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Sample records for created cooling lake

  1. Cooling ponds/lakes and fish

    SciTech Connect

    Monzingo, R.G.; Hughes, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    The discussions concern both cooling ponds and cooling lakes. By regulatory definition, cooling ponds, also called perched ponds, are constructed by building dikes and pumping water, usually from a nearby river, into the diked area. Cooling lakes on the other hand, are created by damming a stream or streams, thereby producing impoundments. The paper begins the discussion with a more detailed examination of the problem at the Collins Station.

  2. Effect of thermal additions on the density and distribution of thermophilic amoebae and pathogenic Naegleria fowleri in a newly created cooling lake

    SciTech Connect

    Tyndall, R.L.; Ironside, K.S.; Metler, P.L.; Tan, E.L. ); Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B. )

    1989-03-01

    Pathogenic Naegleria fowleri is the causative agent of fatal human amoebic meningoencephalitis. The protozoan is ubiquitous in nature, and its presence is enhanced by thermal additions. In this investigation, water and sediments from a newly created cooling lake were quantitatively analyzed for the presence of thermophilic amoebae, thermophilic Naegleria spp., and the pathogen Naegleria fowleri. During periods of thermal additions, the concentrations of thermophilic amoebae and thermophilic Naegleria spp. increased as much as 5 orders of magnitude, and the concentration of the pathogen N. fowleri increased as much as 2 orders of magnitude. Concentrations of amoebae returned to prior thermal perturbation levels within 30 to 60 days after cessation of thermal additions. Increases in the thermophilic amoeba concentrations were noted in Savannah River oxbows downriver from the Savannah River plant discharge streams as compared with oxbows upriver from the discharges. Concentrations of thermophilic amoebae and thermophilic Naegleria spp. correlated significantly with temperature and conductivity. Air samples taken proximal to the lade during periods of thermal addition showed no evidence of thermophilic Naegleria spp. Isoenzyme patterns of the N. fowleri isolated from the cooling lake were identical to patterns of N. fowleri isolated from other sites in the United States and Belgium.

  3. Cooling of Kilauea Iki lava lake

    SciTech Connect

    Hills, R.G.

    1982-02-01

    In 1959 Kilauea Iki erupted leaving a 110 to 120 m lake of molten lava in its crater. The resulting lava lake has provided a unique opportunity to study the cooling dynamics of a molten body and its associated hydrothermal system. Field measurements taken at Kilauea Iki indicate that the hydrothermal system above the cooling magma body goes through several stages, some of which are well modeled analytically. Field measurements also indicate that during most of the solidification period of the lake, cooling from above is controlled by 2-phase convection while conduction dominates the cooling of the lake from below. A summary of the field work related to the study of the cooling dynamics of Kilauea Iki is presented. Quantitative and qualitative cooling models for the lake are discussed.

  4. THERMODYNAMICS OF PARTIALLY FROZEN COOLING LAKES

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, A.; Casterline, M.; Salvaggio, C.

    2010-01-05

    The Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) collected visible, SWIR, MWIR and LWIR imagery of the Midland (Michigan) Cogeneration Ventures Plant from aircraft during the winter of 2008-2009. RIT also made ground-based measurements of lake water and ice temperatures, ice thickness and atmospheric variables. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) used the data collected by RIT and a 3-D hydrodynamic code to simulate the Midland cooling lake. The hydrodynamic code was able to reproduce the time distribution of ice coverage on the lake during the entire winter. The simulations and data show that the amount of ice coverage is almost linearly proportional to the rate at which heat is injected into the lake (Q). Very rapid melting of ice occurs when strong winds accelerate the movement of warm water underneath the ice. A snow layer on top of the ice acts as an insulator and decreases the rate of heat loss from the water below the ice to the atmosphere above. The simulated ice cover on the lake was not highly sensitive to the thickness of the snow layer. The simplicity of the relationship between ice cover and Q and the weak responses of ice cover to snow depth over the ice are probably attributable to the negative feedback loop that exists between ice cover and heat loss to the atmosphere.

  5. Thermodynamics of partially frozen cooling lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Alfred J.; Casterline, May; Salvaggio, Carl

    2010-05-01

    The Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) collected visible, SWIR, MWIR and LWIR imagery of the Midland (Michigan) Cogeneration Ventures Plant from aircraft during the winter of 2008 - 2009. RIT also made ground-based measurements of lake water and ice temperatures, ice thickness and atmospheric variables. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) used the data collected by RIT and a 3-D hydrodynamic code to simulate the Midland cooling lake. The hydrodynamic code was able to reproduce the time distribution of ice coverage on the lake during the entire winter. The simulations and data show that the amount of ice coverage is almost linearly proportional to the rate at which heat is injected into the lake (Q). Very rapid melting of ice occurs when strong winds accelerate the movement of warm water underneath the ice. A snow layer on top of the ice acts as an insulator and decreases the rate of heat loss from the water below the ice to the atmosphere above. The simulated ice cover on the lake was not highly sensitive to the thickness of the snow layer. The simplicity of the relationship between ice cover and Q and the weak responses of ice cover to snow depth over the ice are probably attributable to the negative feedback loop that exists between ice cover and heat loss to the atmosphere.

  6. Creating Original Opera at Lake Agassiz Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwood, Connie; And Others

    1994-01-01

    In 1993 Lake Agassiz School in North Dakota received a Knight Foundation grant so teachers and students could participate in a program to learn how to create an opera. The program instructed teachers on how students could maximize their understanding about producing an opera. The school formed a partnership with the Metropolitan Opera Guild of New…

  7. Cooling and eutrophication of southern Chilean lakes.

    PubMed

    Pizarro, Jaime; Vergara, Pablo M; Cerda, Sergio; Briones, Daniela

    2016-01-15

    Understanding the impacts of global warming and human-disturbances on lakes is required for implementing management strategies aimed at mitigating the decline of the quality and availability of water for humans. We assessed temporal trends in water parameters, and the contribution of land use to the eutrophication of the largest lakes of central-southern Chile. The mean values of water parameters varied seasonally, with lakes Chapo and Caburgua exhibiting lower pH, temperature, and N/P ratio values. Over the assessed period (19 years), we found a temporal reduction in water conductivity and temperature of the lakes. The concentration of NO3(-)-N, PO4(3-)-P and dissolved oxygen increased in all the lakes, but pH increased in eight out of the ten lakes. The negative temporal trend in temperature was more pronounced as the depth level increased. Lakes whose basins had a higher percentage of forest plantation and urban areas had larger values of Chlorophyll a and pH, as well as, smaller values of dissolved oxygen. Lakes whose basins included larger percentages of native forest had smaller nutrient (NO3(-)-N, PO4(3-)-P) concentrations. Our findings suggest that decreased rainfall in central-southern Chile due to climate change may cause a decrease of particulate material that is carried by tributaries into the lakes. The observed temporal decrease in temperature, especially at the deeper levels, may be explained by the rapid melting of glaciers. Although the studied lakes are classified as oligotrophic, deforestation and expansion of urban areas around the lakes have led to increased nutrient input, thus accelerating their eutrophication. PMID:26437345

  8. DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF HEAT FLUX FROM COOLING LAKE THERMAL IMAGERY

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, A; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E; Robert Kurzeja, R; Malcolm Pendergast, M; Timothy Brown, T; Saleem Salaymeh, S

    2007-12-19

    Laboratory experiments show a linear relationship between the total heat flux from a water surface to air and the standard deviation of the surface temperature field, {sigma}, derived from thermal images of the water surface over a range of heat fluxes from 400 to 1800 Wm{sup -2}. Thermal imagery and surface data were collected at two power plant cooling lakes to determine if the laboratory relationship between heat flux and {sigma} exists in large heated bodies of water. The heat fluxes computed from the cooling lake data range from 200 to 1400 Wm{sup -2}. The linear relationship between {sigma} and Q is evident in the cooling lake data, but it is necessary to apply band pass filtering to the thermal imagery to remove camera artifacts and non-convective thermal gradients. The correlation between {sigma} and Q is improved if a correction to the measured {sigma} is made that accounts for wind speed effects on the thermal convection. Based on more than a thousand cooling lake images, the correlation coefficients between {sigma} and Q ranged from about 0.8 to 0.9.

  9. MEASUREMENT OF WIND SPEED FROM COOLING LAKE THERMAL IMAGERY

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E; Cary Tuckfield, C; Malcolm Pendergast, M

    2009-01-20

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) collected thermal imagery and ground truth data at two commercial power plant cooling lakes to investigate the applicability of laboratory empirical correlations between surface heat flux and wind speed, and statistics derived from thermal imagery. SRNL demonstrated in a previous paper [1] that a linear relationship exists between the standard deviation of image temperature and surface heat flux. In this paper, SRNL will show that the skewness of the temperature distribution derived from cooling lake thermal images correlates with instantaneous wind speed measured at the same location. SRNL collected thermal imagery, surface meteorology and water temperatures from helicopters and boats at the Comanche Peak and H. B. Robinson nuclear power plant cooling lakes. SRNL found that decreasing skewness correlated with increasing wind speed, as was the case for the laboratory experiments. Simple linear and orthogonal regression models both explained about 50% of the variance in the skewness - wind speed plots. A nonlinear (logistic) regression model produced a better fit to the data, apparently because the thermal convection and resulting skewness are related to wind speed in a highly nonlinear way in nearly calm and in windy conditions.

  10. Measurement of wind speed from cooling lake thermal imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Alfred J.; Tuckfield, R. Cary; Villa-Aleman, Eliel; Kurzeja, Robert J.; Pendergast, Malcolm M.

    2009-05-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) collected thermal imagery and ground truth data at two commercial power plant cooling lakes to investigate the applicability of laboratory empirical correlations between surface heat flux and wind speed, and statistics derived from thermal imagery. SRNL demonstrated in a previous paper [1] that a linear relationship exists between the standard deviation of image temperature and surface heat flux. In this paper, SRNL will show that the skewness of the temperature distribution derived from cooling lake thermal images correlates with instantaneous wind speed measured at the same location. SRNL collected thermal imagery, surface meteorology and water temperatures from helicopters and boats at the Comanche Peak and H. B. Robinson nuclear power plant cooling lakes. SRNL found that decreasing skewness correlated with increasing wind speed, as was the case for the laboratory experiments. Simple linear and orthogonal regression models both explained about 50% of the variance in the skewness - wind speed plots. A nonlinear (logistic) regression model produced a better fit to the data, apparently because the thermal convection and resulting skewness are related to wind speed in a highly nonlinear way in nearly calm and in windy conditions.

  11. Freshwater oncolites created by industrial pollution, Onondaga Lake, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Walter E.; Eggleston, Jane R.

    1984-08-01

    Onondaga Lake is a moderately saline, eutrophic lake characterized by waters rich in calcium, sodium, chloride and bicarbonate. Large quantities of CaCO 3 that are precipitated in the lake result from excess calcium supplied as calcium chloride wastes produced by soda-ash manufacturing to lake waters that are at or near saturation with respect to CaCO 3 from solution of carbonate rocks in the drainage basin. Beaches along the leeward (northeastern) shore of the lake are composed almost entirely of oncolites ranging from a few millimeters to several centimeters in maximum dimension. Offshore, in 1-2 m of water, the oncolites are biscuit-shaped concretions as much as 15 cm in diameter. The oncolites consist mainly of low-magnesium calcite, but dissolution of the carbonate with dilute acid results in a mass of blue-green algal filaments of the same approximate size and shape as the original oncolite. Most oncolites have an obvious nucleus; the most common nucleus is the hollow stem and cortication tubules of charophytes. Charophytes do not occur in Onondaga Lake today although they are common in other limestone-bedrock lakes in central New York State. Charophytes probably were eliminated by the marked increases in salinity of the lake that resulted from the introduction of soda-ash manufacturing on the lake shores around 1880 which means that growth of the oncolites began at least 100 years ago.

  12. Remote Measurement of Heat Flux from Power Plant Cooling Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, Alfred J.; Kurzeja, Robert J.; Villa-Aleman, Eliel; Bollinger, James S.; Pendergast, Malcolm M.

    2013-06-01

    Laboratory experiments have demonstrated a correlation between the rate of heat loss q" from an experimental fluid to the air above and the standard deviation σ of the thermal variability in images of the fluid surface. These experimental results imply that q" can be derived directly from thermal imagery by computing σ. This paper analyses thermal imagery collected over two power plant cooling lakes to determine if the same relationship exists. Turbulent boundary layer theory predicts a linear relationship between q" and σ when both forced (wind driven) and free (buoyancy driven) convection are present. Datasets derived from ground- and helicopter-based imagery collections had correlation coefficients between σ and q" of 0.45 and 0.76, respectively. Values of q" computed from a function of σ and friction velocity u* derived from turbulent boundary layer theory had higher correlations with measured values of q" (0.84 and 0.89). Finally, this research may be applicable to the problem of calculating losses of heat from the ocean to the atmosphere during high-latitude cold-air outbreaks because it does not require the information typically needed to compute sensible, evaporative, and thermal radiation energy losses to the atmosphere.

  13. REPRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF FISHES IN A COOLING LAKE: WISCONSIN POWER PLANT IMPACT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spatial and temporal patterns during reproduction and early life history of fishes were studied in a manmade cooling lake. Lake Columbia, impounded in 1974, near Portage, Wisconsin, has an area of 190 ha, a mean depth of 2.1 m, and a 15C temperature gradient derived from the ther...

  14. ENTRAINMENT AT A ONCE-THROUGH COOLING SYSTEM ON WESTERN LAKE ERIE. VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study assessed entrainment rates and effects for important components of the aquatic community in the once-through cooling system of a steam-electric power plant (the Monroe Power Plant), which can draw up to 85 cu m/second of cooling water from Lake Erie (-80%) and the Rais...

  15. Lagrangian and Control Volume Models for Prediction of Cooling Lake Performance at SRP

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, A.J.

    2001-06-26

    The model validation described in this document indicates that the methods described here and by Cooper (1984) for predicting the performance of the proposed L-Area cooling lake are reliable. Extensive observations from the Par Pond system show that lake surface temperatures exceeding 32.2 degrees C (90 degrees F) are attained occasionally in the summer in areas where there is little or no heating from the P-Area Reactor. Regulations which restrict lake surface temperatures to less than 32.2 degrees C should be structured to allow for these naturally-occurring thermal excursions.

  16. Terrestrial Lava Lake Physical Parameter Estimation Using a Silicate Cooling Model - Implications for a Return to the Volcanic Moon, Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Ashley

    2010-05-01

    Active lava lakes are open volcanic systems, where lava circulates between a magma chamber and the surface. Rare on Earth, lava lakes may be common on Io, the highly volcanic moon of Jupiter (see [1]). Lava lakes are important targets for future missions to Io [2, 3] as they provide excellent targets at which to measure lava eruption temperature (see [2] for other targets). With this in mind, hand-held infrared imagers were used to collect in-situ thermal emission data from the anorthoclase phonolite lava lake at Erebus volcano (Antarctica) in December 2005 [1, 3] and the basalt lava lake at Erta'Ale volcano (Ethiopia) in September 2009. These data have been analysed to establish surface temperature and area distributions and the integrated thermal emission spectra for each lava lake. These spectra have been used to test models developed for analysis of remote sensing data of lava lakes and lava flows on both Earth and Io, where no ground-truth exists. The silicate cooling model [4] assumes, for the lava lake model variant, that the existing surface crust has been created at a fixed rate. Model output consists of a synthesized thermal emission spectrum, estimate of surface age range, and a rate of surface crust area formation. The cooling model provides accurate reproductions of actual thermal spectra and the total emitting area to within a few percent of actual emitting area. Despite different composition lavas, the integrated thermal emission spectra from the two terrestrial lava lakes studied are very similar in shape, and, importantly, bear a striking similarity to spectra of Pele, a feature on Io that has been proposed to be a persistent, active lava lake [1]. The 2005 Erebus lava lake had an area of ~820 m2 and a measured surface temperature distribution of 1090 K to 575 K with a broad peak from 730 K to 850 K [5]. Total heat loss was estimated to be 23.5 MW [5]. The model fit yielded an area of ~820 m2, temperatures from 1475 K to 699 K, and an average

  17. Lake morphometry and resource polymorphism determine niche segregation between cool- and cold-water-adapted fish.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Brian; Harrod, Chris; Kahilaineni, Kimmo K

    2014-02-01

    Climate change is increasing ambient temperatures in Arctic and subarctic regions, facilitating latitudinal range expansions of freshwater fishes adapted to warmer water temperatures. The relative roles of resource availability and interspecific interactions between resident and invading species in determining the outcomes of such expansions has not been adequately evaluated. Ecological interactions between a cool-water adapted fish, the perch (Perca fluviatilis), and the cold-water adapted European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus), were studied in both shallow and deep lakes with fish communities dominated by (1) monomorphic whitefish, (2) monomorphic whitefish and perch, and (3) polymorphic whitefish and perch. A combination of stomach content, stable-isotope, and invertebrate prey availability data were used to identify resource use and niche overlap among perch, the trophic generalist large sparsely rakered (LSR) whitefish morph, and the pelagic specialist densely rakered (DR) whitefish morph in 10 subarctic lakes at the contemporary distribution limit of perch in northern Scandinavia. Perch utilized its putative preferred littoral niche in all lakes. LSR whitefish utilized both littoral and pelagic resources in monomorphic whitefish-dominated lakes. When found in sympatry with perch, LSR whitefish exclusively utilized pelagic prey in deep lakes, but displayed niche overlap with perch in shallow littoral lakes. DR whitefish was a specialist zooplanktivore, relegating LSR whitefish from pelagic habitats, leading to an increase in niche overlap between LSR whitefish and perch in deep lakes. Our results highlight how resource availability (lake depth and fish community) governs ecological interactions between native and invading species, leading to different outcomes even at the same latitudes. These findings suggest that lake morphometry and fish community structure data should be included in bioclimate envelope-based models of species distribution shifts

  18. Pathogenic amoebae in power-plant cooling lakes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tyndall, R.L.; Willaert, E.; Stevens, A.R.

    1981-06-01

    Cooling waters and associated algae and sediments from four northern and four southern/western electric power plants were tested for the presence of pathogenic amoebae. Unheated control waters and algae/sediments from four northern and five southern/western sites were also tested. When comparing results from the test versus control sites, a significantly higher proportion (P less than or equal to 0.05) of the samples from the test sites were positive for thermophilic amoeba, thermophilic Naegleria and pathogenic Naegleria. The difference in number of samples positive for thermophilic Naegleria between heated and unheated waters, however, was attributable predominantly to the northern waters and algae/sediments. While two of four northern test sites yielded pathogenic Naegleria, seven of the eight isolates were obtained from one site. Seasonality effects relative to the isolation of the pathogen were also noted at this site. One pathogen was isolated from a southwestern test site. Pathogens were not isolated from any control sites. Some of the pathogenic isolates were analyzed serologically and classified as pathogenic Naegleria fowleri. Salinity, pH, conductivity, and bacteriological profiles did not obviously correlate with the presence or absence of pathogenic Naegleria. While thermal addition was significantly associated with the presence of thermophilic Naegleria (P less than or equal to 0.05), the data implicate other as yet undefined parameters associated with the presence of the pathogenic thermophile. Until further delineation of these parameters is effected, generalizations cannot be made concerning the effect of thermal impact on the growth of pathogenic amoeba in a particular cooling system.

  19. Occurrence of Legionella pneumophila in lakes serving as a cooling system of a power plant.

    PubMed

    Walczak, Maciej; Kletkiewicz, Hanna; Burkowska, Aleksandra

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed at determining whether Legionella pneumophila can be found in lakes serving as a natural cooling system of a power plant. Water samples were collected from five lakes forming the cooling system of the power plants Pątnów and Konin (Poland). The numbers of bacteria belonging to different phylogenetic groups (bacteria, Legionella sp. and L. pneumophila) were determined with the use of a molecular FISH method. The results of the present study show that thermally altered aquatic environments provide perfect conditions for the growth of L. pneumophila. These microorganisms were identified in the biofilm throughout the entire research period, and in the subsurface water layer in July and August. The percentage of L. pneumophila species in the Legionella genus was 11.55-12.42%. PMID:24141270

  20. A Tale of Two Lakes: Catchment-Specific Responses to Late Holocene Cooling in Northwest Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crump, S. E.; Florian, C. R.; Miller, G. H.; Geirsdottir, A.; Zalzal, K.

    2015-12-01

    Lake sediments are frequently utilized for reconstructing paleoclimate in the Arctic, particularly in Iceland, where high sedimentation rates and abundant tephra layers allow for the development high-resolution, well-dated records. However, when developing climate records using biological proxies, catchment-specific processes must be understood and separated from the primary climate signal in order to develop accurate reconstructions. In this study, we compare proxy records (biogenic silica [BSi], C:N, ∂13C, and algal pigments) of the last 2 ka from two nearby lakes in northwest Iceland in order to elucidate how different catchments respond to similar climate history. Torfdalsvatn and Bæjarvötn are two coastal lakes located 60 km apart; mean summer temperatures are highly correlated between the two sites over the instrumental record, and likely for the past 2 ka as well. Consistent with other Icelandic records, both lakes record cooling as decreasing aquatic productivity (BSi) over the last 2 ka. Both sediment cores also record the onset of landscape destabilization, reflected by increased terrestrial input (C:N and ∂13C), which suggests an intensification of cooling. However, the timing and magnitude of this shift differ markedly between lakes. Biological proxies indicate gradual landscape destabilization beginning ~900 AD at Torfdalsvatn in contrast to a sharper, more intense landscape destabilization at ~1400 AD at Bæjarvötn. Because temperatures at the two lakes are well correlated, contrasting proxy responses are likely the result of catchment-specific thresholds and processes. Specifically, a steeper catchment at Bæjarvötn may allow for a more pronounced influx of terrestrial material as the critical shear stress for soil erosion is surpassed more readily. The impact of human colonization on erosion rates is also critical to assess, and recent developments in lipid biomarkers will allow for more precise reconstructions of human activity in each

  1. Lake isotope records of the 8200-year cooling event in western Ireland: Comparison with model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Jonathan A.; Tindall, Julia; Roberts, Neil; Marshall, William; Marshall, Jim D.; Bingham, Ann; Feeser, Ingo; O'Connell, Michael; Atkinson, Tim; Jourdan, Anne-Lise; March, Anna; Fisher, Elizabeth H.

    2016-01-01

    The early Holocene cooling, which occurred around 8200 calendar years before present, was a prominent abrupt event around the north Atlantic region. Here, we investigate the timing, duration, magnitude and regional coherence of the event as expressed in carbonate oxygen-isotope records from three lakes on northwest Europe's Atlantic margin in western Ireland, namely Loch Avolla, Loch Gealáin and Lough Corrib. An abrupt negative oxygen-isotope excursion lasted about 200 years. Comparison of records from three sites suggests that the excursion was primarily the result of a reduction of the oxygen-isotope values of precipitation, which was likely caused by lowered air temperatures, possibly coupled with a change in atmospheric circulation. Comparison of records from two of the lakes (Loch Avolla and Loch Gealáin), which have differing bathymetries, further suggests a reduction in evaporative loss of lake water during the cooling episode. Comparison of climate model experiments with lake-sediment isotope data indicates that effective moisture may have increased along this part of the northeast Atlantic seaboard during the 8200-year climatic event, as lower evaporation compensated for reduced precipitation.

  2. Modeling of skin cooling, blood flow, and optical properties in wounds created by electrical shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thu T. A.; Shupp, Jeffrey W.; Moffatt, Lauren T.; Jordan, Marion H.; Jeng, James C.; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    2012-02-01

    High voltage electrical injuries may lead to irreversible tissue damage or even death. Research on tissue injury following high voltage shock is needed and may yield stage-appropriate therapy to reduce amputation rate. One of the mechanisms by which electricity damages tissue is through Joule heating, with subsequent protein denaturation. Previous studies have shown that blood flow had a significant effect on the cooling rate of heated subcutaneous tissue. To assess the thermal damage in tissue, this study focused on monitoring changes of temperature and optical properties of skin next to high voltage wounds. The burns were created between left fore limb and right hind limb extremities of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by a 1000VDC delivery shock system. A thermal camera was utilized to record temperature variation during the exposure. The experimental results were then validated using a thermal-electric finite element model (FEM).

  3. Similarity scaling of turbulence in a temperate lake during fall cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedford, Edmund W.; MacIntyre, Sally; Miller, Scott D.; Czikowsky, Matthew J.

    2014-08-01

    Turbulence, quantified as the rate of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy (ɛ), was measured with 1400 temperature-gradient microstructure profiles obtained concurrently with time series measurements of temperature and current profiles, meteorology, and lake-atmosphere fluxes using eddy covariance in a 4 km2 temperate lake during fall cooling. Winds varied from near calm to 5 m s-1 but reached 10 m s-1 during three storm events. Near-surface values of ɛ were typically on the order of 10-8 to 10-7 m2 s-3 and reached 10-5 m2 s-3 during windy periods. Above a depth equal to |LMO|, the Monin-Obukhov length scale, turbulence was dominated by wind shear and dissipation followed neutral law of the wall scaling augmented by buoyancy flux during cooling. During cooling, ɛz = 0.56 u*w3/kz + 0.77 JB0 and during heating ɛz = 0.6 u*w3/kz, where u*w is the water friction velocity computed from wind shear stress, k is von Karman's constant, z is depth, and JB0 is surface buoyancy flux. Below a depth equal to |LMO| during cooling, dissipation was uniform with depth and controlled by buoyancy flux. Departures from similarity scaling enabled identification of additional processes that moderate near-surface turbulence including mixed layer deepening at the onset of cooling, high-frequency internal waves when the diurnal thermocline was adjacent to the air-water interface, and horizontal advection caused by differential cooling. The similarity scaling enables prediction of near-surface ɛ as required for estimating the gas transfer coefficient using the surface renewal model and for understanding controls on scalar transport.

  4. Emigration of penaeid shrimp from the once-through cooling lake of Cedar Bayou Steam Electric Generating Station, Baytown, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.L.

    1983-01-01

    Migration and distribution of two decapod shrimp, Penaeus setiferus and P. aztecus, in the cooling-water system of a power plant on the Texas coast were investigated, with emphasis on the seaward emigration from the cooling lake. Samples were collected every two weeks for a year by straining water leaving the lake over a drop structure, trawling in the cooling lake, and flushed from the intake screen. Shrimp catches at the drop structure were positively correlated with the standing population in the cooling lake. Significantly more shrimp passed over the drop structure nocturnally than diurnally. Shrimp caught at the drop structure diurnally averaged either smaller or similar in size to the shrimp taken there at night. The passage of a cold front enhanced migration and initially increased and then reduced the mean size of shrimp passing the drop structure. Higher percentages of the shrimp population in the cooling lake emigrated near new moon than full moon. The moon-phase effects appeared to be due to the moon cycle itself rather than to the intinsity of moon light. Significantly more shrimp of both species emigrated during the hours of ebbing than incoming tide. As the lake surface was above high tide level, an endogenous timing mechanism rather than evironmental factors associated with tidal rhythms controlled this emigration pattern. A temperature drop of up to 0.23 C/hour significantly increased P. aztecus emigration.

  5. Physical Controls on Carbon Flux from a Temperate Lake During Autumn Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. D.; Czikowsky, M. J.; MacIntyre, S.; Tedford, E. W.

    2013-12-01

    Seasonally-stratified temperate lakes are a source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere during autumn overturning as CO2 trapped below the thermocline becomes available to the surface for release to the atmosphere. Wind-only based parameterizations of the gas transfer coefficient do not explicitly capture buoyancy-induced mixing in the water column caused by heat loss to the atmosphere, and CO2 fluxes may therefore be underestimated during fall cooling. We made continuous eddy covariance flux measurements of momentum, sensible and latent heat, and CO2 over a ~600 ha temperate lake (Lake Pleasant, maximum depth ~24 m) in southwestern Adirondack Park, New York from mid-September to mid-October 2010 from a moored pontoon boat. Continuous measurements of the vertical profile of pCO2 in the water column were made in situ, water column thermal structure was measured using thermistor chains, and the spatial variability (horizontal and vertical) of pCO2 in the lake was characterized using a roving profiling system. At the beginning of the study interval, pCO2 varied from 500 ppm at the surface to > 3000 ppm below the thermocline. By the end of the campaign the vertical profile of pCO2 had changed markedly, with nearly uniform, high pCO2 throughout the water column (Figure 1). The elevated surface water pCO2 increased CO2 emission to the atmosphere. The measured gas exchange coefficient was considerably higher than wind-only parameterizations, particularly when buoyancy was an important source of turbulence at the air-water interface. Figure 1: Lake-atmosphere coupling measured from a pontoon boat moored on Lake Pleasant, NY from 16 September to 11 October, 2010: a) wind speed adjusted to 10 m height; b) surface water temperature at 10 cm depth (blue) and air temperature at 2 m height (green); and c) vertical profile of pCO2 (ppm). Cooling periods when the lake heat loss to the atmosphere was >50 W m-2 are indicated by the horizontal blue bar along the upper border of panel

  6. Reproduction and distribution of fishes in a cooling lake: Wisconsin power plant impact study

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, D.W.; Kitchell, J.F.

