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Sample records for crawii insecta homoptera

  1. General trends of chromosomal evolution in Aphidococca (Insecta, Homoptera, Aphidinea + Coccinea)

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilov-Zimin, Ilya A.; Stekolshchikov, Andrey V.; Gautam, D.C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Parallel trends of chromosomal evolution in Aphidococca are discussed, based on the catalogue of chromosomal numbers and genetic systems of scale insects by Gavrilov (2007) and the new catalogue for aphids provided in the present paper. To date chromosome numbers have been reported for 482 species of scale insects and for 1039 species of aphids, thus respectively comprising about 6% and 24% of the total number of species. Such characters as low modal numbers of chromosomes, heterochromatinization of part of chromosomes, production of only two sperm instead of four from each primary spermatocyte, physiological sex determination, "larval" meiosis, wide distribution of parthenogenesis and chromosomal races are considered as a result of homologous parallel changes of the initial genotype of Aphidococca ancestors. From a cytogenetic point of view, these characters separate Aphidococca from all other groups of Paraneoptera insects and in this sense can be considered as additional taxonomic characters. In contrast to available paleontological data the authors doubt that Coccinea with their very diverse (and partly primitive) genetic systems may have originated later then Aphidinea with their very specialised and unified genetic system. PMID:26312130

  2. Relationships Between Aphids (Insecta: Homoptera: Aphididae) and Slugs (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Agriolimacidae) Pests of Legumes (Fabaceae: Lupinus)

    PubMed Central

    Kozłowski, Jan; Strażyński, Przemysław; Jaskulska, Monika; Kozłowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Lupin plants are frequently damaged by various herbivorous invertebrates. Significant among these are slugs and aphids, which sometimes attack the same plants. Relationships between aphids, slugs and food plant are very interesting. Grazing by these pests on young plants can lead to significant yield losses. There is evidence that the alkaloids present in some lupin plants may reduce grazing by slugs, aphids and other invertebrates. In laboratory study was analyzed the relationships between aphid Aphis craccivora and slug Deroceras reticulatum pests of legumes Lupinus angustifolius. It was found that the presence of aphids significantly reduced slug grazing on the plants. The lupin cultivars with high alkaloid content were found to be less heavily damaged by D. reticulatum, and the development of A. craccivora was found to be inhibited on such plants. PMID:27324580

  3. Relationships Between Aphids (Insecta: Homoptera: Aphididae) and Slugs (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Agriolimacidae) Pests of Legumes (Fabaceae: Lupinus).

    PubMed

    Kozłowski, Jan; Strażyński, Przemysław; Jaskulska, Monika; Kozłowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Lupin plants are frequently damaged by various herbivorous invertebrates. Significant among these are slugs and aphids, which sometimes attack the same plants. Relationships between aphids, slugs and food plant are very interesting. Grazing by these pests on young plants can lead to significant yield losses. There is evidence that the alkaloids present in some lupin plants may reduce grazing by slugs, aphids and other invertebrates. In laboratory study was analyzed the relationships between aphid Aphis craccivora and slug Deroceras reticulatum pests of legumes Lupinus angustifolius. It was found that the presence of aphids significantly reduced slug grazing on the plants. The lupin cultivars with high alkaloid content were found to be less heavily damaged by D. reticulatum, and the development of A. craccivora was found to be inhibited on such plants. PMID:27324580

  4. Field population abundance of leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadelidae) and planthopper (Homoptera: Delphacidae) as affected by rice growth stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafizal, M. M.; Idris, A. B.

    2013-11-01

    The leafhopper (Homoptera: Delphacidae) and planthopper (Homoptera: Cicadelidae) are considered as important rice pest in Asia including Malaysia. As phloem-feeders, they can cause loss to rice growth development and their population abundance is thought to be influenced by rice growth stages. This study was conducted to examine the population of Delphacidae and Cicadelidae between different rice growth stages, i.e. before and after rice planting periods. Monthly sampling was conducted in three sites in Kuala Selangor at before planting, vegetative, reproductive, maturing stages and post-harvest period using sweeping net and light traps. Population abundance of Delphacidae and Cicadelidae were found to be significantly different and positively correlated with different rice growth stages (p<0.05). Delphacidae was most abundance during maturing stages, while the abundance of Cicadelidae peaked during reproductive stage of rice growth. Differences in temporal abundance of the population of these two homopterans indicated adaptive feeding strategy to reduce food competition.

  5. IRRADIATION AS A PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENT FOR WHITE PEACH SCALE (HOMOPTERA: DIASPIDIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irradiation was examined as a potential phytosanitary treatment to control white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozzetti) (Homoptera: Diaspididae), a serious quarantine pest of papaya in Hawaii. Dose response tests were conducted with 2nd stage nymphs, adult females without eggs, a...

  6. Potential sources of genetic resistance in lettuce to the lettuce aphid, Nasanovia ribisnigri (Mosely) (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lettuce aphid, Nasanovia ribisnigri (Mosely) (Homoptera:Aphididae), is an economically important pest of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). High-level resistance was found in a wild relative, Lactuca virosa L. accession PIVT-280, and transferred to European cultivars. This resistance is conditioned by the...

  7. DEVELOPMENT, REPRODUCTION, AND SURVIVAL OF PAPAYA MEALYBUG (HOMOPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE) ON DIFFERENT HOST PLANT SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus @illiams and Granara de Willink (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae)) is a polyghagus insect and a pest of various tropical crops and ornamentals. It was introduced into the United States in 1998 in Florida. Papaya mealybug potentially poses a threat to numerous agricul...

  8. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape benchgrafts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlled atmosphere with ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments for control of vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus Signoret (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), on grape rootstocks were developed successfully. Two ULO treatments with 30 ppm oxygen, 3 days at 25'C and 4 days at 15'C, achieved complete control of a...

  9. A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research. Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this

  10. Potentiation/Antagonism of pyrethroids with organophosphate insecticides in Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mushtaq

    2007-06-01

    The binary mixtures of pyrethroids cypermethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, zeta-cypermethrin, bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and deltamethrin plus organophosphates ethion, profenofos, chlorpyrifos, quinalphos, acephate, methamidophos, methyl parathion, and triazophos were evaluated on putatively resistant field populations of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) from Pakistan using a leaf-dip bioassay. Ethion exhibited good potentiation with all the pyrethroids. Quinalphos potentiated cypermethrin, fenpropathrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin but not bifenthrin. Acephate was potentiating with bifenthrin and fenpropathrin but antagonistic with zeta-cypermethrin. A potentiation effect was also found when methamidophos was mixed with bifenthrin and fenpropathrin. However, profenofos was antagonistic with cypermethrin, bifenthrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin. Similarly, bifenthrin + methyl parathion and deltamethrin + triazophos mixtures were antagonistic when tested on several populations of B. tabaci. Chlorpyrifos was antagonistic with cypermethrin but had an additive effect with fenpropathrin. PMID:17598552

  11. Fine structure of adhesive devices of Strepsiptera (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Pohl, Hans; Beutel, Rolf G

    2004-01-01

    Legs and other body parts of males, females and first instar larvae of almost all recognised families of Strepsiptera (Insecta) were examined. Descriptions of tibial, tarsal and pretarsal adhesive structures for each family are presented. These and attachment devices not associated with the legs are discussed. Strepsiptera evolved two strictly different types of tarsal attachment structures: hairy surfaces in the males and smooth flexible pads in the first instar larvae. Additional adhesive devices are present in several subgroups: mushroom-shaped microtrichia on the maxillary palp of males of Bohartillidae and acute pointed tibiae, or tarsal segments of males in different families. First instar larvae have evolved adhesive hairs on the ventral side of the body and on the podomeres. Specialised adhesive hairs are absent in the groundplan of adult males of Strepsiptera, but have evolved with the adoption of permanent endoparasitism of females. The most elaborate attachment structures, both in males and first instar larvae, are present in parasites of fast flying hymenopteran hosts (Aculeata). PMID:18089021

  12. The mitochondrial genome of the entomophagous endoparasite Xenosvesparum (Insecta: Strepsiptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Carapelli, Antonio; Vannini, Laura; Nardi, Francesco; Boore,Jeffrey L.; Beani, Laura; Dallai, Romano; Frati, Francesco

    2005-12-01

    In this study, the nearly complete sequence (14,519 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the entomophagous endoparasite Xenos vesparum (Insecta: Strepsiptera) is described. All protein coding genes (PCGs) are in the arrangement known to be ancestral for insects, but three tRNA genes (trnA, trnS(gcu), and trnL(uag)) have transposed to derived positions and there are three tandem copies of trnH, each of which is potentially functional. All of these rearrangements except for that of trnL(uag) is within the short span between nad3 and nad4 and there are numerous blocks of unassignable sequence in this region, perhaps as remnants of larger scale predisposing rearrangements. X. vesparum mtDNA nucleotide composition is strongly biased toward As and Ts, as is typical for insect mtDNAs. There is also significant strand skew in the distribution of these nucleotides, with the J-strand being richer in A than T and in C than G, and the N-strand showing an opposite skew for complementary pairs of nucleotides. The hypothetical secondary structure of the 16S rRNA has also been reconstructed, obtaining a structural model similar to that of other insects.

  13. The complete mitogenome of Arcyptera coreana (Insecta: Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Nian; Huang, Yuan

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitogenome of Arcyptera coreana (Insecta: Orthoptera: Acrididae) is determined to be 15,783 bp in length, consisting of 37 typical mitochondrial genes and an AT-rich region. Its gene order and orientation are identical to those of most other grasshoppers. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by typical ATN codons, except for cox1 gene with the unusual TTA as its start codon. Eleven genes use complete termination codon (TAA), whereas the cox2 and nad5 genes end with a single T. Except for trnS(AGN), all tRNA genes display typical secondary cloverleaf structures as those of other insects. The two rRNA genes (rrnL and rrnS) are 1,309 bp and 792 bp, respectively. The 946-bp long AT-rich region contains several features common to those of other Caelifera insects, such as the stem-loop secondary structure and the motif "TATTTwATryAyAAA". PMID:25231716

  14. The complete mitogenome of Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Harold) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Nan, Xiaoning; Wei, Cong; He, Hong

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Harold) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae) were reconstructed from whole-genome Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing data with an average coverage of 1406.7X. The circular genome is 15,122 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 21 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and one D-loop or control region. The tRNA-Ile gene was not found in the mitochondrial genome, as is identical to two other curculionidae species, i.e. Sphenophorus sp. (GU176342) and Naupactus xanthographus (GU176345). All PCGs initiated with ATN codons, except for the ND1 started with TTG. Two PCGs (COI and ND4) have an incomplete stop codon T. Two PCGs (ND4L and ND1) harbor the stop codon TAG, while all other PCGs terminated with the TAA codon. The nucleotide composition is highly asymmetric (38.7% A, 14.4% C, 9.2% G and 37.8% T) with an overall AT content of 76.5%. PMID:25427809

  15. Categories and inheritance of resistance to Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) biotype 2 in a selection from wheat cereal introduction 2401

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) (Homoptera: Aphididae), is one of the most devastating insect pests of wheat (Triticum spp.) and barley (Hordeum spp.) in the world. Yield losses and control costs are valued at several hundred million dollars each year. The use of D. noxia-resi...

  16. Effects of Powdery Mildew Fungicide Programs on Twospotted Spider Mite (Acari: Tetranychidae), Hop Aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae), and Their Natural Enemies in Hop Yards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari:Tetranychidae), and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Homoptera:Aphidiae), are the most important arthropod pests of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) in the Northern Hemisphere. A potential barrier for greater adoption of conservation biological c...

  17. Responses of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) to susceptible and resistant lettuce.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Biao; McCreight, James D

    2006-06-01

    Nymphs and alates of aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Homoptera: Aphididae) were tested on 10 lettuce cultivars with N. ribisnigri resistance gene Nr and 18 cultivars without the resistance gene in various bioassays. Bioassays used whole plants, leaf discs, or leaf cages to determine susceptibility of commercial lettuce cultivars to N. ribisnigri infestation and to evaluate screening methods for breeding lettuce resistance to N. ribisnigri. Resistant and susceptible plants were separated in 3 d when using whole plant bioassays. Long-term (> or =7 d) no-choice tests using leaf cages or whole plants resulted in no survival of N. ribisnigri on resistant plants, indicating great promise of the Nr gene for management of N. ribisnigri. Effective screening was achieved in both no-choice tests where resistant or susceptible intact plants were tested separately in groups or individually and in choice tests where susceptible and resistant plants were intermixed. Leaf discs bioassays were not suitable for resistance screening. All lettuce cultivars without the resistance gene were suitable hosts for N. ribisnigri, indicating the great importance of this pest to lettuce production and the urgency in developing resistant lettuce cultivars to manage N. ribisnigri. PMID:16813339

  18. Predicting numbers of an insect (Neophilaenus lineatus: Homoptera) in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, J B; Tribe, N P

    1998-11-01

    Measurements of the density of an upland population of the spittlebug Neophilaenus lineatus (L.) (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha) were made from 1961 to 1997. Population change from year to year is shown to be largely density-independent. Analyses of meteorological records over the 37-year period showed that the weather variable with the highest correlation with population change was mean minimum temperature in September. A simple model was constructed relating numerical changes from 1961 to 1992 to temperature, and this was found to explain 75% of the change in this population. The model was used to predict numerical change from 1993 to 1997 over which period it explained 70% of the change. The model predicts that a projected rise in mean temperature of 1°C would increase the mean population density of N. lineatus by 50%. Experimental cloches at the upland site which raised mean temperature by 1°C, had N. lineatus densities which were 157% higher than in adjacent control quadrats. An experimental raising of field temperature at a lowland site where population change had been shown to be density dependent did not result in density changes, although dates of hatching were earlier. PMID:26412377

  19. Effects of Transgenic Bt Rice on Nontarget Rhopalosiphum maidis (Homoptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Ren, Shao-Peng; Yang, Fan; Gao, Ming-Qing; Pu, De-Qiang; Shi, Min; Ye, Gong-Yin; Shen, Zhi-Cheng; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2016-08-01

    The effects of three transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice lines, KMD1, KMD2, and G8-7, on biological parameters and population dynamics of nontarget insect, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) (Homoptera: Aphididae), were investigated in the laboratory and field. No significant differences were found between Bt and non-Bt rice lines for aphid survival. The developmental time of R. maidis that fed on KMD1 and KMD2 did not differ significantly from those of the individuals feeding on the parental variety Xiushui11, but significantly prolonged developmental time was observed on G8-7 as compared with its parental variety Xiushui110. Aphid fecundity was significantly higher on Bt than on parental rice. A 2-yr field survey indicated that Bt rice did not significantly affect the population dynamics of R. maidis in comparison with non-Bt rice. Additionally, guttation droplets of Bt rice and aphids feeding on Bt rice were analyzed for presence of Cry1Ab using ELISA. No Cry1Ab protein was found in aphid adults feeding on Bt rice lines both in the laboratory and field. By using the guttation droplets from the top of rice seedlings, we designed a novel method to collect phloem sap, and found that relatively low concentrations were detected in the guttation droplets from Bt rice lines. In conclusion, although the Bt rice lines tested in this study stimulate the fecundity of R. maidis, the aphid population density did not increase in Bt rice fields. PMID:27389683

  20. Tillage impacts cereal-aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) infestations in spring small grains.

    PubMed

    Hesler, L S; Berg, R K

    2003-12-01

    We compared infestation levels of cereal aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) in spring-seeded wheat and barley grown with and without preplant tillage for 8 site yr in eastern South Dakota. Crop residue covered approximately 25% of the soil surface with preplant tillage, whereas without preplant tillage 50% or more of surface residue was conserved. Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) comprised nearly 90% of all cereal aphids sampled, and R. maidis (Fitch), Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), and Sitobion avenae (F.) collectively comprised the remainder. R. padi routinely infested lower parts of tillers and were generally concealed by surface residue in plots with no preplant tillage. Across 7 site yr, R. padi were more abundant in plots with no preplant tillage than with preplant tillage (272.6 +/- 54.4 versus 170.1 +/- 37.2 aphid days per 25 tillers). However, in comparisons at individual site years, R. padi were greater in no-preplant tillage plots only once. For all cereal-aphid species combined, infestations were greater in plots with no preplant tillage for 1 of 8 site yr, but did not differ with tillage when compared across all site years. Cereal aphids were never more abundant in plots with preplant tillage. Our results show that conservation tillage leads to greater infestations of R. padi in spring small grains, as increased surface residue provides a favorable microhabitat for this aphid. PMID:14977117

  1. Monochoroterpes, a replacement name for Monophyllus Kluge, 2012 (Insecta: Ephemeroptera), nec Monophyllus Leach, 1821 (Mammalia: Chiroptera).

    PubMed

    Kluge, Nikita J; Jacobus, Luke M

    2015-01-01

    The genus group name Monophyllus Kluge, 2012 was established to include a single species of the mayfly family Leptophlebiidae (Insecta: Ephemeroptera) from Hainan Island, China, Choroterpes (Monophyllus) monophyllus Kluge, 2012. Unfortunately, this name is preoccupied by Monophyllus Leach, 1821, a genus of Phyllostomidae bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from the Antilles (type species: M. redmani Leach, 1821: 76). Therefore, we propose a replacement name for the mayfly genus group as follows. PMID:25947682

  2. Heavy metal bioaccumulation and mobility from rice plants to Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae) in China.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ting-li; Liu, Shun; Tang, Qi-yi; Cheng, Jia-an

    2014-06-01

    Samples of soils, rice plants, and the adult, long-winged, brown planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Homoptera: Delphacidae), were collected from 18 sites of 9 regions in southern China. The concentrations of seven elements (Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Ag, Cd, and Pb) were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Heavy metal mobility and bioaccumulation were analyzed in the rice plant-N. lugens system. The concentrations of Zn, As, Cd, and Pb in rice plants were positively correlated with their relevant concentrations in soil samples The bioconcentration factors of the seven elements in the rice plant-N. lugens system showed that the order of metal accumulation was Mo>Zn>Ag>Cd>Cu>Pb>As. In particular, Mo and Zn showed significantly high accumulation in N. lugens. A cluster analysis and factor analysis showed that the bioaccumulation of these seven elements in the rice plant-N. lugens system could be classified into two groups, closely related to their molar mass. The first group consisted of five elements with relatively light molar masses: Cu, Zn, As, Mo, and Ag. Cu and Zn, which have nearly equal molar masses, showed similar accumulation levels in N. lugens. The second group included two elements with relatively heavy molar masses: Cd and Pb. This study demonstrated that bioaccumulation of seven heavy metals was regular in the rice plant-N. lugens system. N. lugens could be used as bioindicators of the contaminated degree for Zn in rice paddy fields. This information may provide a basis for future ecological research on the bioaccumulation mechanism in N. lugens. PMID:24735989

  3. Description of a new species of Oligosita Walker (Chalcidoidea: Trichogrammatidae), egg parasitoid of Balclutha brevis Lindberg (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) living on Pennisetum setaceum, from Italy.

    PubMed

    Bella, Salvatore; Cupani, Sebastiano; D'urso, Vera; Laudonia, Stefania; Sinno, Martina; Viggiani, Gennaro

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Oligosita Walker (Chalcidoidea: Trichogrammatidae), O. balcluthae Viggiani et Laudonia n. sp., is described as a parasitoid of the eggs of Balclutha brevis Lindberg (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) associated with crimson fountain grass, Pennisetum setaceum (Poaceae) in Italy. Morphological features and biology of the new species are discussed and illustrated. The 28S-D2 and ITS2 regions were successfully amplified and sequenced. PMID:26624644

  4. Genetic diversity of Costa Rican populations of the rice planthopper Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae).

    PubMed

    Hernández, Myriam; Quesada, Tania; Muñoz, Claudia; Espinoza, Ana M

    2004-09-01

    Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae) is one of the main constraints of the rice production in the Neotropics. This planthopper produces severe damages as a phloem feeder, causes mechanical injury during oviposition and vectors the rice hoja blanca virus (RHBV). The main objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of T. orizicolus populations from three rice growing regions of Costa Rica, using RAPDs. Individuals from Guanacaste, Parrita, San Carlos and Cali-Colombia, as outgroup, were analyzed using the random primers. Phenetic relationships revealed that the Costa Rican populations were clearly separated from Cali-Colombia, sharing less than 25% similarity. Costa Rican populations were divided into two main branches separated at 30% similarity. The first branch included Guanacaste and San Carlos and the second displayed Parrita. In relation to similarity indexes within groups, the Guanacaste cluster showed the highest (over 50%) and Cali-Colombia was the most diverse (28%). The correspondence analysis confirmed the clusters of the phenogram and showed close interactions between the Parrita and San Carlos populations. The genetic separation observed could be the result of the geographic isolation among populations, but it could also be explained by the infection with the rickettsia Wolbachia pipientis. This bacterium causes cytoplasmic incompatibility in its host, which results in non-viable progeny when infected males mate with non-infected females, or when insects hosting different strains of Wolbachia mate. Then, a search for Wolbachia in previously described populations of T orizicolus was initiated. The presence of the bacteria was analyzed by PCR with 16S rDNA-specific primers for Wolbachia. The PCR analyses revealed infections of 86% in the population of San Carlos, 96% in Guanacaste, 37% in Parrita and 100% in Cali-Colombia. Crosses between individuals of T. orizicolus from Parrita and Guanacaste were performed for testing

  5. Masquerading as self? Endoparasitic Strepsiptera (Insecta) enclose themselves in host-derived epidermal bag.

    PubMed

    Kathirithamby, Jeyaraney; Ross, Larry D; Johnston, J Spencer

    2003-06-24

    We report here the case of a metazoan parasite, a strepsipteran, that manipulates host epidermal tissue and wraps itself within it; which probably camouflages the endoparasite and is recognized as "self" by the host. This mechanism is one of immune avoidance among parasitoid insects. The host-derived epidermal "bag" might have enabled Strepsiptera to radiate to disparate hosts compared with the relatively few taxa (596 species) described so far. They have been recorded as parasitizing 34 families belonging to seven orders of Insecta. We also report a mechanism of insect ecdysis between the first- and second-instar larva, while enclosed in the bag. PMID:12788973

  6. Genetics, realized heritability and preliminary mechanism of spinosad resistance in Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae): an invasive pest from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Abbas, Naeem

    2015-12-01

    The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) has gained recognition as a key pest due to its invasive nature throughout the world. The P. solenopsis has a wide range of host plants and damages the cotton crop in various parts of the world. In view of the economic importance of this pest, a study on selection, inheritance and mechanism of spinosad resistance was conducted on P. solenopsis. Selection of field collected P. solenopsis for seven generations with spinosad resulted in a high resistance ratio of 282.45-fold. Genetic studies of spinosad resistance in P. solenopsis indicated that maternal effects are not involved in spinosad resistance; and resistance development is an autosomal and incompletely dominant trait. The number of genes involved in spinosad resistance was determined to be more than one, suggesting that resistance is controlled by multiple loci. The realized heritability (h (2)) value for spinosad resistance was 0.94. Synergism bioassays of spinosad with piperonyl butoxide and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate showed that spinosad resistance in P. solenopsis could be due to esterase only. The study provides the basic information for implementation of effective resistance management strategies to control P. solenopsis. PMID:26494239

  7. Genetic variation among species, races, forms and inbred lines of lac insects belonging to the genus Kerria (Homoptera, Tachardiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Sanjeev Kumar; Mallick, Chandana Basu; Saha, Dipnarayan; Vidyarthi, Ambarish S; Ramani, Ranganathan

    2011-01-01

    The lac insects (Homoptera: Tachardiidae), belonging to the genus Kerria, are commercially exploited for the production of lac. Kerria lacca is the most commonly used species in India. RAPD markers were used for assessing genetic variation in forty-eight lines of Kerria, especially among geographic races, infrasubspecific forms, cultivated lines, inbred lines, etc., of K. lacca. In the 48 lines studied, the 26 RAPD primers generated 173 loci, showing 97.7% polymorphism. By using neighbor-joining, the dendrogram generated from the similarity matrix resolved the lines into basically two clusters and outgroups. The major cluster, comprising 32 lines, included mainly cultivated lines of the rangeeni form, geographic races and inbred lines of K. lacca. The second cluster consisted of eight lines of K. lacca, seven of the kusmi form and one of the rangeeni from the southern state of Karnataka. The remaining eight lines formed a series of outgroups, this including a group of three yellow mutant lines of K. lacca and other species of the Kerria studied, among others. Color mutants always showed distinctive banding patterns compared to their wild-type counterparts from the same population. This study also adds support to the current status of kusmi and rangeeni, as infraspecific forms of K. lacca. PMID:21931527

  8. Characterization of Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) Resistance to Emamectin Benzoate: Cross-Resistance Patterns and Fitness Cost Analysis.

    PubMed

    Afzal, M B S; Shad, S A

    2016-06-01

    Cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a sucking pest of worldwide importance causing huge losses by feeding upon cotton in various parts of the world. Because of the importance of this pest, this research was carried out to select emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis in the laboratory to study cross-resistance, stability, realized heritability, and fitness cost of emamectin resistance. After selection from third generation (G3) to G6, P. solenopsis developed very high emamectin resistance (159.24-fold) when compared to a susceptible unselected population (Unsel pop). Population selected to emamectin benzoate conferred moderate (45.81-fold), low (14.06-fold), and no cross-resistance with abamectin, cypermethrin, and profenofos, respectively compared to the Unsel pop. A significant decline in emamectin resistance was observed in the resistant population when not exposed to emamectin from G7 to G13. The estimated realized heritability (h (2)) for emamectin resistance was 0.84. A high fitness cost was associated with emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis. Results of this study may be helpful in devising insecticide resistance management strategies for P. solenopsis. PMID:26868652

  9. Inheritance, realized heritability and biochemical mechanism of acetamiprid resistance in the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali

    2015-07-01

    The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a serious pest in many countries of the world because of its polyphagous nature and has caused huge losses to the cotton crop. The aim of present study was to explore the mode of inheritance and mechanism of acetamiprid resistance in P. solenopsis. After five rounds of selection with acetamiprid, P. solenopsis developed a 315-fold resistance compared with the laboratory susceptible population. The LC50 values of progenies of both reciprocal crosses (F1 and F1') showed no significant difference and degree of dominance values were 0.56 and 0.93 for F1 and F1', respectively. Monogenic model of inheritance and Lande's method revealed that more than one factors were involved in acetamiprid resistance. Realized heritability (h(2)) value was 0.58 for acetamiprid resistance. A synergism study of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) with acetamiprid also showed the significant presence of P-450 mono-oxygenase and esterase in the acetamiprid resistance. Hence, acetamiprid resistance in the P. solenopsis was autosomal, incompletely dominant and polygenic. These results are a source of basic information to design and plan fruitful management programmes to control P. solenopsis. PMID:26071806

  10. Novel Primers From Informative Nuclear Loci for Louse Molecular Phylogenetics (Insecta: Phthiraptera).

    PubMed

    Sweet, Andrew D; Allen, Julie M; Johnson, Kevin P

    2014-11-01

    While parasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) have historically been an important model taxon for understanding host-parasite coevolution, very few molecular markers have been developed for phylogenetic analysis. The current markers are insufficient to resolve many of the deeper nodes in this group; therefore, sequences from additional genetic loci are necessary. Here, we design primers targeting several nuclear protein coding genes based on a complete genome and transcriptome of Pediculus humanus L. plus transcriptomes and modest coverage genomic data from five genera of avian feather lice. These primers were tested on 32 genera of avian feather lice (Ischnocera), including multiple species within some genera. All of the new primer combinations produced sequences for the majority of the genera and had similar or higher divergences than the most widely used nuclear protein-coding gene in lice, EF-1α. These results indicate that these new loci will be useful in resolving phylogenetic relationships among parasitic lice. PMID:26309297

  11. A review of the current state of knowledge of fossil Mantispidae (Insecta: Neuroptera).

    PubMed

    Jepson, James E

    2015-01-01

    There are 32 individual specimens of Mantispidae (Insecta: Neuroptera) currently recorded from the fossil record, the oldest of which dates back to the Lower Jurassic. These include 19 described species (in 16 genera), 1 specimen described to genus level and 9 unnamed specimens The specimens have been assigned to the extant subfamilies Drepanicinae (4), Mantispinae (10), Symphrasinae (1), and the extinct subfamily Mesomantispinae (16), with one incertae sedis within Mantispidae. There are currently no known fossil representatives of the subfamily Calomantispinae. Mesithoninae has been removed from Mantispidae and placed back within Berothidae. The species Mesithone carnaria and M. monstruosa, however, are true mantispids and have been removed from Mesithone and placed within a new genus Karataumantispa gen. nov. in the subfamily Mesomantispinae. The current state of knowledge of the fossil record of Mantispidae is reviewed and a key to the genera of Mesomantispinae is provided. PMID:26249453

  12. The complete mitochondrial genomes of four cockroaches (Insecta: Blattodea) and phylogenetic analyses within cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xue-Fang; Zhang, Le-Ping; Yu, Dan-Na; Storey, Kenneth B; Zhang, Jia-Yong

    2016-07-15

    Three complete mitochondrial genomes of Blaberidae (Insecta: Blattodea) (Gromphadorhina portentosa, Panchlora nivea, Blaptica dubia) and one complete mt genome of Blattidae (Insecta: Blattodea) (Shelfordella lateralis) were sequenced to further understand the characteristics of cockroach mitogenomes and reconstruct the phylogenetic relationship of Blattodea. The gene order and orientation of these four cockroach genomes were similar to known cockroach mt genomes, and contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and one control region. The mt genomes of Blattodea exhibited a characteristics of a high A+T composition (70.7%-74.3%) and dominant usage of the TAA stop codon. The AT content of the whole mt genome, PCGs and total tRNAs in G. portentosa was the lowest in known cockroaches. The presence of a 71-bp intergenic spacer region between trnQ and trnM was a unique feature in B. dubia, but absent in other cockroaches, which can be explained by the duplication/random loss model. Based on the nucleotide and amino acid datasets of the 13 PCGs genes, neighbor-joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and bayesian inference (BI) analyses were used to rebuild the phylogenetic relationship of cockroaches. All phylogenetic analyses consistently placed Isoptera as the sister cluster to Cryptocercidae of Blattodea. Ectobiidae and Blaberidae (Blaberoidea) formed a sister clade to Blattidae. Corydiidae is a sister clade of all the remaining cockroach species with a high value in NJ and MP analyses of nucleotide and amino acid datasets, and ML and BI analyses of the amino acid dataset. PMID:27045773

  13. Association of Bactericera cockerelli (Homoptera: Psyllidae) with "zebra chip," a new potato disease in southwestern United States and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Munyaneza, J E; Crosslin, J M; Upton, J E

    2007-06-01

    A new defect of potato, Solanum tuberosum L., "zebra chip," so named for the characteristic symptoms that develop in fried chips from infected potato tubers, has recently been documented in several southwestern states of the United States, in Mexico, and in Central America. This defect is causing millions of dollars in losses to both potato producers and processors. Zebra chip plant symptoms resemble those caused by potato purple top and psyllid yellows diseases. Experiments were conducted to elucidate the association between the psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Homoptera: Psyllidae) and zebra chip by exposing clean potato plants to this insect under greenhouse and field conditions. Potato plants and tubers exhibiting zebra chip symptoms were tested for phytoplasmas by polymerase chain reaction. Potato psyllids collected from infected potato fields also were tested. Results indicated that there was an association between the potato psyllid and zebra chip. Plants exposed to psyllids in the greenhouse and field developed zebra chip. In the greenhouse, 25.8 and 59.2% of tubers exhibited zebra chip symptoms in the raw tubers and fried chips, respectively. In the field, 15 and 57% of tubers showed symptoms in raw tubers and chips, respectively. No zebra chip was observed in tubers from plants that had not been exposed to psyllids, either in the greenhouse or field. No phytoplasmas were detected from potato plants or tubers with zebra chip symptoms, suggesting that these pathogens are not involved in zebra chip. Of the 47 samples of potato psyllids tested, only two tested positive for the Columbia Basin potato purple top phytoplasma. PMID:17598522

  14. Antibiosis and tolerance to five species of spittlebug (Homoptera: Cercopidae) in Brachiaria spp.: implications for breeding for resistance.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Cesar; Fory, Paola; Sotelo, Guillermo; Pabon, Alejandro; Diaz, Giovanna; Miles, John W

    2004-04-01

    Several genera and species of spittlebugs (Homoptera: Cercopidae) are economic pests of Brachiaria spp. grasses in tropical America. To support current breeding programs aimed at obtaining multiple spittlebug resistance, we undertook a series of studies on antibiosis and tolerance as possible mechanisms of resistance to five major spittlebug species affecting Brachiaria spp. in Colombia: Aeneolamia varia (F.), Aeneolamia reducta (Lallemand), Zulia carbonaria (Lallemand), Zulia pubescens (F.), and Mahanarva trifissa (Jacobi). Four host genotypes, well known for their reaction to A. varia attack, were used to compare their resistance to other spittlebug species: CIAT 0654 and CIAT 0606 (susceptible) and CIAT 6294 and CIAT 36062 (resistant). CIAT 0654 and CIAT 36062 were used in antibiosis studies. Tolerance studies were conducted with CIAT 0654, CIAT 6294, and CIAT 36062. Sixty-five hybrid-derived clones were used to identify levels of multiple resistance to three spittlebug species. The levels of antibiosis resistance in CIAT 36062 clearly differed by spittlebug species and were classified as follows: very high for M. trifissa, high for A. varia and A. reducta, moderate for Z. pubescens, and absent for Z. carbonaria. Our results suggest the presence of true tolerance to Z. carbonaria in CIAT 6294 and CIAT 36062, true tolerance to Z. pubescens in CIAT 6294 and a combination of tolerance and antibiosis as mechanisms of resistance to Z. pubescens in CIAT 36062. Of the 65 hybrid clones tested with A. varia, A. reducta, and Z. carbonaria, 15 combined resistance to two species and three showed antibiosis resistance to all three spittlebug species. PMID:15154493

  15. Assembly and annotation of full mitochondrial genomes for the corn rootworm species, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera and D. barberi (Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), using Next Generation Sequence data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complete mitochondrial genomes for two corn rootworm species, Diabrotica v. virgifera (16,747 bp) and D. barberi (16,632; Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), were assembled from Illumina HiSeq2000 read data. Annotation indicated that the order and orientation of 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), and...

  16. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the Scarlet Tiger moth Callimorpha dominula (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Arctiidae).

