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Sample records for creb regulate basal

  1. Sp1 and CREB regulate basal transcription of the human SNF2L gene

    SciTech Connect

    Xia Yu; Jiang Baichun; Zou Yongxin; Gao Guimin; Shang Linshan; Chen Bingxi; Liu Qiji; Gong Yaoqin

    2008-04-04

    Imitation Switch (ISWI) is a member of the SWI2/SNF2 superfamily of ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers, which are involved in multiple nuclear functions, including transcriptional regulation, replication, and chromatin assembly. Mammalian genomes encode two ISWI orthologs, SNF2H and SNF2L. In order to clarify the molecular mechanisms governing the expression of human SNF2L gene, we functionally examined the transcriptional regulation of human SNF2L promoter. Reporter gene assays demonstrated that the minimal SNF2L promoter was located between positions -152 to -86 relative to the transcription start site. In this region we have identified a cAMP-response element (CRE) located at -99 to -92 and a Sp1-binding site at -145 to -135 that play a critical role in regulating basal activity of human SNF2L gene, which were proven by deletion and mutation of specific binding sites, EMSA, and down-regulating Sp1 and CREB via RNAi. This study provides the first insight into the mechanisms that control basal expression of human SNF2L gene.

  2. Erk-Creb pathway suppresses glutathione-S-transferase pi expression under basal and oxidative stress conditions in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Hrubik, Jelena; Glisic, Branka; Fa, Svetlana; Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Andric, Nebojsa

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional activation of phase II enzymes including glutathione-S-transferase pi class (Gst Pi) is important for redox regulation and defense from xenobiotics. The role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) and protein kinase B (Akt) in regulation of Gst Pi expression has been described using adult mammalian cells. Whether these signaling pathways contribute to Gst Pi expression during embryogenesis is unknown. Using zebrafish embryo model, we provide novel evidence that Erk signaling acts as a specific suppressor of gstp1-2 mRNA during early embryogenesis. Addition of Erk inhibitor U0126 enhanced gstp1-2 mRNA expression during transition from blastula to the segmentation stage and from pharyngula until the hatching stage. Basal Erk activity did not affect gstp1-2 expression in tert-butylhydroquinone-exposed embryos. Addition of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate increased Erk activity leading to suppression of gstp1-2 mRNA. Activation of cAMP/Creb pathway by forskolin prevented gstp1-2 expression, whereas U0126 suppressed Creb phosphorylation, thus setting up Creb as a proximal transmitter of Erk inhibitory effect. Collectively, these findings suggest that Erk-Creb pathway exerts suppressive effect on gstp1-2 mRNA in a narrow developmental window. This study also provides a novel link between Erk and gstp1-2 expression, setting apart a possible differential regulation of gstp1-2 in adult and embryonic cells. PMID:26494252

  3. Regulation of CREB by moderate hypoxia in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Beitner-Johnson, D; Rust, R T; Hsieh, T; Millhorn, D E

    2000-01-01

    The mechanisms by which excitable cells adapt and respond to changes in O2 levels remain largely unknown. We have investigated the effect of hypoxia on the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) transcription factor. PC12 cells were exposed to moderate levels of hypoxia (5% O2) for various times between 20 min and 6 hr. We found that hypoxia rapidly and persistently induced ser133 phosphorylation of CREB. This effect was more robust than that produced by exposing PC12 cells to either forskolin, KCl, or NGF. This effect was not due to activation of any of the previously known CREB kinases, including PKA, CaMK, PKC, p70s6k, or MAPKAP kinase-2. Thus, hypoxia may induce activation of a novel CREB kinase. To test whether phosphorylation of CREB was associated with an activation of CRE-dependent gene expression, cells were transfected with wild type and mutated regions of the 5'-flanking region of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene fused to a CAT reporter gene. Mutation of the CRE element in a TH reporter gene reduced, but did not abolish, the effects of hypoxia on TH gene expression. However, hypoxia did not induce transactivation of a GAL4-luciferase reporter by a GAL4-CREB fusion protein. Thus, the mechanism by which hypoxia regulates CREB is distinct, and more complex, than that induced by forskolin, depolarization, or nerve growth factor. PMID:10849656

  4. CREB activity in dopamine D1 receptor expressing neurons regulates cocaine-induced behavioral effects.

    PubMed

    Bilbao, Ainhoa; Rieker, Claus; Cannella, Nazzareno; Parlato, Rosanna; Golda, Slawomir; Piechota, Marcin; Korostynski, Michal; Engblom, David; Przewlocki, Ryszard; Schütz, Günther; Spanagel, Rainer; Parkitna, Jan R

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested that striatal cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) regulates sensitivity to psychostimulants. To test the cell-specificity of this hypothesis we examined the effects of a dominant-negative CREB protein variant expressed in dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) neurons on cocaine-induced behaviors. A transgenic mouse strain was generated by pronuclear injection of a BAC-derived transgene harboring the A-CREB sequence under the control of the D1R gene promoter. Compared to wild-type, drug-naïve mutants showed moderate alterations in gene expression, especially a reduction in basal levels of activity-regulated transcripts such as Arc and Egr2. The behavioral responses to cocaine were elevated in mutant mice. Locomotor activity after acute treatment, psychomotor sensitization after intermittent drug injections and the conditioned locomotion after saline treatment were increased compared to wild-type littermates. Transgenic mice had significantly higher cocaine conditioned place preference, displayed normal extinction of the conditioned preference, but showed an augmented cocaine-seeking response following priming-induced reinstatement. This enhanced cocaine-seeking response was associated with increased levels of activity-regulated transcripts and prodynorphin. The primary reinforcing effects of cocaine were not altered in the mutant mice as they did not differ from wild-type in cocaine self-administration under a fixed ratio schedule at the training dose. Collectively, our data indicate that expression of a dominant-negative CREB variant exclusively in neurons expressing D1R is sufficient to recapitulate the previously reported behavioral phenotypes associated with virally expressed dominant-negative CREB. PMID:24966820

  5. GRM7 regulates embryonic neurogenesis via CREB and YAP.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wenlong; Liu, YanLi; Jiao, Jianwei

    2015-05-12

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 (GRM7) has recently been identified to be associated with brain developmental defects, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism. However, the function of GRM7 during brain development remains largely unknown. Here, we used gain- and loss-of-function strategies to investigate the role of GRM7 in early cortical development. We demonstrate that Grm7 knockdown increases neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation, decreases terminal mitosis and neuronal differentiation, and leads to abnormal neuronal morphology. GRM7 regulates the phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and the expression of Yes-associated protein (YAP) by directly interacting with CaM, which subsequently regulates the expression of CyclinD1 and ultimately affects early cortical development. These defects in neurogenesis are ameliorated by Grm7 overexpression, Creb knockdown, or Yap knockdown. Thus, our findings indicate that GRM7 signaling via CREB and YAP is necessary for neurogenesis in the brain. PMID:25921811

  6. CREB regulates memory allocation in the insular cortex.

    PubMed

    Sano, Yoshitake; Shobe, Justin L; Zhou, Miou; Huang, Shan; Shuman, Tristan; Cai, Denise J; Golshani, Peyman; Kamata, Masakazu; Silva, Alcino J

    2014-12-01

    The molecular and cellular mechanisms of memory storage have attracted a great deal of attention. By comparison, little is known about memory allocation, the process that determines which specific neurons in a neural network will store a given memory. Previous studies demonstrated that memory allocation is not random in the amygdala; these studies showed that amygdala neurons with higher levels of the cyclic-AMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB) are more likely to be recruited into encoding and storing fear memory. To determine whether specific mechanisms also regulate memory allocation in other brain regions and whether CREB also has a role in this process, we studied insular cortical memory representations for conditioned taste aversion (CTA). In this task, an animal learns to associate a taste (conditioned stimulus [CS]) with the experience of malaise (such as that induced by LiCl; unconditioned stimulus [US]). The insular cortex is required for CTA memory formation and retrieval. CTA learning activates a subpopulation of neurons in this structure, and the insular cortex and the basolateral amygdala (BLA) interact during CTA formation. Here, we used a combination of approaches, including viral vector transfections of insular cortex, arc fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) system, to show that CREB levels determine which insular cortical neurons go on to encode a given conditioned taste memory. PMID:25454591

  7. GABA-CREB signalling regulates maturation and survival of newly generated neurons in the adult hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Jagasia, Ravi; Steib, Kathrin; Englberger, Elisabeth; Herold, Sabine; Faus-Kessler, Theresa; Saxe, Michael; Gage, Fred H.; Song, Hongjun; Lie, D. Chichung

    2009-01-01

    Survival and integration of new neurons in the hippocampal circuit are rate-limiting steps in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Neuronal network activity is a major regulator of these processes, yet little is known about the respective downstream signalling pathways. Here, we investigate the role of CREB signalling in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. CREB is activated in new granule neurons during a distinct developmental period. Loss of CREB function in a cell-autonomous fashion impairs dendritic development, decreases the expression of the neurogenic transcription factor NeuroD and of the neuronal microtubule associated protein, DCX, and compromises the survival of newborn neurons. In addition, GABA-mediated excitation regulates CREB activation at early developmental stages. Importantly, developmental defects following loss of GABA-mediated excitation can be compensated by enhanced CREB signalling. These results indicate that CREB signalling is a central pathway in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, regulating the development and survival of new hippocampal neurons downstream of GABA-mediated excitation. PMID:19553437

  8. CREB Inhibits AP-2α Expression to Regulate the Malignant Phenotype of Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Zigler, Maya; Villares, Gabriel J.; Braeuer, Russell R.; Wang, Hua; Huang, Li; Bar-Eli, Menashe

    2010-01-01

    Background The loss of AP-2α and increased activity of cAMP-responsive element binding (CREB) protein are two hallmarks of malignant progression of cutaneous melanoma. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for the loss of AP-2α during melanoma progression remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Herein, we demonstrate that both inhibition of PKA-dependent CREB phosphorylation, as well as silencing of CREB expression by shRNA, restored AP-2α protein expression in two metastatic melanoma cell lines. Moreover, rescue of CREB expression in CREB-silenced cell lines downregulates expression of AP-2α. Loss of AP-2α expression in metastatic melanoma occurs via a dual mechanism involving binding of CREB to the AP-2α promoter and CREB-induced overexpression of another oncogenic transcription factor, E2F-1. Upregulation of AP-2α expression following CREB silencing increases endogenous p21Waf1 and decreases MCAM/MUC18, both known to be downstream target genes of AP-2α involved in melanoma progression. Conclusions/Significance Since AP-2α regulates several genes associated with the metastatic potential of melanoma including c-KIT, VEGF, PAR-1, MCAM/MUC18, and p21Waf1, our data identified CREB as a major regulator of the malignant melanoma phenotype. PMID:20805990

  9. Regulation of proliferation and histone acetylation in embryonic neural precursors by CREB/CREM signaling

    PubMed Central

    Parlato, Rosanna; Mandl, Claudia; Hölzl-Wenig, Gabriele; Liss, Birgit; Tucker, Kerry L; Ciccolini, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor CREB (cAMP-response element binding protein) regulates differentiation, migration, survival and activity-dependent gene expression in the developing and mature nervous system. However, its specific role in the proliferation of embryonic neural progenitors is still not completely understood. Here we investigated how CREB regulates proliferation of mouse embryonic neural progenitors by a conditional mutant lacking Creb gene in neural progenitors. In parallel, we explored possible compensatory effects by the genetic ablation of another member of the same gene family, the cAMP-responsive element modulator (Crem). We show that CREB loss differentially impaired the proliferation, clonogenic potential and self-renewal of precursors derived from the ganglionic eminence (GE), in comparison to those derived from the cortex. This phenotype was associated with a specific reduction of histone acetylation in the GE of CREB mutant mice, and this reduction was rescued in vivo by inhibition of histone deacetylation. These observations indicate that the impaired proliferation could be caused by a reduced acetyltransferase activity in Creb conditional knock-out mice. These findings support a crucial role of CREB in controlling embryonic neurogenesis and propose a novel mechanism by which CREB regulates embryonic neural development.

  10. CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 enhances CREB-dependent gene expression in spinal cord to maintain the bone cancer pain in mice

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Ying; Liu, Yue; Hou, Bailing; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Ming; Sun, Yu-E; Gu, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Background cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-dependent gene expression plays an important role in central sensitization. CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1) dramatically increases CREB-mediated transcriptional activity. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 2B, and miRNA-212/132, which are highly CREB responsive, function downstream from CREB/CRTC1 to mediate activity-dependent synaptic plasticity and in turn loops back to amplify CREB/CRTC1 signaling. This study aimed to investigate the role of spinal CRTC1 in the maintenance of bone cancer pain using an RNA interference method. Results Osteosarcoma cells were implanted into the intramedullary space of the right femurs of C3H/HeNCrlVr mice to induce bone cancer pain. Western blotting was applied to examine the expression of spinal phospho-Ser133 CREB and CRTC1. We further investigated effects of repeated intrathecal administration with Adenoviruses expressing CRTC1-small interfering RNA (siRNA) on nociceptive behaviors and on the upregulation of CREB/CRTC1-target genes associated with bone cancer pain. Inoculation of osteosarcoma cells induced progressive mechanical allodynia and spontaneous pain, and resulted in upregulation of spinal p-CREB and CRTC1. Repeated intrathecal administration with Adenoviruses expressing CRTC1-siRNA attenuated bone cancer–evoked pain behaviors, and reduced CREB/CRTC1-target genes expression in spinal cord, including BDNF, NR2B, and miR-212/132. Conclusions Upregulation of CRTC1 enhancing CREB-dependent gene transcription in spinal cord may play an important role in bone cancer pain. Inhibition of spinal CRTC1 expression reduced bone cancer pain. Interruption to the positive feedback circuit between CREB/CRTC1 and its targets may contribute to the analgesic effects. These findings may provide further insight into the mechanisms and treatment of bone cancer pain. PMID:27060162

  11. PKA-CREB-BDNF signaling regulated long lasting antidepressant activities of Yueju but not ketamine

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Wenda; Wang, Wei; Gong, Tong; Zhang, Hailou; Tao, Weiwei; Xue, Lihong; Sun, Yan; Wang, Fushun; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Yueju confers antidepressant effects in a rapid and long-lasting manner, similar to ketamine. CREB (cAMP-response element binding protein) signaling is implicated in depression pathology and antidepressant responses. However, the role of CREB and associated brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling in rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effects remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that ICR and Kunming strain mice conferred antidepressant responses lasting for 1 and 5 days, respectively, following a single dose of Yueju. One day post Yueju in Kunming but not ICR strain mice, expression of total and phosphorylated CREB, as well as the CREB signaling activator, PKA (protein kinase A) was up-regulated in the hippocampus. Although BDNF gene expression increased at 3 hours in both strains, it remained up-regulated at 1 day only in Kunming mice. Ketamine showed similar strain-dependent behavioral effects. However, blockade of PKA/CREB signaling blunted the antidepressant effects and reversed the up-regulation of BDNF gene expression by Yueju, but not ketamine. Conversely, blockade of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling led to opposite effects. Taken altogether, prolonged transcriptional up-regulation of hippocampal BDNF may account for the stain-dependent enduring antidepressant responses to Yueju and ketamine, but it was mediated via PKA/CREB pathway only for Yueju. PMID:27197752

  12. PKA-CREB-BDNF signaling regulated long lasting antidepressant activities of Yueju but not ketamine.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wenda; Wang, Wei; Gong, Tong; Zhang, Hailou; Tao, Weiwei; Xue, Lihong; Sun, Yan; Wang, Fushun; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Yueju confers antidepressant effects in a rapid and long-lasting manner, similar to ketamine. CREB (cAMP-response element binding protein) signaling is implicated in depression pathology and antidepressant responses. However, the role of CREB and associated brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling in rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effects remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that ICR and Kunming strain mice conferred antidepressant responses lasting for 1 and 5 days, respectively, following a single dose of Yueju. One day post Yueju in Kunming but not ICR strain mice, expression of total and phosphorylated CREB, as well as the CREB signaling activator, PKA (protein kinase A) was up-regulated in the hippocampus. Although BDNF gene expression increased at 3 hours in both strains, it remained up-regulated at 1 day only in Kunming mice. Ketamine showed similar strain-dependent behavioral effects. However, blockade of PKA/CREB signaling blunted the antidepressant effects and reversed the up-regulation of BDNF gene expression by Yueju, but not ketamine. Conversely, blockade of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling led to opposite effects. Taken altogether, prolonged transcriptional up-regulation of hippocampal BDNF may account for the stain-dependent enduring antidepressant responses to Yueju and ketamine, but it was mediated via PKA/CREB pathway only for Yueju. PMID:27197752

  13. Local translation and retrograde axonal transport of CREB regulates IL-6-induced nociceptive plasticity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation of genes by cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) is essential for the maintenance of long-term memory. Moreover, retrograde axonal trafficking of CREB in response to nerve growth factor (NGF) is critical for the survival of developing primary sensory neurons. We have previously demonstrated that hindpaw injection of interleukin-6 (IL-6) induces mechanical hypersensitivity and hyperalgesic priming that is prevented by the local injection of protein synthesis inhibitors. However, proteins that are locally synthesized that might lead to this effect have not been identified. We hypothesized that retrograde axonal trafficking of nascently synthesized CREB might link local, activity-dependent translation to nociceptive plasticity. To test this hypothesis, we determined if IL-6 enhances the expression of CREB and if it subsequently undergoes retrograde axonal transport. IL-6 treatment of sensory neurons in vitro caused an increase in CREB protein and in vivo treatment evoked an increase in CREB in the sciatic nerve consistent with retrograde transport. Importantly, co-injection of IL-6 with the methionine analogue azido-homoalanine (AHA), to assess nascently synthesized proteins, revealed an increase in CREB containing AHA in the sciatic nerve 2 hrs post injection, indicating retrograde transport of nascently synthesized CREB. Behaviorally, blockade of retrograde transport by disruption of microtubules or inhibition of dynein or intrathecal injection of cAMP response element (CRE) consensus sequence DNA oligonucleotides, which act as decoys for CREB DNA binding, prevented the development of IL-6-induced mechanical hypersensitivity and hyperalgesic priming. Consistent with previous studies in inflammatory models, intraplantar IL-6 enhanced the expression of BDNF in dorsal root ganglion (DRG). This effect was blocked by inhibition of retrograde axonal transport and by intrathecal CRE oligonucleotides. Collectively, these findings

  14. Nuclear TRAF3 is a negative regulator of CREB in B cells.

    PubMed

    Mambetsariev, Nurbek; Lin, Wai W; Stunz, Laura L; Hanson, Brett M; Hildebrand, Joanne M; Bishop, Gail A

    2016-01-26

    The adaptor protein TNF receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) regulates signaling through B-lymphocyte receptors, including CD40, BAFF receptor, and Toll-like receptors, and also plays a critical role inhibiting B-cell homoeostatic survival. Consistent with these findings, loss-of-function human TRAF3 mutations are common in B-cell cancers, particularly multiple myeloma and B-cell lymphoma. B cells of B-cell-specific TRAF3(-/-) mice (B-Traf3(-/-)) display remarkably enhanced survival compared with littermate control (WT) B cells. The mechanism for this abnormal homeostatic survival is poorly understood, a key knowledge gap in selecting optimal treatments for human B-cell cancers with TRAF3 deficiency. We show here for the first time to our knowledge that TRAF3 is a resident nuclear protein that associates with the transcriptional regulator cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in both mouse and human B cells. The TRAF-C domain of TRAF3 was necessary and sufficient to localize TRAF3 to the nucleus via a functional nuclear localization signal. CREB protein was elevated in TRAF3(-/-) B cells, without change in mRNA, but with a decrease in CREB ubiquitination. CREB-mediated transcriptional activity was increased in TRAF3-deficient B cells. Consistent with these findings, Mcl-1, an antiapoptotic target of CREB-mediated transcription, was increased in the absence of TRAF3 and enhanced Mcl-1 was suppressed with CREB inhibition. TRAF3-deficient B cells were also preferentially sensitive to survival inhibition with pharmacologic CREB inhibitor. Our results identify a new mechanism by which nuclear TRAF3 regulates B-cell survival via inhibition of CREB stability, information highly relevant to the role of TRAF3 in B-cell malignancies. PMID:26755589

  15. Long non-coding RNA MALAT1 regulates retinal neurodegeneration through CREB signaling.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jin; Wang, Xiao-Qun; Li, Yu-Jie; Shan, Kun; Yang, Hong; Wang, Yang-Ning-Zhi; Yao, Mu-Di; Liu, Chang; Li, Xiu-Miao; Shen, Yi; Liu, Jing-Yu; Cheng, Hong; Yuan, Jun; Zhang, Yang-Yang; Jiang, Qin; Yan, Biao

    2016-01-01

    The nervous and vascular systems, although functionally different, share many common regulators of function maintenance. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important players in many biological processes and human disorders. We previously identified a role of MALAT1 in microvascular dysfunction. However, its role in neurodegeneration is still unknown. Here, we used the eye as the model to investigate the role of MALAT1 in retinal neurodegeneration. We show that MALAT1 expression is significantly up-regulated in the retinas, Müller cells, and primary retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) upon stress. MALAT1 knockdown reduces reactive gliosis, Müller cell activation, and RGC survival in vivo and in vitro MALAT1-CREB binding maintains CREB phosphorylation by inhibiting PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation, which leads to continuous CREB signaling activation. Clinical and animal experimentation suggests that MALAT1 dysfunction is implicated in neurodegenerative processes and several human disorders. Collectively, this study reveals that MALAT1 might regulate the development of retinal neurodegeneration through CREB signaling. PMID:26964565

  16. The mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier isoform 1 gene expression is regulated by CREB in neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Menga, Alessio; Iacobazzi, Vito; Infantino, Vittoria; Avantaggiati, Maria Laura; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The aspartate/glutamate carrier isoform 1 is an essential mitochondrial transporter that exchanges intramitochondrial aspartate and cytosolic glutamate across the inner mitochondrial membrane. It is expressed in brain, heart and muscle and is involved in important biological processes, including myelination. However, the signals that regulate the expression of this transporter are still largely unknown. In this study we first identify a CREB binding site within the aspartate/glutamate carrier gene promoter that acts as a strong enhancer element in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. This element is regulated by active, phosphorylated CREB protein and by signal pathways that modify the activity of CREB itself and, most noticeably, by intracellular Ca2+ levels. Specifically, aspartate/glutamate carrier gene expression is induced via CREB by forskolin while it is inhibited by the PKA inhibitor, H89. Furthermore, the CREB-induced activation of gene expression is increased by thapsigargin, which enhances cytosolic Ca2+, while it is inhibited by BAPTA-AM that reduces cytosolic Ca2+ or by STO-609, which inhibits CaMK-IV phosphorylation. We further show that CREB-dependent regulation of aspartate/glutamate carrier gene expression occurs in neuronal cells in response to pathological (inflammation) and physiological (differentiation) conditions. Since this carrier is necessary for neuronal functions and is involved in myelinogenesis, our results highlight that targeting of CREB activity and Ca2+ might be therapeutically exploited to increase aspartate/glutamate carrier gene expression in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25597433

  17. Phosphorylation and SCF-mediated degradation regulate CREB-H transcription of metabolic targets

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Sónia; Carreira, Suzanne; Bailey, Daniel; Abaitua, Fernando; O'Hare, Peter

    2015-01-01

    CREB‑H, an endoplasmic reticulum–anchored transcription factor, plays a key role in regulating secretion and in metabolic and inflammatory pathways, but how its activity is modulated remains unclear. We examined processing of the nuclear active form and identified a motif around S87–S90 with homology to DSG-type phosphodegrons. We show that this region is subject to multiple phosphorylations, which regulate CREB-H stability by targeting it to the SCFFbw1a E3 ubiquitin ligase. Data from phosphatase treatment, use of phosophospecific antibody, and substitution of serine residues demonstrate phosphorylation of candidate serines in the region, with the core S87/S90 motif representing a critical determinant promoting proteasome-mediated degradation. Candidate kinases CKII and GSK-3b phosphorylate CREB-H in vitro with specificities for different serines. Prior phosphorylation with GSK-3 at one or more of the adjacent serines substantially increases S87/S90-dependent phosphorylation by CKII. In vivo expression of a dominant-negative Cul1 enhances steady-state levels of CREB‑H, an effect augmented by Fbw1a. CREB-H directly interacts with Fbw1a in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Finally, mutations within the phosphodegron, when incorporated into the full-length protein, result in increased levels of constitutively cleaved nuclear protein and increased transcription and secretion of a key endogenous target gene, apolipoprotein A IV. PMID:26108621

  18. Cranial irradiation regulates CREB-BDNF signaling and variant BDNF transcript levels in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Son, Yeonghoon; Yang, Miyoung; Kang, Sohi; Lee, Sueun; Kim, Jinwook; Kim, Juhwan; Park, Seri; Kim, Joong-Sun; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Shin, Taekyun; Kim, Sung-Ho; Wang, Hongbing; Moon, Changjong

    2015-05-01

    The brain can be exposed to ionizing radiation in various ways, and such irradiation can trigger adverse effects, particularly on learning and memory. However, the precise mechanisms of cognitive impairments induced by cranial irradiation remain unknown. In the hippocampus, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays roles in neurogenesis, neuronal survival, neuronal differentiation, and synaptic plasticity. The significance of BDNF transcript variants in these contexts is becoming clearer. In the present study, both object recognition memory and contextual fear conditioning task performance in adult C57BL/6 mice were assessed 1 month after a single exposure to cranial irradiation (10 Gy) to evaluate hippocampus-related behavioral dysfunction following such irradiation. Furthermore, changes in the levels of BDNF, the cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation, and BDNF transcript variants were measured in the hippocampus 1 month after cranial irradiation. On object recognition memory and contextual fear conditioning tasks, mice evaluated 1 month after irradiation exhibited significant memory deficits compared to sham-irradiated controls, but no apparent change was evident in locomotor activity. Both phosphorylated CREB and BDNF protein levels were significantly downregulated after irradiation of the hippocampus. Moreover, the levels of mRNAs encoding common BDNF transcripts, and exons IIC, III, IV, VII, VIII, and IXA, were significantly downregulated after irradiation. The reductions in CREB phosphorylation and BDNF expression induced by differential regulation of BDNF hippocampal exon transcripts may be associated with the memory deficits evident in mice after cranial irradiation. PMID:25792232

  19. Oxytocin Regulates Stress-Induced Crf Gene Transcription through CREB-Regulated Transcription Coactivator 3

    PubMed Central

    Jurek, Benjamin; Slattery, David A.; Hiraoka, Yuichi; Liu, Ying; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Aguilera, Greti; van den Burg, Erwin H.

    2015-01-01

    The major regulator of the neuroendocrine stress response in the brain is corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), whose transcription is controlled by CREB and its cofactors CRTC2/3 (TORC2/3). Phosphorylated CRTCs are sequestered in the cytoplasm, but rapidly dephosphorylated and translocated into the nucleus following a stressful stimulus. As the stress response is attenuated by oxytocin (OT), we tested whether OT interferes with CRTC translocation and, thereby, Crf expression. OT (1 nmol, i.c.v.) delayed the stress-induced increase of nuclear CRTC3 and Crf hnRNA levels in the paraventricular nucleus of male rats and mice, but did not affect either parameter in the absence of the stressor. The increase in Crf hnRNA levels at later time points was parallel to elevated nuclear CRTC2/3 levels. A direct effect of Thr4 Gly7-OT (TGOT) on CRTC3 translocation and Crf expression was found in rat primary hypothalamic neurons, amygdaloid (Ar-5), hypothalamic (H32), and human neuroblastoma (Be(2)M17) cell lines. CRTC3, but not CRCT2, knockdown using siRNA in Be(2)M17 cells prevented the effect of TGOT on Crf hnRNA levels. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation demonstrated that TGOT reduced CRTC3, but not CRTC2, binding to the Crf promoter after 10 min of forskolin stimulation. Together, the results indicate that OT modulates CRTC3 translocation, the binding of CRTC3 to the Crf promoter and, ultimately, transcription of the Crf gene. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The neuropeptide oxytocin has been proposed to reduce hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation during stress. The underlying mechanisms are, however, elusive. In this study we show that activation of the oxytocin receptor in the paraventricular nucleus delays transcription of the gene encoding corticotropin releasing factor (Crf), the main regulator of the stress response. It does so by sequestering the coactivator of the transcription factor CREB, CRTC3, in the cytosol, resulting in reduced binding of CRTC3 to the Crf

  20. FGF and stress regulate CREB and ATF-1 via a pathway involving p38 MAP kinase and MAPKAP kinase-2.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Y; Rouse, J; Zhang, A; Cariati, S; Cohen, P; Comb, M J

    1996-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) activates a protein kinase cascade in SK-N-MC cells that regulates gene expression at a cyclic-AMP response element (CRE) by stimulating the transcriptional activity of CREB. The activation of CREB is prevented by a dominant negative mutant of Ras and triggered via the same site (Ser133) that becomes phosphorylated in response to cyclic AMP and Ca2+. However, the effect of FGF is not mediated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, TPA-sensitive isoforms of protein kinase-C, p70S6K or p90rsk (all of which phosphorylate CREB at Ser133 in vitro). Instead, we identify the FGF-stimulated CREB kinase as MAP kinase-activated protein (MAPKAP) kinase-2, an enzyme that lies immediately downstream of p38 MAP kinase, in a pathway that is also stimulated by cellular stresses. We show that MAPKAP kinase-2 phosphorylates CREB at Ser133 in vitro, that the FGF- or stress-induced activation of MAPKAP kinase-2 and phosphorylation of CREB and ATF-1 are prevented by similar concentrations of the specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB 203580, and that MAPKAP kinase-2 is the only detectable SB 203580-sensitive CREB kinase in SK-N-MC cell extracts. We also show that transfection of RK/p38 MAP kinase in SK-N-MC cells, but not transfection of p44 MAP kinase, activates Gal4-CREB-dependent transcription via Ser133. These findings identify a new growth factor and stress-activated signaling pathway that regulates gene expression at the CRE. Images PMID:8887554

  1. CREB5 computational regulation network construction and analysis between frontal cortex of HIV encephalitis (HIVE) and HIVE-control patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Huang, Juxiang; Jiang, Minghu

    2011-07-01

    CREB5 computational regulation network construction and analysis of frontal cortex of HIV encephalitis (HIVE) is very useful to identify novel markers and potential targets for prognosis and therapy. By integration of gene regulatory network infer and the database for annotation, visualization and integrated discovery we identified and constructed significant molecule CREB5 regulation network from 12 frontal cortex of HIVE-control patients and 16 HIVE in the same GEO Dataset GDS1726. Our result verified CREB5 biological regulation module in the upstream of frontal cortex of HIVE-control patients (MAPKAPK3 activation; DGKG, LY96, TNFRSF11B inhibition) and downstream (ATP6V0E1, CFB, DGKG, MX1, TGFBR3 activation; LGALS3BP, RASGRP3, RDX, STAT1 inhibition), whereas in the upstream of frontal cortex of HIVE (BST2, CFB, LCAT, TNFRSF11B activation; CFHR1, LY96 inhibition) and downstream (GAS1, LCAT, LGALS3BP, NFAT5, VEZF1, ZNF652 activation; DGKG, IFITM1, LY96, TNFRSF11B inhibition). Importantly, we datamined that CREB5 regulation cluster of HIVE was involved in inflammatory response, proteolysis, biological adhesion, and negative regulation of biological process (only in HIVE terms) without positive regulation of cellular process, phosphotransferase, kinase, post-translational protein modification, ATP binding, transmembrane protein, calcium ion binding, acetylation, and hydrolase activity (only in HIVE-control patients terms), the condition was vital to inflammation and cognition impairment of HIVE. Our result demonstrated that common terms in both HIVE-control patients and HIVE included biological regulation, phosphoprotein, metabolic process, zinc, biosynthetic process, organelle, signal transduction, defense response, membrane, secreted, signal peptide, and glycoprotein, and these terms were more relative to inflammation and cognition impairment, therefore we deduced the stronger CREB5 regulation network in HIVE consistent with our number computation. It would be

  2. CIP2A regulates cancer metabolism and CREB phosphorylation in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Peng, Bo; Lei, Ningjing; Chai, Yurong; Chan, Edward K L; Zhang, Jian-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) is a recently characterized endogenous inhibitor of the phosphatase activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), which extends the half-life of oncogenic protein c-myc and promotes in vivo tumor growth. The function of CIP2A in cancer progression is still poorly understood. To uncover the underlying mechanism of CIP2A-mediated cell proliferation, we implemented a two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE)-based proteomic approach to examine lung cancer cell H1299 with and without CIP2A. We found 47 proteins differentially expressed where 19 proteins were upregulated and 28 proteins were downregulated. These were categorized into functional groups such as metabolism (25%), transcriptional and translational control (23%), and the signaling pathway and protein degradation (20%). On one hand, we validate our proteomic work by measuring the metabolic change. The knockdown of CIP2A decreased the expression of LDH-A as well as the enzymatic activity, accompanying with a decreased lactate production, an increased NADH/NAD+ ratio and ROS production. On the other hand, we found that CIP2A may regulate CREB activity through bioinformatics analysis. Our following experiments showed that, CIP2A positively regulated the phosphorylation of CREB in response to the serum treatment. Therefore, our proteomic study suggested that CIP2A mediates cancer progression through the metabolic pathway and intracellular signaling cascade. PMID:25325377

  3. Notch1 Regulates Hippocampal Plasticity Through Interaction with the Reelin Pathway, Glutamatergic Transmission and CREB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Brai, Emanuele; Marathe, Swananda; Astori, Simone; Fredj, Naila Ben; Perry, Elisabeth; Lamy, Christophe; Scotti, Alessandra; Alberi, Lavinia

    2015-01-01

    Notch signaling plays a crucial role in adult brain function such as synaptic plasticity, memory and olfaction. Several reports suggest an involvement of this pathway in neurodegenerative dementia. Yet, to date, the mechanism underlying Notch activity in mature neurons remains unresolved. In this work, we investigate how Notch regulates synaptic potentiation and contributes to the establishment of memory in mice. We observe that Notch1 is a postsynaptic receptor with functional interactions with the Reelin receptor, apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) and the ionotropic receptor, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Targeted loss of Notch1 in the hippocampal CA fields affects Reelin signaling by influencing Dab1 expression and impairs the synaptic potentiation achieved through Reelin stimulation. Further analysis indicates that loss of Notch1 affects the expression and composition of the NMDAR but not AMPAR. Glutamatergic signaling is further compromised through downregulation of CamKII and its secondary and tertiary messengers resulting in reduced cAMP response element-binding (CREB) signaling. Our results identify Notch1 as an important regulator of mechanisms involved in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. These findings emphasize the possible involvement of this signaling receptor in dementia. Highlights In this paper, we propose a mechanism for Notch1-dependent plasticity that likely underlies the function of Notch1 in memory formation: Notch1 interacts with another important developmental pathway, the Reelin cascade. Notch1 regulates both NMDAR expression and composition. Notch1 influences a cascade of cellular events culminating in CREB activation. PMID:26635527

  4. Creb1 regulates late stage mammalian lung development via respiratory epithelial and mesenchymal-independent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Antony, N.; McDougall, A. R.; Mantamadiotis, T.; Cole, T. J.; Bird, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    During mammalian lung development, the morphological transition from respiratory tree branching morphogenesis to a predominantly saccular architecture, capable of air-breathing at birth, is dependent on physical forces as well as molecular signaling by a range of transcription factors including the cAMP response element binding protein 1 (Creb1). Creb1−/− mutant mice exhibit complete neonatal lethality consistent with a lack of lung maturation beyond the branching phase. To further define its role in the developing mouse lung, we deleted Creb1 separately in the respiratory epithelium and mesenchyme. Surprisingly, we found no evidence of a morphological lung defect nor compromised neonatal survival in either conditional Creb1 mutant. Interestingly however, loss of mesenchymal Creb1 on a genetic background lacking the related Crem protein showed normal lung development but poor neonatal survival. To investigate the underlying requirement for Creb1 for normal lung development, Creb1−/− mice were re-examined for defects in both respiratory muscles and glucocorticoid hormone signaling, which are also required for late stage lung maturation. However, these systems appeared normal in Creb1−/− mice. Together our results suggest that the requirement of Creb1 for normal mammalian lung morphogenesis is not dependent upon its expression in lung epithelium or mesenchyme, nor its role in musculoskeletal development. PMID:27150575

  5. Creb1 regulates late stage mammalian lung development via respiratory epithelial and mesenchymal-independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Antony, N; McDougall, A R; Mantamadiotis, T; Cole, T J; Bird, A D

    2016-01-01

    During mammalian lung development, the morphological transition from respiratory tree branching morphogenesis to a predominantly saccular architecture, capable of air-breathing at birth, is dependent on physical forces as well as molecular signaling by a range of transcription factors including the cAMP response element binding protein 1 (Creb1). Creb1(-/-) mutant mice exhibit complete neonatal lethality consistent with a lack of lung maturation beyond the branching phase. To further define its role in the developing mouse lung, we deleted Creb1 separately in the respiratory epithelium and mesenchyme. Surprisingly, we found no evidence of a morphological lung defect nor compromised neonatal survival in either conditional Creb1 mutant. Interestingly however, loss of mesenchymal Creb1 on a genetic background lacking the related Crem protein showed normal lung development but poor neonatal survival. To investigate the underlying requirement for Creb1 for normal lung development, Creb1(-/-) mice were re-examined for defects in both respiratory muscles and glucocorticoid hormone signaling, which are also required for late stage lung maturation. However, these systems appeared normal in Creb1(-/-) mice. Together our results suggest that the requirement of Creb1 for normal mammalian lung morphogenesis is not dependent upon its expression in lung epithelium or mesenchyme, nor its role in musculoskeletal development. PMID:27150575

  6. CREB regulates spine density of lateral amygdala neurons: implications for memory allocation

    PubMed Central

    Sargin, Derya; Mercaldo, Valentina; Yiu, Adelaide P.; Higgs, Gemma; Han, Jin-Hee; Frankland, Paul W.; Josselyn, Sheena A.

