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Sample records for craton south australia

  1. Lake Eyre, Simpson Desert, South Australia, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Lake Eyre, Simpson Desert, South Australia, Australia (27.0S, 136.0E) is normally a dry lakebed for years on end. However on rare occasions small amounts of rainfall are recorded and ponding can be seen in low parts of the lake, as in this image, where an algae bloom in the water is seen as a dark pink area on the lakebed. The Finke Riverbed intersects Lake Eyre but it is normally a dry wash and seldom contributes water to the lake.

  2. Were the African and South American cratons part of Rodinia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröner, A.; Cordani, U. G.; D'Agrella-Filho, M. S.; Brito-Neves, B. B.

    2003-04-01

    The current geochronological and palaeomagnetic database casts doubt on the proposal that the cratons and late Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic rocks of Africa and South America have played any role in the formation and dispersal of the supercontinent Rodinia, believed to have existed between ˜1000 and 750 Ma ago. First, there is little evidence for the production of large volumes of ˜1.4-1.0 Ga (Kibaran- or Grenvillian-age) continental crust in the Mozambique belt (MB) of East Africa and Madagascar, except, perhaps, in parts of northern Mozambique. This is also valid for most terrains related to West Gondwana, which are made up of basement rocks older than Mesoproterozoic, reworked in the Brasiliano/Pan-African orogenic cycle. This crust cannot be conclusively related to either magmatic accretion processes on the active margin of Rodinia or continental collision leading to amalgamation of the supercontinent. Second, there is no conclusive evidence for a ˜1.0 Ga high-grade metamorphic event in the MB, and the same goes for the Neoproterozoic tectonic belts of South America and West Africa. Third, there is also no evidence for post-1000 Ma sedimentary sequences that were deposited on the passive margin(s) of Rodinia. In contrast, the MB is characterized by extensive structural reworking and metamorphic overprinting of Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic rocks, and these either constitute marginal parts of cratonic domains or represent crustal blocks (terranes or microcontinents?) of unknown derivation. This is also the case for most terrains included in the Borborema/Trans-Saharan belt of northeastern Brazil and West-Central Africa, as well as those of the Central Goiás Massif in central Brazil and the Mantiqueira Province of eastern and southeastern Brazil. There is evidence for extensive granitoid magmatism in the time period ˜950 to <600 Ma whose predominant calc-alkaline chemistry suggests subduction-related active margin processes during the assembly of

  3. Terminal suturing of Gondwana along the southern margin of South China Craton: Evidence from detrital zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes in Cambrian and Ordovician strata, Hainan Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yajun; Cawood, Peter A.; Du, Yuansheng; Zhong, Zengqiu; Hughes, Nigel C.

    2014-12-01

    Hainan Island, located near the southern end of mainland South China, consists of the Qiongzhong Block to the north and the Sanya Block to the south. In the Cambrian, these blocks were separated by an intervening ocean. U-Pb ages and Hf isotope compositions of detrital zircons from the Cambrian succession in the Sanya Block suggest that the unit contains detritus derived from late Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic units along the western margin of the West Australia Craton (e.g., Northampton Complex) or the Albany-Fraser-Wilkes orogen, which separates the West Australia and Mawson cratons. Thus, in the Cambrian the Sanya Block was not part of the South China Craton but rather part of the West Australian Craton and its environs. In contrast, overlying Late Ordovician strata display evidence for input of detritus from the Qiongzhong Block, which constituted part of the southeastern convergent plate margin of the South China Craton in the early Paleozoic. The evolving provenance record of the Cambrian and Ordovician strata suggests that the juxtaposition of South China and West Australian cratons occurred during the early to mid-Ordovician. The event was linked with the northern continuation of Kuungan Orogeny, with South China providing a record of final assembly of Gondwana.

  4. Three-dimensional crustal structure of a craton rim: Preliminary results from passive seismic imaging of the eastern Albany-Fraser Orogen, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippl, Christian; Tkalčić, Hrvoje; Kennett, Brian L. N.; Spaggiari, Catherine V.; Gessner, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Western Australia consists of two Archaean cratons (Yilgarn and Pilbara) and a number of Proterozoic orogens surrounding them that attest to past continental collisions. While the former feature seismically fast crust of average thickness (around 35 km) and a usually well defined Moho overlying a thick mantle lithospheric keel, the latter have been significantly less well studied and appear to be less uniform in terms of their crustal architecture. Thicker crust and a more fuzzy Moho are two common characteristics of these belts. The Albany-Fraser orogen, situated at the south-eastern margin of the Yilgarn craton, has been interpreted as an old suture zone from the collision of the West Australian craton (Yilgarn and Pilbara already welded together) with the Mawson craton (southern Australia and part of Antarctica today). Newer evidence, however, might point at an original rift or backarc setting of the units. It is a complex amalgam of different structures that vary significantly along its strike, featuring heavily reworked parts of the outermost Yilgarn craton as well as younger units accreted or intruded significantly later. Two major deformation stages at 1345-1260 Ma and 1214-1140 Ma have been deduced for these, the first of which has been associated with the aforementioned collision/backarc rifting itself, while the second phase is commonly interpreted as intracratonic reworking due to a major thermal event. No large-scale tectonic overprint has occurred in the region since the second deformation phase, which means that the originally emplaced units have been unusually well preserved until the present day. However, surface outcrops of rocks are very rare, so that most knowledge about extent and geometric configuration of different rock suites comes from the interpretation of magnetic and gravity data. The eastern end of the Albany-Fraser orogen, in all likelihood corresponding to the Mawson craton's westernmost edge, is hidden beneath the limestones of the

  5. Geological Setting of Diamond Drilling for the Archean Biosphere Drilling Project, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, A.

    2004-12-01

    The Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP) is a collaborative international research project conducting systematic (bio)geochemical investigations to improve our understanding of the biosphere of the early Earth. The Pilbara Craton of Western Australia, which includes exceptionally well preserved 3.52 to 2.70 Ga sedimentary sequences, was selected for an innovative sampling program commencing in 2003. To avoid near-surface alteration and contamination effects, sampling was by diamond drilling to depths of between 150 and 300 m, and was located at sites where the target lithologies were least deformed and had lowest metamorphic grade (below 300°C). The first of five successful drilling sites (Jasper Deposit) targeted red, white and black chert in the 3.46 Ga Marble Bar Chert Member. This chert marks the top of a thick mafic-felsic volcanic cycle, the third of four such cycles formed by mantle plumes between 3.52 and 3.43 Ga. The geological setting was a volcanic plateau founded on 3.72 to 3.60 Ga sialic crust (isotopic evidence). The second hole (Salgash) was sited on the basal section of the fourth cycle, and sampled sulfidic (Cu-Zn-Fe), carbon-rich shale and sandstone units separated by flows of peridotite. The third hole (Eastern Creek) was sited on the margin of a moderately deep-water rift basin, the 2.95 to 2.91 Ga Mosquito Creek Basin. This is dominated by turbidites, but the sandstones and carbon-rich shales intersected at the drilling site were deposited in shallower water. The fourth and fifth holes, located 300 km apart, sampled 2.77 to 2.76 Ga continental formations of the Fortescue Group; both holes included black shales.

  6. Sex Education in South Australia: The Past and the Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talukdar, Joy; Aspland, Tania; Datta, Poulomee

    2013-01-01

    In South Australia, sex education has been controversial since its inception. The Australasian White Cross league and the Family Planning Association of South Australia were the pioneers of sex education in South Australia. The framing of a national framework and the implementation of the SHARE (Sexual Health and Relationships Education) project…

  7. The 3.26-3.24 Ga Barberton asteroid impact cluster: Tests of tectonic and magmatic consequences, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glikson, Andrew; Vickers, John

    2006-01-01

    The location in the Barberton Greenstone Belt (Kaapvaal Craton) of ∼3.26-3.24 Ga asteroid impact ejecta units at, and immediately above, a sharp break between a > 12 km-thick mafic-ultramafic volcanic crust (Onverwacht Group ∼3.55-3.26 Ga, including the ∼3.298 > 3.258 Ga Mendon Formation) and a turbidite-felsic volcanic rift-facies association (Fig Tree Group ∼3.258-3.225 Ga), potentially represents the first documented example of cause-effect relations between extraterrestrial bombardment and major tectonic and igneous events [D.R. Lowe, G.R. Byerly, F. Asaro, F.T. Kyte, Geological and geochemical record of 3400 Ma old terrestrial meteorite impacts, Science 245 (1989) 959-962; D.R. Lowe, G.R. Byerly, F.T. Kyte, A. Shukolyukov, F. Asaro, A. Krull, Spherule beds 3.47-3.34 Ga-old in the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa: a record of large meteorite impacts and their influence on early crustal and biological evolution, Astrobiology 3 (2003) 7-48; A.Y. Glikson, The astronomical connection of terrestrial evolution: crustal effects of post-3.8 Ga mega-impact clusters and evidence for major 3.2 ± 0.1 Ga bombardment of the Earth-Moon system, J. Geodyn. 32 (2001) 205-229]. Here we correlate this boundary with a contemporaneous break and peak magmatic and faulting events in the Pilbara Craton, represented by the truncation of a 3.255-3.235 Ga-old volcanic sequence (Sulphur Springs Group-SSG) by a turbidite-banded iron formation-felsic volcanic association (Pincunah Hill Formation, basal Gorge Creek Group). These events are accompanied by ∼3.252-3.235 Ga granitoids (Cleland plutonic suite). The top of the komatiite-tholeiite-rhyolite sequence of the SSG is associated with a marker chert defined at 3.238 ± 3-3.235 ± 3 Ga, abruptly overlain by an olistostrome consisting of mega-clasts of felsic volcanics, chert and siltstone up to 250 × 150 m-large, intercalated with siliciclastic sedimentary rocks and felsic volcanics (Pincunah Hill Formation-basal Gorge

  8. Multifractal spatial organisation in hydrothermal gold systems of the Archaean Yilgarn craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro, Mark; Ord, Alison; Hobbs, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    A range of factors controls the location of hydrothermal alteration and gold mineralisation in the Earth's crust. These include the broad-scale lithospheric architecture, availability of fluid sources, fluid composition and pH, pressure-temperature conditions, microscopic to macroscopic structural development, the distribution of primary lithologies, and the extent of fluid-rock interactions. Consequently, the spatial distribution of alteration and mineralization in hydrothermal systems is complex and often considered highly irregular. However, despite this, do they organize themselves in a configuration that can be documented and quantified? Wavelets, mathematical functions representing wave-like oscillations, are commonly used in digital signals analysis. Wavelet-based multifractal analysis involves incrementally scanning a wavelet across the dataset multiple times (varying its scale) and recording its degree of fit to the signal at each interval. This approach (the wavelet transform modulus maxima method) highlights patterns of self-similarity present in the dataset and addresses the range of scales over which these patterns replicate themselves (expressed by their range in 'fractal dimension'). Focusing on seven gold ore bodies in the Archaean Yilgarn craton of Western Australia, this study investigates whether different aspects of hydrothermal gold systems evolve to organize themselves spatially as multifractals. Four ore bodies were selected from the Sunrise Dam deposit (situated in the Laverton tectonic zone of the Kurnalpi terrane) in addition to the Imperial, Majestic and Salt Creek gold prospects, situated in the Yindarlgooda dome of the Mount Monger goldfield (approximately 40km due east of Kalgoorlie). The Vogue, GQ, Cosmo East and Astro ore bodies at Sunrise Dam were chosen because they exhibit different structural geometries and relationships between gold and associated host-rock alteration styles. Wavelet-based analysis was conducted on 0.5m and 1m

  9. Geology, Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Mount Deans Pegmatite Field, Eastern Yilgarn Craton/Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, Thomas; Seifert, Thomas; Schulz, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Lithium-Cesium-Tantal (LCT) pegmatites are an important source for the rare metals Li, Cs and Ta, commodities that are now consumed in a rapidly increasing amount in high technology applications. Despite that LCT pegmatites are characteristic features for the Archaean geology of Western Australia, only the Greenbushes, Cattlin Creek and Wodgina deposits are currently exploited for Li and Ta. Therefore, Western Australia still possesses a great potential for the identification of additional resources for Li, Ta and possibly also Cs. The present study presents an overview of the geology, mineralogy and geochemistry of the Mount Deans pegmatite field, located c. 13 km S of Norseman, in the Eastern Goldfields Terrane of the Yilgarn Craton. The Mount Deans pegmatite field is Meso- to Neo-Archaean in age and hosted in the N-S trending Dundas Hill greenstone belt. The pegmatite field covers an area of 6 km in N-S and 4 km in E-W extension and comprises several dozens of individual pegmatite sheets and lenses. Structurally the pegmatite bodies are subdivided into two distinct types. Type I occurs predominantly in the southern part, is gently dipping (5-10°) to various directions and has variable thicknesses (3-25 m). Type II occurs in the northern part of the pegmatite field, dips steeply (50-90°) with a general N-S striking and has only a limited thickness (10 cm to 5 m). A clear distinction can also be made through their internal structure and mineralogy. Type I pegmatites exhibit a distinct structural and mineralogical zoning, whereas type II pegmatites are unzoned. Also albite, zinnwaldite, lepidolite and quartz form the bulk of the pegmatite; lepidolite is considerably more common in type II. Based on its peraluminous and strongly calc-alkaline character, as well as its enrichment in rare elements (i.e., Li, Rb, Cs, Ta, Nb, F), the pegmatites at Mount Deans are interpreted as LCT-pegmatites. However, despite the occurrence of rare element minerals like cassiterite

  10. Phytoplankton bloom in Spencer Gulf, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Summer in southern Australia is the dry season, and in this true-color MODIS image of South Australia and the Spencer Gulf from October 20,2001, the area's vegetation is losing much of the lushness it possessed in the winter rainy season (See image from September 19, 2001). In southern hemisphere summer, the high pressure systems that dominate the continent's weather move south, and block the rain-bearing westerly winds. The resulting changes in seasonal rainfall are extreme. Many of the rivers are impermanent, and flow into dry or impermanent salt lakes, such as Lake Torrens (long, thin lake bed, roughly in the center of the image), and Lake Eyre (pink and white lake bed to the northwest of Torrens). Between the Eyre Peninsula (lower left) and the Yorke Peninsula further east lies the Spencer Gulf, showing the blue-green swirls that indicate a phytoplankton bloom. Australia gets less rainfall than any continent except Antarctica, and the low and seasonal flows contribute to problems with salinity and algal blooms in the continent's surface waters.

  11. The provenance of sub-cratonic mantle beneath the Limpopo Mobile Belt (South Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, Quinten H. A.; Klaver, Martijn; Waight, Tod E.; Davies, Gareth R.

    2013-06-01

    Petrological, whole rock major element and mineral chemical analysis of mantle xenoliths from the Venetia kimberlite pipes (533 Ma) in South Africa reveals an apparently stratified cratonic mantle beneath the Central Zone of the Limpopo Mobile Belt (LMB) that separates the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe Cratons. Combined pressure-temperature (P-T) data and petrographic observations indicate that the mantle consists of an upper layer of Low-T coarse-equant garnet + spinel lherzolite (~ 50 to ~ 130 km depth). This layer is underlain by a region of mixed garnet harzburgites and garnet lherzolites that are variably deformed (~ 130 to ~ 235 km depth). An equilibrated geotherm did not exist at the time of kimberlite eruption (533 Ma) and a localised heating event involving the introduction of asthenospheric material to the High-T lithosphere below 130 km is inferred. Low-T garnet-spinel lherzolites are highly melt depleted (40% on average). In contrast, the High-T lithosphere (mostly at diamond stable conditions) consists of a mixed zone of variably sheared and melt depleted (30% on average) garnet harzburgite and mildly melt depleted (20% on average) garnet lherzolite. The chemistry of the High-T xenoliths contrasts with that of minerals included in diamond originating from the same depth. Inclusions suggest diamond crystallisation in a more melt depleted lithosphere than represented by either Low- or High-T xenoliths. High-T xenoliths are proposed to represent formerly melt depleted lithosphere, refertilised by asthenosphere-derived melts during the diapiric rise of a proto-kimberlitic melt pocket. This process is coupled to the positive temperature perturbation observed in the High-T xenoliths and may represent a common process in the lower lithosphere related to localised but intense tectono-magmatic events immediately preceding kimberlite eruption. The presence of clinopyroxene, garnet and abundant orthopyroxene in the Low-T lherzolite implies a history of melt depletion

  12. Aeromagnetic interpretation in the south-central Zimbabwe Craton: (reappraisal of) crustal structure and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranganai, Rubeni T.; Whaler, Kathryn A.; Ebinger, Cynthia J.

    2015-12-01

    Regional aeromagnetic data from the south-central Zimbabwe Craton have been digitally processed and enhanced for geological and structural mapping and tectonic interpretation integrated with gravity data, to constrain previous interpretations based on tentative geologic maps and provide new information to link these structural features to known tectonic events. The derived maps show excellent correlation between magnetic anomalies and the known geology, and extend lithological and structural mapping to the shallow/near subsurface. In particular, they reveal the presence of discrete crustal domains and several previously unrecognised dykes, faults, and ultramafic intrusions, as well as extensions to others. Five regional structural directions (ENE, NNE, NNW, NW, and WNW) are identified and associated with trends of geological units and cross-cutting structures. The magnetic lineament patterns cut across the >2.7 Ga greenstone belts, which are shown by gravity data to be restricted to the uppermost 10 km of the crust. Therefore, the greenstone belts were an integral part of the lithosphere before much of the upper crustal (brittle) deformation occurred. Significantly, the observed magnetic trends have representatives craton-wide, implying that our interpretation and inferences can be applied to the rest of the craton with confidence. Geological-tectonic correlation suggests that the interpreted regional trends are mainly 2.5 Ga (Great Dyke age) and younger, and relate to tectonic events including the reactivation of the Limpopo Belt at 2.0 Ga and the major regional igneous/dyking events at 1.8-2.0 Ga (Mashonaland), 1.1 Ga (Umkondo), and 180 Ma (Karoo). Thus, their origin is here inferred to be inter- and intra-cratonic collisions and block movements involving the Zimbabwe and Kaapvaal Cratons and the Limpopo Belt, and later lithospheric heating and extension associated with the break-up of Gondwana. The movements produced structures, or reactivated older fractures

  13. Crustal and uppermost mantle structure of the eastern margin of the Yilgarn Craton (Australia) from passive seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippl, Christian; Tkalčić, Hrvoje; Kennett, Brian; Spaggiari, Catherine; Gessner, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    The Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia is one of the largest units of Archean lithosphere on earth. Along its southern and southeastern margin, it is bounded by the Albany-Fraser Orogen (AFO), a Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic extensioal-accretionary orogen. In this contribution, we investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure of the AFO and adjacent regions using passive seismic data collected during the recent ALFREX experiment. Since the entire region has not been significantly reactivated since the Mesoproterozoic, the old signature of craton edge modification should have been well preserved until today. From November 2013 until January 2016, we operated a temporary passive seismic network consisting of 70 stations in the eastern Albany-Fraser Orogen. The array had an average station spacing of about 40 km and was designed to fill the gap between recently acquired active seismic profiles. We present results from the analysis of P receiver functions and ambient noise tomography using the ALFREX data. Receiver functions were used to derive a Moho depth map via H-K stacking, for direct imaging (common conversion point stacking) as well as joint inversion with surface wave dispersion data to derive 1D S-velocity profiles beneath the stations. The obtained receiver functions show a marked change of character from west to east across the array. Whereas they feature clear and sharp Moho phases for stations on the Yilgarn Craton, significantly more crustal complexity and fainter Moho phases are seen throughout the AFO. Crustal thickness increases from 36-39 km for the Yilgarn Craton to values between 42 and 48 km across the AFO, decreasing to around 40 km in the east. Ambient noise cross-correlations were used to derive maps of phase and group velocities of Rayleigh waves at periods between 1 and 30 seconds. A three-dimensional model of S wavespeeds throughout the area was then computed by pixelwise inversion of dispersion curves. Obtained S wavespeeds are generally

  14. Asymmetry and polarity of the South Atlantic conjugated margins related to the presence of cratons: a numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés-Martínez, Miguel; Pérez-Gussinyé, Marta; de Monserrat Navarro, Albert; Morgan, Jason P.

    2015-04-01

    Tectonic asymmetry of conjugated passive margins, where one margin is much narrower than the conjugate one, is commonly observed at many passive margins world-wide. Conjugate margin asymmetry has been suggested to be a consequence of lateral changes in rheology, composition, temperature gradient or geometries of the crust and lithosphere. Here we use the South Atlantic margins (from Camamu/Gabon to North Santos/South Kwanza) as a natural laboratory to understand conjugate margin asymmetry. Along this margin sector the polarity of the asymmetry changes. To the North, the Brazilian margin developed in the strong Sao Francisco craton, and this constitutes the narrow side of the conjugate pair. To the South, the Brazilian margin developed in the Ribeira fold belt, and the margin is wide. The opposite is true for the African side. We have thus numerically analysed how the relative distance between the initial location of extension and the craton influences the symmetry/asymmetry and polarity of the conjugate margin system. Our numerical model is 2D visco-elasto-plastic and has a free surface, strain weakening and shear heating. The initial set-up includes a cratonic domain, a mobile belt and a transition area between both. We have run tests with different rheologies, thickness of the lithosphere, and weak seeds at different distances from the craton. Results show asymmetric conjugated margins, where the narrower margin is generally the closest to the craton. Our models also allow us to study how the polarity is controlled by the distance between the initial weakness and the craton, and help to understand how the presence of cratonic domains affects the final architecture of the conjugated margins.

  15. Smoke Blankets New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Australia's largest city of Sydney was clouded with smoke when more than 70 wildfires raged across the state of New South Wales. These images were captured on the morning of December 30, 2001, by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The left-hand image is from the instrument's 26-degree forward-viewing camera, and the right-hand image is from the 60-degree forward-viewing camera. The vast extent of smoke from numerous fires is visible, particularly in the more oblique view. Sydney is located just above image center.

    Dubbed the 'black Christmas' fires, the blazes destroyed more than 150 homes and blackened over 5000 square kilometers (about 1.24 million acres) of farmland and wilderness between December 23, 2001 and January 3, 2002. Many of the fires are believed to have been caused by arsonists, with only one fire linked to natural causes. The fires were aggravated by gusty winds and hot dry weather conditions. Approximately 20,000 people have worked to contain the blazes. No people have lost their lives or been seriously injured. Nevertheless, the fires are considered to be the most prolonged and destructive of any in Australia since the Ash Wednesday conflagration of 1983 that claimed 72 lives.

    The images represent an area 322 kilometers x 374 kilometers and were captured during Terra orbit 10829.

  16. Cryogenian rift-related magmatism and sedimentation: South-western Congo Craton, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, Ben; Halverson, Galen P.; Collins, Alan S.

    2012-11-01

    We present LA-ICPMS U-Pb zircon ages and field data from the rift-related, Cryogenian-aged Toekems Sub-basin in the south-western Welwitschia Inlier on the southern margin of the Congo Craton in the Damara Belt (Northern Margin Zone), Namibia. The Toekems Sub-basin comprises a wedge up to 730 m-thick of dominantly clastic sediments between Palaeoproterozoic basement and the Cryogenian Abenab Subgroup. The base of the succession is a distinct coarsening upward breccia that contains entirely basement clasts. The overlying strata consist of mixed polymictic conglomerates, debris flow diamictites, tuffs, volcaniclastic sandstone, siltstone, and minor carbonates. A pegmatite cross-cutting the basal breccia has yielded a mean weighted average 206Pb/238U age of 763 ± 5 Ma. This age statistically overlaps the nearby 756 ± 2 Ma Oas Syenite and 760 ± 1 Ma ash bed in the Ombombo Subgroup to the north and is somewhat older than the ca. 746 Ma Naauwpoort Volcanics, which underlie the glacigenic Chuos Formation in the Summas Mountains to the south. This indicates that initial sedimentation in the Toekems Sub-basin began prior to 763 Ma. However, the presence of laminae-deforming lonestones, iron-formation and the stratigraphic position relative to the overlying Rasthof cap carbonate suggest that most of the succession is glacially-influenced, and hence correlates with the Chuos Formation. These results imply a significant disconformity beneath the Naauwpoort Volcanics and suggest multi-phase rifting during the breakup of south-western Congo Craton from Rodinia.

  17. Recent firing range suicides in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Austin, Amy E; van den Heuvel, Corinna; Heath, Karen; Gilbert, John D; Byard, Roger W

    2012-11-01

    Two cases are reported from South Australia, where deaths occurred that were due to single self-inflicted gunshot wounds to the head in individuals who were visiting indoor firearm ranges. Case 1: A 54-year-old man visiting an indoor firing range placed a .357 magnum handgun to his head and fired one shot. Case 2: A 23-year-old woman who was being instructed in firearm usage at an indoor firing range placed a 9 mm handgun to her head and fired one shot. In both cases, deaths were due to cerebral laceration with skull fracture. Firing ranges may be utilized by individuals who are seeking weapons for suicide attempts, and suicide may be successfully undertaken at such locations even while a victim is under direct supervision. In jurisdictions, where firearm ownership is strictly legislated, it may be that clubs can inadvertently provide access to firearms for this type of activity. PMID:22471964

  18. A major Archean, gold- and crust-forming event in the Kaapvaal craton, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Jason; Ruiz, Joaquin; Chesley, John; Walshe, John; England, Gavin

    2002-09-13

    The 2.89- to 2.76-gigayear-old conglomerates of the Central Rand Group of South Africa host an immense concentration of gold. The gold and rounded pyrites from the conglomerates yield a rhenium-osmium isochron age of 3.03 +/- 0.02 gigayears and an initial 187Os/188Os ratio of 0.1079 +/- 0.0001. This age is older than that of the conglomerates. Thus, the gold is detrital and was not deposited by later hydrothermal fluids. This Middle Archean gold mineralization event corresponds to a period of rapid crustal growth in which much of the Kaapvaal craton was formed and is evidence for a significant noble metal flux from the mantle. PMID:12228713

  19. 69 FR 11040 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-03-09

    ... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa AGENCY... terminating its antidumping investigations on electrolytic manganese dioxide from Australia, Greece, Ireland... dioxide from Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa (investigations Nos. 731-TA-1048 and...

  20. A modern analogue for tectonic, eustatic, and climatic processes in cratonic basins: Gulf of Carpentaria, northern Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edgar, N. Terence; Cecil, C. Blaine; Mattick, R.E.; de Deckker, Patrick; Djajadihardja, Yusuf S.

    2003-01-01

    The Gulf of Carpentaria is a tropical, silled epicontinental sea and may be a modern analogue for ancient cratonic basins. For the purpose of this study, the Gulf of Carpentaria is compared to Pennsylvanian cratonic basins of the United States. During the Pennsylvanian, the North American continent moved from the Southern Hemisphere, through the Equator, into the Northern Hemisphere. Today, the Gulf of Carpentaria–New Guinea region is a few degrees south of the Equator and is moving towards it. During the Pennsylvanian, the world was subjected to major glaciations and associated sea-level changes. The island of New Guinea and the Gulf of Carpentaria have undergone similar processes during the Quaternary. A reconnaissance seismic survey of the gulf conducted by the USGS and the Australian National University (ANU), combined with oil-exploration well data, provided the first step in a systematic evaluation of a modern tropical epicontinental system. During the Cenozoic, the region was dominated by terrestrial sedimentation in a temperate climate. At the same time, carbonates were being deposited on the northern shelf edge of the Australian Plate. During the Miocene, carbonate deposition expanded southward into the gulf region. Then in the Late Miocene, carbonate sedimentation was replaced by terrigenous clastics derived from the developing Central Range of the island of New Guinea, which developed a wetter climate while moving northwards into the tropics. At least 14 basin-wide transgressive–regressive cycles are identified by channels that were eroded under subaerial conditions since about the Miocene. Comparison of the modern Gulf of Carpentaria sequences with those of the Pennsylvanian reveals many similarities.

  1. Australian Vocational Education & Training. South Australia: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    A study examined the publicly-funded vocational education and training (VET) system in South Australia (SA) in 1997. Background information indicated SA is a geographically large state with a relatively small population that is older compared to the rest of Australia, with 14 percent aged over 65 compared with 12 percent nationally. Findings were…

  2. Fluctuations of Lake Eyre, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Eyre is a large salt lake situated between two deserts in one of Australia's driest regions. However, this low-lying lake attracts run-off from one of the largest inland drainage systems in the world. The drainage basin is very responsive to rainfall variations, and changes dramatically with Australia's inter-annual weather fluctuations. When Lake Eyre fills,as it did in 1989, it is temporarily Australia's largest lake, and becomes dense with birds, frogs and colorful plant life. The Lake responds to extended dry periods (often associated with El Nino events) by drying completely.

    These four images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer contrast the lake area at the start of the austral summers of 2000 and 2002. The top two panels portray the region as it appeared on December 9, 2000. Heavy rains in the first part of 2000 caused both the north and south sections of the lake to fill partially and the northern part of the lake still contained significant standing water by the time these data were acquired. The bottom panels were captured on November 29, 2002. Rainfall during 2002 was significantly below average ( http://www.bom.gov.au/ ), although showers occurring in the week before the image was acquired helped alleviate this condition slightly.

    The left-hand panels portray the area as it appeared to MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera, and are false-color views comprised of data from the near-infrared, green and blue channels. Here, wet and/or moist surfaces appear blue-green, since water selectively absorbs longer wavelengths such as near-infrared. The right-hand panels are multi-angle composites created with red band data from MISR's 60-degree forward, nadir and 60-degree backward-viewing cameras, displayed as red, green and blue, respectively. In these multi-angle composites, color variations serve as a proxy for changes in angular reflectance, and indicate textural properties of the surface related to roughness and/or moisture

  3. Dolomite occurrence in Coorong region, south Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.; Warren, J.K. )

    1988-02-01

    Lakes in the Coorong region are filled with a diverse suite of Holocene carbonates; mineralogies include aragonite, calcite, magnesium-calcite, magnesite, hydromagnesite, and dolomite. Dolomite is the main mineral of concern in this paper, yet it makes up no more than 5% of the carbonate minerals forming surficial deposits in the coastal plain of southeast South Australia. Coorong dolomite occurs as three stratigraphically and mineralogically distinct forms. Volumetrically, the most important type of dolomite is an evaporative dolomite laid down as the last episode of sedimentation in those Coorong Lakes that contain dolomite. In most lakes, dolomite is a capstone unit no more than a meter thick, although in a few lakes it has infilled the lakes to form dolomitic units up to 4-5 m thick. Evaporative dolomite is usually magnesian-rich. In some lakes, a calcian-rich dolomite occurs along the edges of the lake. Like the evaporative upper dolomite, this dolomite is not intergrown with other carbonate phases and appears to define areas where continental ground waters first enter the lake. A third type of dolomite occurs in some Coorong lakes. A basal dolomite, which is more crystalline than the other two forms of dolomite, appears to have formed some 6000 years ago when the rising Pleistocene water table (driven by a transgressing sea) first caused continental ground waters to outcrop and evaporate at the surface.

  4. Dolomite occurrence in Coorong region, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.; Warren, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    Lakes in the Coorong region are filled with a diverse suite of Holocene carbonates; mineralogies include aragonite, calcite, magnesium-calcite, magnesite, hydromagnesite, and dolomite. Dolomite is the main mineral of concern in this paper, yet it makes up no more than 5% of the carbonate minerals forming surficial deposits in the coastal plain of southeast South Australia. Coorong dolomite occurs as three stratigraphically and mineralogically distinct forms. Volumetrically, the most important type of dolomite is an evaporative dolomite laid down as the last episode of sedimentation in those Coorong Lakes that contain dolomite. In most lakes, dolomite is a capstone unit no more than a meter thick, although in a few lakes, it has infilled the lakes to form dolomitic units up to 4-5 m thick. Evaporative dolomite is usually magnesian-rich. In some lakes, a calcian-rich dolomite occurs along the edges of the lake. Like the evaporative upper dolomite, this dolomite is not intergrown with other carbonate phases and appears to define areas where continental ground waters first enter the lake.

  5. Paleomagnetism of the Marble Bar Chert Member, Western Australia: Implications for apparent polar wander path for Pilbara craton during Archean time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suganuma, Yusuke; Hamano, Yozo; Niitsuma, Sachiko; Hoashi, Masamichi; Hisamitsu, Toshio; Niitsuma, Nobuaki; Kodama, Kazuto; Nedachi, Munetomo

    2006-12-01

    The Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP) drilled a continuous 270 m long oriented core from the Towers Formation, which includes the Marble Bar Chert Member (3456.1-3476.0 Ma) in the Pilbara craton, northwestern Australia. A paleomagnetic study of 261 discrete specimens, collected from a 158.5 to 182.0 m section of the Marble Bar Chert Member, revealed two distinct magnetic components (LT and MT). The MT component yields seven different mean paleomagnetic directions clustered as MB1 to MB7. These, together with the published paleomagnetic poles of early Archean rocks from the Pilbara craton, draw a continuous paleomagnetic pole path, which likely to be regarded as the early to late Archean apparent polar wander path (APWP) for the Pilbara craton. The APWP implies that the Pilbara craton underwent a latitudinal drift of about 21° during the interval when the magnetization of the Marble Bar Chert Member was acquired. The estimated speed of the lateral drift is 12-112 cm/yr (120-1120 km/Myr), which is large compared with current plate motion velocities, suggesting that continents might have moved during the Archean faster than in the Phanerozoic.

  6. Heat flow, heat generation and crustal thermal structure of the northern block of the South Indian Craton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Mohan L.; Sharma, S. R.; Sundar, A.

    1988-01-01

    Heat flow values and heat generation data calculated from the concentration of heat producing radioactive elements, U, Th and K in surface rocks were analyzed. The South Indian Craton according to Drury et al., can be divided into various blocks, separated by late Proterozoic shear belts. The northern block comprises Eastern and Western Dharwar Cratons of Rogers (1986), Naqvi and Rogers (1987) and a part of the South Indian granulite terrain up to a shear system occupying the Palghat-Cauvery low lands. The geothermal data analysis clearly demonstrates that the present thermal characteristics of the above two Archaean terrains of the Indian and Australian Shields are quite similar. Their crustal thermal structures are likely to be similar also.

  7. Heat flow, heat generation and crustal thermal structure of the northern block of the South Indian Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Mohan L.; Sharma, S. R.; Sundar, A.

    Heat flow values and heat generation data calculated from the concentration of heat producing radioactive elements, U, Th and K in surface rocks were analyzed. The South Indian Craton according to Drury et al., can be divided into various blocks, separated by late Proterozoic shear belts. The northern block comprises Eastern and Western Dharwar Cratons of Rogers (1986), Naqvi and Rogers (1987) and a part of the South Indian granulite terrain up to a shear system occupying the Palghat-Cauvery low lands. The geothermal data analysis clearly demonstrates that the present thermal characteristics of the above two Archaean terrains of the Indian and Australian Shields are quite similar. Their crustal thermal structures are likely to be similar also.

  8. The South-East Karst Province of South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, K. G.

    1994-03-01

    The South-East Karst Province of South Australia is an extensive area of low relief with dolines, cenotes, uvalas, and a variety of cave types developed in the soft, porous, flat-lying Tertiary Gambier Limestone and also as syngenetic karst in the overlying calcarenite dunes of the Pleistocene Bridgewater Formation. The most spectacular surface karst features are the large collapse dolines, especially those that extend below the water table to form cenotes. Shallow swampy hollows occur in superficial Quaternary sediments. These are an enigmatic feature of the Bool Region, where all gradations appear to occur between definite karst dolines and nonkarstic hollows. Some depressions may be polygenetic—involving a combination of: (1) primary depositional hollows on coastal flats or in dune fields, (2) deflation, and (3) karst solution and subsidence. There are extensive underwater cave systems in the southern part of the province, and the bulk of the cave development there may well lie below the present water table, although these systems would have been at least partly drained during the lower sea levels of the last glacial period. Systematic variations within the province reflect differences in the parent rock types, the extent and nature of the cover and, most importantly, the hydrology—in particular the depth to the water table and its gradient.

  9. A Sm-Nd and Pb isotope study of Archaean greenstone belts in the southern Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. H.; Carlson, R. W.

    1989-01-01

    An Sm-Nd and Pb study on a wide variety of lithologies in Archaean greenstone belt fragments in the southern Kaapvaal Craton reveals a complex petrogenetic history. The fragments are important because they represent a 350 km transect through the craton south of Barberton to its southern margin. The Commondale greenstone belt yields a precise Sm-Nd age of 3334 + or - 18 Ma on an exceptionally well preserved peridotite suite of komatiitic affinity. The wide range of Sm/Nd from 0.6 to 1.0 is attributed to the unusual occurrence of orthopyroxene in the spinifex-bearing rocks. A considerably younger age of about 3.2 Ga is suggested for the Nondweni greenstone belt close to the southern margin of the craton on the basis of separate Sm-Nd isochrons on individual lithologies ranging from komatiite, through komatiitic basalt and basalt to felsic volcanic rocks. On the basis of the present study the greenstone belts appear to have been emplaced at progressively younger ages toward the southern margin of the craton.

  10. Moho geometry along a north-south passive seismic transect through Central Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippl, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Receiver functions from a temporary deployment of 25 broadband stations along a north-south transect through Central Australia are used to retrieve crustal and uppermost mantle structural constraints from a combination of different methods. Using H-K stacking as well as receiver function inversion, overall thick crust with significant thickness variation along the profile (40 to ≥ 55 km) is found. Bulk crustal vp/vs values are largely in the felsic to intermediate range, with the southernmost stations on the Gawler Craton exhibiting higher values in excess of 1.8. A common conversion point (CCP) stacking profile shows three major discontinuities of the crust-mantle boundary: (1) a two-sided Moho downwarp beneath the Musgrave Province, which has previously been associated with the Neoproterozoic to early Cambrian Petermann Orogeny, (2) a Moho offset along the Redbank Shear Zone further north attributed to the Middle to Late Paleozoic Alice Springs Orogeny, and (3) another Moho offset further north, located at the boundary between the Davenport and Warramunga Provinces, which has not been imaged before. In all cases, the difference in crustal thickness between the two sides of the offset is > 8-10 km. Unlike the two southern Moho offsets, the northernmost one does not coincide with a prominent gravity anomaly. Its location and the absence of known reactivation events in the region make it likely that it belongs to a Proterozoic suture zone that marks a previously unknown block boundary within the North Australian Craton.

  11. Magnetic Properties through the Archean/Paleoproterozoic Transition from the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia: Bio-environmental Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isambert, A.; Carlut, J. H.; Bouquerel, H.; Pecoits, E.; Philippot, P.; Vennin, E.; Ader, M.; Thomazo, C.; Buoncristiani, J. F.; Baton, F.; Le Huen, A. L.; Muller, E.; Deldicque, D.; Sforna, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The origin of iron oxides in Archean and Paleoproterozoic Banded Iron Formations is still a matter of debate. We report here low and high temperature magnetic properties, susceptibility and saturation magnetization results coupled with scanning microscope, transmission electron microscopy, Raman observations and microprobe analyses along a 60 meters section, which encompasses the uppermost Archean Boolgeeda Iron Formation and its transition into the lower Paleoproterozoic Kungarra Formation in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. With the exception of two volcanoclastic intervals characterized by low susceptibility and magnetization, nearly pure magnetite is identified as the main magnetic carrier in all iron-rich layers including hematite-bearing jasper beds. The relative magnetic contribution of magnetite and hematite throughout the section is evidenced by IRM acquisition curves. We observed a sharp decrease in magnetization at the Archean-Proterozoic transition and a general trend in the Verwey temperature. Two populations of magnetically distinct magnetites are reported from a 2 meter-thick interval lying within the late Archean section of the core. Each population shows a specific Verwey transition temperature: one around 120-124K and the other in the range of 105-110K. The two Verwey transitions are interpreted to reflect two distinct stoichiometry and likely two stages of magnetite crystallization. The 120-124K transition is attributed to nearly pure stoichiometric magnetite, whereas SEM, TEM and microprobe observations suggest that the lower temperature transition is related to chemically impure silician magnetite. Microbial-induced partial substitution of iron by silicon is suggested here. This is supported by an increase in Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in the same interval and Raman spectroscopy data showing a close association of organic carbon with magnetite.

  12. A Paleoarchean coastal hydrothermal field inhabited by diverse microbial communities: the Strelley Pool Formation, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Sugitani, K; Mimura, K; Takeuchi, M; Yamaguchi, T; Suzuki, K; Senda, R; Asahara, Y; Wallis, S; Van Kranendonk, M J

    2015-11-01

    The 3.4-Ga Strelley Pool Formation (SPF) at the informally named 'Waterfall Locality' in the Goldsworthy greenstone belt of the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, provides deeper insights into ancient, shallow subaqueous to possibly subaerial ecosystems. Outcrops at this locality contain a thin (<3 m) unit of carbonaceous and non-carbonaceous cherts and silicified sandstones that were deposited in a shallow-water coastal environment, with hydrothermal activities, consistent with the previous studies. Carbonaceous, sulfide-rich massive black cherts with coniform structures up to 3 cm high are characterized by diverse rare earth elements (REE) signatures including enrichment of light [light rare earth elements (LREE)] or middle rare earth elements and by enrichment of heavy metals represented by Zn. The massive black cherts were likely deposited by mixing of hydrothermal and non-hydrothermal fluids. Coniform structures in the cherts are characterized by diffuse laminae composed of sulfide particles, suggesting that unlike stromatolites, they were formed dominantly through physico-chemical processes related to hydrothermal activity. The cherts yield microfossils identical to previously described carbonaceous films, small and large spheres, and lenticular microfossils. In addition, new morphological types such as clusters composed of large carbonaceous spheroids (20-40 μm across each) with fluffy or foam-like envelope are identified. Finely laminated carbonaceous cherts are devoid of heavy metals and characterized by the enrichment of LREE. This chert locally contains conical to domal structures characterized by truncation of laminae and trapping of detrital grains and is interpreted as siliceous stromatolite formed by very early or contemporaneous silicification of biomats with the contribution of silica-rich hydrothermal fluids. Biological affinities of described microfossils and microbes constructing siliceous stromatolites are under investigation. However, this

  13. Cyanobacterial Inhabitation on Archean Rock Surfaces in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Yosuke; George, Simon C

    2015-07-01

    High abundances of 7- and 6-monomethylalkanes as well as C17 n-alkane, indicative of cyanobacteria, have been discovered near the surfaces of Archean carbonate rocks of the Fortescue Group in the Pilbara region, Western Australia. The presence of cyanobacterial biomarkers is mostly limited to the surface layer (<1 cm thickness) of the rocks, indicating that the cyanobacteria are an endolithic species. Biomarkers are found in bitumen I (solvent-extracted rock) and also in bitumen II (solvent-extracted decarbonated rock). The abundance of biomarkers is generally the same between both bitumen fractions in the surface layer, which suggests that the cyanobacteria penetrated into the carbonate minerals. Trace amounts of the biomarkers have also diffused into a deeper part of the rocks, but this influence is only seen in bitumen I. This implies that hydrocarbons moved toward the inside of the rock through pores and fissures in the rock fabric. In contrast, hydrocarbons in bitumen II, which mainly come from within the carbonate minerals, are isolated from the hydrocarbon migration from the outside of the rock and may be ancient indigenous organic matter. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the past or modern inhabitation of cyanobacteria on Archean rocks in the Pilbara region for which hydrocarbon biomarker analyses was used. PMID:26153724

  14. Research Ready Program: A First in Regional South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penman, Joy; Oliver, Mary

    2012-01-01

    In response to the South Australian Certificate of Education (SACE) Board's introduction in 2010 of the new Research Project subject, the University of South Australia's Centre for Participation and Community Engagement took the opportunity to engage further with school students by organising the Research Ready Program. The adoption of the program…

  15. 2.6-2.7 Ga continental crust growth in Yangtze craton, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K.; Gao, S.; Wu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    A combined study of zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopes and whole rock major and trace elements and Sr-Nd isotopes has been conducted for 10 granitic and tonalitic-trondhjemitic-granodioritic (TTG) gneisses from the Kongling terrain, the only known Archean microcontinent in the Yangtze craton, South China. The results reveal a significant magmatic event at ~2.6-2.7 Ga (Fig. 1), in addition to the previously reported ~2.9 Ga and ~3.2-3.3 Ga magmatism (Zhang et al., 2006; Jiao et al., 2009; Gao et al., 2011). The ~2.6-2.7 Ga rocks show relatively high REE (530-1074 ppm), apparently negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* = 0.22-0.35), low #Mg (19.51-22.63) and low LaN/YbN (10.3-24.2). Besides, they have high K-feldspar proportion and relatively evaluated (K2O+Na2O)/CaO, TFeO/MgO, Zr, Nb, Ce and Y contents. Their 10000 × Ga/Al ratios range between 3.00 and 3.54. All these features suggest that the protoliths of these gneisses are A-type granites. Most of the ~2.6-2.7 Ga zircon grains have ɛHf(t) values >0 (up to 7.93, close to the depleted mantle value). This clearly indicates a considerably higher proportion of new crustal components in the ~2.6-2.7 Ga granitoids compared to the ~3.2-3.3 Ga and ~2.9 Ga TTGs. Our results support the conclusion of worldwide studies of igneous and detrital zircons that age peaks at 2.65-2.76 Ga represent increases in the volume of juvenile continental crust. The present study also confirms the existence of the two older magmatic events in the Kongling terrain. Both whole rock ɛNd(t) values (-3.74 to 1.59) and the zircon ɛHf(t) values (-11.18 to 3.55) for the ~2.9 Ga TTG and the Hf isotopes of ~3.2-3.3 Ga igneous zircons (-7.37 to 3.12) are chondritic or subchondritic, suggesting that they were mainly generated by reworking of older rocks with a small amount of new crustal additions. References Gao, S., Yang, J., Zhou, L., Li, M., Hu, Z.C., Guo, J.L., Yuan, H.L., Gong, H.J., Xiao, G.Q., Wei, J.Q., 2011. Age and growth of the Archean Kongling terrain

  16. 2004 NAI-ADP Deep Diamond Drill Cores: Transects Through Archean Time in the Pilbara Craton, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buick, R.; Dunlop, J. S.; Bonser, L. C.

    2004-12-01

    In July-August 2004, the NASA Astrobiology Drilling Program sponsored the coring of 3 deep diamond-drill holes in the Pilbara Craton of northwest Australia. The holes targeted the lowest grade and least deformed sedimentary sections of 4 stratigraphic units: the 2.4-2.6 Ga Hamersley Group, the 2.7 Ga Tumbiana Formation of the Fortescue Group, the 3.4 Ga Warrawoona Group, and the 3.5 Ga Coonterunah Group. ABDP 8 cored the unconformity between the Warrawoona and Coonterunah Groups to a depth of 330 metres, intersecting it at 155 metres. Because of syn-depositional erosion, the Strelley Pool Chert was attenuated and the alteration zone beneath the unconformity was scoured and filled to a depth of 10 metres by quartz arenite. As a result, no definitive lithological determination on its status as a potential paleosol could be made. Secondary oxidative alteration was present in Coonterunah cherts to depths of at least 220 metres down-hole. ABDP 9 cored 984 metres of the lower Hamersley Group, from the Dales Gorge Member of the Brockman Iron Formation into the Paraburdoo Member of the Wittenoom Formation. Though the hole was intended to penetrate the uppermost Fortescue Group, drilling was terminated early because of equipment damage by fractured rock, loss of water circulation clogging the hole with cuttings and unanticipated thickening of the Paraburdoo Member by dilational fracturing, expansive brecciation and cavity formation. 79 samples for organic geochemical analysis of biomarker syngenesis were collected under clean conditions immediately the core surfaced. A horizon of impact spherules was intersected in the Bee Gorge Member of the Wittenoom Formation; unlike surface exposures, it was markedly silicified and chloritized in drill-core. ABDP 10 cored 210 metres of the Tumbiana Formation, intersecting the entire Meentheena Carbonate Member, the upper Mingah Tuff Member and terminating just below 4 scoriaceous basalt flows. Large and complex calcareous stromatolites

  17. Palaeointensity determinations on rocks from Palaeoproterozoic dykes from the Kaapvaal Craton (South Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakova, V. V.; Shcherbakov, V. P.; Zhidkov, G. V.; Lubnina, N. V.

    2014-06-01

    Palaeointensity study of the Proterozoic-Archean volcanic rocks from the Kaapvaal Craton South Africa) are reported. Palaeomagnetic study of this collection was performed earlier by Olsson et al. Electron microscope observations, thermomagnetic and hysteresis measurements indicate the presence of single-domain and pseudo-single-domain (SD-PSD) magnetite grains as the main magnetic mineral. The samples demonstrated a very good stability to heating, the electron micrograph observations revealed magnetite-ilmenite exsolution structure. Palaeointensity determinations were obtained by Coe-modified Thellier procedure. A total 58 samples from 14 sites were studied but only seven samples from one site NL28 of the Early Proterozoic age of 1.9 Ga passed palaeointensity selection criteria. Reliable palaeointensity determinations were obtained by both Thellier and Wilson methods on 18 cubes (subsamples) from site NL28 yielding rather low mean virtual dipole moment (VDM) = (2.82 ± 0.12) ×1022 Am2 which is in agreement with the suggestion of existence of the `Proterozoic dipole low period'.

  18. Magnetotelluric deep soundings, gravity and geoid in the south São Francisco craton: Geophysical indicators of cratonic lithosphere rejuvenation and crustal underplating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Luis Gustavo Rodrigues; de Pádua, Marcelo Banik; Ussami, Naomi; Vitorello, Ícaro; Padilha, Antonio Lopes; Braitenberg, Carla

    2010-09-01

    In the south São Francisco craton a circular and 8-m amplitude geoid anomaly coincides with the outcropping terrain of an Archean-Paleoproterozoic basement. Broadband magnetotelluric (MT) data inversions of two radial profiles within the positive geoid and Bouguer gravity anomaly yield geo-electrical crustal sections, whereby the lower crust is locally more conductive (10 to 100 Ωm) in spatial coincidence with a denser lower crust modeled by the gravity data. This anomalous lower crust may have resulted from magmatic underplating, associated with Mesoarchean and Proterozoic episodes of tholeiitic dike intrusion. Long-period MT soundings reveal a low electrical resistivity mantle (20 to 200 Ωm) from depths beyond 120 km. Forward geoid modeling, using the scope of the low electrical resistivity region within the mantle as a constraint, entails a density increase (40 to 50 kg/m 3) possibly due to Fe enrichment of mantle minerals. However, this factor alone does not explain the observed resistivity. A supplemented presence of small amounts of percolated carbonatite melting (~ 0.005 vol.%), dissolved water and enhanced oxygen fugacity within the peridotitic mantle are viable agents that could explain the less resistive upper mantle. We propose that metasomatic processes confined in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle foster the conditions for a low degree melting with variable CO 2, H 2O and Fe content. Even though the precise age of this metasomatism is unknown it might be older than the Early Cretaceous based on the evidence that a high-degree of melting in a lithospheric mantle impregnated with carbonatites originated the tholeiitic dike intrusions dispersed from the southeastern border of the São Francisco craton, during the onset of the lithosphere extension and break-up of the western Gondwana. The proxies are the NE Paraná and Espinhaço (130 Ma, Ar/Ar ages) tholeiitic dikes, which contain (~ 3%) carbonatites in their composition. The occurrence of a

  19. Structural controls on gold mineralization on the margin of the Yilgarn craton, Albany-Fraser orogen: The Tropicana deposit, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blenkinsop, Tom G.; Doyle, Mark G.

    2014-10-01

    The Tropicana gold deposit is located adjacent to the margin of the Yilgarn craton in the Albany-Fraser orogen, Western Australia. The deposit is hosted in granulite facies quartzo-feldspathic gneisses of the Archean Tropicana Gneiss. Ore bodies comprise biotite-pyrite alteration concentrated in shear zones that formed during NE-SW shortening in the late Archean, and clearly postdate the formation and deformation of high-grade gneiss fabrics (D1 and D2). The orientation of the ore bodies is controlled by the shear zones that are in turn localised by the gneissic banding. Mineralization also involved solution and coeval microfracturing and veining of more competent pegmatitic units. The mineralizing event (D3) was followed by at least two further deformations, which reactivated and overprinted the biotite fabrics with sericite and chlorite, created new shear zones, and affected gold distribution. D5 consisted of dextral shear on ∼E-W shear zones, which subdivide the deposit into five major structural domains. The importance of structurally controlled permeability at Tropicana is similar in cratonic lode gold deposits, as is the protracted deformation/fluid flow history. Like Renco mine in Zimbabwe, Tropicana gold deposit was formed by hydrothermal fluid flow peripheral to the craton: economic gold mineralization was clearly post-peak metamorphism.

  20. MISR Stereo Imagery of Blue Mountain Fires in New South Wales, Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-12-17

    article title:  MISR Stereo Imagery of Blue Mountain Fires in New South Wales, Australia     ... October 24, 2013 - MISR Stereo Imagery of Blue Mountain Fires in New South Wales, Australia project:  MISR ...

  1. Provenances of the Mesozoic sediments in the Ordos Basin and implications for collision between the North China Craton (NCC) and the South China Craton (SCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Bao; Yuelong, Chen; Dapeng, Li; Shanhui, Wang

    2014-12-01

    To constrain the provenance of the Ordos Basin and the evolution history of the Qinling Orogen Belt from the Triassic to the Jurassic, 10 samples from the Dongsheng area and 28 samples from the Yan'an area were analyzed for U-Pb ages and Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotopic compositions. The results indicate that Middle Jurassic sediments in the Dongsheng area were derived from the Khondalite Belt, Langshan Mountain and the Yinshan Terrane. Mesozoic sediments in the Yan'an area consist of two parts. One part is derived from the North China Craton (NCC), which has U-Pb age groups of ∼1.8 Ga and ∼2.5 Ga, and Hf model ages of ∼2.8 Ga. The other part is derived from the Qilian-Qinling Orogenic Belt, which has U-Pb age groups of 600-1500 Ma and 100-500 Ma, and Nd and Hf isotopic model ages of less than 2.2 Ga. Combining the U-Pb ages with the Hf and Nd isotopic model ages, Mesozoic detrital zircons with U-Pb age groups of ∼1.8 Ga and ∼2.5 Ga in the Yan'an area are found to also be derived from the Khondalite Belt, Langshan Mountain and the Yinshan Terrane, not from the Trans-China Orogen Belt. From the late-Late Triassic sediments of the Yan'an area, the low average values of the Hf (2.03 Ga) and Nd (2.03 Ga) model ages and the characteristic age population of 600-1500 Ma reveal that the main collision or continental subduction between the NCC and the South China Craton (SCC) occurred in the late-Late Triassic. After the main collision or continental subduction, the proportion of sediments from the Qinling-Qilian Orogenic Belt began to decrease (recorded in the early Jurassic samples), which may be in response to the gradual slowing of the uplift speed of the Qinling Orogenic Belt. In the early-middle Jurassic, the sediments have a main U-Pb age population of 100-500 Ma, low detrital zircon Hf model ages (average value is 1.17 Ga) and low whole rock Nd model ages (average value is 1.13 Ga), which suggests that the Qilian-Qinling Orogenic Belt may have a fast uplift

  2. Genesis of superimposed hypogene and supergene Fe orebodies in BIF at the Madoonga deposit, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duuring, Paul; Hagemann, Steffen

    2013-03-01

    The Madoonga iron ore body hosted by banded iron formation (BIF) in the Weld Range greenstone belt of Western Australia is a blend of four genetically and compositionally distinct types of high-grade (>55 wt% Fe) iron ore that includes: (1) hypogene magnetite-talc veins, (2) hypogene specular hematite-quartz veins, (3) supergene goethite-hematite, and (4) supergene-modified, goethite-hematite-rich detrital ores. The spatial coincidence of these different ore types is a major factor controlling the overall size of the Madoonga ore body, but results in a compositionally heterogeneous ore deposit. Hypogene magnetite-talc veins that are up to 3 m thick and 50 m long formed within mylonite and shear zones located along the limbs of isoclinal, recumbent F1 folds. Relative to least-altered BIF, the magnetite-talc veins are enriched in Fe2O3(total), P2O5, MgO, Sc, Ga, Al2O3, Cl, and Zr; and depleted in SiO2 and MnO2. Mafic igneous countryrocks located within 10 m of the northern contact of the mineralised BIF display the replacement of primary igneous amphibole and plagioclase, and metamorphic chlorite by hypogene ferroan chlorite, talc, and magnetite. Later-forming, hypogene specular hematite-quartz veins and their associated alteration halos partly replace magnetite-talc veins in BIF and formed during, to shortly after, the F2-folding and tilting of the Weld Range tectono-stratigraphy. Supergene goethite-hematite ore zones that are up to 150 m wide, 400 m long, and extend to depths of 300 m replace least-altered BIF and existing hypogene alteration zones. The supergene ore zones formed as a result of the circulation of surface oxidised fluids through late NNW- to NNE-trending, subvertical brittle faults. Flat-lying, supergene goethite-hematite-altered, detrital sediments are concentrated in a paleo-topographic depression along the southern side of the main ENE-trending ridge at Madoonga. Iron ore deposits of the Weld Range greenstone belt record remarkably similar

  3. 2480 Ma mafic magmatism in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota: A new link connecting the Wyoming and Superior cratons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dahl, P.S.; Hamilton, M.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Foland, K.A.; Frei, R.; McCombs, J.A.; Holm, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    The Laramide Black Hills uplift of southwest South Dakota exposes a Precambrian crystalline core of ???2560-2600 Ma basement granitoids nonconformably overlain by two Paleoproterozoic intracratonic rift successions. In the northern Black Hills, a 1 km thick, layered sill (the Blue Draw metagabbro) that intrudes the older rift succession provides a key constraint on the timing of mafic magmatism and of older rift-basin sedimentation. Ion microprobe spot analyses of megacrysts of magmatic titanite from a horizon of dioritic pegmatite in the uppermost sill portion yield a 207Pb/206Pb upper-intercept age of 2480 ?? 6 Ma (all age errors ??2??), comparable to two-point 207Pb/206Pb errorchron ages obtained by Pb stepwise leaching of the same titanites. Nearly concordant domains in coexisting magmatic zircon yield apparent spot ages ranging from 2458 ?? 16 to 2284 ?? 20 Ma (i.e., differentially reset along U-Pb concordia), and hornblende from an associated metadiorite yields a partially reset date with oldest apparent-age increments ranging between 2076 ?? 16 and 2010 ?? 8 Ma. We interpret these data as indicating that an episode of gabbroic magmatism occurred at 2480 Ma, in response to earlier rifting of the eastern edge of the Wyoming craton. Layered mafic intrusions of similar thickness and identical age occur along a rifted belt in the southern Superior craton (Sudbury region, Ontario). Moreover, these mafic intrusions are spatially aligned using previous supercontinent restorations of the Wyoming and Superior cratons (Kenorland-Superia configurations). This new "piercing point" augments one previously inferred by spatial-temporal correlation of the Paleoproterozoic Huronian (southern Ontario) and Snowy Pass (southeastern Wyoming) supergroups. We propose that layered mafic intrusions extending from Nemo, South Dakota, to Sudbury, Ontario, delineate an axial rift zone along which Wyoming began to separate from Superior during initial fragmentation of the Neoarchean

  4. Australia.

    PubMed

    1984-05-01

    This discussion of Australia covers the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, foreign relations and defense, and relations between the US and Australia. In 1983 the population of Australia totaled 15.3 million with an annual growth rate of 1.3%. The infant mortality rate is 9.9/1000 live births with a life expectancy of 74 years. The people of Australia are predominantly of British origin, and their culture and outlook are similar to those of the US. The aboriginal population is estimated to be 1% of the total. Much of Australia's culture is derived from European roots, but distinctive Australian trends have evolved from the environment, aboriginal culture, and the influence of Australia's neighbors. Australia, the world's smallest continent but 1 of the largest nations, is located below the Southeast Asian archipelago and is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean and on the west by the Indian Ocean. Most of the continent is a low, irregular plateau. Little is known of Australia before its discovery by Dutch explorers in the 17th century. On January 26, 1788 the Colony of New South Wales was founded and formal proclamation on the site of Sydney followed on February 7. Many of the 1st settlers were convicts. The mid-19th century began a policy of emancipation of convicts and assisted immigration of free people. The 1st federal Parliament was opened at Melbourne in May 1901. Australia passed the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act in 1942, which officially established Australia's complete autonomy in both internal and external affairs. The Commonwealth government was created with a constitution patterned partly on the US constitution. Australia is a fully independent nation within the Commonwealth. The federal Parliament is bicameral, consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives. At the apex of the court system is the High Court of Australia. The 3 main political groups in Australia are the Liberal Party, the

  5. (Im)moral Education in South Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partington, Geoffrey

    1984-01-01

    Moral relativism, spearheaded by values clarification techniques, has transformed the ethos of South Australian schools. The theory and practice of innovative pedagogy in the realm of moral values is critiqued. Suggestions as to how a secular system of education can avoid moral anarchy without relapsing into ideological indoctrination are made.…

  6. The Thermal Structure and Strength of Cratons and their Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaupart, C. P.; Mareschal, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The large cratons of today are made of younger terranes that wrap around older cores. Deformation due to accretion did not proceed in homogeneous fashion and was concentrated in the younger belts. This is illustrated clearly in the Archean Superior Province, Canada. In this area, one observes little imbrication of accreted crust and craton core, in contrast to the laterally extensive thrusting that has affected the younger terranes to the South. The boundary between the craton core and accreted belts is a nearly vertical interface delineated by steeply dipping electrical and seismic anomalies extending to the base of the lithosphere. These steeply dipping structures have been interpreted as relicts of the subduction that drove accretion. By contrast, the sub-crustal subduction remnant that is imaged beneath younger terranes to the south shows up as a moderately dipping (≈30°) structure. These observations suggest a stiff craton surrounded by weaker belts. This strength contrast may have affected later events, such as the Keweenawan rifing, which propagated northward through the accreted terranes but stopped short of impinging the craton core. In the Superior Province, crustal heat production is much higher in the accreted terranes than in the craton core, implying higher temperatures and lower mechanical strength. Such a remarkable dichotomy also exists in South Africa, where the Limpopo and Namaqua belts are characterized by higher heat flux and crustal heat production than the adjacent Archean Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons. The generality of this cannot be assessed on the basis of heat flow and heat production data which are scarce in most other cratons. These cratons, however, are characterized by post-orogenic high temperature metamorphism which is best explained by high crustal heat production. This is true, for example, for the Jimperding metamorphic belt at the edge of the Yilgarn craton, Western Australia. Thus, cratons appear to be surrounded, and

  7. Identifying Centres of Plant Biodiversity in South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Greg R.; Biffin, Ed; Baruch, Zdravko; Lowe, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify regional centres of plant biodiversity in South Australia, a sub-continental land area of 983,482 km2, by mapping a suite of metrics. Broad-brush conservation issues associated with the centres were mapped, specifically climate sensitivity, exposure to habitat fragmentation, introduced species and altered fire regimes. We compiled 727,417 plant species records from plot-based field surveys and herbarium records and mapped the following: species richness (all species; South Australian endemics; conservation-dependent species; introduced species); georeferenced weighted endemism, phylogenetic diversity, georeferenced phylogenetic endemism; and measures of beta diversity at local and state-wide scales. Associated conservation issues mapped were: climate sensitivity measured via ordination and non-linear modelling; habitat fragmentation represented by the proportion of remnant vegetation within a moving window; fire prone landscapes assessed using fire history records; invasive species assessed through diversity metrics, species distribution and literature. Compared to plots, herbarium data had higher spatial and taxonomic coverage but records were more biased towards major transport corridors. Beta diversity was influenced by sampling intensity and scale of comparison. We identified six centres of high plant biodiversity for South Australia: Western Kangaroo Island; Southern Mount Lofty Ranges; Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara lands; Southern Flinders Ranges; Southern Eyre Peninsula; Lower South East. Species composition in the arid-mediterranean ecotone was the most climate sensitive. Fragmentation mapping highlighted the dichotomy between extensive land-use and high remnancy in the north and intensive land-use and low remnancy in the south. Invasive species were most species rich in agricultural areas close to population centres. Fire mapping revealed large variation in frequency across the state. Biodiversity scores were not always

  8. Identifying Centres of Plant Biodiversity in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Greg R; Biffin, Ed; Baruch, Zdravko; Lowe, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify regional centres of plant biodiversity in South Australia, a sub-continental land area of 983,482 km2, by mapping a suite of metrics. Broad-brush conservation issues associated with the centres were mapped, specifically climate sensitivity, exposure to habitat fragmentation, introduced species and altered fire regimes. We compiled 727,417 plant species records from plot-based field surveys and herbarium records and mapped the following: species richness (all species; South Australian endemics; conservation-dependent species; introduced species); georeferenced weighted endemism, phylogenetic diversity, georeferenced phylogenetic endemism; and measures of beta diversity at local and state-wide scales. Associated conservation issues mapped were: climate sensitivity measured via ordination and non-linear modelling; habitat fragmentation represented by the proportion of remnant vegetation within a moving window; fire prone landscapes assessed using fire history records; invasive species assessed through diversity metrics, species distribution and literature. Compared to plots, herbarium data had higher spatial and taxonomic coverage but records were more biased towards major transport corridors. Beta diversity was influenced by sampling intensity and scale of comparison. We identified six centres of high plant biodiversity for South Australia: Western Kangaroo Island; Southern Mount Lofty Ranges; Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara lands; Southern Flinders Ranges; Southern Eyre Peninsula; Lower South East. Species composition in the arid-mediterranean ecotone was the most climate sensitive. Fragmentation mapping highlighted the dichotomy between extensive land-use and high remnancy in the north and intensive land-use and low remnancy in the south. Invasive species were most species rich in agricultural areas close to population centres. Fire mapping revealed large variation in frequency across the state. Biodiversity scores were not always

  9. Petrogenesis and Tectonic Implications of Paleoproterozoic Metapelitic Rocks in the Archean Kongling Complex from the Northern Yangtze Craton, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Zheng, J.; Wang, W.; Xiong, Q.

    2015-12-01

    The Archean Kongling Complex in the northern Yangtze Craton is an ideal target to investigate the Precambrian accretion and evolution of continental crust in South China. This study aims to unravel the crustal evolution and tectonic setting of the Yangtze Craton during the Paleoproterozoic time, using integrated studies of petrography, zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopes and whole-rock geochemistry of Paleoproterozoic metapelitic rocks in the Kongling Complex. These rocks contain garnet, sillimanite, biotite, plagioclase, minor graphite and ilmenite. Zircons from the samples show nebulous sector-zoning and rim-core structure, suggesting both metamorphic origin and detrital origin with metamorphic overprints. The metamorphic zircons and metamorphic overprints have concordant 207Pb/206Pb age at ~2.0 Ga, while detrital grains yield three distinct concordant-age populations of >2.5 Ga, 2.4-2.2 Ga and 2.2-2.1 Ga. The age patterns indicate that the depositional age of the metasedimentary rocks was 2.1-2.0 Ga. Those 2.2-2.1 Ga detrital zircons with variable ɛHf(t) values (-7.28 to 2.97) suggest the addition of juvenile materials from depleted mantle to the crust during 2.2-2.1 Ga. The 2.4-2.2 Ga zircons have Hf model ages (TDM2) of ~2.6-3.5 Ga and >2.5 Ga zircons have TDM2 ages varying from 2.9 Ga to 3.3 Ga. The new data suggest that the Kongling Complex was originally a Paleoarchean (old up to 3.5 Ga) continental nucleus, which experienced multiple episodes of growth and reworking events at 3.3-3.2 Ga, 2.9 Ga, 2.7-2.6 Ga, 2.4-2.2 Ga and 2.2-2.1 Ga. In combination with available data, the new results in this study suggest a continent-arc-continent evolution model to explain the tectonic evolution of the Yangtze Craton during the Paleoproterozoic time: the western margin of Yangtze Craton was originally an individual continent, which underwent a reworking event during 2.4-2.2 Ga and a crust growth event caused by continent-arc collision during 2.2-2.1 Ga; it subsequently collided

  10. Barriers to Participation in Physical Activity Among South Sudanese Children in South Australia: Parents' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mude, William; Mwanri, Lillian

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the determinants of childhood obesity. Although its facilitators are well documented for the general community, limited evidence exists informing newly arrived and emerging migrant communities in Australia. To explore parents' perspectives of barriers to participation in physical activity among South Sudanese children in South Australia. Qualitative, face-to-face interviews were conducted with parents. Data were transcribed, coded, and analyzed thematically using NVivo software. Multiple and complex barriers to physical activity participation were described. Enabling and supportive programs are needed to improve physical activity participation and health outcomes of new migrants. PMID:27536934

  11. Bayesian Source Attribution of Salmonellosis in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Glass, K; Fearnley, E; Hocking, H; Raupach, J; Veitch, M; Ford, L; Kirk, M D

    2016-03-01

    Salmonellosis is a significant cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in Australia, and rates of illness have increased over recent years. We adopt a Bayesian source attribution model to estimate the contribution of different animal reservoirs to illness due to Salmonella spp. in South Australia between 2000 and 2010, together with 95% credible intervals (CrI). We excluded known travel associated cases and those of rare subtypes (fewer than 20 human cases or fewer than 10 isolates from included sources over the 11-year period), and the remaining 76% of cases were classified as sporadic or outbreak associated. Source-related parameters were included to allow for different handling and consumption practices. We attributed 35% (95% CrI: 20-49) of sporadic cases to chicken meat and 37% (95% CrI: 23-53) of sporadic cases to eggs. Of outbreak-related cases, 33% (95% CrI: 20-62) were attributed to chicken meat and 59% (95% CrI: 29-75) to eggs. A comparison of alternative model assumptions indicated that biases due to possible clustering of samples from sources had relatively minor effects on these estimates. Analysis of source-related parameters showed higher risk of illness from contaminated eggs than from contaminated chicken meat, suggesting that consumption and handling practices potentially play a bigger role in illness due to eggs, considering low Salmonella prevalence on eggs. Our results strengthen the evidence that eggs and chicken meat are important vehicles for salmonellosis in South Australia. PMID:26133008

  12. An archean impact layer from the Pilbara and Kaapvaal cratons.

    PubMed

    Byerly, Gary R; Lowe, Donald R; Wooden, Joseph L; Xie, Xiaogang

    2002-08-23

    The Barberton greenstone belt of South Africa and the eastern Pilbara block of Western Australia provide information about Earth's surface environments between 3.2 and 3.5 billion years ago, including evidence for four large bolide impacts that likely created large craters, deformed the target rocks, and altered the environment. We have obtained identical single-zircon uranium-lead ages of 3470 +/- 2 million years ago for the oldest impact events from each craton. These deposits represent a single global fallout layer that is associated with sedimentation by an impact-generated tsunami and in Western Australia is represented by a major erosional unconformity. PMID:12193781

  13. High-quality heat flow determination from the crystalline basement of the south-east margin of North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Guangzheng; Tang, Xiaoyin; Rao, Song; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Linyou; Zhao, Ping; Hu, Shengbiao

    2016-03-01

    Very few of heat flow data have come from the crystalline basement in the North China Craton but rather from boreholes in the sedimentary cover of oil-gas basins. Explorations for hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resources and porphyry gold deposits in eastern China offer now valuable opportunities to study the terrestrial heat flow in the crystalline basement. In this study, we obtained continuous temperature logs from two boreholes (the LZ borehole with a depth of 3471 m and the DR borehole with a depth of 2179 m) located in the south-east margin of the North China Craton. The boreholes have experienced long shut-in times (442 days and 261 days for the LZ borehole and DR borehole, respectively); thus, it can be expected that the temperature conditions have re-equilibrated after drilling and drill-mud circulation. Rock thermal conductivity and radiogenic heat production were measured for 68 crystalline rock samples from these two boreholes. The measured heat-flow density was determined to be 71.8 ± 2.3 mW m-2 (for the LZ borehole) and 91.5 ± 1.2 mW m-2 (for the DR borehole). The heat flow for the LZ borehole is close to the value of 75 mW m-2 determined in the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling main hole (CCSD MH), both being in the Sulu-Dabie orogenic belt and thus able to verify each other. The value for the DR borehole is higher than the above two values, which supports former high heat-flow values determined in the Bohai Bay Basin.

  14. Gravity survey of the Mt. Toondina impact structure, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Shoemaker, C. S.

    1991-01-01

    The Mt. Toondina impact structure is located in northern South Australia, about 45 km south of the town of Oodnadatta. Only the central uplift is exposed. The outcrops at Mt. Toondina reveal a remarkable structural anomaly surrounded by a broad expanse of nearly flat-lying beds of the Bulldog Shale of Early Cretaceous age. A gravity survey was undertaken in 1989 to determine the diameter of the impact structure, define the form of the central uplift, and understand the local crustal structure. Data were collected along two orthogonal lines across the structure. In addition to the profiles, a significant number of measurements were made on and around the central uplift. The 1989 gravity data combined with 1963 gravity data and the seismic reflection data provide an excellent data base to interpret the subsurface structure of the Mt. Toondina feature.

  15. Injury patterns and features of cycling fatalities in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Olds, Kelly; Byard, Roger W; Langlois, Neil E I

    2015-08-01

    There has been an increase in cycling in Australia. This means that more cyclists are at risk of injuries, which account for a proportion of transport-related fatalities. In this study, all cyclist fatalities from 2002 to 2013 in South Australia where post-mortem examinations were performed were investigated. There were 42 deaths representing 3% of the total road fatalities over the same time. Of this total number of cases, 13 deaths (31%) involved collapse (mostly natural causes from an underlying medical condition) and 29 (69%) resulted from trauma. There were no cases of hyperthermia. Of the decedents 95% were male, and the mean age at death was 47 years. Fatal incidents were more likely to occur during April and November, and on a Monday. However, statistical analysis was not possible due to the small number of cases. Fatalities (traumatic and collapse) predominantly occurred whilst the cyclist was riding (86%). The majority of riding fatalities were as a result of collision with vehicles (81%). Drugs (including alcohol) were detected in two (15%) of the 13 cases of the collapses, and in seven (26%) of the 27 trauma cases tested. In trauma cases, death was most often due to multiple injuries. The most frequent area for injury was the head (found in 90% of traumatic deaths). Despite the increasing numbers of cyclists on South Australian roads over the last decade, death rates have trended downwards suggesting that road safety campaigns and the provision of more dedicated bicycle lanes have had a positive outcome. PMID:26165666

  16. The Acraman impact and its widespread ejecta, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gostin, V. A.; Keays, R. R.; Wallace, M. W.

    1992-01-01

    Discovery of a widespread horizon of shock-deformed volcaniclastic ejecta preserved in Late Proterozoic (approx. 600 Ma) shales in South Australia and its probable link to the Acraman impact structure in the Middle Proterozoic Gawler Range. Volcanics provide a rare opportunity to study the effects of a major terrestrial impact, including the sedimentology and distribution of an ejecta blanket and its precious-metal signature. The ejecta horizon occurs in the Bunyeroo Formation at many localities within the Adelaide Geosyncline, including the Wearing Hills, which are approx. 350 km northeast of the Acraman impact site. Following a search at the same stratigraphic level in other basins in South Australia, the ejecta has been located within the Lower Rodda beds of the Officer Basin, extending the limits of the ejecta to approx. 470 km northwest of the Acraman impact structure. The ejecta is therefore widely dispersed, and provides an important chronostratigraphic marker enabling precise correlation of Late Proterozoic sequences in southern Australia. In summary, the Bunyeroo ejecta is unique as the only known example of a widely dispersed, coarse-grained ejecta blanket that is, moreover, strongly linked to a known major impact structure. The marked Ir-PGE anomalies in the ejecta horizon provide support for the hypothesis that meteorite impact events can produce Ir anomalies interrestrial sediments. The findings also indicate that Ir can be mobilized and concentrated in sediments by low-temperature diagenetic processes. The identification of ejecta horizons in sedimentary rocks therefore should be based on the coincidence of shock-metamorphic features in the detritus and clear Ir anomalies.

  17. Melting of a subduction-modified mantle source: A case study from the Archean Marda Volcanic Complex, central Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, P. A.; Kirkland, C. L.

    2014-03-01

    Subduction processes on early earth are controversial, with some suggestions that tectonics did not operate until the earth cooled to a sufficient point around the Archean-Proterozoic boundary. One way of addressing this issue is to examine well-preserved successions of Archean supracrustal rocks. Here we discuss petrography, whole-rock chemical and isotopic data combined with zircon Hf isotopes from andesites, high-magnesium andesites (HMA), dacites, high-magnesium dacites (HMD), rhyolites and coeval felsic intrusive rocks of the c. 2730 Ma Marda Volcanic Complex (MVC) in the central Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia. We demonstrate that these rocks result from melting of a metasomatized mantle source, followed by fractional crystallization in a crustal magma chamber. Contamination of komatiite by Archean crust, to produce the Marda Volcanic Complex andesites, is not feasible, as most of these crustal sources are too radiogenic to act as viable contaminants. The ɛNd(2730) of MVC andesites can be produced by mixing 10% Narryer semi-pelite with komatiite, consistent with modelling using Hf isotopes, but to achieve the required trace element concentrations, the mixture needs to be melted by about 25%. The most likely scenario is the modification of a mantle wedge above a subducting plate, coeval with partial melting, producing volcanic rocks with subduction signatures and variable Mg, Cr and Ni contents. Subsequent fractionation of cognate phases can account for the chemistry of dacites and rhyolites.