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiao-Yi; Duan, Xiao-Yu; Qiang, Yi

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Scarlet Tiger moth Callimorpha dominula (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) has been reconstructed from the whole-genome Illumina sequencing data. This circular genome is 15 496 bp in size, and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), and one A + T-rich D-loop or control region. Most PCGs are initiated with the ATN codons, except for COX1 with the unusual CGA as its initiation codon. Four PCGs (COX1, COX2, ND3, and ND4) are terminated with incomplete codon T, ND4L uses TAG as its termination codon, while all the other eight PCGs employ the usual ATN codons. The nucleotide composition is highly asymmetric (40.1% A, 40.9% T, 7.6% G, and 11.4% C) with an overall A + T content of 81.0%. The phylogenetic analysis based on the neighbor-joining (NJ) method suggests that C. dominula is more phylogenetically related to its confamilial counterparts than to those from other families. PMID:26329289

  17. The mitochondrial genome of the entomophagous endoparasite Xenos vesparum (Insecta: Strepsiptera).

    PubMed

    Carapelli, Antonio; Vannini, Laura; Nardi, Francesco; Boore, Jeffrey L; Beani, Laura; Dallai, Romano; Frati, Francesco

    2006-07-19

    In this study, the nearly complete sequence (14,519 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the entomophagous endoparasite Xenos vesparum (Insecta: Strepsiptera) is described. All protein coding genes (PCGs) are in the arrangement known to be ancestral for insects, but three tRNA genes (trnA, trnS(gcu), and trnL(uag)) have transposed to derived positions and there are three tandem copies of trnH, each of which is potentially functional. All of these rearrangements except for that of trnL(uag) is within the short span between nad3 and nad4 and there are numerous blocks of unassignable sequence in this region, perhaps as remnants of larger scale predisposing rearrangements. X. vesparum mtDNA nucleotide composition is strongly biased toward A and T, as is typical for insect mtDNAs. There is also a significant strand skew in the distribution of these nucleotides, with the J-strand being richer in A than T and in C than G, and the N-strand showing an opposite skew for complementary pairs of nucleotides. The hypothetical secondary structure of the LSU rRNA has also been reconstructed, obtaining a structural model similar to that of other insects. PMID:16766140

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of the true water bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha): evidence from mitochondrial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Jimeng; Li, Ming; Dong, Pengzhi; Cui, Ying; Xie, Qiang; Bu, Wenjun

    2009-01-01

    Background The true water bugs are grouped in infraorder Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) and are of great economic importance. The phylogenetic relationships within Nepomorpha and the taxonomic hierarchies of Pleoidea and Aphelocheiroidea are uncertain. Most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters without algorithmic assessment. In the latest study, the molecular markers employed in phylogenetic analyses were partial sequences of 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA with a total length about 1 kb. Up to now, no mitochondrial genome of the true water bugs has been sequenced, which is one of the largest data sets that could be compared across animal taxa. In this study we analyzed the unresolved problems in Nepomorpha using evidence from mitochondrial genomes. Results Nine mitochondrial genomes of Nepomorpha and five of other hemipterans were sequenced. These mitochondrial genomes contain the commonly found 37 genes without gene rearrangements. Based on the nucleotide sequences of mt-genomes, Pleoidea is not a member of the Nepomorpha and Aphelocheiroidea should be grouped back into Naucoroidea. Phylogenetic relationships among the superfamilies of Nepomorpha were resolved robustly. Conclusion The mt-genome is an effective data source for resolving intraordinal phylogenetic problems at the superfamily level within Heteroptera. The mitochondrial genomes of the true water bugs are typical insect mt-genomes. Based on the nucleotide sequences of the mt-genomes, we propose the Pleoidea to be a separate heteropteran infraorder. The infraorder Nepomorpha consists of five superfamilies with the relationships (Corixoidea + ((Naucoroidea + Notonectoidea) + (Ochteroidea + Nepoidea))). PMID:19523246

  19. Brochosomal coats turn leafhopper (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) integument to superhydrophobic state

    PubMed Central

    Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2013-01-01

    Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with brochosomes, hollow proteinaceous spheres of usually 200–700 nm in diameter, with honeycombed walls. The coats have been previously suggested to act as a water-repellent and anti-adhesive protective barrier against the insect's own exudates. We estimated their wettability through contact angle (CA) measurements of water, diiodomethane, ethylene glycol and ethanol on detached wings of the leafhoppers Alnetoidia alneti, Athysanus argentarius and Cicadella viridis. Intact brochosome-coated integuments were repellent to all test liquids, except ethanol, and exhibited superhydrophobicity, with the average water CAs of 165–172°, and the apparent surface free energy (SFE) estimates not exceeding 0.74 mN m−1. By contrast, the integuments from which brochosomes were removed with a peeling technique using fluid polyvinylsiloxane displayed water CAs of only 103–129° and SFEs above 20 mN m−1. Observations of water-sprayed wings in a cryo-scanning electron microscope confirmed that brochosomal coats prevented water from contacting the integument. Their superhydrophobic properties appear to result from fractal roughness, which dramatically reduces the area of contact with high-surface-tension liquids, including, presumably, leafhopper exudates. PMID:23235705

  20. Research on possible medical use of silk produced by caddisfly larvae of Hydropsyche angustipennis (Trichoptera, Insecta).

    PubMed

    Tszydel, M; Zabłotni, A; Wojciechowska, D; Michalak, M; Krucińska, I; Szustakiewicz, K; Maj, M; Jaruszewska, A; Strzelecki, J

    2015-05-01

    Silk products are used in medicine as biomaterials, and are particularly promising as scaffolds in tissue engineering. To date only silkworm and spider silk medical potential has been evaluated, whereas the possible application of the material spun by caddisflies in wet environment has not been examined. Biomedical application of every natural material requires biocompatibility testing and evaluation of unique microbiological and mechanical properties. This article focuses on silk fibers formed in caddisflies cocoons of Hydropsyche angustipennis (Insecta, Trichoptera) larvae. Preliminary biological evaluation shows that trichopteran silk is not cytotoxic to human cells. Caddisfly silk itself does not possess antiseptic properties and thus sterilization is indispensable for its application in medicine. Among tested methods of sterilization and disinfection only thermal methods (tyndallization and autoclaving) enabled complete eradication of bacteria and gave fully sterile material. Caddisfly silk appeared to be resistant to high temperature. Fully sterile fibers can be stored without a loss of breaking force and tensile strength. Our work shows that trichopteran silk has a significant potential to be used as a biomaterial. PMID:25723346

  1. Terrestrial arthropods of Steel Creek, Buffalo National River, Arkansas. II. Sawflies (Insecta: Hymenoptera: "Symphyta")

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David R.; Fisher, Danielle M.; Dowling, Ashley P.G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This is the second in a series of papers detailing the terrestrial arthropods collected during an intensive survey of a site near Steel Creek campground along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas. The survey was conducted over a period of eight and a half months using twelve trap types – Malaise traps, canopy traps (upper and lower collector), Lindgren multifunnel traps (black, green, and purple), pan traps (blue, purple, red, white, and yellow), and pitfall traps – and Berlese-Tullgren extraction of leaf litter. New information We provide collection records for 47 species of "Symphyta" (Insecta: Hymenoptera), 30 of which are new state records for Arkansas: (Argidae) Sterictiphora serotina; (Cimbicidae) Abia americana; (Diprionidae) Monoctenus fulvus; (Orussidae) Orussus terminalis; (Pamphiliidae) Onycholyda luteicornis, Pamphilius ocreatus, P. persicum, P. rileyi; (Pergidae) Acordulecera dorsalis, A. mellina, A. pellucida; (Tenthredinidae) Caliroa quercuscoccineae, Empria coryli, Hoplocampa marlatti, Macrophya cassandra, Monophadnoides conspiculatus, Monophadnus bakeri, Nematus abbotii, Neopareophora litura, Pachynematus corniger, Paracharactus rudis, Periclista marginicollis, Pristiphora banski, P. chlorea, Strongylogaster impressata, S. remota, Taxonus epicera, Thrinax albidopictus, T. multicinctus, Zaschizonyx montana; (Xiphydriidae) Xiphydria tibialis. PMID:27222635

  2. Assessment of water quality in urban streams based on larvae of Hydropsyche angustipennis (Insecta, Trichoptera).

    PubMed

    Tszydel, Mariusz; Markowski, Marcin; Majecki, Janusz; Błońska, Dagmara; Zieliński, Mateusz

    2015-10-01

    Hydropsyche angustipennis (Insecta, Trichoptera) larvae were used as indicators of stream contamination in the city of Łódź, Poland. The larvae of H. angustipennis were present at 9 sampling sites established for this study. Significant differences between the sampling sites were noted for environmental parameters as well as concentration of chemicals in water and biodiversity of aquatic invertebrates. Statistical analyses showed significant correlations between quantity and quality of water pollutants and density of H. angustipennis larvae, concentration of metals in larval bodies, and the appearance of morphological anomalies in tracheal gills and anal papillae. In comparison to literature data, the level of contaminants in water, including heavy metals, for each of the studied streams of Łódź was surprisingly low while concentration of these metals in the whole bodies of H. angustipennis larvae was very high. Some of the heavy metals present in the water might be identified only after conducting analyses of their concentration in the larval bodies. Therefore, long life cycle of H. angustipennis and heavy metal tolerance with a possibility of their accumulation in the larval bodies may constitute a support to traditional chemical assessment of water quality or traditional biomonitoring. PMID:25982980

  3. Mitochondrial genome deletions and minicircles are common in lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The gene composition, gene order and structure of the mitochondrial genome are remarkably stable across bilaterian animals. Lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) are a major exception to this genomic stability in that the canonical single chromosome with 37 genes found in almost all other bilaterians has been lost in multiple lineages in favour of multiple, minicircular chromosomes with less than 37 genes on each chromosome. Results Minicircular mt genomes are found in six of the ten louse species examined to date and three types of minicircles were identified: heteroplasmic minicircles which coexist with full sized mt genomes (type 1); multigene chromosomes with short, simple control regions, we infer that the genome consists of several such chromosomes (type 2); and multiple, single to three gene chromosomes with large, complex control regions (type 3). Mapping minicircle types onto a phylogenetic tree of lice fails to show a pattern of their occurrence consistent with an evolutionary series of minicircle types. Analysis of the nuclear-encoded, mitochondrially-targetted genes inferred from the body louse, Pediculus, suggests that the loss of mitochondrial single-stranded binding protein (mtSSB) may be responsible for the presence of minicircles in at least species with the most derived type 3 minicircles (Pediculus, Damalinia). Conclusions Minicircular mt genomes are common in lice and appear to have arisen multiple times within the group. Life history adaptive explanations which attribute minicircular mt genomes in lice to the adoption of blood-feeding in the Anoplura are not supported by this expanded data set as minicircles are found in multiple non-blood feeding louse groups but are not found in the blood-feeding genus Heterodoxus. In contrast, a mechanist explanation based on the loss of mtSSB suggests that minicircles may be selectively favoured due to the incapacity of the mt replisome to synthesize long replicative products without mtSSB and thus the

  4. Host plant shifts and transitions into new adaptive zones in leafhoppers:
    the example of Macropsinae (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae)
    of Russia and adjacent countries.

    PubMed

    Tishechkin, Dmitri Yu

    2016-01-01

    The modes of diversification of Palaearctic Macropsinae (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) are reconstructed based on data on their host plants and distribution in Russia and the adjacent territories. Macropsinae (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) is originally an Oriental group, which penetrated into the Palaearctic from Southeast Asia. The genus Pediopsoides and species of the genus Macropsis that feed on East Asian oaks have not dispersed beyond broadleaf forests of the Eastern Palaearctic. Apparently, Pediopsis and elm-feeding species of Macropsis initially dispersed throughout the entire broadleaf forest zone. Division of this zone into two widely separated parts in temperate areas of Europe and East Asia (nemoral disjunction), produced closely related vicariant pairs of sister species. The genus Oncopsis and species of Macropsis feeding on Salicaceae dispersed throughout the entire Palaearctic following their host plants. Both lineages penetrated into riparian forests of the foothills and midlands of Central Asia, where they produced endemic species. The Central Asian Macropsis lineage shifted from Salicaceae to trees and shrubs of unrelated families (wild roses, barberry, oleaster, and sea-buckthorn) growing in the same biotopes. Subsequent diversification on those plants produced several separate host-associated species-groups, some of which penetrated following their hosts from riparian forests into arid habitats. One such lineage apparently shifted from shrubs to wormwood species (Artemisia spp.) and thus gave rise to the genus Macropsidius. This genus underwent adaptive radiation on wormwood species in the plains of South Kazakhstan and Central Asia; advancing westward, it formed secondary centres of diversity in Transcaucasia and the Mediterranean. Finally, some lineage of Macropsidius (or its sister-group) switched from feeding on Artemisia to polyphagy, yielding the ancestral form of the genus Hephathus. In general, the evolution of

  5. Redescription of Gyropus parvus (Ewing, 1924) (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Amblycera: Gyropidae) from tucos-tucos (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae: Ctenomys ) in Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martino, N S; Romero, M D; Castro, D C

    2010-02-01

    A detailed redescription of Gyropus parvus (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Amblycera: Gyropidae) is given based on specimens collected from the type host, Ctenomys colburni Allen 1903 , and the type locality, Estancia Huanuluán, Provincia de Rio Negro, Argentina. We expand and provide new chaetotaxy. New scanning electron microscopy images showing microstructural details of adults and eggs of G. parvus obtained from topotype specimens are included. Sexual dimorphism was mainly shown by differences in body size and abdominal chaetotaxy, with females being 17.5% larger than males and with more setae in each cluster. Significant differences between males and females were also observed in sternal plate measurements. Features described here show homogeneity within type host population. This information contributes to our knowledge of intra- and inter-specific variability for parasite populations. Our investigation constitutes the first collection of G. parvus from the type host and locality since it was described. PMID:19747015

  6. The soapberry bug, Jadera haematoloma (Insecta, Hemiptera, Rhopalidae): First Asian record, with a review of bionomics

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jing-Fu; Hsieh, Yi-Xuan; Rédei, Dávid

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The soapberry bug, Jadera haematoloma (Herrich-Schäffer, 1847) (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Rhopalidae: Serinethinae), a species native in tropical and subtropical regions of the New World and accidentally introduced to Hawaii, is reported for the first time from Asia (Taiwan). This record represents the first occurrence of the species in Asia. Stable populations composed of hundreds of specimens were found in seven localities of Kaohsiung City and one locality in Tainan City, and a single specimen was observed in Chiayi County. Aggregating adults and larvae fed in large numbers on the sapindacean plants Cardiospermum halicacabum L. and Koelreuteria elegans (Seem.) A. C. Smith ssp. formosana (Hayata) F. G. Meyer. Diagnostic characters of adults and larvae of Jadera haematoloma are discussed. A review of its bionomics and a bibliography are provided. Initial observations on the populations in southern Taiwan are presented. The species is potentially invasive, and further extension of its range is anticipated in Southeast Asia. PMID:23794880

  7. Reproductive mode of grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, Homoptera: Phylloxeridae) in Europe: molecular evidence for predominantly asexual populations and a lack of gene flow between them.

    PubMed

    Vorwerk, Sonja; Forneck, Astrid

    2006-06-01

    The genetic structure of European grape phylloxera populations, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Homoptera: Phylloxeridae), was analyzed using 6 polymorphic microsatellite markers. Genetic diversity data of 6 populations originating from northern and southern European viticultural regions was assessed for geographic differences, and the structure of 2 additional populations was examined in more detail, focusing on specific host plant and habitat characteristics. To test for "signatures" of clonal reproduction, different population genetic measures were applied to the data obtained from these populations. A total of 195 multilocus genotypes were detected in 360 individuals tested. Significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, negative FIS values (from -0.148 to -0.658 per population), and the presence of multicopy genotypes revealed that the current major reproductive mode at each of the locations tested was asexual. The high genotypic diversity detected within and among populations, however, together with the occurrence of unique D. vitifoliae genotypes, indicates sexual recombination events took place, probably prior to the multiple introductions into Europe. The absence of overlapping genotypes between the sampling sites suggests low migration rates among the populations studied and implies that the main mode of insect dispersal is through infested plant material carried by human agency. The specific features of European D. vitifoliae habitats are illustrated to discuss the role of habitat and life cycle in the genetic structure of this globally important pest aphid species. PMID:16936847

  8. Acute ozone stress on eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr. ) and the pest potential of the aphid, Chaitophorus populicola Thomas (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.S.; Jones, C.G.

    1988-04-01

    The effect of acute ozone exposure of eastern cottonwood (populus deltoides Bartr.) on the survivorship, reproduction, and development of the aphid Chaitophorus populicola Thomas (Homoptera: Aphididae) was investigated. Cottonwoods were exposed to 397 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ (0.20 ppm) ozone or charcoal-filtered air and infested with aphids on leaf plastochron index 5, 40 h after fumigation. Aphid performance was not significantly different on plants exposed to ozone compared with charcoal-filtered air-treated control plants. These data do not support the notion that aphid performance will directly increase on air pollution-stressed plants. We also examined settling and feeding preference of aphids for cottonwood leaves of different developmental ages. Aphids significantly preferred leaf plastochron index 5 to all other leaf ages. These data support hypothesis relating aphid leaf preference to stages of leaf development. Reproduction of the cottonwood leaf rust fungus (Melampsora medusae Thum.) and the imported willow leaf beetle (Plagiodera versicolora Laicharting) are reduced on ozone-fumigated plants (reported elsewhere). If aphid populations are affected by competition with these cottonwood pests for leaf resources, then aphid pest potential may actually increase in areas characterized by episodic ozone concentrations because of ozone-induced decreases in populations of M. medusae and P. versicolora.

  9. Phylogenetic position of the yeast-like symbiotes of Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae) based on 18S ribosomal DNA partial sequences.

    PubMed

    Xet-Mull, Ana M; Quesada, Tania; Espinoza, Ana M

    2004-09-01

    Tagosodes orizicolus Muir (Homoptera: Delphacidae), the endemic delphacid species of tropical America carries yeast-like symbiotes (YLS) in the abdominal fat bodies and the ovarial tissues, like other rice planthoppers of Asia. These YLS are obligate symbiotes, which are transmitted transovarially, and maintain a mutualistic relationship with the insect host. This characteristic has made in vitro culture and classification of YLS rather difficult using conventional methods. Nevertheless, microorganisms of similar characteristics have been successfully classified by using molecular taxonomy. In the present work, the YLS of Tagosodes orizicolus (YLSTo) were purified on Percoll gradients, and specific segments of 18S rDNA were amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced. Sequences were aligned by means of the CLUSTAL V (DNASTAR) program; phylogenetic trees were constructed with the Phylogeny Inference Package (PHYLIP), showing that YLSTo belong to the fungi class Pyrenomycetes, phylum Ascomycota. Similarities between 98% and 100% were observed among YLS of the rice delphacids Tagosodes orizicolus, Nilaparvata lugens, Laodelphax striatellus and Sogatella fur cifera, and between 89.8% and 90.8% when comparing the above to YLS of the aphid Hamiltonaphis styraci. These comparisons revealed that delphacid YLS are a highly conserved monophyletic group within the Pyrenomycetes and are closely related to Hypomyces chrysospermus. PMID:17361570

  10. [Scarabaeoidea superfamily (Insecta: Coleoptera) as a bioindicator element of anthropogenic disturbance in an amazon national park].

    PubMed

    Otavo, Samuel Eduardo; Parrado-Rosselli, Angela; Noriega, Jorge Ari

    2013-06-01

    Abstract: Scarabaeoidea superfamily (Insecta: Coleoptera) as a bioindicator element of anthropogenic disturbance in an amazon national park. Insects have been recognized to be important indicators of the quality elements of ecosystems, among others, because of their rapid response to environmental variability and ease cost-effective capture. In this work we evaluated whether beetles of the Scarabaeoidea superfamily may be used as bioindicators of anthropogenic disturbance of Amazonian terra firme rain forests, in order to provide guidelines for monitoring strategies of the Amacayacu National Park. We considered three different levels of anthropogenic disturbance (i.e. low, medium, high) in 12 transects (four in each intervention level), and caught all beetle species of this superfamily. Three interception traps, two light traps, three pitfalls and four bottle fruit traps were used per transect, as well as manual catch. In total, 593 individuals belonging to 92 species, 44 genera and seven families were collected. Scarabaeidae (n = 232, 27 spp.) and Dynastidae (n = 161, 26 spp.) were the families with the highest number of individuals and species, while Aphodiidae, Cetoniidae and Geotrupidae exhibited the lowest. The most abundant species per family were Ateuchus sp. (33.2%) from Scarabaeidae, Cyclocephala verticalis (55.9%) from Dynastidae, Astaena sp. (75.8%) from Melolonthidae, Ceratocanthus amazonicus (66.7%) from Ceratocanthidae y Chaetodus asuai (96.8%) from Hybosoridae. Results showed that the number of species and individuals increased with the anthropogenic disturbance. The Margalef and Shannon indexes also revealed that the highest richness and equity occurred in the high-disturbed site, respectively. Dynastidae exhibited the highest number of exclusive species per gradient, while Scarabaeidae shared most of its species. Ten species were recorded in the three disturbance levels, 26 species in two and 56 species were exclusive to one level. The most

  11. Phenology and density of balsam twig aphid, Mindarus abietinus Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae) in relation to bud break, shoot damage, and value of fir Christmas trees.

    PubMed

    Fondren, K M; McCullough, D G

    2003-12-01

    The balsam twig aphid, Mindarus abietinus Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae), is a major insect pest of balsam and Fraser fir grown for Christmas trees. Our objectives in this study were to 1) monitor the phenology of A. abietinus in fir plantations; 2) assess relationships among M. abietinus density, tree phenology, and damage to tree foliage; and 3) develop an esthetic injury level for M. abietinus on Christmas trees. We monitored phenology of M. abietinus and fir trees on three commercial Christmas tree plantations in central and northern Lower Michigan for 3 yr (1999-2001). Phenology of M. abietinus fundatrices and sexuparae was strongly correlated with accumulated degree-days (DD) base 10 degrees C. Fundatrices matured by approximately 83 DD(10 degrees C) and sexuparae were first observed at approximately 83-111 DD(10 degrees C). Trees that broke bud approximately 1 wk later than other trees in the same field escaped M. abietinus damage and shoot expansion rate in spring was generally positively correlated with M. abietinus damage. Retail customers surveyed at a choose-and-cut Christmas plantation in 2 yr did not consistently differentiate between similarly sized trees with no, light, and moderate M. abietinus damage, but heavy damage (>50% damaged shoots) did affect customer perception. Similarly, when wholesale grades were assigned, the high quality Grade 1 trees had up to 40% shoot damage, whereas Grade 2 trees had 32-62% shoot damage. Two trees ranked as unsaleable had sparse canopies and distorted needles on 42% to almost 100% of the shoots. PMID:14977113

  12. Seasonal abundance of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) in wheat and their role as barley yellow dwarf virus vectors in the South Carolina coastal plain.

    PubMed

    Chapin, J W; Thomas, J S; Gray, S M; Smith, D M; Halbert, S E

    2001-04-01

    Aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) seasonal flight activity and abundance in wheat, Triticum aestivum L., and the significance of aphid species as vectors of barley yellow dwarf virus were studied over a nine-year period in the South Carolina coastal plain. Four aphid species colonized wheat in a consistent seasonal pattern. Greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), and rice root aphid, Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominalis (Sasaki), colonized seedlingwheat immediately after crop emergence, with apterous colonies usually peaking in December or January and then declining for the remainder of the season. These two aphid species are unlikely to cause economic loss on wheat in South Carolina, thus crop managers should not have to sample for the subterranean R. rufiabdominalis colonies. Bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), was the second most abundant species and the most economically important. Rhopalosiphum padi colonies usually remained below 10/row-meter until peaking in February or March. Barley yellow dwarf incidence and wheat yield loss were significantly correlated with R. padi peak abundance and aphid-day accumulation on the crop. Based on transmission assays, R. padi was primarily responsible for vectoring the predominant virus serotype (PAV) we found in wheat. Pest management efforts should focus on sampling for and suppressing this aphid species. December planting reduced aphid-day accumulation and barley yellow dwarf incidence, but delayed planting is not a practical management option. English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.), was the last species to colonize wheat each season, and the most abundant. Sitobion avenae was responsible for late-season virus transmission and caused direct yield loss by feeding on heads and flag leaves during an outbreak year. PMID:11332833

  13. Effects of azadirachtin, abamectin, and spinosad on sweetpotato whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on tomato plants under laboratory and greenhouse conditions in the humid tropics.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prabhat; Poehling, H M

    2007-04-01

    Direct and residual toxicity of NeemAzal-T/S (azadirachtin), Success (spinosad), and abamectin was tested against different life stages of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), under air-conditioned laboratory conditions and in a tropical net greenhouse. NeemAzal-T/S and abamectin deterred the settling of adults on tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill (Solanaceae), plants and consequently reduced egg deposition. No such effect was detected for Success. All three pesticides influenced egg hatch. Effects of NeemAzal-T/ S were significantly altered if applied to different-aged eggs (1, 3, and 5 d old). In contrast, abamectin-treated eggs failed to hatch at any given age class. All three products caused heavy mortality of the three nymphal stages of B. tabaci, with the first instars being most susceptible, abamectin-treated nymphs died within 24 h postapplication. In contrast, 100% nymphal mortality with NeemAzal-T/S and Success was reached 6-9 d postapplication. abamectin caused 100% immature mortality at all residue ages (1, 5, 10, and 15 d) in the laboratory and greenhouse as well. Persistence of Success was comparably high in the laboratory, but in the greenhouse a faster decline of activity was evident by increased egg deposition, egg hatch, and reduced rates of immature mortality. Toxicity of NeemAzal-T/S however gradually declined under greenhouse conditions with time (5 d) postapplication. The findings are discussed within the context of integrated management of whitefly under protected cultivation in the humid tropics. PMID:17461066

  14. Dasypodidae Borner, 1919 (Insecta, Hymenoptera): Proposed emendation of spelling to Dasypodaidae, so removing the homonymy with Dasypodidae Gray, 1821 (Mammalia, Xenarthra)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, B.A.; Michener, C.D.; Gardner, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    The family-group name DASYPODIDAE Borner, 1919 (Insecta, Hymenoptera) is a junior homonym Of DASYPODIDAE Gray, 1821 (Mammalia, Xenarthra). It is proposed that the homonymy between the two names, which relate to short-tongued bees and armadillos respectively, should be removed by emending the stem of the generic name Dasypoda Latreille, 1802, on which the insect familygroup name is based, to give DASYPODAIDAE, while leaving the mammalian name (based on Dasypus Linnaeus, 1758) unchanged. Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758, the type species of Dasypus, has a wide distribution in the southern United States, Central and South America. The genus Dasypoda ranges throughout most of the Palearctic region.

  15. Differences in straggling rates between two genera of dove lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) reinforce population genetic and cophylogenetic patterns.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, Noah Kerness; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego; Johnson, Kevin P; Parker, Patricia G

    2004-09-01

    Differences in dispersal abilities have been implicated for causing disparate evolutionary patterns between Columbicola and Physconelloides lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera). However, no study has documented straggling (when lice are found on atypical hosts) rates within these lineages. We used the fact that the Galapagos Hawk, Buteo galapagoensis (Gould) (Falconiformes) feeds on the Galapagos Dove Zenaida galapagoensis Gould (Columbiformes) within an ecologically simplified setting. The Galapagos Dove is the only typical host of Columbicola macrourae (Wilson) and Physconelloides galapagensis (Kellogg and Huwana) in Galapagos. We quantitatively sampled and found these lice on both bird species. A DNA barcoding approach confirmed that stragglers were derived from Galapagos doves. We also collected a Bovicola sp. louse, likely originating from a goat (Capra hircus). On hawks, C. macrourae was significantly more prevalent than P. galapagensis. On doves, the two lice were equally prevalent and abundant. Differences in prevalence on hawks was a function of differences in straggling rate between lice, and not a reflection of their relative representation within the dove population. This provides further evidence that differences in dispersal abilities may drive differences in the degree of cospeciation in Columbicola and Phyconelloides lice, which have become model systems in evolutionary biology. PMID:15380682

  16. PCB congener analysis of water and caddisfly larvae (Insecta:Trichoptera) in the upper Hudson River by glass capillary chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, B.; Simpson, K.W.; Shane, L.; Koblintz, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    The separation and analysis of the constituents of industrially produced polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been almost exclusively performed using techniques involving packed gas chromatographic columns. However, the packed column chromatograms proved to be inadequate with regard to the separation of the many congeners which compose the complex PCB mixtures. Unlike the packed column methods, a separation technique based upon gas capillary technology produces chromatograms with sharp peaks, and hence accurate analysis is possible according to individual congener concentrations. This capability permitted more precise analysis of macroinvertebrates - specifically aquatic insects in the polluted water of the upper Hudson River. This study examines the presence and relative concentration of 74 congeners in water and caddisfly larvae collected from 3 sites in the Hudson River. Caddisfly larvae (Insecta:Trichoptera) usually dominate the macroinvertebrate communities in riffle habitats of the study area. Their relatively large size and abundance facilitated the acquisition of sufficient biomass for analysis (200 mg wet weight). The sampling was carried out on July 6, 1983 and August 15, 1983.

  17. A Second New Species of Ice Crawlers from China (Insecta: Grylloblattodea), with Thorax Evolution and the Prediction of Potential Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ming; Jarvis, Karl; Wang, Shu-Yong; Song, Ke-Qing; Wang, Yan-Ping; Wang, Zhi-Liang; Li, Wen-Zhu; Wang, Wei; Yang, Xing-Ke

    2010-01-01

    Modern grylloblattids are one of the least diverse of the modern insect orders. The thorax changes in morphology might be associated with the changes of the function of the forelegs, wing loss, changes in behavior and adaptation to habitat. As temperature is the main barrier for migration of modern grylloblattids, the range of each species is extremely limited. The potential distribution areas of grylloblattids remain unclear. A second new species of ice crawlers (Insecta: Grylloblattodea), Grylloblattella cheni Bai, Wang et Yang sp. nov., is described from China. The distribution map and key to species of Grylloblattella are given. A comparison of the thorax of extant and extinct Grylloblattodea is presented, with an emphasis on the pronotum using geometric morphometric analysis, which may reflect thorax adaptation and the evolution of Grylloblattodea. Potential global distribution of grylloblattids is inferred. Highly diversified pronota of extinct Grylloblattodea may reflect diverse habitats and niches. The relatively homogeneous pronota of modern grylloblattids might be explained by two hypotheses: synapomorphy or convergent evolution. Most fossils of Grylloblattodea contain an obviously longer meso- and metathorax than prothorax. The length of the meso- and metathorax of modern grylloblattids is normally shorter than the prothorax. This may be associated with the wing loss, which is accompanied by muscle reduction and changes to the thoracic skeleton system. Threats to grylloblattids and several conservation comments are also provided. PMID:20877572

  18. Cophylogenetic analysis of New World ground-doves (Aves: Columbidae) and their parasitic wing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Columbicola).

    PubMed

    Sweet, Andrew D; Johnson, Kevin P

    2016-10-01

    Hosts-parasite interactions are plentiful and diverse, and understanding the patterns of these interactions can provide great insight into the evolutionary history of the organisms involved. Estimating the phylogenetic relationships of a group of parasites and comparing them to that of their hosts can indicate how factors such as host or parasite life history, biogeography, or climate affect evolutionary patterns. In this study we compare the phylogeny generated for a clade of parasitic chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) within the genus Columbicola to that of their hosts, the small New World ground-doves (Aves: Columbidae). We sampled lice from the majority of host species, including samples from multiple geographic locations. From these samples we sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear loci for the lice, and used these data to estimate phylogenetic trees and population networks. After estimating the appropriate number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for the lice, we used cophylogenetic analyses to compare the louse phylogeny to an existing host phylogeny. Our phylogenetic analysis recovered significant structure within the louse clade, including evidence for potentially cryptic species. All cophylogenetic analyses indicated an overall congruence between the host and parasite trees. However, we only recovered a single cospeciation event. This finding suggests that certain branches in the trees are driving the signal of congruence. In particular, lice with the highest levels of congruence are associated with high Andean species of ground-doves that are well separated altitudinally from other related taxa. Other host-parasite associations are not as congruent, and these often involved widespread louse taxa. These widespread lice did, however, have significant phylogeographic structure, and their phylogenetic relationships are perhaps best explained by biogeographic patterns. Overall these results indicate that both host phylogeny and biogeography can be

  19. Higher-level phylogeny of the Therevidae (Diptera: insecta) based on 28S ribosomal and elongation factor-1 alpha gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Yang, L; Wiegmann, B M; Yeates, D K; Irwin, M E

    2000-06-01

    Therevidae (stilleto flies) are a little-known family of asiloid brachyceran Diptera (Insecta). Separate and combined phylogenetic analyses of 1200 bases of the 28S ribosomal DNA and 1100 bases of elongation factor-1alpha were used to infer phylogenetic relationships within the family. The position of the enigmatic taxon Apsilocephala Kröber is evaluated in light of the molecular evidence. In all analyses, molecular data strongly support the monophyly of Therevidae, excluding Apsilocephala, and the division of Therevidae into two main clades corresponding to a previous classification of the family into the subfamilies Phycinae and Therevinae. Despite strong support for some relationships within these groups, relationships at the base of the two main clades are weakly supported. Short branch lengths for Australasian clades at the base of the Therevinae may represent a rapid radiation of therevids in Australia. PMID:10860652

  20. Diversity of larvae of littoral Chironomidae (Diptera: Insecta) and their role as bioindicators in urban reservoirs of different trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Morais, S S; Molozzi, J; Viana, A L; Viana, T H; Callisto, M

    2010-11-01

    The Chironomidae (Diptera: Insecta) have a high species richness, with species adapted to live under widely different environmental conditions. The study of the taxonomic composition of chironomid larvae and the percentage of occurrence of deformities in mouthparts, mainly in the mentum, are used in biomonitoring programmes in order to obtain information on the levels of organic and chemical pollution of aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the abundance of chironomid larvae and to quantify the occurrence of mentum deformities in the specimens collected in three urban reservoirs with different trophic levels. The reservoirs are located in the hydrographic basin of the Paraopeba River, an affluent of the São Francisco River basin (Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil). The Serra Azul Reservoir is oligotrophic, the Vargem das Flores Reservoir is mesotrophic, and the Ibirité Reservoir is eutrophic. Along the littoral zone of each reservoir, 30 samples were collected during each sampling campaign. Sampling was carried out every three months for one year, with two sampling campaigns during the wet season and two during the dry season in 2008. Physical and chemical parameters measured in the water column included the water depth, Secchi depth, air and water temperature, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, redox potential, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, Total-N, Total-P, P-ortho, and chlorophyll-a. The chironomid larvae were identified to the genus level. The structure of the chironomid assemblages was evaluated based on taxonomic richness (24 genera), density, equitability, and diversity. The potential indicator taxa for each reservoir were established through an Indicator Species Analysis. The values for taxonomic richness (20 taxa), equitability (0.737), and Shannon-Wiener diversity (2.215) were highest in the Serra Azul Reservoir. Fissimentum was the indicator taxon in Serra Azul, the oligotrophic reservoir; whereas

  1. Assembly and annotation of full mitochondrial genomes for the corn rootworm species, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera and Diabrotica barberi (Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), using Next Generation Sequence data.