    1985-06-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns during reproduction and early-life history of fishes were studied in a manmade cooling lake. Lake Columbia, impounded in 1974, near Portage, Wisconsin, has an area of 190 ha, a mean depth of 2.1 m, and a 15C temperature gradient derived from the thermal effluent of a 527-MW fossil-fueled generating station that began operating in 1975. The lake was initially colonized by fishes when filled with Wisconsin River water. Observations suggest a decline of species diversity of the fish community due to direct action of upper lethal temperatures, absence of colonization by warm-water, lake-dwelling species, and lack of recruitment for certain species. Spatial and temporal patterns of spawning of black crappie were altered by a rapid rise in water temperatures following plant startup after a three-week shutdown. Elevated temperatures subsequently shortened the spawning season, induced resorption of ova, and caused loss of secondary sexual characteristics. After initially drifting with water current, juvenile stages of sunfish and gizzard shad responded to changes in the thermal gradient by horizontal and vertical shifts in abundance.

  7. Effects of body size, condition, and lipid content on the survival of juvenile lake herring during rapid cooling events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pangle, K.L.; Sutton, T.M.; Kinnunen, R.E.; Hoff, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Juvenile lake herring Coregonus artedi were exposed to rapid cooling events during two laboratory experiments to determine the effects of body size, physiological condition, and lipid content on survival. The first experiment was conducted at the onset of winter, exposing small (50 to 85 mm) and large (85 to 129 mm) fish to a decline in water temperature from 12 to 2??C at a rate of 1??C/hr. During this experiment, both large and small individuals exposed to a rapid cooling event experienced no mortality or abnormal behaviors. Separate fish were then maintained under thermal and photoperiod regimes that mimicked those in Lake Superior from October through May. Fish in each size class were maintained at two feeding treatments: Artemia ad libitum and no food. At the completion of the winter period, these lake herring were subjected to the same rapid cooling event conducted in the first experiment. During the experiment, lake herring exhibited no mortality or abnormal behaviors despite treatment-dependent differences in condition and lipid content. Our results indicate that mortality due to rapid cooling events does not appear to contribute to the recruitment variability observed for juvenile lake herring in Lake Superior.

  8. Satellite Validation: A Project to Create a Data-Logging System to Monitor Lake Tahoe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, Rudy A.

    2005-01-01

    Flying aboard the satellite Terra, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is an imaging instrument used to acquire detailed maps of Earth's surface temperature, elevation, emissivity, and reflectance. An automated site consisting of four buoys was established 6 years ago at Lake Tahoe for the validation of ASTERS thermal infrared data. Using Campbell CR23X Dataloggers, a replacement system to be deployed on a buoy was designed and constructed for the measurement of the lake's temperature profile, surrounding air temperature, humidity, wind direction and speed, net radiation, and surface skin temperature. Each Campbell Datalogger has been programmed to control, power, and monitor 14 different temperature sensors, a JPL-built radiometer, and an RM Young 32500 meteorological station. The logger communicates with the radiometer and meteorological station through a Campbell SDM-SIO4 RS232 serial interface, sending polling commands, and receiving filtered data back from the sensors. This data is then cataloged and sent back across a cellular modem network every hour to JPL. Each instrument is wired via a panel constructed with 18 individual plugs that allow for simple installation and expansion. Data sent back from the system are analyzed at JPL, where they are used to calibrate ASTER data.

  9. From cyclic steps to humpback dunes: bedforms created by glacial lake-outburst floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsemann, Jutta; Lang, Jörg; (Janrik) Van den Berg, Jan H.

    2015-04-01

    The largest known terrestrial floods, with immense geomorphological impacts, are linked to flood events from sub- and proglacial lakes. Flows are commonly unstable, turbulent and may be pulsed. The most commonly reported flood-related sedimentary landforms are large bars and (anti)dune fields deposited at sites of spatial flow deceleration. However, the facies architecture of these flood-related deposits has not yet been described in much detail. Reported field examples include sandy and gravelly bedforms that comprise laterally and vertically stacked deposits of cyclic steps, chutes-and-pools, breaking antidunes, stationary antidunes, plane beds and humpback dunes. The dimension and stacking pattern of described bedforms are often very similar and indicate deposition under highly aggradational flow conditions. Deposits of cyclic steps are characterised by shallow, lenticular scours infilled by gently dipping backsets, indicating erosion and re-deposition on the downstream side of the step, which is Froude-supercritical.The cyclic-step deposits are laterally and vertically truncated and unconformably overlain by deposits of chutes-and-pools and (breaking) antidunes. Deposits of chutes-and-pools and breaking antidunes comprise lenticular scours infilled by steeply dipping backsets, gently dipping sigmoidal foresets and concentric trough-fills. Bedforms of the relatively slow moving subcritical zone on the upstream side of cyclic steps are commonly not preserved. In contrast to the gravelly cross-stratification of cyclic steps, chutes-and-pools and breaking antidunes, the (sub)horizontal lamination of transcritical bedforms (plane beds, stationary waves and antidunes) generally consist almost completely of sand, due to gravel overpassing. Under waning flow conditions deposits of chutes-and-pools and antidunes form laterally more extensive bedsets that are interbedded with deposits of humpback dunes and 3D dunes. The gradual lateral and vertical facies changes between

  10. Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wien, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    The lake is blue black and deep. It is a glaciated finger lake, clawed out of rock when ice retracted across Nova Scotia in a northerly direction during the last ice age. The lake is narrow, a little over a mile long, and deep, 90 to 190 feet in places according to local lore, off the charts in others. The author loves to swim there, with a sense…

  11. High temperature fracturing and ductile deformation during cooling of a pluton: The Lake Edison granodiorite (Sierra Nevada batholith, California)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennacchioni, Giorgio; Zucchi, Eleonora

    2013-05-01

    In the Bear Creek area of the Sierra Nevada batholith, California, the high temperature postmagmatic deformation structures of the Lake Edison granodiorite include steeply-dipping orthogneiss foliations, joints, and ductile shear zones that nucleated on joints and leucocratic dykes. Exploitation of segmented joints resulted in sharply bounded, thin shear zones and in large slip gradients near the shear zone tips causing the deformation of the host rock at contractional domains. The orthogneiss foliation intensifies towards the contact with the younger Mono Creek granite and locally defines the dextral Rosy Finch Shear Zone (RFSZ), a major kilometre-wide zone crosscutting the pluton contacts. Joints predominantly strike at N70-90°E over most of the Lake Edison pluton and are exploited as sinistral shear zones, both within and outside the RFSZ. In a narrow (˜250 m thick) zone at the contact with the younger Mono Creek granite, within the RFSZ, the Lake Edison granodiorite includes different sets of dextral and sinistral shear zones/joints (the latter corresponding to the set that dominates over the rest of the Lake Edison pluton). These shear zones/joints potentially fit with a composite Y-R-R' shear fracture pattern associated with the RFSZ, or with a pattern consisting of Y-R-shear fractures and rotated T' mode I extensional fractures. The mineral assemblage of shear zones, and the microstructure and texture of quartz mylonites indicate that ductile deformation occurred above 500 °C. Joints and ductile shearing alternated and developed coevally. The existing kinematic models do not fully capture the structural complexity of the area or the spatial distribution of the deformation and magmatic structures. Future models should account more completely for the character of ductile and brittle deformation as these plutons were emplaced and cooled.

  12. Physical Controls on Carbon Flux from a Temperate Lake During Autumn Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czikowsky, M. J.; Miller, S. D.; Tedford, E. W.; MacIntyre, S.

    2011-12-01

    Seasonally-stratified temperate lakes are a source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere during autumn overturning as CO2 trapped below the thermocline becomes available to the surface for release to the atmosphere. We made continuous measurements of the vertical profile of pCO2 in a ~600 ha temperate lake (Lake Pleasant, maximum depth ~24 m) in southwestern Adirondack Park, New York from mid-September to mid-October 2010 from a moored pontoon boat. Continuous eddy covariance flux measurements of momentum, sensible and latent heat, and CO2 were made in situ, and the water column thermal structure was measured using thermistor chains. The spatial variability (horizontal and vertical) of pCO2 throughout the lake was characterized periodically using a roving profiling system. At the beginning of the study interval, pCO2 at the pontoon boat varied from 500 ppm at the surface to > 3000 ppm below the thermocline. The vertical profile of pCO2 changed markedly during the campaign due to the effects of wind forcing and evaporation (buoyancy), with nearly uniform, high pCO2 throughout the water column at the end of the campaign (Figure 1). The elevated surface water pCO2 increased CO2 emission to the atmosphere.

  13. Investigating the deep cool lacustrine biosphere: Lake Potrok Aike, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuillemin, A.; Ariztegui, D.; Pawlowski, J.; Templer, S. P.

    2009-12-01

    Microbial activity on recent sediments is fully recognized as a major player in lithification processes. These omnipresent organisms have the capacity of catalyzing and enhancing diagenetic reactions even in extreme environments from the very surface of the sediments to as deep as 4.5 km below the water column. Living bacterial communities have been tracked down into deep sediments and even into the deeper basaltic sub-seafloors. Although the distribution and diversity of microbes in marine sediments through depth have been studied for some years already, there is a lack of these investigations in the lacustrine realm. Furthermore, geomicrobiology studies in modern lakes allow taking a closer look into early diagenetic processes linked to microbial activity in subrecent sediments. The foci of most of these studies, however, have been either very shallow sediments and/or the water column. More than 500 meters of sedimentary cores were retrieved from Lake Portok Aike, a crater lake located in Southern Patagonia within the framework of the ICDP-sponsored PASADO project (Potrok Aike Maar Lake Sediment Archive Drilling Project). A 100 meters long core was dedicated to geomicrobiology sampling, allowing the inspection of undisturbed deep lacustrine sediments. Special windows were cut in the liners for direct sampling under the most sterile conditions possible immediately after core recovery. In situ ATP measurements are used as indication of living organisms within the sediments. Various samples were chemically fixed and/or frozen for methane determination, bacterial cell counting, DGGE (molecular fingerprinting technique) and cell cultivation. In situ ATP data reveal a constant low microbial activity below 40 m sediment depth whereas three main peaks appear at 37, 10 and 5 meters respectively. Studying the microbial community based on 16S rDNA, we identified a broad, but conserved diversity pattern in the older sediments. In contrast, the diversity seems to decrease and

  14. A high-resolution lake sediment record of glacier activity from SE Greenland defines abrupt Holocene cooling events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balascio, N. L.; Bradley, R. S.; D'Andrea, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    Orbital driven changes in high latitude summer insolation during the Holocene are responsible for the primary millennial-scale climate trends in the Arctic. Following deglaciation, maximum summer temperatures generally occurred during the early to mid-Holocene and declined through the late Holocene. Superimposed on this gradual cooling trend are centennial- and decadal-scale intervals that indicate more rapid perturbations of the arctic climate system. Highly resolved sedimentary records from terrestrial and marine sites help to better characterize climate system dynamics during the Holocene and investigate forcing and feedback mechanism that operate on different timescales. Reconstructing glacial activity can provide valuable paleoclimate information about trends in summer temperature and/or winter precipitation. Proglacial lakes contain sediment archives of meltwater input from glaciers and typically have high sedimentation rates preserving detailed information on glacial activity. However, interpreting proglacial sedimentary records can be difficult because 1) there may be significant input of sediment from non-glacial sources, 2) there is often a lack of organic material for radiocarbon dating, and 3) not all glaciers are sensitive to rapid climatic changes. Here we present a c. 10 cal ka BP record of glacier activity from Kulusuk Lake (65.6°N, 37.1°W; 202 m a.s.l.), a proglacial lake in southeast Greenland that is well constrained by radiocarbon dates and shows a clear signal of changes in glacial input throughout the Holocene. Kulusuk Lake is presently fed by meltwater from two cirque glaciers. It has a small catchment and no other significant source of sediment input. A 3.5 m sediment core contains distinct lithologic changes defined by grain size, magnetic susceptibility, organic content, and scanning XRF data. During the early Holocene, an overall decrease in meltwater input from 8.7-7.7 ka indicates the retreat of the glaciers in response to regional

  15. Integrating Climate Change Into Restoration Practices in the Great Lakes Region: Creating a "Climate-smart" Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koslow, M.; Murray, M. W.

    2010-12-01

    Stakeholders from various Great Lakes sectors such as industry, state and city, federal, non-profit and academia gathered in September of 2010 in Buffalo, New York to provide ideas and input on how to integrate climate change into actions of the United States federal agencies. The mechanism by which the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) employ climate change adaptation actions in the Great Lakes region is the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI). In 2010 475 million was allocated through the GLRI to NOAA and EPA for on-the-ground ecological restoration projects throughout the region and 300 million is expected for 2011. With the goal to make these restoration projects "climate-smart," stakeholders made recommendations that include: application of information from the scientific community, emergency measures to deal with climate change-related surprises, priority steps for dealing with non-climate change related issues that are to be affected by climate change and steps to deal with climate change impacts on the Great Lakes ecosystem that differ from other ecosystems.

  16. Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in a lake for the storage of reclaimed water before and after usage as cooling water.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yu-Chen; Xi, Jin-Ying; Li, Guo-Qiang; Shi, Xiao-Jie; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2015-06-01

    Wastewater reclamation and reuse is a promising way to relieve water scarcity by substituting for natural water consumption by industrial cooling. However, health concerns regarding cooling water originating from reclaimed water are increasing because an abundance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) has been detected in reclaimed water. To assess the potential increase of ARB risks in reclaimed water after reuse for industrial cooling, the prevalence of six types of ARB was investigated in water and sediment samples from Lake Gaobeidian, which serves as an artificial circular storage reservoir for reclaimed water for cooling reuse. The effect of treated wastewater and cooling water drainage on the ARB distribution in water and sediment samples was also studied. The results showed that the concentration levels of six types of ARB in lake water samples were as high as those in treated wastewater. The annual median concentrations of total heterotrophic bacteria (HPC) and ARB in discharged cooling water after usage were 0.6-log and 0.4-log higher than those in treated wastewater and the cooling water intake site, respectively, indicating that the process of cooling water usage enhanced the proliferation of HPC and consequently increased the concentrations of ARB. Furthermore, the percentages of penicillin-, ampicillin-, and cephalothin-resistant bacteria in water were 30-57%, 36-48%, and 23-40% higher than those in sediment, respectively. However, the proportions of chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria in water were 35-85% lower than those in sediment. Quantitative evaluation of antibiotic resistance showed that HPC in water had a significant tolerance to penicillin and chloramphenicol, with 50% inhibitory concentrations reaching 22.90 mg L(-1) and 29.11 mg L(-1), respectively. PMID:25997982

  17. Coexistence of Legionella pneumophila Bacteria and Free-Living Amoebae in Lakes Serving as a Cooling System of a Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Zbikowska, Elżbieta; Kletkiewicz, Hanna; Walczak, Maciej; Burkowska, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    The study was aimed at determining whether potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae (FLA) and Legionella pneumophila can be found in lakes serving as a natural cooling system of a power plant. Water samples were collected from five lakes forming the cooling system of the power plants Pątnów and Konin (Poland). The numbers of investigated organisms were determined with the use of a very sensitive molecular method-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The result of the present study shows that thermally altered aquatic environments provide perfect conditions for the growth of L. pneumophila and amoebae. The bacteria were identified in the biofilm throughout the entire research period and in the subsurface water layer in July and August. Hartmanella sp. and/or Naegleria fowleri were identified in the biofilm throughout the entire research period. PMID:25132694

  18. Survey for the presence of Naegleria fowleri amebae in lake water used to cool reactors at a nuclear power generating plant.

    PubMed

    Jamerson, Melissa; Remmers, Kenneth; Cabral, Guy; Marciano-Cabral, Francine

    2009-04-01

    Water from Lake Anna in Virginia, a lake that is used to cool reactors at a nuclear power plant and for recreational activities, was assessed for the presence of Naegleria fowleri, an ameba that causes primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). This survey was undertaken because it has been reported that thermally enriched water fosters the propagation of N. fowleri and, hence, increases the risk of infection to humans. Of 16 sites sampled during the summer of 2007, nine were found to be positive for N. fowleri by a nested polymerase chain reaction assay. However, total ameba counts, inclusive of N. fowleri, never exceeded 12/50 mL of lake water at any site. No correlation was obtained between the conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and pH of water and presence of N. fowleri. To date, cases of PAM have not been reported from this thermally enriched lake. It is postulated that predation by other protozoa and invertebrates, disturbance of the water surface from recreational boating activities, or the presence of bacterial or fungal toxins, maintain the number N. fowleri at a low level in Lake Anna. PMID:19043740

  19. The impact of climate and environmental processes on vegetation pattern in the Czechowskie lake catchment Czechowo Region (Northern Tuchola Pinewoods) during the Younger Dryas cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka Maria; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Słowiński, Michał; Zawiska, Izabela; Lutyńska, Monika; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim

    2014-05-01

    Czechowskie lake is located in the northern part of the Tuchola Pinewoods District (Northern Poland) in a young glacial landscape. At present, the majority of the area is forested or used for agricultural purposes, but among them a high amount of basins filled with biogenic sediments are present. This area is very suitable for the postglacial vegetation development investigation because of the LST ash and laminated sediments which we found in the Trzechowskie palaeolake and Czechowskie Lake (Wulf et. all 2013). The aim of the research was to reconstruct the past landscape and vegetation response to Younger Dryas cooling and we present the results of the palinological analysis done for 6 core of biogenic sediments. Our main objective was to determine whether local factors such as topography and soil cover have a significant impact on the vegetation, eutrophy and sedimentation rate at this time. In the lake Czechowskie lake catchment we have six cores that cover postglacial succession (Lake Czechowskie small basin - profile JC-12-s; Lake Czechowskiego terrace - profile TK; Lake Czechowskie vicinity - profile "Oko and Cz/80; Trzechowskie paleolake - profile T/trz; Valley between paleolake Trzechowskie and Lake Czechowskie - profile DTCZ-4). The paleoecological research carried out involved an analysis of pollen, macrofossils, Cladocera, diatom, loss-on-ignition and CaCO3 content. The results show, that the dominant plant communities during the Youngers Dryas in the region nearby Lake Czechowskie are heliophytes xeric herb vegetation with juniper (Juniperus communis) shrubs and birch (Betula) and pine (Pinus sylvestris). In the pollen diagrams there was the difference noted in the participation of the dominant pollen, the juniper pollen was always high but varied from 18 to 37%, birch average pollen share was between 17-27%. The thickness and type of the sediment accumulated in Younger Dryas in the presented profiles differs significantly. In the profiles which

  20. Algal sludge from Taihu Lake can be utilized to create novel PGPR-containing bio-organic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Miao; Li, Rong; Cao, Liangliang; Shi, Juanjuan; Liu, Hongjun; Huang, Yan; Shen, Qirong

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of refloated algal sludge from Taihu Lake result in secondary environmental pollution due to annual refloatation. This study investigated the possibility to produce bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) using algal sludge as a solid-state fermentation (SSF) medium. Results showed that addition of algal sludge contributed to efficient SFF by a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strain SQR9 and improved the nutrient contents in the novel BIO. The optimum water content and initial inoculation size were 45% and 5%, respectively. After 6 days of SSF, the biomass of strain SQR9 was increased to a cell density of more than 5 × 10(7) CFU g(-1). Microcystins were rapidly degraded, and a high germination index value was observed. Plant growth experiments showed that the produced BIO efficiently promoted plant growth. Additional testing showed that the novel SSF process was also suitable for other PGPR strains. This study provides a novel way of high-value utilization of algal sludge from Taihu Lake by producing low-cost but high-quality BIOs. PMID:24321283

  1. Evaluation of Structure from Motion Software to Create 3D Models of Late Nineteenth Century Great Lakes Shipwrecks Using Archived Diver-Acquired Video Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertes, J.; Thomsen, T.; Gulley, J.

    2014-12-01

    Here we demonstrate the ability to use archived video surveys to create photorealistic 3D models of submerged archeological sites. We created 3D models of two nineteenth century Great Lakes shipwrecks using diver-acquired video surveys and Structure from Motion (SfM) software. Models were georeferenced using archived hand survey data. Comparison of hand survey measurements and digital measurements made using the models demonstrate that spatial analysis produces results with reasonable accuracy when wreck maps are available. Error associated with digital measurements displayed an inverse relationship to object size. Measurement error ranged from a maximum of 18 % (on 0.37 m object) and a minimum of 0.56 % (on a 4.21 m object). Our results demonstrate SfM can generate models of large maritime archaeological sites that for research, education and outreach purposes. Where site maps are available, these 3D models can be georeferenced to allow additional spatial analysis long after on-site data collection.

  2. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Evaluation of Proposed Savannah River Site L-Lake Drawdown

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, J.S.; Dunn, D.

    1998-03-01

    L-Lake was created in 1985 to function as a once-through cooling water reservoir for L-Reactor at the Savannah River Site. The lake must be artificially maintained by pumping water from the Savannah River--at a significant annual cost. When L-Reactor was permanently shut down, studies were initiated to examine the ecological impact of a controlled L-Lake drawdown. An important part of these studies involved using GIS to develop a surface elevation model of the L-Lake floor based on side-scan sonar bathymetry data. The surface elevation model was validated by comparing computed lake volumes with engineering data acquired when the lake was filled. The surface model finally was used to determine the lake bottom slope and to estimate the spatial extent of the lake at various water levels.

  3. IMPACT OF A ONCE-THROUGH COOLING SYSTEM ON THE YELLOW PERCH STOCK IN THE WESTERN BASIN OF LAKE ERIE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The surplus production model, a conventional fishery stock assessment model, is applied to assess the entrainment and impingement impact of the Monroe Power Plant on the yellow perch standing stock and fishery in the western basin in Lake Erie. Biological parameters of the model ...

  4. IMPACT OF A ONCE THROUGH COOLING SYSTEM ON THE YELLOW PERCH STOCK IN THE WESTERN BASIN OF LAKE ERIE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conventional stock assessment models have been applied to determine the impact of entrainment and impingement at the Monroe Power Plant on the yellow perch stock of the western basin of Lake Erie. First the surplus production model was applied. Biological parameters of the model ...

  5. Simulation of streamflow of Rock River at Lake Koshkonong, Wisconsin, to determine effects of withdrawal of powerplant-cooling water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krug, William R.

    1979-01-01

    The simulated stage of Lake Koshkonong with consumptive use at 40 cubic feet per second was as much as 0.42 feet lower than the simulated stage with zero consumptive use for the same period. Duration of drawdown below the regulatory minimum stage of 11.8 feet, occurring once in 10 years, increased from 83 to 132 days as consumptive use increased from 0 to 40 cubic feet per second. 

  6. A link between North Atlantic cooling and dry events in the core SW monsoon region in Lonar Lake, central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Philip; Gaye, Birgit; Prasad, Sushma; Plessen, Birgit; Stebich, Martina; Anoop, Ambili; Riedel, Nils; Basavaiah, Nathani

    2014-05-01

    A sediment core from Lonar Lake in central India covers the complete Holocene and was used to reconstruct the monsoon history of the core SW-monsoon region. We compare C/N ratios, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, grain size, as well as amino acid derived degradation proxies with climatically sensitive proxies of other records from South Asia and the North Atlantic region. The comparison reveals some more or less contemporaneous climate shifts. At Lonar Lake, a general long term climate transition from wet conditions during the early Holocene to drier conditions during the late Holocene, delineating the insolation curve, can be reconstructed. Several phases of shorter term climate alteration that superimpose the general climate trend correlate with cold phases in the North Atlantic region. The most pronounced climate deteriorations indicated by our data occurred between 6.2 - 5.2, 4.65 - 3.9, and 2.05 - 0.55 cal ka BP. The strong dry phase between 4.65 - 3.9 cal ka BP at Lonar Lake corroborates the hypothesis that severe climate deterioration contributed to the decline of the Indus Civilisation about 3.9 ka BP.

  7. Lake Volta, Ghana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of Lake Volta in Ghana was acquired March 31, 2002 by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Lake Volta is one of the world's largest artificially created lakes. Lake Volta is actually a reservoir formed from the damming of the Volta River, and extends 250 miles north of the Akosombo Dam. The lake covers an area of 8,482 square km. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  8. Islands in the ice stream: were spawning habitats for native salmonids in the Great Lakes created by paleo-ice streams?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Stephen; Binder, Thomas R.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Menzies, John; Eyles, Nick; Janssen, John; Muir, Andrew M.; Esselman, Peter C.; Wattrus, Nigel J.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis and cisco Coregonus artedi are salmonid fishes native to the Laurentian Great Lakes that spawn on rocky substrates in the fall and early winter. After comparing the locations of spawning habitat for these species in the main basin of Lake Huron with surficial substrates and the hypothesized locations of fast-flowing Late Wisconsinan paleo-ice streams, we hypothesize that much of the spawning habitat for these species in Lake Huron is the result of deposition and erosion by paleo-ice streams. This hypothesis may represent a new framework for the identification and protection of spawning habitat for these native species, some of which are currently rare or extirpated in some of the Great Lakes. We further suggest that paleo-ice streams may have been responsible for the creation of native salmonid spawning habitat elsewhere in the Great Lakes and in other glaciated landscapes.

  9. Declining Snow Cover Reduces Radiative Cooling from Historic Land Use Change in the Western Great Lakes Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, B.; Rocha, A. V.; McLachlan, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Anthropocene is characterized by rapid changes in both land use and snow cover. The relative importance of these two forces remains unknown but may have important and long-term biophysical effects that are not adequately incorporated into current modeling efforts. Humans have altered the landscape of the Eastern U.S. both historically through deforestation during European settlement and more recently through climatic reductions in snow cover. Here we empirically reconstruct historic albedo in the Eastern U.S. using both modern and historic data. We focus on the Western Great Lakes region (MI, WI, MN, IL, IN), a global hotspot of historic deforestation that spans latitudes where anthropogenic climate modifications have produced important changes in snow cover. We find that vegetation changes have caused an overall increase in regional albedo that is strongest where intensive land use persists (i.e. agriculture) and weakest where forest regrowth has occurred. Changes in snow cover have caused an overall decrease in regional albedo that is about half as strong as increase in albedo due to vegetation change. Although the negative forcings of historic land use change may currently provide a radiative 'discount' on regional warming, these benefits are likely to disappear with time as snow cover decreases and forest regrowth continues.

  10. Improved temperature retrieval methods for the validation of a hydrodynamic simulation of a partially frozen power plant cooling lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casterline, May V.; Salvaggio, Carl; Garrett, Alfred J.; Bartlett, Brent D.; Faulring, Jason W.; Salvaggio, Philip S.

    2010-05-01

    The ALGE code is a hydrodynamic model developed by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to derive the power output levels of an electric generation facility from observing the associated cooling pond with an aerial imaging platform. Over the past two years work has been completed to extend the capabilities of the model to incorporate snow and ice as possible phenomena in the modeled environment. In order to validate the extension of the model, intensive ground truth data as well as high-resolution aerial infrared imagery were collected during the winters of 2008-2009 and 2009-2010, for a combined eight months of data collection. Due to the harsh and extreme environmental conditions automatic data collection instruments were designed and deployed. Based on experience gained during the first collection season and equipment design failures, overhauls in the design and operation of the automated data collection buoys were performed. In addition, a more thorough and robust twofold calibration technique was implemented within the aerial imaging chain to assess the accuracy of the retrieved surface temperatures. By design, the calibration method employed in this application uses ground collected, geolocated water surface temperatures and in-flight blackbody imagery to produce accurate temperature maps of the pond in interest. A sensitivity analysis was implemented within the data reduction technique to produce accurate sensor reaching temperature values using designed equipment and methods for temperature retrieval at the water's surface.