  18. Geology of the Early Archean Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal System in the North Pole Dome, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitajima, K.; Maruyama, S.

    2007-12-01

    An Archean hydrothermal system in the North Pole Dome, Pilbara Craton is associated with extensive fluid circulation driven by numerous extensional fracture systems and the underlying heat source. The fracture system is now occupied by abundant fine-grained quartz aggregate, hence we call this as silica dikes. Some of the fracture system extends deeper structural levels as listric normal faults down to 1000 m depth in the MORB crust. Barite-bearing fine-grained quartz predominant mineralogy indicates the extensive development of fracturing and quenching in a short time. Accompanying the fluid circulation, the extensive metasomatism proceeded to form the four different chemical courses, (1) silicification, (2) carbonation, (3) potassium-enrichment, and (4) Fe- enrichment. Silicification occurs along the silica dikes, carbonated greenstones are distributed relatively shallower level. Potassium-enriched (mica-rich) greenstones occur at the top of the greenstone sequence, and Fe-enriched (chlorite-rich) greenstones are distributed at lower part of the basaltic greenstones. The down going fluid precipitated carbonate-rich layer at shallow levels, whereas depleted in SiO2. Then, the fluid went down to more deeper level, and was dissolved SiO2 at high temperature (~350°C) and chlorite-rich greenstone was formed by water-rock interaction. The upwelling fluid precipitated dominantly SiO2 and formed silica dikes. Silica dikes cement the fractures formed by extensional faulting at earliest stage of development of oceanic crust. Therefore, the hydrothermal system must have related to normal fault system simultaneously with MORB volcanism. Particularly the greenish breccia with cherty matrix (oregano chert) was formed at positions by upwelling near ridge axis. After the horizontal removal of MORB crust from the ridge-axis with time, the propagating fracture into deeper levels, transports hydrothermal fluids into 500-1000 m depth range where metasomatic element exchange between

  19. Structure and timing of Neoarchean gold mineralization in the Southern Cross district (Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia) suggest leading role of late Low-Ca I-type granite intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doublier, Michael P.; Thébaud, Nicolas; Wingate, Michael T. D.; Romano, Sandra S.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Gessner, Klaus; Mole, David R.; Evans, Noreen

    2014-10-01

    The formation of structurally controlled lode-gold deposits is a controversial subject with both magmatic and metamorphic fluids considered a feasible source for gold. Here we present a study from the Southern Cross district (Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia), where structurally controlled Neoarchean gold deposits are hosted in amphibolite facies greenstones. We combine geochronological data with structural analysis to constrain the timing and structural control of ore deposition. We show that gold mineralization took place between c. 2638 and 2630 Ma, contemporaneous with the onset of voluminous intrusions of Low-Ca, I-type granites, which are ubiquitous in Southern Cross and elsewhere in the Yilgarn Craton. We argue that the timing of the intrusions, their spatial association with gold deposits, their chemical composition, and isotopic signature are consistent with Low-Ca granites being a major fluid source for mineralization. We propose that the fluid release by cooling plutons was facilitated by transport along active amphibolite facies shear zones. As gold mineralization was synchronous with Low-Ca magmatism across large areas of the Yilgarn Craton, our model may be applicable to orogenic gold deposits in other parts of the Yilgarn Craton as well as other Archean granite-greenstone terrains with a 'late granite bloom'.

  20. Remelting and Remobilization in a Magmatic Arc: the St Peter Suite, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symington, Neil; Weinberg, Roberto; Hasalová, Pavlina

    2014-05-01

    Thermo-mechanical models of magmatic arcs suggest that intermittent intrusion of magma batches should lead to remelting and remobilization of earlier intrusive rocks as a result of fluctuations in temperature and water content. However, examples of remelting and remobilization of earlier intrusive rocks, formed during arc-building, are surprisingly rare. We investigate the evolution of magmatic rocks of the Palaeoproterozoic St Peter Suite, in the Gawler Craton, South Australia. This suite records multiple intrusions, magma hybridization, and the remelting and remobilization of these intrusions to form migmatites and newly-formed leucocratic magmas. In this paper we detail first how multiple magma batches interact with one another as liquids and mushes during syn-magmatic deformation phases, and then detail the nature of migmatites resulting from anatexis of these same magmatic rocks and the resulting channel ways that allowed for magma remobilization. LA-ICP/MS U/Pb zircon dating yielded crystallization ages of 1647±12 Ma for an early diorite-to-granite suite, and 1604±12 Ma for a later magmatic suite of broadly similar composition. Both these suites underwent anatectic events. Titanite from late-formed leucosomes found within D2 shear zones in the older suite, yielded SHRIMP U/Pb age of 1605±7 Ma, within error of the age of the younger suite. We therefore infer that intrusion, crystallization and remelting/remobilization of this younger suite of rocks occurred within 10-15 M.yr. Thus, the St Peter Suite exposures record many of the key processes expected in arcs, including the prediction that early intrusive arc rocks remelt to form younger more fractionated magmas.

  1. Multi-decadal climate variability, New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Franks, S W

    2004-01-01

    Traditional hydrological risk estimation has treated the observations of hydro-climatological extremes as being independent and identically distributed, implying a static climate risk. However, recent research has highlighted the persistence of multi-decadal epochs of distinct climate states across New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Climatological studies have also revealed multi-decadal variability in the magnitude and frequency of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) impacts. In this paper, examples of multi-decadal variability are presented with regard to flood and drought risk. The causal mechanisms for the observed variability are then explored. Finally, it is argued that the insights into climate variability provide (a) useful lead time for forecasting seasonal hydrological risk, (b) a strong rationale for a new framework for hydrological design and (c) a strong example of natural climate variability for use in the testing of General Circulation Models of climate change. PMID:15195429

  2. Triassic mafic and intermediate magmatism associated with continental collision between the North and South China Cratons in the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Sang-Bong; Oh, Chang Whan; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Choi, Seon-Gyu; Kim, Taesung; Yi, Keewook

    2016-03-01

    Triassic coeval mafic and intermediate magmatism occurred in the area suggested to be the southern margin of the North China Craton (NCC) in the Gyeonggi Massif (GM) of the Korean Peninsula. This study investigates aspects of the mafic and intermediate magmatism using SHRIMP zircon ages and whole-rock chemical and isotopic Sr-Nd data. The mafic and intermediate rocks intruded into a basement paragneiss in three areas (Yangpyeong, Odesan and Yangyang) within the GM at ca. 230 Ma. The paragneiss was metamorphosed in both the Paleoproterozoic and Triassic. Gabbros (hornblende gabbro and pyroxene-mica gabbro) from the study areas exhibit strong light REE (LREE) enrichment relative to chondrite (LaN/YbN = 11.1-30.6) and a high LILE/HFSE pattern, Ta-Nb-P-Ti troughs and positive Ba-K-Pb-Sr spikes on the N-MORB-normalized multi-element variation diagram. These features are typical characteristics of arc-related gabbros. The gabbros also show strongly enriched initial isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr(i) = 0.7100-0.7137; εNd(t) = - 13.1 to - 19.7). The coeval intermediate intrusive rocks also exhibit whole-rock chemical and isotopic features (87Sr/86Sr(i) = 0.7099-0.7143; εNd(t) = - 10.8 to - 18.6) similar to those of the gabbros. The mafic and intermediate intrusive rocks plot in the within-plate and/or post-collisional fields on tectonic discrimination diagrams. These data indicate that the mafic and intermediate magmatism in the study areas occurred during the Triassic post-collisional relaxation period via partial melting of sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) that was enriched in a subduction environment prior to (or during) the Permo-Triassic continental collision between the NCC and the South China Craton (SCC). The highly enriched mantle signatures revealed by the gabbros from the study areas are matched to the enriched features identified in Cretaceous mafic igneous rocks (ca. 130 Ma) on the southern margin of the NCC. Thus, this study suggests that the

  3. Prison suicides in South Australia: 1996-2010.

    PubMed

    Austin, Amy E; van den Heuvel, Corinna; Byard, Roger W

    2014-09-01

    Forty-eight deaths occurring in prisons in South Australia were identified between January 1996 and December 2010, including 25 cases of suicide (mean age = 37 years; median age = 34 years; age range = 24-70 years). Most suicides were due to hanging (23/25; 92.0%) with victims using bedding, belts, or shoelaces attached to cell shelves, air vents, doors, or other accessible projections. There were no suicides attributed to drug overdose or sharp force injury. Over a third of all suicides (39.1%) occurred during the first month of confinement, with 26.1% of cases occurring within the first week. There was one suicide reported after 2 years of imprisonment. Given that suicide in state prisons currently occurs at a rate approximately eight times that of the general South Australian community, it appears that the subset of incarcerated individuals represents a group in need of effective preventive strategies to enable more appropriate provisions of existing prisoner resources. PMID:24635128

  4. Hydrocarbons preserved in a ~2.7 Ga outcrop sample from the Fortescue Group, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Y; Flannery, D T; Walter, M R; George, S C

    2015-03-01

    The hydrocarbons preserved in an Archean rock were extracted, and their composition and distribution in consecutive slices from the outside to the inside of the rock were examined. The 2.7 Ga rock was collected from the Fortescue Group in the Pilbara region, Western Australia. The bitumen I (solvent-extracted rock) and bitumen II (solvent-extracted hydrochloric acid-treated rock) fractions have different hydrocarbon compositions. Bitumen I contains only trace amounts of aliphatic hydrocarbons and virtually no aromatic hydrocarbons. In contrast, bitumen II contains abundant aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The difference seems to reflect the weathering history and preservational environment of the investigated rock. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in bitumen I are considered to be mainly from later hydrocarbon inputs, after initial deposition and burial, and are therefore not indigenous. The lack of aromatic hydrocarbons in bitumen I suggests a severe weathering environment since uplift and exposure of the rock at the Earth's surface in the Cenozoic. On the other hand, the high abundance of aromatic hydrocarbons in bitumen II suggests that bitumen II hydrocarbons have been physically isolated from removal by their encapsulation within carbonate minerals. The richness of aromatic hydrocarbons and the relative scarcity of aliphatic hydrocarbons may reflect the original compositions of organic materials biosynthesised in ancient organisms in the Archean era, or the high thermal maturity of the rock. Cyanobacterial biomarkers were observed in the surficial slices of the rock, which may indicate that endolithic cyanobacteria inhabited the surface outcrop. The distribution of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons implies a high thermal maturity, which is consistent with the lack of any specific biomarkers, such as hopanes and steranes, and the prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphic grade. PMID:25393450

  5. Electromagnetic induction studies in the Eyre Peninsula, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusi, Robert; White, Antony; Heinson, Graham; Milligan, Peter

    1998-03-01

    Magnetic field fluctuations have been recorded by an array of portable three-component magnetometers at 60 sites across the Eyre Peninsula in South Australia between December 1993 and March 1995. An additional 54 magnetometer data records, collected prior to 1989 and described by Milligan (1989) and Milligan, White & Chamalaun (1989), were included in the analysis. A major conductive feature in the crust, first noted by White & Milligan (1984) as the Eyre Peninsula Anomaly (EPA), is re-examined to assess its continuity to the north of the original arrays and to investigate its relationship with major tectonic features. Magnetic-field time-series were converted to induction arrows in the frequency domain. These induction arrows were initially inverted using the minimum-structure 2-D Occam approach to estimate the electrical conductance of the crust. Following this, thin-sheet forward modelling was used to examine the relationship between the conductance and the dominant tectonic features. The principal results of the modelling are that a narrow conductive feature extends inland from the coast about 160km before terminating, and the conductance is in the range 3000 to 10000S, which decreases inland. A strong correlation exists between the electrical conductance of the Eyre Peninsula and Bouguer gravity anomalies, and in particular the EPA is coincident with a significant Bouguer gravity gradient. There is also good agreement between the locations of the foci of earthquakes of magnitude greater than 4.0 and the EPA. We believe that the anomaly is associated with a geological fracture in the Precambrian upper crust as a result of crustal extension prior to the rifting of Australia from Antarctica in the Jurassic (160Ma).

  6. Sexual Difficulties for Persons with Multiple Sclerosis in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redelman, Margaret Juliet

    2009-01-01

    This 1992 study was conducted to ascertain the incidence of sexual difficulties in individuals diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) living in New South Wales, Australia. New South Wales is a state lying roughly 29-36 [degrees] south of the equator. This is currently the largest study conducted. The anonymous questionnaire completed by 283…

  7. African, southern Indian and South American cratons were not part of the Rodinia supercontinent: evidence from field relationships and geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröner, Alfred; Cordani, Umberto

    2003-11-01

    We discuss the question whether the late Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic rocks of eastern, central and southern Africa, Madagascar, southern India, Sri Lanka and South America have played any role in the formation and dispersal of the supercontinent Rodinia, believed to have existed between about 1000 and 750 Ma ago. First, there is little evidence for the production of significant volumes of ~1.4-1.0 Ga (Kibaran or Grenvillian age) continental crust in the Mozambique belt (MB) of East Africa, except, perhaps, in parts of northern Mozambique. This is also valid for most terranes related to West Gondwana, which are made up of basement rocks older than Mesoproterozoic, reworked in the Brasiliano/Pan-African orogenic cycle. This crust cannot be conclusively related to either magmatic accretion processes on the active margin of Rodinia or continental collision leading to amalgamation of the supercontinent. So far, no 1.4-1.0 Ga rocks have been identified in Madagascar. Secondly, there is no conclusive evidence for a ~1.0 Ga high-grade metamorphic event in the MB, although such metamorphism has been recorded in the presumed continuation of the MB in East Antarctica. In South America, even the Sunsas mobile belt, which is correlated with the Grenville belt of North America, does not include high-grade metamorphic rocks. All terranes with Mesoproterozoic ages seem to have evolved within extensional, aulacogen-type structures, and their compressional deformation, where observed, is normally much younger and is related to amalgamation of Gondwana. This is also valid for the Trans-Saharan and West Congo belts of West Africa. Third, there is also no evidence for post-1000 Ma sedimentary sequences that were deposited on the passive margin(s) of Rodinia. In contrast, the MB of East Africa and Madagascar is characterized by extensive structural reworking and metamorphic overprinting of Archaean rocks, particularly in Tanzania and Madagascar, and these rocks either

  8. Constraining the Protolith of Large, Macroscopically Layered Kyanite-bearing Eclogite Xenoliths from the Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebelo, C. C.; Gurney, J. J.; Richardson, S. H.; Shaw-Kahle, B.

    2015-12-01

    We describe the geochemistry of a suite of ten layered, kyanite-bearing eclogites from the Roberts Victor kimberlite, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa. All samples are characterized by clear zonation corresponding to the presence or absence of kyanite and the state of preservation of clinopyroxene. The sampled zones are defined as KF (free of kyanite, with well-preserved garnet and clinopyroxene), KZ (preserved clinopyroxene is absent; garnet occurs with kyanite); and TZ (partially preserved clinopyroxene and more altered garnet; kyanite may or may not be present). We report on results of petrographic observations, mineral chemistry, and trace element and oxygen isotope analyses for the different zones. Results from adjacent zones are presented as geochemical transects perpendicular to the layering for each xenolith. We use the results to infer the geochemical evolution of likely protoliths for the various samples. Mineral chemistry of garnets across the different zones shows decreasing FeO*, Cr2O3, MgO and MnO and increasing in CaO from KF into KZ. Clinopyroxene shows increasing in Al2O3 and Na2O from KF into KZ. Clinopyroxenes approach a more jadeitic composition towards the KZ and are more diopsidic in KF. Trace element analyses were conducted with laser ablation ICP-MS on hand-picked mineral separates. Garnets show subchondritic LREE depletion and superchondritic HREE enrichment in both KF and KZ. Positive europium anomalies in garnet are present in all zones, with relatively larger anomalies in garnet grains from KZ. Preserved clinopyroxenes show complementary REE patterns to garnet grains, with superchondritic LREEs and subchondritic HREEs. For the suite of xenoliths, results from mass spectrometry on oxygen extracted by laser fluorination on mineral separates show that δ18O values are above the accepted mantle value and fall within the range of hydrothermally altered oceanic crustal material. At this stage of the research, the bulk protolith is interpreted to

  9. Neural tube defects in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Field, Barbara

    1978-01-01

    Cases of spina bifida cystica, encephalocele, and anencephaly occurring over a 9-year period, 1965 to 1973, in New South Wales, Australia, were identified. A low frequency of 1·1 for spina bifida and encephalocele (SB) and 0·9 for anencephaly (A) was found. Secular trends parallel to those observed in the northern hemisphere were noted. Detailed analysis of 1575 cases showed an excess of births in spring, corresponding with conception in the summer months, after correction for shorter gestation in anencephalus, which varies from the peak of spring conceptions observed in British studies. An excess of female cases for each abnormality and a social class effect with a deficit of cases in classes I and II and an excess in classes IV and V and ex-nuptial births were apparent. The first birth rank for younger mothers did not show a significantly increased risk; however, the effect of high birth rank and older maternal age was more significant. Migration studies showed that in migrating from areas of high incidence these parents maintain a higher risk than the Australian population. The highest risk group was that in which both parents were born in the UK, and the next highest that in which an English-born mother was married to an Australian father. Mothers from Malta, and either or both parents from Lebanon, Egypt, and Austria were also at high risk. Part-aboriginal children had a higher risk rate for ASB than white Australian children. The proportion of older sibs affected was 4·12% of sibs of both sexes of an index case of spina bifida, and 3·19% of an index case of anencephaly. The abnormalities alternate or recur in families. An increased perinatal mortality rate in sibs was shown. Twin studies showed a higher concordance rate for monochorionic pairs. A sequential interaction in an excess of opposite sex sib before an index case was apparent. The results of this study support a multifactorial aetiology for ASB resulting from genetic environmental interaction

  10. The Kimberlites and related rocks of the Kuruman Kimberlite Province, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Cara L.; Griffin, William L.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Pearson, Norman J.; Shee, Simon R.

    2011-03-01

    The Kuruman Kimberlite Province is comprised of 16 small pipes and dikes and contains some of the oldest known kimberlites (>1.6 Ga). In this study, 12 intrusions are subdivided into three groups with distinct petrology, age, and geochemical and isotopic compositions: (1) kimberlites with groundmass perovskites defining a Pb-Pb isochron age of 1787 ± 69 Ma, (2) orangeite with a U-Pb perovskite age of 124 ± 16 Ma, and (3) ultramafic lamprophyres (aillikite and mela-aillikite) with a zircon U-Pb age of 1642 ± 46 Ma. The magma type varies across the Province, with kimberlites in the east, lamprophyres in the west and orangeite and ultramafic lamprophyres to the south. Differences in the age and petrogenesis of the X007 orangeite and Clarksdale and Aalwynkop aillikites suggest that these intrusions are probably unrelated to the Kuruman Province. Kimberlite and orangeite whole-rock major and trace element compositions are similar to other South African localities. Compositionally, the aillikites typically lie off kimberlite and orangeite trends. Groundmass mineral chemistry of the kimberlites has some features more typical of orangeites. Kimberlite whole-rock Sr and Nd isotopes show zoning across the Province. When the kimberlites erupted at ~1.8 Ga, they sampled a core volume (ca 50 km across) of relatively depleted SCLM that was partially surrounded by a rim of more metasomatized mantle. This zonation may have been related to the development of the adjacent Kheis Belt (oldest rocks ~2.0 Ga), as weaker zones surrounding the more resistant core section of SCLM were more extensively metasomatized.

  11. 68 FR 47607 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, China, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-08-11

    ..., except to the extent permitted by section 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, China, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa... States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from Australia, China, Greece, Ireland, Japan,...

  12. 68 FR 55062 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide from Australia, China, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-09-22

    ..., Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register of August 11, 2003 (68 FR 47607). The... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide from Australia, China, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa... States is materially injured by reason of imports from Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and...

  13. An aerial radiological survey of Maralinga and EMU, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Tipton, W J; Berry, H A; Fritzsche, A E

    1988-10-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the former British nuclear test ranges at Maralinga and Emu in South Australia from May through July 1987. The survey covered an area of approximately 1,550 square kilometers which included the nine major trial sites, where a nuclear yield occurred, and all the minor trial sites, where physics experiments were conducted. Flight lines were flown at an altitude of 30 meters with line spacings of 50, 100, and 200 meters depending on the area and whether man-made contamination was present. Results of the aerial survey were processed for americium-241 (used to determine plutonium contamination), cesium-137, cobalt-60, and uranium-238. The aerial survey also detected the presence of europium-152, a soil activation product, in the immediate vicinity of the major trial ground zeros. Ground measurements were also made at approximately 120 locations using a high-resolution germanium detector to provide supplemental data for the aerial survey. This survey was conducted as part of a series of studies being conducted over a two to three-year timeframe to obtain information from which options and associated costs can be formulated about the decontamination and possible rehabilitation of the former nuclear test sites.

  14. A whole rock absolute paleointensity determination of dacites from the Duffer Formation (ca. 3.467 Ga) of the Pilbara Craton, Australia: An impossible task?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Bervera, Emilio; Krasa, David; Van Kranendonk, Martin J.

    2016-09-01

    We have conducted a whole-rock type magnetic and absolute paleointensity determination of the red dacite of the Duffer Formation from the Pilbara Craton, Australia. The age of the dated rock unit is 3467 ± 5 Ma (95% confidence). Vector analyses results of the step-wise alternating field demagnetization (NRM up to 100 mT) and thermal demagnetization (from NRM up to 650 °C) yield three components of magnetization. Curie point determinations indicate three characteristic temperatures, one at 150-200 °C, a second one at ∼450 °C and a third one at ∼580 °C. Magnetic grain-size experiments were performed on small specimens with a variable field translation balance (VFTB). The coercivity of remanence (Hcr) suggests that the NRM is carried by low-coercivity grains that are associated with a magnetite fraction as is shown by the high-temperature component with blocking temperatures above 450 °C and up to at least 580 °C. The ratios of the hysteresis parameters plotted as a modified Day diagram show that most grain sizes are scattered within the Single Domain (SD) and the Superparamagnetic and Single Domain SP-SD domain ranges. In addition to the rock magnetic experiments we have performed absolute paleointensity experiments on the samples using the modified Thellier-Coe double heating method to determine the paleointensities. Partial-TRM (p-TRM) checks were performed systematically to document magnetomineralogical changes during heating. The temperature was incremented by steps of 50 °C between room temperature and 590 °C. The paleointensity determinations were obtained from the slope of Arai diagrams. Our paleointensity results indicate that the paleofield obtained was ∼6.4 ± 0.68 (N = 11) micro-Teslas with a Virtual Dipole Moment (VDM) of 1.51 ± 0.81 × 1022 Am2, from a medium-to high-temperature component ranging from 300 to 590 °C that has been interpreted to be the oldest magnetization yet recorded in paleomagnetic studies of the Duffer Formation. The

  15. Ion Microprobe U-Pb Dating and REE Analysis of Apatite from Kerogen-rich Silica Dike from North Pole Area, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, M.

    2003-12-01

    In order to provide a time constraint on the 13C-depleted kerogen in silica dikes that intruded 3.5 Ga greenstone from Pilbara Craton in Western Australia, we have carried out an ion microprobe U-Pb dating and rare earth element (REE) analysis of apatite from the dike. Two types of apatite were identified in the dikes based on their occurrences. One is stick-shape apatites (Type 1) in secondary silica micro-veins that cut the silica dike. The other is granular apatites (Type 2) that occurs in matrix of the dike. Occurrence in the secondary micro-veins (Type 1), non-igenous chondrite normalized REE patterns (Type 1 and 2), chemical zoning (some of Type 1 and 2), and presence of mineral inclusion that is composed of Fe and S (some of Type 2) suggest that both Type 1 and 2 apatites were crystallized in the silica dike. Ion microprobe U-Pb dating of Type 1 apatite did not give a meaningful age, while Type 2 apatite yields a Tera-Wasserburg concordia intercept age of 3214 +/- 140 Ma (95 per cent confidence level, MSWD = 0.6) in a three-dimensional 238U/206Pb-207Pb/206Pb-204Pb/206Pb diagram, and a 204Pb/206Pb-207Pb/206Pb isochron age of 3191 +/- 150 Ma (95 per cent confidence level, MSWD = 0.5). It is difficult to judge whether the U-Pb and Pb-Pb age of Type 2 apatite is crystallization age or metamorphic age, since the estimated range of closure temperature of U-Pb system in the apatite and that of metamorphic temperature is partly overlapped. In either case, it can be safely concluded that the minimum age of the dike and kerogen is 3.0 Ga. These ages might allow the interpretation that the kerogen was produced by biological carbon fixation and/or abiological reaction (such as Fischer-Tropsch Type reaction) at least before 3.0 Ga.

  16. Methane Emissions from Abandoned Boreholes in South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, S. J.; Fry, R.; Dell'Amico, M.; Williams, D.; Halliburton, B.; Element, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Surat Basin in south-eastern Queensland is one of Australia's main coal bed methane production areas. It has also been subject to coal exploration over many years and consequently there are thousands of abandoned exploration boreholes throughout the region. Here, we present some results of field measurements aimed at locating leaking legacy exploration boreholes in the Surat Basin and to quantify their emission rates. We also discuss emission measurements made on abandoned CBM wells in Queensland and NSW that have been decommissioned according to modern practices. Leaking boreholes were located using a Picarro 2301 CH4 analyser mounted in a vehicle that was driven through gas fields in the Surat Basin. Where surface emissions were indicated by elevated ambient CH4 levels, the emission rate was measured using soil flux chambers at each site. For comparison, soil gas flux measurements were also made on natural surfaces and agricultural land throughout the study areas. Ten borehole sources were located during the surveys, yielding emission rates from less than 0.1 kg CH4 day-1 to more than 100 kg CH4 day-1. A number of other known exploration borehole sites were examined which had no detectable CH4 emissions. Plugged and abandoned CBM wells showed no CH4 emissions except in two cases where emission rates of about 0.07 g CH4 day-1 were detected, which were comparable to natural wetland CH4 emissions. Preliminary results suggest that modern decommissioning practices appear to be effective in preventing CH4 leakage from CBM abandoned wells. However, legacy coal exploration boreholes may represent a significant source of CH4 in the Surat Basin, although the proportion of these holes leaking CH4 is yet to be determined. Moreover, it is not yet clear if emissions from boreholes are affected by changes in groundwater induced by water extraction associated with gas production and agriculture. This is an area requiring further research.

  17. Applying Health in All Policies to obesity in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Newman, Lareen; Ludford, Isobel; Williams, Carmel; Herriot, Michele

    2016-03-01

    Public policy strategies impact on population health by acting on the effectiveness, availability and distribution of the social determinants of health. Reducing obesity and promoting healthy weight is a key focus of governments, health promoters and researchers, and can benefit from a systems approach with 'upstream' policy action beyond the health sector. Although the literature identifies many areas for hypothetical non-health policy action, and in particular relating to food and activity environments, few have identified practical, politically viable and relatively cost-free processes by which non-health sectors would want to commit to such action. This article details how the Government of South Australia used the Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach in the SA HiAP Healthy Weight Project. It mapped the core business and policy directions of 44 state departments against research on 'what works' to address obesity. Negotiations then developed high-level policy commitments to address factors promoting healthy weight which predominantly changed ways of working rather than requiring new expenditure and also assisted departments in meeting their own goals; departmental chief executives endorsed the commitments. By starting from departmental documents, and not restricting the project to departments with more 'obvious' obesity prevention potential, we gained commitment to a broader range of policy actions than identified elsewhere; for example, for prisons, environment and botanic gardens, housing and vocational education. The SA HiAP Healthy Weight Project provides one example of a workable, evidence-based systems approach to increase commitment to practical and politically viable opportunities across government to address the non-health environments supporting healthy weight. PMID:25085460

  18. A Study on Problem and Pathological Gambling among University Students in South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mubarak, A. R.; Blanksby, P.

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the correlates of problem and pathological gambling among university students in South Australia. Convenience sampling method was used to select participants ("n" = 163; 55.2 per cent women, 44.8 per cent men; age range 17-57 years) from two faculties in a South Australian university. A…

  19. Clastic metasediments of the Early Proterozoic Broken Hill Group, New South Wales, Australia: Geochemistry, provenance, and metallogenic significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.; Stevens, B.P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Whole-rock analyses of samples of pelite, psammite, and psammopelite from the Early Proterozoic Broken Hill Group (Willyama Supergroup) in the Broken Hill Block, New South Wales, Australia, reveal distinctive geochemical signatures. Major-element data show high Al2O3 and K2O, low MgO and Na2O, and relatively high Fe2O3T MgO ratios, compared to average Early Proterozoic clastic metasediments. High field strength elements (HFSE) are especially abundant, including Nb (most 15-27 ppm), Ta (most 1.0-2.2 ppm), Th (17-36 ppm), Hf (4-15 ppm), and Zr (most 170-400 ppm); Y (33-74 ppm) is also high. Concentrations of ferromagnesian elements are generally low (Sc = < 20 ppm, Ni = ??? 62 ppm, Co = <26 ppm; Cr = most < 100 ppm). Data for rare earth elements (REEs) show high abundances of light REEs (LaCN = 116-250 ?? chondrite; LaCN = 437 in one sample), high LaCN YbCN ratios (5.6-13.9), and large negative Eu anomalies ( Eu Eu* = 0.32-0.57). The geochemical data indicate derivation of the metasedimentary rocks of the Broken Hill Group by the erosion mainly of felsic igneous (or meta-igneous) rocks. High concentrations of HFSE, Y, and REEs in the metasediments suggest a provenance dominanted by anorogenic granites and(or) rhyolites, including those with A-type chemistry. Likely sources of the metasediments were the rhyolitic to rhyodacitic protoliths of local quartz + feldspar ?? biotite ?? garnet gneisses (e.g., Potosi-type gneiss) that occur within the lower part of the Willyama Supergroup, or chemically similar basement rocks in the region; alternative sources may have included Early Proterozoic anorogenic granites and(or) rhyolites in the Mount Isa and(or) Pine Creek Blocks of northern Australia, or in the Gawler craton of South Australia. Metallogenic considerations suggest that the metasediments of the Broken Hill Block formed enriched source rocks during the generation of pegmatite-hosted deposits and concentrations of La, Ce, Nb, Ta, Th, and Sn in the region. Li, Be, B, W

  20. Diatexite Deformation and Magma Extraction on Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasalova, Pavlina; Weinberg, Roberto; Ward, Lindsay; Fanning, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Migmatite terranes are structurally complex because of strong rheological contrast between layers with different melt contents and because of magma migration leading to volume changes. Migmatite deformation is intimately linked with magma extraction and the origin of granitoids. We investigate here the relationships between an evolving deformation and magma extraction in migmatites formed during the ca. 500Ma Delamerian orogeny, exposed on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Here, several phases of deformation occurred in the presence of melt. During an early upright, non-cylindrical folding event, magma was channeled towards the hinge zones of antiforms. Funnel-shaped networks of leucosomes form a root zone that link up towards a central axial planar channel, forming the main magma extraction paths during folding. Extraction was associated with fold limb collapse, and antiformal hinge disruption by magma accumulation and transfer. During a later deformation phase, melt-rich diatexites were deformed, and schollen were disaggregated into smaller blocks and schlieren, and deformed into asymmetric, sigmoidal shapes indicative of dextral shearing flow. During flow, magma accumulated preferentially along shear planes, indicating a dilatational component during shearing (transtension) and in strain shadows of schollen. As deformation waned, magma extraction from these diatexites gave rise to N-trending, steeply dipping, funnel-shaped channels not associated to any deformational feature. The funnel-shape of these structures indicates the direction of magma flow. Structures developed during this phase are comparable with those formed during dewatering of soft sediments. Despite a high degree of complexity, magma migration and extraction features record distinct responses to the evolving deformation which can be used to understand deformation, and nature and direction of melt extraction. The oldest and youngest magmatic rocks from migmatites were dated (U-Pb monazite, SHRIMP

  1. ArcGIS studies and field relationships of Paleoproterozoic mafic dyke swarms from the south of Devarakonda area, Eastern Dharwar Craton, southern India: Implications for their relative ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samal, Amiya K.; Srivastava, Rajesh K.; Sinha, Lokesh K.

    2015-07-01

    Google Earth Image and cross-cutting field relationships of distinct Paleoproterozoic mafic dykes from south of Devarakonda area in the Eastern Dharwar Craton has been studied to establish relative emplacement ages. The Devarakonda, covering an area of ˜700 km2, shows spectacular cross-cutting field relationships between different generations of mafic dykes, and is therefore selected for the present study. Although some recent radiometric age data are available for distinct Paleoproterozoic mafic dykes from the Eastern Dharwar Craton, there is no analogous age data available for the study area. Therefore, relative age relationships of distinct mafic dykes have been established for the study area using cross-cutting field relationships and GIS techniques, which shows slightly different picture than other parts of the Eastern Dharwar Craton. It is suggested that NE-SW trending mafic dykes are youngest in age (probably belong to ˜1.89 Ga dyke swarm), whereas NNW-SSE trending mafic dykes have oldest emplacement age. Further, the NNW-SSE mafic dykes are older to the other two identified mafic dyke swarms, i.e., WNW-ESE (˜2.18 Ga) and N-S trending (˜2.21 Ga) mafic dyke swarms, as dykes of these two swarms cross-cut a NNW-SSE dyke. It provides an evidence for existence of a new set of mafic dykes that is older to the ˜2.21 Ga and probably younger to the ˜2.37 Ga swarm. Present study also supports existence of two mafic dyke swarms having similar trend (ENE-WSW to NE-SW) but emplaced in two different ages (one is ˜2.37 Ga and other ˜1.89 Ga).

  2. Metasedimentary rocks of the Angara-Kan granulite-gneiss block (Yenisey Ridge, south-western margin of the Siberian Craton): Provenance characteristics, deposition and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urmantseva, L. N.; Turkina, O. M.; Larionov, A. N.

    2012-04-01

    The Angara-Kan granulite-gneiss block (Yenisey Ridge) is one of the main basements uplift within the south-western margin of the Siberian Craton. The major part of the Angara-Kan block is composed of Early Precambrian high-grade metamorphic rocks. Metasedimentary association of the Kan granulitic complex is composed of garnet-bearing, garnet-orthopyroxene and orthopyroxene-bearing gneisses, garnet- and orthopyroxene-bearing gneisses with cordierite and sillimanite. Studied paragneisses were formed at the expense of granulite metamorphism of terrigenous rocks, ranging from graywacke to pelitic rock or mudstone. To estimate the time of sedimentation and metamorphism of the terrigenous deposits, the U-Pb zircon dating has been performed using the SHRIMP II ion microprobe. Detrital zircon cores from the biotite-orthopyroxene and high-alumina gneisses yield ages of 2.6-1.94 and 2.4-1.94 Ga, respectively. Together with the age of the magmatic zircons formed during high-grade metamorphism and partial melting (˜1.89 Ga) and metamorphic rims (˜1.87 Ga) it defines the time of sedimentation between 2.0-1.94 and 1.89-1.87 Ga. Detrital zircon ages indicate both Archean and Paleoproterozioc rocks in provenance source, that agrees with the Nd model ages of metasediments ranging in interval 2.4-2.8 Ga. Potential source of the Archean detrital zircons was the exposed basement of the southwestern Siberian Craton, whereas the Paleoproterozoic juvenile crustal source seems to be buried basement of the Tungus province of the Siberian Craton. Deposition of the Kan terrigeneous rocks was coeval with sedimentation in the southeastern part of the Sharyzhalgay uplift, where ages of detrital zircon cores and metamorphic rims from paragneisses bracket sediment deposition between 1.95 and 1.85 Ga.

  3. Isotopic fractionation of nitrogen and carbon in Paleoarchean cherts from Pilbara craton, Western Australia: Origin of 15N-depleted nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinti, Daniele L.; Hashizume, Ko; Sugihara, Akiyo; Massault, Marc; Philippot, Pascal

    2009-07-01

    Nitrogen and carbon isotopic compositions, together with mineralogy and trace element geochemistry, were studied in a few kerogen-rich Paleoarchean cherts, a barite and a dolomitic stromatolite belonging to the eastern (Dixon Island Formation) and western (Dresser and Strelley Pool Chert Formations; North Pole Dome and Marble Bar) terranes of Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. The aim of the study was to search for 15N-depleted isotopic signatures, often found in kerogens of this period, and explain the origin of these anomalies. Trace elements suggest silica precipitation by hydrothermal fluids as the main process of chert formation with a contamination from volcanoclastic detritus. This is supported by the occurrence of hydrothermal-derived minerals in the studied samples indicating precipitation temperatures up to 350 °C. Only a dolomitic stromatolite from Strelley Pool shows a superchondritic Y/Ho ratio of 72 and a positive Eu/Eu * anomaly of 1.8, characteristic of chemical precipitates from the Archean seawater. The bulk δ 13C vs. δ 15N values measured in the cherts show a roughly positive co-variation, except for one sample from the North Pole (PI-85-00). The progressive enrichment in 15N and 13C from a pristine source having δ 13C ⩽ -36‰ and δ 15N ⩽ -4‰ is correlated with a progressive depletion in N content and to variations in Ba/La and Co/As ratios. These trends have been interpreted as a progressive hydrothermal alteration of the cherts by metamorphic fluids. Isotopic exchange at 350 °C between NH 4+(rock) and N 2(fluid) may explain the isotopic and elemental composition of N in the studied cherts. However, we need to assume isotopic exchange at 350 °C between carbonate C and graphite to explain the large 13C enrichment recorded. Only sample PI-85-00 shows a large N loss (90%) with a positive δ 15N value (+11‰), while C (up to 120 ppm and δ 13C -38‰) seems to be unaffected. This pattern has been interpreted as the result of

  4. Leaching of silica bands and concentration of magnetite in Archean BIF by hypogene fluids: Beebyn Fe ore deposit, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duuring, Paul; Hagemann, Steffen

    2013-03-01

    The ~2,752-Ma Weld Range greenstone belt in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia hosts several Fe ore deposits that provide insights into the role of early hypogene fluids in the formation of high-grade (>55 wt% Fe) magnetite-rich ore in banded iron formation (BIF). The 1.5-km-long Beebyn orebody comprises a series of steeply dipping, discontinuous, <50-m-thick lenses of magnetite-(martite)-rich ore zones in BIF that extend from surface to vertical depths of at least 250 m. The ore zones are enveloped by a 3-km-long, 150-m-wide outer halo of hypogene siderite and ferroan dolomite in BIF and mafic igneous country rocks. Ferroan chlorite characterises 20-m-wide proximal alteration zones in mafic country rocks. The magnetite-rich Beebyn orebody is primarily the product of hypogene fluids that circulated through reverse shear zones during the formation of an Archean isoclinal fold-and-thrust belt. Two discrete stages of hypogene fluid flow caused the pseudomorphic replacement of silica-rich bands in BIF by Stage 1 siderite and magnetite and later by Stage 2 ferroan dolomite. The resulting carbonate-altered BIF is markedly depleted in SiO2 and enriched in CaO, MgO, LOI, P2O5 and Fe2O3(total) compared with the least-altered BIF. Subsequent reactivation of these shear zones and circulation of hypogene fluids resulted in the leaching of existing hypogene carbonate minerals and the concentration of residual magnetite-rich bands. These Stage 3 magnetite-rich ore zones are depleted in SiO2 and enriched in K2O, CaO, MgO, P2O5 and Fe2O3(total) relative to the least-altered BIF. Proximal wall rock hypogene alteration zones in mafic igneous country rocks (up to 20 m from the BIF contact) are depleted in SiO2, CaO, Na2O, and K2O and are enriched in Fe2O3(total), MgO and P2O5 compared with distal zones. Recent supergene alteration affects all rocks within about 100 m below the present surface, disturbing hypogene mineral and the geochemical zonation patterns associated with

  5. Archaean greenstone belt tectonism and basin development: some insights from the Barberton and Pietersburg greenstone belts, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wit, Maarten J.

    The sediments in two of South Africa's major Archaean greenstone belts, the Barberton and Pietersburg greenstone belts, span an age range of some 800 million years. Both greenstone belts represent remnants of extensive fold and thrust belts with complex, but different polyphase tectonic histories. The oldest sediments were deposited between circa 3470 and 3490 M.a. on oceanic like crust preserved in the Barberton belt, possibly at the same time as sedimentation on similar oceanic crust preserved in the Pietersburg belt. Thereafter, the geologic evolution of these two belts diverged considerably. In the Barberton belt, there is clear evidence that the oceanic crust and sediments were obducted onto an intra-arc basin environment within 50 million years of its formation. The sequence was later further imbricated by northwest directed thrust stacking between 3300-3200 M.a. Basin development during both periods of thrusting took place in close proximity to active "calc-alkaline" arc systems. Deformation of the sediments within these basins took place while the same sediments were being deposited. Sedimentation took place predominantly in subaqueous environments, ranging from submarine mid-fans below the photic zone to tidal flats and deltaic plains. The sediments represent a polyhistory successor-type basin: early basins developed along a complex subduction related plate boundary; these basins later evolved into foreland depositories along and within collisional environments of an accretionary orogen. Late in the history of the Barberton greenstone belt (circa 3100 M.a.), the rocks were in places thermally reactivated and probably subjected to extensional processes; these processes overlapped in time with the main episodes of economic gold mineralization, and are of "early Witwatersrand-basin" age. The oceanic-like crust (including associated sediments) preserved in the Pietersburg belt was not significantly deformed until at least 500 million years after its formation

  6. Origin of cratonic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev. Klein, George; Hsui, Albert T.

    1987-12-01

    Tectonic subsidence curves show that the Illinois, Michigan, and Williston basins formed by initial fault-controlled mechanical subsidence during rifting and by subsequent thermal subsidence. Thermal subsidence began around 525 Ma in the Illinois Basin, 520 460 Ma in the Michigan Basin, and 530 500 Ma in the Williston Basin. In the Illinois Basin, a second subsidence episode (middle Mississippian through Early Permian) was caused by flexural foreland subsidence in response to the Alleghanian-Hercynian orogeny. Resurgent Permian rifting in the Illinois Basin is inferred because of intrusion of well-dated Permian alnoites; such intrusive rocks are normally associated with rifting processes. The process of formation of these cratonic basins remains controversial. Past workers have suggested mantle phase changes at the base of the crust, mechanical subsidence in response to isostatically uncompensated excess mass following igneous intrusions, intrusion of mantle plumes into the crust, or regional thermal metamorphic events as causes of basin initiation. Cratonic basins of North America, Europe, Africa, and South America share common ages of formation (around 550 to 500 Ma), histories of sediment accumulation, temporal volume changes of sediment fills, and common dates of interregional unconformities. Their common date of formation suggests initiation of cratonic basins in response to breakup of a late Precambrian super-continent. This supercontinent acted as a heat lens that caused partial melting of the lower crust and upper mantle followed by emplacement of anorogenic granites during extensional tectonics in response to supercontinent breakup. Intrusion of anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks weakened continental lithosphere, thus providing a zone of localized regional stretching and permitting formation of cratonic basins almost simultaneously over sites of intrusion of these anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks.

  7. Hypothesis of homeothermy evolution on isolated South China Craton that moved from equator to cold north latitudes 250-200Myr ago.

    PubMed

    Kurbel, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Based on avian and mammalian fossils found in the northeastern Chinese province of Liaoning and physiological traits linked to homeothermy, a hypothesis of evolution of homeothermic animals is proposed. It is based on the importance of muscle function in cold environment, as a strong selection pressure that favors endothermic metabolism during periods of cold climates. The presented hypothesis postulates that in progressively cooling environment, animals will develop thermal insulation, increased basal metabolism if food is available, and torpor when food is scarce. Since late Permian, Triassic and Cretaceous global temperatures were high, an exceptional place that gradually became cold was needed for the homeothermy evolution. South China Craton is here proposed as a plausible candidate for that role since it drifted across the Paleo-Tethys ocean, from equator to high northern latitudes in a journey that lasted from 250 to 200Myr ago. After this small continent collided with North China Craton some 200Myr ago, the already cold-adapted animals had spread to large, mostly empty spaces on the North China Craton, due to their evolutionary advantage of making active living in the cold environment. The most advantageous early homeothermic animals went further north to the cold Liaoning to start an oasis that delivered modern birds during next 50Myr. Modern mammals possibly evolved somewhere in the cold vicinity. This made Liaoning and similarly cold places the cradles of early birds and early mammals since for the following millions of years these places remained too cold for poikilotherms to enter and warm enough for homeotherms to dwell, until the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event and subsequent global cooling that diminished poikilotherms. Homeothermy was probably even more important as a survival advantage in cooler climates of Paleogene, when mammals and birds became dominant animals. This interpretation is probably supported by a recent report that a small

  8. Groundwater recharge to a sedimentary aquifer in the topographically closed Uley South Basin, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordens, Carlos M.; Werner, Adrian D.; Post, Vincent E. A.; Hutson, John L.; Simmons, Craig T.; Irvine, Benjamin M.

    2012-02-01

    The chloride mass balance (CMB) and water-table fluctuation (WTF) analysis methods were used to estimate recharge rates in the Uley South Basin, South Australia. Groundwater hydrochemistry and isotope data were used to infer the nature of recharge pathways and evapotranspiration processes. These data indicate that some combination of two plausible processes is occurring: (1) complete evaporation of rainfall occurs, and the precipitated salts are washed down and redissolved when recharge occurs, and (2) transpiration dominates over evaporation. It is surmised that sinkholes predominantly serve to by-pass the shallow soil zone and redistribute infiltration into the deeper unsaturated zone, rather than transferring rainfall directly to the water table. Chlorofluorocarbon measurements were used in approximating recharge origins to account for coastal proximity effects in the CMB method and pumping seasonality was accounted for in the WTF-based recharge estimates. Best estimates of spatially and temporally averaged recharge rates for the basin are 52-63 and 47-129 mm/year from the CMB and WTF analyses, respectively. Adaptations of both the CMB and WTF analyses to account for nuances of the system were necessary, demonstrating the need for careful application of these methods.

  9. The development of an 'Indigenous team' in a mainstream mental health service in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Fielke, Ken; Cord-Udy, Nigel; Buckskin, John; Lattanzio, Adriana

    2009-08-01

    The Social Justice Report 2005 recommended that the governments of Australia commit to achieving equal health status for all Australians "within a generation". Improving the accessibility of mainstream health services for Aboriginal people is highlighted as a central requirement. This paper describes the establishment, roles and functions of the 'Indigenous team' embedded within the South Australian Rural and Remote Mental Health Service (RRMHS) as one strategy to improve access and responsiveness of mental health services to Aboriginal patients in South Australia. We report on our progress to date and possible future directions for the team. PMID:19579113

  10. Adult Retraining and Reskilling in Australia and South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Katrina; Lee, Young-Hyun; Phan, Oanh; Ra, Young-Sun

    A study explored the mechanisms used by adults in Australia and Korea to keep their skills current or to enhance their range of skills. Data were gathered through recent research reports and unpublished unemployment and training data. The study identified areas of the vocational education and training systems in the two countries that are…

  11. An Investigation into Why Students from Regional South Australia Choose to Study Business Programs in the Capital City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Janet; Ellis, Bronwyn

    2011-01-01

    Although Business undergraduate studies are available at the University of South Australia's (UniSA) Centre for Regional Engagement (CRE), both at the Whyalla Campus and the Mount Gambier Regional Centre (MGRC), many students from regional South Australia choose to undertake Business degrees in Adelaide, the state capital, rather than locally.…

  12. Asteroid mega-impacts and Precambrian banded iron formations: 2.63 Ga and 2.56 Ga impact ejecta/fallout at the base of BIF/argillite units, Hamersley Basin, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glikson, Andrew; Vickers, John

    2007-02-01

    The temporal association between late Archaean to earliest Proterozoic asteroid impact ejecta/fallout units and overlying banded iron formations suggests that, in some instances, these impacts were closely followed by significant transformation in the nature of source terrains of the sediments. The Jeerinah Impact Layer (JIL) [B.M. Simonson, D. Davies, S.W. Hassler, Discovery of a layer of probable impact melt spherules in the late Archean Jeerinah Formation, Fortescue Group, Western Australia. Aust. J. Earth Sci. 47 (2000) 315-325; B.M. Simonson, S.W. Hassler, Revised correlations in the early Precambrian Hamersley Basin based on a horizon of resedimented impact spherules. Aust. J. Earth Sci. 44 (1997) 37-48; B.M. Simonson, B.P. Glass, Spherule layers - records of ancient impacts. Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 32 (2004) 329-361; A.Y. Glikson, Early Precambrian asteroid impact-triggered tsunami: excavated seabed, debris flows, exotic boulders, and turbulence features associated with 3.47-2.47 Ga-old asteroid impact fallout units, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. Astrobiology 4 (2001) 19-50; S.W. Hassler, B.M. Simonson, D.Y. Sumner, D. Murphy, Neoarchaean impact spherule layers in the Fortescue and Hamersley Groups, Western Australia: stratigraphic and depositional implications of re-correlation. Aust. J. Earth Sci. 52 (2005) 759-772; B. Rasmussen, C. Koeberl, Iridium anomalies and shocked quartz in a late Archean spherule layer from the Pilbara Craton: new evidence for a major asteroid impact at 2.63 Ga. Geology 32 (2004) 1029-1032; B. Rasmussen, T.S. Blake, I.R. Fletcher, U-Pb zircon age constraints on the Hamersley spherule beds: Evidence for a single 2.63 Ga Jeerinah-Carawine impact ejecta layer. Geology, 33 (2005) 725-728.] overlies an argillite-dominated unit (Jeerinah Formation, 2684 ± 6 Ma [A.F. Trendall, W. Compston, D.R. Nelson, J.R. deLaeter, V.C. Bennett, SHRIMP zircon ages constraining the depositional chronology of the Hamersley Group, Western

  13. Geochemistry and mineralogy of sediments from the Ventersdorp and Transvaal supergroups, South Africa: Cratonic evolution during the early proterozoic

    SciTech Connect

    Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Condie, K.C. )

    1990-02-01

    Approximately 100 pelite and 12 quartzite samples from the Ventersdorp ({approx} 2.7 Ga) and Transvaal Supergroups ({approx} 2.6-2.1 Ga) have been analyzed to monitor the early Proterozoic evolution of the Kaapvaal Craton, southern Africa. From oldest to youngest, pelites were sampled from the Ventersdorp-Bothaville (BOT), Transvaal-Selati (SEL), Black Reef (BR), Timeball Hill (TH), Strubenkop (STR), and Silverton (SIL) Formations. Paleocurrent measurements in Transvaal quartzites indicate sources lying predominantly to the north and east. Compositions of TH-STR-SIL pelites suggest a provenance similar to average Phanerozoic upper-continental crust. This source is more evolved than that of BOT-SEL-Br pelites, indicating a transformation from primitive (mafic-rich) to evolved (felsic-rich) upper-crust at 2.2 Ga. This transition follows earlier primitive to evolved trends in Moodies-Pongola (3.3-3.0 Ga) and Witwatersrand ({approx} 2.8 Ga) successions. These data suggest that several cycles of changing upper-continental crust occurred in the Kaapvaal craton between 3.3-2.1 Ga.

  14. The Gendered Shaping of University Leadership in Australia, South Africa and the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kate; Bagilhole, Barbara; Riordan, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses career trajectories into university management in Australia, South Africa and the United Kingdom (UK), skills required to operate effectively and the power of vice-chancellors (VCs) and their impact on the gendered shaping of university leadership. It is based on qualitative research with 56 male and female senior managers.…

  15. The South Australia Health Chronic Disease Self-Management Internet Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorig, Kate; Ritter, Philip L.; Plant, Kathryn; Laurent, Diana D.; Kelly, Pauline; Rowe, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of an online chronic disease self-management program for South Australia residents. Method: Data were collected online at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. The intervention was an asynchronous 6-week chronic disease self-management program offered online. The authors measured eight health status measures,…

  16. Mortality among a Cohort of Persons with an Intellectual Disability in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florio, Tony; Trollor, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of the study was to compare mortality for people with an intellectual disability (ID) to the general population in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A second objective was to provide mortality data for people with an intellectual disability from NSW in a standardized format, which allows for international comparisons…

  17. Is Isolation a Problem? Issues Faced by Rural Libraries and Rural Library Staff in South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Rebecca; Calvert, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate current issues faced by public library staff in rural South Australia and to examine some of the reasons why people choose to work in rural libraries. The study took a mixed methods approach, combining interviews and questionnaires to gain a fuller understanding of the issues and experiences of rural…

  18. Tertiary Educators' Voices in Australia and South Africa: Experiencing and Engaging in African Music and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Music tertiary educators can foster positive experiences that promote diversity, enhance intercultural and cross-cultural understanding through our teaching. Through findings of interview data of tertiary music educators' understandings of multicultural music practice at two South African universities and at an Australia university, I used…

  19. The Real Cost of Rural Secondary Schooling in South Australia (from a School's Perspective). Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witham, Mark

    This paper examines the costs of rural schooling in South Australia from the internal allocations of resources in four country and four metropolitan schools. Case studies considered only secondary education and the differences between how metropolitan and country schools allocate resources to students; subjects; and activities such as…

  20. Water-Recycling in South-East Queensland, Australia: What Do Men and Women Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    In January 2007, South-East Queensland became the first region in Australia to formally decide to introduce recycled water into the drinking supplies. Internationally, although water recycling occurs in the United States, United Kingdom, Singapore and Belgium, surprisingly little is known about public perceptions. This article explores gender…

  1. Engagement with Empires: Irish Catholic Female Religious Teachers in Colonial South Australia 1868-1901

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burley, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the roles of Irish Catholic female religious institutes for teachers in the context of the recent debates about education and empire. Nineteenth century colonial South Australia provides an opportunity to examine such institutes, for example the Irish Dominicans from Cabra Dublin, the Irish Mercy Institute from Baggot Street,…

  2. Learning Support Policy in Australia (New South Wales) and New Zealand; Discourses of Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tearle, Kerri; Spandagou, Ilektra

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative discourse analysis of the learning support policy in New South Wales, Australia and New Zealand. The dominant discourses in both policies are identified and analysed in terms of how they determine the manner in which students experiencing difficulties with learning are included in schools. It is argued that the…

  3. Counter-Geographies: The Campaign against Rationalisation of Agricultural Research Stations in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Chris; Dufty, Rae; Phillips, Samantha; Smith, Heather

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses an example of community action mounted in a rural region of New South Wales, Australia, in response to proposals by the State Government to rationalise agricultural research stations operated by the Department of Primary Industries. Informed by a Foucaultian understanding of power and the concept of governmentality,…

  4. Sunny Prospects: The Non-School-Leaver Segment in South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clermont, Roslyn

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of demand-driven funding following the Bradley Review has seen the progressive removal of constraints on the number of undergraduate places that universities can offer, therefore allowing universities to set their own growth levels. In South Australia, there is little unmet demand for university places. Traditionally, universities…

  5. Democratic Citizenship Education in the Information Age: A Comparative Study of South Korea and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roh, Young-Ran

    2004-01-01

    Democratic citizenship education in the information age must concern itself with the goal of nurturing future generations with the capacity to make appropriate use of the changes driven by the advances of ICTs so as to activate political and social democracy. Using Australia and South Korea as case studies, this paper discusses the role that…

  6. Rickettsia Detected in the Reptile Tick Bothriocroton hydrosauri from the Lizard Tiliqua rugosa in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Whiley, Harriet; Custance, Georgie; Graves, Stephen; Stenos, John; Taylor, Michael; Ross, Kirstin; Gardner, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsiosis is a potentially fatal tick borne disease. It is caused by the obligate intracellular bacteria Rickettsia, which is transferred to humans through salivary excretions of ticks during the biting process. Globally, the incidence of tick-borne diseases is increasing; as such, there is a need for a greater understanding of tick-host interactions to create more informed risk management strategies. Flinders Island spotted fever rickettsioses has been identified throughout Australia (Tasmania, South Australia, Queensland and Torres Strait Islands) with possible identifications in Thailand, Sri Lanka and Italy. Flinders Island spotted fever is thought to be spread through tick bites and the reptile tick Bothriocroton hydrosauri has been implicated as a vector in this transmission. This study used qPCR to assay Bothriocroton hydrosauri ticks collected from Tiliqua rugosa (sleepy lizard) hosts on mainland South Australia near where spotted fever cases have been identified. We report that, although we discovered Rickettsia in all tick samples, it was not Rickettsia honei. This study is the first to use PCR to positively identify Rickettsia from South Australian Bothriocroton hydrosauri ticks collected from Tiliqua rugosa (sleepy lizard) hosts. These findings suggest that B. hydrosauri may be a vector of multiple Rickettsia spp. Also as all 41 tested B. hydrosauri ticks were positive for Rickettsia this indicates an extremely high prevalence within the studied area in South Australia. PMID:27338482

  7. Rickettsia Detected in the Reptile Tick Bothriocroton hydrosauri from the Lizard Tiliqua rugosa in South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Whiley, Harriet; Custance, Georgie; Graves, Stephen; Stenos, John; Taylor, Michael; Ross, Kirstin; Gardner, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsiosis is a potentially fatal tick borne disease. It is caused by the obligate intracellular bacteria Rickettsia, which is transferred to humans through salivary excretions of ticks during the biting process. Globally, the incidence of tick-borne diseases is increasing; as such, there is a need for a greater understanding of tick–host interactions to create more informed risk management strategies. Flinders Island spotted fever rickettsioses has been identified throughout Australia (Tasmania, South Australia, Queensland and Torres Strait Islands) with possible identifications in Thailand, Sri Lanka and Italy. Flinders Island spotted fever is thought to be spread through tick bites and the reptile tick Bothriocroton hydrosauri has been implicated as a vector in this transmission. This study used qPCR to assay Bothriocroton hydrosauri ticks collected from Tiliqua rugosa (sleepy lizard) hosts on mainland South Australia near where spotted fever cases have been identified. We report that, although we discovered Rickettsia in all tick samples, it was not Rickettsia honei. This study is the first to use PCR to positively identify Rickettsia from South Australian Bothriocroton hydrosauri ticks collected from Tiliqua rugosa (sleepy lizard) hosts. These findings suggest that B. hydrosauri may be a vector of multiple Rickettsia spp. Also as all 41 tested B. hydrosauri ticks were positive for Rickettsia this indicates an extremely high prevalence within the studied area in South Australia. PMID:27338482

  8. Phase relationships of a lherzolite from the Roberts Victor Mine, South Africa: A study of chemical and physical parameters in the Kaapvaal Craton.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Globig, J.; Sommer, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Roberts Victor kimberlite pipe-dike system is well known as type locality for intensively studied eclogitic xenoliths. Since more than 95% of the Roberts Victor xenoliths are rather of eclogitic than of peridotitic type, mineralogical data of lherzolitic peridotites from the mine is extremely rare. In fact, there is no detailed petrological study of peridotitic mantle xenoliths from the Roberts Victor Mine up to the present day. As the lherzolitic xenolith nodules from the Roberts Victor Mine are strongly altered, due to contact with the aqueous fluid of the ascending kimberlitic melt bulk chemistry analyses result in too low SiO2 and too high MgO concentrations. Thus, Roberts Victor lherzolites provide a distorted image of the sampled mantle regions. To avoid inaccuracies in composition, we used mineral analyses of the rock forming minerals from lherzolithes from the Roberts Victor Mine and implemented a planimetric method to recalculate a proper bulk rock composition that is free of volatiles and representative of a garnet lherzolite from the Kaapvaal Craton. The recalculated bulk chemistry for the four-phase lherzolite composition Ol-Opx-Cpx-Gt is; SiO2≈45.83 wt.%, TiO2≈0.04 wt.%, Cr2O3≈0.51 wt.%, Al2O3≈1.84 wt.%, FeO≈6.27 wt.%, MnO≈0.07 wt.%, MgO≈43.51 wt.%, CaO≈0.53 wt.%, Na2O≈0.10 wt.%. As our bulk composition fits accurately the composition range of lherzolites from the Kaapvaal Craton, analysed by Carswell and Dawson (1970), it is seen to represent the chemistry of the upper mantle beneath South Africa. By the use of the Gibbs minimization software PerpleX (Connolly, 2005) we created a petrological p-T phase diagram for a water saturated lherzolite from 473-2073 K and 10-100 kbar, based on the recalculated bulk composition, to estimate the proportion of lherzolite in the lithospheric-asthenospheric mantle of the Kaapvaal Craton. Furthermore and more importantly, we used PerpleX to model the modal distribution of the phases Atg, Br, Chl

  9. Tectonic evolution of greenstone-Gneiss association in Dharwar Craton, South India: Problems and perspectives for future research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Y. J. B.

    1986-01-01

    The two fold stratigraphic subdivision of the Archean-Proterozoic greenstone-gneiss association of Dharwar craton into an older Sargur group (older than 2.9 Ga.) and a younger Dharwar Supergroup serves as an a priori stratigraphic model. The concordant greenstone (schist)-gneiss (Peninsular gneiss) relationships, ambiguities in stratigraphic correlations of the schist belts assigned to Sargur group and difficulties in deciphering the older gneiss units can be best appreciated if the Sargur group be regarded as a trimodal association of: (1) ultrabasic-mafic metavolcanics (including komatiites), (2) clastic and nonclastic metasediments and paragneisses and (3) mainly tonalite/trondhemite gneisses and migmatites of diverse ages which could be as old as c. 3.4 ga. or even older. The extensive occurrence of this greenstone-gneiss complex is evident from recent mapping in many areas of central and southern Karnataka State.

  10. Early precambrian asteroid impact-triggered tsunami: excavated seabed, debris flows, exotic boulders, and turbulence features associated with 3.47-2.47 Ga-old asteroid impact fallout units, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Glikson, Andrew Y

    2004-01-01

    Pioneering studies of Precambrian impact fallout units and associated tsunami deposits in the Hamersley Basin, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, by B.M. Simonson and S.W. Hassler, document a range of tsunami deposits associated with impact fallout units whose impact connection is identified by associated microtektites and microkrystites (condensation spherules). The impact connection of these particles is demonstrated by iridium anomalies, unique platinum group elements patterns, and Ni-rich mineral phases. Densely packed tsunami-transported fragments and boulders overlie microkrystite units of the >2629 +/- 5 Ma top Jeerinah Impact Layer (JIL). Tsunami events closely follow spherule settling associated with the 2561 +/- 8 Ma Spherule Marker Bed SMB-1 and SMB-2 impact events, Bee Gorge Member, Wittenoom Formation. The two impact cycles are separated by a stratigraphically consistent silicified black siltstone, representing a "Quiet Interval." The SMB turbidites display turbulence eddies, climbing ripples, conglomerate pockets, slumps, and waterlogged sediment deformation features. Consequences of tsunami in the probably contemporaneous Carawine Dolomite (Pb-Pb carbonate ages of approximately 2.56-2.54 Ga), eastern Hamersley Basin, include sub-autochthonous below-wave base excavation and megabrecciation of sea floor substrata, resulting in a unique 10-30-m-thick spherule-bearing megabreccia marker mapped over a nearly 100-km north-south strike distance in the east Hamersley Basin. The field relations suggest a pretsunami settling of the bulk of the spherules. Tsunami wave effects include: (1). dispersal of the spherule-rich soft upper sea floor sediments as a subaqueous mud cloud and (2). excavation of consolidated substrata below the soft sediment zone. Excavation and megabrecciation included injection of liquefied spherule-bearing microbreccia into dilated fractures in the disrupted underlying carbonates. Near-perfect preservation of the spherules within the

  11. Early Precambrian Asteroid Impact-Triggered Tsunami: Excavated Seabed, Debris Flows, Exotic Boulders, and Turbulence Features Associated with 3.47-2.47 Ga-Old Asteroid Impact Fallout Units, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glikson, Andrew Y.

    2004-03-01

    Pioneering studies of Precambrian impact fallout units and associated tsunami deposits in the Hamersley Basin, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, by B.M. Simonson and S.W. Hassler, document a range of tsunami deposits associated with impact fallout units whose impact connection is identified by associated microtektites and microkrystites (condensation spherules). The impact connection of these particles is demonstrated by iridium anomalies, unique platinum group elements patterns, and Ni-rich mineral phases. Densely packed tsunami-transported fragments and boulders overlie microkrystite units of the >2,629 +/- 5 Ma top Jeerinah Impact Layer (JIL). Tsunami events closely follow spherule settling associated with the 2,561 +/- 8 Ma Spherule Marker Bed SMB-1 and SMB-2 impact events, Bee Gorge Member, Wittenoom Formation. The two impact cycles are separated by a stratigraphically consistent silicified black siltstone, representing a "Quiet Interval." The SMB turbidites display turbulence eddies, climbing ripples, conglomerate pockets, slumps, and waterlogged sediment deformation features. Consequences of tsunami in the probably contemporaneous Carawine Dolomite (Pb-Pb carbonate ages of ~ 2.56-2.54 Ga), eastern Hamersley Basin, include sub-autochthonous below-wave base excavation and megabrecciation of sea floor substrata, resulting in a unique 10-30-m-thick spherule-bearing megabreccia marker mapped over a nearly 100-km north-south strike distance in the east Hamersley Basin. The field relations suggest a pretsunami settling of the bulk of the spherules. Tsunami wave effects include: (1) dispersal of the spherule-rich soft upper sea floor sediments as a subaqueous mud cloud and (2) excavation of consolidated substrata below the soft sediment zone. Excavation and megabrecciation included injection of liquefied spherule-bearing microbreccia into dilated fractures in the disrupted underlying carbonates. Near-perfect preservation of the spherules within the basal

  12. Petrogenesis of cenozoic temperate water carbonates, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, J.P.; Bone, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The Gambier Limestone is one of several extensive, shallow water, shelf carbonates of Eocene to Miocene age exposed along the southern margin of Australia. It is muddy to grainy bryozoan calcarenite, with accessory benthonic foraminifers and echinoids. The sediments, originally composed almost entirely of calcite or Mg-calcite, have been in vadose and phreatic environments for over 10 m.y., yet are virtually unlithified. The only cements of any consequence are epitaxial on echinoids. Numerous karst features, dolines, caves, speleothems, and surface karren attest to prolonged residence in the meteoric zone. The Gambier is presently one of the best freshwater aquifiers in Australia, with most flow intergranular and through sediments with over 30% porosity. Cementation is by minor intergranular pressure solution, which has developed under overburden of less than 100 m. The overlying Naracoorte Limestone (Miocene), a calcarenite of warmer water aspect, contains numerous aragonite molds and is cemented marblehard. The authors propose that such temperate-water calcite limestones are a better model for the meteoric diagenesis of calcite sediments of all ages than aragonite-rich tropical sediments. It is probable that many similar early and middle Paleozoic calcite limestones may have been in the meteoric zone for prolonged periods, yet contain little or no petrographic or geochemical record of such exposure.

  13. Hunter-gatherer variability: Dental wear in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Littleton, Judith; Scott, Rachel; McFarlane, Gina; Walshe, Keryn

    2013-10-01

    Often it is assumed that hunter-gatherer dentitions are dominated by heavy attrition. Recent analyses, however, have shown unexpected variability in the pattern of wear between groups. It had been previously noted that wear differed between neighboring groups on the Murray River, Australia. This analysis extends that geographic scope as well as focusing on wear across the dentition, including the premolars. The samples came from coastal and riverine regions of southern Australia. The analysis used records from the Yorke Peninsula, Adelaide Plains (Gillman site), and Euston regions. These were compared with previously published work from the Adelaide Plains and four locations on the Murray River. The results confirm the overall severity of wear but reveal systematic differences between the samples in terms of the pattern of wear. Heavy wear on the incisors and canines is observed among males from the Euston, Kaurna, Middle A, Murray Mouth, and Yorke Peninsula samples but with marked intra-individual variability. Extensive premolar wear is noted among females from Kaurna and Middle B samples as well as among males and females from Euston. It is argued that these patterns relate to gendered non-masticatory use of teeth and reliance upon bulrush (Typha spp.) and related species for both food and fiber among some groups. We argue that analyzing the degree of variability within samples and across all teeth provides a more nuanced understanding of dental wear among hunter-gatherers. PMID:23999884

  14. Australia.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The smallest continent and one of the largest countries, Australia is a country of diverse geographical conditions and differing cultures of people unified by one predominant language and political system. Mountains, desert and rivers are some of the varying landscape features of Australia, although the climate and condition for most of the country is tropical. Original Australians, a hunting-gathering people called Aborigines, came to Australia over 38,000 years ago. Today the Aborigines compose about 1% of the population and live in traditional tribal areas as well as cities. The 1st European settlement came in 1788 from Great Britain. After World War II, the population doubled. Although the population is primarily composed of British and Irish immigrants, immigrants from other European countries such as Italy and Greece as well as refugees from Indochina, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are a significant factor to the growing Australian population. Australian and Aboriginal culture has took hold and took notice in the areas of opera, art, literature and film. The Australian Commonwealth is based on a constitution similar to that of the United States government. The National Parliament is bicameral with both the Senate and the House of Representatives having a select number of elected officials from each state and territory. The Australian economy is predominantly reliant on the sale of mineral and agricultural exports. History, economic changes, defense, international relations and notes to the traveler are also discussed in this overview of Australia. PMID:12177993

  15. Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, Christine

    1986-01-01

    Examines educational provisions for ethnic and racial groups in Australia, comprised primarily of the aborigines and the migrants or non-English speaking immigrants. Discussion of the official policies of "self determination" and "multiculturalism" emphasizes the important differences between the two and the considerations given them by the…

  16. Matricides in South Australia - a 20-year retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Wick, Regula; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Gilbert, John D; Byard, Roger W

    2008-04-01

    A 20-year retrospective review of files at Forensic Science SA, Adelaide, Australia was undertaken for cases of matricide occurring between the years 1985 and 2004. A total of 11 cases were identified: 10 males and 1 female. The victims were aged between 42 and 83 years (mean=61 years) and the perpetrators were aged between 15 and 53 years (mean=28.7 years). In all 11 cases weapons such as blunt objects (N=5), knives (N=5), firearms (N=3), or ligatures (N=1) were involved in the assaults, with injuries inflicted by the weapons causing death in 10 cases. In five cases trauma was caused by more than one injurious agent/action; e.g. there was evidence of immersion and burning in two cases. In four cases there were multiple (>10) significant injuries inflicted by perpetrators suffering from schizophrenia (N=2), 'mental impairment' (N=1) and a 'combination of psychiatric disorders' (N=1). One perpetrator committed suicide after killing his mother. Six of the ten surviving perpetrators were found not guilty of murder on the grounds of mental illness or impairment, and one perpetrator had the charge reduced from murder to manslaughter due to underlying mental conditions that included previous brain injury. Matricides are uncommon forms of homicide that have similar features in most communities studied. Intra-familial tensions with underlying psychiatric illness in the perpetrator are common findings. PMID:18313012

  17. The Influence of Economic Factors on Practice in Further Education. Submission to Committee of Enquiry into Education in South Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Ian L.; Parkinson, Kevin J.

    The unprecedented economic growth sustained in the period following World War II to the early 1970s in the world, in Australia, and in particular, in South Australia fostered the growth of liberal education and emphasis on self-development and excellence of the individual. However, the growth in inflation from the modest levels of the early 1970s…

  18. Birth defects and household water supply. Epidemiological studies in the Mount Gambier region of South Australia.

    PubMed

    Scragg, R K; Dorsch, M M; McMichael, A J; Baghurst, P A

    We report a descriptive study indicating a localised excess of congenital malformations in Mount Gambier, South Australia, and summary results of a subsequent case-control study showing an association between the occurrence of congenital malformations and the consumption of underground water by pregnant women. The internal cohesion of the data analyses, and the plausibility conferred by experimental evidence, suggests that the underground water, and its elevated concentration of nitrates, may warrant further consideration as a source of human teratogens. PMID:7162445

  19. A new species of Bothriembryon (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Bothriembryontidae) from south-eastern Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Whisson, Corey S.; Breure, Abraham S.H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bothriembryon sophiarum sp. n. is described, based on shell and anatomical morphology, from the coastal area of south-easternmost Western Australia. This is the first description of a new extant Australian bothriembryontid in 33 years. The shell of Bothriembryon sophiarum is slender with a unique teleoconch sculpture. It is found in low coastal scrub on cliff edges and escarpments and because of its restricted distribution, qualifies as a short range endemic. PMID:27199583

  20. A new species of Bothriembryon (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Bothriembryontidae) from south-eastern Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Whisson, Corey S; Breure, Abraham S H

    2016-01-01

    Bothriembryon sophiarum sp. n. is described, based on shell and anatomical morphology, from the coastal area of south-easternmost Western Australia. This is the first description of a new extant Australian bothriembryontid in 33 years. The shell of Bothriembryon sophiarum is slender with a unique teleoconch sculpture. It is found in low coastal scrub on cliff edges and escarpments and because of its restricted distribution, qualifies as a short range endemic. PMID:27199583

  1. Management of death, dying and euthanasia: attitudes and practices of medical practitioners in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Stevens, C A; Hassan, R

    1994-03-01

    This article presents the first results of a study of the decisions made by health professionals in South Australia concerning the management of death, dying, and euthanasia, and focuses on the findings concerning the attitudes and practices of medical practitioners. Mail-back, self-administered questionnaires were posted in August 1991 to a ten per cent sample of 494 medical practitioners in South Australia randomly selected from the list published by the Medical Board of South Australia. A total response rate of 68 per cent was obtained, 60 per cent of which (298) were usable returns. It was found that forty-seven per cent had received requests from patients to hasten their deaths. Nineteen per cent had taken active steps which had brought about the death of a patient. Sixty-eight per cent thought that guidelines for withholding and withdrawal of treatment should be established. Forty-five per cent were in favour of legalisation of active euthanasia under certain circumstances. PMID:8035439

  2. Widespread refertilization of cratonic and circum-cratonic lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Ying, Ji-Feng; Su, Ben-Xun

    2013-03-01

    Studies of mantle xenoliths have confirmed that Archean subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) is highly depleted in basaltic components (such as Al, Ca and Na) due to high-degree extraction of mafic and ultramafic melts and thus is refractory and buoyant, which made it chronically stable as tectonically independent units. However, increasing studies show that ancient SCLM can be refertilized by episodic rejuvenation events like infiltration of upwelling fertile material. The North China Craton is one of the most typical cases for relatively complete destruction of its Archean keel since the eruption of Paleozoic kimberlites, as is evidenced by a dramatic change in the compositions of mantle xenoliths sampled by Paleozoic to Cenozoic magmas, reflecting significant lithospheric thinning and the change in the character of the SCLM. The compositional change has been interpreted as the result of refertilization of Archean SCLM via multiple-stage peridotite-melt reactions, suggested by linear correlations between MgO and indices of fertility, covariations of Al2O3 with CaO, La/Yb, 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd, 187Os/188Os and Re-depletion ages (TRD), high Re abundances, scatter in Re-Os isotopic plot, variable in situ TRD ages of sulfides, and correlation between TRD ages and olivine Fo of peridotite xenoliths in Paleozoic kimberlites and Cenozoic basalts on the craton. By integrating major and trace element, Sr, Nd and Os isotopic compositions of peridotite xenoliths and orogenic massif peridotites from the continents of Europe, Asia, America, Africa and Australia, together with previous studies of petrology and geochemistry of global peridotites, we suggest that (1) refertilization of cratonic and circum-cratonic lithospheric mantle is widespread; (2) Archean SCLM worldwide has experienced a multi-stage history of melt depletion and refertilization since segregation from the convecting mantle; (3) cratonic SCLM may be more susceptible to compositional change caused by

  3. Stable isotope study of the Archaean rocks of the Vredefort impact structure, central Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagereng, Åke; Harris, Chris; La Grange, Mandy; Stevens, Gary

    2008-01-01

    The Vredefort dome in the Kaapvaal Craton was formed as a result of the impact of a large meteorite at 2.02 Ga. The central core of Archaean granitic basement rocks is surrounded by a collar of uplifted and overturned strata of the Witwatersrand Supergroup, exposing a substantial depth section of the Archaean crust. Orthogneisses of the core show little variation in whole-rock δ 18O value, with the majority being between 8 and 10‰, with a mean of 9.2‰ ( n = 35). Quartz and feldspar have per mil differences that are consistent with O-isotope equilibrium at high temperatures, suggesting minimal interaction with fluids during subsequent cooling. These data refute previous suggestions that the Outer Granite Gneiss (OGG) and Inlandsee Leucogranofels (ILG) of the core represent middle and lower crust, respectively. Granulite-facies greenstone remnants from the ILG have δ 18O values that are on average 1.5‰ higher than the ILG host rocks and are unlikely, therefore, to represent the residuum from the partial melting event that formed the host rock. Witwatersrand Supergroup sedimentary rocks of the collar, which were metamorphosed at greenschist-to amphibolite-facies conditions, generally have lower δ 18O values than the core rocks with a mean value for metapelites of 7.7‰ ( n = 45). Overall, through an ˜20 km thick section of crust, there is a general increase in whole-rock δ 18O value with increasing depth. This is the reverse of what is normal in the crust, largely because the collar rocks have δ 18O values that are unusually low in comparison with metamorphosed sedimentary rocks worldwide. The collar rocks have δD values ranging from -35 to -115‰ (average -62‰, n = 29), which are consistent with interaction with water of meteoric origin, having a δD of about -25 to -45‰. We suggest that fluid movement through the collar rocks was enhanced by impact-induced secondary permeability in the dome structure.