    PubMed

    Coates, Brad S

    2014-06-01

    Complete mitochondrial genomes for two corn rootworm species, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (16,747 bp) and Diabrotica barberi (16,632; Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), were assembled from Illumina HiSeq2000 read data. Annotation indicated that the order and orientation of 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), and 22 tRNA and 2 rRNA sequences were in typical of insect mitochondrial genomes. Non-standard nad4 and cox3 stop codons were composed of single T nucleotides and likely completed by adenylation, and atypical TTT start codons was predicted for both D. v. virgifera and D. barberinad1 genes. The D. v. virgifera and D. barberi haplotypes showed 819 variable nucleotide positions within PCG regions (7.36% divergence), which suggest that speciation may have occurred ~3.68 million years ago assuming a linear rate of short-term substitution. Phylogenetic analyses of Coleopteran MtD genome show clustering based on family level, and may have the capacity to resolve the evolutionary history within this Order of insects. PMID:24657060

  2. New archaeorthopteran insects from the Late Carboniferous of the Nord and Pas-de-Calais basins in northern France (Insecta: Cnemidolestodea, Panorthoptera).

    PubMed

    Coty, David; Háva, Jiří; Prokop, Jakub; Roques, Patrick; Nel, André

    2014-01-01

    New polyneopteran insects are described from Pennsylvanian (Bashkirian, Moscovian) compressed fossils from the North of France (Insecta: Archaeorthoptera). Discovery of wing apex with distinct venation, e.g., apical fusion of RA with RP, numerous parallel posterior branches of RP with transversal crossveins, can be assigned to cf. Tococladus sp. (Cnemidolestodea: Tococladidae). It represents the second record of Cnemidolestodea from the Avion locality apart from Aviocladus pectinatus Prokop et al., 2014. Bruaylogus magnificus gen. et sp. nov., based on forewing venation, is attributed to Panorthoptera nec Orthoptera having some distinct characters for the placement either close to Oedischiidae or a more basal position possibly with affinities to genus Heterologus. Aviologus duquesnei gen. et sp. nov., based on forewing venation, differs from Oedischiidae by the presence of basal fork of M far from point of separation between M and Cu and fusion of MA with first posterior branch of RP. Aviologus share a long stem of M and simple CuPaβ with Heterologus duyiwuer and H. langfordorum, but both differ in well separated median and radial veins. These new fossils demonstrate that the archaeorthopterid insect fauna from the North of France was rather diverse with links to late Carboniferous and early Permian assemblages in Euramerica such as the Mazon Creek, Carbondale Formation or Elmo, Wellington Formation (Illinois, Kansas, USA) entomofaunas. PMID:25544457

  3. The Influence of Heavy Metals and Water Parameters on the Composition and Abundance of Water Bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera) in the Kerian River Basin, Perak, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ishadi, Nur Adibah Mohd; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Abdul, Nurul Huda

    2014-01-01

    The hemipteran (Insecta) diversity in the upper part of the Kerian River Basin was low with only 8 families and 16 genera recorded at 4 study sites from 3 rivers. Water bug composition varied among sampling sites (Kruskal-Wallis χ 2 = 0.00, p<0.05) but was not affected by wet-dry seasons (Z = 0.00, p>0.05). All recorded water parameters were weakly associated with generic abundance but the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), Water Quality Index (WQI) and heavy metals (zinc and manganese) showed relatively strong positive or negative relations with hemipteran diversity and richness (H’ and R2). Within the ranges of measured water parameters, the WQI was negatively associated with hemipteran diversity and richness, implying the tolerance of the water bugs to the level of pollution encountered in the river basin. Based on its highest abundance and occurrence (ISI), Rhagovelia was the most important genus and along with Rheumatogonus and Paraplea, these genera were common at all study sites. In conclusion, habitat availability and suitability together with some environmental parameters influenced the abundance and composition of hemipterans in this river basin. PMID:27073600

  4. The Influence of Heavy Metals and Water Parameters on the Composition and Abundance of Water Bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera) in the Kerian River Basin, Perak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ishadi, Nur Adibah Mohd; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Abdul, Nurul Huda

    2014-12-01

    The hemipteran (Insecta) diversity in the upper part of the Kerian River Basin was low with only 8 families and 16 genera recorded at 4 study sites from 3 rivers. Water bug composition varied among sampling sites (Kruskal-Wallis χ (2) = 0.00, p<0.05) but was not affected by wet-dry seasons (Z = 0.00, p>0.05). All recorded water parameters were weakly associated with generic abundance but the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), Water Quality Index (WQI) and heavy metals (zinc and manganese) showed relatively strong positive or negative relations with hemipteran diversity and richness (H' and R2). Within the ranges of measured water parameters, the WQI was negatively associated with hemipteran diversity and richness, implying the tolerance of the water bugs to the level of pollution encountered in the river basin. Based on its highest abundance and occurrence (ISI), Rhagovelia was the most important genus and along with Rheumatogonus and Paraplea, these genera were common at all study sites. In conclusion, habitat availability and suitability together with some environmental parameters influenced the abundance and composition of hemipterans in this river basin. PMID:27073600

  5. Fumigant toxicity of summer savory and lemon balm oil constituents and efficacy of spray formulations containing the oils to B- and neonicotinoid-resistant Q-biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Chae, Song-Hwa; Kim, Soon-Il; Yeon, Seong Hum; Perumalsamy, Haribalan; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2014-02-01

    An assessment was made of the fumigant toxicity of 36 constituents from lemon balm oil (LBO) and summer savory oil (SSO) and another additional nine previously identified compounds of the oils, as well as of the control efficacy of four experimental spray formulations containing individual oils (0.5 and 0.1% sprays) and spinosad 10% suspension concentrate (SC) to females from B- and neonicotinoid-resistant Q-biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Based on 24-h LC50 values, Q-biotype females (0.20 microg/cm3) were 40 times less susceptible to dichlorvos than B-biotype females (0.005 microg/cm3). Thymol (LC50, 0.35 microg/cm3) and carvacrol (0.56 microg/cm3) were the most toxic compounds toward Q-biotype females, followed by (1S)-(-)-borneol, alpha-terpineol, nerol, linalool, and carvone (1.06-1.38 microg/cm3). The toxicity of these compounds was virtually identical toward both biotype females, indicating that the terpenoids and the insecticides (neonicotinoids and dichlorvos) do not share a common mode of action or elicit cross-resistance. The 0.5% spray of LBO, SSO, and spinosad 10% SC resulted in >90% mortality toward both biotype females. Global efforts to reduce the level of toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on LBO- and SSO-derived materials as potential contact-action fumigants for the control of B. tabaci populations. PMID:24665712

  6. Rapid and accurate taxonomic classification of insect (class Insecta) cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) DNA barcode sequences using a naïve Bayesian classifier

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Teresita M; Gibson, Joel F; Shokralla, Shadi; Baird, Donald J; Golding, G Brian; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Current methods to identify unknown insect (class Insecta) cytochrome c oxidase (COI barcode) sequences often rely on thresholds of distances that can be difficult to define, sequence similarity cut-offs, or monophyly. Some of the most commonly used metagenomic classification methods do not provide a measure of confidence for the taxonomic assignments they provide. The aim of this study was to use a naïve Bayesian classifier (Wang et al. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2007; 73: 5261) to automate taxonomic assignments for large batches of insect COI sequences such as data obtained from high-throughput environmental sequencing. This method provides rank-flexible taxonomic assignments with an associated bootstrap support value, and it is faster than the blast-based methods commonly used in environmental sequence surveys. We have developed and rigorously tested the performance of three different training sets using leave-one-out cross-validation, two field data sets, and targeted testing of Lepidoptera, Diptera and Mantodea sequences obtained from the Barcode of Life Data system. We found that type I error rates, incorrect taxonomic assignments with a high bootstrap support, were already relatively low but could be lowered further by ensuring that all query taxa are actually present in the reference database. Choosing bootstrap support cut-offs according to query length and summarizing taxonomic assignments to more inclusive ranks can also help to reduce error while retaining the maximum number of assignments. Additionally, we highlight gaps in the taxonomic and geographic representation of insects in public sequence databases that will require further work by taxonomists to improve the quality of assignments generated using any method.

  7. Heptageniidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera) of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Boonsoong, Boonsatien; Braasch, Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Nine genera and twenty-two species of heptageniid mayflies from Thailand are defined in this present work as well as one suggested further subgenus, Compsoneuria (Siamoneuria) kovaci (species “incertae sedis”) including some particular characters. Taxonomic remarks, diagnoses, line drawings of key characters, distribution, habitat and biological data, and a larval key to the genera and species are provided. The chorionic eggs of eight genera and eight species were observed and shown using a scanning electron microscope. PMID:23794803

  8. Characteristics of the nuclear (18S, 5.8S, 28S and 5S) and mitochondrial (12S and 16S) rRNA genes of Apis mellifera (Insecta: Hymenoptera): structure, organization, and retrotransposable elements

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, J J; Johnston, J S; Cannone, J J; Gutell, R R

    2006-01-01

    As an accompanying manuscript to the release of the honey bee genome, we report the entire sequence of the nuclear (18S, 5.8S, 28S and 5S) and mitochondrial (12S and 16S) ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-encoding gene sequences (rDNA) and related internally and externally transcribed spacer regions of Apis mellifera (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apocrita). Additionally, we predict secondary structures for the mature rRNA molecules based on comparative sequence analyses with other arthropod taxa and reference to recently published crystal structures of the ribosome. In general, the structures of honey bee rRNAs are in agreement with previously predicted rRNA models from other arthropods in core regions of the rRNA, with little additional expansion in non-conserved regions. Our multiple sequence alignments are made available on several public databases and provide a preliminary establishment of a global structural model of all rRNAs from the insects. Additionally, we provide conserved stretches of sequences flanking the rDNA cistrons that comprise the externally transcribed spacer regions (ETS) and part of the intergenic spacer region (IGS), including several repetitive motifs. Finally, we report the occurrence of retrotransposition in the nuclear large subunit rDNA, as R2 elements are present in the usual insertion points found in other arthropods. Interestingly, functional R1 elements usually present in the genomes of insects were not detected in the honey bee rRNA genes. The reverse transcriptase products of the R2 elements are deduced from their putative open reading frames and structurally aligned with those from another hymenopteran insect, the jewel wasp Nasonia (Pteromalidae). Stretches of conserved amino acids shared between Apis and Nasonia are illustrated and serve as potential sites for primer design, as target amplicons within these R2 elements may serve as novel phylogenetic markers for Hymenoptera. Given the impending completion of the sequencing of the Nasonia genome

  9. Nomenclatural changes in Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae and Delphacidae (Homoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Dmitriev, Dmitry A.; McKamey, Stuart H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract New replacement names are proposed for seven species of the subfamily Typhlocybinae; one new synonym is recognized in the family Delphacidae. The following changes are proposed: Empoasca (Empoasca) angustata nom.nov. for Empoasca angusta Linnavuori & DeLong (not Dworakowska); Empoasca (Empoasca) chilensis nom.nov. for Empoasca diversa Linnavuori & DeLong (not Vilbaste); Austroasca verdensis nom.nov. for Empoasca artemisiae Lindberg (not Lethierry); Kropka vidanoi Dworakowska for Erythroneura unipunctata Dlabola (not Cerutti); Zyginella vietnamica nom. nov. for Zyginella melichari Dworakowska (not Kirkaldy); Eupteryx (Eupteryx) dlabolai nom. nov. for Eupteryx octonotata Dlabola (not Hardy); Baaora ahmedi nom. nov. for Baaora spinosa (Ahmed) (not Beamer); Paradelphacodes insolitus Dmitriev is synonymized with Paradelphacodes gvosdevi (Mitjaev), syn. nov. PMID:23794826

  10. Nomenclatural changes in Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae and Delphacidae (Homoptera).

    PubMed

    Dmitriev, Dmitry A; McKamey, Stuart H

    2013-01-01

    New replacement names are proposed for seven species of the subfamily Typhlocybinae; one new synonym is recognized in the family Delphacidae. The following changes are proposed: Empoasca (Empoasca) angustata nom.nov. for Empoasca angusta Linnavuori & DeLong (not Dworakowska); Empoasca (Empoasca) chilensis nom.nov. for Empoasca diversa Linnavuori & DeLong (not Vilbaste); Austroasca verdensis nom.nov. for Empoasca artemisiae Lindberg (not Lethierry); Kropka vidanoi Dworakowska for Erythroneura unipunctata Dlabola (not Cerutti); Zyginella vietnamica nom. nov. for Zyginella melichari Dworakowska (not Kirkaldy); Eupteryx (Eupteryx) dlabolai nom. nov. for Eupteryx octonotata Dlabola (not Hardy); Baaora ahmedi nom. nov. for Baaora spinosa (Ahmed) (not Beamer); Paradelphacodes insolitus Dmitriev is synonymized with Paradelphacodes gvosdevi (Mitjaev), syn. nov. PMID:23794826

  11. Nomenclatural changes in Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae and Delphacidae (Homoptera).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New replacement names are proposed for seven species of the subfamily Typhlocybinae; one new synonym is recognized in the family Delphacidae. The following changes are proposed: Empoasca (Empoasca) angustata nom.nov. for Empoasca angusta Linnavuori & DeLong (not Dworakowska); Empoasca (Empoasca) ch...

  12. Toxicity of plant essential oils to Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Eun-Hee; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Park, Hyung-Man; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2003-10-01

    A total of 53 plant essential oils were tested for their insecticidal activities against eggs, nymphs, and adults of Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood, using an impregnated filter paper bioassays without allowing direct contact. Responses varied according to oil type and dose, and developmental stage of the insect. Bay, caraway seed, clove leaf, lemon eucalyptus, lime dis 5 F, pennyroyal, peppermint, rosewood, spearmint, and tea tree oils were highly effective against T. vaporariorum adults, nymphs, and eggs at 0.0023, 0.0093, and 0.0047 microl/ml air, respectively. These results indicate that the mode of delivery of these essential oils was largely a result of action in the vapor phase. Significant correlations among adulticidal, nymphicidal, and ovicidal activities of the test oils were observed. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for T. vaporariorum control. PMID:14650521

  13. Comparative cytogenetics of Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera, Homoptera): a review

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsova, Valentina; Aguin-Pombo, Dora

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A comprehensive review of cytogenetic features is provided for the large hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha, which currently contains approximately 42,000 valid species. This review is based on the analysis of 819 species, 483 genera, and 31 families representing all presently recognized Auchenorrhyncha superfamilies, e.i. Cicadoidea (cicadas), Cercopoidea (spittle bugs), Membracoidea (leafhoppers and treehoppers), Myerslopioidea (ground-dwelling leafhoppers), and Fulgoroidea (planthoppers). History and present status of chromosome studies are described, as well as the structure of chromosomes, chromosome counts, trends and mechanisms of evolution of karyotypes and sex determining systems, their variation at different taxonomic levels and most characteristic (modal) states, occurrence of parthenogenesis, polyploidy, B-chromosomes and chromosome rearrangements, and methods used for cytogenetic analysis of Auchenorrhyncha. PMID:26807037

  14. Particle film affects black pecan aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) on pecan.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W; Reilly, Charles C

    2002-08-01

    Three species of aphids attack pecan foliage, Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch, and cause economic damage. We tested a kaolin-based particle film against one of these aphid species, black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis). Effect of particle film on host selection, adult mortality, and production of nymphs by M. caryaefoliae was tested on seedling pecans in the laboratory. Fewer M. caryaefoliae adults selected treated foliage compared with untreated foliage. A higher percentage of adults that did select treated foliage were recovered from upper leaf surfaces compared with the percentage of adults recovered from upper leaf surfaces of untreated leaves. Observations with a microscope revealed an accumulation of particle film on aphid body parts, especially on tarsi, and strongly suggests that aphid mobility was restricted. Adult mortality was higher on treated foliage and led to an overall decrease in production of nymphs on those seedlings. In addition, we measured spectral properties of treated seedling pecan foliage. Light reflectance by treated foliage was increased and absorptance decreased compared with control foliage whereas transmittance of light through control and particle film-treated leaves was similar. We did not detect any phytotoxic effect on pecan due to application of particle film. PMID:12216821

  15. Photosynthetic responses of soybean to soybean aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) injury.

    PubMed

    Macedo, T B; Bastos, C S; Higley, L G; Ostlie, K R; Madhavan, S

    2003-02-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumara, was discovered in the United States in the summer of 2000. Since that initial discovery, the aphid has spread across northern soybean production regions. In 2001, we examined the physiological responses of soybeans to low aphids densities (fewer than 50 aphids/leaf). In this study, we determined photosynthetic rates, leaf fluorescence responses, and photosynthetic responses to variable carbon dioxide and light levels. In addition, analyses for chlorophyll content and stable carbon isotope ratios were used to differentiate potential differences in stomatal versus mesophyll limitations to photosynthesis. We observed rate reductions of up to 50% on infested leaflets, including lealets with no apparent symptoms of aphid injury (such as chlorosis). Differences in fluorescence data indicated that photoelectron transport was not impaired. These results indicate that substantial physiological impact on soybean is possible even at low aphid densities. Also, the conventional view of aphid injury acting through reductions in chlorophyll content and light-harvesting reactions of photosynthesis is not supported by our findings in this system. PMID:12650361

  16. Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and Indian cassava mosaic virus transmission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) adults from colonies reared on cassava or sweet potato plants were studied to determine their ability to transmit Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV) (Geminiviridae: Begomovirus) from cassava to cassava. Virus acquisition access (feeding) periods (AAP) of 48 h on ICMV-infec...

  17. Acoustic communication in Okanagana rimosa (Say) (Homoptera: Cicadidae).

    PubMed

    Stölting, Heiko; Moore, Thomas E; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2004-01-01

    The cicada Okanagana rimosa (Say) has an acoustic communication system with three types of loud timbal sounds: (i) A calling song lasting several seconds to about 1 min which consists of a sequence of chirps at a repetition rate of 83 chirps per second. Each chirp of about 6 ms duration contains 4-5 pulses. The sound level of the calling song is 87-90 dB SPL at a distance of 15 cm. (ii) An amplitude modulated courtship song with increasing amplitude and repetition rate of chirps and pulses. (iii) A protest squawk with irregular chirp and pulse structure. The spectra of all three types are similar and show main energy peaks at 8-10 kHz. Only males sing, and calling song production is influenced by the songs of other males, resulting in an almost continuous sound in dense populations. In such populations, the calling songs overlap and the temporal structure of individual songs is obscured within the habitat. The calling song of the broadly sympatric, closely related species O. canadensis (Provander) is similar in frequency content, but distinct in the temporal pattern (24 chirps per second, 24 ms chirp duration, eight pulses per chirp) which is likely important for species separation in sympatric populations. The hearing threshold of the auditory nerve is similar for females and males of O. rimosa and most sensitive at 4-5 kHz. Experiments in the field show that female phonotaxis of O. rimosa depends on parameters of the calling song. Most females are attracted to calling song models with a 9 kHz carrier frequency (peak frequency of the calling song), but not to models with a 5 kHz carrier frequency (minimum hearing threshold). Phonotaxis depends on temporal parameters of the conspecific song, especially chirp repetition rate. Calling song production is influenced by environmental factors, and likelihood to sing increases with temperature and brightness of the sky. Correspondingly, females perform phonotaxis most often during sunny conditions with temperatures above 22 degrees C. Non-mated and mated females are attracted by the acoustic signals, and the percentage of mated females performing phonotaxis increases during the season. PMID:16351942

  18. Feltiella acarisuga (Vallot) (Insecta: Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The predatory gall midge, Feltiella acarisuga is one of the most effective and widespread natural enemies of spider mites. Because of their flying and prey detecting capabilities, and high feeding potential, it is considered an important natural enemy of the two-spotted spider mite in a number of cr...

  19. Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Patrice; Bousquet, Yves; Davies, Anthony E.; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; Lawrence, John F.; Lyal, Chris H. C.; Newton, Alfred F.; Reid, Chris A. M.; Schmitt, Michael; Ślipiński, S. Adam; Smith, Andrew B. T.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant) based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. nov. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae), Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae), Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae), Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae); Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein) syn. nov. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae), Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae), Sclerastes Gistel, 1856 (type species Ptilinus costatus Gyllenhal, 1827, designated herein) syn. nov. of Ptilinus Geoffroy, 1762 (Ptinidae), Paniscus Gistel, 1848 (type species Scarabaeus fasciatus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Trichius Fabricius, 1775 (Scarabaeidae), Phibalus Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela pubescens Linnaeus, 1758, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Omophlus Dejean, 1834 (Tenebrionidae). The following new replacement name is proposed: Gompeliina Bouchard, 2011 nom. nov. for Olotelina Báguena Corella, 1948 (Aderidae). Reversal of Precedence (Article 23.9) is used to conserve usage of the following names (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Perigonini Horn, 1881 nom. protectum over Trechicini Bates, 1873 nom. oblitum (Carabidae), Anisodactylina Lacordaire, 1854 nom. protectum over Eurytrichina LeConte, 1848 nom. oblitum (Carabidae), Smicronychini Seidlitz, 1891 nom. protectum over Desmorini LeConte, 1876 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Bagoinae Thomson, 1859 nom. protectum over Lyprinae Gistel 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Aterpina Lacordaire, 1863 nom. protectum over Heliomenina Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Naupactini Gistel, 1848 nom. protectum over Iphiini Schönherr, 1823 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Cleonini Schönherr, 1826 nom. protectum over Geomorini Schönherr, 1823 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Magdalidini Pascoe, 1870 nom. protectum over Scardamyctini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Agrypninae/-ini Candèze, 1857 nom. protecta over Adelocerinae/-ini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblita and Pangaurinae/-ini Gistel, 1856 nom. oblita (Elateridae), Prosternini Gistel, 1856 nom. protectum over Diacanthini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Elateridae), Calopodinae Costa, 1852 nom. protectum over Sparedrinae Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Oedemeridae), Adesmiini Lacordaire, 1859 nom. protectum over Macropodini Agassiz, 1846 nom. oblitum (Tenebrionidae), Bolitophagini Kirby, 1837 nom. protectum over Eledonini Billberg, 1820 nom. oblitum (Tenebrionidae), Throscidae Laporte, 1840 nom. protectum over Stereolidae Rafinesque, 1815 nom. oblitum (Throscidae) and Lophocaterini Crowson, 1964 over Lycoptini Casey, 1890 nom. oblitum (Trogossitidae); Monotoma Herbst, 1799 nom. protectum over Monotoma Panzer, 1792 nom. oblitum (Monotomidae); Pediacus Shuckard, 1839 nom. protectum over Biophloeus Dejean, 1835 nom. oblitum (Cucujidae), Pachypus Dejean, 1821 nom. protectum over Pachypus Billberg, 1820 nom. oblitum (Scarabaeidae), Sparrmannia Laporte, 1840 nom. protectum over Leocaeta Dejean, 1833 nom. oblitum and Cephalotrichia Hope, 1837 nom. oblitum (Scarabaeidae). PMID:21594053

  20. DNA Barcodes for Nearctic Auchenorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera)

    PubMed Central

    Foottit, Robert G.; Maw, Eric; Hebert, P. D. N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown the suitability of sequence variation in the 5′ region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene as a DNA barcode for the identification of species in a wide range of animal groups. We examined 471 species in 147 genera of Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha drawn from specimens in the Canadian National Collection of Insects to assess the effectiveness of DNA barcoding in this group. Methodology/Principal Findings Analysis of the COI gene revealed less than 2% intra-specific divergence in 93% of the taxa examined, while minimum interspecific distances exceeded 2% in 70% of congeneric species pairs. Although most species are characterized by a distinct sequence cluster, sequences for members of many groups of closely related species either shared sequences or showed close similarity, with 25% of species separated from their nearest neighbor by less than 1%. Conclusions/Significance This study, although preliminary, provides DNA barcodes for about 8% of the species of this hemipteran suborder found in North America north of Mexico. Barcodes can enable the identification of many species of Auchenorrhyncha, but members of some species groups cannot be discriminated. Future use of DNA barcodes in regulatory, pest management, and environmental applications will be possible as the barcode library for Auchenorrhyncha expands to include more species and broader geographic coverage. PMID:25004106

  1. Sperm ultrastructure in Chironomoidea (Insecta, Diptera).

    PubMed

    Dallai, Romano; Lombardo, Bianca Maria; Lupetti, Pietro

    2007-06-01

    The fine structure of spermatozoa from several species of chironomids, of Culicoides sp. (Ceratopogonidae) and of Odagmia pontina (Simulidae) was studied. A synapomorphic feature, consisting of nine kidney-shaped structures forming the centriole adjunct, was found in the chironomid species. All members of Chironomoidea share a mono-layered acrosome and a flagellar axoneme, provided with accessory tubules with 15 protofilaments in their tubular wall. The axoneme has a 9+9+2 pattern, but in an unidentified species of chironomid, a 9+9+0 model was observed where the central complex and the spokes are missing. Sperm motility is, however, maintained in all the examined species. The spermatozoa of this taxon have the tendency to complete maturation during their progression along the deferent ducts. Thus, in the proximal region of these ducts, they often show remnants of the spermatid cytoplasm. PMID:17531281

  2. Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Patrice; Bousquet, Yves; Davies, Anthony E; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A; Lawrence, John F; Lyal, Chris H C; Newton, Alfred F; Reid, Chris A M; Schmitt, Michael; Slipiński, S Adam; Smith, Andrew B T

    2011-01-01

    We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant) based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification.New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. nov. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae), Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae), Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae), Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae); Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein) syn. nov. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae), Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae), Sclerastes Gistel, 1856 (type species Ptilinus costatus Gyllenhal, 1827, designated herein) syn. nov. of Ptilinus Geoffroy, 1762 (Ptinidae), Paniscus Gistel, 1848 (type species Scarabaeus fasciatus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Trichius Fabricius, 1775 (Scarabaeidae), Phibalus Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela pubescens Linnaeus, 1758, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Omophlus Dejean, 1834 (Tenebrionidae). The following new replacement name is proposed: Gompeliina Bouchard, 2011 nom. nov. for Olotelina Báguena Corella, 1948 (Aderidae).Reversal of Precedence (Article 23.9) is used to conserve usage of the following names (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Perigonini Horn, 1881 nom. protectum over Trechicini Bates, 1873 nom. oblitum (Carabidae), Anisodactylina Lacordaire, 1854 nom. protectum over Eurytrichina LeConte, 1848 nom. oblitum (Carabidae), Smicronychini Seidlitz, 1891 nom. protectum over Desmorini LeConte, 1876 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Bagoinae Thomson, 1859 nom. protectum over Lyprinae Gistel 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Aterpina Lacordaire, 1863 nom. protectum over Heliomenina Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Naupactini Gistel, 1848 nom. protectum over Iphiini Schönherr, 1823 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Cleonini Schönherr, 1826 nom. protectum over Geomorini Schönherr, 1823 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Magdalidini Pascoe, 1870 nom. protectum over Scardamyctini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Agrypninae/-ini Candèze, 1857 nom. protecta over Adelocerinae/-ini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblita and Pangaurinae/-ini Gistel, 1856 nom. oblita (Elateridae), Prosternini Gistel, 1856 nom. protectum over Diacanthini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Elateridae), Calopodinae Costa, 1852 nom. protectum over Sparedrinae Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Oedemeridae), Adesmiini Lacordaire, 1859 nom. protectum over Macropodini Agassiz, 1846 nom. oblitum (Tenebrionidae), Bolitophagini Kirby, 1837 nom. protectum over Eledonini Billberg, 1820 nom. oblitum (Tenebrionidae), Throscidae Laporte, 1840 nom. protectum over Stereolidae Rafinesque, 1815 nom. oblitum (Throscidae) and Lophocaterini Crowson, 1964 over Lycoptini Casey, 1890 nom. oblitum (Trogossitidae); Monotoma Herbst, 1799 nom. protectum over Monotoma Panzer, 1792 nom. oblitum (Monotomidae); Pediacus Shuckard, 1839 nom. protectum over Biophloeus Dejean, 1835 nom. oblitum (Cucujidae), Pachypus Dejean, 1821 nom. protectum over Pachypus Billberg, 1820 nom. oblitum (Scarabaeidae), Sparrmannia Laporte, 1840 nom. protectum over Leocaeta Dejean, 1833 nom. oblitum and Cephalotrichia Hope, 1837 nom. oblitum (Scarabaeidae). PMID:21594053

  3. A new species of Limnephilidae (Insecta: Trichoptera) from the Western Alps (Insecta: Trichoptera)

    PubMed Central

    GRAF, WOLFRAM; VITECEK, SIMON

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the alpine caddisfly genus Consorophylax (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Stenophylacini) and the female of the recently described C. vinconi Graf & Malicky 2015 are described. The new species C. lepontiorum sp. nov. is a microendemic of the South-Western Alps and differs from its congeners in the shape of the superior and inferior appendages and the unique setation of the aedeagus, absent in all other Consorophylax species. The female of C. vinconi is characterized by the unique formation of the anal tube. Potential effects of alpine orogenesis, phenology and climatic oscillation on speciation of aquatic insects inhabiting high-altitude habitats are discussed. The description of C. lepontiorum sp. nov. accentuates the significance of the Western Alps as harbours of aquatic insect biodiversity, and demonstrates the necessity of faunal and taxonomic studies in Europe – a supposedly well-explored region. PMID:27069351

  4. Genome size of termites (Insecta, Dictyoptera, Isoptera) and wood roaches (Insecta, Dictyoptera, Cryptocercidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Cornette, Richard; Matsumoto, Tadao; Miura, Toru

    2008-09-01

    The evolution of genome size has been discussed in relation to the evolution of various biological traits. In the present study, the genome sizes of 22 dictyopteran species were estimated by Feulgen image analysis densitometry and 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-based flow cytometry. The haploid genome sizes ( C-values) of termites (Isoptera) ranged from 0.58 to 1.90 pg, and those of Cryptocercus wood roaches (Cryptocercidae) were 1.16 to 1.32 pg. Compared to known values of other cockroaches (Blattaria) and mantids (Mantodea), these values are low. A relatively small genome size appears to be a (syn)apomorphy of Isoptera + Cryptocercus, together with their sociality. In some phylogenetic groups, genome size evolution is thought to be influenced by selective pressure on a particular trait, such as cell size or rate of development. The present results raise the possibility that genome size is influenced by selective pressures on traits associated with the evolution of sociality.