    2013-01-01

    Neurons may compete against one another for integration into a memory trace. Specifically, neurons in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala with relatively higher levels of cAMP Responsive Element Binding Protein (CREB) seem to be preferentially allocated to a fear memory trace, while neurons with relatively decreased CREB function seem to be excluded from a fear memory trace. CREB is a ubiquitous transcription factor that modulates many diverse cellular processes, raising the question as to which of these CREB-mediated processes underlie memory allocation. CREB is implicated in modulating dendritic spine number and morphology. As dendritic spines are intimately involved in memory formation, we investigated whether manipulations of CREB function alter spine number or morphology of neurons at the time of fear conditioning. We used viral vectors to manipulate CREB function in the lateral amygdala (LA) principal neurons in mice maintained in their homecages. At the time that fear conditioning normally occurs, we observed that neurons with high levels of CREB had more dendritic spines, while neurons with low CREB function had relatively fewer spines compared to control neurons. These results suggest that the modulation of spine density provides a potential mechanism for preferential allocation of a subset of neurons to the memory trace. PMID:24391565

  7. Trafficking of the bZIP transmembrane transcription factor CREB-H into alternate pathways of ERAD and stress-regulated intramembrane proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Daniel; Barreca, Cristina; O'Hare, Peter

    2007-12-01

    CREB-H is an ATF6-related, transmembrane transcription factor that, in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated stress, is cleaved by Golgi proteases and transported to the nucleus to effect appropriate adaptive responses. We characterize the ER processing and turnover of CREB-H with results which have important implications for ER stress regulation and signalling. We show that CREB-H is glycosylated and demonstrate that both the ER and nuclear forms of CREB-H have short half-lives. We also show that CREB-H is subject to cycles of retrotranslocation, deglycosylation and degradation through the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. Proteasome inhibition resulted in accumulation of a cytosolic intermediate but additionally, in contrast to inhibition of glycosylation, promoted specific cleavage of CREB-H and nuclear transport of the N-terminal-truncated product. Our data indicate that under normal conditions CREB-H is transported back from the ER to the cytosol, where it is subject to ERAD, but under conditions that repress proteasome function or promote load CREB-H is diverted from this pathway instead undergoing cleavage and nuclear transport. Finally, we identify a cytoplasmic determinant involved in CREB-H ER retention, deletion of which results in constitutive Golgi transport and corresponding cleavage. We present a model where cellular stresses may be sensed at different levels by different members of the basic and leucine zipper domain transmembrane proteins. PMID:17875199

  8. The Expression of Porcine Prdx6 Gene Is Up-Regulated by C/EBPβ and CREB

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xinyu; Ji, Panlong; Zhang, Liang; Bu, Guowei; Gu, Hao; Wang, Xiaojing; Xiong, Yuanzhu; Zuo, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Peroxiredoxin6 (Prdx6) is one of the peroxiredoxin (Prdxs) family members that play an important role in maintaining cell homeostasis. Our previous studies demonstrated that Prdx6 was significantly associated with pig meat quality, especially meat tenderness. However, the transcriptional regulation of porcine Prdx6 remains unclear. In this study, we determined the transcription start site (TSS) of porcine Prdx6 gene by 5′ rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (5′ RACE). Several regulatory elements including CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteinβ (C/EBPβ), Myogenic Differentiation (MyoD), cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), stimulating protein1 (Sp1) and heat shock factor (HSF) binding sites were found by computational analyses together with luciferase reporter system. Overexpression and RNA interference experiments showed that C/EBPβ or CREB could up-regulate the expression of porcine Prdx6 gene at both mRNA and protein level. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (ChIP) confirmed that C/EBPβ and CREB could interact with Prdx6 promoter. Immuoprecipitation results also showed that C/EBPβ could interact with Prdx6 in vivo. Taken together, our findings identified C/EBPβ and CREB as the important regulators of porcine Prdx6 gene expression, and offered clues for further investigation of Prdx6 gene function. PMID:26659441

  9. RKIP Regulates Neural Cell Apoptosis Induced by Exposure to Microwave Radiation Partly Through the MEK/ERK/CREB Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Hongyan; Lin, Tao; Wang, Dewen; Peng, Ruiyun; Wang, Shuiming; Gao, Yabing; Xu, Xinping; Zhao, Li; Wang, Shaoxia; Su, Zhentao

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether Raf-1 kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) is important for neural cell apoptosis induced by microwave exposure and explored the role of MEK/ERK/CREB pathway regulated by RKIP in the apoptosis. Differentiated PC12 cells were exposed to continuous microwave radiation at 2.856 GHz for 5 min with average power density of 30 mW/cm(2). RKIP sense and anti-sense recombinant plasmids were constructed and transfected into PC12 cells, respectively. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and caspase-3 activity assay were used to detect cell apoptosis. The results showed that RKIP was downregulated after microwave exposure while the MEK/ERK/CREB signaling pathway was activated excessively. Moreover, the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax decreased, activity of caspase-3 increased, and thus apoptotic DNA fragmentation increased. RKIP overexpression significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of MEK, ERK, and CREB, while RKIP downregulation had the reverse effect. Furthermore, U0126 was found to antagonize the changes caused by RKIP downregulation after exposure to radiation. In conclusion, RKIP plays an important role in the neural cell apoptosis induced by microwave radiation, and the regulation of cell apoptosis by RKIP is partly through the MEK/ERK/CREB pathway. This suggests that RKIP may act as a key regulator of neuronal damage caused by microwave radiation. PMID:25108669

  10. Transcription Factor CREB3L1 Regulates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response Genes in the Osmotically Challenged Rat Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Mingkwan; Greenwood, Michael Paul; Paton, Julian F. R.; Murphy, David

    2015-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is synthesised in magnocellular neurons (MCNs) of supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. In response to the hyperosmotic stressors of dehydration (complete fluid deprivation, DH) or salt loading (drinking 2% salt solution, SL), AVP synthesis increases in MCNs, which over-burdens the protein folding machinery in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) are signaling pathways that improve ER function in response to the accumulation of misfold/unfold protein. We asked whether an ER stress response was activated in the SON and PVN of DH and SL rats. We observed increased mRNA expression for the immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP), activating transcription factor 4 (Atf4), C/EBP-homologous protein (Chop), and cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 like 1 (Creb3l1) in both SON and PVN of DH and SL rats. Although we found no changes in the splicing pattern of X box-binding protein 1 (Xbp1), an increase in the level of the unspliced form of Xbp1 (Xbp1U) was observed in DH and SL rats. CREB3L1, a novel ER stress inducer, has been shown to be activated by ER stress to regulate the expression of target genes. We have previously shown that CREB3L1 is a transcriptional regulator of the AVP gene; however, a role for CREB3L1 in the response to ER stress has yet to be investigated in MCNs. Here, we used lentiviral vectors to introduce a dominant negative form of CREB3L1 (CREB3L1DN) in the rat SON. Expression of CREB3L1DN in the SON decreased Chop and Xbp1U mRNA levels, but not BiP and Atf4 transcript expression. CREB3L1 is thus implicated as a transcriptional mediator of the ER stress response in the osmotically stimulated SON. PMID:25915053

  11. Transcription Factor CREB3L1 Regulates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response Genes in the Osmotically Challenged Rat Hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Mingkwan; Greenwood, Michael Paul; Paton, Julian F R; Murphy, David

    2015-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is synthesised in magnocellular neurons (MCNs) of supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. In response to the hyperosmotic stressors of dehydration (complete fluid deprivation, DH) or salt loading (drinking 2% salt solution, SL), AVP synthesis increases in MCNs, which over-burdens the protein folding machinery in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) are signaling pathways that improve ER function in response to the accumulation of misfold/unfold protein. We asked whether an ER stress response was activated in the SON and PVN of DH and SL rats. We observed increased mRNA expression for the immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP), activating transcription factor 4 (Atf4), C/EBP-homologous protein (Chop), and cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 like 1 (Creb3l1) in both SON and PVN of DH and SL rats. Although we found no changes in the splicing pattern of X box-binding protein 1 (Xbp1), an increase in the level of the unspliced form of Xbp1 (Xbp1U) was observed in DH and SL rats. CREB3L1, a novel ER stress inducer, has been shown to be activated by ER stress to regulate the expression of target genes. We have previously shown that CREB3L1 is a transcriptional regulator of the AVP gene; however, a role for CREB3L1 in the response to ER stress has yet to be investigated in MCNs. Here, we used lentiviral vectors to introduce a dominant negative form of CREB3L1 (CREB3L1DN) in the rat SON. Expression of CREB3L1DN in the SON decreased Chop and Xbp1U mRNA levels, but not BiP and Atf4 transcript expression. CREB3L1 is thus implicated as a transcriptional mediator of the ER stress response in the osmotically stimulated SON. PMID:25915053

  12. BzpF is a CREB-like transcription factor that regulates spore maturation and stability in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Eryong; Talukder, Shaheynoor; Hughes, Timothy R; Curk, Tomaz; Zupan, Blaz; Shaulsky, Gad; Katoh-Kurasawa, Mariko

    2011-10-01

    The cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is a highly conserved transcription factor that integrates signaling through the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) in many eukaryotes. PKA plays a critical role in Dictyostelium development but no CREB homologue has been identified in this system. Here we show that Dictyostelium utilizes a CREB-like protein, BzpF, to integrate PKA signaling during late development. bzpF(-) mutants produce compromised spores, which are extremely unstable and germination defective. Previously, we have found that BzpF binds the canonical CRE motif in vitro. In this paper, we determined the DNA binding specificity of BzpF using protein binding microarray (PBM) and showed that the motif with the highest specificity is a CRE-like sequence. BzpF is necessary to activate the transcription of at least 15 PKA-regulated, late-developmental target genes whose promoters contain BzpF binding motifs. BzpF is sufficient to activate two of these genes. The comparison of RNA sequencing data between wild type and bzpF(-) mutant revealed that the mutant fails to express 205 genes, many of which encode cellulose-binding and sugar-binding proteins. We propose that BzpF is a CREB-like transcription factor that regulates spore maturation and stability in a PKA-related manner. PMID:21810415

  13. The CREB coactivator CRTC2 controls hepatic lipid metabolism by regulating SREBP1.

    PubMed

    Han, Jinbo; Li, Erwei; Chen, Liqun; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wei, Fangchao; Liu, Jieyuan; Deng, Haiteng; Wang, Yiguo

    2015-08-13

    Abnormal accumulation of triglycerides in the liver, caused in part by increased de novo lipogenesis, results in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), an important transcriptional regulator of lipogenesis, is synthesized as an inactive precursor that binds to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In response to insulin signalling, SREBP1 is transported from the ER to the Golgi in a COPII-dependent manner, processed by proteases in the Golgi, and then shuttled to the nucleus to induce lipogenic gene expression; however, the mechanisms underlying enhanced SREBP1 activity in insulin-resistant obesity and diabetes remain unclear. Here we show in mice that CREB regulated transcription coactivator 2 (CRTC2) functions as a mediator of mTOR signalling to modulate COPII-dependent SREBP1 processing. CRTC2 competes with Sec23A, a subunit of the COPII complex, to interact with Sec31A, another COPII subunit, thus disrupting SREBP1 transport. During feeding, mTOR phosphorylates CRTC2 and attenuates its inhibitory effect on COPII-dependent SREBP1 maturation. As hepatic overexpression of an mTOR-defective CRTC2 mutant in obese mice improved the lipogenic program and insulin sensitivity, these results demonstrate how the transcriptional coactivator CRTC2 regulates mTOR-mediated lipid homeostasis in the fed state and in obesity. PMID:26147081

  14. CREB-binding protein regulates lung cancer growth by targeting MAPK and CPSF4 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhipeng; Yu, Wendan; Zhang, Changlin; Zhao, Shilei; Yu, Zhenlong; Xiao, Xiangsheng; Tang, Ranran; Xuan, Yang; Yang, Wenjing; Hao, Jiaojiao; Xu, Tingting; Zhang, Qianyi; Huang, Wenlin; Deng, Wuguo; Guo, Wei

    2016-02-01

    CBP (CREB-binding protein) is a transcriptional co-activator which possesses HAT (histone acetyltransferases) activity and participates in many biological processes, including embryonic development, growth control and homeostasis. However, its roles and the underlying mechanisms in the regulation of carcinogenesis and tumor development remain largely unknown. Here we investigated the molecular mechanisms and potential targets of CBP involved in tumor growth and survival in lung cancer cells. Elevated expression of CBP was detected in lung cancer cells and tumor tissues compared to the normal lung cells and tissues. Knockdown of CBP by siRNA or inhibition of its HAT activity using specific chemical inhibitor effectively suppressed cell proliferation, migration and colony formation and induced apoptosis in lung cancer cells by inhibiting MAPK and activating cytochrome C/caspase-dependent signaling pathways. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence analyses revealed the co-localization and interaction between CBP and CPSF4 (cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 4) proteins in lung cancer cells. Knockdown of CPSF4 inhibited hTERT transcription and cell growth induced by CBP, and vice versa, demonstrating the synergetic effect of CBP and CPSF4 in the regulation of lung cancer cell growth and survival. Moreover, we found that high expression of both CBP and CPSF4 predicted a poor prognosis in the patients with lung adenocarcinomas. Collectively, our results indicate that CBP regulates lung cancer growth by targeting MAPK and CPSF4 signaling pathways. PMID:26628108

  15. Running exercise-induced up-regulation of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor is CREB-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Michael J.; Russo-Neustadt, Amelia A.

    2009-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed burgeoning evidence that antidepressant medications and physical exercise increase the expression of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This phenomenon has gained widespread appeal because BDNF is one of the first macromolecules observed to play a central role not only in the treatment of mood disorders, but also in neuronal survival-, growth-, and plasticity-related signaling cascades. Thus, it has become critical to understand how BDNF synthesis is regulated. Much evidence exists that changes in BDNF expression result from the activation/phosphorylation of the transcription factor, cAMP-response-element binding protein (CREB) following the administration of antidepressant medications. Utilizing a mouse model genetically engineered with an inducible CREB repressor, our current study provides evidence that increases in BDNF expression and cellular survival signaling resulting from physical exercise are also dependent upon activation of this central transcription factor. The transcription and expression of hippocampal BDNF, as well as the activation of Akt, a key survival signaling molecule, were measured following acute exercise, and also following short-term treatment with the norepinephrine re-uptake inhibitor, reboxetine. We found that both interventions led to a marked increase in hippocampal BDNF mRNA, BDNF protein and Akt phosphorylation (as well as CREB phosphorylation) in wild-type mice. As expected, activation of the CREB repressor in mutant mice sharply decreased CREB phosphorylation. In addition, all measures noted above remained at baseline levels when mutant mice exercised or received reboxetine. Increases in BDNF and phospho-Akt were also prevented when mutant mice received a combination of exercise and antidepressant treatment. The results are discussed in the context of what is currently known about BDNF signaling. PMID:19294650

  16. Complex regulation of CREB-binding protein by homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Krisztián A; Steinmann, Myriam; Halfon, Olivier; Magistretti, Pierre J; Cardinaux, Jean-René

    2015-11-01

    CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300 are transcriptional coactivators involved in numerous biological processes that affect cell growth, transformation, differentiation, and development. In this study, we provide evidence of the involvement of homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) in the regulation of CBP activity. We show that HIPK2 interacts with and phosphorylates several regions of CBP. We demonstrate that serines 2361, 2363, 2371, 2376, and 2381 are responsible for the HIPK2-induced mobility shift of CBP C-terminal activation domain. Moreover, we show that HIPK2 strongly potentiates the transcriptional activity of CBP. However, our data suggest that HIPK2 activates CBP mainly by counteracting the repressive action of cell cycle regulatory domain 1 (CRD1), located between amino acids 977 and 1076, independently of CBP phosphorylation. Our findings thus highlight a complex regulation of CBP activity by HIPK2, which might be relevant for the control of specific sets of target genes involved in cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. PMID:26247811

  17. NF-κB Regulates Spatial Memory Formation and Synaptic Plasticity through Protein Kinase A/CREB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kaltschmidt, Barbara; Ndiaye, Delphine; Korte, Martin; Pothion, Stéphanie; Arbibe, Laurence; Prüllage, Maria; Pfeiffer, Julia; Lindecke, Antje; Staiger, Volker; Israël, Alain; Kaltschmidt, Christian; Mémet, Sylvie

    2006-01-01

    Synaptic activity-dependent de novo gene transcription is crucial for long-lasting neuronal plasticity and long-term memory. In a forebrain neuronal conditional NF-κB-deficient mouse model, we demonstrate here that the transcription factor NF-κB regulates spatial memory formation, synaptic transmission, and plasticity. Gene profiling experiments and analysis of regulatory regions identified the α catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKA), an essential memory regulator, as a new NF-κB target gene. Consequently, NF-κB inhibition led to a decrease in forskolin-induced CREB phosphorylation. Collectively, these results disclose a novel hierarchical transcriptional network involving NF-κB, PKA, and CREB that leads to concerted nuclear transduction of synaptic signals in neurons, accounting for the critical function of NF-κB in learning and memory. PMID:16581769

  18. CRTC2 Is a Coactivator of GR and Couples GR and CREB in the Regulation of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hill, Micah J; Suzuki, Shigeru; Segars, James H; Kino, Tomoshige

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones play essential roles in the regulation of gluconeogenesis in the liver, an adaptive response that is required for the maintenance of circulating glucose levels during fasting. Glucocorticoids do this by cooperating with glucagon, which is secreted from pancreatic islets to activate the cAMP-signaling pathway in hepatocytes. The cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB)-regulated transcription coactivator 2 (CRTC2) is a coactivator known to be specific to CREB and plays a central role in the glucagon-mediated activation of gluconeogenesis in the early phase of fasting. We show here that CRTC2 also functions as a coactivator for the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). CRTC2 strongly enhances GR-induced transcriptional activity of glucocorticoid-responsive genes. CRTC2 physically interacts with the ligand-binding domain of the GR through a region spanning amino acids 561-693. Further, CRTC2 is required for the glucocorticoid-associated cooperative mRNA expression of the glucose-6-phosphatase, a rate-limiting enzyme for hepatic gluconeogenesis, by facilitating the attraction of GR and itself to its promoter region already occupied by CREB. CRTC2 is required for the maintenance of blood glucose levels during fasting in mice by enhancing the GR transcriptional activity on both the G6p and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck) genes. Finally, CRTC2 modulates the transcriptional activity of the progesterone receptor, indicating that it may influence the transcriptional activity of other steroid/nuclear receptors. Taken together, these results reveal that CRTC2 plays an essential role in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis through coordinated regulation of the glucocorticoid/GR- and glucagon/CREB-signaling pathways on the key genes G6P and PEPCK. PMID:26652733

  19. Leptin recruits Creb-regulated transcriptional coactivator 1 to improve hyperglycemia in insulin-deficient diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Geun Hyang; Szabo, Andras; King, Emily M.; Ayala, Jennifer; Ayala, Julio E.; Altarejos, Judith Y.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Leptin alleviates hyperglycemia in rodent models of Type 1 diabetes by activating leptin receptors within the central nervous system. Here we delineate whether non-canonical leptin signaling through the Creb-regulated transcriptional coactivator 1 (Crtc1) contributes to leptin-dependent improvements in diabetic glucose metabolism. Methods We employed mice with a targeted genetic disruption of Crtc1, tracer dilution techniques and neuroanatomical studies to interrogate whether Crtc1 enables leptin to improve glucose metabolism in streptozotocin-induced (STZ) diabetes. Results Here we show that leptin improves diabetic glucose metabolism through Crtc1-dependent and independent mechanisms. We find that leptin reduces diabetic hyperglycemia, hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression and selectively increases glucose disposal to brown adipose tissue and heart, in STZ-diabetic Crtc1WT mice but not Crtc1+/− mice. By contrast, leptin decreases circulating glucagon levels in both STZ-diabetic Crtc1WT and Crtc1+/− mice. We also demonstrate that leptin promotes Crtc1 nuclear translocation in pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc) and non-Pomc neurons within the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). Accordingly, leptin's ability to induce Pomc gene expression in the ARC is blunted in STZ-diabetic Crtc1+/− mice. Conclusions Our study reveals that Crtc1 functions as a conduit for leptin's glucoregulatory actions in insulin-dependent diabetes. This study also highlights a new role for Crtc1 in modulating peripheral glucose metabolism. PMID:25737949

  20. The Rac1 Inhibitor NSC23766 Suppresses CREB Signaling by Targeting NMDA Receptor Function

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Hailong; Chávez, Andrés E.; Wang, Chih-Chieh; Yang, Hongtian; Gu, Hua; Siddoway, Benjamin A.; Hall, Benjamin J.; Castillo, Pablo E.

    2014-01-01

    NMDA receptor signaling plays a complex role in CREB activation and CREB-mediated gene transcription, depending on the subcellular location of NMDA receptors, as well as how strongly they are activated. However, it is not known whether Rac1, the prototype of Rac GTPase, plays a role in neuronal CREB activation induced by NMDA receptor signaling. Here, we report that NSC23766, a widely used specific Rac1 inhibitor, inhibits basal CREB phosphorylation at S133 (pCREB) and antagonizes changes in pCREB levels induced by NMDA bath application in rat cortical neurons. Unexpectedly, we found that NSC23766 affects the levels of neuronal pCREB in a Rac1-independent manner. Instead, our results indicate that NSC23766 can directly regulate NMDA receptors as indicated by their strong effects on both exogenous and synaptically evoked NMDA receptor-mediated currents in mouse and rat neurons, respectively. Our findings strongly suggest that Rac1 does not affect pCREB signaling in cortical neurons and reveal that NSC23766 could be a novel NMDA receptor antagonist. PMID:25319697

  1. cAMP/CREB-regulated LINC00473 marks LKB1-inactivated lung cancer and mediates tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zirong; Lin, Shuibin; Cao, Chunxia; Gimbrone, Nicholas T.; Yang, Rongqiang; Fu, Dongtao A.; Carper, Miranda B.; Haura, Eric B.; Schabath, Matthew B.; Cress, W. Douglas; Kaye, Frederic J.

    2016-01-01

    The LKB1 tumor suppressor gene is frequently mutated and inactivated in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Loss of LKB1 promotes cancer progression and influences therapeutic responses in preclinical studies; however, specific targeted therapies for lung cancer with LKB1 inactivation are currently unavailable. Here, we have identified a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) signature that is associated with the loss of LKB1 function. We discovered that LINC00473 is consistently the most highly induced gene in LKB1-inactivated human primary NSCLC samples and derived cell lines. Elevated LINC00473 expression correlated with poor prognosis, and sustained LINC00473 expression was required for the growth and survival of LKB1-inactivated NSCLC cells. Mechanistically, LINC00473 was induced by LKB1 inactivation and subsequent cyclic AMP–responsive element–binding protein (CREB)/CREB-regulated transcription coactivator (CRTC) activation. We determined that LINC00473 is a nuclear lncRNA and interacts with NONO, a component of the cAMP signaling pathway, thereby facilitating CRTC/CREB-mediated transcription. Collectively, our study demonstrates that LINC00473 expression potentially serves as a robust biomarker for tumor LKB1 functional status that can be integrated into clinical trials for patient selection and treatment evaluation, and implicates LINC00473 as a therapeutic target for LKB1-inactivated NSCLC. PMID:27140397

  2. cAMP/CREB-regulated LINC00473 marks LKB1-inactivated lung cancer and mediates tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zirong; Li, Jian-Liang; Lin, Shuibin; Cao, Chunxia; Gimbrone, Nicholas T; Yang, Rongqiang; Fu, Dongtao A; Carper, Miranda B; Haura, Eric B; Schabath, Matthew B; Lu, Jianrong; Amelio, Antonio L; Cress, W Douglas; Kaye, Frederic J; Wu, Lizi

    2016-06-01

    The LKB1 tumor suppressor gene is frequently mutated and inactivated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Loss of LKB1 promotes cancer progression and influences therapeutic responses in preclinical studies; however, specific targeted therapies for lung cancer with LKB1 inactivation are currently unavailable. Here, we have identified a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) signature that is associated with the loss of LKB1 function. We discovered that LINC00473 is consistently the most highly induced gene in LKB1-inactivated human primary NSCLC samples and derived cell lines. Elevated LINC00473 expression correlated with poor prognosis, and sustained LINC00473 expression was required for the growth and survival of LKB1-inactivated NSCLC cells. Mechanistically, LINC00473 was induced by LKB1 inactivation and subsequent cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)/CREB-regulated transcription coactivator (CRTC) activation. We determined that LINC00473 is a nuclear lncRNA and interacts with NONO, a component of the cAMP signaling pathway, thereby facilitating CRTC/CREB-mediated transcription. Collectively, our study demonstrates that LINC00473 expression potentially serves as a robust biomarker for tumor LKB1 functional status that can be integrated into clinical trials for patient selection and treatment evaluation, and implicates LINC00473 as a therapeutic target for LKB1-inactivated NSCLC. PMID:27140397

  3. Upregulation of CREB-mediated transcription enhances both short- and long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Akinobu; Fukushima, Hotaka; Mukawa, Takuya; Toyoda, Hiroki; Wu, Long-Jun; Zhao, Ming-Gao; Xu, Hui; Shang, Yuze; Endoh, Kengo; Iwamoto, Taku; Mamiya, Nori; Okano, Emiko; Hasegawa, Shunsuke; Mercaldo, Valentina; Zhang, Yue; Maeda, Ryouta; Ohta, Miho; Josselyn, Sheena A; Zhuo, Min; Kida, Satoshi

    2011-06-15

    Unraveling the mechanisms by which the molecular manipulation of genes of interest enhances cognitive function is important to establish genetic therapies for cognitive disorders. Although CREB is thought to positively regulate formation of long-term memory (LTM), gain-of-function effects of CREB remain poorly understood, especially at the behavioral level. To address this, we generated four lines of transgenic mice expressing dominant active CREB mutants (CREB-Y134F or CREB-DIEDML) in the forebrain that exhibited moderate upregulation of CREB activity. These transgenic lines improved not only LTM but also long-lasting long-term potentiation in the CA1 area in the hippocampus. However, we also observed enhanced short-term memory (STM) in contextual fear-conditioning and social recognition tasks. Enhanced LTM and STM could be dissociated behaviorally in these four lines of transgenic mice, suggesting that the underlying mechanism for enhanced STM and LTM are distinct. LTM enhancement seems to be attributable to the improvement of memory consolidation by the upregulation of CREB transcriptional activity, whereas higher basal levels of BDNF, a CREB target gene, predicted enhanced shorter-term memory. The importance of BDNF in STM was verified by microinfusing BDNF or BDNF inhibitors into the hippocampus of wild-type or transgenic mice. Additionally, increasing BDNF further enhanced LTM in one of the lines of transgenic mice that displayed a normal BDNF level but enhanced LTM, suggesting that upregulation of BDNF and CREB activity cooperatively enhances LTM formation. Our findings suggest that CREB positively regulates memory consolidation and affects memory performance by regulating BDNF expression. PMID:21677163

  4. Transcriptional regulation of miR-15b by c-Rel and CREB in Japanese encephalitis virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bibo; Ye, Jing; Ashraf, Usama; Li, Yunchuan; Chen, Huanchun; Song, Yunfeng; Cao, Shengbo

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been well known to play diverse roles in viral infection at the level of posttranscriptional repression. However, much less is understood about the mechanism by which miRNAs are regulated during viral infection. It is likely that both host and virus contain factors to modulate miRNA expression. Here we report the up-regulation of microRNA-15b (miR-15b) in vitro upon infection with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Analysis of miR-15b precursor, pri-miR-15b and pre-miR-15b, suggest that the regulation occurs transcriptionally. Further, we identified the transcriptional regulatory region of miR-15b that contains consensus binding motif for NF-κB subunit c-Rel and cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), which are known as transcription factor to regulate gene expression. By promoter fusion and mutational analyses, we demonstrated that c-Rel and CREB bind directly to the promoter elements of miR-15b, which are responsible for miR-15b transcription in response to JEV infection. Finally, we showed that pharmacological inhibition of ERK and NF-κB signaling pathway blocked induction of miR-15b in JEV infection, suggesting important roles of ERK and NF-κB pathway in the regulation of miR-15b gene. Therefore, our observations indicate that induced expression of miR-15b is modulated by c-Rel and CREB in response to JEV infection. PMID:26931521

  5. Transcriptional regulation of miR-15b by c-Rel and CREB in Japanese encephalitis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bibo; Ye, Jing; Ashraf, Usama; Li, Yunchuan; Chen, Huanchun; Song, Yunfeng; Cao, Shengbo

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been well known to play diverse roles in viral infection at the level of posttranscriptional repression. However, much less is understood about the mechanism by which miRNAs are regulated during viral infection. It is likely that both host and virus contain factors to modulate miRNA expression. Here we report the up-regulation of microRNA-15b (miR-15b) in vitro upon infection with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Analysis of miR-15b precursor, pri-miR-15b and pre-miR-15b, suggest that the regulation occurs transcriptionally. Further, we identified the transcriptional regulatory region of miR-15b that contains consensus binding motif for NF-κB subunit c-Rel and cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), which are known as transcription factor to regulate gene expression. By promoter fusion and mutational analyses, we demonstrated that c-Rel and CREB bind directly to the promoter elements of miR-15b, which are responsible for miR-15b transcription in response to JEV infection. Finally, we showed that pharmacological inhibition of ERK and NF-κB signaling pathway blocked induction of miR-15b in JEV infection, suggesting important roles of ERK and NF-κB pathway in the regulation of miR-15b gene. Therefore, our observations indicate that induced expression of miR-15b is modulated by c-Rel and CREB in response to JEV infection. PMID:26931521

  6. The cAMP Response Element Binding protein (CREB) is activated by Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) and regulates myostatin gene expression in skeletal myoblast

    SciTech Connect

    Zuloaga, R.; Fuentes, E.N.; Molina, A.; Valdés, J.A.

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •IGF-1 induces the activation of CREB via IGF-1R/PI3K/PLC signaling pathway. •Calcium dependent signaling pathways regulate myostatin gene expression. •IGF-1 regulates myostatin gene expression via CREB transcription in skeletal myoblast. -- Abstract: Myostatin, a member of the Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, plays an important role as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth and differentiation. We have previously reported that IGF-1 induces a transient myostatin mRNA expression, through the activation of the Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT) in an IP{sub 3}/calcium-dependent manner. Here we examined the activation of CREB transcription factor as downstream targets of IGF-1 during myoblast differentiation and its role as a regulator of myostatin gene expression. In cultured skeletal myoblast, IGF-1 induced the phosphorylation and transcriptional activation of CREB via IGF-1 Receptor/Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K)/Phospholipase C gamma (PLC γ), signaling pathways. Also, IGF-1 induced calcium-dependent molecules such as Calmodulin Kinase II (CaMK II), Extracellular signal-regulated Kinases (ERK), Protein Kinase C (PKC). Additionally, we examined myostatin mRNA levels and myostatin promoter activity in differentiated myoblasts stimulated with IGF-1. We found a significant increase in mRNA contents of myostatin and its reporter activity after treatment with IGF-1. The expression of myostatin in differentiated myoblast was downregulated by the transfection of siRNA–CREB and by pharmacological inhibitors of the signaling pathways involved in CREB activation. By using pharmacological and genetic approaches together these data demonstrate that IGF-1 regulates the myostatin gene expression via CREB transcription factor during muscle cell differentiation.

  7. CREB Negatively Regulates IGF2R Gene Expression and Downstream Pathways to Inhibit Hypoxia-Induced H9c2 Cardiomyoblast Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Kung; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Hsieh, Dennis Jine-Yuan; Chang, Hsin-Nung; Pai, Pei-Ying; Lin, Kuan-Ho; Pan, Lung-Fa; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-01-01

    During hypoxia, gene expression is altered by various transcription factors. Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF2) is known to be induced by hypoxia, which binds to IGF2 receptor IGF2R that acts like a G protein-coupled receptor, might cause pathological hypertrophy or activation of the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) responsive element-binding protein (CREB) is central to second messenger-regulated transcription and plays a critical role in the cardiomyocyte survival pathway. In this study, we found that IGF2R level was enhanced in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts exposed to hypoxia in a time-dependent manner but was down-regulated by CREB expression. The over-expression of CREB in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts suppressed the induction of hypoxia-induced IGF2R expression levels and reduced cell apoptosis. Gel shift assay results further indicated that CREB binds to the promoter sequence of IGF2R. With a luciferase assay method, we further observed that CREB represses IGF2R promoter activity. These results suggest that CREB plays an important role in the inhibition of IGF2R expression by binding to the IGF2R promoter and further suppresses H9c2 cardiomyoblast cell apoptosis induced by IGF2R signaling under hypoxic conditions. PMID:26610485

  8. Regulation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) binding in the mammalian clock pacemaker by light but not a circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Kako, K; Banasik, M; Lee, K; Ishida, N

    1997-02-01

    Mammalian circadian rhythms are considered to be regulated by a clock pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus. The molecular mechanism of entrainment and oscillation of circadian rhythm are not well understood but photic induction of immediate-early gene (IEG) expression in the SCN is thought to play a role. Here we show that under 12 h light:12 h dark (LD) condition, the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) binding to cAMP responsive promoter element (CRE) of NMDAR1/zeta1 promoter region in the SCN is higher during the light than the dark by electro-mobility shift assay (EMSA). When animals are placed in constant dark, CREB DNA binding activity in the SCN is low and does not vary with circadian time when compared with cortex nuclear extract as a control. Most significantly, photic induction of CREB binding activity in the SCN occurs at all circadian times tested, indicating that CREB DNA binding in the SCN is not gated by the endogenous clock. These results implicate the role of CREB in photic neuronal signaling in the SCN and suggest that CREB DNA binding activities may not be regulated by a circadian clock. PMID:9030696

  9. Transducer of regulated CREB-binding proteins (TORCs) induce PGC-1α transcription and mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhidan; Huang, Xueming; Feng, Yajun; Handschin, Christoph; Feng, Yan; Gullicksen, P. Scott; Bare, Olivia; Labow, Mark; Spiegelman, Bruce; Stevenson, Susan C.

    2006-01-01

    PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α) is a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and plays an important role in several other aspects of energy metabolism. To identify upstream regulators of PGC-1α gene transcription, 10,000 human full-length cDNAs were screened for induction of the PGC-1α promoter. A number of activators of PGC-1α transcription were found; the most potent activator was the transducer of regulated CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) binding protein (TORC) 1, a coactivator of CREB. The other two members of the TORC family, TORC2 and TORC3, also strongly activated PGC-1α transcription. TORCs dramatically induced PGC-1α gene transcription through CREB. Forced expression of TORCs in primary muscle cells induced the endogenous mRNA of PGC-1α and its downstream target genes in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and TCA cycle. Importantly, these changes in gene expression resulted in increased mitochondrial oxidative capacity measured by cellular respiration and fatty acid oxidation. Finally, we demonstrated that the action of TORCs in promoting mitochondrial gene expression and function requires PGC-1α. Previous studies had indicated that TORCs function as a calcium- and cAMP-sensitive coincidence detector and mediate individual and synergistic effects of these two pathways. Our results, together with previous findings, strongly suggest that TORCs play a key role in linking these external signals to the transcriptional program of adaptive mitochondrial biogenesis by activating PGC-1α gene transcription. PMID:16980408

  10. The cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) is activated by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and regulates myostatin gene expression in skeletal myoblast.

    PubMed

    Zuloaga, R; Fuentes, E N; Molina, A; Valdés, J A

    2013-10-18

    Myostatin, a member of the Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, plays an important role as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth and differentiation. We have previously reported that IGF-1 induces a transient myostatin mRNA expression, through the activation of the Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT) in an IP3/calcium-dependent manner. Here we examined the activation of CREB transcription factor as downstream targets of IGF-1 during myoblast differentiation and its role as a regulator of myostatin gene expression. In cultured skeletal myoblast, IGF-1 induced the phosphorylation and transcriptional activation of CREB via IGF-1 Receptor/Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K)/Phospholipase C gamma (PLC γ), signaling pathways. Also, IGF-1 induced calcium-dependent molecules such as Calmodulin Kinase II (CaMK II), Extracellular signal-regulated Kinases (ERK), Protein Kinase C (PKC). Additionally, we examined myostatin mRNA levels and myostatin promoter activity in differentiated myoblasts stimulated with IGF-1. We found a significant increase in mRNA contents of myostatin and its reporter activity after treatment with IGF-1. The expression of myostatin in differentiated myoblast was downregulated by the transfection of siRNA-CREB and by pharmacological inhibitors of the signaling pathways involved in CREB activation. By using pharmacological and genetic approaches together these data demonstrate that IGF-1 regulates the myostatin gene expression via CREB transcription factor during muscle cell differentiation. PMID:24064350

  11. ZIP4 Regulates Pancreatic Cancer Cell Growth by Activating IL-6/STAT3 Pathway via Zinc Finger Transcription Factor CREB

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuqing; Bharadwaj, Uddalak; Logsdon, Craig D.; Chen, Changyi; Yao, Qizhi; Li, Min

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies indicate a strong correlation of zinc transporter ZIP4 and pancreatic cancer progression; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We have recently found that ZIP4 is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathway through which ZIP4 regulates pancreatic cancer growth. Experimental Design The expression of cyclin D1, IL-6, and STAT3 in pancreatic cancer xenografts and cells were examined by real time PCR, Bio-Plex cytokine assay, and Western blot, respectively. The activity of CREB is examined by a promoter activity assay. Results Cyclin D1 was significantly increased in the ZIP4 overexpressing MIA PaCa-2 cells (MIA-ZIP4)-injected orthotopic xenografts and was downregulated in the ZIP4 silenced ASPC-1 (ASPC-shZIP4) group. The phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), an upstream activator of cyclin D1, was increased in MIA-ZIP4 cells, and decreased in ASPC-shZIP4 cells. IL-6, a known upstream activator for STAT3, was also found to be significantly increased in the MIA-ZIP4 cells and xenografts, and decreased in the ASPC-shZIP4 group. Overexpression of ZIP4 led to a 75% increase of IL-6 promoter activity, and caused increased phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Conclusions Our study suggest that ZIP4 overexpression causes increased IL-6 transcription via CREB, which in turn activates STAT3, and leads to increased cyclin D1 expression, resulting in increased cell proliferation and tumor progression in pancreatic cancer. These results elucidated a novel pathway in ZIP4-mediated pancreatic cancer growth, and suggest new therapeutic targets including ZIP4, IL-6, and STAT3 in pancreatic cancer treatment. PMID:20160059

  12. Ca2+ signals regulate mitochondrial metabolism by stimulating CREB-mediated expression of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter gene mcu

    PubMed Central

    Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Rajan, Sudarsan; Hoffman, Nicholas E.; Zhang, Xueqian; Guo, Shuchi; Kolesar, Jill E.; Hines, Kevin J.; Ragheb, Jonathan; Jog, Neelakshi R.; Caricchio, Roberto; Baba, Yoshihiro; Zhou, Yandong; Kaufman, Brett; Cheung, Joseph Y.; Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Gill, Donald L.; Madesh, Muniswamy

    2016-01-01

    Cytosolic Ca2+ signals, generated through the coordinated translocation of Ca2+ across the plasma membrane (PM) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, mediate diverse cellular responses. Mitochondrial Ca2+ is important for mitochondrial function and, when cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations become too high, mitochondria function as cellular Ca2+ sinks. By measuring mitochondrial Ca2+ currents, we found that mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake was reduced in chicken DT40 B lymphocytes lacking either the ER-localized inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), which releases Ca2+ from the ER, or Orai1 or STIM1, components of the PM-localized Ca2+-permeable channel complex that mediates store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) in response to depletion of ER Ca2+ stores. The abundance of MCU, the pore-forming subunit of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter, was reduced in cells deficient in IP3R, STIM1, or Orai1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and promoter reporter analyses revealed that the Ca2+-regulated transcription factor CREB directly bound the mcu promoter and stimulated expression. Lymphocytes deficient in IP3R, STIM1, or Orai1 exhibited altered mitochondrial metabolism, indicating that Ca2+ released from the ER and SOCE-mediated signals modulate mitochondrial function. Thus, our results showed that a transcriptional regulatory circuit involving Ca2+-dependent activation of CREB controls the Ca2+-uptake capability of mitochondria and hence regulates mitochondrial metabolism. PMID:25737585

  13. Ca2+ signals regulate mitochondrial metabolism by stimulating CREB-mediated expression of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter gene MCU.

    PubMed

    Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Rajan, Sudarsan; Hoffman, Nicholas E; Zhang, Xueqian; Guo, Shuchi; Kolesar, Jill E; Hines, Kevin J; Ragheb, Jonathan; Jog, Neelakshi R; Caricchio, Roberto; Baba, Yoshihiro; Zhou, Yandong; Kaufman, Brett A; Cheung, Joseph Y; Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Gill, Donald L; Madesh, Muniswamy

    2015-03-01

    Cytosolic Ca2+ signals, generated through the coordinated translocation of Ca2+ across the plasma membrane (PM) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, mediate diverse cellular responses. Mitochondrial Ca2+ is important for mitochondrial function, and when cytosolic Ca2+ concentration becomes too high, mitochondria function as cellular Ca2+ sinks. By measuring mitochondrial Ca2+ currents, we found that mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake was reduced in chicken DT40 B lymphocytes lacking either the ER-localized inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), which releases Ca2+ from the ER, or Orai1 or STIM1, components of the PM-localized Ca2+ -permeable channel complex that mediates store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) in response to depletion of ER Ca2+ stores. The abundance of MCU, the pore-forming subunit of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter, was reduced in cells deficient in IP3R, STIM1, or Orai1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and promoter reporter analyses revealed that the Ca2+ -regulated transcription factor CREB (cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein) directly bound the MCU promoter and stimulated expression. Lymphocytes deficient in IP3R, STIM1, or Orai1 exhibited altered mitochondrial metabolism, indicating that Ca2+ released from the ER and SOCE-mediated signals modulates mitochondrial function. Thus, our results showed that a transcriptional regulatory circuit involving Ca2+ -dependent activation of CREB controls the Ca2+ uptake capability of mitochondria and hence regulates mitochondrial metabolism. PMID:25737585

  14. Period1 gates the circadian modulation of memory-relevant signaling in mouse hippocampus by regulating the nuclear shuttling of the CREB kinase pP90RSK.

    PubMed

    Rawashdeh, Oliver; Jilg, Antje; Maronde, Erik; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Stehle, Jörg H

    2016-09-01

    Memory performance varies over a 24-h day/night cycle. While the detailed underlying mechanisms are yet unknown, recent evidence suggests that in the mouse hippocampus, rhythmic phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) are central to the circadian (~ 24 h) regulation of learning and memory. We recently identified the clock protein PERIOD1 (PER1) as a vehicle that translates information encoding time of day to hippocampal plasticity. We here elaborate how PER1 may gate the sensitivity of memory-relevant hippocampal signaling pathways. We found that in wild-type mice (WT), spatial learning triggers CREB phosphorylation only during the daytime, and that this effect depends on the presence of PER1. The time-of-day-dependent induction of CREB phosphorylation can be reproduced pharmacologically in acute hippocampal slices prepared from WT mice, but is absent in preparations made from Per1-knockout (Per1(-/-) ) mice. We showed that the PER1-dependent CREB phosphorylation is regulated downstream of MAPK. Stimulation of WT hippocampal neurons triggered the co-translocation of PER1 and the CREB kinase pP90RSK (pMAPK-activated ribosomal S6 kinase) into the nucleus. In hippocampal neurons from Per1(-/-) mice, however, pP90RSK remained perinuclear. A co-immunoprecipitation assay confirmed a high-affinity interaction between PER1 and pP90RSK. Knocking down endogenous PER1 in hippocampal cells inhibited adenylyl cyclase-dependent CREB activation. Taken together, the PER1-dependent modulation of cytoplasmic-to-nuclear signaling in the murine hippocampus provides a molecular explanation for how the circadian system potentially shapes a temporal framework for daytime-dependent memory performance, and adds a novel facet to the versatility of the clock gene protein PER1. We provide evidence that the circadian clock gene Period1 (Per1) regulates CREB phosphorylation in the mouse hippocampus

  15. Recruitment of CREB1 and Histone Deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) to the Mouse Ltbp-1 Promoter Regulates its Constitutive Expression in a Dioxin Receptor-dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Duran, Aurea; Ballestar, Esteban; Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose M.; Marlowe, Jennifer L.; Puga, Alvaro; Esteller, Manel; Fernandez-Salguero, Pedro M.

    2010-01-01

    Latent TGFβ-binding protein 1 (LTBP-1) is a key regulator of TGFβ targeting and activation in the extracellular matrix. LTBP-1 is recognized as a major docking molecule to localize, and possibly to activate, TGFβ in the extracellular matrix. Despite this relevant function, the molecular mechanisms regulating Ltbp-1 transcription remain largely unknown. Previous results from our laboratory revealed that mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) lacking dioxin receptor (AhR) had increased Ltbp-1 mRNA expression and elevated TGFβ activity, suggesting that AhR repressed Ltbp-1 transcription. Here, we have cloned the mouse Ltbp-1 gene promoter and analysed its mechanism of transcriptional repression by AhR. Reporter gene assays, AhR over-expression and site-directed mutagenesis showed that basal Ltbp-1 transcription is AhR-dependent. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and RNA interference (RNAi) revealed that AhR regulates Ltbp-1 transcription by a mechanism involving recruitment of co-activators such as CREB1 and co-repressors such as HDAC2 to the Ltbp-1 promoter. In AhR-expressing (AhR+/+) MEF cells, the recruitment of HDAC1, 2 and 4 correlated with decreased K8H4 acetylation and impaired binding of pCREBSer133 to the Ltbp-1 promoter, likely maintaining a constitutive repressed state. AhR−/− MEF cells had the opposite pattern of HDACs and pCREB1Ser133 binding to Ltbp-1 promoter, and therefore, over-expressed Ltbp-1 mRNA. In agreement, siRNA for HDAC2 increased Ltbp-1 expression and K8H4 acetylation in AhR+/+ but not in AhR−/− MEF cells. We suggest that HDAC2 binding keeps Ltbp-1 promoter repressed in AhR+/+ MEF cells, whereas in AhR-null MEF cells the absence of HDAC2 and the binding of pCREBSer133 allow Ltbp-1 transcription. Thus, epigenetics can contribute to constitutive Ltbp-1 repression by a mechanism requiring AhR activity. PMID:18508077

  16. The coactivator dTAF(II)110/hTAF(II)135 is sufficient to recruit a polymerase complex and activate basal transcription mediated by CREB.