  4. Perceived Challenges in Dementia Care by Vietnamese Family Caregivers and Care Workers in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Habel, Lesley; De Bellis, Anita

    2015-09-01

    The majority of Vietnamese Australians migrated to Australia as refugees to escape a war and this unique migration background may affect their ability to access and utilize healthcare services in Australia. Inability to utilize dementia services is associated with higher levels of caregiver burden, higher rates of morbidities and mortality and hospitalization. The aim of the study was to explore the perceived challenges of dementia care from Vietnamese family caregivers and Vietnamese care workers. Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics was used to interpret and describe the experiences of the participants. Data were collected from in-depth interviews with six Vietnamese family caregivers and a focus group with Vietnamese care workers using purposive sampling. Participants were recruited from a Vietnamese community care organization in South Australia. Five themes were identified from the data analysis namely: (1) a need for culturally and linguistically appropriate dementia education programs; (2) a willingness and unwillingness to seek help; (3) poor knowledge of health care service availability related to dementia; (4) the effect of language barrier in accessing services; and (5) the main sources of services utilized. The study revealed that Vietnamese family caregivers and Vietnamese care workers held different views on the association of stigma with dementia. Findings also revealed factors that impacted accessing and utilizing dementia services. These findings facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of Vietnamese family caregivers' needs and have implications for developing individualized support for family caregivers and for consumer-directed dementia services in Australia. PMID:25935206

  5. Evidence in Support of Sulfide Partial Melting at Broken Hill Australia and Broken Hill, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, H. A.; Mavrogenes, J. A.

    2004-05-01

    In the past there has been much debate over the genesis of Broken Hill, Australia and Broken Hill, South Africa since many of the original characteristics have been obscured by high-grade metamorphism and intense deformation. The idea that a sulfide melt can form from partial melting of pre-existing ore during metamorphism was first proposed by Brett and Kullerud (1967 Economic Geology) and Lawrence (1967 Mineral Deposita), but was largely ignored due to a lack of direct field and experimental evidence. However, recent experimental support in the system PbS-Fe0.96S-ZnS-(1% Ag2S) determined a quaternary eutectic melt at 795 700° C at 5 kbar (Mavrogenes et al., 2001 Economic Geology), clear indirect evidence that at least some of the Broken Hill lodes partially melted during metamorphism. Features at both Broken Hill, Australia and Broken Hill, South Africa are consistent with the formation of a sulfide partial melt. At Broken Hill, Australia, abundant polyphase sulfide melt inclusions (SMINCs) have been identified within garnetite and quartz surrounding remobilised ore. Preliminary examination of garnetites associated with remobilised ore from Broken Hill, South Africa also reveals SMINCs similar to those documented at Broken Hill, Australia. This establishes that sulfide partial melting occurred, at least in the higher metamorphic grade portion of Broken Hill, South Africa. Development of a high temperature heating stage allows reflected light monitoring of submerged SMINCs during heating. The results indicate that quartz-hosted SMINCs from Broken Hill, Australia partially melt at temperatures as low as 420 700° C with total homogenisation occurring at temperatures well below peak metamorphic temperatures (810 700° C). Low melting point chalcophile elements (LMCE) increase in abundance as homogenisation temperatures decrease. This observation along with analysed bulk sulfide melt composition fractionation trends of Pb, Cu, Sb, Ag and Au similar to those observed

  6. Applications of Mobile GIS in Forestry South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battad, D. T.; Mackenzie, P.

    2012-07-01

    South Australian Forestry Corporation (ForestrySA) had been actively investigating the applications of mobile GIS in forestry for the past few years. The main objective is to develop an integrated mobile GIS capability that allows staff to collect new spatial information, verify existing data, and remotely access and post data from the field. Two (2) prototype mobile GIS applications have been developed already using the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ARCGISR technology as the main spatial component. These prototype systems are the Forest Health Surveillance System and the Mobile GIS for Wetlands System. The Forest Health Surveillance System prototype is used primarily for aerial forest health surveillance. It was developed using a tablet PC with ArcMapR GIS. A customised toolbar was developed using ArcObjectsR in the Visual Basic 6 Integrated Development Environment (IDE). The resulting dynamic linked library provides a suite of custom tools which enables the following: - quickly create spatial features and attribute the data - full utilisation of global positioning system (GPS) technology - excellent screen display navigation tools, i.e. pan, rotate map, capture of flight path - seamless integration of data into GIS as geodatabase (GDB) feature classes - screen entry of text and conversion to annotation feature classes The Mobile GIS for Wetlands System prototype was developed for verifying existing wetland areas within ForestrySA's plantation estate, collect new wetland data, and record wetland conditions. Mapping of actual wetlands within ForestrySA's plantation estate is very critical because of the need to establish protection buffers around these features during the implementation of plantation operations. System development has been focussed on a mobile phone platform (HTC HD2R ) with WindowsR Mobile 6, ESRI's ArcGISR Mobile software development kit (SDK) employing ArcObjectsR written on C#.NET IDE, and ArcGIS ServerR technology. The system

  7. Building a Nation: Religion and Values in the Public Schools of the USA, Australia, and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Cumming, Jacqueline Joy; de Waal, Elda

    2008-01-01

    Although the systems of public schools differ among Australia, South Africa and the USA, all three countries recognize that religion plays a significant role in determining values. All three countries have written constitutions but only South Africa and the USA have a Bill of Rights that protects persons' exercise of religious beliefs. In…

  8. The influence of gaming expenditure on crime rates in South Australia: a local area empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Sarah Ann; Round, David K; Sarre, Rick; O'Neil, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Although there has been much speculation about the possible links between gambling and crime rates, relevant quantitative evidence has been practically non-existent in Australia to date. This paper reports the results of research that utilised a model designed to investigate the potential relationship between electronic gaming machine expenditures and property (income-generating) crime rates reported to police in local areas in South Australia in 2002-2003. The research found that the higher the expenditures on gaming machines in a particular local area per adult, the higher the income-generating crime rate in that area. No such relationship was found between gaming machine expenditure and non-income-generating crime rates. However, further research is required before any policy-relevant conclusions can be drawn. PMID:17647095

  9. LAB and other lithospheric discontinuities below Cratons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodoudi, Forough

    2013-04-01

    Cratons are extremely stable continental areas of the Earth's crust, which have been formed and remained largely unchanged since Precambrian. However, their formation and how they survived destruction over billions of years remains a subject of debate. Seismic properties of the cratonic lithosphere reflect its composition and physical state and obtain basic constraints on processes of the formation and evolution of continents. Insight on these issues may be gained by determining the depth and the nature of the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary (LAB), which is a necessary element of the plate tectonic theory. However, It has proved quite "elusive" beneath the oldest continental areas. What is missing to date is a consensus on the feature that would correspond to the LAB and whether such a feature exists everywhere beneath cratons. The relatively recently developed S receiver function technique employing S-to-P conversions appears promising for detecting the LAB with a sufficiently high resolution and density. A growing number of regional observations obtained from S receiver function studies has detected discontinuities characterized by a significant negative velocity contrast in the upper mantle. However, challenges still remain in detecting the S-to-P conversions from the LAB beneath the Precambrian cratons. Some recent SRF studies observed a deep (> 160 km) negative velocity contrast beneath cratons and interpreted it as the LAB. For example, a deep LAB at about 250 km was reported beneath the Kalahari craton by different authors. Similar results were also obtained beneath some parts of the Canadian shield, East European Craton, Australia, the Arabian Shield and Tanzania craton. In contrast, other SRF studies found no evidence for negative discontinuities at these depths in the North American craton, in Kalahari craton or in Australia. Instead they revealed a very sharp negative velocity gradient at much shallower depth (60-150 km), leading some authors to infer

  10. The dehydration, rehydration and tectonic setting of greenstone belts in a portion of the northern Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanreenen, D. D.; Barton, J. M., Jr.; Roering, C.; Vanschalkwyk, J. C.; Smit, C. A.; Debeer, J. D.; Stettler, E. H.

    1986-01-01

    High-grade gneiss terranes and low-grade granite-greenstone terranes are well known in several Archaean domains. The geological relationship between these different crustal regions, however, is still controversial. One school of thought favors fundamental genetic differences between high-grade and low-grade terranes while others argue for a depth-controlled crustal evolution. The detailed examination of well-exposed Archaean terranes at different metamorphic grades, therefore, is not only an important source of information about the crustal levels exposed, but also is critical to the understanding of the possible tectonic and metamorphic evolution of greenstone belts with time. Three South African greenstone belts are compared.

  11. Making the most of open windows: establishing health in all policies in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Williams, Carmel; Lawless, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Significant improvements in population health are likely to arise when the social determinants ofhealth are addressed. This creates a challenge for health systems, as the policy levers to influence the determinants largely lie outside of their direct control. Health agencies have been attempting to develop responses that affect these policy levers with mixed success. Success often requires particular conditions or "windows of opportunity" to be present before even small systemic change can be made. The government of South Australia has developed a practical, policy-oriented response to address the determinants of health--Health in All Policies--and has been successfully working across government for the past five years, using a policy learning process to implement this approach. This article will focus on how the South Australian Health in All Policies initiative started and the conditions that enabled South Australia to establish a centralized governance structure, harness a group of cross-sector policy entrepreneurs, and conduct health lens projects across a range of policy issues. The authors will comment on the nature of these conditions and their relevance for other governments struggling to reduce the burden of chronic disease and growing health budgets by addressing the social determinants of health. PMID:24684091

  12. Metasomatic enrichment of Proterozoic mantle south of the Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa: origin of sinusoidal REE patterns in clinopyroxene and garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    le Roex, Anton; Class, Cornelia

    2016-02-01

    Xenoliths of mantle peridotite have been sampled from four kimberlite intrusions, Melton Wold, Hebron, Uintjiesberg and Markt, emplaced through the Mesoproterozoic Namaqua-Natal Belt, along the southern border of the Kaapvaal Craton. Although many of the xenoliths are heavily altered, constituent clinopyroxene, garnet and phlogopite are fresh and have been analysed by electron microprobe for major elements and by laser ablation ICP-MS for trace elements. Primitive mantle-normalised REE abundances in clinopyroxene are all strongly LREE enriched and show a range of patterns including uniformly MREE-HREE sloped (referred to here as `normal'), sinusoidal and humped sinusoidal patterns. HREE abundances are extremely low (Yb = 0.3-0.06 × PM). REEN patterns in coexisting garnets show a similar range of patterns. When normalised to primitive mantle values, trace element patterns in some clinopyroxenes show strong relative depletion in Rb-Ba, Ta-Nb and Ti, with some samples also being relatively depleted in Zr-Hf. These trace element characteristics are indistinguishable from those found in clinopyroxene and garnet from peridotites from the adjacent cratonic mantle. Numerical modelling of reactive porous flow of an enriched metasomatic melt through a geochemically depleted peridotite matrix can account for the full range in observed REEN patterns. The relative depletion in Rb-Ba, Ta-Nb and Ti can be accounted for by an early crystallisation of phlogopite from the percolating melt. The relative depletion in Zr-Hf in some clinopyroxenes requires either zircon to crystallise in the proximal metasomatic assemblage, or metasomatism by a carbonatitic melt. Modelling results, together with the absence of clinopyroxene with depleted or even partially enriched REEN patterns, suggest that all clinopyroxene has been modally introduced through metasomatism into an initially highly depleted harzburgitic protolith. The range in Sr and Pb isotopic composition of the clinopyroxenes

  13. Large vertical δ13CDIC gradients in Early Triassic seas of the South China craton: Implications for oceanographic changes related to Siberian Traps volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Huyue; Tong, Jinnan; Algeo, Thomas J.; Horacek, Micha; Qiu, Haiou; Song, Haijun; Tian, Li; Chen, Zhong-Qiang

    2013-06-01

    Vertical gradients in the δ13C of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon (Δδ13CDIC) can be estimated for paleomarine systems based on δ13Ccarb data from sections representing a range of depositional water depths. An analysis of eight Lower Triassic sections from the northern Yangtze Platform and Nanpanjiang Basin, representing water depths of ~ 50 to 500 m, allowed reconstruction of Δδ13CDIC in Early Triassic seas of the South China craton for seven time slices representing four negative (N) and three positive (P) carbon-isotope excursions: 8.5‰ (N1), 5.8‰ (P1), 3.5‰ (N2), 6.5‰ (P2), 7.8‰ (N3), - 1.9‰ (P3), and 2.2‰ (N4). These values are much larger than vertical δ13CDIC gradients in the modern ocean (~ 1-3‰) due to intensified stratification and reduced vertical mixing in Early Triassic seas. Peaks in Δδ13CDIC around the PTB (N1) and in the early to mid-Smithian (P2-N3) coincided with episodes of strong climatic warming, reduced marine productivity, and expanded ocean anoxia. The Dienerian-Smithian boundary marks the onset of a major mid-Early Triassic disturbance, commencing ~ 1 Myr after the latest Permian mass extinction, that we link to a second eruptive stage of the Siberian Traps. Inhospitable oceanic conditions generally persisted until the early Spathian, when strong climatic cooling caused re-invigoration of global-ocean circulation, leading to an interval of negative Δδ13CDIC values and a sharp increase in δ13Ccarb driven by upwelling of nutrient-rich deepwaters. These developments marked the end of the main eruptive stage of the Siberian Traps.

  14. Inter-annual rainfall variations and suicide in New South Wales, Australia, 1964-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, Neville; Butler, Colin D.; Hanigan, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    The suicide rate in New South Wales is shown to be related to annual precipitation, supporting a widespread and long-held assumption that drought in Australia increases the likelihood of suicide. The relationship, although statistically significant, is not especially strong and is confounded by strong, long-term variations in the suicide rate not related to precipitation variations. A decrease in precipitation of about 300 mm would lead to an increase in the suicide rate of approximately 8% of the long-term mean suicide rate.

  15. The new medical curriculum at Flinders University, South Australia: from concept to reality.

    PubMed

    Finucane, Paul; Nicholas, Terry; Prideaux, David

    2001-01-01

    After much discussion and planning, Flinders University in Adelaide, South Australia recently introduced a new Graduate-Entry Medical Program (GEMP) which centres on problem-based learning (PBL). We describe the factors that stimulated the development of this new course, discuss its aims and philosophies and provide a brief outline of its structure. Advice and practical help was freely provided by several institutions who had undertaken similarly radical curricular reform and without this, a difficult task would have been much harder. We hope that our experiences will be of interest and help to others who are considering curricular reform. PMID:11260745

  16. The Cosmos greenstone succession, Agnew-Wiluna greenstone belt, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia: Geochemistry of an enriched Neoarchaean volcanic arc succession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Joux, A.; Thordarson, T.; Fitton, J. G.; Hastie, A. R.

    2014-09-01

    The geodynamic setting of the Neoarchaean Eastern Goldfields Superterrane (EGS) of the Yilgarn Craton is the subject of debate. Some authors propose plume models, while others advocate variants on a subduction accretion model for the origin of mineralised greenstone belt sequences. Felsic volcanism in the Kalgoorlie Terrane, the westernmost terrane of the EGS, is considered to have a tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite/dacite (TTG/D) geochemical affinity. The Cosmos greenstone succession, which lies in the Agnew-Wiluna greenstone belt (AWB) of the Kalgoorlie Terrane, contains several komatiite-hosted nickel sulphide deposits, the volcanic footwall to which consists of an intercalated succession of fragmental and coherent rocks ranging in composition from basaltic andesite to rhyolite. Light rare earth elements (LREEs) and large ion-lithophile elements (LILEs) are strongly enriched relative to high field strength elements (HFSEs) across all volcanic units, and the rocks display strong positive Pb and negative Nb anomalies. These geochemical characteristics resemble closely those of modern high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonite continental arc successions. Contrasting REE, LILE and HFSE concentrations, coupled with assimilation-fractional crystallisation (AFC) modelling, shows that the intercalated dacitic and andesitic volcanic rocks within the footwall succession are not co-genetic. Xenocrystic zircons within the felsic volcanic lithologies indicate that some assimilation of older continental crust contributed to the generation of the footwall volcanic sequence. The geochemical characteristics of the Cosmos volcanic succession indicate that parental melts were derived via partial melting of enriched peridotite that had been contaminated by subducted crustal material within the mantle wedge of a subduction zone. In contrast, two younger felsic porphyry intrusions, which cross-cut the volcanic succession, have a distinct TTG/D affinity. Therefore, these intrusions are

  17. Mycobacterium pinnipedii tuberculosis in a free-ranging Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Wayne S J; Shephard, Lisa; Bastian, Ivan; Globan, Maria; Fyfe, Janet A M; Cousins, Debby V; Machado, Aaron; Woolford, Lucy

    2014-12-01

    This report describes the first case in South Australia, Australia, of Mycobacterium pinnipedii tuberculosis in a free-ranging Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus). Severe pyogranulomatous pleuropneumonia with intrahistocytic acid-fast beaded filamentous bacilli was seen on histology. M. pinnipedii was confirmed by full 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Spillover concerns for public health and cattle are discussed. PMID:25632695

  18. Mineral thermobarometry and fluid inclusion studies on the Closepet granite, Eastern Dharwar Craton, south India: Implications to emplacement and evolution of late-stage fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Sourabh; Panigrahi, Mruganka K.; Jayananda, M.

    2014-09-01

    The Closepet granite (CPG), a spectacularly exposed magmatic body along with other intrusive bodies (to the east of it) typifies the late Archean granitic activity in the Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC), south India. In the present study, the P-T-fO2 conditions of emplacement and physico-chemical environment of the associated magmatic-hydrothermal regime of CPG have been retrieved on the basis of mineral chemical and fluid inclusion studies. Amphibole-plagioclase Ti-in-amphibole and Ti-in-biotite geothermometers along with Al-in-amphibole geobarometer have been used to reconstruct the emplacement temperature and pressure conditions in the majority of the pluton. Estimated temperatures of emplacement of CPG vary from to 740 to 540 °C. A variation of pressure from 4.8 to 4.1 kilo bars corresponding to this temperature range was obtained. While there is a faint south to north negative gradient in temperature, the variation of pressure does not seem to follow this trend and indicates more or less same crustal level of emplacement for the body between Ramanagaram-Kalyandurga segment extending for about 230 km. Mineral chemistry of biotite indicates crystallization of CPG under high oxygen fugacity conditions (mostly above QFM buffer) with no clear spatial variation in the fugacity of halogen species in the late-stage magmatic fluid. It may be surmised that barring the southernmost part of CPG, there is no perceptible variation in the physicochemical environment of emplacement. Fluid Inclusion studies in the granitic matrix quartz and pegmatite/vein quartz show dominance of H2O and H2O-CO2 fluids respectively in them. The difference in the fluid characteristics is interpreted in terms of the initial loss of CO2 rich fluid from granitic magma and aqueous-rich nature during the later stages of crystallization of quartz. The exsolved CO2-rich fluid was responsible in formation of the later quartz and pegmatitic veins at different crustal levels and also possibly was

  19. Limited opportunities for management-induced soil carbon storage in New South Wales, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Brian; Lonergan, Vanessa

    2013-04-01

    Soil management has been promoted internationally and in Australia as a means of storing additional soil carbon to offset greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) elsewhere. Despite considerable investment in research in Australia, difficulties with reliable detection and estimation of soil carbon change remain as significant barriers to soil carbon accounting and trading. Here we present examples from an extensive dataset across the diverse production landscapes of New South Wales, Australia generated from both the NSW Statewide Soil Monitoring Program and the National Soil Carbon Research Program. Issues relating to climate, spatial variability, historical and contemporary land-management are highlighted to illustrate the challenges of detecting and estimating management-induced soil carbon change. We further demonstrate that, where it is possible to detect soil carbon change resulting from agricultural management, the quantities stored are unlikely to make a significant contribution to reductions in net greenhouse gas emissions. Historical factors and non-agricultural land-use options are likely to provide more significant potential for long-term soil carbon storage in this environment.

  20. Spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasting for south-eastern and eastern Australia using climatic indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Vervoort, Willem; Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge about future rainfall would significantly benefit land, water resources and agriculture management, as this assists with planning and management decisions. Forecasting spatiotemporal monthly rainfall is difficult, especially in Australia where there is a complex interaction between topography and the effect of Indian and Pacific Ocean. This study describes a method for spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasting in south-eastern and eastern part of Australia using climatic and non-climatic variables. Rainfall data were obtained from Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) from 136 high quality weather stations from the south-eastern and eastern part of Australia with monthly rainfall records from 1879 to 2012. To reduce spatial complexity of the area and improve model accuracy, spatial classification (regionalization) was considered as first step. Significant predictors for each sub-region among lagged climatic input variables were selected using Fuzzy Ranking Algorithm (FRA). Climate classification: 1) discovered homogenous sub-regions with a similar rainfall patterns and investigated spatiotemporal rainfall variations in the area, 2) allowed selection of significant predictors with a fine resolution for each area, 3) improved the prediction model and increased model accuracy. PCA was used to reduce the dimensions of the dataset and to remove the rainfall time series correlation. K-means clustering was used on the loadings of PCs describing 93% of long-term monthly rainfall variations. The analysis was repeated for different numbers of sub-regions (3 - 8) to identify the best number of clusters to improve the forecast model performance. Subsequently, a Fuzzy Ranking Algorithm (FRA) was applied to the lagged climatic predictors and monthly rainfall in each sub-region to identify the best predictors. After these two stages of pre-processing, a Neural Network model was developed and optimized for each of the sub-regions as well as for the entire area. It is concluded

  1. Meningococcal disease in South Australia: incidence and serogroup distribution 1971-1980.

    PubMed Central

    Hansman, D.

    1983-01-01

    During the ten-year period 1971-80 isolates of meningococci from 85 cases of meningococcal disease (MD) in South Australia, from 66 children, 6 adolescents and 13 adults, were examined. These comprised 69 cases of meningitis and 16 cases of bacteraemia without meningitis. Thirty-three (39%) of all cases of MD occurred in children less than 1 year of age, the median age was 19 months. Serogroup B accounted for 61 (72%) cases of MD, group A seven (8%), group C seven (8%), group W135 five (6%), group Y three (4%) and group X one (1%); in addition there was a single case of Neisseria lactamica infection. The annual prevalence of MD in South Australia for the period was 11 cases per 100000 for children under the age of 2 years and 0.7 cases per 100000 overall. The prevalence was highest in winter (45% cases) and spring (26%) and lowest in summer (13%). The overall mortality rate was 8%. Four of the 21 infants under the age of 6 months died (mortality rate 19%) whereas none of the 32 children aged from 6 months to 14 years died (P = 0.02). Amongst the survivors, three children had deafness, which was bilateral and severe in two. PMID:6401776

  2. The role of crustal fluids in the tectonic evolution of the Eastern Goldfields Province of the Archaean Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, B. J.; Hobbs, B. E.; Goleby, B. R.

    2004-12-01

    Gold deposits in the Archaean Eastern Goldfields Province in Western Australia were deposited in greenstone supracrustal rocks by fluids migrating up crustal scale fault zones. Regional ENE-WSW D2 shortening of the supracrustal rocks was detached from lower crustal shortening at a regional sub-horizontal detachment surface which transects stratigraphy below the base of the greenstones. Major gold deposits lie close to D3 strike slip faults that extend through the detachment surface and into the middle to lower crust. The detachment originally formed at a depth near the plastic-viscous transition. In orogenic systems the plastic-viscous transition correlates with a low permeability pressure seal separating essentially lithostatic fluid pressures in the upper crust from supralithostatic fluid pressures in the lower crust. This situation arises from collapse in permeability below the plastic-viscous transition because fluid pressures cannot match the mean stress in the rock. If the low permeability pressure seal is subsequently broken by a through-going fault, fluids below the seal would flow into the upper crust. Large, deeply penetrating faults are therefore ideal for focussing fluid flow into the upper crust. Dilatant deformation associated with sliding on faults or the development of shear zones above the seal will lead to tensile failure and fluid-filled extension fractures. In compressional orogens, the extensional fractures would be subhorizontal, have poor vertical connectivity for fluid movement and could behave as fluids reservoirs. Seismic bright spots at 15-25 km depth in Tibet, Japan and the western United States have been described as examples of present day water or magma concentrations within orogens. The likely drop in rock strength associated with overpressured fluid-rich zones would make this region just above the plastic-viscous transition an ideal depth range to nucleate a regional detachment surface in a deforming crust.

  3. The largest Au deposits in the St Ives Goldfield (Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia) may be located in a major Neoarchean volcano-sedimentary depo-centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGoldrick, K. L.; Squire, R. J.; Cas, R. A. F.; Briggs, M.; Tunjic, J.; Allen, C. M.; Campbell, I. H.; Hayman, P. C.

    2013-10-01

    The largest Neoarchean gold deposits in the world-class St Ives Goldfield, Western Australia, occur in an area known as the Argo-Junction region (e.g. Junction, Argo and Athena). Why this region is so well endowed with large deposits compared with other parts of the St Ives Goldfield is currently unclear, because gold deposits at St Ives are hosted by a variety of lithologic units and were formed during at least three different deformational events. This paper presents an investigation into the stratigraphic architecture and evolution of the Argo-Junction region to assess its implications for gold metallogenesis. The results show that the region's stratigraphy may be subdivided into five regionally correlatable packages: mafic lavas of the Paringa Basalt; contemporaneously resedimented feldspar-rich pyroclastic debris of the Early Black Flag Group; coarse polymictic volcanic debris of the Late Black Flag Group; thick piles of mafic lavas and sub-volcanic sills of the Athena Basalt and Condenser Dolerite; and the voluminous quartz-rich sedimentary successions of the Early Merougil Group. In the Argo-Junction region, these units have an interpreted maximum thickness of at least 7,130 m, and thus represent an unusually thick accumulation of the Neoarchean volcano-sedimentary successions. It is postulated that major basin-forming structures that were active during deposition and emplacement of the voluminous successions later acted as important conduits during mineralisation. Therefore, a correlation exists between the location of the largest gold deposits in the St Ives Goldfield and the thickest parts of the stratigraphy. Recognition of this association has important implications for camp-scale exploration.

  4. Hydrothermal remobilisation around a deformed and remobilised komatiite-hosted Ni-Cu-(PGE) deposit, Sarah's Find, Agnew Wiluna greenstone belt, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Vaillant, Margaux; Saleem, Ahmad; Barnes, Stephen J.; Fiorentini, Marco L.; Miller, John; Beresford, Steve; Perring, Caroline

    2016-03-01

    The Sarah's Find nickel deposit, located 4.5 km north of the Mount Keith nickel mine, Western Australia, was chosen as a case study to investigate the nature and three-dimensional geometry of a geochemical halo created by the hydrothermal remobilisation of base metals and platinum group elements into the country rock surrounding a small massive Ni sulphide orebody. Portable and laboratory-based XRF analyses were carried out on samples from a shear zone localised along the basal komatiite-dacite contact that hosts the orebody. A geochemical halo was identified that extends along the shear zone up to 1780 m away from the massive sulphides, parallel to a prominent stretching lineation. Elevated Ni and Pd are associated with high As, Co, Cu and S. Palladium and Pt concentrations increase with proximity to massive sulphides (from 6 to 1190 ppb Pd). These anomalous concentrations reflect the presence of sulfarsenides and sulphides, either physically remobilised and forming veinlets close to the massive sulphides, or hydrothermally transported and redeposited within the foliation. In situ laser ablation ICP-MS indicates that Pd and Pt are hosted within these nickel sulfarsenides. This Ni-Co-As-Pd geochemical halo, observed around the Sarah's Find ore body, is interpreted as forming syn deformation, by the circulation of As-rich hydrothermal fluids dissolving base metals, Pd and Pt from the orebody and redepositing them along the sheared footwall contact. Similar Ni-Co-Pd-Pt-As geochemical haloes could potentially exist around any magmatic nickel sulphide mineral system that has undergone a phase of arsenic metasomatism and may be a generally applicable proximity indicator for nickel sulphides in hydrothermally altered terranes.

  5. Tracing origins of cratonic eclogites by magnesium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Teng, F. Z.; Rudnick, R. L.; Li, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Cratonic eclogites are samples of lithospheric mantle preserved beneath ancient continental cratons. Hence, the origin of cratonic eclogites is closely related to the formation and evolution of cratonic mantle. Here we report Mg isotopic compositions for 27 cratonic eclogites and 52 garnet and clinopyroxene mineral separates from Koidu, Bellsbank and Kaalvallei kimberlite pipes in South and West Africa. Whole-rock Mg isotopic compositions vary widely, with δ26Mg ranging from -1.60 to +0.17, significantly different from the value (δ26Mg = -0.25 ± 0.07) of peridotite xenoliths. Garnet and clinopyroxene in these cratonic eclogites record equilibrium inter-mineral Mg isotope partitioning at mantle temperatures, with Δ26MgCpx-Grt (= δ26MgCpx - δ26MgGrt) in the range of 0.43 - 0.85 ‰. The constructed bulk δ26Mg values based on mineral compositions are identical to the measured whole-rock values, indicating limited influence of kimberlite infiltration on Mg isotopic compositions of cratonic eclogites. As significant Mg isotope fractionation can only occur during low-temperature surface processes, the large Mg isotopic variations of cratonic eclogites suggest the incorporation of subducted materials in their protoliths. Therefore, our Mg isotopic data suggest the cratonic eclogites are the remnants of subducted oceanic crust within the lithospheric mantle. Collectively, Mg isotopes are potentially excellent tracers of the formation and evolution of sub-continental lithospheric mantle.

  6. Composition and origin of fluids associated with lode gold deposits in a Mesoarchean greenstone belt (Warrawoona Syncline, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia) using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thébaud, Nicolas; Philippot, Pascal; Rey, Patrice; Cauzid, Jean

    2006-10-01

    Microthermometry and Raman spectroscopy techniques are routinely use to constrain ore-fluids δ18O and molar proportions of anhydrous gas species (CO2, CH4, N2). However, these methods remain imprecise concerning the ore-fluids composition and source. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence allows access to major and trace element concentrations (Cl, Br and K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr) of single fluid inclusion. In this paper, we present the results of the combination of these routine and newly developed techniques in order to document the fluids composition and source associated with a Mesoarchaean lode gold deposit (Warrawoona Syncline, Western Australia). Fluid inclusion analyses show that quartz veins preserved records of three fluid inclusion populations. Early fluids inclusions, related to quartz veins precipitation, are characterized by a moderate to high Br/Cl ratio relative to modern seawater, CO2 ± CH4 ± N2, low to moderate salinities and significant base metal (Fe, Cu, Zn) and metalloid (As) concentrations. Late fluid inclusions trapped in secondary aqueous fluid inclusions are divided into two populations with distinct compositions. The first population consists of moderately saline aqueous brines, with a Br/Cl ratio close to modern seawater and a low concentration of base metals and metalloids. The second population is a fluid of low to moderate salinity, with a low Br/Cl ratio relative to modern seawater and significant enrichment in Fe, Zn, Sr and Rb. These three fluid inclusion populations point to three contrasting sources: (1) a carbonic fluid of mixed metamorphic and magmatic origin associated with the gold-bearing quartz precipitation; (2) a secondary aqueous fluid with seawater affinity; and (3) a surface-derived secondary aqueous fluid modified through interaction with felsic lithologies, before being flushed into the syncline. Primary carbonic fluids present similar characteristics than those ascribed to Mesoarchaean lode gold deposits

  7. New SHRIMP U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar constraints on the crustal stabilization of southern South America, from the margin of the Rio de Plata (Sierra de Ventana) craton to northern Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohver, E.; Cawood, P. A.; Rossello, E.; Lopez de Luchi, M. G.; Rapalini, A.; Jourdan, F.

    2008-12-01

    Two models exist to explain the late Paleozoic tectonic history for southern South America: an accretionary model of crustal growth through magmatism and a collisional model involving pre-existing continental elements, namely, the Rio de Plata craton and the possibly allochthonous terrane(s) of Patagonia, the Northern Patagonia Massif and the Deseado Massif. We report new U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar results from rocks within a posited collision zone between the SW edge of the Rio de Plata craton and the northern margin of the Northern Patagonia Massif. Igneous basement samples from the Sierra de Ventana region, Buenos Aires province, were dated by ion microprobe (SHRIMP) analysis of zircon. A previously unrecognized occurrence of Paleoproterozoic basement indicates that the Rio de Plata craton extends ca.250 km farther west than considered. The majority of the basement rocks are shallow mid-Cambrian granitoids and rhyolites, including the rocks of the Cerro Colorado granite, which is intrusive into the sediments of the Curamalal Gp, signifying that these mature quartzites and conglomerates are older than early Cambrian in age, possibly correlated with the low-grade sedimentary rocks of the Tandilia Range that includes the La Tinta Fm. The 40Ar/39Ar ages from biotite, muscovite, and sericite from three different sheared basement localities demonstrates deformation in the latest Permian (265-260 Ma), ca. 20 Ma after the foreland deposition of the synorogenic Tunas Fm. in the upper Pilahuinco Gp, constrained by 282.4 ± 2.8 Ma zircon ages in volcanic ashbeds. Farther south, along the northern margin of the Northern Patagonian Massif, late Ordovician 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages of granites intrusive into the Cambro-Ordovician Nahuel Niyeu Fm. are consistent with the presence of Ordovician magmatism along the W edge of the Rio de Plata craton. These ages alternate with late Permian 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages from undeformed granites and pegmatites, as well as early Jurassic cross

  8. Suicide and drought in New South Wales, Australia, 1970-2007.

    PubMed

    Hanigan, Ivan C; Butler, Colin D; Kokic, Philip N; Hutchinson, Michael F

    2012-08-28

    There is concern in Australia that droughts substantially increase the incidence of suicide in rural populations, particularly among male farmers and their families. We investigated this possibility for the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia between 1970 and 2007, analyzing data on suicides with a previously established climatic drought index. Using a generalized additive model that controlled for season, region, and long-term suicide trends, we found an increased relative risk of suicide of 15% (95% confidence interval, 8%-22%) for rural males aged 30-49 y when the drought index rose from the first quartile to the third quartile. In contrast, the risk of suicide for rural females aged >30 y declined with increased values of the drought index. We also observed an increased risk of suicide in spring and early summer. In addition there was a smaller association during unusually warm months at any time of year. The spring suicide increase is well documented in nontropical locations, although its cause is unknown. The possible increased risk of suicide during drought in rural Australia warrants public health focus and concern, as does the annual, predictable increase seen each spring and early summer. Suicide is a complex phenomenon with many interacting social, environmental, and biological causal factors. The relationship between drought and suicide is best understood using a holistic framework. Climate change projections suggest increased frequency and severity of droughts in NSW, accompanied and exacerbated by rising temperatures. Elucidating the relationships between drought and mental health will help facilitate adaptation to climate change. PMID:22891347

  9. Pathogen Presence in European Starlings Inhabiting Commercial Piggeries in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Hayley E; Lapidge, Steven J; Hernández-Jover, Marta; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2016-06-01

    The majority of bacterial diarrhea-causing illnesses in domestic pigs result from infection with Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., or Campylobacter spp. These bacterial enteropathogens also correspond with the most-common bacteria isolated from wild birds. Additionally, viral pathogens such as avian influenza virus (AIV), West Nile virus (WNV, including Kunjin disease), and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) may also be carried and transmitted by birds in Australia. Introduced European starlings (Sturnus vulgarus) are one of the most-frequently reported birds on piggeries in Australia. The presence of the three bacterial pathogens, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Escherichia coli , as well as the three viral pathogens AIV, WNV, and NDV, were evaluated in starlings captured on four commercial piggeries in South Australia. A total of 473 starlings were captured on the four piggeries in 2008 and 2009. A cloacal swab was taken from each bird and cultured for bacterial identification, with follow-up serotyping of any positives, whilst fifty samples were analyzed by PCR for the three target viral pathogens. There was no AIV, WNV, or NDV detected in the 50 starlings sampled. Escherichia coli was found to be present in the starling populations on all four piggeries whilst Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter jejuni were found to be present only in the starling population sampled on one piggery. Serotyping identified pig-pathogenic strains of the bacteria. The prevalence of these production-limiting bacterial pathogens in starlings, coupled with the large starling populations often found inside piggeries during daylight hours in the summer months, presents a disease transmission risk and jeopardizes piggery disease management. Removal of starlings from agricultural enterprises (as shown by international studies), or prevention of starling access to animal feed and water, could substantially reduce the risk of transmission of enterobacterial pathogens from starlings to

  10. A Survey of the Educational and Training Needs of the Pastoral Industry of South Australia. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raftery, John; And Others

    In late 1979 and 1980 a survey was conducted of 207 pastoral lease owners and managers in the north of South Australia to determine their education and training requirements. The pastoral industry grazes sheep and cattle on native pastures and shrubs, is beset by widely fluctuating rainfall and production, sells its products of wool and meat on a…

  11. Learner Diversity: A Successful Blended Professional Learning Approach Promoting Quality Inclusion in the United Kingdom and New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clench, Hugh; King, Brian Smyth

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an online training model for teachers and teaching assistants working with students with special educational needs. Originally developed as part of a government funded initiative in the UK, the model has been successfully applied in other contexts, most notably in New South Wales, Australia where it has had…

  12. From Vision to Reality: Views of Primary School Principals on Inclusive Education in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Linda J.; Spandagou, Ilektra

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the findings of a research study that used semi-structured interviews to explore the views of primary school principals on inclusive education in New South Wales, Australia. Content analysis of the transcript data indicates that principals' attitudes towards inclusive education and their success in engineering inclusive…

  13. The Use of Sessional Teachers in Universities: Faculty of the Built Environment, University of New South Wales Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the issues and realities presented by the casualisation of higher education teaching staff. It uses a case study from the University of New South Wales [UNSW] in Sydney Australia. The research presents and analyses perspectives from two key stakeholders in a university [students and academic management] on the use of sessional…

  14. The Position of Women in Production in the Process Manufacturing Industry in South Australia: Implications for VET.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isbell, Meredith

    The position of women in South Australia's process manufacturing industry was examined, and the implications of the study findings for the vocational education and training (VET) sector were discussed. Of the 393 companies to which surveys were sent, 136 (35.8%) returned valid responses. Of the 8,000 people employed in the industry, only 26.1%…

  15. Enough Bad News! Remote Social Health & Aboriginal Action in a Harsh Environment--Coober Pedy in South Australia's "Outback."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brice, G.; And Others

    This paper focuses on the complexities of health care in Coober Pedy (South Australia) and the nearby Umoona Aboriginal community, and highlights the vital role of Aboriginal health workers in the implementation of primary health care principles. The Aboriginal population in this "outback" area is characterized by considerable economic problems,…

  16. Spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasts for south-eastern and eastern Australia using climatic indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Vervoort, Willem; Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge about future rainfall is important for agriculture management and planning in arid and semi-arid regions. Australia has complex variations in rainfall patterns in time and space, arising from the combination of the geographic structure and the dual effects of Indian and Pacific Ocean. This study aims to develop a forecasting model of spatiotemporal monthly rainfall totals using lagged climate indices and historical rainfall data from 1950-2011 for south-eastern and eastern Australia. Data were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) from 136 high-quality weather stations. To reduce spatial complexity, climate regionalization was used to divide the stations in homogenous sub-regions based on similarity of rainfall patterns and intensity using principal component analysis (PCA) and K-means clustering. Subsequently, a fuzzy ranking algorithm (FRA) was applied to the lagged climatic predictors and monthly rainfall in each sub-region to identify the best predictors. Selected predictors by FRA were found to vary by sub-region. After these two stages of pre-processing, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed and optimized separately for each sub-region and the entire area. The results indicate that climate regionalization can improve a monthly spatiotemporal rainfall forecast model. The location and number of sub-regions were important for ranking predictors and modeling. This further suggests that the impact of climate variables on Australian rainfall is more variable in both time and space than indicated thus far.

  17. Invasive meningococcal disease in elderly people, New South Wales, Australia, 1993 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Peter; Durrheim, David; Torvaldsen, Siranda

    2013-01-01

    Little information is available publicly on invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in elderly people in Australia. This study analysed IMD notifications data from New South Wales between 1993 and 2012 to determine the distribution of IMD among people aged 65 years and older and to describe the characteristics of IMD in this age group compared to younger age groups with respect to notification trends, serogroup distribution and mortality rates. Following introduction of a childhood vaccination programme against meningococcal type C in 2003, notification rates in all age groups decreased, but the proportion of IMD notifications in people aged 65 years and over rose significantly (from 4% to 6%, P = 0.01). Mortality rates from IMD in those aged 65 years and older were significantly higher than overall rates (32% compared to 5%, P < 0.01). Serogroup Y accounted for 23% of infections in the elderly compared to 3% in people aged under 65 years (P < 0.01). As the population ages, the elderly may account for a higher number of IMD cases in Australia. Protocols at the state and national level should be updated to provide guidance on the clinical and public health management of elderly people with IMD. PMID:24478917

  18. Textured organic surfaces associated with the Ediacara biota in South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehling, James G.; Droser, Mary L.

    2009-10-01

    The Ediacaran Period takes its name from the fossils of the Ediacara biota, which represent the first appearance of large and diverse assemblages of organisms in the fossil record. Although the global record of these distinctive body fossils is now well known, a previously unrecognized megascopic organic record of textured organic surfaces (TOS) occurs in the Ediacara biota. However, TOS is also a feature over a wider range of paleoenvironmental settings, where body fossils are unknown, in Ediacaran siliciclastic successions that have been studied in Australia, Namibia and western North America. Paleoecological analysis of successive bedding planes of strata from the late Ediacaran Rawnsley Quartzite in the Flinders Ranges of South Australia, reveals that TOS represent the most common organic features in bedding-surface assemblages of the Ediacara biota. The TOS consist of preserved, patterned assemblages of textured organic mats, fibers and simple tubular body fossils. Complex Ediacara body fossils while striking for their distinctive body plans, and dominating some of the beds, are relatively minor components of combined overall surface area. Many elements of TOS have previously been miss-diagnosed as trace fossils, which are in practice limited to two or at most three morphotypes that indicate the presence of Bilateria. Although TOS represent a simpler grade of organismic construction than discrete and more complex Ediacara body fossils, they were preserved in a similar manner. Marked variability in all components of the biota between successive surfaces suggests that Ediacara ecologies fluctuated at short intervals despite an apparently consistent sedimentary regime.

  19. Trust, choice and obligation: a qualitative study of enablers of colorectal cancer screening in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Ward, Paul R; Coffey, Cushla; Meyer, Samantha

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has the second highest cancer prevalence and mortality rates in Australia. The Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) aims to increase early detection of CRC by offering free faecal occult blood testing. The NBCSP aims to offer choice to consumers about whether or not to participate in screening. This article presents data on trust, choice and perceived obligation to participate in the NBCSP by population groups with low uptake. A qualitative study was undertaken in South Australia. We interviewed 94 people from four culturally distinct groups: Greek, Iranian, Anglo-Australian and Indigenous peoples. This article demonstrates the complexity of factors shaping the choice, or lack thereof, to participate in the NBCSP. Informed choice is based on adequate knowledge, although this varied among our participants, highlighting the need for more health education in appropriate languages. An obligation to participate was found in the Iranian and Anglo-Australian groups and resulted from an established personal relationship with the doctor, a sense of duty, the acknowledgement of government investment and appreciation. Overall, this article makes a link between trust, choice and obligation, adding to literature on the sociology of trust and medical screening and highlighting important issues in the need of a policy and practice to improve CRC screening rates. PMID:25912247

  20. A >43,000-year vegetation and fire history from Lake Baraba, New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, M. P.; Mooney, S. D.; Martin, H. A.

    2006-11-01

    Palaeoenvironmental sequences that describe the vegetation of the last glacial maximum (LGM) and of the subsequent climatic amelioration are relatively rare in the Australian, Southeast Asian and Pacific region (SEAPAC region). Here, we present the results of a palynological investigation from Lake Baraba, located in eastern Australia, which extends beyond 43 ka. Bands of oxidised sediment prior to the LGM suggest lake level fluctuations, however, lacustrine clays continued to be deposited throughout the LGM and into the early Holocene when the deposition of peat was initiated. The vegetation, a Casuarina woodland/shrubland with a mixed understorey, remained relatively stable from >43 kyr to the early Holocene, suggesting that this sclerophyllous vegetation was resilient to changes in climate. The vegetation of the LGM at Lake Baraba does not conform to previous descriptions of a treeless south-eastern Australia, and it is possible that it was a refugium for woodland. Myrtaceae expanded at the expense of Casuarinaceae from the early Holocene, with charcoal analyses suggesting that fire was an unlikely explanation. There was no apparent relationship between Aboriginal site usage and fire activity and hence how Aboriginal people used fire at Lake Baraba remains speculative.

  1. Luminescence dating at the archaeological and human burial site at Roonka, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, G. B.; Prescott, J. R.

    2006-10-01

    Roonka, the Aboriginal habitation and burial site on the River Murray, South Australia, was excavated from 1968 to 1983. In 1983, thermoluminescence (TL) ages were obtained for several fireplaces at the East Bank site. Sandy dune sediments collected from East Bank were also analysed using traditional TL methods and ages were found at depths down to the base at 2.6 m. Now, 20 years on, with optical dating methods well established, it seemed instructive to repeat the measurements using new techniques, specifically the single aliquot regeneration dose protocol. This has provided confirmation of the TL ages and provided an age framework for both the archaeological and geological aspects of Roonka. The ages confirm the archaeological description of the structure of the dune and show that only the top 20% is the Holocene Bunyip formation. The lower part is assigned to the Woorinen Formation, formed during and after the last glacial maximum. Burials at East Bank took place between about 16 and 20 ka, substantially earlier than those on the Roonka Flat, but consistent with the earliest evidence of occupation on the Flat. They are one of the very few securely dated Pleistocene burials in Australia. Whether the individuals were gracile or robust is not known.

  2. Aboriginal Astronomical traditions from Ooldea, South Australia, Part 2: Animals in the Ooldean Sky.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leaman, Trevor M.; Hamacher, Duane W.; Carter, Mark T.

    2016-04-01

    Australian Indigenous astronomical traditions demonstrate a relationship between animals in the skyworld and the behaviour patterns of their terrestrial counterparts. In our continued study of Aboriginal astronomical traditions from the Great Victoria Desert, South Australia, we investigate the relationship between animal behaviour and stellar positions when these relationships are not explicitly described in the written records. We develop a methodology to test the hypothesis that the behaviour of these animals is predicted by the positions of their celestial counterparts at particular times of the day. Of the twelve animals identified in the Ooldean sky, the nine stellar (i.e. non-planet or non-galactic) associations were analysed and each demonstrated a close connection between animal behaviour and stellar positions. We suggest that this may be a recurring theme in Aboriginal astronomical traditions, requiring further development of the methodology.

  3. Aboriginal astronomical traditions from Ooldea, South Australia. Part 1: Nyeeruna and 'The Orion Story'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leaman, Trevor M.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-07-01

    Whilst camped at Ooldea, South Australia, between 1919 and 1935, the amateur anthropologist Daisy Bates CBE recorded the daily lives, lore and oral traditions of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert region surrounding Ooldea. Among her archived notes are stories regarding the Aboriginal astronomical traditions of this region. One story in particular, involving the stars making up the modern western constellations of Orion and Taurus, and thus referred to here as 'The Orion Story', stands out for its level of detail and possible references to transient astronomical phenomena. Here, we critically analyse several important elements of 'The Orion Story', including its relationship to an important secret-sacred male initiation rite. This paper is the first in a series attempting to reconstruct a more complete picture of the sky knowledge and star lore of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert.

  4. Extraordinarily high coral cover on a nearshore, high-latitude reef in south-west Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, D. P.; Frisch, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Photographic line transects were used to quantify the benthic community at Hall Bank, a small, nearshore, high-latitude reef in south-west Australia. On one of the seven transects, the coral cover was 72.5% (mean = 52.6 ± 0.45%), which is the highest ever recorded coral cover at or beyond 32°S. There were no macro-algae, possibly due to the high density of herbivorous sea-urchins (mean = 5.0 ± 0.8 m-2). Fourteen species of scleractinian corals dominated the benthos, seven of which were from the family Faviidae. Given that Hall Bank is at the limit of environmental tolerance for reef formation, it represents a valuable research opportunity for understanding the factors that build and maintain coral reef biodiversity and resilience.

  5. Hepatitis A in New South Wales, Australia from consumption of oysters: the first reported outbreak.

    PubMed Central

    Conaty, S.; Bird, P.; Bell, G.; Kraa, E.; Grohmann, G.; McAnulty, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    Between 22 January and 4 April 1997, 467 hepatitis A cases were reported to the New South Wales Health Department, Australia. To identify the cause of the outbreak, we conducted a matched case-control study, and an environmental investigation. Among 66 cases and 66 postcode-matched controls, there was a strong association between illness and consumption of oysters (adjusted odds ratio 42; 95 % confidence interval 5-379). More than two-thirds of cases reported eating oysters, including one third of cases and no controls who reported eating oysters in the Wallis Lake area. A public warning was issued on 14 February, and Wallis Lake oysters were withdrawn from sale. Hepatitis A virus was subsequently identified in oyster samples taken from the lake. Hepatitis A virus poses a special risk to consumers who eat raw oysters because it can survive for long periods in estuaries and cause severe disease. PMID:10722139

  6. Endemic Q Fever in New South Wales, Australia: A Case Series (2005-2013).

    PubMed

    Graves, Stephen R; Islam, Aminul

    2016-07-01

    Q fever is endemic in Australia, and during the period 2005-2013 our laboratory diagnosed 379 cases in New South Wales. To evaluate clinical symptoms, epidemiology, mode of diagnosis, antibody profiles, and treatment, a subset of 160 (42%) Q fever cases were analyzed in detail following the return of a questionnaire by the patient's doctor and from their laboratory reports. Overall, 82% patients were male and predominantly middle aged. The majority of patients (89%) had animal contact among which 63% were with cattle, 11% with sheep, and 7% with kangaroos. Clinical symptoms were nonspecific: myalgia (94%), fever (91%), headache (80%), acute fatigue (64%), and arthralgia (55%). Most cases (93%) were acute, and serology (immunofluorescence) was the main diagnostic modality. Positive real-time polymerase chain reaction results were useful in the diagnosis of both acute and chronic Q fever, as was the isolation of Coxiella burnetii in cell culture. Doxycycline was the antibiotic most commonly used. PMID:27139451

  7. Geographic variation of failure-to-rescue in public acute hospitals in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Assareh, Hassan; Ou, Lixin; Chen, Jack; Hillman, Kenneth; Flabouris, Arthas; Hollis, Stephanie J

    2014-01-01

    Despite the wide acceptance of Failure-to-Rescue (FTR) as a patient safety indicator (defined as the deaths among surgical patients with treatable complications), no study has explored the geographic variation of FTR in a large health jurisdiction. Our study aimed to explore the spatiotemporal variations of FTR rates across New South Wales (NSW), Australia. We conducted a population-based study using all admitted surgical patients in public acute hospitals during 2002-2009 in NSW, Australia. We developed a spatiotemporal Poisson model using Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) methods in a Bayesian framework to obtain area-specific adjusted relative risk. Local Government Area (LGA) was chosen as the areal unit. LGA-aggregated covariates included age, gender, socio-economic and remoteness index scores, distance between patient residential postcode and the treating hospital, and a quadratic time trend. We studied 4,285,494 elective surgical admissions in 82 acute public hospitals over eight years in NSW. Around 14% of patients who developed at least one of the six FTR-related complications (58,590) died during hospitalization. Of 153 LGAs, patients who lived in 31 LGAs, accommodating 48% of NSW patients at risk, were exposed to an excessive adjusted FTR risk (10% to 50%) compared to the state-average. They were mostly located in state's centre and western Sydney. Thirty LGAs with a lower adjusted FTR risk (10% to 30%), accommodating 8% of patients at risk, were mostly found in the southern parts of NSW and Sydney east and south. There were significant spatiotemporal variations of FTR rates across NSW over an eight-year span. Areas identified with significantly high and low FTR risks provide potential opportunities for policy-makers, clinicians and researchers to learn from the success or failure of adopting the best care for surgical patients and build a self-learning organisation and health system. PMID:25310260

  8. A late Pleistocene record of aeolian sedimentation in Blanche Cave, Naracoorte, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrénougué, Nicolas; De Deckker, Patrick; Fitzsimmons, Kathryn E.; Norman, Marc D.; Reed, Liz; van der Kaars, Sander; Fallon, Stewart

    2009-12-01

    We provide geochemical analyses and grain size data for a clearly layered, 80 cm thick sedimentary deposit close to a roof collapse in Blanche Cave near Naracoorte in SE South Australia. This deposit contains aeolian material deposited between ˜40 ka and 14 ka cal BP and which yields airborne sediments spanning the Last Glacial Maximum, a period of time with little information for the Australian continent. The deposit also contains abundant vertebrate fossil material derived from owl pellets, accumulation and pitfall entrapment. Below the studied profile, large vertebrate remains are found but are not discussed here. No Holocene sedimentation occurred at the site examined in the cave, and the top of the sequence is capped with a layer that has been anthropologically disturbed and contains exotic Pinus pollen. Chronologies of the deposit were obtained using two dating techniques: single stage accelerator mass spectrometer (SSAMS) 14C analysis of 23 charcoal samples and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of quartz from 6 sediment samples. The 14C chronology is preferred to describe the history of the deposits since the OSL chronology, which consistently overestimates the associated radiocarbon dates, may be inaccurate due to complexities in calculating dose rates, and may in addition represent the timing of sediment deposition through the cave opening rather than sediment transport to the deposit site. Morphological analysis of single quartz grains and grain size analysis indicate different provenance that is confirmed through the geochemical analyses of bulk sediment. Major elements were measured by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), trace and rare earth elements by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA ICP-MS), and Neodymium isotopic ratios were obtained using a Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometer (TIMS). Our results indicate that the aeolian material deposited in Blanche Cave over the 40-14 ka cal BP period originated from different

  9. A translithospheric suture in the vanished 1-Ga lithospheric root of South India: Evidence from contrasting lithosphere sections in the Dharwar Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, W. L.; Kobussen, A. F.; Babu, E. V. S. S. K.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Yvette; Norris, R.; Sengupta, P.

    2009-11-01

    Garnet xenocrysts and eclogite xenoliths from 15 kimberlites (1.0-1.1 Ga in age) have been used to map the composition and structure of the lithospheric mantle along an 80-km traverse across the eastern margin of the Closepet Granite in Andhra Pradesh. The SCLM at the SW end of the traverse is more depleted (abundant harzburgites, mean X Mg of olivine ≈ 93.5, mean whole-rock Al 2O 3 ≈ 1.5%) than that at the NE end (fewer harzburgites, X Mg ≈ 92, Al 2O 3 > 2%). The depleted layer is ca 195 km thick in the SW, and ca 170 km in the NE, though geotherms are similarly low (ca 35-37 mW/m 2). The middle of the traverse is underlain by a strongly refertilised SCLM with a higher geotherm (ca 40 mW/m 2) and extensive evidence of metasomatism. At the SW end of the traverse, abundant eclogites are tightly concentrated in a layer from 175 to 190 km depth, coinciding with a zone of melt-related metasomatism. In the central part, eclogites are distributed through the highly metasomatised section from 90 to 160 km depth. These data suggest that the kimberlites at either end of the traverse sampled two distinct lithospheric blocks, perhaps coinciding with the Eastern and Western Dharwar Cratons. The zone of refertilised SCLM between them is interpreted as the cratonic suture, metasomatised by mafic melts (now eclogites). If this suture dips 70-80° to the east, its surface outcrop lies within the Closepet Granite. The "tilt" of the proposed cratonic suture may reflect overthrusting of the Eastern Dharwar Craton crust up to 100 km to the west. Recent geophysical data (seismic, MT) suggest that the depleted lithospheric root beneath the Dharwar Craton that was sampled by the 1.1 Ga kimberlites is no longer present. The removal or major modification of this root could have occurred during the breakup of Gondwanaland, and may help to explain India's rapid northward drift. India thus joins the North China Craton as an example of the destruction of an Archean continental keel.

  10. Uranium and Sm isotope studies of the supergiant Olympic Dam Cu-Au-U-Ag deposit, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchenbaur, Maria; Maas, Roland; Ehrig, Kathy; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Strub, Erik; Ballhaus, Chris; Münker, Carsten

    2016-05-01

    The Olympic Dam Cu-U-Au-Ag deposit in the Archean-Proterozoic Gawler Craton (South Australia) is a type example of the iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) spectrum of deposits and one of the largest Cu-U-Au resources known. Mineralization is hosted in a lithologically and texturally diverse, hematite-rich breccia complex developed within a granite of the 1.59 Ga Gawler Silicic Province. Emerging evidence indicates that both the breccia complex and its metal content developed over ∼1000 Ma, responding to major tectonic events, e.g., at 1300-1100, 825 and 500 Ma. However, metal sources and exact mechanism/s of ore formation remain poorly known. New high-precision 238U/235U data for a set of 40 whole rock samples representing all major lithological facies of the breccia complex show a narrow range (δ238UCRM112a = -0.56‰ to +0.04‰). At the scale of sampling, there is no correlation of δ238U with lithology, degree of alteration or U mineralogy, although ores with U > 5 wt.% have subtly higher δ238U values (-0.20‰ to 0.00) than the majority of samples (<0.7 wt.% U, -0.56‰ to -0.23‰). The new U isotope data are consistent with published data for uraninites from Olympic Dam, and with published results from high-temperature U deposits. They overlap completely with the range of δ238U values in granitoids (including the host granite, -0.18‰ to -0.32‰) and with estimates of the upper continental crust in general. This similarity suggests that Olympic Dam δ238U values reflects the crustal sources of U, which probably include felsic volcanic rocks and granitoids. The isotopic homogeneity suggests depositional mechanisms that involve minimal isotopic fractionation of U; alternatively, primary fractionation signatures may have been erased during the long history of the U mineralization. High-grade U ores may record isotopic neutron-capture effects related to fissionogenic neutrons. High-precision Sm isotope data for five high-U (>5 wt.% U, U/Sm ≫ 500) Olympic Dam

  11. Clinical diagnosis and chemical confirmation of ciguatera fish poisoning in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Hazel; Zammit, Anthony; Manning, Jennifer; Shadbolt, Craig; Szabo, Lisa; Harwood, D Tim; McNabb, Paul; Turahui, John A; van den Berg, Debra J

    2016-03-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is common in tropical and sub-tropical areas and larger fish (> 10 kg) are more susceptible to toxin accumulation with age. Although the coastal climate of northern New South Wales is considered sub-tropical, prior to 2014 there has only been 1 documented outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning from fish caught in the region. During February and March 2014, 2 outbreaks of ciguatera fish poisoning involved 4 and 9 individuals, respectively, both following consumption of Spanish mackerel from northern New South Wales coastal waters (Evans Head and Scotts Head). Affected individuals suffered a combination of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms requiring hospital treatment. At least 1 individual was symptomatic up to 7 months later. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detected the compound Pacific ciguatoxin-1B at levels up to 1.0 µg kg(-1) in fish tissue from both outbreaks. During April 2015, another outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning was reported in 4 individuals. The fish implicated in the outbreak was caught further south than the 2014 outbreaks (South West Rocks). Fish tissue was unavailable for analysis; however, symptoms were consistent with ciguatera fish poisoning. To our knowledge, these cases are the southernmost confirmed sources of ciguatera fish poisoning in Australia. Educational outreach to the fishing community, in particular recreational fishers was undertaken after the Evans Head outbreak. This highlighted the outbreak, species of fish involved and the range of symptoms associated with ciguatera fish poisoning. Further assessment of the potential for ciguatoxins to occur in previously unaffected locations need to be considered in terms of food safety. PMID:27080020

  12. Water yield issues in the jarrah forest of south-western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruprecht, J. K.; Stoneman, G. L.

    1993-10-01

    The jarrah forest of south-western Australia produces little streamflow from moderate rainfall. Water yield from water supply catchments for Perth, Western Australia, are low, averaging 71 mm (7% of annual rainfall). The low water yields are attributed to the large soil water storage available for continuous use by the forest vegetation. A number of water yield studies in south-western Australia have examined the impact on water yield of land use practices including clearing for agricultural development, forest harvesting and regeneration, forest thinning and bauxite mining. A permanent reduction in forest cover by clearing for agriculture led to permanent increases of water yield of approximately 28% of annual rainfall in a high rainfall catchment. Thinning of a high rainfall catchment led to an increase in water yield of 20% of annual rainfall. However, it is not clear for how long the increased water yield will persist. Forest harvesting and regeneration have led to water yield increases of 16% of annual rainfall. The subsequent recovery of vegetation cover has led to water yields returning to pre-disturbance levels after an estimated 12-15 years. Bauxite mining of a high rainfall catchment led to a water yield increase of 8% of annual rainfall, followed by a return to pre-disturbance water yield after 12 years. The magnitude of specific streamflow generation mechanisms in small catchments subject to forest disturbance vary considerably, typically in a number of distinct stages. The presence of a permanent groundwater discharge area was shown to be instrumental in determining the magnitude of the streamflow response after forest disturbance. The long-term prognosis for water yield from areas subject to forest thinning, harvesting and regeneration, and bauxite mining are uncertain, owing to the complex interrelationship between vegetation cover, tree height and age, and catchment evapotranspiration. Management of the forest for water yield needs to acknowledge

  13. Distribution models for koalas in South Australia using citizen science-collected data

    PubMed Central

    Sequeira, Ana M M; Roetman, Philip E J; Daniels, Christopher B; Baker, Andrew K; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2014-01-01

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) occurs in the eucalypt forests of eastern and southern Australia and is currently threatened by habitat fragmentation, climate change, sexually transmitted diseases, and low genetic variability throughout most of its range. Using data collected during the Great Koala Count (a 1-day citizen science project in the state of South Australia), we developed generalized linear mixed-effects models to predict habitat suitability across South Australia accounting for potential errors associated with the dataset. We derived spatial environmental predictors for vegetation (based on dominant species of Eucalyptus or other vegetation), topographic water features, rain, elevation, and temperature range. We also included predictors accounting for human disturbance based on transport infrastructure (sealed and unsealed roads). We generated random pseudo-absences to account for the high prevalence bias typical of citizen-collected data. We accounted for biased sampling effort along sealed and unsealed roads by including an offset for distance to transport infrastructures. The model with the highest statistical support (wAICc ∼ 1) included all variables except rain, which was highly correlated with elevation. The same model also explained the highest deviance (61.6%), resulted in high R2(m) (76.4) and R2(c) (81.0), and had a good performance according to Cohen's κ (0.46). Cross-validation error was low (∼ 0.1). Temperature range, elevation, and rain were the best predictors of koala occurrence. Our models predict high habitat suitability in Kangaroo Island, along the Mount Lofty Ranges, and at the tips of the Eyre, Yorke and Fleurieu Peninsulas. In the highest-density region (5576 km2) of the Adelaide–Mount Lofty Ranges, a density–suitability relationship predicts a population of 113,704 (95% confidence interval: 27,685–199,723; average density = 5.0–35.8 km−2). We demonstrate the power of citizen science data for predicting species

  14. Distribution models for koalas in South Australia using citizen science-collected data.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, Ana M M; Roetman, Philip E J; Daniels, Christopher B; Baker, Andrew K; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2014-06-01

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) occurs in the eucalypt forests of eastern and southern Australia and is currently threatened by habitat fragmentation, climate change, sexually transmitted diseases, and low genetic variability throughout most of its range. Using data collected during the Great Koala Count (a 1-day citizen science project in the state of South Australia), we developed generalized linear mixed-effects models to predict habitat suitability across South Australia accounting for potential errors associated with the dataset. We derived spatial environmental predictors for vegetation (based on dominant species of Eucalyptus or other vegetation), topographic water features, rain, elevation, and temperature range. We also included predictors accounting for human disturbance based on transport infrastructure (sealed and unsealed roads). We generated random pseudo-absences to account for the high prevalence bias typical of citizen-collected data. We accounted for biased sampling effort along sealed and unsealed roads by including an offset for distance to transport infrastructures. The model with the highest statistical support (wAIC c ∼ 1) included all variables except rain, which was highly correlated with elevation. The same model also explained the highest deviance (61.6%), resulted in high R (2)(m) (76.4) and R (2)(c) (81.0), and had a good performance according to Cohen's κ (0.46). Cross-validation error was low (∼ 0.1). Temperature range, elevation, and rain were the best predictors of koala occurrence. Our models predict high habitat suitability in Kangaroo Island, along the Mount Lofty Ranges, and at the tips of the Eyre, Yorke and Fleurieu Peninsulas. In the highest-density region (5576 km(2)) of the Adelaide-Mount Lofty Ranges, a density-suitability relationship predicts a population of 113,704 (95% confidence interval: 27,685-199,723; average density = 5.0-35.8 km(-2)). We demonstrate the power of citizen science data for predicting species

  15. Hosts of the exotic ornate kangaroo tick, Amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum Koch, on southern Yorke Peninsula, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Waudby, Helen P; Petit, Sophie; Dixon, Bruce; Andrews, Ross H

    2007-10-01

    Amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum is assumed to be endemic to south-western Western Australia (including Barrow Island), Queensland (excluding Cape York Peninsula), and New South Wales, south to Dubbo and Barham. The species has been recorded on a range of mammalian hosts including macropods and domestic animals. In Queensland, A. triguttatum triguttatum is implicated in the epidemiology of Q fever. In 2000, the species was detected on southern Yorke Peninsula in South Australia. We aimed to identify A. triguttatum triguttatum's hosts through trapping, sampling of carcasses, and opportunistic capture of vertebrates on Yorke Peninsula. A. triguttatum triguttatum was removed from black rats (Rattus rattus), wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus), Tammar wallabies (M. eugenii eugenii), domesticated cats and dogs, and humans. Before this study, A. triguttatum triguttatum had not been found on black rats or rabbits in the wild. This research has implications for the management of wildlife, livestock, and visitors on Yorke Peninsula. The potential for A. triguttatum triguttatum to spread to other areas of Yorke Peninsula and South Australia is considerable, as visitors (tourists) to southern Yorke Peninsula report the presence of ticks both on themselves and among camping equipment on arriving home. PMID:17611781

  16. The electrical resistivity structure of lithosphere across the Dharwar craton nucleus and Coorg block of South Indian shield: Evidence of collision and modified and preserved lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Azeez, K. K.; Veeraswamy, K.; Gupta, Arvind K.; Babu, Narendra; Chandrapuri, Sateesh; Harinarayana, T.

    2015-10-01

    Magnetotelluric-derived two-dimensional lithospheric resistivity structure of the western Dharwar craton (WDC) and adjoining Coorg block indicates isolated low-resistivity zones in the crust and three striking upper mantle conductive features within the highly resistive Archean lithosphere. The crustal conductors in the WDC show good spatial correlation with the exposed supracrustal rocks conformable with the relic schist belt channels having conductive mineral grains. Conductive zones within the Coorg crust might be related to the relatively young (933 Ma) metamorphic processes in the area and/or possible fluids derived from the Cretaceous passage of Reunion plume in the proximity of Coorg area. A near-vertical conductive structure extending from the lower crust into the upper mantle coincides with the transition zone between Coorg and WDC. This is interpreted as the suture zone between the two tectonic blocks and provides evidence for the individuality of the two Archean terrains. An anomalous upper mantle conductive zone found beneath the craton nucleus may indicate a modified cratonic lithosphere. This could have been derived due to the collision between Coorg and WDC and possibly survived by the subsequent multiple episodes of melt and fluid infiltration processes experienced in the region. Thick (~190 km) and preserved lithosphere is mapped at the eastern segment of WDC. Resistive lithosphere of ~125 km thickness is imaged for the Coorg block.

  17. South Australia's River Murray: Social and cultural values in water planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, Carla; Tan, Poh-Ling

    2012-12-01

    SummaryThe South Australian River Murray is at the end of the Murray-Darling Basin which spans four Australian states, and is reliant on upstream flow. Under the Murray-Darling Basin Agreement, South Australia has an annual entitlement of 1850 GL flow. In the recent debilitating drought, the Agreement was put 'on hold' while emergency sharing arrangements provided for critical human needs, with meagre supplies for any other consumptive use. The drought also impacted on environmental values already compromised by river regulation and the high levels of water consumption. Conducted during the policy development phase of a second water allocation plan, our research trialled three tools designed to assess economic, social and cultural values for the new plan. The first was a pilot social impact study of effects of changing water availability in the Murraylands. In the second, researchers used a participatory modelling tool conjunctively with multi-criteria analysis to identify community values relevant to the prioritisation of environmental assets in the context of water scarcity. The third tool addressed Indigenous cultural values associated with water. Results of trials demonstrate that identifying public and social values in water require a number of interactive and deliberative tools in order to engage the broad community in water planning. Of the three tools, the most innovative was the second tool as it facilitated deliberation about the relative importance of the environment and helped shift individuals from entrenched interest based positions to consensus on values in wetlands.

  18. Population Accessibility to Radiotherapy Services in New South Wales Region of Australia: a methodological contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Nagesh; Wickramasuriya, Rohan; Miller, Andrew; Perez, Pascal

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes an integrated modelling process to assess the population accessibility to radiotherapy treatment services in future based on future cancer incidence and road network-based accessibility. Previous research efforts assessed travel distance/time barriers affecting access to cancer treatment services, as well as epidemiological studies that showed that cancer incidence rates vary with population demography. It is established that travel distances to treatment centres and demographic profiles of the accessible regions greatly influence the demand for cancer radiotherapy (RT) services. However, an integrated service planning approach that combines spatially-explicit cancer incidence projections, and the RT services accessibility based on patient road network have never been attempted. This research work presents this novel methodology for the accessibility assessment of RT services and demonstrates its viability by modelling New South Wales (NSW) cancer incidence rates for different age-sex groups based on observed cancer incidence trends; estimating the road network-based access to current NSW treatment centres; and, projecting the demand for RT services in New South Wales, Australia from year 2011 to 2026.

  19. Global Scale Variation in the Salinity Sensitivity of Riverine Macroinvertebrates: Eastern Australia, France, Israel and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kefford, Ben J.; Hickey, Graeme L.; Gasith, Avital; Ben-David, Elad; Dunlop, Jason E.; Palmer, Carolyn G.; Allan, Kaylene; Choy, Satish C.; Piscart, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Salinity is a key abiotic property of inland waters; it has a major influence on biotic communities and is affected by many natural and anthropogenic processes. Salinity of inland waters tends to increase with aridity, and biota of inland waters may have evolved greater salt tolerance in more arid regions. Here we compare the sensitivity of stream macroinvertebrate species to salinity from a relatively wet region in France (Lorraine and Brittany) to that in three relatively arid regions eastern Australia (Victoria, Queensland and Tasmania), South Africa (south-east of the Eastern Cape Province) and Israel using the identical experimental method in all locations. The species whose salinity tolerance was tested, were somewhat more salt tolerant in eastern Australia and South Africa than France, with those in Israel being intermediate. However, by far the greatest source of variation in species sensitivity was between taxonomic groups (Order and Class) and not between the regions. We used a Bayesian statistical model to estimate the species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for salinity in eastern Australia and France adjusting for the assemblages of species in these regions. The assemblage in France was slightly more salinity sensitive than that in eastern Australia. We therefore suggest that regional salinity sensitivity is therefore likely to depend most on the taxonomic composition of respective macroinvertebrate assemblages. On this basis it would be possible to screen rivers globally for risk from salinisation. PMID:22567097

  20. Global scale variation in the salinity sensitivity of riverine macroinvertebrates: eastern Australia, France, Israel and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kefford, Ben J; Hickey, Graeme L; Gasith, Avital; Ben-David, Elad; Dunlop, Jason E; Palmer, Carolyn G; Allan, Kaylene; Choy, Satish C; Piscart, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Salinity is a key abiotic property of inland waters; it has a major influence on biotic communities and is affected by many natural and anthropogenic processes. Salinity of inland waters tends to increase with aridity, and biota of inland waters may have evolved greater salt tolerance in more arid regions. Here we compare the sensitivity of stream macroinvertebrate species to salinity from a relatively wet region in France (Lorraine and Brittany) to that in three relatively arid regions eastern Australia (Victoria, Queensland and Tasmania), South Africa (south-east of the Eastern Cape Province) and Israel using the identical experimental method in all locations. The species whose salinity tolerance was tested, were somewhat more salt tolerant in eastern Australia and South Africa than France, with those in Israel being intermediate. However, by far the greatest source of variation in species sensitivity was between taxonomic groups (Order and Class) and not between the regions. We used a bayesian statistical model to estimate the species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for salinity in eastern Australia and France adjusting for the assemblages of species in these regions. The assemblage in France was slightly more salinity sensitive than that in eastern Australia. We therefore suggest that regional salinity sensitivity is therefore likely to depend most on the taxonomic composition of respective macroinvertebrate assemblages. On this basis it would be possible to screen rivers globally for risk from salinisation. PMID:22567097

  1. Sulfur sources of sedimentary "buckshot" pyrite in the Auriferous Conglomerates of the Mesoarchean Witwatersrand and Ventersdorp Supergroups, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, B. M.; Ono, S.; Gutzmer, J.; Lin, Y.; Beukes, N. J.

    2014-08-01

    Large rounded pyrite grains (>1 mm), commonly referred to as "buckshot" pyrite grains, are a characteristic feature of the auriferous conglomerates (reefs) in the Witwatersrand and Ventersdorp supergroups, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa. Detailed petrographic analyses of the reefs indicated that the vast majority of the buckshot pyrite grains are of reworked sedimentary origin, i.e., that the pyrite grains originally formed in the sedimentary environment during sedimentation and diagenesis. Forty-one of these reworked sedimentary pyrite grains from the Main, Vaal, Basal, Kalkoenkrans, Beatrix, and Ventersdorp Contact reefs were analyzed for their multiple sulfur isotope compositions (δ34S, Δ33S, and Δ36S) to determine the source of the pyrite sulfur. In addition, five epigenetic pyrite samples (pyrite formed after sedimentation and lithification) from the Middelvlei and the Ventersdorp Contact reefs were measured for comparison. The δ34S, Δ33S, and Δ36S values of all 41 reworked sedimentary pyrite grains indicate clear signatures of mass-dependent and mass-independent fractionation and range from -6.8 to +13.8 ‰, -1.7 to +1.7 ‰, and -3.9 to +0.9 ‰, respectively. In contrast, the five epigenetic pyrite samples display a very limited range of δ34S, Δ33S, and Δ36S values (+0.7 to +4.0 ‰, -0.3 to +0.0 ‰. and -0.3 to +0.1 ‰, respectively). Despite the clear signatures of mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionation, very few data points plot along the primary Archean photochemical array suggesting a weak photolytic control over the data set. Instead, other factors command a greater degree of influence such as pyrite paragenesis, the prevailing depositional environment, and non-photolytic sulfur sources. In relation to pyrite paragenesis, reworked syngenetic sedimentary pyrite grains (pyrite originally precipitated along the sediment-water interface) are characterized by negative δ34S and Δ33S values, suggesting open system conditions with respect

  2. Kimberlites of the Man craton, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, E. M. W.; Apter, D. B.; Morelli, C.; Smithson, N. K.