  5. Traumatic insemination and female counter-adaptation in Strepsiptera (Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Peinert, Miriam; Wipfler, Benjamin; Jetschke, Gottfried; Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Beutel, Rolf G.; Pohl, Hans

    2016-01-01

    In a few insect groups, males pierce the female’s integument with their penis during copulation to transfer sperm. This so-called traumatic insemination was previously confirmed for Strepsiptera but only in species with free-living females. The more derived endoparasitic groups (Stylopidia) were suggested to exhibit brood canal mating. Further, it was assumed that females mate once and that pheromone production ceases immediately thereafter. Here we examined Stylops ovinae to provide details of the mating behaviour within Stylopidia. By using μCT imaging of Stylops in copula, we observed traumatic insemination and not, as previously suggested, brood canal mating. The penis is inserted in an invagination of the female cephalothorax and perforates its cuticle. Further we show that female Stylops are polyandrous and that males detect the mating status of the females. Compared to other strepsipterans the copulation is distinctly prolonged. This may reduce the competition between sperm of the first mating male with sperm from others. We describe a novel paragenital organ of Stylops females, the cephalothoracic invagination, which we suggest to reduce the cost of injuries. In contrast to previous interpretations we postulate that the original mode of traumatic insemination was maintained after the transition from free-living to endoparasitic strepsipteran females. PMID:27125507

  6. Checklist of the Empidoidea of Finland (Insecta, Diptera)

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract An updated checklist of the Atelestidae, Brachystomatidae, Dolichopodidae, Empididae and Hybotidae (Diptera) recorded from Finland is presented. The genera with uncertain placement within superfamily Empidoidea (= the Iteaphila group) are also included in this paper. PMID:25337016

  7. Biological diversity of the Minnesota caddisflies (Insecta, Trichoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The caddisfly fauna of Minnesota contains at least 277 species within 21 families and 75 genera. These species are based on examination of 312,884 specimens from 2,166 collections of 937 Minnesota aquatic habitats from 1890 to 2007. Included in these totals is my own quantitative sampling of 4 representative habitat types: small streams, medium rivers, large rivers, and lakes, from each of the 58 major Minnesota watersheds from June through September during 1999–2001. All species are illustrated herein, and their known Minnesota abundances, distributions, adult flight periodicities, and habitat affinities presented. Four species: Lepidostoma griseum (Lepidostomatidae), Psilotreta indecisa (Odontoceridae), and Phryganea sayi and Ptilostomis angustipennis (Phryganeidae) are added to the known fauna. An additional 31 dubious species records are removed for various reasons. Of the 5 determined caddisfly regions of the state, species richness per watershed was highest in the Lake Superior and Northern Regions, intermediate in the Southeastern, and lowest in the Northwestern and Southern. Of the 48 individual collections that yielded >40 species, all but 1 were from the Northern Region. Many species, especially within the families Limnephilidae and Phryganeidae, have appeared to decrease in distribution and abundance during the past 75 years, particularly those once common within the Northwestern and Southern Regions. Many species now appear regionally extirpated, and a few have disappeared from the entire state. The loss of species in the Northwestern and Southern Regions, and probably elsewhere, is almost certainly related to the conversion of many habitats to large-scale agriculture during the mid-20th century. PMID:22615539

  8. A new species of Mengenilla (Insecta, Strepsiptera) from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Hans; Niehuis, Oliver; Gloyna, Kai; Misof, Bernhard; Beutel, Rolf G

    2012-01-01

    A new species of Mengenilla Hofeneder, 1910 (Strepsiptera, Mengenillidae) from southern Tunisia is described. Mengenilla moldrzykisp. n. can be distinguished from congeners by a slightly emarginated posterodorsal margin of the head, compound eyes with a light tan dorsal part, mandibles with a narrow distal part, and a v-shaped pronotum. With the description of Mengenilla moldrzykisp. n., eleven valid species of Mengenilla are currently recognised. Mengenilla moldrzykisp. n. is the third species of the genus with known females and female puparia. First instar larvae, endoparasitic larval stages, the male puparium and the host are unknown. The new species is also the first strepsipteran with a fully sequenced genome. PMID:22707907

  9. Traumatic insemination and female counter-adaptation in Strepsiptera (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Peinert, Miriam; Wipfler, Benjamin; Jetschke, Gottfried; Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N; Beutel, Rolf G; Pohl, Hans

    2016-01-01

    In a few insect groups, males pierce the female's integument with their penis during copulation to transfer sperm. This so-called traumatic insemination was previously confirmed for Strepsiptera but only in species with free-living females. The more derived endoparasitic groups (Stylopidia) were suggested to exhibit brood canal mating. Further, it was assumed that females mate once and that pheromone production ceases immediately thereafter. Here we examined Stylops ovinae to provide details of the mating behaviour within Stylopidia. By using μCT imaging of Stylops in copula, we observed traumatic insemination and not, as previously suggested, brood canal mating. The penis is inserted in an invagination of the female cephalothorax and perforates its cuticle. Further we show that female Stylops are polyandrous and that males detect the mating status of the females. Compared to other strepsipterans the copulation is distinctly prolonged. This may reduce the competition between sperm of the first mating male with sperm from others. We describe a novel paragenital organ of Stylops females, the cephalothoracic invagination, which we suggest to reduce the cost of injuries. In contrast to previous interpretations we postulate that the original mode of traumatic insemination was maintained after the transition from free-living to endoparasitic strepsipteran females. PMID:27125507

  10. Mating of Xenos vesparum (Rossi) (Strepsiptera, Insecta) revisited.

    PubMed

    Beani, L; Giusti, F; Mercati, D; Lupetti, P; Paccagnini, E; Turillazzi, S; Dallai, R

    2005-09-01

    The controversial mating of the strepsipteran Xenos vesparum was studied to investigate the possible sperm routes for fertilization. The female, which is a neotenic permanent endoparasite of Polistes wasps, extrudes only its anterior region, the "cephalothorax," from the host abdomen. This region has an opening where both mating and larval escape occur. Observations with scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed spermatozoa not only in the hemocoel, but also in the "ventral canal" (an extragenital duct peculiar to strepsipteran females) and in the "genital ducts" (ectodermal invaginations connecting the ventral canal to the hemocoel) of recently mated females. Xenos vesparum spermatozoa can reach the oocytes either through the hemocoel as a result of a hypodermic insemination, or by moving along the extragenital ducts, which are later used by first instar larvae to escape. The hypothesis of hypodermic insemination is reconsidered in the light of behavioral and ultrastructural evidence. PMID:16047336

  11. A review of the genus Scaponopselaphus Scheerpeltz (Insecta: Coleoptera: Staphylinidae)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The genus Scaponopselaphus Scheerpeltz was originally described to accommodate the species Trigonopselaphus mutator Sharp. New information In this paper, I review Scaponopselaphus and describe a new species from Colombia as Scaponopselaphus diaspartos n. sp. Illustrations are provided for the identification of specimens and the presence of spatulate setae on first mesotarsomere is shown to be a unique characteristic of Scaponopselaphus within Xanthopygina. PMID:25892923

  12. Croatian mayflies (Insecta, Ephemeroptera): species diversity and distribution patterns.

    PubMed

    Vilenica, Marina; Gattolliat, Jean-Luc; Mihaljević, Zlatko; Sartori, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the mayfly biodiversity in the Balkan Peninsula is still far from complete. Compared to the neighbouring countries, the mayfly fauna in Croatia is very poorly known. Situated at the crossroads of central and Mediterranean Europe and the Balkan Peninsula, Croatia is divided into two ecoregions: Dinaric western Balkan and Pannonian lowland. Mayflies were sampled between 2003 and 2013 at 171 sites, and a total of 66 species was recorded. Combined with the literature data, the Croatian mayfly fauna reached a total of 79 taxa. Of these, 29 species were recorded for the first time in Croatia while 15 species were not previously recorded in Dinaric western Balkan ecoregion. Based on the mayfly assemblage, sampling sites were first structured by ecoregion and then by habitat type. In comparison with the surrounding countries, the Croatian mayfly fauna is the most similar to the Hungarian and Bosnian fauna. Some morphologically interesting taxa such as Baetis cf. nubecularis Eaton, 1898 and Rhithrogena from the diaphana group were recorded. Ephemera cf. parnassiana Demoulin, 1958, the species previously recorded only from Greece, was also recorded. PMID:26478701

  13. An annotated checklist of the Greek Stonefly Fauna (Insecta: Plecoptera).

    PubMed

    Karaouzas, Ioannis; Andriopoulou, Argyro; Kouvarda, Theodora; Murányi, Dávid

    2016-01-01

    An overview of the Greek stonefly (Plecoptera) fauna is presented as an annotated index of all available published records. These records have resulted in an updated species list reflecting current taxonomy and species distributions of the Greek peninsula and islands. Currently, a total of 71 species and seven subspecies belonging to seven families and 19 genera are reported from Greece. There is high species endemicity of the Leuctridae and Nemouridae, particularly on the Greek islands. The endemics known from Greece comprise thirty species representing 42% of the Greek stonefly fauna. The remaining taxa are typical Balkan and Mediterranean species. PMID:27395093

  14. The Nabidae (Insecta, Hemiptera, Heteroptera) of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Marcela; Coscarón, María C

    2013-01-01

    In Argentina, five genera and 14 species are recorded in the subfamilies Prostemmatinae and Nabinae: Hoplistoscelis sordidus Reuter, Lasiomerus constrictus Champion, Metatropiphorus alvarengai Reuter, Nabis argentinus Meyer-Dür, Nabis (Tropiconabis) capsiformis Germar, Nabis faminei Stål, Nabis paranensis Harris, Nabis punctipennis Blanchard, Nabis roripes Stål, Nabis setricus Harris, Nabis tandilensis Berg, Pagasa (Pagasa) costalis Reuter, Pagasa (Lampropagasa) fuscipennis Reuter and Pagasa (Pagasa) signatipennis Reuter. PMID:24146557

  15. [Understanding mitochondrial genome fragmentation in parasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera)].

    PubMed

    Dong, Wen-Ge; Guo, Xian-Guo; Jin, Dao-Chao; Xue, Shi-Peng; Qin, Feng; Simon, Song; Stephen, C Barker; Renfu, Shao

    2013-07-01

    Lice are obligate ectoparasites of mammals and birds. Extensive fragmentation of mitochondrial genomes has been found in some louse species in the families Pediculidae, Pthiridae, Philopteridae and Trichodectidae. For example, the mt genomes of human body louse (Pediculus humanus), head louse (Pediculus capitis), and public louse (Pthirus pubis) have 20, 20 and 14 mini-chromosomes, respectively. These mini-chromosomes might be the results of deletion and recombination of mt genes. The factors and mechanisms of mitochondrial genome fragmentation are currently unknown. The fragmentation might be the results of evolutionary selection or random genetic drift or it is probably related to the lack of mtSSB (mitochondrial single-strand DNA binding protein). Understanding the fragmentation of mitochondrial genomes is of significance for understanding the origin and evolution of mitochondria. This paper reviews the recent advances in the studies of mito-chondrial genome fragmentation in lice, including the phenomena of mitochondrial genome fragmentation, characteristics of fragmented mitochondrial genomes, and some factors and mechanisms possibly leading to the mitochondrial genome fragmentation of lice. Perspectives for future studies on fragmented mt genomes are also discussed. PMID:23853355

  16. The Nabidae (Insecta, Hemiptera, Heteroptera) of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Marcela; Coscarón, María C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In Argentina, five genera and 14 species are recorded in the subfamilies Prostemmatinae and Nabinae: Hoplistoscelis sordidus Reuter, Lasiomerus constrictus Champion, Metatropiphorus alvarengai Reuter, Nabis argentinus Meyer-Dür, Nabis (Tropiconabis) capsiformis Germar, Nabis faminei Stål, Nabis paranensis Harris, Nabis punctipennis Blanchard, Nabis roripes Stål, Nabis setricus Harris, Nabis tandilensis Berg, Pagasa (Pagasa) costalis Reuter, Pagasa (Lampropagasa) fuscipennis Reuter and Pagasa (Pagasa) signatipennis Reuter. PMID:24146557

  17. Tropical dermatology: Venomous arthropods and human skin: Part I. Insecta.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Vidal; Cardoso, João Luiz Costa; Lupi, Omar; Tyring, Stephen K

    2012-09-01

    Although many tropical insects carry infectious diseases, cutaneous injury can occur by other mechanisms, for example erucism (envenomation by caterpillars) or lepidopterism (dermatitis from moths). Pararama is a unique form of erucism seen in workers in contact with rubber trees in the Amazon, and it is caused by Premolis larvae, resulting in progressive periarticular fibrosis, ankylosis, and the loss of articulation. Ants and aquatic insects of the Belostomatidae family can cause painful bites and stings. Anaphylactic shock and death can result from the venom of bees and wasps. Beetles can cause vesicular dermatitis via cantharidin or paederin. Myiasis results from fly larvae (maggots) feeding on live or necrotic tissue of humans or other hosts, while New World screwworm fly larvae feed only on living tissue and burrow (ie, screw) more deeply when attempts are made to remove them. Tungiasis is characterized by very pruritic and painful papules and ulcers resulting from a Tunga flea penetrating the host's skin. Dermatologists should be able to diagnose and treat the cutaneous manifestations of these tropical insects and educate their patients on prevention. PMID:22890734

  18. Fleas (Insecta-Siphonaptera) of Chile: a review.

    PubMed

    Beaucournu, Jean-Claude; Moreno, Lucila; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a revision of the fleas (Siphonaptera) in Chile, gathered from 1993-2013 in response to a request to update our knowledge of the fauna of this country, as catalogued by Beaucournu & Gallardo in 1991 and 1992. For each taxon we give the depository of the type, the main references concerning it, its general distribution, particularly in Chile, and its known hosts, mainly in this country. Our review of the existing literature on fleas of Chile gives information on a total of 8 families, 11 subfamilies, 31 genera, 9 subgenera and 112 species (with 11 subspecies). The hosts are represented by 21 families of mammals (91 species) and 16 of birds (27 species). In addition we present 21 new reports of fleas for Chile and 165 new localities.  PMID:25543732

  19. On Afromantispa and Mantispa (Insecta, Neuroptera, Mantispidae): elucidating generic boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Snyman, Louwtjie P.; Sole, Catherine L.; Ohl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The genus Afromantispa Snyman & Ohl, 2012 was recently synonymised with Mantispa Illiger, 1798 by Monserrat (2014). Here morphological evidence is presented in support of restoring the genus Afromantispa stat. rev. to its previous status as a valid and morphologically distinct genus. Twelve new combinations (comb. n.) are proposed as species of Afromantispa including three new synonyms. PMID:26478700

  20. Reassessing the phylogenetic position of the epizoic earwigs (Insecta: Dermaptera).

    PubMed

    Naegle, Michael A; Mugleston, Joseph D; Bybee, Seth M; Whiting, Michael F

    2016-07-01

    Dermaptera is a relatively small order of free-living insects that typically feed on detritus and other plant material. However, two earwig lineages - Arixeniidae and Hemimeridae - are epizoic on Cheiromeles bats and Beamys and Cricetomys rats respectively. Both of these epizoic families are comprised of viviparous species. The monophyly of these epizoic lineages and their placement within dermapteran phylogeny has remained unclear. A phylogenetic analyses was performed on a diverse sample of 47 earwig taxa for five loci (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, COI, Histone 3, and Tubulin Alpha I). Our results support two independent origins of the epizoic lifestyle within Dermaptera, with Hemimeridae and Arixeniidae each derived from a different lineage of Spongiphoridae. Our analyses places Marava, a genus of spongiphorids that includes free-living but viviparous earwigs, as sister group to Arixeniidae, suggesting that viviparity evolved prior to the shift to the epizoic lifestyle. Additionally, our results support the monophyly of Forficulidae and Chelisochidae and the paraphyly of Labiduridae, Pygidicranidae, Spongiphoridae, and Anisolabididae. PMID:27033951

  1. Intraspecific Signals Inducing Aggregation in Periplaneta americana (Insecta: Dictyoptera).

    PubMed

    Imen, Saïd; Christian, Malosse; Virginie, Durier; Colette, Rivault

    2015-06-01

    Chemical communication is necessary to induce aggregation and to maintain the cohesion of aggregates in Periplaneta americana (L.) cockroaches. We aimed to identify the chemical message inducing aggregation in this species. Two types of bioassays were used-binary choice tests in Petri dishes and tests in Y-olfactometer. Papers conditioned by direct contact of conspecifics induce aggregation when proposed in binary choice tests and were attractive in a Y-olfactometer. The identification of the molecules present on these conditioned papers indicated that dichloromethane extracts contained mainly cuticular hydrocarbons whereas methanol extracts contained more volatile molecules. Only a mixture of extracts in both solvents induced aggregation. High concentrations of cuticular hydrocarbons are necessary to induce aggregation when presented alone. When presented with volatile molecules present in methanol extracts, low concentrations of cuticular hydrocarbons are sufficient to induce aggregation if they are presented in contact. Among volatile molecules collected on filter paper, a mixture of three compounds-hexadecanoic acid, pentadecanoic acid, and pentaethylene glycol-induced aggregation. Our results provide evidence that aggregation processes in P. americana relies on a dual mechanism: attraction over long distances by three volatile molecules and maintenance on site by contact with cuticular hydrocarbons. PMID:26313978

  2. A review of the fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lareschi, Marcela; Sanchez, Juliana; Autino, Analía

    2016-01-01

    The Order Siphonaptera comprises cosmopolitan haematophagous ectoparasites of birds and mammals. More than ten years have past since the last list of species known for Argentina. Herein we provide a review of the fleas from the country, which includes an updated list, host species and geographical distribution for each taxa, as well as some comments. We report 127 species and subspecies belonging to eleven different families; 42 of these species are endemic. Four genera (Adoratopsylla, Cleopsylla, Ctenidiosomus, and Nonnapsylla) and six species and subspecies (Adoratopsylla (Adoratopsylla) antiquorum antiquorum, Agastopsylla pearsoni, Polygenis (Polygenis) roberti beebei, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) silewi, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) wilesi and Tunga terasma) are added to the list for Argentina. Nine species new to science are included, described on the bases of specimens collected from Argentina (Ctenidiosomus austrinus, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) lareschiae, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) spiculatus, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) morenoi, Hectopsylla narium, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) linardii, Neotyphloceras crackensis, Neotyphloceras pardinasii and Tunga perforans). Information provided herein contributes to the knowledge of the fleas from Argentina, necessary to a better understanding of their role as parasites themselves and vectors of zoonotic importance. PMID:27394731

  3. Chromosome numbers in antlions (Myrmeleontidae) and owlflies (Ascalaphidae) (Insecta, Neuroptera)

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsova, Valentina G.; Khabiev, Gadzhimurad N.; Krivokhatsky, Victor A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A short review of main cytogenetic features of insects belonging to the sister neuropteran families Myrmeleontidae (antlions) and Ascalaphidae (owlflies) is presented, with a particular focus on their chromosome numbers and sex chromosome systems. Diploid male chromosome numbers are listed for 37 species, 21 genera from 9 subfamilies of the antlions as well as for seven species and five genera of the owlfly subfamily Ascalaphinae. The list includes data on five species whose karyotypes were studied in the present work. It is shown here that antlions and owlflies share a simple sex chromosome system XY/XX; a similar range of chromosome numbers, 2n = 14-26 and 2n = 18-22 respectively; and a peculiar distant pairing of sex chromosomes in male meiosis. Usually the karyotype is particularly stable within a genus but there are some exceptions in both families (in the genera Palpares and Libelloides respectively). The Myrmeleontidae and Ascalaphidae differ in their modal chromosome numbers. Most antlions exhibit 2n = 14 and 16, and Palparinae are the only subfamily characterized by higher numbers, 2n = 22, 24, and 26. The higher numbers, 2n = 20 and 22, are also found in owlflies. Since the Palparinae represent a basal phylogenetic lineage of the Myrmeleontidae, it is hypothesized that higher chromosome numbers are ancestral for antlions and were inherited from the common ancestor of Myrmeleontidae + Ascalaphidae. They were preserved in the Palparinae (Myrmeleontidae), but changed via chromosomal fusions toward lower numbers in other subfamilies. PMID:26807036

  4. Fossil Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) as Paleothermometers in the African Tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggermont, H.; Heiri, O.; Russell, J.; Vuille, M.; Audenaert, L.; Klaassen, G.; Verschuren, D.

    2008-12-01

    Reconstruction of Africa's temperature history from natural climate archives such as lake sediments is essential to amend the current scarcity of information on natural tropical climate and ecosystem variability. Chironomids are well-established paleothermometers in north-temperate/boreal regions, but their potential in tropical lakes has never before been assessed. We surveyed sub-fossil chironomid assemblages in surface sediments from 65 lakes and permanent pools in southwestern Uganda and central/southern Kenya, spanning elevations between 489 and 4575 m asl. Using various subsets of lakes and corresponding Surface-Water Temperatures (SWTemp) and Mean Annual Air Temperatures (MATemp), we developed a series of inference models for quantitative paleotemperature reconstruction. Models using both low-, mid- and high-elevation sites suffer to some extent from the small number of samples between 2500 and 3500 m asl, and from the presence of ecologically distinct but morphologically indistinguishable taxa. Models confined to mountain sites produce poorer error statistics, but are less prone to the biogeographical and taxonomic complexities associated with long climatic gradients. Overall, error statistics compare favourably with those of inference models developed for temperate regions, indicating that fossil assemblages of African Chironomidae can be valuable indicators of past temperature change. We subsequently used these models to evaluate whether high-elevation lakes in the Rwenzori Mountains (>3000 m asl) have been impacted by climate warming in recent centuries by comparing temperatures inferred from chironomid assemblages in modern sediments with those derived from chironomid assemblages in sediments deposited within or briefly after the Little Ice Age (1270-1850 AD). Depending on the model used, between 44 and 63% of the 16 lakes studied indicate significantly warmer temperatures in recent times (corresponding with an average MATemp rise of 0.88 ° C, and average SWTemp rise of 1.33 ° C), while all but one of the other lakes show temperature changes that are statistically insignificant. We conclude that chironomid communities in Rwenzori lakes adequately record past temperature changes, with potential for evaluating the impacts of past air temperature variation on the long-term dynamics of the Rwenzori glaciers.

  5. Subforaminal bridges in Hymenoptera (Insecta), with a focus on Chalcidoidea.

    PubMed

    Burks, R A; Heraty, J M

    2015-03-01

    Variation in structures of the posterior surface of the head in Hymenoptera is compared and interpreted according to theories of head capsule evolution, with focus on understanding previously baffling conditions in the superfamily Chalcidoidea. Features are investigated separately without first classifying subforaminal bridges into subcategories. In Proctotrupomorpha (including Chalcidoidea), Ceraphronoidea and some Ichneumonoidea, there are multiple posterior pits associated with the tentorium. In most examined Hymenoptera with a subforaminal bridge, there was a differentiated median area, typically with highly variable microtrichia. This area is elevated in Cephoidea and Pamphilioidea, but is not elevated in other Hymenoptera. Subforaminal bridges in Apocrita previously classified as hypostomal bridges are discussed in the context of A.P. Rasnitsyn's hypothesis that relative importance of adult feeding drives subforaminal bridge evolution. PMID:25579204

  6. New Jurassic Hangingflies (Insecta: Mecoptera: Bittacidae) from Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sulin; Shih, Chungkun; Bashkuev, Alexei; Ren, Dong

    2016-01-01

    A new bittacid genus, Composibittacus gen. nov., with two new species, C. bipunctatus gen. et sp. nov. and C. reticulatus sp. nov., and a new species of Orthobittacus Willmann 1989, O. maculosus sp. nov., are described from the latest Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. Composibittacus gen. nov. has unique wing characters, such as five pterostigmal crossveins between R1 and R2 and R1 and R2+3 and an elongated pterostigma area, which distinguishes it from all other known genera in Bittacidae. Orthobittacus maculosus sp. nov. differs from other species of Orthobittacus by a combination of the following wing characters: M with six branches in forewings and hind wings, two crossveins between C and Sc, and two pterostigmal crossveins in the forewing. In addition, O. maculosus sp. nov. has light-colored or white spots on the fore- and hind wings. These new venational characters of Composibittacus gen. nov. and O. maculosus sp. nov. enhance our understanding of the diverse morphological characters of early hangingflies. Furthermore, based on the striking similarity of the wings of O. maculosus sp. nov. and Juracimbrophlebia ginkgofolia Wang, Labandeira, Shih & Ren 2012 (Cimbrophlebiidae), we propose that leaf mimesis and mutualism with ginkgo plants might have been present in the Bittacidae, as has been proposed in the Cimbrophlebiidae. PMID:27395863

  7. Croatian mayflies (Insecta, Ephemeroptera): species diversity and distribution patterns

    PubMed Central

    Vilenica, Marina; Gattolliat, Jean-Luc; Mihaljević, Zlatko; Sartori, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Knowledge of the mayfly biodiversity in the Balkan Peninsula is still far from complete. Compared to the neighbouring countries, the mayfly fauna in Croatia is very poorly known. Situated at the crossroads of central and Mediterranean Europe and the Balkan Peninsula, Croatia is divided into two ecoregions: Dinaric western Balkan and Pannonian lowland. Mayflies were sampled between 2003 and 2013 at 171 sites, and a total of 66 species was recorded. Combined with the literature data, the Croatian mayfly fauna reached a total of 79 taxa. Of these, 29 species were recorded for the first time in Croatia while 15 species were not previously recorded in Dinaric western Balkan ecoregion. Based on the mayfly assemblage, sampling sites were first structured by ecoregion and then by habitat type. In comparison with the surrounding countries, the Croatian mayfly fauna is the most similar to the Hungarian and Bosnian fauna. Some morphologically interesting taxa such as Baetis cf. nubecularis Eaton, 1898 and Rhithrogena from the diaphana group were recorded. Ephemera cf. parnassiana Demoulin, 1958, the species previously recorded only from Greece, was also recorded. PMID:26478701

  8. Molecular phylogeny of Cotesia Cameron, 1891 (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) parasitoids associated with Melitaeini butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Melitaeini).

    PubMed

    Kankare, Maaria; Shaw, Mark R

    2004-07-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Cotesia Cameron (Braconidae) species parasitising Melitaeini butterflies were examined using DNA sequence data (mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I and NADH1 dehydrogenase genes, nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region) as well as 12 microsatellite loci. Molecular data were available from ostensibly six species of Cotesia from 16 host butterfly species in Europe, Asia, and North America. Analysis of the combined sequence data using both maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood revealed two distinct Cotesia clades. In one clade (C. acuminata (Reinhard); C. bignellii (Marshall)) host ranges are apparently narrow and, although Euphydryas (s. lato) is well-utilised, permeation of Melitaea (s. lato) has been slight. In the other clade (C. melitaearum (Wilkinson); C. lycophron (Nixon); C. cynthiae (Nixon)) host utilization across the Melitaeini as a whole is more extensive and the data are consistent with more recent, or active, speciation processes. Neighbour-joining trees calculated separately for the two main clades based on chord distance (DCE) of microsatellite allele frequencies were consistent with phylogenetic trees obtained from the sequence data. Our analysis strongly suggests the presence of several additional, previously unrecognised, Cotesia species parasitising this group of butterflies. PMID:15186808

  9. The authority and types for the hackberry gall psyllid genus Pachypsylla (Riley) (Hemiptera-Homoptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nomenclatural problems with the hackberry gall psyllid species names are rectified. The genus Pachypsylla Riley, 1883, type species, Psylla venusta Osten-Sacken, includes 14 nominal species. These are: Pachypsylla venusta (Osten-Sacken, 1861); P. celtidismamma Riley, 1875; P. celtidisgemma Ri...

  10. Leafhoppers (Homoptera: Cicadelliadae) associated with potatoes in Alaska: species composition, seasonal abundance, and potential vectors.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafhopper transmitted phytoplasma diseases are an emerging problem for potato and vegetable producers in the conterminous US. Due to its geographical isolation and climatic constrains, Alaska is considered relatively free of diseases and insect pests; therefore growers in the state are exploring th...

  11. HYPERSPECTRAL FIELD SPECTROMETRY FOR ESTIMATING GREENBUG (HOMOPTERA: APHIDIDAE) DAMAGE IN WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing techniques have the potential to provide information about vegetation characteristics. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the ability of a hyperspectral field spectrometer along with a digital camera to estimate greenbug (Schizaphis graminum Rondani) damage to wheat (Tri...

  12. Species and endosymbiont diversity of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on vegetable crops in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Hélène, Delatte; Rémy, Baudin; Nathalie, Becker; Anne-Laure, Girard; Traoré, Ramatoulaye Sidebe; Jean-Michel, Lett; Bernard, Reynaud

    2015-03-01

    Bemisia tabaci-transmitted geminiviruses are one of the major threats on cassava and vegetable crops in Africa. However, to date, few studies are available on the diversity of B. tabaci and their associated endosymbionts in Africa. More than 28 species have been described in the complex of B. tabaci cryptic species; among them, 2 are invasive pests worldwide: MED and MEAM1. In order to assess the species diversity of B. tabaci in vegetable crops in Senegal, several samplings in different localities, hosts and seasons were collected and analyzed with nuclear (microsatellite) and mitochondrial (COI) markers. The bacterial endosymbiont community was also studied for each sample. Two species were detected: MED Q1 and MEAM1 B. Patterns of MED Q1 (dominance on most of the samples and sites, highest nuclear and mitochondrial diversity and broader secondary endosymbiont community: Hamiltonella, Cardinium, Wolbachia and Rickettsia), point toward a predominant resident begomovirus vector group for MED Q1 on market gardening crops. Furthermore, the lower prevalence of the second species MEAM1 B, its lower nuclear and mitochondrial diversity and a narrower secondary endosymbiont community (Hamiltonella/Rickettsia), indicate that this genetic group is exotic and results from a recent invasion in this area. PMID:24789572

  13. Management of corn leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) and corn stunt disease in sweet corn using reflective mulch.

    PubMed

    Summers, C G; Stapleton, J J

    2002-04-01

    Plastic reflective mulches significantly reduced populations of corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis (DeLong & Wolcott), adults and the incidence of corn stunt disease caused by Spiroplasma kunkelii (CSS) in late planted sweet corn (Zea mays L.). The reflective mulches were more effective than were either foliar or soil applied insecticides in managing both the leafhopper and the pathogen it transmits. Yields of marketable ears were 1.5 to 2 times greater in reflective mulch plots than from fallow plots. This was due to larger ears (individual ear weight and length) rather than an increase in the number of ears. The use of reflective mulches provides an alternative strategy to insecticides in the management of both D. maidis and corn stunt disease. Such a strategy may prove useful to growers in Latin America and to limited resource growers and organic growers in the United States who wish to grow corn without the use of insecticides. PMID:12020008

  14. Appearance of cicada fauna (Homoptera: Cicadoidea) by altitudes in Johor National Park, Mount Ledang, Johor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Aliadi Mohd; Sulaiman, Azman

    2015-09-01

    A total of 31 cicada species in 15 genera under two families (Cicadidae, 27 species in 11 genera; Tibicinidae, four species in three genera) was recorded for Johor National Park, Mount Ledang, Johor. This was based on 666 individuals were obtained through six sampling occasions in November 2012 until October 2013, each time using light trap set in six sampling locations (L1, L2, L3, L4a, L4b, L4c) that were selected based on altitudes. The most common and abundant species in L1 is Pomponia sp1 and recognized as new species that need to be described as new to science. Orientopsaltria saudarapadda Duffles & Zaidi appeared as the most common and abundant species in L2, represented by 21 individuals which covers 34.43 % of the total cicadas specimen in that area. In the location of L3, Dundubia vaginata (Fabricius) appeared as the most abundant species represented by 37 individuals or 26.81% while Abroma maculicollis Guerin appeared as the most common species. Shannon's Species Diversity Index (H') in L3 was the highest (H'=2.28) followed by L4b (H'=2.21), L2 (H'=1.93) L4a (H'=1.92), L4c (H'=1.84) and L1 (H'=1.58), and the evenness index in L1 was the highest (E= 0.88), followed by L4b (E= 0.79), L3 (E= 0.77), L2 (E= 0.75), L4c (E= 0.74) and L4a (E= 0.79). Margalef Species Richness Index in L3 was the highest (R'=3.65), followed by oleh L4b (R'=3.01), L4a (R'=2.97), L2 (R'=2.92), L4c (R'=2.4), and L1 (R'=2.01). Generally shows that L3 at the altitude 350 m appear as the best sampling site for cicadas species in Mount Ledang Johor with the highest value of species diversity and richness index.

  15. Imidacloprid applications by subirrigation for control of silverleaf whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on poinsettia.

    PubMed

    van Iersel, M W; Oetting, R D; Hall, D B

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether silverleaf whiteflies, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, on poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willdenow ex Klotsch, can be controlled with imidacloprid applied by subirrigation. Different amounts of imidacloprid uptake by the growing medium were obtained by not watering the subirrigated plants for 0, 1, 2, or 4 d before the imidacloprid application. These treatments resulted in absorption of 12-175 ml of imidacloprid solution by the growing medium. These treatments were compared with untreated control plants and plants that were treated with a standard drench application (100 ml) to the top of the growing medium. All imidacloprid treatments resulted in a significant decrease in both the survival of adult whiteflies and number of immature whiteflies on the plants. Subirrigation treatments resulted in better control of adult and immature whiteflies than drench application. Withholding water for 2 or 4 d before the imidacloprid application by subirrigation improved control of immature whiteflies. This indicates that the application of imidacloprid to poinsettia by subirrigation is a practical and efficient method to control silverleaf whiteflies. PMID:10902335

  16. An economic comparison of biological and conventional control strategies for whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in greenhouse poinsettias.

    PubMed

    Stevens, T J; Kilmer, R L; Glenn, S J

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the costs of biologically controlling infestations of silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, in New England greenhouse operations on poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima Wild, ex Koltz, using the parasitic wasp Encarsia formosa Gahan (Nile Delta strain). Partial budget analysis was used to compare costs for conventional verses biological control regimens. Four alternative whitefly control budgets are developed; two conventional chemical-based control budgets formulated with and without the use of imidacloprid, and two biological control budgets which demonstrate the impact of possibly greater pest monitoring efforts necessary to implement this type strategy successfully. The analysis shows that biological whitefly control costs were > 300% greater than conventional chemical-based control strategy costs. Most of this increase is caused by the higher costs of Encarsia formosa as the material control input. If monitoring costs are held constant across different strategies, labor costs actually decline for biological control. This is because of a significant reduction in the number of control applications made and the relatively lower cost of applying E. formosa. If more extensive monitoring efforts are required to implement biological control successfully, labor costs increase by 56% over the conventional pre-imidacloprid regimen. Based on these results, the authors conclude that cheaper and more reliable means of producing E. formosa must be developed before this strategy will become economically viable for commercial poinsettia greenhouse production. PMID:10902307

  17. Extended survival of spiders (Aranaeae) feeding on whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) honeydew

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honeydew produced by homopteran insects such as aphids, whiteflies and mealybugs, can be abundant in some crops and may represent an important food resource for spiders and other honeydew feeding natural enemies. Woolly whiteflies are common in south Texas citrus, and spiders consistently make up a...

  18. Evidence for the biochemical basis of host virulence in the greenbug aphid, Schizaphis graminum (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotypes of aphids and many other insect pests are defined based on the phenotypic response of host plants to the insect pest without considering their intrinsic characteristics and genotypes. Plant breeders have spent considerable effort to develop aphid-resistant, small grain varieties to limit in...

  19. Seasonal capacity of attached and detached vineyard roots to support grape phylloxera (Homoptera: Phylloxeridae).

    PubMed

    Granett, J; Omer, A D; Walker, M A

    2001-02-01

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate population densities and survival, developmental rate, and fecundity of grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch), as influenced by root attachment or detachment from mature, field-grown, Vitis vinifera L. grapevines through the growing season. Experiments were performed using artificial infestations of California biotype A grape phylloxera. Thirty-day bioassays on attached- and detached-roots were repeated monthly from May to September in 1997 (cultivar 'Carignane') and April to September in 1998 (cultivar 'Thompson Seedless'). The bioassays showed that attached roots had lower population densities than detached roots in all months of both years. Densities varied by month, tending to be higher in spring than in summer. Of the population parameters studied, survival was most influenced by attachment condition, being higher on detached than on attached roots by up to 25-fold. These results imply the importance of vine-related mortality factors to grape phylloxera population density. Influence of root attachment condition on developmental rate and fecundity was not uniform across bioassay months for either year; however, in the four out of 21 assays where there was a significant difference it favored detached roots by twofold. Fruit harvest resulted in higher survival in the July assay but not for assays in August and September; however, neither developmental rate nor fecundity was affected by harvest in any ofthe assays. We conclude that mortality rather than nutritional factors are most limiting for field populations on susceptible vines. This work suggests that detachment of roots as occurs with root girdling by root pathogens may increase grape phylloxera populations on infested, susceptible vines. These results imply that excised root bioassays over-estimate grape phylloxera virulence and underestimate rootstock resistance. PMID:11233103

  20. Life history and life tables of Bactericera cockerelli (Homoptera: Psyllidae) on eggplant and bell pepper.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiang-Bing; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2009-12-01

    The development, survivorship, and fecundity of the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc), fed on eggplant (Solanum melongena L., variety Special Hibush) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L., variety Capsitrano) were studied in the laboratory at 26.7 +/- 2 degrees C, 70 +/- 5% RH, and at a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. Immature B. cockerelli developed faster (24.1 d) when fed on eggplant than on bell pepper (26.2 d). Survival rates of immature stages from egg to adult emergence were higher on eggplant (50.2%) than on bell pepper (34.6%). The longevity of B. cockerelli female adults fed on bell pepper was similar to that of females fed on eggplant (62.2 versus 55.0 d), but the male adults fed on eggplant lived shorter lives (39.4 d) than those fed on bell pepper (53.9 d). However, the preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, and sex ratio of B. cockerelli fed on eggplant were not different from those fed on bell pepper. The r(m ) value and the finite rate of increase (lambda) of B. cockerelli were higher on eggplant (0.1099 and 1.116, respectively) than on bell pepper (0.0884 and 1.0924, respectively). Mean generation time and doubling time of B. cockerelli were shorter on eggplant (40.4 and 6.3 d, respectively) than on bell pepper (46.1 and 7.8 d, respectively). In contrast, lifetime fecundity of B. cockerelli was greater on bell pepper (227.3 offspring) than on eggplant (186.5 offspring). Based on these life history parameters, we concluded that B. cockerelli performed better on eggplant than on bell pepper. PMID:20021762

  1. Egg parasitoids of Sophonia rufofascia (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, M.T.; Yang, P.; Huber, J.T.; Jones, V.P.