    PubMed

    Felinski, E A; Quinn, P G

    2001-11-01

    A specific TATA binding protein-associated factor (TAF), dTAF(II)110/hTAF(II)135, interacts with cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) through its constitutive activation domain (CAD), which recruits a polymerase complex and activates transcription. The simplest explanation is that the TAF is a coactivator, but several studies have questioned this role of TAFs. Using a reverse two-hybrid analysis in yeast, we previously mapped the interaction between dTAF(II)110 (amino acid 1-308) and CREB to conserved hydrophobic amino acid residues in the CAD. That mapping was possible only because CREB fails to activate transcription in yeast, where all TAFs are conserved, except for the TAF recognizing CREB. To test whether CREB fails to activate transcription in yeast because it lacks a coactivator, we fused dTAF(II)110 (amino acid 1-308) to the TATA binding protein domain of the yeast scaffolding TAF, yTAF(II)130. Transformation of yeast with this hybrid TAF conferred activation by the CAD, indicating that interaction with yTFIID is sufficient to recruit a polymerase complex and activate transcription. The hybrid TAF did not mediate activation by VP16 or vitamin D receptor, each of which interacts with TFIIB, but not with dTAF(II)110 (amino acid 1-308). Enhancement of transcription activation by dTAF(II)110 in mammalian cells required interaction with both the CAD and TFIID and was inhibited by mutation of core hydrophobic residues in the CAD. These data demonstrate that dTAF(II)110/hTAF(II)135 acts as a coactivator to recruit TFIID and polymerase and that this mechanism of activation is conserved in eukaryotes. PMID:11687654

  17. Cyclic phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid induce hyaluronic acid synthesis via CREB transcription factor regulation in human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Maeda-Sano, Katsura; Gotoh, Mari; Morohoshi, Toshiro; Someya, Takao; Murofushi, Hiromu; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko

    2014-09-01

    Cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) is a naturally occurring phospholipid mediator and an analog of the growth factor-like phospholipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). cPA has a unique cyclic phosphate ring at the sn-2 and sn-3 positions of its glycerol backbone. We showed before that a metabolically stabilized cPA derivative, 2-carba-cPA, relieved osteoarthritis pathogenesis in vivo and induced hyaluronic acid synthesis in human osteoarthritis synoviocytes in vitro. This study focused on hyaluronic acid synthesis in human fibroblasts, which retain moisture and maintain health in the dermis. We investigated the effects of cPA and LPA on hyaluronic acid synthesis in human fibroblasts (NB1RGB cells). Using particle exclusion and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, we found that both cPA and LPA dose-dependently induced hyaluronic acid synthesis. We revealed that the expression of hyaluronan synthase 2 messenger RNA and protein is up-regulated by cPA and LPA treatment time dependently. We then characterized the signaling pathways up-regulating hyaluronic acid synthesis mediated by cPA and LPA in NB1RGB cells. Pharmacological inhibition and reporter gene assays revealed that the activation of the LPA receptor LPAR1, Gi/o protein, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) but not nuclear factor κB induced hyaluronic acid synthesis by the treatment with cPA and LPA in NB1RGB cells. These results demonstrate for the first time that cPA and LPA induce hyaluronic acid synthesis in human skin fibroblasts mainly through the activation of LPAR1-Gi/o followed by the PI3K, ERK, and CREB signaling pathway. PMID:24845645

  18. Estrogen receptor α L429 and A430 regulate 17β-estradiol-induced cell proliferation via CREB1.

    PubMed

    Pesiri, Valeria; Totta, Pierangela; Segatto, Marco; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Pallottini, Valentina; Marino, Maria; Acconcia, Filippo

    2015-12-01

    17β-Estradiol (E2)-dependent cell proliferation requires both estrogen receptor α (ERα)-based integrated control of gene transcription and kinase pathways activation. Such coordination of intracellular E2:ERα-dependent signaling mechanisms is finely tuned by receptor association with specific partner proteins. Recently, we identified the leucine (L) 429 and alanine (A) 430 within the ERα ligand binding domain as important residues for receptor non-covalent interaction to ubiquitinated species [i.e., ERα ubiquitin-binding surface (ERα UBS)] and for E2-induced ERα activation. To date, if these two ERα amino acids are involved in the control of E2-dependent pathways required for cell proliferation is unknown. Here, by using stably expressing ERα mutated in L429 and A430 (i.e., L429A,A430G-LAAG) cell lines, we show that L429 and A430 are critical for E2-induced cell proliferation, PI3K/AKT pathway activation, and ERα-mediated transcriptional changes. Moreover, we demonstrate that these two receptor structural determinants direct the E2-induced PI3K/AKT/CREB1 pathway activation and CREB1-mediated transcriptional activity that in turn control the hormone-induced cell proliferation. As a whole, our data demonstrate for the first time that the ERα UBS contributes to the modulation of E2-induced ERα-mediated cell proliferation and provide a novel connection between the receptor structure and the functional molecular mechanisms by which E2:ERα complex can regulate cell processes. PMID:26348925

  19. CREB, ATF, and AP-1 transcription factors regulate IFN-gamma secretion by human T cells in response to mycobacterial antigen.

    PubMed

    Samten, Buka; Townsend, James C; Weis, Steven E; Bhoumik, Anindita; Klucar, Peter; Shams, Homayoun; Barnes, Peter F

    2008-08-01

    IFN-gamma production by T cells is pivotal for defense against many pathogens, and the proximal promoter of IFN-gamma, -73 to -48 bp upstream of the transcription start site, is essential for its expression. However, transcriptional regulation mechanisms through this promoter in primary human cells remain unclear. We studied the effects of cAMP response element binding protein/activating transcription factor (CREB/ATF) and AP-1 transcription factors on the proximal promoter of IFN-gamma in human T cells stimulated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Using EMSA, supershift assays, and promoter pulldown assays, we demonstrated that CREB, ATF-2, and c-Jun, but not cyclic AMP response element modulator, ATF-1, or c-Fos, bind to the proximal promoter of IFN-gamma upon stimulation, and coimmunoprecipitation indicated the possibility of interaction among these transcription factors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed the recruitment of these transcription factors to the IFN-gamma proximal promoter in live Ag-activated T cells. Inhibition of ATF-2 activity in T cells with a dominant-negative ATF-2 peptide or with small interfering RNA markedly reduced the expression of IFN-gamma and decreased the expression of CREB and c-Jun. These findings suggest that CREB, ATF-2, and c-Jun are recruited to the IFN-gamma proximal promoter and that they up-regulate IFN-gamma transcription in response to microbial Ag. Additionally, ATF-2 controls expression of CREB and c-Jun during T cell activation. PMID:18641343

  20. Regulation of SREBPs by Sphingomyelin in Adipocytes via a Caveolin and Ras-ERK-MAPK-CREB Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Makdissy, Nehman; Haddad, Katia; Mouawad, Charbel; Popa, Iuliana; Younsi, Mohamed; Valet, Philippe; Brunaud, Laurent; Ziegler, Olivier; Quilliot, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Sterol response element binding protein (SREBP) is a key transcription factor in insulin and glucose metabolism. We previously demonstrated that elevated levels of membrane sphingomyelin (SM) were related to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), which is a known target gene of SREBP-1 in adipocytes. However, the role of SM in SREBP expression in adipocytes remains unknown. In human abdominal adipose tissue from obese women with various concentrations of fasting plasma insulin, SREBP-1 proteins decreased in parallel with increases in membrane SM levels. An inverse correlation was found between the membrane SM content and the levels of SREBP-1c/ERK/Ras/PPARγ/CREB proteins. For the first time, we demonstrate the effects of SM and its signaling pathway in 3T3-F442A adipocytes. These cells were enriched or unenriched with SM in a range of concentrations similar to those observed in obese subjects by adding exogenous natural SMs (having different acyl chain lengths) or by inhibiting neutral sphingomyelinase. SM accumulated in caveolae of the plasma membrane within 24 h and then in the intracellular space. SM enrichment decreased SREBP-1 through the inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) but not JNK or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Ras/Raf-1/MEK1/2 and KSR proteins, which are upstream mediators of ERK, were down-regulated, whereas SREBP-2/caveolin and cholesterol were up-regulated. In SM-unmodulated adipocytes treated with DL-1-Phenyl-2-Palmitoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (PPMP), where the ceramide level increased, the expression levels of SREBPs and ERK were modulated in an opposite direction relative to the SM-enriched cells. SM inhibited the insulin-induced expression of SREBP-1. Rosiglitazone, which is an anti-diabetic agent and potent activator of PPARγ, reversed the effects of SM on SREBP-1, PPARγ and CREB. Taken together, these findings provide novel insights indicating that excess membrane SM might

  1. Regulation of SREBPs by Sphingomyelin in Adipocytes via a Caveolin and Ras-ERK-MAPK-CREB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Makdissy, Nehman; Popa, Iuliana; Younsi, Mohamed; Valet, Philippe; Brunaud, Laurent; Ziegler, Olivier; Quilliot, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Sterol response element binding protein (SREBP) is a key transcription factor in insulin and glucose metabolism. We previously demonstrated that elevated levels of membrane sphingomyelin (SM) were related to peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), which is a known target gene of SREBP-1 in adipocytes. However, the role of SM in SREBP expression in adipocytes remains unknown. In human abdominal adipose tissue from obese women with various concentrations of fasting plasma insulin, SREBP-1 proteins decreased in parallel with increases in membrane SM levels. An inverse correlation was found between the membrane SM content and the levels of SREBP-1c/ERK/Ras/PPARγ/CREB proteins. For the first time, we demonstrate the effects of SM and its signaling pathway in 3T3-F442A adipocytes. These cells were enriched or unenriched with SM in a range of concentrations similar to those observed in obese subjects by adding exogenous natural SMs (having different acyl chain lengths) or by inhibiting neutral sphingomyelinase. SM accumulated in caveolae of the plasma membrane within 24 h and then in the intracellular space. SM enrichment decreased SREBP-1 through the inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) but not JNK or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Ras/Raf-1/MEK1/2 and KSR proteins, which are upstream mediators of ERK, were down-regulated, whereas SREBP-2/caveolin and cholesterol were up-regulated. In SM-unmodulated adipocytes treated with DL-1-Phenyl-2-Palmitoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (PPMP), where the ceramide level increased, the expression levels of SREBPs and ERK were modulated in an opposite direction relative to the SM-enriched cells. SM inhibited the insulin-induced expression of SREBP-1. Rosiglitazone, which is an anti-diabetic agent and potent activator of PPARγ, reversed the effects of SM on SREBP-1, PPARγ and CREB. Taken together, these findings provide novel insights indicating that excess membrane SM

  2. Genistein Inhibits Aβ25-35-Induced Synaptic Toxicity and Regulates CaMKII/CREB Pathway in SH-SY5Y Cells.

    PubMed

    Xi, Yuan-Di; Zhang, Dan-Di; Ding, Juan; Yu, Huan-Ling; Yuan, Lin-Hong; Ma, Wei-Wei; Han, Jing; Xiao, Rong

    2016-10-01

    Genistein (Gen), as a functional food in human diet, has shown many beneficial effects on neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). But the neuroprotective mechanism of Gen is not clear. Because synaptic failure is considered as the earliest phase in the pathogenesis of AD, we try to validate our hypothesis that synapse may be one target of Gen on protecting neurons. In this study, SH-SY5Y cells were pre-incubated with or without Gen for 2 h followed by the incubation with Aβ25-35 (25 μmol/L) for another 24 h. Flow cytometry, Western Blots, and RT-PCR analysis were used to test the synaptic factors. The data showed that Gen pre-treatment could reverse the Aβ25-35-induced down-regulation of synaptophysin and postsynaptic marker postsynaptic density-95. In addition, the down-regulation of NR1 and NR2B induced by Aβ25-35 which are subunits of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor also could be antagonized by pre-treatment of Gen. Moreover, the factors of CaMKII/CREB signaling pathway were detected. The results showed that mRNA and protein expressions of (Ca(2+))/calmodulin(CaM), CaMKII/pCaMKII, and CREB/pCREB were significantly down-regulated by Aβ25-35, but they were all restored by the pre-treatment of Gen. Furthermore, Gen also maintained the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration which was disturbed by Aβ25-35. In conclusion, these results suggested that Gen could protect synaptic dysfunction induced by Aβ, and the mechanism might be associated with the regulation of synaptic markers and Ca(2+) level through activating CaM/CaMK/CREB signaling pathway. PMID:26658733

  3. SUMOylation regulates the nuclear mobility of CREB binding protein and its association with nuclear bodies in live cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, Colm M.; Kindle, Karin B.; Collins, Hilary M.; Heery, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The lysine acetyltransferase CREB binding protein (CBP) is required for chromatin modification and transcription at many gene promoters. In fixed cells, a large proportion of CBP colocalises to PML or nuclear bodies. Using live cell imaging, we show here that YFP-tagged CBP expressed in HEK293 cells undergoes gradual accumulation in nuclear bodies, some of which are mobile and migrate towards the nuclear envelope. Deletion of a short lysine-rich domain that contains the major SUMO acceptor sites of CBP abrogated its ability to be SUMO modified, and prevented its association with endogenous SUMO-1/PML speckles in vivo. This SUMO-defective CBP showed enhanced ability to co-activate AML1-mediated transcription. Deletion mapping revealed that the SUMO-modified region was not sufficient for targeting CBP to PML bodies, as C-terminally truncated mutants containing this domain showed a strong reduction in accumulation at PML bodies. Fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching (FRAP) experiments revealed that YFP-CBP{Delta}998-1087 had a retarded recovery time in the nucleus, as compared to YFP-CBP. These results indicate that SUMOylation regulates CBP function by influencing its shuttling between nuclear bodies and chromatin microenvironments.

  4. CREB coactivator CRTC2/TORC2 and its regulator calcineurin crucially mediate follicle-stimulating hormone and transforming growth factor β1 upregulation of steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei-Ling; Lee, Ming-Ting; Wu, Leang-Shin; Chen, Yun-Ju; Mason, Jian; Ke, Ferng-Chun; Hwang, Jiuan-Jiuan

    2012-06-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies implicate that follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) play crucial physiological roles in regulating ovarian granulosa cell function essential to fertility control in females. FSH induces cAMP and calcium signaling, thereby activating transcription factor CREB to upregulate steroidogenic gene expression, and TGFβ1 greatly enhances FSH-stimulated steroidogenesis. A CREB coactivator CRTC2/TORC2 was identified to function as a cAMP and calcium-sensitive coincidence sensor. This led us to explore the role of CRTC2 and its regulator calcineurin in FSH and TGFβ1-stimulated steroidogenesis. Primary culture of granulosa cells from gonadotropin-primed immature rats was used. Immunoblotting analysis shows that FSH rapidly and transiently induced dephosphorylation/activation of CRTC2, and FSH + TGFβ1 additionally induced late-phase CRTC2 dephosphorylation. Immunofluorescence analysis further confirms FSH ± TGFβ1 promoted CRTC2 nuclear translocation. Using selective inhibitors, we demonstrate that FSH activated CRTC2 in a PKA- and calcineurin-dependent manner, and TGFβ1 acting through its type I receptor (TGFβRI)-modulated FSH action in a calcineurin-mediated and PKA-independent fashion. Next, we investigated the involvement of calcineurin and CRTC2 in FSH and TGFβ1-stimulated steroidogenesis. Calcineurin and TGFβRI inhibitor dramatically reduced the FSH ± TGFβ1-increased progesterone synthesis and protein levels of StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD enzyme. Furthermore, chromatin-immunoprecipitation and immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrate that FSH ± TGFβ1 differentially increased CRTC2, CREB, and CBP binding to these steroidogenic genes, and CREB nuclear association with CRTC2 and CBP. In all, this study reveals for the first time that CRTC2 and calcineurin are critical signaling mediators in FSH and TGFβ1-stimulated steroidogenesis in ovarian granulosa cells. PMID:21826657

  5. Mixture of Peanut Skin Extract and Fish Oil Improves Memory in Mice via Modulation of Anti-Oxidative Stress and Regulation of BDNF/ERK/CREB Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Lan; Cao, Xue-Li; Xing, Tian-Yan; Mori, Daisuke; Tang, Rui-Qi; Li, Jing; Gao, Li-Juan; Qi, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Long-term use of fish oil (FO) is known to induce oxidative stress and increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease in humans. In the present study, peanut skin extract (PSE), which has strong antioxidant capacity, was mixed with FO to reduce its side effects while maintaining its beneficial properties. Twelve-week Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were used to conduct animal behavior tests in order to evaluate the memory-enhancing ability of the mixture of peanut skin extract and fish oil (MPF). MPF significantly increased alternations in the Y-maze and cognitive index in the novel object recognition test. MPF also improved performance in the water maze test. We further sought to understand the mechanisms underlying these effects. A significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and an increase in malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in plasma were observed in the FO group. The MPF group showed reduced MDA level and increased SOD activity in the plasma, cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, the gene expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus were increased in the MPF group, while phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and CREB in the hippocampus were enhanced. MPF improves memory in mice via modulation of anti-oxidative stress and activation of BDNF/ERK/CREB signaling pathways. PMID:27136583

  6. Mixture of Peanut Skin Extract and Fish Oil Improves Memory in Mice via Modulation of Anti-Oxidative Stress and Regulation of BDNF/ERK/CREB Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Lan; Cao, Xue-Li; Xing, Tian-Yan; Mori, Daisuke; Tang, Rui-Qi; Li, Jing; Gao, Li-Juan; Qi, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Long-term use of fish oil (FO) is known to induce oxidative stress and increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease in humans. In the present study, peanut skin extract (PSE), which has strong antioxidant capacity, was mixed with FO to reduce its side effects while maintaining its beneficial properties. Twelve-week Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were used to conduct animal behavior tests in order to evaluate the memory-enhancing ability of the mixture of peanut skin extract and fish oil (MPF). MPF significantly increased alternations in the Y-maze and cognitive index in the novel object recognition test. MPF also improved performance in the water maze test. We further sought to understand the mechanisms underlying these effects. A significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and an increase in malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in plasma were observed in the FO group. The MPF group showed reduced MDA level and increased SOD activity in the plasma, cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, the gene expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus were increased in the MPF group, while phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and CREB in the hippocampus were enhanced. MPF improves memory in mice via modulation of anti-oxidative stress and activation of BDNF/ERK/CREB signaling pathways. PMID:27136583

  7. CREB1-driven expression of miR-320a promotes mitophagy by down-regulating VDAC1 expression during serum starvation in cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Min; Li, Xin; Tang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    The altered expression of miRNAs in response to stresses contributes to cancer pathogenesis. However, little is known regarding the mechanism by which cellular stresses drive alterations in miRNA expression. Here, we found that serum starvation enhanced mitophagy by downregulating the mitophagy-associated protein voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) and by inducing the expression of miR-320a and the transcription factor cAMP responsive element binding protein 1(CREB1). Furthermore, we cloned the promoter of miR-320a and identified the core promoter of miR-320a in the upstream −16 to −130 region of pre-miR-320a. Moreover, CREB1 was found to bind to the promoter of miR-320a to activate its expression and to induce mitophagy during serum starvation. Collectively, our results reveal a new mechanism underlying serum starvation-induced mitophagy in which serum starvation induces CREB1 expression, in turn activating miR-320a expression, which then down-regulates VDAC1 expression to facilitate mitophagy. These findings may provide new insights into cancer cell survival in response to environmental stresses. PMID:26472185

  8. A Novel Small-Molecule Inhibitor Targeting CREB-CBP Complex Possesses Anti-Cancer Effects along with Cell Cycle Regulation, Autophagy Suppression and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Woo; Park, Hee Sun; Park, Sin-Aye; Ryu, Seung-Hee; Meng, Wuyi; Jürgensmeier, Juliane M.; Kurie, Jonathan M.; Hong, Waun Ki; Boyer, Julie L.; Herbst, Roy S.; Koo, Ja Seok

    2015-01-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma, the most common subtype of lung cancer, is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Despite attempts for the treatment of lung cancer which have been accumulating, promising new therapies are still needed. Here, we found that cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-CREB binding protein (CBP) transcription factors complex inhibitor, Naphthol AS-TR phosphate (NASTRp), is a potential therapeutic agent for lung cancer. We show that NASTRp inhibited oncogenic cell properties through cell cycle arrest with concomitant suppression of tumor-promoting autophagy with down-regulations of Atg5-12 and Atg7, and accumulation of p62 in human lung cancer cell lines. In addition, NASTRp induced expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers such as DDIT3/CHOP, and led to apoptosis along with Bim induction. These findings suggest that transcription factor/co-activator complex, CREB-CBP, can be a potential therapeutic target and its inhibition could be a novel therapeutic strategy for lung cancer. PMID:25897662

  9. Serotonin- and Training-Induced Dynamic Regulation of CREB2 in "Aplysia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Rong-Yu; Shah, Shreyansh; Cleary, Leonard J.; Byrne, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term memory and plasticity, including long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF) of the "Aplysia" sensorimotor synapse, depend on the activation of transcription factors that regulate genes necessary for synaptic plasticity. In the present study we found that treatment with 5-HT and behavioral training produce biphasic changes in the expression of…

  10. Optogenetic Inhibitor of the Transcription Factor CREB.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmed M; Reis, Jakeb M; Xia, Yan; Rashid, Asim J; Mercaldo, Valentina; Walters, Brandon J; Brechun, Katherine E; Borisenko, Vitali; Josselyn, Sheena A; Karanicolas, John; Woolley, G Andrew

    2015-11-19

    Current approaches for optogenetic control of transcription do not mimic the activity of endogenous transcription factors, which act at numerous sites in the genome in a complex interplay with other factors. Optogenetic control of dominant negative versions of endogenous transcription factors provides a mechanism for mimicking the natural regulation of gene expression. Here we describe opto-DN-CREB, a blue-light-controlled inhibitor of the transcription factor CREB created by fusing the dominant negative inhibitor A-CREB to photoactive yellow protein (PYP). A light-driven conformational change in PYP prevents coiled-coil formation between A-CREB and CREB, thereby activating CREB. Optogenetic control of CREB function was characterized in vitro, in HEK293T cells, and in neurons where blue light enabled control of expression of the CREB targets NR4A2 and c-Fos. Dominant negative inhibitors exist for numerous transcription factors; linking these to optogenetic domains offers a general approach for spatiotemporal control of native transcriptional events. PMID:26590638

  11. The α and Δ Isoforms of CREB1 Are Required to Maintain Normal Pulmonary Vascular Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Sands, Michelle; Banahan, Mark; Frohlich, Stephen; Rowan, Simon C.; Neary, Roisín; Ryan, Donal; McLoughlin, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Chronic hypoxia causes pulmonary hypertension associated with structural alterations in pulmonary vessels and sustained vasoconstriction. The transcriptional mechanisms responsible for these distinctive changes are unclear. We have previously reported that CREB1 is activated in the lung in response to alveolar hypoxia but not in other organs. To directly investigate the role of α and Δ isoforms of CREB1 in the regulation of pulmonary vascular resistance we examined the responses of mice in which these isoforms of CREB1 had been inactivated by gene mutation, leaving only the β isoform intact (CREBαΔ mice). Here we report that expression of CREB regulated genes was altered in the lungs of CREBαΔ mice. CREBαΔ mice had greater pulmonary vascular resistance than wild types, both basally in normoxia and following exposure to hypoxic conditions for three weeks. There was no difference in rho kinase mediated vasoconstriction between CREBαΔ and wild type mice. Stereological analysis of pulmonary vascular structure showed characteristic wall thickening and lumen reduction in hypoxic wild-type mice, with similar changes observed in CREBαΔ. CREBαΔ mice had larger lungs with reduced epithelial surface density suggesting increased pulmonary compliance. These findings show that α and Δ isoforms of CREB1 regulate homeostatic gene expression in the lung and that normal activity of these isoforms is essential to maintain low pulmonary vascular resistance in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions and to maintain the normal alveolar structure. Interventions that enhance the actions of α and Δ isoforms of CREB1 warrant further investigation in hypoxic lung diseases. PMID:24349008

  12. BDNF–ERK–CREB signalling mediates the role of miR-132 in the regulation of the effects of oleanolic acid in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Li-Tao; Li, Jing; Liu, Bin-Bin; Luo, Liu; Liu, Qing; Geng, Di

    2014-01-01

    Background Although previous study has demonstrated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in the antidepressant-like effect of oleanolic acid, there is little information regarding the details of the molecular mechanism involved in this effect. Methods We used a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model to test the antidepressant-like effect of oleanolic acid on depressant-like behaviour, miR-132 expression and synaptic protein expression in the male mouse hippocampus. Furthermore, we explored the possible signalling pathways associated with miR-132 expression that mediate the effect of oleanolic acid on neuronal proliferation. Results The results demonstrated that a 3-week treatment with oleanolic acid ameliorated CUMS-induced anhedonic and anxiogenic behaviours. Furthermore, we found that oleanolic acid led to the BDNF-related phosphorylation and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB), which was associated with the upregulation of miR-132 and hippocampal neuronal proliferation. Moreover, experiments with an miR-132 antagomir revealed that targeting miR-132 led to inhibition of neuronal proliferation and the postsynaptic density protein 95, but did not affect presynaptic protein synapsin I. Limitations Several other stimuli can also induce CREB phosphorylation in the hippocampus. Thus, regulation of miR-132 may not be restricted to neurotrophic signalling. Conclusion Our results show that oleanolic acid induces the upregulation of miR-132, which serves as an important regulator of neurotrophic actions, mainly through the activation of the hippocampal BDNF–ERK–CREB signalling pathways. PMID:25079084

  13. Imaging CREB Activation in Living Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Michael W.; Aramuni, Gayane; Mank, Marco; Mackinnon, Jonathan A. G.; Griesbeck, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The Ca2+- and cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and the related ATF-1 and CREM are stimulus-inducible transcription factors that link certain forms of cellular activity to changes in gene expression. They are attributed to complex integrative activation characteristics, but current biochemical technology does not allow dynamic imaging of CREB activation in single cells. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer between mutants of green fluorescent protein we here develop a signal-optimized genetically encoded indicator that enables imaging activation of CREB due to phosphorylation of the critical serine 133. The indicator of CREB activation due to phosphorylation (ICAP) was used to investigate the role of the scaffold and anchoring protein AKAP79/150 in regulating signal pathways converging on CREB. We show that disruption of AKAP79/150-mediated protein kinase A anchoring or knock-down of AKAP150 dramatically reduces the ability of protein kinase A to activate CREB. In contrast, AKAP79/150 regulation of CREB via L-type channels may only have minor importance. ICAP allows dynamic and reversible imaging in living cells and may become useful in studying molecular components and cell-type specificity of activity-dependent gene expression. PMID:20484048

  14. Epigenetic modification of miR-10a regulates renal damage by targeting CREB1 in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shan, Qun; Zheng, Guihong; Zhu, Aihua; Cao, Li; Lu, Jun; Wu, Dongmei; Zhang, ZiFeng; Fan, Shaohua; Sun, Chunhui; Hu, Bin; Zheng, Yuanlin

    2016-09-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that microRNA-mediated gene expression modulation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but the novel miRNAs involved in type 2 diabetes and its functional regulatory mechanisms still need to be determined. In this study, we assessed the role of miR-10a in extracellular matrix accumulation in the kidney of diabetic mellitus induced by combining administration of chronic high fat diet (HFD) and low dosage of streptozotocin (STZ, 35mg/kg). Here, we found that HFD/STZ administration decreased the level of microRNA (miR-10a) expression in ICR strain mice. Overexpression of miR-10a alleviated the increased ratio of urine albumin-to-creatinine (ACR) ratio of HFD/STZ mice. In contrast, knockdown of miR-10a increased the ratio of kidney ACR in naïve mice. Furthermore, cAMP response element binding protein 1 (CREB1) was validated as a target of miR-10a in vitro and in vivo. CREB1 and its downstream fibronectin (FN, extracellular matrix) were increased in HFD/STZ-treated mice, which was reversed by kidney miR-10a overexpression. The content of CREB1 and FN was increased by miR-10a knockdown in kidney of naïve mice. Furthermore, histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) was revealed to be increased in kidney of HFD/STZ mice, accompanied with the augmentation of ACR ratio and FN level. Knockdown of HDAC3 with siRNA significantly caused the increase of miR-10a, resulting in the decrease in CREB1 and FN expression in kidney of HFD/STZ mice. Contrarily, HDAC3 overexpression mediated by lentivirus decreased miR-10a content, and enhanced ACR value, CREB1 and FN formation in naïve mice. Collectively, these results elucidate that HDAC3/miR-10a/CREB1 serves as a new mechanism underlying kidney injury, providing potential therapeutic targets in type 2 diabetes. PMID:27292126

  15. N-palmitoyl serotonin alleviates scopolamine-induced memory impairment via regulation of cholinergic and antioxidant systems, and expression of BDNF and p-CREB in mice.

    PubMed

    Min, A Young; Doo, Choon Nan; Son, Eun Jung; Sung, Nak Yun; Lee, Kun Jong; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2015-12-01

    N-Palmitoyl-5-hydroxytryptamines (Pal-5HT), a cannabinoid, has recently been reported to express anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory actions in RBL-2H3 cells, and ameliorate glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in HT-22 cells. In this study, we examined the effect of Pal-5HT on deficits of learning and memory induced by scopolamine in mice. Memory performance was evaluated using Morris water maze test and passive avoidance test. Activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), level of oxidative stress markers, and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB) were determined. Loss of neuronal cells in hippocampus was evaluated by histological examinations. Pal-5HT significantly improved the amnesia in the behavioral assessment. Pal-5HT regulated cholinergic function by inhibiting scopolamine-induced elevation of AChE activity and decline of ChAT activity. Pal-5HT suppressed oxidative stress by increasing activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) or NAD(P)H quinine oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1) and lowering MDA level. Additionally, it prevented against scopolamine-induced expression of iNOS and COX-2. Moreover, Pal-5HT suppressed the death of neuronal cells in CA1 and CA3 regions, while it restored expression of p-CREB and BDNF in hippocampus. Taken together, Pal-5HT is suggested to ameliorate deficits of memory and learning through regulation of cholinergic function, activation of antioxidant systems as well as restoration of BDNF and p-CREB expression. From these, Pal-5HT may be a potential candidate to prevent against neurodegeneration related to the memory deficit. PMID:26408985

  16. p21-activated kinase 4 critically regulates melanogenesis via activation of the CREB/MITF and β-catenin/MITF pathways.

    PubMed

    Yun, Cheong-Yong; You, Soon-Tae; Kim, Jin-Hwa; Chung, Jin H; Han, Sang-Bae; Shin, Eun-Young; Kim, Eung-Gook

    2015-05-01

    p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) regulates a wide range of cellular events, including cytoskeletal remodeling, cell growth, and survival. Our previous study identified PAK4 as a key regulator of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) that acts upstream of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), a master transcription factor in melanogenesis. We therefore investigated the role of PAK4 in melanogenesis. Melanocytes express both PAK2 and PAK4 isoforms, but only RNA interference knockdown of PAK4 significantly influenced α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-induced melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells. Consistent with this result, PAK4 inhibition by PF3758309, a potent ATP-competitive inhibitor of PAKs, suppressed not only α-MSH-induced melanogenesis in B16 melanoma and human epithelial melanocyte cells but also UVB-induced melanogenesis in the skin of melanin-possessing hairless mice (HRM-2) in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of PAK4 over several days markedly decreased the levels of CREB, MITF, and tyrosinase in both HRM-2 mice and B16 melanoma cells. Moreover, PAK4 knockdown and inhibition suppressed α-MSH-stimulated β-catenin phosphorylation at serine 675 (S675) but enhanced phosphorylation at S33/37, an indicator for ubiquitination-dependent proteolysis. Together, our results provide evidence that PAK4 promotes α-MSH/UVB-induced melanogenesis via the CREB and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways and suggest that PAK4 may be a potential therapeutic target in pigmentation disorders. PMID:25560280

  17. DISC1 regulates expression of the neurotrophin VGF through the PI3K/AKT/CREB pathway.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Seoane, Carmen; Ramos, Adriana; Korth, Carsten; Requena, Jesús R

    2015-11-01

    Disrupted in schizophrenia (DISC1) is a risk factor for chronic mental disease. In a previous proteomic study, we reported that knocking down DISC1 results in a sharp decrease in the levels of the neuropeptide precursor VGF (non-acronymic) and leads to reduced activation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and protein kinase B (AKT) in neurons. The main objective of this study is to complete the characterization of the route, or routes, involving AKT and CREB through which DISC1 modulates the expression of VGF. For that we explored known players upstream of AKT and the DISC1 binding partners glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta and Phosphodiesterase-4, which might in turn reach out to CREB in murine neuron primary culture. We found that DISC1 modulates the activation of Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K). Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of PI3K resulted in decreased expression of VGF. All this suggests that the PI3K/AKT pathway plays a role in mediating the effects of DISC1 silencing on VGF expression. Given the important roles of VGF in mental disease, and its drugability, the DISC1-VGF connection might prove to be important for efforts to develop new therapies for these diseases. PMID:26212236

  18. T-type Ca2+ signalling regulates aldosterone-induced CREB activation and cell death through PP2A activation in neonatal cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ferron, Laurent; Ruchon, Yann; Renaud, Jean-François; Capuano, Véronique

    2011-01-01

    Aims We have investigated Ca2+ signalling generated by aldosterone-induced T-type current (ICaT), the effects of ICaT in neonatal cardiomyocytes, and a putative role for ICaT in cardiomyocytes during cardiac pathology induced by stenosis in an adult rat. Methods and results Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes treated with aldosterone showed an increase in ICaT density, principally due to the upregulation of the T-type channel Cav3.1 (by 80%). Aldosterone activated cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), and this activation was enhanced by blocking ICaT or by inhibiting protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity. Aldosterone induced PP2A activity, an induction that was prevented upon ICaT blockade. ICaT exerted a negative feedback regulation on the transcription of the Cav3.1 gene, and the activation of PP2A by ICaT led to increased levels of the pro-apoptotic markers caspase 9 and Bcl-xS and decreased levels of the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-2. These findings were corroborated by flow cytometry analysis for apoptosis and necrosis. Similarly, in a rat model of cardiac disease, ICaT re-emergence was associated with a decrease in CREB activation and was correlated with increases in caspase 9 and Bcl-xS and a decrease in Bcl-2 levels. Conclusion Our findings establish PP2A/CREB as targets of ICaT-generated Ca2+ signalling and identify an important role for ICaT in cardiomyocyte cell death. PMID:21123217

  19. Cell cycle-dependent regulation of RNA polymerase II basal transcription activity.

    PubMed Central

    Yonaha, M; Chibazakura, T; Kitajima, S; Yasukochi, Y

    1995-01-01

    Regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II (pol II) in eukaryotic cells requires both basal and regulatory transcription factors. In this report we have investigated in vitro pol II basal transcription activity during the cell cycle by using nuclear extracts from synchronized HeLa cells. It is shown that pol II basal transcription activity is low in the S and G2 phases and high in early G1 phase and TFIID is the rate limiting component of pol II basal transcription activity during the cell cycle. Further analyses reveal that TFIID exists as a less active form in the S and G2 phases and nuclear extracts from S and G2 phase cells contain a heat-sensitive repressor(s) of TATA box binding protein (TBP). These results suggest that pol II basal transcription activity is regulated by a qualitative change in the TFIID complex, which could involve repression of TBP, during the cell cycle. Images PMID:7479063

  20. Oct-1 Potentiates CREB-Driven Cyclin D1 Promoter Activation via a Phospho-CREB- and CREB Binding Protein-Independent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Boulon, Séverine; Dantonel, Jean-Christophe; Binet, Virginie; Vié, Annick; Blanchard, Jean-Marie; Hipskind, Robert A.; Philips, Alexandre

    2002-01-01

    Cyclin D1, the regulatory subunit for mid-G1 cyclin-dependent kinases, controls the expression of numerous cell cycle genes. A cyclic AMP-responsive element (CRE), located upstream of the cyclin D1 mRNA start site, integrates mitogenic signals that target the CRE-binding factor CREB, which can recruit the transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP). We describe an alternative mechanism for CREB-driven cyclin D1 induction that involves the ubiquitous POU domain protein Oct-1. In the breast cancer cell line MCF-7, overexpression of Oct-1 or its POU domain strongly increases transcriptional activation of cyclin D1 and GAL4 reporter genes that is specifically dependent upon CREB but independent of Oct-1 DNA binding. Gel retardation and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirm that POU forms a complex with CREB bound to the cyclin D1 CRE. In solution, CREB interaction with POU requires the CREB Q2 domain and, notably, occurs with CREB that is not phosphorylated on Ser 133. Accordingly, Oct-1 also potently enhances transcriptional activation mediated by a Ser133Ala CREB mutant. Oct-1/CREB synergy is not diminished by the adenovirus E1A 12S protein, a repressor of CBP coactivator function. In contrast, E1A strongly represses CBP-enhanced transactivation by CREB phosphorylated on Ser 133. Our observation that Oct-1 potentiates CREB-dependent cyclin D1 transcriptional activity independently of Ser 133 phosphorylation and E1A-sensitive coactivator function offers a new paradigm for the regulation of cyclin D1 induction by proliferative signals. PMID:12391146

  1. Angelica sinensis polysaccharides promotes apoptosis in human breast cancer cells via CREB-regulated caspase-3 activation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei-Jie; Wang, Sheng; Hu, Zhuang; Zhou, Zhen-Yu; Song, Cai-Juan

    2015-11-20

    Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) is purified from the fresh roots of Angelica sinensis (AS). This traditional Chinese medicine has been used for thousands of years for treating gynecological diseases and used in functional foods for the prevention and treatment of various diseases, such as inflammation and cancer. The antitumor activity of ASP is related to its biological activities, because it suppresses a variety of pro-proliferative or anti-apoptotic factors that are dramatically expressed in cancer cells of given types. In this study, we show that angelica sinensis polysaccharide induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells of T47D over-expressing the Cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), inducing apoptosis-related signaling pathway activity. The result also found that ASP caused cell death was linked to caspase activity, accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, and Bax translocation from the cytosol to the mitochondria. We found that ASP significantly affected the poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), Bcl-2 Associated X Protein (Bax), Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and apoptotic protease activating facter-1 (Apaf1) protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. DAPI staining and Flow cytometry were used to analyze apoptosis. The nude mice xenograft model was used to evaluate the antitumor effect of ASP in vivo. ASP has profound antitumor effect on T47D cells, probably by inducing apoptosis through CREB signaling pathway. Thus, these results suggest that ASP would be a promising therapeutic agent for breast cancer. PMID:26431878

  2. The mitochondrial uncoupler DNP triggers brain cell mTOR signaling network reprogramming and CREB pathway up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Zhang, Yongqing; Gharavi, Robert; Park, Hee Ra; Lee, Jaewon; Siddiqui, Sana; Telljohann, Richard; Nassar, Matthew R; Cutler, Roy G; Becker, Kevin G; Mattson, Mark P

    2015-08-01

    Mitochondrial metabolism is highly responsive to nutrient availability and ongoing activity in neuronal circuits. The molecular mechanisms by which brain cells respond to an increase in cellular energy expenditure are largely unknown. Mild mitochondrial uncoupling enhances cellular energy expenditure in mitochondria and can be induced with 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a proton ionophore previously used for weight loss. We found that DNP treatment reduces mitochondrial membrane potential, increases intracellular Ca(2+) levels and reduces oxidative stress in cerebral cortical neurons. Gene expression profiling of the cerebral cortex of DNP-treated mice revealed reprogramming of signaling cascades that included suppression of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and insulin--PI3K - MAPK pathways, and up-regulation of tuberous sclerosis complex 2, a negative regulator of mTOR. Genes encoding proteins involved in autophagy processes were up-regulated in response to DNP. CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) signaling, Arc and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which play important roles in synaptic plasticity and adaptive cellular stress responses, were up-regulated in response to DNP, and DNP-treated mice exhibited improved performance in a test of learning and memory. Immunoblot analysis verified that key DNP-induced changes in gene expression resulted in corresponding changes at the protein level. Our findings suggest that mild mitochondrial uncoupling triggers an integrated signaling response in brain cells characterized by reprogramming of mTOR and insulin signaling, and up-regulation of pathways involved in adaptive stress responses, molecular waste disposal, and synaptic plasticity. Physiological bioenergetic challenges such as exercise and fasting can enhance neuroplasticity and protect neurons against injury and neurodegeneration. Here, we show that the mitochondrial uncoupling agent 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) elicits adaptive signaling responses in the

  3. RIP1 negatively regulates basal autophagic flux through TFEB to control sensitivity to apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yonekawa, Tohru; Gamez, Graciela; Kim, Jihye; Tan, Aik Choon; Thorburn, Jackie; Gump, Jacob; Thorburn, Andrew; Morgan, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    In a synthetic lethality/viability screen, we identified the serine–threonine kinase RIP1 (RIPK1) as a gene whose knockdown is highly selected against during growth in normal media, in which autophagy is not critical, but selected for in conditions that increase reliance on basal autophagy. RIP1 represses basal autophagy in part due to its ability to regulate the TFEB transcription factor, which controls the expression of autophagy-related and lysosomal genes. RIP1 activates ERK, which negatively regulates TFEB though phosphorylation of serine 142. Thus, in addition to other pro-death functions, RIP1 regulates cellular sensitivity to pro-death stimuli by modulating basal autophagy. PMID:25908842

  4. Regulation of cerebral cortex size and folding by expansion of basal progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Nonaka-Kinoshita, Miki; Reillo, Isabel; Artegiani, Benedetta; Ángeles Martínez-Martínez, Maria; Nelson, Mark; Borrell, Víctor; Calegari, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Size and folding of the cerebral cortex increased massively during mammalian evolution leading to the current diversity of brain morphologies. Various subtypes of neural stem and progenitor cells have been proposed to contribute differently in regulating thickness or folding of the cerebral cortex during development, but their specific roles have not been demonstrated. We report that the controlled expansion of unipotent basal progenitors in mouse embryos led to megalencephaly, with increased surface area of the cerebral cortex, but not to cortical folding. In contrast, expansion of multipotent basal progenitors in the naturally gyrencephalic ferret was sufficient to drive the formation of additional folds and fissures. In both models, changes occurred while preserving a structurally normal, six-layered cortex. Our results are the first experimental demonstration of specific and distinct roles for basal progenitor subtypes in regulating cerebral cortex size and folding during development underlying the superior intellectual capability acquired by higher mammals during evolution. PMID:23624932

  5. Myosin light-chain phosphatase regulates basal actomyosin oscillations during morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Valencia-Expósito, Andrea; Grosheva, Inna; Míguez, David G.; González-Reyes, Acaimo; Martín-Bermudo, María D.

