M.

2011-01-01

427

Ontogeny of the cranial system in Laonastes aenigmamus.  

PubMed

Rodents, together with bats, are among the ecologically most diverse and most speciose groups of mammals. Moreover, rodents show elaborate specializations of the feeding apparatus in response to the predominantly fore-aft movements of the lower jaw. The Laotian rock rat Laonastes aenigmamus was recently discovered and originally thought to belong to a new family. The difficulties in classifying L. aenigmamus based on morphological characters stem from the fact that it presents a mixture of sciurognathous and hystricognathous characteristics, including the morphology of the jaw adductors. The origin of the unusual muscular organization in this species remains, however, unclear. Here, we investigate the development of the masticatory system in Laonastes to better understand the origin of its derived morphology relative to other rodents. Our analyses show that skull and mandible development is characterized by an overall elongation of the snout region. Muscle mass increases with positive allometry during development and growth, and so does the force-generating capacity of the jaw adductor muscles (i.e. physiological cross-sectional area). Whereas fetal crania and musculature are more similar to those of typical rodents, adults diverge in the elongation of the rostral part of the skull and the disproportionate development of the zygomaticomandibularis. Our data suggest a functional signal in the development of the unusual cranial morphology, possibly associated with the folivorous trophic ecology of the species. PMID:22607030

Herrel, Anthony; Fabre, Anne-Claire; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Keovichit, Kham; Adriaens, Dominique; Brabant, Loes; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Cornette, Raphael

2012-08-01

428

The First Virtual Cranial Endocast of a Lungfish (Sarcopterygii: Dipnoi)  

PubMed Central

Lungfish, or dipnoans, have a history spanning over 400 million years and are the closest living sister taxon to the tetrapods. Most Devonian lungfish had heavily ossified endoskeletons, whereas most Mesozoic and Cenozoic lungfish had largely cartilaginous endoskeletons and are usually known only from isolated tooth plates or disarticulated bone fragments. There is thus a substantial temporal and evolutionary gap in our understanding of lungfish endoskeletal morphology, between the diverse and highly variable Devonian forms on the one hand and the three extant genera on the other. Here we present a virtual cranial endocast of Rhinodipterus kimberleyensis, from the Late Devonian Gogo Formation of Australia, one of the most derived fossil dipnoans with a well-ossified braincase. This endocast, generated from a Computed Microtomography (µCT) scan of the skull, is the first virtual endocast of any lungfish published, and only the third fossil dipnoan endocast to be illustrated in its entirety. Key features include long olfactory canals, a telencephalic cavity with a moderate degree of ventral expansion, large suparaotic cavities, and moderately enlarged utricular recesses. It has numerous similarities to the endocasts of Chirodipterus wildungensis and Griphognathus whitei, and to a lesser degree to 'Chirodipterus' australis and Dipnorhynchus sussmilchi. Among extant lungfish, it consistently resembles Neoceratodus more closely than Lepidosiren and Protopterus. Several trends in the evolution of the brains and labyrinth regions in dipnoans, such as the expansions of the utricular recess and telencephalic regions over time, are identified and discussed. PMID:25427173

Clement, Alice M.; Ahlberg, Per E.

2014-01-01

429

Signaling mechanisms controlling cranial placode neurogenesis and delamination.  

PubMed

The neurogenic cranial placodes are a unique transient epithelial niche of neural progenitor cells that give rise to multiple derivatives of the peripheral nervous system, particularly, the sensory neurons. Placode neurogenesis occurs throughout an extended period of time with epithelial cells continually recruited as neural progenitor cells. Sensory neuron development in the trigeminal, epibranchial, otic, and olfactory placodes coincides with detachment of these neuroblasts from the encompassing epithelial sheet, leading to delamination and ingression into the mesenchyme where they continue to differentiate as neurons. Multiple signaling pathways are known to direct placodal development. This review defines the signaling pathways working at the finite spatiotemporal period when neuronal selection within the placodes occurs, and neuroblasts concomitantly delaminate from the epithelium. Examining neurogenesis and delamination after initial placodal patterning and specification has revealed a common trend throughout the neurogenic placodes, which suggests that both activated FGF and attenuated Notch signaling activities are required for neurogenesis and changes in epithelial cell adhesion leading to delamination. We also address the varying roles of other pathways such as the Wnt and BMP signaling families during sensory neurogenesis and neuroblast delamination in the differing placodes. PMID:24315854