  11. A coupled lake-atmosphere model (CLAM) and its application to Lake Kinneret

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Hai

    1999-08-01

    and 22-km long), the micrometeorological conditions, lake currents and thermal structure, and the lake-surface heat fluxes vary spatially very significantly, even on a daily basis. It is found that the daily-mean wind curl, which is predominantly determined by the passage of the Mediterranean Sea breeze (MSB) over the lake, is mostly responsible for the gyres in the lake. The thermocline oscillation in the lake is mainly controlled by the surface elevation set up by the time-dependent winds. The intense MSB over the lake in the late afternoon pushes the heated surface water eastward, forces the deep, cooler water to be advected westward, and creates strong mixing in the lake, resulting in a higher temperature off the eastern shore and a lower temperature off the western shore. The variation of lake-surface temperature not only directly affects the atmospheric processes over the lake, but it also changes the wind field, which then influences hydrodynamic processes in the lake. An analytical model of the flow response to spatial variation of atmospheric cooling in coastal ocean was also developed in this study. This model is used to explain the contribution of the spatial variation of latent heat flux to the circulation in Lake Kinneret, and also the cyclonic flow, which is observed in many lakes and semi-enclosed coastal oceans.

  12. Large Eddy Simulation of complex sidearms subject to solar radiation and surface cooling.

    PubMed

    Dittko, Karl A; Kirkpatrick, Michael P; Armfield, Steven W

    2013-09-15

    Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is used to model two lake sidearms subject to heating from solar radiation and cooling from a surface flux. The sidearms are part of Lake Audrey, NJ, USA and Lake Alexandrina, SA, Australia. The simulation domains are created using bathymetry data and the boundary is modelled with an Immersed Boundary Method. We investigate the cooling and heating phases with separate quasi-steady state simulations. Differential heating occurs in the cavity due to the changing depth. The resulting temperature gradients drive lateral flows. These flows are the dominant transport process in the absence of wind. Study in this area is important in water quality management as the lateral circulation can carry particles and various pollutants, transporting them to and mixing them with the main lake body. PMID:23863384

  13. Lake trout in northern Lake Huron spawn on submerged drumlins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Stephen C.; Binder, Thomas; Wattrus, Nigel J.; Faust, Matthew D.; Janssen, John; Menzies, John; Marsden, J. Ellen; Ebener, Mark P.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji X.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Hansen, Michael J.; Thompson, Henry T.; Muir, Andrew M.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations of spawning lake trout Salvelinus namaycush near Drummond Island in northern Lake Huron indicate that lake trout use drumlins, landforms created in subglacial environments by the action of ice sheets, as a primary spawning habitat. From these observations, we generated a hypothesis that may in part explain locations chosen by lake trout for spawning. Most salmonines spawn in streams where they rely on streamflows to sort and clean sediments to create good spawning habitat. Flows sufficient to sort larger sediment sizes are generally lacking in lakes, but some glacial bedforms contain large pockets of sorted sediments that can provide the interstitial spaces necessary for lake trout egg incubation, particularly if these bedforms are situated such that lake currents can penetrate these sediments. We hypothesize that sediment inclusions from glacial scavenging and sediment sorting that occurred during the creation of bedforms such as drumlins, end moraines, and eskers create suitable conditions for lake trout egg incubation, particularly where these bedforms interact with lake currents to remove fine sediments. Further, these bedforms may provide high-quality lake trout spawning habitat at many locations in the Great Lakes and may be especially important along the southern edge of the range of the species. A better understanding of the role of glacially-derived bedforms in the creation of lake trout spawning habitat may help develop powerful predictors of lake trout spawning locations, provide insight into the evolution of unique spawning behaviors by lake trout, and aid in lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes.

  14. Climatological characteristics and orographic enhancement of lake-effect precipitation over eastern Lake Ontario and the Tug Hill Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veals, Peter Gregory

    The Tug Hill Plateau of upstate New York rises approximately 500 m above Lake Ontario, observes frequent (often heavy) lake-effect snowfall, and is one of the snowiest regions in the eastern United States. This work presents a climatology of lake-effect precipitation created using data from the KTYX WSR-88D radar situated atop the plateau. Base reflectivity imagery was manually examined to identify lake-effect periods (LEPs) during each cool season (16 Sep--15 May) from 16 Sep 2001--15 May 2014. The most active months for lake effect in this region are December and January. There is a tendency for LEPs to begin within a few hours before and after sunset in the spring and fall, with no such diurnal signal observed in the winter. Correspondingly, lake effect is slightly more frequent at night than during the day. Overall, the diurnal variability is weaker than found over smaller bodies of water such as the Great Salt Lake of Utah. Classification of events by morphological type revealed that broad coverage and long-lake-axis-parallel (LLAP) account for ~72% and ~24% of lake-effect hours, respectively. The diurnal signal for broad coverage (LLAP) events was less (more) pronounced than for LEPs in general. The near-shore areas south and east of Lake Ontario receive the most frequent lake-effect precipitation. The Tug Hill Plateau produces a strong orographic signal, with an echo frequency maximum on the western (typically windward) slope. Data from cooperative observer (COOP) sites and the Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS) corroborate these radar-derived results. The `broadening' of high echo frequency over the Tug Hill Plateau, as well as the existence of the lake-orographic morphology, may point to inland/orographic intensification and generation of precipitation during some LEPs.

  15. Lake and reservoir restoration guidance manual: first edition

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.; Thornton, K.

    1988-02-01

    This manual provides guidance to lake managers, homeowners, lake associations, and laypersons on lake and reservoir restoration, management and protection. It also provides information on how to identify lake problems, evaluate practices for restoring and protection lakes, watershed management, and creating a lake-management plan.

  16. Constraints on crystallization of basaltic magma: observations from Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helz, Rosalind

    2013-04-01

    Kilauea Iki lava lake is a picritic (average MgO = 15.5%) magma body, approximately 135 m thick, which underwent extensive internal differentiation as it cooled and crystallized from its formation during the eruption of 1959 until final solidification in the mid-nineties. Observations of its initial state include data on the stages of filling of the lava lake, plus the sequence and temperature of lava compositions erupted. Drilling and core recovery (from 1960 to 1988) have documented the state of the lake at specific times, showing that the rate of growth of the upper crust was nearly linear (~2.5 m per year between 1962 and 1979), and that the overall pattern of cooling of the lava lake is consistent with conductive heat loss. Recovery and analysis of partially molten drill core has provided a detailed view of the cooling and differentiation history of the melts and minerals within the lake. Observations that may be relevant to older systems include: (1) documentation of when and to what extent olivine settling occurred in the lake; (2) the observation that the most differentiated part of the lake, which lies within the upper crust at a depth of 20-40 m, had completely crystallized by 1975, and (3) the observation that the position of the last interstitial melt was at 80-85 m down, or 62% of the way down in the lake, as would be predicted from conductive cooling. The lava lake lost heat through its roof faster than through the floor, with the result that the position of most-differentiated horizon is grossly offset from the position of the final melt. Circulation patterns in Kilauea Iki were initially driven by lava input during the eruption plus extensive loss of volatiles. These processes significantly affected the location of foundered crust within the lake, as well as the accumulation of coarse, pre-existing olivine phenocrysts between 50 and 95 m. Subsequently, two other major differentiation processes within the lake were driven by upward movement of low

  17. Cooling in a compound bucket

    SciTech Connect

    Shemyakin, A.; Bhat, C.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Burov, A.; Hu, M.; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    Electron cooling in the Fermilab Recycler ring is found to create correlation between longitudinal and transverse tails of the antiproton distribution. By separating the core of the beam from the tail and cooling the tail using 'gated' stochastic cooling while applying electron cooling on the entire beam, one may be able to significantly increase the overall cooling rate. In this paper, we describe the procedure and first experimental results.

  18. Lake Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This quarterly publication of the State Historical Society of Iowa features articles and activities for elementary school students. This summer issue focuses on the topic of lake life. The issue includes the following features: (1) "Where the Lakes Are Map"; (2) "Letter from the Lake"; (3) "Lake People"; (4) "Spirit Lake"; (5) "Lake Manawa"; (6)…

  19. Simulation of cooling-water discharges from power plants.

    PubMed

    Wu, J; Buchak, E M; Edinger, J E; Kolluru, V S

    2001-01-01

    Accurate simulation of the temperature distribution in a cooling lake or reservoir is often required for feasibility studies of engineering options that increase the cooling capacity of the waterbody. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic and temperature model has been developed and applied to several cooling lakes in the south-eastern United States. In this paper, the details of the modeling system are presented, along with the application to the Flint Creek Lake. PMID:11381460

  20. Implications of Climate Change on the Heat Budget of Lentic Systems Used for Power Station Cooling: Case Study Clinton Lake, Illinois.

    PubMed

    Quijano, Juan C; Jackson, P Ryan; Santacruz, Santiago; Morales, Viviana M; García, Marcelo H

    2016-01-01

    We use a numerical model to analyze the impact of climate change-in particular higher air temperatures-on a nuclear power station that recirculates the water from a reservoir for cooling. The model solves the hydrodynamics, the transfer of heat in the reservoir, and the energy balance at the surface. We use the numerical model to (i) quantify the heat budget in the reservoir and determine how this budget is affected by the combined effect of the power station and climate change and (ii) quantify the impact of climate change on both the downstream thermal pollution and the power station capacity. We consider four different scenarios of climate change. Results of simulations show that climate change will reduce the ability to dissipate heat to the atmosphere and therefore the cooling capacity of the reservoir. We observed an increase of 25% in the thermal load downstream of the reservoir, and a reduction in the capacity of the power station of 18% during the summer months for the worst-case climate change scenario tested. These results suggest that climate change is an important threat for both the downstream thermal pollution and the generation of electricity by power stations that use lentic systems for cooling. PMID:26556581

  1. Implications of climate change on the heat budget of lentic systems used for power station cooling: Case study Clinton Lake, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quijano, Juan C; Jackson, P. Ryan; Santacruz, Santiago; Morales, Viviana M; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2016-01-01

    We use a numerical model to analyze the impact of climate change--in particular higher air temperatures--on a nuclear power station that recirculates the water from a reservoir for cooling. The model solves the hydrodynamics, the transfer of heat in the reservoir, and the energy balance at the surface. We use the numerical model to (i) quantify the heat budget in the reservoir and determine how this budget is affected by the combined effect of the power station and climate change and (ii) quantify the impact of climate change on both the downstream thermal pollution and the power station capacity. We consider four different scenarios of climate change. Results of simulations show that climate change will reduce the ability to dissipate heat to the atmosphere and therefore the cooling capacity of the reservoir. We observed an increase of 25% in the thermal load downstream of the reservoir, and a reduction in the capacity of the power station of 18% during the summer months for the worst-case climate change scenario tested. These results suggest that climate change is an important threat for both the downstream thermal pollution and the generation of electricity by power stations that use lentic systems for cooling.

  2. Creating Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, John

    Encouraging exploration and practice, this book offers hundreds of exercises and numerous tips covering every step involved in creating poetry. Each chapter is a self-contained unit offering an overview of material in the chapter, a definition of terms, and poetry examples from well-known authors designed to supplement the numerous exercises.…

  3. [Ecological and radio-ecological effects from long-term use of the lake Kyzyl-Tash as a cooling reservoir by the nuclear fuel cycle facility].

    PubMed

    Smagin, A I

    2010-01-01

    This review introduces long-term study findings on ecological and radiation induced regime of the water reservoir - lake Kyzyl-Tash (R-2) - used as a heat sink of nuclear-power reactors in the Southern Urals from 1948 through 2008. It was exhibited that water reservoir exploitation by the nuclear fuel cycle facility "Mayak" PA resulted in hydrological, thermal, hydrochemical and radiological ecosystem regimes changes. The central radioactive substances depot in the water reservoir was determined to be the upper 20-30 cm bed silt layers, contamination density of which in 1980-1990s amounted on average approximately 0.2 PBq/km2 (about 5 kKu/km2). Some regularities of radionuclide distribution in bed sediments and biota were ascertained. Dose estimates from ionizing exposure to fish inhabited the water reservoir were experimentally made. Dose contribution was mainly due to incorporated beta-emitters amounted up to 2-3 Gy/y in 1980s. The leading role in the reservoir life belonged to phytoplankton with its algal nuisance periodicity constituting 5-6 years for blue-green and diatomic algae, and 2-3 years for green algae. During periods of the highest development pressure phytoplankton productive capacity in the reservoir was by an order of magnitude greater compared to control water reservoirs of the region. Combined long-term impact of radiological and chemical factors did not cause irreversible changes either in fish populations or ecological system in general. It can be proved by the fact that during 1970-1980s the water reservoir R-2 was inhabited by such cleanness indicators as crawfish (Astacus leptodactylus) and shellfish (Anodonta cygnea L.). On reducing of thermal and chemical pressure in the end of 1980s some processes observed gave evidence of ecosystem restoration in the lake Kyzyl-Tash. At the present moment the situation of the water reservoir exploiting as a heat sink is stabilized with preserved self-cleaning capacity. PMID:20968056

  4. Creating Community

    PubMed Central

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2009-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education describes ways that Lamaze International is helping to create a community for those who share a common interest in promoting, supporting, and protecting natural, safe, and healthy childbirth. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote normal birth. PMID:19936112

  5. Stochastic Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

  6. Water cooled steam jet

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P.

    1999-01-01

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  7. Water cooled steam jet

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, E.P. Jr.

    1999-01-12

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed there between. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock. 2 figs.

  8. Compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system

    DOEpatents

    Donahoo, Eric E; Ross, Christopher W

    2014-11-25

    A compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine airfoil cooling system to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system may enable cooling fluids to be exhausted from a compressor exhaust plenum through a downstream compressor bleed collection chamber and into the turbine airfoil cooling system. As such, the suction created in the compressor exhaust plenum mitigates boundary layer growth along the inner surface while providing flow of cooling fluids to the turbine airfoils.

  9. Niskey Lake Middle School. Atlanta, Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Preston, Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The proposed Niskey Lake Middle School is designed to have solar heating in half of the building, solar water heating for the entire facility, and solar cooling for the administration area. (Author/MLF)

  10. Stacking with stochastic cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspers, Fritz; Möhl, Dieter

    2004-10-01

    Accumulation of large stacks of antiprotons or ions with the aid of stochastic cooling is more delicate than cooling a constant intensity beam. Basically the difficulty stems from the fact that the optimized gain and the cooling rate are inversely proportional to the number of particles 'seen' by the cooling system. Therefore, to maintain fast stacking, the newly injected batch has to be strongly 'protected' from the Schottky noise of the stack. Vice versa the stack has to be efficiently 'shielded' against the high gain cooling system for the injected beam. In the antiproton accumulators with stacking ratios up to 105 the problem is solved by radial separation of the injection and the stack orbits in a region of large dispersion. An array of several tapered cooling systems with a matched gain profile provides a continuous particle flux towards the high-density stack core. Shielding of the different systems from each other is obtained both through the spatial separation and via the revolution frequencies (filters). In the 'old AA', where the antiproton collection and stacking was done in one single ring, the injected beam was further shielded during cooling by means of a movable shutter. The complexity of these systems is very high. For more modest stacking ratios, one might use azimuthal rather than radial separation of stack and injected beam. Schematically half of the circumference would be used to accept and cool new beam and the remainder to house the stack. Fast gating is then required between the high gain cooling of the injected beam and the low gain stack cooling. RF-gymnastics are used to merge the pre-cooled batch with the stack, to re-create free space for the next injection, and to capture the new batch. This scheme is less demanding for the storage ring lattice, but at the expense of some reduction in stacking rate. The talk reviews the 'radial' separation schemes and also gives some considerations to the 'azimuthal' schemes.

  11. Lake Sarez, Tajikistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Sarez (top), deep in the Pamir mountains of Tajikistan, was created 90 years ago when a strong earthquake triggered a massive landslide that, in turn, became a huge dam along the Murghob River, now called the Usoi Dam. The resulting lake is perched above surrounding drainages at an elevation greater than 3000m, and is part of the watershed that drains the towering Akademi Nauk Range (see the regional image, lower). The lake is 61 km long and as deep as 500 m, and holds an estimated 17 cubic km of water. The area experiences considerable seismic activity, and scientists fear that part of the right bank may slump into the lake, creating a huge wave that will top over and possibly breach the natural dam. Such a wave would create a catastrophic flood downstream along the Bartang, Panj and Amu Darya Rivers, perhaps reaching all the way to the Aral Sea. Currently, central Asian governments, as well as the World Bank and the UN are monitoring the dam closely, and have proposed gradually lowering the lake level as a preventive measure. More information about the lake is available at the following web sites: Lake Sarez Study group, UN Report, Reliefweb Digital photograph numbers ISS002-E-7771 and ISS002-E-7479 were taken in the spring of 2001 from Space Station Alpha and are provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  12. Axisymmetric circulation driven by marginal heating in ice-covered lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillin, G. B.; Forrest, A. L.; Graves, K. E.; Fischer, A.; Engelhardt, C.; Laval, B. E.

    2015-04-01

    Below the temperature of maximum density (TMD) in freshwater lakes, heating at the lateral margins produces gravity currents along the bottom slope, akin to katabatic winds in the atmosphere and currents on continental shelves. We describe axisymmetric basin-scale circulation driven by heat flux at the shorelines in polar Lake Kilpisjärvi. A dense underflow originating near the shore converges toward the lake center, where it produces warm upwelling and return flow across the bulk of lake water column. The return flow, being subject to Coriolis force, creates a lake-wide anticyclonic gyre with velocities of 2-4 cm s-1. While warm underflows are common on ice-covered lakes, the key finding is the basin-scale anticyclonic gyre with warm upwelling in the core. This circulation mechanism provides a key to understanding transport processes in (semi) enclosed basins subject to negative buoyancy flux due to heating (or cooling at temperatures above TMD) at their lateral boundaries.

  13. SP CREATE. Creating Sample Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Spears, J.H.; Seebode, L.

    1998-11-10

    The program has been designed to increase the accuracy and reduce the preparation time for completing sampling plans. It consists of our files 1. Analyte/Combination (AnalCombo) A list of analytes and combinations of analytes that can be requested of the onsite and offsite labs. Whenever a specific combination of analytes or suite names appear on the same line as the code number, this indicates that one sample can be placed in one bottle to be analyzed for these paremeters. A code number is assigned for each analyte and combination of analytes. 2. Sampling Plans Database (SPDb) A database that contains all of the analytes and combinations of analytes along with the basic information required for preparing a sample plan. That basic information includes the following fields; matrix, hold time, preservation, sample volume, container size, if the bottle caps are taped, acceptable choices. 3. Sampling plans create (SPcreate) a file that will lookup information from the Sampling Plans Database and the Job Log File (JLF98) A major database used by Sample Managemnet Services for recording more than 100 fields of information.

  14. CONNECTICUT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of named lakes in Connecticut. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes all lakes that are named on the U.S. Geologicial Survey (USGS) 7½ minute topographic quadrangle maps that cover the State of Connecticut, plus other officially named lakes i...

  15. Lake Powell

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Lake Powell     View Larger Image ... (14.42 mb)   This true-color image over Lake Powell was acquired by Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) in late March 2000. Lake Powell was formed with the construction of the Glen Canyon Dam in 1963, on the ...

  16. Lake Eyre

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ...   View Larger Image Lake Eyre is a large salt lake situated between two deserts in one of Australia's driest regions. ... the effect of sunglint at the nadir camera view angle. Dry, salt encrusted parts of the lake appear bright white or gray. Purple areas have ...

  17. Cooling wall

    SciTech Connect

    Nosenko, V.I.

    1995-07-01

    Protecting the shells of blast furnaces is being resolved by installing cast iron cooling plates. The cooling plates become non-operational in three to five years. The problem is that defects occur in manufacturing the cooling plates. With increased volume and intensity of work placed on blast furnaces, heat on the cast iron cooling plates reduces their reliability that limits the interim repair period of blast furnaces. Scientists and engineers from the Ukraine studied this problem for several years, developing a new method of cooling the blast furnace shaft called the cooling wall. Traditional cast iron plates were replaced by a screen of steel tubes, with the area between the tubes filled with fireproof concrete. Before placing the newly developed furnace shaft into operation, considerable work was completed such as theoretical calculations, design, research of temperature fields and tension. Continual testing over many years confirms the value of this research in operating blast furnaces. The cooling wall works with water cooling as well as vapor cooling and is operating in 14 blast furnaces in the Ukraine and two in Russia, and has operated for as long as 14 years.

  18. Effect of thermal discharges on the mass energy balance of Lake Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    Effects of electric utility generating stations and steel mills on physical quality of Lake Michigan are considered. Study is based on extension of heat exchange model developed by Edinger and Geyer for small lakes and cooling ponds.

  19. Mitigation alternatives for L Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.B.

    1988-11-03

    The current condition of L Lake/Steel Creek was summarized in a report to SCDHEC in June 1988 which reported that the L Lake and Steel Creek ecosystems were adequately developing towards balanced biological communities. If mitigation for L Lake inputs, specifically temperature and nutrients, are required, several viable alternatives are available. A report prepared by Spencer in 1986 discusses the various options available for cooling L-Reactor discharges. In effect, a small cooling tower is the only realistic solution to reducing effluent temperatures. Nutrient mitigation can take several approaches including upstream sewage treatment, hypolimnetic withdrawal, dilution of input water by Par Pond water, precipitation of nutrients, and sediment oxidation. None of these systems would influence the thermal regime, but would significantly reduce nutrient input into the system. One beneficial use of L-Lake thermal effluents is algaculture, the production of useful algae. A document prepared in 1988 concludes that algaculture is a technically and economically feasible mitigation alternative for L Lake and could allow L Lake to be handled under Section 318 of the Clean Water Act.

  20. Using historical aerial photography and softcopy photogrammetry for waste unit mapping in L Lake.

    SciTech Connect

    Christel, L.M.

    1997-10-01

    L Lake was developed as a cooling water reservoir for the L Reactor at the Savannah River Site. The construction of the lake, which began in the fall of 1984, altered the structure and function of Steel Creek. Completed in the fall of 1985, L Lake has a capacity of 31 million cubic meters and a normal pool of 58 meters. When L Reactor operations ceased in 1988, the water level in the lake still had to be maintained. Site managers are currently trying to determine the feasibility of draining or drawing down the lake in order to save tax dollars. In order to understand the full repercussions of such an undertaking, it was necessary to compile a comprehensive inventory of what the lake bottom looked like prior to filling. Aerial photographs, acquired nine days before the filling of the lake began, were scanned and used for softcopy photogrammetry processing. A one-meter digital elevation model was generated and a digital orthophoto mosaic was created as the base map for the project. Seven categories of features, including the large waste units used to contain the contaminated soil removed from the dam site, were screen digitized and used to generate accurate maps. Other map features include vegetation waste piles, where contaminated vegetation from the flood plain was contained, and ash piles, which are sites where vegetation debris was burned and then covered with clean soil. For all seven categories, the area of disturbance totaled just over 63 hectares. When the screen digitizing was completed, the elevation at the centroid of each disturbance was determined. When the information is used in the Savannah River Site Geographical Information System, it can be used to visualize the various L Lake draw-down scenarios suggested by site managers and hopefully, to support evaluations of the cost effectiveness for each proposed activity.

  1. Progress toward lake trout restoration in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holey, Mark E.; Rybicki, Ronald W.; Eck, Gary W.; Brown, Edward H., Jr.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Lavis, Dennis S.; Toneys, Michael L.; Trudeau, Tom N.; Horrall, Ross M.

    1995-01-01

    Progress toward lake trout restoration in Lake Michigan is described through 1993. Extinction of the native lake trout fishery by sea lamprey predation, augmented by exploitation and habitat destruction, resulted in an extensive stocking program of hatchery-reared lake trout that began in 1965. Sea lamprey abundance was effectively controlled using selective chemical toxicants. The initial stocking produced a measurable wild year class of lake trout by 1976 in Grand Traverse Bay, but failed to continue probably due to excessive exploitation. The overall lack of successful reproduction lakewide by the late 1970s led to the development and implementation in 1985 of a focused inter-agency lakewide restoration plan by a technical committee created through the Lake Committee structure of the Great Lakes Fishery Commission. Strategies implemented in 1985 by the plan included setting a 40% total mortality goal lakewide, creating two large refuges designed to encompass historically the most productive spawning habitat and protect trout stocked over their home range, evaluating several lake trout strains, and setting stocking priorities throughout the lake. Target levels for stocking in the 1985 Plan have never been reached, and are much less than the estimated lakewide recruitment of yearlings by the native lake trout stocks. Since 1985, over 90% of the available lake trout have been stocked over the best spawning habitat, and colonization of the historically productive offshore reefs has occurred. Concentrations of spawning lake trout large enough for successful reproduction, based on observations of successful hatchery and wild stocks, have developed at specific reefs. Continued lack of recruitment at these specific sites suggests that something other than stotk abundance has limited success. Poor survival of lake trout eggs, assumed to be related to contaminant burden, occurred in the late 1970s and early 1980s, but survival has since increased to equal survival in the

  2. Cool Shelter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praeger, Charles E.

    2005-01-01

    Amid climbing energy costs and tightening budgets, administrators at school districts, colleges and universities are looking for all avenues of potential savings while promoting sustainable communities. Cool metal roofing can save schools money and promote sustainable design at the same time. Cool metal roofing keeps the sun's heat from collecting…

  3. Blanket of Snow Covers Salt Lake City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On December 23, 2001, less than two months before the start of the 2002 Winter Olympics, snow blankets Salt Lake City and the surrounding area. The Great Salt Lake, on the left hand side of the image above, often contributes to the region's snowfall through the 'lake-effect.' As cold air passes over a large body of water it both warms and absorbs moisture. The warm air then rises (like a hot air balloon) and cools again. As it cools, the water vapor condenses out, resulting in snowfall. Just to the east (right) of the Great Salt Lake the mountains of the Wasatch Range lift air from the lake even higher, enhancing the lake-effect, resulting in an average snowfall of 64 inches a year in Salt Lake City and 140 inches in Park City, which is located at the foot of the Wasatch Front. For more information about the lake-effect, read Lake-Effect Snowfalls. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  4. High Spatio-Temporal Resolution Observations of Crater-Lake Surface Temperatures at Kawah Ijen Volcano, East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewicki, J. L.; Caudron, C.; van Hinsberg, V.; Bani, P.; Hilley, G. E.; Kelly, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Subaqueous volcanic eruptions comprise only 8% of all recorded eruptions in historical time, but have caused ~20% of fatalities associated with volcanic activity during this time (Mastin and Witter, 2000). Crater lakes, however, act as calorimeters, absorbing heat from intruding magma and integrating it over space and time and thus offer a unique opportunity to monitor volcanic activity. Kawah Ijen is a composite volcano located on east Java, Indonesia, whose crater hosts the largest natural hyperacidic lake (27 x 106 m3; pH <1) on Earth. As part of an international workshop on Kawah Ijen in September 2014, we tested a novel approach for mapping and monitoring variations in crater-lake apparent surface temperatures at high spatial (~30 cm) and temporal (every two minutes) resolution. We used a ground-based thermal infrared (TIR) camera from the crater rim to collect a set of visible imagery around the crater during the daytime and a time series of co-located visible and TIR imagery at one location from pre-dawn to daytime. We processed daytime visible imagery with the Structure-from-Motion photogrammetric method to create a digital elevation model onto which the time series of TIR imagery was orthorectified and georeferenced. Lake apparent surface temperatures typically ranged from ~21 to 28oC. At two locations, apparent surface temperatures were ~ 7 and 9 oC less than in-situ lake temperature measurements at 1.5 and 5 m depth, respectively. We observed large spatio-temporal variations in lake apparent surface temperatures, which were likely associated with wind-driven evaporative cooling of the lake surface. Our approach shows promise for continuous monitoring of crater-lake surface temperatures, particularly if the TIR camera is deployed as part of a permanent station with ancillary meteorological measurements to help distinguish temperature variations associated with atmospheric processes from those at depth within the lake and volcano.

  5. Cooled railplug

    DOEpatents

    Weldon, William F.

    1996-01-01

    The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers.

  6. Cool School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Suzanne

    1980-01-01

    The design for Floyd Elementary School in Miami (Florida) seeks to harness solar energy to provide at least 70 percent of the annual energy for cooling needs and 90 percent for hot water. (Author/MLF)

  7. LAKE FORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lake Fork of the Arkansas River Watershed has been adversely affected through mining, water diversion and storage projects, grazing, logging, and other human influences over the past 120 years. It is the goals of the LFWWG to improve the health of Lake fork by addressing th...

  8. Lake Constance

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... Swiss shores of Lake Constance at the town of Rorschach. Eutrophication, or the process of nutrient enrichment, is rapidly accelerated ... of the value of Lake Constance, efforts to mitigate eutrophication were initiated in the 1970's. MISR was built and is managed ...