    2016-01-01

    Contractile actomyosin networks generate forces that drive tissue morphogenesis. Actomyosin contractility is controlled primarily by reversible phosphorylation of the myosin-II regulatory light chain through the action of myosin kinases and phosphatases. While the role of myosin light-chain kinase in regulating contractility during morphogenesis has been largely characterized, there is surprisingly little information on myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) function in this context. Here, we use live imaging of Drosophila follicle cells combined with mathematical modelling to demonstrate that the MLCP subunit flapwing (flw) is a key regulator of basal myosin oscillations and cell contractions underlying egg chamber elongation. Flw expression decreases specifically on the basal side of follicle cells at the onset of contraction and flw controls the initiation and periodicity of basal actomyosin oscillations. Contrary to previous reports, basal F-actin pulsates similarly to myosin. Finally, we propose a quantitative model in which periodic basal actomyosin oscillations arise in a cell-autonomous fashion from intrinsic properties of motor assemblies. PMID:26888436

  6. Myosin light-chain phosphatase regulates basal actomyosin oscillations during morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Expósito, Andrea; Grosheva, Inna; Míguez, David G; González-Reyes, Acaimo; Martín-Bermudo, María D

    2016-01-01

    Contractile actomyosin networks generate forces that drive tissue morphogenesis. Actomyosin contractility is controlled primarily by reversible phosphorylation of the myosin-II regulatory light chain through the action of myosin kinases and phosphatases. While the role of myosin light-chain kinase in regulating contractility during morphogenesis has been largely characterized, there is surprisingly little information on myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) function in this context. Here, we use live imaging of Drosophila follicle cells combined with mathematical modelling to demonstrate that the MLCP subunit flapwing (flw) is a key regulator of basal myosin oscillations and cell contractions underlying egg chamber elongation. Flw expression decreases specifically on the basal side of follicle cells at the onset of contraction and flw controls the initiation and periodicity of basal actomyosin oscillations. Contrary to previous reports, basal F-actin pulsates similarly to myosin. Finally, we propose a quantitative model in which periodic basal actomyosin oscillations arise in a cell-autonomous fashion from intrinsic properties of motor assemblies. PMID:26888436

  7. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed CREB and serine 133 phospho-CREB binding to the CART gene proximal promoter

    PubMed Central

    Rogge, George A; Shen, Li-Ling; Kuhar, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Both over expression of cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and intra-accumbal injection of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides, have been shown to decrease cocaine reward. Also, over expression of CREB in the rat NAc increased CART mRNA and peptide levels, but it is not known if this was due to a direct action of P-CREB on the CART gene promoter. The goal of this study was to test if CREB and P-CREB bound directly to the CRE site in the CART promoter, using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. ChIP assay with anti-CREB antibodies showed an enrichment of the CART promoter fragment containing the CRE region over IgG precipitated material, a non-specific control. Forskolin, which was known to increase CART mRNA levels in GH3 cells, was utilized to show that the drug increased levels of P-CREB protein and P-CREB binding to the CART promoter CRE-containing region. A region of the c-Fos promoter containing a CRE cis-regulatory element was previously shown to bind P-CREB, and it was used here as a positive control. These data suggest that the effects of CREB over expression on blunting cocaine reward could be, at least in part, attributed to the increased expression of the CART gene by direct interaction of P-CREB with the CART promoter CRE site, rather than by some indirect action. PMID:20451507

  8. Integrative analysis identifies targetable CREB1/FoxA1 transcriptional co-regulation as a predictor of prostate cancer recurrence.

    PubMed

    Sunkel, Benjamin; Wu, Dayong; Chen, Zhong; Wang, Chiou-Miin; Liu, Xiangtao; Ye, Zhenqing; Horning, Aaron M; Liu, Joseph; Mahalingam, Devalingam; Lopez-Nicora, Horacio; Lin, Chun-Lin; Goodfellow, Paul J; Clinton, Steven K; Jin, Victor X; Chen, Chun-Liang; Huang, Tim H-M; Wang, Qianben

    2016-05-19

    Identifying prostate cancer-driving transcription factors (TFs) in addition to the androgen receptor promises to improve our ability to effectively diagnose and treat this disease. We employed an integrative genomics analysis of master TFs CREB1 and FoxA1 in androgen-dependent prostate cancer (ADPC) and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cell lines, primary prostate cancer tissues and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to investigate their role in defining prostate cancer gene expression profiles. Combining genome-wide binding site and gene expression profiles we define CREB1 as a critical driver of pro-survival, cell cycle and metabolic transcription programs. We show that CREB1 and FoxA1 co-localize and mutually influence each other's binding to define disease-driving transcription profiles associated with advanced prostate cancer. Gene expression analysis in human prostate cancer samples found that CREB1/FoxA1 target gene panels predict prostate cancer recurrence. Finally, we showed that this signaling pathway is sensitive to compounds that inhibit the transcription co-regulatory factor MED1. These findings not only reveal a novel, global transcriptional co-regulatory function of CREB1 and FoxA1, but also suggest CREB1/FoxA1 signaling is a targetable driver of prostate cancer progression and serves as a biomarker of poor clinical outcomes. PMID:26743006

  9. Integrative analysis identifies targetable CREB1/FoxA1 transcriptional co-regulation as a predictor of prostate cancer recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Sunkel, Benjamin; Wu, Dayong; Chen, Zhong; Wang, Chiou-Miin; Liu, Xiangtao; Ye, Zhenqing; Horning, Aaron M.; Liu, Joseph; Mahalingam, Devalingam; Lopez-Nicora, Horacio; Lin, Chun-Lin; Goodfellow, Paul J.; Clinton, Steven K.; Jin, Victor X.; Chen, Chun-Liang; Huang, Tim H.-M.; Wang, Qianben

    2016-01-01

    Identifying prostate cancer-driving transcription factors (TFs) in addition to the androgen receptor promises to improve our ability to effectively diagnose and treat this disease. We employed an integrative genomics analysis of master TFs CREB1 and FoxA1 in androgen-dependent prostate cancer (ADPC) and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cell lines, primary prostate cancer tissues and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to investigate their role in defining prostate cancer gene expression profiles. Combining genome-wide binding site and gene expression profiles we define CREB1 as a critical driver of pro-survival, cell cycle and metabolic transcription programs. We show that CREB1 and FoxA1 co-localize and mutually influence each other's binding to define disease-driving transcription profiles associated with advanced prostate cancer. Gene expression analysis in human prostate cancer samples found that CREB1/FoxA1 target gene panels predict prostate cancer recurrence. Finally, we showed that this signaling pathway is sensitive to compounds that inhibit the transcription co-regulatory factor MED1. These findings not only reveal a novel, global transcriptional co-regulatory function of CREB1 and FoxA1, but also suggest CREB1/FoxA1 signaling is a targetable driver of prostate cancer progression and serves as a biomarker of poor clinical outcomes. PMID:26743006

  10. CREB Binds to Multiple Loci on Human Chromosome 22

    PubMed Central

    Euskirchen, Ghia; Royce, Thomas E.; Bertone, Paul; Martone, Rebecca; Rinn, John L.; Nelson, F. Kenneth; Sayward, Fred; Luscombe, Nicholas M.; Miller, Perry; Gerstein, Mark; Weissman, Sherman; Snyder, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) is an important transcription factor that can be activated by hormonal stimulation and regulates neuronal function and development. An unbiased, global analysis of where CREB binds has not been performed. We have mapped for the first time the binding distribution of CREB along an entire human chromosome. Chromatin immunoprecipitation of CREB-associated DNA and subsequent hybridization of the associated DNA to a genomic DNA microarray containing all of the nonrepetitive DNA of human chromosome 22 revealed 215 binding sites corresponding to 192 different loci and 100 annotated potential gene targets. We found binding near or within many genes involved in signal transduction and neuronal function. We also found that only a small fraction of CREB binding sites lay near well-defined 5′ ends of genes; the majority of sites were found elsewhere, including introns and unannotated regions. Several of the latter lay near novel unannotated transcriptionally active regions. Few CREB targets were found near full-length cyclic AMP response element sites; the majority contained shorter versions or close matches to this sequence. Several of the CREB targets were altered in their expression by treatment with forskolin; interestingly, both induced and repressed genes were found. Our results provide novel molecular insights into how CREB mediates its functions in humans. PMID:15082775

  11. Bifurcation phenomena in an impulsive model of non-basal testosterone regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai T.; Churilov, Alexander N.; Medvedev, Alexander

    2012-03-01

    Complex nonlinear dynamics in a recent mathematical model of non-basal testosterone regulation are investigated. In agreement with biological evidence, the pulsatile (non-basal) secretion of testosterone is modeled by frequency and amplitude modulated feedback. It is shown that, in addition to already known periodic motions with one and two pulses in the least period of a closed-loop system solution, cycles of higher periodicity and chaos are present in the model in hand. The broad range of exhibited dynamic behaviors makes the model highly promising in model-based signal processing of hormone data.

  12. Expression Patterns of CREBs in Oocyte Growth and Maturation of Fish.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian; Sreenivasulu, Gunti; Wang, De-Shou; Sudhakumari, Cheni-Chery; Kobayashi, Tohru; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

    2015-01-01

    In fish, oocyte meiotic maturation is regulated by 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-progesterone through cAMP. To study the role of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in meiotic maturation, we cloned and characterized the expression pattern of CREBs from two fish models, the Nile tilapia and catfish. In the Nile tilapia three different CREBs were identified where in CREB1 was found in many tissues including gonads with abundant expression in testis. CREB2, few amino acids shorter than CREB1, was expressed in several tissues with abundant expression in ovary. In addition, a 3'UTR variant form, CREB3 was exclusively found in ovary. During natural 14-day ovarian cycle of the Nile tilapia, CREB1 expression was stable throughout vitellogenesis with a sharp decrease on the day of spawning. In contrast, CREB2 remain unchanged throughout the ovarian cycle, however elevated in 11-day full-grown immature ovarian follicle and after hCG-induction. Interestingly, CREB3 expression was induced three folds on the day of spawning as well as during hCG-induced oocyte maturation. Based on the synergistic expression pattern, CREB1 is likely to control oocyte growth, whereas CREB 2 and 3 contribute to oocyte maturation in tilapia and the latter seems to be critical. In catfish, a single form of CREB showed a maximum expression during spawning phase and hCG-induced maturation both in vivo and in vitro augmented CREB expression. These results suggest that spatial and temporal expression of CREBs seems to be important for final oocyte maturation and may also regulate oocyte growth in fish. PMID:26700177

  13. Expression Patterns of CREBs in Oocyte Growth and Maturation of Fish

    PubMed Central

    Wang, De-Shou; Sudhakumari, Cheni-Chery; Kobayashi, Tohru; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

    2015-01-01

    In fish, oocyte meiotic maturation is regulated by 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-progesterone through cAMP. To study the role of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in meiotic maturation, we cloned and characterized the expression pattern of CREBs from two fish models, the Nile tilapia and catfish. In the Nile tilapia three different CREBs were identified where in CREB1 was found in many tissues including gonads with abundant expression in testis. CREB2, few amino acids shorter than CREB1, was expressed in several tissues with abundant expression in ovary. In addition, a 3’UTR variant form, CREB3 was exclusively found in ovary. During natural 14-day ovarian cycle of the Nile tilapia, CREB1 expression was stable throughout vitellogenesis with a sharp decrease on the day of spawning. In contrast, CREB2 remain unchanged throughout the ovarian cycle, however elevated in 11-day full-grown immature ovarian follicle and after hCG-induction. Interestingly, CREB3 expression was induced three folds on the day of spawning as well as during hCG-induced oocyte maturation. Based on the synergistic expression pattern, CREB1 is likely to control oocyte growth, whereas CREB 2 and 3 contribute to oocyte maturation in tilapia and the latter seems to be critical. In catfish, a single form of CREB showed a maximum expression during spawning phase and hCG-induced maturation both in vivo and in vitro augmented CREB expression. These results suggest that spatial and temporal expression of CREBs seems to be important for final oocyte maturation and may also regulate oocyte growth in fish. PMID:26700177

  14. Acinus integrates AKT1 and subapoptotic caspase activities to regulate basal autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Nilay; Tyra, Lauren K.; Stenesen, Drew

    2014-01-01

    How cellular stresses up-regulate autophagy is not fully understood. One potential regulator is the Drosophila melanogaster protein Acinus (Acn), which is necessary for autophagy induction and triggers excess autophagy when overexpressed. We show that cell type–specific regulation of Acn depends on proteolysis by the caspase Dcp-1. Basal Dcp-1 activity in developing photoreceptors is sufficient for this cleavage without a need for apoptosis to elevate caspase activity. On the other hand, Acn was stabilized by loss of Dcp-1 function or by the presence of a mutation in Acn that eliminates its conserved caspase cleavage site. Acn stability also was regulated by AKT1-mediated phosphorylation. Flies that expressed stabilized forms of Acn, either the phosphomimetic AcnS641,731D or the caspase-resistant AcnD527A, exhibited enhanced basal autophagy. Physiologically, these flies showed improvements in processes known to be autophagy dependent, including increased starvation resistance, reduced Huntingtin-induced neurodegeneration, and prolonged life span. These data indicate that AKT1 and caspase-dependent regulation of Acn stability adjusts basal autophagy levels. PMID:25332163

  15. cAMP Response Element-binding Protein (CREB) and Nuclear Factor κB Mediate the Tamoxifen-induced Up-regulation of Glutamate Transporter 1 (GLT-1) in Rat Astrocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Pratap; Webb, Anton; Smith, Keisha; Lee, Kyuwon; Son, Deok-Soo; Aschner, Michael; Lee, Eunsook

    2013-01-01

    Tamoxifen (TX), a selective estrogen receptor modulator, exerts antagonistic effects on breast tissue and is used to treat breast cancer. Recent evidence also suggests that it may act as an agonist in brain tissue. We reported previously that TX enhanced the expression and function of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) in rat astrocytes, an effect that was mediated by TGF-α. To gain further insight into the mechanisms that mediate TX-induced up-regulation of GLT-1 (EAAT2 in humans), we investigated its effect on GLT-1 at the transcriptional level. TX phosphorylated the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and recruited CREB to the GLT-1 promoter consensus site. The effect of TX on astrocytic GLT-1 was attenuated by the inhibition of PKA, the upstream activator of the CREB pathway. In addition, the effect of TX on GLT-1 promoter activity was abolished by the inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. Furthermore, TX recruited the NF-κB subunits p65 and p50 to the NF-κB binding domain of the GLT-1 promoter. Mutation of NF-κB (triple, −583/-282/-251) or CRE (-308) sites on the GLT-1 promoter led to significant repression of the promoter activity, but neither mutant completely abolished the TX-induced GLT-1 promoter activity. Mutation of both the NF-κB (-583/-282/-251) and CRE (-308) sites led to a complete abrogation of the effect of TX on GLT-1 promoter activity. Taken together, our findings establish that TX regulates GLT-1 via the CREB and NF-κB pathways. PMID:23955341

  16. Basal Release of ATP: An Autocrine-Paracrine Mechanism for Cell Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Corriden, Ross; Insel, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Cells release adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which activates plasma membrane–localized P2X and P2Y receptors and thereby modulates cellular function in an autocrine or paracrine manner. Release of ATP and the subsequent activation of P2 receptors help establish the basal level of activation (sometimes termed “the set point”) for signal transduction pathways and regulate a wide array of responses that include tissue blood flow, ion transport, cell volume regulation, neuronal signaling, and host-pathogen interactions. Basal release and autocrine or paracrine responses to ATP are multifunctional and evolutionarily conserved, and they provide an economical means for the modulation of cell, tissue, and organismal biology. PMID:20068232

  17. Small molecule screen for inhibitors of expression from canonical CREB response element-containing promoters

    PubMed Central

    Mitton, Bryan; Hsu, Katie; Dutta, Ritika; Tiu, Bruce C.; Cox, Nick; McLure, Kevin G.; Chae, Hee-Don; Smith, Mark; Eklund, Elizabeth A.; Solow-Cordero, David E.; Sakamoto, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor CREB (cAMP Response Element Binding Protein) is an important determinant in the growth of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) cells. CREB overexpression increases AML cell growth by driving the expression of key regulators of apoptosis and the cell cycle. Conversely, CREB knockdown inhibits proliferation and survival of AML cells but not normal hematopoietic cells. Thus, CREB represents a promising drug target for the treatment of AML, which carries a poor prognosis. In this study, we performed a high-throughput small molecule screen to identify compounds that disrupt CREB function in AML cells. We screened ∼114,000 candidate compounds from Stanford University's small molecule library, and identified 5 molecules that inhibit CREB function at micromolar concentrations, but are non-toxic to normal hematopoietic cells. This study suggests that targeting CREB function using small molecules could provide alternative approaches to treat AML. PMID:26840025

  18. Enhancement by lithium of cAMP-induced CRE/CREB-directed gene transcription conferred by TORC on the CREB basic leucine zipper domain

    PubMed Central

    Böer, Ulrike; Eglins, Julia; Krause, Doris; Schnell, Susanne; Schöfl, Christof; Knepel, Willhart

    2007-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of the action of lithium salts in the treatment of bipolar disorder is not well understood. As their therapeutic action requires chronic treatment, adaptive neuronal processes are suggested to be involved. The molecular basis of this are changes in gene expression regulated by transcription factors such as CREB (cAMP-response-element-binding protein). CREB contains a transactivation domain, in which Ser119 is phosphorylated upon activation, and a bZip (basic leucine zipper domain). The bZip is involved in CREB dimerization and DNA-binding, but also contributes to CREB transactivation by recruiting the coactivator TORC (transducer of regulated CREB). In the present study, the effect of lithium on CRE (cAMP response element)/CREB-directed gene transcription was investigated. Electrically excitable cells were transfected with CRE/CREB-driven luciferase reporter genes. LiCl (6 mM or higher) induced an up to 4.7-fold increase in 8-bromo-cAMP-stimulated CRE/CREB-directed transcription. This increase was not due to enhanced Ser119 phosphorylation or DNA-binding of CREB. Also, the known targets inositol monophosphatase and GSK3β (glycogen-synthase-kinase 3β) were not involved as specific GSK3β inhibitors and inositol replenishment did not mimic and abolish respectively the effect of lithium. However, lithium no longer enhanced CREB activity when the CREB-bZip was deleted or the TORC-binding site inside the CREB-bZip was specifically mutated (CREB-R300A). Otherwise, TORC overexpression conferred lithium responsiveness on CREB-bZip or the CRE-containing truncated rat somatostatin promoter. This indicates that lithium enhances cAMP-induced CRE/CREB-directed transcription, conferred by TORC on the CREB-bZip. We thus support the hypothesis that lithium salts modulate CRE/CREB-dependent gene transcription and suggest the CREB coactivator TORC as a new molecular target of lithium. PMID:17696880

  19. Kin of IRRE-like Protein 2 Is a Phosphorylated Glycoprotein That Regulates Basal Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Yesildag, Burcak; Bock, Thomas; Herrmanns, Karolin; Wollscheid, Bernd; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-10-23

    Direct interactions among pancreatic β-cells via cell surface proteins inhibit basal and enhance stimulated insulin secretion. Here, we functionally and biochemically characterized Kirrel2, an immunoglobulin superfamily protein with β-cell-specific expression in the pancreas. Our results show that Kirrel2 is a phosphorylated glycoprotein that co-localizes and interacts with the adherens junction proteins E-cadherin and β-catenin in MIN6 cells. We further demonstrate that the phosphosites Tyr(595-596) are functionally relevant for the regulation of Kirrel2 stability and localization. Analysis of the extracellular and intracellular domains of Kirrel2 revealed that it is cleaved and shed from MIN6 cells and that the remaining membrane spanning cytoplasmic domain is processed by γ-secretase complex. Kirrel2 knockdown with RNA interference in MIN6 cells and ablation of Kirrel2 from mice with genetic deletion resulted in increased basal insulin secretion from β-cells, with no immediate influence on stimulated insulin secretion, total insulin content, or whole body glucose metabolism. Our results show that in pancreatic β-cells Kirrel2 localizes to adherens junctions, is regulated by multiple post-translational events, including glycosylation, extracellular cleavage, and phosphorylation, and engages in the regulation of basal insulin secretion. PMID:26324709

  20. Angiotensin AT1 and AT2 Receptors Regulate Basal Skeletal Muscle Microvascular Volume and Glucose Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Weidong; Wang, Wenhui; Liu, Jia; Barrett, Eugene J.; Carey, Robert M.; Cao, Wenhong; Liu, Zhenqi

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin II causes vasoconstriction via the type 1 receptor (AT1R) and vasodilatation through the type 2 receptor (AT2R). Both are expressed in muscle microvasculature where substrate exchanges occur. Whether they modulate basal muscle microvascular perfusion and substrate metabolism is not known. We measured microvascular blood volume (MBV), a measure of microvascular surface area and perfusion, in rats during systemic infusion of angiotensin II at either 1 or 100 ng/kg/min. Each caused a significant increase in muscle MBV. Likewise, administration of AT1R blocker losartan increased muscle MBV by >3-fold (p<0.001). Hindleg glucose extraction and muscle interstitial oxygen saturation simultaneously increased by 2–3-fold. By contrast, infusing AT2R antagonist PD123319 significantly decreased muscle MBV by up to 80% (p<0.001). This was associated with a significant decrease in hindleg glucose extraction and muscle oxygen saturation. AT2R antagonism and inhibition of nitric oxide synthase each blocked the losartan-induced increase in muscle MBV and glucose uptake. In conclusion, angiotensin II acts on both AT1R and AT2R to regulate basal muscle microvascular perfusion. Basal AT1R tone restricts muscle MBV and glucose extraction while basal AT2R activity increases muscle MBV and glucose uptake. Pharmacologic manipulation of the balance of AT1R and AT2R activity affords the potential to improve glucose metabolism. PMID:19996061

  1. Prickle3 synergizes with Wtip to regulate basal body organization and cilia growth

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chih-Wen; Ossipova, Olga; Ioannou, Andriani; Sokol, Sergei Y.

    2016-01-01

    PCP proteins maintain planar polarity in many epithelial tissues and have been implicated in cilia development in vertebrate embryos. In this study we examine Prickle3 (Pk3), a vertebrate homologue of Drosophila Prickle, in Xenopus gastrocoel roof plate (GRP). GRP is a tissue equivalent to the mouse node, in which cilia-generated flow promotes left-right patterning. We show that Pk3 is enriched at the basal body of GRP cells but is recruited by Vangl2 to anterior cell borders. Interference with Pk3 function disrupted the anterior polarization of endogenous Vangl2 and the posterior localization of cilia in GRP cells, demonstrating its role in PCP. Strikingly, in cells with reduced Pk3 activity, cilia growth was inhibited and γ-tubulin and Nedd1 no longer associated with the basal body, suggesting that Pk3 has a novel function in basal body organization. Mechanistically, this function of Pk3 may involve Wilms tumor protein 1-interacting protein (Wtip), which physically associates with and cooperates with Pk3 to regulate ciliogenesis. We propose that, in addition to cell polarity, PCP components control basal body organization and function. PMID:27062996

  2. TCF7L2 Modulates Glucose Homeostasis by Regulating CREB- and FoxO1-Dependent Transcriptional Pathway in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Kyoung-Jin; Park, Jinyoung; Kim, Su Sung; Oh, Hyunhee; Choi, Cheol Soo; Koo, Seung-Hoi

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral insulin resistance contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes. TCF7L2 has been tightly associated with this disease, although the exact mechanism was largely elusive. Here we propose a novel role of TCF7L2 in hepatic glucose metabolism in mammals. Expression of medium and short isoforms of TCF7L2 was greatly diminished in livers of diet-induced and genetic mouse models of insulin resistance, prompting us to delineate the functional role of these isoforms in hepatic glucose metabolism. Knockdown of hepatic TCF7L2 promoted increased blood glucose levels and glucose intolerance with increased gluconeogenic gene expression in wild-type mice, in accordance with the PCR array data showing that only the gluconeogenic pathway is specifically up-regulated upon depletion of hepatic TCF7L2. Conversely, overexpression of a nuclear isoform of TCF7L2 in high-fat diet-fed mice ameliorated hyperglycemia with improved glucose tolerance, suggesting a role of this factor in hepatic glucose metabolism. Indeed, we observed a binding of TCF7L2 to promoters of gluconeogenic genes; and expression of TCF7L2 inhibited adjacent promoter occupancies of CREB, CRTC2, and FoxO1, critical transcriptional modules in hepatic gluconeogenesis, to disrupt target gene transcription. Finally, haploinsufficiency of TCF7L2 in mice displayed higher glucose levels and impaired glucose tolerance, which were rescued by hepatic expression of a nuclear isoform of TCF7L2 at the physiological level. Collectively, these data suggest a crucial role of TCF7L2 in hepatic glucose metabolism; reduced hepatic expression of nuclear isoforms of this factor might be a critical instigator of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. PMID:23028378

  3. The role of CREB signaling in Alzheimer's disease and other cognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Saura, Carlos A; Valero, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Gene expression changes in the brain affect cognition during normal and pathological aging. Progress in understanding the cellular processes regulating gene expression networks in cognition is relevant to develop therapeutic interventions for age-related cognitive disorders. Synaptic efficacy mediating memory storage requires the activation of specific gene expression programs regulated, among others, by the transcription factor cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB). CREB signaling is essential for long-lasting changes in synaptic plasticity that mediates the conversion of short-term memory to long-term memory. CREB signaling has been recently involved in several brain pathological conditions including cognitive and neurodegenerative disorders. The β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide, which plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, alters hippocampal-dependent synaptic plasticity and memory and mediates synapse loss through the CREB signaling pathway. The fact that altered CREB signaling has been implicated in other cognitive disorders including Huntington's disease and Rubinstein-Taybi and Coffin-Lowry syndromes suggests a crucial role of CREB signaling in cognitive dysfunction. In this review paper, we summarize recent findings indicating a role of CREB and its coactivators CREB binding protein and CREB-regulated transcription coactivator in cognition during normal and pathological aging. We also discuss the development of novel therapeutic strategies based on CREB targeting to ameliorate cognitive decline in aging and cognitive disorders. PMID:21476939

  4. Enhanced CREB phosphorylation in immature dentate gyrus granule cells precedes neurotrophin expression and indicates a specific role of CREB in granule cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Bender, R. A.; Lauterborn, J. C.; Gall, C. M.; Cariaga, W.; Baram, T. Z.

    2011-01-01

    Differentiation and maturation of dentate gyrus granule cells requires coordinated interactions of numerous processes. These must be regulated by protein factors capable of integrating signals mediated through diverse signalling pathways. Such integrators of inter and intracellular physiological stimuli include the cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), a leucine-zipper class transcription factor that is activated through phosphorylation. Neuronal activity and neurotrophic factors, known to be involved in granule cell differentiation, are major physiologic regulators of CREB function. To examine whether CREB may play a role in governing coordinated gene transcription during granule cell differentiation, we determined the spatial and temporal profiles of phosphorylated (activated) CREB throughout postnatal development in immature rat hippocampus. We demonstrate that CREB activation is confined to discrete, early stages of granule cell differentiation. In addition, CREB phosphorylation occurs prior to expression of the neurotrophins BDNF and NT-3. These data indicate that in a signal transduction cascade connecting CREB and neurotrophins in the process of granule cell maturation, CREB is located upstream of neurotrophins. Importantly, CREB may be a critical component of the machinery regulating the coordinated transcription of genes contributing to the differentiation of granule cells and their integration into the dentate gyrus network. PMID:11207803

  5. Regulation of basal and induced levels of the MEL1 transcript in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Post-Beittenmiller, M A; Hamilton, R W; Hopper, J E

    1984-01-01

    The MEL1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for the production of alpha-galactosidase and for the catabolism of melibiose. Production of alpha-galactosidase is induced by galactose or melibiose and repressed by glucose. Inducibility is controlled by the positive and negative regulatory proteins GAL4 and GAL80, respectively. We have cloned the MEL1 gene to study its transcriptional expression and regulation. Evidence is presented that the MEL1 gene encodes alpha-galactosidase and that mel0 is a naturally occurring allele which lacks the alpha-galactosidase-coding sequences. RNAs prepared from wild-type cells and from cells carrying either the noninducible gal4-2 or GAL80S-100 allele grown on three different carbon sources were examined by Northern hybridization analyses. In wild-type cells under noninducing conditions, such as growth on glycerol-lactic acid, the MEL1 transcript was detected at a basal level which was 1 to 2% of the fully induced level. The basal level of expression was diminished in cells carrying the gal4-2 mutant allele but not in cells carrying the GAL80S-100 allele. The basal and induced RNA levels are repressed by glucose. Size determinations of the MEL1 transcripts detected in glycerol-lactic acid- and galactose-grown cells provided no evidence for two distinct transcripts. Images PMID:6209559

  6. The Myb-p300-CREB axis modulates intestine homeostasis, radiosensitivity and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sampurno, S; Bijenhof, A; Cheasley, D; Xu, H; Robine, S; Hilton, D; Alexander, W S; Pereira, L; Mantamadiotis, T; Malaterre, J; Ramsay, R G

    2013-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium is constantly renewing, depending upon the intestinal stem cells (ISC) regulated by a spectrum of transcription factors (TFs), including Myb. We noted previously in mice with a p300 mutation (plt6) within the Myb-interaction-domain phenocopied Myb hypomorphic mutant mice with regard to thrombopoiesis, and here, changes in GI homeostasis. p300 is a transcriptional coactivator for many TFs, most prominently cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and also Myb. Studies have highlighted the importance of CREB in proliferation and radiosensitivity, but not in the GI. This prompted us to directly investigate the p300–Myb–CREB axis in the GI. Here, the role of CREB has been defined by generating GI-specific inducible creb knockout (KO) mice. KO mice show efficient and specific deletion of CREB, with no evident compensation by CREM and ATF1. Despite complete KO, only modest effects on proliferation, radiosensitivity and differentiation in the GI under homeostatic or stress conditions were evident, even though CREB target gene pcna (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) was downregulated. creb and p300 mutant lines show increased goblet cells, whereas a reduction in enteroendocrine cells was apparent only in the p300 line, further resembling the Myb hypomorphs. When propagated in vitro, crebKO ISC were defective in organoid formation, suggesting that the GI stroma compensates for CREB loss in vivo, unlike in MybKO studies. Thus, it appears that p300 regulates GI differentiation primarily through Myb, rather than CREB. Finally, active pCREB is elevated in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells and adenomas, and is required for the expression of drug transporter, MRP2, associated with resistance to Oxaliplatin as well as several chromatin cohesion protein that are relevant to CRC therapy. These data raise the prospect that CREB may have a role in GI malignancy as it does in other cancer types, but unlike Myb, is not critical for GI

  7. Allelic differences between Europeans and Chinese for CREB1 SNPs and their implications in gene expression regulation, hippocampal structure and function, and bipolar disorder susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Li, M; Luo, X-J; Rietschel, M; Lewis, C M; Mattheisen, M; Müller-Myhsok, B; Jamain, S; Leboyer, M; Landén, M; Thompson, P M; Cichon, S; Nöthen, M M; Schulze, T G; Sullivan, P F; Bergen, S E; Donohoe, G; Morris, D W; Hargreaves, A; Gill, M; Corvin, A; Hultman, C; Toga, A W; Shi, L; Lin, Q; Shi, H; Gan, L; Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Czamara, D; Henry, C; Etain, B; Bis, J C; Ikram, M A; Fornage, M; Debette, S; Launer, L J; Seshadri, S; Erk, S; Walter, H; Heinz, A; Bellivier, F; Stein, J L; Medland, S E; Arias Vasquez, A; Hibar, D P; Franke, B; Martin, N G; Wright, M J; Su, B

    2014-04-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a polygenic disorder that shares substantial genetic risk factors with major depressive disorder (MDD). Genetic analyses have reported numerous BD susceptibility genes, while some variants, such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CACNA1C have been successfully replicated, many others have not and subsequently their effects on the intermediate phenotypes cannot be verified. Here, we studied the MDD-related gene CREB1 in a set of independent BD sample groups of European ancestry (a total of 64,888 subjects) and identified multiple SNPs significantly associated with BD (the most significant being SNP rs6785[A], P=6.32 × 10(-5), odds ratio (OR)=1.090). Risk SNPs were then subjected to further analyses in healthy Europeans for intermediate phenotypes of BD, including hippocampal volume, hippocampal function and cognitive performance. Our results showed that the risk SNPs were significantly associated with hippocampal volume and hippocampal function, with the risk alleles showing a decreased hippocampal volume and diminished activation of the left hippocampus, adding further evidence for their involvement in BD susceptibility. We also found the risk SNPs were strongly associated with CREB1 expression in lymphoblastoid cells (P<0.005) and the prefrontal cortex (P<1.0 × 10(-6)). Remarkably, population genetic analysis indicated that CREB1 displayed striking differences in allele frequencies between continental populations, and the risk alleles were completely absent in East Asian populations. We demonstrated that the regional prevalence of the CREB1 risk alleles in Europeans is likely caused by genetic hitchhiking due to natural selection acting on a nearby gene. Our results suggest that differential population histories due to natural selection on regional populations may lead to genetic heterogeneity of susceptibility to complex diseases, such as BD, and explain inconsistencies in detecting the genetic markers of these diseases among

  8. Chronic administration of aripiprazole activates GSK3β-dependent signalling pathways, and up-regulates GABAA receptor expression and CREB1 activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Pan, Bo; Huang, Xu-Feng; Deng, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Aripiprazole is a D2-like receptor (D2R) partial agonist with a favourable clinical profile. Previous investigations indicated that acute and short-term administration of aripiprazole had effects on PKA activity, GSK3β-dependent pathways, GABAA receptors, NMDA receptor and CREB1 in the brain. Since antipsychotics are used chronically in clinics, the present study investigated the long-term effects of chronic oral aripiprazole treatment on these cellular signalling pathways, in comparison with haloperidol (a D2R antagonist) and bifeprunox (a potent D2R partial agonist). We found that the Akt-GSK3β pathway was activated by aripiprazole and bifeprunox in the prefrontal cortex; NMDA NR2A levels were reduced by aripiprazole and haloperidol. In the nucleus accumbens, all three drugs increased Akt-GSK3β signalling; in addition, both aripiprazole and haloperidol, but not bifeprunox, increased the expression of Dvl-3, β-catenin and GABAA receptors, NMDA receptor subunits, as well as CREB1 phosphorylation levels. The results suggest that chronic oral administration of aripiprazole affects schizophrenia-related cellular signalling pathways and markers (including Akt-GSK3β signalling, Dvl-GSK3β-β-catenin signalling, GABAA receptor, NMDA receptor and CREB1) in a brain-region-dependent manner; the selective effects of aripiprazole on these signalling pathways might be associated with its unique clinical effects. PMID:27435909

  9. Chronic administration of aripiprazole activates GSK3β-dependent signalling pathways, and up-regulates GABAA receptor expression and CREB1 activity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Bo; Huang, Xu-Feng; Deng, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Aripiprazole is a D2-like receptor (D2R) partial agonist with a favourable clinical profile. Previous investigations indicated that acute and short-term administration of aripiprazole had effects on PKA activity, GSK3β-dependent pathways, GABAA receptors, NMDA receptor and CREB1 in the brain. Since antipsychotics are used chronically in clinics, the present study investigated the long-term effects of chronic oral aripiprazole treatment on these cellular signalling pathways, in comparison with haloperidol (a D2R antagonist) and bifeprunox (a potent D2R partial agonist). We found that the Akt-GSK3β pathway was activated by aripiprazole and bifeprunox in the prefrontal cortex; NMDA NR2A levels were reduced by aripiprazole and haloperidol. In the nucleus accumbens, all three drugs increased Akt-GSK3β signalling; in addition, both aripiprazole and haloperidol, but not bifeprunox, increased the expression of Dvl-3, β-catenin and GABAA receptors, NMDA receptor subunits, as well as CREB1 phosphorylation levels. The results suggest that chronic oral administration of aripiprazole affects schizophrenia-related cellular signalling pathways and markers (including Akt-GSK3β signalling, Dvl-GSK3β-β-catenin signalling, GABAA receptor, NMDA receptor and CREB1) in a brain-region-dependent manner; the selective effects of aripiprazole on these signalling pathways might be associated with its unique clinical effects. PMID:27435909

  10. GSK-3α Is a Novel Target of CREB and CREB-GSK-3α Signaling Participates in Cell Viability in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Roy S.; Koo, Ja Seok

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression or activation of cyclic AMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) has been known to be involved in several human malignancies, including lung cancer. Genes regulated by CREB have been reported to suppress apoptosis, induce cell proliferation, inflammation, and tumor metastasis. However, the critical target genes of CREB in lung cancer have not been well understood. Here, we identified GSK-3α as one of the CREB target genes which is critical for the viability of lung cancer cells. The CREB knockdown significantly reduced the expression of GSK-3α and the direct binding of CREB on the promoter of GSK3A was identified. Kaplan-Meier analysis with a public database showed a prognostic significance of aberrant GSK-3α expression in lung cancer. Inhibition of GSK-3α suppressed cell viability, colony formation, and tumor growth. For the first time, we demonstrated that GSK-3α is regulated by CREB in lung cancer and is required for the cell viability. These findings implicate CREB-GSK-3α axis as a novel therapeutic target for lung cancer treatment. PMID:27049759

  11. Abundance of phosphorylated Apis mellifera CREB in the honeybee's mushroom body inner compact cells varies with age.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Katrin B; Heufelder, Karin; Kersting, Isabella; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2016-04-15

    Hymenopteran eusociality has been proposed to be associated with the activity of the transcription factor CREB (cAMP-response element binding protein). The honeybee (Apis mellifera) is a eusocial insect displaying a pronounced age-dependent division of labor. In honeybee brains, CREB-dependent genes are regulated in an age-dependent manner, indicating that there might be a role for neuronal honeybee CREB (Apis mellifera CREB, or AmCREB) in the bee's division of labor. In this study, we further explore this hypothesis by asking where in the honeybee brain AmCREB-dependent processes might take place and whether they vary with age in these brain regions. CREB is activated following phosphorylation at a conserved serine residue. An increase of phosphorylated CREB is therefore regarded as an indicator of CREB-dependent transcriptional activation. Thus, we here examine the localization of phosphorylated AmCREB (pAmCREB) in the brain and its age-dependent variability. We report prominent pAmCREB staining in a subpopulation of intrinsic neurons of the mushroom bodies. In these neurons, the inner compact cells (IC), pAmCREB is located in the nuclei, axons, and dendrites. In the central bee brain, the IC somata and their dendritic region, we observed an age-dependent increase of pAmCREB. Our results demonstrate the IC to be candidate neurons involved in age-dependent division of labor. We hypothesize that the IC display a high level of CREB-dependent transcription that might be related to neuronal and behavioral plasticity underlying a bee's foraging behavior. PMID:26355639

  12. Basal and apical regulation of VEGF-A and placenta growth factor in the RPE/choroid and primary RPE

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Leyla; Flach, Janina; Lassen, Jens; Treumer, Felix; Roider, Johann

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family are strongly involved in pathological processes in the retina, such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Cells of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) constitutively secrete VEGF-A, and the secretion of placental growth factor (PlGF) has also been described. RPE cells are strongly polarized cells with different secretome at the apical and basal side. In this study, we evaluated the basal and apical regulation of VEGF-A and PlGF secretion in RPE/choroid explants and primary RPE cells. Methods RPE/choroid tissue explants were prepared from porcine eyes and cultivated in modified Ussing chambers, separating apical (RPE) and basal (choroid) supernatant. Primary RPE cells were also prepared from porcine eyes and cultivated on Transwell plates. Explants and cells were treated with inhibitors for VEGFR-2 (SU1498), p38 (SB203580), and the transcription factors nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and SP-1 (mithramycin), respectively. VEGF-A and PlGF content was evaluated with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, western blots were performed. Results In the RPE/choroid, VEGF-A can initially be found on the apical and basal sides with significantly more pronounced secretion on the basal side. VEGF-A secretion is differentially regulated on the apical and basal sides, with the inhibition of SP-1 and NF-κB showing strong effects apically and basally after 24 h and 48 h, the inhibition of p38 displaying its effect mainly on the basal side with some effect apically after 48 h, and the inhibition of VEGFR-2 reducing the secretion of VEGF only on the apical side at 24 h and 48 h. In the RPE cell culture, similar effects were found, with inhibition of NF-κB or SP-1 displaying a strong decrease in VEGF-A on both sides, and p38 inhibition displaying only an inhibitory effect on the basal side. In contrast, an apical effect of VEGFR-2 inhibition was not found. However, the

  13. Knock-in Luciferase Reporter Mice for In Vivo Monitoring of CREB Activity

    PubMed Central

    Akhmedov, Dmitry; Rajendran, Kavitha; Mendoza-Rodriguez, Maria G.

    2016-01-01

    The cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) is induced during fasting in the liver, where it stimulates transcription of rate-limiting gluconeogenic genes to maintain metabolic homeostasis. Adenoviral and transgenic CREB reporters have been used to monitor hepatic CREB activity non-invasively using bioluminescence reporter imaging. However, adenoviral vectors and randomly inserted transgenes have several limitations. To overcome disadvantages of the currently used strategies, we created a ROSA26 knock-in CREB reporter mouse line (ROSA26-CRE-luc). cAMP-inducing ligands stimulate the reporter in primary hepatocytes and myocytes from ROSA26-CRE-luc animals. In vivo, these animals exhibit little hepatic CREB activity in the ad libitum fed state but robust induction after fasting. Strikingly, CREB was markedly stimulated in liver, but not in skeletal muscle, after overnight voluntary wheel-running exercise, uncovering differential regulation of CREB in these tissues under catabolic states. The ROSA26-CRE-luc mouse line is a useful resource to study dynamics of CREB activity longitudinally in vivo and can be used as a source of primary cells for analysis of CREB regulatory pathways ex vivo. PMID:27336479

  14. The WNT-controlled transcriptional regulator LBH is required for mammary stem cell expansion and maintenance of the basal lineage.

    PubMed

    Lindley, Linsey E; Curtis, Kevin M; Sanchez-Mejias, Avencia; Rieger, Megan E; Robbins, David J; Briegel, Karoline J

    2015-03-01

    The identification of multipotent mammary stem cells (MaSCs) has provided an explanation for the unique regenerative capacity of the mammary gland throughout adult life. However, it remains unclear what genes maintain MaSCs and control their specification into the two epithelial lineages: luminal and basal. LBH is a novel transcription co-factor in the WNT pathway with hitherto unknown physiological function. LBH is expressed during mammary gland development and aberrantly overexpressed in aggressive 'basal' subtype breast cancers. Here, we have explored the in vivo role of LBH in mammopoiesis. We show that in postnatal mammary epithelia, LBH is predominantly expressed in the Lin(-)CD29(high)CD24(+) basal MaSC population. Upon conditional inactivation of LBH, mice exhibit pronounced delays in mammary tissue expansion during puberty and pregnancy, accompanied by increased luminal differentiation at the expense of basal lineage specification. These defects could be traced to a severe reduction in the frequency and self-renewal/differentiation potential of basal MaSCs. Mechanistically, LBH induces expression of key epithelial stem cell transcription factor ΔNp63 to promote a basal MaSC state and repress luminal differentiation genes, mainly that encoding estrogen receptor α (Esr1/ERα). Collectively, these studies identify LBH as an essential regulator of basal MaSC expansion/maintenance, raising important implications for its potential role in breast cancer pathogenesis. PMID:25655704

  15. p73 regulates basal and starvation-induced liver metabolism in vivo.