Lassiter, Rhonda N T; Stark, Michael R; Zhao, Tianyu; Zhou, Chengji J

2014-05-01

430

Ontogeny of the cranial system in Laonastes aenigmamus  

PubMed Central

Rodents, together with bats, are among the ecologically most diverse and most speciose groups of mammals. Moreover, rodents show elaborate specializations of the feeding apparatus in response to the predominantly fore-aft movements of the lower jaw. The Laotian rock rat Laonastes aenigmamus was recently discovered and originally thought to belong to a new family. The difficulties in classifying L. aenigmamus based on morphological characters stem from the fact that it presents a mixture of sciurognathous and hystricognathous characteristics, including the morphology of the jaw adductors. The origin of the unusual muscular organization in this species remains, however, unclear. Here, we investigate the development of the masticatory system in Laonastes to better understand the origin of its derived morphology relative to other rodents. Our analyses show that skull and mandible development is characterized by an overall elongation of the snout region. Muscle mass increases with positive allometry during development and growth, and so does the force-generating capacity of the jaw adductor muscles (i.e. physiological cross-sectional area). Whereas fetal crania and musculature are more similar to those of typical rodents, adults diverge in the elongation of the rostral part of the skull and the disproportionate development of the zygomaticomandibularis. Our data suggest a functional signal in the development of the unusual cranial morphology, possibly associated with the folivorous trophic ecology of the species. PMID:22607030

Herrel, Anthony; Fabre, Anne-Claire; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Keovichit, Kham; Adriaens, Dominique; Brabant, Loes; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Cornette, Raphael

2012-01-01

431

Modelization of fetal cranial contour from ultrasound axial slices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of the choice of slices angles, at the time of diagnosis of brain fetal malformations, is linked to the position of the fetus inside the uterus. The 3D reconstruction of intern parts of the brain and especially the callosus corpus can help to detect some malformations. This kind of reconstruction pass by several steps that depend all on the initial segmentation step. The main difficulties of the segmentation are linked on the one hand to the inherent noise of ultrasound imaging and on the other hand to the matching of views of the 2D sequence to process. The 3D reconstruction stage require the definition of a marker in the sequence of process. In agreement with physicians, we have used the cranial contour as reference on the one hand because it is considered as invariable and fixed and on the other hand because of its more pronounced contrast (due to the fact of its cartilaginous nature) than the other structures. Nevertheless, the classic techniques of segmentations have remained without effect (open contour, too noisy). Therefore, we have developed an algorithm allowing to define automatically the ellipse. This method is based on a parametrically deformable model using elliptic FOURIER decomposition.

Duquenoy, Eric; Taleb-Ahmed, Abdelmalik; Reboul, Serge; Beral, Y.; Dubus, Jean-Paul

1995-10-01

432

Neurological Complications in Thyroid Surgery: A Surgical Point of View on Laryngeal Nerves  

PubMed Central

The cervical branches of the vagus nerve that are pertinent to endocrine surgery are the superior and the inferior laryngeal nerves: their anatomical course in the neck places them at risk during thyroid surgery. The external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EB) is at risk during thyroid surgery because of its close anatomical relationship with the superior thyroid vessels and the superior thyroid pole region. The rate of EB injury (which leads to the paralysis of the cricothyroid muscle) varies from 0 to 58%. The identification of the EB during surgery helps avoiding both an accidental transection and an excessive stretching. When the nerve is not identified, the ligation of superior thyroid artery branches close to the thyroid gland is suggested, as well as the abstention from an indiscriminate use of energy-based devices that might damage it. The inferior laryngeal nerve (RLN) runs in the tracheoesophageal groove toward the larynx, close to the posterior aspect of the thyroid. It is the main motor nerve of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles, and also provides sensory innervation to the larynx. Its injury finally causes the paralysis of the omolateral vocal cord and various sensory alterations: the symptoms range from mild to severe hoarseness, to acute airway obstruction, and swallowing impairment. Permanent lesions of the RNL occur from 0.3 to 7% of cases, according to different factors. The surgeon must be aware of the possible anatomical variations of the nerve, which should be actively searched for and identified. Visual control and gentle dissection of RLN are imperative. The use of intraoperative nerve monitoring has been safely applied but, at the moment, its impact in the incidence of RLN injuries has not been clarified. In conclusion, despite a thorough surgical technique and the use of intraoperative neuromonitoring, the incidence of neurological complications after thyroid surgery cannot be suppressed, but should be maintained in a low range. PMID:25076936

Varaldo, Emanuela; Ansaldo, Gian Luca; Mascherini, Matteo; Cafiero, Ferdinando; Minuto, Michele N.