    2004-09-01

    The Man craton in West Africa is an Archaean craton formerly joined to the Guyana craton (South America) that was rifted apart in the Mesozoic. Kimberlites of the Man craton include three Jurassic-aged clusters in Guinea, two Jurassic-aged clusters in Sierra Leone, and in Liberia two clusters of unknown age and one Neoproterozoic cluster recently dated at ˜800 Ma. All of the kimberlites irrespective of age occur as small pipes and prolific dykes. Some of the Banankoro cluster pipes in Guinea, the Koidu pipes in Sierra Leone and small pipes in the Weasua cluster in Liberia contain hypabyssal-facies kimberlite and remnants of the so-called transitional-facies and diatreme-facies kimberlite. Most of the Man craton kimberlites are mineralogically classified as phlogopite kimberlites, although potassium contents are relatively low. They are chemically similar to mica-poor Group 1A Southern African examples. The Jurassic kimberlites are considered to represent one province of kimberlites that track from older bodies in Guinea (Droujba 153 Ma) to progressively younger kimberlites in Sierra Leone (Koidu, 146 Ma and Tongo, 140 Ma). The scarcity of diatreme-facies kimberlites relative to hypabyssal-facies kimberlites and the presence of the so-called transitional-facies indicate that the pipes have been eroded down to the interface between the root and diatreme zones. From this observation, it is concluded that extensive erosion (1-2 km) has occurred since the Jurassic. In addition to erosion, the presence of abundant early crystallizing phlogopite is considered to have had an effect on the relatively small sizes of the Man craton kimberlites.

  3. Quantifying climate and pumping contributions to aquifer depletion using a highly parameterised groundwater model: Uley South Basin (South Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowling, Matthew J.; Werner, Adrian D.; Herckenrath, Daan

    2015-04-01

    The relative contributions of climate and human stresses to aquifer depletion in real-world settings are rarely quantified, particularly where complex patterns of depletion arise from the spatial and temporal variability in aquifer stresses. These impacts can be assessed using calibration-constrained model predictions of disturbed (i.e., subject to human activity) and undisturbed (i.e., natural) conditions. Prior investigations that adopt this approach employ lumped-parameter or one-dimensional models. Here, we extend previous studies by using a highly parameterised, spatially distributed groundwater model to investigate the relative impacts of climate variability and pumping on aquifer depletion. The Uley South Basin (USB), South Australia, where there is conjecture surrounding the cause of declining groundwater levels, serves as a case study. The relative contributions of climate variability and pumping to USB depletion are shown to be highly variable in time and space. Temporal trends reflect variability in rainfall and pumping, as expected. Spatial trends are primarily dependent on the proximity to both the coastal boundary and pumping wells, and to the distribution of recharge and hydraulic properties. Results show that pumping impacts exceed those of climate between 1978 and 2012, and over the majority of the spatial extent of USB. The contribution of pumping to aquifer depletion is shown to be 2.9 and 1.4 times that of climate in terms of the time-averaged and maximum-in-time basin-scale water budget, respectively. Confidence in model predictions is enhanced by the outcomes of a linear predictive uncertainty analysis, which indicates that predictive uncertainty is lower than climatic and pumping impacts. This study demonstrates the application of a relatively simple analysis that can be used in combination with highly parameterised, spatially distributed groundwater models to differentiate causal factors of aquifer depletion.

  4. Seismic reflection profiling of Neoarchean cratons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Velden, Arie Jan

    Deep seismic reflection data from the Superior and Slave cratons in Canada and the Yilgarn craton in Australia are processed with similar processing flows and display parameters to facilitate comparative analysis. The profiles are characterized by subhorizontal to shallowly dipping reflection fabrics in the crust and upper mantle. These reflection fabrics are interpreted as ˜2.8-2.6 Ga ductile structural fabrics associated with peak orogenesis that led to cratonization. A re-evaluation of the seismic data has led to alternative interpretations compared to those published previously. In western Ontario, at Red Lake, divergent reflection patterns are interpreted as products of mainly collisional tectonics rather than extensional tectonics, and at Pickle Lake, mantle reflections connect to a mapped suture and strikeslip fault system. In western Quebec, steep structures are interpreted on the north flank of the Opatica domain. In the Kalgoorlie area of western Australia, subhorizontal upper crustal reflections are interpreted as pre-deformational layers within anticlines. A new tectonic model is presented for the western Slave Province in which divergent reflections at Yellowknife are interpreted to be associated with convergence between the Snare arc and the central Slave basement complex. Reflections that project from the reflection Moho into the upper mantle are observed on all profiles and are interpreted as relict subduction zones and/or major terrane-bounding structures. Listric mid-crustal reflections resembling roofing shingles are interpreted as products of underthrusting and subcretion. Strike-slip faults are manifested as near-vertical zones of reflection truncations. Greenstone belts are often poorly reflective. These reflection patterns are consistent with tectonic models in which greenstone belts form adjacent to protocratons and are thickened by protocontinent-dipping subduction, tectonic underplating, formation of nappes, and thrust-and-fold structures

  5. Crust Formation and Stabilization of the Western Archean Kaapvaal Craton: Evidence from U-Pb Geochronology of Basement Blocks and Deep Crustal Xenoliths from the Kimberley Region, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, M. D.; Bowring, S. A.

    2001-05-01

    The kimberlites of the Kimberley region of South Africa have yielded one of the most abundantly sampled and studied suites of lithospheric mantle xenoliths in the world, providing a detailed picture of the composition and thermal evolution of the continental mantle beneath the western Kaapvaal craton. Surprisingly however, little published data exist regarding the nature of the basement and deeper crustal rocks in the western craton, with which to contrast the evolution of the crustal and mantle portions of this Archean cratonic region. Crustal xenoliths collected in the various mine dumps around Kimberley are predominantly large blocks of near-surface basement lithologies, including deformed granitic to tonalitic gneisses and amphibolites, weakly deformed pegmatoids, and non-deformed biotite granite. U-Pb zircon geochronological data for a number of xenoliths have been used to develop a preliminary framework for the age and evolution of the Archean crust of the Kimberley region. The youngest component of the Kimberley basement is a non-deformed sample of biotite granite with an age of 2724+/-2 Ma. A major episode of metamorphism and crustal anatexis is recorded by 2928+/-2 Ga metamorphic zircon growth in amphibolitic and tonalitic components of banded gneisses, and igneous zircons of identical age in weakly deformed cross-cutting pegmatoids. Zircons from these same pegmatoids also have inherited cores which yield 207Pb/206Pb dates as old as 3265 Ma. These inherited zircons, as well as cores of zircons from a foliated granodioritic xenolith with 207Pb/206Pb dates as old as 3184 Ma, indicate the antiquity of the oldest crustal components of the Kimberley basement. These data are consistent with cursory SHRIMP U-Pb zircon geochronological information reported for lithologies collected in situ in the diamond mine walls of Kimberley. Two important implications of this data are considered: first, we interpret the major metamorphism and crustal anatexis at 2.93 Ga as

  6. A synthesis of ENSO effects on drylands in Australia, North America and South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmgren, M.; Stapp, P.; Dickman, C. R.; Gracia, C.; Graham, S.; Gutiérrez, J. R.; Hice, C.; Jaksic, F.; Kelt, D. A.; Letnic, M.; Lima, M.; López, B. C.; Meserve, P. L.; Milstead, W. B.; Polis, G. A.; Previtali, M. A.; Richter, M.; Sabaté, S.; Squeo, F. A.

    2006-01-01

    Fundamentally, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a climatic and oceanographic phenomenon, but it has profound effects on terrestrial ecosystems. Although the ecological effects of ENSO are becoming increasingly known from a wide range of terrestrial ecosystems (Holmgren et al., 2001), their impacts have been more intensively studied in arid and semiarid systems. In this brief communication, we summarize the main conclusions of a recent symposium on the effects of ENSO in these ecosystems, which was convened as part of the First Alexander von Humboldt International Conference on the El Niño Phenomenon and its Global Impact, in Guayaquil, Ecuador, from 16-20 May 2005. Participants in the symposium shared results and perspectives from research conducted in North and South America and Australia, regions where the ecological effects of ENSO have been studied in depth. Although the reports covered a wide array of organisms and ecological systems (Fig. 1), a recurring theme was the strong increase in rainfall associated with ENSO events in dry ecosystems (during the El Niño phase of the oscillation in the Americas and the La Niña phase in Australia). Because inter-annual variability in precipitation is such a strong determinant of productivity in arid and semiarid ecosystems, increased ENSO rainfall is crucial for plant recruitment, productivity and diversity in these ecosystems. Several long-term studies show that this pulse in primary productivity causes a subsequent increase in herbivores, followed by an increase in carnivores, with consequences for changes in ecosystem structure and functioning that can be quite complex.

  7. Occupational differences, cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle habits in South Eastern rural Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In rural and remote Australia, cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates are higher than metropolitan rates. This study analysed cardiovascular and other chronic disease risk factors and related health behaviours by occupational status, to determine whether agricultural workers have higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk than other rural workers. Methods Cross-sectional surveys in three rural regions of South Eastern Australia (2004-2006). A stratified random sample of 1001 men and women aged 25-74 from electoral rolls were categorised by occupation into agricultural workers (men = 214, women = 79), technicians (men = 123), managers (men = 148, women = 272) and ‘home duties’ (women = 165). Data were collected from self-administered questionnaire, physical measurements and laboratory tests. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk were assessed by Framingham 5 years risk calculation. Results Amongst men, agricultural workers had higher occupational physical activity levels, healthier more traditional diet, lower alcohol consumption, lower fasting plasma glucose, the lowest proportion of daily smokers and lower age-adjusted 5 year CVD and CHD risk scores. Amongst women, managers were younger with higher HDL cholesterol, lower systolic blood pressure, less hypertension, lower waist circumference, less self-reported diabetes and better 5 year CVD and CHD risk scores. Agricultural workers did not have higher cardiovascular disease risk than other occupational groups. Conclusions Previous studies have suggested that farmers have higher risks of cardiovascular disease but this is because the risk has been compared with non-rural populations. In this study, the comparison has been made with other rural occupations. Cardiovascular risk reduction programs are justified for all. Programs tailored only for agricultural workers are unwarranted. PMID:24266886

  8. 3D Airborne Electromagnetic Inversion: A case study from the Musgrave Region, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, L. H.; Wilson, G. A.; Zhdanov, M. S.; Sunwall, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysicists know and accept that geology is inherently 3D, and is resultant from complex, overlapping processes related to genesis, metamorphism, deformation, alteration, weathering, and/or hydrogeology. Yet, the geophysics community has long relied on qualitative analysis, conductivity depth imaging (CDIs), 1D inversion, and/or plate modeling. There are many reasons for this deficiency, not the least of which has been the lack of capacity for historic 3D AEM inversion algorithms to invert entire surveys so as to practically affect exploration decisions. Our recent introduction of a moving sensitivity domain (footprint) methodology has been a paradigm shift in AEM interpretation. The basis of this method is that one needs only to calculate the responses and sensitivities for that part of the 3D earth model that is within the AEM system's sensitivity domain (footprint), and then superimpose all sensitivity domains into a single, sparse sensitivity matrix for the entire 3D earth model which is then updated in a regularized inversion scheme. This has made it practical to rigorously invert entire surveys with thousands of line kilometers of AEM data to mega-cell 3D models in hours using multi-processor workstations. Since 2010, over eighty individual projects have been completed for Aerodat, AEROTEM, DIGHEM, GEOTEM, HELITEM, HoisTEM, MEGATEM, RepTEM, RESOLVE, SkyTEM, SPECTREM, TEMPEST, and VTEM data from Australia, Brazil, Canada, Finland, Ghana, Peru, Tanzania, the US, and Zambia. Examples of 3D AEM inversion have been published for a variety of applications, including mineral exploration, oil sands exploration, salinity, permafrost, and bathymetry mapping. In this paper, we present a comparison of 3D inversions for SkyTEM, SPECTREM, TEMPET and VTEM data acquired over the same area in the Musgrave region of South Australia for exploration under cover.

  9. Early palaeozoic palaeomagnetism in Australia I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia III. Middle to early-Late Cambrian results from the Amadeus Basin, Northern Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klootwijk, C. T.

    1980-04-01

    I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia A total of 460 samples from six sequences spanning the Cambrian succession of the Flinders Ranges (Adelaide "Geosyncline", South Australia) has been analyzed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples showed a recent field component, generally constituting more than 50% of the initial intensity, which in most cases was removed by 200-400°C. Two characteristic magnetic components have been identified: (A) A secondary magnetic component of Cambro-Ordovician age (S-pole at 75.3°E 26.0°N, α95 = 7.4°, N = 5 localities) interpreted as having been induced by thermochemical activity during a period of enhanced heat flux prior to the Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician diastrophistic phases of the Delamarian Orogeny. (B) A primary magnetic component, which indicates rapid polar motion during the Early Cambrian and a much reduced polar motion during the Middle Cambrian. Representative palaeomagnetic pole positions for the primary component are: (1) Basal Hawker Group (earliest Cambrian): S-pole at 2.3°E 26.7°S, d p = 8.1°, d m = 14.3°, N = 10 (sites). (2) Billy Creek Formation— Wirrealpa Limestone— Aroona Creek Limestone (late Early Cambrian to early Middle Cambrian): S-pole at 20.1°E 37.4°S, d p = 7.2°, dm = 14.4°, N = 11(sites). (3) Basal Lake Frame Group (Middle Cambrian): S-pole at 26.1°E 29.3°S, d p = 6.6°, d m = 13.1°, N =10 (sites). (4) Pantapinna Formation (late Middle Cambrian?): S-pole at 29.2°E 36.4°S, d p = 8.4°, dm = 16.7°, N = 4 (sites). Available data suggest that deposition of the Lake Frome Group beds probably did not continue into the Late Cambrian. II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia A total of 108 block samples from a late Early Cambrian red-bed sequence on Kangaroo Island (Adelaide "Geosyncline", South Australia) has been analysed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples contained a recent field component of

  10. Early palaeozoic palaeomagnetism in Australia I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia III. Middle to early-Late Cambrian results from the Amadeus Basin, Northern Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klootwijk, C. T.

    1980-04-01

    I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia A total of 460 samples from six sequences spanning the Cambrian succession of the Flinders Ranges (Adelaide "Geosyncline", South Australia) has been analyzed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples showed a recent field component, generally constituting more than 50% of the initial intensity, which in most cases was removed by 200-400°C. Two characteristic magnetic components have been identified: (A) A secondary magnetic component of Cambro-Ordovician age (S-pole at 75.3°E 26.0°N, α95 = 7.4°, N = 5 localities) interpreted as having been induced by thermochemical activity during a period of enhanced heat flux prior to the Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician diastrophistic phases of the Delamarian Orogeny. (B) A primary magnetic component, which indicates rapid polar motion during the Early Cambrian and a much reduced polar motion during the Middle Cambrian. Representative palaeomagnetic pole positions for the primary component are: (1) Basal Hawker Group (earliest Cambrian): S-pole at 2.3°E 26.7°S, d p = 8.1°, d m = 14.3°, N = 10 (sites). (2) Billy Creek Formation— Wirrealpa Limestone— Aroona Creek Limestone (late Early Cambrian to early Middle Cambrian): S-pole at 20.1°E 37.4°S, d p = 7.2°, dm = 14.4°, N = 11(sites). (3) Basal Lake Frame Group (Middle Cambrian): S-pole at 26.1°E 29.3°S, d p = 6.6°, d m = 13.1°, N =10 (sites). (4) Pantapinna Formation (late Middle Cambrian?): S-pole at 29.2°E 36.4°S, d p = 8.4°, dm = 16.7°, N = 4 (sites). Available data suggest that deposition of the Lake Frome Group beds probably did not continue into the Late Cambrian. II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia A total of 108 block samples from a late Early Cambrian red-bed sequence on Kangaroo Island (Adelaide "Geosyncline", South Australia) has been analysed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples contained a recent field component of

  11. A Probabilistic Tsunami Assessment for Western Australia and the South coast of Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbidge, D. R.; Cummins, P. R.; Thio, H. K.

    2006-12-01

    Prior to July 2006, the only known, large megathrust earthquake known to have occurred (Mw=7.6, on 2 June, 1994) south of Java could be argued to be an anomaly in what is essentially aseismic subduction in this part of the Sunda Arc. The occurrence of a second such event (Mw=7.8) on 17 July, however, has demonstrated that they can occur anywhere along the Sunda Arc. These events produced large tsunamis along the coast of Java that killed hundreds (222 and 663, respectively). On the one hand, these earthquakes are much smaller than the Mw=9+ earthquakes known to occur off Sumatra, and the mortality associated with them is much smaller than the staggering human toll of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (IOT), which killed 167,000 on the Sumatran coast. On the other hand, the density of population along the south Java coast is much higher than that along the Sumatran coast, and we do not know how large or how frequent tsunamigenic earthquakes off Java may be. The possibility exists that tsunami risk, as measured in human lives, may be higher for Java than for Sumatra. Furthermore, future events off Sumatra can be expected off its central and perhaps its southern coast, where most of the teletsunami energy will be directed into the open Indian Ocean. Events off Java, however, will direct much more teletsunami energy towards the northwest coast of Australia. Both the 1994 and the 2006 tsunamis originating off south Java caused significant tsunamis at specific locations along the West Australian coast. Here we present a new probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for the offshore wave height expected along the south coast of Java and the West Australian coast from earthquakes along the Sunda Arc subduction zone. This assessment is based on a new estimate of the rate of megathrust earthquake occurrence along the Sunda Arc subduction zone based on the global rate of occurrence of giant subduction zone earthquakes, the length of the subduction zone and its rate of convergence

  12. Zircon SHRIMP U Pb ages and in-situ Hf isotopic analysis for the Mesozoic intrusions in South Taihang, North China craton: Evidence for hybridization between mantle-derived magmas and crustal components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B.; Tian, W.; Jahn, B. M.; Chen, Z. C.

    2008-04-01

    The North China craton (NCC) was stabilized in Paleo-Proterozoic times, and the eastern part of it was remobilized in the Mesozoic, as is indicated by the presence of voluminous Mesozoic magmas in eastern NCC. In particular, the lithospheric mantle beneath eastern NCC was significantly thinned during the intense Mesozoic tectono-magmatic activity, which makes the NCC different from most other ancient cratons. The Mesozoic magmas may thus provide crucial evidence regarding the processes that transformed the NCC from craton to a tectonically active region. The South Taihang magmatic complex lies in the western part of the Mesozoic magmatic zone in the NCC. The complex falls into three main plutonic rocks: the Hongshan syenite, the Xishu gabbroic diorite-monzonite and the Wu'an monzonitic rocks. Zircon U-Pb dating reveals that the three plutonic rocks were emplaced contemporaneously at ˜ 132 Ma. In-situ Hf isotopic analyses for the dated zircons indicate that the Hongshan syenites show homogeneous ɛHf( t) values (- 10 to - 13) which are slightly lower than those (- 9.0) for the enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM), as revealed by zircons from mafic rocks that originated from melting of SCLM. This suggests that the parental magma to the syenites was likely derived from melting of the enriched SCLM and contaminated slightly by old lower continental crustal material during ascent. The Xishu and Wu'an gabbroic diorites to monzonitic rocks, however, show significantly varied Hf isotopic compositions, with ɛHf( t) = - 9.2 to - 16 and - 15.5 to - 24, respectively. The wide range of ɛHf( t) values for a single sample suggests that the Xishu and Wu'an plutons formed through a process of hybridization between enriched mantle-derived mafic magma and crustal components in variable proportions. This is supported by the textural and compositional disequilibrium of plagioclase phenocrysts from the two plutons. The Wu'an monzonitic rocks show lower ɛHf( t) values

  13. Private Practice Disability Therapy Workforce in Rural New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Gisselle; Chedid, Rebecca; Dew, Angela; Bulkeley, Kim; Lincoln, Michelle; Bundy, Anita; Brentnall, Jennie; Veitch, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increasing demand for therapy services, there is a shortage of therapists in rural areas. We describe the existing private therapy workforce in rural western New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A cross-sectional design study, using an online survey, was conducted with occupational and physiotherapists, speech pathologists, and psychologists working in private practice in western NSW. Forty-one private therapists completed the survey. The average years of qualification was 19; 51% worked part-time. Two-thirds (68%) indicated they had adequate access to professional development opportunities. Sixty-four percent reported intending to stay in their job for 12 months. Most (95%) reported high levels of job satisfaction. Respondents had worked in western NSW for a median of 17 yrs. Sixty-eight percent described opportunities for social interaction as very good. Sixty-six percent grew up in rural areas. All respondents agreed that they loved the rural lifestyle. The results portray an experienced, stable, flexible, and highly satisfied professional group. With the current changes in policies within the disability sector, it is important to maximise these features of private therapy in order to contribute to the rural workforce and increase access to the range of supports available for people with disability. PMID:27585620

  14. Vicarious resilience and vicarious traumatisation: Experiences of working with refugees and asylum seekers in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Puvimanasinghe, Teresa; Denson, Linley A; Augoustinos, Martha; Somasundaram, Daya

    2015-12-01

    The negative psychological impacts of working with traumatised people are well documented and include vicarious traumatisation (VT): the cumulative effect of identifying with clients' trauma stories that negatively impacts on service providers' memory, emotions, thoughts, and worldviews. More recently, the concept of vicarious resilience (VR) has been also identified: the strength, growth, and empowerment experienced by trauma workers as a consequence of their work. VR includes service providers' awareness and appreciation of their clients' capacity to grow, maintaining hope for change, as well as learning from and reassessing personal problems in the light of clients' stories of perseverance, strength, and growth. This study aimed at exploring the experiences of mental health, physical healthcare, and settlement workers caring for refugees and asylum seekers in South Australia. Using a qualitative method (data-based thematic analysis) to collect and analyse 26 semi-structured face-to-face interviews, we identified four prominent and recurring themes emanating from the data: VT, VR, work satisfaction, and cultural flexibility. These findings-among the first to describe both VT and VR in Australians working with refugee people-have important implications for policy, service quality, service providers' wellbeing, and refugee clients' lives. PMID:25795221

  15. Using environmental tracers to constrain flow parameters in fractured rock aquifers; Clare Valley, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Peter G.; Simmons, Craig T.

    In fractured rock aquifers, apparent groundwater ages obtained with environmental tracers (e.g., 14C, CFC-12, and 3H) usually do not represent the hydraulic age of the water. Diffusion of solute between the fractures and matrix results in apparent ages that are greater than hydraulic ages, and that may be different for different tracers. We use approximate analytical solutions and numerical simulations of tracer transport through fractured porous media to illustrate the dependence of 14C and CFC-12 ages and 3H concentrations on fracture and matrix properties. In the Clare Valley, South Australia, environmental tracer data are interpreted in conjunction with hydraulic data to constrain flow parameters in a fractured shale aquifer. Hydraulic conductivity, matrix porosity, fracture spacing, and groundwater age are measured, and a value for matrix diffusion coefficient is assumed. Equations describing tracer distribution and hydraulic properties of the system are solved simultaneously, to yield estimates of fracture aperture, vertical water velocity, and aquifer recharge rate. In particular, the recharge rate is estimated to be approximately 100 mm yr-1. A sensitivity analysis showed that this value is most sensitive to the measured values of matrix porosity and groundwater age, and highly insensitive to the measured hydraulic conductivity and the assumed matrix diffusion coefficient. A major horizontal fracture at 37 m depth intercepts most of the vertical flow. The leakage rate to the deeper flow system is estimated to be less than 0.1 mm yr-1.

  16. Congenital malformations and maternal drinking water supply in rural South Australia: a case-control study

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsch, M.M.; Scragg, R.K.R.; McMichael, A.J.; Baghurst, P.A.; Dyer, K.F.

    1984-04-01

    A case-control study, carried out in the Mount Gambier region of South Australia, investigated the relationship between mothers' antenatal drinking water source and malformations in offspring. It was prompted by earlier descriptive findings of a statistically significant, and localized, increase in the perinatal mortality rate in Mount Gambier, due principally to congential malformations affecting the central nervous system and multiple organ systems. Available for statistical analysis were 218 case-control pairs, from the period 1951-1979, individually matched by hospital, maternal age (+/- 2 years), parity and date of birth (+/- 1 month). Compared with women who drank only rainwater during their pregnancy (relative risk (RR) = 1.0), women who consumed principally groundwater had a statistically significant increase in risk of bearing a malformed child (RR = 2.8). statistically significant risk increases occurred specifically for malformations of the central nervous system and musculoskeletal system. Reanalysis of the data by estimated water nitrate concentration demonstrated a nearly threefold increase in risk for women who drank water containing 5-15 ppm of nitrate, and fourfold increase in risk for those consuming >15 ppm of nitrate.

  17. Analysis of breastfeeding policies and practices in childcare centres in Adelaide, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Javanparast, Sara; Newman, Lareen; Sweet, Linda; McIntyre, Ellen

    2012-08-01

    Breastfeeding policies and practices were analysed in childcare settings in the metropolitan area of Adelaide, South Australia. Childcare centres were purposively selected based on their geographical location, type and socioeconomic score of the area. Qualitative inquiry approach was employed by undertaking interviews with childcare centres' director or baby house coordinator to explore their perception towards breastfeeding practice and support within their centre. Breastfeeding related policy documents, where available, were also collected during the interviews to triangulate data. A total of 15 face-to-face interviews were conducted. Six childcare centres had a written policy specifically on breastfeeding support, although the technical issues of handling breastmilk were included in most centres' food and nutrition guidelines. Most participants believed that decision to breastfeed is the personal choice of parents, and hence saw the childcare centre's role as supporting parental choice whether it is breastfeeding or not. The provision of physical space to breastfeed and facilities to store the expressed breast milk were the most common practices in support of parents who had chosen to continue breastfeeding. Participants perceived mothers' work-related issues such as distance from the centre, time, and unsupportive workplace the most important barriers that led to early introduction of bottle feeding or breastfeeding cessation. Most childcare centres support breastfeeding in a more passive than active way. Breastfeeding promotion needs to be an integral part of childcare centres training, policy and practice if an increased rate of breastfeeding is to be achieved particularly amongst working mothers. PMID:21948219

  18. A Hydrogeophysical Conceptual Model of Mount Toondina Impact Crater, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressler, D. K.; Halihan, T.; Love, A.; Xie, Y.; Simmons, C.

    2011-12-01

    Mount Toondina, located on the Great Artesian Basin (GAB), South Australia, is a meteorite impact crater and a ground water discharge feature with a water hole, a tufa salt flat and several former mapped springs. Aerial photographs and field survey data indicate that water was flowing from springs as recent as twenty years ago. Geophysical site surveys including electrical resistivity imaging (ERI), gravity and seismic data were utilized to constrain a hydrogeologic model for the site. Regional magnetic and gravity surveys were also utilized to evaluate the site boundaries using Oasis Montaj. Fluid chemistry and electrical conductivity from the site was used along with the geophysical data to constrain FEFLOW models to test hydrogeological conceptual models of the permeability structure of Mount Toondina. It is hypothesized that the spring system is controlled by advective flow from the subsurface artesian aquifer to the ring of vegetation around the perimeter of the impact structure. Additionally, it is hypothesized that the central salt flat portion of the impact crater is influenced by free convective processes. The field data and FEFLOW model results will be used to better manage flora and fauna in the Mount Toondina area and to better predict groundwater flow on other impact craters.

  19. Screening of metal uptake by plant colonizers growing on abandoned copper mine in Kapunda, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Nirola, Ramkrishna; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Aryal, Rupak; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Systematic site survey for sample collection and analysis was conducted at a derelict copper (Cu) mine at Kapunda, South Australia. Cu concentrations in the soils at this former mine ranged from 65-10107 mg kg(-1). The pH and EC varied widely in the 3.9-8.4 and 152-7311 µS ranges, respectively. Nine plant species growing over the copper mine site were selected to screen for metal uptake to determine their suitability for phytoremediation. The Australian native tree species Eucalyptus camaldulensis indicated enrichment factor (EF) of 2.17, 1.89, and 1.30 for Cu, Zn, and Pb, respectively, suggesting that this species of tree can accumulate these metals to some degree. The stress-resistant exotic olive, Olea europaea exhibited EF of ≤ 0.01 for Cu, Cd, and Pb, and 0.29 for Zn, which is characteristic of an excluder plant. Acacia pycnantha, the Australian pioneer legume species with EF 0.03, 0.80, 0.32, and 0.01 for Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb, respectively, emerged as another strong metal excluder and consequently as an ideal metal stabilizer. PMID:26552328

  20. Climate variations and salmonellosis transmission in Adelaide, South Australia: a comparison between regression models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Bi, Peng; Hiller, Janet

    2008-01-01

    This is the first study to identify appropriate regression models for the association between climate variation and salmonellosis transmission. A comparison between different regression models was conducted using surveillance data in Adelaide, South Australia. By using notified salmonellosis cases and climatic variables from the Adelaide metropolitan area over the period 1990-2003, four regression methods were examined: standard Poisson regression, autoregressive adjusted Poisson regression, multiple linear regression, and a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model. Notified salmonellosis cases in 2004 were used to test the forecasting ability of the four models. Parameter estimation, goodness-of-fit and forecasting ability of the four regression models were compared. Temperatures occurring 2 weeks prior to cases were positively associated with cases of salmonellosis. Rainfall was also inversely related to the number of cases. The comparison of the goodness-of-fit and forecasting ability suggest that the SARIMA model is better than the other three regression models. Temperature and rainfall may be used as climatic predictors of salmonellosis cases in regions with climatic characteristics similar to those of Adelaide. The SARIMA model could, thus, be adopted to quantify the relationship between climate variations and salmonellosis transmission.

  1. Dental Erosion and Dentinal Sensitivity amongst Professional Wine Tasters in South East Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Belinda; Undery, Rebecca; Ahmed, Humza

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims. Professional wine tasters face a hidden occupational hazard due to the high acid content in wine. This study evaluates the self-perceived dentinal sensitivity and erosive effects of wine on the professional wine tasters of the Granite Belt and the Scenic Rim regions of South East Queensland, Australia. Methods. Seventy wineries were contacted and participants were surveyed about their professional wine tasting experience and oral health. Participants were also required to rate their tooth sensitivity prior to being examined for erosion using a modified Smith & Knight tooth wear index. The data were analysed using Mann Whitney U test and Spearman's correlation test. Results. The results showed that most participants (25 males, 22–66 yrs), brushed twice a day; however, the majority did not floss daily and had limited knowledge of the erosive effect of wine. There was a direct correlation between years of wine tasting, age of participants, and the erosion index. Correlation was not observed between the participant's sensitivity index and erosion index. Conclusion. The lack of significant experience of dentinal hypersensitivity amongst professional wine tasters should not prevent oral health practitioners from providing necessary counselling and undertaking preventive measures, as tooth wear can have serious long-term effect on oral health of an individual. PMID:24526901

  2. Yield Loss Caused by Pratylenchus thornei on Wheat in South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, Julie M.; Davies, Kerrie A.; Hancock, Trevor W.; Fisher, John M.

    1999-01-01

    A two-year field trial with 130 plots was conducted at Tanunda, South Australia. Ten cereal cultivars differing in susceptibility to Pratylenchus thornei, two poor host crops (non-leguminous), and a bare fallow treatment were used to manipulate the numbers of nematodes in the plots in the first year. Initial and final densities were determined for each plot and varied from 0 to 9,400 nematodes/200 g oven-dried soil at the beginning of the second year. A highly susceptible wheat cultivar, Warigal, and two wheat lines known to have some resistance to P. thornei, GS50A and AUS4930, were planted in the second year. High densities of P. thornei caused more extensive lesions and severe cortical degradation in roots of Warigal than in GS50A or AUS4930. There was a significant linear relationship between initial density of P. thornei and Warigal grain yield (t/ha), with the estimated regression equation Y = 1.86 - 0.0000557x, where Y is the grain yield in t/ha and x is the number of P. thornei/200 g oven-dried soil. High initial densities (9,000 P. thornei/200 g oven-dried soil) caused up to 27% yield loss of this commercial Australian wheat. In contrast, the yield of the two resistant lines was not affected by initial density, suggesting that both were tolerant as well as resistant in the field. PMID:19270909

  3. Measurement of personal exposure to outdoor aeromycota in northern New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Green, Brett James; O'Meara, Timothy; Sercombe, Jason; Tovey, Euan

    2006-01-01

    Aerobiological sampling traditionally uses a volumetric spore trap located in a fixed position to estimate personal exposure to airborne fungi. In this study, the number and identity of fungi inhaled by human subjects (n=34), wearing Intra-nasal air samplers (INASs), was measured over 2-hour periods in an outdoor community setting, and compared to fungal counts made with a Burkard spore trap and Institute of Occupational Medicine personal filter air samplers (IOMs). All sampling devices were in close proximity and located in an outdoor environment in Casino, northern New South Wales, Australia. Using INASs, the most prevalent fungi inhaled belonged to soil or vegetation borne spores of Alternaria, Arthrinium, Bipolaris, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Epicoccum, Exserohilum, Fusarium, Pithomyces, Spegazzinia and Tetraploa species, Xylariaceae ascospores, in addition to hyphal fragments. These results showed that inhaled fungal exposure in most people varied in a 2-fold range with 10-fold outliers. In addition, the INASs and personal air filters agreed more with each other than with Burkard spore trap counts (r=0.74, p < 0.0001). These findings further support a new paradigm of personal fungal exposure, which implicates the inhalation of a spectrum of fungi more closely associated with soil or vegetation borne mycoflora and hyphal fragments than what is collected by stationary spore traps in the same geographic region. PMID:17195994

  4. Sedimentary and tectonic history of the Holowilena Ironstone, a Neoproterozoic iron formation in South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechte, Maxwell Alexander; Wallace, Malcolm William

    2015-11-01

    The Holowilena Ironstone is a Neoproterozoic iron formation in South Australia associated with glacial deposits of the Sturtian glaciation. Through a comprehensive field study coupled with optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and X-ray diffraction, a detailed description of the stratigraphy, sedimentology, mineralogy, and structure of the Holowilena Ironstone was obtained. The Holowilena Ironstone comprises ferruginous shales, siltstones, diamictites, and is largely made up of hematite and jasper, early diagenetic replacement minerals of precursor iron oxyhydroxides, and silica. These chemical precipitates are variably influenced by turbidites and debris flows contributing clastic detritus to the depositional system. Structural and stratigraphic evidence suggests deposition within a synsedimentary half-graben. A model for the Holowilena Ironstone is proposed, in which dense oxic fluids expelled during sea ice formation in the Cryogenian pool in the depression of the half-graben, allowing for long-lived mixing with the ferruginous seawater and the deposition of iron oxides. This combination of glacial dynamics, tectonism, and ocean chemistry may explain the return of iron formations in the Neoproterozoic.

  5. The influence of finfish aquaculture on benthic fish and crustacean assemblages in Fitzgerald Bay, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Jason E; Williams, Kane

    2015-01-01

    The influence of sea-cage aquaculture on wildfish assemblages has received little attention outside of Europe. Sea-cage aquaculture of finfish is a major focus in South Australia, and while the main species farmed is southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii), there is also an important yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) industry. Yellowtail kingfish aquaculture did not appear to have any local or regional effects on demersal assemblages (primarily fish, but also some crustaceans) surveyed by baited remote underwater video (BRUV) in Fitzgerald Bay. We did, however, detect small scale spatial variations in assemblages within the bay. The type of bait used strongly influenced the assemblage recorded, with significantly greater numbers of fish attracted to deployments where sardines were used as the bait to compared to those with no bait. The pelleted feed used by the aquaculture industry was just as attractive as sardines at one site, and intermediate between sardines and no bait at the other. There was significant temporal variability in assemblages at both farm sites and one control site, while the second control site was temporally stable (over the 9 weeks of the study). Overall, the results suggested that aquaculture was having little if any impact on the abundance and assemblage structure of the demersal macrofauna in Fitzgerald Bay. PMID:26401452

  6. The influence of finfish aquaculture on benthic fish and crustacean assemblages in Fitzgerald Bay, South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kane

    2015-01-01

    The influence of sea-cage aquaculture on wildfish assemblages has received little attention outside of Europe. Sea-cage aquaculture of finfish is a major focus in South Australia, and while the main species farmed is southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii), there is also an important yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) industry. Yellowtail kingfish aquaculture did not appear to have any local or regional effects on demersal assemblages (primarily fish, but also some crustaceans) surveyed by baited remote underwater video (BRUV) in Fitzgerald Bay. We did, however, detect small scale spatial variations in assemblages within the bay. The type of bait used strongly influenced the assemblage recorded, with significantly greater numbers of fish attracted to deployments where sardines were used as the bait to compared to those with no bait. The pelleted feed used by the aquaculture industry was just as attractive as sardines at one site, and intermediate between sardines and no bait at the other. There was significant temporal variability in assemblages at both farm sites and one control site, while the second control site was temporally stable (over the 9 weeks of the study). Overall, the results suggested that aquaculture was having little if any impact on the abundance and assemblage structure of the demersal macrofauna in Fitzgerald Bay. PMID:26401452

  7. Influence of karst hydrology on water quality management in southeast South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmett, A. J.; Telfer, A. L.

    1994-03-01

    Southeast South Australia has large reserves of potable groundwater, generally close to the surface. European settlement has had a major impact on groundwater quality due to the presence of extensive karst in the unconfined aquifer. Historically, industries such as cheese factories were often sited close to karst features (e.g. caves and sinkholes) because they provided a convenient means of waste disposal. Although most have long since closed, they have left a legacy of pollution plumes of varying sizes. In Mount Gambier, the main regional centre, the presence of both exposed and subterranean karst features provided a “perfect system” for the disposal of stormwater. Prior to the provision of a sewerage system within Mount Gambier, all toilet and household wastewaters were disposed to ground. These activities and the subsequent problems that began emerging in the 1960s have led to a concerted effort over the last 20 years to change the philosophy of waste disposal and to generate an understanding and responsibility by those who live in the region and depend on groundwater for the major part of their water supply. Mount Gambier's water supply comes from the Blue Lake. Groundwater inflow from a highly karstic Tertiary limestone aquifer provides 90% of the recharge to the Blue Lake. The lake is a high-value resource in a high-risk environment and in order to minimize this risk, a water-quality management plan for the lake is currently being developed.

  8. Phylogeography of Saproxylic and Forest Floor Invertebrates from Tallaganda, South-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Garrick, Ryan C; Rowell, David M; Sunnucks, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between physiogeographic landscape context and certain life history characteristics, particularly dispersal ability, can generate predictable outcomes for how species responded to Pleistocene (and earlier) climatic changes. Furthermore, the extent to which impacts of past landscape-level changes 'scale-up' to whole communities has begun to be addressed via comparative phylogeographic analyses of co-distributed species. Here we present an overview of a body of research on flightless low-mobility forest invertebrates, focusing on two springtails and two terrestrial flatworms, from Tallaganda on the Great Dividing Range of south-eastern Australia. These species are distantly-related, and represent contrasting trophic levels (i.e., slime-mold-grazers vs. higher-level predators). However, they share an association with the dead wood (saproxylic) habitat. Spatial patterns of intraspecific genetic diversity partly conform to topography-based divisions that circumscribe five 'microgeographic regions' at Tallaganda. In synthesizing population processes and past events that generated contemporary spatial patterns of genetic diversity in these forest floor invertebrates, we highlight cases of phylogeographic congruence, pseudo-congruence, and incongruence. Finally, we propose conservation-oriented recommendations for the prioritisation of areas for protection. PMID:26467960

  9. Phylogeography of Saproxylic and Forest Floor Invertebrates from Tallaganda, South-eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Garrick, Ryan C.; Rowell, David M.; Sunnucks, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between physiogeographic landscape context and certain life history characteristics, particularly dispersal ability, can generate predictable outcomes for how species responded to Pleistocene (and earlier) climatic changes. Furthermore, the extent to which impacts of past landscape-level changes ‘scale-up’ to whole communities has begun to be addressed via comparative phylogeographic analyses of co-distributed species. Here we present an overview of a body of research on flightless low-mobility forest invertebrates, focusing on two springtails and two terrestrial flatworms, from Tallaganda on the Great Dividing Range of south-eastern Australia. These species are distantly-related, and represent contrasting trophic levels (i.e., slime-mold-grazers vs. higher-level predators). However, they share an association with the dead wood (saproxylic) habitat. Spatial patterns of intraspecific genetic diversity partly conform to topography-based divisions that circumscribe five ‘microgeographic regions’ at Tallaganda. In synthesizing population processes and past events that generated contemporary spatial patterns of genetic diversity in these forest floor invertebrates, we highlight cases of phylogeographic congruence, pseudo-congruence, and incongruence. Finally, we propose conservation-oriented recommendations for the prioritisation of areas for protection. PMID:26467960

  10. The climate of the Last Glacial Maximum in south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulmeister, J.; Cohen, T.; Kiernan, K.; Woodward, C.; Barrows, T.; Fitzsimmons, K.; Kemp, J.; Haworth, R.; Clark, D. H.; Gontz, A. M.; Chang, J.; Mueller, D.; Slee, A.; Ellerton, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Last Glaciation Maximum (c. 25-18 kyr) in south-eastern Australia has traditionally been regarded as both significantly colder than the present and much more arid. This was based on a variety of evidence including the dramatic reduction in tree pollen and dune activity in currently humid areas such as the Blue Mountains of NSW. Maintaining arid conditions under significantly lower temperatures is quite challenging and not all lines of evidence supported strong aridity. Over the last four years an ARC project has worked to develop new lines of evidence to test these inferences. Outcomes from the project indicate that winter temperatures were significantly colder than at present (an 8-11 C decrease) while summer temperatures were cooler but not as extreme (4-6.5 C). Moisture balances appear to have been more positive than present along the eastern highlands, while areas to the west were comparatively drier. The humid zone along the divide maintained at least seasonally stronger flows in the major rivers, meaning that water was more available in western districts than under modern climates. I will summarise the evidence for this new pattern and highlight the climatological patterns that would be consistent with the reconstruction. I will conclude by speculating on the implications for both human landscape use and what happened to the vegetation.

  11. Geochronology of Precambrian granites and associated U-Ti-Th mineralization, northern Olary province, South Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, K. R.; Cooper, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Proterozoic granitoids and metamorphic rocks in the Olary province of the Willyama block of South Australia host ore-grade amounts of U-Th-Ti and U-Fe-Ti-Th minerals. U-Pb-Th isotope analyses on zircons from all granitoids associated with the Crocker Well brannerite deposit indicate that these granitoids were intruded within a short time span, close to the 1579.2??1.5 m.y. age of the brannerite-bearing host-rock. Though the early Paleozoic Delamerian orogeny was intense in this region, the zircon isotopic systems remained unaffected; rather, the best-defined zircon chords on concordia plots show a welldefined lower intercept of 43.8??6.5 Ma, which can only be associated with early Tertiary block faulting. Pb-U-Th isotope analyses on brannerite from the Crocker Well deposit and davidite from the Mt. Victoria deposit and the Radium Hill deposit yield badly scattered and discordant apparent ages that suggest a primary age at least as old as the age of the Crocker Well granitoids, followed by a severe disturbance in the early Paleozoic. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Natural Exposure of Horses to Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses in South-East Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Prow, Natalie A.; Tan, Cindy S. E.; Wang, Wenqi; Hobson-Peters, Jody; Kidd, Lisa; Barton, Anita; Wright, John; Hall, Roy A.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    2013-01-01

    In 2011 an unprecedented epidemic of equine encephalitis occurred in south-eastern (SE) Australia following heavy rainfall and severe flooding in the preceding 2–4 months. Less than 6% of the documented cases occurred in Queensland, prompting the question of pre-existing immunity in Queensland horses. A small-scale serological survey was conducted on horses residing in one of the severely flood-affected areas of SE-Queensland. Using a flavivirus-specific blocking-ELISA we found that 63% (39/62) of horses older than 3 years were positive for flavivirus antibodies, and of these 18% (7/38) had neutralizing antibodies to Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), Kunjin virus (WNVKUN) and/or Alfuy virus (ALFV). The remainder had serum-neutralizing antibodies to viruses in the Kokobera virus (KOKV) complex or antibodies to unknown/untested flaviviruses. Amongst eight yearlings one presented with clinical MVEV-encephalomyelitis, while another, clinically normal, had MVEV-neutralizing antibodies. The remaining six yearlings were flavivirus antibody negative. Of 19 foals born between August and November 2011 all were flavivirus antibody negative in January 2012. This suggests that horses in the area acquire over time active immunity to a range of flaviviruses. Nevertheless, the relatively infrequent seropositivity to MVEV, WNVKUN and ALFV (15%) suggests that factors other than pre-existing immunity may have contributed to the low incidence of arboviral disease in SE-Queensland horses during the 2011 epidemic. PMID:24048209

  13. Landscape Preferences, Amenity, and Bushfire Risk in New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Nicholas; Dun, Olivia; Brennan-Horley, Chris; Eriksen, Christine

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines landscape preferences of residents in amenity-rich bushfire-prone landscapes in New South Wales, Australia. Insights are provided into vegetation preferences in areas where properties neighbor large areas of native vegetation, such as national parks, or exist within a matrix of cleared and vegetated private and public land. In such areas, managing fuel loads in the proximity of houses is likely to reduce the risk of house loss and damage. Preferences for vegetation appearance and structure were related to varying fuel loads, particularly the density of understorey vegetation and larger trees. The study adopted a qualitative visual research approach, which used ranking and photo-elicitation as part of a broader interview. A visual approach aids in focusing on outcomes of fuel management interventions, for example, by using the same photo scenes to firstly derive residents' perceptions of amenity and secondly, residents' perceptions of bushfire risk. The results are consistent with existing research on landscape preferences; residents tend to prefer relatively open woodland or forest landscapes with good visual and physical access but with elements that provoke their interest. Overall, residents' landscape preferences were found to be consistent with vegetation management that reduces bushfire risk to houses. The terms in which preferences were expressed provide scope for agency engagement with residents in order to facilitate management that meets amenity and hazard reduction goals on private land.

  14. A characterisation of the coastal tufa deposits of south-west Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Matt; Vogwill, Ryan; Onton, Kimberly

    2010-12-01

    Located in the south-west coastal zone of Western Australia are numerous tufa deposits, which are registered as Threatened Ecological Communities (TEC). The tufas occur in near-shore shallow bedrock settings and are associated with local groundwater discharge. Depositional facies, mineralogy, elemental chemistry and water quality were investigated for five key deposits. Two conceptual environmental models are identified. The first, the cascade to barrage pool model is associated with coastal waterfall zones, the second, a perched spring-line and barrage pool model is located predominantly in the supratidal zone. Tufa morphology, texture, mineral composition and elemental chemistry vary within and between sites. Both phytoclast and lithoclast (allochthonous), and phytoherm forms of tufa are identified depending on location within the facies. Calcite, and to a lesser extent, aragonite and Mg-calcite dominate tufa mineralogy, with diagenetic modifications apparent. Tufa water chemistry is generally Na-Cl-HCO 3 dominated; however, Na-Cl concentrations increase at sites situated within the supratidal zone. Currently the most likely potential threat posed to these deposits is increasing nutrient levels in spring waters from agricultural land use within the catchments. This could in the future impact on tufa development.

  15. Landscape Preferences, Amenity, and Bushfire Risk in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gill, Nicholas; Dun, Olivia; Brennan-Horley, Chris; Eriksen, Christine

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines landscape preferences of residents in amenity-rich bushfire-prone landscapes in New South Wales, Australia. Insights are provided into vegetation preferences in areas where properties neighbor large areas of native vegetation, such as national parks, or exist within a matrix of cleared and vegetated private and public land. In such areas, managing fuel loads in the proximity of houses is likely to reduce the risk of house loss and damage. Preferences for vegetation appearance and structure were related to varying fuel loads, particularly the density of understorey vegetation and larger trees. The study adopted a qualitative visual research approach, which used ranking and photo-elicitation as part of a broader interview. A visual approach aids in focusing on outcomes of fuel management interventions, for example, by using the same photo scenes to firstly derive residents' perceptions of amenity and secondly, residents' perceptions of bushfire risk. The results are consistent with existing research on landscape preferences; residents tend to prefer relatively open woodland or forest landscapes with good visual and physical access but with elements that provoke their interest. Overall, residents' landscape preferences were found to be consistent with vegetation management that reduces bushfire risk to houses. The terms in which preferences were expressed provide scope for agency engagement with residents in order to facilitate management that meets amenity and hazard reduction goals on private land. PMID:25948154

  16. The link between noise perception and quality of life in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Nitschke, Monika; Tucker, Graeme; Simon, David L; Hansen, Alana L; Pisaniello, Dino L

    2014-01-01

    Environmental noise is a significant risk factor for a range of short- and long-term adverse health outcomes such as annoyance, cognitive development impairment, sleep disturbance, cardiovascular effects, and psychiatric problems. The aim of this study was to gather standardized quality of life (QOL) data hitherto rarely correlated with noise annoyance by source category. To provide an evidence-base for environmental noise policy development, a representative state-based survey was undertaken in South Australia (SA). A total of 3015 face-to-face interviews were conducted, using a questionnaire addressing noise sources, distances to busy roads and standardized measures of perceived annoyance and QOL. Population weighted descriptive survey and regression analysis. The most common sources of noise annoyances were road transport (27.7%, using a Likert scale, aggregating "little" to "extreme" annoyance), neighbors (22.0%), construction noise (10.0%), air conditioner noise (5.8%), rail transport noise (4.7%), and industry (3.9%). Using the QOL instrument, all eight health dimensions were significantly decreased for those reporting high noise annoyance ("very much" to "extreme") in relation to road transport and neighbors compared to those reporting low annoyance ("none" to "moderate") from these sources. Noise annoyance is common in the SA general population, and the evidence for a strong association with QOL reinforces the need for environmental noise management at a population basis. PMID:24953878

  17. A new pupillarial scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Eriococcidae) from Angophora in coastal New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gullan, Penny J; Williams, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    A new scale insect, Aolacoccus angophorae gen. nov. and sp. nov. (Eriococcidae), is described from the bark of Angophora (Myrtaceae) growing in the Sydney area of New South Wales, Australia. These insects do not produce honeydew, are not ant-tended and probably feed on cortical parenchyma. The adult female is pupillarial as it is retained within the cuticle of the penultimate (second) instar. The crawlers (mobile first-instar nymphs) emerge via a flap or operculum at the posterior end of the abdomen of the second-instar exuviae. The adult and second-instar females, second-instar male and first-instar nymph, as well as salient features of the apterous adult male, are described and illustrated. The adult female of this new taxon has some morphological similarities to females of the non-pupillarial palm scale Phoenicococcus marlatti Cockerell (Phoenicococcidae), the pupillarial palm scales (Halimococcidae) and some pupillarial genera of armoured scales (Diaspididae), but is related to other Australian Myrtaceae-feeding eriococcids. PMID:27395159

  18. Modelling the economic impact of environmental flows for regulated rivers in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Jayasuriya, R T

    2003-01-01

    The management of water resources across Australia is undergoing fundamental reform in line with the priorities identified by the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) in 1994. This includes reforms to the specification of property rights, the way the resource is shared between the environment, irrigators and other users, charges for water use and the operational management of the river systems. In New South Wales (NSW), a series of water sharing plans (WSPs) is being developed for each water source in the State including regulated rivers, unregulated rivers and groundwater aquifers. These plans, which are the mechanisms by which COAG reforms are being implemented, are being developed by community-based water management committees (WMCs). The role of the WMCs is to develop a plan that achieves a balance between environmental, economic and social outcomes. NSW Agriculture has assisted a number of WMCs by quantifying the economic impact of proposed WSP options on the irrigation community. This paper outlines the approach taken by NSW Agriculture to quantifying economic impacts on irrigators in regulated catchments and provides results of case studies in the Lachlan River Catchment which is heavily developed for irrigation. PMID:14653646

  19. Findings from a nursing scholarship study tour to inform a proposal for a day hospice model in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Swetenham, Kate

    2014-02-01

    South Australia releases national and international travel scholarships every year to the nursing and midwifery workforce to enable them to undertake observational site visits to inform the development of service models that can be introduced into care practices back in South Australia. Ten sites across New Zealand, Canada, and the UK agreed to host a site visit as part of a scholarship to look at day hospice (DH) programmes. The author undertook an observational study that included participation in DH programmes and discussions with staff and patients. There were many similarities across the three countries, in particular in the structure of the programmes, the staff makeup, and the support of the volunteer workforce. Two distinct models were observed: social and medical. Each has its value and both need to be incorporated to ensure services and participants have their needs met. Based on the site visits and other research, the author devised a proposal for South Australia to commence with a time-limited sessional group DH programme with a focus on maintenance of function for participants coupled with caregiver education and information provision. PMID:24577215

  20. Paleoseismicity of two historically quiescent faults in Australia: Implications for fault behavior in stable continental regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crone, A.J.; De Martini, P. M.; Machette, M.M.; Okumura, K.; Prescott, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Paleoseismic studies of two historically aseismic Quaternary faults in Australia confirm that cratonic faults in stable continental regions (SCR) typically have a long-term behavior characterized by episodes of activity separated by quiescent intervals of at least 10,000 and commonly 100,000 years or more. Studies of the approximately 30-km-long Roopena fault in South Australia and the approximately 30-km-long Hyden fault in Western Australia document multiple Quaternary surface-faulting events that are unevenly spaced in time. The episodic clustering of events on cratonic SCR faults may be related to temporal fluctuations of fault-zone fluid pore pressures in a volume of strained crust. The long-term slip rate on cratonic SCR faults is extremely low, so the geomorphic expression of many cratonic SCR faults is subtle, and scarps may be difficult to detect because they are poorly preserved. Both the Roopena and Hyden faults are in areas of limited or no significant seismicity; these and other faults that we have studied indicate that many potentially hazardous SCR faults cannot be recognized solely on the basis of instrumental data or historical earthquakes. Although cratonic SCR faults may appear to be nonhazardous because they have been historically aseismic, those that are favorably oriented for movement in the current stress field can and have produced unexpected damaging earthquakes. Paleoseismic studies of modern and prehistoric SCR faulting events provide the basis for understanding of the long-term behavior of these faults and ultimately contribute to better seismic-hazard assessments.

  1. The timing and cause of megafauna mass deaths at Lancefield Swamp, south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dortch, Joe; Cupper, Matt; Grün, Rainer; Harpley, Bernice; Lee, Kerrie; Field, Judith

    2016-08-01

    Lancefield Swamp, south-eastern Australia, was one of the earliest sites to provoke interest in Pleistocene faunal extinctions in Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea). The systematic investigation of the deposit in the early 1970s identified megafaunal remains dominated by the 100-200 kg kangaroo Macropus giganteus titan. Associated radiocarbon ages indicated that the species was extant until c.30,000 BP, suggesting significant overlap with human settlement of Sahul. This evidence was inconsistent with contemporary models of rapid human-driven extinctions. Instead, researchers inferred ecological tethering of fauna at Lancefield Swamp due to intense drought precipitated localised mass deaths, consistent with Late Pleistocene climatic variability. Later investigations in another part of the swamp, the Mayne Site, remote to the initial investigations, concluded that mass flow disturbed this area, and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) analyses on megafauna teeth returned wide-ranging ages. To clarify site formation processes and dating of Lancefield Swamp, we excavated new test-pits next to previous trenches in the Classic and Mayne Sites. We compared absolute chronologies for sediments and teeth, sedimentology, palaeo-topography, taphonomy, and macropod age at death across the swamp. Luminescence dating of sediments and ESR analysis of teeth returned ages between c.80,000 and 45,000 years ago. We found no archaeological remains in the bone beds, and evidence of carnivore activity and fluvial action, in the form of reactivated spring flow. The latter disturbed limited parts of the site and substantial areas of the bone beds remained intact. The faunal assemblage is dominated by megafaunal adult Macropus, consistent with mass die-offs due to severe drought. Such droughts appear to have recurred over millennia during the climatic variability of Marine Isotope Stages 4 and 3. These events began tens of millennia before the first appearance of Aboriginal people in Sahul

  2. The 2012-2013 Montes Claros earthquake series in the São Francisco Craton, Brazil: new evidence for non-uniform intraplate stresses in mid-plate South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agurto-Detzel, Hans; Assumpção, Marcelo; Ciardelli, Caio; Albuquerque, Diogo Farrapo; Barros, Lucas V.; França, George S. L.

    2015-01-01

    On 2012 May 19, an mb = 4 earthquake shook the town of Montes Claros, Brazil in the middle of the São Francisco Craton. Because of the scarce seismicity in the area, an event like this could provide valuable information to characterize the governing seismotectonics and stress field for the region. Here, we present the results of more than 1 yr of local seismic monitoring after the main shock. We found that the seismicity originated at approximately 1-km depth in an NNW-oriented blind reverse fault, dipping to the E. The magnitude of the main shock was 4mb, with aftershocks reaching up to 3.6mb. Focal mechanisms from first motion polarities and waveform moment tensor inversions indicate a reverse faulting in agreement with the orientation of the aftershock locations. In addition, we derived a new 1-D local velocity model using a simultaneous inversion of hypocentres and velocity layers. The results indicate P-wave velocities of 4.5 km s-1 for the upper layer of carbonate rocks and 5.23 and 5.69 km s-1 for the lower fractured and compact crystalline basement layers, respectively. Higher Vp/Vs ratios were obtained for the upper two layers compared to the lowermost layer, possibly indicating presence of rock fracturing and percolated water. The calculated stress drop for the main event is 0.33 MPa, which is a relatively low value for an intraplate earthquake but still within the observed range. The inversion of the main shock focal mechanism and previously published focal mechanisms suggests a compressional stress regime in the central part of the São Francisco Craton, which is different from the strike-slip regime in the southern part, although both have an EW-oriented σ1. On the other hand, focal mechanisms of events located to the west of the craton indicate an NW-SE oriented σ1 for central Brazil. This variability highlights the importance of local sources of stresses (e.g. flexural stresses) in mid-plate South America, unlike other mid-plate areas of the world

  3. Long term bicycle related head injury trends for New South Wales, Australia following mandatory helmet legislation.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Jake; Walter, Scott R; Grzebieta, Raphael H

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1991 enactment of mandatory helmet legislation (MHL) for cyclists in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, there has been extensive debate as to its effect on head injury rates at a population level. Many previous studies have focused on the impact of MHL around the time of enactment, while little has been done to examine the ongoing effects. We aimed to extend prior work by investigating long-term trends in cyclist head and arm injuries over the period 1991-2010. The counts of cyclists hospitalised with head or arm injuries were jointly modelled with log-linear regression. The simultaneous modelling of related injury mechanisms avoids the need for actual exposure data and accounts for the effects of changes in the cycling environment, cycling behaviour and general safety improvements. Models were run separately with population counts, bicycle imports, the average weekday counts of cyclists in Sydney CBD and cycling estimates from survey data as proxy exposures. Overall, arm injuries were higher than head injuries throughout the study period, consistent with previous post-MHL observations. The trends in the two injury groups also significantly diverged, such that the gap between rates increased with time. The results suggest that the initial observed benefit of MHL has been maintained over the ensuing decades. There is a notable additional safety benefit after 2006 that is associated with an increase in cycling infrastructure spending. This implies that the effect of MHL is ongoing and progress in cycling safety in NSW has and will continue to benefit from focusing on broader issues such as increasing cycling infrastructure. PMID:23026203

  4. Lack of porphyroblast rotation in noncoaxially deformed schists from Petrel Cove, South Australia, and its implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhardt, Chris

    1989-02-01

    Inclusion trails representing an S 1 cleavage demonstrate the lack of porphyroblast rotation during subsequent highly non-coaxial deformations. The pelitic schists of the Kanmantoo Group at Petrel Cove, South Australia contain two generations of porphyroblasts. The first one consists of cordierite porphyroblasts that formed early in D 2 and contain straight to slightly sigmoidal inclusion trails of S 1. The second generation consists of andalusite porphyroblasts that overgrew crenulated S 2 late during D 3. Several hundred inclusion trail traces from cordierites measured from oriented specimens taken throughout a strongly folded area show a horizontal great circle distribution when plotted and contoured on a stereographic projection. Hence, S 1 was planar and horizontal prior to D 2. S 1 measurements on limbs and hinges of a mesoscale D 2 foldpair show that folding had little effect on porphyroblast orientation as the S 1 orientation remained constant and subhorizontal around the fold. Hence, porphyroblasts have not rotated during any of the non-coaxial deformations accompanying and following their growth. This is interpreted as a result of the partitioning of the deformation around them. S 1 in the matrix has been totally destroyed by the formation of S 2 as a fully differentiated crenulation cleavage. What has previously been regarded as inconsistent senses of shear recorded by porphyroblasts around folds is resolved by the fact that the matrix foliation rotated rather than the porphyroblasts due to the effects of deformation partitioning. The presence of a subhorizontal S 1 foliation suggests horizontal movements (e.g. thrusting or detachment faulting) during the earliest phase of the Adelaidian orogeny.

  5. Punctuated equilibria plate tectonics and exploration strategies: Examples from Australia and South America

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.I.; Abreu, V.; Vail, P.R. )

    1996-01-01

    Understanding the interplay between plate tectonic events, subsidence, flexure, and depositional systems is critical to successful exploration, play concept development, and maturation modelling in frontier exploration. Conventional exploration techniques (seismic/well log mapping, geohistory, geophysical, and forward modelling) are used to quantitatively describe the stratigraphic packages observed in basins, but the driving force creating and destroying the packages has typically been qualitatively described as subsidence/uplift events. In order to predict depositional systems patterns, the driving force of these events must be more quantitatively understood. We observe that the tectonic history of plates is characterized by long periods of fairly constant motion interrupted by short events of re- organization ([open quotes]punctuated equilibria[close quotes]). We also observe that these events are usually regional in nature and cause changes in regional subsidence patterns. Furthermore, these changes cause changes in major depositional system locations and characteristics. Analysis of-the plate tectonic history of motion predicts times of quiescence and times of rapid change in basin stratigraphy and therefore produce more effective exploration strategies. We have performed integrated sequence stratigraphic analysis in three basins (Barrow/Dampier, Otway, Santos-Pelotas), on two widely displaced continents (Australia and South America), spanning the Cretaceous Period. Although the tectonic histories are different, each basin responds to its tectonic history in a similar fashion: slow (or negative) subsidence diminishes volume and recognizability of transgressive and highstand systems tract and increases the volume and recognizability of lowstand systems tracts. The alternate case (rapid subsidence) produces the alternate result.

  6. Punctuated equilibria plate tectonics and exploration strategies: Examples from Australia and South America

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.I.; Abreu, V.; Vail, P.R.

    1996-12-31

    Understanding the interplay between plate tectonic events, subsidence, flexure, and depositional systems is critical to successful exploration, play concept development, and maturation modelling in frontier exploration. Conventional exploration techniques (seismic/well log mapping, geohistory, geophysical, and forward modelling) are used to quantitatively describe the stratigraphic packages observed in basins, but the driving force creating and destroying the packages has typically been qualitatively described as subsidence/uplift events. In order to predict depositional systems patterns, the driving force of these events must be more quantitatively understood. We observe that the tectonic history of plates is characterized by long periods of fairly constant motion interrupted by short events of re- organization ({open_quotes}punctuated equilibria{close_quotes}). We also observe that these events are usually regional in nature and cause changes in regional subsidence patterns. Furthermore, these changes cause changes in major depositional system locations and characteristics. Analysis of-the plate tectonic history of motion predicts times of quiescence and times of rapid change in basin stratigraphy and therefore produce more effective exploration strategies. We have performed integrated sequence stratigraphic analysis in three basins (Barrow/Dampier, Otway, Santos-Pelotas), on two widely displaced continents (Australia and South America), spanning the Cretaceous Period. Although the tectonic histories are different, each basin responds to its tectonic history in a similar fashion: slow (or negative) subsidence diminishes volume and recognizability of transgressive and highstand systems tract and increases the volume and recognizability of lowstand systems tracts. The alternate case (rapid subsidence) produces the alternate result.

  7. Remote sensing of subsurface fractures in the Otway Basin, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Adam; King, Rosalind; Holford, Simon; Sage, Joshua; Backe, Guillaume; Hand, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Naturally occurring fractures were remotely detected in a 3-D seismic volume from the Penola Trough in South Australia's Otway Basin and validated through an integrated approach. Identified in image logs are 508 fractures and 523 stress indicators, showing maximum horizontal stress orientation in the Penola Trough is 127°N. Two fracture types were identified: (1) 268 electrically conductive (potentially open to fluid flow) fractures with mean NW-SE strikes and (2) 239 electrically resistive (closed to fluid flow) fractures with mean E-W strikes. Core from Jacaranda Ridge-1 shows that open fractures are rarer than what image logs indicate, due to the presence of fracture-filling siderite, an electrically conductive cement which may cause fractures to appear hydraulically conductive in image logs. The majority of fractures detected is favorably oriented for reactivation under in situ stresses, although it is demonstrated that fracture fills primarily control which fractures are open. Seismic attributes calculated from the 3-D Balnaves/Haselgrove survey are mapped to the Pretty Hill Formation to enhance observations of structural fabrics, showing linear discontinuities likely representing faults and fractures. Discontinuity orientations are consistent with natural fracture orientations identified in image logs, striking E-W and NW-SE, limited to zones around larger faults. However, it is unlikely that a large proportion of these fractures are open given observations of core and image logs, limiting possible fracture connectivity and therefore significant secondary permeability in the Penola Trough. The integrated methodology presented herein provides an effective workflow for remote detection of subsurface fractures and determining if electrically conductive fractures are also hydraulically conductive.

  8. Evaluation of a heat warning system in Adelaide, South Australia, using case-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nitschke, Monika; Tucker, Graeme; Hansen, Alana; Williams, Susan; Zhang, Ying; Bi, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Background Heatwave warning systems aim to assist in reducing health effects during extreme heat. Evaluations of such systems have been limited. This study explored the effect of a heatwave warning programme on morbidity and mortality in Adelaide, South Australia, by comparing extreme events in 2009 and 2014, the latter with exposure to the preventive programme. Methods The health outcomes during the two heatwaves were compared using the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of daily ambulance call-outs, emergency presentations and mortality data during the heatwaves compared with non-heatwave periods during the warm seasons. Excess or reduced numbers of cases were calculated and the differences in cases between the two heatwaves were estimated. Results IRRs for total ambulance call-outs and emergency presentations were lower during the 2014 heatwaves compared with the 2009 event. The estimated differences in health-specific outcomes between 2009 and 2014 were statistically significant with 207 (59%) for cardiac-related call-outs, 134 (30%) for renal and 145 (56%) for heat-related emergency presentations. Mortality was not reduced in 2014. There were an estimated 34.5 excess deaths in 2009 and 38.2 in 2014. Conclusions Morbidity outcomes were reduced significantly during the 2014 event. The fact that cardiac, renal and heat-related diagnoses were significantly reduced is likely to be associated with the intervention in 2014, which comprised a public warning through media and intense preventive measures directed to individual populations at risk. Further analysis of risk factors of mortality during heatwaves should be explored. PMID:27436672

  9. Global change impacts on wheat production along an environmental gradient in south Australia.

    PubMed

    Reyenga, P J; Howden, S M; Meinke, H; Hall, W B

    2001-09-01

    Crop production is likely to change in the future as a result of global changes in CO2 levels in the atmosphere and climate. APSIM, a cropping system model, was used to investigate the potential impact of these changes on the distribution of cropping along an environmental transect in south Australia. The effects of several global change scenarios were studied, including: (1) historical climate and CO2 levels, (2) historic climate with elevated CO2 (700 ppm), (3) warmer climate (+2.4 degrees C) +700 ppm CO2, (4) drier climate (-15% summer, -20% winter rainfall) +2.4 degrees C +700 ppm CO2, (5) wetter climate (+10% summer rainfall) +2.4 degrees C +700 ppm CO2 and (6) most likely climate changes (+1.8 degrees C, -8% annual rainfall) +700 ppm CO2. Based on an analysis of the current cropping boundary, a criterion of 1 t/ha was used to assess potential changes in the boundary under global change. Under most scenarios, the cropping boundary moved northwards with a further 240,000 ha potentially being available for cropping. The exception was the reduced rainfall scenario (4), which resulted in a small retreat of cropping from its current extent. However, the impact of this scenario may only be small (in the order of 10,000-20,000 ha reduction in cropping area). Increases in CO2 levels over the current climate record have resulted in small but significant increases in simulated yields. Model limitations are discussed. PMID:11697669

  10. Congenital malformations and maternal drinking water supply in rural South Australia: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Dorsch, M M; Scragg, R K; McMichael, A J; Baghurst, P A; Dyer, K F

    1984-04-01

    A case-control study, carried out in the Mount Gambier region of South Australia, investigated the relationship between mothers' antenatal drinking water source and malformations in offspring. It was prompted by earlier descriptive findings of a statistically significant, and localized, increase in the perinatal mortality rate in Mount Gambier, due principally to congenital malformations affecting the central nervous system and multiple organ systems. Available for statistical analysis were 218 case-control pairs, from the period 1951-1979, individually matched by hospital, maternal age (+/- 2 years), parity and date of birth (+/- 1 month). Compared with women who drank only rainwater during their pregnancy (relative risk (RR) = 1.0), women who consumed principally groundwater had a statistically significant increase in risk of bearing a malformed child (RR = 2.8). Statistically significant risk increases occurred specifically for malformations of the central nervous system and musculoskeletal system. Reanalysis of the data by estimated water nitrate concentration demonstrated a nearly threefold increase in risk for women who drank water containing 5-15 ppm of nitrate, and a fourfold increase in risk for those consuming greater than 15 ppm of nitrate. A seasonal gradient in risk was evident among groundwater consumers, ranging from 0.9 for babies conceived in winter, 3.0 in autumn, to 7.0 and 6.3 for spring and summer conceptions, respectively. Linear logistic regression analysis, controlling for risk factors not accounted for in the study design, showed that maternal water supply, infant's sex, and mother's area of residence all contributed significantly to the risk of malformation. These results are discussed in relation to previous experimental and human descriptive studies, suggesting a plausible mechanism for nitrate-induced teratogenesis. PMID:6711537

  11. The geomorphological evolution of a wave-dominated barrier estuary: Burrill Lake, New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloss, Craig R.; Jones, Brian G.; McClennen, Charles E.; de Carli, John; Price, David M.

    2006-06-01

    The geomorphological evolution of the Holocene wave-dominated barrier estuary at Burrill Lake on the New South Wales coast, Australia, has been investigated using a combination of seismic stratigraphy and lithostratigraphic analysis of vibracores collected from the back-barrier estuarine environment. A combination of radiocarbon and aspartic acid racemisation-derived ages obtained on Holocene fossil molluscs, and the thermoluminescent signal in remnant the Last Interglacial barrier provides the chronological framework for this investigation. Results from this paper show that the barrier estuary occupies a relatively narrow (< 1.5 km wide) and shallow (< 40 m deep) incised bedrock valley formed during sea-level lowstands. Late Pleistocene sedimentary successions and remnants of the Last Interglacial barrier have been preserved within the incised valley axis and at the mouth of the incised valley. These sediments, deposited during the Last Interglacial sea-level highstand, were partially removed during the last glacial maximum. Overlying the antecedent Late Pleistocene landsurface is a near basin-wide basal marine sand deposited in response to rising sea level associated with the most recent post-glacial marine transgression, which inundated the shallow incised valley ca. 7800 years ago. More open marine conditions, with a diverse assemblage of estuarine and marine mollusc species, persisted until ca. 4500 years ago when the emerging Holocene barrier resulted in the development of a low-energy back-barrier lagoonal environment. A Late Holocene 1-2 m regression of sea level ca. 3000 years ago further restricted oceanic circulation, increased the rate of fluvial bay-head delta progradation and the extension of the back-barrier central basin mud facies. The model of barrier estuary evolution developed for Burrill Lake is consistent with recent research conducted in Lake Illawarra and St. Georges Basin and can be applied to other estuaries that have formed in relatively

  12. Preliminary evidence of toxicity associated with the benthic cyanobacterium Phormidium in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Baker, P D; Steffensen, D A; Humpage, A R; Nicholson, B C; Falconer, I R; Lanthois, B; Fergusson, K M; Saint, C P

    2001-01-01

    In April 2000, the water supply for Yorke Peninsula in South Australia was deemed non-potable when extracts from a proliferation of the benthic cyanobacterium Phormidium aff. formosum in Upper Paskeville Reservoir were found to be lethally toxic by intraperitoneal injection into mice (400 mg kg-1). Routine water quality monitoring had failed to detect the development of the Phormidium until complaints of musty taste and odour, attributable to the production of 2-methyl-isoborneol (MIB), were received from the consumers. The 185 ML open-balancing storage, receiving filtered and chloraminated water from the River Murray, was isolated from the drinking water supply and a health alert was issued to approximately 15,000 consumers. The identity of the toxin(s) is thus far unknown, but clinical symptoms of toxicity in mice and chemical characteristics are distinct from the known major cyanotoxins. Preliminary characterisation of this toxin indicates that it has low solubility in water and organic solvents and is strongly associated with the particulate cellular material of the filaments. Toxicity of extracts was diminished by boiling and by treatment with chlorine, but not by chloramines. Further testing of floating cyanobacterial mats in the Torrens Lake in the city of Adelaide (Phormidium aff. formosum) and Myponga Reservoir (Phormidium aff. amoenum) in 2000/2001 was also found to be toxic by mouse bioassay. Toxicity is yet to be confirmed in monospecific cultured strains and further studies are required to identify the toxin and assess its health significance. Genetic characterisation of isolates has commenced in an attempt to classify their relatedness and to assist in the rapid identification of potentially toxic strains. PMID:11769248

  13. Nineteen-year changes in surface salinity in the Southern Ocean south of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, Rosemary; Kestenare, Elodie

    2014-01-01

    A 19-year time series of underway sea surface salinity (SSS) data from the SURVOSTRAL line between Hobart, Australia and Adelie Land, Antarctica has revealed the distinct patterns of seasonal and interannual variability in two key zones of the Southern Ocean: in the Subantarctic Zone and in the Antarctic Zone. Both regions show a weak seasonal freshening of the surface waters over the summer months, with surface waters becoming shallower, warmer and fresher during the summer heating cycle. In the region north of the Subantarctic Front, interannual variations in the summer SSS signature are linked to the latitudinal movements of the Subtropical Front. When this front shifts southward, more high salinity subtropical waters are brought into the domain. Rather than responding to local wind stress forcing, the interannual SSS variability is strongly linked to southward flow from eastern Tasmania (the Tasman outflow), whose decadal variability responds with a 2-3 year delay to remote wind forcing in the South Pacific (Hill et al., 2008). Over this period, variations in the local surface freshwater forcing make a minor contribution to the SURVOSTRAL SSS signature. There appears to be a regime shift in the surface forcing and the SSS response, before and after the large perturbation in 2001-2002. In the Antarctic Zone, the summer SSS signature shows distinct biannual variations that are correlated with upstream sea-ice coverage in the preceding spring. There is no significant correlation between local precipitation changes and the SURVOSTRAL SSS time series. Rather, the integrated effects of upstream sea-ice melt dominate the interannual variations in SSS at the SURVOSTRAL line. Finally, a simple 2D Lagrangian particle analysis shows that in some years the surface waters circulate for a longer time in the northern part of the domain, where their freshwater content may be reduced by mixing with the surrounding waters.