    PubMed

    He, Zhaoyue; Agostini, Massimiliano; Liu, He; Melino, Gerry; Simon, Hans-Uwe

    2015-10-20

    As a member of the p53 gene family, p73 regulates cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, neurogenesis, immunity and inflammation. Recently, p73 has been shown to transcriptionally regulate selective metabolic enzymes, such as cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV isoform 1, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutaminase-2, resulting in significant effects on metabolism, including hepatocellular lipid metabolism, glutathione homeostasis and the pentose phosphate pathway. In order to further investigate the metabolic effect of p73, here, we compared the global metabolic profile of livers from p73 knockout and wild-type mice under both control and starvation conditions. Our results show that the depletion of all p73 isoforms cause altered lysine metabolism and glycolysis, distinct patterns for glutathione synthesis and Krebs cycle, as well as an elevated pentose phosphate pathway and abnormal lipid accumulation. These results indicate that p73 regulates basal and starvation-induced fuel metabolism in the liver, a finding that is likely to be highly relevant for metabolism-associated disorders, such as diabetes and cancer. PMID:26375672

  16. p73 regulates basal and starvation-induced liver metabolism in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, He; Melino, Gerry; Simon, Hans-Uwe

    2015-01-01

    As a member of the p53 gene family, p73 regulates cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, neurogenesis, immunity and inflammation. Recently, p73 has been shown to transcriptionally regulate selective metabolic enzymes, such as cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV isoform 1, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutaminase-2, resulting in significant effects on metabolism, including hepatocellular lipid metabolism, glutathione homeostasis and the pentose phosphate pathway. In order to further investigate the metabolic effect of p73, here, we compared the global metabolic profile of livers from p73 knockout and wild-type mice under both control and starvation conditions. Our results show that the depletion of all p73 isoforms cause altered lysine metabolism and glycolysis, distinct patterns for glutathione synthesis and Krebs cycle, as well as an elevated pentose phosphate pathway and abnormal lipid accumulation. These results indicate that p73 regulates basal and starvation-induced fuel metabolism in the liver, a finding that is likely to be highly relevant for metabolism-associated disorders, such as diabetes and cancer. PMID:26375672

  17. Regulation of correlative inhibition of axillary bud outgrowth by basal branches varies with growth stage in Trifolium repens

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Roderick G.; Hay, Michael J. M.

    2015-01-01

    In Trifolium repens the decline in bud outgrowth that occurs with distance from basal root systems is due to correlative inhibition by the first-formed basal branches. The apical and axillary buds on these basal branches are the source of the inhibitory effect, but their mode of action is unclear. Inhibition might occur via basal branches being a sink for xylem-transported branching stimulants or alternatively by providing a source of inhibitory signals, or by both mechanisms. To distinguish between these mechanisms, four experiments were conducted on plants varying in initial growth stage from 10 to 19 nodes along their main stems to determine any variation in the relative importance of the operative mechanisms of correlative inhibition. Inhibitory signal exported into the main stem, detected as a branching response to girdling of basal branches, was relatively more significant in smaller (initially with 10–15 nodes on the main stem) than in larger (>19 nodes on main stem) plants. This signal was shown not to involve auxin fluxes, and is unidentified. However, across all stages of growth, the predominant mechanism driving correlative inhibition was the action of axillary and apical buds of basal branches as sinks for the stimulatory signal. This study indicates that the relative importance of the mechanisms regulating bud outgrowth in T. repens varies with growth stage and that, during intermediate stages, regulation has some similarity to that in Pisum. PMID:25922495

  18. Intra-ventral tegmental area HIV-1 Tat1–86 attenuates nicotine-mediated locomotor sensitization and alters mesocorticolimbic ERK and CREB signaling in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jun; Midde, Narasimha M.; Gomez, Adrian M.; Sun, Wei-Lun; Harrod, Steven B.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking prevalence in the HIV-positive individuals is profoundly higher than that in the HIV-negative individuals. We have demonstrated that HIV-1 transgenic rats exhibit attenuated nicotine-mediated locomotor activity, altered cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK1/2) signaling in the mesocorticolimbic regions. This study investigated the role of HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein in the alterations of nicotine-mediated behavior and the signaling pathway observed in the HIV-1 transgenic rats. Rats received bilateral microinjection of recombinant Tat1–86 (25 μg/side) or vehicle directed at ventral tegmental area (VTA) followed by locomotor testing in response to 13 daily intravenous injections of nicotine (0.05 mg/kg, freebase, once/day) or saline. Further, we examined the phosphorylated levels of CREB (pCREB) and ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc) and VTA. Tat diminished baseline activity in saline control rats, and attenuated nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization. Following repeated saline injection, the basal levels of pERK1 in the NAc and VTA and pERK2 in VTA were lower in the vehicle control group, relative to the Tat group. After repeated nicotine injection, pERK1 in NAc and VTA and pERK2 in VTA were increased in the vehicle group, but not in the Tat group. Moreover, repeated nicotine injections decreased pCREB in the PFC and VTA in the Tat group but not in the vehicle group. Thus, these findings indicate that the direct injection of Tat at the VTA may mediate CREB and ERK activity in response to nicotine-induced locomotor activity. PMID:26150803

  19. Chronic enhancement of CREB activity in the hippocampus interferes with the retrieval of spatial information

    PubMed Central

    Viosca, Jose; Malleret, Gaël; Bourtchouladze, Rusiko; Benito, Eva; Vronskava, Svetlana; Kandel, Eric R.; Barco, Angel

    2009-01-01

    The activation of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)-dependent gene expression is thought to be critical for the formation of different types of long-term memory. To explore the consequences of chronic enhancement of CREB function on spatial memory in mammals, we examined spatial navigation in bitransgenic mice that express in a regulated and restricted manner a constitutively active form of CREB, VP16-CREB, in forebrain neurons. We found that chronic enhancement of CREB activity delayed the acquisition of an allocentric strategy to solve the hidden platform task. The ability to turn on and off transgene expression allowed us to dissect the role of CREB in dissociable memory processes. In mice in which transgene expression was turned on during memory acquisition, turning off the transgene re-established the access to the memory trace, whereas in mice in which transgene expression was turned off during acquisition, turning on the transgene impaired memory expression in a reversible manner, indicating that CREB enhancement specifically interfered with the retrieval of spatial information. The defects on spatial navigation in mice with chronic enhancement of CREB function were not corrected by conditions that increased further CREB-dependent activation of hippocampal memory systems, such as housing in an enriched environment. These results along with previous findings in CREB-deficient mutants indicate that the relationship of CREB-mediated plasticity to spatial memory is an inverted-U function, and that optimal learning in the water maze requires accurate regulation of this pathway. PMID:19237642

  20. Regulation of sexual development in the basal termite Cryptotermes secundus: mutilation, pheromonal manipulation or honest signal?

    PubMed

    Korb, Judith

    2005-01-01

    Social insect colonies are not the harmonious entities they were once considered. Considerable conflicts exist between colony members, as has been shown for Hymenoptera. For termites, similar studies are lacking, but aggressive manipulations have been claimed to regulate sexual development, and even to account for the evolution of workers. This study on a basal termite, Cryptotermes secundus (Kalotermitidae), suggests that the importance of aggressive manipulations in termites has been overemphasized. Wing-bud mutilations, a means proposed to regulate the development of dispersing sexuals (alates), seem to be artifacts of handling conditions that cause disturbance. Aggressive behaviors never occurred unless colonies were disturbed. Theoretical considerations further showed that the potential for intense conflict among termite nestmates is low compared to hymenopteran societies. Strong conflicts are only expected to occur over the replacement of natal reproductives that died, while less intense conflicts should exist over the development into alates when food in the colony becomes limiting. Accordingly, intracolonial aggressive interactions over replacement are common, whereas nestmates seem to manipulate alate development via proctodeal feeding when food resources decline. However, the latter is rather an honest signal than a manipulation because only the most competent prospective dispersers can impede the development of nestmates. PMID:15565384

  1. Regulation of sexual development in the basal termite Cryptotermes secundus: mutilation, pheromonal manipulation or honest signal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korb, Judith

    2005-01-01

    Social insect colonies are not the harmonious entities they were once considered. Considerable conflicts exist between colony members, as has been shown for Hymenoptera. For termites, similar studies are lacking, but aggressive manipulations have been claimed to regulate sexual development, and even to account for the evolution of workers. This study on a basal termite, Cryptotermes secundus (Kalotermitidae), suggests that the importance of aggressive manipulations in termites has been overemphasized. Wing-bud mutilations, a means proposed to regulate the development of dispersing sexuals (alates), seem to be artifacts of handling conditions that cause disturbance. Aggressive behaviors never occurred unless colonies were disturbed. Theoretical considerations further showed that the potential for intense conflict among termite nestmates is low compared to hymenopteran societies. Strong conflicts are only expected to occur over the replacement of natal reproductives that died, while less intense conflicts should exist over the development into alates when food in the colony becomes limiting. Accordingly, intracolonial aggressive interactions over replacement are common, whereas nestmates seem to manipulate alate development via proctodeal feeding when food resources decline. However, the latter is rather an honest signal than a manipulation because only the most competent prospective dispersers can impede the development of nestmates.

  2. Master regulator for chondrogenesis, Sox9, regulates transcriptional activation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress transducer BBF2H7/CREB3L2 in chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Hino, Kenta; Saito, Atsushi; Kido, Miori; Kanemoto, Soshi; Asada, Rie; Takai, Tomoko; Cui, Min; Cui, Xiang; Imaizumi, Kazunori

    2014-05-16

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress transducer, box B-binding factor 2 human homolog on chromosome 7 (BBF2H7), is a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transmembrane transcription factor. This molecule is activated in response to ER stress during chondrogenesis. The activated BBF2H7 accelerates cartilage matrix protein secretion through the up-regulation of Sec23a, which is responsible for protein transport from the ER to the Golgi apparatus and is a target of BBF2H7. In the present study, we elucidated the mechanisms of the transcriptional activation of Bbf2h7 in chondrocytes. The transcription of Bbf2h7 is regulated by Sex determining region Y-related high-mobility group box 9 (Sox9), a critical factor for chondrocyte differentiation that facilitates the expression of one of the major cartilage matrix proteins Type II collagen (Col2), through binding to the Sox DNA-binding motif in the Bbf2h7 promoter. BBF2H7 is activated as a transcription factor in response to physiological ER stress caused by abundant synthesis of cartilage matrix proteins, and consequently regulates the secretion of cartilage matrix proteins. Taken together, our findings demonstrate novel regulatory mechanisms of Sox9 for controlling the secretion of cartilage matrix proteins through the activation of BBF2H7-Sec23a signaling during chondrogenesis. PMID:24711445

  3. Basal expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene is dependent on protein kinase A activity.

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, R A; Matthews, R P; Idzerda, R L; McKnight, G S

    1995-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) functions as a Cl- channel that becomes activated after phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). We demonstrate that PKA also plays a crucial role in maintaining basal expression of the CFTR gene in the human colon carcinoma cell line T84. Inhibition of PKA activity by expression of a dominant-negative regulatory subunit or treatment with the PKA-selective inhibitor N-[2-(p-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (H-89) caused a complete suppression of CFTR gene expression without affecting other constitutively active genes. Basal expression of a 2.2-kb region of the CFTR promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene (CFTR-luc) exhibited the same dependence on PKA. The ability of cAMP to induce CFTR over basal levels is cell-type specific. In T84 cells, both the endogenous CFTR gene and CFTR-luc exhibited only a modest inducibility (approximately 2-fold), whereas in the human choriocarcinoma cell line JEG-3, CFTR-luc could be induced at least 4-fold. A variant cAMP-response element is present at position -48 to -41 in the CFTR promoter, and mutation of this sequence blocks basal expression. We conclude that cAMP, acting through PKA, is an essential regulator of basal CFTR gene expression and may mediate an induction of CFTR in responsive cell types. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:7543684

  4. Stochasticity and bifurcations in a reduced model with interlinked positive and negative feedback loops of CREB1 and CREB2 stimulated by 5-HT.

    PubMed

    Hao, Lijie; Yang, Zhuoqin; Bi, Yuanhong

    2016-04-01

    The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element-binding protein (CREB) family of transcription factors is crucial in regulating gene expression required for long-term memory (LTM) formation. Upon exposure of sensory neurons to the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT), CREB1 is activated via activation of the protein kinase A (PKA) intracellular signaling pathways, and CREB2 as a transcriptional repressor is relieved possibly via phosphorylation of CREB2 by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Song et al. [18] proposed a minimal model with only interlinked positive and negative feedback loops of transcriptional regulation by the activator CREB1 and the repressor CREB2. Without considering feedbacks between the CREB proteins, Pettigrew et al. [8] developed a computational model characterizing complex dynamics of biochemical pathways downstream of 5-HT receptors. In this work, to describe more simply the biochemical pathways and gene regulation underlying 5-HT-induced LTM, we add the important extracellular sensitizing stimulus 5-HT as well as the product Ap-uch into the Song's minimal model. We also strive to examine dynamical properties of the gene regulatory network under the changing concentration of the stimulus, [5-HT], cooperating with the varying positive feedback strength in inducing a high state of CREB1 for the establishment of long-term memory. Different dynamics including monostability, bistability and multistability due to coexistence of stable steady states and oscillations is investigated by means of codimension-2 bifurcation analysis. At the different positive feedback strengths, comparative analysis of deterministic and stochastic dynamics reveals that codimension-1 bifurcation with respect to [5-HT] as the parameter can predict diverse stochastic behaviors resulted from the finite number of molecules, and the number of CREB1 molecules more and more preferentially resides near the high steady state with increasing [5-HT], which contributes to long

  5. Mitochondrial Cyclic AMP Response Element-binding Protein (CREB) Mediates Mitochondrial Gene Expression and Neuronal Survival*S

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Junghee; Kim, Chun-Hyung; Simon, David K.; Aminova, Lyaylya R.; Andreyev, Alexander Y.; Kushnareva, Yulia E.; Murphy, Anne N.; Lonze, Bonnie E.; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Ginty, David D.; Ferrante, Robert J.; Ryu, Hoon; Ratan, Rajiv R.

    2008-01-01

    Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is a widely expressed transcription factor whose role in neuronal protection is now well established. Here we report that CREB is present in the mitochondrial matrix of neurons and that it binds directly to cyclic AMP response elements (CREs) found within the mitochondrial genome. Disruption of CREB activity in the mitochondria decreases the expression of a subset of mitochondrial genes, including the ND5 subunit of complex I, down-regulates complex I-dependent mitochondrial respiration, and increases susceptibility to 3-nitropropionic acid, a mitochondrial toxin that induces a clinical and pathological phenotype similar to Huntington disease. These results demonstrate that regulation of mitochondrial gene expression by mitochondrial CREB, in part, underlies the protective effects of CREB and raise the possibility that decreased mitochondrial CREB activity contributes to the mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal loss associated with neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:16207717

  6. Flattop regulates basal body docking and positioning in mono- and multiciliated cells

    PubMed Central

    Gegg, Moritz; Böttcher, Anika; Burtscher, Ingo; Hasenoeder, Stefan; Van Campenhout, Claude; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel; Grant, Seth G N; Lickert, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) regulates basal body (BB) docking and positioning during cilia formation, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we investigate the uncharacterized gene Flattop (Fltp) that is transcriptionally activated during PCP acquisition in ciliated tissues. Fltp knock-out mice show BB docking and ciliogenesis defects in multiciliated lung cells. Furthermore, Fltp is necessary for kinocilium positioning in monociliated inner ear hair cells. In these cells, the core PCP molecule Dishevelled 2, the BB/spindle positioning protein Dlg3, and Fltp localize directly adjacent to the apical plasma membrane, physically interact and surround the BB at the interface of the microtubule and actin cytoskeleton. Dlg3 and Fltp knock-outs suggest that both cooperatively translate PCP cues for BB positioning in the inner ear. Taken together, the identification of novel BB/spindle positioning components as potential mediators of PCP signaling might have broader implications for other cell types, ciliary disease, and asymmetric cell division. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03842.001 PMID:25296022

  7. Oocyte glycoproteins regulate the form and function of the follicle basal lamina and theca cells.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Alice P; Patel, Saloni H; Grasa, Patricia; Christian, Helen C; Williams, Suzannah A

    2015-05-15

    Maintaining follicle integrity during development, whereby each follicle is a functional unit containing a single oocyte, is essential for the generation of healthy oocytes. However, the mechanisms that regulate this critical function have not been determined. In this paper we investigate the role of the oocyte in maintaining follicle development. To investigate this role, we use a mouse model with oocyte-specific deletion of C1galt1 which is required for the generation of core 1-derived O-glycans. The loss of oocyte-generated O-glycans results in the joining of follicles and the generation of Multiple-Oocyte Follicles (MOFs). The aim was to determine how Mutant follicle development is modified thus enabling follicles to join. Extracellular matrix and follicle permeability were studied using histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy (EM). In ovaries containing Mutant Oocytes, the Follicle basal lamina (FBL) is altered both functionally and structurally from the primary stage onwards with Mutant follicles possessing unexpectedly thicker FBL. In Mutant ovaries, the theca cell layer is also modified with intermingling of theca between adjacent follicles. MOF function was analysed but despite increased numbers of preantral MOFs in Mutants, these do not reach the preovulatory stage after gonadotrophin stimulation. We propose a model describing how oocyte initiated changes in FBL and theca cells result in follicles joining. These data reveal new and important roles for the oocyte in follicle development and follicle integrity. PMID:25557622

  8. Thermal conductance and basal metabolic rate are part of a coordinated system for heat transfer regulation

    PubMed Central

    Naya, Daniel E.; Spangenberg, Lucía; Naya, Hugo; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Thermal conductance measures the ease with which heat leaves or enters  an organism's body. Although the analysis of this physiological variable in relation to climatic and ecological factors can be traced to studies by Scholander and colleagues, only small advances have occurred ever since. Here, we analyse the relationship between minimal thermal conductance estimated during summer (Cmin) and several ecological, climatic and geographical factors for 127 rodent species, in order to identify the exogenous factors that have potentially affected the evolution of thermal conductance. In addition, we evaluate whether there is compensation between Cmin and basal metabolic rate (BMR)—in such a way that a scale-invariant ratio between both variables is equal to one—as could be expected from the Scholander–Irving model of heat transfer. Our major findings are (i) annual mean temperature is the best single predictor of mass-independent Cmin. (ii) After controlling for the effect of body mass, there is a strong positive correlation between log10 (Cmin) and log10 (BMR). Further, the slope of this correlation is close to one, indicating an almost perfect compensation between both physiological variables. (iii) Structural equation modelling indicated that Cmin values are adjusted to BMR values and not the other way around. Thus, our results strongly suggest that BMR and thermal conductance integrate a coordinated system for heat regulation in endothermic animals and that summer conductance values are adjusted (in an evolutionary sense) to track changes in BMRs. PMID:23902915

  9. Differential regulation of the Hippo pathway by adherens junctions and apical-basal cell polarity modules.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chih-Chao; Graves, Hillary K; Moya, Ivan M; Tao, Chunyao; Hamaratoglu, Fisun; Gladden, Andrew B; Halder, Georg

    2015-02-10

    Adherens junctions (AJs) and cell polarity complexes are key players in the establishment and maintenance of apical-basal cell polarity. Loss of AJs or basolateral polarity components promotes tumor formation and metastasis. Recent studies in vertebrate models show that loss of AJs or loss of the basolateral component Scribble (Scrib) cause deregulation of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway and hyperactivation of its downstream effectors Yes-associated protein (YAP) and Transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ). However, whether AJs and Scrib act through the same or independent mechanisms to regulate Hippo pathway activity is not known. Here, we dissect how disruption of AJs or loss of basolateral components affect the activity of the Drosophila YAP homolog Yorkie (Yki) during imaginal disc development. Surprisingly, disruption of AJs and loss of basolateral proteins produced very different effects on Yki activity. Yki activity was cell-autonomously decreased but non-cell-autonomously elevated in tissues where the AJ components E-cadherin (E-cad) or α-catenin (α-cat) were knocked down. In contrast, scrib knockdown caused a predominantly cell-autonomous activation of Yki. Moreover, disruption of AJs or basolateral proteins had different effects on cell polarity and tissue size. Simultaneous knockdown of α-cat and scrib induced both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous Yki activity. In mammalian cells, knockdown of E-cad or α-cat caused nuclear accumulation and activation of YAP without overt effects on Scrib localization and vice versa. Therefore, our results indicate the existence of multiple, genetically separable inputs from AJs and cell polarity complexes into Yki/YAP regulation. PMID:25624491

  10. CREB Selectively Controls Learning-Induced Structural Remodeling of Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middei, Silvia; Spalloni, Alida; Longone, Patrizia; Pittenger, Christopher; O'Mara, Shane M.; Marie, Helene; Ammassari-Teule, Martine

    2012-01-01

    The modulation of synaptic strength associated with learning is post-synaptically regulated by changes in density and shape of dendritic spines. The transcription factor CREB (cAMP response element binding protein) is required for memory formation and in vitro dendritic spine rearrangements, but its role in learning-induced remodeling of neurons…

  11. Computational analysis of human and mouse CREB3L4 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Velpula, Kiran Kumar; Rehman, Azeem Abdul; Chigurupati, Soumya; Sanam, Ramadevi; Inampudi, Krishna Kishore; Akila, Chandra Sekhar

    2012-01-01

    CREB3L4 is a member of the CREB/ATF transcription factor family, characterized by their regulation of gene expression through the cAMP-responsive element. Previous studies identified this protein in mice and humans. Whereas CREB3L4 in mice (referred to as Tisp40) is found in the testes and functions in spermatogenesis, human CREB3L4 is primarily detected in the prostate and has been implicated in cancer. We conducted computational analyses to compare the structural homology between murine Tisp40α human CREB3L4. Our results reveal that the primary and secondary structures of the two proteins contain high similarity. Additionally, predicted helical transmembrane structure reveals that the proteins likely have similar structure and function. This study offers preliminary findings that support the translation of mouse Tisp40α findings into human models, based on structural homology. PMID:22829733

  12. Computational analysis of human and mouse CREB3L4 Protein.

    PubMed

    Velpula, Kiran Kumar; Rehman, Azeem Abdul; Chigurupati, Soumya; Sanam, Ramadevi; Inampudi, Krishna Kishore; Akila, Chandra Sekhar

    2012-01-01

    CREB3L4 is a member of the CREB/ATF transcription factor family, characterized by their regulation of gene expression through the cAMP-responsive element. Previous studies identified this protein in mice and humans. Whereas CREB3L4 in mice (referred to as Tisp40) is found in the testes and functions in spermatogenesis, human CREB3L4 is primarily detected in the prostate and has been implicated in cancer. We conducted computational analyses to compare the structural homology between murine Tisp40α human CREB3L4. Our results reveal that the primary and secondary structures of the two proteins contain high similarity. Additionally, predicted helical transmembrane structure reveals that the proteins likely have similar structure and function. This study offers preliminary findings that support the translation of mouse Tisp40α findings into human models, based on structural homology. PMID:22829733

  13. CREB Activation Induces Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Reusch, Jane E. B.; Colton, Lilliester A.; Klemm, Dwight J.

    2000-01-01

    Obesity is the result of numerous, interacting behavioral, physiological, and biochemical factors. One increasingly important factor is the generation of additional fat cells, or adipocytes, in response to excess feeding and/or large increases in body fat composition. The generation of new adipocytes is controlled by several “adipocyte-specific” transcription factors that regulate preadipocyte proliferation and adipogenesis. Generally these adipocyte-specific factors are expressed only following the induction of adipogenesis. The transcription factor(s) that are involved in initiating adipocyte differentiation have not been identified. Here we demonstrate that the transcription factor, CREB, is constitutively expressed in preadipocytes and throughout the differentiation process and that CREB is stimulated by conventional differentiation-inducing agents such as insulin, dexamethasone, and dibutyryl cAMP. Stably transfected 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were generated in which we could induce the expression of either a constitutively active CREB (VP16-CREB) or a dominant-negative CREB (KCREB). Inducible expression of VP16-CREB alone was sufficient to initiate adipogenesis as determined by triacylglycerol storage, cell morphology, and the expression of two adipocyte marker genes, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma 2, and fatty acid binding protein. Alternatively, KCREB alone blocked adipogenesis in cells treated with conventional differentiation-inducing agents. These data indicate that activation of CREB was necessary and sufficient to induce adipogenesis. Finally, CREB was shown to bind to putative CRE sequences in the promoters of several adipocyte-specific genes. These data firmly establish CREB as a primary regulator of adipogenesis and suggest that CREB may play similar roles in other cells and tissues. PMID:10629058

  14. Regulation of Neuronal Gene Expression and Survival by Basal NMDA Receptor Activity: A Role for Histone Deacetylase 4

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yelin; Wang, Yuanyuan; Modrusan, Zora

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal gene expression is modulated by activity via calcium-permeable receptors such as NMDA receptors (NMDARs). While gene expression changes downstream of evoked NMDAR activity have been well studied, much less is known about gene expression changes that occur under conditions of basal neuronal activity. In mouse dissociated hippocampal neuronal cultures, we found that a broad NMDAR antagonist, AP5, induced robust gene expression changes under basal activity, but subtype-specific antagonists did not. While some of the gene expression changes are also known to be downstream of stimulated NMDAR activity, others appear specific to basal NMDAR activity. The genes altered by AP5 treatment of basal cultures were enriched for pathways related to class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs), apoptosis, and synapse-related signaling. Specifically, AP5 altered the expression of all three class IIa HDACs that are highly expressed in the brain, HDAC4, HDAC5, and HDAC9, and also induced nuclear accumulation of HDAC4. HDAC4 knockdown abolished a subset of the gene expression changes induced by AP5, and led to neuronal death under long-term tetrodotoxin or AP5 treatment in rat hippocampal organotypic slice cultures. These data suggest that basal, but not evoked, NMDAR activity regulates gene expression in part through HDAC4, and, that HDAC4 has neuroprotective functions under conditions of low NMDAR activity. PMID:25392500

  15. Basal-like molecular subtype and HER4 up-regulation and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Stickeler, Elmar; Pils, Dietmar; Klar, Maximilian; Orlowsk-Volk, Marzenna; Zur Hausen, Axel; Jäger, Markus; Watermann, Dirk; Gitsch, Gerald; Zeillinger, Robert; Tempfer, Clemens B

    2011-10-01

    Alteration of gene expression profiles during chemotherapy may predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in breast cancer patients. In a prospective cohort study of 32 women with primary invasive breast cancer, we obtained tumor specimens before and after 4 cycles of NAC with epirubicine 90 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2, followed by 4 cycles of docetaxel 100 mg/m2. Total-RNA was extracted from tumor specimens and the whole transcriptome was analyzed with Agilent's 44K single color microarray. Data analysis was performed by GeneSpring v.11 and IBM SPSS v.18. Ten tumors were classified as basal-like and 22 tumors were classified as non-basal-like. Gene expression-based molecular subtype (basal-like vs. non-basal-like) (P=0.003), but not tumor grade (P=0.07), estrogen receptor (P=0.1), progesterone receptor (P=0.6) and HER2 status (P=0.4) predicted pathological complete response to NAC. Specifically, 7/10 basal-like tumors responded to NAC, whereas 19/22 non-basal-like tumors did not respond. Comparing gene expression signatures before and after 4 cycles of NAC, we found that all patients with an initial non-basal-like tumor retained this tumor type, whereas 5/7 basal-like tumors, including all responders, lost this molecular subtype. Complete prediction of response to NAC was achieved with a 21 gene list (P=0.000008). Of note, both the expression and up-regulation of a single gene, i.e. HER4, predicted the response to NAC in 26/32 (81%; P=0.002) and in 23/25 (92%; P<0.001) patients, respectively. These preliminary data indicate that therapy-induced HER4 gene up-regulation may be associated with response to NAC with epirubicine, cyclophosphamide and docetaxel. PMID:21769435

  16. Cerebral blood flow regulation in women across menstrual phase: differential contribution of cyclooxygenase to basal, hypoxic, and hypercapnic vascular tone.

    PubMed

    Peltonen, Garrett L; Harrell, John W; Aleckson, Benjamin P; LaPlante, Kaylie M; Crain, Meghan K; Schrage, William G

    2016-08-01

    In healthy young women, basal cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reactivity may change across the menstrual cycle, but mechanisms remain untested. When compared with the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, we hypothesized women in late follicular phase would exhibit: 1) greater basal CBF, 2) greater hypercapnic increases in CBF, 3) greater hypoxic increases in CBF, and 4) increased cyclooxygenase (COX) signaling. We measured middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv, transcranial Doppler ultrasound) in 11 healthy women (23 ± 1 yr) during rest, hypoxia, and hypercapnia. Subjects completed four visits: two during the early follicular (∼day 3) and two during the late follicular (∼day 14) phases of the menstrual cycle, with and without COX inhibition (oral indomethacin). Isocapnic hypoxia elicited an SPO2 = 90% and SPO2 = 80% for 5 min each. Separately, hypercapnia increased end-tidal CO2 10 mmHg above baseline. Cerebral vascular conductance index (CVCi = MCAv/MABP·100, where MABP is mean arterial blood pressure) was calculated and a positive change reflected vasodilation (ΔCVCi). Basal CVCi was greater in the late follicular phase (P < 0.001). Indomethacin decreased basal CVCi (∼37%) and abolished the phase difference (P < 0.001). Hypoxic ΔCVCi was similar between phases and unaffected by indomethacin. Hypercapnic ΔCVCi was similar between phases, and indomethacin decreased hypercapnic ΔCVCi (∼68%; P < 0.001) similarly between phases. In summary, while neither hypercapnic nor hypoxic vasodilation is altered by menstrual phase, increased basal CBF in the late follicular phase is fully explained by a greater contribution of COX. These data provide new mechanistic insight into anterior CBF regulation across menstrual phases and contribute to our understanding of CBF regulation in women. PMID:27225949

  17. The LPA1/ZEB1/miR-21-activation pathway regulates metastasis in basal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sahay, Debashish; Leblanc, Raphael; Grunewald, Thomas G P; Ambatipudi, Srikant; Ribeiro, Johnny; Clézardin, Philippe; Peyruchaud, Olivier

    2015-08-21

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid promoting cancer metastasis. LPA activates a series of six G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-6). While blockage of LPA1in vivo inhibits breast carcinoma metastasis, down-stream genes mediating LPA-induced metastasis have not been yet identified. Herein we showed by analyzing publicly available expression data from 1488 human primary breast tumors that the gene encoding the transcription factor ZEB1 was the most correlated with LPAR1 encoding LPA1. This correlation was most prominent in basal primary breast carcinomas and restricted to cell lines of basal subtypes. Functional experiments in three different basal cell lines revealed that LPA-induced ZEB1 expression was regulated by the LPA1/Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase (Pi3K) axis. DNA microarray and real-time PCR analyses further demonstrated that LPA up-regulated the oncomiR miR-21 through an LPA1/Pi3K/ZEB1-dependent mechanism. Strikingly, treatment with a mirVana miR-21 inhibitor, or silencing LPA1 or ZEB1 completely blocked LPA-induced cell migration in vitro, invasion and tumor cell bone colonization in vivo, which can be restored with a mirVana miR-21 mimic. Finally, high LPAR1 expression in basal breast tumors predicted worse lung-metastasis-free survival. Collectively, our results elucidate a new molecular pathway driving LPA-induced metastasis, thus underscoring the therapeutic potential of targeting LPA1 in patients with basal breast carcinomas. PMID:26098771

  18. The LPA1/ZEB1/miR-21-activation pathway regulates metastasis in basal breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, Debashish; Leblanc, Raphael; Grunewald, Thomas G. P.; Ambatipudi, Srikant; Ribeiro, Johnny; Clézardin, Philippe; Peyruchaud, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid promoting cancer metastasis. LPA activates a series of six G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-6). While blockage of LPA1 in vivo inhibits breast carcinoma metastasis, down-stream genes mediating LPA-induced metastasis have not been yet identified. Herein we showed by analyzing publicly available expression data from 1488 human primary breast tumors that the gene encoding the transcription factor ZEB1 was the most correlated with LPAR1 encoding LPA1. This correlation was most prominent in basal primary breast carcinomas and restricted to cell lines of basal subtypes. Functional experiments in three different basal cell lines revealed that LPA-induced ZEB1 expression was regulated by the LPA1/Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase (Pi3K) axis. DNA microarray and real-time PCR analyses further demonstrated that LPA up-regulated the oncomiR miR-21 through an LPA1/Pi3K/ZEB1-dependent mechanism. Strikingly, treatment with a mirVana miR-21 inhibitor, or silencing LPA1 or ZEB1 completely blocked LPA-induced cell migration in vitro, invasion and tumor cell bone colonization in vivo, which can be restored with a mirVana miR-21 mimic. Finally, high LPAR1 expression in basal breast tumors predicted worse lung-metastasis-free survival. Collectively, our results elucidate a new molecular pathway driving LPA-induced metastasis, thus underscoring the therapeutic potential of targeting LPA1 in patients with basal breast carcinomas. PMID:26098771

  19. Primary Cilia on Horizontal Basal Cells Regulate Regeneration of the Olfactory Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Joiner, Ariell M.; Green, Warren W.; McIntyre, Jeremy C.; Allen, Benjamin L.; Schwob, James E.

    2015-01-01

    The olfactory epithelium (OE) is one of the few tissues to undergo constitutive neurogenesis throughout the mammalian lifespan. It is composed of multiple cell types including olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that are readily replaced by two populations of basal stem cells, frequently dividing globose basal cells and quiescent horizontal basal cells (HBCs). However, the precise mechanisms by which these cells mediate OE regeneration are unclear. Here, we show for the first time that the HBC subpopulation of basal stem cells uniquely possesses primary cilia that are aligned in an apical orientation in direct apposition to sustentacular cell end feet. The positioning of these cilia suggests that they function in the detection of growth signals and/or differentiation cues. To test this idea, we generated an inducible, cell type-specific Ift88 knock-out mouse line (K5rtTA;tetOCre;Ift88fl/fl) to disrupt cilia formation and maintenance specifically in HBCs. Surprisingly, the loss of HBC cilia did not affect the maintenance of the adult OE but dramatically impaired the regeneration of OSNs following lesion. Furthermore, the loss of cilia during development resulted in a region-specific decrease in neurogenesis, implicating HBCs in the establishment of the OE. Together, these results suggest a novel role for primary cilia in HBC activation, proliferation, and differentiation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We show for the first time the presence of primary cilia on a quiescent population of basal stem cells, the horizontal basal cells (HBCs), in the olfactory epithelium (OE). Importantly, our data demonstrate that cilia on HBCs are necessary for regeneration of the OE following injury. Moreover, the disruption of HBC cilia alters neurogenesis during the development of the OE, providing evidence that HBCs participate in the establishment of this tissue. These data suggest that the mechanisms of penetrance for ciliopathies in the OE extend beyond that of defects in olfactory sensory

  20. The Rac1 regulator ELMO controls basal body migration and docking in multiciliated cells through interaction with Ezrin.

    PubMed

    Epting, Daniel; Slanchev, Krasimir; Boehlke, Christopher; Hoff, Sylvia; Loges, Niki T; Yasunaga, Takayuki; Indorf, Lara; Nestel, Sigrun; Lienkamp, Soeren S; Omran, Heymut; Kuehn, E Wolfgang; Ronneberger, Olaf; Walz, Gerd; Kramer-Zucker, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    Cilia are microtubule-based organelles that are present on most cells and are required for normal tissue development and function. Defective cilia cause complex syndromes with multiple organ manifestations termed ciliopathies. A crucial step during ciliogenesis in multiciliated cells (MCCs) is the association of future basal bodies with the apical plasma membrane, followed by their correct spacing and planar orientation. Here, we report a novel role for ELMO-DOCK1, which is a bipartite guanine nucleotide exchange factor complex for the small GTPase Rac1, and for the membrane-cytoskeletal linker Ezrin, in regulating centriole/basal body migration, docking and spacing. Downregulation of each component results in ciliopathy-related phenotypes in zebrafish and disrupted ciliogenesis in Xenopus epidermal MCCs. Subcellular analysis revealed a striking impairment of basal body docking and spacing, which is likely to account for the observed phenotypes. These results are substantiated by showing a genetic interaction between elmo1 and ezrin b. Finally, we provide biochemical evidence that the ELMO-DOCK1-Rac1 complex influences Ezrin phosphorylation and thereby probably serves as an important molecular switch. Collectively, we demonstrate that the ELMO-Ezrin complex orchestrates ciliary basal body migration, docking and positioning in vivo. PMID:25516973

  1. The SOX11 transcription factor is a critical regulator of basal-like breast cancer growth, invasion, and basal-like gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Jonathan H.; Uray, Ivan P.; Mazumdar, Abhijit; Tsimelzon, Anna; Savage, Michelle; Hilsenbeck, Susan G.; Brown, Powel H.

    2016-01-01

    Basal-like breast cancers (BLBCs) are aggressive breast cancers associated with poor survival. Defining the key drivers of BLBC growth will allow identification of molecules for targeted therapy. In this study, we performed a primary screen integrating multiple assays that compare transcription factor expression and activity in BLBC and non-BLBC at the RNA, DNA, and protein levels. This integrated screen identified 33 transcription factors that were elevated in BLBC in multiple assays comparing mRNA expression, DNA cis-element sequences, or protein DNA-binding activity. In a secondary screen to identify transcription factors critical for BLBC cell growth, 8 of the 33 candidate transcription factors (TFs) were found to be necessary for growth in at least two of three BLBC cell lines. Of these 8 transcription factors, SOX11 was the only transcription factor required for BLBC growth, but not for growth of non-BLBC cells. Our studies demonstrate that SOX11 is a critical regulator of multiple BLBC phenotypes, including growth, migration, invasion, and expression of signature BLBC genes. High SOX11 expression was also found to be an independent prognostic indicator of poor survival in women with breast cancer. These results identify SOX11 as a potential target for the treatment of BLBC, the most aggressive form of breast cancer. PMID:26894864

  2. Caffeine and REM sleep deprivation: Effect on basal levels of signaling molecules in area CA1.

    PubMed

    Alkadhi, Karim A; Alhaider, Ibrahim A

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated the neuroprotective effect of chronic caffeine treatment on basal levels of memory-related signaling molecules in area CA1 of sleep-deprived rats. Animals in the caffeine groups were treated with caffeine in drinking water (0.3g/l) for four weeks before they were REM sleep-deprived for 24h in the Modified Multiple Platforms paradigm. Western blot analysis of basal protein levels of plasticity- and memory-related signaling molecules in hippocampal area CA1 showed significant down regulation of the basal levels of phosphorylated- and total-CaMKII, phosphorylated- and total-CREB as well as those of BDNF and CaMKIV in sleep deprived rats. All these changes were completely prevented in rats that chronically consumed caffeine. The present findings suggest an important neuroprotective property of caffeine in sleep deprivation. PMID:26767416

  3. ALD1 Regulates Basal Immune Components and Early Inducible Defense Responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Nicolás M; Jung, Ho Won; Engle, Nancy L; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Greenberg, Jean T

    2015-04-01

    Robust immunity requires basal defense machinery to mediate timely responses and feedback cycles to amplify defenses against potentially spreading infections. AGD2-LIKE DEFENSE RESPONSE PROTEIN 1 (ALD1) is needed for the accumulation of the plant defense signal salicylic acid (SA) during the first hours after infection with the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and is also upregulated by infection and SA. ALD1 is an aminotransferase with multiple substrates and products in vitro. Pipecolic acid (Pip) is an ALD1-dependent bioactive product induced by P. syringae. Here, we addressed roles of ALD1 in mediating defense amplification as well as the levels and responses of basal defense machinery. ALD1 needs immune components PAD4 and ICS1 (an SA synthesis enzyme) to confer disease resistance, possibly through a transcriptional amplification loop between them. Furthermore, ALD1 affects basal defense by controlling microbial-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) receptor levels and responsiveness. Vascular exudates from uninfected ALD1-overexpressing plants confer local immunity to the wild type and ald1 mutants yet are not enriched for Pip. We infer that, in addition to affecting Pip accumulation, ALD1 produces non-Pip metabolites that play roles in immunity. Thus, distinct metabolite signals controlled by the same enzyme affect basal and early defenses versus later defense responses, respectively. PMID:25372120

  4. MicroRNA-34b promoter hypermethylation induces CREB overexpression and contributes to myeloid transformation.

    PubMed

    Pigazzi, Martina; Manara, Elena; Bresolin, Silvia; Tregnago, Claudia; Beghin, Alessandra; Baron, Emma; Giarin, Emanuela; Cho, Er-Chieh; Masetti, Riccardo; Rao, Dinesh S; Sakamoto, Kathleen M; Basso, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    MicroRNA-34b down-regulation in acute myeloid leukemia was previously shown to induce CREB overexpression, thereby causing leukemia proliferation in vitro and in vivo. The role of microRNA-34b and CREB in patients with myeloid malignancies has never been evaluated. We examined microRNA-34b expression and the methylation status of its promoter in cells from patients diagnosed with myeloid malignancies. We used gene expression profiling to identify signatures of myeloid transformation. We established that microRNA-34b has suppressor ability and that CREB has oncogenic potential in primary bone marrow cell cultures and in vivo. MicroRNA-34b was found to be up-regulated in pediatric patients with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (n=17) and myelodysplastic syndromes (n=28), but was down-regulated in acute myeloid leukemia patients at diagnosis (n=112). Our results showed that hypermethylation of the microRNA-34b promoter occurred in 66% of cases of acute myeloid leukemia explaining the low microRNA-34b levels and CREB overexpression, whereas preleukemic myelodysplastic syndromes and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia were not associated with hypermethylation or CREB overexpression. In paired samples taken from the same patients when they had myelodysplastic syndrome and again during the subsequent acute myeloid leukemia, we confirmed microRNA-34b promoter hypermethylation at leukemia onset, with 103 CREB target genes differentially expressed between the two disease stages. This subset of CREB targets was confirmed to associate with high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes in a separate cohort of patients (n=20). Seventy-eight of these 103 CREB targets were also differentially expressed between healthy samples (n=11) and de novo acute myeloid leukemia (n=72). Further, low microRNA-34b and high CREB expression levels induced aberrant myelopoiesis through CREB-dependent pathways in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, we suggest that microRNA-34b controls CREB expression and

  5. Regulation of neurogenesis by interkinetic nuclear migration through an apical-basal Notch gradient

    PubMed Central

    Del Bene, Filippo; Wehman, Ann M.; Link, Brian A.; Baier, Herwig

    2008-01-01

    The different cell types in the central nervous system develop from a common pool of progenitor cells. The nuclei of progenitors move between the apical and basal surfaces of the neuroepithelium in phase with their cell cycle, a process termed interkinetic nuclear migration (INM). In the retina of zebrafish mikre oko (mok) mutants, in which the motor protein Dynactin-1 is disrupted, interkinetic nuclei migrate more rapidly and more deeply to the basal side and more slowly to the apical side. We found that Notch signaling is predominantly activated on the apical side in both mutants and wildtype. Mutant progenitors are thus less exposed to Notch and exit the cell cycle prematurely. This leads to an overproduction of early-born retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) at the expense of later-born interneurons and glia. Our data indicate that the function of INM is to balance the exposure of progenitor nuclei to neurogenic vs. proliferative signals. PMID:18805097

  6. β-TrCP-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of liver-enriched transcription factor CREB-H

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yun; Gao, Wei-Wei; Tang, Hei-Man Vincent; Deng, Jian-Jun; Wong, Chi-Ming; Chan, Chi-Ping; Jin, Dong-Yan