2014-01-01

433

Ossification of the suprascapular ligament: A risk factor for suprascapular nerve compression?  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Entrapment of the suprascapular nerve at the suprascapular notch may be due to an ossified suprascapular ligament. The present study was conducted in order to investigate the incidence of this anomaly and to analyze the resultant bony foramen (foramen scapula) for gross nerve compression. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 104 human scapulae from 52 adult skeletons for the presence of complete ossification of the suprascapular ligament. When an ossified suprascapular ligament was identified, the diameter of the resultant foramen was measured. Also, the suprascapular regions of 50 adult cadavers (100 sides) were dissected. When an ossified suprascapular ligament was identified, the spinati musculature was evaluated for gross atrophy and the diameters of the resultant foramen scapulae and the suprascapular nerve were measured. Immunohistochemical analysis of the nerve was also performed. Results: For dry scapular specimens, 5.7% were found to have an ossified suprascapular ligament. The mean diameter of these resultant foramina was 2.6 mm. For cadavers, an ossified suprascapular ligament was identified in 5% of sides. Sections of the suprascapular nerve at the foramen scapulae ranged from 2 to 2.8 mm in diameter. In all cadaveric samples, the suprascapular nerve was grossly compressed (~10-20%) at this site. All nerves demonstrated histologic signs of neural degeneration distal to the site of compression. The presence of these foramina in male cadavers and on right sides was statistically significant. Conclusions: Based on our study, even in the absence of symptoms, gross compression of the suprascapular nerve exists in cases of an ossified suprascapular ligament. Asymptomatic patients with an ossified suprascapular ligament may warrant additional testing such as electromyography. PMID:23858291

Tubbs, R. Shane; Nechtman, Carl; D’Antoni, Anthony V.; Shoja, Mohammadali M.; Mortazavi, Martin M.; Loukas, Marios; Rozzelle, Curtis J.; Spinner, Robert J.

2013-01-01

434

Isolated oculomotor nerve palsy: a rare manifestation of internal carotid artery dissection.  

PubMed

A 58-year-old man reported sudden-onset binocular double vision that appeared 3?days earlier. He denied history of headache/cervical pain or trauma. He had a medical history of well-controlled diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Neurological examination revealed a left-sided ptosis and binocular horizontal diplopia in dextroversion without apparent extraocular-muscle paresis or pupillary involvement. Other cranial nerves were spared as well as motor, sensory and coordination systems. There were no signs of ocular erythema, proptosis or palpable orbital mass. Brain MR angiography revealed a crescent-shaped mural hyperintensity in left internal carotid artery (ICA) at skull base, extending to intrapetrous segment, with reduced calibre and flow, suggesting a left ICA dissection. The patient was started on antiaggregation therapy. A year later he was asymptomatic and CT angiography confirmed ICA recanalisation. PMID:25323280

Santos, Telma; Morais, Hugo; Oliveira, Gustavo; Barros, Pedro

2014-01-01

435

Sudden headache, third nerve palsy and visual deficit: thinking outside the subarachnoid haemorrhage box.  

PubMed

A 75-year-old lady presented with sudden severe headache and vomiting. Examination was normal, and CT and lumbar puncture not convincing for subarachnoid haemorrhage. Shortly thereafter, she developed painless diplopia. Examination confirmed right third cranial nerve palsy plus homonymous left inferior quadrantanopia. Urgent cerebral MRI with angiography was requested to assess for a possible posterior communicating artery aneurysm, but revealed an unsuspected pituitary mass. Pituitary adenoma with pituitary apoplexy was diagnosed. Pituitary apopolexy is a syndrome comprising sudden headache, meningism, visual and/or oculomotor deficits, with an intrasellar mass. It is commonly due to haemorrhage or infarction within a pituitary adenoma. Treatment includes prompt steroid administration, and potentially surgical decompression. While subarachnoid haemorrhage is an important, well-recognised cause of sudden severe headache, other aetiologies, including pituitary apoplexy, should be considered and sought. PMID:23913476

Ní Chróinín, Danielle; Lambert, John

2013-11-01

436

Fine needle aspiration cytology as an aid to diagnosis, categorization and treatment when pure neuritic leprosy presents as nerve abscess  