  9. Hydrology of Central Florida Lakes - A Primer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schiffer, Donna M.

    1998-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Lakes are among the most valued natural resources of central Florida. The landscape of central Florida is riddled with lakeswhen viewed from the air, it almost seems there is more water than land. Florida has more naturally formed lakes than other southeastern States, where many lakes are created by building dams across streams. The abundance of lakes on the Florida peninsula is a result of the geology and geologic history of the State. An estimated 7,800 lakes in Florida are greater than 1 acre in surface area. Of these, 35 percent are located in just four counties (fig. 1): Lake, Orange, Osceola, and Polk (Hughes, 1974b). Lakes add to the aesthetic and commercial value of the area and are used by many residents and visitors for fishing, boating, swimming, and other types of outdoor recreation. Lakes also are used for other purposes such as irrigation, flood control, water supply, and navigation. Residents and visitors commonly ask questions such as Whyare there so many lakes here?, Why is my lake drying up (or flooding)?, or Is my lake spring-fed? These questions indicate that the basic hydrology of lakes and the interaction of lakes with ground water and surface water are not well understood by the general population. Because of the importance of lakes to residents of central Florida and the many questions and misconceptions about lakes, this primer was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the St. Johns River Water Management District and the South Florida Water Management District. The USGS has been collecting hydrologic data in central Florida since the 1920s, obtaining valuable information that has been used to better understand the hydrology of the water resources of central Florida, including lakes. In addition to data collection, as of 1994, the USGS had published 66 reports and maps on central Florida lakes (Garcia and Hoy, 1995). The main purpose of this primer is to describe the hydrology of lakes in central

  10. Cooling Vest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Because quadriplegics are unable to perspire below the level of spinal injury, they cannot tolerate heat stress. A cooling vest developed by Ames Research Center and Upjohn Company allows them to participate in outdoor activities. The vest is an adaptation of Ames technology for thermal control garments used to remove excess body heat of astronauts. The vest consists of a series of corrugated channels through which cooled water circulates. Its two outer layers are urethane coated nylon, and there is an inner layer which incorporates the corrugated channels. It can be worn as a backpack or affixed to a wheelchair. The unit includes a rechargeable battery, mini-pump, two quart reservoir and heat sink to cool the water.

  11. Cooled railplug

    DOEpatents

    Weldon, W.F.

    1996-05-07

    The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers. 10 figs.

  12. Explosive Volcanism in Io's Lava Lakes - The Key To Constraining Eruption Temperature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, A. G.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; McEwen, A. S.

    2010-12-01

    Active lava lakes are open volcanic systems, where lava circulates between a magma chamber and the surface. Rare on Earth, lava lakes may be common on Io, the highly volcanic jovian moon (e.g., [1]). Io’s low atmospheric pressure means that activity within Io’s lava lakes may be explosive, exposing lava at near-liquid temperatures (currently poorly constrained for Io). Lava lakes are therefore important targets for future missions to Io [2, 3]. With this in mind, hand-held infrared imagers were used to collect thermal emission data from the phonolite Erebus (Antarctica) lava lake [4] and the basalt lava lake at Erta’Ale (Ethiopia). Temperature-area distributions and the integrated thermal emission spectra for each lava lake were determined from the data. These calculated spectra have been used to test models developed for analysis of remote sensing data of lava lakes and lava flows on both Earth and Io, where no ground-truth exists. The silicate cooling model [5] assumes, for the lava lake model variant, that the existing surface crust has been created at a fixed rate. Model output consists of a synthesized thermal emission spectrum, estimate of surface age range, and a rate of surface crust area formation. The cooling model provides accurate reproductions of actual thermal spectra and the total emitting area to within a few percent of actual emitting area. Model resurfacing rates broadly agree with observed behaviour at both lakes. Despite different composition lavas, the short-wavelength infrared thermal emission spectra from the two terrestrial lava lakes studied are very similar in shape, and, importantly, bear a striking similarity to spectra of Pele, an Io volcano that has been proposed to be a persistent, active lava lake [6] and which is the source of a 300-km high dust and gas plume. Our study of the cooling of the hottest lava exposed at Erta’Ale yields constraints on the ability of multispectral imagers to determine eruption temperature. We find

  13. High spatio-temporal resolution observations of crater lake temperatures at Kawah Ijen volcano, East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Caudron, Corentin; van Hinsberg, Vincent J.; Hilley, George E.

    2016-08-01

    The crater lake of Kawah Ijen volcano, East Java, Indonesia, has displayed large and rapid changes in temperature at point locations during periods of unrest, but measurement techniques employed to date have not resolved how the lake's thermal regime has evolved over both space and time. We applied a novel approach for mapping and monitoring variations in crater lake apparent surface ("skin") temperatures at high spatial (˜32 cm) and temporal (every 2 min) resolution at Kawah Ijen on 18 September 2014. We used a ground-based FLIR T650sc camera with digital and thermal infrared (TIR) sensors from the crater rim to collect (1) a set of visible imagery around the crater during the daytime and (2) a time series of co-located visible and TIR imagery at one location from pre-dawn to daytime. We processed daytime visible imagery with the Structure-from-Motion photogrammetric method to create a digital elevation model onto which the time series of TIR imagery was orthorectified and georeferenced. Lake apparent skin temperatures typically ranged from ˜21 to 33 °C. At two locations, apparent skin temperatures were ˜4 and 7 °C less than in situ lake temperature measurements at 1.5 and 5-m depth, respectively. These differences, as well as the large spatio-temporal variations observed in skin temperatures, were likely largely associated with atmospheric effects such as the evaporative cooling of the lake surface and infrared absorption by water vapor and SO2. Calculations based on orthorectified TIR imagery thus yielded underestimates of volcanic heat fluxes into the lake, whereas volcanic heat fluxes estimated based on in situ temperature measurements (68 to 111 MW) were likely more representative of Kawah Ijen in a quiescent state. The ground-based imaging technique should provide a valuable tool to continuously monitor crater lake temperatures and contribute insight into the spatio-temporal evolution of these temperatures associated with volcanic activity.

  14. Stochastic cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Bisognano, J.; Leemann, C.

    1982-03-01

    Stochastic cooling is the damping of betatron oscillations and momentum spread of a particle beam by a feedback system. In its simplest form, a pickup electrode detects the transverse positions or momenta of particles in a storage ring, and the signal produced is amplified and applied downstream to a kicker. The time delay of the cable and electronics is designed to match the transit time of particles along the arc of the storage ring between the pickup and kicker so that an individual particle receives the amplified version of the signal it produced at the pick-up. If there were only a single particle in the ring, it is obvious that betatron oscillations and momentum offset could be damped. However, in addition to its own signal, a particle receives signals from other beam particles. In the limit of an infinite number of particles, no damping could be achieved; we have Liouville's theorem with constant density of the phase space fluid. For a finite, albeit large number of particles, there remains a residue of the single particle damping which is of practical use in accumulating low phase space density beams of particles such as antiprotons. It was the realization of this fact that led to the invention of stochastic cooling by S. van der Meer in 1968. Since its conception, stochastic cooling has been the subject of much theoretical and experimental work. The earliest experiments were performed at the ISR in 1974, with the subsequent ICE studies firmly establishing the stochastic cooling technique. This work directly led to the design and construction of the Antiproton Accumulator at CERN and the beginnings of p anti p colliding beam physics at the SPS. Experiments in stochastic cooling have been performed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBL, and a design is currently under development for a anti p accumulator for the Tevatron.

  15. Reconstructing paleo lake levels from relict shorelines along the Upper Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baedke, Steve J.; Thompson, Todd A.; Johnston, John W.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2004-01-01

    Shorelines of the upper Great Lakes include many embayments that contain strandplains of beach ridges. These former shoreline positions of the lakes can be used to determine changes in the elevation of the lakes through time, and they also provide information on the warping of the ground surface that is occurring in the Great Lakes after the weight of glacial ice was removed. Relative lake-level hydrographs can be created by coring the beach ridges to determine the elevation of basal foreshore (swash zone) deposits in each ridge and by obtaining radiocarbon dates of basal wetland sediments between ridges to generate an age model for the ridges. Because the relative-level hydrographs are the combination of lake-level change and vertical ground movement (isostatic rebound), the rebound must be removed to produce a graph that shows only the physical limits and timing of past lake-level fluctuations referenced to a common outlet. More than 500 vibracores of beach-ridge sediments were collected at five sites along Lake Michigan and four sites along Lake Superior. The cores showed a sequence of dune deposits overlying foreshore deposits that, in turn, overlie upper shoreface deposits. The base of the foreshore deposits is coarser and more poorly sorted than an overlying and underlying sediment and represents the plunge-point sediments at the base of the swash zone. The plunge-point deposits are a close approximation of the elevation of the lake when the beach ridge formed. More than 150 radiocarbon ages of basal wetland sediments were collected to produce age models for the sites. Currently, age models exist for all Lake Michigan sites and one Lake Superior site. By combining the elevation data with the age models, six relative lake-level hydrographs were created for the upper Great Lakes. An iterative approach was used to remove rebound from the five Lake Michigan relative hydrographs and merge the graphs into a single hydrograph. The resultant hydrograph shows long

  16. Methods of beam cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, A.M.

    1996-02-01

    Diverse methods which are available for particle beam cooling are reviewed. They consist of some highly developed techniques such as radiation damping, electron cooling, stochastic cooling and the more recently developed, laser cooling. Methods which have been theoretically developed, but not yet achieved experimentally, are also reviewed. They consist of ionization cooling, laser cooling in three dimensions and stimulated radiation cooling.

  17. Keeping Cool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehrer, James

    2000-01-01

    Explores roofing options that can help control energy costs through use of highly reflective roofing materials. Additionally discussed is the "Urban Heat Island" phenomenon created when several super-heated buildings are clustered in a small area. (GR)

  18. Cool Sportswear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    New athletic wear design based on the circulating liquid cooling system used in the astronaut's space suits, allows athletes to perform more strenuous activity without becoming overheated. Techni-Clothes gear incorporates packets containing a heat-absorbing gel that slips into an insulated pocket of the athletic garment and is positioned near parts of the body where heat transfer is most efficient. A gel packet is good for about one hour. Easily replaced from a supply of spares in an insulated container worn on the belt. The products, targeted primarily for runners and joggers and any other athlete whose performance may be affected by hot weather, include cooling headbands, wrist bands and running shorts with gel-pack pockets.

  19. Lake Powell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The white ring around Lake Powell tells the story. The surface is down 98 feet. This is critical, because Powell, Lake Mead, and other lakes along the Colorado River provide water for millions of people in five states. We are in the eighth year of a drought on the Colorado River. This year was the driest year ever reported in Southern California, and there is a severe drought in Northern California, down to less than 30-percent of snow pack. This ASTER image of part of Lake Powell was acquired in 2001. The gray area depicts the shrunken, reduced 2007 lake extent compared to the extended, larger black area in 2001.

    The image covers an area of 24 x 30 km, and is centered near 37.1 degrees north latitude, 111.3 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Heating and Cooling Equipment Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-01-01

    This is one of a series of technology fact sheets created to help housing designers and builders adopt a whole-house design approach and energy efficient design practices. The fact sheet helps people choose the correct equipment for heating and cooling to reduce initial costs, increase homeowner comfort, increase operating efficiency, and greatly reduce utility costs.

  1. Contaminant Monitoring Strategy for Henrys Lake, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    John S. Irving; R. P. Breckenridge

    1992-12-01

    result of severe cattle grazing along riparian areas and deltas. Groundwater and springs also feed the lake, and are likely critical for oxygen supply during winter stratification. During the winter of 1991, Henrys Lake experienced low dissolved oxygen levels resulting in large fish kills. It is thought that thick ice cover combined with an increase in nutrient loads created conditions resulting in poor water quality. The Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, DEQ is currently conducting a study to determine the water quality of Henrys Lake, the sources contributing to its deterioration, and potential remedial actions to correct problem areas.

  2. Meteorite Impact Lakes: Difficulties of the Evidence for Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapelko, Tatyana; Naumenko, Mikhail; Kuznetsov, Denis

    2014-05-01

    In addition to volcanic and tectonic activity on the border of the Late Pleistocene and Holocene occurred and other disastrous events that are reflected in the history of the lakes. The recognition of meteorite impact crater lakes is impeded by difficulties in finding evidence of an impact origin. Such lakes have been recognized (Hartung and Koeberl, 1994) by their circular shape, their occurrence outside of areas where other mechanisms for circular depression formation are readily apparent, and the preservation of meteorite or ejected glass fragments (Cohen. 2003). Meteorite impact Lake appeared not only in early periods (like Lake El'gygytgyn and Lake Yanisyarvi in Russia), but in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene as well. One of these lakes is located in the Nizhny Novgorod region of Russia. Svetloyar (56º49' N; 45º05'E; 109 m a.s.l.) - lake with a small area of 0.15 km2 and a great depth of the lake up to 35 m., a circular shape, surrounded on three sides by hills , reaching 15 m above the lake level. On the lake we have carried out paleolimnological and hydrological investigations.Interdisciplinary researches included sedimentological, geochemical, pollen, diatom, radiocarbon and other analyses of lake sediments. Based on field measurements, we created a digital morphometric model of the bottom depths and slopes of the lake. Using the all results we are reconstruct the Lake's history and climatic changes. We establish a long hiatus after the disappearance of large lake on the border of the late Pleistocene and Holocene. For comparison we were have studied three of the morphometric similar lakes in the Nizhny Novgorod region. According to preliminary data the history of any of these lakes is not similar the Lake Svetloyar history. We discuss our results and have compared with data on the meteorite Lake Kaali , Estonia (Rasmussen et al., 2000; Raukas et.al,1995; 2002; Veski et.al, 2001, 2002, 2004).

  3. REACTOR COOLING

    DOEpatents

    Quackenbush, C.F.

    1959-09-29

    A nuclear reactor with provisions for selectively cooling the fuel elements is described. The reactor has a plurality of tubes extending throughout. Cylindrical fuel elements are disposed within the tubes and the coolant flows through the tubes and around the fuel elements. The fuel elements within the central portion of the reactor are provided with roughened surfaces of material. The fuel elements in the end portions of the tubes within the reactor are provlded with low conduction jackets and the fuel elements in the region between the central portion and the end portions are provided with smooth surfaces of high heat conduction material.

  4. Project S'COOL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Carolyn J.; Chambers, Lin H.

    1998-01-01

    The Students Clouds Observations On-Line or S'COOL project was piloted in 1997. It was created with the idea of using students to serve as one component of the validation for the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument which was launched with the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) in November, 1997. As part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise CERES is interested in the role clouds play in regulating our climate. Over thirty schools became involved in the initial thrust of the project. The CERES instrument detects the location of clouds and identifies their physical properties. S'COOL students coordinate their ground truth observations with the exact overpass of the satellite at their location. Their findings regarding cloud type, height, fraction and opacity as well as surface conditions are then reported to the NASA Langley Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data is then accessible to both the CERES team for validation and to schools for educational application via the Internet. By March of 1998 ninety-three schools, in nine countries had enrolled in the S'COOL project. Joining the United States participants were from schools in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. The project is gradually becoming the global project envisioned by the project s creators. As students obtain the requested data useful for the scientists, it was hoped that students with guidance from their instructors would have opportunity and motivation to learn more about clouds and atmospheric science as well.

  5. Relative Contributions of Phosphorus in High Elevation Sierra Nevada Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, L. K.; McIntyre, B. M.; Lyons, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    High elevation lakes of the Sierra Nevada mountain range show signs of eutrophication due to increased phosphorus loading. Phosphorus is a major contributing factor to freshwater lake eutrophication when in excess. Three previously researched sources of phosphorus to high-elevation montane lakes include atmospheric deposition, internal loading from sediments, and excretions from non-native stocked fish. The goal of this research was to isolate the estimated phosphorus contributions from residential shoreline developments and stocked non-native fish. A steady-state phosphorus loading rate model was created to quantify relative phosphorus loading into two lakes in the Eastern Sierra Nevada: Convict and Silver Lake. A conglomerate control lake was created from Eastern Brook Lake in the Eastern Sierra Nevada, Pear Lake in the Southern Sierra Nevada, and Snowflake Lake in Canada. Both Convict and Silver Lakes contain stocked non-native trout species and Silver Lake also has ~25 vacation homes on its eastern shore. Seasonal steady-state total phosphorus concentrations were determined using EPA Method 365.2. Loading rate constants were calculated using loading rates from literature and corresponding concentrations. It was determined that as much as 42% of phosphorous to Silver Lake came from shoreline housing developments, and 24% came from stocked fish depending on the season. Previous studies showed much lower contributions from non-native fish.

  6. Modeling lava lake heat loss, rheology, and convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Andrew J. L.

    2008-04-01

    Measurements at Erta Ale's lava lake and theoretical equations for lake rheology, density driven convection and thermally-driven plume ascent allow the constraint of lake dynamics. Cooling and crystallization expected from surface heat losses imply a viscosity increase from 150 Pa s to 300-1800 Pa s for cooled surface layers. Convection is expected to proceed vigorously under low viscosity conditions driving rapid (0.1-0.4 m s-1) surface motions and sluggishly under moderate-to-high viscosity conditions to drive slower motions (<0.08 m s-1). Convection is likely driven by small (~6 kg m-3) density differences, where surface cooling can influence lake rheology and explain variable rates of surface convective motion.

  7. Cooling Rate Controls Dihedral Angles in Dolerite Sills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holness, M. B.; Richardson, C.

    2011-12-01

    The median of the population of augite-plagioclase-plagioclase dihedral angles in mafic rocks (Θcpp) varies systematically within layered intrusions. It is not clear from previous work how much of this variation is caused by composition and how much is the consequence of different thermal histories. However, the effect of temperature can be isolated by studying a family of non-fractionated planar-sided mafic bodies of various size (and hence cooling rate). Formation of augite-plag-plag dihedral angles involves the growth of augite into the melt-filled space created by the juxtaposition of two plagioclase grains. Examination of the Kiluaea Iki lava lake demonstrates that growth of interstitial augite grains preferentially occurs where the two plagioclase grains meet at a high angle, while narrower melt pockets tend to cool through the glass transition before the melt crystallizes. Θcpp in the lava lake crust and in other rapidly cooled dolerites is ~78°, higher than the 60° expected if augite perfectly pseudomorphed the melt geometry. In more slowly cooled bodies, augite-plag-plag junctions are not formed by the intersection of two planar augite-plag boundaries, but are curved towards higher angles: Θcpp > 78° and, in the most slowly cooled dolerites, may approach the equilibrium value of 109°. Comparison with layered intrusions demonstrates that the change in geometry with decreased cooling rate is not due to sub-solidus modification but is a consequence of simultaneous growth of the two minerals during the last stages of solidification at the three-grain junction. While this is not yet fully quantified it is likely that the controls on the geometry of three-grain junctions, and therefore the dihedral angle, are the effects of confinement on crystal growth rate and mass transport, together with the variable effects of undercooling on crystal growth mechanisms. We measured Θcpp from 10-15 samples across each of a family of non-fractionated basaltic sills

  8. A possible link between North Atlantic cooling and dry events in the core SW monsoon region identified from Lonar Lake in central India: Indication of a connection between solar output and monsoon variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, P.; Gaye, B.; Prasad, S.; Plessen, B.; Stebich, M.; Anoop, A.; Riedel, N.; Basavaiah, N.

    2013-12-01

    Former comparison of climate sensitive proxies from natural archives of the northern monsoon domain with proxy data from mid and high latitude archives have proven a correlation between the proxies of both regions. But still some ambiguities concerning the mechanisms that drive this correlation exist. During our investigation of a sediment core from Lonar Lake in central India, which covers the complete Holocene sedimentation history of the lake, we could identify several phases of centennial scale climate alteration on the basis of stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios, mineralogy, and amino acid derived degradation proxies. These phases correlate with climate sensitive proxies from the North Atlantic region as well as with 14C nuclide production rate, which indicates changes in solar output. The results from this first continuous, high resolution record of Holocene climate history from central India indicate sensitivity of monsoon climate to solar forcing. Additionally, a connection between North Atlantic climate and the climate of a region that is not affected by the Westerlies or shifts of the summer ITCZ to a position south of the investigation site could be identified.

  9. Origins and Implications of Zigzag Rift atterns on the surface of lava lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlstrom, L.; Manga, M.

    2005-12-01

    The distinctive rift patterns observed on newly formed lava lakes are very likely a product of interaction between heat transfer (cooling of lava) and the ability of the solid crust to deform in response to applied stresses. Ragnarsson et al. ( Phys Rev Lett. 1996) observed similar features in analog wax experiments. The experimental setup consisted of a layer of liquid wax heated from below and cooled from above to create a solid crust, which is then pulled apart to form a rift filled with liquid wax. Of particular interest for lava lakes is a regime in which "zigzag" shaped rifts form. We performed a similar series of analog wax experiments designed to characterize the symmetric zigzag rift patterns associated with the cooling and deformation of a newly formed crust layer. The experimental setup is similar to that in Manga and Sinton ( JGR 2004). We vary the wind speed, which controls the cooling rate, and pulling speed. The rifts are characterized by two quantities: the angle between rifts and a line perpendicular to the pulling direction Φ, and the amplitude of the zigzags A. We find experimentally the relationship between Φ, A and cooling rate. We also develop a model to explain the observed relationships: Φ is determined by a balance of pulling and solidification speeds, the latter being governed by wind speed (the primary control on cooling rate); the amplitude A is limited by the thickness of the solid wax crust. The theoretical model is based on a local energy balance in which the conductive heat flux through solidifying crust is balanced by convective and radiative heat loss to the overlying air. Model predictions agree well with experimental results. We can scale this model to basaltic lava lakes. Observed angles are consistent with model predictions. The critical thickness of the solid crust, limiting the amplitude of zigzags (and rift propagation) is a few centimeters, consistent with other estimates (Harris et al., JVGR 2005). The model enables us

  10. Cool Polar Bears: Dabbing on the Texture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Jean

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her second-graders created their cool polar bears. The students used the elements of shape and texture to create the bears. They used Monet's technique of dabbing paint so as to give the bear some texture on his fur.

  11. Lake trout spawning habitat in the Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef lake trout sanctuary, Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Brown, Charles L.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Poe, Thomas P.

    1992-01-01

    Attempts to reestablish self-sustaining stocks of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the lower four Great Lakes, where the species was extinguished in the 1950s and 1960s, have been largely unsuccessful. To avoid many of the problems believed to be contributing to this failure, the fishery management community recently established several sanctuaries in the offshore waters of the Great Lakes where the development and protection of self-sustaining stocks of lake trout would be a primary management objective. One of these, the Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef sanctuary, was created in the south-central portion of Lake Huron. This sanctuary covers 168,000 ha and includes the shallower portions of the Six Fathom and Ipperwash scarps, which are major bathymetric features in the southern half of the lake. Historical accounts describe Six Fathom Bank as the most important lake trout spawning ground in the lake. Here we present the results of lake bed surveys conducted in the sanctuary with side-scan sonar, underwater videocamera systems, and a small research submarine. Our observations of the lake bed are consistent with what is known of the bedrock stratigraphy, glacial history, and karst geomorphology of the Lake Huron basin. Most of the loose rock we found seemed to be derived from local carbonate bedrock formations, although non-carbonate rock probably from Precambrian sources to the north was also present in some areas. Much of the bedrock and loose rock displayed karst solution features described for the Bruce Peninsula on the Ontario shoreline. Our surveys revealed substantial areas of lake bed at water depths of 20–36 m that resembled suitable spawning and fry production habitat for the shallow-water strains of lake trout that are the focus of the rehabilitation effort. Low mid-lake nutrient levels documented recently by others and the extremely high abundance of Mysis relicta (an important item in the diet of young lake trout) that we documented on Yankee Reef

  12. Groundwater exchanges near a channelized versus unmodified stream mouth discharging to a subalpine lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantz, J.; Naranjo, R.; Niswonger, R.; Allander, K.; Neilson, B.; Rosenberry, D.; Smith, D.; Rosecrans, C.; Stonestrom, D.

    2016-03-01

    The terminus of a stream flowing into a larger river, pond, lake, or reservoir is referred to as the stream-mouth reach or simply the stream mouth. The terminus is often characterized by rapidly changing thermal and hydraulic conditions that result in abrupt shifts in surface water/groundwater (sw/gw) exchange patterns, creating the potential for unique biogeochemical processes and ecosystems. Worldwide shoreline development is changing stream-lake interfaces through channelization of stream mouths, i.e., channel straightening and bank stabilization to prevent natural meandering at the shoreline. In the central Sierra Nevada (USA), Lake Tahoe's shoreline has an abundance of both "unmodified" (i.e., not engineered though potentially impacted by broader watershed engineering) and channelized stream mouths. Two representative stream mouths along the lake's north shore, one channelized and one unmodified, were selected to compare and contrast water and heat exchanges. Hydraulic and thermal properties were monitored during separate campaigns in September 2012 and 2013 and sw/gw exchanges were estimated within the stream mouth-shoreline continuum. Heat-flow and water-flow patterns indicated clear differences in the channelized versus the unmodified stream mouth. For the channelized stream mouth, relatively modulated, cool-temperature, low-velocity longitudinal streambed flows discharged offshore beneath warmer buoyant lakeshore water. In contrast, a seasonal barrier bar formed across the unmodified stream mouth, creating higher-velocity subsurface flow paths and higher diurnal temperature variations relative to shoreline water. As a consequence, channelization altered sw/gw exchanges potentially altering biogeochemical processing and ecological systems in and near the stream mouth.

  13. Groundwater exchanges near a channelized versus unmodified stream mouth discharging to a subalpine lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, James; Naranjo, Ramon C.; Niswonger, Richard; Allander, Kip K.; Neilson, B.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Smith, David W.; Rosecrans, C.; Stonestrom, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The terminus of a stream flowing into a larger river, pond, lake, or reservoir is referred to as the stream-mouth reach or simply the stream mouth. The terminus is often characterized by rapidly changing thermal and hydraulic conditions that result in abrupt shifts in surface water/groundwater (sw/gw) exchange patterns, creating the potential for unique biogeochemical processes and ecosystems. Worldwide shoreline development is changing stream-lake interfaces through channelization of stream mouths, i.e., channel straightening and bank stabilization to prevent natural meandering at the shoreline. In the central Sierra Nevada (USA), Lake Tahoe's shoreline has an abundance of both “unmodified” (i.e., not engineered though potentially impacted by broader watershed engineering) and channelized stream mouths. Two representative stream mouths along the lake's north shore, one channelized and one unmodified, were selected to compare and contrast water and heat exchanges. Hydraulic and thermal properties were monitored during separate campaigns in September 2012 and 2013 and sw/gw exchanges were estimated within the stream mouth-shoreline continuum. Heat-flow and water-flow patterns indicated clear differences in the channelized versus the unmodified stream mouth. For the channelized stream mouth, relatively modulated, cool-temperature, low-velocity longitudinal streambed flows discharged offshore beneath warmer buoyant lakeshore water. In contrast, a seasonal barrier bar formed across the unmodified stream mouth, creating higher-velocity subsurface flow paths and higher diurnal temperature variations relative to shoreline water. As a consequence, channelization altered sw/gw exchanges potentially altering biogeochemical processing and ecological systems in and near the stream mouth.

  14. A Multiproxy High Resolution Paleoclimate Study of Lake Mirabad Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, N.; Stevens, L.; Holk, G. J.

    2010-12-01

    A Multiproxy High Resolution Paleoclimate Study of Lake Mirabad Iran Nolen Lambert, Lora Stevens, Gregory Holk, The upper 200 cm of a 7.2 m long sediment core from Lake Mirabad, Iran, was examined for oxygen and carbon isotopes in the lacustrine sediment, trace-element concentrations (Sr and Mg) in ostrocode carapaces and carbon/nitrogen ratios in order to create a climate record for the last 1500 years. The chronology (AD 566-1943) was established using AMS dating. From AD 566 through AD 1418 atmospheric vapor exchange or seasonality of precipitation was the primary forcing mechanism on the isotopic record with evaporative enrichment acting as a secondary mechanism. Temperatures and effective moisture increased during the Medieval Climate Anomaly accompanied by a larger role of evaporative enrichment as a forcing mechanism. The Spörer Minimum at the beginning of the Little Ice Age (LIA) brought lower temperatures and a decrease in effective moisture. Regional climate during the LIA resembled climatic conditions during the last glacial maximum. The lake was low and experienced an extended period of seasonal peripheral desiccation. The Maunder Minimum at the end of the LIA was accompanied by shifts in the seasonality of precipitation which became the primary forcing mechanism into the 19th century. Evaporative enrichment became the dominant forcing mechanism from AD 1850 onward as lake levels increased. Isotopic values were compared to values from Nar Gölü, Turkey (Jones et al., 2006). Unlike Lake Mirabad, the forcing mechanism at Nar Gölü was consistent with evaporative enrichment. This difference may derive from Mirabad’s more southerly location or it may suggest Nar Gölü was hydrologically unstable whereas Mirabad was stable. Trace element concentrations (Sr and Mg), used as a proxy for the amount of precipitation and water temperature, were consistent with the Dead Sea stands (Enzel et al., 2003). Finally, both the isotopic record and trace element

  15. The tufas of Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, Larry V.

    2004-01-01

    Pyramid Lake is the site of some of the Earth's most spectacular tufa deposits. The Tufas are composed of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The large tufa mounds, reef- and sheet-like tufas formed within Pyramid Lake, between 26,000 and 13,000 years (yr) ago, when the lake was part of pluvial Lake Lahontan. The mounds are composed of large interlocking spheres that contain multiple generations of a crystalline (thinolite) variety of tufa. Over time many of the mounds have fallen apart, exposing an internal network of tubes. The tubular structures are thought to have been created when springs discharged from the bottom of Pyramid Lake, supplying calcium that combined with carbonate dissolved in lake water to form the mounds. The reef- and sheet-like deposits contain pillow and pendant forms made up of a branching variety of tufa that often grades into dense layers or nodules. Dense layers of tufa also coat cobbles and boulders that were deposited in near-shore shallow-water areas. The thickest tufa deposits formed at lake-bottom sites of ground-water discharge and at overflow elevations1 where the lake was held at near-constant levels for long periods of time.