    2001-01-01

    Parasitism of the leafhopper Sophonia rufofascia (Kuoh and Kuoh), a recent immigrant that has become a widespread pest in Hawaii, was examined in a 1-year survey in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Samples of young leaves of four plant species infested with eggs of S. rufofascia were collected at five sites ranging from 880 to 1190 m in elevation. Leafhopper eggs were parasitized principally by three species of Mymaridae (Hymenoptera): Polynema sp., Schizophragma sp. probably bicolor (Dozier), and Chaetomymar sp. Although parasitism by each species fluctuated at levels usually below 10%, all three were detected consistently across most host plants, sites, and sample periods. Total parasitism differed at a marginally significant level among host plants and sites, but not among sample periods. Total parasitism averaged 14.3% (maximum: 26.3%) on Dodonaea viscosa Jacquin, 10.6% (maximum: 17.5%) on Myrica faya Aiton, 8.7% (maximum: 29.5%) on Metrosideros polymorpha Gaudich-Beaupre, and 1.6% (maximum: 4.3%) on Vaccinium reticulatum Smith. Parasitism was generally higher at sites lower in elevation. Further monitoring is recommended to determine whether parasitism will increase to levels that can effectively suppress S. rufofascia populations. The efficacy of natural enemies already present in Hawaii is important because concern over nontarget impacts on endemic leafhoppers makes introduction of new biological control agents difficult. ?? 2001 Academic Press.

  2. Ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest control of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on iceberg lettuce.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2005-12-01

    The aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) is a common pest of lettuce in the United States. It hinders export of U.S. lettuce to the overseas market such as Japan where it is a quarantined pest. Ultralow oxygen treatments were studied for control of the insect on iceberg lettuce. Small-scale ultralow oxygen treatments in plastic jars were conducted at 1, 5, and 10 degrees C for different durations to determine effective treatment against nymphs and alates of N. ribisnigri. At oxygen levels of 0.015-0.025%, N. ribisnigri can be controlled in 3 d at 1 degrees C, 2 d at 5 degrees C, and 1 d at 10 degrees C. Large-scale ultralow oxygen treatments were conducted in bulk container treatment chambers with commercial iceberg lettuce heads for 2 d at 6 degrees C with oxygen levels of 0.015 and 0.025% and for 3 d at 3 degrees C with oxygen level of 0.015%. All treatments achieved complete control of N. ribisnigri. No negative impact on lettuce quality was detected after 2 wk of posttreatment storage. Therefore, the selected treatments have potential to be commercially developed for postharvest control of N. ribisnigri on iceberg lettuce. PMID:16539111

  3. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on harvested lettuce.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2012-06-01

    Low temperature regular phosphine fumigations under the normal oxygen level and oxygenated phosphine fumigations under superatmospheric oxygen levels were compared for efficacy against the aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley), and effects on postharvest quality of romaine and head lettuce. Low temperature regular phosphine fumigation was effective against the aphid. However, a 3 d treatment with high phosphine concentrations of > or = 2,000 ppm was needed for complete control of the aphid. Oxygen greatly increased phosphine toxicity and significantly reduced both treatment time and phosphine concentration for control of N. ribisnigri. At 1,000 ppm phosphine, 72 h regular fumigations at 6 degrees C did not achieve 100% mortality of the aphid. The 1,000 ppm phosphine fumigation under 60% O2 killed all aphids in 30 h. Both a 72 h regular fumigation with 2,200 ppm phosphine and a 48 h oxygenated fumigation with 1,000 ppm phosphine under 60% O2 were tested on romaine and head lettuce at 3 degrees C. Both treatments achieved complete control of N. ribisnigri. However, the 72 h regular fumigation resulted in significantly higher percentages of lettuce with injuries and significantly lower lettuce internal quality scores than the 48 h oxygenated phosphine fumigation. Although the oxygenated phosphine fumigation also caused injuries to some treated lettuce, lettuce quality remained very good and the treatment is not expected to have a significant impact on marketability of the lettuce. This study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation was more effective and less phytotoxic for controlling N. ribisnigri on harvested lettuce than regular phosphine fumigation and is promising for practical use. PMID:22812116

  4. Effect of temperature on the biology of Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract: Effect of temperature on the biology of Paracoccus marginatus was investigated. P. marginatus was able to develop and complete its life cycle at 18°, 20°, 25° and 30°C. At 15°, 34° and 35°C eggs hatched, but further development was arrested. Approximately 80 -90% of the eggs survived betw...

  5. Interpopulation crosses, inheritance study, and genetic variability in the brown planthopper complex, Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae).

    PubMed

    Latif, M A; Omar, Mohd Yosuh; Tan, Soon Guan; Siraj, Siti Shapor; Ismail, Abdul Rahim

    2010-04-01

    Studies on hybridization, inheritance, and population genetics of brown planthoppers that infest rice and weeds were undertaken using starch gel electrophoresis to determine whether the weed-infesting population represents a biological race or a species. F(1) and F(2) generations were produced by crosses between parental insects from the two populations with little indication of hybrid sterility. Gpi, Mdh, and Idh loci were inherited in a simple Mendelian fashion in families of two sympatric populations. Sixteen populations of Nilaparvata spp. from eight locations were collected. The Mdh, Idh, Pgm, Gpi, 6Pgd, and Acp loci were polymorphic. The N. lugens of rice with high esterase activity were clustered into a group and characterized by the presence of alleles Gpi (110) and Gpi (120), whereas N. lugens from weeds with low esterase activity were clustered into another group and characterized by Gpi (100) and Gpi (90) . There was a lack of heterozygotes between the common alleles of the two populations. This means that the two groups of individuals belong to different gene pools. PMID:19967400

  6. Mechanisms of Oryza sativa (Poaceae) resistance to Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae) under greenhouse condition in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    González, Alex; Labrín, Natalia; Alvarez, Rosa M; Jayaro, Yorman; Gamboa, Carlos; Reyes, Edicta; Barrientos, Venancio

    2012-03-01

    Tagosodes orizicolus is one of the main plagues of rice in tropical America causing two types of damages, the direct one, feeding and oviposition effect, and an indirect one, by the transmission of the "Rice hoja blanca virus". During 2006-2007 we carried out research under greenhouse conditions at Fundaci6n Danac, Venezuela, in order to determine the mechanisms of antixenosis, antibiosis and tolerance to T. orizicolus, which could be acting in commercial varieties and advanced lines of the rice genetic breeding programs of INIA and Fundaci6n Danac. The method of free feeding was used for the antixenosis evaluation, whereas the method of forced feeding was used for antibiosis evaluation (effect on survival and oviposition). Additionally, we used the indirect method based on biomass depression to estimate the tolerance. Some of the evaluated traits included: grade of damage, number of insects settling on rice plants, percentage of sogata mortality at the mature state, number of eggs in the leaf midrib and an index of tolerance. The results showed that rice genotypes possess different combinations of resistance mechanisms, as well as different grades of reactions. The susceptible control 'Bluebonnet 50' was consistently susceptible across experiments and the resistant control 'Makalioka' had high antixenosis and high antibiosis based on survival and oviposition. The rest of the genotypes presented lower or higher degrees of antixenosis and antibiosis for survival and oviposition. The genotype 'FD0241-M-17-6-1-1-1-1' was identified with possible tolerance to the direct damage of sogata. PMID:22458212

  7. Comparison of insect vacuums for sampling Asian citrus psyllid (Homoptera: Psyllidae) on citrus trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three vacuum devices were compared for sampling psyllid populations. One was an AC rechargeable, handheld, cordless model and a second was a handheld, DC model powered through a cord connected to a 12V vehicle battery. Each of these devices had a mesh cylinder (substituted for a dust bag) in which...

  8. Insect-vacs for sampling Asian citrus psyllid (Homoptera: psyllidae) on citrus trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three vacuum devices were compared for sampling psyllid populations. One was an AC rechargeable, handheld, cordless model and a second was a handheld, DC model powered through a cord connected to a 12V vehicle battery. Each of these devices had a mesh cylinder (substituted for a dust bag) in which...

  9. Hot-water treatments for control of Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on dormant grape cuttings.

    PubMed

    Haviland, David R; Bentley, Walter J; Daane, Kent M

    2005-08-01

    Hot-water immersions were tested for control of mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret), on dormant grape cuttings used for nursery stock. A range of hot-water temperatures (47-58 degrees C) were evaluated at immersion periods of 2, 5, 10, or 20 min, by using a total of 353,720 mealybugs across all treatments. A 5-min immersion at 51 degrees C is effective in killing > 99% of P. ficus. At or above this immersion period and temperature, there was no difference in mealybug stage mortality. We evaluated a commercial operation, which used a 5-min immersion in each of three water tanks: preheating (30.0 +/- 3 degrees C), hot-water (52.8 +/- 0.3 degrees C), and cooling (23 +/- 3 degrees C). The commercial procedure provided 99.8-100% mealybug control in each of three separate trials. PMID:16156560

  10. Genetics and preliminary mechanism of chlorpyrifos resistance in Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad; Ijaz, Mamuna; Farooq, Zahra; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Abbas, Naeem

    2015-03-01

    Cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, is a serious pest of cotton and other crops and infestation by this pest results in yield losses that affect the economy of Pakistan. Various groups of insecticides have been used to control this pest but resistance development is a major factor that inhibits its control in the field. Chlorpyrifos is a common insecticide used against many pests including P. solenopsis. The present experiment was designed to assess the genetics and mechanism of chlorpyrifos resistance and to develop a better resistance management strategy and assess the genetics and mechanism of chlorpyrifos resistance. Before selection, the field strain showed 3.1-fold resistance compared to the susceptible strain (CSS). After 8 rounds of selection with chlorpyrifos, a selected population developed a 191.0-fold resistance compared to the CSS. The LC50 values of F1 (CRR ♀ × CSS ♂) and F1(†) (CRR ♂ × CSS ♀) strains were not significantly different and dominance (DLC) values were 0.42 and 0.55. Reciprocal crosses between chlorpyrifos susceptible and resistant strains indicated that resistance was autosomal and incompletely recessive. The monogenic model of fit test and calculation of number of genes segregating in the chlorpyrifos resistant strain demonstrated that resistance is controlled by multiple genes. A value of 0.59 was calculated for realized heritability for chlorpyrifos resistance. Synergism bioassays with piperonyl butoxide and S, S, S-butyl phosphorotrithioate showed that chlorpyrifos resistance was associated with microsomal oxidases and esterases. It was concluded that chlorpyrifos resistance in P. solenopsis was autosomally inherited, incompletely recessive and polygenic. These findings would be helpful to improve the management of P. solenopsis. PMID:25868815

  11. Effects of planting pattern of collards on resistance to whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and on parasitoid abundance.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D M; Farnham, M W; Simmons, A M; Van Giessen, W A; Elsey, K D

    2000-08-01

    Fourteen collard entries, Brassica oleraceae L., Acephala group, were evaluated for resistance to natural populations of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring in replicated field plots in Charleston, SC. Glossy-leaf phenotypes ('SC Glaze', 'SC Landrace,' 'Green Glaze') were the most resistant collard entries and had fewer whiteflies than the nonglossy, open-pollinated cultivars. Also, two F1 hybrid cultivars with normal, nonglossy leaves ('Blue Max' and 'Top Bunch') were resistant. In laboratory experiments, there were no differences in the intrinsic rate of growth (rs) of B. argentifolii populations on either glossy or nonglossy collard phenotypes. Over a 2-yr period, there were no differences in the abundance of whiteflies on the glossy phenotype of Green Glaze when it was planted in solid 20-plant plots or when it was alternated (every other plant) with the nonglossy phenotype of Green Glaze. In a similarly designed experiment, there was no difference in the resistance of Blue Max in either solid or mixed planting scheme compared with the susceptible 'Morris Heading'. Higher numbers of whiteflies and parasitoids (primarily Eretmocerus spp.) were collected on yellow sticky cards in the solid plantings of the nonglossy phenotype of Green Glaze than were collected in the solid plantings of the glossy Green Glaze phenotype. Counts on sticky cards in the mixed plots were intermediate. These data show that planting pattern of collard entries is relatively unimportant in the deployment of these sources of host plant resistance. The data also suggest that nonpreference is the primary mode of resistance to whiteflies for certain collard entries. PMID:10985035

  12. COTTON WATER STRESS ON BEMISIA TABACI STRAIN B (HOMOPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE) ON HONEYDEW PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparisons of honeydew production by sweetpotato whitefly (SPW), Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Strain B while feeding on water-stressed or non-water-stressed cotton showed that more honeydew sugars were produced on non water-stressed leaves of cotton plants (four days after irrigation) compared to tho...

  13. EFFECTS OF COTTON PLANT WATER STRESS ON BEMISIA TABACI STRAIN B (HOMOPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE) HONEYDEW PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honeydew production by sweetpotato whitefly (SPW), Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Strain B, feeding on water-stressed and non-water-stressed cotton was compared in field and greenhouse studies. In the field in 1999, leaf water potentials, as a measure of water stress, decreased with increasing numbers ...

  14. The Toxicity and Detoxifying Mechanism of Cycloxaprid and Buprofezin in Controlling Sogatella furcifera (Homoptera: Delphacidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xiaoli; Yuan, Yongda; Zhang, Tianshu; Wang, Dongsheng; Du, Xingbin; Wu, Xiangwen; Chen, Haixia; Chen, Yaozhong; Jiao, Yuetong; Teng, Haiyuan

    2015-01-01

    The effects of cycloxaprid (a modified neonicotinoid insecticide) and buprofezin (a thiadiazine insecticide) on mortality of the white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera, were determined in laboratory assays. Cycloxaprid killed WBPH nymphs and adults but buprofezin killed only nymphs, and cycloxaprid acted faster than buprofezin. One day after infestation, mortality of third-instar nymphs was >65% with cycloxaprid at 125 mg liter−1 but was <38% with buprofezin at 148 mg liter−1. By the 4th day after infestation, however, control of nymphs by the two insecticides was similar, and cycloxaprid at 125 mg liter−1 caused ≥80% mortality of adults but buprofezin at 148 mg liter−1 (the highest rate tested) caused almost no adult mortality. LC50 values for cycloxaprid were lowest with nymphs, intermediate with adult males, and highest with adult females. Although buprofezin was slower acting than cycloxaprid, its LC50 for nymphs 5 d after infestation was 3.79-fold lower than that of cycloxaprid. Mean carboxylesterase (CarE) specific activity of nymphal WBPH treated with cycloxaprid and buprofezin was higher than that of control, but there was no significant difference between cycloxaprid and control (no insecticide), and it was significantly higher for buprofezin than those of cycloxaprid and control. For glutathione S-transferase and mixed function oxygenase, the specific activity of nymphal WBPH treated with buprofezin was significantly higher than those of cycloxaprid and control, too. PMID:26175461

  15. Categories of resistance to greenbug and yellow sugarcane aphid (homoptera: aphididae) in three tetraploid switchgrass populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L., has been targeted as a bioenergy feedstock. However, little is currently known of the mechanisms of insect resistance in this species. Here, two no-choice studies were performed to determine the categories (antibiosis and tolerance) and relative levels of resistanc...

  16. Aphicidal Activity of an Ageraphorone Extract From Eupatorium adenophorum Against Pseudoregma bambucicola (Homoptera: Aphididae, Takahashi)

    PubMed Central

    Nong, Xiang; Chen, Feng-Zheng; Yang, Yao-Jun; Liang, Zi; Huang, Bao-Lian; Li, Yi; Liu, Tian-Fei; Yu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    The bamboo aphid, Pseudoregma bambucicola, is an important insect pest of bamboo that affects normal bamboo growth and induces sooty molds. The control of P. bambucicola involves the application of chemicals, such as imidacloprid, to which many species are resistant. In this study, we isolate a novel botanical pesticide (9-oxo-10,11-dehydro-ageraphorone) from an Eupatorium adenophorum(Asteraceae: Compositae) petroleum ether extract and test the aphicidal activity of this compound against P. bambucicola in laboratory bioassay and field-based experiments. This ageraphorone compound at a concentration of 2 mg/ml caused 73.33% mortality (corrected mortality [Subtracted the mortality of the negative control]: 70%) of P. bambucicola by laboratory bioassay within 6 h. Even at lower concentrations, this compound caused greater 33% mortality (corrected mortality: 30%) of aphids. Field experiments with naturally infested bamboo plants showed that two applications of 2 mg/ml ageraphorone to infested plants completely cleared infestations within 30 d. These effects were similar to those of the positive control (imidacloprid). These results reveal that 9-oxo-10,11-dehydro-ageraphorone exhibits significant aphicidal activity against bamboo aphids. We suggest that future research be directed at developing this ageraphorone compound from E. adenophorum as an aphicidal agent for biocontrol. PMID:26113513

  17. Evidence of the biochemical basis of host virulence in the greenbug aphid, Schizaphis graminum (Homoptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Patricia; Bereman, Michael S; Burd, John; Pals, Melissa; Armstrong, Scott; Howe, Kevin J; Thannhauser, Theodore W; MacCoss, Michael J; Gray, Stewart M; Cilia, Michelle

    2014-04-01

    Biotypes of aphids and many other insect pests are defined based on the phenotypic response of host plants to the insect pest without considering their intrinsic characteristics and genotypes. Plant breeders have spent considerable effort developing aphid-resistant, small-grain varieties to limit insecticide control of the greenbug, Schizaphis graminum. However, new S. graminum biotypes frequently emerge that break resistance. Mechanisms of virulence on the aphid side of the plant-insect interaction are not well understood. S. graminum biotype H is highly virulent on most small grain varieties. This characteristic makes biotype H ideal for comparative proteomics to investigate the basis of biotype virulence in aphids. In this study, we used comparative proteomics to identify protein expression differences associated with virulence. Aphid proteins involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, immune system, cell division, and antiapoptosis pathways were found to be up-regulated in biotype H relative to other biotypes. Proteins from the bacterial endosymbiont of aphids were also differentially expressed in biotype H. Guided by the proteome results, we tested whether biotype H had a fitness advantage compared with other S. graminum biotypes and found that biotype H had a higher reproductive fitness as compared with two other biotypes on a range of different wheat germplasms. Finally, we tested whether aphid genetics can be used to further dissect the genetic mechanisms of biotype virulence in aphids. The genetic data showed that sexual reproduction is a source of biotypic variation observed in S. graminum. PMID:24588548

  18. Bemisia tabaci (Aleyrodidae: Homoptera) nymphal feeding in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used brightfield electron microscopy (BEM), differential interference contrast microscopy (DICM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to investigate the stylet pathways of Bemisia tabaci during nymphal feeding b...

  19. Differential susceptibility of Dysmicoccus vaccinii (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae).

    PubMed

    Stuart, R J; Polavarapu, S; Lewis, E E; Gaugler, R

    1997-08-01

    The susceptibility of the mealy bug, Dysmicoccus vaccinii Miller & Polavarapu, to infection by various species and strains of entomopathogenic nematodes was investigated in laboratory sand-dish and sand-column assays. Steinernemo carpocapsae (Weiser) (All strain), S. feltiae (Filipjev) (AB [Australia] strain), and S. glaseri (Steiner) (NC strain) were ineffective against individual mealybugs in sand-dish assays conducted in small petri dishes (1 cm high by 3.5 cm diameter) at 25 degrees C with doses of infective juvenile nematodes ranging up to 500 or 1,000 infective juveniles and exposure periods up to 5 d. However, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (HP88 strain and 2 New Jersey isolates). H. hawaiiensis Gardner, Stock & Kaya (MG-13 strain), and H. indicus Poinar, Karunakar & David (EMS-13 strain) induced significant mortality (65.0-90.0%) at doses as low as 100 infective juveniles and an exposure of 5 d. H. bacteriophora (HBNJ strain) was effective at doses of 500 and 1,000 infective juveniles but, together with H. zealandica Poinar (V16 strain) and 4 other H. bacteriophora isolates from New Jersey, was ineffective at doses of 100 infective juveniles. Removal of the waxy coating from the mealybugs did not influence susceptibility to H. bacteriophora (HP88 strain). In the sand-column assay (5.5 cm high by 5 cm diameter, 5-d exposure, 25 degrees C), which more closely resembles host-finding in the field, H. bacteriophora (HP88 strain) induced no significant mortality against individual mealybugs at doses of 100 infective juveniles but produced 93.8% mortality at 500 infective juveniles, whereas H. indicus (EMS-13 strain) induced 56.3 and 100% mortality at 100 and 500 infective juveniles, respectively. H. bacteriophora (HP88 strain and some New Jersey isolates), H. hawaiiensis (MG-13 strain), and H. indicus (EMS-13 strain) successfully reproduced in and emerged from mealybug cadavers. This study demonstrates strong variability in the susceptibility of D. vaccinii to different species and strains of entomopathogenic nematodes, and implicates certain heterorhabditids as promising candidates for the biological control of this insect. PMID:9260541

  20. Distribution and abundance of mymarid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) of Sophonia rufofascia Kuoh and Kuoh (Homoptera: Cicadellidae)in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, P.; Foote, D.; Alyokhin, A.V.; Lenz, L.; Messing, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    The abundance of mymarid parasitoids attacking the two-spotted leafhopper (Sophonia rufofascia [Kuoh and Kuoh]), a polyphagous pest recently adventive to Hawaii, was monitored using yellow sticky cards deployed in several areas on the islands of Kauai and Hawaii. The yellow cards captured Chaetomymar sp. nr bagicha Narayanan, Subba Rao, & Kaur and Schizophragma bicolor (Dozier), both adventive species, and Polynema sp. Haliday, which is endemic to Hawaii (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). The former two species were most abundant at all sites. On Kauai, there was a negative correlation between the captures of C. sp. nr bagicha and those of Polynema sp. Throughout the season, the increase in parasitoid numbers generally followed the increase in leafhopper numbers. C. sp. nr. bagicha and S. bicolor showed distinct habitat preferences. Removal of Myrica faya Aiton, an invasive weed that is a highly preferred two-spotted leafhopper host, decreased the overall numbers of captured parasitoids, but led to a twofold increase in the ratio of trapped parasitoids/hosts in weed-free areas. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  1. Clonal turnover of MACE-carrying peach-potato aphids (Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Homoptera: Aphididae) colonizing Scotland.

    PubMed

    Kasprowicz, L; Malloch, G; Foster, S; Pickup, J; Zhan, J; Fenton, B

    2008-04-01

    Peach-potato aphids, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), collected in Scotland in the years 1995 and 2002-2004 were characterized using four microsatellite loci and three insecticide resistance mechanisms. From 868 samples, 14 multilocus genotypes were defined (designated clones A-N). Five of these (denoted A, B, H, M and N) carried modified acetylcholinesterase (MACE) resistance, the most recent resistance mechanism to have evolved in M. persicae. The current paper shows that the continued presence of MACE aphids is due to turnover, as clones A and B were replaced in field samples by clones H, M and N in later seasons. Thus, insecticide-resistant populations in Scotland can be attributed to multiple waves of rapid clone colonisations and not to the continued presence of stable resistant clones or mutation or sexual recombination in local populations. The MACE clones carried varying levels of the other insecticide resistance mechanisms, kdr and esterase. The presence of these mechanisms could alter the clones success in the field depending on insecticide spraying (positive selection) and resistance fitness costs (negative selection). PMID:18076780

  2. Changes in life history parameters of Rhopalosiphum maidis (Homoptera: Aphididae) under four different elevated temperature and CO2 combinations.

    PubMed

    Xie, Haicui; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Wenqiang; Wang, Zhenying; Ni, Xinzhi; Cai, Wanzhi; He, Kanglai

    2014-08-01

    Biological characteristics of corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), on barley, Hordeum vulgare L., were examined for two generations under four different elevated temperature and CO2 combinations. The developmental duration for each life stage was significantly reduced under the elevated temperature (+4 degrees C). The elevated CO2 (700-750 microl/liter) reduced only the development time of fourth-instar nymph. The overall duration of nymphal stage was reduced in the second generation. Thus, the temperature was the dominant factor to development duration of corn leaf aphid. The fecundity of corn leaf aphid was significantly increased under the elevated temperature and CO2, as well as in the later generation. Elevated temperature and CO2 increased the number of alate production, which may enhance the aphid migration or dispersal and the spread of plant viruses. Corn leaf aphid had the highest intrinsic rate of increase under the elevated temperature and CO2 combination in the second generation. These results indicate that the combined effects of both elevated temperature and CO2 on aphid biology may exacerbate aphid damage on barley under the climate change in accompany with elevated temperature and CO2 level. PMID:25195429

  3. Susceptibility to neonicotinoid and risk of resistance development in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (stal) (Homoptera: Delphacidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outbreaks of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, have been occurring more frequently in recent years in China. Control of this pest depended heavily on chemical insecticides. The objective of this study was to determine susceptibilities of N. lugens to neonicotinoids and other insecticides in...

  4. Impact of Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae) infestation and squash silverleaf disorder on zucchini yield and quality.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiang; McAuslane, Heather J; Carle, R Bruce; Webb, Susan E

    2004-12-01

    Fruit yield and quality of zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L., plants infested with Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring were evaluated in a screenhouse under spring and fall growing conditions by using closely related sister lines that were either susceptible (ZUC61) or tolerant (ZUC76-SLR) to squash silverleaf disorder. Our objective was to test separately the effects of level of whitefly infestation and expression of silverleaf symptoms on zucchini yield and quality. In a second experiment, yield and quality of fruit produced by silverleaf-tolerant zucchini genotypes incorporating two different sources of tolerance (ZUC76-SLR and ZUC33-SLR/PMR) were compared with that of 'Zucchini Elite', a silverleaf-susceptible commercial hybrid. Zucchini fruit yield was reduced in plants exposed to repeated infestations of whiteflies in spring and fall of both experiments. In addition, fruit grew to harvestable size more slowly under the highest whitefly infestations. Fruit quality was reduced at high infestations because of uneven and reduced pigmentation. The fruit yield and quality of ZUC61 and ZUC76-SLR were similarly affected by whitefly infestation despite differences in their susceptibility to squash silverleaf disorder. Fruit from infested plants showed decreased levels of chlorophyll and carotenoids causing the "blanching" of the fruit that is associated with loss of quality and reduced marketability. Leaves of infested plants of all genotypes had reduced levels of photosynthetic and photoprotectant pigments, possibly leading to reduced photosynthesis and consequently reduced yield. We conclude that feeding by high whitefly populations rather than expression of squash silverleaf disorder is responsible for yield and quality reduction in zucchini. PMID:15666769

  5. High-pressure washing treatments to remove obscure mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) and lightbrown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from harvested apples.

    PubMed

    Whiting, D C; Hoy, L E; Maindonald, J H; Connolly, P G; McDonald, R M

    1998-12-01

    Mixed life stages of obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), and late 1st-instar or early 2nd-instar lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), on 'Royal Gala' apples (Malus domestica Borkhausen) were exposed to standard packhouse processing with and without addition of high-pressure apple washer treatments. Insect removal and mortality were assessed. After standard packhouse processing approximately 60% of P. viburni remained on their host apples. The 2 high-pressure apple washer treatments (500 and 800 psi at 2.0 rods/s) were equally effective and significantly reduced the number of P. viburni on apples compared with the packhouse control. High-pressure apple washer removal by location decreased in the following order: calyx cavity outside the sepals > cheek approximately stem cavity > or = calyx beneath sepals. About half of the E. postvittana larvae infesting apples was removed by standard packhouse processing. Removal rates were similar for all locations on open-calyxed apples. However, no removal occurred from the calyx beneath the sepals if the apple calyx was closed. All 4 high-pressure apple washer treatments tested (500 and 800 psi at 1.0 and 2.0 rods/s) halved the number of larvae on the apple exterior relative to the packhouse control. The pattern of removal for larvae on open-calyxed apples was calyx outside sepals approximately stem cavity > calyx beneath the sepals approximately cheek. A similar pattern was evident for larvae on closed-calyxed apples, except insects beneath the sepals evaded removal. The persistence of insects on the apple cheek reflects the high proportion of larvae inside tunnels in this location compared with other apple locations. Removal of internally positioned insects was much lower than that of externally positioned insects. PMID:9887685

  6. Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) Instar Effects on Rate of Parasitism by Eretmocerus mundus and Encarsia pergandiella (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to compare preference among Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, Biotype B instars for parasitization by Encarsia pergandiella Howard and Eretmocerus mundus Mercet when provided one instar only, two different instars, and four different instars simultaneously. In the single instar-choic...

  7. Wolbachia infection shared among planthoppers (Homoptera: Delphacidae) and their endoparasite (Strepsiptera: Elenchidae): a probable case of interspecies transmission.

    PubMed

    Noda, H; Miyoshi, T; Zhang, Q; Watanabe, K; Deng, K; Hoshizaki, S

    2001-08-01

    Wolbachia, a group of parasitic bacteria of arthropods, are believed to be horizontally transmitted among arthropod taxa. We present a new probable example of interspecies horizontal transmission of Wolbachia by way of an endoparasite based on the conformity of Wolbachia gene sequences. Field samples of two rice planthoppers, Laodelphax striatellus and Sogatella furcifera possessed identical Wolbachia. Among three major endoparasites of planthoppers, a strepsipteran, Elenchus japonicus, harboured the identical Wolbachia strain, suggesting strepsipteran transmission of Wolbachia from one planthopper to the other. No Wolbachia was detected in a mermithid nematode Agamermis unka, and dryinid wasps possessed different types of Wolbachia. PMID:11555254

  8. Delphastus catalinae and Coleomegilla maculata lengi (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as biological control agents of the greenhouse whitefly, trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Lucas, Eric; Labrecque, Claude; Coderre, Daniel

    2004-11-01

    Predation efficacy and compatibility of the predatory lady beetles Coleomegilla maculata lengi Timberlake and Delphastus catalinae (Horn) against the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) were studied in laboratory on glabrous fuchsia (Fuchsia hybrida Voss cv Lena Corolla) and pubescent poinsettia plants (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd ex Klotzch cv Dark Red Annette Hegg). On glabrous plants (fuchsia), fourth-instar and adults of C maculata were the most efficient, both against whitefly eggs and pupae. On pubescent plants (poinsettia), the larger stages of C maculata were negatively affected and less efficient than adults of D catalinae. The presence of plant structure did not affect the voracity of either predator species. Finally, the simultaneous use of both predator species generated inter-specific competition. These results provide recommendations for biological control of whitefly in horticultural greenhouses. PMID:15532680

  9. Evaluation of the Synergistic Effect Between Ethyl Formate and Phospine for Control of Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Ho; Kim, Hye Min; Kim, Bong Soo; Yang, Jeong Oh; Moon, Young Mi; Ren, Yonglin

    2016-02-01

    Cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, is known as a quarantine pest that is hard to control with short periods of fumigation with phosphine (PH(3)) or low concentrations of ethyl formate. Moreover, low-temperature fumigation with ethyl formate can lead to phototoxic damage of some perishable commodities. Therefore, a laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the synergistic effect of mixing ethyl formate and PH(3) for the treatment of adults and nymphs of A. gossypii. Combined toxicity was observed and compared with a single dose of eitherrethyl formate or PH(3). When insects were exposed to 0.5 g/m(3) of PH(3) combined with different levels of ethyl formate from 1.6 to 16.3 g/m(3) at 5 and 20C for 2 h, L(Ct)(50) and L(Ct)(99) values were greatly reduced in comparison with a single dose of either ethyl formate or PH(3). The synergistic ratio (SR) is described as L(Ct) of ethyl formate alone/L(Ct) of ethyl formate + PH(3). The SR values of L(Ct)(50) and L(Ct)(99) for adult A. gossypii at 5C were 4.55 and 2.33, respectively. However, at 20C the SR levels of L(Ct)(50) and L(Ct)(99) were 2.22 and 1.45, respectively, but still showed significant synergism (significant difference, P<0.5). This new technology could meet quarantine and preshipment requirements for shorter exposure times and less damage of perishable commodities, and could also be extended for controlling other quarantine pests and thereby be a useful alternative to methyl bromide for fruit and vegetable applications. PMID:26476554

  10. A comparison of four geographic sources of the biocontrol agent Prokelisia marginata (Homoptera: Delphacidae) following introduction into a common environment.

    PubMed

    Grevstad, F S; O'Casey, C; Katz, M L

    2012-06-01

    As part of a biological control program against Spartina alterniflora Loisel. (smooth cordgrass), we simultaneously released populations of the planthopper Prokelisia marginata (van Duzee) from four geographic areas in each of five replicate field sites in the Willapa Bay estuary in Washington State. The four sources (California, Georgia, Virginia, and Rhode Island) have varying climate and seasonal regimes. We expected local adaptations would affect performance in the new environment. Using vacuum sampling, we measured population densities in spring and fall for 2 yr after release. In addition, we measured the timing of spring emergence through bi-weekly surveys of the number of nymphs residing in overwintering sites (curled leaves of senesced Spartina culms) versus on live green shoots. The observed sequence of emergence GA>CA>VA>RI was consistent with the hypothesis that this insect responds to a photoperiod cue for emergence timing. The four populations also differed in their reproductive capacity as measured by the increase in population densities over the summer months. Overall, the California and Rhode Island populations had higher population growth than those from Virginia and Georgia. Our results suggest that the climate and seasonal adaptations of biocontrol agents should be carefully considered as they can affect the performance and phenology in the new range. At the same time, it is noteworthy that all four populations were capable of establishing and growing, indicating a degree of resiliency for populations experiencing a rapid change in climate. PMID:22732601

  11. Development of trapping methods using a synthetic sex pheromone of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) threatens numerous crops of economic importance and could spread from populations in California and Florida to 33 other states. Field experiments conducted in Florida evaluated three commercially available trap designs baited with syntheti...