PubMed Central

Background: Pure neuritic leprosy (PNL) usually presents with neurological symptoms without skin involvement. Fine needle aspiration can play an important role in the management of PNL cases presenting as nerve abscesses. Aim: To assess the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in diagnosing and categorizing PNL cases presenting as nerve abscesses in the absence of neurological symptoms. Materials and Methods: Five patients with subcutaneous nerve related swellings without clinically evident neurological deficits were subjected to FNAC. As the cytological features were suggestive of nerve abscesses due to leprosy, Fite stain was performed in all cases. As none of the patients had any leprosy skin lesions, they were diagnosed as cases of PNL. Features like cellularity, caseous necrosis, presence or absence of lymphocytes, macrophages, epithelioid cells, granulomas, Langhans giant cells and nerve elements were analyzed with the bacteriological index, to categorize PNL according to the Ridley-Jopling classification. Results: Based on the cytological features and bacteriological indices, 3 cases were cytologically categorized into tuberculoid (TT)/borderline tuberculoid (BT) leprosy and the other two, as BT/borderline lepromatous (BL) and BL leprosy respectively in spite of having similar clinical presentation. Based on the cytological diagnoses, category-specific treatment could be instituted with clinical improvement. Conclusions: The simple and minimally invasive FNAC procedure allows diagnosis and a reasonably accurate categorization of PNL presenting as nerve abscess and therefore, highly useful in its clinical management. PMID:24648666

Kiran, C M; Menon, Roshni

2013-01-01

437

Mapping the entire human corneal nerve architecture  

PubMed Central

We developed an approach to generate a three-dimensional map that facilitates the assessment of epithelial nerve density in different corneal areas to define aging and gender influence on human corneal nerve architecture. Twenty-eight fresh human eyes from 14 donors of different ages were studied. Corneal nerves were stained and consecutive images acquired with a fluorescence microscope, recorded at the same plane, and merged for viewing the complete epithelial and stromal nerve architecture. After whole mount examination, the same cornea was also used for transection. Stromal nerves entered the cornea in a radial pattern, subsequently dividing into smaller branches. Some branches connected at the center of the stroma, but most penetrated upward into the epithelium. No differences were observed between nerve densities in the four corneal quadrants. Epithelial innervation in the limbal and most of the peripheral area was supplied by a superficial network surrounding the limbal area. Central epithelial nerves were supplied by branches of the stromal nerve network. Epithelial nerve density and terminal numbers were higher in the center of the cornea, rather than the periphery. There were no differences in epithelial nerve density between genders, but there was a progressive nerve density reduction concomitant with aging, mainly in eye samples of donors 70-years of age and older. The modified technique of tissue preparation used for this study allowed for observation of new nerve structure features and, for the first time, provided a complete view of the human corneal nerve architecture. Our study reveals that aging decreases the number of central epithelial nerve terminals, and increases the presence of irregular anomalies beneath the basal layer. PMID:20650270

He, Jiucheng; Bazan, Nicolas G.; Bazan, Haydee E.P.

2010-01-01

438

Cranial muscles of the anurans Leiopelma hochstetteri and Ascaphus truei and the homologies of the mandibular adductors in Lissamphibia and other gnathostomes.  

PubMed

The frogs Ascaphus truei and Leiopelma hochstetteri are members of the most basal lineages of extant anurans. Their cranial muscles have not been previously described in full and are investigated here by dissection. Comparison of these taxa is used to review a controversy regarding the homologies of the jaw adductor muscles in Lissamphibia, to place these homologies in a wider gnathostome context, and to define features that may be useful for cladistic analysis of Anura. A new muscle is defined in Ascaphus and is designated m. levator anguli oris. The differences noted between Ascaphus and Leiopelma are in the penetration of the jaw adductor muscles by the mandibular nerve (V3). In the traditional view of this anatomy, the paths of the trigeminal nerve branches define homologous muscles. This scheme results in major differences among frogs, salamanders, and caecilians. The alternative view is that the topology of origins, insertions, and fiber directions are defining features, and the nerves penetrate the muscle mass in a variable way. The results given here support the latter view. A new model is proposed for Lissamphibia, whereby the adductor posterior (levator articularis) is a separate entity, and the rest of the adductor mass is configured around it as a folded sheet. This hypothesis is examined in other gnathostomes, including coelacanth and lungfish, and a possible sequence for the evolution of the jaw muscles is demonstrated. In this system, the main jaw adductor in teleost fish is not considered homologous with that of tetrapods. This hypothesis is consistent with available data on the domain of expression of the homeobox gene engrailed 2, which has previously not been considered indicative of homology. Terminology is discussed, and "adductor mandibulae" is preferred to "levator mandibulae" to align with usage in other gnathostomes. PMID:21845732

Johnston, Peter

2011-12-01

439

Greater occipital nerve block in chronic migraine.  