  16. Effects of the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens on the limnological characteristics of selected lakes in western Washington. Water resources investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Embrey, S.S.; Dion, N.P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, afforded an opportunity to study its physical, chemical, and biological effects on lakes near the volcano and to describe two newly created lakes. From June 1980 to August 1982, water samples were collected from four lakes in the blast zone and two outside the blast zone, as well as from the two newly created lakes. Concentrations of chemical constituents were inversely related to the distance of a lake from the volcano. The recovery of physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the lakes will depend on stabilization of the volcano and lake watersheds, dilution and water-exchange rates, and biological processes within each lake. Excluding Spirit Lake from consideration, it was estimated from the study that St. Helens Lake would be the slowest of the study lakes to recover, and Venus Lake would be the fastest.

  17. Geohydrology of the lowland lakes area, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zenone, Chester

    1976-01-01

    Unconsolidated deposits, chiefly of glacial origin, make up the surficial geologic materials in the Anchorage lowland lakes area , the western part of the Anchorage glacial outwash plain. Postglacial accumulation of peat, commonly 5 to 10 feet thick, and the presence of ground water at or very near the surface combine to create the swamp-muskeg terrane of much of the area. Deeper, confined ground water is also present beneath thick silt and clay layers that underlie the surficial deposits. Domestic water supply for the lowland lakes area is provided largely by public-supply wells completed in the deep, confined aquifers. No large perennial streams traverse the area, thus streamflow is not a major parameter in the area 's natural water balance. The major uses of surface water are recreational, including fishing and boating at several of the larger lakes, and private and commercial aircraft operations at Hood-Spenard Lakes floatplane base. The hydrology and water balance of these lakes is complex. Water levels in some lakes appear to be closely related to adjacent ground-water levels. Other lakes are evidently perched above the local water table. The relation of lake level to adjacent ground-water level may vary along the shoreline of a single lake. The effect of residential development practices on lake basin water balance is not completely understood. At Sand Lake, the largest lake in this area of rapid urbanization, the water level has declined about 6 feet since the early 1960's. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Bathymetric Surveys of Lake Arthur and Raccoon Lake, Pennsylvania, June 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hittle, Clinton D.; Ruby, A. Thomas, III

    2008-01-01

    In spring of 2007, bathymetric surveys of two Pennsylvania State Park lakes were performed to collect accurate data sets of lake-bed elevations and to develop methods and techniques to conduct similar surveys across the state. The lake-bed elevations and associated geographical position data can be merged with land-surface elevations acquired through Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) techniques. Lake Arthur in Butler County and Raccoon Lake in Beaver County were selected for this initial data-collection activity. In order to establish accurate water-surface elevations during the surveys, benchmarks referenced to NAVD 88 were established on land at each lake by use of differential global positioning system (DGPS) surveys. Bathymetric data were collected using a single beam, 210 kilohertz (kHz) echo sounder and were coupled with the DGPS position data utilizing a computer software package. Transects of depth data were acquired at predetermined intervals on each lake, and the shoreline was delineated using a laser range finder and compass module. Final X, Y, Z coordinates of the geographic positions and lake-bed elevations were referenced to NAD 83 and NAVD 88 and are available to create bathymetric maps of the lakes.

  19. DIGITAL ATLAS OF LAKE TEXOMA (CD-ROM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Geological Survey, and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers worked together to create a Digital Atlas of Lake Texoma. The Digital Atlas of Lake Texoma contains 29 digital map data sets covering Cooke and Grayson Counties in Texas, and Bryan,...

  20. Europa's Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, B. E.; Blankenship, D. D.; Patterson, G. W.; Schenk, P. M.

    2012-04-01

    Unique to the surface of Europa, chaos terrain is diagnostic of the properties and dynamics of its icy shell. While models have suggested that partial melt within a thick shell or melt-through of a thin shell may form chaos, neither model has been able to definitively explain all observations of chaos terrain. However, we present a new model that suggests large melt lenses form within the shell and that water-ice interactions above and within these lenses drive the production of chaos. Our analysis of the geomorphology of Conamara Chaos and Thera Macula, was used to infer and test a four-stage lens-collapse chaos formation model: 1) Thermal plumes of warm, pure ice ascend through the shell melting the impure brittle ice above, producing a lake of briny water and surface down draw due to volume reduction. 2) Surface deflection and driving force from the plume below hydraulically seals the water in place. 3) Extension of the brittle ice lid generates fractures from below, allowing brines to enter and fluidize the ice matrix. 4) As the lens and now brash matrix refreeze, thermal expansion creates domes and raises the chaos feature above the background terrain. This new "lense-collapse" model indicates that chaos features form in the presence of a great deal of liquid water, and that large liquid water bodies exist within 3km of Europa's surface comparable in volume to the North American Great Lakes. The detection of shallow subsurface "lakes" implies that the ice shell is recycling rapidly and that Europa may be currently active. In this presentation, we will explore environments on Europa and their analogs on Earth, from collapsing Antarctic ice shelves to to subglacial volcanos in Iceland. I will present these new analyses, and describe how this new perspective informs the debate about Europa's habitability and future exploration.

  1. Remediation of a large contaminated reactor cooling reservoir: Resolving and environmental/regulatory paradox

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.A.: Gladden, J.B.; Hickey, H.M.; Jones, M.P.; Mackey, H.E.; Mayer, J.J.; Doswell, A.

    1994-05-01

    This paper presents a case study of a former reactor cooling water reservoir, PAR Pond, located Savannah River Site. PAR Pond, a 2640 acre, man-made reservoir was built in 1958 and until 1988, received cooling water from two DOE nuclear production reactors, P and R. The lake sediments were contaminated with low levels of radiocesium (CS-137) and transuranics in the late 1950s and early 1960s because of leaking fuel elements. Elevated levels of mercury accumulated in the sediments from pumping water from the Savannah River to maintain a full pool. PAR Ponds` stability, size, and nutrient content made a significant, unique, and highly studied ecological resource for fish and wildlife populations until it was partially drained in 1991 due to a depression in the downslope of the earthen dam. The drawdown, created 1340 acres of exposed, radioactively contaminated sediments along 33 miles of shoreline. This led US EPA to declare PAR Pond as a CERCLA operable unit subject to remediation. The drawdown also raised concerns for the populations of aquatic plants, fish, alligators, and endangered species and increased the potential for off-site migration of contaminated wildlife from contact with the exposed sediments. Applicable regulations, such as NEPA and CERCLA, require wetland loss evaluations, human health and ecological risk assessments, and remediation feasibility studies. DOE is committed to spending several million dollars to repair the dam for safety reasons, even though the lake will probably not be used for cooling purposes. At the same time, DOE must make decisions whether to refill and expend additional public funds to maintain a full pool to reduce the risks defined under CERCLA or spend hundreds of millions in remediation costs to reduce the risks of the exposed sediments.

  2. Holocene Lake Records on Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diekmann, Bernhard; Biskaborn, Boris; Chapligin, Bernhard; Dirksen, Oleg; Dirksen, Veronika; Hoff, Ulrike; Meyer, Hanno; Nazarova, Larisa

    2014-05-01

    palaeoecologocal responses in different lake systems under same climatic boundary conditions. Our findings give evidence of longterm climate changes that suggest the existence of a warm and humid early Holocene climate optimum between roughly 9.0 and 4.5 ka BP, followed by climate deterioration of the neoglacial epoch in concert with summer cooling, glacial advances, and enhanced continentality. Two strong cooling episodes punctuated late Holocene climate development between 4.5 and 3.5 ka BP and during the last millennium, marking the prelude of neoglacial cooling and the Little Ice Age. This general development of Holocene climate on Kamchatka is in line with environmental changes in the neighbouring Sea of Okhotsk, where the pattern of sea-ice dynamics is consistent with early Holocene warmth and Neoglacial climate cooling. While the marine records from the Sea of Okhotsk mainly reflect winter conditions, our findings show that summer climate on Kamchatka shows a similar trend of temporal change. Holocene climate variability on Kamchatka was mainly driven by external insolation forcing, changes in solar activity, and internal climate forcing. The latter is dictated by by the relative position of the Aleutan Low in response to the prevailing modes of Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the Arctic Oscillation that both control the influence of maritime or continental air masses and the intensity of rain- or snow-bringing cyclones.

  3. Using a Hydrodynamic Lake Model to Predict the Impact of Avalanche Events at Lake Palcacocha, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisolm, R. E.; Somos-Valenzuela, M. A.; McKinney, D. C.; Hodges, B. R.

    2013-12-01

    Accelerated retreat of Andean glaciers in recent decades due to a warming climate has caused the emergence and growth of glacial lakes. As these lakes continue to grow, they pose an increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). GLOFs can be triggered by moraine failures or by avalanches, rockslides, or ice calving into glacial lakes. Many of the processes influencing GLOF risk are still poorly understood. For many decades Lake Palcacocha in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru has posed a threat to citizens living in the watershed below, including the city of Huaraz which was devastated by a GLOF in 1941. A safety system for Lake Palcacocha was put in place in the 1970's to control the lake level with a tunnel and reinforced dyke, but the lake has since grown to the point where the lake is once again dangerous. Overhanging ice from the Palcaraju glacier and a relatively low freeboard level make the lake vulnerable to avalanches and landslides. A siphon system has been put in place to lower the lake below the level of the tunnel, but this system is temporary and the potential reduction in the water level is limited. Lake Palcacocha is used as a case study to investigate the impact of an avalanche event on the lake dynamics and the ensuing flood hydrograph. Empirical equations are used to determine the initial wave characteristics of an impulse wave created by three different avalanche scenarios that represent small, medium and large events. The characteristics of the initial impulse wave are used as inputs to a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model to predict the wave propagation across the lake and the moraine overtopping volume. The results from this model will be used as inputs to a downstream GLOF model to predict the impact from an outburst flood event. Additionally several scenarios are considered to evaluate the downstream impact from avalanche events with a reduction in the lake level. Use of a robust three-dimensional hydrodynamic lake model enables more

  4. 130. Julian Price Memorial Park. Fortyseven acre Julian Price Lake ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    130. Julian Price Memorial Park. Forty-seven acre Julian Price Lake created by an impoundment. Looking west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  5. Longevity of Lake Superior lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schram, Stephen T.; Fabrizio, Mary C.

    1998-01-01

    The age structure of mature lake trout Salvelinus namaycush from the Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior increased following a population recovery that has taken place since the 1960s. As the population aged, it became apparent that scales were unreliable aging structures. Beginning in 1986, we examined both scale and sagittal otolith ages from tagged fish with a known period at liberty. We found large discrepancies in scale and sagittal otolith ages of mature fish, such that scale ages were biased low. We estimated lake trout living up to 42 years, which is greater than previously reported from Lake Superior. Investigators studying lake trout population dynamics in the Great Lakes should be aware that lake trout can live longer than previously thought.

  6. Create a Logo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchen, Gail

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art lesson that introduced students to graphic art as a career path. Explains that the students met a graphic artist and created a logo for a pretend client. Explains that the students researched logos. (CMK)

  7. Lake ice cover and its influence on lake ecology in a Finnish lake district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leppäranta, Matti; Arvola, Lauri

    2014-05-01

    A wintertime research program on the physics and biology of lakes in Häme lake district in Finland has been performed in the last five years. The set of study lakes contains a wide spectrum in size, depth and trophic status. In this region the lakes freeze over annually for 4-6 months and the mean ice thickness is around 0.5 m. The ice sheet consists of congelation ice and snow-ice. The snow-ice fraction ranges from 0 to 90 per cent depending on the snow fall history and its magnitude makes a major contribution to the ice properties and conditions in the water body beneath the ice, in particular the mechanical strength and optical thickness are much less than for congelation ice. The e-folding depth of light intensity was 50-100 cm for congelation ice and 5-10 cm for snow. A numerical model has been developed to simulate the annual cycle of ice stratigraphy, temperature and thickness. The water bodies had a 1-4 m thick upper mixed layer thick thermocline, and in deeper lakes a lower homogeneous layer. Fall cooling process was crucial to determine the temperature of the lower layer at freeze-up, anything within 0-4°C. Oxygen concentration decreased in winter, especially close to the bottom sediments, and carbon dioxide concentration increased due to respiration activity. Phytoplankton production and biomass level were low or very low and, therefore, heterotrophic and mixotrophic species were abundant. Oxygen depletion in the hypolimnium had several chemical and ecological consequences, such as release of phosphorus from the bottom sediments. In spring, just before the ice-out, photosynthesis was at a high level beneath the ice due to improved light conditions and started to elevate the oxygen concentration in the topmost water layer. Primary production under the ice is limited or prohibited by low level of available light.

  8. Vortex-augmented cooling tower - windmill combination

    DOEpatents

    McAllister, J.E. Jr.

    1982-09-02

    A cooling tower for cooling large quantities of effluent water from a production facility by utilizing natural wind forces includes the use of a series of helically directed air inlet passages extending outwardly from the base of the tower to introduce air from any direction in a swirling vortical pattern while the force of the draft created in the tower makes it possible to place conventional power generating windmills in the air passage to provide power as a by-product.

  9. Hidden Outgassing Dynamics at Kilauea (Hawaii) Lava Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Bello, E.; Taddeucci, J.; Orr, T. R.; Houghton, B. F.; Scarlato, P.; Patrick, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Lava lakes offer unique opportunities for understanding how magmatic volatiles physically escape from low-viscosity, vesicular magma in open-vent conditions, a process often referred to as magma outgassing. Large-scale lava convection movements and meter-scale bubble explosions, sometimes triggered by rock falls, are acknowledged outgassing processes but may not be the only ones. In 2013 we used high-frequency (50-500 Hz) thermal and visible imaging to investigate the short-timescale dynamics of the currently active Halema`uma`u lava lake. At that time, besides the dominant release of large bubbles, three types of peculiar outgassing features were observed on the lava lake surface. The first, diffusely observed throughout the observation experiment, consisted of prolonged (up to seconds) gas venting from 'spot vents'. These vents appeared to open and close without the ejection of material or bubble bursting, and were the site of hot gas emission. Spot vents were located both between and inside cooling plates, and followed the general circulation pattern together with the rest of the lava lake surface. The second feature, observed only once, consisted of the transient wobbling of the whole lava lake surface. This wobbling, with a wavelength of meters to tens of meters, was not related to any external trigger, and dampened soon without apparent consequences on the other lake dynamics. Finally, we observed large (meters) doming areas of the lake surface randomly fluctuating over seconds to minutes. These areas were either stationary or moved independently of the general lake surface circulation, and usually were not affected by other lake surface features (e.g., cooling plate boundaries). These three features, though trivial for the overall lake outgassing, testify that the lava lake has a complex shallow subsurface architecture, in which permeable channels and gas pockets act independently of the more common bubble bursts.

  10. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    DOEpatents

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  11. Debris trap in a turbine cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Ian David

    2002-01-01

    In a turbine having a rotor and a plurality of stages, each stage comprising a row of buckets mounted on the rotor for rotation therewith; and wherein the buckets of at least one of the stages are cooled by steam, the improvement comprising at least one axially extending cooling steam supply conduit communicating with an at least partially annular steam supply manifold; one or more axially extending cooling steam feed tubes connected to the manifold at a location radially outwardly of the cooling steam supply conduit, the feed tubes arranged to supply cooling steam to the buckets of at least one of the plurality of stages; the manifold extending radially beyond the feed tubes to thereby create a debris trap region for collecting debris under centrifugal loading caused by rotation of the rotor.

  12. Digital Bathymetric Model of Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raumann, Christian G.; Stine, Scott; Evans, Alexander; Wilson, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    In 1986 and 1987, Pelagos Corporation of San Diego (now Racal Pelagos) undertook a bathymetric survey of Mono Lake in eastern California for the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (DWP). The result of that survey was a series of maps at various scales and contour intervals. From these maps, the DWP hoped to predict consequences of the drop in lake level that resulted from their diversion of streams in the Mono Basin. No digital models, including shaded-relief and perspective-view renderings, were made from the data collected during the survey. With the permission of Pelagos Corporation and DWP, these data are used to produce a digital model of the floor of Mono Lake. The model was created using a geographic information system (GIS) to incorporate these data with new observations and measurements made in the field. This model should prove to be a valuable tool for enhanced visualization and analyses of the floor of Mono Lake.

  13. Effects of the 1980 eruption of Mount St Helens on the limnological characteristics of selected lakes in western Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Embrey, S.S.; Dion, N.P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens provided the opportunity to study its effect on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of lakes near the volcano, and to describe two newly created lakes. Concentrations of dissolved solids and organic carbon, measured in June 1980, had increased from 2 to 30 times those observed in the 1970 's in Spirit, St. Helens, and Venus Lakes. Water in the lakes was altered from preeruption calcium-bicarbonate types to calcium-sulfate, calcium sulfate-chloride, or lake surface, as in St. Helens Lake; transparency in Venus Lake had improved to a depth of 24 ft by 1982. Spirit Lake was anoxic into fall 1980, but had reaerated to 5.2 mg/L of dissolved oxygen by May 1981. Phytoplankton communities in existing lakes in the blast zone in 1980 were primarily green and bluegreen algae; diatoms were sparse until summer 1982. Small numbers of zooplankton in Spirit, St. Helens, and Venus Lakes, compared to numbers in Walupt and Fawn Lakes, may indicate some post-eruption mortality. Rotifers were absent from lakes in the blast zone, but by 1981 were observed in all the lakes. The recovery of the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the lakes will depend on stabilization of the surrounding environment and biological processes within each lake. Excluding Spirit Lake, it is estimated that St. Helens Lake would be the slowest to recover and Venus Lake the fastest. (USGS)

  14. Grand Canyon, Lake Powell, and Lake Mead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A snowfall in the American West provides contrast to the landscape's muted earth tones and indicates changes in topography and elevation across (clockwise from top left) Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. In Utah, the southern ranges of the Wasatch Mountains are covered in snow, and the Colorado River etches a dark ribbon across the red rock of the Colorado Plateau. In the center of the image is the reservoir created by the Glen Canyon Dam. To the east are the gray-colored slopes of Navaho Mountain, and to the southeast, dusted with snow is the region called Black Mesa. Southwest of Glen Canyon, the Colorado enters the Grand Canyon, which cuts westward through Arizona. At a deep bend in the river, the higher elevations of the Keibab Plateau have held onto snow. At the end of the Grand Canyon lies another large reservoir, Lake Mead, which is formed by the Hoover Dam. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  15. Silica Extraction at Mammoth Lakes, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, W; Ralph, W; Johnson, M; Bruton, C; Gutierrez, P

    2006-06-07

    The purpose of this project is to develop a cost-effective method to extract marketable silica (SiO{sub 2}) from fluids at the Mammoth Lakes, California geothermal power plant. Silica provides an additional revenue source for the geothermal power industry and therefore lowers the costs of geothermal power production. The use of this type of ''solution mining'' to extract resources eliminates the need for acquiring these resources through energy intensive and environmentally damaging mining technologies. We have demonstrated that both precipitated and colloidal silica can be produced from the geothermal fluids at Mammoth Lakes by first concentrating the silica to over 600 ppm using reverse osmosis (RO). The RO permeate can be used in evaporative cooling at the plant; the RO concentrate is used for silica and potentially other resource extraction (Li, Cs, Rb). Preliminary results suggest that silica recovery at Mammoth Lakes could reduce the cost of geothermal electricity production by 1.0 cents/kWh.

  16. Mitigation alternatives for L Lake. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.B.

    1988-11-03

    L-Lake was built in 1985 to receive and cool the thermal effluents from the L-Reactor. The lake was constructed by impounding approximately 7 km of the upper portions of Steel Creek to form a 1000-acre reservoir. Dam construction and reservoir filling were completed in October 1985 and L-Reactor resumed operations at the end of the same month. Since 1985, this system has been developing a biological community comprised of representatives of all trophic levels. The system is impacted by both temperature from the operating reactor and nutrient inputs from the Savannah River ecosystem. A preliminary evaluation of the technical and monetary feasibilities of a number of thermal and/or nutrient mitigation alternatives for the L-Lake ecosystem has been performed by the Ecology Group of SRL/ESD. This report is a summary of the alternatives considered and their applicability.

  17. Stable isotope (O and C) and pollen trends in eastern Lake Erie, evidence for a locally-induced climatic reversal of Younger Dryas age in the Great Lakes basin

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.F.M.; Anderson, T.W.

    1992-01-01

    A cool period from about 11000 to 10500 BP (11 to 10.5 ka) is recognized in pollen records from the southern Great Lakes area by the return of Picea and Abies dominance and by the persistence of herbs. The area of cooling appears centred on the Upper Great Lakes. A high-resolution record (ca. 9 mm/y) from a borehole in eastern Lake Erie reveals, in the same time interval, this pollen anomaly, isotope evidence of melt-water presence (a-3 per mil shift in {delta} {sup 18}O and a + 1.1 per mil shift in {delta}{sup 13}C), increased sand, and reduced detrital calcite content, all suggesting concurrent cooling of Lake Erie. The onset of cooling is mainly attributed to the effect of enhanced meltwater inflow on the relatively large upstream Main Lake Agassiz. Termination of the cooling coincides with drainage of Lake Algonquin, and is attributed to loss of its cooling effectiveness associated with a substantial reduction in its surface area. It is hypothesized that that the cold extra in-flow effectively prolonged the seasonal presence of lake ice and the period of spring overturn in Lake Algonquin. The deep mixing would have greatly increased the thermal conductive capacity of this extensive lake, causing suppression of summer surface lakewater temperatures and reduction of onshore growing-degree days. Alternatively, a rapid flow of meltwater, buoyed on sediment-charged (denser) lakewater, may have kept the lake surface cold in summer. Other factors such as wind-shifted pollen deposition and possible effects from the Younger Dryas North Atlantic cooling could have contributed to the Great Lakes climatic reversal, but further studies are needed to resolve their relative significance. 51 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Is History Repeating Itself at Lubicon Lake?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloutier, Joe

    1988-01-01

    Shows impact of industrial development and public policies since 1899 upon Cree Indians at Lubicon Lake, Alberta, Canada. Details development-related destruction of Indian culture and economic base, creating welfare society. Reports Crees' 1987 protest of Calgary Olympics. Calls for educators to broaden and deepen approach to history and cultural…

  19. Adiabatic cooling of antiprotons.

    PubMed

    Gabrielse, G; Kolthammer, W S; McConnell, R; Richerme, P; Kalra, R; Novitski, E; Grzonka, D; Oelert, W; Sefzick, T; Zielinski, M; Fitzakerley, D; George, M C; Hessels, E A; Storry, C H; Weel, M; Müllers, A; Walz, J

    2011-02-18

    Adiabatic cooling is shown to be a simple and effective method to cool many charged particles in a trap to very low temperatures. Up to 3×10(6) p are cooled to 3.5 K-10(3) times more cold p and a 3 times lower p temperature than previously reported. A second cooling method cools p plasmas via the synchrotron radiation of embedded e(-) (with many fewer e(-) than p in preparation for adiabatic cooling. No p are lost during either process-a significant advantage for rare particles. PMID:21405511

  20. Adiabatic Cooling of Antiprotons

    SciTech Connect

    Gabrielse, G.; Kolthammer, W. S.; McConnell, R.; Richerme, P.; Kalra, R.; Novitski, E.; Oelert, W.; Grzonka, D.; Sefzick, T.; Zielinski, M.; Fitzakerley, D.; George, M. C.; Hessels, E. A.; Storry, C. H.; Weel, M.; Muellers, A.; Walz, J.

    2011-02-18

    Adiabatic cooling is shown to be a simple and effective method to cool many charged particles in a trap to very low temperatures. Up to 3x10{sup 6} p are cooled to 3.5 K--10{sup 3} times more cold p and a 3 times lower p temperature than previously reported. A second cooling method cools p plasmas via the synchrotron radiation of embedded e{sup -} (with many fewer e{sup -} than p) in preparation for adiabatic cooling. No p are lost during either process--a significant advantage for rare particles.

  1. Creating Special Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deLisle, Lee

    2009-01-01

    "Creating Special Events" is organized as a systematic approach to festivals and events for students who seek a career in event management. This book looks at the evolution and history of festivals and events and proceeds to the nuts and bolts of event management. The book presents event management as the means of planning, organizing, directing,…

  2. Creating Photo Illustrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Bradley

    2003-01-01

    Explains the uses of photo illustrations. Notes that the key to developing a successful photo illustration is collaborative planning. Outlines the following guidelines for photo illustrations: never set up a photograph to mimic reality; create only abstractions with photo illustrations; clearly label photo illustrations; and never play photo…

  3. Creating Happy Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Denise Jarrett

    2001-01-01

    Some teachers are building and sharing their wisdom and know-how through lesson study, in the process creating memorable learning experiences for students and for each other. This paper describes how lesson study can transform teaching and how schools are implementing lesson study. A sidebar presents questions to consider in lesson study. (SM)

  4. Creating dedicated bioenergy crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioenergy is one of the current mechanisms of producing renewable energy to reduce our use of nonrenewable fossil fuels and to reduce carbon emissions into the atmosphere. Humans have been using bioenergy since we first learned to create and control fire - burning manure, peat, and wood to cook food...