  12. Bacterial symbionts, Buchnera, and starvation on wing dimorphism in English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.) (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fangmei; Li, Xiangrui; Zhang, Yunhui; Coates, Brad; Zhou, Xuguo “Joe”; Cheng, Dengfa

    2015-01-01

    Wing dimorphism in aphids can be affected by multiple cues, including both biotic (nutrition, crowding, interspecific interactions, the presence of natural enemies, maternal and transgenerational effects, and alarm pheromone) and abiotic factors (temperature, humidity, and photoperiod). The majority of the phloem-feeding aphids carry Buchnera, an obligate symbiotic proteobacteria. Buchnera has a highly reduced genome size, but encode key enzymes in the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway and is crucial for nutritional balance, development and reproduction in aphids. In this study, we investigated the impact of two nutritional-based biotic factors, symbionts and starvation, on the wing dimorphism in the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, a devastating insect pest of cereal crops (e.g., wheat) worldwide. Elimination of Buchnera using the antibiotic rifampicin significantly reduced the formation of winged morphs, body mass, and fecundity in S. avenae. Furthermore, the absence of this primary endosymbiont may disrupt the nutrient acquisition in aphids and alter transgenerational phenotypic expression. Similarly, both survival rate and the formation of winged morphs were substantially reduced after neonatal (<24 h old) offspring were starved for a period of time. The combined results shed light on the impact of two nutritional-based biotic factors on the phenotypic plasticity in aphids. A better understanding of the wing dimorphism in aphids will provide the theoretical basis for the prediction and integrated management of these phloem-feeding insect pests. PMID:26042046

  13. Bioassay evaluation of the entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassaina Vuellemin against eggs and nymphs of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Al-Deghairi, Mohammad A

    2008-06-15

    This study was carried out to determine the lethal effect of the entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassaina Vuell. on eggs, young and old nymphs of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Genn. Mortality percentage was significantly differed based on stage of B. tabaci and conidial concentrations of B. bassina. Average of the infection level to insect was very low particularly in eggs with only 4.49%, even with higher conidial concentrations (6 x 10(6) conidia mL(-1)). Whereas, it was higher with 1st and 2nd instars (42.045%) and 3rd and 4th instars (35.93%). Three parameters was assessed with B. tabaci eggs, namely; egg infection, egg hatchability and crawlers emergence. Egg mortality percentages averaged 1.2, 4.27 and 8.0% with fungal concentration 2 x 10(6), 4 x 10(6) and 6 x 10(6) conidia mL(-1), respectively. Daily infection percentages were varied depend upon the conidial concentration where the highest infection rate of eggs was occurred with 6 x 10(6), followed by 4 x 10(6) conidia mL(-1). Egg hatch was very high, while the mortality among the emerged crawlers was neglectable compared with the check. Efficiency of B. bassaina on whitefly nymphs also was varied based on the insect instar and fungal concentration. Mortality percentages were obviously higher to young nymphs (1st and 2nd instars) than to older ones (3rd and 4th instars). The results indicated that nymphs were highly susceptible to fungal treatment compared with eggs. Additionally, pathogenicity and virulence of B. bassaina against B. tabaci immatures was not indicated by LC50 only, but also, by the time in days (LT50) required to achieve 50% mortality of an insect. PMID:18819641

  14. Buprofezin susceptibility survey, resistance selection and preliminary determination of the resistance mechanism in Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Buprofezin has been used for many years to control the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) in China. To provide resistance assessment for national resistance management program, we collected a total of 45 samples of the planthopper from 27 locations across eight provinces for monitoring the...

  15. Differential resistance and cross-resistance to three phenylpyrazole insecticides in the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cross-resistance to two fipronil analogs, butene-fipronil and ethiprole were detected in fipronil-resistant field populations and a resistant laboratorial strain of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, although the two analogs have not been used widely in rice-growing areas in China. The resul...

  16. Evaluation and Molecular Characterization of Beauveria bassiana for the Control of the Glassy-winged Sharpshooter (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) in California.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata (Say), is an important pest on grapes, citrus, almonds and other commercial crops in California as it is a vector of Xylella fastidiosa Wells, a bacterium that causes Pierce’s disease in grapes, citrus variegated chlorosis, almond leaf scorch and...

  17. Trap catches of the sweetpotato whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in the Imperial Valley, Caiifornia, from 1996 to 2002

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An outbreak of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), biotype B occurred in the Imperial Valley, California in 1991. The insects destroyed melon crops and seriously damaged other vegetables, ornamentals and row crops. As a result of the need for sampling technology, we developed a w...

  18. Interplant movement and spatial distribution of alate and apterous morphs of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on lettuce.

    PubMed

    Diaz, B M; Barrios, L; Fereres, A

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge on colonization modes and interplant movement of Nasonovia ribisnigri can contribute to the development of optimal control of this pest. The aim of this study was to determine the spatio-temporal distribution and the mode of spread between adult morphs of Nasonovia ribisnigri, comparing spring and autumn lettuce protected crops. The spatial and temporal pattern was analyzed using the spatial analysis by distance indices (SADIE) methodology and other related displacement indices. The population size of N. ribisnigri was greater in the autumn than in the spring growing seasons due to milder temperatures. The percentage of plants colonized by aphids was higher in spring than in autumn, showing the great dispersal potential of this aphid species independent of their population size. Differential propensity for initial displacement from the central plant was observed between adult morphs in spring, resulting in a greater ability of apterous than alate aphids to spread far away from the source plant. In autumn, both adult morphs showed an initial reduced displacement; however, the number of plants infested (≈20%) with at least one aphid at this initial time (seven days) was similar for both adult morphs and both growing seasons. Analysis of the spatial pattern of both adult morphs revealed a predominantly random distribution for both spring and autumn trials. This pattern was achieved by a prevalent random movement over the area (γ≈0.5). These results highlight the ability of the apterous N. ribisnigri to spread within greenhouse lettuce crops early in the spring, suggesting that detection of the pest by deep visual inspection is required after lettuce emergence. PMID:22289142

  19. Pear transformed with a lytic peptide gene for disease control affects nontarget organism, pear Psylla (Homoptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pear plants were transformed with D5C1a construct containing a gene that produces lytic peptide which is excreted into the intercellular spaces of pear leaves to impart resistance to fireblight, Erwinia amylovora (Burrill). The biology and behavior of pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola Foerster) was ...

  20. Host plant effects on development and reproduction of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Homoptera: Cicadellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development, survivorship, longevity, reproduction and life table parameters of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), were examined in the laboratory using three host plants, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Chrysanthemum morifolium L. and euonymus (Euonymus japonica Thu...

  1. Ovipositional preferences, damage thresholds, and detection of the tomato-potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Homoptera: Psyllidae) on selected tomato accessions.

    PubMed

    Liu, D; Trumble, J T

    2006-04-01

    The tomato-potato psyllid Bactericera [Paratrioza] cockerelli (Sulc) has recently caused losses exceeding 50% on fresh market tomatoes in California and Baja, Mexico by injecting a toxin that results in a condition known as 'psyllid yellows'. The objectives of this study were to: (i) document oviposition preferences on a range of tomato cultivars; (ii) determine threshold levels for psyllid densities that would cause psyllid yellows on tomatoes within the first three weeks following transplanting; and (iii) identify the most important 'psyllid yellows' symptoms that might be used in surveying and monitoring for this pest. Plant lines tested included the commonly-planted commercial cultivars 'Shady Lady' and 'QualiT 21', an older, previously commercial cultivar '7718 VFN', a common cultivar planted by consumers 'Yellow Pear', and a wild type plant accession, PI 134417. When given a choice, psyllids significantly preferred 'Yellow Pear' and avoided PI 134417 for oviposition. Under no-choice conditions psyllids laid significantly fewer eggs on PI 134417, but all the other plant lines were equally good substrates for laying eggs. Thus, oviposition preference is not likely to provide a functional management strategy in large plantings. On 'Shady Lady', psyllids preferred to oviposit on plants already infested with adults. On both 'Shady Lady' and '7718 VFN' oviposition was significantly greater on plants previously infested by nymphs as compared to uninfested control plants. This suggests that, at least for some cultivars, there is a physiological change in plant attractiveness following psyllid feeding. 'Yellow Pear' and 'QualiT 21' were relatively tolerant of psyllids, requiring 18 nymphs per plant to produce the disease symptoms. Only eight nymphs per plant were needed on 'Shady Lady' and '7718 VFN'. For all cultivars, the pest density showed strong correlations with measurements such as the number of yellowing leaves and leaflets and distorted leaves, which were as good as or better than the first factor extracted from principal component analysis. Therefore, such measurements have the potential to simplify field surveys. PMID:16556341

  2. Inheritance Mode and Realized Heritability of Resistance to Imidacloprid in the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) (Homoptera: Delphacidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) is a serious pest which causes enormous losses to the rice crop in Asia. The genetic basis of imidacloprid resistance was investigated in N. lugens. RESULTS: The resistant strain, selected for imidacloprid resistance from a laboratory pop...

  3. Imidacloprid susecptibility survey and selection risk assessment in field populations of Nilaparvata lugens(Stal)(Homoptera: Delphacidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Imidacloprid has been used for many years to control the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) in China. To provide resistance assessment for the national insecticide resistance management program, we collected a total of 42 samples of the planthoppers from 27 locations covering 8 provinces t...

  4. Efficacy of the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema feltiae, against sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) under laboratory and glasshouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, A G S; Walters, K F A; Northing, P; Luo, W

    2007-02-01

    The potential of using the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae to control the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) has been established in previous laboratory studies. However, laboratory studies can overestimate the level of control achieved by biocontrol agents in the glasshouse. Glasshouse trials are therefore required to confirm laboratory results before full-scale commercial development is considered. Under both controlled laboratory and glasshouse conditions high mortality of second instar B. tabaci (>90% and >80%, respectively) was recorded after application of S. feltiae. The efficacy of the biocontrol agent at various application rates was also investigated, where halving the rate of S. feltiae application caused no significant reduction in B. tabaci mortality on tomato foliage. Steinernema feltiae has shown much potential for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies for the control of B. tabaci. PMID:17298677

  5. Energy and nitrogen relations for a Macrosiphum liriodendri (Homoptera:Aphididae) population in an east Tennessee Liriodendron tulipifera stand

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hook, R.I.; Nielsen, M.G.; Shugart, H.H.

    1980-08-01

    Biomass and density of all instars of a Liriodendron aphid population on three mature trees in an east Tennessee yellow poplar stand were determined for the 1971 growing season. Concurrently, laboratory studies were caried out to ascertain rates of each aphid instar's metabolism, growth, reproduction, and honeydew production. Similarly, whole body caloric content and concentrations of N were determined for each instar. Results from these studies were utilized in estimating ingestion of sap by the aphid population, and in developing a mathematical model of aphid population dynamics. These estimates were used in preparing annual budgets of dry matter, energy, and N for the population.

  6. Progeny quality of Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae)reared on stored eggs of Homalodisca coagulata (Say) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study assessed the effects of refrigerated storage on the suitability of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata (Say) eggs as hosts for propagation of the parasitoid Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault. Development of the host eggs was terminated by chilling at 2°C for 5 days before st...

  7. Efficacy of CC traps and seasonal activity of adult Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in Imperial and Palo Verde Valleys, California.

    PubMed

    Chu, C C; Henneberry, T J; Natwick, E T; Ritter, D; Birdsall, S L

    2001-02-01

    Adult whitefly Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring trap (CC trap) catches were compared with suction type trap catches. CC trap catches were significantly correlated to the suction trap catches. Higher numbers of B. argentifolii adults were caught in CC traps oriented toward an untreated, B. argentifolii-infested, cotton field as compared with traps oriented toward Bermuda grass fields, farm roads, or fallow areas. CC trap catches at five heights above ground (from 0 to 120 cm) were significantly related to each other in choice and no-choice studies. CC trap catches were low in the Imperial and Palo Verde Valleys from late October to early June each of 1996, 1997, and 1998. Trap catches increased with increasing seasonal air temperatures and host availability. Trap catches were adversely affected by wind and rain. Abrupt trap catch increases of 40- to 50-fold for 1-2 d in late June to early July followed by abrupt decreases in adult catches suggest migrating activity of adults from other nearby crop sources. PMID:11233132

  8. Plant resistance management strategies for greenbug (Schizaphis graminum (Rondani)) (Homoptera: Aphididae) in wheat-sorghum cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotypic diversity of the greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), has been a primary concern to breeding programs for wheat and sorghum in the United States since the 1960's. Strategies for developing plant resistance have stressed the use of tolerance with the belief that it would be less selecti...

  9. Association of Bactericera cockerelli (Homoptera: Psyllidae) with 'Zebra Chip', a New Potato Disease in Southwestern United States and Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new defect of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), “Zebra Chip”, so-named for the characteristic symptoms that develop in fried chips processed from affected potato tubers has recently been documented in several southwestern states of the United States, Mexico, and Central America. This defect is causin...

  10. A COMPARISON OF TRAPS AND TAP SAMPLING FOR MONITORING ADULT ASIAN CITRUS PSYLLID, DIAPHORINA CITRI KUWAYMA (HOMOPTERA: PSYLLIDAE), IN CITRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, was first found in Florida during June 1998 and subsequently spread throughout the state's citrus-growing regions. D. citri vectors the bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, responsible for citrus greening disease (huanglongbing). Citrus g...

  11. Fixed precision sequential sampling plans for the greenbug and bird cherry-oat aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) in winter wheat.

    PubMed

    Elliott, N C; Giles, K L; Royer, T A; Kindler, S D; Tao, F L; Jones, D B; Cuperus, G W

    2003-10-01

    The numbers of greenbugs, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), and bird cherry-oat aphids, Rhopalosiphum padi L., per wheat tiller (stem) were estimated in 189 production winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) fields located throughout Oklahoma. Taylor's power law regressions were calculated from these data and used to construct fixed precision sequential sampling schemes for each species. An evaluation data set was constructed from 240 samples taken during three growing seasons from winter wheat fields at four locations in Oklahoma. Wheat cultivar and growth stage were recorded for each field on the day of sampling. Taylor's power law parameters for evaluation fields differed significantly for both species among growing seasons, locations, and plant growth stages. Median precision achieved using the fixed precision sequential sampling schemes for each species departed <20% from expected precision over the range population intensity in the evaluation data. For the 10% of samples with greatest deviation between observed and expected precision, observed precision was 13.8-81.8% greater than that expected precision depending on aphid species and population intensity. For the greenbug, the distribution of the percentage deviation between observed and expected precision was positively skewed, so that the sampling scheme tended to over-predict precision. For the bird cherry-oat aphid, the distribution was more symmetric. Even though precision observed using the sampling schemes frequently varied from expected precision, because of the inevitable consequence of sampling error and environmental variation, the sampling schemes yielded median observed precision levels close to expected precision levels over a broad range of population intensity. PMID:14650535

  12. EFFICACY OF BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (HYPHOMYCETES) FOR CONTROL OF RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID (HOMOPTERA: APHIDAE) ON RESISTANT WHEAT UNDER FIELD CONDITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The microbial control potential of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana was evaluated against Russian wheat aphid (RWA) infesting RWA-resistant wheat cultivars near Bethlehem, Free State Province, South Africa. In small-scale field trials using a back-pack hydraulic sprayer, a single appl...

  13. Bacterial symbionts, Buchnera, and starvation on wing dimorphism in English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.) (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wing dimorphism in aphids can be affected by multiple cues including both biotic (nutrition, crowding, interspecific interactions, the presence of natural enemies, maternal and transgenerational effects, and alarm pheromone) and abiotic factors (temperature, humidity, and photoperiod). Virtually al...

  14. Bacterial symbionts, Buchnera, and starvation on wing dimorphism in English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.) (Homoptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fangmei; Li, Xiangrui; Zhang, Yunhui; Coates, Brad; Zhou, Xuguo Joe; Cheng, Dengfa

    2015-01-01

    Wing dimorphism in aphids can be affected by multiple cues, including both biotic (nutrition, crowding, interspecific interactions, the presence of natural enemies, maternal and transgenerational effects, and alarm pheromone) and abiotic factors (temperature, humidity, and photoperiod). The majority of the phloem-feeding aphids carry Buchnera, an obligate symbiotic proteobacteria. Buchnera has a highly reduced genome size, but encode key enzymes in the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway and is crucial for nutritional balance, development and reproduction in aphids. In this study, we investigated the impact of two nutritional-based biotic factors, symbionts and starvation, on the wing dimorphism in the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, a devastating insect pest of cereal crops (e.g., wheat) worldwide. Elimination of Buchnera using the antibiotic rifampicin significantly reduced the formation of winged morphs, body mass, and fecundity in S. avenae. Furthermore, the absence of this primary endosymbiont may disrupt the nutrient acquisition in aphids and alter transgenerational phenotypic expression. Similarly, both survival rate and the formation of winged morphs were substantially reduced after neonatal (<24 h old) offspring were starved for a period of time. The combined results shed light on the impact of two nutritional-based biotic factors on the phenotypic plasticity in aphids. A better understanding of the wing dimorphism in aphids will provide the theoretical basis for the prediction and integrated management of these phloem-feeding insect pests. PMID:26042046

  15. Insecticidal activity of 23 essential oils and their major compounds against adult Lipaphis pseudobrassicae (Davis) (Aphididae: Homoptera).

    PubMed

    Sampson, Blair J; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Kirimer, Nes'e; Demirci, Betul; Baser, K Husnu Can; Khan, Ikhlas A; Spiers, James M; Wedge, David E

    2005-11-01

    Essential oils from 23 species of plants comprising 14 genera and 4 plant families were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The major compounds in these essential oils were identified with GC-MS and their insecticidal activity against adult turnip aphids, Lipaphis pseudobrassicae (Davis), tested with dosage-mortality bioassays. We examined mortality only for viviparous adults because sizeable aphid populations on crucifer (Brassicaceae) hosts are largely produced by these wingless, parthenogenic females. Twenty-two of the oils were directly applied to aphid females in randomized blocks at concentrations of 0.0, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg ml(-1). Essential oils mixed with a non-toxic emulsifying agent, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), more easily penetrated the waxy insect cuticle. Probit analysis and LC(50) at three different exposures showed aphids were quickly incapacitated and killed by aliphatic aldehydes, phenols and monocyclic terpenes contained in Bifora and Satureja oils and at applied concentrations as low as 0.3 to 1.0 mg ml(-1). Only enough Pimpinella isaurica oil and its three phenylpropanoid fractions were available for testing at a single concentration of 10 mg ml(-1). We could not spare any additional P. isaurica oil for testing at other concentrations. Phenylpropanoids isolated from P. isaurica oil when recombined or left naturally blended in the oil were highly bioactive against L. pseudobrassicae at 10 mg ml(-1). PMID:16075408

  16. The Phylogenetic Relationships of Introduced Aphelinus (Hymenoptera: aphelinidae), Biological Control Agents of the Russian Wheat Aphid (Homoptera: aphididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several species of Aphelinus have been introduced to the United States from the Old World for biological control of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Modvilko). Reproductive incompatibility has been observed among populations collected from different geographic areas. We examined whether or ...

  17. Sterilization of Chrysomya putoria (Insecta: Diptera: Calliphoridae) eggs for use in biotherapy.

    PubMed

    Dallavecchia, Daniele Lourinho; da Silva Filho, Renato Geraldo; Aguiar, Valéria Magalhães

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale, quality-controlled laboratory production of fly larvae is needed for biotherapy. The objective of this study was to assess the action of glutaraldehyde on the sterilization of Chrysomya putoria eggs by applying pharmaceutical sterility tests. Egg masses with 0.600 g were divided into three parts of 0.200 g, the eggs were separated using sterile distilled water, and the suspensions obtained were mixed with activated 2% glutaraldehyde solution. After 15-min contact, the suspensions were filtered through Whatman filter paper, and the glutaraldehyde residue obtained in the filtrate was neutralized by rinsing with Tryptone Soy Broth. The treated eggs were placed aseptically on Petri dishes containing gauze moistened with sterile saline solution. About 10% of the sterilized mass was transferred to test tubes containing Tryptone Soy Broth and Fluid Thioglycollate Broth. The tubes were incubated, respectively, at 22.5 and 35.0°C for 14 d to verify egg mass sterility. The plates containing the rest of the eggs (90%) were sealed with plastic film and kept in a climatized chamber at 30°C/d, 28°C per night, 60 ± 10% relative humidity, and under a 12-h light period to assess insect viability and survival. Each experiment was carried out in triplicate using a biological class II safety cabinet. No change in color or turgidity was observed with the agent tested, proving the sterility of the product and that there was no trace of contamination. Forty larvae (in three replications) in the periods of 12, 24, and 48 h after sterilization, when transferred to diet, produced larvae, pupae, and total viability similar to the control (larvae without sterilization). However, for the 72-h treatment, larvae and total viability were significantly lower than for the other treatments. There was no significant difference for the pupal stage. The product tested was shown to be efficacious for use as a sterilizer of C. putoria eggs for all the parameters assessed. PMID:25399429

  18. Body size of Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera, Insecta) in areas with different levels of conservation in South Brazil.

    PubMed

    Linzmeier, Adelita M; Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele S

    2011-01-01

    Body size is correlated with many species traits such as morphology, physiology, life history and abundance as well; it is one of the most discussed topics in macroecological studies. The aim of this paper was to analyze the body size distribution of Chrysomelidae, caught with Malaise traps during two years in four areas with different levels of conservation in the Araucaria Forest, Paraná, Brazil, determining if body size is a good predictor of abundance, and if body size could be used to indicate environmental quality. Body size was considered the total length of the specimen from the anterior region of head to the apex of abdomen/elytron. Measurements were taken for up to ten specimens of each species for each area and for all specimens of those species represented by fewer than ten individuals. The highest abundance and richness of Chrysomelidae were obtained in the lowest body size classes. This herbivorous group showed a trend toward a decrease in body size with increasing abundance, but body size was not a good predictor of its abundance. There was a trend toward a decrease in body size from the less to the most conserved areas; however, the definition of a pattern in successional areas not seems to be entirely clear. PMID:22303100

  19. Body size of Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera, Insecta) in areas with different levels of conservation in South Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Linzmeier, Adelita M.; Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Body size is correlated with many species traits such as morphology, physiology, life history and abundance as well; it is one of the most discussed topics in macroecological studies. The aim of this paper was to analyze the body size distribution of Chrysomelidae, caught with Malaise traps during two years in four areas with different levels of conservation in the Araucaria Forest, Paraná, Brazil, determining if body size is a good predictor of abundance, and if body size could be used to indicate environmental quality. Body size was considered the total length of the specimen from the anterior region of head to the apex of abdomen/elytron. Measurements were taken for up to ten specimens of each species for each area and for all specimens of those species represented by fewer than ten individuals. The highest abundance and richness of Chrysomelidae were obtained in the lowest body size classes. This herbivorous group showed a trend toward a decrease in body size with increasing abundance, but body size was not a good predictor of its abundance. There was a trend toward a decrease in body size from the less to the most conserved areas; however, the definition of a pattern in successional areas not seems to be entirely clear. PMID:22303100

  20. New Eocene damselflies and first Cenozoic damsel-dragonfly of the isophlebiopteran lineage (Insecta: Odonata).

    PubMed

    Garrouste, Romain; Nel, André

    2015-01-01

    The study of a new specimen of Petrolestes hendersoni from the Eocene Green Formation allows a more precise description of the enigmatic damselfly and the diagnosis of the Petrolestini. Petrolestes messelensis sp. nov. is described from the Eocene Messel Formation in Germany, extending the distribution of the Petrolestini to the European Eocene. The new damsel-dragonfly family Pseudostenolestidae is described for the new genus and species Pseudostenolestes bechlyi, from the Eocene Messel Formation. It is the first Cenozoic representative of the Mesozoic clade Isophlebioptera. PMID:26624314

  1. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Aphids (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper identification of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare aphid specimens on microscope slides for examination and indentification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen clear...

  2. Fossil Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) as quantitative indicators of past salinity in African lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggermont, Hilde; Heiri, Oliver; Verschuren, Dirk

    2006-08-01

    We surveyed sub-fossil chironomid assemblages in surface sediments of 73 low- to mid-elevation lakes in tropical East Africa (Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Ethiopia) to develop inference models for quantitative paleosalinity reconstruction. Using a calibration data set of 67 lakes with surface-water conductivity between 34 and 68,800 μS/cm, trial models based on partial least squares (PLS), weighted-averaging (WA), weighted-averaging partial least squares (WA-PLS), maximum likelihood (ML), and the weighted modern analogue technique (WMAT) produced jack-knifed coefficients of determination ( r2) between 0.83 and 0.87, and root-mean-squared errors of prediction (RMSEP) between 0.27 and 0.31 log 10 conductivity units, values indicating that fossil assemblages of African Chironomidae can be valuable indicators of past salinity change. The new inference models improve on previous models, which were calibrated with presence-absence data from live collections, by the much greater information content of the calibration data set, and greater probability of finding good modern analogues for fossil assemblages. However, inferences still suffered to a greater (WA, WMAT) or lesser (WA-PLS, PLS and ML) extent from weak correlation between chironomid species distribution and salinity in a broad range of fresh waters, and apparent threshold response of African chironomid communities to salinity change near 3000 μS/cm. To improve model sensitivity in freshwater lakes we expanded the calibration data set with 11 dilute (6-61 μS/cm) high-elevation lakes on Mt. Kenya (Kenya) and the Ruwenzori Mts. (Uganda). This did not appreciably improve models' error statistics, in part because it introduced a secondary environmental gradient to the faunal data, probably temperature. To evaluate whether a chironomid-based salinity inference model calibrated in East African lakes could be meaningfully used for environmental reconstruction elsewhere on the continent, we expanded the calibration data set with 8 fresh (15-168 μS/cm) lakes in Cameroon, West Africa, and one hypersaline desert lake in Chad. This experiment yielded poorer error statistics, primarily because the need to amalgamate East and West African sister taxa reduced overall taxonomic resolution and increased the mean tolerance range of retained taxa. However, the merged data set constrained better the salinity optimum of several freshwater taxa, and further increased the probability of finding good modern analogues. We then used chironomid stratigraphic data and independent proxy reconstructions from two fluctuating lakes in Kenya to compare the performance of new and previous African salinity-inference models. This analysis revealed significant differences between the various numerical techniques in reconstructed salinity trends through time, due to their different sensitivity to the presence or relative abundance of certain key taxa, combined with the above-mentioned threshold faunal response to salinity change. Simple WA and WMAT produced ecologically sensible reconstructions because their step-like change in inferred conductivity near 3000 μS/cm mirrors the relatively rapid transitions between fresh and saline lake phases associated with climate-driven lake-level change in shallow tropical closed-basin lakes. Statistical camouflaging of this threshold faunal response in WA-PLS and ML models resulted in less trustworthy reconstructions of past salinity in lakes crossing the freshwater-saline boundary. We conclude that selection of a particular inference model should not only be based on statistical performance measures, but consider chironomid community ecology in the study region, and the amplitude of reconstructed environmental change relative to the modern environmental gradient represented in the calibration data set.

  3. TOXICITY OF VERTICAL SEDIMENTS IN THE TRENTON CHANNEL, DETROIT RIVER, MICHIGAN, TO CHIRONOMUS TENTANS (INSECTA: CHIRONOMIDAE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of sediment from various sediment core depths on survival and weight gain of larvae of the dipteran midge, Chironomus tentans, during 10-d laboratory exposures. ediment cores were collected from 12 sites in the Trenton Chan...

  4. Rampant Nuclear Insertion of mtDNA across Diverse Lineages within Orthoptera (Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hojun; Moulton, Matthew J.; Whiting, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (numts) are non-functional fragments of mtDNA inserted into the nuclear genome. Numts are prevalent across eukaryotes and a positive correlation is known to exist between the number of numts and the genome size. Most numt surveys have relied on model organisms with fully sequenced nuclear genomes, but such analyses have limited utilities for making a generalization about the patterns of numt accumulation for any given clade. Among insects, the order Orthoptera is known to have the largest nuclear genome and it is also reported to include several species with a large number of numts. In this study, we use Orthoptera as a case study to document the diversity and abundance of numts by generating numts of three mitochondrial loci across 28 orthopteran families, representing the phylogenetic diversity of the order. We discover that numts are rampant in all lineages, but there is no discernable and consistent pattern of numt accumulation among different lineages. Likewise, we do not find any evidence that a certain mitochondrial gene is more prone to nuclear insertion than others. We also find that numt insertion must have occurred continuously and frequently throughout the diversification of Orthoptera. Although most numts are the result of recent nuclear insertion, we find evidence of very ancient numt insertion shared by highly divergent families dating back to the Jurassic period. Finally, we discuss several factors contributing to the extreme prevalence of numts in Orthoptera and highlight the importance of exploring the utility of numts in evolutionary studies. PMID:25333882

  5. Study of antioxidant defense in four species of Perloidea (Insecta, Plecoptera).

    PubMed

    Sanz, Ana; Trenzado, Cristina E; López-Rodríguez, Manuel J; Furné, Miriam; de Figueroa, J Manuel Tierno

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present work is to conduct a comparative study of oxidative states in the nymphs of four species of Plecoptera belonging to the superfamily Perloidea: Perla marginata (Panzer, 1799) (family Perlidae), Guadalgenus franzi (Aubert, 1963), Isoperla curtate Navás, 1924, and lsoperla grammatica (Poda, 1761) (family Perlodidae) in relation to their ecological and biological characteristics. For this, the activity of the following antioxidant enzymes was determined: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione transferase (GST), and DT-diaphorase (DTD), together with lipid peroxidation. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) was also determined. The four species studied were selected based on significant ecological and biological differences. The results obtained when studying different indicative parameters of the oxidative state of the nymph of different species showed that each has an important enzymatic antioxidant potential, and that differences among species are conditioned by the duration of the nymphal development period more than by whether they come from permanent or temporary habitats. Thus, Plecoptera, although traditionally considered as typical inhabitants of permanent waters, seem to have sufficient variability in physiological mechanisms, together with behavioral and ecological adaptations, to cope with potentially unfavorable conditions that may occur in temporary waters. PMID:21110722

  6. Functional feeding ecology in Central European species of subfamily Drusinae (Insecta: Trichoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Waringer, Johann; Graf, Wolfram; Pauls, Steffen U.

    2016-01-01

    The functional feeding ecology of Drusus muelleri, D. nigrescens, D. melanchaetes D. franzi and D. alpinus is discussed and compared with feeding modi of other Central European Drusinae. PMID:26973379

  7. Revision of the Neotropical bark mantis genus Liturgusa Saussure, 1869 (Insecta, Mantodea, Liturgusini)

    PubMed Central

    Svenson, Gavin J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The praying mantis genus Liturgusa Saussure, 1869 occurs only in Central and South America and represents the most diverse genus of Neotropical Liturgusini (Ehrmann 2002). The genus includes bark dwelling species, which live entirely on the trunks and branches of trees and run extremely fast. All species included within the genus Liturgusa are comprehensively revised with a distribution stretching from central Mexico, the island of Dominica to the southeastern regions of Brazil and southern Bolivia. All known species are redescribed to meet the standards of the new treatment of the genus (11 species). Three new genera are described including Fuga gen. n., Velox gen. n., and Corticomantis gen. n. for species previously included in Liturgusa as well as Hagiomantis. Liturgusa mesopoda Westwood, 1889 is moved to within the previously described genus Hagiomantis Audinet Serville, 1838. A total of 19 species are newly described within Liturgusa, Fuga, and Velox including L. algorei sp. n., L. bororum sp. n., L. cameroni sp. n., L. cura sp. n., L. dominica sp. n., L. fossetti sp. n., L. kirtlandi sp. n., L. krattorum sp. n., L. manausensis sp. n., L. maroni sp. n., L. milleri sp. n., L. neblina sp. n., L. purus sp. n., L. stiewei sp. n., L. tessae sp. n., L. trinidadensis sp. n., L. zoae sp. n., F. grimaldii sp. n., and V. wielandi sp. n. Four species names are synonymized: Liturgusa peruviana Giglio-Tos, 1914, syn. n. = Liturgusa nubeculosa Gerstaecker, 1889 and Hagiomantis parva Piza, 1966, syn. n., Liturgusa sinvalnetoi Piza, 1982, syn. n., and Liturgusa parva Giglio-Tos, 1914, syn. n. = Mantis annulipes Audinet Serville, 1838. Lectotypes are designated for the following two species: Liturgusa maya Saussure & Zehntner, 1894 and Fuga annulipes (Audinet Serville, 1838). A male neotype is designated for Liturgusa guyanensis La Greca, 1939. Males for eight species are described for the first time including Liturgusa cayennensis Saussure, 1869, Liturgusa lichenalis Gerstaecker, 1889, Liturgusa guyanensis La Greca, 1939, Liturgusa maya Saussure & Zehntner, 1894, Liturgusa nubeculosa Gerstaecker, 1889, Fuga annulipes (Audinet Serville, 1838), Corticomantis atricoxata (Beier, 1931), and Hagiomantis mesopoda (Westwood, 1889). The female of Fuga fluminensis (Piza, 1965) is described for the first time. Complete bibliographic histories are provided for previously described species. The spelling confusion surrounding Liturgusa/Liturgousa is resolved. Full habitus images for males and females are provided for nearly all species. Habitus and label images of type specimens are provided when possible. Diagnostic illustrations of the head and pronotum for males and females are provided for all species when possible. Illustrations of male genital structures are provided for all species for which males are known. Measurement data, including ranges and averages, are provided for males and females of all species. Combined male and female genus and species level dichotomous keys are provided with a Spanish translation. A complete table of all examined specimens lists label data, museum codes, repositories, and other specimen specific information. A KML file with all georeferenced locality records is downloadable from mantodearesearch.com for viewing in Google Earth. Natural history information is provided for species observed by the author. PMID:24715776

  8. Checklist of the Diptera superfamilies Tephritoidea and Sciomyzoidea of Finland (Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere; Winqvist, Kaj

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A revised checklist of the flies of superfamilies Tephritoidea and Sciomyzoidea of Finland is provided. The following families are covered: Eurygnathomyiidae, Lonchaeidae, Neottiophilidae, Pallopteridae, Piophilidae, Platystomatidae, Tephritidae, Ulidiidae (Tephritoidea); Coelopidae, Dryomyzidae, Heterocheilidae, Phaeomyiidae, Sciomyzidae, Sepsidae (Sciomyzoidea). PMID:25337022

  9. Reconstructing the anatomy of the 42-million-year-old fossil Mengea tertiaria (Insecta, Strepsiptera).

    PubMed

    Pohl, Hans; Wipfler, Benjamin; Grimaldi, David; Beckmann, Felix; Beutel, Rolf G

    2010-09-01

    Fossilization in amber is unique in preserving specimens with microscopic fidelity; however, arthropod inclusions are rarely examined beyond the exoskeleton as this requires destructive sampling when traditional techniques are used. We report the first complete, digital 3D, non-destructive reconstruction of the anatomy of an insect fossil, a specimen of Mengea tertiaria embedded in a 42-Ma Baltic amber. This was made possible using Synchrotron micro-CT. The species belongs to the stem group of the phylogenetically enigmatic and extremely specialized Strepsiptera. Most internal structures of the fossil are preserved, but small parts of the lumen had decayed due to incomplete infiltration of the resin. Data on internal organs provided additional information for resolving phylogenetic relationships. A sister group relationship between Mengea and all extant lineages of the group was confirmed with characters previously not accessible. The newly gained information also yielded some insights in the biology of Mengea and the early evolutionary history of Strepsiptera. The technique has a tremendous potential for a more accurate interpretation of diverse fossil arthropods preserved in ambers from 130 Ma to the present. PMID:20711557

  10. Larval morphology of Panorpodes kuandianensis (Insecta, Mecoptera, Panorpodidae) and its evolutionary implications

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lu; Yue, Chao; Hua, Baozhen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Larval characters play a significant role in evolutionary and systematic studies of holometabolous insects. However, Panorpodidae, a derived family of Mecoptera, are largely unknown in their immature stages to date. Here, the first instar larva of the short-faced scorpionfly Panorpodes kuandianensis Zhong, Zhang & Hua, 2011 is described and illustrated using light and scanning electron microscopy. The larva of Panorpodes is remarkable for the absence of compound eyes on the head and the presence of seven small unpaired proleg-like processes along the midventral line on abdominal segments II–VIII. The homology of these unpaired appendage-like processes, their ecological adaptation, and the evolutionary implications of some larval characters of Panorpodidae are discussed. PMID:24715802

  11. Reconstructing the anatomy of the 42-million-year-old fossil † Mengea tertiaria (Insecta, Strepsiptera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Hans; Wipfler, Benjamin; Grimaldi, David; Beckmann, Felix; Beutel, Rolf G.