PubMed

Headache syndromes often involve occipital and neck symptoms suggesting a functional connectivity between nociceptive trigeminal and cervical afferents. Several studies have suggested that pain relief in migraine and other types of headache can be achieved by local injections of steroids, local anaesthetics or a mixture of both in the area of greater occipital nerve (GON). Usually greater occipital nerve block (GONB) is performed by using local anaesthetics alone or with steroid. The rationale of performing a GONB for the treatment of chronic headache states is on the anatomical connections between trigeminal and upper cervical sensory fibres at the level of the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. However, the reason for the improvement after GONB in primary headache is unknown. The objective of this study is to determine whether adding triamcinolone to local anaesthetics increased the efficacy of GONB and trigger point injections (TPIs) for chronic migraine (TM). Patients with TM were randomized to receive GONB and TPIs using lidocaine 2% and bupivacaine 0.5% + either saline or triamcinolone 40 mg. Particularly, a 10-ml syringe containing 4.5 ml of lidocaine 2%, 4.5 ml of bupivacaine 0.5% and 1 ml of either saline (group A) or triamcinolone 40 mg/ml (group B) was prepared for each patients. Patients were given bilateral GONB and TPIs in the cervical paraspinal and trapezius muscles bilaterally. 2 ml were injected into each GON at the medial third of the distance between the occipital protuberance and the mastoid process. In addition, 0.5 ml was injected into each of the 12 trigger points. The total injected volume was 10 ml. The primary outcome measure was the change in mean headache severity from before injection to 20 min after in the two groups. Secondary outcome measures were the change in mean neck pain, photophobia and phonofobia severity from before injection to 20 min after in the two groups. Patients documented headache and severity of associated symptoms for 4 weeks after injection. Changes in symptom severity were compared between the two groups. Thirty-seven patients were included. Twenty minutes after injection, mean headache severity decreased by 3.2 points in group A (p < 0.01) and by 3.1 points in group B (p < 0.01). Mean neck pain severity decreased by 1.5 points in group A (p < 0.01) and by 1.7 points in group B (p < 0.01). Mean duration of being headache-free was 2.7 +/- 3.8 days in group A and 1.0 +/- 1.1 days in group B (p = 0.67). None of the outcome measures differed significantly between the two groups. Both treatments were full tolerated. In our study, adding triamcinolone to local anaesthetic when performing GONB and TPIs was not associated with improved outcome in the sample of patients with TM. In both groups, the procedure resulted in significant and rapid relief of headache, neck pain, photophobia and phonofobia. PMID:20464617

Saracco, Maria Gabriella; Valfrè, W; Cavallini, M; Aguggia, M

2010-06-01

440

Signs and Symptoms of COPD  

MedlinePLUS

... Why is shortness of breath a symptom of COPD? Shortness of breath (or breathlessness ) is a common ... better or worse. Signs and Symptoms of COPD COPD MINI-SERIES #2 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) ...

441

Hidradenitis Suppurativa: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... treatments E - H Hidradenitis suppurativa Signs and symptoms Hidradenitis suppurativa: Signs and symptoms Hidradenitis suppurativa : In its ... suppurativa: Who gets and causes. Learn more about hidradenitis suppurativa: Hidradenitis suppurativa Hidradenitis suppurativa: Who gets and ...

442

Herpes Simplex: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... and treatments E - H Herpes simplex Signs, symptoms Herpes simplex: Signs and symptoms Herpes simplex: If a ... 6 weeks (the first outbreak) Learn more about herpes simplex: Herpes simplex Herpes simplex: Who gets and ...

443

Skin Cancer: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... treatments Q - T Skin cancer Signs, symptoms Skin cancer: Signs and symptoms The most common warning sign ... appears in many ways. Learn more about skin cancer: Skin cancer Skin cancer: Who gets and causes ...

444

Moebius Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... syndrome: Group I, characterized by small or absent brain stem nuclei that control the cranial nerves; Group II, ... areas of damage, and hardened tissue in the brainstem nuclei, and, Group IV, characterized by muscular symptoms ...

445

Combination of Acellular Nerve Graft and Schwann Cells-Like Cells for Rat Sciatic Nerve Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Objective. To investigate the effect of tissue engineering nerve on repair of rat sciatic nerve defect. Methods. Forty-five rats with defective sciatic nerve were randomly divided into three groups. Rats in group A were repaired by acellular nerve grafts only. Rats in group B were repaired by tissue engineering nerve. In group C, rats were repaired by autogenous nerve grafts. After six and twelve weeks, sciatic nerve functional index (SFI), neural electrophysiology (NEP), histological and transmission electron microscope observation, recovery ratio of wet weight of gastrocnemius muscle, regenerated myelinated nerve fibers number, nerve fiber diameter, and thickness of the myelin sheath were measured to assess the effect. Results. After six and twelve weeks, the recovery ratio of SFI and wet weight of gastrocnemius muscle, NEP, and the result of regenerated myelinated nerve fibers in groups B and C were superior to that of group A (P < 0.05), and the difference between groups B and C was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion. The tissue engineering nerve composed of acellular allogenic nerve scaffold and Schwann cells-like cells can effectively repair the nerve defect in rats and its effect was similar to that of the autogenous nerve grafts. PMID:25114806

Gao, Songtao; Zheng, Yan; Cai, Qiqing; Deng, Zhansheng; Yao, Weitao; Wang, Jiaqiang; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Peng

2014-01-01

446

Mechanisms of nerve injury in leprosy.  