    2016-01-01

    CREB-H is an endoplasmic reticulum-resident bZIP transcription factor which critically regulates lipid homeostasis and gluconeogenesis in the liver. CREB-H is proteolytically activated by regulated intramembrane proteolysis to generate a C-terminally truncated form known as CREB-H-ΔTC, which translocates to the nucleus to activate target gene expression. CREB-H-ΔTC is a fast turnover protein but the mechanism governing its destruction was not well understood. In this study, we report on β-TrCP-dependent ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of CREB-H-ΔTC. The degradation of CREB-H-ΔTC was mediated by lysine 48-linked polyubiquitination and could be inhibited by proteasome inhibitor. CREB-H-ΔTC physically interacted with β-TrCP, a substrate recognition subunit of the SCFβ-TrCP E3 ubiquitin ligase. Forced expression of β-TrCP increased the polyubiquitination and decreased the stability of CREB-H-ΔTC, whereas knockdown of β-TrCP had the opposite effect. An evolutionarily conserved sequence, SDSGIS, was identified in CREB-H-ΔTC, which functioned as the β-TrCP-binding motif. CREB-H-ΔTC lacking this motif was stabilized and resistant to β-TrCP-induced polyubiquitination. This motif was a phosphodegron and its phosphorylation was required for β-TrCP recognition. Furthermore, two inhibitory phosphorylation sites close to the phosphodegron were identified. Taken together, our work revealed a new intracellular signaling pathway that controls ubiquitination and degradation of the active form of CREB-H transcription factor. PMID:27029215

  7. β-TrCP-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of liver-enriched transcription factor CREB-H.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yun; Gao, Wei-Wei; Tang, Hei-Man Vincent; Deng, Jian-Jun; Wong, Chi-Ming; Chan, Chi-Ping; Jin, Dong-Yan

    2016-01-01

    CREB-H is an endoplasmic reticulum-resident bZIP transcription factor which critically regulates lipid homeostasis and gluconeogenesis in the liver. CREB-H is proteolytically activated by regulated intramembrane proteolysis to generate a C-terminally truncated form known as CREB-H-ΔTC, which translocates to the nucleus to activate target gene expression. CREB-H-ΔTC is a fast turnover protein but the mechanism governing its destruction was not well understood. In this study, we report on β-TrCP-dependent ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of CREB-H-ΔTC. The degradation of CREB-H-ΔTC was mediated by lysine 48-linked polyubiquitination and could be inhibited by proteasome inhibitor. CREB-H-ΔTC physically interacted with β-TrCP, a substrate recognition subunit of the SCF(β-TrCP) E3 ubiquitin ligase. Forced expression of β-TrCP increased the polyubiquitination and decreased the stability of CREB-H-ΔTC, whereas knockdown of β-TrCP had the opposite effect. An evolutionarily conserved sequence, SDSGIS, was identified in CREB-H-ΔTC, which functioned as the β-TrCP-binding motif. CREB-H-ΔTC lacking this motif was stabilized and resistant to β-TrCP-induced polyubiquitination. This motif was a phosphodegron and its phosphorylation was required for β-TrCP recognition. Furthermore, two inhibitory phosphorylation sites close to the phosphodegron were identified. Taken together, our work revealed a new intracellular signaling pathway that controls ubiquitination and degradation of the active form of CREB-H transcription factor. PMID:27029215

  8. Silencing cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) identifies CYR61 as a tumor suppressor gene in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Dobroff, Andrey S; Wang, Hua; Melnikova, Vladislava O; Villares, Gabriel J; Zigler, Maya; Huang, Li; Bar-Eli, Menashe

    2009-09-18

    Metastatic progression of melanoma is associated with overexpression and activity of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB). However, the mechanism by which CREB contributes to tumor progression and metastasis remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that stably silencing CREB expression in two human metastatic melanoma cell lines, A375SM and C8161-c9, suppresses tumor growth and experimental metastasis. Analysis of cDNA microarrays revealed that CREB silencing leads to increased expression of cysteine-rich protein 61 (CCN1/CYR61) known to mediate adhesion, chemostasis, survival, and angiogenesis. Promoter analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that CREB acts as a negative regulator of CCN1/CYR61 transcription by directly binding to its promoter. Re-expression of CREB in CREB-silenced cells rescued the low CCN1/CYR61 expression phenotype. CCN1/CYR61 overexpression resulted in reduced tumor growth and metastasis and inhibited the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2. Furthermore, its overexpression decreased melanoma cell motility and invasion through Matrigel, which was abrogated by silencing CCN1/CYR61 in low metastatic melanoma cells. Moreover, a significant decrease in angiogenesis as well as an increase in apoptosis was seen in tumors overexpressing CCN1/CYR61. Our results demonstrate that CREB promotes melanoma growth and metastasis by down-regulating CCN1/CYR61 expression, which acts as a suppressor of melanoma cell motility, invasion and angiogenesis. PMID:19632997

  9. Silencing cAMP-response Element-binding Protein (CREB) Identifies CYR61 as a Tumor Suppressor Gene in Melanoma*

    PubMed Central

    Dobroff, Andrey S.; Wang, Hua; Melnikova, Vladislava O.; Villares, Gabriel J.; Zigler, Maya; Huang, Li; Bar-Eli, Menashe

    2009-01-01

    Metastatic progression of melanoma is associated with overexpression and activity of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB). However, the mechanism by which CREB contributes to tumor progression and metastasis remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that stably silencing CREB expression in two human metastatic melanoma cell lines, A375SM and C8161-c9, suppresses tumor growth and experimental metastasis. Analysis of cDNA microarrays revealed that CREB silencing leads to increased expression of cysteine-rich protein 61 (CCN1/CYR61) known to mediate adhesion, chemostasis, survival, and angiogenesis. Promoter analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that CREB acts as a negative regulator of CCN1/CYR61 transcription by directly binding to its promoter. Re-expression of CREB in CREB-silenced cells rescued the low CCN1/CYR61 expression phenotype. CCN1/CYR61 overexpression resulted in reduced tumor growth and metastasis and inhibited the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2. Furthermore, its overexpression decreased melanoma cell motility and invasion through Matrigel, which was abrogated by silencing CCN1/CYR61 in low metastatic melanoma cells. Moreover, a significant decrease in angiogenesis as well as an increase in apoptosis was seen in tumors overexpressing CCN1/CYR61. Our results demonstrate that CREB promotes melanoma growth and metastasis by down-regulating CCN1/CYR61 expression, which acts as a suppressor of melanoma cell motility, invasion and angiogenesis. PMID:19632997

  10. A20 Regulates Atherogenic Interferon (IFN)-γ Signaling in Vascular Cells by Modulating Basal IFNβ Levels*

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Herwig P.; Lee, Andy; Minussi, Darlan C.; da Silva, Cleide G.; Csizmadia, Eva; Bhasin, Manoj; Ferran, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    IFNγ signaling in endothelial (EC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC) is a key culprit of pathologic vascular remodeling. The impact of NF-κB inhibitory protein A20 on IFNγ signaling in vascular cells remains unknown. In gain- and loss-of-function studies, A20 inversely regulated expression of IFNγ-induced atherogenic genes in human EC and SMC by modulating STAT1 transcription. In vivo, inadequate A20 expression in A20 heterozygote mice aggravated intimal hyperplasia following partial carotid artery ligation. This outcome uniquely associated with increased levels of Stat1 and super-induction of Ifnγ-dependent genes. Transcriptome analysis of the aortic media from A20 heterozygote versus wild-type mice revealed increased basal Ifnβ signaling as the likely cause for higher Stat1 transcription. We confirmed higher basal IFNβ levels in A20-silenced human SMC and showed that neutralization or knockdown of IFNβ abrogates heightened STAT1 levels in these cells. Upstream of IFNβ, A20-silenced EC and SMC demonstrated higher levels of phosphorylated/activated TANK-binding kinase-1 (TBK1), a regulator of IFNβ transcription. This suggested that A20 knockdown increased STAT1 transcription by enhancing TBK1 activation and subsequently basal IFNβ levels. Altogether, these results uncover A20 as a key physiologic regulator of atherogenic IFNγ/STAT1 signaling. This novel function of A20 added to its ability to inhibit nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation solidifies its promise as an ideal therapeutic candidate for treatment and prevention of vascular diseases. In light of recently discovered A20/TNFAIP3 (TNFα-induced protein 3) single nucleotide polymorphisms that impart lower A20 expression or function, these results also qualify A20 as a reliable clinical biomarker for vascular risk assessment. PMID:25217635

  11. RNA Helicase DDX5 Regulates MicroRNA Expression and Contributes to Cytoskeletal Reorganization in Basal Breast Cancer Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Daojing; Huang, Jing; Hu, Zhi

    2011-11-15

    RNA helicase DDX5 (also p68) is involved in all aspects of RNA metabolism and serves as a transcriptional co-regulator, but its functional role in breast cancer remains elusive. Here, we report an integrative biology study of DDX5 in breast cancer, encompassing quantitative proteomics, global MicroRNA profiling, and detailed biochemical characterization of cell lines and human tissues. We showed that protein expression of DDX5 increased progressively from the luminal to basal breast cancer cell lines, and correlated positively with that of CD44 in the basal subtypes. Through immunohistochemistry analyses of tissue microarrays containing over 200 invasive human ductal carcinomas, we observed that DDX5 was upregulated in the majority of malignant tissues, and its expression correlated strongly with those of Ki67 and EGFR in the triple-negative tumors. We demonstrated that DDX5 regulated a subset of MicroRNAs including miR-21 and miR-182 in basal breast cancer cells. Knockdown of DDX5 resulted in reorganization of actin cytoskeleton and reduction of cellular proliferation. The effects were accompanied by upregulation of tumor suppressor PDCD4 (a known miR-21 target); as well as upregulation of cofilin and profilin, two key proteins involved in actin polymerization and cytoskeleton maintenance, as a consequence of miR-182 downregulation. Treatment with miR-182 inhibitors resulted in morphologic phenotypes resembling those induced by DDX5 knockdown. Using bioinformatics tools for pathway and network analyses, we confirmed that the network for regulation of actin cytoskeleton was predominantly enriched for the predicted downstream targets of miR-182. Our results reveal a new functional role of DDX5 in breast cancer via the DDX5→miR-182→actin cytoskeleton pathway, and suggest the potential clinical utility of DDX5 and its downstream MicroRNAs in the theranostics of breast cancer.

  12. Quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-d-glucopyranoside suppresses melanin synthesis by augmenting p38 MAPK and CREB signaling pathways and subsequent cAMP down-regulation in murine melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyun Gug; Kim, Han Hyuk; Paul, Souren; Jang, Jae Yoon; Cho, Yong Hun; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Yu, Jae Myo; Lee, Eun Su; An, Bong Jeun; Kang, Sun Chul; Bang, Byung Ho

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effect of purified quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-d-glucopyranosid (QCGG) on melanogenesis was investigated. QCGG was isolated from the calyx of a traditional Korean medicinal herb, Persimmon (Diospyros kaki). The hypopigmentation effects of QCGG were determined by examination of cellular melanin contents, tyrosinase activity assay, cAMP assay, and Western blotting of α-MSH-stimulated B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. Our results showed that QCGG inhibited both melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a concentration-dependent manner as well as significantly reduced the expression of melanogenic proteins such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase-related protein-1, tyrosinase-related protein-2, and tyrosinase. Moreover, QCGG inhibited intracellular cAMP levels, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and p38 MAPK expression in α-MSH-stimulated B16F10 cells. Taken together, the suppressive effects of QCGG on melanogenesis may involve down-regulation of MITF and its downstream signaling pathway via phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and CREB along with reduced cAMP levels. These results indicate that QCGG reduced melanin synthesis by reducing expression of tyrosine and tyrosine-related proteins via extracellular signal-related protein kinase (ERK) activation, followed by down-regulation of CREB, p38, and MITF. PMID:26586997

  13. Quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-d-glucopyranoside suppresses melanin synthesis by augmenting p38 MAPK and CREB signaling pathways and subsequent cAMP down-regulation in murine melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun Gug; Kim, Han Hyuk; Paul, Souren; Jang, Jae Yoon; Cho, Yong Hun; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Yu, Jae Myo; Lee, Eun Su; An, Bong Jeun; Kang, Sun Chul; Bang, Byung Ho

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the effect of purified quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-d-glucopyranosid (QCGG) on melanogenesis was investigated. QCGG was isolated from the calyx of a traditional Korean medicinal herb, Persimmon (Diospyros kaki). The hypopigmentation effects of QCGG were determined by examination of cellular melanin contents, tyrosinase activity assay, cAMP assay, and Western blotting of α-MSH-stimulated B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. Our results showed that QCGG inhibited both melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a concentration-dependent manner as well as significantly reduced the expression of melanogenic proteins such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase-related protein-1, tyrosinase-related protein-2, and tyrosinase. Moreover, QCGG inhibited intracellular cAMP levels, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and p38 MAPK expression in α-MSH-stimulated B16F10 cells. Taken together, the suppressive effects of QCGG on melanogenesis may involve down-regulation of MITF and its downstream signaling pathway via phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and CREB along with reduced cAMP levels. These results indicate that QCGG reduced melanin synthesis by reducing expression of tyrosine and tyrosine-related proteins via extracellular signal-related protein kinase (ERK) activation, followed by down-regulation of CREB, p38, and MITF. PMID:26586997

  14. Endotoxin-induced basal respiration alterations of renal HK-2 cells: A sign of pathologic metabolism down-regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Quoilin, C.; Mouithys-Mickalad, A.; Duranteau, J.; Gallez, B.; Hoebeke, M.

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A HK-2 cells model of inflammation-induced acute kidney injury. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two oximetry methods: high resolution respirometry and ESR spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxygen consumption rates of renal cells decrease when treated with LPS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cells do not recover normal respiration when the LPS treatment is removed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This basal respiration alteration is a sign of pathologic metabolism down-regulation. -- Abstract: To study the mechanism of oxygen regulation in inflammation-induced acute kidney injury, we investigate the effects of a bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) on the basal respiration of proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) both by high-resolution respirometry and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. These two complementary methods have shown that HK-2 cells exhibit a decreased oxygen consumption rate when treated with LPS. Surprisingly, this cellular respiration alteration persists even after the stress factor was removed. We suggested that this irreversible decrease in renal oxygen consumption after LPS challenge is related to a pathologic metabolic down-regulation such as a lack of oxygen utilization by cells.

  15. Transgenic songbirds with suppressed or enhanced activity of CREB transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Abe, Kentaro; Matsui, Sumiko; Watanabe, Dai

    2015-06-16

    Songbirds postnatally develop their skill to utter and to perceive a vocal signal for communication. How genetic and environmental influences act in concert to regulate the development of such skill is not fully understood. Here, we report the phenotype of transgenic songbirds with altered intrinsic activity of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) transcription factor. By viral vector-mediated modification of genomic DNA, we established germ line-transmitted lines of zebra finches, which exhibited enhanced or suppressed activity of CREB. Although intrinsically acquired vocalizations or their hearing ability were not affected, the transgenic birds showed reduced vocal learning quality of their own songs and impaired audio-memory formation against conspecific songs. These results thus demonstrate that appropriate activity of CREB is necessary for the postnatal acquisition of learned behavior in songbirds, and the CREB transgenic birds offer a unique opportunity to separately manipulate both genetic and environmental factors that impinge on the postnatal song learning. PMID:26048905

  16. Transcriptional regulation of the human glycoprotein hormone common alpha subunit gene by cAMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP)/p300 and p53.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xian; Grand, Roger J A; McCabe, Christopher J; Franklyn, Jayne A; Gallimore, Phillip H; Turnell, Andrew S

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the functional interactions between adenovirus early region 1A (AdE1A) protein, the co-activators cAMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP)/p300 and SUG1, and the transcriptional repressor retinoblastoma (Rb) in mediating T3-dependent repression. Utilizing the human glycoprotein hormone common alpha-subunit (alpha-subunit) promoter and AdE1A mutants with selective binding capacity to these molecules we have determined an essential role for CBP/p300. In normal circumstances, wild-type 12 S AdE1A inhibited alpha-subunit activity. In contrast, adenovirus mutants that retain both the SUG1- and Rb-binding sites, but lack the CBP/p300-binding site, were unable to repress promoter activity. We have also identified a role for the tumour-suppressor gene product p53 in regulation of the alpha-subunit promoter. Akin to 12 S AdE1A, exogenous p53 expression repressed alpha-subunit activity. This function resided in the ability of p53 to interact with CBP/p300; an N-terminal mutant incapable of interacting with CBP/p300 did not inhibit alpha-subunit activity. Stabilization of endogenous p53 by UV irradiation also correlated positively with reduced alpha-subunit activity. Intriguingly, T3 stimulated endogenous p53 transcriptional activity, implicating p53 in T3-dependent signalling pathways. These data indicate that CBP/p300 and p53 are key regulators of alpha-subunit activity. PMID:12164786

  17. CREB-H: a novel mammalian transcription factor belonging to the CREB/ATF family and functioning via the box-B element with a liver-specific expression.

    PubMed

    Omori, Y; Imai, J; Watanabe, M; Komatsu, T; Suzuki, Y; Kataoka, K; Watanabe, S; Tanigami, A; Sugano, S

    2001-05-15

    The expression of liver-specific genes is regulated by unequivocally allocated transcription factors via proper responsible elements within their promoters. We identified a novel transcription factor, CREB-H, and found that its expression was restricted in the liver among 16 human tissues tested. A region of CREB-H exhibited significant homology to the basic leucine zipper (b-Zip) domain of members of the CREB/ATF family: mammalian LZIP and Drosophila BBF-2 that binds to box-B, a Drosophila enhancer modulating the fat-body-specific gene expression. CREB-H contained a hydrophobic region representing a putative transmembrane domain, like LZIP. Constructing a variety of CREB-H fusion proteins with the GAL4 DNA-binding domain disclosed that CREB-H functioned as a transcriptional activator and its N-terminal 149 amino acids accounted for the activation ability. Gel mobility sift assays revealed that CREB-H did not bind to the C/EBP, AP-1 and NF-kappaB elements but specifically bound to CRE and the box-B element. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that like BBF-2, CREB-H activated transcription via the box-B element and that a deletion of the putative transmembrane domain increased the activation of reporter expression significantly. Furthermore, a fusion protein of GFP and full-length CREB-H was localized in reticular structures surrounding the nucleus, whereas a fusion protein of GFP and a deletion mutant lacking the putative transmembrane domain was mainly in the nucleus. These findings suggest that CREB-H plays an important role in transcriptional regulation of genes specifically expressed in the liver, and that the putative transmembrane domain may be associated with modulation of its function as the transcriptional activator. PMID:11353085

  18. Mifepristone Suppresses Basal Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Stem Cells by Down-regulating KLF5 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rong; Shi, Peiguo; Nie, Zhi; Liang, Huichun; Zhou, Zhongmei; Chen, Wenlin; Chen, Haijun; Dong, Chao; Yang, Runxiang; Liu, Suling; Chen, Ceshi

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is currently the most malignant subtype of breast cancers without effective targeted therapies. Mifepristone (MIF), a drug regularly used for abortion, has been reported to have anti-tumor activity in multiple hormone-dependent cancers, including luminal type breast cancers. In this study, we showed that MIF suppressed tumor growth of the TNBC cell lines and patient-derived xenografts in NOD-SCID mice. Furthermore, MIF reduced the TNBC cancer stem cell (CSC) population through down-regulating KLF5 expression, a stem cell transcription factor over-expressed in basal type TNBC and promoting cell proliferation, survival and stemness. Interestingly, MIF suppresses the expression of KLF5 through inducing the expression of miR-153. Consistently, miR-153 decreases CSC and miR-153 inhibitor rescued MIF-induced down-regulation of the KLF5 protein level and CSC ratio. Taken together, our findings suggest that MIF inhibits basal TNBC via the miR-153/KLF5 axis and MIF may be used for the treatment of TNBC. PMID:26941846

  19. Self-regulation of basal water pressure across the ablation zone in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandewal, R.; Smeets, C. J.; Boot, W.; Stoffelen, M.; van Kampen, R.; Doyle, S. H.; Wilhelms, F.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Reijmer, C. H.; Oerlemans, J.; Hubbard, A.

    2013-12-01

    The concept of a positive feedback between ice flow and enhanced melt rates in a warmer climate fuelled the debate regarding the temporal and spatial controls on seasonal ice acceleration. Here we combine runoff data with long-term basal water pressure, and ice velocities. Results indicate that water pressure is controlled by runoff variations forcing continuous adjustments of the hydraulic system. Remarkably, across the upper ablation zone, variations in winter velocities compensate for early summer speed up yielding no evidence for a positive feedback between annual ice velocity and melt rates over the last 21 years. However the extreme melt in summer 2012 provides an indication that the sliding area may extend in a warmer climate yielding a flow acceleration.

  20. Dynamic changes in intracellular ROS levels regulate airway basal stem cell homeostasis through Nrf2-dependent Notch signaling

    PubMed Central

    Paul, MK; Bisht, B; Darmawan, DO; Chiou, R; Ha, VL; Wallace, WD; Chon, AC; Hegab, AE; Grogan, T; Elashoff, DA; Alva-Ornelas, JA; Gomperts, BN

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Airways are exposed to myriad environmental and damaging agents such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), which also have physiological roles as signaling molecules that regulate stem cell function. However, the functional significance of both steady and dynamically changing ROS levels in different stem cell populations, as well as downstream mechanisms that integrate ROS sensing into decisions regarding stem cell homeostasis, are unclear. Here, we show in mouse and human airway basal stem cells (ABSCs) that intracellular flux from low to moderate ROS levels is required for stem cell self-renewal and proliferation. Changing ROS levels activate Nrf2, which activates the Notch pathway to stimulate ABSC self-renewal as well an antioxidant program that scavenges intracellular ROS, returning overall ROS levels to a low state to maintain homeostatic balance. This redox-mediated regulation of lung stem cell function has significant implications for stem cell biology, repair of lung injuries, and diseases such as cancer. PMID:24953182

  1. Deficits in Memory Tasks of Mice with CREB Mutations Depend on Gene Dosage

    PubMed Central

    Gass, Peter; Wolfer, David P.; Balschun, Detlef; Rudolph, Dorothea; Frey, Uwe; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Schütz, Günther

    1998-01-01

    Studies in Aplysia, Drosophila, and mice have shown that the transcription factor CREB is involved in formation and retention of long-term memory. To analyze the impact of differential CREB levels on learning and memory, we varied the gene dosage of CREB in two strains of mutant mice: (1) CREBαΔ mice, in which the α and Δ isoforms are disrupted, but a third isoform β is strongly up-regulated; (2) CREBcomp, a compound strain with one αΔ allele and one CREBnull allele in which all CREB isoforms are disrupted. To minimize genetic background effects, CREB mutations were backcrossed into a C57BL/6 and a FVB/N strain, respectively, and studies were performed in F1 hybrids from these lines. CREBcomp but not CREBαΔ F1 hybrids were impaired in water maze learning and fear conditioning, demonstrating a CREB gene dosage effect. However, analysis of the platform searching strategies in the water maze task suggested that CREBcomp mutants are impaired in behavioral flexibility rather than in spatial memory. In contrast to previous experiments using CREBαΔ mice with different genetic background, the F1 hybrid CREBαΔ and CREBcomp mice did not show deficits in a social transmission of food preference task nor in dentate gyrus and CA1 LTP as recorded from slice preparations. These data indicate that the hybrid vigor typical for F1 hybrids may compensate for a reduction in CREB levels in some tests. On the other hand, the persistence of clear behavioral deficits as shown by the F1 hybrid CREBcomp mice in water maze and fear conditioning indicates a robust and repeatable phenomenon that will permit further functional analysis of CREB. PMID:10454354

  2. Appetitive Cue-Evoked ERK Signaling in the Nucleus Accumbens Requires NMDA and D1 Dopamine Receptor Activation and Regulates CREB Phosphorylation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschmann, Erin K. Z.; Mauna, Jocelyn C.; Willis, Cory M.; Foster, Rebecca L.; Chipman, Amanda M.; Thiels, Edda

    2014-01-01

    Conditioned stimuli (CS) can modulate reward-seeking behavior. This modulatory effect can be maladaptive and has been implicated in excessive reward seeking and relapse to drug addiction. We previously demonstrated that exposure to an appetitive CS causes an increase in the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cyclic-AMP…

  3. DNA supercoiling, a critical signal regulating the basal expression of the lac operon in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Fulcrand, Geraldine; Dages, Samantha; Zhi, Xiaoduo; Chapagain, Prem; Gerstman, Bernard S.; Dunlap, David; Leng, Fenfei

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli lac repressor (LacI) is a paradigmatic transcriptional factor that controls the expression of lacZYA in the lac operon. This tetrameric protein specifically binds to the O1, O2 and O3 operators of the lac operon and forms a DNA loop to repress transcription from the adjacent lac promoter. In this article, we demonstrate that upon binding to the O1 and O2 operators at their native positions LacI constrains three (−) supercoils within the 401-bp DNA loop of the lac promoter and forms a topological barrier. The stability of LacI-mediated DNA topological barriers is directly proportional to its DNA binding affinity. However, we find that DNA supercoiling modulates the basal expression from the lac operon in E. coli. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that LacI functions as a topological barrier to constrain free, unconstrained (−) supercoils within the 401-bp DNA loop of the lac promoter. These constrained (−) supercoils enhance LacI’s DNA-binding affinity and thereby the repression of the promoter. Thus, LacI binding is superhelically modulated to control the expression of lacZYA in the lac operon under varying growth conditions. PMID:26763930

  4. DNA supercoiling, a critical signal regulating the basal expression of the lac operon in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Fulcrand, Geraldine; Dages, Samantha; Zhi, Xiaoduo; Chapagain, Prem; Gerstman, Bernard S; Dunlap, David; Leng, Fenfei

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli lac repressor (LacI) is a paradigmatic transcriptional factor that controls the expression of lacZYA in the lac operon. This tetrameric protein specifically binds to the O1, O2 and O3 operators of the lac operon and forms a DNA loop to repress transcription from the adjacent lac promoter. In this article, we demonstrate that upon binding to the O1 and O2 operators at their native positions LacI constrains three (-) supercoils within the 401-bp DNA loop of the lac promoter and forms a topological barrier. The stability of LacI-mediated DNA topological barriers is directly proportional to its DNA binding affinity. However, we find that DNA supercoiling modulates the basal expression from the lac operon in E. coli. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that LacI functions as a topological barrier to constrain free, unconstrained (-) supercoils within the 401-bp DNA loop of the lac promoter. These constrained (-) supercoils enhance LacI's DNA-binding affinity and thereby the repression of the promoter. Thus, LacI binding is superhelically modulated to control the expression of lacZYA in the lac operon under varying growth conditions. PMID:26763930

  5. Central regulation of intestinal basal and stimulated water and ion transport by endogenous opiates in dogs.

    PubMed

    Primi, M P; Bueno, L; Fioramonti, J

    1986-02-01

    The influence of intracerebroventricular (ICV) vs intravenous (IV) administration of (D-Ala2, Met5) enkephalinamide (Dalamide) on normal and stimulated (cholera toxin) jejunal fluxes of water, Na+, and K+ were investigated in dogs prepared with a Thiry-Vella (TV) loop. Intestinal transport in the TV loop and concomitant transit time were measured during an infusion (2 ml/min) of an isotonic electrolyte solution alone, or containing 0.4 micrograms/ml of cholera toxin (CT). Basal net water absorption was slightly, but significantly (P less than 0.05), increased during an ICV infusion of Dalamide at 0.5 ng/kg/min, while the secretory effects of cholera toxin were markedly reduced by nearly 75%. Similar effects were observed for Na+ and K+ movement. In contrast, Dalamide infused intravenously at a five times higher dose, ie, 2.5 ng/kg/min did not affect the control and CT-stimulated water and electrolyte movements. The jejunal loop transit times were halved during CT infusion. Similar values were observed under Dalamide ICV administration as well as during a five times higher dose of Dalamide administered intravenously. It was concluded that (1) Dalamide administered into the CNS, but not peripherally, increased the absorption of water, Na+, and K+, causing a net reduction in their secretion induced by cholera toxin; and (2) these effects did not result from changes in transit time. These results also suggest that Met-enkephalin can act in the brain to affect the intestinal transport of water and electrolytes in dogs. PMID:3943445

  6. Fluoxetine Increases the Expression of NCAM140 and pCREB in Rat C6 Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi Ran; Oh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Seok Hyeon; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Das, Nando Dulal

    2012-01-01

    Objective Dysfunction of neural plasticity in the brain is known to alter neural networks, resulting in depression. To understand how fluoxetine regulates molecules involved in neural plasticity, the expression levels of NCAM, NCAM140, CREB and pCREB, in rat C6 glioma cells after fluoxetine treatment were examined. Methods C6 cells were cultured after 20 min or after 6, 24 or 72 h treatments with 10 µM fluoxetine. Immunocytochemistry was used to determine the effect of fluoxetine on the expression of NCAM. Western blot analysis was used to measure the expression levels of NCAM140 and CREB and the induction of pCREB after fluoxetine treatment. Results NCAM expression following 72-h fluoxetine treatment was significantly increased around cell membranes compared to control cells. Cells treated with fluoxetine for 6 and 72 h showed a significant increase in NCAM140 expression compared to cells treated for 20 min. The level of pCREB in the cells treated with fluoxetine for 72 h not only increased more than 60%, but was also significantly different when compared with the other treatment times. The 72-h fluoxetine treatment led to the increase of NCAM140 and the phosphorylation of CREB in C6 cells. Conclusion Our findings indicate that fluoxetine treatment regulates neuronal plasticity and neurite outgrowth by phosphorylating and activating CREB via the NCAM140 homophilic interaction-induced activation of the Ras-MAPK pathway. PMID:22707970

  7. PDE3A Regulates Basal Myocardial Contractility through Interacting with SERCA2a-Signaling Complexes in Mouse Heart

    PubMed Central

    Beca, Sanja; Ahmad, Faiyaz; Shen, Weixing; Liu, Jie; Makary, Samy; Polidovitch, Nazari; Sun, Junhui; Hockman, Steven; Chung, Youn Wook; Movesian, Matthew; Murphy, Elizabeth; Manganiello, Vincent; Backx, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale cAMP is an important regulator of myocardial function, and regulation of cAMP hydrolysis by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) is a critical determinant of the amplitude, duration, and compartmentation of cAMP–mediated signaling. The role of different PDE isozymes, particularly PDE3A versus PDE3B, in the regulation of heart function remains unclear. Objective To determine the relative contribution of PDE3A versus PDE3B isozymes in the regulation of heart function and to dissect the molecular basis for this regulation. Methods and Results Compared to wild-type (WT) littermates, cardiac contractility and relaxation were enhanced in isolated hearts from PDE3A−/−, but not PDE3B−/−, mice. Furthermore, PDE3 inhibition had no effect on PDE3A−/− hearts but increased contractility in WT (as expected) and PDE3B−/− hearts to levels indistinguishable from PDE3A−/−. The enhanced contractility in PDE3A−/− hearts was associated with cAMP-dependent elevations in Ca2+ transient amplitudes and increased SR Ca2+ content, without changes in L-type Ca2+ currents (ICa,L) of cardiomyocytes, as well as with increased SR Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2a) activity, SR Ca2+ uptake rates, and phospholamban (PLN) phosphorylation in SR fractions. Consistent with these observations, PDE3 activity was reduced ~8-fold in SR fractions from PDE3A−/− hearts. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments further revealed that PDE3A associates with both SERCA2a and PLN in a complex which also contains AKAP-18, PKA-RII and PP2A. Conclusion Our data support the conclusion that PDE3A is the primary PDE3 isozyme modulating basal contractility and SR Ca2+ content by regulating cAMP in microdomains containing macromolecular complexes of SERCA2a-PLN-PDE3A. PMID:23168336

  8. Structure–activity relationship studies of naphthol AS-E and its derivatives as anticancer agents by inhibiting CREB-mediated gene transcription

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bingbing X.; Yamanaka, Kinrin; Xiao, Xiangshu

    2012-01-01

    CREB (cyclic AMP-response element binding protein) is a downstream transcription factor of a multitude of signaling pathways emanating from receptor tyrosine kinases or G-protein coupled receptors. CREB is not activated until it is phosphorylated at Ser133 and its subsequent binding to CREB-binding protein (CBP) through kinase-inducible domain (KID) in CREB and KID-interacting (KIX) domain in CBP. Tumor tissues from various organs present higher level of expression and activation of CREB. Thus CREB has been proposed as a promising cancer drug target. We previously described naphthol AS-E (1a) as a small molecule inhibitor of CREB-mediated gene transcription in living cells. Here we report the structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies of 1a by modifying the appendant phenyl ring. All the compounds were evaluated for in vitro inhibition of KIX–KID interaction, cellular inhibition of CREB-mediated gene transcription and inhibition of proliferation of four cancer cell lines (A549, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468). SAR indicated that a small and electron-withdrawing group was preferred at the para-position for KIX–KID interaction inhibition. Compound 1a was selected for further biological characterization and it was found that 1a down-regulated the expression of endogenous CREB target genes. Expression of a constitutively active CREB mutant, VP16-CREB in MCF-7 cells rendered the cells resistant to 1a, suggesting that CREB was critical in mediating its anticancer activity. Furthermore, 1a was not toxic to normal human cells. Collectively, these data support that 1a represents a structural template for further development into potential cancer therapeutics with a novel mechanism of action. PMID:23102993

  9. OASIS/CREB3L1 is epigenetically silenced in human bladder cancer facilitating tumor cell spreading and migration in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Michael; Schubert, Claudia; Dierichs, Laura; Gaisa, Nadine T; Heer, Matthias; Heidenreich, Axel; Knüchel, Ruth; Dahl, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    CREB3L1 has been recently proposed as a novel metastasis suppressor gene in breast cancer. Our current study highlights CREB3L1 expression, regulation, and function in bladder cancer. We demonstrate a significant downregulation of CREB3L1 mRNA expression (n = 64) in primary bladder cancer tissues caused by tumor-specific CREB3L1 promoter hypermethylation (n = 51). Based on pyrosequencing CREB3L1 methylation was shown to be potentially associated with a more aggressive phenotype of bladder cancer. These findings were verified by an independent public data set containing data from 184 bladder tumors. In addition, immunohistochemical evaluation showed that CREB3L1 protein expression is decreased in bladder cancer tissues as well. Interestingly, protein loss is predominately observed in the nuclei of aggressive tumor cells. Based on in vitro models we clearly show that CREB3L1 re-expression mediates suppression of tumor cell migration and colony growth of high grade and invasive bladder cancer cells. The candidate tumor suppressor and TGF-β signaling inhibitor HTRA3 was furthermore identified as putative target gene of CREB3L1 in both invasive J82 bladder cells and primary bladder tumors. Hence, our data provide for the first time evidence that the transcription factor CREB3L1 may have an important role as a putative tumor suppressor in bladder cancer. PMID:25625847

  10. The evolution and regulation of the mucosal immune complexity in the basal chordate amphioxus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shengfeng; Wang, Xin; Yan, Qingyu; Guo, Lei; Yuan, Shaochun; Huang, Guangrui; Huang, Huiqing; Li, Jun; Dong, Meiling; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

    2011-02-15

    Both amphioxus and the sea urchin encode a complex innate immune gene repertoire in their genomes, but the composition and mechanisms of their innate immune systems, as well as the fundamental differences between two systems, remain largely unexplored. In this study, we dissect the mucosal immune complexity of amphioxus into different evolutionary-functional modes and regulatory patterns by integrating information from phylogenetic inferences, genome-wide digital expression profiles, time course expression dynamics, and functional analyses. With these rich data, we reconstruct several major immune subsystems in amphioxus and analyze their regulation during mucosal infection. These include the TNF/IL-1R network, TLR and NLR networks, complement system, apoptosis network, oxidative pathways, and other effector genes (e.g., peptidoglycan recognition proteins, Gram-negative binding proteins, and chitin-binding proteins). We show that beneath the superficial similarity to that of the sea urchin, the amphioxus innate system, despite preserving critical invertebrate components, is more similar to that of the vertebrates in terms of composition, expression regulation, and functional strategies. For example, major effectors in amphioxus gut mucous tissue are the well-developed complement and oxidative-burst systems, and the signaling network in amphioxus seems to emphasize signal transduction/modulation more than initiation. In conclusion, we suggest that the innate immune systems of amphioxus and the sea urchin are strategically different, possibly representing two successful cases among many expanded immune systems that arose at the age of the Cambrian explosion. We further suggest that the vertebrate innate immune system should be derived from one of these expanded systems, most likely from the same one that was shared by amphioxus. PMID:21248255

  11. Chloroplastic Phosphoadenosine Phosphosulfate Metabolism Regulates Basal Levels of the Prohormone Jasmonic Acid in Arabidopsis Leaves1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Víctor M.; Chételat, Aurore; Majcherczyk, Paul; Farmer, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Levels of the enzymes that produce wound response mediators have to be controlled tightly in unwounded tissues. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) fatty acid oxygenation up-regulated8 (fou8) mutant catalyzes high rates of α -linolenic acid oxygenation and has higher than wild-type levels of the α -linolenic acid-derived wound response mediator jasmonic acid (JA) in undamaged leaves. fou8 produces a null allele in the gene SAL1 (also known as FIERY1 or FRY1). Overexpression of the wild-type gene product had the opposite effect of the null allele, suggesting a regulatory role of SAL1 acting in JA synthesis. The biochemical phenotypes in fou8 were complemented when the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) sulfur metabolism 3′(2′), 5′-bisphosphate nucleotidase MET22 was targeted to chloroplasts in fou8. The data are consistent with a role of SAL1 in the chloroplast-localized dephosphorylation of 3′-phospho-5′-adenosine phosphosulfate to 5′-adenosine phosphosulfate or in a closely related reaction (e.g. 3′,5′-bisphosphate dephosphorylation). Furthermore, the fou8 phenotype was genetically suppressed in a triple mutant (fou8 apk1 apk2) affecting chloroplastic 3′-phospho-5′-adenosine phosphosulfate synthesis. These results show that a nucleotide component of the sulfur futile cycle regulates early steps of JA production and basal JA levels. PMID:20053710

  12. CREB-mediated synaptogenesis and neurogenesis is crucial for the role of 5-HT1a receptors in modulating anxiety behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Cai, Cheng-Yun; Wu, Hai-Yin; Zhu, Li-Juan; Luo, Chun-Xia; Zhu, Dong-Ya

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin 1a-receptor (5-HT1aR) has been specifically implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety. However, the mechanism underlying the role of 5-HT1aR in anxiety remains poorly understood. Here we show in mice that the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus functions as an effector of 5-HT1aR in modulating anxiety-related behaviors. We generated recombinant lentivirus LV-CREB133-GFP expressing a dominant negative CREB which could not be phosphorylated at Ser133 to specifically reduce CREB activity, and LV-VP16-CREB-GFP expressing a constitutively active fusion protein VP16-CREB which could be phosphorylated by itself to specifically enhance CREB activity. LV-CREB133-GFP neutralized 5-HT1aR agonist-induced up-regulation of synapse density, spine density, dendrite complexity, neurogenesis, and the expression of synapsin and spinophilin, two well-characterized synaptic proteins, and abolished the anxiolytic effect of 5-HT1aR agonist; whereas LV-VP16-CREB-GFP rescued the 5-HT1aR antagonist-induced down-regulation of synapse density, spine density, dendrite complexity, neurogenesis and synapsin and spinophilin expression, and reversed the anxiogenic effect of 5-HT1aR antagonist. The deletion of neurogenesis by irradiation or the diminution of synaptogenesis by knockdown of synapsin expression abolished the anxiolytic effects of both CREB and 5-HT1aR activation. These findings suggest that CREB-mediated hippoacampus structural plasticity is crucial for the role of 5-HT1aR in modulating anxiety-related behaviors. PMID:27404655

  13. Flow-induced protein kinase A-CREB pathway acts via BMP signaling to promote HSC emergence.

    PubMed

    Kim, Peter Geon; Nakano, Haruko; Das, Partha P; Chen, Michael J; Rowe, R Grant; Chou, Stephanie S; Ross, Samantha J; Sakamoto, Kathleen M; Zon, Leonard I; Schlaeger, Thorsten M; Orkin, Stuart H; Nakano, Atsushi; Daley, George Q

    2015-05-01

    Fluid shear stress promotes the emergence of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) of the developing mouse embryo. We determined that the AGM is enriched for expression of targets of protein kinase A (PKA)-cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), a pathway activated by fluid shear stress. By analyzing CREB genomic occupancy from chromatin-immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) data, we identified the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway as a potential regulator of CREB. By chemical modulation of the PKA-CREB and BMP pathways in isolated AGM VE-cadherin(+) cells from mid-gestation embryos, we demonstrate that PKA-CREB regulates hematopoietic engraftment and clonogenicity of hematopoietic progenitors, and is dependent on secreted BMP ligands through the type I BMP receptor. Finally, we observed blunting of this signaling axis using Ncx1-null embryos, which lack a heartbeat and intravascular flow. Collectively, we have identified a novel PKA-CREB-BMP signaling pathway downstream of shear stress that regulates HSC emergence in the AGM via the endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition. PMID:25870201

  14. Deletion of creB in Aspergillus oryzae increases secreted hydrolytic enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Hunter, A J; Morris, T A; Jin, B; Saint, C P; Kelly, J M

    2013-09-01

    Aspergillus oryzae has been used in the food and beverage industry for centuries, and industrial strains have been produced by multiple rounds of selection. Targeted gene deletion technology is particularly useful for strain improvement in such strains, particularly when they do not have a well-characterized meiotic cycle. Phenotypes of an Aspergillus nidulans strain null for the CreB deubiquitinating enzyme include effects on growth and repression, including increased activity levels of various enzymes. We show that Aspergillus oryzae contains a functional homologue of the CreB deubiquitinating enzyme and that a null strain shows increased activity levels of industrially important secreted enzymes, including cellulases, xylanases, amylases, and proteases, as well as alleviated inhibition of spore germination on glucose medium. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed that the increased levels of enzyme activity in both Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus oryzae are mirrored at the transcript level, indicating transcriptional regulation. We report that Aspergillus oryzae DAR3699, originally isolated from soy fermentation, has a similar phenotype to that of a creB deletion mutant of the RIB40 strain, and it contains a mutation in the creB gene. Collectively, the results for Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus nidulans, Trichoderma reesei, and Penicillium decumbens show that deletion of creB may be broadly useful in diverse fungi for increasing production of a variety of enzymes. PMID:23835170

  15. CREB1 Genotype Modulates Adaptive Reward-Based Decisions in Humans.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Claudia; Mohr, Holger; Diekhof, Esther K; Vieker, Henning; Goya-Maldonado, Roberto; Trost, Sarah; Krämer, Bernd; Keil, Maria; Binder, Elisabeth B; Gruber, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) contributes to adaptation of mesocorticolimbic networks by modulating activity-regulated transcription and plasticity in neurons. Activity or expression changes of CREB in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and orbital frontal cortex (OFC) interact with behavioral changes during reward-motivated learning. However, these findings from animal models have not been evaluated in humans. We tested whether CREB1 genotypes affect reward-motivated decisions and related brain activation, using BOLD fMRI in 224 young and healthy participants. More specifically, participants needed to adapt their decision to either pursue or resist immediate rewards to optimize the reward outcome. We found significant CREB1 genotype effects on choices to pursue increases of the reward outcome and on BOLD signal in the NAc, OFC, insula cortex, cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, amygdala, and precuneus during these decisions in comparison with those decisions avoiding total reward loss. Our results suggest that CREB1 genotype effects in these regions could contribute to individual differences in reward- and associative memory-based decision-making. PMID:26045569