    2010-09-01

    Fossilization in amber is unique in preserving specimens with microscopic fidelity; however, arthropod inclusions are rarely examined beyond the exoskeleton as this requires destructive sampling when traditional techniques are used. We report the first complete, digital 3D, non-destructive reconstruction of the anatomy of an insect fossil, a specimen of † Mengea tertiaria embedded in a 42-Ma Baltic amber. This was made possible using Synchrotron μ-CT. The species belongs to the stem group of the phylogenetically enigmatic and extremely specialized Strepsiptera. Most internal structures of the fossil are preserved, but small parts of the lumen had decayed due to incomplete infiltration of the resin. Data on internal organs provided additional information for resolving phylogenetic relationships. A sister group relationship between † Mengea and all extant lineages of the group was confirmed with characters previously not accessible. The newly gained information also yielded some insights in the biology of † Mengea and the early evolutionary history of Strepsiptera. The technique has a tremendous potential for a more accurate interpretation of diverse fossil arthropods preserved in ambers from 130 Ma to the present.

  12. The genus Triozocera Pierce, 1909 (Insecta: Strepsiptera: Corioxenidae) in South America.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Marcos; Cook, Jerry L

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Triozocera from the Brazilian Amazon basin was found in a sample of male Strepsiptera from the collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA-Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil). Triozocera buehrheimi sp.n. is described and the status of T. paulistana Kogan, 1958, the first strepsipteran described from Brazil, is reviewed, with additional diagnostic characters used to reinstate the species based on comparative analyses to the other three species occurring in southern US, Mexico, and Central America: T. mexicana Pierce, 1909, T. tecpanensis Brailowsky and Márquez, 1974, and T. vernalis Kifune and Brailowsky, 1987. A key to those species is included. PMID:24871713

  13. New findings on sperm ultrastructure of Xenos vesparum (Rossi) (Strepsiptera, Insecta).

    PubMed

    Dallai, R; Beani, L; Kathirithamby, J; Lupetti, P; Afzelius, B A

    2003-02-01

    The systematic position of insect order Strepsiptera is still under debate. It was, therefore, thought of interest to examine the ultrastructure of a strepsipteran in a search for synapomorphies shared with Coleoptera, Diptera, or any other insect order. The fine structure of spermatozoa and the spermatid from Xenos vesparum (Rossi) was re-examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and a fixation technique that permits the visualization of the macromolecular organization of the organelles. The spermatozoon was shown to possess several traits that are characteristics of insects in general, such as a 9 + 9 + 2 axoneme, two mitochondrial derivatives containing a crystalline material and two 'zipper lines' present along the sperm tail. Seventeen protofilaments occurred along most of the accessory tubules, which reduced to 16 posteriorly. An acrosome is absent. The neck region contains a prominent centriolar adjunct, which gives rise to two accessory bodies which adhere to the mitochondrial derivatives, and to slender strands of the so-called intertubular material found between the accessory tubules. Of interest is the finding that the glycocalyx consists of prominent filamentous strands, similar to those found in siphonapterans, mecopterans and basal dipterans. PMID:12589726

  14. The morphology and evolution of the female postabdomen of Holometabola (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Hünefeld, Frank; Missbach, Christine; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2012-07-01

    In the present article homology issues, character evolution and phylogenetic implications related to the female postabdomen of the holometabolan insects are discussed, based on an earlier analysis of a comprehensive morphological data set. Hymenoptera, the sistergroup of the remaining Holometabola, are the only group where the females have retained a fully developed primary ovipositor of the lepismatid type. There are no characters of the female abdomen supporting a clade Coleopterida + Neuropterida. The invagination of the terminal segments is an autapomorphy of Coleoptera. The ovipositor is substantially modified in Raphidioptera and distinctly reduced in Megaloptera and Neuroptera. The entire female abdomen is extremely simplified in Strepsiptera. The postabdomen is tapering posteriorly in Mecopterida and retractile in a telescopic manner (oviscapt). The paired ventral sclerites of segments VIII and IX are preserved, but valvifers and valvulae are not distinguishable. In Amphiesmenoptera sclerotizations derived from the ventral appendages VIII are fused ventromedially, forming a solid plate, and the appendages IX are reduced. The terminal segments are fused and form a terminal unit which bears the genital opening subapically. The presence of two pairs of apophyses and the related protraction of the terminal unit by muscle force are additional autapomorphies, as is the fusion of the rectum with the posterior part of the genital chamber (cloaca). Antliophora are supported by the presence of a transverse muscle between the ventral sclerites of segment VIII. Secondary egg laying tubes have evolved independently within Boreidae (absent in Caurinus) and in Tipulomorpha. The loss of two muscle associated with the genital chamber are likely autapomorphies of Diptera. The secondary loss of the telescopic retractability of the postabdomen is one of many autapomorphies of Siphonaptera. PMID:22583791

  15. The history of endemic Iberian ground beetle description (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae): which species were described first?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Valverde, Alberto; Ortuño, Vicente M.

    2007-01-01

    iological correlates of species description dates can be used to predict the characteristics of yet-to-be-described species. Such information can be useful in the planning of biodiversity field surveys. This paper explores the influence of five factors—body size, geographic range size, geographic location, habitat and number of congeners—on the probability of description of endemic Iberian ground-beetles, and attempts to identify the effects of each factor, alone or in combination, through variation partitioning. Small-bodied and hypogean species were found to have been described later, as were those with smaller geographic ranges, while the number of congeners did not significantly affect description date. Additionally, Eastern hypogean species were described earlier than Western ones because of major lithology differences from east to west in the Iberian Peninsula, and concomitant geographic taxonomic bias. However, effects of each factor alone are quite small in comparison with effects of the combination of factors, due to their considerable correlation. Thus, "rarity", in its broadest sense, has been the determining factor of date of description of endemic Iberian ground-beetles. Previously, the technical difficulty encountered in the study of rare species retarded their description, whereas now they have become a "fashionable" object of study among carabidologists, due to the possibility of rapid publication. In order to improve the incomplete checklist of Iberian ground beetles it would be necessary to focus sampling efforts on marginal habitats and hypogean fauna.

  16. [Diversity in neuroblasts number forming mushroom bodies of the highest dipterans (Insecta, Diptera, Brachycera Cyclorrhapha)].

    PubMed

    Panov, A A

    2011-01-01

    Neurogenesis in mushroom bodies is studied in 12 species of the highest dipterans. A substantial difference in the number of neuroblasts forming mushroom bodies is found. In the majority of species studied, Kenyon cells are formed by four single neuroblasts. Among six calliphorid species, the number of neuroblasts increases up to 10-15 (mean 12.6) in each mushroom body in Calliphora vicina only. In young pupae of Muscina stabulans and M. livida, four polyneuroblastic prolipherate centers formed instead of singular neuroblats. These centers disintegrate into numerous single neuroblasts. A hypothesis of the origin of the polyneuroblastic structure of mushroom bodies found in C. vicina and, earlier, in Musca domestica, is proposed. PMID:21442910

  17. The Hemiptera (Insecta) of Canada: Constructing a Reference Library of DNA Barcodes

    PubMed Central

    Gwiazdowski, Rodger A.; Foottit, Robert G.; Maw, H. Eric L.; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2015-01-01

    DNA barcode reference libraries linked to voucher specimens create new opportunities for high-throughput identification and taxonomic re-evaluations. This study provides a DNA barcode library for about 45% of the recognized species of Canadian Hemiptera, and the publically available R workflow used for its generation. The current library is based on the analysis of 20,851 specimens including 1849 species belonging to 628 genera and 64 families. These individuals were assigned to 1867 Barcode Index Numbers (BINs), sequence clusters that often coincide with species recognized through prior taxonomy. Museum collections were a key source for identified specimens, but we also employed high-throughput collection methods that generated large numbers of unidentified specimens. Many of these specimens represented novel BINs that were subsequently identified by taxonomists, adding barcode coverage for additional species. Our analyses based on both approaches includes 94 species not listed in the most recent Canadian checklist, representing a potential 3% increase in the fauna. We discuss the development of our workflow in the context of prior DNA barcode library construction projects, emphasizing the importance of delineating a set of reference specimens to aid investigations in cases of nomenclatural and DNA barcode discordance. The identification for each specimen in the reference set can be annotated on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD), allowing experts to highlight questionable identifications; annotations can be added by any registered user of BOLD, and instructions for this are provided. PMID:25923328

  18. Phylogenetic Signals from Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) Mouthparts: Stylets Bundle, Sense Organs, and Labial Segments

    PubMed Central

    Brożek, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a cladistic analysis of morphological characters focusing on the file of the mandible, the apices of the maxillae, the rupturing device on the maxillae, the internal structures of the mouthparts, and the external morphology of the labial segments as well as the distribution of labial sensilla in true water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha). The study is based on data referring to sixty-two species representing all nepomorphan families (Heteroptera), together with one outgroup species representing the infraorders Gerromorpha (Mesoveliidae). The morphological data matrix consists of forty-eight characters. The present hypothesis supports the monophyly of the Nepomorpha and the monophyly of all families. The new modification in the systematic classification has been proposed: ((Nepidae + Belostomatidae), (Diaprepocoridae + Corixidae + Micronectidae), (Ochteridae + Gelastocoridae), Aphelocheiridae, Potamocoridae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and (Pleidae + Helotrephidae)). PMID:24883360

  19. Comparative Analysis and Systematic Mapping of the Labial Sensilla in the Nepomorpha (Heteroptera: Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Brożek, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    The present study provides new data concerning the morphology and distribution of the labial sensilla of 55 species of 12 nepomorphan families (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha) using the scanning electron microscope. On the labial tip, three morphologically distinct types of chemosensilla have been identified: two types of papillae sensilla and one type of peg-in-pit sensilla. Twenty-one morphologically distinct types of the mechanosensilla as well as two types of the trichoid sensilla (contact-chemoreceptive sensillum) have been identified on all labial segments in representatives of subfamilies. In Nepomorpha, morphological ground plan of the labial sensory structures is represented by an apical sensory field with 10–13 pairs of papillae sensilla and the peg-in-pit ones placed more laterally; numerous trichoid sensilla are placed on the IV segment; the chaetica sensilla are present and placed in groups or rows distributed along the labium near the labial groove on the dorsal side, and also several chaetica sensilla are unevenly scattered on the surface of that segment; the cupola and peg sensilla are numerous and evenly scattered on the fourth labial segment; the prioprerecptive sensilla, one pair is positioned on the dorsal side and on the fourth segment of the labium. The new apomorphical characters have been established for the labial sensilla in the Nepomorpha. PMID:23935421

  20. Bacterial symbionts of the leafhopper Evacanthus interruptus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae: Evacanthinae).

    PubMed

    Szklarzewicz, Teresa; Grzywacz, Beata; Szwedo, Jacek; Michalik, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Plant sap-feeding hemipterans harbor obligate symbiotic microorganisms which are responsible for the synthesis of amino acids missing in their diet. In this study, we characterized the obligate symbionts hosted in the body of the xylem-feeding leafhopper Evacanthus interruptus (Cicadellidae: Evacanthinae: Evacanthini) by means of histological, ultrastructural and molecular methods. We observed that E. interruptus is associated with two types of symbiotic microorganisms: bacterium 'Candidatus Sulcia muelleri' (Bacteroidetes) and betaproteobacterium that is closely related to symbionts which reside in two other Cicadellidae representatives: Pagaronia tredecimpunctata (Evacanthinae: Pagaronini) and Hylaius oregonensis (Bathysmatophorinae: Bathysmatophorini). Both symbionts are harbored in their own bacteriocytes which are localized between the body wall and ovaries. In E. interruptus, both Sulcia and betaproteobacterial symbionts are transovarially transmitted from one generation to the next. In the mature female, symbionts leave the bacteriocytes and gather around the posterior pole of the terminal oocytes. Then, they gradually pass through the cytoplasm of follicular cells surrounding the posterior pole of the oocyte and enter the space between them and the oocyte. The bacteria accumulate in the deep depression of the oolemma and form a characteristic 'symbiont ball'. In the light of the results obtained, the phylogenetic relationships within modern Cicadomorpha and some Cicadellidae subfamilies are discussed. PMID:25900723

  1. The mitochondrial genome of the 'twisted-wing parasite' Mengenilla australiensis (Insecta, Strepsiptera): a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Strepsiptera are an unusual group of sexually dimorphic, entomophagous parasitoids whose evolutionary origins remain elusive. The lineage leading to Mengenilla australiensis (Family Mengenillidae) is the sister group to all remaining extant strepsipterans. It is unique in that members of this family have retained a less derived condition, where females are free-living from pupation onwards, and are structurally much less simplified. We sequenced almost the entire mitochondrial genome of M. australiensis as an important comparative data point to the already available genome of its distant relative Xenos vesparum (Family Xenidae). This study represents the first in-depth comparative mitochondrial genomic analysis of Strepsiptera. Results The partial genome of M. australiensis is presented as a 13421 bp fragment, across which all 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and 18 transfer RNA (tRNA) sequences are identified. Two tRNA translocations disrupt an otherwise ancestral insect mitochondrial genome order. A+T content is measured at 84.3%, C-content is also very skewed. Compared with M. australiensis, codon bias in X. vesparum is more balanced. Interestingly, the size of the protein coding genome is truncated in both strepsipterans, especially in X. vesparum which, uniquely, has 4.3% fewer amino acids than the average holometabolan complement. A revised assessment of mitochondrial rRNA secondary structure based on comparative structural considerations is presented for M. australiensis and X. vesparum. Conclusions The mitochondrial genome of X. vesparum has undergone a series of alterations which are probably related to an extremely derived lifestyle. Although M. australiensis shares some of these attributes; it has retained greater signal from the hypothetical most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of Strepsiptera, inviting the possibility that a shift in the mitochondrial selective environment might be related to the specialization accompanying the evolution of a small, morphologically simplified completely host-dependent lifestyle. These results provide useful insights into the nature of the evolutionary transitions that accompanied the emergence of Strepsiptera, but we emphasize the need for adequate sampling across the order in future investigations concerning the extraordinary developmental and evolutionary origins of this group. PMID:20003419

  2. Survey of macromoths (Insecta: Lepidoptera) of a Palouse prairie remnant site in eastern Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Palouse or Palouse Prairie is a bioregion consisting primarily of native grasses, shrubs, and forbs that originally covered over 16,000 km2 of central Idaho, southeastern Washington, and northeastern Oregon. Less than 1% of this habitat remains with much of it having been converted to agricultu...

  3. The Auchenorrhyncha fauna of peat bogs in the Austrian part of the Bohemian Forest (Insecta, Hemiptera).

    PubMed

    Holzinger, Werner E; Schlosser, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    The first overview on the Auchenorrhyncha fauna of peat bogs of the Austrian Bohemian Forest is presented. Seven oligotrophic peat bog sites were studied in 2011 by suction sampler ("G-Vac") and 93 Auchenorrhyncha species (with 7465 adult specimens) were recorded. Eleven species (about 18 % of the individuals) are tyrphobiontic or tyrphophilous. The relative species abundance plot is not very steep; the six most abundant species represent 50 % of the individuals. The most common species is Conomelus anceps (17 % of the individuals). Compared to the whole Austrian Auchenorrhyncha fauna, the fauna of peat bogs comprises distinctly more univoltine species and more species hibernating in nymphal stage. Densities of adult Auchenorrhyncha in peat bogs are low in spring (about 10-60 individuals per m²) and high in July, with up to 180 (±50) individuals per m². Disturbed peat bogs have higher species numbers and higher Auchenorrhyncha densities in total, but lower numbers and densities in peat bog specialists. PMID:24039517

  4. Salivary digestive enzymes of the wheat bug, Eurygaster integriceps (Insecta: Hemiptera: Scutelleridae).

    PubMed

    Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Bandani, Ali Reza; Dastranj, Mehdi

    2014-06-01

    The digestive enzymes from salivary gland complexes (SGC) of Eurygaster integriceps, and their response to starvation and feeding were studied. Moreover, digestive amylases were partially purified and characterized by ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography. The SGC are composed of two sections, the principal glands and accessory glands. The principal glands are further divided into the anterior lobes and posterior lobes. The SGC main enzyme was α-amylase, which hydrolyzed starch better than glycogen. The other carbohydrases were also present in the SGC complexes. Enzymatic activities toward mannose (α/β-mannosidases) were little in comparison to activities against glucose (α/β-glucosidases) and galactose (α/β-galactosidases), the latter being the greatest. Acid phosphatase showed higher activity than alkaline phosphatase. There was no measurable activity for lipase and aminopeptidase. Proteolytic activity was detected against general and specific protease substrates. Activities of all enzymes were increased in response to feeding in comparison to starved insects, revealing their induction and secretion in response to feeding pulse. The SGC amylases eluted in four major peaks and post-electrophoretic detection of the α-amylases demonstrated the existence of at least five isoamylases in the SGC. The physiological implication of these findings in pre-oral digestion of E. integriceps is discussed. PMID:24961557

  5. One new species and two new records of the genus Aeolothrips from Iran (Insecta, Thysanoptera, Aeolothripidae)

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Jalil; Awal, Mehdi Modarres; Fekrat, Lida; Minaei, Kambiz; Manzari, Shahab

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aeolothrips gundeliae sp. n. is described, and two bicolored species of the same genus, Aeolothrips ericae Bagnall and Aeolothrips albithorax Pelikan are newly reported from northeast of Iran. Diagnostic characters are provided for each species as well as illustrations to distinguish these species. PMID:26884701

  6. Checklist of the superfamilies Oestroidea and Hippoboscoidea of Finland (Insecta, Diptera)

    PubMed Central

    Pohjoismäki, Jaakko; Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract An updated checklist of the superfamilies Oestroidea and Hippoboscoidea recorded from Finland is presented. The checklist covers the following families: Calliphoridae, Rhiniidae, Sarcophagidae, Rhinophoridae, Tachinidae, Oestridae and Hippoboscidae. PMID:25337034

  7. Evidence for Gene Flow between Two Sympatric Mealybug Species (Insecta; Coccoidea; Pseudococcidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Ghanim, Murad; Franco, José Carlos; Mendel, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    Occurrence of inter-species hybrids in natural populations might be evidence of gene flow between species. In the present study we found evidence of gene flow between two sympatric, genetically related scale insect species – the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) and the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). These species can be distinguished by morphological, behavioral, and molecular traits. We employed the sex pheromones of the two respective species to study their different patterns of male attraction. We also used nuclear ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) and mitochondrial COI (Cytochrome c oxidase sub unit 1) DNA sequences to characterize populations of the two species, in order to demonstrate the outcome of a possible gene flow between feral populations of the two species. Our results showed attraction to P. ficus pheromones of all tested populations of P. citri males but not vice versa. Furthermore, ITS2 sequences revealed the presence of ‘hybrid females’ among P. citri populations but not among those of P. ficus. ‘hybrid females’ from P. citri populations identified as P. citri females according to COI sequences. We offer two hypotheses for these results. 1) The occurrence of phenotypic and genotypic traits of P. ficus in P. citri populations may be attributed to both ancient and contemporary gene flow between their populations; and 2) we cannot rule out that an ancient sympatric speciation by which P. ficus emerged from P. citri might have led to the present situation of shared traits between these species. In light of these findings we also discuss the origin of the studied species and the importance of the pherotype phenomenon as a tool with which to study genetic relationships between congener scale insects. PMID:24523894

  8. Abdominal macrochaetae of female Hylesia oratex Dyar, 1913 (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Saturniidae): external morphology and medical significance.

    PubMed

    Brito, Rosângela; Specht, Alexandre; Filho, Wilson S A; Fronza, Edegar; Mielke, Carlos G C

    2015-09-01

    The representatives of the genus Hylesia Hübner, [1820] are significant among the medically important Lepidoptera. Adult females use abdominal setae to wrap and protect the eggs that remain for months in nature. These setae, in contact with human skin, may cause allergic reactions including swelling, itching and local erythema, known as lepidopterism. The morphology of the abdominal scales and setae from the female H. oratex Dyar, 1913 is herein described and aspects related to their medical significance are discussed. Portions of each abdominal segment were examined through a scanning electron microscope. Two types of scales without medical importance, and two types of setae with medical importance, classified as "true setae" and "modified setae" were found. The true setae, which are slightly fusiform and have radially arranged lateral projections, are responsible for the allergic reactions caused by skin penetration. The modified setae, which are larger, curved, with the median enlarged and serrated margins, can be responsible for the release of chemical substances. This information provides a better understanding of the structure of the urticating setae, which are responsible for lepidopterism outbreaks in humans, and contributes towards the identification of the moth species involved. PMID:26312428

  9. The thorax morphology of Epiophlebia (Insecta: Odonata) nymphs – including remarks on ontogenesis and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Büsse, Sebastian; Helmker, Benjamin; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The species of Epiophlebia are unique among the recent Odonata in showing a mixture of morphological characters of dragonflies (Anisoptera) and damselflies (Zygoptera). The status of the four described extant species of Epiophlebia is disputable from a genetic as well as from a morphological point of view. Here we present an analysis of the thoracic musculature of different nymphal instars of Epiophlebia laidlawi and Epiophlebia superstes to elucidate their morphology and ontogenetic development. In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia. This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate. It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota. In total, our results indicate that Epiophlebia has the most ancestral thoracic morphology among Odonata. PMID:26246088

  10. Arthropods of Steel Creek, Buffalo National River, Arkansas. III. Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera)

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Danielle M.; Dowling, Ashley P.G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This is the third in a series of papers detailing the terrestrial arthropods collected during an intensive survey of a site near Steel Creek campground along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas. The survey was conducted over a period of eight and a half months using twelve trap types – Malaise traps, canopy traps (upper and lower collector), Lindgren multifunnel traps (black, green, and purple), pan traps (blue, purple, red, white, and yellow), and pitfall traps – and Berlese-Tullgren extraction of leaf litter. New information We provide collection records for 54 species of Heteroptera, 11 of which were new state records for Arkansas: (Aradidae) Aradus approximatus, Aradus duzeei, Aradus ornatus, Neuroctenus elongatus, Neuroctenus pseudonymus, Notapictinus aurivilli; (Cydnidae) Sehirus cinctus; (Lygaeidae) Nysius raphanus; (Miridae) Prepops insitivus; (Reduviidae) Zelus tetracanthus; (Rhyparochromidae) Kolenetrus plenus. PMID:27346950

  11. Taxonomic, bioacoustic and faunistic data on a collection of Tettigonioidea from Eastern Congo (Insecta: Orthoptera).

    PubMed

    Heller, Klaus-Gerhard; Hemp, Claudia; Liu, Chunxiang; Volleth, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    During a 14-day excursion in March 1990, 28 species of tettigonioids were found at Irangi (1º54'S, 28º27'E), ca.100 km north west of Bukavu at Lake Kivu (Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly Zaire), and at other localities near Bukavu. One species -Arantia (Arantia) gracilicercata Heller sp. n. - is new to science, another one-Pantecphyllus helleri Schmidt et al. 2004-was already described as new in a generic revision. All our specimens of the morphologically quite diverse and sexually dimorphic phaneropterine genus Arantia were studied using molecular methods. We propose a new subgenus Arantia (Euarantia) Heller subgen. n. based on relative tegmen width. Songs and stridulatory organs were studied in 9 species. Two phaneropterines, Horatosphaga leggei and Pardalota asymmetrica, showed remarkable calling songs lasting more than 10 s and produced by quite complicated stridulatory movements. The song of the large phaneropterine Zeuneria biramosa is noteworthy because of its unusually low carrier frequency of 3.7 kHz. Based on the examination of other specimens and species, some taxonomic changes are proposed (Phaneropteridae Burmeister, 1838 stat. rev.; Afromecopoda monroviana (Karsch, 1886) stat. rev.; Leproscirtus ebneri Karny, 1919, syn. n., Leproscirtus karschi Karny, 1919, syn. n., Leproscirtus granulosus aptera Karny, 1919, syn. n., all synonyms of Leproscirtus granulosus (Karsch, 1886); Lanistoides Sjöstedt, 1913 stat. rev.; Plastocorypha cabrai Griffini, 1909 stat. n.). PMID:24872232

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of the invasive Africanized Honey Bee, Apis mellifera scutellata (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Gibson, Joshua D; Hunt, Greg J

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome from an Africanized honey bee population (AHB, derived from Apis mellifera scutellata) was assembled and analyzed. The mitogenome is 16,411 bp long and contains the same gene repertoire and gene order as the European honey bee (13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and 2 rRNA genes). ND4 appears to use an alternate start codon and the long rRNA gene is 48 bp shorter in AHB due to a deletion in a terminal AT dinucleotide repeat. The dihydrouracil arm is missing from tRNA-Ser (AGN) and tRNA-Glu is missing the TV loop. The A + T content is comparable to the European honey bee (84.7%), which increases to 95% for the 3rd position in the protein coding genes. PMID:24708125

  13. New records of Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) from South America

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Higor D. D.; Barbosa, Julianna Freires; Reduciendo Klementová, Barbora; Svitok, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera occur on all continents except Antarctica and occupy a wide variety of habitats, including lentic and lotic water bodies, perennial or temporary. In the Neotropical Region, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the geographical distribution of most represented species, which can only be solved by the collection of specimens in under-studied areas and publication of new records and lists of species. New information New records are presented for eleven species of Gerromorpha and ten Nepomorpha, including first records from Venezuela (Brachymetra lata, Limnogonus hyalinus, Rhagovelia evidis, Tenagobia peruana, Limnocoris burmeisteri, L. fittkaui fittkaui, Placomerus micans, and Martarega gonostyla), the Venezuelan State of Bolívar (Cylindrostethus palmaris, R. elegans, R. tenuipes, and Ambrysus stali), the Brazilian State of Bahia (Martarega bentoi), Peru (Euvelia lata), and the Peruvian Region of Arequipa (Microvelia pulchella). PMID:27226754

  14. Inducible factors with antimicrobial activity after immune challenge in the haemolymph of Red Palm Weevil (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Mastore, Maristella; Binda Rossetti, Simona; Giovannardi, Stefano; Scarì, Giorgio; Brivio, Maurizio F

    2015-05-01

    Insects are capable of innate immune responses elicited after microbial infection. In this process, the receptor-mediated recognition of foreign bodies and the subsequent activation of immunocompetent cells lead to the synthesis ex novo of a peptide pool with antimicrobial activity. We investigated the inducible immune response of a coleopteran, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, challenged with both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. After immunization, we evaluated the presence of antimicrobial peptides using either biochemical analyses or microbiological techniques. The antimicrobial properties of the newly synthesized protein pool, detectable in haemolymph fractions of low molecular mass, showed strong antibacterial activity against various bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp. OX1, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus). In addition to the preliminary study of the mechanism of action of the pool of antimicrobial peptides, we also investigated its effects on bacterial cell walls by means of fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The data suggest that the main effects seem to be directed at destabilizing and damaging the bacterial wall. This study provides data that help us to understand some aspects of the inducible innate immunity in a system model that lacks anticipatory responses. However, the weevil has finely tuned its defensive strategies to counteract effectively microbial infection. PMID:25114180

  15. Fragmented mitochondrial genomes in two suborders of parasitic lice of eutherian mammals (Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina, Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Renfu; Barker, Stephen C; Li, Hu; Song, Simon; Poudel, Shreekanta; Su, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic lice (order Phthiraptera) infest birds and mammals. The typical animal mitochondrial (mt) genome organization, which consists of a single chromosome with 37 genes, was found in chewing lice in the suborders Amblycera and Ischnocera. The sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) known, however, have fragmented mt genomes with 9–20 minichromosomes. We sequenced the mt genome of the elephant louse, Haematomyzus elephantis – the first species of chewing lice investigated from the suborder Rhynchophthirina. We identified 33 mt genes in the elephant louse, which were on 10 minichromosomes. Each minichromosome is 3.5–4.2 kb in size and has 2–6 genes. Phylogenetic analyses of mt genome sequences confirm that the elephant louse is more closely related to sucking lice than to the chewing lice in the Amblycera and Ischnocera. Our results indicate that mt genome fragmentation is shared by the suborders Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina. Nine of the 10 mt minichromosomes of the elephant louse differ from those of the sucking lice (Anoplura) known in gene content and gene arrangement, indicating that distinct mt karyotypes have evolved in Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina since they diverged ~92 million years ago. PMID:26617060

  16. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Soft Scales (Insecta: Hemiptera: Coccidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper identification of soft scales (Hemiptera:Coccidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare soft scale specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, speci...

  17. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Whiteflies (Insecta: Hemiptera: Alyrodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper identification of whiteflies (Hemiptera:Alyrodidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare whitefly specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen...

  18. Checklist of the Diptera (Insecta) of Finland: an introduction and a summary of results

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nearly thirty-five years have passed since Hackman published his “Check list of the Finnish Diptera” (1980). The number of true flies (Diptera) known from Finland has increased by more than two thousand species since then. At the same time, hundreds of erroneous records have been recognized and purged from the checklist. ZooKeys issue 441 provides a new checklist of the Diptera species of the Republic of Finland. This introductory paper presents the rationale behind the project, provides technical documentation on the checklist format and sources used, and summarizes the results. The remaining papers in this issue cover one or more Diptera families in detail. Two electronic appendices are provided: supporting data (additional references to first published records and the previous checklist) and a complete list of Finnish Diptera taxa in Darwin Core compliant format for easy computer access and processing. The new checklist records 6920 fly species from Finland, 2932 belonging to the nematoceran or lower flies and 3989 to the suborder Brachycera. The changes since 1980 are most prominent in the Lower Diptera. For example, more than 400 non-biting midges (Chironomidae) have been added since 1980, and the number of moth flies (Psychodidae) known from Finland has more than tripled. Among the larger families, large increases in known Finnish species are also seen in Cecidomyiidae (161% increase), Pipunculidae (98%), and Chironomidae (90%). PMID:25337004

  19. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Formica selysi (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Sen; Li, Xin; Cai, Lei-Gang; Qian, Zeng-Qiang

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Formica selysi has been assembled from Illumina sequencing data with an average coverage of 2733X. The circular genome was 16,752 bp in length, and consists of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and one D-loop region. All PCGs initiated with ATN codons and terminated with the TAA codon. The nucleotide composition was highly asymmetric (40.33% A, 11.07% C, 5.66% G and 42.94% T) with an overall GC content of 16.73%. Unlike those of most other insects, the mitochondrial genome of F. selysi was characterized by an obviously high proportion of intergenic spacers. These data would contribute to the evolutionary studies of this and related ant taxa. PMID:25703846

  20. Utilizing online resources for taxonomy: a cybercatalog of Afrotropical apiocerid flies (Insecta: Diptera: Apioceridae)

    PubMed Central

    Agosti, Donat

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A cybercatalog to the Apioceridae (apiocerid flies) of the Afrotropical Region is provided. Each taxon entry includes links to open-access, online repositories such as ZooBank, BHL/BioStor/BLR, Plazi, GBIF, Morphbank, EoL, and a research web-site to access taxonomic information, digitized literature, morphological descriptions, specimen occurrence data, and images. Cybercatalogs as the one presented here will need to become the future of taxonomic catalogs taking advantage of the growing number of online repositories, linked data, and be easily updatable. Comments on the deposition of the holotype of Apiocera braunsi Melander, 1907 are made. PMID:26491392

  1. A monoclonal antibody against an adult-specific cuticular protein of Tenebrio molitor (Insecta, Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Lemoine, A; Millot, C; Curie, G; Delachambre, J

    1989-12-01

    To study the sequential expression of the epidermal program in the mealworm Tenebrio molitor, monoclonal antibodies were prepared against the water-soluble proteins from preecdysial adult cuticle. Among the 16 clones obtained, one of them (named K2F6) recognized a 20-kDa antigen, found only in adult extracts but not in the larval or pupal ones, as revealed by immunoblot analysis. Our results strongly suggest an epidermal origin for this protein. The monoclonal antibody K2F6 fails to react with water-soluble proteins from fat body and hemolymph taken during the deposition of the 20-kDa antigen. Electron microscopic immunogold localization of this antigen showed that it is secreted, just after epicuticle deposition, in the 30 first-deposited preecdysial lamellae of sternal and elytral cuticles only. The sclerotizing process, which modifies the physicochemical properties of these cuticles, does not prevent the immunoreaction. When the expression of the adult program was inhibited by application of a juvenile hormone analog (ZR 515), the water-soluble proteins from different pupal-adult intermediates were never recognized by the monoclonal antibody K2F6 using immunoblot analysis. These results support the conclusion that this 20-kDa antigen is a protein specific for the sclerotized cuticle of the adult stage. PMID:2583376

  2. The larvae of Epigomphus jannyae Belle, 1993 and E. tumefactus Calvert, 1903 (Insecta: Odonata: Gomphidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Alonso; Delgado, Débora

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic knowledge about immature stages of the insect order Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) is rather limited in tropical America. Here, the larvae of Epigomphus jannyae Belle, 1993 and E. tumefactus Calvert, 1903 are described, figured, and compared with other described congeners. E. jannyae larva is characterized by 3rd antennomere 1.6 times longer than its widest part; ligula very poorly developed, with ten short, truncate teeth on middle; apical lobe of labial palp rounded and smooth. Lateral margins on abdominal segments (S5–9) serrated, lateral spines on S6–9 small and divergent; male epiproct with a pair of dorsal tubercles at basal 0.66; tips of cerci and paraprocts strongly divergent. The larva of E. tumefactus is characterized by 3rd antennomere 2.3 times longer than its widest part, ligula with 6–7 truncate teeth, apical lobe of labial palp acute and finely serrate. Lateral margins of S6–9 serrate, lateral spines on S7–9; male epiproct with a pair of dorsal tubercles at basal 0.50. Differences with other species were found in 3rd antennomere, lateral spines of S7–9, and the caudal appendages. Epigomphus larvae inhabit small, shallow creeks (1st order streams) where they live in fine benthic sediments. When mature, the larva leaves the water in shady places, climbing small rocks at the water’s edge and metamorphosing horizontally on flat rocks. These new descriptions bring the total number of Epigomphus species with known larval stages to eight; only 28% of the species in this genus are known as larva.