PubMed

All patients with leprosy have some degree of nerve involvement. Perineural inflammation is the histopathologic hallmark of leprosy, and this localization may reflect a vascular route of entry of Mycobacterium leprae into nerves. Once inside nerves, M leprae are ingested by Schwann cells, with a wide array of consequences. Axonal atrophy may occur early in this process; ultimately, affected nerves undergo segmental demyelination. Knowledge of the mechanisms of nerve injury in leprosy has been greatly limited by the minimal opportunities to study affected nerves in man. The nine-banded armadillo provides the only animal model of the pathogenesis of M leprae infection. New tools available for this model enable the study and correlation of events occurring in epidermal nerve fibers, dermal nerves, and nerve trunks, including neurophysiologic parameters, bacterial load, and changes in gene transcription in both neural and inflammatory cells. The armadillo model is likely to enhance understanding of the mechanisms of nerve injury in leprosy and offers a means of testing proposed interventions. PMID:25432810

Scollard, David M; Truman, Richard W; Ebenezer, Gigi J

2015-01-01

447

Effects of melatonin on peripheral nerve regeneration.  

PubMed

In the available literature, there are thousands of studies on peripheral nerve regeneration using many nerves of several animals at different ages with various types of lesions and different methods of evaluation at certain time of follow-up. Despite many experimental data and clinical observations, there is still no ideal treatment method enhancing peripheral nerve regeneration. In clinical practice, various types of surgical nerve repair techniques do not frequently result in complete recovery due to neuroma formation, lipid peroxidative damage, ischemia and other factors. Recently, a number of neuroscientists demonstrated that pineal neurohormone melatonin (MLT) has an effect on the morphologic features of the nerve tissue, suggesting its neuroprotective, free radical scavenging, antioxidative, and analgesic effects in degenerative diseases of peripheral nerves. At present, it is widely accepted that MLT has a useful effect on axon length and sprouting after traumatic events to peripheral nerves. Our studies using various experimental injury models clearly suggest positive effects of MLT on the number of axons, thickness of myelin sheath by inhibition of collagen accumulation and neuroma formation following traumatic events to peripheral nerves, myelination of developing peripheral nerve after intrauterine ethanol exposure. Nevertheless, further experimental and randomized controlled clinical studies are vital to identify the clinical use of MLT hormone. This is an overview of recent patents and current literature in terms of the effects of MLT on peripheral nerve regeneration based on a critical analysis of electrophysiological, biochemical and light and electron microscopic findings, in addition to functional observations. PMID:22074585

Turgut, Mehmet; Kaplan, Süleyman

2011-05-01

448

Thickness of the human cranial diploe in relation to age, sex and general body build  

PubMed Central

Background Earlier studies have addressed the human total cranial vault thickness and generally found no correlation with sex, age or body weight. However, the thickness of the diploe has not been investigated. Our study has determined the diploeic thickness of the human cranial vault using modern autopsy material. Methods The diploeic bone thickness was measured in 64 individuals (43 males, 21 females) autopsied at our institute. The thickness was measured by X-raying biopsies trephined at four specific locations on the skull. Complete medical records and pathologic autopsy results were available. Results There was a statistically significant difference in diploeic thickness between males and females in the frontal region only. Diploeic thickness was highly correlated with total cranial vault bone thickness, except for the left euryon in females. Subsequent analyses failed to reveal any correlations between the diploeic thickness and age and height and weight of the individual. Conclusion Males overall have a thicker diploe, albeit this difference is statistically significant only in the frontal region. We could not discern any trends as pertains to diploeic thickness versus age, height or weight. Since the thickness of the diploe may be an important parameter in biomechanical modelling of the cranial vault, this means that the diploe can be built into such models based on the total cranial thickness, except for the frontal region where the sexual dimorphism must be taken into account. Our findings are consistent with previous studies relating the total cranial thickness to the same parameters, in that we found a high correlation between diploeic and total cranial thickness (except at the left euryon for females). Finally, we recommend that future studies try to incorporate CT or MR scan imaging, rather than point sampling, in order to achieve a total assessment of the dimensionalities of the diploe. PMID:16364185