  14. Phytochemical Profile and Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Medicinal Plants Used by Aboriginal People of New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Akter, Kaisarun; Harrington, David; Community Elders, Yaegl

    2016-01-01

    Aboriginal people of Australia possess a rich knowledge on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of sores, wounds, and skin infections, ailments which impose a high global disease burden and require effective treatments. The antibacterial and antioxidant activities and phytochemical contents of extracts, obtained from eight medicinal plants used by Aboriginal people of New South Wales, Australia, for the treatment of skin related ailments, were assessed to add value to and provide an evidence-base for their traditional uses. Extracts of Acacia implexa, Acacia falcata, Cassytha glabella, Eucalyptus haemastoma, Smilax glyciphylla, Sterculia quadrifida, and Syncarpia glomulifera were evaluated. All extracts except that of S. quadrifida showed activity against sensitive and multidrug resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 7.81 to 1000 μg/mL. The sap of E. haemastoma and bark of A. implexa possessed high total phenolic contents (TPC) and strong DPPH radical scavenging abilities. A positive correlation was observed between TPC and free radical scavenging ability. GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane extract of S. glomulifera identified known antimicrobial compounds. Together, these results support the traditional uses of the examined plants for the treatment of skin related ailments and infections by Aboriginal people of New South Wales, Australia. PMID:27563335

  15. Phytochemical Profile and Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Medicinal Plants Used by Aboriginal People of New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Akter, Kaisarun; Barnes, Emma C; Brophy, Joseph J; Harrington, David; Community Elders, Yaegl; Vemulpad, Subramanyam R; Jamie, Joanne F

    2016-01-01

    Aboriginal people of Australia possess a rich knowledge on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of sores, wounds, and skin infections, ailments which impose a high global disease burden and require effective treatments. The antibacterial and antioxidant activities and phytochemical contents of extracts, obtained from eight medicinal plants used by Aboriginal people of New South Wales, Australia, for the treatment of skin related ailments, were assessed to add value to and provide an evidence-base for their traditional uses. Extracts of Acacia implexa, Acacia falcata, Cassytha glabella, Eucalyptus haemastoma, Smilax glyciphylla, Sterculia quadrifida, and Syncarpia glomulifera were evaluated. All extracts except that of S. quadrifida showed activity against sensitive and multidrug resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 7.81 to 1000 μg/mL. The sap of E. haemastoma and bark of A. implexa possessed high total phenolic contents (TPC) and strong DPPH radical scavenging abilities. A positive correlation was observed between TPC and free radical scavenging ability. GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane extract of S. glomulifera identified known antimicrobial compounds. Together, these results support the traditional uses of the examined plants for the treatment of skin related ailments and infections by Aboriginal people of New South Wales, Australia. PMID:27563335

  16. Extreme Heat and Health: Perspectives from Health Service Providers in Rural and Remote Communities in South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Susan; Bi, Peng; Newbury, Jonathan; Robinson, Guy; Pisaniello, Dino; Saniotis, Arthur; Hansen, Alana

    2013-01-01

    Among the challenges for rural communities and health services in Australia, climate change and increasing extreme heat are emerging as additional stressors. Effective public health responses to extreme heat require an understanding of the impact on health and well-being, and the risk or protective factors within communities. This study draws on lived experiences to explore these issues in eleven rural and remote communities across South Australia, framing these within a socio-ecological model. Semi-structured interviews with health service providers (n = 13), and a thematic analysis of these data, has identified particular challenges for rural communities and their health services during extreme heat. The findings draw attention to the social impacts of extreme heat in rural communities, the protective factors (independence, social support, education, community safety), and challenges for adaptation (vulnerabilities, infrastructure, community demographics, housing and local industries). With temperatures increasing across South Australia, there is a need for local planning and low-cost strategies to address heat-exacerbating factors in rural communities, to minimise the impact of extreme heat in the future. PMID:24173140

  17. Extreme heat and health: perspectives from health service providers in rural and remote communities in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susan; Bi, Peng; Newbury, Jonathan; Robinson, Guy; Pisaniello, Dino; Saniotis, Arthur; Hansen, Alana

    2013-11-01

    Among the challenges for rural communities and health services in Australia, climate change and increasing extreme heat are emerging as additional stressors. Effective public health responses to extreme heat require an understanding of the impact on health and well-being, and the risk or protective factors within communities. This study draws on lived experiences to explore these issues in eleven rural and remote communities across South Australia, framing these within a socio-ecological model. Semi-structured interviews with health service providers (n = 13), and a thematic analysis of these data, has identified particular challenges for rural communities and their health services during extreme heat. The findings draw attention to the social impacts of extreme heat in rural communities, the protective factors (independence, social support, education, community safety), and challenges for adaptation (vulnerabilities, infrastructure, community demographics, housing and local industries). With temperatures increasing across South Australia, there is a need for local planning and low-cost strategies to address heat-exacerbating factors in rural communities, to minimise the impact of extreme heat in the future. PMID:24173140

  18. Psychosocial stress and strategies for managing adversity: measuring population resilience in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Populations around the world are facing an increasing number of adversities such as the global financial crisis, terrorism, conflict, and climate change. The aim of this paper was to investigate self-reported strategies and sources of support used to get through "tough times" in an Australian context and to identify patterns of response in the general population and differences in potentially vulnerable subgroups. Methods Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey of the New South Wales population in Australia. The final sample consisted of 3,995 New South Wales residents aged 16 years and above who responded to the question: "What are the things that get you through tough times?" Results Respondents provided brief comments that were coded into 14 main subject-area categories. The most frequently reported responses were family and self (52%); friends and neighbors (21%); use of positive emotional and philosophical strategies (17%), such as sense of humor, determination, and the belief that things would get better; and religious beliefs (11%). The responses of four population subgroups were compared, based on gender, household income, level of psychological distress, and whether a language other than English was spoken at home. Women reported greater use of friends and neighbors and religious or spiritual beliefs for support, whereas men reported greater use of drinking/smoking and financial supports. Those with lower incomes reported greater reliance on positive emotional and philosophical strategies and on religious or spiritual beliefs. Those with high levels of psychological distress reported greater use of leisure interests and hobbies, drinking/smoking, and less use of positive lifestyle strategies, such as adequate sleep, relaxation, or work/life balance. Those who spoke a language other than English at home were less likely to report relying on self or others (family/friends) or positive emotional and philosophical strategies to get

  19. Impacts of American Agricultural Education Student Teachers on Eleven Community Members in a New South Wales, Australia Community: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunch, Tera; Stephens, Carrie; Hart, William

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influences of American agricultural education student teachers on a rural community in New South Wales, Australia. The study analyzed interviews with eleven participants of the American student teacher program in a rural New South Wales community. Results of the study were formulated by two…

  20. Modelling the ecology of the coastal mosquitoes Aedes vigilax and Aedes camptorhynchus at Port Pirie, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Kokkinn, M J; Duval, D J; Williams, C R

    2009-03-01

    Two mosquito species, Aedes camptorhynchus (Thomson) and Aedes vigilax (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) are responsible for significant nuisance biting and disease transmission in southern coastal Australia. Mosquito abundance, tide height, temperature and rainfall data were collected over three summer seasons (2002, 2003, 2004) at Port Pirie, South Australia and subjected to statistical analysis to develop ecological models for predicting problem mosquito outbreaks. A logistic regression model for Ae. camptorhynchus gave a predictive R(2) of 0.30 using mean air temperature, whereas, for Ae. vigilax, tide height, mean air temperature and day length yielded a regression with an R(2) of 0.68. These models identify significant environmental drivers for both species and may be useful in the prediction of future outbreaks, particularly of Ae. vigilax. PMID:19239618

  1. Combining Indigenous and Maritime Archaeological Approaches: Experiences and Insights from the `(Re)locating Narrunga Project', Yorke Peninsula, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Amy; McKinnon, Jennifer; O'Loughlin, Clem; Wanganeen, Klynton; Rigney, Lester-Irabinna; Fowler, Madeline

    2013-06-01

    This paper details the unique pairing of Indigenous and maritime archaeological approaches in the `(Re)locating Narrunga Project'. Narrunga was a ketch built by the Narungga Aboriginal community at Point Pearce Mission (Yorke Peninsula, South Australia) at the turn of the twentieth century and later sunk in the 1940s. It is argued that convergences between the scholarly interests of Indigenous and maritime archaeological approaches have been slow to develop and that maritime archaeology as a sub-discipline has not capitalized on the insights that can be gained from collaborative approaches between communities and practitioners. Similarly, Indigenous communities in Australia have had few opportunities to work with researchers to record their maritime heritage. As is evident in the Narrunga story told in this research, non-Indigenous records have been complicit in underplaying the maritime achievements and skills of Narungga people and collaborative research can work towards decolonizing this past.

  2. Mesoproterozoic plume-modified orogenesis in eastern Precambrian Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, Peter G.; Giles, David; Foden, John; Schaefer, Bruce F.; Mark, Geordie; Pankhurst, Matthew J.; Forbes, Caroline J.; Williams, Helen A.; Chalmers, Neil C.; Hills, Quinton

    2009-06-01

    Tectonic models for the latest Paleoproterozoic to earliest Mesoproterozoic evolution of eastern Australia (circa 1620-1500 Ma) are diverse and either emphasize plume or plate margin activity, neither of which satisfactorily explains all geological observations. The dichotomy is largely attributed to geochemical, spatial and temporal data that suggest voluminous A-type felsic magmas are plume related, whereas distribution of arc-related magmas and intense orogenic overprint suggest plate margin activity. The salient geological events include arc-related magmatism at circa 1620-1610 Ma followed by a magmatic hiatus coincident with north-south crustal shortening (1610-1590 Ma) and a magmatic flare-up of A-type felsic magmas throughout the Gawler Craton (circa 1595-1575 Ma). These magmas form the oldest component of a northward younging hot spot track that extends to the Mount Isa Inlier. At circa 1590-1550 Ma, arc magmatism resumed along the northern margin of the Gawler Craton and the rest of eastern Australia records a 90° shift in the regional shortening direction related to activity along the eastern margin of the Australian continent. A plume-modified orogenic setting satisfies all of the spatial and temporal relationships between magma generation and orogenic activity. In this model, the Gawler Craton and the adjacent subduction zone migrated over a mantle plume (circa 1620-1610 Ma). Resultant flat subduction caused transient orogenesis (1610-1595 Ma) in the overriding plate. Slab delamination and thermal assimilation of the plume and the subducting slab caused a switch to crustal extension in the overriding plate, resulting in extensive mantle-derived and crustal melting in the Gawler Craton (1595-1575 Ma).

  3. The electrical structure of the Slave craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Alan G.; Lezaeta, Pamela; Ferguson, Ian J.; Chave, Alan D.; Evans, Rob L.; Garcia, Xavier; Spratt, Jessica

    2003-12-01

    Proceeding, J.B. Dawson Volume, 1, 307-313] on the basis of garnet geochemistry (G10 vs. G9) populations. Deep-probing MT data from the lake bottom instruments infer that the conductor has a total depth-integrated conductivity (conductance) of the order of 2000 Siemens, which, given an internal resistivity of 10-15 Ω m, implies a thickness of 20-30 km. Below the CSMC the electrical resistivity of the lithosphere increases by a factor of 3-5 to values of around 50 Ω m. This change occurs at depths consistent with the graphite-diamond transition, which is taken as consistent with a carbon interpretation for the CSMC. Preliminary three-dimensional MT modelling supports the NE-SW striking geometry for the conductor, and also suggests a NW dip. This geometry is taken as implying that the tectonic processes that emplaced this geophysical-geochemical body are likely related to the subduction of a craton of unknown provenance from the SE (present-day coordinates) during 2630-2620 Ma. It suggests that the lithospheric stacking model of Helmstaedt and Schulze [Helmstaedt, H.H., Schulze, D.J., 1989. Southern African kimberlites and their mantle sample: implications for Archean tectonics and lithosphere evolution. In Ross, J. (Ed.), Kimberlites and Related Rocks, Vol. 1: Their Composition, Occurrence, Origin, and Emplacement. Geological Society of Australia Special Publication, vol. 14, 358-368] is likely correct for the formation of the Slave's current SCLM.

  4. Cost comparison of selected coal mines from Australia, Canada, Colombia, South Africa, and the United States. Special pub

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The report presents production and delivered costs for coal exports from the five major Western coal-exporting countries: Australia, Canada, Colombia, South Africa, and the United States. Cost data were compiled from visits to 43 mines by U.S. Bureau of Mines engineers between 1985 and 1990. All report costs are in January 1989 U.S. dollars per short ton. In the report, the Bureau updates and combines information from four earlier reports. These studies provide basic insights into the competitiveness of the U.S. coal industry with those of major coal-exporting countries.

  5. The soils on the calcareous sand dunes southeast of South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urushibara-Yoshino, K.

    1996-10-01

    The properties of soils on previously dated sand dunes from Robe to Naracoorte in South Australia were examined. In these areas younger sand dunes are composed of fresh sand, but older sand dunes are composed of calcarenited sand. The soils on the sand dunes developed successionally by the age of sand dunes. The soil properties of these sand dunes differ depending on the ages of the sand dunes. The properties of sand particles in soils are as follows: (1) On the sand dunes of 4300 years B.P., A/C profile developed (Rendzina). On the sand dunes older than 125 000 years B.P. and on the plateau of Tertiary limestone, soil profiles of A1/AB/B/C on the sand dunes of 83 000 years B.P. and A1/A3/B1/B2/C (Terra rossa) are well developed. (2) Within the sand of A/C horizons of the sand dunes with the age of 4300 year B.P., the calcite grain content is about 64%, and the quartz content is about 35%. Within the B horizons of soils on the dunes from 83 000 years B.P. to 347 000 years B.P., the calcite grain content is only 1 2%; however, the quartz grain content is about 92%. In the B2 horizons of soils on the dune of 690 000 years B.P. and on the Tertiary plateau, there are some calcite grains but the quartz grain content is about 96%. (3) The average size of quartz grains in the soils on the sand dunes from 4300 B.P. to 347 000 years B.P. is generally smaller, but the average size of quartz on the sand dunes of 690 000 year B.P. becomes larger and the grains are well rounded. On the Tertiary limestone plateau, the average quartz size becomes again smaller, and the grains are more rounded. (4) Fet in B2 horizon of the soil profiles increases clearly corresponding to the age. Iron activity expressed by Feo/Fed also shows a close relation to the chronological sequence. The B horizon of the soil profiles shows a drastic decrease of Feo/Fed according to the age. Iron crystalinity, (Fed-Feo)/Fet, has a tendency for a positive relation with increasing age.

  6. Magnetic Susceptibility Cyclostratigraphy of the Ediacaran Wonoka Formation, South Australia, from a Portable Susceptibility Meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguez, D. A.; Kodama, K. P.

    2014-12-01

    We present the results of a rock magnetic cyclostratigraphy of the Ediacaran Wonoka Fm., from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia. The Wonoka Fm. records the Shuram C-isotope excursion, and the results of this study provide an estimate of its duration. Measurements of magnetic susceptibility (MS) were made in the field with a portable susceptibility meter (GF Instruments SM-20) every 0.4 m over 600 m of dominantly carbonate stratigraphic section, with a 100 meter interval of fine sand turbidites. We filter the data series to pass wavelengths shorter than 300 meters (the Rayleigh frequency for our data series) and use Multi Taper Method (MTM) time series analysis to estimate the power spectrum of the series. We fit a red noise model to the MTM spectrum and calculate 99% chi squared confidence limits to identify cycles with statistical significance. Unambiguous spectral peaks rise above the 99% confidence level with wavelengths of 116.9 m, 45.5 m, 23.1 m, 7.0 m, 2.5 m, 1.7 m, 1.3 m, 1.2 m, 0.9 m, and 0.8 m. Haines (1988, Sed. Geo. V 58) recognizes cycles in clastic sediment delivery to the carbonate portions of the Wonoka with an average wavelength of 8 m and hypothesizes a climate driver related to Milankovitch cycles. The 7 m cycle in MS is likely a more precise measure of the same phenomenon. Furthermore, cycles with wavelengths of 24.1 m, 7.0 m, 1.7m, 1.26 m, and 0.9 m exhibit ratios matching modeled durations of long eccentricity (405 kyr), short eccentricity (123 kyr), obliquity (29 kyr), and the 2 periods of precession (19 and 14 kyr) for the late Neoproterozoic. This interpretation yields a duration of 10 Myr for the 600 m we sampled. Assuming a constant sedimentation rate yields an 11.3 Myr estimate for the ~675 m thick Shuram C-isotope excursion. However, uncertainty lies in applying the MTM-based estimate to the turbidite section. Our estimate will be refined and compared with laboratory rock magnetic measurements in an ongoing study of the Wonoka Fm.

  7. Humeral Fractures in South-Eastern Australia: Epidemiology and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Kara L; Bucki-Smith, Gosia; Morse, Amelia G; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Kotowicz, Mark A; Moloney, David J; Sanders, Kerrie M; Korn, Sam; Timney, Elizabeth N; Dobbins, Amelia G; Pasco, Julie A

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we report the epidemiology and risk factors for humeral fractures (proximal humerus and shaft) among men and women residing in south-eastern Australia. Incident fractures during 2006 and 2007 were identified using X-ray reports (Geelong Osteoporosis Study Fracture Grid). Risk factors were identified using data from case-control studies conducted as part of the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Median age of fracture was lower in males than females for proximal humerus (33.0 vs 71.2 years), but not for humeral shaft (8.9 vs 8.5 years). For females, proximal humerus fractures occurred mainly in the 70-79 and 80+ years age groups, whereas humeral shaft fractures followed a U-shaped pattern. Males showed a U-shaped pattern for both proximal humerus and humeral shaft fractures. Overall age-standardised incidence rates for proximal humerus fractures in males and females were 40.6 (95% CI 32.7, 48.5) and 73.2 (95% CI 62.2, 84.1) per 100,000 person years, respectively. For humeral shaft fractures, the age-standardised rate was 69.3 (95% CI 59.0, 79.6) for males and 61.5 (95% CI 51.9, 71.0) for females. There was an increase in risk of proximal humerus fractures in men with a lower femoral neck BMD, younger age, prior fracture and higher milk consumption. In pre-menopausal women, increased height and falls were both risk factors for proximal humerus fractures. For post-menopausal women, risk factors associated with proximal humerus fractures included a lower non-milk dairy consumption and sustaining a prior fracture. Humeral shaft fractures in both sexes were sustained mainly in childhood, while proximal humerus fractures were sustained in older adulthood. The overall age-standardised rates of proximal humerus fractures were nearly twice as high in females compared to males, whereas the incidence rates of humeral shaft fractures were similar. PMID:26169198

  8. Landslide tsunami hazard in New South Wales, Australia: novel observations from 3D modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Hannah; Clarke, Samantha; Hubble, Tom

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines the potential of tsunami inundation generated from two case study sites of submarine mass failures on the New South Wales coast of Australia. Two submarine mass failure events are investigated: the Bulli Slide and the Shovel Slide. Both slides are located approximately 65 km southeast of Sydney and 60 km east of the township of Wollongong. The Bulli Slide (~20 km3) and the Shovel Slide (7.97 km3) correspond to the two largest identified erosional surface submarine landslides scars of the NSW continental margin (Glenn et al. 2008; Clarke 2014) and represent examples of large to very large submarine landslide scars. The Shovel Slide is a moderately thick (80-165 m), moderately wide to wide (4.4 km) slide, and is located in 880 m water depth; and the Bulli Slide is an extremely thick (200-425 m), very wide (8.9 km) slide, and is located in 1500 m water depth. Previous work on the east Australian margin (Clarke et al., 2014) and elsewhere (Harbitz et al., 2013) suggests that submarine landslides similar to the Bulli Slide or the Shovel Slide are volumetrically large enough and occur at shallow enough water depths (400-2500 m) to generate substantial tsunamis that could cause widespread damage on the east Australian coast and threaten coastal communities (Burbidge et al. 2008; Clarke 2014; Talukder and Volker 2014). Currently, the tsunamogenic potential of these two slides has only been investigated using 2D modelling (Clarke 2014) and to date it has been difficult to establish the onshore tsunami surge characteristics for the submarine landslides with certainty. To address this knowledge gap, the forecast inundation as a result of these two mass failure events was investigated using a three-dimensional model (ANUGA) that predicts water flow resulting from natural hazard events such as tsunami (Nielsen et al., 2005). The ANUGA model solves the two-dimensional shallow water wave equations and accurately models the process of wetting and drying thus

  9. Inorganic pollution of the sediments of the River Torrens, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, R. J. B.; Gale, S. J.; Winchester, H. P. M.

    2006-05-01

    The River Torrens plays a vital role in the economic, social and environmental life of South Australia. The river rises on the Adelaide Hills and flows west across the Adelaide Plains, bisecting the city of Adelaide and reaching the sea at the Gulf of St Vincent. The bed sediments of the Torrens were sampled from its headwaters to the coast and analysed for cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, phosphorus and zinc. With the exception of chromium, the concentration of every metal investigated lies above the national trigger value for sediment quality at some point along the course of the river. The sediments of the headwaters exhibit high values of copper and zinc, although these probably reflect natural background conditions rather than pollution. By contrast, in the residential areas that dominate the Adelaide Plains, almost every site is contaminated by lead and zinc, some to well beyond the point of biological damage. Several residential sites, notably those downstream of the city of Adelaide, are also polluted by cadmium. Within the industrial zone around the city, every site is contaminated by lead and zinc, with concentrations at some locations far beyond the threshold for ecological damage. Several industrial sites are also polluted by cadmium and copper. There are no national guidelines against which to assess the phosphorus content of the sediments. However, there is strong evidence that human activities have had a significant impact on phosphorus levels in the river. Major cyanobacterial blooms along the lower Torrens have been linked to the release of nutrients from the sediments, and phosphorus concentrations in the water have reached dramatic levels. Much of this contamination appears to be a consequence of past pollution practices. In particular, the severe pollution along the reach immediately to the west of the city may be largely attributed to the former concentration of metallurgical and chemical industries in that area. These problems are likely to

  10. Carbonate production and deposition in a warm-temperate macroalgal environment, Investigator Strait, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Noel P.; Bone, Yvonne

    2011-08-01

    The prolific macroalgal forests in shallow (< 20 m), warm-temperate, marine environments off southern Yorke Peninsula, South Australia have two carbonate-producing habitats, 1) upward-facing, exposed rock surfaces beneath large phaeophytes, and 2) concealed rock surfaces under overhangs, on rock walls, in crevasses, and indentations that all lie behind a curtain of brown macroalgae. Exposed surfaces have three growth tiers; 1) a basal, cm-high veneer or turf of crustose corallines, geniculate corallines, and short fleshy red algae that are grazed by herbivorous gastropods, 2) an intermediate, 5-20 cm-high community of fleshy red algae, and 3) a 20-100 cm+-high canopy of large phaeophytes (especially Ecklonia, Cystophora and Xiophora) whose blades are locally encrusted with bryozoans, such as Membranipora membranacea, and spirorbids. Concealed surfaces of subvertical rock walls and cryptic habitats behind the macroalgal curtain have two tiers; 1) a cornucopia of encrusting plants and animals, especially crustose and geniculate corallines in shallow water, that give way in water depths > 4 m to numerous bryozoans (especially fenestrates), serpulid worms, numerous and diverse demosponges, ascidians, small solitary corals, epifaunal echinoids, and gastropods, and 2) a veil of macroalgae (mainly Cystophora and Ecklonia) that drapes down and shades the rock walls. Most carbonate sediment production does not come from calcareous epiphytes on the macroalgae but comes from the coralline algae and calcareous invertebrates living on the rock walls and in concealed depressions. Mollusks (gastropods and bivalves) and geniculate coralline algae with numerous lithoclasts, crustose coralline fragments, barnacle plates, serpulid worms, bryozoans, and large benthic foraminifers (especially Amphistegina) dominate the resultant gravels and sands; but there is little or no mud. This is because carbonate sediment is the result of production not only in the macrophyte factory but also in

  11. Downscaling local extreme temperature changes in south-eastern Australia from the CSIRO Mark2 GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Sascha

    1998-11-01

    Climate impact studies crucially rely on climate change information at high spatial and temporal resolutions. Since the most developed tools for estimating future climate change - the general circulation models (GCMs) - still operate on rather coarse spatial scales, their output has to be downscaled in order to provide the needed high resolution input for climate impact models.In this study, a perfect prognosis approach is employed to downscale daily local temperature extremes at several stations in south-eastern Australia from synoptic scale atmospheric circulation fields. The statistical model combines principal component analysis and linear multiple regression and is suitable to explain a considerable part of both short and long frequency variations of local temperature extremes. Using simulated and observed daily data the regional to local performance of the Mark2 GCM, developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), was validated over the Australian region. While the regional temperature extremes simulated under present-day climate conditions are in general agreement with the observed climate, there are highly significant differences on the local scale. The observed daily synoptic scale atmospheric circulation, however, is well reproduced by the GCM. This supports the idea of using these reliably simulated climatic parameters to estimate the changes in local temperature extremes under altered global climate conditions.The downscaling model was applied to synoptic scale atmospheric circulation fields generated by the CSIRO Mark2 GCM under 1×CO2 and 2×CO2 conditions. Compared to the extreme temperature changes simulated by the GCM directly, the downscaled variations are much weaker. Several sources of uncertainty might be causing these differences. Firstly, the statistical model is stationary. Therefore, it is not capable of including changes in the relationships between circulation and local temperature which are likely

  12. Age and origin of Terra Rossa soils in the Coonawarra area of South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mee, Aija C.; Bestland, Erick A.; Spooner, Nigel A.

    2004-03-01

    The famous Terra Rossa soil in the Coonawarra area, South Australia, is dominated by locally derived aeolian detritus, which probably accumulated over the last 120-130 ka. Four soil profiles and associated limestone and lunette deposits were investigated using the following methods: mass balance geochemistry of bulk soil samples (major and trace elements), quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) mineralogy, strontium isotopes (87/86), as well as grain-size analysis and cation exchange capacity. These data show that the Terra Rossa soil from the Coonawarra has a thick, clayey B-horizon which is geochemically homogeneous and dominated by smectite and kaolinite. Mass-balance calculations show unrealistic weathering scenarios when plotted using silicate residuum from the underlying limestone as parent. Realistic weathering scenarios are produced with fine-grained silicate material from local lunette deposits as parent. Strontium isotopes of silicate residuum from Gambier Limestone (0.78) contrast strongly with the clayey B-horizon (0.726). Strontium isotope ratios of silicate material from a local lunette (0.725) are similar to the B-horizon soil values. Strontium isotope ratios from regional geological units indicate that the strontium signature in the lunette and soil B-horizon is dominated by weathering products from the Palaeozoic Kanmantoo shales, extensively exposed upwind to the west on Kangaroo Island and the Fleurieu Peninsula. Optical (optically stimulated luminescence, OSL) dating of 61 individual quartz grains (single aliquot) from three samples in the Coonawarra soil profile (one from the A-horizon and two from the B-horizon) shows that most of the quartz sand grains have been buried for only a few thousand years. Many of the grains, however, have been buried for tens of thousands of years with three grains having exposure ages of between 105 and 109 ka. The large population of young exposure dates represents quartz sands recently exposed in the A-horizon and

  13. Earliest Life on Earth Preserved in Hotspring Deposits: Evidence from the 3.5 Ga Dresser Formation, Pilbara Craton, Australia, and Implications for the Search for Life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Kranendonk, M. J.; Djokic, T.; Campbell, K. A.; Walter, M. R.; Oto, T.; Nakamura, E.

    2016-05-01

    A variety of biosignatures preserved in hotspring facies from the c. 3.5 Ga Dresser Formation, Australia, lends support to an origin of life in terrestrial hotsprings, and have profound implications for the search for life on Mars.

  14. A multi-locus molecular phylogeny for Australia's iconic Jacky Dragon (Agamidae: Amphibolurus muricatus): phylogeographic structure along the Great Dividing Range of south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Mitzy; Barquero, Marco D; Whiting, Martin J; Keogh, J Scott

    2014-02-01

    Jacky dragons (Amphibolurus muricatus) are ubiquitous in south-eastern Australia and were one of the first Australian reptiles to be formally described. Because they are so common, Jacky dragons are widely used as a model system for research in evolutionary biology and ecology. In addition, their distribution along the Great Dividing Range of eastern Australia provides an opportunity to examine the influence of past biogeographical processes, particularly the expansion and contraction of forest habitats, on the diversification of this iconic agamid lizard. We generated sequence data for two mitochondrial and three nuclear DNA loci (4251base pairs) for 62 Jacky dragons sampled from throughout their distribution. Phylogenetic analyses based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian species-tree methods revealed five geographically structured clades separated by up to 6% mitochondrial and 0.7% nuclear sequence divergence. We also quantified body proportion variation within and between these genetic clades for more than 500 specimens and found no evidence of any significant differentiation in body proportions across their range. Based on body proportion homogeneity and lack of resolution in the nuclear loci, we do not support taxonomic recognition of any of the mitochondrial clades. Instead, A. muricatus is best thought of as a single species with phylogeographic structure. The genetic patterns observed in the Jacky dragon are consistent with fragmented populations reduced to multiple refugia during cold, arid phases when forested habitats were greatly restricted. Consequently, the inferred biogeographic barriers for this taxon appear to be in line with lowland breaks in the mountain ranges. Our results are congruent with studies of other reptiles, frogs, mammals, birds and invertebrates, and together highlight the overarching effects of widespread climatic and habitat fluctuations along the Great Dividing Range since the Pliocene. PMID:24315864

  15. Metal levels in seston and marine fish flesh near industrial and metropolitan centres in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J W; Edyvane, K S; Boxall, V A; Hamann, M; Soole, K L

    2001-05-01

    Port Pirie is the site of the largest lead smelter in the world, depositing 250 t of zinc, and 100 t of lead annually into Spencer Gulf. Barker Inlet is adjacent to metropolitan Adelaide, and receives unknown quantities of urban and industrial discharges. Both areas are sites of major commercial and recreational fisheries, contained within delicately balanced marine wetland ecosystems, comprising large areas of mangrove and seagrass habitats. Aldrichetta forsteri and Sillago schomburgkii are major species within these fisheries and as estuarine-dependent species were chosen for this study as indicator species for the detection and monitoring of pollutant impacts in the nearshore marine ecosystems of South Australia. Seston sediment collectors were deployed at each site and analysed seasonally for the presence of cadmium, lead and copper. Flesh samples from A. forsteri and S. schomburgkii were examined seasonally for the presence of cadmium, lead and copper and the results correlated with levels found in the seston sediment at each site. Metal concentrations were also correlated with a biomarker of genotoxicity measured in the same animals (micronuclei in erythrocytes) that were reported previously. Seston levels of cadmium, lead and copper were highest at Port Pirie, followed by Barker Inlet and were lowest at Wills Creek, with cadmium undetectable at the latter site. Metals in seston varied considerably with season, with generally higher levels in winter samples. In fish flesh, metal levels followed broadly similar trends as for seston. Spearman rank correlations between metals in seston and in flesh were strongly positive. There was also a significant correlation between flesh concentrations of each metal and the frequency of micronuclei in erythrocytes. This study has shown that seston concentration of pollutant metals are high in areas of industrial activity, and that these levels are also reflected in metal content of fish flesh. Mean flesh levels of cadmium

  16. Floodplain dynamics in space and time: the case of the Lockyer Valley south-east Queensland, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croke, J.

    2014-12-01

    Twenty-two lives were lost in the Lockyer Creek floods in southeast Queensland (SEQ), Australia in the summer of 2011. The predicted average recurrence interval (ARI) for this event in the upper catchment was ~ 2000 yrs based on relatively short gauging station records (median 38 yrs in Eastern Australia). This study presents an assessment of the basin-scale (3000km2) spatial patterns of floodplain erosion, deposition, and net morphological change following the January 2011 using multitemporal Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) DEMs. Clear spatial patterns of floodplain deposition and erosion are evident reflecting high degrees of variability in channel capacity and floodplain inundation frequency. This data is then compared to a millennial-scale record of floodplain deposition from six key reaches of the Lockyer Valley determined using extensive stratigraphic and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. OSL samples were taken from both bedrock and alluvial reaches and from both floodplain and within-channel benches. This presentation discusses the resultant spatial and temporal dynamics of floodplain deposition in a catchment dominated by hydrological extremes. The results highlight some important considerations of preservation potential in floodplain reconstruction but also provide data to test key hypotheses with respect to flood reconstruction in south eastern Australia.

  17. Single zircon ages for felsic to intermediate rocks from the Pietersburg and Giyani greenstone belts and bordering granitoid orthogneisses, northern Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröner, A.; Jaeckel, P.; Brandl, G.

    2000-05-01

    Previous models for the temporal evolution of greenstone belts and surrounding granitoid gneisses in the northern Kaapvaal Craton can be revised on the basis of new single zircon ages, obtained by conventional UPb dating and PbPb evaporation. In the Pietersburg greenstone belt, zircons from a metaquartz porphyry of the Ysterberg Formation yielded an age of 2949.7±0.2 Ma, while a granite intruding the greenstones, and deformed together with them, has an age of 2853 + 19/-18 Ma. These data show felsic volcanism in this belt to have been coeval with felsic volcanism in the Murchison belt farther east, and the date of ˜2853 Ma provides an older age limit for deformation in the region. In contrast, a meta-andesite of the Giyani greenstone belt has a zircon age of 3203.3±0.2 Ma, while a younger and cross-cutting feldspar porphyry has an emplacement age of 2874.1±0.2 Ma. The meta-andesite is intercalated with various mafic and ultramafic rocks and, therefore, the age of 3.2 Ga appears plausible for the bulk of the Giyani greenstones. Granitoid gneisses surrounding the Pietersburg and Giyani belts vary in composition from tonalite to granite and texturally from well-layered to homogeneous but strongly foliated. These rocks yielded zircon ages between 2811 and 3283 Ma. The pre-3.2 Ga gneisses are polydeformed and may have constituted a basement to the Giyani greenstone sequence, while the younger gneisses are intrusive into the older gneiss assemblage and/or into the greenstones. The Giyani and Pietersburg belts probably define two separate crustal entities that were originally close together but were later displaced by strike-slip movement.

  18. Summer and winter plankton fish assemblages around offshore oil and gas platforms in south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neira, Francisco J.

    2005-06-01

    Opportunistic plankton surveys were conducted within a 5-nmi radius of nine offshore oil and gas platforms in Bass Strait, south-eastern Australia, in February 1998 and 1999 (summer) and August 1998 (winter). The 108 day-night samples collected alongside (vertical tows) and nearby (surface and oblique tows) platforms yielded 1526 larval and early juvenile fishes representing 55 taxa from 45 families. Epipelagic/mesopelagic taxa dominated the catches, whereas hard/soft habitat-associated taxa were uncommon. Carangidae (36.2%) and Myctophidae (31.5%) dominated in summer and winter, respectively. The most abundant taxon was Trachurus declivis (Carangidae, 35.1%), followed by Bovichtus angustifrons (Bovichtidae, 8.7%), Scomberesox saurus (Scomberesocidae, 3.7%), Centroberyx affinis (Berycidae, 3.0%) and Arripis trutta (Arripidae, 1.7%). Fish concentrations (nos. per 100 m 3) alongside platforms did not differ significantly between day and night across all surveys. Likewise, concentrations nearby platforms in February 1999, including those of T. declivis, did not vary significantly by tow type (surface vs. oblique) or day vs. night. The far greater diversity and abundance recorded in February 1999 are likely the result of upwelling conditions over the eastern Bass Strait shelf during the sampling period, and which were not detected in February 1998. In the absence of data on adult fishes associated with the Bass Strait platforms, and given the limited availability of reefs directly around the area, it could be argued that some of the taxa caught may originate from spawning around neighboring natural reefs, particularly those off the Gippsland coastline and the south-east corner of mainland Australia. However, the prime position of the platforms almost right in the center of a productivity "hotspot" would have a confounding effect on the potential source(s) of larval fishes in that region of south-eastern Australia. The role of platforms as potential de-facto reefs for

  19. Deep structure of the east Terre Adélie Craton boundary (East Antarctica): Seismic investigation of the Mertz shear zone area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamarque, Gaelle; Barruol, Guilhem; Fontaine, Fabrice; Bascou, Jérôme; Cottin, Jean-Yves; Ménot, René-Pierre

    2014-05-01

    The Mertz shear zone (MSZ) located in George Vth Land (67°S, 145°E) is a key area to understand tectonic relationships between the Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic Terre Adélie Craton (TAC) and the Early Paleozoic units of Cape Webb and Penguin Point. The MSZ is therefore a major structure that represents the eastern boundary of the East Antartica Shield. In addition, the MSZ that recorded dextral strike-slip movement estimated at 1.7Ga could be correlated to the Kalinjila shear zone a large scale mylonitic structure outcropping at the east of the Gawler Craton (South Australia). In order to better understand the MSZ dynamics, we developed a multi-disciplinary approach with the French polar institute (IPEV) through the Arlita program (Architecture de la Lithosphere de Terre Adélie). Four temporary seismic stations were deployed on both sides and above the MSZ from October 2009 to October 2011 to map the deep tectonic structures. We analysed receiver functions to evaluate Moho depth and seismic anisotropy through the splitting of SKS waves to analyze the prolongation of the MSZ structures into the mantle. Results from receiver functions reveal Moho depths of 40-44km for the TAC, about 36 km under the MSZ and 28km for the Paleozoic domain. These results show that the MSZ delimit two crustal blocks with different thicknesses. Our study is consistent with crustal thicknesses estimated by Fontaine et al. (2012) in South Australia in the Gawler craton (>40km) and in the Delamerian orogen terrains (31km). However, the transition between the thick craton and the Paleozoic crust is sharper at the MSZ than in south Australia. Seismic anisotropy in the MSZ area was studied from events of magnitudes ranging from 5.9 to 7.0. In addition, petrological and crystallographic fabrics of the crust were carry out in order to better constrain the observed SKS delay times. The measurements of the splitting parameters show a fast polarisation direction (Φ) parallel to the E-W coast and

  20. A review of Galaxiella pusilla (Mack) (Teleostei: Galaxiidae) in south-eastern Australia with a description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Rhys A; Hoffmann, Ary A; Raadik, Tarmo A

    2015-01-01

    The dwarf galaxias, Galaxiella pusilla (Mack), is a small, threatened freshwater fish from coastal south-eastern Australia. Recent genetic studies, using multiple nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, found substantial differences between populations in western Victoria and south Australia ('west region') compared to eastern Victoria, Flinders Island, and Tasmania ('east region') that suggest the presence of a cryptic species. Morphological measurements and meristic counts from multiple populations within each region were undertaken to investigate potential differences between regions. Several characters, found to discriminate between individuals in the regions and to be diagnostic for two taxa, were used to describe a new species, Galaxiella toourtkoourt, for the west region. This is only the second species in the Galaxiidae to exhibit sexual dimorphism. The original description of Galaxiella pusilla, based on five specimens, is revised following examination of a large number of individuals. Both species are considered nationally threatened and are categorised as 'endangered'; the revised distribution of G. pusilla s.s. is reduced by approximately 60%. A number of inconsistencies in the most recent revision of the genus Galaxiella are also corrected. PMID:26624129

  1. Characterization of Phytophthora hybrids from ITS clade 6 associated with riparian ecosystems in South Africa and Australia.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Jan H; Gryzenhout, Marieka; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J; Hardy, Giles E St J; Stukely, Michael J C; Burgess, Treena I

    2013-05-01

    Surveys of Australian and South African rivers revealed numerous Phytophthora isolates residing in clade 6 of the genus, with internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene regions that were either highly polymorphic or unsequenceable. These isolates were suspected to be hybrids. Three nuclear loci, the ITS region, two single copy loci (antisilencing factor (ASF) and G protein alpha subunit (GPA)), and one mitochondrial locus (cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (coxI)) were amplified and sequenced to test this hypothesis. Abundant recombination within the ITS region was observed. This, combined with phylogenetic comparisons of the other three loci, confirmed the presence of four different hybrid types involving the three described parent species Phytophthora amnicola, Phytophthora thermophila, and Phytophthora taxon PgChlamydo. In all cases, only a single coxI allele was detected, suggesting that hybrids arose from sexual recombination. All the hybrid isolates were sterile in culture and all their physiological traits tended to resemble those of the maternal parents. Nothing is known regarding their host range or pathogenicity. Nonetheless, as several isolates from Western Australia were obtained from the rhizosphere soil of dying plants, they should be regarded as potential threats to plant health. The frequent occurrence of the hybrids and their parent species in Australia strongly suggests an Australian origin and a subsequent introduction into South Africa. PMID:23719220

  2. Radiogenic heat generation in the Darling Range, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Mike F.

    2013-07-01

    New heat generation measurements for radiogenic granites were made for thirteen localities in the Darling Range, Western Australia. These are integrated with published data to estimate temperatures at depth within radiogenic-granite bodies for this region of the south-western Yilgarn Craton. The heat generation in the radiogenic granites is calculated from the concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium measured in the field. A reliable relationship between total counts from a commercial portable spectrometer and Geiger Müller counter was found for the various granites measured. The relationship Ao = 0.34 + 2.16 CU, with a correlation coefficient of 0.98, was found between uranium (CU in ppm) content and heat generation (Ao in units of µW/m3) for those radiogenic granites measured in the Darling Range, and also for two granites in the Pilbara Craton. Measured heat generation in the Darling Range was found to vary between 4 and 10μW/m3, the maximum of which is higher than previously known heat generation in granites for the Yilgarn Craton. Based on these new data, temperatures between depths of 3000 and 4000 m are modelled to fall between 60 and 110°C, depending on the thickness of the granitic bodies. These results are encouraging for potential low-temperature geothermal developments in this region, which is adjacent to the Perth metropolitan area.

  3. Micro-Seismic Monitoring During Stimulation at Paralana-2 South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasting, M. A.; Albaric, J.; Oye, V.; Reid, P.; Messeiller, M.; Llanos, E.

    2011-12-01

    In 2009 the Paralana JV, drilled the Paralana-2 (P2) Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) borehole east of the Flinders Range in South Australia. Drilling started on 30 Jun and reached a total depth of 4,003m (G.L AHD) on 9 Nov. A 7- inch casing was set and cemented to a depth of 3,725m and P2 was officially completed on the 9th Dec 2009. On 2 Jan 2011 a six meter zone was perforated between 3,679 and 3,685mRT. A stimulation of P2 was carried out on 3 Jan by injecting approximately 14,668l of fluid at pressure of up to 8.7kpsi and various rates up to 2bpm. During the stimulation 125 micro-earthquakes (MEQ) were triggered in the formation. Most MEQ events occurred in an area about 100m wide and 220m deep at an average depth of 3,850m. The largest event, ML1.4, occurred after the shut-in. Between 11 and 15 July 2011, the main fracture stimulation was carried out with ~3M litres injected at pressures up to 9kpsi and rates up to 10bpm. Over 10,000 MEQ were detected by the seismic monitoring network. This network consisted of 12 surface and 8 borehole stations with sensor depths of 40m, 200m and 1,800m. Four accelerometers were also installed to record ground motions near key facilities in the case of a larger seismic event. MEQ were automatically triggered and located in near-real-time with the software MIMO provided by NORSAR. A traffic light system was in operation and none of the detected events came close to the threshold value. More than 1/2 of the detected events could be processed and located reliably in the full automatic mode. Selected MEQ events were manually picked on site in order to improve the location accuracy. A total of 1,875 events were located to form the final picture of the stimulation fracture. Results show that fracturing occurred in three swarms. The 1st swarm occurs near the well and deepened with time from 3.7km to over 4.1km. The 2nd swarm occurred a few days in and shows as a circular patch extending a few hundred meters east of the 1st one. The

  4. Remote Sensing of Subsurface Fractures in the Otway Basin, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Adam; King, Rosalind; Holford, Simon; Hand, Martin

    2013-04-01

    A detailed understanding of naturally occurring fracture networks within the subsurface is becoming increasingly important to the energy sector, as the focus of exploration has expanded to include unconventional reservoirs such as coal seam gas, shale gas, tight gas, and engineered geothermal systems. Successful production from such reservoirs, where primary porosity and permeability is often negligible, is heavily reliant on structural permeability provided by naturally occurring and induced fracture networks, permeability, which is often not provided for through primary porosity and permeability. In this study the Penola Trough, located within the onshore Otway Basin in South Australia, is presented as a case study for remotely detecting and defining subsurface fracture networks that may contribute to secondary permeability. This area is prospective for shale and tight gas and geothermal energy. The existence and nature of natural fractures is verified through an integrated analysis of geophysical logs (including wellbore image logs) and 3D seismic data. Wellbore image logs from 11 petroleum wells within the Penola Trough were interpreted for both stress indicators and natural fractures. A total of 507 naturally occurring fractures were identified, striking approximately WNE-ESE. Fractures which are aligned in the in-situ stress field are optimally oriented for reactivation, and are hence likely to be open to fluid flow. Fractures are identifiable as being either resistive or conductive sinusoids on the resistivity image logs used in this study. Resistive fractures, of which 239 were identified, are considered to be cemented with electrically resistive cements (such as quartz or calcite) and thus closed to fluid flow. Conductive fractures, of which 268 were identified, are considered to be uncemented and open to fluid flow, and thus important to geothermal exploration. Fracture susceptibility diagrams constructed for the identified fractures illustrate that the

  5. Kunjin flaviviral encephalomyelitis in an Arabian gelding in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Tee, S Y; Horadagoda, N; Mogg, T D

    2012-08-01

    Flaviviruses, including Kunjin virus, are arboviruses that cause encephalomyelitis in humans and horses. This case report describes an Arabian gelding exhibiting neurological signs of flavivirus encephalomyelitis, the diagnostic investigation and confirmation of an unreported case of Kunjin virus equine encephalomyelitis in Australia. PMID:22827627

  6. Cultural Diversity, Racialisation and the Experience of Racism in Rural Australia: The South Australian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, James; Dunn, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Rural spaces in settler nations like Australia are commonly perceived as "white", with low numbers of "non-white" ethnic minorities. Perhaps because of this, although ethnic diversity is a feature of some rural communities, there is a paucity of research into issues of cultural exclusion. This is surprising in view of recent federal government…

  7. Internet Usage in Small Businesses in Regional South Australia: Service Learning Opportunities for a Local University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Nina; Sawyer, Janet

    2009-01-01

    The Internet offers opportunities for electronic trading in the global marketplace and as such it can provide substantial benefits to a business. Despite this, the rate of adoption of e-commerce by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Australia has been slower than anticipated and these benefits are not being realised (Pease & Rowe, 2003).…

  8. Remote Control: A Spatial-History of Correspondence Schooling in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symes, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In large continental landmasses such as Australia, forms of education, including correspondence schooling, emerged in the early twentieth century that allowed children in remote regions to access education. To make such schooling possible, other "technologies" of state provision were mobilised such as the postal system, rail network, and radio…

  9. Drinking & Congenital Birth Defects: Alcohol Awareness in the Northern Rivers Region of New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeigh, Tony; Dip, Grad; Kean, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Guidelines developed to minimise the risk of harm associated with alcohol consumption in Australia focus on promoting population health by changing cultural attitudes. This research study was conducted to uncover attitudes toward maternal drinking and awareness of alcohol-related birth defects within the semi-rural Northern Rivers area of…

  10. A Widening Gap? Changes in Multiple Lifestyle Risk Behaviours by Socioeconomic Status in New South Wales, Australia, 2002–2012

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ding; Do, Anna; Schmidt, Heather-Marie; Bauman, Adrian E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in health outcomes have increased over the past few decades in some countries. However, the trends in inequalities related to multiple health risk behaviours have been infrequently reported. In this study, we examined the trends in individual health risk behaviours and a summary lifestyle risk index in New South Wales, Australia, and whether the absolute and relative inequalities in risk behaviours by socioeconomic positions have changed over time. Methods Using data from the annual New South Wales Adult Population Health Survey during the period of 2002–2012, we examined four individual risk behaviours (smoking, higher than recommended alcohol consumption, insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, and insufficient physical activity) and a combined lifestyle risk indicator. Socioeconomic inequalities were assessed based on educational attainment and postal area-level index of relative socio-economic disadvantage (IRSD), and were presented as prevalence difference for absolute inequalities and prevalence ratio for relative inequalities. Trend tests and survey logistic regression models examined whether the degree of absolute and relative inequalities between the most and least disadvantaged subgroups have changed over time. Results The prevalence of all individual risk behaviours and the summary lifestyle risk indicator declined from 2002 to 2012. Particularly, the prevalence of physical inactivity and smoking decreased from 52.6% and 22% in 2002 to 43.8% and 17.1% in 2012 (p for trend<0.001). However, a significant trend was observed for increasing absolute and relative inequalities in smoking, insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption, and the summary lifestyle risk indicator. Conclusions The overall improvement in health behaviours in New South Wales, Australia, co-occurred with a widening socioeconomic gap. Implications Governments should address health inequalities through risk factor surveillance and combined

  11. Modelling the effects of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge in south-west Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawes, W.; Ali, R.; Varma, S.; Emelyanova, I.; Hodgson, G.; McFarlane, D.

    2012-05-01

    The groundwater resource contained within the sandy aquifers of the Swan Coastal Plain, south west Western Australia, provides approximately 60% of the drinking water for the metropolitan population of Perth. Rainfall decline over the past three decades coupled with increasing water demand from a growing population has resulted in falling dam storage and groundwater levels. Projected future changes in climate across south-west Western Australia consistently show a decline in annual rainfall of between 5 and 15%. There is expected to be a continuing reduction of diffuse recharge across the Swan Coastal Plain. This study aims to quantify the change in groundwater recharge in response to a range of future climate and land cover patterns across south-west Western Australia. Modelling the impact on the groundwater resource of potential climate change was achieved with a dynamically linked unsaturated/saturated groundwater model. A Vertical Flux Manager was used in the unsaturated zone to estimate groundwater recharge using a variety of simple and complex models based on land cover type (e.g. native trees, plantation, cropping, urban, wetland), soil type, and taking into account the groundwater depth. These recharge estimates were accumulated on a daily basis for both observed and projected climate scenarios and used in a MODFLOW simulation with monthly stress periods. In the area centred on the city of Perth, Western Australia, the patterns of recharge change and groundwater level change are not consistent spatially, or consistently downward. In the Dandaragan Plateau to the north-east of Perth there has been groundwater level rise since the 1970s associated with land clearing, and with rainfall projected to reduce the least in this area the groundwater levels are estimated to continue to rise. Along the coastal zone north of Perth there is an interaction between projected rainfall decline and legislated removal to pine forests. This results in areas of increasing

  12. The Brasiliano São Francisco craton revisited (central Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trompette, R.; Uhlein, A.; da Silva, M. E.; Karmann, I.

    1992-08-01

    The Brasiliano (˜600 Ma) belt of Paramirim divides the São Francisco craton (as defined by Almeida, 1967, 1969) into two parts: to the west is the São Francisco craton proper; to the east is the Salvador craton, forming an extension of the Congo craton. The basement of the Paramirim belt, of Archean and Early Proterozoic age, is intruded by subalkaline granitoids dated around 1700 Ma. The cover, known as the Espinhaço Supergroup, consists of felsic magmatic rocks, overlain by clastic sediments depoited in a continental rift during the time interval ˜1700-1100 Ma. The Espinhaço Supergroup was deformed during the Brasiliano orogeny, at about 600 Ma. It is characterized by shallow-dipping, submeridional, large-scale ductile shear zones with western vergence and mineral and/or extension lineation indicating tectonic transport from east to west. These ductile shear zones extend south into the outer units of the Brasiliano Araçuaí mobile belt and the Lower Proterozoic of the Quadrilatero Ferrifero. There are no structural data supporting the hypothesis of a Middle Proterozoic deformation of the Paramirim belt that should have been obliterated during the Brasiliano orogeny. However, a possible pre-Brasiliano deformation does not affect the question of the division of the Brasiliano-São Francisco craton.

  13. The Changing Nature of Drought Risk in South-east Australia Over the Past Two Millennia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiem, A.; Ho, M. W.; Verdon-Kidd, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) is one of the most important food and fibre regions in Australia, producing one-third of the national food supply and exporting produce to many other countries. In total, the Basin contains about 40% of Australia's farms and 70% of Australia's irrigated land area. However, the MDB is also one of the most spatially and temporally variable river systems in the world, with severe droughts a regular occurrence over the ~100 years of instrumental record and decadal-scale droughts (e.g. "Federation" (~1895-1902), "World War II" (~1937-1945) and "Millennium" or "Big Dry" (~1997-2010) droughts) matched by flood dominated epochs (e.g. 1950s, 1970s). The accurate estimation of drought risk in the MDB is hampered by relatively short instrumental records and also by the complexity of the region's climate teleconnections with several large-scale ocean-atmospheric processes in the Pacific (El Niño Southern Oscillation, Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation), the Indian (Indian Ocean Dipole) and Southern Oceans (Southern Annular Mode). Climate-sensitive paleoclimate records provide an opportunity to resolve hydroclimatic variability over long time periods prior to the availability of instrumental records and therefore offer the potential for improved quantification of risks associated with hydroclimatic extremes. However, the MDB, as with many regions in Australia, currently lacks suitable in situ proxies necessary to do this. Therefore, remote paleoclimate rainfall proxies in the Australasian region spanning are used to develop new reconstructions of MDB rainfall over the Common Era (CE) (i.e. approximately the past 2000 years). The nature of MDB dry epochs from 749BCE to 1981CE are then compared with the frequency and duration of droughts recorded in instrumental records (i.e. approximately the past 100 years). Importantly, the results show that the probability of decadal scale droughts is three times greater than instrumental records suggest.

  14. Th-U-total Pb geochronology of authigenic monazite in the Adelaide rift complex, South Australia, and implications for the age of the type Sturtian and Marinoan glacial deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, K. H.; Wernicke, B. P.; Jercinovic, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Adelaide rift complex in South Australia contains the type sections for Sturtian and Marinoan glacial deposits. The litho- and chemo-stratigraphy of these deposits play a central role in evaluating global Neoproterozoic ice age hypotheses and Rodinia supercontinent reconstructions, but reliable depositional age constraints have been extremely limited. We report results of in situ Th-U-total Pb (electron microprobe) dating of detrital and authigenic monazite in two samples from the Umberatana Group (Sturtian Holowilena Ironstone and pre-Marinoan Enorama Shale) in the Central Flinders Ranges. Several texturally and chemically distinct detrital and authigenic populations are recognized. Detrital dates range from 1600 Ma to 760 Ma and most relate to well-known orogenic or igneous events in surrounding cratonic regions. Authigenic monazite grew in three or more pulses ranging from 680 Ma to 500 Ma. The date of 680 ± 23 Ma (2 σ) for the earliest generation of authigenic monazite in sandstone from the Enorama Shale (1) provides an estimate for the age of the base of the Trezona carbon isotopic anomaly just beneath the Marinoan glacial deposits, (2) provides an absolute minimum age constraint on the underlying Sturtian glacial deposits, and (3) supports proposed correlations between type Marinoan deposits and precisely dated glacial deposits in Namibia and China, which bracket the presumed Marinoan equivalents between 655 and 635 Ma. This age is inconsistent with a Re-Os isochron age of 643 ± 2.4 Ma (2 σ) on shales near the bottom of the Sturtian-Marinoan interglacial succession, stratigraphically > 3000 m below the Enorama Shale sample, and militate against the hypothesis that the type Marinoan is correlative with the 580 Ma Gaskiers glaciation. Monazite growth near 600 Ma and again at about 500 Ma probably represent hydrothermal fluid-flow events, the latter of which also corresponds to the well-known Delamerian Orogeny during which the Adelaide sediments were

  15. Inclusion of Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing in Government Schools in New South Wales, Australia: Development and Implementation of a Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Linda J.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Rickards, Field W.; Brown, P. Margaret

    2002-01-01

    This article focuses on how the policy and continuum of services in New South Wales, Australia, for serving students who are deaf or hard of hearing have developed and the attitudes of stakeholders toward both policy and practice. It concludes by attempting to assess the potential effects on students. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  16. Rethinking the Pattern of External Policy Referencing: Media Discourses over the "Asian Tigers" PISA Success in Australia, Germany and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldow, Florian; Takayama, Keita; Sung, Youl-Kwan

    2014-01-01

    The article compares how the success of the "Asian Tiger" countries in PISA, especially PISA 2009, was depicted in the media discussion in Australia, Germany and South Korea. It argues that even in the times of today's "globalised education policy field", local factors are important in determining whether or not a country…

  17. The Changing Nature of the Role of Principals in Primary and Junior Secondary Schools in South Australia Following the Introduction Local School Management (Partnerships 21)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahid, Abdul

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the changing nature of the role of principals following the introduction of local school management (Partnerships 21) in South Australia. The study reports the series of interviews with primary and junior secondary principals with regard to their roles in several areas namely; instructional leadership, teachers' professional…

  18. Demographic and socio-cultural correlates of medical mistrust in two Australian States: Victoria and South Australia.

    PubMed

    Renzaho, Andre; Polonsky, Michael; McQuilten, Zoe; Waters, Neil

    2013-11-01

    Studies on medical mistrust have mainly focused on depicting the association between medical mistrust and access/utilization of healthcare services. The effect of broader socio-demographic and psycho-social factors on medical mistrust remains poorly documented. The study examined the effect of broader socio-demographic factors, acculturation, and discrimination on medical mistrust among 425 African migrants living in Victoria and South Australia, Australia. After adjusting for socio-demographic factors, low medical mistrust scores (i.e., more trusting of the system) were associated with refugee (β=-4.27, p<0.01) and family reunion (β=-4.01, p<0.01) migration statuses, being Christian (β=-2.21, p<0.001), and living in rural or village areas prior to migration (β=-2.09, p<0.05). Medical mistrust did not vary by the type of acculturation, but was positively related to perceived personal (β=0.43, p<0.001) and societal (β=0.38, p<0.001) discrimination. In order to reduce inequalities in healthcare access and utilisation and health outcomes, programs to enhance trust in the medical system among African migrants and to address discrimination within the community are needed. PMID:24177416

  19. Yardea Dacite -large-volume, high-temperature felsic volcanism from the Middle Proterozoic of South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Creaser, R.A.; White, A.J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    The Yardea Dacite is a large-volume felsic volcanic unit from the Middle Proterozoic Gawler Range Volcanics of South Australia; it has been previously described as an ignimbrite. However, some samples contain no petrographic evidence for a pyroclastic origin, but have characteristics compatible with final crystallization from a nonfragmented magma. These samples may have erupted as lavas, but others are likely to be extremely densely welded ignimbrites, suggesting a compound nature for the unit. Geothermometry and phase equilibria indicate that the Yardea Dacite originated from a high-temperature ({approximately}1,000{degree}C) felsic magma with a low water content ({le}2%). The Yardea Dacite is not associated with a known caldera of the Valles type, and shares many characteristics of recently described Cenozoic felsic volcanic rocks from the western United States, interpreted as rheoignimbrites or as unusually extensive lavas.

  20. The impact of compulsory helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries in New South Wales, Australia: a response.

    PubMed

    Walter, Scott R; Olivier, Jake; Churches, Tim; Grzebieta, Raphael

    2013-03-01

    This article responds to criticisms made in a rejoinder (Accident Analysis and Prevention 2012, 45: 107-109) questioning the validity of a study on the impact of mandatory helmet legislation (MHL) for cyclists in New South Wales, Australia. We systematically address the criticisms through clarification of our methods, extension of the original analysis and discussion of new evidence on the population-level effects of MHL. Extensions of our analysis confirm the original conclusions that MHL had a beneficial effect on head injury rates over and above background trends and changes in cycling participation. The ongoing debate around MHL draws attention away from important ways in which both safety and participation can be improved through investment in well-connected cycling infrastructure, fostering consideration between road users, and adequate legal protection for vulnerable road users. These are the essential elements for providing a cycling environment that encourages participation, with all its health, economic and environmental benefits, while maximising safety. PMID:23339779

  1. Trace-elements in sheep grazing near a lead-zinc smelting complex at Port Pirie, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Koh, T.S.; Judson, G.J.

    1986-07-01

    In South Australia, several studies have shown that heavy metal pollution of soils and plants occurs in the vicinity of a lead/zinc smelter at Port Pirie. Data on soil analysis indicates that at least 3400 km/sup 2/ of land near these smelters has been contaminated by the fallout of Pb, Zn and Cd. It is possible that contamination of soil and pasture by heavy metals may adversely affect the health of livestock grazing near the smelters. In sheep, Pb toxicity causes anorexia, abdominal pain and diarrhea while Zn or Cd supplementation reduces the Cu status. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of heavy metals on the trace-element status of sheep grazing at selected distances from the Port Pirie smelters.

  2. Outbreak of skin nodules associated with Riouxgolvania beveridgei (Nematoda: Muspiceida) in the southern bentwing bat (Miniopterus schreibersii bassanii), South Australia.

    PubMed

    McLelland, David J; Reardon, Terry; Bourne, Steven; Dickason, Celia; Kessell, Allan; Boardman, Wayne

    2013-10-01

    In 2009, an outbreak of white nodular cutaneous lesions was detected in one of only two known breeding colonies of the critically endangered southern bentwing bat (Miniopterus schreibersii bassanii), at Naracoorte, South Australia. Necropsies were conducted on 10 euthanized bats in September 2009. In October 2009, 123 bats were examined under anesthesia, with skin biopsies collected from 18 affected bats. Prevalence of skin lesions was 45.2%. The prevalence among males was three times greater than among females. The majority of lesions examined histologically were granulomas, typically centered on a nematode. A single lesion had epidermal hyperplasia with intracytoplasmic inclusions consistent with a pox virus; pox virions were identified on electron microscopy. Nematodes dissected from frozen lesions were identified morphologically as Riouxgolvania beveridgei, previously described in the eastern bentwing bat (Miniopterus schreibersii oceanensis). The factors contributing to this apparent disease emergence and outbreak remain undetermined. Lesions consistent with white nose syndrome were not identified. PMID:24502731

  3. The diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) in New South Wales, Australia: morphotaxonomy, molecular phylogeny, toxicity, and distribution.

    PubMed

    Ajani, Penelope; Murray, Shauna; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf; Lundholm, Nina; Gillings, Michael; Brett, Steve; Armand, Leanne

    2013-08-01

    Species belonging to the potentially harmful diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia, isolated from 16 localities (31 sampling events) in the coastal waters of south-eastern Australia, were examined. Clonal isolates were characterized by (i) light and transmission electron microscopy; (ii) phylogenies, based on sequencing of nuclear-encoded ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) regions and, (iii) domoic acid (DA) production as measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Ten taxa were unequivocally confirmed as Pseudo-nitzschia americana, P. arenysensis, P. calliantha, P. cuspidata, P. fraudulenta, P. hasleana, P. micropora, P. multiseries, P. multistriata, and P. pungens. An updated taxonomic key for south-eastern Australian Pseudo-nitzschia is presented. The occurrence of two toxigenic species, P. multistriata (maximum concentration 11 pg DA per cell) and P. cuspidata (25.4 pg DA per cell), was documented for the first time in Australia. The Australian strains of P. multiseries, a consistent producer of DA in strains throughout the world, were nontoxic. Data from 5,888 water samples, collected from 31 oyster-growing estuaries (2,000 km coastline) from 2005 to 2009, revealed 310 regulatory exceedances for "Total Pseudo-nitzschia," resulting in six toxic episodes. Further examination of high-risk estuaries revealed that the "P. seriata group" had highest cell densities in the austral summer, autumn, or spring (species dependent), and lowest cell densities in the austral winter, while the "P. delicatissima group" had highest in winter and spring. PMID:27007209

  4. 26Al/10Be dating of an aeolian dust mantle soil in western New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Adrian; Fink, David; Chappell, John; Melville, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Aeolian dust mantle soils are an important element of many landscapes in south-eastern Australia, though the age of these aeolian deposits has not been radiometrically determined. At Fowlers Gap in western New South Wales, surface cobbles of silcrete and quartz overlie a stone-free, aeolian dust mantle soil, which has a thickness of about 1.6 m. The clay-rich aeolian dust deposit in turn lies upon a buried silcrete and quartz stone layer. Modelling in-situ cosmogenic 26Al and 10Be concentrations measured in both the surface quartz stones and in the buried quartz layer of rocks, reveals that each has experienced a complex exposure-burial history. Due to the absence of quartz stones or sand at intermediate depths, our cosmogenic 26Al and 10Be modelling was not able to determine a definitive mechanism of stone pavement formation and stone burial. Various scenarios of stone formation, transport, burial and exhumation were tested that constrain the age of the deposit to range from 0.9 ± 0.2 Ma to 1.8 ± 0.2 Ma, based largely on different assumptions taken for the time-dependency of the net sedimentation rate. This corresponds with the initiation of the Simpson Desert dune fields and the deflation of lakes in central Australia, which probably responded to the shift to longer-wavelength, larger-amplitude Quaternary glacial cycles at around 1 Ma. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to identify those parameters which better constrained model outputs. Within model errors, which largely are the result of analytical errors in measured 26Al and 10Be concentrations, all three competing theories of colluvial wash, upward displacement of stones, and cumulic pedogenesis are possible mechanisms for the formation of the surface stone pavement.

  5. Household disaster preparedness and information sources: Rapid cluster survey after a storm in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Cretikos, Michelle; Eastwood, Keith; Dalton, Craig; Merritt, Tony; Tuyl, Frank; Winn, Linda; Durrheim, David

    2008-01-01

    Background A storm-related disaster in New South Wales, Australia in June 2007 caused infrastructure damage, interrupted essential services, and presented major public health risks. We investigated household disaster preparedness and information sources used before and during the disaster. Methods Rapid cluster survey of 320 randomly selected households in Newcastle and Lake Macquarie, New South Wales, Australia. Results 227 households (71%) responded to the survey. By the day before the storm, 48% (95%CI 40–57%) of households were aware of a storm warning, principally through television (67%; 58–75%) and radio (57%; 49–66%) announcements. Storm preparations were made by 42% (28–56%) of these households. Storm information sources included: radio (78%; 68–88%); family, friends, colleagues and neighbours (50%; 40–60%); and television (41%; 30–52%). Radio was considered more useful than television (62%; 51–73% vs. 29%; 18–40%), even in households where electricity supply was uninterrupted (52%; 31–73% vs. 41%; 20–63%). Only 23% (16–30%) of households were aware that the local government-operated radio network has a designated communication role during disasters. A battery-operated household radio and appropriate batteries were available in 42% (34–50%) of households, while only 23% (16–29%) had all of: a torch, battery-operated radio, appropriate batteries, mobile phone, emergency contact list and first aid equipment. Conclusion Broadcast media are important information sources immediately before and during disasters. Health services should promote awareness of broadcast networks' disaster role, especially the role of radio, and encourage general household disaster preparedness. A rapid cluster survey conducted shortly after a natural disaster provided practical, robust information for disaster planning. PMID:18533010

  6. Plume-induced dynamic instabilities near cratonic blocks: Implications for P-T-t paths and metallogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillou-Frottier, L.; Burov, E.; Cloetingh, S.; Le Goff, E.; Deschamps, Y.; Huet, B.; Bouchot, V.

    2012-06-01

    Plume head-lithosphere interactions around cratonic blocks result in thermo-mechanical disturbances that lead to heating and burial phases of crustal rocks. We present results from numerical models of plume head-cratonic blocks interactions where a free upper surface condition and realistic rheologies are accounted for. These models include distinct cratonic blocks embedded within a continental lithosphere and separated by several hundreds of kilometers. Surface topography, thermal field and effective viscosity values are tracked for 20 Myr of interactions. The modeled dynamic interaction of a plume head around cratonic blocks results in two main types of instabilities, each of them resulting in a distinct P-T-t path. The "slab-like" instability, focused on cratonic edges when plume head is away from the craton center, shows a near-isothermal burial phase, while the "drip-like" instability occurring above plume head material results in a near-isobaric heating phase. Consequently, both clockwise and counterclockwise P-T-t paths can be expected around cratons, as actually observed around the Tanzanian craton and other cratonic areas. Metallogenic data from gemstone-bearing rocks in south-east Africa and data from ultrahigh temperature and ultrahigh pressure metamorphism are compatible with our model. It appears that vertical mantle dynamics around cratons may also explain thermobarometric signatures that are often attributed to horizontal tectonics.

  7. Long-term marine litter monitoring in the remote Great Australian Bight, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Edyvane, K S; Dalgetty, A; Hone, P W; Higham, J S; Wace, N M

    2004-06-01

    The Anxious Bay beach litter clearance is the longest running annual survey of ocean-based litter in Australia. It's remoteness from centres of human population and location (with respect to prevailing winds and currents) make it an ideal place for monitoring ocean or ship-based litter in Australia's southern oceans and particularly, the Great Australian Bight. Over the 1991-1999 period, a large but gradual decline in the amount of beach washed litter was recorded (with minor peaks recorded during the 1992 and 1994 surveys). Beach washed litter decreased by approximately 86%, from 344 kg recorded in 1991 (13.2 kg/km) to 49 kg in 1999 (i.e. 1.9 kg/km), reaching a maximum of 390 kg in 1992 (or 15 kg/km of beach). However, a sharp increase in litter was recorded in 2000 (i.e. 252 kg or 9.7 kg/km). This increase in litter yield in 2000 is probably due to stronger than average onshore surface flow (or Ekman Transport) in the western Eyre Peninsula and Bight region. Prior to the survey in 2000, the results appeared to indicate that ocean litter on Anxious Bay beach was beginning to level out at around 50-70 kg/year (i.e. 2-3 kg/km). As the beach surveys involve the assumption that the beach is completely cleared of litter, this may represent a baseline level for ocean-based litter in the region. The yields and type of litter collected from the annual survey indicates that the majority of litter washed ashore originates from commercial fishing activities within the Great Australian Bight. Most of the fishing-related litter was directly sourced to the Southern Rock Lobster Fishery (i.e. bait buckets, baskets, pots), the Great Australian Bight Trawl Fishery (i.e. codends, trawl nets) and the Southern Shark Fishery (i.e. monofilament gillnets and longlines). Between 1994 and 1999, large reductions were observed in the amount of bait straps (77% reduction), lobster bait baskets/buckets (86% reduction), nets/ropes (62% reduction) and floats/buoys (83% reduction). Significantly

  8. Anisotropy of thermoremanent magnetisation of Cryogenian glaciogenic and Ediacaran red beds, South Australia: Neoproterozoic apparent or true polar wander?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Phillip W.; Williams, George E.

    2013-11-01

    Determining the effects of compaction-related inclination shallowing of remanence directions is crucial for ascertaining the validity of low palaeolatitudes for Neoproterozoic red beds in South Australia that are central to the debate concerning low-latitude Proterozoic glaciation. The inclination correction (or flattening) factor, f, is defined as tan(ID)/tan(IF), where ID and IF are the inclinations of the measured detrital remanence and the ancient inducing field, respectively. The anisotropy can be estimated using anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and the anisotropy of high-field isothermal remanence (hf-AIR). The elongation-inclination (E-I) method has also been used to infer inclination shallowing. We add the anisotropy of thermoremanent magnetisation (ATR) to these methods. For the late Cryogenian Elatina Formation arenites, which constitute the bulk of the Elatina data set, the inclination correction using f = 0.738 derived from ATR increases the palaeolatitude of the Elatina Formation from 6.5 ± 2.2° to 8.8 ± 3.2°, which confirms that the Elatina glaciation occurred near the palaeoequator. Inclination corrections for the Ediacaran argillaceous Brachina and Wonoka formations, using f = 0.35-0.38 derived from ATR, are significantly greater than for the more arenaceous Elatina Formation, which increases their palaeolatitudes from ~ 12° to ~ 30°. Carbonates from the basal Ediacaran Nuccaleena Formation yielded f = 0.8 from ATR, which represents only a small palaeolatitude correction from 19° to 23°. The anisotropy results imply that the characteristic remanent magnetisations carried by all these units were acquired early as depositional remanent magnetisations, essentially at the time of deposition. The shift of the palaeopoles from argillaceous units indicating significantly higher palaeolatitudes introduces a distinctive loop into the late Cryogenian-Ediacaran-Cambrian pole path for Australia. This loop shows similarities with the North American

  9. Non-Linearity of the Rainfall-Runoff Response Across South-Eastern Australia During the Millennium Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, D. A.; Potter, N. J.; Petheram, C.; Dawes, W.

    2012-12-01

    South-eastern Australia experienced a major drought lasting from 1997 to 2009 (the so-called 'Millennium drought'). Average annual rainfall during this drought was 512 mm, some 12 percent below the long-term average of 582 mm. Based on simple rules-of-thumb, one would expect a rainfall decline of this magnitude to produce a runoff decline of 20 to 30 percent. However, the decline in runoff during the Millennium drought was, in some places, much greater than this. There were a number of factors contributing to this. Firstly was the nature of the rainfall decline, which saw large decreases in autumn and winter rainfall, the seasons which produce most of the runoff across the region. There was also a lack of wet years and, more importantly, very wet months, with 180 consecutive months without a monthly rainfall in the top 10th percentile. Finally, temperatures during this drought were higher than during similar droughts in the past. These conditions led to a reduction in groundwater recharge, which resulted in groundwater levels falling many metres below the surface in some catchments. This led to streams which were previously 'gaining streams' becoming 'losing streams'. In this presentation, we will present rainfall, runoff and groundwater data from a number of catchments in south-eastern Australia, showing that following a large drop in groundwater levels, runoff coefficients decreased dramatically, while cease-to-flow days showed a similarly large increase. We will also present results from a modelling experiment showing that these changes in hydrologic functioning are more likely to occur in low relief catchments, and that farm dams may act to prolong the declines in runoff due to their ability to act as a store for surface water, thereby delaying the catchment response to rainfall. Finally, we discuss how lumped conceptual rainfall-runoff models may be modified in order to capture these observed shifts in the hydrologic functioning of catchments.nnual time series

  10. Craton stability and continental lithosphere dynamics during plume-plate interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Van Hunen, J.; Pearson, D.

    2013-12-01

    Survival of thick cratonic roots in a vigorously convecting mantle system for billions of years has long been studied by the geodynamical community. A high cratonic root strength is generally considered to be the most important factor. We first perform and discuss new numerical models to investigate craton stability in both Newtonian and non-Newtonian rheology in the stagnant lid regime. The results show that only a modest compositional rheological factor of Δη=10 with non-Newtonian rheology is required for the survival of cratonic roots in a stagnant lid regime. A larger rheological factor (100 or more) is needed to maintain similar craton longevity in a Newtonian rheology environment. Furthermore, chemical buoyancy plays an important role on craton stability and its evolution, but could only work with suitable compositional rheology. During their long lifespan, cratons experienced a suite of dynamic, tectonothermal events, such as nearby subduction and mantle plume activity. Cratonic nuclei are embedded in shorter-lived, more vulnerable continental areas of different thickness, composition and rheology, which would influence the lithosphere dynamic when tectonothermal events happen nearby. South Africa provides a very good example to investigate such dynamic processes as it hosts several cratons and there are many episodic thermal events since the Mesozoic as indicated by a spectrum of magmatic activity. We numerically investigate such an integrated system using the topographic evolution of cratons and surrounding lithosphere as a diagnostic observable. The post-70Ma thinning of pericratonic lithosphere by ~50km around Kaapvaal craton (Mather et al., 2011) is also investigated through our numerical models. The results show that the pericratonic lithosphere cools and grows faster than cratons do, but is also more likely to be effected by episodic thermal events. This leads to surface topography change that is significantly larger around the craton than within

  11. Infant feeding practices among Sudanese women now living in regional south east Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Lee; Kirby, Rosemarie; Rogers, Cath

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to highlight and compare immigrant Sudanese women's infant feeding choices and patterns before and after moving to a regional city in Queensland, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 Sudanese mothers who had birthed and breastfed babies both in Africa and Toowoomba. This qualitative research project supported previous research indicating a trend for immigrant women's breastfeeding duration to decline when they moved to another country. The outcomes of this research suggest that the reasons for this decline are complex. The authors conclude that a lack of social support, language difficulties and wanting to fit in with particular Western practices are contributing factors. PMID:25522458

  12. What's the bloody law on this? Nurses, swearing, and the law in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Stone, Teresa; Francis, Lyn

    2010-01-01

    Most clinical nurses, particularly those working in mental health areas, have to deal on a regular basis with offensive language including swearing. Despite its prevalence, there has been little academic research concerning the extent of verbal aggression within health care settings, and none about the legal aspects of swearing in a nursing context. This paper is intended to give nurses practising in Australia a better understanding of definitional aspects of swearing and offensive language, the relevant law, and the basis of policy. This will then be followed by a critical examination of the management of offensive language in health care settings. PMID:20509809

  13. The Tsunami Risk of South-East Tasmania, Australia - the impact of the Puysegur Trench on greater Hobart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Andreas; Daniell, James; Mazengarb, Colin; Rigby, Edward; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2016-04-01

    The coastline of South-East Tasmania in Australia has seen various tsunami events over the last couple of centuries, many of them with an ambiguous offspring. None of these tsunamis have caused a significant loss so far. Due to the absence of locally tsunami-triggering earthquake sources, the area of greater Hobart can be considered fairly safe at least in comparison to more exposed regions like New Zealand or Chile. Nevertheless, the Puysegur trench, about 1500 km East of Tasmania is considered to be capable of triggering earthquakes beyond magnitude 8.5. These events are rare yet possible and therefore a detailed study of the likely impact patterns of such earthquake scenarios has been undertaken. The seismic source characteristics of the Puysegur trench have been reviewed in detail to provide a selection of possible rupture scenarios, considering partial and full rupture of the trench. In addition, these results have been compared to those of other authors. The propagation and inundation patterns of the scenarios are compared to previous studies and the impact of varying seismic slip distribution has been investigated. Inundation is calculated using high-resolution elevation models for various locations in and around Hobart. Furthermore, inundation and average flow velocity data is used to compute the full range of socio-economic losses associated with the event set. This study provides a detailed tsunami risk assessment of South East Tasmania and indicates the hazard and risk variability with respect to varying slip distribution of the earthquake source.

  14. Tidal loading along a profile Europe-East Africa-South Asia-Australia and the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchior, P.; Moens, M.; Ducarme, B.; van Ruymbeke, M.

    1981-04-01

    Precision measurements of earth tides along a profile stretching from Europe to Polynesia through East Africa, Asia and Australia are used to characterize ocean tides in different basins and thus provide a check on proposed cotidal maps. Ocean tide information was extracted from tidal gravity profiles made with correctly intercalibrated gravimeters at 91 tidal gravity stations by the subtraction of electric earth tide model vectors from the observed tidal vector. Analysis of possible instrumental errors due to calibration, thermal, barometric and power supply interruption effects indicates the data observed at a level of 0.5 microgal cannot be ascribed to computational or instrumental errors. Calculations of the ocean load and attraction signal obtained from the earth tide measurements are observed to be in very good agreement with those obtained from the cotidal maps of Schwiderski (1979, 1980) for satellite altimetry reductions for the diurnal components of the tides, however, less satisfactory agreement is observed in some large areas for the semi-diurnal components. The maps of Hendershott (1973) and Parke (1979) are also found to provide good results in several large areas, but not everywhere. Regions where a more detailed investigation is required are indicated, including Iran-Pakistan, Malaysia, the South China Sea and the South Pacific.