  16. Deletion of creB in Aspergillus oryzae Increases Secreted Hydrolytic Enzyme Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, A. J.; Morris, T. A.; Jin, B.; Saint, C. P.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae has been used in the food and beverage industry for centuries, and industrial strains have been produced by multiple rounds of selection. Targeted gene deletion technology is particularly useful for strain improvement in such strains, particularly when they do not have a well-characterized meiotic cycle. Phenotypes of an Aspergillus nidulans strain null for the CreB deubiquitinating enzyme include effects on growth and repression, including increased activity levels of various enzymes. We show that Aspergillus oryzae contains a functional homologue of the CreB deubiquitinating enzyme and that a null strain shows increased activity levels of industrially important secreted enzymes, including cellulases, xylanases, amylases, and proteases, as well as alleviated inhibition of spore germination on glucose medium. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed that the increased levels of enzyme activity in both Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus oryzae are mirrored at the transcript level, indicating transcriptional regulation. We report that Aspergillus oryzae DAR3699, originally isolated from soy fermentation, has a similar phenotype to that of a creB deletion mutant of the RIB40 strain, and it contains a mutation in the creB gene. Collectively, the results for Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus nidulans, Trichoderma reesei, and Penicillium decumbens show that deletion of creB may be broadly useful in diverse fungi for increasing production of a variety of enzymes. PMID:23835170

  17. Inducible forebrain-specific ablation of the transcription factor Creb during adulthood induces anxiety but no spatial/contextual learning deficits

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Miriam A.; Inta, Dragos; Luoni, Alessia; Elkin, Hasan; Pfeiffer, Natascha; Riva, Marco A.; Gass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element binding protein (CREB) is an activity-dependent transcription factor playing a role in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, and emotional behavior. However, the impact of Creb ablation on rodent behavior is vague as e.g., memory performance of different Creb mutant mice depends on the specific type of mutation per se but additionally on the background and learning protocol differences. Here we present the first targeted ablation of CREB induced during adulthood selectively in principal forebrain neurons in a pure background strain of C57BL/6 mice. All hippocampal principal neurons exhibited lack of CREB expression. Mutant mice showed a severe anxiety phenotype in the openfield and novel object exploration test as well as in the Dark-Light Box Test, but unaltered hippocampus-dependent long-term memory in the Morris water maze and in context dependent fear conditioning. On the molecular level, CREB ablation led to CREM up regulation in the hippocampus and frontal cortex which may at least in part compensate for the loss of CREB. BDNF, a postulated CREB target gene, was down regulated in the frontal lobe but not in the hippocampus; neurogenesis remained unaltered. Our data indicate that in the adult mouse forebrain the late onset of CREB ablation can, in case of memory functionality, be compensated for and is not essential for memory consolidation and retrieval during adulthood. In contrast, the presence of CREB protein during adulthood seems to be pivotal for the regulation of emotional behavior. PMID:25505876

  18. GABA(A) Receptor Pi (GABRP) Stimulates Basal-like Breast Cancer Cell Migration through Activation of Extracellular-regulated Kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2)*

    PubMed Central

    Sizemore, Gina M.; Sizemore, Steven T.; Seachrist, Darcie D.; Keri, Ruth A.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease comprised of distinct subtypes predictive of patient outcome. Tumors of the basal-like subtype have a poor prognosis due to inherent aggressiveness and the lack of targeted therapeutics. Basal-like tumors typically lack estrogen receptor-α, progesterone receptor and HER2/ERBB2, or in other words they are triple negative (TN). Continued evaluation of basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) biology is essential to identify novel therapeutic targets. Expression of the pi subunit of the GABA(A) receptor (GABRP) is associated with the BLBC/TN subtype, and herein, we reveal its expression also correlates with metastases to the brain and poorer patient outcome. GABRP expression in breast cancer cell lines also demonstrates a significant correlation with the basal-like subtype suggesting that GABRP functions in the initiation and/or progression of basal-like tumors. To address this postulate, we stably silenced GABRP in two BLBC cell lines, HCC1187 and HCC70 cells. Decreased GABRP reduces in vitro tumorigenic potential and migration concurrent with alterations in the cytoskeleton, specifically diminished cellular protrusions and expression of the BLBC-associated cytokeratins, KRT5, KRT6B, KRT14, and KRT17. Silencing GABRP also decreases phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in both cell lines and selective inhibition of ERK1/2 similarly decreases the basal-like cytokeratins as well as migration. Combined, these data reveal a GABRP-ERK1/2-cytokeratin axis that maintains the migratory phenotype of basal-like breast cancer. GABRP is a component of a cell surface receptor, thus, these findings suggest that targeting this new signaling axis may have therapeutic potential in BLBC. PMID:25012653

  19. The CREB Transcription Factor Controls Transcriptional Activity of the Human RIC8B Gene.

    PubMed

    Maureira, Alejandro; Sánchez, Rodolfo; Valenzuela, Nicole; Torrejón, Marcela; Hinrichs, María V; Olate, Juan; Gutiérrez, José L

    2016-08-01

    Proper regulation of gene expression is essential for normal development, cellular growth, and differentiation. Differential expression profiles of mRNA coding for vertebrate Ric-8B during embryo and adult stages have been observed. In addition, Ric-8B is expressed in few cerebral nuclei subareas. These facts point to a dynamic control of RIC8B gene expression. In order to understand the transcriptional regulation of this gene, we searched for cis-elements in the sequence of the human RIC8B promoter region, identifying binding sites for the basic/leucine zipper (bZip) CREB transcription factor family (CRE sites) and C/EBP transcription factor family (C/EBP sites). CRE sites were found clustered near the transcription start site, while the C/EBP sites were found clustered at around 300 bp upstream the CRE sites. Here, we demonstrate the ability of CREB1 and C/EBPβ to bind their respective elements identified in the RIC8B promoter. Comparative protein-DNA interaction analyses revealed only the proximal elements as high affinity sites for CREB1 and only the distal elements as high affinity sites for C/EBPβ. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses, carried out using a human neuroblastoma cell line, confirmed the preferential association of CREB to the proximal region of the RIC8B promoter. By performing luciferase reporter assays, we found the CRE sites as the most relevant elements for its transcriptional activity. Taken together, these data show the existence of functional CREB and C/EBP binding sites in the human RIC8B gene promoter, a particular distribution of these sites and demonstrate a relevant role of CREB in stimulating transcriptional activity of this gene. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1797-1805, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26729411

  20. Identification and characterization of a gibberellin-regulated protein, which is ASR5, in the basal region of rice leaf sheaths.

    PubMed

    Takasaki, Hironori; Mahmood, Tariq; Matsuoka, Makoto; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2008-04-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) regulate growth and development in higher plants. To identify GA-regulated proteins during rice leaf sheath elongation, a proteomic approach was used. Proteins from the basal region of leaf sheath in rice seedling treated with GA(3) were analyzed by fluorescence two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. The levels of abscisic acid-stress-ripening-inducible 5 protein (ASR5), elongation factor-1 beta, translationally controlled tumor protein, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase and a novel protein increased; whereas the level of RuBisCO subunit binding-protein decreased by GA(3) treatment. ASR5 out of these six proteins was significantly regulated by GA(3) at the protein level but not at the mRNA level in the basal region of leaf sheaths. Since this protein is regulated not only by abscisic acid but also by GA(3), these results indicate that ASR5 might be involved in plant growth in addition to stress in the basal regions of leaf sheaths. PMID:18210155

  1. Chronic mild stress inhibits BDNF protein expression and CREB activation in the dentate gyrus but not in the hippocampus proper.

    PubMed

    Grønli, Janne; Bramham, Clive; Murison, Robert; Kanhema, Tambudzai; Fiske, Eldbjørg; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Ursin, Reidun; Portas, Chiara M

    2006-12-01

    Chronic stress is linked to development of depression and may trigger neurobiological changes underlying the disease. Downregulation of the secretory peptide brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the transcriptional regulator calcium/cyclic-AMP responsive binding protein (CREB) have been implicated in stress and depression-related pathology in animal studies. When animals are exposed to the chronic mild stress (CMS) protocol, multiple depression-like symptoms are observed. Here we investigated the effect of CMS on BDNF protein expression and CREB activation in the dentate gyrus and hippocampus proper. Rats exposed for 5 weeks to repeated, unpredictable, mild stressors showed reduced BDNF expression and inhibited phosphorylation of CREB (Ser-133) in the dentate gyrus (-25.0%+/-3.5% and -29.7+/-7.3%, respectively), whereas no significant effects were observed in the hippocampus proper. CMS-treated rats consumed less sucrose compared to control rats, indicating a state of anhedonia. Moreover, phospho-CREB levels in the dentate gyrus were positively correlated with the animals' sucrose intake at the end of the CMS protocol. These results couple chronic mild stress to a downregulation of CREB activity and BDNF protein expression specifically within the dentate gyrus and support the possibility that the BDNF-CREB system plays an important role in the response to environmental challenges. PMID:17204313

  2. Basal regulation of HPA and dopamine systems is altered differentially in males and females by prenatal alcohol exposure and chronic variable stress

    PubMed Central

    Uban, Kristina A.; Comeau, Wendy; Ellis, Linda A.; Galea, Liisa A. M.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on central nervous system function include an increased prevalence of mental health problems, including substance use disorders (SUD). The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and dopamine systems have overlapping neurocircuitries and are both implicated in SUD. PAE alters both HPA and dopaminergic activity and regulation, resulting in increased HPA tone and an overall reduction in tonic dopamine activity. However, effects of PAE on the interaction between HPA and dopamine (DA) systems have not been investigated. The present study examined PAE effects on basal regulation of central stress and dopamine systems in key brain regions where these systems intersect. Adult Sprague-Dawley male and female offspring from prenatal alcohol-exposed (PAE), pairfed (PF), and ad libitum-fed control (C) groups were subjected to chronic variable stress (CVS) or remained as a no stress (non-CVS) control group. Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA, as well as glucocorticoid and DA receptor (DA-R) expression were measured under basal conditions 24 hours following the end of CVS. We show, for the first time, that regulation of basal HPA and DA systems, and likely, HPA-DA interactions, are altered differentially in males and females by PAE and CVS. PAE augmented the typical attenuation in weight gain during CVS in males and caused increased weight loss in females. Increased basal corticosterone levels in control, but not PAE, females suggest that PAE alters the profile of basal hormone secretion throughout CVS. CVS downregulated basal CRH mRNA in the prefrontal cortex and throughout the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in PAE females but only in the posterior BNST of control females. PAE males and females exposed to CVS exhibited more widespread upregulation of basal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) mRNA throughout the hippocampus, and an attenuated decrease in DA-R expression throughout the nucleus accumbens and striatum compared

  3. cAMP-response-element-binding protein positively regulates breast cancer metastasis and subsequent bone destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Jieun; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Ha-Neui; Ha, Hyunil Lee, Zang Hee

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} CREB is highly expressed in advanced breast cancer cells. {yields} Tumor-related factors such as TGF-{beta} further elevate CREB expression. {yields} CREB upregulation stimulates metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. {yields} CREB signaling is required for breast cancer-induced bone destruction. -- Abstract: cAMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB) signaling has been reported to be associated with cancer development and poor clinical outcome in various types of cancer. However, it remains to be elucidated whether CREB is involved in breast cancer development and osteotropism. Here, we found that metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells exhibited higher CREB expression than did non-metastatic MCF-7 cells and that CREB expression was further increased by several soluble factors linked to cancer progression, such as IL-1, IGF-1, and TGF-{beta}. Using wild-type CREB and a dominant-negative form (K-CREB), we found that CREB signaling positively regulated the proliferation, migration, and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, K-CREB prevented MDA-MB-231 cell-induced osteolytic lesions in a mouse model of cancer metastasis. Furthermore, CREB signaling in cancer cells regulated the gene expression of PTHrP, MMPs, and OPG, which are closely involved in cancer metastasis and bone destruction. These results indicate that breast cancer cells acquire CREB overexpression during their development and that this CREB upregulation plays an important role in multiple steps of breast cancer bone metastasis.

  4. MOT2 encodes a negative regulator of gene expression that affects basal expression of pheromone-responsive genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Cade, R M; Errede, B

    1994-01-01

    Pheromones induce haploid cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to differentiate into a mating-competent state. Ste11p is one of several protein kinases required to transmit the pheromone-induced signal and to maintain basal expression of certain mating-specific genes in the absence of pheromone stimulation. To identify potential regulators of Ste11p, we screened for suppressors that restored mating and basal transcriptional competence to a strain with a conditionally functional Ste11p. This screen uncovered a novel gene we call MOT2, for modulator of transcription. A mot2 deletion mutation leads to modest increases in the basal amounts of mRNA for several pheromone-responsive genes. Yet mot2 deletion does not affect the signal transmission activity of the pathway in either the presence or absence of pheromone stimulation. Therefore, we propose that Mot2p, directly or indirectly, represses basal transcription of certain mating-specific genes. Because mot2 deletion mutants also have a conditional cell lysis phenotype, we expect that Mot2p regulatory effects may be more global than for mating-specific gene expression. Images PMID:8164669

  5. Flow-induced protein kinase A–CREB pathway acts via BMP signaling to promote HSC emergence

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Peter Geon; Nakano, Haruko; Das, Partha P.; Chen, Michael J.; Rowe, R. Grant; Chou, Stephanie S.; Ross, Samantha J.; Sakamoto, Kathleen M.; Zon, Leonard I.; Schlaeger, Thorsten M.; Orkin, Stuart H.; Nakano, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Fluid shear stress promotes the emergence of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the aorta–gonad–mesonephros (AGM) of the developing mouse embryo. We determined that the AGM is enriched for expression of targets of protein kinase A (PKA)–cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), a pathway activated by fluid shear stress. By analyzing CREB genomic occupancy from chromatin-immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) data, we identified the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway as a potential regulator of CREB. By chemical modulation of the PKA–CREB and BMP pathways in isolated AGM VE-cadherin+ cells from mid-gestation embryos, we demonstrate that PKA–CREB regulates hematopoietic engraftment and clonogenicity of hematopoietic progenitors, and is dependent on secreted BMP ligands through the type I BMP receptor. Finally, we observed blunting of this signaling axis using Ncx1-null embryos, which lack a heartbeat and intravascular flow. Collectively, we have identified a novel PKA–CREB–BMP signaling pathway downstream of shear stress that regulates HSC emergence in the AGM via the endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition. PMID:25870201

  6. Differential basal-to-apical accessibility of lamin A/C epitopes in the nuclear lamina regulated by changes in cytoskeletal tension

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Florian A.; Schwartlander, Ruth; Moeller, Jens; Vogel, Viola

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear lamins play central roles at the intersection between cytoplasmic signalling and nuclear events. Here, we show that at least two N- and C-terminal lamin epitopes are not accessible at the basal side of the nuclear envelope under environmental conditions known to upregulate cell contractility. The conformational epitope on the Ig-domain of A-type lamins is more buried in the basal than apical nuclear envelope of human mesenchymal stem cells undergoing osteogenesis (but not adipogenesis), and in fibroblasts adhering to rigid (but not soft) polyacrylamide hydrogels. This structural polarization of the lamina is promoted by compressive forces, emerges during cell spreading, and requires lamin A/C multimerization, intact nucleoskeleton-cytoskeleton linkages (LINC), and apical-actin stress-fibre assembly. Notably, the identified Igepitope overlaps with emerin, DNA and histone binding sites, and comprises various laminopathy mutation sites. Our findings should help deciphering how the physical properties of cellular microenvironments regulate nuclear events. PMID:26301768

  7. Differential basal-to-apical accessibility of lamin A/C epitopes in the nuclear lamina regulated by changes in cytoskeletal tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihalainen, Teemu O.; Aires, Lina; Herzog, Florian A.; Schwartlander, Ruth; Moeller, Jens; Vogel, Viola

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear lamins play central roles at the intersection between cytoplasmic signalling and nuclear events. Here, we show that at least two N- and C-terminal lamin epitopes are not accessible at the basal side of the nuclear envelope under environmental conditions known to upregulate cell contractility. The conformational epitope on the Ig-domain of A-type lamins is more buried in the basal than apical nuclear envelope of human mesenchymal stem cells undergoing osteogenesis (but not adipogenesis), and in fibroblasts adhering to rigid (but not soft) polyacrylamide hydrogels. This structural polarization of the lamina is promoted by compressive forces, emerges during cell spreading, and requires lamin A/C multimerization, intact nucleoskeleton-cytoskeleton linkages (LINC), and apical-actin stress-fibre assembly. Notably, the identified Ig-epitope overlaps with emerin, DNA and histone binding sites, and comprises various laminopathy mutation sites. Our findings should help decipher how the physical properties of cellular microenvironments regulate nuclear events.

  8. GSK-3/CREB pathway involved in the gx-50's effect on Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Tang, Maoping; Shi, Shi; Guo, Yubing; Xu, Wangjie; Wang, Lianyun; Chen, Yi; Wang, Zhaoxia; Qiao, Zhongdong

    2014-06-01

    Aggregation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) fragments is one of the major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our previous study has demonstrated that a novel compound named N-[2-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl) ethyl]-3-phenyl-acrylamide (gx-50) can decrease the accumulation of Aβ oligomers in the cerebral cortex and improve the cognitive abilities in transgenic demented mice. To further study the mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of gx-50 against AD, we employed microarray to investigate the gene expression profile of the primary cultured neurons treated with gx-50 or/and Aβ. Microarray disclosed 351 genes associated with AD in the gx-50 plus Aβ treated group, out of the 22,523 probes. 217 of the 351 genes were significantly up-regulated, 134 of them were down-regulated. The 351 genes were mainly involved in neurotransmission, signal transduction, nervous system development, protein phosphorylation, transcription and apoptosis. By the Onto-pathway analysis, a network involved two molecules - GSK-3, CREB and another two closely linked proteins - AKT, BDNF was discovered. The GSK/CREB pathway was further studied at the gene and protein level both in vivo and in vitro. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis showed that the gx-50 elevated the AKT phosphorylation and inhibited its downstream protein - GSK-3's activity, then restored the CREB's transcriptional activity, and finally enhanced the expression of the CREB target gene - BDNF. In addition, the real-time PCR results displayed the same tendency. In conclusion, studies in this research indicated that the gx-50 may improve the cognitive ability of AD via the GSK-3/CREB pathway. PMID:24565641

  9. Nitric oxide protects neuroblastoma cells from apoptosis induced by serum deprivation through cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) activation.

    PubMed

    Ciani, Elisabetta; Guidi, Sandra; Della Valle, Giuliano; Perini, Giovanni; Bartesaghi, Renata; Contestabile, Antonio

    2002-12-20

    The transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) mediates survival in many cells, including neurons. Recently, death of cerebellar granule neurons due to nitric oxide (NO) deprivation was shown to be accompanied by down-regulation of CREB activity (). We now provide evidence that overproduction of endogenous NO or supplementation with exogenous NO renders SK-N-BE human neuroblastoma cells more resistant to apoptosis induced by serum deprivation. Parental cells underwent apoptosis after 24 h of serum deprivation, an outcome largely absent in clones overexpressing human neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). This protective effect was reversed by the inhibition of NOS itself or soluble guanylyl cyclase, pointing at cGMP as an intermediate effector of NO-mediated rescue. A slow-releasing NO donor protected parental cells to a significant extent, thus confirming the survival effect of NO. The impaired viability of serum-deprived parental cells was accompanied by a strong decrease of CREB phosphorylation and transcriptional activity, effects significantly attenuated in nNOS-overexpressing clones. To confirm the role of CREB in survival, the ectopic expression of CREB and/or protein kinase A largely counteracted serum deprivation-induced cell death of SK-N-BE cells, whereas transfection with a CREB negative mutant was ineffective. These experiments indicate that CREB activity is an important step for NO-mediated survival in neuronal cells. PMID:12368293

  10. Basal and stress-inducible expression of HSPA6 in human keratinocytes is regulated by negative and positive promoter regions.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Vincent P; Stamatis, Michael; Shmukler, Anastasia; Aneskievich, Brian J

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes serve as the primary barrier between the body and environmental stressors. They are subjected to numerous stress events and are likely to respond with a repertoire of heat shock proteins (HSPs). HSPA6 (HSP70B') is described in other cell types with characteristically low to undetectable basal expression, but is highly stress induced. Despite this response in other cells, little is known about its control in keratinocytes. We examined endogenous human keratinocyte HSPA6 expression and localized some responsible transcription factor sites in a cloned HSPA6 3 kb promoter. Using promoter 5' truncations and deletions, negative and positive regulatory regions were found throughout the 3 kb promoter. A region between -346 and -217 bp was found to be crucial to HSPA6 basal expression and stress inducibility. Site-specific mutations and DNA-binding studies show that a previously uncharacterized AP1 site contributes to the basal expression and maximal stress induction of HSPA6. Additionally, a new heat shock element (HSE) within this region was defined. While this element mediates increased transcriptional response in thermally stressed HaCaT keratinocytes, it preferentially binds a stress-inducible factor other than heat shock factor (HSF)1 or HSF2. Intriguingly, this newly characterized HSPA6 HSE competes HSF1 binding a consensus HSE and binds both HSF1 and HSF2 from other epithelial cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the HSPA6 promoter contains essential negative and positive promoter regions and newly identified transcription factor targets, which are key to the basal and stress-inducible expression of HSPA6. Furthermore, these results suggest that an HSF-like factor may preferentially bind this newly identified HSPA6 HSE in HaCaT cells. PMID:25073946

  11. NR2B-containing NMDA receptors promote neural progenitor cell proliferation through CaMKIV/CREB pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Mei; Zhang, Dong-Qing; Wang, Xiang-Zhen; Xu, Tie-Jun

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} The NR2B component of the NMDARs is important for the NSPC proliferation. {yields} pCaMKIV and pCREB exist in NSPCs. {yields} The CaMKIV/CREB pathway mediates NSPC proliferation. -- Abstract: Accumulating evidence indicates the involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in regulating neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) proliferation. Functional properties of NMDARs can be markedly influenced by incorporating the regulatory subunit NR2B. Here, we aim to analyze the effect of NR2B-containing NMDARs on the proliferation of hippocampal NSPCs and to explore the mechanism responsible for this effect. NSPCs were shown to express NMDAR subunits NR1 and NR2B. The NR2B selective antagonist, Ro 25-6981, prevented the NMDA-induced increase in cell proliferation. Moreover, we demonstrated that the phosphorylation levels of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) were increased by NMDA treatment, whereas Ro 25-6981 decreased them. The role that NR2B-containing NMDARs plays in NSPC proliferation was abolished when CREB phosphorylation was attenuated by CaMKIV silencing. These results suggest that NR2B-containing NMDARs have a positive role in regulating NSPC proliferation, which may be mediated through CaMKIV phosphorylation and subsequent induction of CREB activation.

  12. Neuronal activity controls Bdnf expression via Polycomb de-repression and CREB/CBP/JMJD3 activation in mature neurons

    PubMed Central

    Palomer, Ernest; Carretero, Javier; Benvegnù, Stefano; Dotti, Carlos G.; Martin, Mauricio G.

    2016-01-01

    It has been recently described that in embryonic stem cells, the expression of some important developmentally regulated genes is repressed, but poised for fast activation under the appropriate stimuli. In this work we show that Bdnf promoters are repressed by Polycomb Complex 2 in mature hippocampal neurons, and basal expression is guaranteed by the coexistence with activating histone marks. Neuronal stimulation triggered by N-methyl-D-aspartate application induces the transcription of these promoters by H3K27Me3 demethylation and H3K27Me3 phosphorylation at Serine 28 leading to displacement of EZH2, the catalytic subunit of Polycomb Repressor Complex 2. Our data show that the fast transient expression of Bdnf promoters II and VI after neuronal stimulation is dependent on acetylation of histone H3K27 by CREB-p/CBP. Thus, regulatory mechanisms established during development seem to remain after differentiation controlling genes induced by different stimuli, as would be the case of early memory genes in mature neurons. PMID:27010597

  13. Membrane-tethered AKT kinase regulates basal synaptic transmission and early phase LTP expression by modulation of post-synaptic AMPA receptor level.

    PubMed

    Pen, Y; Borovok, N; Reichenstein, M; Sheinin, A; Michaelevski, I

    2016-09-01

    The serine/threonine kinase AKT/PKB plays a fundamental role in a wide variety of neuronal functions, including neuronal cell development, axonal growth, and synaptic plasticity. Multiple evidence link AKT signaling pathways to regulation of late phase long-term synaptic plasticity, synaptogenesis, and spinogenesis, as well as long-term memory formation. Nevertheless, the downstream effectors mediating the effects of AKT on early phase long-term potentiation (eLTP) are currently unknown. Here we report that using different regimes of pharmacological activation and inhibition of AKT activity in acute hippocampal slices, we found that AKT regulates the post-synaptic expression of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPA) receptors affecting solely the expression of eLTP, with no effect on its induction and maintenance. We further show that both maintenance of basal synaptic activity and expression of eLTP require plasma membrane tethering by activated AKT and that basal synaptic activity may be regulated via the direct effects of AKT1 on the expression level of post-synaptic AMPA receptors bypassing the canonical AKT signaling. Finally, we establish that eLTP expression requires the involvement of both the canonical AKT signaling pathways and the direct effect of AKT1 on AMPA receptor activity/expression in the post-synaptic membrane. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27068236

  14. Identification of host transcriptional networks showing concentration-dependent regulation by HPV16 E6 and E7 proteins in basal cervical squamous epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen P; Scarpini, Cinzia G; Groves, Ian J; Odle, Richard I; Coleman, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Development of cervical squamous cell carcinoma requires increased expression of the major high-risk human-papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenes E6 and E7 in basal cervical epithelial cells. We used a systems biology approach to identify host transcriptional networks in such cells and study the concentration-dependent changes produced by HPV16-E6 and -E7 oncoproteins. We investigated sample sets derived from the W12 model of cervical neoplastic progression, for which high quality phenotype/genotype data were available. We defined a gene co-expression matrix containing a small number of highly-connected hub nodes that controlled large numbers of downstream genes (regulons), indicating the scale-free nature of host gene co-expression in W12. We identified a small number of 'master regulators' for which downstream effector genes were significantly associated with protein levels of HPV16 E6 (n = 7) or HPV16 E7 (n = 5). We validated our data by depleting E6/E7 in relevant cells and by functional analysis of selected genes in vitro. We conclude that the network of transcriptional interactions in HPV16-infected basal-type cervical epithelium is regulated in a concentration-dependent manner by E6/E7, via a limited number of central master-regulators. These effects are likely to be significant in cervical carcinogenesis, where there is competitive selection of cells with elevated expression of virus oncoproteins. PMID:27457222

  15. CaMKII-Mediated CREB Phosphorylation Is Involved in Ca2+-Induced BDNF mRNA Transcription and Neurite Outgrowth Promoted by Electrical Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaodong; Liu, Juanfang; Ye, Zhengxu; Huang, Jinghui; He, Fei; Xiao, Wei; Hu, Xueyu; Luo, Zhuojing

    2016-01-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES)-triggered up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurite outgrowth in cultured rat postnatal dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGNs) is calcium (Ca2+)-dependent. The effects of increased Ca2+ on BDNF up-regulation and neurite outgrowth remain unclear. We showed here that ES increased phosphorylation of the cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB). Blockade of Ca2+ suppressed CREB phosphorylation and neurite outgrowth. Down-regulation of phosphorylated (p)-CREB reduced BDNF transcription and neurite outgrowth triggered by ES. Furthermore, blockade of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) using the inhibitors KN93 or KN62 reduced p-CREB, and specific knockdown of the CaMKIIα or CaMKIIβ subunit was sufficient to suppress p-CREB. Recombinant BDNF or hyperforin reversed the effects of Ca2+ blockade and CaMKII knockdown. Taken together, these data establish a potential signaling pathway of Ca2+-CaMKII-CREB in neuronal activation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the mechanisms of Ca2+-dependent BDNF transcription and neurite outgrowth triggered by ES. These findings might help further investigation of complex molecular signaling networks in ES-triggered nerve regeneration in vivo. PMID:27611779

  16. CREBRF is a potent tumor suppressor of glioblastoma by blocking hypoxia-induced autophagy via the CREB3/ATG5 pathway.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hao; Zhang, Jinsen; Guo, Xing; Wang, Jian; Li, Jiangbing; Gao, Xiao; Guo, Xiaofan; Li, Tong; Xu, Shugang; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Qinglin; Li, Gang

    2016-08-01

    Hypoxia induces protective autophagy in advanced glioblastoma cells, and targeting this process may improve the outcome for glioblastoma patients. Recent studies have suggested that the autophagic process is upregulated in glioblastoma cells in response to extensive hypoxia. Here, we describe a novel tumor suppressor in glioblastoma cells, whereby hypoxia downregulated CREBRF expression and acts as a potent inhibitor of autophagy in glioblastoma cells via the CREB3/ATG5 pathway. Our results demonstrate that CREBRF expression negatively correlates with autophagic and HIF-1α levels in different grade gliomas. Given that CREBRF is a negative regulator of CREB3, CREB3 knockdown also repressed hypoxia-induced autophagy in glioblastoma cells in vitro. Collectively, our findings provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying hypoxia-induced glioblastoma cell autophagy and indicate that the hypoxia/CREBRF/CREB3/ATG5 pathway plays a central role in malignant glioma progression. PMID:27278737

  17. Identification of host transcriptional networks showing concentration-dependent regulation by HPV16 E6 and E7 proteins in basal cervical squamous epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephen P.; Scarpini, Cinzia G.; Groves, Ian J.; Odle, Richard I.; Coleman, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Development of cervical squamous cell carcinoma requires increased expression of the major high-risk human-papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenes E6 and E7 in basal cervical epithelial cells. We used a systems biology approach to identify host transcriptional networks in such cells and study the concentration-dependent changes produced by HPV16-E6 and -E7 oncoproteins. We investigated sample sets derived from the W12 model of cervical neoplastic progression, for which high quality phenotype/genotype data were available. We defined a gene co-expression matrix containing a small number of highly-connected hub nodes that controlled large numbers of downstream genes (regulons), indicating the scale-free nature of host gene co-expression in W12. We identified a small number of ‘master regulators’ for which downstream effector genes were significantly associated with protein levels of HPV16 E6 (n = 7) or HPV16 E7 (n = 5). We validated our data by depleting E6/E7 in relevant cells and by functional analysis of selected genes in vitro. We conclude that the network of transcriptional interactions in HPV16-infected basal-type cervical epithelium is regulated in a concentration-dependent manner by E6/E7, via a limited number of central master-regulators. These effects are likely to be significant in cervical carcinogenesis, where there is competitive selection of cells with elevated expression of virus oncoproteins. PMID:27457222

  18. CREB in the Pathophysiology of Cancer: Implications for Targeting Transcription Factors for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Kathleen M.; Frank, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Transcription factors are key regulators of the pattern of gene expression in a cell and directly control central processes such as proliferation, survival, self-renewal, and invasion. Given this critical role, the function of transcription factors is normally regulated closely, often through transient phosphorylation. Although transcription factors are not often directly modified by mutations in cancer cells, they frequently become activated constitutively through mutations affecting “upstream” pathways. By continually driving the expression of key target genes, these oncogenic transcription factors play a central role in tumor pathogenesis. One such transcription factor is the cAMP-regulatory element-binding protein (CREB), which can be activated through phosphorylation by a number of kinases, including Akt, p90Rsk, protein kinase A, and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases and regulates genes whose deregulated expression promotes oncogenesis, including cyclins, Bcl-2 family members, and Egr-1. CREB is overexpressed and constitutively phosphorylated in a number of forms of human cancer, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and non – small cell lung cancer, and appears to play a direct role in disease pathogenesis and prognosis. Although transcription factors have not been a central focus of drug development, recent advances suggest that CREB and other such proteins may be worthwhile targets for cancer therapy. PMID:19351775

  19. Basal brain oxidative and nitrative stress levels are finely regulated by the interplay between superoxide dismutase 2 and p53.

    PubMed

    Barone, Eugenio; Cenini, Giovanna; Di Domenico, Fabio; Noel, Teresa; Wang, Chi; Perluigi, Marzia; St Clair, Daret K; Butterfield, D Allan

    2015-11-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are the primary reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging enzymes of the cell and catalyze the dismutation of superoxide radicals O2- to H2O2 and molecular oxygen (O2). Among the three forms of SOD identified, manganese-containing SOD (MnSOD, SOD2) is a homotetramer located wholly in the mitochondrial matrix. Because of the SOD2 strategic location, it represents the first mechanism of defense against the augmentation of ROS/reactive nitrogen species levels in the mitochondria for preventing further damage. This study seeks to understand the effects that the partial lack (SOD2(-/+) ) or the overexpression (TgSOD2) of MnSOD produces on oxidative/nitrative stress basal levels in different brain isolated cellular fractions (i.e., mitochondrial, nuclear, cytosolic) as well as in the whole-brain homogenate. Furthermore, because of the known interaction between SOD2 and p53 protein, this study seeks to clarify the impact that the double mutation has on oxidative/nitrative stress levels in the brain of mice carrying the double mutation (p53(-/-) × SOD2(-/+) and p53(-/-) × TgSOD2). We show that each mutation affects mitochondrial, nuclear, and cytosolic oxidative/nitrative stress basal levels differently, but, overall, no change or reduction of oxidative/nitrative stress levels was found in the whole-brain homogenate. The analysis of well-known antioxidant systems such as thioredoxin-1 and Nrf2/HO-1/BVR-A suggests their potential role in the maintenance of the cellular redox homeostasis in the presence of changes of SOD2 and/or p53 protein levels. PMID:26251011

  20. Glucocorticoids Alter CRTC-CREB Signaling in Muscle Cells: Impact on PGC-1α Expression and Atrophy Markers

    PubMed Central

    Rahnert, Jill A.; Zheng, Bin; Hudson, Matthew B.; Woodworth-Hobbs, Myra E.; Price, S. Russ

    2016-01-01

    Muscle wasting associated with chronic diseases has been linked to decreased expression of PGC-1α and overexpression of PGC-1α counters muscle loss. CREB, in conjunction with the CREB-regulated transcription coactivator (CRTC2), is a positive modulator of PGC-1α transcription. We previously reported that PGC-1α expression is decreased in skeletal muscle of diabetic rats despite a high level of CREB phosphorylation (i.e., activation), suggesting that CRTC2-CREB signaling may be dysregulated. In this study, the relationship between CREB/CRTC signaling and PGC-1α expression was examined in L6 myotubes treated with dexamethasone (Dex, 48h) to induce atrophy. Dex decreased PGC-1α mRNA and protein as well as the levels of CRTC1 and CRTC2 in the nucleus. Dex also altered the nuclear levels of two known regulators of CRTC2 localization; the amount of calcinuerin catalytic A subunit (CnA) was decreased whereas SIK was increased. To assess PGC-1α transcription, muscle cells were transfected with a PGC-1α luciferase reporter plasmid (PGC-1α-Luc). Dex suppressed PGC-1α luciferase activity while both isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) and over-expression of CRTC1 or CRTC2 increased PGC-1α-Luc activity. Mutation of the CRE binding site from PGC-1α-Luc reporter attenuated the responses to both IBMX and the CRTC proteins. Consistent with the reporter gene results, overexpression of CRTC2 produced an increase in CRTC2 in the nucleus and in PGC-1α mRNA and PGC-1α protein. Overexpression of CRTC2 was not sufficient to prevent the decrease in PGC-1α mRNA or protein by Dex. In summary, these data suggest that attenuated CREB/CRTC signaling contributes to the decrease in PGC-1α expression during atrophy. PMID:27404111

  1. Association of Notch pathway down-regulation with Triple Negative/Basal-like breast carcinomas and high tumor-infiltrating FOXP3+ Tregs.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Martínez, Fernando; Gutiérrez-Aviñó, Francisco José; Sanmartín, Elena; Pomares-Navarro, Eloy; Villalba-Riquelme, Cristina; García-Martínez, Araceli; Lerma, Enrique; Peiró, Gloria

    2016-06-01

    T regulatory cells (Tregs) are a lineage of lymphocytes involved in immune response suppression that are characterized by the expression of the forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) transcription factor. Notch pathway regulates FOXP3 transcription in Tregs, but its role in breast cancer is unknown. We aimed at studying whether Notch pathway regulates FOXP3 expression and Tregs content in breast cancer, and its association with luminal breast carcinomas. We analyzed by quantitative Real-Time PCR the mRNA levels of FOXP3, Notch pathway genes (Notch1, Notch2, Notch4 and Jagged1) and STAT3 in a series of 152 breast carcinomas including hormone receptor-positive and -negative phenotypes (luminal and Triple Negative/Basal-like). We also studied the protein expression of Notch1, STAT3 and FOXP3 by immunohistochemistry. High FOXP3 mRNA levels correlated with larger tumor size (p=0.010), histological grade 3 (p=0.008) and positive lymph-node status (p=0.031). Also, low levels of Notch pathway genes mRNA correlated with poor prognostic factors such as larger tumor size, positive lymph-node status, tumor phenotype and infiltrating tumor Tregs. A survival analysis for the patients showed that large tumor size, histological grade 3, vascular invasion, infiltrating Tregs and low Notch1 mRNA expression were significantly associated with a decreased patients' overall survival (p≤0.05). On a multivariate analysis, high Tregs content (HR=3.00, 95% CI 1.04-8.90, p=0.042) and low Notch1 mRNA levels (HR=3.33, 95% CI 1.02-10.86, p=0.046) were independent markers for overall survival. Our results support that the Notch pathway up-regulation promotes luminal breast carcinomas, whereas down-regulation correlates with the expression of FOXP3, favors tumor Tregs infiltration and associates with Triple Negative/Basal-like tumors. PMID:27118257

  2. Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Mediates Negative Feedback to Somatotroph GH Expression via POU1F1/CREB Binding Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Pine-Twaddell, Elyse; Sima, Daniela I.; Miller, Ryan S.; He, Ling; Wondisford, Fredric; Radovick, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has been shown to act as a negative feedback regulator of growth hormone (GH) gene expression; however, the mechanism of this negative feedback is poorly understood. Activation and regulation of GH gene expression require the binding of the transcription factor POU1F1 to the GH promoter along with cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB) binding protein (CBP). We investigate the role of CBP as a target of IGF-1 somatotroph regulation using the MtT/S somatotroph cell line. IGF-1 significantly inhibits basal GH mRNA levels but not POU1F1 levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate inhibition of CBP binding to the GH promoter after IGF-1 treatment. We hypothesized that IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling disrupts the POU1F1/CBP complex to inhibit gene expression. In support, the use of a mutant CBP (S436A) construct, which lacks a critical phosphorylation site, leads to the loss of IGF-1 inhibition. The studies of CBP (S436A) knock-in mice show elevated serum GH levels, a greater response to GH releasing hormone (GHRH) stimulation along with lower weight gain, and decreased body fat. Our data confirm the inhibitory effects of IGF-1 on GH expression at the level of the promoter and provide evidence of CBP's role as a target of IGF-1R signaling. PMID:22890843

  3. Arabidopsis LIP5, a Positive Regulator of Multivesicular Body Biogenesis, Is a Critical Target of Pathogen-Responsive MAPK Cascade in Plant Basal Defense

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Shang, Yifen; Fan, Baofang; Yu, Jing-Quan; Chen, Zhixiang

    2014-01-01

    Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) play essential roles in many cellular processes. The MVB pathway requires reversible membrane association of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transports (ESCRTs) for sustained protein trafficking. Membrane dissociation of ESCRTs is catalyzed by the AAA ATPase SKD1, which is stimulated by LYST-INTERACTING PROTEIN 5 (LIP5). We report here that LIP5 is a target of pathogen-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases (MPKs) and plays a critical role in plant basal resistance. Arabidopsis LIP5 interacts with MPK6 and MPK3 and is phosphorylated in vitro by activated MPK3 and MPK6 and in vivo upon expression of MPK3/6-activating NtMEK2DD and pathogen infection. Disruption of LIP5 has little effects on flg22-, salicylic acid-induced defense responses but compromises basal resistance to Pseudomonas syringae. The critical role of LIP5 in plant basal resistance is dependent on its ability to interact with SKD1. Mutation of MPK phosphorylation sites in LIP5 does not affect interaction with SKD1 but reduces the stability and compromises the ability to complement the lip5 mutant phenotypes. Using the membrane-selective FM1–43 dye and transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrated that pathogen infection increases formation of both intracellular MVBs and exosome-like paramural vesicles situated between the plasma membrane and the cell wall in a largely LIP5-dependent manner. These results indicate that the MVB pathway is positively regulated by pathogen-responsive MPK3/6 through LIP5 phosphorylation and plays a critical role in plant immune system likely through relocalization of defense-related molecules. PMID:25010425

  4. Involvement of Phosphorylated "Apis Mellifera" CREB in Gating a Honeybee's Behavioral Response to an External Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, Katrin B.; Heufelder, Karin; Feige, Janina; Bauer, Paul; Dyck, Yan; Ehrhardt, Lea; Kühnemund, Johannes; Bergmann, Anja; Göbel, Josefine; Isecke, Marlene; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) is involved in neuronal plasticity. Phosphorylation activates CREB and an increased level of phosphorylated CREB is regarded as an indicator of CREB-dependent transcriptional activation. In honeybees ("Apis mellifera") we recently demonstrated a particular high…

  5. MiR-582-5p/miR-590-5p targeted CREB1/CREB5–NF-κB signaling and caused opioid-induced immunosuppression in human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Long, X; Li, Y; Qiu, S; Liu, J; He, L; Peng, Y

    2016-01-01

    Chronic opioid abusers are more susceptible to bacterial and viral infections, but the molecular mechanism underlying opioid-induced immunosuppression is unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as key players in the control of biological processes, and may participate in immune regulation. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms in opioid-induced and miRNA-mediated immunosuppression, in the context of miRNA dysregulation in opioid abusers. Blood samples of heroin abusers were collected and analyzed using miRNA microarray analysis and quantitative PCR validation. The purified primary human monocytes were cultured in vitro to explore the underlying mechanism. We found that morphine and its derivative heroin significantly decreased the expression levels of miR-582-5p and miR-590-5p in monocytes. cAMP response element-binding protein 1 (CREB1) and CREB5 were detected as direct target genes of miR-582-5p and miR-590-5p, respectively, by using dual-luciferase assay and western bolt. Functional studies showed that knockdown of CREB1/CREB5 increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) level and enhanced expression of phospho–NF-κB p65 and NF-κB p65. Our results demonstrated that miR-582-5p and miR-590-5p play important roles in opioid-induced immunosuppression in monocytes by targeting CREB1/CREB5–NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:26978739