Lynnerup, Niels; Astrup, Jacob G; Sejrsen, Birgitte

2005-01-01

449

The relationship of nerve fibre pathology to sensory function in entrapment neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Surprisingly little is known about the impact of entrapment neuropathy on target innervation and the relationship of nerve fibre pathology to sensory symptoms and signs. Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common entrapment neuropathy; the aim of this study was to investigate its effect on the morphology of small unmyelinated as well as myelinated sensory axons and relate such changes to somatosensory function and clinical symptoms. Thirty patients with a clinical and electrophysiological diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome [17 females, mean age (standard deviation) 56.4 (15.3)] and 26 age and gender matched healthy volunteers [18 females, mean age (standard deviation) 51.0 (17.3)] participated in the study. Small and large fibre function was examined with quantitative sensory testing in the median nerve territory of the hand. Vibration and mechanical detection thresholds were significantly elevated in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (P < 0.007) confirming large fibre dysfunction and patients also presented with increased thermal detection thresholds (P < 0.0001) indicative of C and A?-fibre dysfunction. Mechanical and thermal pain thresholds were comparable between groups (P > 0.13). A skin biopsy was taken from a median nerve innervated area of the proximal phalanx of the index finger. Immunohistochemical staining for protein gene product 9.5 and myelin basic protein was used to evaluate morphological features of unmyelinated and myelinated axons. Evaluation of intraepidermal nerve fibre density showed a striking loss in patients (P < 0.0001) confirming a significant compromise of small fibres. The extent of Meissner corpuscles and dermal nerve bundles were comparable between groups (P > 0.07). However, patients displayed a significant increase in the percentage of elongated nodes (P < 0.0001), with altered architecture of voltage-gated sodium channel distribution. Whereas neither neurophysiology nor quantitative sensory testing correlated with patients’ symptoms or function deficits, the presence of elongated nodes was inversely correlated with a number of functional and symptom related scores (P < 0.023). Our findings suggest that carpal tunnel syndrome does not exclusively affect large fibres but is associated with loss of function in modalities mediated by both unmyelinated and myelinated sensory axons. We also document for the first time that entrapment neuropathies lead to a clear reduction in intraepidermal nerve fibre density, which was independent of electrodiagnostic test severity. The presence of elongated nodes in the target tissue further suggests that entrapment neuropathies affect nodal structure/myelin well beyond the focal compression site. Interestingly, nodal lengthening may be an adaptive phenomenon as it inversely correlates with symptom severity. PMID:25348629

Schmid, Annina B.; Bland, Jeremy D. P.; Bhat, Manzoor A.

2014-01-01

450

Effects of cranial electrotherapy stimulation on resting state brain activity.  

PubMed

Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment for insomnia, depression, and anxiety consisting of pulsed, low-intensity current applied to the earlobes or scalp. Despite empirical evidence of clinical efficacy, its mechanism of action is largely unknown. The goal was to characterize the acute effects of CES on resting state brain activity. Our primary hypothesis was that CES would result in deactivation in cortical and subcortical regions. Eleven healthy controls were administered CES applied to the earlobes at subsensory thresholds while being scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging in the resting state. We tested 0.5- and 100-Hz stimulation, using blocks of 22 sec "on" alternating with 22 sec of baseline (device was "off"). The primary outcome measure was differences in blood oxygen level dependent data associated with the device being on versus baseline. The secondary outcome measures were the effects of stimulation on connectivity within the default mode, sensorimotor, and fronto-parietal networks. Both 0.5- and 100-Hz stimulation resulted in significant deactivation in midline frontal and parietal regions. 100-Hz stimulation was associated with both increases and decreases in connectivity within the default mode network (DMN). Results suggest that CES causes cortical brain deactivation, with a similar pattern for high- and low-frequency stimulation, and alters connectivity in the DMN. These effects may result from interference from high- or low-frequency noise. Small perturbations of brain oscillations may therefore have significant effects on normal resting state brain activity. These results provide insight into the mechanism of action of CES, and may assist in the future development of optimal parameters for effective treatment. PMID:22741094

Feusner, Jamie D; Madsen, Sarah; Moody, Teena D; Bohon, Cara; Hembacher, Emily; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Bystritsky, Alexander