  15. River Styles, a Geomorphic Approach to Catchment Characterization: Implications for River Rehabilitation in Bega Catchment, New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Brierley; Fryirs

    2000-06-01

    / Geomorphologically derived river styles provide an integrative framework for examining the interactions of biophysical processes in rivers throughout a drainage basin. Nine styles of river character and behavior are identified in Bega catchment, on the south coast of New South Wales, Australia. Headwater streams above the escarpment drain into gorges in the escarpment zone. In different subcatchments at the base of the escarpment, there are three different river styles, namely cut-and-fill, vertically accreted floodplains, and fans. Downstream of these river styles, in the rounded foothills of the catchment, throughput and transfer river styles convey sediments to the lowland plain. In one mid-catchment setting, a floodout traps sediment. Finally, along the lowland plain of Bega River, there is a floodplain accumulation river style. Downstream patterns of river styles in differing subcatchments of the Bega River basin are differentiated into three types, reflecting river adjustments to valley width, slope, and responses to human disturbance. Analysis of the character and condition of each river style in Bega catchment, and their downstream patterns, are used to provide a biophysical basis to prioritorize river management strategies. These reach-scale strategies are prioritorized within an integrative catchment framework. Conserving near-intact sections of the catchment is the first priority. Second, those parts of the catchment that have natural recovery potential are targeted. Finally, rehabilitation priorities are considered for highly degraded reaches. At these sites, erosion and sedimentation problems may reflect irreversible changes to river structure. PMID:10790530

  16. Cocaine, MDMA and methamphetamine residues in wastewater: Consumption trends (2009-2015) in South East Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lai, Foon Yin; O'Brien, Jake W; Thai, Phong K; Hall, Wayne; Chan, Gary; Bruno, Raimondo; Ort, Christoph; Prichard, Jeremy; Carter, Steve; Anuj, Shalona; Kirkbride, K Paul; Gartner, Coral; Humphries, Melissa; Mueller, Jochen F

    2016-10-15

    Wastewater analysis, or wastewater-based epidemiology, has become a common tool to monitor trends of illicit drug consumption around the world. In this study, we examined trends in cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and methamphetamine consumption by measuring their residues in wastewater from two wastewater treatment plants in Australia (specifically, an urban and a rural catchment, both in South East Queensland) between 2009 and 2015. With direct injection of the samples, target analytes were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Cocaine and MDMA residues and metabolites were mainly quantifiable in the urban catchment while methamphetamine residues were consistently detected in both urban and rural catchments. There was no consistent trend in the population normalised mass loads observed for cocaine and MDMA at the urban site between 2009 and 2015. In contrast, there was a five-fold increase in methamphetamine consumption over this period in this catchment. For methamphetamine consumption, the rural area showed a very similar trend as the urban catchment starting at a lower baseline. The observed increase in per capita loads of methamphetamine via wastewater analysis over the past six years in South East Queensland provides objective evidence for increased methamphetamine consumption in the Australian population while the use of other illicit stimulants remained relatively stable. PMID:27325011

  17. A review of necrophagous insects colonising human and animal cadavers in south-east Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Julianne F; Whittington, Andrew E; Zalucki, Myron P

    2015-12-01

    A review of insects collected from decomposing human remains in south-east Queensland yielded 32 species in three orders (Diptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera) and 11 families (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Phoridae, Sepsidae, Chironomidae, Dermestidae, Cleridae, Histeridae, Staphylinidae, Encyrtidae). There were 15 cases where remains were located indoors and five cases where remains were outdoors, in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Coleoptera were strongly associated with outdoors remains, while dipteran species composition was similar in both indoor and outdoor habitats. Some Diptera were only associated with indoors remains, while others were similarly restricted to remains recovered outdoors. Hymenopteran parasitoids were active in both habitats. Comparative collections were made from other vertebrate remains, including road-kill and farmed animals throughout south-east Queensland (Qld) and northern New South Wales (NSW) during the same period. PMID:26322495

  18. Evolution of the South African mantle — A case study of garnet peridotites from the Finsch diamond mine (Kaapvaal craton); part 1: Inter-mineral trace element and isotopic equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarov, Marina; Brey, Gerhard P.; Weyer, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    A thorough assessment of inter-mineral equilibrium is essential for the understanding of trace element partitioning and also for the interpretation of isotopic data. Here we investigated high temperature (~ 1200 °C and 6 GPa) garnet peridotite xenoliths from the Kaapvaal craton (Finsch mine, South Africa), with exceptionally well equilibrated mineral major element compositions, for their trace element and isotopic inter-mineral equilibrium. Trace element compositions for all major mineral phases, i.e. olivine, orthopyroxene (opx), clinopyroxene (cpx) and garnet, were analysed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Garnet, cpx and opx of selected samples were analysed for their Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope compositions by multi collector ICP-MS. Most important mineral characteristics include: a) olivines from most samples are enriched in high-field-strength elements relative to other incompatible trace elements. Their lithium content correlates negatively with Mg#, indicating a depletion signature; b) all other minerals are depleted in heavy and middle rare earth elements (H- and M-REE) and enriched in light REE and large ion lithophile elements. This implies a complex history of depletion and metasomatic overprint for the Finsch cratonic mantle; c) orthopyroxene has similarly shaped trace element patterns as cpx, with one to two orders of magnitude lower abundances; and d) both, garnet and cpx, display variable, mostly positive ɛHf coupled with moderate variations in ɛNd. Trace element partitioning between garnet/cpx, cpx/opx and garnet/opx, displays only a weak pressure and temperature dependency. However, equilibrium partitioning of most trace elements between garnet and cpx shows a strong compositional dependency, i.e. on the Cr- (and Ca-) content of the garnets. Garnet-cpx partition coefficients follow a second grade polynomial correlation with Cr2O3 of garnet, whereby high chromium garnets (Cr2O3 > 6 wt.%) have generally higher

  19. Asteroid impact ejecta units overlain by iron-rich sediments in 3.5 2.4 Ga terrains, Pilbara and Kaapvaal cratons: Accidental or cause effect relationships?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glikson, Andrew

    2006-06-01

    The significance of temporal and spatial associations between asteroid/comet impact ejecta units and overlying iron-rich sediments, including banded iron-formation (BIF), jaspilite and ferruginous shale, observed in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia and the Barberton Greenstone Belt (BGB), Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa, is considered. Such associations include (1) 3470.1 ± 1.9 Ma impact spherule units and tsunami-type breccia overlain by jaspilite in the Antarctic Chert Member, central Pilbara Craton; (2) 3258 ± 3 Ma impact spherule unit (S2) in the BGB overlain by BIF, jaspilite and ferruginous shale; (3) 3243 ± 4 Ma impact unit (S3) in the BGB overlain by iron-rich sediments (Ulundi Formation); (4) two formations of BIF and ferruginous shale at the base (Nimmingarra Iron Formation) and lower part (Paddy Market Formation) of the Gorge Creek Group, central Pilbara Craton, which overlie 3235 ± 3 Ma felsic volcanics along a boundary correlated with the BGB-S3 unit; (5) 2629 ± 5 Ma impact spherule unit and tsunami-type deposit overlain by BIF and ferruginous shale (Marra Mamba Iron Formation), central Pilbara Craton; (5) 2481 ± 4 Ma spherule unit intercalated at the lower part of the Dales Gorge Iron Member of the Brockman Iron Formation, Hamersley Basin, and possible equivalents in the Kuruman Formation, western Transvaal. No significant thicknesses of iron-rich sediments are known to overlie carbonate-hosted impact ejecta units, including the Bee Gorge Member (BGM) of the Wittenoom Formation (2561 ± 8 Ma), Carawine Dolomite (eastern Hamersley Basin, Pilbara Craton), Monteville Formation and Reivilo Formation (Griqualand West Basin, Transvaal Group), or the Graensco-Vallen spherule occurrence (southwest Greenland). The juxtaposition between impact ejecta units and overlying BIF and jaspilite may be accidental or purely related to preservation of these units in below-wave-base environments. Alternatively, this association may hint at enrichment of seawater

  20. Young Offenders in New South Wales, Australia and the Need for Remedial Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistler, Grant; Kirkwood, Kristie; Potter, Emily; Cashin, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The 2005-2008 Australian National Sexually Transmissible Infections Strategy identifies young people as a key target group in need of sexual health education, screening and management. For young people who are in contact with the New South Wales (NSW) juvenile justice system, a dire need for remedial sexual health education exists. NSW young…

  1. Schooling Adolescence: The Student Subject of Post-Primary Education in Early Twentieth Century South Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormack, Phil

    This paper reports on an aspect of a larger curriculum historical inquiry into the links between adolescence, schooling, and the English/literacy subjects in South Australian government schools. Another interest in the paper is how the "problem" of the care and control of the adolescent could be linked to issues of (il)literacy. The paper focuses…

  2. Christian Feminism in Action: Kate Cocks's Social Welfare Work in South Australia, 1900-1950

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trethewey, Lynne

    2007-01-01

    Utilizing a biographical approach and network analysis, this article examines one South Australian woman's life of public and Methodist social welfare service in the post-suffrage era. It is argued that although Kate Cocks (1875-1954) viewed her welfare work as "a God-given mission", as "practical Christian service", personal contact with the…

  3. Remove, Rehabilitate, Return? The Use and Effectiveness of Behaviour Schools in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granite, Elizabeth; Graham, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that enrolments in separate special educational settings for students with disruptive behaviour have increased in a number of educational jurisdictions internationally. Recent analysis of school enrolment data has identified a similar increase in the New South Wales (NSW) government school sector; however, questions have been…

  4. Heritage Languages at Upper Secondary Level in South Australia: A Struggle for Legitimacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, Antonio; Scarino, Angela

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes how more than 40 languages gained and retained legitimacy as subjects for graduation from upper secondary schooling and for tertiary entrance selection in the South Australian educational system. Essentially the process required conforming with administrative, curriculum and community structures and fitting the mould of…

  5. Indigenous Gambling Motivations, Behaviour and Consequences in Northern New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen M.; Hing, Nerilee; Gordon, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Against a background of public health, we sought to examine and explain gambling behaviours, motivations and consequences of Indigenous Australians in northern New South Wales. Adhering to national Aboriginal and ethical guidelines and using qualitative methods, 169 Indigenous Australians were interviewed individually and in small groups using…

  6. Modern cool-water siliciclastic/carbonate sediments, lacepede shelf South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Bone, Y.; Gostin, V. ); James, N.P. ); Von der Borch, C.C. )

    1991-03-01

    The Lacepeded Shelf is a 130 km {times} 100 km open embayment along the southern passive continental margin of Australia. The shelf includes the mouth of the River Murray - Australia's largest drainage system- the extensive arcuate Coorong strand, the 50-70 m deep and flat plateau of the shelf proper, the nonrimmed shelf break, and the upper slope to depths of 200 m. The shelf bathymetry is locally interrupted by seafloor highs, reflecting the underlying rugged terrain of deformed Precambrian and early Paleozoic bedrock in the west and Tertiary limestones and Quaternary dunes in the east. The late Pleistocene/Holocene sediment blanket is formed by discrete sedimentary facies. Quartz sands cover a significant cross-shelf zone opposite the river mouth, with current generated offsets. High-resolution seismic profiles reveal buried lowstand channels. The mid-shelf is an area of conspicuously coarse-grained, mud-free loose sediments composed of variable amounts of bryozoans and bivalves. The shelf break and upper slop bryozoan sands are similar, apart from species differences, from 40 to 100 m, with an increase in mud below 100 m. The seafloor highs are sites of prolific bryozoan, calcareous algae, sponge, and bivalve growth, the skeletons of which are shed onto the shelf. Bryozoan distribution is moderated by water depth and substrate type. Most forms are low-Mg calcite to high-Mg calcite, but two major groups are aragonitic. Distribution of these different mineralogical types is important for later diagenesis. Both terrigenous clastic and carbonate sediments are a mixture of relict and modern components, depending upon location, and reflect Holocene glacio-eustatic sea-level changes.

  7. The Moho in Australia and New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, Michelle; Kennett, Brian; Sambridge, Malcolm; Stern, Tim

    2013-04-01

    Australia and New Zealand share in part a history in the Gondwana supercontinent. Australia has a long and complex tectonic history with the last major accretion in the early Paleozoic, whereas New Zealand is still undergoing major plate boundary processes. The Australian continent is relatively well covered with both active and passive seismic techniques. Multiple sources of information are therefore available for building a model of Moho depth. Results from on-shore and off-shore refraction experiments are supplemented by receiver functions from a large number of portable stations and the recently augmented set of permanent stations. Moho picks from more than 10500 km of full-crustal reflection profiles provide valuable additional constraints. The composite data set provides good sampling of much of Australia, though coverage remains low in some remote desert areas. The various datasets provide multiple estimates of the depth to Moho in many regions, and the consistency between the different techniques is high. Some of the thinnest crust lies beneath the Archean craton in the Pilbara, and in the neighbourhood of the Simpson desert. Thick crust is encountered beneath parts of the Proterozoic in Central Australia, and beneath the Paleozoic Lachlan fold belt in southeastern Australia. There are a number of zones of sharp contrast in depth to Moho, notably in the southern part of Central Australia. Despite most of the continental material around New Zealand being submerged, Moho data for this region is mainly onshore concentrating on the Australia-Pacific plate boundary. Two major wide-angle reflection transects provide the bulk of the active source data with just a few traditional reflection profiles offshore. The plate bound- ary provides an abundance of local earthquakes for tomographic imaging and this data is supplemented with receiver functions from both portable and permanent networks.Onshore the combined coverage is as dense as that of Australia, although it

  8. The Moho in Australia and New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, M.; Kennett, B. L. N.; Stern, T.; Aitken, A. R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Australia and New Zealand share in part a history in the Gondwana supercontinent. Australia has a long and complex tectonic history with the last major accretion in the early Paleozoic, whereas New Zealand is still undergoing major plate boundary processes. The Australian continent is relatively well covered with both active and passive seismic techniques. Multiple sources of information are therefore available for building a model of Moho depth. Results from on-shore and off-shore refraction experiments are supplemented by receiver functions from a large number of portable stations and the recently augmented set of permanent stations. Moho picks from more than 10 500 km of full-crustal reflection profiles provide valuable additional constraints. The composite data set provides good sampling of much of Australia, though coverage remains low in some remote desert areas. The various datasets provide multiple estimates of the depth to Moho in many regions, and the consistency between the different techniques is high. Some of the thinnest crust lies beneath the Archean craton in the Pilbara, and in the neighbourhood of the Simpson desert. Thick crust is encountered beneath parts of the Proterozoic in Central Australia, and beneath the Paleozoic Lachlan fold belt in southeastern Australia. There are a number of zones of sharp contrast in depth to Moho, notably in the southern part of Central Australia. Despite most of the continental material around New Zealand being submerged, Moho data for this region is mainly onshore concentrating on the Australia-Pacific plate boundary. Two major wide-angle reflection transects provide the bulk of the active source data with just a few traditional reflection profiles offshore. The plate boundary provides an abundance of local earthquakes for tomographic imaging and this data is supplemented with receiver functions from both portable and permanent networks. Onshore the combined coverage is as dense as that of Australia, although it

  9. Precambrian Cratons and Fold-Belts in Brazil: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuck, R.

    2008-05-01

    the western border of the São Francisco craton and on the northeastern margin of the Paranapanema block. Deep seismic refraction and other geophysical and geological studies were able to discriminate several crust compartments within the Brasília belt, like the juvenile Goiás magmatic arc, the Archean/Paleoproterozoic Goiás massif, and the external belt zone, as distinguished from the São Francisco craton. The Borborema Province in northeast Brazil is a complex array of Neoproterozoic fold belts (Médio Coreaú, Seridó, Sergipana, Riacho do Pontal, Rio Preto) between the São Luiz and São Francisco cratons, partially covering different crustal blocks (NW Ceará, Ceará Central, Rio Grande do Norte, Pernambuco-Alagoas) separated by large crustal-scale, strike-slip lineaments (Transbrasiliano, Senador Pompeu, Orós, Porta Alegre, Patos, Pernambuco, etc.). Basement of the crustal blocks is mainly Paleoproterozoic in age, but may include Archean cores (São José do Campestre, Grangeiro, Troia). South of the Patos lineament, Mesoproterozoic gneiss, granite and supracrustal belts are recorded in the Transversal domain, in the Pernambuco-Alagoas massif and in the Sergipano and Riacho do Pontal fold belts. Geophysical studies (MT sounding, gravity, seismology, deep seismic refraction, etc.) are underway in order to understand crustal structure and evolution of the province.

  10. African hot spot volcanism: small-scale convection in the upper mantle beneath cratons.

    PubMed

    King, S D; Ritsema, J

    2000-11-10

    Numerical models demonstrate that small-scale convection develops in the upper mantle beneath the transition of thick cratonic lithosphere and thin oceanic lithosphere. These models explain the location and geochemical characteristics of intraplate volcanos on the African and South American plates. They also explain the presence of relatively high seismic shear wave velocities (cold downwellings) in the mantle transition zone beneath the western margin of African cratons and the eastern margin of South American cratons. Small-scale, edge-driven convection is an alternative to plumes for explaining intraplate African and South American hot spot volcanism, and small-scale convection is consistent with mantle downwellings beneath the African and South American lithosphere. PMID:11073447

  11. Modelling the response of surface fuel to climate change across south-eastern Australia: consequences for future fire regimes .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradstock, Ross; Matthews, Stuart; Penman, Trent; Price, Owen; Watson, Penny; Williams, Dick

    2014-05-01

    Changes to fire regimes in the future will be determined by a complex range of processes. Vegetation, weather and ignitions may be altered by climate change, elevated CO2 and human activity. In this study, we used an empirically based approach to project future changes in surface litter fuel within major vegetation formations (rainforest, wet sclerophyll forest, dry sclerophyll forest, grassy woodlands) the temperate and subtropical areas of south eastern Australia. Climatic controls of litterfall, decomposition and steady state fuel load within each vegetation formation were examined using metadata derived from field studies. Changes in steady state litter fuel load were then estimated for the current spatial domain of each vegetation formation (1 km grid), using the fuel/climate models, and a range of 2080 climate projections (5 GCMs) selected to encompass both warmer and drier and warmer and wetter future conditions for the region, under the A1b emissions scenario. Steady state surface fine fuel load was generally, negatively related to mean annual temperature but mean annual rainfall had divergent effects dependent on vegetation type. Under all 2080 climate projections, a mean decline in steady state surface litter was predicted in dry sclerophyll forest (-5 to -18%), the most extensive forest type in the region. Similarly a general decline was estimated for rainforest (-5 to -13%). For the other vegetation formations, predicted 2080 responses varied from a small mean increase to a more substantial decline: i.e. + 0.1 to - 24%, grassy woodlands; +3 to -18%, wet sclerophyll forest. The predominant, predicted decline in future surface fine fuel load has the potential to reduce future area burned due to the influence of fuel load on fire behaviour in these ecosystems. Early results from experiments and stand growth models dealing with Eucalyptus species indicate that possible declines in surface fine fuel load induced by a warmer climate may be partially off

  12. The metamorphic evolution from ultrahigh-temperature to amphibolite facies metamorphism in the Odaesan area after the collision between the North and South China Cratons in the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byung Choon; Oh, Chang Whan; Kim, Tae Sung; Yi, Keewook

    2016-07-01

    The Odaesan Gneiss Complex (Odesan Gneiss Complex) is the eastern end of the Hongseong-Odaesan collision belt in the Korean Peninsula, which is an extension of the Dabie-Sulu collision belt between the North and South China cratons. The Odaesan Gneiss Complex mainly consists of banded and migmatitic gneisses with porphyritic granitoids and amphibolites. The garnet-bearing banded gneisses can be subdivided into garnet-biotite and garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneisses. At the beginning of the post-collision stage, the banded gneisses underwent regional ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism (902-950 °C/8.8-9.4 kbar) at ca. 247-245 Ma due to the heat supplied from underplated basic magma, which was generated by the partial melting of the lithospheric mantle caused by the heat supplied from the asthenospheric mantle. As a result of the continuous extensional force, the study area (lower crust) uplifted onto the middle crust depths, and then the study area underwent prograde granulite facies metamorphism from 660 °C and 8.7 kbar to 750-760 °C and 6.3-6.5 kbar at ca. 227 Ma, causing migmatization, which erased the ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism in most of the study area. The ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism was preserved only in the garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneisses due to their very low water contents. During migmatization, the garnet-biotite banded gneisses were retrograded into upper granulite facies due to the relatively abundant water compared with the garnet-orthopyroxene gneisses. Finally, the study area was uplifted to a shallow depth and locally underwent amphibolite facies retrograde metamorphism (575-680 °C and 3.1-4.5 kbar). In addition, Paleoproterozoic metamorphic (ca. 1930-1886 Ma) and post-collisional magmatic events (ca. 1847 Ma) are identified based on SHRIMP age dating. These ages agree well with the regional Paleoproterozoic metamorphic and post-collisional magmatic activities reported from other areas of the Gyeonggi Massif.

  13. Volcanic degassing, hydrothermal circulation and the flourishing of early life on Earth: A review of the evidence from c. 3490-3240 Ma rocks of the Pilbara Supergroup, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Kranendonk, Martin J.

    2006-02-01

    New data gathered during mapping of c. 3490-3240 Ma rocks of the Pilbara Supergroup in the Pilbara Craton show that most bedded chert units originated as epiclastic and evaporative sedimentary rocks that were silicified by repeated pulses of hydrothermal fluids that circulated through the footwall basalts during hiatuses in volcanism. For most cherts, fossil hydrothermal fluid pathways are preserved as silica ± barite ± Fe-bearing veins that cut through the footwall and up to the level of individual bedded chert units, but not above, indicating the contemporaneity of hydrothermal silica veining and bedded chert deposition at the end of volcanic eruptive events. Silica ± barite ± Fe-bearing vein swarms are accompanied by extensive hydrothermal alteration of the footwall to the bedded chert units, and occurred under alternating high-sulphidation and low-sulphidation conditions. These veins provided pathways to the surface for elements leached from the footwall (e.g., Si, Ba, Fe) and volcanogenic emissions from underlying felsic magma chambers (e.g., CO 2, H 2S/HS -, SO 2). Stratigraphic evidence of shallowing upward and subsequent deepening associated with the deposition of Warrawoona Group cherts is interpreted to relate to the emplacement of subvolcanic laccoliths and subsequent eruption and/or degassing of these magmas. Heat from these intrusions drove episodes of hydrothermal circulation. Listric normal faulting during caldera collapse produced basins with restricted circulation of seawater. Eruption of volcanogenic emissions into these restricted basins formed brine pools with concentration of the volcanogenic components, thereby providing habitats suitable for early life forms. Fossil stromatolites from two distinct stratigraphic units in the North Pole Dome grew in shallow water conditions, but in two very different geological settings with different morphologies. Stratiform and domical stromatolites in the stratigraphically lower, c. 3490 Ma, Dresser

  14. Hydrogeophysical Evidence for Groundwater Mixing At Freeling Spring Group, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dailey, M. K.; Halihan, T.; Love, A.; Berens, V.; Wohling, D.; Keppel, M. N.

    2011-12-01

    The Great Artesian Basin (GAB) is an aquifer system that extends across Australia covering over 22% of the continent and is a vital support system for ecosystems in the region. Current research into the Western Margin of the GAB includes investigations of spring discharge and determining aquifer flow paths. Spring water sampling at nine springs that are a part of the Freeling Spring Group were used along with Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) data to evaluate evidence of mixing between the GAB aquifer and groundwaters from the adjacent basement aquifer in the Peake and Dennison Ranges (PD). Additionally, regional water samples of springs were used as end members to evaluate chemical mixing models for waters at the site. ERI data were collected along three orientations over the Freeling Spring site and extend for 550 meters laterally and 110 meters vertically. The ERI data indicate three possible flow lines providing mixing at the spring orifice similar to what would be predicted from traditional conceptual models of porous and fractured media. Water chemistry indicates that water emanating from the Freeling Spring Group is a mixture from both the GAB and the PD, which confirms the ERI evidence for mixing. The data suggest the mixing occurs along a major fault and that the resulting spring waters maintain a strong PD signature down the elevation gradient hundreds of meters into the GAB side of the fault.

  15. Distribution, relative abundance and size composition of the threatened serranid Epinephelus daemelii in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Harasti, D; Malcolm, H

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to undertake baseline surveys on the distribution, relative abundance and total lengths (LT ) of a threatened epinephelid species, black cod Epinephelus daemelii, in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, their westernmost distribution. Diving surveys at 83 sites where E. daemelii were expected to occur were undertaken from 2009 to 2011 using 45 min roving diver counts. Sites were spread through northern NSW, including Lord Howe Island (LHI). Individual fish were measured using stereo-video, enabling accurate length measurement. Surveys were repeated at a sub-set of sites to assess temporal variation across days, seasons and years. A total of 117 E. daemelii were recorded during baseline surveys, occurring at 42% of the surveyed sites. Across all surveys, the highest numbers recorded (14-18 individuals at a site) were at the outer Solitary Islands and Fish Rock (Smoky Cape). Fewer E. daemelii were found southwards, but two sites in the Port Stephens-Great Lakes Marine Park had consistent numbers (three to six) over four annual surveys. Only 12 E. daemelii were recorded from eight of the 18 sites at LHI. The numbers observed at re-surveyed sites were generally stable over years. There were latitudinal and cross-shelf differences in LT . Individuals in the north were found to be significantly larger than those further south, and fish offshore were significantly larger than those inshore. The largest measured fish was 135 cm, smaller than the maximum LT (c. 170 cm) recorded for this species. The smallest fish was 26 cm. Overall, it is considered that the abundance of E. daemelii is low compared to anecdotal data even though they have been protected for c. 30 years in NSW. These findings provide an essential benchmark to assess ongoing status and response to protective management. PMID:23902312

  16. A new species of Dermoergasilus Ho & Do, 1982 (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) from freshwater fishes in the south-west of Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Marina; Jones, Brian; Lymbery, Alan J

    2009-10-01

    A new species of Dermoergasilus Ho & Do, 1982 is described from freshwater fish hosts in the south west of Western Australia. D. occidentalis n. sp. differs from previously described species in the genus principally by the armature of the legs. The new species was found on the gills of the freshwater cobbler Tandanus bostocki Whitely and western minnow Galaxias occidentalis Ogilby in two different river systems. PMID:19731098

  17. Consequences for patients of health care professionals' conscientious actions: the ban on abortions in South Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Cannold, L

    1994-01-01

    The legitimacy of the refusal of South Australian nurses to care for second trimester abortion patients on grounds of conscience is examined as a test case for a theory of permissible limits on the autonomy of health care professionals. In cases of health care professional (HCP) conscientious refusal, it is argued that a balance be struck between the HCPs' claims to autonomous action and the consequences to them of having their autonomous action restricted, and the entitlement of patients to care and the consequences for them of being refused such care. Conscientious action that results in the disruption or termination of health care services, however, is always impermissible on two grounds. Firstly, because it is at this point that the action '... invades a patient's autonomy, puts a patient at serious risk ... [and] treats a patient unjustly' (1) Secondly, because the consequences of such refusals turn them into political acts--acts of civil disobedience. It is arguable that in order for acts of civil disobedience to be legitimate, certain obligations are required of the dissenter by the community. It is concluded that the actions of the South Australian nurses, which have over the last few years both terminated and disrupted second trimester services, are morally impermissible. PMID:8083879

  18. Hydrogeophysical evidence for ground water mixing at Freeling Spring Group, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dailey, Meghan Kathleen Marie

    2011-12-01

    The Great Artesian Basin (GAB) is an aquifer system that extends across Australia covering over 22% of the continent and is a vital support system for ecosystems in the region. As part of the Australian National Water Commission's (NWC) GAB Project, research is being conducted to understand the aquifer including studying the discharge of springs and determining flow paths of the aquifer. Water sampling at springs that are a part of the Freeling Spring Group were used along with Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) data to evaluate evidence of mixing between the GAB aquifer and waters from the adjacent basement aquifer in the Peake and Dennison Ranges (PD). Nine springs were used to evaluate fluid chemistry of the Freeling Spring Group. ERI data were collected along three orientations over the Freeling Spring site. The ERI data, which extend for 550 meters laterally and 110 meters vertically, indicate three possible flow lines providing mixing at the spring orifice similar to what would be predicted from traditional conceptual models. Regional water samples of springs were used as end members to evaluate chemical mixing models for waters at the site. The chemistry of spring water samples indicates that the water emanating from the Freeling Spring Group is a mixture of waters from both the GAB and the PD, which confirms the ERI evidence for mixing at the site. The data suggest the mixing occurs along a structural feature in the Peake and Dennison Ranges and that the spring water maintains a strong PD signature even well east of the fault zone.

  19. Comparative analysis of trends in paediatric trauma outcomes in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rebecca J; Curtis, Kate; Chong, Shanley; Holland, Andrew J A; Soundappan, S V S; Wilson, Kellie L; Cass, Daniel T

    2013-01-01

    Paediatric trauma centres seek to optimise the care of injured children. Trends in state-wide paediatric care and outcomes have not been examined in detail in Australia. This study examines temporal trends in paediatric trauma outcomes and factors influencing survival and length of stay. A retrospective review was conducted using data from the NSW Trauma Registry during 2003-2008 for children aged 15 years and younger who were severely injured (injury severity score >15). To examine trauma outcomes descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic and linear regression were conducted. There were 1138 children severely injured. Two-thirds were male. Road trauma and falls were the most common injury mechanisms and over one-third of incidents occurred in the home. Forty-eight percent of violence-related injuries were experienced by infants aged less than 1 year. For the majority of children definitive care was provided at a paediatric trauma centre, but less than one-third of children were taken directly to a paediatric trauma centre post-injury. Children who received definitive treatment at a paediatric trauma centre had between 3 and 6 times higher odds of having a survival advantage than if treated at an adult trauma centre. The number of severe injury presentations to the 14 major trauma centres in NSW remains constant. It is possible that injury prevention measures are having a limited effect on severe injury in NSW. This research provides stimulus for change in the provision and co-ordination in the delivery of trauma care for injured children. PMID:22153117

  20. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in dust from primary schools in South East Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Mazaheri, Mandana; Brommer, Sandra; Clifford, Samuel; Drage, Daniel; Mueller, Jochen F; Thai, Phong; Harrad, Stuart; Morawska, Lidia; Harden, Fiona A

    2015-10-01

    PBDE concentrations are higher in children compared to adults with exposure suggested to include dust ingestion. Besides the home environment, children spend a great deal of time in school classrooms which may be a source of exposure. As part of the "Ultrafine Particles from Traffic Emissions and Children's Health (UPTECH)" project, dust samples (n=28) were obtained in 2011/12 from 10 Brisbane, Australia metropolitan schools and analysed using GC and LC-MS for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) -17, -28, -47, -49, -66, -85, -99, -100, -154, -183, and -209. Σ11PBDEs ranged from 11-2163 ng/g dust; with a mean and median of 600 and 469 ng/g dust, respectively. BDE-209 (range n.d. -2034 ng/g dust; mean (median) 402 (217)ng/g dust) was the dominant congener in most classrooms. Frequencies of detection were 96%, 96%, 39% and 93% for BDE-47, -99, -100 and -209, respectively. No seasonal variations were apparent and from each of the two schools where XRF measurements were carried out, only two classroom items had detectable bromine. PBDE intake for 8-11 year olds can be estimated at 0.094 ng/day BDE-47; 0.187 ng/day BDE-99 and 0.522ng/day BDE-209 as a result of ingestion of classroom dust, based on mean PBDE concentrations. The 97.5% percentile intake is estimated to be 0.62, 1.03 and 2.14 ng/day for BDEs-47, -99 and -209, respectively. These PBDE concentrations in dust from classrooms, which are higher than in Australian homes, may explain some of the higher body burden of PBDEs in children compared to adults when taking into consideration age-dependant behaviours which increase dust ingestion. PMID:26142718

  1. Growth and lipid accumulation of microalgae from fluctuating brackish and sea water locations in South East Queensland-Australia.

    PubMed

    Duong, Van Thang; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Schenk, Peer M

    2015-01-01

    One challenge constraining the use of microalgae in the food and biofuels industry is growth and lipid accumulation. Microalgae with high growth characteristics are more likely to originate from the local environment. However, to be commercially effective, in addition to high growth microalgae must also have high lipid productivities and contain the desired fatty acids for their intended use. We isolated microalgae from intertidal locations in South East Queensland, Australia with adverse or fluctuating conditions, as these may harbor more opportunistic strains with high lipid accumulation potential. Screening was based on a standard protocol using growth rate and lipid accumulation as well as prioritizing fatty acid profiles suitable for biodiesel or nutraceuticals. Using these criteria, an initial selection of over 50 local microalgae strains from brackish and sea water was reduced to 16 strains considered suitable for further investigation. Among these 16 strains, the ones most likely to be effective for biodiesel feedstock were Nitzschia sp. CP3a, Tetraselmis sp. M8, Cymbella sp. CP2b, and Cylindrotheca closterium SI1c, reaching growth rates of up to 0.53 day(-1) and lipid productivities of 5.62 μg mL(-1)day(-1). Omega-3 fatty acids were found in some strains such as Nitzschia sp. CP2a, Nitzschia sp. CP3a and Cylindrotheca closterium SI1c. These strains have potential for further research as commercial food supplements. PMID:26042142

  2. An approach to plan and evaluate the location of radiotherapy services and its application in the New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Nagesh; Wickramasuriya, Rohan; Miller, Andrew; Perez, Pascal

    2015-11-01

    This paper proposes an integrated modelling approach for location planning of radiotherapy treatment services based on cancer incidence and road network-based accessibility. Previous research efforts have established travel distance/time barriers as a key factor affecting access to cancer treatment services, as well as epidemiological studies have shown that cancer incidence rates vary with population demography. Our study is built on the evidence that the travel distances to treatment centres and demographic profiles of the accessible regions greatly influence the uptake of cancer radiotherapy (RT) services. An integrated service planning approach that combines spatially-explicit cancer incidence projections, and the placement of new RT services based on road network based accessibility measures have never been attempted. This research presents a novel approach for the location planning of RT services, and demonstrates its viability by modelling cancer incidence rates for different age-sex groups in New South Wales, Australia based on observed cancer incidence trends; and estimations of the road network-based access to current NSW treatment centres. Using three indices (General Efficiency, Service Availability and Equity), we show how the best location for a new RT centre may be chosen when there are multiple competing locations. PMID:26310502

  3. Risk factors, health effects and behaviour in older people during extreme heat: a survey in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Nitschke, Monika; Hansen, Alana; Bi, Peng; Pisaniello, Dino; Newbury, Jonathan; Kitson, Alison; Tucker, Graeme; Avery, Jodie; Dal Grande, Eleonora

    2013-12-01

    Older people had a high incidence of hospitalisation during the 2009 heat wave in South Australia. We sought to explore resilience, behaviours, health risk factors and health outcomes during recent heat waves for a representative sample of independently living residents. A telephone survey of 499 people aged 65 years and over was conducted, and included both metropolitan and rural residences. A variety of adaptive strategies were reported, with 75% maintaining regular appointments and activities during the heat. However, 74% took medication for chronic disease and 25% assessed their health status to be fair to poor. In a multivariate model, factors associated with heat health outcomes included medication for mental health, heart failure, diabetes or respiratory health, reporting a reduced health status, use of mobility aids and being female. Compared with younger participants, those over 75 had more check-up calls and visits by family, friends and neighbours. However, confidence to call on support was associated with indicators of social isolation. The study indicates that older people are generally resilient, but interventions addressing multi-morbidity and medication interactions and social isolation should be developed. PMID:24300073

  4. Estimating groundwater recharge in fractured rock from environmental 3H and 36Cl, Clare Valley, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, P. G.; Robinson, N. I.

    2002-08-01

    Vertical profiles of 3H and 36Cl concentrations are obtained from piezometer nests installed in fractured metasedimentary aquifers in the Clare Valley, South Australia. Because 3H is lost during evapotranspiration with negligible fractionation, while 36Cl is retained within the soil, comparison of 3H and 36Cl concentrations allows estimation of the aquifer recharge rate. An analytical solution for the transport of 3H and 36Cl through planar, parallel fractures is used to investigate the effect of variations in matrix porosity, tortuosity, fracture aperture, fracture spacing and aquifer recharge rate on tracer profiles and then to reproduce observed profiles within piezometer nests. While the measured distributions of these tracers are not able to constrain most model parameters, they are able to tightly constrain the aquifer recharge rate. The broad nature of the 36Cl and 3H peaks measured at our sites is simulated using a constant fracture spacing, lognormal distributions of fracture apertures, and mean recharge rates of 60-75 mm yr-1.

  5. Influence of palaeotopography on the distribution of coal in the Western Coalfield, Sydney basin, Australia: comparison with South African coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutton, A. C.; Feldtmann, R.

    1996-07-01

    The Western Coalfield of New South Wales, centred on the town of Lithgow, is one of several areas of the Sydney Basin (Australia) that produces Permian coals for export and for domestic: use. The lowermost seam of the Illawarra Coal Measures, the Lithgow seam, was deposited in an alluvial fan to proximal braidplain complex. The style of clastic sedimentation and coal seam development was strongly influenced by the palaeotopography, especially basement highs which represent erosional remnants of the pre-Permian erosional cycle. The influence of the palaeotopography is seen in the distribution of the basal conglomerate, the thickness of the basal Shoalhaven Group (which is thinnest on and near the basement highs), the location of the alluvial fan facies of the Illawarra Coal Measures (which are adjacent to the highs and received a large proportion of the clastic detritus from these highs) and the development of the coal seams (which are distal to the basement highs). Of great significance is the location of economic sections of the Lithgow seam with respect to palaeotopographic highs. Adjacent to the highs the Lithgow seam is either too thin or contains too many claystone bands to allow mining. Between the highs: and further to the east and north of the highs, where the precursor peats formed on the floodplain and interfan areas, the seam is of significantly better quality and has been mined.

  6. Growth and lipid accumulation of microalgae from fluctuating brackish and sea water locations in South East Queensland—Australia

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Van Thang; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Schenk, Peer M.

    2015-01-01

    One challenge constraining the use of microalgae in the food and biofuels industry is growth and lipid accumulation. Microalgae with high growth characteristics are more likely to originate from the local environment. However, to be commercially effective, in addition to high growth microalgae must also have high lipid productivities and contain the desired fatty acids for their intended use. We isolated microalgae from intertidal locations in South East Queensland, Australia with adverse or fluctuating conditions, as these may harbor more opportunistic strains with high lipid accumulation potential. Screening was based on a standard protocol using growth rate and lipid accumulation as well as prioritizing fatty acid profiles suitable for biodiesel or nutraceuticals. Using these criteria, an initial selection of over 50 local microalgae strains from brackish and sea water was reduced to 16 strains considered suitable for further investigation. Among these 16 strains, the ones most likely to be effective for biodiesel feedstock were Nitzschia sp. CP3a, Tetraselmis sp. M8, Cymbella sp. CP2b, and Cylindrotheca closterium SI1c, reaching growth rates of up to 0.53 day−1 and lipid productivities of 5.62 μg mL−1day−1. Omega-3 fatty acids were found in some strains such as Nitzschia sp. CP2a, Nitzschia sp. CP3a and Cylindrotheca closterium SI1c. These strains have potential for further research as commercial food supplements. PMID:26042142

  7. Low level off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic negatively impacts macroinvertebrate assemblages at sandy beaches in south-western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Rebecca; Speldewinde, Peter C.; Stewart, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    Off-road vehicle use is arguably one of the most environmentally damaging human activities undertaken on sandy beaches worldwide. Existing studies focused on areas of high traffic volumes have demonstrated significantly lower abundance, diversity and species richness of fauna in zones where traffic is concentrated. The impact of lower traffic volumes is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of relatively low-level vehicle traffic on sandy beach fauna by sampling invertebrate communities at eight beaches located in south-western Australia. We found that even low-level vehicle traffic negatively impacts the physical beach environment, and consequently, the ability of many species to survive in this habitat in the face of this disturbance. Compaction, rutting and displacement of the sand matrix were observed over a large area, resulting in significant decreases in species diversity and density, and measurable shifts in community structure on beaches that experienced off-road vehicle traffic. Communities at impact sites did not display seasonal recovery as traffic was not significantly different between seasons. Given a choice between either reducing traffic volumes, or excluding ORV traffic from beaches, our results suggest that the latter would be more appropriate when the retention of ecological integrity is the objective. PMID:27121212

  8. Risk Factors, Health Effects and Behaviour in Older People during Extreme Heat: A Survey in South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Nitschke, Monika; Hansen, Alana; Bi, Peng; Pisaniello, Dino; Newbury, Jonathan; Kitson, Alison; Tucker, Graeme; Avery, Jodie; Dal Grande, Eleonora

    2013-01-01

    Older people had a high incidence of hospitalisation during the 2009 heat wave in South Australia. We sought to explore resilience, behaviours, health risk factors and health outcomes during recent heat waves for a representative sample of independently living residents. A telephone survey of 499 people aged 65 years and over was conducted, and included both metropolitan and rural residences. A variety of adaptive strategies were reported, with 75% maintaining regular appointments and activities during the heat. However, 74% took medication for chronic disease and 25% assessed their health status to be fair to poor. In a multivariate model, factors associated with heat health outcomes included medication for mental health, heart failure, diabetes or respiratory health, reporting a reduced health status, use of mobility aids and being female. Compared with younger participants, those over 75 had more check-up calls and visits by family, friends and neighbours. However, confidence to call on support was associated with indicators of social isolation. The study indicates that older people are generally resilient, but interventions addressing multi-morbidity and medication interactions and social isolation should be developed. PMID:24300073

  9. Can the Excess Heat Factor Indicate Heatwave-Related Morbidity? A Case Study in Adelaide, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Hatvani-Kovacs, Gertrud; Belusko, Martin; Pockett, John; Boland, John

    2016-03-01

    Although heatwave-related excess mortality and morbidity have been widely studied, results are not comparable spatially and often longitudinally because of different heatwave definitions applied. The excess heat factor (EHF) quantifies heatwave intensity relative to the local climate, enabling cross-regional comparisons. Previous studies have shown a strong relationship between EHFs and daily mortality during severe heatwaves. An extensive study about the relationship between EHFs and daily morbidity compared to the currently applied heatwave thresholds in Adelaide has not yet been undertaken. This paper analyzes the association of EHFs with daily morbidity between 2008 and 2014 in the Adelaide metropolitan region, South Australia, and probes three different approaches to calculate the EHF. The EHF is found to differentiate days with heatwave-related excess morbidity significantly better than other widely used weather parameters, resulting in fewer days per year with heatwave alerts than using previously proposed methods. The volume of excess morbidity can be predicted by the EHF more reliably with a model proposed for the SA Ambulance Service to support their heatwave preparation plan. PMID:26695616

  10. Molecular Characterization of Coccidia Associated with an Epizootic in Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) in South East Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Phoebe A; Owen, Helen; Flint, Mark; Traub, Rebecca J; Cribb, Thomas H; Mills, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    In the spring of 2014, mass mortalities among wild green sea turtles occurred off the coast of south-east Queensland, Australia. The suspected causative agent was Caryospora cheloniae, an eimeriid coccidian implicated in previous epizootics. Necropsies were undertaken on a subset of 11 dead turtles, with subsequent histopathology and molecular analyses. All turtles returned positive PCR results for coccidial infection in various tissues; these included the brain, gastrointestinal tract, lung, kidney and thyroid. Granulomatous encephalitis was consistently observed, as well as enteritis and, less frequently, thyroiditis and nephritis. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated the presence of two distinct coccidian genotypes, presumably separate species-one associated with the brain, gastrointestinal tract and lung, and the second with the thyroid and kidney. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses placed the first genotype closest to the lankesterellid genus Schellackia, rather than in the Eimeriidae, while the second was paraphyletic to the eimeriids. Presence of coccidial stages in extra-intestinal tissues of the primary host raises questions about the potential presence of intermediate or paratenic hosts within the life cycles, as well as their current placement relative to the genus Caryospora. This study represents the first genetic characterization of this emerging disease agent in green sea turtles, an endangered species, and has relevance for life-cycle elucidation and future development of diagnostics. PMID:26901786

  11. Low level off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic negatively impacts macroinvertebrate assemblages at sandy beaches in south-western Australia.

    PubMed

    Davies, Rebecca; Speldewinde, Peter C; Stewart, Barbara A

    2016-01-01

    Off-road vehicle use is arguably one of the most environmentally damaging human activities undertaken on sandy beaches worldwide. Existing studies focused on areas of high traffic volumes have demonstrated significantly lower abundance, diversity and species richness of fauna in zones where traffic is concentrated. The impact of lower traffic volumes is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of relatively low-level vehicle traffic on sandy beach fauna by sampling invertebrate communities at eight beaches located in south-western Australia. We found that even low-level vehicle traffic negatively impacts the physical beach environment, and consequently, the ability of many species to survive in this habitat in the face of this disturbance. Compaction, rutting and displacement of the sand matrix were observed over a large area, resulting in significant decreases in species diversity and density, and measurable shifts in community structure on beaches that experienced off-road vehicle traffic. Communities at impact sites did not display seasonal recovery as traffic was not significantly different between seasons. Given a choice between either reducing traffic volumes, or excluding ORV traffic from beaches, our results suggest that the latter would be more appropriate when the retention of ecological integrity is the objective. PMID:27121212

  12. Why Do Some Water Utilities Recycle More than Others? A Qualitative Comparative Analysis in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Nadja C; Fischer, Manuel; Ingold, Karin; Hering, Janet G

    2015-07-21

    Although the recycling of municipal wastewater can play an important role in water supply security and ecosystem protection, the percentage of wastewater recycled is generally low and strikingly variable. Previous research has employed detailed case studies to examine the factors that contribute to recycling success but usually lacks a comparative perspective across cases. In this study, 25 water utilities in New South Wales, Australia, were compared using fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA). This research method applies binary logic and set theory to identify the minimal combinations of conditions that are necessary and/or sufficient for an outcome to occur within the set of cases analyzed. The influence of six factors (rainfall, population density, coastal or inland location, proximity to users; cost recovery and revenue for water supply services) was examined for two outcomes, agricultural use and "heavy" (i.e., commercial/municipal/industrial) use. Each outcome was explained by two different pathways, illustrating that different combinations of conditions are associated with the same outcome. Generally, while economic factors are crucial for heavy use, factors relating to water stress and geographical proximity matter most for agricultural reuse. These results suggest that policies to promote wastewater reuse may be most effective if they target uses that are most feasible for utilities and correspond to the local context. This work also makes a methodological contribution through illustrating the potential utility of fsQCA for understanding the complex drivers of performance in water recycling. PMID:26102246

  13. Effect of temperature and precipitation on salmonellosis cases in South-East Queensland, Australia: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Adrian Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Objective Foodborne illnesses in Australia, including salmonellosis, are estimated to cost over $A1.25 billion annually. The weather has been identified as being influential on salmonellosis incidence, as cases increase during summer, however time series modelling of salmonellosis is challenging because outbreaks cause strong autocorrelation. This study assesses whether switching models is an improved method of estimating weather–salmonellosis associations. Design We analysed weather and salmonellosis in South-East Queensland between 2004 and 2013 using 2 common regression models and a switching model, each with 21-day lags for temperature and precipitation. Results The switching model best fit the data, as judged by its substantial improvement in deviance information criterion over the regression models, less autocorrelated residuals and control of seasonality. The switching model estimated a 5°C increase in mean temperature and 10 mm precipitation were associated with increases in salmonellosis cases of 45.4% (95% CrI 40.4%, 50.5%) and 24.1% (95% CrI 17.0%, 31.6%), respectively. Conclusions Switching models improve on traditional time series models in quantifying weather–salmonellosis associations. A better understanding of how temperature and precipitation influence salmonellosis may identify where interventions can be made to lower the health and economic costs of salmonellosis. PMID:26916693

  14. Molecular Characterization of Coccidia Associated with an Epizootic in Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) in South East Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Phoebe A.; Owen, Helen; Flint, Mark; Traub, Rebecca J.; Cribb, Thomas H.; Mills, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    In the spring of 2014, mass mortalities among wild green sea turtles occurred off the coast of south-east Queensland, Australia. The suspected causative agent was Caryospora cheloniae, an eimeriid coccidian implicated in previous epizootics. Necropsies were undertaken on a subset of 11 dead turtles, with subsequent histopathology and molecular analyses. All turtles returned positive PCR results for coccidial infection in various tissues; these included the brain, gastrointestinal tract, lung, kidney and thyroid. Granulomatous encephalitis was consistently observed, as well as enteritis and, less frequently, thyroiditis and nephritis. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated the presence of two distinct coccidian genotypes, presumably separate species—one associated with the brain, gastrointestinal tract and lung, and the second with the thyroid and kidney. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses placed the first genotype closest to the lankesterellid genus Schellackia, rather than in the Eimeriidae, while the second was paraphyletic to the eimeriids. Presence of coccidial stages in extra-intestinal tissues of the primary host raises questions about the potential presence of intermediate or paratenic hosts within the life cycles, as well as their current placement relative to the genus Caryospora. This study represents the first genetic characterization of this emerging disease agent in green sea turtles, an endangered species, and has relevance for life-cycle elucidation and future development of diagnostics. PMID:26901786

  15. Macrofaunal Patterns in and around du Couedic and Bonney Submarine Canyons, South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Dittmann, Sabine; Sorokin, Shirley J.; Hendrycks, Ed

    2015-01-01

    Two South Australian canyons, one shelf-incising (du Couedic) and one slope-limited (Bonney) were compared for macrofaunal patterns on the shelf and slope that spanned three water masses. It was hypothesized that community structure would (H1) significantly differ by water mass, (H2) show significant regional differences and (H3) differ significantly between interior and exterior of each canyon. Five hundred and thirty-one species of macrofauna ≥1 mm were captured at 27 stations situated in depth stratified transects inside and outside the canyons from 100 to1500 m depth. The macrofauna showed a positive relationship to depth in abundance, biomass, species richness and community composition while taxonomic distinctness and evenness remained high at all depths. Biotic variation on the shelf was best defined by variation in bottom water primary production while sediment characteristics and bottom water oxygen, temperature and nutrients defined biotic variation at greater depth. Community structure differed significantly (p<0.01) among the three water masses (shelf-flowing South Australian current, upper slope Flinders current and lower slope Antarctic Intermediate Water) (H1). Although community differences between the du Couedic and Bonney regions were marginally above significance at p = 0.05 (H2), over half of the species captured were unique to each region. This supports the evidence from fish and megafaunal distributions that the du Couedic and Bonney areas are in different bioregions. Overall, the canyon interiors were not significantly different in community composition from the exterior (H3). However, both canyons had higher abundance and/or biomass, increased species dominance, different species composition and coarser sediments near the canyon heads compared to outside the canyons at the same depth (500 m), suggestive of heightened currents within the canyons that influence community composition there. At 1000–1500 m, the canyon interiors were

  16. Macrofaunal Patterns in and around du Couedic and Bonney Submarine Canyons, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Conlan, Kathleen E; Currie, David R; Dittmann, Sabine; Sorokin, Shirley J; Hendrycks, Ed

    2015-01-01

    Two South Australian canyons, one shelf-incising (du Couedic) and one slope-limited (Bonney) were compared for macrofaunal patterns on the shelf and slope that spanned three water masses. It was hypothesized that community structure would (H1) significantly differ by water mass, (H2) show significant regional differences and (H3) differ significantly between interior and exterior of each canyon. Five hundred and thirty-one species of macrofauna ≥ 1 mm were captured at 27 stations situated in depth stratified transects inside and outside the canyons from 100 to 1500 m depth. The macrofauna showed a positive relationship to depth in abundance, biomass, species richness and community composition while taxonomic distinctness and evenness remained high at all depths. Biotic variation on the shelf was best defined by variation in bottom water primary production while sediment characteristics and bottom water oxygen, temperature and nutrients defined biotic variation at greater depth. Community structure differed significantly (p<0.01) among the three water masses (shelf-flowing South Australian current, upper slope Flinders current and lower slope Antarctic Intermediate Water) (H1). Although community differences between the du Couedic and Bonney regions were marginally above significance at p = 0.05 (H2), over half of the species captured were unique to each region. This supports the evidence from fish and megafaunal distributions that the du Couedic and Bonney areas are in different bioregions. Overall, the canyon interiors were not significantly different in community composition from the exterior (H3). However, both canyons had higher abundance and/or biomass, increased species dominance, different species composition and coarser sediments near the canyon heads compared to outside the canyons at the same depth (500 m), suggestive of heightened currents within the canyons that influence community composition there. At 1000-1500 m, the canyon interiors were

  17. Hydrological challenges to groundwater trading: Lessons from south-west Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skurray, James H.; Roberts, E. J.; Pannell, David J.

    2012-01-01

    SummaryPerth, Western Australia (pop. 1.6 m) derives 60% of its public water supply from the Gnangara groundwater system (GGS). Horticulture, domestic self-supply, and municipal parks are other major consumers of GGS groundwater. The system supports important wetlands and groundwater-dependent ecosystems. Underlying approximately 2200 km 2 of the Swan Coastal Plain, the GGS comprises several aquifer levels with partial interconnectivity. Supplies of GGS groundwater are under unprecedented stress, due to reduced recharge and increases in extraction. Stored reserves in the superficial aquifer fell by 700 GL between 1979 and 2008. Over a similar period, annual extraction for public supply increased by more than 350% from the system overall. Some management areas are over-allocated by as much as 69%. One potential policy response is a trading scheme for groundwater use. There has been only limited trading between GGS irrigators. Design and implementation of a robust groundwater trading scheme faces hydrological and/or hydro-economic challenges, among others. Groundwater trading involves transfers of the right to extract water. The resulting potential for spatial (and temporal) redistribution of the impacts of extraction requires management. Impacts at the respective selling and buying locations may differ in scale and nature. Negative externalities from groundwater trading may be uncertain as well as not monetarily compensable. An ideal groundwater trading scheme would ensure that marginal costs from trades do not exceed marginal benefits, incorporating future effects and impacts on third-parties. If this condition could be met, all transactions would result in constant or improved overall welfare. This paper examines issues that could reduce public welfare if groundwater trading is not subject to well-designed governance arrangements that are appropriate to meeting the above condition. It also outlines some opportunities to address key risks within the design of a

  18. The Paleoproterozoic APWP of the Kalahari Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gose, W. A.; Hanson, R. E.

    2006-05-01

    An apparent polar wander path for the Precambrian of the Kalahari craton, south Africa, still remains an elusive goal. This is not due to the lack of paleomagnetic data but rather the paucity or lack of age control. The need for radiometric ages became particularly clear when we were collecting dolerite dikes of the 1.1 Ga Umkondo suite in an attempt to delineate its areal extent. Seven dikes west of Pietersburg, South Africa, mapped as Umkondo dolerites, yielded a direction of magnetization distinctively different from the Umkondo direction. 300 km to the northeast in the Soutpansberg area, 5 dolerite sills and 3 basalt flows carry a direction antipodal to these dikes at the 1percent significance level. The combined data set has a pole position of 17.4°N, 17.2°E, with an error of A95=8.2°. One of the sampled dikes and two nearby dikes have U-Pb baddeleyite crystallization ages of 1871±1.2 Ma, 1873±0.8 Ma, and 1878±0.5 Ma (Hanson et al. 2004). These data provide an important pole position for defining the Paleoproterozoic segment of the Kalahari APWP. Our results do not support recent suggestions that the geomagnetic field was asymmetrical during the Precambrian. Hanson, R. E. et al., 2004, South African J. Geol., 107,233-254.

  19. Using Chironomid-Based Transfer Function and Stable Isotopes for Reconstructing Past Climate in South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, J.; Shulmeister, J.; Woodward, C.

    2014-12-01

    A transfer-function based on chironomids was created to reconstruct past summer temperatures from a training set comprised of 33 south eastern Australian lakes. Statistical analyses show that mean February temperature (MFT) is the most robust and independent variable explaining chironomid species variability. The best MFT transfer function was a partial least squares (PLS) model with a coefficient of determination (r2Jackknifed) of 0.69, a root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) of 2.33˚C, and maximum bias of 2.15°C. The transfer function was tested by applying it to a Late Glacial to Holocene record from Blue Lake, New South Wales using published data. The reconstruction displays an overall pattern very similar to the Milankovitch driven summer insolation curve for 30°S and to the chironomid based summer temperature reconstruction from Eagle Tarn, Tasmania (Rees and Cwynar 2010) suggesting that the model is robust. The transfer function was also applied to reconstruct the Last Glacial Maxium (LGM) summer temperature from Welsby Lagoon, North Stradbroke Island (Queensland). Preliminary results show a c. 4.2~8.6˚C of cooling in summer temperatures during the LGM from south east Australia. Stable oxygen and deuterium isotope composition (δ18O and δD) of the chitnous subfossil head capsules from Australian chironomids were also measured to explore the opportunity developing them as an independent temperature proxy. This is the first application of this technique in the Southern Hemisphere. The modern range of chironomid δ18O values were measured based on the same 33 lakes sampled for the transfer function. For these lakes, head capsules of single genera were picked to avoid complications from 'vital effects'. The relationship of chironomid δ18O to modern lake temperatures has been investigated. Deuterium (δD) on the head capsules has been measured concurrently and the relationship to climate and environment will be explored based on the latest available

  20. Evidence of climatic effects on soil, vegetation and landform in temperate forests of south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inbar, Assaf; Nyman, Petter; Lane, Patrick; Sheridan, Gary

    2016-04-01

    Water and radiation are unevenly distributed across the landscape due to variations in topography, which in turn causes water availability differences on the terrain according to elevation and aspect orientation. These differences in water availability can cause differential distribution of vegetation types and indirectly influence the development of soil and even landform, as expressed in hillslope asymmetry. While most of the research on the effects of climate on the vegetation and soil development and landscape evolution has been concentrated in drier semi-arid areas, temperate forested areas has been poorly studied, particularly in South Eastern Australia. This study uses soil profile descriptions and data on soil depth and landform across climatic gradients to explore the degrees to which coevolution of vegetation, soils and landform are controlled by radiative forcing and rainfall. Soil depth measurements were made on polar and equatorial facing hillslopes located at 3 sites along a climatic gradient (mean annual rainfall between 700 - 1800 mm yr-1) in the Victorian Highlands, where forest types range from dry open woodland to closed temperate rainforest. Profile descriptions were taken from soil pits dag on planar hillslopes (50 m from ridge), and samples were taken from each horizon for physical and chemical properties analysis. Hillslope asymmetry in different precipitation regimes of the study region was quantified from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). Significant vegetation differences between aspects were noted in lower and intermediate rainfall sites, where polar facing aspects expressed higher overall biomass than the drier equatorial slope. Within the study domain, soil depth was strongly correlated with forest type and above ground biomass. Soil depths and chemical properties varied between topographic aspects and along the precipitation gradient, where wetter conditions facilitate deeper and more weathered soils. Furthermore, soil depths showed

  1. Use of community health needs assessment for regional planning in country South Australia.

    PubMed

    Fuller, J; Bentley, M; Shotton, D

    2001-02-01

    This study examined the impact of community health needs assessments used in country South Australian health service planning between 1995 and 1999. Data were collected from regional health planning officers during a Search Conference and a series of Delphi rounds. The needs assessments were found to vary from regionally to locally driven approaches. Locally driven approaches ensured local involvement but the process was slower and required more effort from the planner. It was also felt that locally driven approaches could exacerbate tension between a community's imperatives and the regional focus of regional decision-makers. In the overall regional budgets, the reallocation of health service funds according to the needs assessment findings was only small because of difficulties in refocusing from traditional clinical services in the short term. In contrast, the impact on health service thinking about population health issues was thought to have been more significant, for example, in the development of regional women's health plans. The use of community health needs assessments was useful, but for greater impact these should not now be so 'broad-brushed', but be more focused on feasible changes that health services could support. Other priority-setting techniques, such as marginal analysis, should also be used to determine where maximum health gains can be obtained. PMID:11703261

  2. Fire regimes and tree growth in low rainfall jarrah forest of south-west Australia.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Neil; Ward, Bruce; Robinson, Alex

    2010-06-01

    Regular fuel reduction burning is an important management strategy for reducing the scale and intensity of wildfires in south-west Australian native forests, but the long term effects of this on tree and stand growth are not well understood. Five fire treatments, including application of frequent and infrequent low intensity burns, and 25 years of fire exclusion, were applied to small (4 ha) experimental plots in a low rainfall mixed jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) and marri (Corymbia calophylla) forest to investigate the effects of these treatments on tree stem diameter growth, stand basal area increment and tree mortality. Mean tree stem growth measured over 20 years was lowest in the long unburnt treatment compared with the burn treatments, although surface soil nutrient levels were generally higher in the unburnt treatment, suggesting these sites may be moisture limited. There was no clear pattern of the effects of the burn treatments, including the number of fires and the interval between fires, on tree stem growth, stand basal area increment, crown health or mortality. These factors were strongly influenced by dominance condition, with dominant and co-dominant trees growing most and suppressed trees growing least and experiencing the highest mortality levels. There was no evidence of deteriorating tree or stand health that could be attributed to either regular low intensity burning or to a long period (25 years) of fire exclusion. PMID:20405126

  3. An innovative dietetic student placement model in rural new South wales, australia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Leanne J; Macdonald-Wicks, Lesley; Squires, Kelly; Crowley, Elesa; Harris, Deanne

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the University of Newcastle Department of Rural Health, based in Tamworth, New South Wales, has supported increased opportunities for short- and long-term rural dietetic placements through an ongoing collaboration between Hunter New England Local Health District dietitians and University of Newcastle academic staff, using an innovative student placement model. A recent strategy has been the implementation of year-long student attachments to a rural area in an attempt to improve long-term recruitment and retention of staff to rural and remote areas. This paper describes the dietetic student placement model and outcomes to date. There has been an increase in the number and diversity of student placements in Tamworth, from 2 student placements in 2002 to 33 in 2013 and a maximum increase of 317 student weeks. Students have rated the short- and long-term options highly. Intention to work rurally after graduation was reported at 49% for the 2011/2012 cohort of students. Seventy-three percent of all year-long students have obtained work in a rural setting after graduation. An increased exposure to a rural location has the potential to increase the recruitment of staff in rural areas. PMID:26046121

  4. Impact of river training walls on adjacent beaches, Ballina, New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hai-Jun; Short, Andrew D.; Zeng, Thomas; Hanslow, David

    1999-03-01

    River and inlet training walls have been built at scores of locations along the NSW coast. This study examines the impact of training walls built at the Richmond River mouth, Ballina, over the period 1889 to 1991 on the adjacent beach systems. GIS analysis of 2 bathymetric maps and photogrammetric analysis of 6 aerial photo sets were used. The position of the shoreline and contours and their temporal changes for each profile were determined to identify accretional and erosional patterns. Spatial variations in the pattern were then used to assess the impact of training walls. The impact of training wall can be divided into three types: (1) accretion in updrift and erosion in downdrift; (2) accretion on both sides of the training wall, and (3) accretion on both sides near the training wall, but erosion on both sides away from the training wall. South Ballina beach and Lighthouse beach exemplify the second type. The impact of training wall varies linearly with the distance from the wall.

  5. Three-Dimensional Forward Modeling of Magnetotelluric Data Over Cratonic Lithosphere and Attendent Geological Structures: Case Study of the Zimbabwe Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miensopust, M. P.; Jones, A. G.; Farquharson, C. G.; MT Team

    2007-12-01

    The Southern African MagnetoTelluric Experiment (SAMTEX) is covering a huge area - containing parts of South Africa, Namibia and nearly the whole of Botswana - with acquisition of magnetotelluric (MT) data. The project's aim is to gain more information on the lithospheric geometries of the geological structures of this region which contains some of the oldest lithospheric pieces on Earth - the cratons (e.g. Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons). Since the standard modeling of MT data is only in two-dimensions and the recently developed three-dimensional inversion programs require a lot of computation time and high speed computers with large memories, 3D forward modeling is a good compromise on the way to full 3D interpretation of MT data. Forward modeling of subsurface structures similar to the cratonic areas of study will give some indication of how the MT responses should look like and if they change significantly when the cratons have a different shape or extent or resistivity. The determined synthetic data then can be compared with the real data collected in the SAMTEX project. The area for the case study is the western edge of the Zimbabwe craton in eastern Botswana. The craton is surrounded by the Damara Mobile Belt and the Magondi Mobile Belt to the north and west and the Limpopo belt to the south. The giant northern Botswana dyke swarm is cross cutting the craton in about WNW to ESE direction. Based on this geological information, a 3D model was created to calculate synthetic MT responses using the forward modeling routine implemented in the 3D inversion program MT3Dinv (developed by the Geophysical Inversion Facility, University of British Columbia). We will show the results of this modeling exercise and compare them with the observations.

  6. The impact of heatwaves on workers' health and safety in Adelaide, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Jianjun; Bi, Peng Pisaniello, Dino; Hansen, Alana

    2014-08-15

    This study aims to investigate the impact of heatwaves on worker's health and safety; to identify workers at higher risk of prevalent illnesses and injuries due to heatwaves; and to provide evidence for policy-makers and service providers. South Australian workers' compensation claims data for 2001–2010 were transformed into time series format, merged with meteorological data and analysed using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. For total injury claims there was no significant difference detected between heatwave and non-heatwave periods. However, for outdoor industries, daily claims increased significantly by 6.2% during heatwaves. Over-represented in hot weather were male labourers and tradespersons aged ≥55 years, and those employed in ‘agriculture, forestry and fishing’ and ‘electricity, gas and water’. Occupational burns, wounds, lacerations, and amputations as well as heat illnesses were significantly associated with heatwaves. Similarly, moving objects, contact with chemicals, and injuries related to environmental factors increased significantly during heatwaves, especially among middle-aged and older male workers. With the predicted increase of extremely hot weather, there is a need for relevant adaptation and prevention measures at both practice and policy levels for vulnerable work groups. - Highlights: • We investigate the impacts of heatwaves on workers' health and safety. • We identify workers at higher risk of illnesses and injuries during heatwaves. • The differences between two heatwave definitions on effect estimates are compared. • Daily injury claims for outdoor industries increased by 6.2% during heatwaves. • Relevant heat prevention measures are required for vulnerable workers.

  7. Emissions from prescribed fire in temperate forest in south-east Australia: implications for carbon accounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Possell, M.; Jenkins, M.; Bell, T. L.; Adams, M. A.

    2014-09-01

    We estimated of emissions of carbon, as CO2-equivalents, from planned fire in four sites in a south-eastern Australian forest. Emission estimates were calculated using measurements of fuel load and carbon content of different fuel types, before and after burning, and determination of fuel-specific emission factors. Median estimates of emissions for the four sites ranged from 20 to 139 T CO2-e ha-1. Variability in estimates was a consequence of different burning efficiencies of each fuel type from the four sites. Higher emissions resulted from more fine fuel (twigs, decomposing matter, near-surface live and leaf litter) or coarse woody debris (CWD; > 25 mm diameter) being consumed. In order to assess the effect of estimating emissions when only a few fuel variables are known, Monte-Carlo simulations were used to create seven scenarios where input parameters values were replaced by probability density functions. Calculation methods were: (1) all measured data were constrained between measured maximum and minimum values for each variable, (2) as for (1) except the proportion of carbon within a fuel type was constrained between 0 and 1, (3) as for (2) but losses of mass caused by fire were replaced with burning efficiency factors constrained between 0 and 1; and (4) emissions were calculated using default values in the Australian National Greenhouse Accounts (NGA), National Inventory Report 2011, as appropriate for our sites. Effects of including CWD in calculations were assessed for calculation Method 1, 2 and 3 but not for Method 4 as the NGA does not consider this fuel type. Simulations demonstrate that the probability of estimating true median emissions declines strongly as the amount of information available declines. Including CWD in scenarios increased uncertainty in calculations because CWD is the most variable contributor to fuel load. Inclusion of CWD in scenarios generally increased the amount of carbon lost. We discuss implications of these simulations and

  8. Confronting hysteresis: Wood based river rehabilitation in highly altered riverine landscapes of south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Andrew P.; Howell, Timothy; Abbe, Tim B.; Arthington, Angela H.

    2006-09-01

    values in the control were around 1.5% and 1%, respectively. Two indices of morphologic diversity were measured for each bed survey: the standard deviation of 3D residuals of change compared with the baseline survey (SD iΔ3D); and the standard deviation of thalweg residuals from the line of best fit (SD iTR). The SD iΔ3D index shows both reaches increased in complexity through the study with the treatment increasing more than the control (0.37 and 0.29, respectively). The SD iTR index does not detect clear changes because of the low signal to noise ratio, however, it does suggest the test reach was more complex than the control at the outset. The observed increase in fish abundance after the first 12 months of monitoring, reported previously, is now far less distinct 4 years on — a pattern seemingly reflecting the relatively minor increases in critical pool habitat and habitat diversity over the same period. Although no significant differences were detectable in fish species richness or total abundance from the reach aggregate data after 4 years, analysis of individual structures show them to be high quality habitat for native fish compared to the rest of the reach and the upstream control. These results highlight the challenges river managers face in achieving measurable improvements in the health of aquatic ecosystems in highly altered rivers. Managers must confront hysteresis in a biophysical and institutional sense when attempting to reverse the degradation of rivers. The scale of treatment implemented in this experiment was at the upper end of the spectrum of rehabilitation efforts currently being undertaken in Australia, suggesting that far greater resources and longer timescales are required to achieve the levels of improvement in the diversity of stream habitat expected by the community. The study also highlights problems with the strategy of attempting to meet multiple objectives within a reach scale rehabilitation project. While this treatment successfully

  9. Emissions from prescribed fires in temperate forest in south-east Australia: implications for carbon accounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Possell, M.; Jenkins, M.; Bell, T. L.; Adams, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    We estimated emissions of carbon, as equivalent CO2 (CO2e), from planned fires in four sites in a south-eastern Australian forest. Emission estimates were calculated using measurements of fuel load and carbon content of different fuel types, before and after burning, and determination of fuel-specific emission factors. Median estimates of emissions for the four sites ranged from 20 to 139 Mg CO2e ha-1. Variability in estimates was a consequence of different burning efficiencies of each fuel type from the four sites. Higher emissions resulted from more fine fuel (twigs, decomposing matter, near-surface live and leaf litter) or coarse woody debris (CWD; > 25 mm diameter) being consumed. In order to assess the effect of declining information quantity and the inclusion of coarse woody debris when estimating emissions, Monte Carlo simulations were used to create seven scenarios where input parameters values were replaced by probability density functions. Calculation methods were (1) all measured data were constrained between measured maximum and minimum values for each variable; (2) as in (1) except the proportion of carbon within a fuel type was constrained between 0 and 1; (3) as in (2) but losses of mass caused by fire were replaced with burning efficiency factors constrained between 0 and 1; and (4) emissions were calculated using default values in the Australian National Greenhouse Accounts (NGA), National Inventory Report 2011, as appropriate for our sites. Effects of including CWD in calculations were assessed for calculation Method 1, 2 and 3 but not for Method 4 as the NGA does not consider this fuel type. Simulations demonstrate that the probability of estimating true median emissions declines strongly as the amount of information available declines. Including CWD in scenarios increased uncertainty in calculations because CWD is the most variable contributor to fuel load. Inclusion of CWD in scenarios generally increased the amount of carbon lost. We discuss

  10. Stabilization and breakdown of Archean Cratons: Formation of sedimentary basins, mafic magmatism, and metallogenic productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, O. M.

    2011-01-01

    The Kenorland supercontinent was created as a result of the ascent of the most powerful mantle plumes in the Earth’s geological history and accompanied by the formation of the continental crust and its subsequent accretion into a supercontinent 2.7 Ga ago. The geological phenomena that occurred at that time in Australia, Canada, and South Africa reflecting its features are considered in this paper. The first sedimentary basins resting upon the sialic basement give evidence for long-existing peneplanes formed in the Early Precambrian, i.e., for stabilization of the underlying cratons; this is also supported by the appearance of rapakivi granite 2.8 Ga ago. The platform regime existed as early as the Mesoarchean 3.5 Ga ago. The platform sedimentary basins developed almost continuously over a billion years. Layered mafic intrusions were frequently emplaced into sedimentary sequences. Unique gold, uranium, PGE, chrome, and other deposits are hosted in sedimentary basins and layered intrusions. The extremely high intensity of plume activity determined the origin and breakdown of the Kenorland supercontinent and the cause of transport of ore elements concentrated in unique deposits. In terms of the intensity of plume-related magmatism and ore formation, the considered period of geological history has no more recent analogues and was critical for the Earth’s evolution.

  11. Body Size, Growth and Life Span: Implications for the Polewards Range Shift of Octopus tetricus in South-Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Jorge E.; Pecl, Gretta T.; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A.; Strugnell, Jan M.; León, Rafael I.; Semmens, Jayson M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the response of any species to climate change can be challenging. However, in short-lived species the faster turnover of generations may facilitate the examination of responses associated with longer-term environmental change. Octopus tetricus, a commercially important species, has undergone a recent polewards range shift in the coastal waters of south-eastern Australia, thought to be associated with the southerly extension of the warm East Australian Current. At the cooler temperatures of a polewards distribution limit, growth of a species could be slower, potentially leading to a bigger body size and resulting in a slower population turnover, affecting population viability at the extreme of the distribution. Growth rates, body size, and life span of O. tetricus were examined at the leading edge of a polewards range shift in Tasmanian waters (40°S and 147°E) throughout 2011. Octopus tetricus had a relatively small body size and short lifespan of approximately 11 months that, despite cooler temperatures, would allow a high rate of population turnover and may facilitate the population increase necessary for successful establishment in the new extended area of the range. Temperature, food availability and gender appear to influence growth rate. Individuals that hatched during cooler and more productive conditions, but grew during warming conditions, exhibited faster growth rates and reached smaller body sizes than individuals that hatched into warmer waters but grew during cooling conditions. This study suggests that fast growth, small body size and associated rapid population turnover may facilitate the range shift of O. tetricus into Tasmanian waters. PMID:25090250

  12. Body size, growth and life span: implications for the polewards range shift of Octopus tetricus in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Jorge E; Pecl, Gretta T; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A; Strugnell, Jan M; León, Rafael I; Semmens, Jayson M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the response of any species to climate change can be challenging. However, in short-lived species the faster turnover of generations may facilitate the examination of responses associated with longer-term environmental change. Octopus tetricus, a commercially important species, has undergone a recent polewards range shift in the coastal waters of south-eastern Australia, thought to be associated with the southerly extension of the warm East Australian Current. At the cooler temperatures of a polewards distribution limit, growth of a species could be slower, potentially leading to a bigger body size and resulting in a slower population turnover, affecting population viability at the extreme of the distribution. Growth rates, body size, and life span of O. tetricus were examined at the leading edge of a polewards range shift in Tasmanian waters (40°S and 147°E) throughout 2011. Octopus tetricus had a relatively small body size and short lifespan of approximately 11 months that, despite cooler temperatures, would allow a high rate of population turnover and may facilitate the population increase necessary for successful establishment in the new extended area of the range. Temperature, food availability and gender appear to influence growth rate. Individuals that hatched during cooler and more productive conditions, but grew during warming conditions, exhibited faster growth rates and reached smaller body sizes than individuals that hatched into warmer waters but grew during cooling conditions. This study suggests that fast growth, small body size and associated rapid population turnover may facilitate the range shift of O. tetricus into Tasmanian waters. PMID:25090250

  13. A Gigantic Sarcopterygian (Tetrapodomorph Lobe-Finned Fish) from the Upper Devonian of Gondwana (Eden, New South Wales, Australia)

    PubMed Central

    Young, Ben; Dunstone, Robert L.; Senden, Timothy J.; Young, Gavin C.