  5. Create a Critter Collector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinchey, Elizabeth K.; Nestlerode, Janet A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents methods for creating appropriate ways of collecting live specimens to use for firsthand observation in the classroom. Suggests ecological questions for students to address using these devices. This project is ideal for schools that have access to piers or bridges on a coastal body of water. (NB)

  6. Creating a Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazimirski, J.; And Others

    The second in a series of programmed books, "Creating a Market" is published by the International Labour Office as a manual for persons studying marketing. This manual was designed to meet the needs of the labor organization's technical cooperation programs and is primarily concerned with consumer goods industries. Using a fill-in-the-blanks and…

  7. Looking, Writing, Creating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzive, Bonnie

    1997-01-01

    Describes how a middle school language arts teacher makes analyzing and creating visual art a partner to reading and writing in her classroom. Describes a project on art and Vietnam which shows how background information can add to and influence interpretation. Describes a unit on Greek mythology and Greek vases which leads to a related visual…

  8. Creating Dialogue by Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passila, Anne; Oikarinen, Tuija; Kallio, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to develop practice and theory from Augusto Boal's dialogue technique (Image Theatre) for organisational use. The paper aims to examine how the members in an organisation create dialogue together by using a dramaturgical storytelling framework where the dialogue emerges from storytelling facilitated by…

  9. Create Your State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Kris; Melvin, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    Students are often encouraged to work together with their classmates, sometimes with other classes, occasionally with kids at other schools, but rarely with kids across the country. In this article the authors describe the Create Your State project, a collaborative nationwide project inspired by the Texas Chair Project wherein the artist, Damien…

  10. Creating Pupils' Internet Magazine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bognar, Branko; Šimic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an action research, which aimed to improve pupils' literary creativity and enable them to use computers connected to the internet. The study was conducted in a small district village school in Croatia. Creating a pupils' internet magazine appeared to be an excellent way for achieving the educational aims of almost all…

  11. Creating an Interactive Globe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Kurt D.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a hands-on geography activity that is designed to teach longitude and latitude to fifth-grade students. Children create a scale model of the earth from a 300 gram weather balloon. This activity incorporates geography, mathematics, science, art, and homework. Provides information for obtaining materials. (KO)

  12. How Banks Create Money.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Lyndi

    This teaching module explains how the U.S. banking system uses excess reserves to create money in the form of new deposits for borrowers. The module is part of a computer-animated series of four-to-five-minute modules illustrating standard concepts in high school economics. Although the module is designed to accompany the video program, it may be…

  13. Creating Quality Media Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hortin, John A.; Bailey, Gerald D.

    1982-01-01

    Innovation, imagination, and student creativity are key ingredients in creating quality media materials for the small school. Student-produced media materials, slides without a camera, personalized slide programs and copy work, self-made task cards, self-made overhead transparencies, graphic materials, and utilization of the mass media are some of…

  14. Creating a Reference Toolbox.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Jane

    1997-01-01

    To help students understand that references are tools used to locate specific information, one librarian has her third-grade students create their own reference toolboxes as she introduces dictionaries, atlases, encyclopedias, and thesauri. Presents a lesson plan to introduce print and nonprint thesauri to third and fourth graders and includes a…

  15. Creating a Classroom Makerspace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivas, Luz

    2014-01-01

    What is a makerspace? Makerspaces are community-operated physical spaces where people (makers) create do-it-yourself projects together. These membership spaces serve as community labs where people learn together and collaborate on projects. Makerspaces often have tools and equipment like 3-D printers, laser cutters, and soldering irons.…

  16. Creating a Virtual Gymnasium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorentino, Leah H.; Castelli, Darla

    2005-01-01

    Physical educators struggle with the challenges of assessing student performance, providing feedback about motor skills, and creating opportunities for all students to engage in game-play on a daily basis. The integration of technology in the gymnasium can address some of these challenges by improving teacher efficiency and increasing student…

  17. Creating an Interactive PDF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branzburg, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    There are many ways to begin a PDF document using Adobe Acrobat. The easiest and most popular way is to create the document in another application (such as Microsoft Word) and then use the Adobe Acrobat software to convert it to a PDF. In this article, the author describes how he used Acrobat's many tools in his project--an interactive…

  18. Creating Quality Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

    This booklet presents information on how total quality management can be applied to school systems to create educational improvement. Total quality management offers education a systemic approach and a new set of assessment tools. Chapter 1 provides a definition and historical overview of total quality management. Chapter 2 views the school…

  19. Turbine airfoil with an internal cooling system having vortex forming turbulators

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ching-Pang

    2014-12-30

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels having a plurality of turbulators protruding from an inner surface and positioned generally nonorthogonal and nonparallel to a longitudinal axis of the airfoil cooling channel. The configuration of turbulators may create a higher internal convective cooling potential for the blade cooling passage, thereby generating a high rate of internal convective heat transfer and attendant improvement in overall cooling performance. This translates into a reduction in cooling fluid demand and better turbine performance.

  20. Lake Nasser and Toshka Lakes, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Nasser (center) and the Toshka Lakes (center left) glow emerald green and black in this MODIS true-color image acquired March 8, 2002. Located on and near the border of Egypt and Norther Sudan, these lakes are an oasis of water in between the Nubian (lower right) and Libyan Deserts (upper left). Also visible are the Red Sea (in the upper right) and the Nile River (running north from Lake Nasser). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  1. GloboLakes: A global observatory of lake responses to environmental change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groom, Steve; Tyler, Andrew; Hunter, Peter; Spyrakos, Evangelos; Martinez-Vicente, Victor; Merchant, Chris; Cutler, Mark; Rowan, John; Dawson, Terry; Maberly, Stephen; Cavalho, Laurence; Elliot, Alex; Thackery, Stephen; Miller, Claire; Scott, Marian

    2014-05-01

    The world's freshwater ecosystems are vital components of the global biosphere, yet are vulnerable to climate and other human-induced change. There is increasing recognition that lakes play an important role in global biogeochemical cycling and provide key ecosystem services. However, our understanding of how lakes respond to environmental change at a global scale, and how this impacts on their status and function, is hampered by limited information on their chemical, physical and ecological condition. There are estimated to be over 300 million lakes globally, of which over 17,000 are greater than 10 km2 in surface area. These numbers have limited the systematic study of lake ecosystems. GloboLakes is a five-year UK research programme investigating the state of lakes and their response to climatic and other environmental drivers of change. It will establish a satellite-based observatory with archive and near-real time data processing to produce a time series of observed biogeochemical parameters and lake temperature for over 1000 lakes globally. This will be supported by linked ancillary data on climate and catchment land-use. The ability to monitor a large number of lakes consistently at high frequency and globally will facilitate a paradigm shift in our understanding of how lakes respond to environmental change at different spatial and temporal scales. A key requirement is to validate satellite retrieval algorithms and test the time-series of resulting lake properties such as chlorophyll-a by comparison with in situ data. To support the former extensive bio-optical and constituent data were taken in year 1 of the project in a number of UK lakes with a variety of trophic states. Furthermore, for wider validation activities GloboLakes has established the LIMNADES initiative to create a centralised database of ground bio-optical measurements of worldwide lakes through voluntary cooperation across the international scientific community. This presentation will

  2. Forecasting Lake-Effect Precipitation in the Great Lakes Region Using NASA Enhanced-Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cipullo, Michelle; Molthan, Andrew; Shafer, Jackie; Case, Jonathan; Jedlovec, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Lake-effect precipitation is common in the Great Lakes region, particularly during the late fall and winter. The synoptic processes of lake-effect precipitation are well understood by operational forecasters, but individual forecast events still present a challenge. Locally run, high resolution models can assist the forecaster in identifying the onset and duration of precipitation, but model results are sensitive to initial conditions, particularly the assumed surface temperature of the Great Lakes. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has created a Great Lakes Surface Temperature (GLST) composite, which uses infrared estimates of water temperatures obtained from the MODIS instrument aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites, other coarser resolution infrared data when MODIS is not available, and ice cover maps produced by the NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab (GLERL). This product has been implemented into the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model Environmental Modeling System (WRF-EMS), used within forecast offices to run local, high resolution forecasts. The sensitivity of the model forecast to the GLST product was analyzed with a case study of the Lake Effect Storm Echinacea, which produced 10 to 12 inches of snowfall downwind of Lake Erie, and 8 to 18 inches downwind of Lake Ontario from 27-29 January 2010. This research compares a forecast using the default Great Lakes surface temperatures from the Real Time Global sea surface temperature (RTG SST), in the WRF-EMS model to the enhanced NASA SPoRT GLST product to study forecast impacts. Results from this case study show that the SPoRT GLST contained less ice cover over Lake Erie and generally cooler water temperatures over Lakes Erie and Ontario. Latent and sensible heat fluxes over Lake Ontario were decreased in the GLST product. The GLST product decreased the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF), which can be correlated to the decrease in temperatures and heat

  3. Environmental changes on the Balkans recorded in the sediments from lakes Prespa and Ohrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, B.; Vogel, H.; Zanchetta, G.; Sulpizio, R.

    2010-05-01

    Lakes Prespa and Ohrid on the Balkans are considered to be amongst the oldest lakes in Europe. Both lakes are hydraulically connected via karst aquifers. From Lake Ohrid, several up to ca. 15 m long sediment records were studied during the past years. In this study, a first long sediment record from Lake Prespa was studied in order to shed more light on the influence of Lake Prespa on Lake Ohrid and the environmental history of the region. Radiocarbon dating and the occurrence of 3 dated tephra layers provide a good age control and indicate that the 10.5 m long sediment record reaches back to 48 ka. The comparison of the results from this study with those from former studies of the Lake Ohrid cores indicates that Lake Prespa is more susceptible to environmental changes due to its lower volume and water depth. Glacial sedimentation is characterized by low organic matter contents and absence of carbonates in the sediments, which indicate oligotrophic conditions in both lakes. Holocene sedimentation is characterized by particularly high carbonate contents in Lake Ohrid and by particularly high organic matter contents in Lake Prespa, which indicate a shift towards more mesotrophic conditions in the latter. Long-term environmental changes and short-term events, such as the Heinrich events during the Pleistocene or the 8.2 cooling event during the Holocene, are well recorded in both lakes, but partly expressed in different proxies.

  4. Liquid-Cooled Garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A liquid-cooled bra, offshoot of Apollo moon suit technology, aids the cancer-detection technique known as infrared thermography. Water flowing through tubes in the bra cools the skin surface to improve resolution of thermograph image.

  5. Liquid cooled garments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Liquid cooled garments employed in several applications in which severe heat is encountered are discussed. In particular, the use of the garments to replace air line cooling units in a variety of industrial processing situations is discussed.

  6. Debuncher cooling performance

    SciTech Connect

    Derwent, P.F.; McGinnis, David; Pasquinelli, Ralph; Vander Meulen, David; Werkema, Steven; /Fermilab

    2005-11-01

    We present measurements of the Fermilab Debuncher momentum and transverse cooling systems. These systems use liquid helium cooled waveguide pickups and slotted waveguide kickers covering the frequency range 4-8 GHz.

  7. Debuncher Cooling Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Derwent, P. F.; McGinnis, David; Pasquinelli, Ralph; Vander Meulen, David; Werkema, Steven

    2006-03-20

    We present measurements of the Fermilab Debuncher momentum and transverse cooling systems. These systems use liquid helium cooled waveguide pickups and slotted waveguide kickers covering the frequency range 4-8 GHz.

  8. Gas-cooled nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peinado, Charles O.; Koutz, Stanley L.

    1985-01-01

    A gas-cooled nuclear reactor includes a central core located in the lower portion of a prestressed concrete reactor vessel. Primary coolant gas flows upward through the core and into four overlying heat-exchangers wherein stream is generated. During normal operation, the return flow of coolant is between the core and the vessel sidewall to a pair of motor-driven circulators located at about the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel. The circulators repressurize the gas coolant and return it back to the core through passageways in the underlying core structure. If during emergency conditions the primary circulators are no longer functioning, the decay heat is effectively removed from the core by means of natural convection circulation. The hot gas rising through the core exits the top of the shroud of the heat-exchangers and flows radially outward to the sidewall of the concrete pressure vessel. A metal liner covers the entire inside concrete surfaces of the concrete pressure vessel, and cooling tubes are welded to the exterior or concrete side of the metal liner. The gas coolant is in direct contact with the interior surface of the metal liner and transfers its heat through the metal liner to the liquid coolant flowing through the cooling tubes. The cooler gas is more dense and creates a downward convection flow in the region between the core and the sidewall until it reaches the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel when it flows radially inward and up into the core for another pass. Water is forced to flow through the cooling tubes to absorb heat from the core at a sufficient rate to remove enough of the decay heat created in the core to prevent overheating of the core or the vessel.

  9. Utah: Salt Lake Region

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region     View Larger Image Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the ...

  10. Lakes Ecosystem Services Online

    EPA Science Inventory

    Northeastern lakes provide valuable ecosystem services that benefit residents and visitors and are increasingly important for provisioning of recreational opportunities and amenities. Concurrently, however, population growth threatens lakes by, for instance, increasing nutrient ...

  11. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.; Eckert, Thomas H.; Schaner, Ted; Bowlby, James N.; Schleen, Larry P.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to maintain the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Ontario by stocking fry failed and the species was extirpated by the 1950s. Hatchery fish stocked in the 1960s did not live to maturity because of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation and incidental commercial harvest. Suppression of sea lampreys began with larvicide treatments of Lake Ontario tributaries in 1971 and was enhanced when the tributaries of Oneida Lake and Lake Erie were treated in the 1980s. Annual stocking of hatchery fish was resumed with the 1972 year class and peaked at about 1.8 million yearlings and 0.3 million fingerlings from the 1985–1990 year classes. Survival of stocked yearlings declined over 50% in the 1980 s and was negatively correlated with the abundance of lake trout > 550 mm long (r = −0.91, P < 0.01, n = 12). A slot length limit imposed by the State of New York for the 1988 fishing season reduced angler harvest. Angler harvest in Canadian waters was 3 times higher in eastern Lake Ontario than in western Lake Ontario. For the 1977–1984 year classes, mean annual survival rate of lake trout age 6 and older was 0.45 (range: 0.35–0.56). In U.S. waters during 1985–1992, the total number of lake trout harvested by anglers was about 2.4 times greater than that killed by sea lampreys. The number of unmarked lake trout < 250 mm long in trawl catches in 1978–1992 was not different from that expected due to loss of marks and failure to apply marks at the hatchery, and suggested that recruitment of naturally-produced fish was nil. However, many of the obstacles which may have impeded lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario during the 1980s are slowly being removed, and there are signs of a general ecosystem recovery. Significant recruitment of naturally produced lake trout by the year 2000, one interim objective of the rehabilitation plan for the Lake, may be achieved.

  12. Radial turbine cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelke, Richard J.

    The technology of high temperature cooled radial turbines is reviewed. Aerodynamic performance considerations are described. Heat transfer and structural analysis are addressed, and in doing so the following topics are covered: cooling considerations, hot side convection, coolant side convection, and rotor mechanical analysis. Cooled rotor concepts and fabrication are described, and the following are covered in this context: internally cooled rotor, hot isostatic pressure bonded rotor, laminated rotor, split blade rotor, and the NASA radial turbine program.

  13. Radial turbine cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    The technology of high temperature cooled radial turbines is reviewed. Aerodynamic performance considerations are described. Heat transfer and structural analysis are addressed, and in doing so the following topics are covered: cooling considerations, hot side convection, coolant side convection, and rotor mechanical analysis. Cooled rotor concepts and fabrication are described, and the following are covered in this context: internally cooled rotor, hot isostatic pressure bonded rotor, laminated rotor, split blade rotor, and the NASA radial turbine program.

  14. Data center cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Chainer, Timothy J; Dang, Hien P; Parida, Pritish R; Schultz, Mark D; Sharma, Arun

    2015-03-17

    A data center cooling system may include heat transfer equipment to cool a liquid coolant without vapor compression refrigeration, and the liquid coolant is used on a liquid cooled information technology equipment rack housed in the data center. The system may also include a controller-apparatus to regulate the liquid coolant flow to the liquid cooled information technology equipment rack through a range of liquid coolant flow values based upon information technology equipment temperature thresholds.

  15. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    SciTech Connect

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony; Saldana, Christopher J.; Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John; Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  16. Thermal ecology of Naegleria fowleri from a power plant cooling reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Huizinga, H.W. ); McLaughlin, G.L. )

    1990-07-01

    The pathogenic, free-living amoeba Naegleria fowleri is the causative agent of human primary amebic meningoencephalitis. N. fowleri has been isolated from thermally elevated aquatic environments worldwide, but temperature factors associated with occurrence of the amoeba remain undefined. In this study, a newly created cooling reservoir (Clinton Lake, Illinois) was surveyed for Naegleria spp. before and after thermal additions from a nuclear power plant. Water and sediment samples were collected from heated and unheated arms of the reservoir and analyzed for the presence of thermophilic Naegleria spp. and pathogenic N. fowleri. Amoebae were identified by morphology, in vitro cultivation, temperature tolerance, mouse pathogenicity assay, and DNA restriction fragment length analysis. N. fowleri was isolated from the thermally elevated arm but not from the ambient-temperature arm of the reservoir. The probability of isolating thermophilic Naegleria and pathogenic N. fowleri increased significantly with temperature. Repetitive DNA restriction fragment profiles of the N. fowleri Clinton Lake isolates and a known N. fowleri strain of human origin were homogeneous.

  17. Controlled Rate Cooling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlled-rate cooling is one of several techniques available for the long-term storage of plants in liquid nitrogen. In this technique samples are slowly cooled to an intermediate temperature and then plunged in liquid nitrogen. Controlled rate cooling is based on osmotic regulation of cell conte...

  18. Stochastic cooling in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan,J.M.; Blaskiewicz, M. M.; Severino, F.

    2009-05-04

    After the success of longitudinal stochastic cooling of bunched heavy ion beam in RHIC, transverse stochastic cooling in the vertical plane of Yellow ring was installed and is being commissioned with proton beam. This report presents the status of the effort and gives an estimate, based on simulation, of the RHIC luminosity with stochastic cooling in all planes.

  19. Creating Geoscience Leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buskop, J.; Buskop, W.

    2013-12-01

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization recognizes 21 World Heritage in the United States, ten of which have astounding geological features: Wrangell St. Elias National Park, Olympic National Park, Mesa Verde National Park, Chaco Canyon, Glacier National Park, Carlsbad National Park, Mammoth Cave, Great Smokey Mountains National Park, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, and Everglades National Park. Created by a student frustrated with fellow students addicted to smart phones with an extreme lack of interest in the geosciences, one student visited each World Heritage site in the United States and created one e-book chapter per park. Each chapter was created with original photographs, and a geological discovery hunt to encourage teen involvement in preserving remarkable geological sites. Each chapter describes at least one way young adults can get involved with the geosciences, such a cave geology, glaciology, hydrology, and volcanology. The e-book describes one park per chapter, each chapter providing a geological discovery hunt, information on how to get involved with conservation of the parks, geological maps of the parks, parallels between archaeological and geological sites, and how to talk to a ranger. The young author is approaching UNESCO to publish the work as a free e-book to encourage involvement in UNESCO sites and to prove that the geosciences are fun.

  20. Cooling apparatus for water-cooled engines

    SciTech Connect

    Fujikawa, T.; Tamba, S.

    1986-05-20

    A cooling apparatus is described for a water-cooled internal combustion engine including a shaft that rotates when the engine is running, the apparatus comprising a centrifugal fan adapted to be connected to and rotated by the shaft, the fan having an intake air port and a discharge air opening, a rotary screen adapted to be operatively connected to and rotated by the shaft, the screen being disposed in the intake air port, a cooling radiator, a spiral-shaped duct connecting the radiator with the discharge air opening, and separating means on the duct, the separating means comprising an opening formed in the outer wall of the duct.

  1. Lake Layers: Stratification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brothers, Chris; And Others

    This teacher guide and student workbook set contains two learning activities, designed for fifth through ninth grade students, that concentrate on lake stratification and water quality. In the activities students model the seasonal temperature changes that occur in temperate lakes and observe the resulting stratification of lake waters. Students…

  2. Great Lakes: Chemical Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfino, Joseph J.

    1976-01-01

    The Tenth Great Lakes Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society met to assess current Chemical Research activity in the Great Lakes Basin, and addressed to the various aspects of the theme, Chemistry of the Great Lakes. Research areas reviewed included watershed studies, atmospheric and aquatic studies, and sediment studies. (BT)

  3. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This book contains lesson plans that provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into elementary subjects. The book is divided into three subject areas: (1) History, which includes the origins of the Great Lakes, Great Lakes people, and shipwrecks; (2) Social Studies, which covers government, acid rain as a…

  4. A Killer Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In 1986, Lake Nyos, a volcanic lake in Cameroon, released a huge amount of carbon dioxide gas, killing over 1,700 people in the surrounding area. This case study, developed for use in a limnology or aquatic biology course, explores that event, introducing students to concepts relating to lake formation, thermal stratification, and dissolved gases.…

  5. Lake Effects: The Lake Superior Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beery, Tom; And Others

    This curriculum guide was launched in response to a need for Lake Superior-specific educational materials and contains lessons and activities that can be used to teach about Lake Superior. The lessons in this book are divided into four sections. Each of the first three sections has a background section that provides basic information about Lake…

  6. Great Lakes rivermouths: a primer for managers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Between the North American Great Lakes and their tributaries are the places where the confluence of river and lake waters creates a distinct ecosystem: the rivermouth ecosystem. Human development has often centered around these rivermouths, in part, because they provide a rich array of ecosystem services. Not surprisingly, centuries of intense human activity have led to substantial pressures on, and alterations to, these ecosystems, often diminishing or degrading their ecological functions and associated ecological services. Many Great Lakes rivermouths are the focus of intense restoration efforts. For example, 36 of the active Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) are rivermouths or areas that include one or more rivermouths. Historically, research of rivermouth ecosystems has been piecemeal, focused on the Great Lakes proper or on the upper reaches of tributaries, with little direct study of the rivermouth itself. Researchers have been divided among disciplines, agencies and institutions; and they often work independently and use disparate venues to communicate their work. Management has also been fragmented with a focus on smaller, localized, sub-habitat units and socio-political or economic elements, rather than system-level consideration. This Primer presents the case for a more holistic approach to rivermouth science and management that can enable restoration of ecosystem services with multiple benefits to humans and the Great Lakes ecosystem. A conceptual model is presented with supporting text that describes the structures and processes common to all rivermouths, substantiating the case for treating these ecosystems as an identifiable class.1 Ecological services provided by rivermouths and changes in how humans value those services over time are illustrated through case studies of two Great Lakes rivermouths—the St. Louis River and the Maumee River. Specific ecosystem services are identified in italics throughout this Primer and follow definitions described

  7. Ice Regime and Melt-out Timing Cause Divergent Hydrologic Responses among Arctic Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondurant, A.; Arp, C. D.; Jones, B. M.; Liljedahl, A. K.; Hinkel, K. M.; Welker, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Lakes are prevalent in the Arctic and thus play a key role in regional hydrology. Because many lakes are shallow and ice grows thick (historically 2-m or greater), lakes often freeze solid (bedfast ice) and this condition fundamentally alters lake energy balance and melt-out processes compared to deeper lakes with perennial liquid water below floating ice. Our analysis of lakes in northern Alaska indicated that ice-off in bedfast ice lakes occurred on average 17 days earlier (22-June) than ice-off in adjacent floating ice lakes (9-July). Earlier melt in bedfast ice lakes caused higher open-water evaporation, 28 % on average, relative to floating ice lakes and this divergence increased in lakes closer to the coast and in cooler summers. Specific conductivity and water isotopes (18O and 2H) indicated similar differences in evaporation between these lake types. Our analysis suggests that ice regimes and associated ice-out timing currently create a strong hydrologic divergence among Arctic lakes, which makes understanding the distribution and dynamics of lakes by ice regime essential for predicting regional hydrology. An observed trend towards more floating ice lakes due to thinner ice growth may initially offset lake drying because of lower evaporative loss from this lake type. This potential negative feedback caused by winter processes is in spite of an overall projected increase in evapotranspiration as the Arctic climate warms. The unusually warm spring observed in 2015 caused much earlier lake ice-out throughout Arctic Alaska, thus providing perfect conditions to test these hypotheses concerning differential lake hydrologic responses.

  8. Right-Size Heating and Cooling Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-01-01

    This is one of a series of technology fact sheets created to help housing designers and builders adopt a whole-house design approach and energy efficient design practices. The fact sheet helps people choose the correct equipment size for heating and cooling to improve comfort and reduce costs, maintenance, and energy use.

  9. Heating and cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Imig, L.A.; Gardner, M.R.

    1982-08-01

    A heating and cooling apparatus capable of cyclic heating and cooling of a test specimen undergoing fatigue testing is discussed. Cryogenic fluid is passed through a block clamped to the speciment to cool the block and the specimen. Heating cartridges penetrate the block to heat the block and the specimen to very hot temperaures. Control apparatus is provided to alternatively activate the cooling and heating modes to effect cyclic heating and cooling between very hot and very cold temperatures. The block is constructed of minimal mass to facilitate the rapid temperature changes. Official Gazette of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

  10. Cooling water distribution system

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  11. Projecting Future Water Availability in the Great Lakes Megalopolis: Reconstructing Lake Michigan-Huron Lake Level and Regional Hydroclimate Using Tree Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to accurately predict water availability in the cities surrounding Lake Michigan-Huron becomes particularly difficult when the uncertain effects of climate change, such as changes in precipitation patterns and evaporation rates, are considered. Lake level reconstructions provide useful model inputs to better predict this availability. Annual tree-ring widths have been successfully utilized in reconstructions of lake levels in the Great Lakes region via the creation of proxy datasets of temperature and precipitation that are then input into a multilinear regression model to reconstruct annual average lake level. Here, the combination of this approach with analysis of instrumental records of precipitation and stream flow input allows for a more comprehensive understanding of regional hydroclimate and improved projection of future water resource availability. Annual tree-ring widths of cores collected from four old-growth forests near southern Lake Michigan were combined with over 30 archived tree-ring width chronologies from the Great Lakes region and used to create proxy datasets of temperature and precipitation. A multilinear regression model related these proxy variables to Lake Michigan-Huron lake level and stream flow of the Saint Clair River, which flows into Lake Michigan-Huron, for the period of available instrumental record (1860-present). When possible, the available tree-ring widths were used to reconstruct these variables for years prior to the instrumental record. Timing and severity of rainfall events were also analyzed to identify spatial and temporal patterns and their variability over time. The combination of updated tree-ring width chronologies, chronologies from newly sampled sites, and instrumental records of various indicators of water availability provides novel and valuable insight into the future lake level of Lake Michigan-Huron.

  12. Lake Granbury and Lake Whitney Assessment Initiative Final Scientific/Technical Report Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, B. L.; Roelke, Daniel; Brooks, Bryan; Grover, James

    2010-10-11

    . Our numerical modeling results support the idea that cyanobacteria, through allelopathy, control the timing of golden algae blooms in Lake Granbury. The in-lake experiments in Lake Whitney and Lake Waco also revealed that as golden algae blooms develop, there are natural enemies (a species of rotifer, and a virus) that help slow the population growth. Again, better characterization of these organisms is a high priority as it may be key to managing golden algae blooms. Our laboratory and in-lake experiments and field monitoring have shown that nutrient additions will remove toxicity and prevent golden algae from blooming. In fact, other algae displace the golden algae after nutrient additions. Additions of ammonia are particularly effective, even at low doses (much lower than what is employed in fish hatchery ponds). Application of ammonia in limited areas of lakes, such as in coves, should be explored as a management option. The laboratory experiments and field monitoring also show that the potency of toxins produced by P. parvum is greatly reduced when water pH is lower, closer to neutral levels. Application of mild acid to limited areas of lakes (but not to a level where acidic conditions are created), such as in coves, should be explored as a management option. Finally, our field monitoring and mathematical modeling revealed that flushing/dilution at high enough levels could prevent P. parvum from forming blooms and/or terminate existing blooms. This technique could work using deeper waters within a lake to flush the surface waters of limited areas of the same lakes, such as in coves and should be explored as a management option. In this way, water releases from upstream reservoirs would not be necessary and there would be no addition of nutrients in the lake.

  13. Pleistocene lake level changes in Western Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodavko, P. S.

    2009-04-01

    Global cooling in the Early Pleistocene caused extensive continental glaciation in the northern hemisphere including the arid areas of Central Asia. The reduction of temperatures (particularly summer temperatures) reduced evaporation and strengthened the importance of precipitation. The simultaneity of "lakes periods" (pluvials) and stages of glaciation is established experience confirmed by investigations in the west of North America and Russia. In the Mongolian Great Lakes Depression new evidence for similar conditions is found. The Great Lakes Depression is one of the largest in Central Asia, and is divided into 2 main Lakes basins: Hyargas Lake Basin and Uvs Lake Basin. The basin is 600-650 km in length with a width of 200-250 km in the north and 60-100 km in the south. Total catchment area is about 186600 km2. The elevation of the basin floor is from 1700 m a.s.l. to 760 m a.s.l., decreasing to the north and south-east. The depression extends south-north and is bounded by mountains: Tannu-Ola to the north, Hangai to the east; Gobi Altai to the south and Mongolian Altay to the west. The maximum elevation of the mountains is 4000 m a.s.l. There are some mountains with an elevation between 2000 and 3000 m a.s.l in the lake catchment. These mountains are not glaciated today. The geological record [1] suggests the Great Lakes Depression already existed in the Mesozoic, but assumed its modern form only during the Pliocene-Quaternary when tectonic movements caused the uplift of the surrounding mountains. A phase of tectonic stability occurred during the Late Quaternary. The depression is filled by Quaternary fluvial, aeolian and lacustrine deposits (e.g. sand, pebbles). The Neogene deposits are represented by coloured clay, marl, sand and sandstone [1]. Hyargas Lake is the end base level of erosion of the lake group consisting of the Hara-Us Nur, Dorgon, Hara Nur and Airag lakes. Hyargas is one of the largest lakes in Mongolia, with a water surface of 1,407 km2. The

  14. Creating new growth platforms.

    PubMed

    Laurie, Donald L; Doz, Yves L; Sheer, Claude P

    2006-05-01

    Sooner or later, most companies can't attain the growth rates expected by their boards and CEOs and demanded by investors. To some extent, such businesses are victims of their own successes. Many were able to sustain high growth rates for a long time because they were in high-growth industries. But once those industries slowed down, the businesses could no longer deliver the performance that investors had come to take for granted. Often, companies have resorted to acquisition, though this strategy has a discouraging track record. Over time, 65% of acquisitions destroy more value than they create. So where does real growth come from? For the past 12 years, the authors have been researching and advising companies on this issue. With the support of researchers at Harvard Business School and Insead, they instituted a project titled "The CEO Agenda and Growth". They identified and approached 24 companies that had achieved significant organic growth and interviewed their CEOs, chief strategists, heads of R&D, CFOs, and top-line managers. They asked, "Where does your growth come from?" and found a consistent pattern in the answers. All the businesses grew by creating new growth platforms (NGPs) on which they could build families of products and services and extend their capabilities into multiple new domains. Identifying NGP opportunities calls for executives to challenge conventional wisdom. In all the companies studied, top management believed that NGP innovation differed significantly from traditional product or service innovation. They had independent, senior-level units with a standing responsibility to create NGPs, and their CEOs spent as much as 50% of their time working with these units. The payoff has been spectacular and lasting. For example, from 1985 to 2004, the medical devices company Medtronic grew revenues at 18% per year, earnings at 20%, and market capitalization at 30%. PMID:16649700

  15. Elastic Metal Alloy Refrigerants: Thermoelastic Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    BEETIT Project: UMD is developing an energy-efficient cooling system that eliminates the need for synthetic refrigerants that harm the environment. More than 90% of the cooling and refrigeration systems in the U.S. today use vapor compression systems which rely on liquid to vapor phase transformation of synthetic refrigerants to absorb or release heat. Thermoelastic cooling systems, however, use a solid-state material—an elastic shape memory metal alloy—as a refrigerant and a solid to solid phase transformation to absorb or release heat. UMD is developing and testing shape memory alloys and a cooling device that alternately absorbs or creates heat in much the same way as a vapor compression system, but with significantly less energy and a smaller operational footprint.