2012-05-01

451

Skeletogenic Fate of Zebrafish Cranial and Trunk Neural Crest  

PubMed Central

The neural crest (NC) is a major contributor to the vertebrate craniofacial skeleton, detailed in model organisms through embryological and genetic approaches, most notably in chick and mouse. Despite many similarities between these rather distant species, there are also distinct differences in the contribution of the NC, particularly to the calvariae of the skull. Lack of information about other vertebrate groups precludes an understanding of the evolutionary significance of these differences. Study of zebrafish craniofacial development has contributed substantially to understanding of cartilage and bone formation in teleosts, but there is currently little information on NC contribution to the zebrafish skeleton. Here, we employ a two–transgene system based on Cre recombinase to genetically label NC in the zebrafish. We demonstrate NC contribution to cells in the cranial ganglia and peripheral nervous system known to be NC–derived, as well as to a subset of myocardial cells. The indelible labeling also enables us to determine NC contribution to late–forming bones, including the calvariae. We confirm suspected NC origin of cartilage and bones of the viscerocranium, including cartilages such as the hyosymplectic and its replacement bones (hymandibula and symplectic) and membranous bones such as the opercle. The cleithrum develops at the border of NC and mesoderm, and as an ancestral component of the pectoral girdle was predicted to be a hybrid bone composed of both NC and mesoderm tissues. However, we find no evidence of a NC contribution to the cleithrum. Similarly, in the vault of the skull, the parietal bones and the caudal portion of the frontal bones show no evidence of NC contribution. We also determine a NC origin for caudal fin lepidotrichia; the presumption is that these are derived from trunk NC, demonstrating that these cells have the ability to form bone during normal vertebrate development. PMID:23155370

Burke, Sally; Parsons, Michael; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara; Fisher, Shannon

2012-01-01

452

Sexual dimorphism in cranial morphology among modern South Africans.  

PubMed

Pattern expressions of morphoscopic cranial traits vary across populations with classification accuracies being highly dependent on the reference collection to which unknown skulls are compared. Despite recent developments in population-specific standards for South Africans, researchers have not addressed the accuracy of morphological methods. Several studies demonstrate differences in sexual dimorphism between South Africans and North Americans, warranting a need to re-evaluate sex estimation methods in South Africa. The purposes of this study were to test the reliability and accuracy of the Walker (2008) method and to examine patterns of sexual dimorphism among South Africans. A total of 245 modern Black and White South African male and female crania from the Pretoria Bone Collection, University of Pretoria, were scored using the Walker (2008) methodology. Cohen's kappa was used to evaluate reliability of the method, and percent correct assessed validity of the method. Logistic regression was utilised to create modified population-specific formulae. Inter- and intra-observer agreement was moderate to excellent (0.60-0.90), except for the mental eminence (0.40). The percent correct results for sex were 80 % or higher for combinations of glabella, mastoid and menton and between 68 % and 73 % for menton, mastoid, orbital and nuchal margin using logistic equations of Walker (2008). White males had the highest (94-97 %) and White females had the lowest (31-62 %) percent correct. The low accuracies obtained when using Walker's (2008) equations emphasised the need for population-specific sex estimation models. Modified formulae for South Africans were created, yielding higher classification rates (84-93 %) than when North American standards were employed. PMID:25394745

Krüger, Gabriele Christa; L'Abbé, Ericka N; Stull, Kyra E; Kenyhercz, Michael W

2014-11-14

453

Endoscopic endonasal optic nerve decompression in a patient with pseudotumor cerebri.  

PubMed

Pseudotumor cerebri (idiopathic intracranial hypertension) is a syndrome characterized by intracranial pressure elevation and associated signs and symptoms in the absence of a space-occupying intracranial lesion. The most common symptoms are visual loss and headache. Sometimes, surgical therapy is needed in patients who have no apparent response to medical therapy and exhibit a progressive course. Optic nerve decompression is an effective and recommended treatment approach for patients with pseudotumor cerebri in whom visual loss predominates. With the growing experience with endoscopic skull base approaches, this method has begun to be used as an alternative and effective treatment modality. In this study, we aimed to present the outcome of endoscopic endonasal optic nerve decompression and to review the literature on this treatment modality in 2 patients diagnosed with pseudotumor cerebri that was unresponsive to medical therapy and associated with progressive visual loss. PMID:25478981

Yildirim, Ali Erdem; Karaoglu, Derya; Divanlioglu, Denizhan; Secen, Ahmed Eren; Gurcay, Ahmet Gurhan; Cagil, Emin; Belen, Ahmed Deniz

2015-01-01

454

Nanofibrous nerve conduits for repair of 30-mm-long sciatic nerve defects  

PubMed Central

It has been confirmed that nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve conduit can promote peripheral nerve regeneration in rats. However, its efficiency in repair of over 30-mm-long sciatic nerve defe