    2013-01-01

    Edenopteron keithcrooki gen. et sp. nov. is described from the Famennian Worange Point Formation; the holotype is amongst the largest tristichopterids and sarcopterygians documented by semi-articulated remains from the Devonian Period. The new taxon has dentary fangs and premaxillary tusks, features assumed to be derived for large Northern Hemisphere tristichopterids (Eusthenodon, Hyneria, Langlieria). It resembles Eusthenodon in ornament, but is distinguished by longer proportions of the parietal compared to the post-parietal shield, and numerous differences in shape and proportions of other bones. Several characters (accessory vomers in the palate, submandibulars overlapping ventral jaw margin, scales ornamented with widely-spaced deep grooves) are recorded only in tristichopterids from East Gondwana (Australia-Antarctica). On this evidence Edenopteron gen. nov. is placed in an endemic Gondwanan subfamily Mandageriinae within the Tristichopteridae; it differs from the nominal genotype Mandageria in its larger size, less pointed skull, shape of the orbits and other skull characters. The hypothesis that tristichopterids evolved in Laurussia and later dispersed into Gondwana, and a derived subgroup of large Late Devonian genera dispersed from Gondwana, is inconsistent with the evidence of the new taxon. Using oldest fossil and most primitive clade criteria the most recent phylogeny resolves South China and Gondwana as areas of origin for all tetrapodomorphs. The immediate outgroup to tristichopterids remains unresolved – either Spodichthys from Greenland as recently proposed, or Marsdenichthys from Gondwana, earlier suggested to be the sister group to all tristichopterids. Both taxa combine two characters that do not co-occur in other tetrapodomorphs (extratemporal bone in the skull; non-cosmoid round scales with an internal boss). Recently both ‘primitive’ and ‘derived’ tristichopterids have been discovered in the late Middle Devonian of both hemispheres

  14. Meiobenthic communities of seagrass beds ( Zostera capricorni) and unvegetated sediments along the coast of New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Gustavo; Hutchings, Pat; Gallucci, Fabiane

    2011-01-01

    Seagrass beds have higher biomass, abundance, diversity and productivity of benthic organisms than unvegetated sediments. However, to date most studies have analysed only the macrofaunal component and ignored the abundant meiofauna present in seagrass meadows. This study was designed to test if meiobenthic communities, especially the free-living nematodes, differed between seagrass beds and unvegetated sediments. Sediment samples from beds of the eelgrass Zostera capricorni and nearby unvegetated sediments were collected in three estuaries along the coast of New South Wales, Australia. Results showed that sediments below the seagrass were finer, with a higher content of organic material and were less oxygenated than sediments without seagrass. Univariate measures of the fauna (i.e. abundance, diversity and taxa richness of total meiofauna and nematode assemblages) did not differ between vegetated and unvegetated sediments. However multivariate analysis of meiofaunal higher taxa showed significant differences between the two habitats, largely due to the presence and absence of certain taxa. Amphipods, tanaidacea, ostracods, hydrozoans and isopods occurred mainly in unvegetated sediments, while kinorhyncs, polychaetes, gastrotrichs and turbellarians were more abundant in vegetated sediments. Regarding the nematode assemblages, 32.4% of the species were restricted to Z. capricorni and 25% only occurred in unvegetated sediments, this suggests that each habitat is characterized by a particular suite of species. Epistrate feeding nematodes were more abundant in seagrass beds, and it is suggested that they graze on the microphytobenthos which accumulates underneath the seagrass. Most of the genera that characterized these estuarine unvegetated sediments are also commonly found on exposed sandy beaches. This may be explained by the fact that Australian estuaries have very little input of freshwater and experience marine conditions for most of the year. This study

  15. U-series isotope and geodynamic constraints on mantle melting processes beneath the Newer Volcanic Province in South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidjuk, Zoe; Turner, Simon; Sandiford, Mike; George, Rhiannon; Foden, John; Etheridge, Mike

    2007-09-01

    Young (< 5 kyr) olivine- and clinopyroxene-phyric ne-hawaiites from Mounts Gambier and Schank in the Newer Volcanic Province in South Australia have been analysed for major and trace elements as well as for Sr and Nd isotopes and 238U- 230Th disequilibria in order to constrain the mantle melting processes responsible for their origin. The rocks are relatively primitive (6.9-9.1% MgO), incompatible trace element-enriched alkali basalts with 87Sr/ 86Sr = 0.70398-0.70415 and 143Nd/ 144Nd = 0.51280-0.51271. Trace element modelling suggests that they reflect 3-6% partial melting in the presence of 2-8% residual garnet. Trends towards low K/K * are accompanied by decreasing 87Sr/ 86Sr and provide evidence for the involvement of hydrous phases during melting. 230Th excesses of 12-57% cannot be simulated by batch melting of the lithosphere and instead require dynamic melting models. It is argued that the distinction between continental basalts bearing significant U-Th disequilibria and those in secular equilibrium reflects dynamic melting in upwelling asthenosphere, rather than static batch melting within the lithosphere or the presence or absence of residual garnet. Upwelling rates are estimated at ˜ 1.5 cm/yr. A subdued, localised topographic uplift associated with the magmatism suggests that any upwelling is more likely associated with a secondary mode localised to the upper mantle, rather than a broad zone of deeply-sourced (plume) upwelling. Upper mantle, 'edge-driven' convection is consistent with seismic tomographic and anisotropy studies that imply rapid differential motion of variable thickness Australian lithosphere and the underlying asthenosphere. In this scenario, melting is linked to a significant contribution from hydrous mantle that is envisaged as resulting either from convective entrainment of lithosphere along the trailing edge of a lithospheric keel, or inherited variability in the asthenosphere.

  16. A gigantic sarcopterygian (tetrapodomorph lobe-finned fish) from the upper Devonian of Gondwana (Eden, New South Wales, Australia).

    PubMed

    Young, Ben; Dunstone, Robert L; Senden, Timothy J; Young, Gavin C

    2013-01-01

    Edenopteron keithcrooki gen. et sp. nov. is described from the Famennian Worange Point Formation; the holotype is amongst the largest tristichopterids and sarcopterygians documented by semi-articulated remains from the Devonian Period. The new taxon has dentary fangs and premaxillary tusks, features assumed to be derived for large Northern Hemisphere tristichopterids (Eusthenodon, Hyneria, Langlieria). It resembles Eusthenodon in ornament, but is distinguished by longer proportions of the parietal compared to the post-parietal shield, and numerous differences in shape and proportions of other bones. Several characters (accessory vomers in the palate, submandibulars overlapping ventral jaw margin, scales ornamented with widely-spaced deep grooves) are recorded only in tristichopterids from East Gondwana (Australia-Antarctica). On this evidence Edenopteron gen. nov. is placed in an endemic Gondwanan subfamily Mandageriinae within the Tristichopteridae; it differs from the nominal genotype Mandageria in its larger size, less pointed skull, shape of the orbits and other skull characters. The hypothesis that tristichopterids evolved in Laurussia and later dispersed into Gondwana, and a derived subgroup of large Late Devonian genera dispersed from Gondwana, is inconsistent with the evidence of the new taxon. Using oldest fossil and most primitive clade criteria the most recent phylogeny resolves South China and Gondwana as areas of origin for all tetrapodomorphs. The immediate outgroup to tristichopterids remains unresolved - either Spodichthys from Greenland as recently proposed, or Marsdenichthys from Gondwana, earlier suggested to be the sister group to all tristichopterids. Both taxa combine two characters that do not co-occur in other tetrapodomorphs (extratemporal bone in the skull; non-cosmoid round scales with an internal boss). Recently both 'primitive' and 'derived' tristichopterids have been discovered in the late Middle Devonian of both hemispheres, implying

  17. Impacts of land use and climate change on baseflow in catchments along the south coast of Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smettem, Keith; Underwood, Stacey; Callow, Nik

    2014-05-01

    Baseflow is the sum of deep subsurface flow and delayed shallow subsurface flow. It sustains river flow between precipitation events and represents the groundwater recession component of runoff. Understanding how baseflow is influenced by climate and land use is critical for managing both water resources and in-stream ecohydrological health. This study investigates the influences of climate and land cover change on baseflow across the major south coast rivers in Western Australia using long-term records of runoff, rainfall and land cover. Baseflow was partitioned from daily streamflow data using a baseflow separation algorithm and land cover changes were derived from Landsat satellite imagery using ArcGIS. Statistical techniques were then applied to test for randomness in the baseflow time series (median crossing test and rank difference test) and to detect any step changes (Distribution free CUMSUM test to determine year of step change and Rank Sum test for significant change in medians before and after change). Linear regression was also used to identify significant long term trends. Results show that in forested catchments baseflow has been significantly declining over the entire period of record, despite relatively steady rainfall since the mid-1970s. In many of the catchments significant downward step change points were detected in 1975 and 2000. Conversely, annual baseflow steadily increased in catchments cleared in the middle of the last century but there are now significant reversals in three catchments that have undergone substantial revegetation over the last thirty five years. The statistical methods used in this study can be applied to any catchment in order to aid land and water managers assess the impacts of climate change and land cover manipulation on baseflow response.

  18. Multiresolution analysis of precipitation teleconnections with large-scale climate signals: A case study in South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xinguang; Guan, Huade

    2013-10-01

    Climatic teleconnections are often used to interpret and sometimes to predict precipitation temporal variability at various time scales. However, the teleconnections are intertwined between the effects of multiple large-scale climate signals which are often interdependent. Each climate signal is composed of multitemporal components, which may result in different teleconnection patterns. The time lags of precipitation response may vary with climate signals and their multitemporal components. In order to effectively address these problems, a multiresolution analysis (MRA) with a discrete wavelet transform is utilized, and a stepwise linear regression model based on MRA and cross correlation analysis is developed in this study. The method is applied to examine monthly precipitation teleconnections in South Australia (SA) with five large-scale climate signals. The MRA first decomposes each of original monthly precipitation anomaly and climate signals into several component series at different temporal scales. Then the hierarchical lag relationships between them are determined for regression modeling using cross-correlation analysis. The results indicate that the MRA-based method is able to reveal at which time scale(s) and with what time lag(s) the teleconnections occur, and their spatial patterns. The method is also useful to examine the time-scale patterns of the interdependence between climate signals. These altogether make the MRA-based method a promising tool to address the difficulties in the climate teleconnection studies. The multiple linear regression based on MRA-decomposed climate signals is expected to better interpret monthly precipitation temporal variability than that based on the original climate signals.

  19. Potential wildlife sentinels for monitoring the endemic spread of human buruli ulcer in South-East australia.

    PubMed

    Carson, Connor; Lavender, Caroline J; Handasyde, Kathrine A; O'Brien, Carolyn R; Hewitt, Nick; Johnson, Paul D R; Fyfe, Janet A M

    2014-01-01

    The last 20 years has seen a significant series of outbreaks of Buruli/Bairnsdale Ulcer (BU), caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, in temperate south-eastern Australia (state of Victoria). Here, the prevailing view of M. ulcerans as an aquatic pathogen has been questioned by recent research identifying native wildlife as potential terrestrial reservoirs of infection; specifically, tree-dwelling common ringtail and brushtail possums. In that previous work, sampling of environmental possum faeces detected a high prevalence of M. ulcerans DNA in established endemic areas for human BU on the Bellarine Peninsula, compared with non-endemic areas. Here, we report research from an emergent BU focus recently identified on the Mornington Peninsula, confirming associations between human BU and the presence of the aetiological agent in possum faeces, detected by real-time PCR targeting M. ulcerans IS2404, IS2606 and KR. Mycobacterium ulcerans DNA was detected in 20/216 (9.3%) ground collected ringtail possum faecal samples and 4/6 (66.6%) brushtail possum faecal samples. The distribution of the PCR positive possum faecal samples and human BU cases was highly focal: there was a significant non-random cluster of 16 M. ulcerans positive possum faecal sample points detected by spatial scan statistics (P<0.0001) within a circle of radius 0.42 km, within which were located the addresses of 6/12 human cases reported from the area to date; moreover, the highest sample PCR signal strength (equivalent to ≥10(6) organisms per gram of faeces) was found in a sample point located within this cluster radius. Corresponding faecal samples collected from closely adjacent BU-free areas were predominantly negative. Possums may be useful sentinels to predict endemic spread of human BU in Victoria, for public health planning. Further research is needed to establish whether spatial associations represent evidence of direct or indirect transmission between possums and humans, and the mechanism by

  20. Bent-tailed radio sources in the australia telescope large area survey of the Chandra deep field south

    SciTech Connect

    Dehghan, S.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Norris, R. P.; Miller, N. A.

    2014-11-01

    Using the 1.4 GHz Australia Telescope Large Area Survey, supplemented by the 1.4 GHz Very Large Array images, we undertook a search for bent-tailed (BT) radio galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South. Here we present a catalog of 56 detections, which include 45 BT sources, 4 diffuse low-surface-brightness objects (1 relic, 2 halos, and 1 unclassified object), and a further 7 complex, multi-component sources. We report BT sources with rest-frame powers in the range 10{sup 22} ≤ P {sub 1.4} {sub GHz} ≤ 10{sup 26} W Hz{sup –1}, with redshifts up to 2 and linear extents from tens of kiloparsecs up to about 1 Mpc. This is the first systematic study of such sources down to such low powers and high redshifts and demonstrates the complementary nature of searches in deep, limited area surveys as compared to shallower, large surveys. Of the sources presented here, one is the most distant BT source yet detected at a redshift of 2.1688. Two of the sources are found to be associated with known clusters: a wide-angle tail source in A3141 and a putative radio relic which appears at the infall region between the galaxy group MZ 00108 and the galaxy cluster AMPCC 40. Further observations are required to confirm the relic detection, which, if successful, would demonstrate this to be the least powerful relic yet seen with P {sub 1.4} {sub GHz} = 9 × 10{sup 22} W Hz{sup –1}. Using these data, we predict future 1.4 GHz all-sky surveys with a resolution of ∼10 arcsec and a sensitivity of 10 μJy will detect of the order of 560,000 extended low-surface-brightness radio sources of which 440,000 will have a BT morphology.

  1. Bent-tailed Radio Sources in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey of the Chandra Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghan, S.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Norris, R. P.; Miller, N. A.

    2014-11-01

    Using the 1.4 GHz Australia Telescope Large Area Survey, supplemented by the 1.4 GHz Very Large Array images, we undertook a search for bent-tailed (BT) radio galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South. Here we present a catalog of 56 detections, which include 45 BT sources, 4 diffuse low-surface-brightness objects (1 relic, 2 halos, and 1 unclassified object), and a further 7 complex, multi-component sources. We report BT sources with rest-frame powers in the range 1022 <= P 1.4 GHz <= 1026 W Hz-1, with redshifts up to 2 and linear extents from tens of kiloparsecs up to about 1 Mpc. This is the first systematic study of such sources down to such low powers and high redshifts and demonstrates the complementary nature of searches in deep, limited area surveys as compared to shallower, large surveys. Of the sources presented here, one is the most distant BT source yet detected at a redshift of 2.1688. Two of the sources are found to be associated with known clusters: a wide-angle tail source in A3141 and a putative radio relic which appears at the infall region between the galaxy group MZ 00108 and the galaxy cluster AMPCC 40. Further observations are required to confirm the relic detection, which, if successful, would demonstrate this to be the least powerful relic yet seen with P 1.4 GHz = 9 × 1022 W Hz-1. Using these data, we predict future 1.4 GHz all-sky surveys with a resolution of ~10 arcsec and a sensitivity of 10 μJy will detect of the order of 560,000 extended low-surface-brightness radio sources of which 440,000 will have a BT morphology.

  2. Political dynamics promoting the incremental regulation of secondhand smoke: a case study of New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Bryan-Jones, Katherine; Chapman, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Background The history of governmental responses to the accumulation of scientific evidence about the harms of secondhand smoke (SHS) presents an intriguing case study of incremental public health policy development. Australia has long been considered a world-leader in progressive tobacco control policies, but in the last decade has fallen behind other jurisdictions in introducing SHS legislation that protects all workers. Bars, clubs and pubs remain the only public indoor spaces where smoking is legally permitted, despite SHS exposure in the hospitality industry being higher and affecting more people than in any other setting after domestic exposure. This paper examines the political dynamics that have shaped this incremental approach to SHS. Methods In-depth interviews with 21 key stakeholders in the state of New South Wales (NSW), including politicians, their advisors, health officials and tobacco control advocates, were conducted and subjected to thematic content analysis. Interviewees' comments provided insights into the dynamics surrounding the debates and outcomes of SHS legislative attempts and the current political environment, and about how to progress SHS legislation. Results SHS restrictions have been delayed by several broad factors: the influence of industry groups successfully opposing regulation; issue wear-out; and political perceptions that there is not a salient constituency demanding that smoking be banned in bars and clubs. Interviewees also provided suggestions of strategies that advocates might utilise to best overcome the current political inertia of incremental compromises and achieve timely comprehensive smoking bans. Conclusion Advocates concerned to shorten the duration of incremental endgames must continue to insist that governments address SHS fundamentally as a health issue rather than making political concessions to industry groups, and should broaden and amplify community voices calling on governments to finish the job. Publicity to

  3. Potential Wildlife Sentinels for Monitoring the Endemic Spread of Human Buruli Ulcer in South-East Australia

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Connor; Lavender, Caroline J.; Handasyde, Kathrine A.; O'Brien, Carolyn R.; Hewitt, Nick; Johnson, Paul D. R.; Fyfe, Janet A. M.

    2014-01-01

    The last 20 years has seen a significant series of outbreaks of Buruli/Bairnsdale Ulcer (BU), caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, in temperate south-eastern Australia (state of Victoria). Here, the prevailing view of M. ulcerans as an aquatic pathogen has been questioned by recent research identifying native wildlife as potential terrestrial reservoirs of infection; specifically, tree-dwelling common ringtail and brushtail possums. In that previous work, sampling of environmental possum faeces detected a high prevalence of M. ulcerans DNA in established endemic areas for human BU on the Bellarine Peninsula, compared with non-endemic areas. Here, we report research from an emergent BU focus recently identified on the Mornington Peninsula, confirming associations between human BU and the presence of the aetiological agent in possum faeces, detected by real-time PCR targeting M. ulcerans IS2404, IS2606 and KR. Mycobacterium ulcerans DNA was detected in 20/216 (9.3%) ground collected ringtail possum faecal samples and 4/6 (66.6%) brushtail possum faecal samples. The distribution of the PCR positive possum faecal samples and human BU cases was highly focal: there was a significant non-random cluster of 16 M. ulcerans positive possum faecal sample points detected by spatial scan statistics (P<0.0001) within a circle of radius 0.42 km, within which were located the addresses of 6/12 human cases reported from the area to date; moreover, the highest sample PCR signal strength (equivalent to ≥106 organisms per gram of faeces) was found in a sample point located within this cluster radius. Corresponding faecal samples collected from closely adjacent BU-free areas were predominantly negative. Possums may be useful sentinels to predict endemic spread of human BU in Victoria, for public health planning. Further research is needed to establish whether spatial associations represent evidence of direct or indirect transmission between possums and humans, and the mechanism by which

  4. Offshore Teaching Practice in the Australia-Pacific Technical College: A Case Study in the South Pacific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates teaching practices at the Australia-Pacific Technical College (APTC), which comprise a unique official development assistance (ODA) program funded by the Government of Australia (GoA) and managed through the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAid) with the aim of training and equipping workers from the…

  5. The formation of saline mantle fluids by open-system crystallization of hydrous silicate-rich vein assemblages - Evidence from fluid inclusions and their host phases in MARID xenoliths from the central Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konzett, Jürgen; Krenn, Kurt; Rubatto, Daniela; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Stalder, Roland

    2014-12-01

    The composition of texturally primary fluid inclusions and their host phases clinopyroxene, K-richterite, and zircon were investigated in two MARID-type (mica-amphibole-rutile-ilmenite-diopside) mantle xenoliths sampled by the Kimberley cluster of Cretaceous kimberlites erupted in the central Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa. P-T conditions of crystallization for the MARID assemblages of 4.2 GPa and 960 °C were estimated based on Ca-in-opx thermometry and the assumption of a 40 mW/m2 geotherm applied to two orthopyroxene-bearing MARIDs collected from the same locality. Cooling/heating stage measurements and Raman spectroscopy indicate a fluid system dominated by H2O-NaCl-MgCl2 with variable total salinities in the range ⩽6.4-32.4 mass% and minor amounts of MgCl2, the latter inferred from the crystallization of MgCl2 × 12H2O during cooling of the inclusions. In addition to liquid and vapour, enstatite, baddeleyite, barite, calcite and a K-Ba-Fe-Cr-titanate were identified as solid phases in opened fluid inclusions, indicating high LIL-(HFS) element concentrations in the saline hydrous fluids prior to solid phase precipitation. The Cl contents of apatite (⩽0.35 wt.%), phlogopite (⩽0.09 wt.%) and K-richterite (⩽0.025 wt.%) follow the enrichment pattern Clap ≫ Clphl > ClKr which is typical for upper mantle rocks. Fluid inclusion-bearing clinopyroxenes show very low H2O contents of ∼45 μg/g which is consistent with a reduced aH2O of the fluids due to the presence of NaCl-MgCl2-SiO2-LILE combined with high fO2 and very low Al3+ contents of the clinopyoxenes. The zircons show a complex compositional zoning with variable and positively correlated Y (⩽1260 μg/g), P (⩽1870 μg/g) and Sc (⩽1373 μg/g) contents, indicating a pretulite-type substitution Si4+ + Zr4+ = P5+ + (Sc, Y, REE)3+. The Sc contents of the zircons are amongst the highest Sc concentrations reported so far for upper mantle silicates. Oxygen isotope analyses of selected zircons yields δ18O

  6. Geomorphic and hydrogeologic controls on wetland distribution in the New South Wales Southern Highlands, south east Australia: prioritising natural resource management investment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowood, Alie; Moore, Leah

    2014-05-01

    Strategic investment of public funds in wetland conservation on the New South Wales (NSW) Southern Tablelands, in south east Australia, is impeded by poor understanding of the distribution of wetlands and their geomorphic and hydrogeologic setting. Appropriate investment and management is also unclear in the face of climate change. This research detailed: the spatial configuration, the hydrogeological setting, and intrinsic ecological value of the wetlands. Using this modelling, potential impact of climate change on wetlands was examined. Previous work developed a draft typology for Southern Tablelands wetlands, expanded techniques for representing spatial variability in wetland biodiversity (using generalised dissimilarity models) and explored methods of modelling wetland location through integration of hydrology, terrain and geological features. This new work integrated the mapping of the spatial distribution of a range of wetland types with a hydrogeological landscape (HGL) framework in order to better understand the movement of water through wetland landscapes. The process of HGL determination relies on the integration of a number of factors including: geology, soils, slope, regolith thickness, vegetation and climate. If the distribution of regolith materials, fractured rock and barriers to flow are characterised, an understanding of surface and sub-surface fluid pathways can be established. Contextualising a study of wetlands in an HGL framework is useful because it provides information about the biophysical controls that influence why wetlands occur in some parts of the landscape and not others. Each HGL unit spatially defines areas with similar controls on movement of water and hence similar patterns of surface and groundwater connectivity. The NSW Southern Highland landscape was divided into 34 HGL units, based on derived spatial information and field observations. Each HGL unit had an associated conceptual model, identifying potential surface water and

  7. Cyanobacteria and prawn farming in northern New South Wales, Australia--a case study on cyanobacteria diversity and hepatotoxin bioaccumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kankaanpaeae, Harri T.; Holliday, Jon; Schroeder, Helge; Goddard, Timothy J.; Fister, Richard von; Carmichael, Wayne W

    2005-03-15

    Harmful cyanobacteria pose a hazard to aquatic ecosystems due to toxins (hepatotoxic microcystins, nodularins, and cylindrospermopsin) they produce. The microcystins and nodularins are potent toxins, which are also tumor promoters. The microcystins and nodularins may accumulate into aquatic organisms and be transferred to higher trophic levels, and eventually affect vector animals and consumers. Prawn farming is a rapidly growing industry in Australia. Because information regarding effects of cyanobacteria at prawn farms was lacking, we examined diversity of cyanobacteria and toxin production plus bioaccumulation into black tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon) under both field (northern New South Wales, Australia, December 2001-April 2002) and laboratory conditions. Samples were analyzed for hepatotoxins using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The maximum density of cyanobacteria (1 x 10{sup 6} to 4 x 10{sup 6} cells/l) was reached in April. Cyanobacteria encountered were Oscillatoria sp. (up to 4 x 10{sup 6} cells/l), Pseudanabaena sp. (up to 1.8 x 10{sup 6} cells/l), Microcystis sp. (up to 3.5 x 10{sup 4} cells/l), and Aphanocapsa sp. (up to 2 x 10{sup 4} cells/l). An uncommon cyanobacterium, Romeria sp. (up to 2.2 x 10{sup 6} cells/l), was also observed. Contrasting earlier indications, toxic Nodularia spumigena was absent. Despite that both Oscillatoria sp. and Microcystis sp. are potentially hepatotoxic, hepatotoxin levels in phytoplankton samples remained low (up to 0.5-1.2 mg/kg dw; ELISA) in 2001-2002. ELISA was found suitable not only for phytoplankton but prawn tissues as well. Enzymatic pretreatment improved extractability of hepatotoxin from cyanobacteria (nodularin from N. spumigena as an example), but did not generally increase toxin recovery from prawn hepatopancreas. There were slightly increasing hepatotoxin concentrations in prawn hepatopancreas (from 6-20 to 20-80 {mu}g/kg dw; ELISA) during the

  8. Metasomatism and the Weakening of Cratons: A Mechanism to Rift Cratons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenker, Stefanie; Beaumont, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    The preservation of cratons is a demonstration of their strength and resistance to deformation. However, several cratons are rifting now (e.g. Tanzania and North China Craton) or have rifted in the past (e.g. North Atlantic Craton). To explain this paradox, we suggest that widespread metasomatism of the originally cold depleted dehydrated craton mantle lithosphere root can act as a potential weakening mechanism. This process, particularly melt metasomatism, increases root density through a melt-peridotite reaction, and reduces root viscosity by increasing the temperature and rehydrating the cratonic mantle lithosphere. Using 2D numerical models, we model silicate-melt metasomatism and rehydration of cold cratonic mantle lithosphere that is positioned beside standard Phanerozoic lithosphere. The models are designed to investigate when a craton is sufficiently weakened to undergo rifting and is no longer protected by the initially weaker adjacent standard Phanerozoic lithosphere. Melt is added to specified layers in the cratonic mantle lithosphere at a uniform volumetric rate determined by the duration of metasomatism (3 Myr, 10 Myr or 30 Myr), until a total of ~30% by volume of melt has been added. During melt addition heat and mass are properly conserved and the density and volume increase by the respective amounts required by the reaction with the peridotite. No extensional boundary conditions are applied to the models during the metasomatism process. As expected, significant refertilization leads to removal and thinning of progressively more gravitationally unstable cratonic mantle lithosphere. We show that the duration of metasomatism dictates the final temperature in the cratonic upper mantle lithosphere. Consequently, when extensional boundary conditions are applied in our rifting tests in most cases the Phanerozoic lithosphere rifts. The craton rifts only in the models with the hottest cratonic upper mantle lithosphere. Our results indicate rifting of cratons

  9. Informing Policy and Practice in Australia's Vocational Education and Training Sector: Reflections and Futures. Proceedings of the 25th Anniversary Forum of the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, March 21, 2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Penelope, Ed.; Loveder, Phil, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    To mark the occasion of its 25th anniversary, the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) brought together policy, industry and academic leaders to reflect on the role that research and statistics have played in the development of Australia's vocational education and training (VET) sector. This publication includes the original…

  10. Rare earths and other trace elements in minerals from skarn assemblages, Hillside iron oxide-copper-gold deposit, Yorke Peninsula, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Roniza; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; Cook, Nigel J.; Teale, Graham S.; Giles, David; Mumm, Andreas Schmidt; Wade, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The Hillside Cu-(Au) deposit, Yorke Peninsula, South Australia, is a recently-discovered ore system within the 1.6 Ga World-class Olympic iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) Province. The deposit is characterized by a skarn-style alteration zone. Analyses of feldspar, calcite, skarn minerals (garnet, pyroxene, clinozoisite and actinolite) and accessories (titanite, apatite and allanite), and grain-scale element mapping by laser-ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry are used to assess the distributions of rare earth element (REE), incompatible and ore-forming elements in host rocks, prograde and retrograde skarn.

  11. The eastern swamp crayfish Gramastacus lacus sp. n. (Decapoda, Parastacidae) a new species of freshwater crayfish from coastal New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Gramastacus lacus sp. n., is described from coastal lowlands of the Central and Mid North Coast regions of New South Wales, Australia. Gramastacus lacus has a restricted distribution in ephemeral habitats, being dependent on regular natural flooding and drying cycles, and burrows for survival during temporary dry cycles. Documented are population distributions in lowland habitats (3–48 m, a.s.l.) from Wamberal Lagoon, north along the coastal strip to Wallis Lake. The species is small, reaching a maximum weight of 7 grams and 21.3 mm OCL, and distinguished by a large male genital papilla, large raised post orbital ridges, laterally compressed carapace and elongated chelae. PMID:24715801

  12. Cross-sectional observational survey of serum biochemistry values in a population of 69 adult female alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Cockcroft, P D; Mackie, I; Perry, J; Caraguel, C; Townsend, K; Reichel, M P

    2016-04-01

    Blood samples were collected from 69 'healthy' female alpacas aged ≥12 months from 11 properties in South Australia. The 10-90 percentile ranges of the 16/19 analytes measured in this sample population were within the published ranges of four healthy alpaca populations from other geographic locations. Marginal exceptions were glutamate dehydrogenase and bicarbonate. Potassium was notably elevated, probably because of haemolysis of some samples. The sample size was insufficient to provide the appropriate statistical power to define diagnostic references ranges according to international standards. The health status of the sample population of alpacas was presumptive based on a physical examination. PMID:27021895

  13. " . . . There is no war here; it is only the relationship that makes us scared": factors having an impact on domestic violence in Liberian refugee communities in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Zannettino, Lana

    2012-07-01

    This article explores the factors that have an impact on domestic violence in African refugee communities, with specific reference to the Liberian community in South Australia. Seventeen focus group discussions were undertaken with women participants of the Liberian Women's Gathering. The nested ecological model (Dutton, 2001; Heise, 1998) is used to conceptualize the factors having an impact on domestic violence. The findings suggest that disruption to traditional gender roles has an impact on domestic violence at the cultural, socioeconomic, familial, and individual levels and that women's experience of domestic violence must be understood in relation to the acute and prolonged stressors of war, loss, and displacement. PMID:22886374

  14. A combined chemical, isotopic and microstructural study of pyrite from roll-front uranium deposits, Lake Eyre Basin, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingham, Edwina S.; Cook, Nigel J.; Cliff, John; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; Huddleston, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The common sulfide mineral pyrite is abundant throughout sedimentary uranium systems at Pepegoona, Pepegoona West and Pannikan, Lake Eyre Basin, South Australia. Combined chemical, isotopic and microstructural analysis of pyrite indicates variation in fluid composition, sulfur source and precipitation conditions during a protracted mineralization event. The results show the significant role played by pyrite as a metal scavenger and monitor of fluid changes in low-temperature hydrothermal systems. In-situ micrometer-scale sulfur isotope analyses of pyrite demonstrated broad-scale isotopic heterogeneity (δ34S = -43.9 to +32.4‰VCDT), indicative of complex, multi-faceted pyrite evolution, and sulfur derived from more than a single source. Preserved textures support this assertion and indicate a genetic model involving more than one phase of pyrite formation. Authigenic pyrite underwent prolonged evolution and recrystallization, evidenced by a genetic relationship between archetypal framboidal aggregates and pyrite euhedra. Secondary hydrothermal pyrite commonly displays hyper-enrichment of several trace elements (Mn, Co, Ni, As, Se, Mo, Sb, W and Tl) in ore-bearing horizons. Hydrothermal fluids of magmatic and meteoric origins supplied metals to the system but the geochemical signature of pyrite suggests a dominantly granitic source and also the influence of mafic rock types. Irregular variation in δ34S, coupled with oscillatory trace element zonation in secondary pyrite, is interpreted in terms of continuous variations in fluid composition and cycles of diagenetic recrystallization. A late-stage oxidizing fluid may have mobilized selenium from pre-existing pyrite. Subsequent restoration of reduced conditions within the aquifer caused ongoing pyrite re-crystallization and precipitation of selenium as native selenium. These results provide the first qualitative constraints on the formation mechanisms of the uranium deposits at Beverley North. Insights into

  15. Origin and evolution of the Amazonian craton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, A. K.; Wirth, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    The Amazonian craton appears to be formed and modifed by processes much like those of the better-known Precambrian cratons, but the major events did not always follow conventional sequences nor did they occur synchronously with those of other cratons. Much of the craton's Archean style continental crust formation, recorded in granite-greenstone and high-grade terranes, occurred in the Early Proterozoic: a period of relative quiescence in many other Precambrian regions. The common Archean to Proterozoic transition in geological style did not occur here, but an analogous change from abundant marine volcanism to dominantly continental sedimentary and eruptive styles occurred later. Amazonian geology is summarized, explaining the evolution of the craton.

  16. Remobilization in the cratonic lithosphere recorded in polycrystalline diamond

    PubMed

    Jacob; Viljoen; Grassineau; Jagoutz

    2000-08-18

    Polycrystalline diamonds (framesites) from the Venetia kimberlite in South Africa contain silicate minerals whose isotopic and trace element characteristics document remobilization of older carbon and silicate components to form the framesites shortly before kimberlite eruption. Chemical variations within the garnets correlate with carbon isotopes in the diamonds, indicating contemporaneous formation. Trace element, radiogenic, and stable isotope variations can be explained by the interaction of eclogites with a carbonatitic melt, derived by remobilization of material that had been stored for a considerable time in the lithosphere. These results indicate more recent formation of diamonds from older materials within the cratonic lithosphere. PMID:10947983

  17. Speculations on the formation of cratons and cratonic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Dan; Priestley, Keith

    2016-02-01

    Surface wave tomography using Rayleigh waves has shown that Tibet and the surrounding mountain ranges that are now being shortened are underlain by thick lithosphere, of similar thickness to that beneath cratons. Both their elevation and lithospheric thickness can result from pure shear shortening of normal thickness continental lithosphere by about a factor of two. The resulting thermal evolution of the crust and lithosphere is dominated by radioactive decay in the crust. It raises the temperature of the lower part of the crust and of the upper part of the lithosphere to above their solidus temperatures, generating granites and small volumes of mafic alkaline rocks from beneath the Moho, as well as generating high temperature metamorphic assemblages in the crust. Thermal models of this process show that it can match the P, T estimates determined from metamorphic xenoliths from Tibet and the Pamirs, and can also match the compositions of the alkaline rocks. The seismological properties of the upper part of the lithosphere beneath northern Tibet suggest that it has already been heated by the blanketing effect and radioactivity of the thick crust on top. If the crustal thickness is reduced by erosion alone to its normal value at low elevations, without any tectonic extension, over a time scale that is short compared to the thermal time constant of thick lithosphere, of ∼250 Ma, thermal subsidence will produce a basin underlain by thick lithosphere. Though this simple model accounts for the relevant observations, there is not yet sufficient information available to be able to model in detail the resulting thermal evolution of the sediments deposited in such cratonic basins.

  18. Albitization and redistribution of REE and Y in IOCG systems: Insights from Moonta-Wallaroo, Yorke Peninsula, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontonikas-Charos, Alkis; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; Cook, Nigel J.

    2014-11-01

    Trace element concentrations, particularly rare earth elements and yttrium (REY) in feldspars and accessory minerals, have been determined in a suite of albitized igneous, metasedimentary and metasomatite rocks from the Moonta-Wallaroo district, Olympic Cu-Au Province, South Australia. Results show that changes in REY-fractionation trends and concentrations in feldspars and common accessories are associated with key textures in albite-bearing associations from different lithologies. In granitic rocks, pseudomorphic replacement of pre-existing feldspars is typified by porous albite with cleavage-oriented intergrowths of sericite and pore-attached hematite. These observations are comparable with albitization features of granitic terranes elsewhere. A mineral association (albite-sericite ± chlorite), similar to that from granitoids, is observed as pervasive spots in limestone, inferring prograde skarnoid reactions at low fluid/rock ratio in an impure carbonate. In metasedimentary and metasomatite rocks with comparable Na2O content (~ 5-6 wt.%), fine-grained granoblastic albite suggests growth under high fluid/rock ratios irrespective of lithology. In such cases, albite with the highest REY content (ΣREY ~ 200 ppm) accounts for the entire REY budget, e.g., in albite-biotite-schist with the lowest abundance of accessory minerals. Nanoscale investigation confirms this albite to be a REY carrier (elements incorporated within the crystal lattice); no pore-attached inclusions are observed. In contrast, albite with the lowest REY-concentration (~ 14 ppm) is encountered in the metasomatite. In such rocks, recording the highest ΣREY (~ 1000 ppm) in whole-rock, partitioning of REY is favoured among the abundant accessories (titanite, apatite) and calc-silicates (actinolite, clinozoisite) rather than albite. Comparable low-REY albite is also found in granitoid-derived albitite (Na2O ~ 5 wt.%), in which abundant accessories and discrete REY-minerals formed during albitization

  19. Description and crystal structure of nyholmite, a new mineral related to hureaulite, from Broken Hill, New South Wales, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, P.; Turner, P.; Jensen, P.; Kolitsch, U.; Pring, A.

    2010-08-12

    Nyholmite, Cd{sub 3}Zn{sub 2}(AsO{sub 3}OH){sub 2}(AsO{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O, from the Block 14 Opencut, Broken Hill, New South Wales, Australia, is a new Cd-Zn arsenate species, isostructural with the minerals of the hureaulite group. The mineral occurs in a quartz-garnet-arsenopyrite matrix as white globules, tufted aggregates of fibrous crystals and radiating hemispheres of thin, colourless, bladed crystals. Associated minerals are goldquarryite, lavendulan-sampleite, scorodite-strengite and gypsum. Individual crystals are up to 0.2 mm in length and 0.05 mm across. The mineral is transparent to translucent with a vitreous lustre. It is brittle with an uneven fracture and a white streak. The Mohs hardness is 3-3.5 and the calculated density is 4.23 g cm{sup -3} for the empirical formula. Electron microprobe analyses yielded CdO 34.58, ZnO 9.72, MnO 3.59, CuO 3.39, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} 0.20, CaO 0.16, PbO 0.37, As{sub 2}O{sub 5} 34.55, P{sub 2}O{sub 5} 6.29 totalling 92.85 wt.%. The empirical formula, based on 20 oxygen atoms, is Ca{sub 0.03}Pb{sub 0.02} Cd{sub 2.80}Al{sub 0.04}Zn{sub 1.24}-Cu{sub 0.44}Mn{sub 0.53}[(AsO{sub 4}){sub 3.13}(PO{sub 4}){sub 0.92}]{Sigma}{sub 4.05}H{sub 1.91} {center_dot} 3.79H{sub 2}O. Nyholmite is monoclinic, C2/c, a = 18.062(4) {angstrom}, b = 9.341(2) {angstrom}, c = 9.844(2) {angstrom}, {beta} = 96.17(3){sup o}, V = 1651.2(6) {angstrom}{sup 3} (single-crystal data, at 123 K). The six strongest lines in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern are [d({angstrom}),I,(hkl)]: 8.985,30,(200); 8.283, 85,(110); 6.169,25,(111); 4.878,25,(002); 3.234,100,(222, 420); 3.079,65,(222, 511); 2.976,45,(113). The crystal structure was solved by Patterson methods and refined using 2045 observed reflections to R1(F) = 3.73%. The structure is characterized by a kinked, five-membered chain of edge-sharing M{phi}{sub 6} ({phi} = unspecified anion) octahedra, or pentamer, that extends in the a direction. The pentamers link by sharing corners to

  20. Impact of the New South Wales fires during October 2013 on regional air quality in eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea, Géraldine; Paton-Walsh, Clare; Turquety, Solène; Cope, Martin; Griffith, David

    2016-04-01

    Smoke plumes from fires contain atmospheric pollutants that can be transported to populated areas and effect regional air quality. In this paper, the characteristics and impact of the fire plumes from a major fire event that occurred in October 2013 (17-26) in the New South Wales (NSW) in Australia, near the populated areas of Sydney and Wollongong, are studied. Measurements from the Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometer located at the University of Wollongong allowed a calculation of specific emission factors (EFs) in terms of grams per kilogram of dry fuel burned: 1640 g kg-1 of carbon dioxide; 107 g kg-1 of carbon monoxide; 7.8 g kg-1 of methane; and 0.16 g kg-1 of nitrous oxide. These EFs have then been used to calculate daily fire emissions for the NSW fire event using the APIFLAME emissions' model, leading to an increase of 54% of CO emitted compared to calculations with EFs from Akagi et al. (2011), widely used in the literature. Simulations have been conducted for this event using the regional chemistry-transport model (CTM) CHIMERE, allowing the first evaluation of its regional impact. Fire emissions are assumed well mixed into the boundary layer. The model simulations have been evaluated compared to measurements at the NSW air quality stations. The mean correlation coefficients (R) are 0.44 for PM10, 0.60 for PM2.5 and 0.79 for CO, with a negative bias for CO (-14%) and a positive bias for PM2.5 (64%). The model shows higher performance for lower boundary layer heights and wind speeds. According to the observations, 7 days show concentrations exceeding the air quality Australian national standards for PM10, 8 days for PM2.5. In the simulations, 5 days are correctly simulated for PM10, 8 days for PM2.5. For PM10, the model predicts 1 additional day of exceedance (one false detection). During this fire episode, inner Sydney is affected during 5 days by PM exceedances, that are mainly attributed to organic carbon in the model simulations. To

  1. Mantle Discontinuities and the Origins of the U.S. Cratonic Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, K. M.; Hopper, E.

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this work are to probe how mantle lithosphere discontinuity structure varies beneath the cratonic terranes of the northern U.S. and to relate this structure to the processes that created and modified the cratonic mantle. Our region samples the Archean Wyoming, Medicine Hat and Superior cratons, and the Proterozoic terranes that lie between them. We imaged the mantle using Sp phases recorded by permanent and temporary seismic networks, including EarthScope's Transportable Array. Sp receiver functions for individual waveforms were obtained by extended time multi-taper deconvolution, and migrated into a 3D volume using common conversion point stacking, a spline representation of phase Fresnel zones, and 3D models for crust and mantle structure. The stack was bootstrapped. In the cratonic mantle, we observe multiple mid-lithospheric discontinuities (MLDs) that are characterized by three types of structures: a relatively continuous negative discontinuity (velocity decrease with depth) that lies in the 65-100 km depth range; deeper negative MLDs (80-145 km) that are more discontinuous and intermittent; and occasional positive MLDs at the greatest depths (>125 km). In contrast to the tectonically active western U.S., beneath cratonic regions we typically do not observe a strong negative discontinuty at the base of the tomographically-defined lithosphere, indicating that the transition to asthenospheric properties is gradual. The MLDs indicate strong layering in the cratonic mantle lithosphere. In multiple cases, one negative discontinuity dips below another, consistent with a slab of lithosphere imbricated beneath pre-existing cratonic mantle. One of the clearest examples is a north-dipping phase at depths of 80-130 km beneath the Cheyenne Belt, the suture between the Wyoming Craton and the accreted Proterozoic terranes to its south. In Sept. 2013, an unusual earthquake occurred within the high velocity mantle of the Wyoming craton at ~76 km, a depth that

  2. Finland Has it All? Examining the Media Accentuation of "Finnish Education" in Australia, Germany and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Keita; Waldow, Florian; Sung, Youl-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the conceptual work of externalisation in comparative education and multi-accentual signs in cultural studies, this article examines how the print news media accentuate "Finnish education" in the process of inserting this external reference into the domestic political discourses around education reform in Australia, Germany…

  3. Teleseismic receiver functions modeling of the eastern Indian craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Prantik; Biswas, Koushik

    2016-09-01

    We estimate receiver functions (RFs) through the time-domain deconvolution using three-component broadband data of 100 teleseismic events (30° ⩽ ∧ ⩽ 90°) from 15 seismographs in the eastern Indian craton. Estimated radial RFs show a positive phase at 4.6-5.8 s delay time corresponding to the crustal thicknesses of 37-46 km. Through the differential evolution (DE) waveform inversion modeling of radial receiver functions, we delineate the crustal structure at 15 broadband stations. On an average, the Archean Singhbhum Odisha Craton (SOC) is characterized by a thick crust of 43 ± 3 km in comparison to a relatively thin crust of 41 ± 1 km underlying the Proterozoic Chotanagpur Granite Gneissic terrain (CGGT). While, a thin crust of 38 ± 1 km characterizes the younger Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt (EGMB). The main results of our modeling reveal a 46 km thick Archean crust underlying the Singhbhum granite (SG) of 3.6 Ga, which is characterized by a 3 km crustal thickening probably resulted from the Archean subduction process. Our modeling also detects a 2-3 km crustal thinning with the thinnest crust of 37 km below the region near South Singhbhum Shear Zone, which could be attributed to the 1.6 Ga plume activity associated with Dalma volcanic. Our modeling also led to the delineation of a crustal thinning of 2-3 km underlying the region in EGMB, which was influenced by a much younger (∼117 Ma) Rajmahal magmatism associated with the Gondwana break-up episode. However, our study could not detect any age-dependent variation of crustal thicknesses in the eastern Indian craton. The main result of our modeling suggests a two-phase crustal evolution process for the SOC viz. older E-W crustal thickening due to E-W plate compression and later crustal thinning episodes associated with the Dalma volcanism in the north and the Rajmahal volcanism in the South.

  4. Craton destruction by subduction, collision or plume impingement? Comparisons of some representative cratons in the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhensheng; Kusky, Timothy; Li, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xu; Fu, Jianmin; Yuan, Yuefeng; Zhu, Peimin

    2015-04-01

    The fact that cratonic lithosphere can be destructed has been demonstrated by numerous studies. However, the driving force of craton destruction and its mechanism are still unclear1,2. Subduction, collision and mantle plumes, the most important driving forces for most geological events, may also be responsible for craton destruction. However, their relationship in the destruction process including which of them is the major driving force and how they interact with each other is not understood sufficiently1,2. In this article, the North China Craton, North Atlantic Craton, Tanzania Craton, Wyoming Craton, Kaapvaal Craton, Yangtze Craton, Yilgarn Craton and Superior Craton are used as examples to study their difference and similarities during subduction, collision, or mantle plume impingement. The work is mainly based on comparison of their tectonic history, geophysical data, as well as xenolith chronology. It is suggested that large-scale craton destruction can be influenced by the interaction of subduction, collision and mantle plumes, acting to different degrees in different examples. Mantle plume related thermal action enhances the chemical stratification or layering of subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM), which can form a weak-coupling mid lithosphere discontinuity (MLD) 3,4,5 and a lower denser SCLM below the MLD. Convergence (subduction and collision), especially when associated with slab rollback 6, leads to the regional thinning of the cratonic margin, which is subsequently linked by extension (mantle plume or slab rollback) related discontinuities. Continuous extension-related discontinuities extend upward to the MLD depth and cut off the shearing resistance from adjacent blocks. Next, the lower part of the chemically stratified SCLM in the cratonic interior is decoupled along the weakly coupled MLD and founders into the deep asthenosphere 7. Then the destruction of the rest of the lithosphere can be affected by upwelling related decompression melting

  5. Passive margin asymmetry and its polarity in the presence of a craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres-Martinez, Miguel; Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Neto-Araujo, Mario; Morgan, Jason

    2016-04-01

    When continental lithosphere is extended to break-up it forms two conjugate passive margins. In many instances these margins are asymmetric: while one is wide and extensively faulted, the conjugate thins more abruptly and exhibits little faulting. Recent observational studies have suggested that this asymmetry results from the formation of an oceanward-younging sequential normal fault array on the future wide margin. Numerical models have shown that fault sequentiality arises as a result of asymmetric uplift of the hot mantle towards the hanging wall of the active fault, which weakens this area and promotes the formation of a new oceanward fault. In numerical models the polarity of the asymmetry is random. It results from spontaneous preferential localization of strain in a given fault, a process reinforced by strain weakening effects. Slight changes in the experiments initial grid result in an opposite polarity of the asymmetry. However, along a long stretch of the South Atlantic margins, from the Camamu-Gabon to the North Santos-South Kwanza conjugates, the polarity is not random and is very well correlated with the distance of the rift to nearby cratons. Here, we use numerical experiments to show that the presence of a thick cratonic root inhibits asthenospheric flow from underneath the craton towards the adjacent fold belt, while flow from underneath the fold belt towards the craton is favoured. This enhances and promotes sequential faulting towards the craton and results in a wide faulted margin located in the fold belt and a narrow conjugate margin in the craton side, thereby determining the polarity of the asymmetry, as observed in nature.

  6. Impact of deprivation on breast cancer survival among women eligible for mammographic screening in the West Midlands (UK) and New South Wales (Australia): Women diagnosed 1997-2006.

    PubMed

    Woods, Laura M; Rachet, Bernard; O'Connell, Dianne; Lawrence, Gill; Coleman, Michel P

    2016-05-15

    Women diagnosed with breast cancer in the UK display marked differences in survival between categories defined by socio-economic deprivation. Timeliness of diagnosis is one of the possible explanations for these patterns. Women whose cancer is screen-detected are more likely to be diagnosed at an earlier stage. We examined deprivation and screening-specific survival in order to evaluate the role of early diagnosis upon deprivation-specific survival differences in the West Midlands (UK) and New South Wales (Australia). We estimated net survival for women aged 50-65 years at diagnosis and whom had been continuously eligible for screening from the age of 50. Records for 5,628 women in West Midlands (98.5% of those eligible, mean age at diagnosis 53.7 years) and 6,396 women in New South Wales (99.9% of those eligible, mean age at diagnosis 53.8 years). In New South Wales, survival was similar amongst affluent and deprived women, regardless of whether their cancer was screen-detected or not. In the West Midlands, there were large and persistent differences in survival between affluent and deprived women. Deprivation differences were similar between the screen-detected and non-screen detected groups. These differences are unlikely to be solely explained by artefact, or by patient or tumour factors. Further investigations into the timeliness and appropriateness of the treatments received by women with breast cancer across the social spectrum in the UK are warranted. PMID:26756181

  7. Impact of deprivation on breast cancer survival among women eligible for mammographic screening in the West Midlands (UK) and New South Wales (Australia): Women diagnosed 1997–2006

    PubMed Central

    Rachet, Bernard; O'Connell, Dianne; Lawrence, Gill; Coleman, Michel P.

    2016-01-01

    Women diagnosed with breast cancer in the UK display marked differences in survival between categories defined by socio‐economic deprivation. Timeliness of diagnosis is one of the possible explanations for these patterns. Women whose cancer is screen‐detected are more likely to be diagnosed at an earlier stage. We examined deprivation and screening‐specific survival in order to evaluate the role of early diagnosis upon deprivation‐specific survival differences in the West Midlands (UK) and New South Wales (Australia). We estimated net survival for women aged 50–65 years at diagnosis and whom had been continuously eligible for screening from the age of 50. Records for 5,628 women in West Midlands (98.5% of those eligible, mean age at diagnosis 53.7 years) and 6,396 women in New South Wales (99.9% of those eligible, mean age at diagnosis 53.8 years). In New South Wales, survival was similar amongst affluent and deprived women, regardless of whether their cancer was screen‐detected or not. In the West Midlands, there were large and persistent differences in survival between affluent and deprived women. Deprivation differences were similar between the screen‐detected and non‐screen detected groups. These differences are unlikely to be solely explained by artefact, or by patient or tumour factors. Further investigations into the timeliness and appropriateness of the treatments received by women with breast cancer across the social spectrum in the UK are warranted. PMID:26756181

  8. Ambient Noise Imaging of Craton Modification: Examples from the Kaapvaal craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, R. C.; Shirey, S. B.; Fouch, M. J.; James, D. E.

    2013-12-01

    Mapping of crustal and upper-mantle seismic velocities can give important insight into the geologic evolution of cratonic regions. In order to better understand the formation and evolution of the Kaapvaal craton and surrounding regions, we use ambient noise tomography to produce a new crustal and upper-mantle 3D shear-velocity model for southeastern Africa using data collected during the (1995-1999) Kaapvaal Seismic Experiment. Ambient noise tomography enables imaging of shear-velocity variations at smaller scales (10s of km) and shallower depths (< 10 km) than previously determined using natural-source body- and surface-wave techniques within the region. The goal of this work is to image geological features of the Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe craton such as kimberlite pipe density, flood basalt feeder dike systems, granite-greenstone belts, layered mafic intrusions and craton assembly/collision patterns at mid- lower crustal levels where information is typically lacking. Our results provide important constraints on the evolution of the Kaapvaal craton, including the collision with the Zimbabwe craton and the formation of the Bushveld Complex and Witwatersrand basin, and the impact of these events on lithospheric structure. Preliminary images exhibit key first-order features of the craton. At depth ranges of 4-12 km, reduced shear velocities correlate with the Bushveld-Malopo Farms complexes. At a depth interval of 10-18 km, lower velocities are associated with the Witwatersrand sedimentary basin, and higher velocities may be attributed to unroofed mid-crustal rocks of high metamorphic grade formed during the Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe craton collision. At depths of 36-46 km, velocity patterns reflect Moho topography, with thinner crust associated with the undisturbed regions of the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons and thicker crust associated with the Limpopo Belt and Namaqua-Natal Mobile Belt. At greater depths, higher upper-mantle velocities are observed in the southern Kaapvaal

  9. Southern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    South-central Australia is home to several deserts, including the Simpson Desert, whose reddish-orange sands are seen in the upper left quadrant of this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from July 1, 2002. Several impermanent, salty, lakes stand whitely out against the arid terrain. The largest is North Lake Eyre, southwest of center. At bottom center, Spencer Gulf separates the triangular Eyre Peninsula from the Yorke Peninsula. The Gulf of St. Vincent separates Yorke Peninsula from the mainland. In Spencer Gulf, colorful blue-green swirls indicate the presence of a bloom of marine plants called phytoplankton, whose brightly colored photosynthetic pigments stain the water. Water quality in the Gulf is an ongoing problem for Australia, as irrigation projects have diverted the already small flow of freshwater that empties into the Gulf. Other problems include contamination with pesticides and agricultural and residential fertilizer. On both the Eyre Peninsula and in the Victoria Territory to the east of Spencer Gulf, dark-colored rectangles show the boundaries of parks and nature preserves where the natural, drought-tolerant vegetation thrives.

  10. Geophysical constraints on the link between cratonization and orogeny: Evidence from the Tibetan Plateau and the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongjie; Teng, Jiwen; Romanelli, Fabio; Braitenberg, Carla; Ding, Zhifeng; Zhang, Xuemei; Fang, Lihua; Zhang, Sufang; Wu, Jianping; Deng, Yangfan; Ma, Ting; Sun, Ruomei; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the geodynamic process of orogeny and cratonization, and their transition is among the key topics of research in evaluating the link between plate tectonics and continental dynamics. The Tibetan Plateau and the North China Craton (NCC), two key areas in mainland China, offer excellent laboratories to understand continental tectonics over a broad span of Earth history. Particularly, the deep structure of the lithosphere as imaged from geophysical data on the Tibetan Plateau and the NCC provide important clues in understanding orogeny and cratonization. The Tibetan Plateau is the largest and highest plateau on Earth in terms of mean altitude, and is an important region for understanding the mechanisms of continent-continent collision and Cenozoic plateau uplift. The NCC is an Archean craton that underwent lithospheric disruption during the Mesozoic. Here we reconstruct the main features of the structure of the crust and upper mantle from surface wave tomography and gravity modeling in Tibet and its neighboring regions, in order to understand the modality of the convergence and collision process between the Indian and Eurasian plates, and the influence of this process on the uplift of the plateau. In the NCC, geological, geochemical, geophysical and tectonic investigations demonstrate that lithospheric destruction mainly occurred in the Eastern Block. The crustal structure of the NCC is reconstructed from ambient noise surface wave tomography and the different possible disruption mechanisms are evaluated. The Vs (shear-wave velocity) tomography results, and the density (ρ) structure of the crust and upper mantle (to about 350 km depth) demonstrate the lateral variation of the thickness of the metasomatic lid between the south and north of the Bangong-Nujiang suture (BNS) and the west and east of Tibet, which suggest that the leading edge of the subducting Indian slab reaches the BNS. The subduction angle of Indian Plate indicates a transition from steep

  11. Someone To Talk to and Someone To Listen. The Development of a Support and Learning Network for Palliative Care Workers in the Country Area of the Barossa Valley in South Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsey, Barry

    A palliative care support and training network was developed in a relatively isolated country area of the Barossa Valley in South Australia. The project was intended to help palliative care workers, volunteers, home carers, and others work collaboratively as a team (holistic model) for the purposes of mutually supporting, sharing information and…

  12. Multisystemic toxoplasmosis associated with a type II-like Toxoplasma gondii strain in a New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) from New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Donahoe, Shannon L; Rose, Karrie; Slapeta, Jan

    2014-09-15

    We report the first confirmed case of toxoplasmosis in an Australian pinniped. Presence of Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in the brain of a free-ranging subadult New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) with nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, hypophysitis, posterior uveitis, retrobulbar cellulitis, and myocarditis associated with protozoan cysts and tachyzoites. The emaciated seal stranded moribund on a beach in northern Sydney in New South Wales. Histopathology coupled with specific immunohistochemistry and PCR assays confirmed the presence of T. gondii. The T. gondii sample (NZfs8825) identified in this study has an identical genotype as the type II (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1) based on the direct sequencing and virtual RFLP of multilocus DNA markers including SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico. Direct sequencing of T. gondii B1 DNA marker from the T. gondii sample (NZfs8825) identified a type II-like strain, based on presence of non-archetypal B1 gene polymorphisms previously reported as unique to Australia. This study suggests that T. gondii oocysts originating from mainland Australia, which has a large population of feral cats, may act as a disease threat to native marine fauna. Therefore, emerging toxoplasmosis in the Arctic has a relevant parallel in the Southern Ocean within Australian waters with yet unknown relevance to Antarctica. PMID:25123611

  13. Physical modeling of sedimentation adjacent to diapirs and comparison with late precambrian Oratunga Breccia body in central Flinders Ranges, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, N.M.

    1985-09-01

    The interaction of sedimentation with the change in shape of a developing diapir is modeled in a series of simple sandbox experiments. This model replicates the pillow, diapir, and postdiapir stages of salt movement. Modeling produced rim synclines, crestal unconformities, and turtle-structure anticlines-all features known to be associated with diapirs. By changing experimental parameters such as diapir shape, sedimentation was simulated around various diapiric situations. One experiment closely matches the sediment distribution around the Oratunga diapir one of the controversial breccia bodies in the late Precambrian-Cambrian Adelaide geosyncline exposed in the Flinders Ranges of South Australia. Rim synclines, unconformities, and bedding attitude around Oratunga resemble those described around salt domes. In addition, the distribution, size, orientation, and lithology of breccia within the Oratunga diapir resemble breccia associated with active salt diapirs in Iran. These data suggest the breccia was emplaced as a salt diapir.

  14. Cratonic lithosphere: an electrifying view (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    Deep-probing electromagnetic studies reveal the vertical and lateral electrical conductivity structure of cratonic lithosphere. At lithospheric temperatures and for silicate mantle minerals, semi-conduction is from small polaron hopping and, in the presence of water, proton conduction, both of which is thermally-driven and can be described by an Arrhenius equation. There is little compositional sensitivity, save for the far higher water contents prevalent in pyroxenes (typically 200-400 wt ppm) compared to olivine (typically 10-100 wt ppm), with the latter exhibiting a depth dependence and the former none. Seismological methods are sensitive to temperature and composition, and virtually insensitive to low amounts of water. Taken together, the two are highly complementary. Seismological and magnetotelluric studies across Southern Africa can be employed together to constraint temperature and water content, where there is a significant difference at 100 km depth between the Kaapvaal Craton compared to the Angola (Congo) Craton compared to the Zimbabwe Craton. The Congo Craton is driest but hottest, the Kaapvaal Craton exhibits laterally-varying water content and is coldest, and the Zimbabwe Craton is the wettest and intermediate in temperature. Such thermal and water content variation results in lateral rheological variation, with the wettest and warmest being more deformable. For the Canadian Shield, there is again significant lateral variation at 100 km, with the Superior Province being mostly dry, and the Slave Craton and Rae/Hearne Provinces being far wetter. By 200 km however, all of the Canadian Shield is dry, consistent with the xenolith-based observations from the Kaapvaal Craton of far higher water contents in olivine at 100 km (50-100 wt ppm) decreasing with depth to around 10 wt ppm at 200 km. The lithosphere beneath the Kimberley area of the Kaapvaal Craton has been forward modeled in a manner that is self-consistent not only with the seismological and

  15. A Battle Lost? Report on Two Centuries of Invasion and Management of Lantana camara L. in Australia, India and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bhagwat, Shonil A.; Breman, Elinor; Thekaekara, Tarsh; Thornton, Thomas F.; Willis, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent discussion on invasive species has invigorated the debate on strategies to manage these species. Lantana camara L., a shrub native to the American tropics, has become one of the worst weeds in recorded history. In Australia, India and South Africa, Lantana has become very widespread occupying millions of hectares of land. Here, we examine historical records to reconstruct invasion and management of Lantana over two centuries and ask: Can we fight the spread of invasive species or do we need to develop strategies for their adaptive management? We carried out extensive research of historical records constituting over 75% of records on invasion and management of this species in the three countries. The records indicate that governments in Australia, India and South Africa have taken aggressive measures to eradicate Lantana over the last two centuries, but these efforts have been largely unsuccessful. We found that despite control measures, the invasion trajectory of Lantana has continued upwards and that post-war land-use change might have been a possible trigger for this spread. A large majority of studies on invasive species address timescales of less than one year; and even fewer address timescales of >10 years. An understanding of species invasions over long time-scales is of paramount importance. While archival records may give only a partial picture of the spread and management of invasive species, in the absence of any other long-term dataset on the ecology of Lantana, our study provides an important insight into its invasion, spread and management over two centuries and across three continents. While the established paradigm is to expend available resources on attempting to eradicate invasive species, our findings suggest that in the future, conservationists will need to develop strategies for their adaptive management rather than fighting a losing battle. PMID:22403653

  16. Avian influenza infection dynamics under variable climatic conditions, viral prevalence is rainfall driven in waterfowl from temperate, south-east Australia.

    PubMed

    Ferenczi, Marta; Beckmann, Christa; Warner, Simone; Loyn, Richard; O'Riley, Kim; Wang, Xinlong; Klaassen, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Understanding Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) infection dynamics in wildlife is crucial because of possible virus spill over to livestock and humans. Studies from the northern hemisphere have suggested several ecological and environmental drivers of AIV prevalence in wild birds. To determine if the same drivers apply in the southern hemisphere, where more irregular environmental conditions prevail, we investigated AIV prevalence in ducks in relation to biotic and abiotic factors in south-eastern Australia. We sampled duck faeces for AIV and tested for an effect of bird numbers, rainfall anomaly, temperature anomaly and long-term ENSO (El-Niño Southern Oscillation) patterns on AIV prevalence. We demonstrate a positive long term effect of ENSO-related rainfall on AIV prevalence. We also found a more immediate response to rainfall where AIV prevalence was positively related to rainfall in the preceding 3-7 months. Additionally, for one duck species we found a positive relationship between their numbers and AIV prevalence, while prevalence was negatively or not affected by duck numbers in the remaining four species studied. In Australia largely non-seasonal rainfall patterns determine breeding opportunities and thereby influence bird numbers. Based on our findings we suggest that rainfall influences age structures within populations, producing an influx of immunologically naïve juveniles within the population, which may subsequently affect AIV infection dynamics. Our study suggests that drivers of AIV dynamics in the northern hemisphere do not have the same influence at our south-east Australian field site in the southern hemisphere due to more erratic climatological conditions. PMID:26852115

  17. Ferric iron budget of Kaapvaal cratonic mantle peridotite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodland, A.

    2012-04-01

    Oxidation fugacity plays an important role in many geochemical processes, such as partial melting and melt-rock interaction. How mantle peridotite responds during such processes is dependent on the amount of Fe2O3 present, since it occurs in much smaller quantities than Fe2+ and affects buffering capacity. This is particularly the case since redox reactions have been directly implicated in the rejuvenation and eventual breakup of cratons (e.g. Foley 2008, 2011). In addition, oxygen fugacity also influences the incorporation of OH in nominally anhydrous minerals, which can affect the mechanical integrity of cratonic blocks (Peslier et al. 2010). These issues are important for understanding the evolution of the upper mantle beneath the Kaapvaal craton. Canil and coworkers (1994, 1996) reported bulk ferric iron contents for 11 peridotites (10 garnet-bearing and 1 spinel-bearing) from the Kaapvaal. The purpose of this study is to build on their pioneering work to better assess the ferric iron budget of Kaapvaal cratonic mantle and to improve our understanding of how ferric iron is distributed within the peridotitic assemblage. Our data set includes more than 30 additional samples, predominantly garnet peridoites, from 7 localities in South Africa and Lesotho. Bulk Fe2O3 contents were determined by combining measured Fe3+ contents of individual minerals (by Mössbauer spectroscopy) with their respective modal proportion in each sample. Fe3+ contents of garnet and clinopyroxene reported in Woodland & Koch (2003), Lazarov et al. (2009) and Woodland (2009) were combined with new data for orthopyroxene (opx) and modal mineralogy to make this assessment. Opx has Fe3+/Fetot of 0.04-0.1 and Fe3+ contents are comparable between Opx and coexisting Cpx. Calculated whole rock Fe2O3 contents range from 0.02 to 0.29 wt % with contents systematically decreasing with increasing degrees of depletion (as indicated by increasing MgO and decreasing Al2O3 content). For a given MgO content

  18. Latest Jurassic-early Cretaceous regressive facies, northeast Africa craton

    SciTech Connect

    van Houten, F.B.

    1980-06-01

    Nonmarine to paralic detrital deposits accumulated in six large basins between Algeria and the Arabo-Nubian shield during major regression in latest Jurassic and Early Cretaceous time. The Ghadames Sirte (north-central Libya), and Northern (Egypt) basins lay along the cratonic margin of northeastern Africa. The Murzuk, Kufra, and Southern (Egypt) basins lay in the south within the craton. Data for reconstructing distribution, facies, and thickness of relevant sequences are adequate for the three northern basins only. High detrital influx near the end of Jurassic time and in mid-Cretaceous time produced regressive nubian facies composed largely of low-sinuosity stream and fahdelta deposits. In the west and southwest the Ghadames, Murzuk, and Kufra basins were filled with a few hundred meters of detritus after long-continued earlier Mesozoic aggradation. In northern Egypt the regressive sequence succeeded earlier Mesozoic marine sedimentation; in the Sirte and Southern basins correlative deposits accumulated on Precambrian and Variscan terranes after earlier Mesozoic uplift and erosion. Waning of detrital influx into southern Tunisia and adjacent Libya in the west and into Israel in the east initiated an Albian to early Cenomanian transgression of Tethys. By late Cenomanian time it had flooded the entire cratonic margin, and spread southward into the Murzuk and Southern basins, as well as onto the Arabo-Nubian shield. Latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous, mid-Cretaceous, and Late Cretaceous transgressions across northeastern Africa recorded in these sequences may reflect worldwide eustatic sea-level rises. In contrast, renewed large supply of detritus during each regression and a comparable subsidence history of intracratonic and marginal basins imply regional tectonic control. 6 figures.

  19. Water in the Cratonic Mantle Lithosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, A. H.

    2016-01-01

    The fact that Archean and Proterozoic cratons are underlain by the thickest (>200 km) lithosphere on Earth has always puzzled scientists because the dynamic convection of the surrounding asthenosphere would be expected to delaminate and erode these mantle lithospheric "keels" over time. Although density and temperature of the cratonic lithosphere certainly play a role in its strength and longevity, the role of water has only been recently addressed with data on actual mantle samples. Water in mantle lithologies (primarily peridotites and pyroxenites) is mainly stored in nominally anhydrous minerals (olivine, pyroxene, garnet) where it is incorporated as hydrogen bonded to structural oxygen in lattice defects. The property of hydrolytic weakening of olivine [4] has generated the hypothesis that olivine, the main mineral of the upper mantle, may be dehydrated in cratonic mantle lithospheres, contributing to its strength. This presentation will review the distribution of water concentrations in four cratonic lithospheres. The distribution of water contents in olivine from peridotite xenoliths found in kimberlites is different in each craton (Figure 1). The range of water contents of olivine, pyroxene and garnet at each xenolith location appears linked to local metasomatic events, some of which occurred later then the Archean and Proterozoic when these peridotites initially formed via melting. Although the low olivine water contents (<10 ppm wt H2O) at > 6 GPa at the base of the Kaapvaal cratonic lithosphere may contribute to its strength, and prevent its delamination, the wide range of those from Siberian xenoliths is not compatible with providing a high enough viscosity contrast with the asthenophere. The water content in olivine inclusions from Siberian diamonds, on the other hand, have systematically low water contents (<20 ppm wt H2O). The xenoliths may represent a biased sample of the cratonic lithosphere with an over-­abundance of metasomatized peridotites with

  20. Comparative contributions of solution geochemistry, microbial metabolism and aquatic photosynthesis to the development of high pH in ephemeral wetlands in South East Australia.

    PubMed

    Reid, R J; Mosley, L M

    2016-01-15

    The development of alkaline conditions in lakes and wetlands is common but the process of alkalinisation is not well elaborated. In this study we investigated causes of the seasonal alkalinisation of ephemeral wetlands in the South East of South Australia where pH values above 10 are frequently observed. This research combined field observations, geochemical analysis of wetland sediment and surface water, with mesocosm studies under controlled conditions. The results revealed a complex interplay between a number of different processes. A primary cause was attributed to sequestration of CO2 from the water column by plant photosynthesis, coupled with slow diffusion of CO2 from the air which led to its depletion in the water. Abundant plant growth also modified the water chemistry via uptake of nutrient elements, in particular calcium and magnesium and increased carbonate alkalinity in the water. Assessment of field results and geochemical modeling showed that low Ca/(HCO3(-) and CO3(-2)) ratios in the water, coupled with carbonate mineral (calcite, Mg substituted calcite, dolomite) precipitation and evapoconcentration, create a high alkalinity and pH (>9) baseline in many wetlands. The high baseline pH is then further increased by CO2 depletion due to photosynthesis. We could find no evidence that reduction of sulfate to sulfides by sulfur-reducing bacteria significantly contributed to the very high pH conditions. PMID:26519593

  1. Reconstructing the eruption magnitude and energy budgets for the pre-historic eruption of the monogenetic ˜5 ka Mt. Gambier Volcanic Complex, south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Otterloo, Jozua; Cas, Raymond A. F.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding explosive volcanic eruptions, especially phreatomagmatic eruptions, their intensities and energy budgets is of major importance when it comes to risk and hazard studies. With only a few historic occurrences of phreatomagmatic activity, a large amount of our understanding comes from the study of pre-historic volcanic centres, which causes issues when it comes to preservation and vegetation. In this research, we show that using 3D geometrical modelling it is possible to obtain volume estimates for different deposits of a pre-historic, complex, monogenetic centre, the Mt. Gambier Volcanic Complex, south-eastern Australia. Using these volumes, we further explore the energy budgets and the magnitude of this eruption (VEI 4), including dispersal patterns (eruption columns varying between 5 and 10 km, dispersed towards north-east to south), to further our understanding of intraplate, monogenetic eruptions involving phreatomagmatic activity. We also compare which thermodynamic model fits best in the creation of the maar crater of Mt. Gambier: the major-explosion-dominated model or the incremental growth model. In this case, the formation of most of the craters can best be explained by the latter model.

  2. "Ars Poetica," Romanticism and English Education: Poetic Inheritances in the Senior Secondary English Curriculum in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Don

    2013-01-01

    Poetry, as a textual form for critical study and composition, continues to occupy a significant place in Australian senior secondary English syllabus documents and classrooms (cf. Carter, 2012). Indeed, within the senior secondary English syllabus in New South Wales (NSW), poetry remains one of the core mandatory types of texts for study by the…

  3. Detaining the Usual Suspects: Charting the Use of Segregated Settings in New South Wales Government Schools, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Linda J.; Sweller, Naomi; Van Bergen, Penny

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the increase in segregated placements in the New South Wales government school sector. Using disaggregated enrolment data, it points to the growing over-representation of boys in special schools and classes, particularly those of a certain age in certain support categories. In the discussion that follows, the authors question…

  4. The impact of compulsory cycle helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries in New South Wales, Australia: a rejoinder.

    PubMed

    Rissel, Chris

    2012-03-01

    This paper challenges the conclusion of a recent paper by Walter et al. (Accident Analysis and Prevention 2011, doi:10.1016/j.aap.2011.05.029) reporting that despite numerous data limitations repealing the helmet legislation in Australia could not be justified. This conclusion is not warranted because of the limited time period used in their analysis and the lack of data beyond a few years before the introduction of legislation, the failure to adequately account for the effect of the phasing in of the legislation, the effect of the marked reduction in child cyclists, and the non-comparability of the pedestrian and cycling injuries and related lack of consideration of the severity of head injuries. The extent to which helmet legislation deters people from cycling is discussed. PMID:22269491

  5. Skeletal Pathology of Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) Exposed to High Environmental Fluoride Levels in South-Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Hufschmid, J; Beveridge, I; Coulson, G; Walker, G; Shen, P; Reynolds, E; Charles, J

    2015-01-01

    Significantly elevated bone fluoride concentrations have been reported in a population of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) resident near a fluoride-emitting aluminum smelter in southeastern Australia. This paper describes the skeletal and synovial joint lesions observed post mortem in the same sample of kangaroos (n = 76). The prevalence and severity of skeletal lesions, specifically the formation of multiple, large, smooth exostoses over the diaphysis of long bones (especially, but not exclusively, on the tibia, fibula and metatarsi), were positively associated with bone fluoride concentration. So too were lesions of degenerative joint disease, including periarticular osteophytosis, articular cartilage erosion/ulceration, synovial hyperplasia and joint capsular fibrosis. Joint lesions were most commonly seen in the knee, hock and metatarsophalangeal joints. This is the first study to describe in detail the full range of lesions induced by chronic fluorosis in a marsupial species. PMID:26186808

  6. HCMM imagery for the discrimination of rock types, the detection of geothermal energy sources and the assessment of soil moisture content in western Queensland and adjacent parts of New South Wales and South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, M. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Day-visible and day-IR imagery of northwest Queensland show that large scale geological features like the Mitakoodi anticlinorium, which involves rocks of contrasting lithological type, can be delineated. North of Cloncurry, the contrasting lithological units of the Knapdale quartzite and bedded argillaceous limestones within the Proterozoic Corella sequence are clearly delineated in the area of the Dugald River Lode. Major structural features in the Mount Isa area are revealed on the day-visible cover. Which provides similar but less detailed information than the LANDSAT imagery. The day-IR cover provides less additional information for areas of outcropping bedrock than had been expected. Initial studies of the day-IR and night-IR cover for parts of South Australia suggest that they contain additional information on geology compared with day-visible cover.

  7. Moving from local to State water governance to resolve a local conflict between irrigated agriculture and commercial forestry in South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillet, Virginie; McKay, Jennifer; Keremane, Ganesh

    2014-11-01

    In the Lower Limestone Coast, South Australia, a unique water allocation plan has been under consideration for several years. This plan is the first in Australia to consider forestry as a water affecting activity. Indeed, forestry plantations have a twofold impact on water-rainfall or aquifer recharge interception and direct extraction of groundwater in shallow water table areas-and alter the available water for irrigation as a result of the previous water budget. This paper examines how water is allocated across the competing requirements for water but also across the competing legal, economic and administrative scales embodied by the competing water users; and thus it also details the pre-judicial mechanism used to resolve the conflict over these competing scales. Qualitative and quantitative content analysis in Nvivo was applied to: (i) 180 local newspaper articles on the planning process, (ii) 65 submission forms filled in by the community during a public consultation on the draft water plan and (iii) 20 face-to-face interviews of keys stakeholders involved in the planning process. The social sustainability perspective taken in this study establishes the legal, economic and administrative competitive scales at stake in the conflict regarding water between forestry and irrigation. It also evidences the special feature of this paper, which is that to overcome these competitions and resolve the local conflict before judicial process, the water governance moved up in the administrative scale, from local/regional to State level. Initiated and initially prepared at regional level through the local Natural Resources Management Board, the water planning process was taken up to State level through the formation of an Interdepartmental Committee and the establishment of a Taskforce in charge of developing a policy. These were supported by an amendment of a State legislation on Natural Resources Management to manage the water impacts of forestry plantations.