  16. Modeling Antarctic subglacial lake filling and drainage cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dow, Christine F.; Werder, Mauro A.; Nowicki, Sophie; Walker, Ryan T.

    2016-07-01

    The growth and drainage of active subglacial lakes in Antarctica has previously been inferred from analysis of ice surface altimetry data. We use a subglacial hydrology model applied to a synthetic Antarctic ice stream to examine internal controls on the filling and drainage of subglacial lakes. Our model outputs suggest that the highly constricted subglacial environment of our idealized ice stream, combined with relatively high rates of water flow funneled from a large catchment, can combine to create a system exhibiting slow-moving pressure waves. Over a period of years, the accumulation of water in the ice stream onset region results in a buildup of pressure creating temporary channels, which then evacuate the excess water. This increased flux of water beneath the ice stream drives lake growth. As the water body builds up, it steepens the hydraulic gradient out of the overdeepened lake basin and allows greater flux. Eventually this flux is large enough to melt channels that cause the lake to drain. Lake drainage also depends on the internal hydrological development in the wider system and therefore does not directly correspond to a particular water volume or depth. This creates a highly temporally and spatially variable system, which is of interest for assessing the importance of subglacial lakes in ice stream hydrology and dynamics.

  17. Modeling Antarctic Subglacial Lake Filling and Drainage Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, Christine F.; Werder, Mauro A.; Nowicki, Sophie; Walker, Ryan T.

    2016-01-01

    The growth and drainage of active subglacial lakes in Antarctica has previously been inferred from analysis of ice surface altimetry data. We use a subglacial hydrology model applied to a synthetic Antarctic ice stream to examine internal controls on the filling and drainage of subglacial lakes. Our model outputs suggest that the highly constricted subglacial environment of our idealized ice stream, combined with relatively high rates of water flow funneled from a large catchment, can combine to create a system exhibiting slow-moving pressure waves. Over a period of years, the accumulation of water in the ice stream onset region results in a buildup of pressure creating temporary channels, which then evacuate the excess water. This increased flux of water beneath the ice stream drives lake growth. As the water body builds up, it steepens the hydraulic gradient out of the overdeepened lake basin and allows greater flux. Eventually this flux is large enough to melt channels that cause the lake to drain. Lake drainage also depends on the internal hydrological development in the wider system and therefore does not directly correspond to a particular water volume or depth. This creates a highly temporally and spatially variable system, which is of interest for assessing the importance of subglacial lakes in ice stream hydrology and dynamics.

  18. Creating healthy camp experiences.

    PubMed

    Walton, Edward A; Tothy, Alison S

    2011-04-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics has created recommendations for health appraisal and preparation of young people before participation in day or resident camps and to guide health and safety practices for children at camp. These recommendations are intended for parents, primary health care providers, and camp administration and health center staff. Although camps have diverse environments, there are general guidelines that apply to all situations and specific recommendations that are appropriate under special conditions. This policy statement has been reviewed and is supported by the American Camp Association. PMID:21444589

  19. Wetland vegetation establishment in L-Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Kroeger, S.R.

    1990-07-01

    Wetland vegetation was transplanted from PAR Pond to L-Lake between January and August, 1987. Approximately 100,000 individual plants representing over 40 species were transplanted along the southern shoreline. Three zones of vegetation were created: (1) submersed/floating-leaved, (2) emergent, (3) upper emergent/shrub. During the summers of 1987, 1988, 1989, the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory sampled the vegetation in 54 permanent transects located in planted (N=32) and unplanted areas (N=22). The 1989 vegetation data from L-Lake were compared to 1985 data from PAR Pond.

  20. The Thermal History of the East African Rift Lakes Region Since the Last Glacial Maximum Using TEX86 Paleothermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berke, M. A.; Johnson, T. C.; Werne, J. P.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2008-12-01

    We present preliminary results from a study using the TEX86 temperature proxy from sediments of East African Rift Lakes (including Lakes Turkana, Albert, and Malawi) to reconstruct the thermal history of tropical Africa for the last ~ 20,000 years at a subcentennial to multicentennial resolution. The TEX86 proxy, based on tetraether membrane lipids produced by lacustrine Crenarchaeota, has been shown to be successful at recording lake surface temperatures of some large lakes, including Lakes Malawi and Tanganyika, while providing unreasonable surface temperatures for lakes that receive a large input of soil material. The East African Rift Lakes are climatically sensitive, with the majority of water loss due to evaporation rather than outflow. Thus, they are useful for paleoclimate studies, being sensitive to even small changes in aridity. Temperature records from the northern and central basins of Lake Malawi agree well and fall within modern surface lake temperatures. A 2.5°C cooling is evident during the Younger Dryas in the northern basin record, with no response seen in the central basin. We are currently investigating mechanisms to explain why both records show a gradual cooling of 3°C during the late Holocene. Lake Albert shows an intriguing two-step cooling during the Younger Dryas, reaching temperatures 2.5°C lower than temperatures preceding or following this interval. The temperature record of Lake Turkana shows an interesting ~ 500 year cyclicity of low temperatures punctuated by abrupt warming events. Lakes Turkana and Albert show TEX86 paleotemperatures considerably lower (8°C cooler in Lake Albert and ~ 4°C cooler in Lake Turkana) than modern surface water temperatures. Although these records appear to fall in the range of temporal variability, these temperature discrepancies may indicate varying Crenarcheotal populations between lakes or other influencing factors.

  1. [Ecosystem services valuation of Qinghai Lake].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Lu; Ouyang, Zhi-yun

    2015-10-01

    Qinghai Lake is the largest inland and salt water lake in China, and provides important ecosystem services to beneficiaries. Economic valuation of wetland ecosystem services from Qinghai Lake can reveal the direct contribution of lake ecosystems to beneficiaries using economic data, which can advance the incorporation of wetland protection of Qinghai Lake into economic tradeoffs and decision analyses. In this paper, we established a final ecosystem services valuation system based on the underlying ecological mechanisms and regional socio-economic conditions. We then evaluated the eco-economic value provided by the wetlands at Qinghai Lake to beneficiaries in 2012 using the market value method, replacement cost method, zonal travel cost method, and contingent valuation method. According to the valuation result, the total economic values of the final ecosystem services provided by the wetlands at Qinghai Lake were estimated to be 6749.08 x 10(8) yuan RMB in 2012, among which the value of water storage service and climate regulation service were 4797.57 x 10(8) and 1929.34 x 10(8) yuan RMB, accounting for 71.1% and 28.6% of the total value, respectively. The economic value of the 8 final ecosystem services was ranked from greatest to lowest as: water storage service > climate regulation service > recreation and tourism service > non-use value > oxygen release service > raw material production service > carbon sequestration service > food production service. The evaluation result of this paper reflects the substantial value that the wetlands of Qinghai Lake provide to beneficiaries using monetary values, which has the potential to help increase wetland protection awareness among the public and decision-makers, and inform managers about ways to create ecological compensation incentives. The final ecosystem service evaluation system presented in this paper will offer guidance on separating intermediate services and final services, and establishing monitoring programs for

  2. Food of lake trout in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dryer, William R.; Erkkila, Leo F.; Tetzloff, Clifford L.

    1965-01-01

    Stomachs were examined from 1,492 lake trout and 83 siscowets collected from Lake Superior. Data are given on the food of lake trout of legal size (17 inches or longer) by year, season, and depth of water, and on the relation between food and size among smaller lake trout. Fish contributed 96.7 to 99.9 per cent of the total volume of food in the annual samples. Ciscoes (Coregonus spp.) were most common (52.2 to 87.5 per cent of the volume) in 1950 to 1953 and American smelt ranked first (65.6 per cent of the volume) in 1963. Cottids were in 8.9 to 12.3 per cent of the stomachs in 1950 to 1953 but in only 4.3 per cent in 1963. Insects ranked second to fish in occurrence (9.6 per cent for the combined samples) and crustaceans followed at 3.9 per cent. The greatest seasonal changes in the food of lake trout were among fish caught at 35 fathoms and shallower. The occurrence of Coregonus increased from 34.6 per cent in February-March to 71.1 per cent in October-December. Smelt were in 76.9 per cent of the stomachs in February-March but in only 2.2 per cent in October-December. Cottids, Mysis relicta, and insects were most common in the July-September collections. Lake trout taken at depths greater than 35 fathoms had eaten a higher percentage of Cottidae and Coregonus than had those captured in shallower water. Smelt, ninespine sticklebacks, Mysis, and insects were more frequent in stomachs of lake trout from less than 35 fathoms. Crustaceans comprised more than 70 per cent of the total volume of food for 4.0- to 7.9-inch lake trout but their importance decreased as the lake trout grew larger. Pontoporeia affinis was the most common in the stomachs of 4.0- to 6.9-inch lake trout and Mysis held first rank at 7.0 to 12.9 inches. Ostracods were important only to 4.0- to 4.9-inch lake trout. As the lake trout became larger, the importance of fish grew from 4.4-per cent occurrence at 5.0 to 5.9 inches to 93.9 per cent at 16.0 to 16.9 inches. Smelt were most commonly eaten by

  3. Entanglement Created by Dissipation

    SciTech Connect

    Alharbi, Abdullah F.; Ficek, Zbigniew

    2011-10-27

    A technique for entangling closely separated atoms by the process of dissipative spontaneous emission is presented. The system considered is composed of two non-identical two-level atoms separated at the quarter wavelength of a driven standing wave laser field. At this atomic distance, only one of the atoms can be addressed by the laser field. In addition, we arrange the atomic dipole moments to be oriented relative to the inter-atomic axis such that the dipole-dipole interaction between the atoms is zero at this specific distance. It is shown that an entanglement can be created between the atoms on demand by tuning the Rabi frequency of the driving field to the difference between the atomic transition frequencies. The amount of the entanglement created depends on the ratio between the damping rates of the atoms, but is independent of the frequency difference between the atoms. We also find that the transient buildup of an entanglement between the atoms may differ dramatically for different initial atomic conditions.

  4. Creating corporate advantage.

    PubMed

    Collis, D J; Montgomery, C A

    1998-01-01

    What differentiates truly great corporate strategies from the merely adequate? How can executives at the corporate level create tangible advantage for their businesses that makes the whole more than the sum of the parts? This article presents a comprehensive framework for value creation in the multibusiness company. It addresses the most fundamental questions of corporate strategy: What businesses should a company be in? How should it coordinate activities across businesses? What role should the corporate office play? How should the corporation measure and control performance? Through detailed case studies of Tyco International, Sharp, the Newell Company, and Saatchi and Saatchi, the authors demonstrate that the answers to all those questions are driven largely by the nature of a company's special resources--its assets, skills, and capabilities. These range along a continuum from the highly specialized at one end to the very general at the other. A corporation's location on the continuum constrains the set of businesses it should compete in and limits its choices about the design of its organization. Applying the framework, the authors point out the common mistakes that result from misaligned corporate strategies. Companies mistakenly enter businesses based on similarities in products rather than the resources that contribute to competitive advantage in each business. Instead of tailoring organizational structures and systems to the needs of a particular strategy, they create plain-vanilla corporate offices and infrastructures. The company examples demonstrate that one size does not fit all. One can find great corporate strategies all along the continuum. PMID:10179655

  5. Creating sustainable performance.

    PubMed

    Spreitzer, Gretchen; Porath, Christine

    2012-01-01

    What makes for sustainable individual and organizational performance? Employees who are thriving-not just satisfied and productive but also engaged in creating the future. The authors found that people who fit this description demonstrated 16% better overall performance, 125% less burnout, 32% more commitment to the organization, and 46% more job satisfaction than their peers. Thriving has two components: vitality, or the sense of being alive and excited, and learning, or the growth that comes from gaining knowledge and skills. Some people naturally build vitality and learning into their jobs, but most employees are influenced by their environment. Four mechanisms, none of which requires heroic effort or major resources, create the conditions for thriving: providing decision-making discretion, sharing information about the organization and its strategy, minimizing incivility, and offering performance feedback. Organizations such as Alaska Airlines, Zingerman's, Quicken Loans, and Caiman Consulting have found that helping people grow and remain energized at work is valiant on its own merits-but it can also boost performance in a sustainable way. PMID:22299508

  6. Restoring the Great Lakes: DOI stories of success and partnership in implementing the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Department of the Interior; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; National Park Service; U.S. Geological Survey; Bureau of Indian Affairs

    2013-01-01

    The Great Lakes are a monumentally unique national treasure containing nearly ninety-five percent of the United States' fresh surface water. Formed by receding glaciers, the Great Lakes support a thriving, resilient ecosystem rich with fish, wildlife, and abundant natural resources. The Great Lakes also support an array of commercial uses, including shipping, and provide a source of recreation, drinking water, and other critical services that drive the economy of the region and the Nation. Regrettably, activities such as clear cutting of mature forests, over-harvesting of fish populations, industrial pollution, invasive species, and agricultural runoffs have degraded these treasured lakes over the decades creating long-term impacts to the surrounding watershed. Fortunately, the people who live, work, and recreate in the region recognize the critical importance of a healthy Great Lakes ecosystem, and have come together to support comprehensive restoration. To stimulate and promote the goal of a healthy Great Lakes region, President Obama and Congress created the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) in 2009. This program provides the seed money to clean up legacy pollution, restore habitats, protect wildlife, combat invasive species, and address agricultural runoff in the Great Lakes watershed. At the same time GLRI promotes public outreach, education, accountability, and partnerships.

  7. L-Lake wildlife: L Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, K.K.; Giffin, M.A.

    1988-03-01

    Reptile and amphibian populations of L-Lake were assessed in monthly or quarterly sampling programs. Both the number of individuals and the number of species collected decreased from 1986 to 1987. The greatest difference between years occurred with amphibians. No new species were collected, less than 50% of the species collected in 1986 were collected in 1987, and only one-third as many individuals were collected. Lizard and snake populations appear unaffected by L-Lake or reactor operations. Turtles appeared to be less abundant in 1987 than in 1986. This may be due to a lack of suitable cover and food sources. With the development of macrophyte beds, the turtle populations should increase. Observations of alligators were more numerous in 1987 than 1986. Alligators successfully inhabit Par Pond, another cooling reservoir on the Savannah River Plant, and a resident population will probably become established in L-Lake.

  8. L-Lake macroinvertebrates: L Lake/Steel Creek biological monitoring program: January 1986--December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hop, J.R.; Lauritsen, D.

    1988-03-01

    The macroinvertebrate community in L-Lake was monitored from January 1986 to December 1987 to assess the biological development within this new cooling reservoir. Benthic macroinvertebrates are effective indicators of environmental stress because they are sedentary and relatively long-lived. Habitat quality may be reflected in the taxonomic composition, abundance, and total biomass of the macroinvertebrate community. Macroinvertebrate sampling included quantitative sampling of benthic habitats with a Ponar grab and qualitative sampling of nearshore habitats with dip nets. Emergence traps were used to collect adult insects emerging from the lake, where they had spent the larval stage of their life cycle. Invertebrate meroplankton was sampled at night by vertical tows of a 0.5 m diameter net. Densities of the predatory dipteran Chaoborus punctipennis, both in meroplankton and benthos, have increased markedly in the two year period following the creation of L-Lake. Densities in 1987 were comparable to those found in other southeastern reservoirs, including Par Pond.

  9. Water quality of Lake Austin and Town Lake, Austin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, F.L.; Wells, F.C.; Shelby, W.J.; McPherson, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    Lake Austin and Town Lake are impoundments on the Colorado River in Travis County, central Texas, and are a source of water for municipal industrial water supplies, electrical-power generation, and recreation for more than 500,000 people in the Austin metropolitan area. Small vertical temperature variations in both lakes were attributed to shallow depths in the lakes and short retention times of water in the lakes during the summer months. The largest areal variations in dissolved oxygen generally occur in Lake Austin during the summer as a result of releases of water from below the thermocline in Lake Travis. Except for iron, manganese, and mercury, dissolved concentrations of trace elements in water collected from Lake Austin and Town Lake did not exceed the primary or secondary drinking water standards set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Little or no effect of stormwater runoff on temperature, dissolved oxygen, or minor elements could be detected in either Lake Austin or Town Lake. Little seasonal or areal variation was noted in nitrogen concentrations in Lake Austin or Town lake. Total phosphorus concentrations generally were small in both lakes. Increased concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were detected after storm runoff inflow in Town Lake, but not in Lake Austin; densities of fecal-coliform bacteria increased in Lake Austin and Town Lake, but were substantially greater in Town Lake than in Lake Austin. 18 refs., 38 figs., 59 tabs.

  10. Stochastic cooling in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan J. M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Mernick, K.

    2012-05-20

    The full 6-dimensional [x,x'; y,y'; z,z'] stochastic cooling system for RHIC was completed and operational for the FY12 Uranium-Uranium collider run. Cooling enhances the integrated luminosity of the Uranium collisions by a factor of 5, primarily by reducing the transverse emittances but also by cooling in the longitudinal plane to preserve the bunch length. The components have been deployed incrementally over the past several runs, beginning with longitudinal cooling, then cooling in the vertical planes but multiplexed between the Yellow and Blue rings, next cooling both rings simultaneously in vertical (the horizontal plane was cooled by betatron coupling), and now simultaneous horizontal cooling has been commissioned. The system operated between 5 and 9 GHz and with 3 x 10{sup 8} Uranium ions per bunch and produces a cooling half-time of approximately 20 minutes. The ultimate emittance is determined by the balance between cooling and emittance growth from Intra-Beam Scattering. Specific details of the apparatus and mathematical techniques for calculating its performance have been published elsewhere. Here we report on: the method of operation, results with beam, and comparison of results to simulations.

  11. Depth and Differentiation of the Orientale Melt Lake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, W. M.; Head, J. W.; Hess, P. C.; Wilson, L.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Impact melt emplacement and evolution in lunar multi-ring basins is poorly understood since impact melt deposits in basins are generally buried by mare basalt fill and obscured by subsequent impact cratering. The relatively young Orientale basin, which is only partially flooded with mare basalt, opens a rare window into basin-scale impact melts. We describe the geology of impact melt-related facies in Orientale and suggest that the central depression of Orientale may represent a solidified impact melt lake that vertically subsided shortly after basin formation due to solidification and cooling. We use Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) data to measure the depth (approx. 1.75 km) and diameter (approx 350 km) of this central depression. If all the observed subsidence of the central depression is due to solidification and cooling, the melt lake should be approx 12.5-16 km deep, far more voluminous (approx 106 km3) than the largest known differentiated igneous intrusions on Earth. We investigate the possibility that the Orientale melt lake has differentiated and model 1) the bulk composition of the melt lake, 2) the operation of melt mixing in the melt lake, and 3) the chemical evolution of the resulting liquids on the An-Fo-Qz ternary in order to predict the lithologies that might be present in the solidified Orientale melt lake. Finally, we consider the possible significance of these lithologies.

  12. Paleoenvironments, Evolution, and Geomicrobiology in a Tropical Pacific Lake: The Lake Towuti Drilling Project (TOWUTI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Hendrik; Russell, James M.; Bijaksana, Satria; Crowe, Sean; Fowle, David; Haffner, Douglas; King, John; Marwoto, Ristiyanti; Melles, Martin; von Rintelen, Thomas; Stevenson, Janelle; Watkinson, Ian; Wattrus, Nigel

    2014-05-01

    drying between ~33,000 and 16,000 yr BP when high-latitude ice sheets expanded and global temperatures cooled. This in combination with the observed little direct influence of precessional orbital forcing and exposure of the Sunda Shelf implies that central Indonesian hydroclimate varies strongly in response to high-latitude climate forcing: a hypothesis we aim to test across multiple glacial-interglacial cycles through scientific drilling. Indeed, numerous high-amplitude reflectors in the upper 150 m of lacustrine fill suggest repeated cycles of moisture-balance variations in the tropical Pacific. In summary drilling in Lake Towuti will help to: (1) Document the timing, frequency, and amplitude of orbital- to millennial-scale changes in surface hydrology and terrestrial temperature in the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool across multiple glacial-interglacial cycles; (2) Understand how variations in terrestrial hydrology and temperature in central Indonesia respond to changes in the mean state of the ENSO system, the monsoons, high-latitude forcing, and insolation; (3) Analyze the long-term stability and resilience of rainforest vegetation to changes in climate, greenhouse gases, and fire frequency; (4) Study the extent, biogeography, and metabolism of microbial life in the sediments of a non-sulfidic, ferrginous basin, and their relationships to carbon cycling, redox metal deposition, and the concentration of metal ore minerals; (5) Study the effects of climate-driven changes in the aquatic environment on both lacustrine microbial populations, and the geobiosphere within the lake's sediment; (6) Determine the age of Lake Towuti, and the ensuing rates of speciation of Towuti's endemic fauna and flora; (7) Identify the timing of past lake level fluctuations in Towuti, changes in hydrological connections among the Malili Lakes, and how these influenced biological colonization events, habitat stability, and modes of speciation (sympatric, allopatric). Important milestones concerning

  13. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eshenroder, Randy L.; Payne, N. Robert; Johnson, James E.; Bowen, Charles, II; Ebener, Mark P.

    1995-01-01

    Efforts to restore lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Huron after their collapse in the 1940s were underway in the early 1970s with completion of the first round of lampricide applications in tributary streams and the stocking of several genotypes. We assess results of rehabilitation and establish a historical basis for comparison by quantifying the catch of spawning lake trout from Michigan waters in 1929-1932. Sixty-eight percent of this catch occurred in northern waters (MH-1) and most of the rest (15%) was from remote reefs in the middle of the main basin. Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) increased in the early 1980s in the main basin and depressed spawning populations of lake trout. This increase was especially severe in northern waters and appeared to be associated with untreated populations in the St. Marys River. Excessive commercial fishing stemming from unresolved treaty rights also contributed to loss of spawning fish in northern Michigan waters. Seneca-strain lake trout did not appear to be attacked by sea lampreys until they reached a size > 532 mm. At sizes > 632 mm, Seneca trout were 40-fold more abundant than the Marquette strain in matched-planting experiments. Natural reproduction past the fry stage has occurred in Thunder Bay and South Bay, but prospects for self-sustaining populations of lake trout in the main basin are poor because sea lampreys are too abundant, only one side of the basin is stocked, and stocking is deferred to allow commercial gillnetting in areas where most of the spawning occurred historically. Backcross lake trout, a lake trout x splake (s. Fontinalis x s. Namaycush) hybrid, did not reproduce in Georgian Bay, but this genotype is being replaced with pure-strain lake trout, whose early performance appears promising.

  14. Depth, ice thickness, and ice-out timing cause divergent hydrologic responses among Arctic lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Liljedahl, Anna K.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Welker, Jeffery A.

    2015-01-01

    Lakes are prevalent in the Arctic and thus play a key role in regional hydrology. Since many Arctic lakes are shallow and ice grows thick (historically 2-m or greater), seasonal ice commonly freezes to the lake bed (bedfast ice) by winter's end. Bedfast ice fundamentally alters lake energy balance and melt-out processes compared to deeper lakes that exceed the maximum ice thickness (floating ice) and maintain perennial liquid water below floating ice. Our analysis of lakes in northern Alaska indicated that ice-out of bedfast ice lakes occurred on average 17 days earlier (22-June) than ice-out on adjacent floating ice lakes (9-July). Earlier ice-free conditions in bedfast ice lakes caused higher open-water evaporation, 28% on average, relative to floating ice lakes and this divergence increased in lakes closer to the coast and in cooler summers. Water isotopes (18O and 2H) indicated similar differences in evaporation between these lake types. Our analysis suggests that ice regimes created by the combination of lake depth relative to ice thickness and associated ice-out timing currently cause a strong hydrologic divergence among Arctic lakes. Thus understanding the distribution and dynamics of lakes by ice regime is essential for predicting regional hydrology. An observed regime shift in lakes to floating ice conditions due to thinner ice growth may initially offset lake drying because of lower evaporative loss from this lake type. This potential negative feedback caused by winter processes occurs in spite of an overall projected increase in evapotranspiration as the Arctic climate warms.

  15. Depth, ice thickness, and ice-out timing cause divergent hydrologic responses among Arctic lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Liljedahl, Anna K.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Welker, Jeffery A.

    2015-12-01

    Lakes are prevalent in the Arctic and thus play a key role in regional hydrology. Since many Arctic lakes are shallow and ice grows thick (historically 2 m or greater), seasonal ice commonly freezes to the lake bed (bedfast ice) by winter's end. Bedfast ice fundamentally alters lake energy balance and melt-out processes compared to deeper lakes that exceed the maximum ice thickness (floating ice) and maintain perennial liquid water below floating ice. Our analysis of lakes in northern Alaska indicated that ice-out of bedfast ice lakes occurred on average 17 days earlier (22 June) than ice-out on adjacent floating ice lakes (9 July). Earlier ice-free conditions in bedfast ice lakes caused higher open-water evaporation, 28% on average, relative to floating ice lakes and this divergence increased in lakes closer to the coast and in cooler summers. Water isotopes (18O and 2H) indicated similar differences in evaporation between these lake types. Our analysis suggests that ice regimes created by the combination of lake depth relative to ice thickness and associated ice-out timing currently cause a strong hydrologic divergence among Arctic lakes. Thus, understanding the distribution and dynamics of lakes by ice regime is essential for predicting regional hydrology. An observed regime shift in lakes to floating ice conditions due to thinner ice growth may initially offset lake drying because of lower evaporative loss from this lake type. This potential negative feedback caused by winter processes occurs in spite of an overall projected increase in evapotranspiration as the Arctic climate warms.

  16. Creating innovative departments.

    PubMed

    von Segesser, Ludwig K

    2004-12-01

    'Creating an innovative department' as an objective implies further improvements in organization, function, and progression of a surgical unit active in patient care, research, and education. It is of prime importance to stress here the mutual benefits of patient care, research (the basis for future patient care) and education (the channel for training health care professionals in future patient care). Neither innovation (from latin innovare: to renew, revive) nor creation (from latin creare: to make, produce) is something that will fall from heaven without effort any time soon. Hence, a pro-active attitude towards progress is indicated. This requires searching for new ideas, allocation of resources, finding allies, getting focussed, and being persistent. One word says it all: WORK! PMID:15776856

  17. Creating With Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A subsidiary of SI Diamond Technology, Inc., Applied Nanotech, of Austin, Texas, is creating a buzz among various technology firms and venture capital groups interested in the company s progressive research on carbon-related field emission devices, including carbon nanotubes, filaments of pure carbon less than one ten-thousandth the width of human hair. Since their discovery in 1991, carbon nanotubes have gained considerable attention due to their unique physical properties. For example, a single perfect carbon nanotube can range from 10 to 100 times stronger than steel, per unit weight. Recent studies also indicate that the nanotubes may be the best heat-conducting material in existence. These properties, combined with the ease of growing thin films or nanotubes by a variety of deposition techniques, make the carbon-based material one of the most desirable for cold field emission cathodes.