  3. Influence of life history and sex on metal accumulation in two beetle species (insecta: Coleoptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Lindqvist, L.; Block, M.

    1997-04-01

    Insects are important components of most terrestrial environments owing to their great abundance, biomass and diversity. They also make up an important food resource for other animals. Consequently, in many food webs insects constitute important links in metal-transport chains between trophic levels. Therefore trace-metal concentrations in insects have an important influence on the trace-metal distribution in the biosphere. In various insects, Cd, Cu and Zn are usually accumulated to the extent that they reach levels above those of the food, whereas Fe is not. In response to metal pollution, accumulation of nonessential metals was found to increase markedly, whereas essential metals accumulated less owing to regulating mechanisms in the insects. In polluted environments, metal concentrations were found to be higher in predatory invertebrates than in phytophagous ones in studies where insects were analysed in broad categories such as families. However, no such trend was observed when species were treated separately. The pattern of metal accumulation can differ between species. This is true even for species utilizing the same food resource. For instance, concentrations of Cd, Cu and Fe differed between four species of sawflies feeding on pine needles from the same locality. It is therefore likely that insects with different food sources accumulate metals differently depending on the concentration and chemical form of the metals in the food. There have been few studies aimed at determining whether patterns of metal accumulation differ between males and females of the same species. In one such study on the sawfly Neodiprion sertifer concentrations of Cd, Cu and Fe tended to be higher in males than in females. However, this pattern was not found in two other sawfly species. Target organs for Cd were found to differ between males and females in the grasshopper Aiolopus thalassinus. The testis accumulated Cd to a higher degree than the ovaries.

  4. The first African Anthracoptilidae (Insecta: Paoliida) near the Permian--Triassic boundary in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Nel, Andre; Garrouste, Romain; Prokop, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    The first findings of Antracoptilidae (Paoliida) from the Late Permian/ Early Triassic of Africa, i.e. the new genus Afrocladus comprising A. pumilio sp. nov. and A. kenyaensis sp. nov., are described from the Mombasa Basin of Maji ya Chumvi Formation in Kenya (Duruma sandstones). Both diagnoses are based on wing venation pattern. Their occurrences close to the P-T boundary possibly indicate the last appearence date of the group being known since early Pennsylvanian. Moreover, their significantly smaller wing sizes compared to known taxa suggest adaptations to different habitats and environmental conditions or different life strategy. PMID:25781736

  5. Two new genera and two new species of Mantophasmatodea (Insecta, Polyneoptera) from Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Wipfler, Benjamin; Pohl, Hans; Predel, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Two new species and two new genera (Pachyphasma, Striatophasma) of Mantophasmatodea are described from Namibia. Pachyphasma brandbergense is endemic to the Brandberg massif; Striatophasma occupies an extensive area south of the region inhabited by Mantophasma. Phylogenetic analyses (see Predel et al. in press) suggest a sistergroup relationship of Striatophasma and the South African Austrophasmatidae. PMID:22328860

  6. Crickets (Insecta, Orthoptera, Grylloidea) from Southern New Caledonia,
    with descriptions of new taxa.

    PubMed

    Anso, Jérémy; Jourdan, Hervé; Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Intensive sampling of cricket communities has been undertaken in southern New Caledonia in selected plots of vegetation, i.e. rain forest, preforest and maquis shrubland. This leads to the discovery of many new taxa, which are described in the present paper, together with closely related species from nearby areas. Descriptions are based on general morphology and characters of genitalia. Calling songs are described for all acoustic taxa but two, and observations about species habitats are given. In total, 35 species belonging to 13 genera are studied, including 21 new species and two new genera. The pattern of assemblages of cricket species in New Caledonia is discussed. PMID:27395569

  7. Sensory trap as the mechanism of sexual selection in a damselfly genitalic trait (Insecta: Calopterygidae).

    PubMed

    Córdoba-Aguilar, A

    2002-11-01

    During copulation, males of some calopterygid damselfly species displace the sperm stored in the spermatheca: the male genital appendages enter into the spermathecal ducts and physically remove sperm. In Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis, the genital appendages are too wide to penetrate the spermathecae, but males use a different mechanism in which the aedeagus stimulates the vaginal sensilla that control spermathecal sperm release. Since these sensilla are used during egg fertilization and oviposition, it was hypothesized that this function evolved before the male stimulatory ability. I investigated this using Hetaerina cruentata, a species whose position in the Calopterygidae phylogeny is more basal than Calopteryx. Given this position and having determined that males of this species are not able to displace sperm of their conspecific females during copulation, it was expected that H. cruentata females would eject sperm when stimulated with the aedeagi of C. haemorrhoidalis but not when stimulated with the aedeagi of their conspecifics. This prediction was confirmed. In order to investigate the widespread nature of this result, some other Calopteryx species-Calopteryx xanthostoma and Calopteryx virgo-were investigated. The results were similar to those of H. cruentata: conspecific males were unable to stimulate their females, but females ejected sperm when stimulated with C. haemorrhoidalis aedeagi. Morphometric analysis suggests that the mechanistic explanation for the stimulatory ability of C. haemorrhoidalis genitalia is that the aedeagal region that makes contact with the vaginal sensilla is wider in C. haemorrhoidalis than in the other species. These results suggest that the sensory "bias" shown and shared by H. cruentata, Calopteryx splendens, C. virgo, and C. haemorrhoidalis females represents an ancestral condition and that the male stimulatory ability is absent in the evolutionary history of the clade. These pieces of evidence as well as another one presented elsewhere, which indicates that C. haemorrhoidalis males vary in their stimulatory ability, constitute the three criteria for a case of sexual selection via exploitation of a female sensory bias. These results also provide support to the sensory trap hypothesis that indicates that the female bias-in this case, egg fertilization and oviposition-evolved in a context different from sexual selection. Considering that the male genital appendages responsible for physically removing spermathecal sperm in other calopterygids are present in C. haemorrhoidalis, I suggest that males were once able to displace spermathecal sperm physically. Such ability may have been later impeded by a reduction in size of the spermathecal ducts. Possibly, one of the latest events in this sequence is the male's stimulatory ability. This hypothetical series of events suggests a coevolutionary scenario in which the central actor is the sperm stored in the spermathecae. PMID:18707510

  8. The mitochondrial genomes of the caddisflies Sericostoma personatum and Thremma gallicum (Insecta: Trichoptera).

    PubMed

    Dietz, Lars; Brand, Philipp; Eschner, Lisa Marie; Leese, Florian

    2016-09-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of the caddisfly species Sericostoma personatum and Thremma gallicum were sequenced on a 454 FLX and Illumina MiSeq platform, respectively. Reads were assembled de novo and remaining gaps in the S. personatum mitogenome closed by Sanger sequencing. The lengths of the assembled mitogenomes were 15,260 bp and 15,343 bp for S. personatum and T. gallicum, respectively. Both mitogenomes contained all 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and the control region. The mitochondrial gene order of both caddisflies is identical with the typical insect gene order. These are the third and fourth published mitogenomes of the order Trichoptera of two formerly unexplored families and thus will be useful in future phylogenetic analysis. PMID:25714156

  9. Preparing sternorrhynchous insects (Insecta: Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) for microscope examination: Hoyer’s mounting medium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper identification of aphids, scale insects, psyllids, and whitefles (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare sternorrhynchous specimens on microscope slides for examination and identi...

  10. Critical Structure for Telescopic Movement of Honey bee (Insecta: Apidae) Abdomen: Folded Intersegmental Membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jieliang; Yan, Shaoze; Wu, Jianing

    2016-01-01

    The folded intersegmental membrane is a structure that interconnects two adjacent abdominal segments; this structure is distributed in the segments of the honey bee abdomen. The morphology of the folded intersegmental membrane has already been documented. However, the ultrastructure of the intersegmental membrane and its assistive role in the telescopic movements of the honey bee abdomen are poorly understood. To explore the morphology and ultrastructure of the folded intersegmental membrane in the honey bee abdomen, frozen sections were analyzed under a scanning electron microscope. The intersegmental membrane between two adjacent terga has a Z-S configuration that greatly influences the daily physical activities of the honey bee abdomen. The dorsal intersegmental membrane is 2 times thicker than the ventral one, leading to asymmetric abdominal motion. Honey bee abdominal movements were recorded using a high-speed camera and through phase-contrast computed tomography. These movements conformed to the structural features of the folded intersegmental membrane. PMID:27456912

  11. Systematics, biodiversity, biogeography, and host associations of the Miridae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicomorpha).

    PubMed

    Cassis, G; Schuh, R T

    2012-01-01

    The Miridae, a hyperdiverse family containing more than 11,020 valid described species, are discussed and the pertinent literature is reviewed. Diagnoses for the family and subfamilies are given. Color habitus photos are presented for representatives of most of the 35 currently recognized tribes. Key morphological character systems are discussed and illustrated, including pretarsal structures, femoral trichobothria, external efferent system of the metathoracic glands, male and female genitalia, and molecular markers. A historical comparison of tribal classifications and the most up-to-date classification are presented in tabular form. A brief history of the classification of each of the eight recognized subfamilies is presented. Distributional patterns and relative generic diversity across biogeographic regions are discussed; generic diversity by biogeographic region is presented in tabular form. Taxonomic accumulation graphs are presented by biogeographic region, indicating an ongoing need for taxonomic work in the Southern Hemisphere, and most particularly in Australia. Host plant associations are evaluated graphically, showing high specificity for many taxa and a preference among phytophagous taxa for the Asteridae and Rosidae. PMID:22149267

  12. Rampant nuclear insertion of mtDNA across diverse lineages within Orthoptera (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Song, Hojun; Moulton, Matthew J; Whiting, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (numts) are non-functional fragments of mtDNA inserted into the nuclear genome. Numts are prevalent across eukaryotes and a positive correlation is known to exist between the number of numts and the genome size. Most numt surveys have relied on model organisms with fully sequenced nuclear genomes, but such analyses have limited utilities for making a generalization about the patterns of numt accumulation for any given clade. Among insects, the order Orthoptera is known to have the largest nuclear genome and it is also reported to include several species with a large number of numts. In this study, we use Orthoptera as a case study to document the diversity and abundance of numts by generating numts of three mitochondrial loci across 28 orthopteran families, representing the phylogenetic diversity of the order. We discover that numts are rampant in all lineages, but there is no discernable and consistent pattern of numt accumulation among different lineages. Likewise, we do not find any evidence that a certain mitochondrial gene is more prone to nuclear insertion than others. We also find that numt insertion must have occurred continuously and frequently throughout the diversification of Orthoptera. Although most numts are the result of recent nuclear insertion, we find evidence of very ancient numt insertion shared by highly divergent families dating back to the Jurassic period. Finally, we discuss several factors contributing to the extreme prevalence of numts in Orthoptera and highlight the importance of exploring the utility of numts in evolutionary studies. PMID:25333882

  13. Thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera) of Iran: a revised and updated checklist

    PubMed Central

    Minaei, Kambiz

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In Iran, as a result of recent changes in nomenclature 201 species and one species group of the insect Order Thysanoptera, are here listed in 70 genera and five families. In considering species listed previously from this country, the presence of 7 species is considered not confirmed, and 12 species are excluded from the Iranian list. Problems in the study of Iranian Thysanoptera are discussed briefly. PMID:24146555

  14. [Generic diversity of Trichoptera (Insecta) of Paramo Rabanal (Cundinamarca-Boyacá, Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Latorre-Beltrán, Ivonne T; Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Favila, Mario E

    2014-04-01

    Trichopterans are considered an important and diverse biotic element in continental aquatic ecosystems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the assemblages of the order Trichoptera in two subwatersheds with a gradient of disturbance. Four sampling events were conducted in two subwatersheds in the Eastern Mountain Range of the Colombian Andes. For the analysis we used rarefaction curves, Bray-Curtis Index and Partitioning Diversity and total richness and Shannon's diversity as metrics. Although total richness was similar between both subwatersheds, abundance was always highest in streams within the conserved subwatershed. Each subwatershed was dominated by different genera, except Ochrotrichia, which was abundant at all sites. Alpha diversity was similar among streams in the conserved watershed, while a reduction in diversity potentially associated with the disturbance gradient was observed in streams of the disturbed subwatershed. Beta diversity (0Dbeta and 1Dbeta) between subwatersheds and among conserved streams was similar, while in disturbed streams a similar gradient to that of alpha diversity was found. The similitude analysis clustered streams according to their conservation status. Differences found in trichopteran assemblages do confirm that the use of their attributes is adequate to assess the conservation status of stream ecosystems. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (Suppl. 2): 97-110. Epub 2014 April 01. PMID:25189072

  15. Taxonomic and numerical resolutions of nepomorpha (insecta: heteroptera) in cerrado streams.

    PubMed

    Giehl, Nubia França da Silva; Dias-Silva, Karina; Juen, Leandro; Batista, Joana Darc; Cabette, Helena Soares Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Transformations of natural landscapes and their biodiversity have become increasingly dramatic and intense, creating a demand for rapid and inexpensive methods to assess and monitor ecosystems, especially the most vulnerable ones, such as aquatic systems. The speed with which surveys can collect, identify, and describe ecological patterns is much slower than that of the loss of biodiversity. Thus, there is a tendency for higher-level taxonomic identification to be used, a practice that is justified by factors such as the cost-benefit ratio, and the lack of taxonomists and reliable information on species distributions and diversity. However, most of these studies do not evaluate the degree of representativeness obtained by different taxonomic resolutions. Given this demand, the present study aims to investigate the congruence between species-level and genus-level data for the infraorder Nepomorpha, based on taxonomic and numerical resolutions. We collected specimens of aquatic Nepomorpha from five streams of first to fourth order of magnitude in the Pindaíba River Basin in the Cerrado of the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, totaling 20 sites. A principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) applied to the data indicated that species-level and genus-level abundances were relatively similar (>80% similarity), although this similarity was reduced when compared with the presence/absence of genera (R = 0.77). The presence/absence ordinations of species and genera were similar to those recorded for their abundances (R = 0.95 and R = 0.74, respectively). The results indicate that analyses at the genus level may be used instead of species, given a loss of information of 11 to 19%, although congruence is higher when using abundance data instead of presence/absence. This analysis confirms that the use of the genus level data is a safe shortcut for environmental monitoring studies, although this approach must be treated with caution when the objectives include conservation actions, and faunal complementarity and/or inventories. PMID:25083770

  16. Principles of the highly ordered arrangement of metaphase I bivalents in spermatocytes of Agrodiaetus (Insecta, Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Lukhtanov, Vladimir A; Dantchenko, Alexander V

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the nature of highly ordered bivalent arrangement in lepidopteran spermatocytes by analysing and comparing the patterns of bivalent distribution in intact metaphase I plates of 24 closely related species of the genus Agrodiaetus (Lycaenidae). The studied species greatly differed in haploid chromosome numbers (from n = 13 to n = 90) and in the structure of their karyotypes. We found that the larger the bivalent, the closer to the centre of the metaphase plate it was situated. In species with a high chromosome number and asymmetrical karyotype structure, the largest bivalent was located in the centre of the circular metaphase plate. Bivalents of equal size were approximately equidistant from the centre of the metaphase plate and formed concentric circles around the largest bivalent. These principles are diametrically different from those known in the majority of other animals and plants, in which the smallest elements of the chromosome set are situated in the centre of metaphase plate. The only exception from the above principles was observed in spermatocytes of A. surakovi which were heterozygous for reciprocal translocation involving two or three chromosome pairs. In addition to one large bivalent, the heterozygous cells had a multivalent, the size of which was comparable to or even exceeded that of the largest bivalentin the karyotype. In spite of thelarge size, the multivalent was always situated at the periphery of metaphase plate. This indicated that the chromosome size itself is not the only factor determining the bivalent position. We also found that the structure of the metaphase plate is fundamentally different in mitotic and meiotic cells of Agrodiaetus. In spermatogonial metaphase, chromosomes were tightly brought together, forming a dense compact disk, whereas during metaphase I of spermatocytes, all bivalents were clearly separated from each other, and the distance between adjacent bivalents varied from 0.4 to 1.5 microm. Based on the above findings, we proposed a model of bivalent distribution in the Lepidoptera. According to the model, during congregation in the prometaphase stage there is a centripetal movement of bivalents made by a force directed to the centre of the metaphase plate transverse to the spindle. This force is proportional to the kinetochore size of a particular bivalent. The Lepidoptera have a special near-holokinetic type of chromosome organisation. Therefore, large bivalents having large kinetochores are situated in the central part of metaphase plate. Another possible factor affecting the bivalent position is the interaction of bivalents with the cisternae of the membrane system compartmentalising the intraspindle space. PMID:11863071

  17. A new species of Fuziidae (Insecta, Blattida) from the Inner Mongolia, China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Dandan; Liang, Junhui; Ren, Dong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species attributed to the genus Parvifuzia Guo & Ren, 2011, Parvifuzia peregrina sp. n., is described from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Daohugou Village, Inner Mongolia, China. This new species, with apex of wing almost reaching the end of the abdomen and forewing venation with 30–32 veins at margin, broadens the diversity of Parvifuzia. This new species, with strongly curved cerci, could tightly clasp female and complete copulation more efficiently, same as other members of the family Fuziidae. PMID:22977342

  18. Familial Clarification of Saucrosmylidae stat. nov. and New Saucrosmylids from Daohugou, China (Insecta, Neuroptera)

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Hui; Ren, Dong; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-01-01

    Backgound Saucrosmylids are characterized by the typically large body size, complicated venation and diverse wing markings, which were only discovered in Middle Jurassic of Daohugou, Ningcheng county, Inner Mongolia, China. Principal Findings Saucrosmylinae Ren, 2003, originally included as a subfamily in the Osmylidae, was transferred and elevated to family rank based on the definitive synapomorphic character. The updated definition of Saucrosmylidae stat. nov. was outlined in detail: presence of nygma and trichosors; diverse markings on membrane; complicated cross-veins; distal fusion of Sc and R1; expanded space between R1 and Rs having 2–7 rows of cells that should be a synapomorphic character of the family; proximal MP fork. And the previous misuses of Saucrosmylidae are also clarified. Furthermore, a new genus with a new species and an indeterminate species of Saucrosmylidae are described as Ulrikezza aspoeckae gen. et sp. nov. and Ulrikezza sp. from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. A key to genera of Saucrosmylidae is provided. Conclusions/Significance The intriguing group represents a particular lineage of Neuroptera in the Mesozoic Era. The familial status of Saucrosmylidae was firstly advanced that clarified the former incorrect citation and use of the family name. As an extinct clade, many species of the saucrosmylids were erected just based on a single fore- or hindwing, and it should be realized that providing more stable characters is necessary when describing new lacewing taxa just based on an isolated hindwing. It is vital for the systematics of Saucrosmylidae. PMID:26485027

  19. The mitochondrial genome of Polistes jokahamae and a phylogenetic analysis of the Vespoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera).

    PubMed

    Song, Sheng-Nan; Chen, Peng-Yan; Wei, Shu-Jun; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2016-07-01

    The mitochondrial genome sequence of Polistes jokahamae (Radoszkowski, 1887) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) (GenBank accession no. KR052468) was sequenced. The current length with partial A + T-rich region of this mitochondrial genome is 16,616 bp. All the typical mitochondrial genes were sequenced except for three tRNAs (trnI, trnQ, and trnY) located between the A + T-rich region and nad2. At least three rearrangement events occurred in the sequenced region compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects, corresponding to the shuffling of trnK and trnD, translocation or remote inversion of tnnY and translocation of trnL1. All protein-coding genes start with ATN codons. Eleven, one, and another one protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA, TA, and T, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis using the Bayesian method based on all codon positions of the 13 protein-coding genes supports the monophyly of Vespidae and Formicidae. Within the Formicidae, the Myrmicinae and Formicinae form a sister lineage and then sister to the Dolichoderinae, while within the Vespidae, the Eumeninae is sister to the lineage of Vespinae + Polistinae. PMID:26094985

  20. A new species of Margaromantis Piza, 1982 (Insecta: Mantodea) from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Freddy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A second species of the Neotropical mantid genus Margaromantis Piza, 1982, Margaromantis nigrolineata sp. n. is described from Bahia, Brazil. This new species can be recognized by the presence of a transverse black strip between compound eyes in the vertex; fore femora exhibiting black calluses on the inner face; lacking yellowish strips over the transverse veins on the metathoracic wings; left dorsal phallomere with rectangular ventral lamina, elongated and grooved lateral process, and a flattened, but not twisted apical process that is upwardly recurved. PMID:25698900

  1. Checklist of butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera) from Serra do Intendente State Park - Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Izabella; Carvalho, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In order to contribute to the butterflies’ biodiversity knowledge at Serra do Intendente State Park - Minas Gerais, a study based on collections using Van Someren-Rydon traps and active search was performed. In this study, a total of 395 butterflies were collected, of which 327 were identified to species or morphospecies. 263 specimens were collected by the traps and 64 were collected using entomological hand-nets; 43 genera and 60 species were collected and identified. PMID:25535482

  2. Environmental influence on coprophagous Scarabaeidae (Insecta, Coleoptera) assemblages in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso.

    PubMed

    Tissiani, A S O; Sousa, W O; Santos, G B; Ide, S; Battirola, L; Marques, M I

    2015-11-01

    Here we examine assemblage structure of coprophagous Scarabaeidae (dung beetles) in the Pantanal of the state of Mato Grosso with respect to flooding regimes, soil texture, leaf litter volume and tree dominance in native and exotic pastures. Samples were collected along 30 transects of 250 m in length in a 5×5 km grid (25 km2). Five pitfalls baited with human feces were placed in each transect. A total of 1692 individuals in 19 species were captured, the majority in the subfamily Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae. Assemblages were influenced by the duration of flooding and leaf litter volume. None of the other habitat variables was correlated with species richness. Cultivated pastures with exotic grasses were unimportant for composition of the assemblages of beetles. These results indicate that duration of flooding is the most important regulating force in this community. PMID:26602349

  3. Setting boundaries: environmental and spatial effects on Odonata larvae distribution (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Mendes, Thiago P; Cabette, Helena S R; Juen, Leandro

    2015-03-01

    Environmental characteristics and spatial distances between sites have been used to explain species distribution in the environment, through Neutral (space) and Niche theory (environment) predictions. We evaluated the effects of spatial and environmental factors on Odonata larvae distribution along the Suiá-Missú River Basin, state of Mato Grosso. We tested the hypotheses that (1) the environment is the main factor structuring the community due to its ecophysiological requirements; and (2) the pattern, if present, is clearer for Zygoptera. Samples were made in 12 sites on the Suiá-Missú River Basin in three seasons (2007/2008), with a total of 1.382 Odonata larvae, comprising 10 families, 51 genera and 100 morphospecies. The Anisoptera were more abundant than Zygoptera, comprising 81% of all specimens. The environment affected Zygoptera (R=0.291; p=0.007) and was the main factor structuring the assembly. Thus, Niche theory was confirmed. The absence of this effect on Anisoptera may be due to the ecophysiological adaptations that enable it to occupy different habitats. Zygoptera larvae are indicators of changes in habitat structure. The effects of environmental variables on larvae ecology emphasize the strong relationship between these organisms and environmental integrity. PMID:25806986

  4. Exposure to Exogenous Enkephalins Disrupts Reproductive Development in the Eastern Lubber Grasshopper, Romalea microptera (Insecta: Orthoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sandeep; Ganji, Purnachandra Nagaraju; Song, Hojun; von Kalm, Laurence; Borst, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Enkephalins play a major role in reproductive physiology in crustaceans; however their role in reproductive development in insects is largely unknown. We investigated the effect of exposure to exogenous leucine-enkephalin (Leu-Enk), methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk), and the opioid antagonist naloxone on gonad development in the Eastern lubber grasshopper, Romalea microptera. Injection of either Leu-Enk or naloxone alone significantly increased the testicular index and testicular follicular diameter in males, and the ovarian index, oocyte length, and oocyte diameter in females. In contrast, injection of Met-Enk inhibited all measures of reproductive development in both sexes. Surprisingly, co-injection of naloxone with either enkephalin enhanced the effect associated with administration of the enkephalin alone. This study clearly demonstrates the ability of enkephalins to disrupt insect sexual development and also suggests the existence of conserved enkephaline-dependent regulatory mechanisms in insects and crustaceans. PMID:23226477

  5. The complete mitogenome of the dampwood termite Zootermopsis nevadensis (Insecta: Isoptera: Termopsidae).

    PubMed

    Qian, Zeng-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitogenome of the dampwood termite Zootermopsis nevadensis was reconstructed from whole-genome Illumina sequencing data with an average coverage of 7052×. The circular genome is 15,444 bp in length, and consists of 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and one D-loop region. All PCGs are initiated with ATN codons, except for the ND1 and ND5 genes with the start codon GTG. Some PCGs harbor TAG (ND1) or incomplete stop codon T (COII, ND5 & Cytb), while the others use TAA as their stop codons. The nucleotide composition is asymmetric (45.8% A, 19.8% C, 10.9% G, 23.5% T) with an overall GC content of 30.7%. These data would contribute to the design of novel molecular markers for population and evolutionary studies of this and related termite species. PMID:25010077

  6. Distinct genetic lineages of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae) revealed by COI and 16S DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yong, Hoi Sen

    2012-01-01

    The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia was distinctly different from B. caudata of Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for COI sequences between B. caudata of Malaysia-Thailand-China and B. caudata of Bali-Lombok was 5.65%, for 16S sequences from 2.76 to 2.99%, and for combined COI and 16S sequences 4.45 to 4.46%. The 'p' values are distinctly different from intraspecific 'p' distance (0-0.23%). Both the B. caudata lineages are distinctly separated from related species in the subgenus Zeugodacus - B. ascita, B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora, B. tau, B. cucurbitae, and B. depressa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the B. caudata lineages are closely related to B. ascita sp. B, and form a clade with B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora and B. ascita sp. A. This study provides additional baseline for the phylogenetic relationships of Bactrocera fruit flies of the subgenus Zeugodacus. Both the COI and 16S genes could be useful markers for the molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of tephritid fruit flies. PMID:22615962

  7. An annotated catalogue of the New World Therevidae (Insecta: Diptera: Asiloidea).

    PubMed

    Webb, Donald W; Gaimari, Stephen D; Hauser, Martin; Holston, Kevin C; Metz, Mark A; Irwin, Michael E; Kampmeier, Gail E; Algmin, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The genera and species of New World stiletto flies (Diptera: Therevidae) are listed, with annotated references to nomenclature, synonymies and generic combinations, type localities, the primary type depositories, distribution, and citations for the most recent revisions. The genus Cyclotelus Walker, 1850 (along with its synonyms Furcifera Kröber, 1911, and Epomyia Cole, 1923a) is synonymized under Cerocatus Rondani, 1848. Ectinorhynchus fascipennis Kröber, 1911 is given the new name Cerocatus rondanii Gaimari, and Phycus rufiventris Kröber, 1911 is given the new name Cerocatus raspii Hauser. Phycus analis Kröber, 1911 and Phycus bicolor Kröber, 1911, are placed as new combinations in Cerocatus Rondani, as are the following species that were previously in combination with Cyclotelus: Furcifera achaeta Malloch, 1932, Cyclotelus badicrusus Irwin and Webb, 1992, Phycus beckeri Kröber, 1911, Epomyia bella Cole, 1923a, Furcifera braziliana Cole, 1960a, Cyclotelus colei Irwin and Lyneborg, 1981a, Thereva diversipes Kröber, 1911, Thereva fascipennis Macquart, 1846a, Psilocephala femorata Kröber, 1911, Furcifera flavipes Kröber, 1928b, Furcifera hardyi Cole, 1960a, Furcifera kroeberi Cole, 1960a, Cyclotelus laetus Walker, 1850, Furcifera longicornis Kröber, 1911, Cyclotelus nigroflammus Walker, 1850, Psilocephala nigrifrons Kröber, 1914a, Thereva pictipennis Wiedemann, 1821, Furcifera polita Kröber, 1911, Cyclotelus pruinosus Walker, 1850, Thereva ruficornis Macquart, 1841a, Psilocephala rufiventris Loew, 1869, Thereva scutellaris Walker, 1857, Cyclotelus silacrusus Irwin and Webb, 1992, Cyclotelus socius Walker, 1850 and Psilocephala sumichrasti Bellardi, 1861. Dialineura pallidiventris Malloch, 1932, Melanothereva blackmani Oldroyd, 1968, Thereva maculicornis Jaennicke, 1867 and Thereva notabilis Macquart, 1841a are placed as new combinations in Entesia Oldroyd. Henicomyia amazonica Irwin and Webb, 1992 is a new synonym of Henicomyia flava Lyneborg, 1972. Henicomyia varipes Kröber, 1912a is given revised species status from former synonymy with
    Henicomyia hubbardii Coquillett, 1898. PMID:24614059

  8. Australian thrips of the Haplothrips lineage (Insecta: Thysanoptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Mound, Laurence A.; Minaei, Kambiz

    2007-12-01

    Water is important and ubiquitous and surprisingly not understood. Just because is it common, does not mean its understood "Poets say science takes away from the beauty of the stars-mere globs of gas atoms. I too can see the stars on a desert night, and feel them. But do I see less or more? ... What is the pattern, or the meaning, or the why? It does not do harm to the mystery to know a little about it. For far more marvelous is the truth than any artists of the past imagined it." - Richard P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, 1963. (Cited in the introduction to Chapter 3 of "The Snowflake, Winter's Secret Beauty, Text by Kenneth Libbrecht, Photography by Patricia Rasmussen.) 1. Highlight the fact that water is still one of the most active and challenging research areas in chemistry and physics 2. Describe in general terms why water is unique from the point of view of its properties o Large dipole-moment o Very polarizable o Involved in is own chemistry (e.g. auto ionization defining the pH scale) • Atomic view: o Oxygen and Hydrogen. o Hydrogen is a quantum mechanical in nature. Classical physics is no good. o Water’s Charge-charge interaction described by classical physics laws (e.g. Coulomb) o The statistical mechanics of water. Why counting is important. o You need the full arsenal of theoretical methods to understand water • Waters well known bulk properties do not explain waters anomalies o Surface tension, heat capacity • Understanding the microscopic nature of water and how this gives rise to the known bulk quantities is the thrust of state-of-the-art research o Hydrogen bonding o Liquid structure o The so-called “spherical cow” model gets you no where with water o There are 10s-100s of different water models available in the scientific literature. It is a hard business • All of life takes place at the interfaces of solid, liquid, and gas o Biology takes advantage of waters varying properties in different geometries (e.g. confined, surfaces, etc. o Water behaves differently in confined environments • Water is the most abundant greenhouse gas o How does a microscopic understanding of water impact our knowledge of the radiation budget of the earth o How does a microscopic understanding of water impact our knowledge of weather.

  9. Review of Anasillomos Londt, 1983 with the description of a new species (Insecta: Diptera: Asilidae)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The southern African assassin-fly genus Anasillomos Londt, 1983 is reviewed. A new species, Anasillomos juergeni sp. n., is described from the Namib desert and represents the second species in the genus. Descriptions/re-descriptions, photographs, and identification keys are provided to aid in the identification. Distribution, occurrence in biodiversity hotspots sensu Conservation International, and seasonal incidence are discussed. PMID:25829862

  10. New data on caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) from Lombok (Indonesia)
    with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Malicky, Hans; Melnitsky, Stanislav I; Ivanov, Vladimir D

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of caddisflies of the Sunda Islands was insufficiently known until recent times; a survey of the caddis fauna of this area was given by Malicky (2010) and some more data were published recently (Malicky et al. 2011). A summary on the particular features of Trichoptera from 3 adjacent islands, Bali, Lombok, and Java, were given by Malicky et al. 2014. These were the first surveys of the local caddisfly fauna of Lombok, listing 60 species and anticipating that more species should occur there. It was shown that the caddisfly fauna of these islands is largely homogenous and there are not sufficient differences between Bali and Lombok to support the hypothesis of Wallace's line (Malicky et al. 2014). The comparative analysis showed continuous impoverishment of the caddis fauna from the Asian continent over the chain of islands from west to east. Unfortunately, the Trichoptera fauna of the easternmost Sunda Islands, Sumba, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor, and the Moluccas is almost unstudied. The Trichoptera fauna of these islands is, according to present knowledge, Asian. Since the previous material from Lombok was collected only once at the end of the wet season, it was necessary to have more data from other seasons. Hence we made another effort to sample caddisflies in this area. As a result, 8 more species were found, 2 of which were new for science. The updated list (Table 1) includes now 68 species. PMID:27395536