  8. Segregation or aggregation? Sex-specific patterns in the seasonal occurrence of white sharks Carcharodon carcharias at the Neptune Islands, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Bruce, B; Bradford, R

    2015-12-01

    The seasonal patterns of occurrence of male and female white sharks Carcharodon carcharias at the Neptune Islands in South Australia were reviewed. Analyses of a 14 year data series indicate that females seasonally aggregate in late autumn and winter coinciding with the maximum in-water availability of lactating female long-nose fur seals and seal pups. During this period, observed male:female sex ratios were similar; whereas during late spring and summer, males continued to visit, but females were rarely recorded. There was no evidence for segregation by sex or size at the Neptunes, but the highly focused seasonal pattern of occurrence of females compared with the year-round records of males suggests that there are likely to be differences between the sexes in overall distribution and movement patterns across southern Australia. It is suggested that foraging strategies and prey selection differ between sexes in C. carcharias across the life-history stages represented and that sex-specific foraging strategies may play an important role in structuring movement patterns and the sex ratios observed at such aggregation sites. Differences between sexes in distribution, movement patterns and foraging strategies are likely to have implications for modelling the consequences of fisheries by-catch between regions or jurisdictions and other spatially or temporally discrete anthropogenic effects on C. carcharias populations. Such differences urge for caution when estimating the size of C. carcharias populations based on observations at pinniped colonies due to the likelihood of sex-specific differences in movements and patterns of residency. These differences also suggest a need to account for sex-specific movement patterns and distribution in population and movement models as well as under conservation actions. PMID:26709211

  9. Interspecific and Geographic Variation in the Diets of Sympatric Carnivores: Dingoes/Wild Dogs and Red Foxes in South-Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, Charlie; Benshemesh, Joe; Robley, Alan; Lawrence, Jenny; Ritchie, Euan G.; Nimmo, Dale G.; Lumsden, Lindy F.

    2015-01-01

    Dingoes/wild dogs (Canis dingo/familiaris) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are widespread carnivores in southern Australia and are controlled to reduce predation on domestic livestock and native fauna. We used the occurrence of food items in 5875 dingo/wild dog scats and 11,569 fox scats to evaluate interspecific and geographic differences in the diets of these species within nine regions of Victoria, south-eastern Australia. The nine regions encompass a wide variety of ecosystems. Diet overlap between dingoes/wild dogs and foxes varied among regions, from low to near complete overlap. The diet of foxes was broader than dingoes/wild dogs in all but three regions, with the former usually containing more insects, reptiles and plant material. By contrast, dingoes/wild dogs more regularly consumed larger mammals, supporting the hypothesis that niche partitioning occurs on the basis of mammalian prey size. The key mammalian food items for dingoes/wild dogs across all regions were black wallaby (Wallabia bicolor), brushtail possum species (Trichosurus spp.), common wombat (Vombatus ursinus), sambar deer (Rusa unicolor), cattle (Bos taurus) and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The key mammalian food items for foxes across all regions were European rabbit, sheep (Ovis aries) and house mouse (Mus musculus). Foxes consumed 6.1 times the number of individuals of threatened Critical Weight Range native mammal species than did dingoes/wild dogs. The occurrence of intraguild predation was asymmetrical; dingoes/wild dogs consumed greater biomass of the smaller fox. The substantial geographic variation in diet indicates that dingoes/wild dogs and foxes alter their diet in accordance with changing food availability. We provide checklists of taxa recorded in the diets of dingoes/wild dogs and foxes as a resource for managers and researchers wishing to understand the potential impacts of policy and management decisions on dingoes/wild dogs, foxes and the food resources they

  10. Interspecific and geographic variation in the diets of sympatric carnivores: dingoes/wild dogs and red foxes in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Davis, Naomi E; Forsyth, David M; Triggs, Barbara; Pascoe, Charlie; Benshemesh, Joe; Robley, Alan; Lawrence, Jenny; Ritchie, Euan G; Nimmo, Dale G; Lumsden, Lindy F

    2015-01-01

    Dingoes/wild dogs (Canis dingo/familiaris) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are widespread carnivores in southern Australia and are controlled to reduce predation on domestic livestock and native fauna. We used the occurrence of food items in 5875 dingo/wild dog scats and 11,569 fox scats to evaluate interspecific and geographic differences in the diets of these species within nine regions of Victoria, south-eastern Australia. The nine regions encompass a wide variety of ecosystems. Diet overlap between dingoes/wild dogs and foxes varied among regions, from low to near complete overlap. The diet of foxes was broader than dingoes/wild dogs in all but three regions, with the former usually containing more insects, reptiles and plant material. By contrast, dingoes/wild dogs more regularly consumed larger mammals, supporting the hypothesis that niche partitioning occurs on the basis of mammalian prey size. The key mammalian food items for dingoes/wild dogs across all regions were black wallaby (Wallabia bicolor), brushtail possum species (Trichosurus spp.), common wombat (Vombatus ursinus), sambar deer (Rusa unicolor), cattle (Bos taurus) and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The key mammalian food items for foxes across all regions were European rabbit, sheep (Ovis aries) and house mouse (Mus musculus). Foxes consumed 6.1 times the number of individuals of threatened Critical Weight Range native mammal species than did dingoes/wild dogs. The occurrence of intraguild predation was asymmetrical; dingoes/wild dogs consumed greater biomass of the smaller fox. The substantial geographic variation in diet indicates that dingoes/wild dogs and foxes alter their diet in accordance with changing food availability. We provide checklists of taxa recorded in the diets of dingoes/wild dogs and foxes as a resource for managers and researchers wishing to understand the potential impacts of policy and management decisions on dingoes/wild dogs, foxes and the food resources they

  11. Properties of light absorption in a highly coloured estuarine system in south-east Australia which is prone to blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clementson, Lesley A.; Parslow, John S.; Turnbull, Alison R.; Bonham, Pru I.

    2004-05-01

    The Huon Estuary in south-east Tasmania is an important site in Australia's aquaculture and finfish industries. Atlantic salmon and shellfish are farmed in the Huon River Estuary, which drains a catchment that includes both areas of pristine wilderness and agriculture. The estuary experiences algal blooms, including blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum, which can cause considerable problems for the aquaculture industry. The freshwater input is highly coloured due to high levels of humic material and this combined with intrusions of clearer oceanic water and the occurrence of algal blooms makes this estuary optically complex. Between November 1996 and September 1998 samples for pigment and optical analyses were collected weekly from five sites within the mid to lower regions of the estuary. In addition, every three months (beginning July 1996), samples were collected from 30 sites within the full river/estuary system. Early in December 1997 a bloom of Gymnodinium catenatum occurred throughout the estuary and persisted until June 1998. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was found to dominate the total absorption of the water throughout the entire estuary and over the two-year duration of the study. The occurrence of algal blooms showed no correlation with the optical characteristics of the estuary, suggesting that optical parameters cannot be used to predict the occurrence of algal blooms in this estuary. Blooms of different algal species, such as diatoms and dinoflagellates, may be able to be distinguished by their absorption spectra in the UV region rather than the visible region. To date, this study is the most detailed spatial and temporal study of the characteristics of light absorption in an estuarine system within Australia.

  12. Multiscale finite-frequency Rayleigh wave tomography of the Kaapvaal craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrot, S.; Zhao, L.

    2007-04-01

    We have measured phase delays of fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves for 12 events recorded by the Southern Africa Seismic Experiment at frequencies between 0.005 and 0.035 Hz. A novel multiscale finite-frequency tomographic method based on wavelet decomposition of 3-D sensitivity kernels for the phase of Rayleigh waves is used to map the shear velocities in the upper mantle beneath southern Africa. The kernels are computed by summing coupled normal modes over a very fine grid surrounding the seismic array. To estimate and minimize the biases in the model resulting from structures outside the tomographic grid, a jackknife inversion method is implemented. The contribution of heterogeneities outside the target volume is significant, but produces artefacts in the tomographic model that are easily identified and discarded before interpretation. With structures on length scales as short as 100 km retrieved beneath the array, the deep structure of the Kaapvaal craton is revealed with unprecedented detail. Outside the array, the corresponding resolution is 200 km. High velocity cratonic roots are confined to the Archean craton, and extend to depths of at least 250 km. Confirming earlier surface structural studies, we recognize two distinct units in the Kaapvaal craton. The eastern Witwatersrand block and the western Kimberley block are separated by a major near-vertical translithospheric boundary which coincides with the Colesberg Lineament. Lower than average velocities south and east of the Kaapvaal craton reveal extensive metasomatism and heating of the lithosphere, probably related to the Karoo magmatic event and to the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean.

  13. Nutrient and plankton dynamics in an intermittently closed/open lagoon, Smiths Lake, south-eastern Australia: An ecological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Jason D.; Baird, Mark E.; Suthers, Iain M.

    2007-05-01

    A spatially resolved, eleven-box ecological model is presented for an Intermittently Closed and Open Lake or Lagoon (ICOLL), configured for Smiths Lake, NSW Australia. ICOLLs are characterised by low flow from the catchment and a dynamic sand bar blocking oceanic exchange, which creates two distinct phases - open and closed. The process descriptions in the ecological model are based on a combination of physical and physiological limits to the processes of nutrient uptake, light capture by phytoplankton and predator-prey interactions. An inverse model is used to calculate mixing coefficients from salinity observations. When compared to field data, the ecological model obtains a fit for salinity, nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll a and zooplankton which is within 1.5 standard deviations of the mean of the field data. Simulations show that nutrient limitation (nitrogen and phosphorus) is the dominant factor limiting growth of the autotrophic state variables during both the open and closed phases of the lake. The model is characterised by strong oscillations in phytoplankton and zooplankton abundance, typical of predator-prey cycles. There is an increase in the productivity of phytoplankton and zooplankton during the open phase. This increased productivity is exported out of the lagoon with a net nitrogen export from water column variables of 489 and 2012 mol N d -1 during the two studied openings. The model is found to be most sensitive to the mortality and feeding efficiency of zooplankton.

  14. Thunderstorm-associated asthma in an inland town in south-eastern Australia. Who is at risk?

    PubMed

    Girgis, S T; Marks, G B; Downs, S H; Kolbe, A; Car, G N; Paton, R

    2000-07-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize patients at risk of asthma exacerbation during spring thunderstorms and identify potential measures to ameliorate the impact of those events. A case-control study was conducted among patients aged 7-60 yrs, who attended Wagga Hospital (NSW, Australia) for asthma during the period of 1 June 1997 to 31 October 1997. One hundred and eighty-three patients who attended on 30 and 31 October 1997 were the cases and the remaining 121 patients were the controls. Questionnaire data were obtained from 148 (81%) cases and 91 (75%) controls. One hundred and thirty-eight (95%) cases who attended during the thunderstorm gave a history of hayfever prior to the event compared to 66 (74%) controls who attended at other times (odds ratio (OR) 6.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.55-14.15); 111 (96%) cases were allergic to rye grass pollen compared to 47 (64%) controls (OR 23.6, 95% CI 6.6-84.3). Among subjects with a prior diagnosis of asthma (64% cases and 82% controls), controls (56%) were more likely to be taking inhaled steroids at time of the thunderstorm than cases (27%, OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.16-0.57). History of hayfever and allergy to rye grass are strong predictors for asthma exacerbation during thunderstorms in spring. The lower rate of inhaled steroid use in thunderstorm cases suggests that this treatment may be effective in preventing severe attacks during thunderstorms. PMID:10933077

  15. Radiocarbon dating and the 36Cl/Cl evolution of three Great Artesian Basin wells at Dalhousie, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Risha, Usama A.

    2016-06-01

    The use of 14C (half-life = 5,730 years) in modeling the evolution of the 36Cl/Cl ratios in groundwater is reported for the first time. The complexity of the Cl-36Cl system due to the occurrence of different Cl and 36Cl sources and the difficulty of the determination of the initial groundwater 36Cl/Cl ratios have raised concerns about the reliability of using 36Cl (half-life = 301 thousand years, a) as a groundwater-dating tool. This work uses groundwater 14C age as a calibrating parameter of the Cl-36Cl/Cl decay-mixing models of three wells from the southwestern Great Artesian Basin (GAB), Australia. It aims to allow for the different sources of Cl and 36Cl in the southwestern GAB aquifer. The results show that the initial Cl concentrations range from 245 to 320 mg/l and stable Cl is added to groundwater along flowpaths at rates ranging from 1.4 to 3.5 mg/l/ka. The 36Cl content of the groundwater is assumed to be completely of atmospheric origin. The samples have different Cl-36Cl/Cl mixing-decay models reflecting recharge under different conditions as well as the heterogeneity of the aquifer.

  16. Climate change vulnerability assessments as catalysts for social learning: four case studies in south-eastern Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L

    2012-01-01

    Technical assessments of vulnerability and/or risk are increasingly being undertaken to assess the impacts of climate change. Underlying this is the belief that they will bring clarity to questions regarding the scale of institutional investments required, plausible adaptation policies and measures, and the timing of their implementation. Despite the perceived importance of technical assessments in 'evidence-based' decision environments, assessments cannot be undertaken independent of values and politics, nor are they capable of eliminating the uncertainty that clouds decision-making on climate adaptation As such, assessments can trigger as many questions as they answer, leaving practitioners and stakeholders to question their value. This paper explores the value of vulnerability/risk assessments in climate change adaptation planning processes as a catalyst for learning in four case studies in Southeastern Australia. Data were collected using qualitative interviews with stakeholders involved in the assessments and analysed using a social learning framework. This analysis revealed that detailed and tangible strategies or actions often do not emerge directly from technical assessments. However, it also revealed that the assessments became important platforms for social learning. In providing these platforms, assessments present opportunities to question initial assumptions, explore multiple framings of an issue, generate new information, and galvanise support for collective actions. This study highlights the need for more explicit recognition and understanding of the important role social learning plays in climate change vulnerability assessments and adaptation planning more broadly.

  17. Radiocarbon dating and the 36Cl/Cl evolution of three Great Artesian Basin wells at Dalhousie, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Risha, Usama A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of 14C (half-life = 5,730 years) in modeling the evolution of the 36Cl/Cl ratios in groundwater is reported for the first time. The complexity of the Cl-36Cl system due to the occurrence of different Cl and 36Cl sources and the difficulty of the determination of the initial groundwater 36Cl/Cl ratios have raised concerns about the reliability of using 36Cl (half-life = 301 thousand years, a) as a groundwater-dating tool. This work uses groundwater 14C age as a calibrating parameter of the Cl-36Cl/Cl decay-mixing models of three wells from the southwestern Great Artesian Basin (GAB), Australia. It aims to allow for the different sources of Cl and 36Cl in the southwestern GAB aquifer. The results show that the initial Cl concentrations range from 245 to 320 mg/l and stable Cl is added to groundwater along flowpaths at rates ranging from 1.4 to 3.5 mg/l/ka. The 36Cl content of the groundwater is assumed to be completely of atmospheric origin. The samples have different Cl-36Cl/Cl mixing-decay models reflecting recharge under different conditions as well as the heterogeneity of the aquifer.

  18. Analysis of subsurface mound spring connectivity in shale of the western margin of the Great Artesian Basin, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halihan, Todd; Love, Andrew; Keppel, Mark; Berens, Volmer

    2013-11-01

    Mound springs provide the primary discharge mechanism for waters of the western margin of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB), Australia. Though these springs are an important resource in an arid environment, their hydraulics as they discharge from shale are poorly defined. The springs can include extensive spring tails (groundwater-dependent wetlands) and hundreds of springs in a given spring complex. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) was used to evaluate spring subsurface hydraulic-connectivity characteristics at three spring complexes discharging through the Bulldog Shale. The results demonstrate that fresher GAB water appears as resistors in the subsurface at these sites, which are characterized by high-salinity conditions in the shallow subsurface. Using an empirical method developed for this work, the ERI data indicate that the spring complexes have multiple subsurface connections that are not always easily observed at the surface. The connections are focused along structural deformation in the shale allowing fluids to migrate through the confining unit. The ERI data suggest the carbonate deposits that the springs generate are deposited on top of the confining unit, not precipitated in the conduit. The data also suggest that spring-tail ecosystems are not the result of a single discharge point, but include secondary discharge points along the tail.

  19. Elimination of the Mound-Building Termite, Nasutitermes exitiosus (Isoptera: Termitidae) in South-Eastern Australia Using Bistrifluron Bait.

    PubMed

    Webb, Garry A; Mcclintock, Charles

    2015-12-01

    Bistrifluron, a benzoylphenylurea compound, was evaluated for efficacy against Nasutitermes exitiosus (Hill), a mound-building species in southern Australia. Bistrifluron bait (trade name Xterm) was delivered as containerized pellets inserted into plastic feeding stations implanted in the sides of mounds-60 g for bistrifluron bait-treated mounds and 120 g of blank bait for untreated mounds. Termites actively tunneled in the gaps between pellets and removed bait from the canisters. All five treated mounds were eventually eliminated, and all five untreated mounds remained active at the end of the trial. Four of the five treated mounds were considered dead and excavated after 26 wk, but there were earlier signs of mound distress-reduced repair of experimental casement damage and reduced activity in bait canisters by 22 wk and reduced internal mound temperature after 11 wk. One treated mound showed activity in the bait station right through until almost the end of the trial (47 wk), but excavation at 49 wk showed no further activity in the mound. The five untreated colonies removed on average 97% of blank bait offered, while the five treated colonies removed on average 39.1% of bait offered. There was a wide variation in temperature profiles of mounds (up to 15°C for both minimum and maximum internal temperatures), from the beginning of the trial and even before the effects of baiting were evident. PMID:26470378

  20. Lithospheric Mantle Deformation beneath the Indian Cratons.

    PubMed

    Pandey; Agrawal

    1999-11-01

    The nature of deformation of the deep continental roots beneath the Archean-Early Proterozoic terrains opens the question whether these ancient terrains have had stable roots since the Precambrian or whether recent plate motions have deformed them. In view of this, we make an attempt to study the thermal structure beneath the cratonic regions of the Indian shield, which vary in lithospheric thickness from 65 km in the Singhbhum craton to 148 km in the Archean Dharwars. The average depth of 104 km to the top of the underlying asthenosphere is consistent with other termination methods and is in fact less than half the 200-400-km depth found in other stable areas of the earth. Similarly, the average reduced heat flow of about 35 mW/m2 and Moho temperature of about 550 degrees C (range: 400 degrees -730 degrees C) for the Indian cratons are also much higher than their counterparts elsewhere. Our study indicates a large-scale deformation of the cratonic mantle lithosphere beneath the Indian shield since the Mesoproterozoic caused by various geodynamic causes, challenging the idea of stability of deep continental roots. PMID:10517883

  1. Cyclic Cratonic Carbonates and Phanerozoic Calcite Seas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Bruce H.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses causes of cyclicity in cratonic carbonate sequences and evidence for and potential significance of postulated primary calcite sediment components in past Paleozoic seas, outlining problems, focusing on models explaining existing data, and identifying background. Future sedimentary geologists will need to address these and related areas…

  2. Phanerozoic surface history of the Slave craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ault, Alexis K.; Flowers, Rebecca M.; Bowring, Samuel A.

    2013-09-01

    apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) thermochronometry data and key geologic constraints from Slave craton kimberlites are used to develop a model for the Phanerozoic burial, unroofing, and hypsometric history of the northwestern Canadian shield. AHe dates range from 210 ± 13 to 382 ± 79 Ma, are older in the eastern Slave craton and decrease westward, and resolve the spatial extent, thickness, and history of now-denuded sedimentary units. Results indicate Paleozoic heating to temperatures ≥85-90°C, suggesting regional burial beneath ≥2.8 km of strata while the region was at sea level, followed by the westward migration of unroofing across the craton. This Paleozoic-Mesozoic history does not correlate with sea level change, instead requiring Paleozoic subsidence of the craton followed by surface uplift. The AHe data restrict Cretaceous burial to ≤1.6 km, followed by unroofing, Eocene terrestrial sediment deposition, and removal of Phanerozoic sedimentary cover across the region by present day. The craton underwent ≥300 m of post-100 Ma elevation gain, based on ~100 Ma marine sedimentary xenoliths entrained in ~75-45 Ma kimberlites at modern elevations of 550-600 m. The transition from Paleozoic-Mesozoic subsidence to surface uplift may signal a change from predominantly northern (Franklinian-Innuitian) to western (Canadian Cordillera) plate boundary controls on continental interior processes, with the latter driving the east-to-west wave of unroofing. Canadian Cordillera evolution also affected the Cretaceous-early Tertiary history. Dynamic topography due to changing mantle flow regimes and proximity to sediment sources influenced the Phanerozoic surface evolution of the northwestern Canadian shield.

  3. Genomic Epidemiology of Clostridium botulinum Isolates from Temporally Related Cases of Infant Botulism in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Nadine; Gray, Timothy J; Wang, Qinning; Ng, Jimmy; Hicks, Leanne; Nguyen, Trang; Yuen, Marion; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A; Sintchenko, Vitali

    2015-09-01

    Infant botulism is a potentially life-threatening paralytic disease that can be associated with prolonged morbidity if not rapidly diagnosed and treated. Four infants were diagnosed and treated for infant botulism in NSW, Australia, between May 2011 and August 2013. Despite the temporal relationship between the cases, there was no close geographical clustering or other epidemiological links. Clostridium botulinum isolates, three of which produced botulism neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) and one BoNT serotype B (BoNT/B), were characterized using whole-genome sequencing (WGS). In silico multilocus sequence typing (MLST) found that two of the BoNT/A-producing isolates shared an identical novel sequence type, ST84. The other two isolates were single-locus variants of this sequence type (ST85 and ST86). All BoNT/A-producing isolates contained the same chromosomally integrated BoNT/A2 neurotoxin gene cluster. The BoNT/B-producing isolate carried a single plasmid-borne bont/B gene cluster, encoding BoNT subtype B6. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based typing results corresponded well with MLST; however, the extra resolution provided by the whole-genome SNP comparisons showed that the isolates differed from each other by >3,500 SNPs. WGS analyses indicated that the four infant botulism cases were caused by genomically distinct strains of C. botulinum that were unlikely to have originated from a common environmental source. The isolates did, however, cluster together, compared with international isolates, suggesting that C. botulinum from environmental reservoirs throughout NSW have descended from a common ancestor. Analyses showed that the high resolution of WGS provided important phylogenetic information that would not be captured by standard seven-loci MLST. PMID:26109442

  4. Genomic Epidemiology of Clostridium botulinum Isolates from Temporally Related Cases of Infant Botulism in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Timothy J.; Wang, Qinning; Ng, Jimmy; Hicks, Leanne; Nguyen, Trang; Yuen, Marion; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Sintchenko, Vitali

    2015-01-01

    Infant botulism is a potentially life-threatening paralytic disease that can be associated with prolonged morbidity if not rapidly diagnosed and treated. Four infants were diagnosed and treated for infant botulism in NSW, Australia, between May 2011 and August 2013. Despite the temporal relationship between the cases, there was no close geographical clustering or other epidemiological links. Clostridium botulinum isolates, three of which produced botulism neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) and one BoNT serotype B (BoNT/B), were characterized using whole-genome sequencing (WGS). In silico multilocus sequence typing (MLST) found that two of the BoNT/A-producing isolates shared an identical novel sequence type, ST84. The other two isolates were single-locus variants of this sequence type (ST85 and ST86). All BoNT/A-producing isolates contained the same chromosomally integrated BoNT/A2 neurotoxin gene cluster. The BoNT/B-producing isolate carried a single plasmid-borne bont/B gene cluster, encoding BoNT subtype B6. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based typing results corresponded well with MLST; however, the extra resolution provided by the whole-genome SNP comparisons showed that the isolates differed from each other by >3,500 SNPs. WGS analyses indicated that the four infant botulism cases were caused by genomically distinct strains of C. botulinum that were unlikely to have originated from a common environmental source. The isolates did, however, cluster together, compared with international isolates, suggesting that C. botulinum from environmental reservoirs throughout NSW have descended from a common ancestor. Analyses showed that the high resolution of WGS provided important phylogenetic information that would not be captured by standard seven-loci MLST. PMID:26109442

  5. Afrikaans Language Maintenance in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatoss, Aniko; Starks, Donna; van Rensburg, Henriette Janse

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the political climate in the home country have resulted in the emigration of South Africans to English speaking countries such as Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Despite the scale of movement of the South African population, language maintenance in these diasporic contexts has received little consideration. This paper…

  6. Lithospheric control on basaltic magma compositions within a long-lived monogenetic magmatic province: the Cainozoic basalts of eastern Victoria, south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, R. C.; Nicholls, I. A.; Maas, R.

    2012-12-01

    Basaltic volcanism, ranging in age from Late Jurassic to Holocene and extending across southern Victoria in south-eastern Australia was initiated ~ 95 Ma ago during the earliest stages of rifting associated with opening of the Tasman Sea and Southern Ocean. Volcanic activity has continued sporadically since that time with the only major hiatus being between 18 and 7 Ma (Price et al, 2003). Basaltic rocks with ages in the range 18-90 Ma occur in small lava fields scattered across eastern and south-eastern Victoria and have also been recovered from bore holes in the west of the state. These have in the past been referred to as the "Older Volcanics" to differentiate them from more volumetrically extensive and younger (< 5 Ma) lava fields to the west. Older Volcanics vary in composition from SiO2-undersaturated basanites, basalts and hawaiites through transitional basalts to hypersthene normative tholeiites. Strontium, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions lie between DM and EM 2 in Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic space. They are isotopically similar to Samoan OIB but different from intra-plate rocks of the New Zealand-Antarctic diffuse alkaline magmatic province (DAMP). Trace element compositions are generally characterised by enrichment of Cs, Ba, Rb, Th, U, Nb, K and light REE over heavy REE, Ti, Zr and Y but there is subtle diversity within and between particular lava fields. (La/Yb)n and K/Nb ratios show significant variation and some basalts are relatively enriched in Sr, P and Pb. Potassium and Rb show distinctive relative depletions in some samples and this could be indicating low degree melting with residual phlogopite. When Sr isotope data for Older Volcanics are projected onto an east-west profile they outline distinctive discontinuities that can be related to surface and subsurface structural features within the basement. This has previously been identified in the "Newer Volcanics" (< 5 Ma) province of western Victoria (Price et al., 1997, 2003). Both Proterozoic and

  7. To what extent do long-duration high-volume dam releases influence river-aquifer interactions? A case study in New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, P. W.; Andersen, M. S.; McCabe, M. F.; Ajami, H.; Baker, A.; Acworth, I.

    2015-03-01

    Long-duration high-volume dam releases are unique anthropogenic events with no naturally occurring equivalents. The impact from such dam releases on a downstream Quaternary alluvial aquifer in New South Wales, Australia, is assessed. It is observed that long-duration (>26 days), high-volume dam releases (>8,000 ML/day average) result in significant variations in river-aquifer interactions. These variations include a flux from the river to the aquifer up to 6.3 m3/day per metre of bank (at distances of up to 330 m from the river bank), increased extent and volume of recharge/bank storage, and a long-term (>100 days) reversal of river-aquifer fluxes. In contrast, during lower-volume events (<2,000 ML/day average) the flux was directed from the aquifer to the river at rates of up to 1.6 m3/day per metre of bank. A groundwater-head prediction model was constructed and river-aquifer fluxes were calculated; however, predicted fluxes from this method showed poor correlation to fluxes calculated using actual groundwater heads. Long-duration high-volume dam releases have the potential to skew estimates of long-term aquifer resources and detrimentally alter the chemical and physical properties of phreatic aquifers flanking the river. The findings have ramifications for improved integrated management of dam systems and downstream aquifers.

  8. 'There's only one enabler; come up, help us': staff perspectives of barriers and enablers to continuous quality improvement in Aboriginal primary health-care settings in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Newham, Jo; Schierhout, Gill; Bailie, Ross; Ward, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a qualitative study, which sought to investigate the barriers and enablers to implementation of a continuous quality improvement (CQI) program by health-care professionals in Aboriginal primary health-care services in South Australia. Eighteen semi-structured interviews across 11 participating services were conducted alongside CQI implementation activities. Multiple barriers exist, from staff perspectives, which can be categorised according to different levels of the primary health-care system. At the macro level, barriers related to resource constraints (workforce issues) and access to project support (CQI coordinator). At the meso level, barriers related to senior level management and leadership for quality improvement and the level of organisational readiness. At the micro level, knowledge and attitudes of staff (such as resistance to change; lack of awareness of CQI) and lack of team tenure were cited as the main barriers to implementation. Staff identified that successful and sustained implementation of CQI requires both organisational systems and individual behaviour change. Improvements through continuing regional level collaborations and using a systems approach to develop an integrated regional level CQI framework, which includes building organisational and clinic team CQI capacity at the health centre level, are recommended. Ideally, this should be supported at the broader national level with dedicated funding. PMID:25719603

  9. Monitoring the spread of myxoma virus in rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus populations on the southern tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. I. Natural occurrence of myxomatosis.

    PubMed

    Merchant, J C; Kerr, P J; Simms, N G; Robinson, A J

    2003-02-01

    A survey of rabbit populations in the southern tablelands of New South Wales, Australia, was carried out to establish the pattern of occurrence of myxomatosis in preparation for a deliberate release of myxoma virus. Myxomatosis was first detected in December and cases were found on most sites through to May. The serological profiles of rabbit populations suggested that their susceptibility to myxoma virus was generally low in winter and highest in spring and summer reflecting the presence of increasing numbers of susceptible young rabbits. This was consistent with the pattern of rabbit breeding, as determined from the distribution of births and reproductive activity in females and males, which occurred maximally in spring and early summer. The serology and age structure of rabbit populations on sites suggested that some rabbit populations can escape an annual myxomatosis epizootic. Although fleas were present on rabbits throughout the year and therefore not considered to be a limiting factor in the spread of myxomatosis, their numbers peaked at times coincident with peak rabbit breeding. It was concluded that mid to late spring was an optimal time for a deliberate release. PMID:12613753

  10. Human health and wellbeing in environmental impact assessment in New South Wales, Australia: Auditing health impacts within environmental assessments of major projects

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Patrick J.; Harris, Elizabeth; Thompson, Susan; Harris-Roxas, Ben; Kemp, Lynn

    2009-09-15

    Internationally the inclusion of health within environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been shown to be limited. While Australian EIA documentation has not been studied empirically to date, deficiencies in practice have been documented. This research developed an audit tool to undertake a qualitative descriptive analysis of 22 Major Project EAs in New South Wales, Australia. Results showed that health and wellbeing impacts were not considered explicitly. They were, however, included indirectly in the identification of traditional public health exposures associated with the physical environment and to a lesser extent the inclusion of social and economic impacts. However, no health data was used to inform any of the assessments, there was no reference to causal pathways between exposures or determinants and physical or mental health effects, and there was no inclusion of the differential distribution of exposures or health impacts on different populations. The results add conceptually and practically to the long standing integration debate, showing that health is in a position to add value to the EIA process as an explicit part of standard environmental, social and economic considerations. However, to overcome the consistently documented barriers to integrating health in EIA, capacity must be developed amongst EIA professionals, led by the health sector, to progress health related knowledge and tools.

  11. River-aquifer interactions and their relationship to stygofauna assemblages: a case study of the Gwydir River alluvial aquifer (New South Wales, Australia).

    PubMed

    Menció, A; Korbel, K L; Hose, G C

    2014-05-01

    In contrast to surface water ecosystems, groundwater ecosystems are usually considered to have relatively stable conditions and physically inert environments. However, many groundwater ecosystems undergo substantial changes through space and time, related to fluxes in groundwater flow, exchange and nutrient imports. In this study we used hydrochemical data to: 1) determine the different hydrogeological conditions in an alluvial system, the shallow Gwydir River alluvial aquifer (located in Northern New South Wales, Australia); and 2) analyze the relationship between hydrochemical conditions and the composition of stygofauna assemblages in the aquifer. Using hydrochemical modeling and multivariate analyses, four main hydrogeological situations were defined as occurring in the aquifer. Bores were classified as having either a high, low or no influence from or exchange with the river. The latter group was further subdivided into those of low and high salinity. Further analysis combining the biological and hydrochemical data identified two main groups of samples. The first group was composed mainly of samples related to the aquifer groundwater which had higher richness and abundance of fauna compared to samples in the second group which was comprised of samples affected by stream water leakage and samples related to the highest salinities. These results suggest that more stable conditions (mainly related to steadier groundwater head levels) and lower nitrate concentrations promoted a more diverse and abundant stygofauna community. PMID:24565862

  12. Biophysical Factors Affecting the Distribution of Demersal Fish around the Head of a Submarine Canyon Off the Bonney Coast, South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Currie, David R.; McClatchie, Sam; Middleton, John F.; Nayar, Sasi

    2012-01-01

    We sampled the demersal fish community of the Bonney Canyon, South Australia at depths (100–1,500 m) and locations that are poorly known. Seventy-eight species of demersal fish were obtained from 12 depth-stratified trawls along, and to either side, of the central canyon axis. Distributional patterns in species richness and biomass were highly correlated. Three fish assemblage groupings, characterised by small suites of species with narrow depth distributions, were identified on the shelf, upper slope and mid slope. The assemblage groupings were largely explained by depth (ρw = 0.78). Compared to the depth gradient, canyon-related effects are weak or occur at spatial or temporal scales not sampled in this study. A conceptual physical model displayed features consistent with the depth zonational patterns in fish, and also indicated that canyon upwelling can occur. The depth zonation of the fish assemblage was associated with the depth distribution of water masses in the area. Notably, the mid-slope community (1,000 m) coincided with a layer of Antarctic Intermediate Water, the upper slope community (500 m) resided within the core of the Flinders Current, and the shelf community was located in a well-mixed layer of surface water (<450 m depth). PMID:22253907

  13. Exposure to the 'Dark Side of Tanning' skin cancer prevention mass media campaign and its association with tanning attitudes in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Perez, Donna; Kite, James; Dunlop, Sally M; Cust, Anne E; Goumas, Chris; Cotter, Trish; Walsberger, Scott C; Dessaix, Anita; Bauman, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Melanoma is the most common cancer among 15- to 29-year-olds in Australia, with rates increasing with age. The 'Dark Side of Tanning' (DSOT) mass media campaign was developed in 2007 to influence attitudes related to tanning. This study aimed to assess recall and impact of the DSOT campaign. Data were collected using online surveys of 13- to 44-year-olds living in New South Wales in the summer months of 2007-2010 (n = 7490). Regression models were used to determine predictors of recall of DSOT and to investigate associations between exposure to the campaign and tanning attitudes. The campaign achieved consistently high recall (unprompted recall 42-53% during campaign periods; prompted recall 76-84%). Those who recalled DSOT advertisements had a higher likelihood of reporting negative tanning attitudes compared with those who reported no recall, after adjusting for other factors (odds ratio [OR] 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.27 for unprompted recall; OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.03-1.36 for prompted recall). Being interviewed in later campaign years was also a significant predictor of negative tanning attitudes (e.g. fourth year of campaign versus first year: OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.53). These results suggest that mass media campaigns have potential to influence tanning-related attitudes and could play an important role in skin cancer prevention. PMID:25697580

  14. Long-lived crustal-scale fluid flow: the hydrothermal mega-breccia of Hidden Valley, Mt. Painter Inlier, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisheit, Anett; Bons, Paul D.; Elburg, Marlina A.

    2013-07-01

    The Palaeozoic Hidden Valley breccia in the Northern Flinders Ranges of South Australia is exceptional for (1) its size of about 10 km2, (2) the large continuous range in clast sizes from tens of microns to hundreds of metres and (3) thorough mixing of lithologies of different provenance, some originally kilometres apart stratigraphically. The size distribution follows a single fractal dimension of about unity over at least 6 orders of magnitude, implying that a single process was responsible for diminution from the 100 m scale, down to < mm. The breccia formed during >12 km exhumation which lasted about 200 Myrs, starting during the ~500 Ma Delamerian Orogeny and continuing during the Alice Springs Orogeny. Fluids released during exhumation were structurally focussed towards Hidden Valley, where an estimated 20 (5-30) km3 total fluid volume caused the extensive brecciation. Brecciation initiated in Neoproterozoic cover metasedimentary rocks, at a level that is now fully exhumed. As hydrothermal fluid ascent continued with ongoing exhumation, the level of brecciation shifted down into the underlying Mesoproterozoic basement rocks, taking with it clasts of cover rocks. In this model, rocks pass through the zone of brecciation, which can thus incorporate a variety of lithologies that were originally kilometres apart.

  15. A geospatial visualisation and chronological study of a late Pleistocene fluvial wetland surface in the semi-arid Flinders Ranges, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasby, Peter; O'Flaherty, Anthony; Williams, Martin A. J.

    2010-05-01

    The semi arid Flinders Ranges of South Australia contain abundant remnants of fine-grained late Pleistocene valley fills. We have mapped these deposits using Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GNSS and topographic surveying techniques for data acquisition and integrate the surveyed data in a geographical information system (GIS) to interpolate a 3-dimensional palaeo-surface representing the uppermost remnant sediments of the late Pleistocene floodplain. Our analysis of sedimentary and landscape profiles indicates a continuous surface and consistent westward slope suggesting that the remnants present today are still largely consistent with the original alluvial surface. In addition, secondary levels are identified and interpreted. Integration of the geospatial landscape characterisation with chronologies from selected sites, microfossil and stable isotope data provides new evidence for the timing, rates of aggradation and mode of deposition of the late Pleistocene fine-grained valley fill formation. The use of GIS for 2-D and 3-D data management, analysis and visualisation provides a visual and quantitative model of landscape changes and helps to clarify how the valley fill deposits accumulated.

  16. Sun exposure may increase risk of prostate cancer in the high UV environment of New South Wales, Australia: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Nair-Shalliker, Visalini; Smith, David P; Egger, Sam; Hughes, Ann Maree; Kaldor, John M; Clements, Mark; Kricker, Anne; Armstrong, Bruce K

    2012-09-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight may influence risk of prostate cancer. In New South Wales (NSW), Australia, we examined the relationship between sun exposure at 30 and 50 years of age and risk of prostate cancer in a case-control study combining the NSW prostate cancer care and outcome study (cases) and the NSW non-Hodgkin's lymphoma study (controls). Prostate cancer risk increased with increasing estimated sun exposure (adjusted OR for highest vs. lowest quartiles of average weekly sun exposure in the warmer months 2.07 95% CI: 1.36-3.15) and this increase was most evident with weekend sun exposure (adjusted OR=5.55, 95% CI: 2.94-10.48). High sun sensitivity was also positively associated with risk for prostate cancer (adjusted OR=1.63, 95% CI: 1.09-2.44). The apparent effects of weekly sun exposure did not vary by disease aggressiveness. Our results suggest that increasing sun exposure in mid-adult years increases prostate cancer risk in a high ambient solar UV environment. Given that previous studies, conducted mainly in low solar UV environments, have generally found evidence of a negative association, our findings suggest there may be a U-shaped relationship between solar UV exposure and prostate cancer. Further studies are needed to test the hypothesis that high solar UV exposure is a risk factor for prostate cancer and to explore possible mechanisms for such an association. PMID:22173996

  17. Estimating the unknown components of nutrient mass balances for forestry plantations in mine rehabilitation, Upper Hunter Valley, New South Wales, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Mercuri, A.M.; Duggin, J.A.; Daniel, H.; Lockwood, P.V.; Grant, C.D.

    2006-04-15

    Commercial forestry plantations as a postmining land use in the Upper Hunter Valley of New South Wales, Australia are restricted by both the poor nutrient availability of mining substrates and low regional rainfall. An experiment was conducted to investigate whether municipal waste products and saline groundwater from coal mining operations could improve early tree growth without impacting on the environment through salt accumulation and/or nutrient enrichment and changes in groundwater quality. Potential impacts were investigated by quantifying the nutrient cycling dynamics within the plantation using an input - output mass balance approach for exchangeable calcium, exchangeable magnesium, exchangeable potassium, exchangeable sodium, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Measured inputs to and outputs from the available nutrient pool in the 0 - 30 cm of the overburden subsystem were used to estimate the net effect of unmeasured inputs and outputs (termed 'residuals'). Residual values in the mass balance of the irrigated treatments demonstrated large leaching losses of exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, and Na. Between 96% and 103% of Na applied in saline mine-water irrigation was leached below the 0-30-cm soil profile zone. The fate of these salts beyond 30 cm is unknown, but results suggest that irrigation with saline mine water had minimal impact on the substrate to 30 cm over the first 2 years since plantation establishment. Accumulations of N and P were detected for the substrate amendments, suggesting that organic amendments (particularly compost) retained the applied nutrients with very little associated losses, particularly through leaching.

  18. Thorough assessment of DNA preservation from fossil bone and sediments excavated from a late Pleistocene-Holocene cave deposit on Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haouchar, Dalal; Haile, James; McDowell, Matthew C.; Murray, Dáithí C.; White, Nicole E.; Allcock, Richard J. N.; Phillips, Matthew J.; Prideaux, Gavin J.; Bunce, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Fossils and sediments preserved in caves are an excellent source of information for investigating impacts of past environmental changes on biodiversity. Until recently studies have relied on morphology-based palaeontological approaches, but recent advances in molecular analytical methods offer excellent potential for extracting a greater array of biological information from these sites. This study presents a thorough assessment of DNA preservation from late Pleistocene-Holocene vertebrate fossils and sediments from Kelly Hill Cave Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Using a combination of extraction techniques and sequencing technologies, ancient DNA was characterised from over 70 bones and 20 sediment samples from 15 stratigraphic layers ranging in age from >20 ka to ˜6.8 ka. A combination of primers targeting marsupial and placental mammals, reptiles and two universal plant primers were used to reveal genetic biodiversity for comparison with the mainland and with the morphological fossil record for Kelly Hill Cave. We demonstrate that Kelly Hill Cave has excellent long-term DNA preservation, back to at least 20 ka. This contrasts with the majority of Australian cave sites thus far explored for ancient DNA preservation, and highlights the great promise Kangaroo Island caves hold for yielding the hitherto-elusive DNA of extinct Australian Pleistocene species.

  19. Indigenous and introduced arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi contribute to plant growth in two agricultural soils from south-western Australia.

    PubMed

    Gazey, C; Abbott, L K; Robson, A D

    2004-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi occur in all agricultural soils but it is not easy to assess the contribution they make to plant growth under field conditions. Several approaches have been used to investigate this, including the comparison of plant growth in the presence or absence of naturally occurring AM fungi following soil fumigation or application of fungicides. However, treatments such as these may change soil characteristics other than factors directly involving AM fungi and lead to difficulties in identifying the reason for changes in plant growth. In a glasshouse experiment, we assessed the contribution of indigenous AM fungi to growth of subterranean clover in undisturbed cores of soil from two agricultural field sites (a cropped agricultural field at South Carrabin and a low input pasture at Westdale). We used the approach of estimating the benefit of AM fungi by comparing the curvature coefficients (C) of the Mitscherlich equation for subterranean clover grown in untreated field soil, in field soil into which inoculum of Glomus invermaium was added and in soil fumigated with methyl bromide. It was only possible to estimate the benefit of mycorrhizas using this approach for one soil (Westdale) because it was the only soil for which a Mitscherlich response to the application of a range of P levels was obtained. The mycorrhizal benefit (C of mycorrhizal vs. non-mycorrhizal plants or C of inoculated vs. uninoculated plants) of the indigenous fungi corresponded with a requirement for phosphate by plants that were colonised by AM fungi already present in the soil equivalent to half that required by non-mycorrhizal plants. This benefit was independent of the plant-available P in the soil. There was no additional benefit of inoculation on plant growth other than that due to increased P uptake. Indigenous AM fungi were present in both soils and colonised a high proportion of roots in both soils. There was a higher diversity of morphotypes of mycorrhizal fungi

  20. Surface water / groundwater interactions and their spatial variability, an example from the Avon River, South-East Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Harald; Cartwright, Ian; Gilfedder, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the interaction between river water and regional groundwater has significant importance for water management and resource allocation. The dynamics of groundwater/surface water interactions also have implications for ecosystems, pollutant transport, and the quality and quantity of water supply for domestic, agriculture and recreational purposes. After general assumptions and for management purposes rivers are classified in loosing or gaining rivers. However, many streams alternate between gaining and loosing conditions on a range of temporal and spatial scales due to factors including: 1) river water levels in relation to groundwater head; 2) the relative response of the groundwater and river system to rainfall; 3) heterogeneities in alluvial sediments that can lead to alternation of areas of exfiltration and infiltration along a river stretch; and 4) differences in near river reservoirs, such parafluvial flow and bank storage. Spatial variability of groundwater discharge to rivers is rarely accounted for as it is assumed that groundwater discharge is constant over river stretches and only changes with the seasonal river water levels. Riverbank storage and parafluvial flow are generally not taken in consideration. Bank storage has short-term cycles and can contribute significantly to the total discharge, especially after flood events. In this study we used hydrogeochemistry to constrain spatial and temporal differences in gaining and loosing conditions in rivers and investigate potential sources. Environmental tracers, such as major ion chemistry, stables isotopes and Radon are useful tools to characterise these sources. Surface water and ground water samples were taken in the Avon River in the Gippsland Basin, Southwest Australia. Increasing TDS along the flow path from 70 to 250 mg/l, show that the Avon is a net gaining stream. The radon concentration along the river is variable and does not show a general increase downstream, but isolated peaks in

  1. Impacts of prescribed burning on soil greenhouse gas fluxes in a suburban native forest of south-eastern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, Y. Z.; Xu, Z. H.; Fu, L.

    2015-07-01

    Prescribed burning is a forest management practice that is widely used in Australia to reduce the risk of damaging wildfires. It can affect both carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in the forest and thereby influence the soil-atmosphere exchange of major greenhouse gases, i.e. carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). To quantify the impact of a prescribed burning (conducted on 27 May 2014) on greenhouse gas exchange and the potential controlling mechanisms, we carried out a series of field measurements before (August 2013) and after (August 2014 and November 2014) the fire. Gas exchange rates were determined at 4 replicate sites which were burned during the combustion and another 4 adjacent unburned sites located in green islands, using a set of static chambers. Surface soil properties including temperature, pH, moisture, soil C and N pools were also determined either by in situ measurement or by analysing surface 10 cm soil samples. All of the chamber measurements indicated a net sink of atmospheric CH4, with mean CH4 uptake ranging from 1.15 to 1.99 mg m-2 day-1. The burning significantly enhanced CH4 uptake as indicated by the significant higher CH4 uptake rates at the burned sites measured in August 2014. While within the next 3 months the CH4 uptake rate was recovered to pre-burning levels. Mean CO2 emission from forest soils ranged from 2721.76 to 7113.49 mg m-2 day-1. The effect of prescribed burning on CO2 emission was limited within the first 3 months, as no significant difference was observed between the burned and the adjacent unburned sites in both August and November 2014. The temporal dynamics of the CO2 emission presented more seasonal variations, rather than burning effects. The N2O emission at the studied sites was quite low, and no significant impact of burning was observed. The changes in understory plants and litter layers, surface soil temperature, C and N substrate availability and microbial activities, resulting from the

  2. Impacts of prescribed burning on soil greenhouse gas fluxes in a suburban native forest of south-eastern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, Y. Z.; Xu, Z. H.; Fu, L.

    2015-11-01

    Prescribed burning is a forest management practice that is widely used in Australia to reduce the risk of damaging wildfires. Prescribed burning can affect both carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in the forest and thereby influence the soil-atmosphere exchange of major greenhouse gases, i.e. carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). To quantify the impact of a prescribed burning (conducted on 27 May 2014) on greenhouse gas exchange and the potential controlling mechanisms, we carried out a series of field measurements before (August 2013) and after (August 2014 and November 2014) the fire. Gas exchange rates were determined in four replicate plots which were burned during the combustion and in another four adjacent unburned plots located in green islands, using a set of static chambers. Surface soil properties including temperature, pH, moisture, soil C and N pools were also determined either by in situ measurement or by analysing surface 10 cm soil samples. All of the chamber measurements indicated a net sink of atmospheric CH4, with mean CH4 uptake ranging from 1.15 to 1.99 mg m-2 d-1. Prescribed burning significantly enhanced CH4 uptake as indicated by the significant higher CH4 uptake rates in the burned plots measured in August 2014. In the following 3 months, the CH4 uptake rate was recovered to the pre-burning level. Mean CO2 emission from the forest soils ranged from 2721.76 to 7113.49 mg m-2 d-1. The effect of prescribed burning on CO2 emission was limited within the first 3 months, as no significant difference was observed between the burned and the adjacent unburned plots in both August and November 2014. The CO2 emissions showed more seasonal variations, rather than the effects of prescribed burning. The N2O emission in the plots was quite low, and no significant impact of prescribed burning was observed. The changes in understory plants and litter layers, surface soil temperature, C and N substrate availability and microbial

  3. Eucalyptus Pollen Allergy and Asthma in Children: A Cross-Sectional Study in South-East Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Jane E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate Eucalyptus (gum tree) pollen allergy in children in relation to geography, particularly vegetation, and its relationship to asthma. Methods Males (n = 180) and females (n = 200) aged 9 to 14 participated. Some were healthy (asymptomatic), some had asthma, and some had other symptoms associated with atopy. School students were from three urban coastal schools and one school from a nearby semi-rural elevated area (range) near Brisbane, Australia. Coastal and range locations featured different distributions of Myrtaceae family vegetation (including Eucalyptus, Melaleuca, Leptospermum species). Skin prick test (SPT) responses to 15 commercial allergens were compared. As well, responses from coast versus range groups, and ‘asthma’ (n = 97) versus ‘healthy’ status (n = 107) groups, were compared. Results SPT responses (≥3mm wheal diameter) indicate that children with asthma are 31.1 times more likely to be allergic to Eucalyptus pollen extract (OR: 31.1; 95%CI 4.1- 235.7) compared to healthy children. Dust mite (p = .018), Eucalyptus (p = .046) and cockroach (p = .047) allergen SPT responses (wheals ≥3mm) were significantly greater in participants located on the coast versus range as determined by Fisher’s Exact Test (α .05). For each location, percentage of positive responses (wheals ≥3mm) was greatest for ‘dust mite’ (30.9%-46%), ‘cockroach’ (18.1% -35%) and ‘Bermuda grass’ (10.6%-19.4%). Conclusions The results support the hypothesis that proximity to Myrtaceae vegetation is related to positive SPT response and that Eucalyptus is an important allergen for children with asthma. Substantial response to olive allergen, in the absence of olive trees, suggests that the response may be driven by substances in other plants, perhaps Melaleuca quinquenervia, which abounds in coastal areas. Implications Response to Eucalyptus allergen indicates that changes in gardening practice in schools and public areas may be

  4. Psychosis, Socioeconomic Disadvantage, and Health Service Use in South Australia: Findings from the Second Australian National Survey of Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Shaun; Air, Tracy; Zannettino, Lana; Galletly, Cherrie

    2015-01-01

    The association between mental illness and poor physical health and socioeconomic outcomes has been well established. In the twenty-first century, the challenge of how mental illnesses, such as psychosis, are managed in the provision of public health services remains complex. Developing effective clinical mental health support and interventions for individuals requires a coordinated and robust mental health system supported by social as well as health policy that places a priority on addressing socioeconomic disadvantage in mental health cohorts. This paper, thus, examines the complex relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage, family/social supports, physical health, and health service utilization in a community sample of 402 participants diagnosed with psychosis. The paper utilizes quantitative data collected from the 2010 Survey of High Impact Psychosis research project conducted in a socioeconomically disadvantaged region of Adelaide, SA, Australia. Participants (42% female) provided information about socioeconomic status, education, employment, physical health, contact with family and friends, and health service utilization. The paper highlights that socioeconomic disadvantage is related to increased self-reported use of emergency departments, decreased use of general practitioners for mental health reasons, higher body mass index, less family contact, and less social support. In particular, the paper explores the multifaceted relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage and poor health confronting individuals with psychosis, highlighting the complex link between socioeconomic disadvantage and poor health. It emphasizes that mental health service usage for those with higher levels of socioeconomic disadvantage differs from those experiencing lower levels of socioeconomic disadvantage. The paper also stresses that the development of health policy and practice that seeks to redress the socioeconomic and health inequalities created by this disadvantage be

  5. The risk of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the oyster-growing estuaries of New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ajani, Penelope; Brett, Steve; Krogh, Martin; Scanes, Peter; Webster, Grant; Armand, Leanne

    2013-06-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of potentially harmful phytoplankton was examined in the oyster-growing estuaries of New South Wales. Forty-five taxa from 31 estuaries were identified from 2005 to 2009. Harmful species richness was latitudinally graded for rivers, with increasing number of taxa southward. There were significant differences (within an estuary) in harmful species abundance and richness for 11 of 21 estuaries tested. Where differences were observed, these were predominately due to species belonging to the Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima group, Dinophysis acuminata, Dictyocha octonaria and Prorocentrum cordatum with a consistent upstream versus downstream pattern emerging. Temporal (seasonal or interannual) patterns in harmful phytoplankton within and among estuaries were highly variable. Examination of harmful phytoplankton in relation to recognised estuary disturbance measures revealed species abundance correlated to estuary modification levels and flushing time, with modified, slow flushing estuaries having higher abundance. Harmful species richness correlated with bioregion, estuary modification levels and estuary class, with southern, unmodified lakes demonstrating greater species density. Predicting how these risk taxa and risk zones may change with further estuary disturbance and projected climate warming will require more focused, smaller scale studies aimed at a deeper understanding of species-specific ecology and bloom mechanisms. Coupled with this consideration, there is an imperative for further taxonomic, ecological and toxicological investigations into poorly understood taxa (e.g. Pseudo-nitzschia). PMID:23111868

  6. Statistical description of wetland hydrological connectivity to the River Murray in South Australia under both natural and regulated conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Sean J.; Souter, Nicholas J.; Bean, Nigel G.; Ross, Joshua V.; Thompson, Richard M.; Bjornsson, Kjartan T.

    2015-12-01

    The effect of river regulation on the connectivity of the South Australian River Murray to its floodplain wetlands was examined using unregulated 'natural' and 'regulated' river flow data simulated between the years 1895 to 2009. A sample of 185 wetlands was used to calculate a range of connectivity statistics under both simulation scenarios. These statistics summarised the timing and duration of both connection and disconnection, as well as inundated area. Wetlands ranged from being permanently inundated, connected multiple times per year due to both small fluctuations in river level and the annual flood pulse, to flooded with diminishing frequency depending on the size of the annual flood pulse and their position on the floodplain. Under the natural scenario a wide range of wetland connectivity profiles were recorded whereas under the regulated scenario wetlands tended to be either permanently inundated or infrequently flooded. Under natural conditions wetlands that required higher flow before connecting were less frequently connected and for shorter periods. Under regulated conditions a larger proportion of wetland area was permanently connected than under natural conditions, however the annual flood pulse connected a larger area of wetlands under natural conditions. The information derived from this analysis can be used to design wetland management plans for individual wetlands within a river-wide management regime restoring lost hydrological variability.

  7. Immigrant maternal depression and social networks. A multilevel Bayesian spatial logistic regression in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, John G; Jalaludin, Bin B; Kemp, Lynn A; Phung, Hai N; Barnett, Bryanne E W

    2013-09-01

    The purpose is to explore the multilevel spatial distribution of depressive symptoms among migrant mothers in South Western Sydney and to identify any group level associations that could inform subsequent theory building and local public health interventions. Migrant mothers (n=7256) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at 2-3 weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale scores (EPDS) of >9 and >12. Individual level variables included were: financial income, self-reported maternal health, social support network, emotional support, practical support, baby trouble sleeping, baby demanding and baby not content. The group level variable reported here is aggregated social support networks. We used Bayesian hierarchical multilevel spatial modelling with conditional autoregression. Migrant mothers were at higher risk of having depressive symptoms if they lived in a community with predominantly Australian-born mothers and strong social capital as measured by aggregated social networks. These findings suggest that migrant mothers are socially isolated and current home visiting services should be strengthened for migrant mothers living in communities where they may have poor social networks. PMID:23973180

  8. An exploration of issues of management and intention to stay: allied health professionals in South West Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Stagnitti, Karen; Schoo, Adrian; Dunbar, James; Reid, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Management of allied health staff and services often has implications for staff stability and retention. A survey of allied health staff in South West Victoria was conducted in 2003 to explore issues relating to recruitment and retention. Findings relating to management and retention of staff in their current job are addressed in this report. A total of 138 staff returned their questionnaires. Results were related to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, level of belonging, with professional needs identified as feeling supported, orientation to the position, clear job description, and able to recommend the position to others. Qualitative data showed that recommending the position was associated with job satisfaction, autonomy, flexibility, and variety of work. The immediate management structure was significantly related to retention. Reasons given for intending to leave were related to management categories. These were management structure, lack of career structure, and lack of professional support. Reasons given by respondents for not recommending their current position were as follows: not for long-term career, risk of deskilling if staying too long, and financially unrewarding. These reasons were also related to management. Positive reasons for staying, which were related to management, included flexible work conditions, variety of clinical and management experience, good working environment, good support, and autonomy. Recommendations are given for organizational development and training for managers. PMID:17243438

  9. Ban on commercial fishing in the estuarine waters of New South Wales, Australia: Community consultation and social impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Momtaz, Salim Gladstone, William

    2008-02-15

    In its effort to resolve the conflict between commercial and recreational fishers the New South Wales (NSW) government (NSW Fisheries) banned commercial fishing in the estuarine waters. The NSW Fisheries conducted a number of studies and held meetings with the affected communities including commercial fishers prior to the implementation of the ban. To investigate how community consultation played a role in the decision-making process especially as perceived by the commercial fishers and to determine actual social impacts of the ban on commercial fishers, in-depth interviews were conducted with the commercial fishers. This research reveals that despite the NSW Fisheries' consultations with commercial fishers prior to the closure, the latter were confused about various vital aspects of the decision. It further reveals that, the commercial fishers faced a number of significant changes as a result of this decision. We argue that a better decision-making process and outcome would have been possible through a meaningful consultation with the commercial fishers and a social impact assessment.

  10. Cold cratonic roots and thermal blankets: How continents affect mantle convection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trubitsyn, V.P.; Mooney, W.D.; Abbott, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    Two-dimensional convection models with moving continents show that continents profoundly affect the pattern of mantle convection. If the continents are wider than the wavelength of the convection cells (???3000 km, the thickness of the mantle), they cause neighboring deep mantle thermal upwellings to coalesce into a single focused upwelling. This focused upwelling zone will have a potential temperature anomaly of about 200??C, much higher than the 100??C temperature anomaly of upwelling zones generated beneath typical oceanic lithosphere. Extensive high-temperature melts (including flood basalts and late potassic granites) will be produced, and the excess temperature anomaly will induce continental uplift (as revealed in sea level changes) and the eventual breakup of the supercontinent. The mantle thermal anomaly will persist for several hundred million years after such a breakup. In contrast, small continental blocks (<1000 km diameter) do not induce focused mantle upwelling zones. Instead, small continental blocks are dragged to mantle downwelling zones, where they spend most of their time, and will migrate laterally with the downwelling. As a result of sitting over relatively cold mantle (downwellings), small continental blocks are favored to keep their cratonic roots. This may explain the long-term survival of small cratonic blocks (e.g., the Yilgarn and Pilbara cratons of western Australia, and the West African craton). The optimum size for long-term stability of a continental block is <3000 km. These results show that continents profoundly affect the pattern of mantle convection. These effects are illustrated in terms of the timing and history of supercontinent breakup, the production of high-temperature melts, and sea level changes. Such two-dimensional calculations can be further refined and tested by three-dimensional numerical simulations of mantle convection with moving continental and oceanic plates.

  11. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  12. Benefit Cost Analysis of Three Skin Cancer Public Education Mass-Media Campaigns Implemented in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Doran, Christopher M; Ling, Rod; Byrnes, Joshua; Crane, Melanie; Shakeshaft, Anthony P; Searles, Andrew; Perez, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Public education mass media campaigns are an important intervention for influencing behaviour modifications. However, evidence on the effectiveness of such campaigns to encourage the population to reduce sun exposure is limited. This study investigates the benefits and costs of three skin cancer campaigns implemented in New South Wales from 2006-2013. This analysis uses Australian dollars (AUD) and 2010-11 as the currency and base year, respectively. Historical data on skin cancer were used to project skin cancer rates for the period 2006-2020. The expected number of skin cancer cases is derived by combining skin cancer rates, sunburn rates and relative risk of skin cancers due to sun exposure. Counterfactual estimates are based on sunburn exposure in the absence of the campaigns. Monetary values are attached to direct (treatment) and indirect (productivity) costs saved due to fewer skin cancer cases. Monetary benefits are compared with the cost of implementing the campaigns and are presented in the form of a benefit-cost ratio. Relative to the counterfactual (i.e., no campaigns) there are an estimated 13,174 fewer skin cancers and 112 averted deaths over the period 2006-2013. The net present value of these benefits is $60.17 million and the campaign cost is $15.63 million. The benefit cost ratio is 3.85, suggesting that for every $1 invested a return of $3.85 is achieved. Skin cancer public education mass media campaigns are a good investment given the likely extent to which they reduce the morbidity, mortality and economic burden of skin cancer. PMID:26824695

  13. Benefit Cost Analysis of Three Skin Cancer Public Education Mass-Media Campaigns Implemented in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Public education mass media campaigns are an important intervention for influencing behaviour modifications. However, evidence on the effectiveness of such campaigns to encourage the population to reduce sun exposure is limited. This study investigates the benefits and costs of three skin cancer campaigns implemented in New South Wales from 2006–2013. This analysis uses Australian dollars (AUD) and 2010–11 as the currency and base year, respectively. Historical data on skin cancer were used to project skin cancer rates for the period 2006–2020. The expected number of skin cancer cases is derived by combining skin cancer rates, sunburn rates and relative risk of skin cancers due to sun exposure. Counterfactual estimates are based on sunburn exposure in the absence of the campaigns. Monetary values are attached to direct (treatment) and indirect (productivity) costs saved due to fewer skin cancer cases. Monetary benefits are compared with the cost of implementing the campaigns and are presented in the form of a benefit-cost ratio. Relative to the counterfactual (i.e., no campaigns) there are an estimated 13,174 fewer skin cancers and 112 averted deaths over the period 2006–2013. The net present value of these benefits is $60.17 million and the campaign cost is $15.63 million. The benefit cost ratio is 3.85, suggesting that for every $1 invested a return of $3.85 is achieved. Skin cancer public education mass media campaigns are a good investment given the likely extent to which they reduce the morbidity, mortality and economic burden of skin cancer. PMID:26824695

  14. Statewide retrospective study of low acuity emergency presentations in New South Wales, Australia: who, what, where and why?

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Michael M; Berendsen Russell, Saartje; Bein, Kendall J; Chalkley, Dane R; Muscatello, David; Paoloni, Richard; Ivers, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study aims to use a statewide population-based registry to assess the prevalence of low acuity emergency department (ED) presentations, describe the trend in presentation rates and to determine whether they were associated with various presentation characteristics such as the type of hospital as well as clinical and demographic variables. Design and setting This was a retrospective analysis of a population-based registry of ED presentations in New South Wales (NSW). Generalised estimating equations with log links were used to determine factors associated with low acuity presentations to account for repeat presentations and the possibility of clustering of outcomes. Participants Patients were included in this analysis if they presented to an ED between January 2010 and December 2014. The outcomes of interest were low acuity presentation, defined as those who self-presented (were not transported by ambulance), were assigned a triage category of 4 or 5 (semiurgent or non-urgent) and discharged back to usual residence from ED. Results There were 10.7 million ED presentations analysed. Of these, 45% were classified as a low acuity presentation. There was no discernible increase in the rate of low acuity presentations across NSW between 2010 and 2014. The strongest predictors of low acuity ED presentation were age <40 years of age (OR 1.77); injury or musculoskeletal administrative and non-urgent procedures (OR 2.96); ear, nose and throat, eye or oral (OR 5.53); skin or allergy-type presenting problems (OR 2.84). Conclusions Low acuity ED presentations comprise almost half of all ED presentations. Alternative emergency models of care may help meet the needs of these patients. PMID:27165649

  15. Privatizing Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, M.T.

    1995-07-01

    The sun is setting on Australia`s long tradition of state involvement in business. As part of efforts begun in the late-1980`s to stem the tide of debt rising within Australian federal and state treasuries, government-owned entities are being corporatized and privatized, and private companies are sponsoring a large share of the country`s new infrastructure projects.

  16. Lithospheric layering in the North American craton.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Huaiyu; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2010-08-26

    How cratons-extremely stable continental areas of the Earth's crust-formed and remained largely unchanged for more than 2,500 million years is much debated. Recent studies of seismic-wave receiver function data have detected a structural boundary under continental cratons at depths too shallow to be consistent with the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, as inferred from seismic tomography and other geophysical studies. Here we show that changes in the direction of azimuthal anisotropy with depth reveal the presence of two distinct lithospheric layers throughout the stable part of the North American continent. The top layer is thick ( approximately 150 km) under the Archaean core and tapers out on the surrounding Palaeozoic borders. Its thickness variations follow those of a highly depleted layer inferred from thermo-barometric analysis of xenoliths. The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary is relatively flat (ranging from 180 to 240 km in depth), in agreement with the presence of a thermal conductive root that subsequently formed around the depleted chemical layer. Our findings tie together seismological, geochemical and geodynamical studies of the cratonic lithosphere in North America. They also suggest that the horizon detected in receiver function studies probably corresponds to the sharp mid-lithospheric boundary rather than to the more gradual lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. PMID:20740006

  17. The differentiation process of the I-type granitoids in southwest Japan and New South Wares in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakatsu, K.; Iwamoto, Y.; Ebisu, S.; Hasegawa, M.; Hiraiwa, N.; Kawakatsu, T.; Kitano, A.; Masuta, T.; Ootsubo, H.; Wakazono, R.

    2013-12-01

    Cretaceous-Paleogene Granitoids in the inner zone of southwest Japan have been divided into two series: the magnetite series that is distributed mainly in the San-in belt and the ilmenite series that is distributed mainly in San-yo belt. For 8 years, we have been investigating the two series to clear their processes of magmatic differentiation. Recently, we discovered oscillatory zoned structure, exsolution lamellae of amphibole, and relics of pyroxene left in the core of amphibole from Harima granodiorite, Nunobiki granodiorite (San-yo belt) and Daito-Yokota quartz diorite (San-in belt). The amphibole that has microstructure coexists with magnetite, ilmenite and pyrrhotite. We compared the two series for crystallization and re-equilibrium by ion substitution using the microstructure of the amphibole as 'time measure' during the differentitation process of acidic magma. While magnetites and ilmenites coexist with the core of the amphiboles, the oxygen fugacity of the San-yo belt magma was low until the later stage of magmatic differentiation where H2S from the Earth's crust mixed with it. In the subsolidus process, hydrothermal solutions circulated. On the other hand, the oxygen fugacity of the San-in belt magma began to rise in the early stage of magmatic differentiation. In the later stage, mafic magma was contaminated with SO2. The rims of amphiboles coexist with pyrrhotites in both of belts. Furthermore, the re-equilibrium of minerals underwent progressive oxidation and hydrothermal fluid circulated actively in the subsolidus process. Bingie Bingie Point at New South Wares (Eurobodalla National Park) is a peninsula about a meter around. The plutonic rocks were formed in the Devonian period and belong to the magnetite series. They are classified I-type granitoids such as those found in the inner zone of southwest Japan. They have only trace amounts of oxide minerals and pyrrhotite. The amphiboles of the granitoids have oscillatory zoned structures at pale green

  18. The Río de la Plata craton and the assembly of SW Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapela, C. W.; Pankhurst, R. J.; Casquet, C.; Fanning, C. M.; Baldo, E. G.; González-Casado, J. M.; Galindo, C.; Dahlquist, J.

    2007-07-01

    The extent and nature of the Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic craton of Río de la Plata of southern South America, a major but poorly understood crustal component in Neoproterozoic plate reconstructions, as well as the depositional, metamorphic and magmatic history of the surrounding orogenic belts, are reviewed and reassessed, in part through the analysis of material recovered from deep boreholes in western Argentina that penetrated Palaeozoic cover into basement. U-Pb SHRIMP zircon ages for these samples of 2162 ± 6 Ma (diorite), 2189 ± 14 Ma (amphibolitic schist) and 2088 ± 6 Ma (granite) encompass the range of ages determined for the major Palaeoproterozoic orogenic events in the exposed parts of the craton close to the Atlantic coasts of Uruguay and Argentina. Taken together with the geochemical and Nd-isotope characteristics of these samples and an olivine gabbro from a further borehole that failed to yield zircon, these results strongly suggest that the Río de la Plata craton is extremely uniform in its dominant chrono-tectonic and lithological make-up, and that it extends westwards as far as the 535-520 Ma Pampean orogenic belt, against which it probably has a fault contact. U-Pb SHRIMP zircon detrital age patterns are presented for representative metasedimentary samples from the craton cover in the Tandilia belt of eastern Argentina, and from the Pampean (Cambrian) and Famatinian (Ordovician) belts to the west of the craton. Whereas the oldest cover rocks in Tandilia clearly show material derived from the underlying craton, such detritus only appears in the younger (Ordovician) units to the west. Sedimentary protoliths in the Pampean belt were dominated by Neoproterozoic (broadly ˜ 600 Ma) and late Mesoproterozoic (broadly ˜ 1100 Ma) provenance, and derivation from the Río de la Plata craton is highly unlikely. Regional considerations, including previously published zircon data, palaeocurrent and structural data, suggest that these rocks must have had an

  19. Geochemistry and age of metamorphosed felsic igneous rocks with A-type affinities in the Willyama Supergroup, Olary Block, South Australia, and implications for mineral exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, P. M.; Cook, N. D. J.; Fanning, C. M.

    1996-09-01

    Leucocratic quartzofeldspathic gneisses form a significant proportion of the lower part of the Palaeoproterozoic Willyama Supergroup sequence in the Olary Block, South Australia and have correlatives in the adjacent Broken Hill Block. Field and geochemical data demonstrate that these rocks were originally rhyolitic volcanics and granite, with A-type affinities consistent with magma production during intracratonic rifting, supporting tectonic models proposed for the Willyama Supergroup in the Broken Hill Block. Although the rocks have characteristic high-field-strength element enrichment, many have undergone extensive pervasive pre- or syn-metamorphic sodic alteration and are typically rich in albite. Sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb zircon data tightly constrain the depositional and early intrusive history. Zircons from an interpreted metavolcanic rock containing relict quartz phenocrysts yield an age of 1699 ± 10 Ma, whereas a metagranitoid sample has an age of 1703 ± 6 Ma. These results are compatible with recent geochronological data on felsic metavolcanic rocks from the Broken Hill Block (Page and Laing, 1992) and are indicative of widespread magmatism during deposition of the Willyama Supergroup. Nd signatures for the two Olary Block samples imply the presence of a significant component from a depleted mantle source. The A-type metavolcanic rocks are locally associated with small iron formations, some of which grade into stratiform barite-rich horizons. Although potentially favourable for sediment-hosted exhalative PbZn mineralisation, the Fe- and Ba-rich units, along with transgressive vein and breccia occurrences of Fe oxides ± quartz ± pyrite cutting both the metavolcanic and metagranitoid rocks, may be more prospective for epigenetic Cu-Au mineralisation related to later metamorphic and/or magmatic events. Partial melting of the A-type suite during high grade regional metamorphism at ~ 1600 ± 20 Ma led to the formation of local

  20. The seasonal succession of zooplankton in the Southern Ocean south of Australia, part II: The Sub-Antarctic to Polar Frontal Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Brian P. V.; Hosie, Graham W.

    2006-07-01

    Between October 2001 and March 2002 six transects were completed at monthly intervals in the Sub-Antarctic Zone (SAZ) and Inter-Sub-Antarctic Front Zone (ISAFZ)/Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ) in the Southern Ocean south of Australia. Zooplankton were collected with a Continuous Plankton Recorder and NORPAC net and multivariate analysis was used to analyse the seasonal succession of communities. Despite strong, seasonally consistent, biogeographic differences between the SAZ and ISAFZ/PFZ, community structure in all zones was dominated by a suite of common taxa. These included the ubiquitous Oithona similis, foraminiferans and appendicularians (Core taxa), occurring in >97% of samples and contributing an average of 75% to total sample abundance, and Calanus simillimus, Rhincalanus gigas, Ctenocalanus citer, Clausocalanus brevipes, Clausocalanus laticeps, Oithona frigida, Limacina spp. and chaetognaths (Summer taxa), present in >57% of samples and occurring at seasonally high densities. Because of the dominance of the Core and Summer taxa, the seasonal succession was most clearly evident as a change in zooplankton densities. In October densities averaged <15 ind m -3, rising to 52 ind m -3 (max=92 ind m -3) in November, and subsequently increasing slowly through to January (ave=115 ind m -3; max=255 ind m -3). Densities peaked abruptly in February (ave=634 ind m -3; max=1593 ind m -3), and remained relatively high in March (ave=193 ind m -3; max=789 ind m -3). A latitudinal lag in seasonal development was observed with peak densities occurring first in the SAZ (February) and then in the ISAFZ/PFZ (March). The seasonal community succession was strongly influenced by species population cycles. The role of zooplankton in biogeochemical cycling in the SAZ and ISAFZ/PFZ was discussed in the light of past sediment trap data collected from the study area.

  1. Trends and Variations in the Rates of Hospital Complications, Failure-to-Rescue and 30-Day Mortality in Surgical Patients in New South Wales, Australia, 2002-2009

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Lixin; Chen, Jack; Assareh, Hassan; Hollis, Stephanie J.; Hillman, Ken; Flabouris, Arthas

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the increased acceptance of failure-to-rescue (FTR) as an important patient safety indicator (defined as the percentage of deaths among surgical patients with treatable complications), there has not been any large epidemiological study reporting FTR in an Australian setting nor any evaluation on its suitability as a performance indicator. Methods We conducted a population-based study on elective surgical patients from 82 public acute hospitals in New South Wales, Australia between 2002 and 2009, exploring the trends and variations in rates of hospital complications, FTR and 30-day mortality. We used Poisson regression models to derive relative risk ratios (RRs) after adjusting for a range of patient and hospital characteristics. Results The average rates of complications, FTR and 30-day mortality were 13.8 per 1000 admissions, 14.1% and 6.1 per 1000 admission, respectively. The rates of complications and 30-day mortality were stable throughout the study period however there was a significant decrease in FTR rate after 2006, coinciding with the establishment of national and state-level peak patient safety agencies. There were marked variations in the three rates within the top 20% of hospitals (best) and bottom 20% of hospitals (worst) for each of the four peer-hospital groups. The group comprising the largest volume hospitals (principal referral/teaching hospitals) had a significantly higher rate of FTR in comparison to the other three groups of smaller-sized peer hospital groups (RR = 0.78, 0.57, and 0.61, respectively). Adjusted rates of complications, FTR and 30-day mortality varied widely for individual surgical procedures between the best and worst quintile hospitals within the principal referral hospital group. Conclusions The decrease in FTR rate over the study period appears to be associated with a wide range of patient safety programs. The marked variations in the three rates between- and within- peer hospital groups highlight the

  2. Element redistribution and mobility during upper crustal metamorphism of metasedimentary rocks: an example from the eastern Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerli, Johannes; Spandler, Carl; Oliver, Nicholas H. S.

    2016-04-01

    We present a detailed study on element mobility during prograde metamorphism of metasedimentary rocks of the eastern Mt. Lofty Ranges, South Australia. Mineral and bulk rock compositions were monitored across a regional metamorphic gradient from ≈350-400 °C to migmatite grade (≈650-700 °C) at ≈0.3-0.5 GPa, where pervasive up-temperature fluid flow during metamorphism has been proposed previously. Major and most trace elements (including rare earth elements) are isochemical during metamorphism as they are effectively redistributed into newly formed major and/or accessory minerals. Monazite or allanite and xenotime control the whole rock concentration of rare earth elements (REEs), whereas apatite and titanite are minor REE hosts. The only non-volatile elements that are demonstrably mobilized by metamorphic fluids are Zn, Pb, Ag, Cs, Sb, Bi and As, whose concentrations decreased with increasing metamorphic grade. Depletion of Zn, Sb and Pb was progressive with increasing temperature in staurolite-absent psammopelites, with losses of ≈80 % of the original Zn and >80 % of the protolithic Sb and ≈50 % of the original Pb from the rocks from high-grade metamorphic zones. Pronounced depletion of As and Cs occurs at the greenschist/amphibolite facies boundary and the transition to migmatite grade, respectively, while Ag and Bi contents decrease between 500 and 550 °C where >50 % of the original Ag and Bi is lost. While for most elements, unmetamorphosed sedimentary sequences can be considered chemical equivalents of metasedimentary rocks occupying deeper crust levels, in some cases, such as the extensive flow of Cl-rich fluid documented here, metals such as Zn, Pb and Ag may be stripped and may serve as a metal source for orebody formation. The decrease of As, Bi and Sb contents during prograde metamorphism might be a more universal feature that is linked with sulphide phase transitions.

  3. Flow chutes in Fowlers Creek, arid western New South Wales, Australia: Evidence for diversity in the influence of trees on ephemeral channel form and process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkerley, David

    2008-12-01

    This paper identifies a fluvial landform, the flow chute, from Fowlers Creek, an ephemeral stream in western New South Wales, Australia. On this stream there are contrasting configurations of channel-margin and channel-bed vegetation ( channel-associated vegetation). In the most common type of channel reach, large Eucalyptus camaldulensis trees grow on the bed and