  18. Creating Griffith Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Griffith Observatory has been the iconic symbol of the sky for southern California since it began its public mission on May 15, 1935. While the Observatory is widely known as being the gift of Col. Griffith J. Griffith (1850-1919), the story of how Griffith’s gift became reality involves many of the people better known for other contributions that made Los Angeles area an important center of astrophysics in the 20th century. Griffith began drawing up his plans for an observatory and science museum for the people of Los Angeles after looking at Saturn through the newly completed 60-inch reflector on Mt. Wilson. He realized the social impact that viewing the heavens could have if made freely available, and discussing the idea of a public observatory with Mt. Wilson Observatory’s founder, George Ellery Hale, and Director, Walter Adams. This resulted, in 1916, in a will specifying many of the features of Griffith Observatory, and establishing a committee managed trust fund to build it. Astronomy popularizer Mars Baumgardt convinced the committee at the Zeiss Planetarium projector would be appropriate for Griffith’s project after the planetarium was introduced in Germany in 1923. In 1930, the trust committee judged funds to be sufficient to start work on creating Griffith Observatory, and letters from the Committee requesting help in realizing the project were sent to Hale, Adams, Robert Millikan, and other area experts then engaged in creating the 200-inch telescope eventually destined for Palomar Mountain. A Scientific Advisory Committee, headed by Millikan, recommended that Caltech Physicist Edward Kurth be put in charge of building and exhibit design. Kurth, in turn, sought help from artist Russell Porter. The architecture firm of John C. Austin and Fredrick Ashley was selected to design the project, and they adopted the designs of Porter and Kurth. Philip Fox of the Adler Planetarium was enlisted to manage the completion of the Observatory and become its

  19. Creating the living brand.

    PubMed

    Bendapudi, Neeli; Bendapudi, Venkat

    2005-05-01

    It's easy to conclude from the literature and the lore that top-notch customer service is the province of a few luxury companies and that any retailer outside that rarefied atmosphere is condemned to offer mediocre service at best. But even companies that position themselves for the mass market can provide outstanding customer-employee interactions and profit from them, if they train employees to reflect the brand's core values. The authors studied the convenience store industry in depth and focused on two that have developed a devoted following: QuikTrip (QT) and Wawa. Turnover rates at QT and Wawa are 14% and 22% respectively, much lower than the typical rate in retail. The authors found six principles that both firms embrace to create a strong culture of customer service. Know what you're looking for: A focus on candidates' intrinsic traits allows the companies to hire people who will naturally bring the right qualities to the job. Make the most of talent: In mass-market retail, talent is generally viewed as a commodity, but that outlook becomes a self-fulfilling prophesy. Create pride in the brand: Service quality depends directly on employees' attachment to the brand. Build community: Wawa and QT have made concerted efforts to build customer loyalty through a sense of community. Share the business context: Employees need a clear understanding of how their company operates and how it defines success. Satisfy the soul: To win an employee's passionate engagement, a company must meet his or her needs for security, esteem, and justice. PMID:15929408

  20. Fate of Allochthonous Dissolved Organic Carbon in Lakes: A Quantitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Paul C.; Hamilton, David P.; Stanley, Emily H.; Preston, Nicholas; Langman, Owen C.; Kara, Emily L.

    2011-01-01

    Inputs of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to lakes derived from the surrounding landscape can be stored, mineralized or passed to downstream ecosystems. The balance among these OC fates depends on a suite of physical, chemical, and biological processes within the lake, as well as the degree of recalcintrance of the allochthonous DOC load. The relative importance of these processes has not been well quantified due to the complex nature of lakes, as well as challenges in scaling DOC degradation experiments under controlled conditions to the whole lake scale. We used a coupled hydrodynamic-water quality model to simulate broad ranges in lake area and DOC, two characteristics important to processing allochthonous carbon through their influences on lake temperature, mixing depth and hydrology. We calibrated the model to four lakes from the North Temperate Lakes Long Term Ecological Research site, and simulated an additional 12 ‘hypothetical’ lakes to fill the gradients in lake size and DOC concentration. For each lake, we tested several mineralization rates (range: 0.001 d−1 to 0.010 d−1) representative of the range found in the literature. We found that mineralization rates at the ecosystem scale were roughly half the values from laboratory experiments, due to relatively cool water temperatures and other lake-specific factors that influence water temperature and hydrologic residence time. Results from simulations indicated that the fate of allochthonous DOC was controlled primarily by the mineralization rate and the hydrologic residence time. Lakes with residence times <1 year exported approximately 60% of the DOC, whereas lakes with residence times >6 years mineralized approximately 60% of the DOC. DOC fate in lakes can be determined with a few relatively easily measured factors, such as lake morphometry, residence time, and temperature, assuming we know the recalcitrance of the DOC. PMID:21779347

  1. NASA Microclimate Cooling Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this outline form presentation is to present NASA's challenges in microclimate cooling as related to the spacesuit. An overview of spacesuit flight-rated personal cooling systems is presented, which includes a brief history of cooling systems from Gemini through Space Station missions. The roles of the liquid cooling garment, thermal environment extremes, the sublimator, multi-layer insulation, and helmet visor UV and solar coatings are reviewed. A second section is presented on advanced personal cooling systems studies, which include heat acquisition studies on cooling garments, heat rejection studies on water boiler & radiators, thermal storage studies, and insulation studies. Past and present research and development and challenges are summarized for the advanced studies.

  2. High spatio-temporal resolution observations of crater-lake temperatures at Kawah Ijen volcano, East Java, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Corentin Caudron; Vincent van Hinsberg; George Hilley

    2016-01-01

    The crater lake of Kawah Ijen volcano, East Java, Indonesia, has displayed large and rapid changes in temperature at point locations during periods of unrest, but measurement techniques employed to-date have not resolved how the lake’s thermal regime has evolved over both space and time. We applied a novel approach for mapping and monitoring variations in crater-lake apparent surface (“skin”) temperatures at high spatial (~32 cm) and temporal (every two minutes) resolution at Kawah Ijen on 18 September 2014. We used a ground-based FLIR T650sc camera with digital and thermal infrared (TIR) sensors from the crater rim to collect (1) a set of visible imagery around the crater during the daytime and (2) a time series of co-located visible and TIR imagery at one location from pre-dawn to daytime. We processed daytime visible imagery with the Structure-from-Motion photogrammetric method to create a digital elevation model onto which the time series of TIR imagery was orthorectified and georeferenced. Lake apparent skin temperatures typically ranged from ~21 to 33oC. At two locations, apparent skin temperatures were ~ 4 and 7 oC less than in-situ lake temperature measurements at 1.5 and 5 m depth, respectively. These differences, as well as the large spatio-temporal variations observed in skin temperatures, were likely largely associated with atmospheric effects such as evaporative cooling of the lake surface and infrared absorption by water vapor and SO2. Calculations based on orthorectified TIR imagery thus yielded underestimates of volcanic heat fluxes into the lake, whereas volcanic heat fluxes estimated based on in-situ temperature measurements (68 to 111 MW) were likely more representative of Kawah Ijen in a quiescent state. The ground-based imaging technique should provide a valuable tool to continuously monitor crater-lake temperatures and contribute insight into the spatio-temporal evolution of these temperatures associated with volcanic activity.

  3. Diurnal cycle of methane flux from a lake, with high emissions during nighttime caused by convection in the water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgrajsek, E.; Sahlee, E.; Rutgersson, A.

    2012-12-01

    Many studies have stressed the importance of lakes as major contributors of methane to the atmosphere (e.g. Bastviken et al 2011). However there is still a lack of continuous long time flux measurements over lakes as well as poor understanding of the magnitude of methane fluxes through ebullition and vegetation pathways. In this study the Eddy covariance method has been used for measuring methane fluxes from a lake in central Sweden. At several occasions during the long time measuring campaign (autumn 2010-autumn 2012), a diurnal cycle of methane, with high fluxes during night and low during day, has been captured. Some of the high flux events during nighttime were comparable in magnitude to what previously only been measured from vegetation regions in lakes at these latitudes (e.g. Kankaala et al 2004) and from tropical reservoirs (e.g. Bastviken 2009). During these occasions the difference between air and water temperature (ΔT=Ta-Tw) also displayed an diurnal cycle, with ΔT being positive during day and negative during night with the corresponding change in the sensible heat flux i.e. negative during daytime and positive during nighttime. The high nighttime methane fluxes could be explained with this difference in air and water temperature, which will cool the water surface during night, creating convective mixing in the lake, while during daytime the water will be stably stratified. Temperature measurements made at different vertical levels in the lake water confirm this water stratification. The nighttime convective mixing may act to disturb the bottom water, triggering methane ebullition events and bringing methane rich water up to the surface, which can be emitted to the atmosphere. With this study we want to emphasis the necessity of introducing also complex physical processes when estimating air-water exchange fluxes and also measure methane fluxes not only at few occasions during daytime but also during night and for longer measuring periods. References

  4. Evaluating the growth potential of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) feeding on siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, E.K.; Weidel, B.C.; Ahrenstorff, T.D.; Mattes, W.P.; Kitchell, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Differences in the preferred thermal habitat of Lake Superior lake trout morphotypes create alternative growth scenarios for parasitic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) attached to lake trout hosts. Siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) inhabit deep, consistently cold water (4–6 °C) and are more abundant than lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) which occupy temperatures between 8 and 12 °C during summer thermal stratification. Using bioenergetics models we contrasted the growth potential of sea lampreys attached to siscowet and lean lake trout to determine how host temperature influences the growth and ultimate size of adult sea lamprey. Sea lampreys simulated under the thermal regime of siscowets are capable of reaching sizes within the range of adult sea lamprey sizes observed in Lake Superior tributaries. High lamprey wounding rates on siscowets suggest siscowets are important lamprey hosts. In addition, siscowets have higher survival rates from lamprey attacks than those observed for lean lake trout which raises the prospect that siscowets serve as a buffer to predation on more commercially desirable hosts such as lean lake trout, and could serve to subsidize lamprey growth.

  5. Solar heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartera, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    To emphasize energy conservation and low cost energy, the systems of solar heating and cooling are analyzed and compared with fossil fuel systems. The application of solar heating and cooling systems for industrial and domestic use are discussed. Topics of discussion include: solar collectors; space heating; pools and spas; domestic hot water; industrial heat less than 200 F; space cooling; industrial steam; and initial systems cost. A question and answer period is generated which closes out the discussion.

  6. High energy electron cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    High energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. The questions of using electron cooling with and without a magnetic field are presented for discussion at this workshop. The electron cooling method was suggested by G. Budker in the middle sixties. The original idea of the electron cooling was published in 1966. The design activities for the NAP-M project was started in November 1971 and the first run using a proton beam occurred in September 1973. The first experiment with both electron and proton beams was started in May 1974. In this experiment good result was achieved very close to theoretical prediction for a usual two component plasma heat exchange.

  7. Semioptimal practicable algorithmic cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, Yuval; Mor, Tal; Weinstein, Yossi

    2011-04-15

    Algorithmic cooling (AC) of spins applies entropy manipulation algorithms in open spin systems in order to cool spins far beyond Shannon's entropy bound. Algorithmic cooling of nuclear spins was demonstrated experimentally and may contribute to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Several cooling algorithms were suggested in recent years, including practicable algorithmic cooling (PAC) and exhaustive AC. Practicable algorithms have simple implementations, yet their level of cooling is far from optimal; exhaustive algorithms, on the other hand, cool much better, and some even reach (asymptotically) an optimal level of cooling, but they are not practicable. We introduce here semioptimal practicable AC (SOPAC), wherein a few cycles (typically two to six) are performed at each recursive level. Two classes of SOPAC algorithms are proposed and analyzed. Both attain cooling levels significantly better than PAC and are much more efficient than the exhaustive algorithms. These algorithms are shown to bridge the gap between PAC and exhaustive AC. In addition, we calculated the number of spins required by SOPAC in order to purify qubits for quantum computation. As few as 12 and 7 spins are required (in an ideal scenario) to yield a mildly pure spin (60% polarized) from initial polarizations of 1% and 10%, respectively. In the latter case, about five more spins are sufficient to produce a highly pure spin (99.99% polarized), which could be relevant for fault-tolerant quantum computing.

  8. Power electronics cooling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sanger, Philip Albert; Lindberg, Frank A.; Garcen, Walter

    2000-01-01

    A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

  9. Hydrogen film cooling investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousar, D. C.; Ewen, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Effects of flow turning, flow acceleration, and supersonic flow on film cooling were determined experimentally and correlated in terms of an entrainment film cooling model. Experiments were conducted using thin walled metal test sections, hot nitrogen mainstream gas, and ambient hydrogen or nitrogen as film coolants. The entrainment film cooling model relates film cooling effectiveness to the amount of mainstream gases entrained with the film coolant in a mixing layer. The experimental apparatus and the analytical model used are described in detail and correlations for the entrainment fraction and film coolant-to-wall heat transfer coefficient are presented.

  10. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Stewart, William A.

    1991-01-01

    A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

  11. View of Lake Sabrina Dam and Lake Sabrina from east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Lake Sabrina Dam and Lake Sabrina from east ridge showing spillway at photo center, view southwest - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 2, Lake Sabrina Dam, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  12. Reconstruction of glacier variability from lake sediments reveals dynamic Holocene climate in Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Bilt, Willem G. M.; Bakke, Jostein; Vasskog, Kristian; D'Andrea, William J.; Bradley, Raymond S.; Ólafsdóttir, Sædis

    2015-10-01

    The Arctic is warming faster than anywhere else on Earth. Holocene proxy time-series are increasingly used to put this amplified response in perspective by understanding Arctic climate processes beyond the instrumental period. However, available datasets are scarce, unevenly distributed and often of coarse resolution. Glaciers are sensitive recorders of climate shifts and variations in rock-flour production transfer this signal to the lacustrine sediment archives of downstream lakes. Here, we present the first full Holocene record of continuous glacier variability on Svalbard from glacier-fed Lake Hajeren. This reconstruction is based on an undisturbed lake sediment core that covers the entire Holocene and resolves variability on centennial scales owing to 26 dating points. A toolbox of physical, geochemical (XRF) and magnetic proxies in combination with multivariate statistics has allowed us to fingerprint glacier activity in addition to other processes affecting the sediment record. Evidence from variations in sediment density, validated by changes in Ti concentrations, reveal glaciers remained present in the catchment following deglaciation prior to 11,300 cal BP, culminating in a Holocene maximum between 9.6 and 9.5 ka cal BP. Correspondence with freshwater pulses from Hudson Strait suggests that Early Holocene glacier advances were driven by the melting Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS). We find that glaciers disappeared from the catchment between 7.4 and 6.7 ka cal BP, following a late Hypsithermal. Glacier reformation around 4250 cal BP marks the onset of the Neoglacial, supporting previous findings. Between 3380 and 3230 cal BP, we find evidence for a previously unreported centennial-scale glacier advance. Both events are concurrent with well-documented episodes of North Atlantic cooling. We argue that this brief forcing created suitable conditions for glaciers to reform in the catchment against a background of gradual orbital cooling. These findings highlight the

  13. Self Creating Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, Bruce

    2001-04-01

    Cosmology has deduced that our existence began 15 billion years ago but that does not constitute a true story. When compared against infinity, the true question one must as is, ‘why did creation begin now (a mere 15 billion give or take years ago) and not at some infinite point before? What could keep the one common original source static for an infinity, and then spring forth into existence?’ Also, accelerators are actually creating atmospheres much like that within quasars, black holes and stars. This destructive/creative environment is not that of original creation, it is of that which occurs in a later stage of cosmic evolution. Knowing that it is only a matter of movement or change, understanding what is moving is the key. Regardless of how much power is used to alter the character of a particle’s matter, it does not make its essence go away, nor does it make the understanding of original essence clearer. To find the true answer of what occurred, one must look back in time and think carefully over the process of elimination to find the original creation of matter, albeit different than that of the later processes. Matter and the physical laws formed themselves in an absolute infinity of blackness prior to light and no Big Bang scenario was necessary.

  14. Creating Sample Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Spears, Joseph H.; Seebode, Linda C.

    1999-03-24

    The program has been designed to increase the accuracy and reduce the preparation time for completing sampling plans. It consists of our files 1. Analyte/Combination (AnalCombo) A list of analytes and combinations of analytes that can be requested of the onsite and offsite labs. Whenever a specific combination of analytes or suite names appear on the same line as the code number, this indicates that one sample can be placed in one bottle to be analyzed for these paremeters. A code number is assigned for each analyte and combination of analytes. 2. Sampling Plans Database (SPDb) A database that contains all of the analytes and combinations of analytes along with the basic information required for preparing a sample plan. That basic information includes the following fields; matrix, hold time, preservation, sample volume, container size, if the bottle caps are taped, acceptable choices. 3. Sampling plans create (SPcreate) a file that will lookup information from the Sampling Plans Database and the Job Log File (JLF98) A major database used by Sample Managemnet Services for recording more than 100 fields of information.

  15. Creating new market space.

    PubMed

    Kim, W C; Mauborgne, R

    1999-01-01

    Most companies focus on matching and beating their rivals. As a result, their strategies tend to take on similar dimensions. What ensues is head-to-head competition based largely on incremental improvements in cost, quality, or both. The authors have studied how innovative companies break free from the competitive pack by staking out fundamentally new market space--that is, by creating products or services for which there are no direct competitors. This path to value innovation requires a different competitive mind-set and a systematic way of looking for opportunities. Instead of looking within the conventional boundaries that define how an industry competes, managers can look methodically across them. By so doing, they can find unoccupied territory that represents real value innovation. Rather than looking at competitors within their own industry, for example, managers can ask why customers make the trade-off between substitute products or services. Home Depot, for example, looked across the substitutes serving home improvement needs. Intuit looked across the substitutes available to individuals managing their personal finances. In both cases, powerful insights were derived from looking at familiar data from a new perspective. Similar insights can be gleaned by looking across strategic groups within an industry; across buyer groups; across complementary product and service offerings; across the functional-emotional orientation of an industry; and even across time. To help readers explore new market space systematically, the authors developed a tool, the value curve, that can be used to represent visually a range of value propositions. PMID:10345394

  16. Creating alternatives in science

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Traditional scientist training at the PhD level does not prepare students to be competitive in biotechnology or other non-academic science careers. Some universities have developed biotechnology-relevant doctoral programmes, but most have not. Forming a life science career club makes a statement to university administrators that it is time to rework the curriculum to include biotechnology-relevant training. A career club can supplement traditional PhD training by introducing students to available career choices, help them develop a personal network and teach the business skills that they will need to be competitive in science outside of academia. This paper is an instructional guide designed to help students create a science career club at their own university. These suggestions are based on the experience gained in establishing such a club for the Graduate School at the University of Colorado Denver. We describe the activities that can be offered, the job descriptions for the offices required and potential challenges. With determination, a creative spirit, and the guidance of this paper, students should be able to greatly increase awareness of science career options, and begin building the skills necessary to become competitive in non-academic science. PMID:20161069

  17. Creating Sample Plans

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-03-24

    The program has been designed to increase the accuracy and reduce the preparation time for completing sampling plans. It consists of our files 1. Analyte/Combination (AnalCombo) A list of analytes and combinations of analytes that can be requested of the onsite and offsite labs. Whenever a specific combination of analytes or suite names appear on the same line as the code number, this indicates that one sample can be placed in one bottle to bemore » analyzed for these paremeters. A code number is assigned for each analyte and combination of analytes. 2. Sampling Plans Database (SPDb) A database that contains all of the analytes and combinations of analytes along with the basic information required for preparing a sample plan. That basic information includes the following fields; matrix, hold time, preservation, sample volume, container size, if the bottle caps are taped, acceptable choices. 3. Sampling plans create (SPcreate) a file that will lookup information from the Sampling Plans Database and the Job Log File (JLF98) A major database used by Sample Managemnet Services for recording more than 100 fields of information.« less

  18. Does lake size matter? Combining morphology and process modeling to examine the contribution of lake classes to population-scale processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winslow, Luke A.; Read, Jordan S.; Hanson, Paul C.; Stanley, Emily H.

    2014-01-01

    With lake abundances in the thousands to millions, creating an intuitive understanding of the distribution of morphology and processes in lakes is challenging. To improve researchers’ understanding of large-scale lake processes, we developed a parsimonious mathematical model based on the Pareto distribution to describe the distribution of lake morphology (area, perimeter and volume). While debate continues over which mathematical representation best fits any one distribution of lake morphometric characteristics, we recognize the need for a simple, flexible model to advance understanding of how the interaction between morphometry and function dictates scaling across large populations of lakes. These models make clear the relative contribution of lakes to the total amount of lake surface area, volume, and perimeter. They also highlight the critical thresholds at which total perimeter, area and volume would be evenly distributed across lake size-classes have Pareto slopes of 0.63, 1 and 1.12, respectively. These models of morphology can be used in combination with models of process to create overarching “lake population” level models of process. To illustrate this potential, we combine the model of surface area distribution with a model of carbon mass accumulation rate. We found that even if smaller lakes contribute relatively less to total surface area than larger lakes, the increasing carbon accumulation rate with decreasing lake size is strong enough to bias the distribution of carbon mass accumulation towards smaller lakes. This analytical framework provides a relatively simple approach to upscaling morphology and process that is easily generalizable to other ecosystem processes.

  19. Cooling flows in clusters of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Meiksin, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray measurements of many clusters of galaxies reveal a hot Intracluster Medium (ICM) that has a cooling time less than a Hubble time. The consequent decrease in the central pressure support of the ICM will result in an inward cooling flow. The inferred accretion rates are typically several hundred solar masses per year. The cD or giant elliptical found at the center of every cooling flow would be substantially altered by the accreted gas, and may even have been created by the flow. Optical, UV, and radio measurements, however, fail to find adequate evidence for massive amounts of cool gas. The lore is that the gas is transformed into stars of such low mass that they do not give very peculiar colors to the central galaxy. In this thesis, after a review of past and current literature, two tasks are undertaken. The first is to examine the role heat conduction could play. It is demonstrated that the density and temperature profiles of the cooling flows in Virgo and Perseus are consistent with a steady-state model in which that conduction reduces the accretion rates by an order of magnitude. The second task is to simulate the evolution of a cooling flow, and possible formation of a galaxy from thermal instabilities, in a proper cosmological setting. Two evolutionary stages are found, a dynamical accretion state composed of two competing similarity solutions followed by a quasi-steady-state cooling flow. The onset of the second stage is very recent. During either stage, so few stars may be created that their colors, even adopting a standard initial mass function, would be consistent with the existing optical and UV constraints.

  20. Origins of rainbow smelt in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.

    1983-01-01

    The first rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) to enter Lake Ontario were probably migrants from an anadromous strain introduced into New York's Finger Lakes. Since the upper Great Lakes were originally stocked with a landlocked strain from Green Lake, Maine, subsequent migration to Lake Ontario from Lake Erie makes Lake Ontario unique among the Great Lakes in probably having received introductions from two distinct populations.

  1. David Morrison on Lake Vostok

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. David Morrison discusses the implications of research possibilities at Lake Vostok, one of the largest subglacial lakes located over two miles beneath the ice in Antarctica. The lake has been c...

  2. Lake Mead, NV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Lake Mead, Nevada, (36.0N, 114.5E) where the water from the Colorado River empties after it's 273 mile journey through the Grand Canyon of Arizona is the subject of this photo. Other features of interest are Hoover Dam on the south shore of Lake Mead where cheap hydroelectric power is secondary to the water resources made available in this northern desert region and the resort city of Las Vegas, just to the west of Lake Mead.

  3. Directly dated MIS 3 lake-level record from Lake Manix, Mojave Desert, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, Marith; Miller, David M.; McGeehin, John P.; Redwine, Joanna R.; Oviatt, Charles G.; Bright, Jordon E.

    2015-01-01

    An outcrop-based lake-level curve, constrained by ~ 70 calibrated 14C ages on Anodonta shells, indicates at least 8 highstands between 45 and 25 cal ka BP within 10 m of the 543-m upper threshold of Lake Manix in the Mojave Desert of southern California. Correlations of Manix highstands with ice, marine, and speleothem records suggest that at least the youngest three highstands coincide with Dansgaard–Oeschger (D–O) stadials and Heinrich events 3 and 4. The lake-level record is consistent with results from speleothem studies in the Southwest that indicate cool wet conditions during D–O stadials. Notably, highstands between 43 and 25 ka apparently occurred at times of generally low levels of pluvial lakes farther north as interpreted from core-based proxies. Mojave lakes may have been supported by tropical moisture sources during oxygen-isotope stage 3, perhaps controlled by southerly deflection of Pacific storm tracks due to weakening of the sea-surface temperature gradient in response to North Atlantic climate perturbations.

  4. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Fanning, Alan W.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

  5. Floor of Lake Tahoe, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Gibbons, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Lake-floor depths shown by color, from light tan (shallowest) to blue (deepest). Arrows on map (C) show orientations of perspective views. A, view toward McKinney Bay over blocks tumbled onto the lake floor by a massive landslide 10s to 100s of thousands of years ago; dark triangular block near center is approximately 1.5 km (0.9 mi) across and 120 m (390 ft) high. B, view toward South Lake Tahoe and Emerald Bay (on right) over sediment waves as much as 10 m (30 ft) high, created by sediment flowing down the south margin of the lake. Slopes appear twice as steep as they are. Lake-floor imagery from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) multibeam bathymetric data and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers bathymetric lidar data. Land imagery generated by overlaying USGS digital orthophoto quadrangles (DOQs) on USGS digital elevation models (DEMs). All data available at http://tahoe.usgs.gov/.

  6. Lake Michigan and Lake Superior air quality: The 1994-2003 LADCO Aircraft Project (LAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, T. A.; Betterton, E. A.; Jacko, R.; Hillery, J.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of the 1994 to 2003 LADCO Airplane Project (LAP) was to study ozone formation over Lake Michigan so that equitable regional control strategies could be devised. During the ten year LAP campaign, a total of 328 flights were flown on 81 days over Lake Michigan and its southern and western boundaries. LAP also monitored air quality over Lake Superior and other areas in the Midwestern and southern United States. From 2001 to 2003, 117 flights were conducted over Lake Superior, Isle Royale National Park, Painted Rocks National Lakeshore and the Seeney National Wildlife Refuge in Michigan. 63 flights were conducted over St. Louis and 58 flights over the Dolly Sods Wilderness Area in West Virginia. We are looking for collaborators to help us analyze this vast data archive. Our first paper (Atmospheric Environment 45 (2011) 3192-3202) documented the project and presented results of our ozone analysis. Our results support the hypothesis of Dye et al. (1995), who found that the atmosphere over Lake Michigan is stable in the summer due to the air water temperature difference, which creates an efficient reaction chamber for ozone formation. They also hypothesized that the southwest winds characteristic of ozone-conducive conditions transport ozone further north over the lake before it crosses the shoreline onto land. We found that below 200 m above the lake, ozone formation is VOC-limited in the morning and becomes NOx limited in the afternoon. Above 200 m, ozone formation is NOx-limited throughout the day. The onshore NOx and VOC diurnal cycles peak during the early morning rush hour and are clearly linked to traffic patterns. Over the lake, VOC and NOy concentrations peak during the mid-morning rather than the early morning, supporting the hypothesis that the land breeze transports VOC and NOy over the lake. The diurnal NOx pattern over Lake Michigan is less clearly defined than the VOC pattern possibly as a result of emissions from five coal-burning power plants

  7. Beach-ridge development and lake-level variation in southern Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    representing the meso-scale fluctuations. The large-scale fluctuations produced the most dramatic response in the western part of the Toleston Beach. Here, following each high stand, individual spits prograded southward off of a bedrock headland. The successive spit extensions created several small lakes landward of the spits and started the 20 km eastward stream-mouth deflection of the Grand Calumet River across Indiana's western lakeshore. ?? 1992.

  8. SIMULATION AND VALIDATION OF FISH THERMAL DO HABITAT IN NORTH-CENTRAL US LAKES UNDER DIFFERENT CLIMATE SCENARIOS. (R824801)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Fish habitat in lakes is strongly constrained by water temperature and available dissolved oxygen (DO). Suitable fish habitat for three fish assemblages (cold-, cool-, and warm-water) in Minnesota (US) lakes was therefore determined from simulated daily water ...

  9. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  10. Coherent electron cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko,V.

    2009-05-04

    Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams remains a major challenge in modern accelerator physics. Synchrotron radiation is still too feeble, while the efficiency of two other cooling methods, stochastic and electron, falls rapidly either at high bunch intensities (i.e. stochastic of protons) or at high energies (e-cooling). In this talk a specific scheme of a unique cooling technique, Coherent Electron Cooling, will be discussed. The idea of coherent electron cooling using electron beam instabilities was suggested by Derbenev in the early 1980s, but the scheme presented in this talk, with cooling times under an hour for 7 TeV protons in the LHC, would be possible only with present-day accelerator technology. This talk will discuss the principles and the main limitations of the Coherent Electron Cooling process. The talk will describe the main system components, based on a high-gain free electron laser driven by an energy recovery linac, and will present some numerical examples for ions and protons in RHIC and the LHC and for electron-hadron options for these colliders. BNL plans a demonstration of the idea in the near future.