  6. The p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 specifically affects mitotic progression by regulating the basal level, distribution and stability of mitotic spindles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yun Yeon; Nam, Hyun-Ja; Do, Mihyang; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2016-01-01

    RSK2, also known as RPS6KA3 (ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90 kDa, polypeptide 3), is a downstream kinase of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which is important in regulating survival, transcription, growth and proliferation. However, its biological role in mitotic progression is not well understood. In this study, we examined the potential involvement of RSK2 in the regulation of mitotic progression. Interestingly, depletion of RSK2, but not RSK1, caused the accumulation of mitotic cells. Time-lapse analysis revealed that mitotic duration, particularly the duration for metaphase-to-anaphase transition was prolonged in RSK2-depleted cells, suggesting activation of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Indeed, more BubR1 (Bub1-related kinase) was present on metaphase plate kinetochores in RSK2-depleted cells, and depletion of BubR1 abolished the mitotic accumulation caused by RSK2 depletion, confirming BubR1-dependent SAC activation. Along with the shortening of inter-kinetochore distance, these data suggested that weakening of the tension across sister kinetochores by RSK2 depletion led to the activation of SAC. To test this, we analyzed the RSK2 effects on the stability of kinetochore–microtubule interactions, and found that RSK2-depleted cells formed less kinetochore–microtubule fibers. Moreover, RSK2 depletion resulted in the decrease of basal level of microtubule as well as an irregular distribution of mitotic spindles, which might lead to observed several mitotic progression defects such as increase in unaligned chromosomes, defects in chromosome congression and a decrease in pole-to-pole distance in these cells. Taken together, our data reveal that RSK2 affects mitotic progression by regulating the distribution, basal level and the stability of mitotic spindles. PMID:27491410

  7. The DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine decreases melanin synthesis by inhibiting CREB phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jun Seob; Jeong, Hyo-Soon; Kim, Myo-Kyoung; Yun, Hye-Young; Baek, Kwang Jin; Kwon, Nyoun Soo; Kim, Dong-Seok

    2015-10-01

    Here we examined the effects of a DNA methylation inhibitor, 5-azacytidine, on melanogenesis in Mel-Ab cells. We found that 5-azacytidine decreased the melanin content and tyrosinase activity in these cells in a dose-dependent manner; importantly, 5-azacytidine was not cytotoxic at the concentrations used in these experiments. On the other hand, 5-azacytidine did not affect tyrosinase activity in a cell-free system, indicating that 5-azacytidine is not a direct tyrosinase inhibitor. Instead, 5-azacytidine decreased the protein levels of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase. Thus, we investigated the effects of 5-azacytidine on signal transduction pathways related to melanogenesis. However, 5-azacytidine did not have any effect on either Akt or glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) phosphorylation. The phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is well known to regulate MITF expression, thereby also regulating tyrosinase expression. We found that 5-azacytidine decreased the phosphorylation of CREB. Therefore, we propose that 5-azacytidine may decrease melanin synthesis by downregulating MITF and tyrosinase via CREB inactivation. PMID:26601420

  8. Glucocorticoid dexamethasone down-regulates basal and vitamin D3 induced cathelicidin expression in human monocytes and bronchial epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Nikhil Nitin; Gunnarsson, Hörður Ingi; Yi, Zhiqian; Gudmundsdottir, Steinunn; Sigurjonsson, Olafur E; Agerberth, Birgitta; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur H

    2016-02-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) have been extensively used as the mainstream treatment for chronic inflammatory disorders. The persistent use of steroids in the past decades and the association with secondary infections warrants for detailed investigation into their effects on the innate immune system and the therapeutic outcome. In this study, we analyse the effect of GCs on antimicrobial polypeptide (AMP) expression. We hypothesize that GC related side effects, including secondary infections are a result of compromised innate immune responses. Here, we show that treatment with dexamethasone (Dex) inhibits basal mRNA expression of the following AMPs; human cathelicidin, human beta defensin 1, lysozyme and secretory leukocyte peptidase 1 in the THP-1 monocytic cell-line (THP-1 monocytes). Furthermore, pre-treatment with Dex inhibits vitamin D3 induced cathelicidin expression in THP-1 monocytes, primary monocytes and in the human bronchial epithelial cell line BCi NS 1.1. We also demonstrate that treatment with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) inhibitor RU486 counteracts Dex mediated down-regulation of basal and vitamin D3 induced cathelicidin expression in THP-1 monocytes. Moreover, we confirmed the anti-inflammatory effect of Dex. Pre-treatment with Dex inhibits dsRNA mimic poly IC induction of the inflammatory chemokine IP10 (CXCL10) and cytokine IL1B mRNA expression in THP-1 monocytes. These results suggest that GCs inhibit innate immune responses, in addition to exerting beneficial anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:26358366

  9. Hyperlipidemia and hepatitis in liver-specific CREB3L3 knockout mice generated using a one-step CRISPR/Cas9 system

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Oikawa, Fusaka; Mizuno, Seiya; Ohno, Hiroshi; Yagishita, Yuka; Satoh, Aoi; Osaki, Yoshinori; Takei, Kenta; Kikuchi, Takuya; Han, Song-iee; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yatoh, Shigeru; Yahagi, Naoya; Isaka, Masaaki; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Sone, Hirohito; Takahashi, Satoru; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    cAMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 3 (CREB3L3), a transcription factor expressed in the liver and small intestine, governs fasting-response energy homeostasis. Tissue-specific CREB3L3 knockout mice have not been generated till date. To our knowledge, this is the first study using the one-step CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate CREB3L3 floxed mice and subsequently obtain liver- and small intestine-specific Creb3l3 knockout (LKO and IKO, respectively) mice. While LKO mice as well as global KO mice developed hypertriglyceridemia, LKO mice exhibited hypercholesterolemia in contrast to hypocholesterolemia in global KO mice. LKO mice demonstrated up-regulation of hepatic Srebf2 and its corresponding target genes. No phenotypic differences were observed between IKO and floxed mice. Severe liver injury was observed in LKO mice fed a methionine-choline deficient diet, a model for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. These results provide new evidence regarding the hepatic CREB3L3 role in plasma triglyceride metabolism and hepatic and intestinal CREB3L3 contributions to cholesterol metabolism. PMID:27291420

  10. Hyperlipidemia and hepatitis in liver-specific CREB3L3 knockout mice generated using a one-step CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Oikawa, Fusaka; Mizuno, Seiya; Ohno, Hiroshi; Yagishita, Yuka; Satoh, Aoi; Osaki, Yoshinori; Takei, Kenta; Kikuchi, Takuya; Han, Song-Iee; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yatoh, Shigeru; Yahagi, Naoya; Isaka, Masaaki; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Sone, Hirohito; Takahashi, Satoru; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    cAMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 3 (CREB3L3), a transcription factor expressed in the liver and small intestine, governs fasting-response energy homeostasis. Tissue-specific CREB3L3 knockout mice have not been generated till date. To our knowledge, this is the first study using the one-step CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate CREB3L3 floxed mice and subsequently obtain liver- and small intestine-specific Creb3l3 knockout (LKO and IKO, respectively) mice. While LKO mice as well as global KO mice developed hypertriglyceridemia, LKO mice exhibited hypercholesterolemia in contrast to hypocholesterolemia in global KO mice. LKO mice demonstrated up-regulation of hepatic Srebf2 and its corresponding target genes. No phenotypic differences were observed between IKO and floxed mice. Severe liver injury was observed in LKO mice fed a methionine-choline deficient diet, a model for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. These results provide new evidence regarding the hepatic CREB3L3 role in plasma triglyceride metabolism and hepatic and intestinal CREB3L3 contributions to cholesterol metabolism. PMID:27291420

  11. Aripiprazole Increases the PKA Signalling and Expression of the GABAA Receptor and CREB1 in the Nucleus Accumbens of Rats.

    PubMed

    Pan, Bo; Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Deng, Chao

    2016-05-01

    The GABAA receptor is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and regulated by PKA signalling. Current antipsychotics bind with D2-like receptors, but not the GABAA receptor. The cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 (CREB1) is also associated with PKA signalling and may be related to the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. This study investigated the effects of antipsychotics in modulating D2-mediated PKA signalling and its downstream GABAA receptors and CREB1. Rats were treated orally with aripiprazole (0.75 mg/kg, ter in die (t.i.d.)), bifeprunox (0.8 mg/kg, t.i.d.), haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, t.i.d.) or vehicle for 1 week. The levels of PKA-Cα and p-PKA in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc) and caudate putamen (CPu) were detected by Western blots. The mRNA levels of Gabrb1, Gabrb2, Gabrb3 and Creb1, and their protein expression were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blots, respectively. Aripiprazole elevated the levels of p-PKA and the ratio of p-PKA/PKA in the NAc, but not the PFC and CPu. Correlated with this elevated PKA signalling, aripiprazole elevated the mRNA and protein expression of the GABAA (β-1) receptor and CREB1 in the NAc. While haloperidol elevated the levels of p-PKA and the ratio of p-PKA/PKA in both NAc and CPu, it only tended to increase the expression of the GABAA (β-1) receptor and CREB1 in the NAc, but not the CPu. Bifeprunox had no effects on PKA signalling in these brain regions. These results suggest that aripiprazole has selective effects on upregulating the GABAA (β-1) receptor and CREB1 in the NAc, probably via activating PKA signalling. PMID:26894264

  12. Basal shuttle of NF-κB/IκBα in resting T lymphocytes regulates HIV-1 LTR dependent expression

    PubMed Central

    Coiras, Mayte; López-Huertas, María Rosa; Rullas, Joaquín; Mittelbrunn, Maria; Alcamí, José

    2007-01-01

    Background In HIV-infected T lymphocytes, NF-κB/Rel transcription factors are major elements involved in the activation of LTR-dependent transcription from latency. Most NF-κB heterodimer p65/p50 is sequestered as an inactive form in the cytoplasm of resting T lymphocytes via its interaction with IκB inhibitors. In these cells, both absolute HIV latency and low level ongoing HIV replication have been described. These situations could be related to differences in the balance between NF-κB and IκBα ratio. Actually, control of IκBα by cellular factors such as Murr-1 plays a critical role in maintaining HIV latency in unstimulated T lymphocytes. Formerly, our group demonstrated the presence of nuclear IκBα in T cells after PMA activation. Now we attempt to determine the dynamics of NF-κB/IκBα nucleocytosolic transport in absence of activation as a mechanism to explain both the maintenance of latency and the existence of low level ongoing HIV replication in resting CD4+ T lymphocytes. Results and conclusion We show that the inhibition of the nuclear export by leptomycin B in resting CD4+ T cells resulted in nuclear accumulation of both IκBα and p65/RelA, as well as formation of NF-κB/IκBα complexes. This proves the existence of a rapid shuttling of IκBα between nucleus and cytosol even in absence of cellular activation. The nuclear accumulation of IκBα in resting CD4+ T lymphocytes results in inhibition of HIV-LTR dependent transcription as well as restrains HIV replication in CD4+ T lymphocytes. On the other hand, basal NF-κB activity detected in resting CD4+ T lymphocytes was related to low level HIV replication in these cells. PMID:17686171

  13. An integrative genomic and transcriptomic analysis reveals molecular pathways and networks regulated by copy number aberrations in basal-like, HER2 and luminal cancers.

    PubMed

    Natrajan, Rachael; Weigelt, Britta; Mackay, Alan; Geyer, Felipe C; Grigoriadis, Anita; Tan, David S P; Jones, Chris; Lord, Christopher J; Vatcheva, Radost; Rodriguez-Pinilla, Socorro M; Palacios, Jose; Ashworth, Alan; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2010-06-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease caused by the accumulation of genetic changes in neoplastic cells. We hypothesised that molecular subtypes of breast cancer may be driven by specific constellations of genes whose expression is regulated by gene copy number aberrations. To address this question, we analysed a series of 48 microdissected grade III ductal carcinomas using high resolution microarray comparative genomic hybridisation and mRNA expression arrays. There were 5,931 genes whose expression significantly correlates with copy number identified; out of these, 1,897 genes were significantly differentially expressed between basal-like, HER2 and luminal tumours. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) revealed that 'G1/S cell cycle regulation' and 'BRCA1 in DNA damage control' pathways were significantly enriched for genes whose expression correlates with copy number and are differentially expressed between the molecular subtypes of breast cancer. IPA of genes whose expression significantly correlates with copy number in each molecular subtype individually revealed that canonical pathways involved in oestrogen receptor (ER) signalling and DNA repair are enriched for these genes. We also identified 32, 157 and 265 genes significantly overexpressed when amplified in basal-like, HER2 and luminal cancers, respectively. These lists include known and novel potential therapeutic targets (e.g. HER2 and PPM1D in HER2 cancers). Our results provide strong circumstantial evidence that different patterns of genetic aberrations in distinct molecular subtypes of breast cancer contribute to their specific transcriptomic profiles and that biological phenomena characteristic of each subtype (e.g. proliferation, HER2 and ER signalling) may be driven by specific patterns of copy number aberrations. PMID:19688261

  14. Phosphorylation of CREB, a cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein, contributes partially to lysophosphatidic acid-induced fibroblast cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Yong-Jun; Sun, Yuanjie; Kim, Nam-Ho; Huh, Sung-Oh

    2009-03-13

    Lysophospholipids regulate a wide array of biological processes including cell survival and proliferation. In our previous studies, we found that in addition to SRE, CRE is required for maximal c-fos promoter activation triggered by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). c-fos is an early indicator of various cells into the cell cycle after mitogenic stimulation. However, role of CREB activation in LPA-stimulated proliferation has not been elucidated yet. Here, we investigate how LPA induces proliferation in Rat-2 fibroblast cell via CREB activation. We found that total cell number and BrdU-positive cells were increased by LPA. Moreover, levels of c-fos mRNA and cyclin D1 protein were increased via LPA-induced CREB phosphorylation. Furthermore, LPA-induced Rat-2 cell proliferation was decreased markedly by ERK inhibitor (U0126) and partially by MSK inhibitor (H89). Taken together, these results suggest that CREB activation could partially up-regulate accumulation of cyclin D1 protein level and proliferation of LPA-stimulated Rat-2 fibroblast cells.

  15. Expression of cFLIPL Determines the Basal Interaction of Bcl-2 With Beclin-1 and Regulates p53 Dependent Ubiquitination of Beclin-1 During Autophagic Stress.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Kishu; Pathak, Chandramani

    2016-08-01

    Autophagy and apoptosis are two different physiological processes, which is required for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. The apoptosis associated proteins such as Bcl-2 and p53 have a close association with autophagic proteins HMGB1 and Beclin-1 to modulate autophagic signaling. We demonstrate here the involvement of anti-apoptotic protein cFLIPL in the regulation of autophagy during cellular stress. We found that ectopic expression of cFLIPL decreases the sensitivity of HEK 293T cells against rapamycin and H2 O2 induced autophagic stress. Notably, the selective knockdown of cFLIPL augments autophagic stress in the cells accompanied with JNK1 activation and p53 dependent ubiquitination of Beclin-1. However, re-expression of cFLIPL in cFLIP knockdown cells restores autophagic equilibrium collectively with reversible effects on JNK1 and Beclin-1 integrity. The co-immunoprecipitation analysis suggests that cFLIPL is essential to maintain the canonical interaction of Bcl-2 with Beclin-1 to regulate autophagic stress and cell death. Altogether, our findings suggest that expression of cFLIPL regulates the basal interaction of Bcl-2 with Beclin-1 and substantiates p53 dependent ubiquitination of Beclin-1 during autophagic stress to determine the fate of cell death or survival. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1757-1768, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26682748

  16. Three nuclear and two membrane estrogen receptors in basal teleosts, Anguilla sp.: Identification, evolutionary history and differential expression regulation.

    PubMed

    Lafont, Anne-Gaëlle; Rousseau, Karine; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Dufour, Sylvie

    2016-09-01

    Estrogens interact with classical intracellular nuclear receptors (ESR), and with G-coupled membrane receptors (GPER). In the eel, we identified three nuclear (ESR1, ESR2a, ESR2b) and two membrane (GPERa, GPERb) estrogen receptors. Duplicated ESR2 and GPER were also retrieved in most extant teleosts. Phylogeny and synteny analyses suggest that they result from teleost whole genome duplication (3R). In contrast to conserved 3R-duplicated ESR2 and GPER, one of 3R-duplicated ESR1 has been lost shortly after teleost emergence. Quantitative PCRs revealed that the five receptors are all widely expressed in the eel, but with differential patterns of tissue expression and regulation. ESR1 only is consistently up-regulated in vivo in female eel BPG-liver axis during induced sexual maturation, and also up-regulated in vitro by estradiol in eel hepatocyte primary cultures. This first comparative study of the five teleost estradiol receptors provides bases for future investigations on differential roles that may have contributed to the conservation of multiple estrogen receptors. PMID:26654744

  17. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive than other types of basal ... to treat them early and with slightly more aggressive techniques. Excision – The basal cell carcinoma is cut ...

  18. Multiple roles for keratin intermediate filaments in the regulation of epithelial barrier function and apico-basal polarity

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Pedro J.; Forteza, Radia; Mashukova, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    abstract As multicellular organisms evolved a family of cytoskeletal proteins, the keratins (types I and II) expressed in epithelial cells diversified in more than 20 genes in vertebrates. There is no question that keratin filaments confer mechanical stiffness to cells. However, such a number of genes can hardly be explained by evolutionary advantages in mechanical features. The use of transgenic mouse models has revealed unexpected functional relationships between keratin intermediate filaments and intracellular signaling. Accordingly, loss of keratins or mutations in keratins that cause or predispose to human diseases, result in increased sensitivity to apoptosis, regulation of innate immunity, permeabilization of tight junctions, and mistargeting of apical proteins in different epithelia. Precise mechanistic explanations for these phenomena are still lacking. However, immobilization of membrane or cytoplasmic proteins, including chaperones, on intermediate filaments (“scaffolding”) appear as common molecular mechanisms and may explain the need for so many different keratin genes in vertebrates. PMID:27583190

  19. Multiple roles for keratin intermediate filaments in the regulation of epithelial barrier function and apico-basal polarity.

    PubMed

    Salas, Pedro J; Forteza, Radia; Mashukova, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    As multicellular organisms evolved a family of cytoskeletal proteins, the keratins (types I and II) expressed in epithelial cells diversified in more than 20 genes in vertebrates. There is no question that keratin filaments confer mechanical stiffness to cells. However, such a number of genes can hardly be explained by evolutionary advantages in mechanical features. The use of transgenic mouse models has revealed unexpected functional relationships between keratin intermediate filaments and intracellular signaling. Accordingly, loss of keratins or mutations in keratins that cause or predispose to human diseases, result in increased sensitivity to apoptosis, regulation of innate immunity, permeabilization of tight junctions, and mistargeting of apical proteins in different epithelia. Precise mechanistic explanations for these phenomena are still lacking. However, immobilization of membrane or cytoplasmic proteins, including chaperones, on intermediate filaments ("scaffolding") appear as common molecular mechanisms and may explain the need for so many different keratin genes in vertebrates. PMID:27583190

  20. IL-1β and reactive oxygen species differentially regulate neutrophil directional migration and Basal random motility in a zebrafish injury-induced inflammation model.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bo; Han, Peidong; Pan, Lifeng; Lu, Wei; Xiong, Jingwei; Zhang, Mingjie; Zhang, Wenqing; Li, Li; Wen, Zilong

    2014-06-15

    During inflammation, the proper inflammatory infiltration of neutrophils is crucial for the host to fight against infections and remove damaged cells and detrimental substances. IL-1β and NADPH oxidase-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated to play important roles in this process. However, the cellular and molecular basis underlying the actions of IL-1β and ROS and their relationship during inflammatory response remains undefined. In this study, we use the zebrafish model to investigate these issues. We find that, similar to that of NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS signaling, the Il-1β-Myd88 pathway is required for the recruitment of neutrophils, but not macrophages, to the injury-induced inflammatory site, whereas it is dispensable for bacterial-induced inflammation. Interestingly, the Il-1β-Myd88 pathway is independent of NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS signaling and critical for the directional migration, but not the basal random movement, of neutrophils. In contrast, the NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS signaling is required for both basal random movement and directional migration of neutrophils. We further document that ectopic expression of Il-1β in zebrafish induces an inflammatory disorder, which can be suppressed by anti-inflammatory treatment. Our findings reveal that the Il-1β-Myd88 axis and NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS signaling are two independent pathways that differentially regulate neutrophil migration during sterile inflammation. In addition, Il-1β overexpressing Tg(hsp70:(m)il-1β_eGFP;lyz:DsRed2)hkz10t;nz50 transgenic zebrafish provides a useful animal model for the study of chronic inflammatory disorder and for anti-inflammatory drug discovery. PMID:24835391

  1. Endogenous short RNAs generated by Dicer 2 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 regulate mRNAs in the basal fungus Mucor circinelloides

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor; Nicolas, Francisco; Moxon, Simon; Haro, Juan de; Calo, Silvia; Torres-Martinez, Santiago; Moulton, Vincent; Ruiz-Vazquez, Rosa; Dalmay, Tamas

    2011-09-01

    Endogenous short RNAs (esRNAs) play diverse roles in eukaryotes and usually are produced from double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) by Dicer. esRNAs are grouped into different classes based on biogenesis and function but not all classes are present in all three eukaryotic kingdoms. The esRNA register of fungi is poorly described compared to other eukaryotes and it is not clear what esRNA classes are present in this kingdom and whether they regulate the expression of protein coding genes. However, evidence that some dicer mutant fungi display altered phenotypes suggests that esRNAs play an important role in fungi. Here, we show that the basal fungus Mucor circinelloides produces new classes of esRNAs that map to exons and regulate the expression of many protein coding genes. The largest class of these exonic-siRNAs (ex-siRNAs) are generated by RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase 1 (RdRP1) and dicer-like 2 (DCL2) and target the mRNAs of protein coding genes from which they were produced. Our results expand the range of esRNAs in eukaryotes and reveal a new role for esRNAs in fungi

  2. Dependence of Proximal GC Boxes and Binding Transcription Factors in the Regulation of Basal and Valproic Acid-Induced Expression of t-PA

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Pia; Magnusson, Mia; Karlsson, Lena; Bergh, Niklas; Jern, Sverker

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Endothelial tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) release is a pivotal response to protect the circulation from occluding thrombosis. We have shown that the t-PA gene is epigenetically regulated and greatly induced by the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA). We now investigated involvement of known t-PA promoter regulatory elements and evaluated dependence of potential interacting transcription factors/cofactors. Methods. A reporter vector with an insert, separately mutated at either the t-PA promoter CRE or GC box II or GC box III elements, was transfected into HT-1080 and HUVECs and challenged with VPA. HUVECs were targeted with siRNA against histone acetyl transferases (HAT) and selected transcription factors from the Sp/KLF family. Results. An intact VPA-response was observed with CRE mutated constructs, whereas mutation of GC boxes II and III reduced the magnitude of the induction by 54 and 79% in HT-1080 and 49 and 50% in HUVECs, respectively. An attenuated induction of t-PA mRNA was observed after Sp2, Sp4, and KLF5 depletion. KLF2 and p300 (HAT) were identified as positive regulators of basal t-PA expression and Sp4 and KLF9 as repressors. Conclusion. VPA-induced t-PA expression is dependent on the proximal GC boxes in the t-PA promoter and may involve interactions with Sp2, Sp4, and KLF5. PMID:26966581

  3. Endogenous short RNAs generated by Dicer 2 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 regulate mRNAs in the basal fungus Mucor circinelloides.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Francisco Esteban; Moxon, Simon; de Haro, Juan P; Calo, Silvia; Grigoriev, Igor V; Torres-Martínez, Santiago; Moulton, Vincent; Ruiz-Vázquez, Rosa M; Dalmay, Tamas

    2010-09-01

    Endogenous short RNAs (esRNAs) play diverse roles in eukaryotes and usually are produced from double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) by Dicer. esRNAs are grouped into different classes based on biogenesis and function but not all classes are present in all three eukaryotic kingdoms. The esRNA register of fungi is poorly described compared to other eukaryotes and it is not clear what esRNA classes are present in this kingdom and whether they regulate the expression of protein coding genes. However, evidence that some dicer mutant fungi display altered phenotypes suggests that esRNAs play an important role in fungi. Here, we show that the basal fungus Mucor circinelloides produces new classes of esRNAs that map to exons and regulate the expression of many protein coding genes. The largest class of these exonic-siRNAs (ex-siRNAs) are generated by RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase 1 (RdRP1) and dicer-like 2 (DCL2) and target the mRNAs of protein coding genes from which they were produced. Our results expand the range of esRNAs in eukaryotes and reveal a new role for esRNAs in fungi. PMID:20427422

  4. Rescue of Impaired Long-Term Facilitation at Sensorimotor Synapses of Aplysia following siRNA Knockdown of CREB1

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lian; Zhang, Yili; Liu, Rong-Yu; Smolen, Paul; Cleary, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    Memory impairment is often associated with disrupted regulation of gene induction. For example, deficits in cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) binding protein (CBP; an essential cofactor for activation of transcription by CREB) impair long-term synaptic plasticity and memory. Previously, we showed that small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced knockdown of CBP in individual sensory neurons significantly reduced levels of CBP and impaired 5-HT-induced long-term facilitation (LTF) in sensorimotor cocultures from Aplysia. Moreover, computational simulations of the biochemical cascades underlying LTF successfully predicted training protocols that restored LTF following CBP knockdown. We examined whether simulations could also predict a training protocol that restores LTF impaired by siRNA-induced knockdown of the transcription factor CREB1. Simulations based on a previously described model predicted rescue protocols that were specific to CREB1 knockdown. Empirical studies demonstrated that one of these rescue protocols partially restored impaired LTF. In addition, the effectiveness of the rescue protocol was enhanced by pretreatment with rolipram, a selective cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor. These results provide further evidence that computational methods can help rescue disruptions in signaling cascades underlying memory formation. Moreover, the study demonstrates that the effectiveness of computationally designed training protocols can be enhanced with complementary pharmacological approaches. PMID:25632137

  5. Corticotropin Releasing Hormone and Urocortin 3 Stimulate Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression through the cAMP/CREB Pathway.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Sang Hoon; Ma, Elise L; Lee, Yunna; Taché, Yvette; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Im, Eunok

    2015-10-23

    Colonic epithelium is the first line of defense against various pathological offenses in the gut. Previous studies have shown that the peptides of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) family modulate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A production in other cells. Here we sought to investigate whether CRH and urocortin (Ucn) 3 regulate VEGF-A secretion in colonocytes through CRH receptors and to elucidate the underlying mechanism of action. CRH and Ucn 3 significantly increased the expression levels of VEGF-A mRNA and protein through CRH receptor 1 and 2, respectively, in human colonic epithelial cells and primary mouse intestinal epithelial cells. Underlying mechanisms involve activation of adenylyl cyclase with subsequent increase of intracellular cAMP level and increased DNA binding activity of transcription factor CREB on VEGF-A promoter region. Finally, genetic deficiency of CREB decreased intestinal inflammation and VEGF-A expression in a dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis model. These results show that activation of CRH receptors by CRH ligands stimulates VEGF-A expression in intestinal epithelial cells through the cAMP/CREB pathway. Since VEGF-A boosts inflammatory responses through angiogenesis, these data suggest that CREB may be a key effector of CRH and Ucn 3-dependent inflammatory angiogenesis. PMID:26350463

  6. Vasoactive intestinal peptide stimulates melanogenesis in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells via CREB/MITF/tyrosinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xing-Hua; Yao, Cheng; Oh, Jang-Hee; Park, Chi-Hyun; Tian, Yu-Dan; Han, Mira; Kim, Ji Eun; Chung, Jin Ho; Jin, Zhe-Hu; Lee, Dong Hun

    2016-08-26

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), one of the major skin neuropeptides, has been suggested to have active roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin disorders such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, which can commonly cause post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. However, the effect of VIP on melanogenesis remains unknown. In this study, we showed that the melanin contents, tyrosinase activity, and gene expression of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) were significantly increased by treatment with VIP in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells and the stimulatory melanogenic effect was further examined in human epidermal melanocytes (HEMns). In addition, phosphorylated levels of CRE-binding protein (CREB) and protein kinase A (PKA) were markedly increased after VIP treatment, but not p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), or Akt, indicating the possible PKA-CREB signaling pathway involved in VIP-induced melanogenesis. This result was further verified by the fact that VIP induced increased melanin synthesis, and protein levels of phosphorylated CREB, MITF, tyrosinase were significantly attenuated by H89 (a specific PKA inhibitor). These data suggest that VIP-induced upregulation of tyrosinase through the CREB-MITF signaling pathway plays an important role in finding new treatment strategy for skin inflammatory diseases related pigmentation disorders. PMID:27343558

  7. Retinoic acid induces caspase-8 transcription via phospho-CREB and increases apoptotic responses to death stimuli in neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Manrong; Zhu, Kejin; Grenet, Jose; Lahti, Jill M.

    2008-01-01

    Caspase-8 is frequently deleted or silenced in neuroblastoma and other solid tumor such as medulloblastoma and small cell lung carcinoma. Caspase-8 expression can be re-established in neuroblastoma cell lines by treatment with demethylating agents or with IFN-γ Here we show that four different retinoic acid (RA) derivatives also increase caspase-8 protein expression in neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma and small cell lung carcinoma cell lines. This increase in protein expression is mirrored by an increase in RNA expression in NB cells. However, the promoter region of the caspase-8 gene was not responsible for the induction of caspase-8 expression. Rather, we identified another intronic region containing a CREB binding site that was required for maximal induction of caspase-8 via RA. DNA-protein interaction assays revealed increased phospho-CREB binding to this response element in RA-treated NB cells. Furthermore, both mutation of the CREB binding site completely blocked caspase-8 induction in the luciferase reporter system assay and transfection of dominant-negative form of CREB repressed the up-regulation of caspase-8 by RA. Importantly, RA-released cells maintained caspase-8 expression for at least 2–5 days and were more sensitive to doxorubicin and TNFα. Thus, RA treatment in conjunction with TNFα and/or subsets of cytotoxic agents may have therapeutic benefits. PMID:18342014

  8. Rescue of impaired long-term facilitation at sensorimotor synapses of Aplysia following siRNA knockdown of CREB1.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lian; Zhang, Yili; Liu, Rong-Yu; Smolen, Paul; Cleary, Leonard J; Byrne, John H

    2015-01-28

    Memory impairment is often associated with disrupted regulation of gene induction. For example, deficits in cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) binding protein (CBP; an essential cofactor for activation of transcription by CREB) impair long-term synaptic plasticity and memory. Previously, we showed that small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced knockdown of CBP in individual sensory neurons significantly reduced levels of CBP and impaired 5-HT-induced long-term facilitation (LTF) in sensorimotor cocultures from Aplysia. Moreover, computational simulations of the biochemical cascades underlying LTF successfully predicted training protocols that restored LTF following CBP knockdown. We examined whether simulations could also predict a training protocol that restores LTF impaired by siRNA-induced knockdown of the transcription factor CREB1. Simulations based on a previously described model predicted rescue protocols that were specific to CREB1 knockdown. Empirical studies demonstrated that one of these rescue protocols partially restored impaired LTF. In addition, the effectiveness of the rescue protocol was enhanced by pretreatment with rolipram, a selective cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor. These results provide further evidence that computational methods can help rescue disruptions in signaling cascades underlying memory formation. Moreover, the study demonstrates that the effectiveness of computationally designed training protocols can be enhanced with complementary pharmacological approaches. PMID:25632137

  9. The basal function of teleost prolactin as a key regulator on ion uptake identified with zebrafish knockout models

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Yuqin; Lou, Qiyong; Dai, Ziru; Dai, Xiangyan; He, Jiangyan; Hu, Wei; Yin, Zhan

    2016-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is an anterior pituitary hormone with a broad range of functions. Its ability to stimulate lactogenesis, maternal behavior, growth and development, osmoregulation, and epithelial ion transport has been reported in many vertebrates. In our present study, we have targeted the zebrafish prl locus via transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). Two independent targeted mutant lines with premature termination of the putative sequence of PRL peptides were generated. All prl-deficient zebrafish progeny died at 6–16 days post-fertilization stage (dpf) in egg water. However, the prl-deficient larvae thrived and survived through adulthood in brackish water (5175 mg/L ocean salts), without obvious defects in somatic growth or reproduction. When raised in egg water, the expression levels of certain key Na+/Cl− cotransporters in the gills and Na+/K+-ATPase subunits, Na+/H+ exchangers and Na+/Cl− transporters in the pronephros of prl-deficient larvae were down-regulated at 5 dpf, which caused Na+/K+/Cl− uptake defects in the mutant fish at 6 dpf. Our present results demonstrate that the primary function of zebrafish prl is osmoregulation via governing the uptake and homeostasis of Na+, K+ and Cl−. Our study provides valuable evidence to understand the mechanisms of PRL function better through both phylogenetic and physiological perspectives. PMID:26726070

  10. The basal function of teleost prolactin as a key regulator on ion uptake identified with zebrafish knockout models.

    PubMed

    Shu, Yuqin; Lou, Qiyong; Dai, Ziru; Dai, Xiangyan; He, Jiangyan; Hu, Wei; Yin, Zhan

    2016-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is an anterior pituitary hormone with a broad range of functions. Its ability to stimulate lactogenesis, maternal behavior, growth and development, osmoregulation, and epithelial ion transport has been reported in many vertebrates. In our present study, we have targeted the zebrafish prl locus via transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). Two independent targeted mutant lines with premature termination of the putative sequence of PRL peptides were generated. All prl-deficient zebrafish progeny died at 6-16 days post-fertilization stage (dpf) in egg water. However, the prl-deficient larvae thrived and survived through adulthood in brackish water (5175 mg/L ocean salts), without obvious defects in somatic growth or reproduction. When raised in egg water, the expression levels of certain key Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporters in the gills and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunits, Na(+)/H(+) exchangers and Na(+)/Cl(-) transporters in the pronephros of prl-deficient larvae were down-regulated at 5 dpf, which caused Na(+)/K(+)/Cl(-) uptake defects in the mutant fish at 6 dpf. Our present results demonstrate that the primary function of zebrafish prl is osmoregulation via governing the uptake and homeostasis of Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-). Our study provides valuable evidence to understand the mechanisms of PRL function better through both phylogenetic and physiological perspectives. PMID:26726070

  11. Phosphorylation of CREB at Ser-133 induces complex formation with CREB-binding protein via a direct mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, D; Ferreri, K; Nakajima, T; LaMorte, V J; Evans, R; Koerber, S C; Hoeger, C; Montminy, M R

    1996-01-01

    We have characterized a phosphoserine binding domain in the coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP) which interacts with the protein kinase A-phosphorylated, and hence activated, form of the cyclic AMP-responsive factor CREB. The CREB binding domain, referred to as KIX, is alpha helical and binds to an unstructured kinase-inducible domain in CREB following phosphorylation of CREB at Ser-133. Phospho-Ser-133 forms direct contacts with residues in KIX, and these contacts are further stabilized by hydrophobic residues in the kinase-inducible domain which flank phospho-Ser-133. Like the src homology 2 (SH2) domains which bind phosphotyrosine-containing peptides, phosphoserine 133 appears to coordinate with a single arginine residue (Arg-600) in KIX which is conserved in the CBP-related protein P300. Since mutagenesis of Arg-600 to Gln severely reduces CREB-CBP complex formation, our results demonstrate that, as in the case of tyrosine kinase pathways, signal transduction through serine/threonine kinase pathways may also require protein interaction motifs which are capable of recognizing phosphorylated amino acids. PMID:8552098

  12. Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2), a new regulator of cell polarity required for metastatic dissemination of basal-like breast carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Salvador, Fernando; Martín, Alberto; Floristán, Alfredo; Cuevas, Eva P; Santos, Vanesa; Montes, Amalia; Morales, Saleta; Castilla, Maria Angeles; Rojo-Sebastián, Alejandro; Martínez, Alejandra; Hardisson, David; Csiszar, Katalin; Portillo, Francisco; Peinado, Héctor; Palacios, José; Cano, Amparo

    2011-01-01

    Basal-like breast carcinoma is characterized by the expression of basal/myoepithelial markers, undifferentiated phenotype, highly aggressive behaviour and frequent triple negative status (ESR−, PR−, Her2neu−). We have previously shown that epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurs in basal-like breast tumours and identified Lysyl-oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) as an EMT player and poor prognosis marker in squamous cell carcinomas. We now show that LOXL2 mRNA is overexpressed in basal-like human breast carcinomas. Breast carcinoma cell lines with basal-like phenotype show a specific cytoplasmic/perinuclear LOXL2 expression, and this subcellular distribution is significantly associated with distant metastatic incidence in basal-like breast carcinomas. LOXL2 silencing in basal-like carcinoma cells induces a mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) associated with a decrease of tumourigenicity and suppression of metastatic potential. Mechanistic studies indicate that LOXL2 maintains the mesenchymal phenotype of basal-like carcinoma cells by a novel mechanism involving transcriptional downregulation of Lgl2 and claudin1 and disorganization of cell polarity and tight junction complexes. Therefore, intracellular LOXL2 is a new candidate marker of basal-like carcinomas and a target to block metastatic dissemination of this aggressive breast tumour subtype. PMID:21732535

  13. Dynorphin up-regulation in the dentate granule cell mossy fiber pathway following chronic inhibition of GluN2B-containing NMDAR is associated with increased CREB (Ser 133) phosphorylation, but is independent of BDNF/TrkB signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Rittase, W. Bradley; Dong, Yu; Barksdale, DaRel; Galdzicki, Zygmunt; Bausch, Suzanne B.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that neuronal responses to N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDAR) activation/inactivation are influenced by subunit composition. For example, activation of synaptic NMDAR (comprised of GluN2A > GluN2B) phosphorylates cAMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB) at Ser 133, induces BDNF expression and promotes neuronal survival. Activation of extrasynaptic NMDAR (comprised of GluN2B>GluN2), dephosphorylates CREB (Ser 133), reduces BDNF expression and triggers neuronal death. These results led us to hypothesize that chronic inhibition of GluN2B-containing NMDAR would increase CREB (Ser 133) phosphorylation, increase BDNF levels and subsequently alter downstream dynorphin (DYN) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression. We focused on DYN and NPY because these neuropeptides can decrease excitatory neurotransmission and seizure occurrence and we reported previously that seizure-like events are reduced following chronic treatment with GluN2B antagonists. Consistent with our hypothesis, chronic treatment (17-21 days) of hippocampal slice cultures with the GluN2B-selective antagonists ifenprodil or Ro25,6981 increased both CREB (Ser 133) phosphorylation and granule cell mossy fiber pathway DYN expression. Similar treatment with the non-subtype-selective NMDAR antagonists D-APV or memantine had no significant effect on either CREB (Ser 133) phosphorylation or DYN expression. In contrast to our hypothesis, BDNF levels were decreased following chronic treatment with Ro25,6981, but not ifenprodil, D-APV or memantine. Blockade of BDNF actions and TrkB activation did not significantly augment hilar DYN expression in vehicle-treated cultures and had no effect in Ro25,6981 treated cultures. These finding suggest that chronic exposure to GluN2B-selective NMDAR antagonists increased DYN expression through a putatively pCREB-dependent, but BDNF/TrkB-independent mechanism. PMID:24769103

  14. Obesity-mediated regulation of HGF/c-Met is associated with reduced basal-like breast cancer latency in parous mice.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Sneha; Freemerman, Alex J; Galanko, Joseph A; McNaughton, Kirk K; Bendt, Katharine M; Darr, David B; Troester, Melissa A; Makowski, Liza

    2014-01-01

    It is widely thought that pregnancy reduces breast cancer risk, but this lacks consideration of breast cancer subtypes. While a full term pregnancy reduces risk for estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and luminal breast cancers, parity is associated with increased risk of basal-like breast cancer (BBC) subtype. Basal-like subtypes represent less than 10% of breast cancers and are highly aggressive, affecting primarily young, African American women. Our previous work demonstrated that high fat diet-induced obesity in nulliparous mice significantly blunted latency in C3(1)-TAg mice, a model of BBC, potentially through the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met oncogenic pathway. Experimental studies have examined parity and obesity individually, but to date, the joint effects of parity and obesity have not been studied. We investigated the role of obesity in parous mice on BBC. Parity alone dramatically blunted tumor latency compared to nulliparous controls with no effects on tumor number or growth, while obesity had only a minor role in further reducing latency. Obesity-associated metabolic mediators and hormones such as insulin, estrogen, and progesterone were not significantly regulated by obesity. Plasma IL-6 was also significantly elevated by obesity in parous mice. We have previously reported a potential role for stromal-derived hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) via its cognate receptor c-Met in the etiology of obesity-induced BBC tumor onset and in both human and murine primary coculture models of BBC-aggressiveness. Obesity-associated c-Met concentrations were 2.5-fold greater in normal mammary glands of parous mice. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that, parity in C3(1)-TAg mice dramatically reduced BBC latency compared to nulliparous mice. In parous mice, c-Met is regulated by obesity in unaffected mammary gland and is associated with tumor onset. C3(1)-TAg mice recapitulate epidemiologic findings such that parity drives increased BBC risk and potential

  15. Reduced pCREB in Alzheimer's disease prefrontal cortex is reflected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Bartolotti, N; Bennett, D A; Lazarov, O

    2016-09-01

    Cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) signaling has a critical role in the formation of memories. CREB signaling is dysfunctional in the brains of mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and evidence suggests that CREB signaling may be disrupted in human AD brains as well. Here, we show that both CREB and its activated form pCREB-Ser(133) (pCREB) are reduced in the prefrontal cortex of AD patients. Similarly, the transcription cofactors CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300 are reduced in the prefrontal cortex of AD patients, indicating additional dysfunction of CREB signaling in AD. Importantly, we show that pCREB expression is reduced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of AD subjects. In addition, pCREB levels in PBMC positively correlated with pCREB expression in the postmortem brain of persons with AD. These results suggest that pCREB expression in PBMC may be indicative of its expression in the brain, and thus offers the intriguing possibility of pCREB as a biomarker of cognitive function and disease progression in AD. PMID:27480489

  16. Reduced pCREB in Alzheimer's disease prefrontal cortex is reflected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    PubMed Central

    Bartolotti, N; Bennett, D A; Lazarov, O

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) signaling has a critical role in the formation of memories. CREB signaling is dysfunctional in the brains of mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and evidence suggests that CREB signaling may be disrupted in human AD brains as well. Here, we show that both CREB and its activated form pCREB-Ser133 (pCREB) are reduced in the prefrontal cortex of AD patients. Similarly, the transcription cofactors CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300 are reduced in the prefrontal cortex of AD patients, indicating additional dysfunction of CREB signaling in AD. Importantly, we show that pCREB expression is reduced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of AD subjects. In addition, pCREB levels in PBMC positively correlated with pCREB expression in the postmortem brain of persons with AD. These results suggest that pCREB expression in PBMC may be indicative of its expression in the brain, and thus offers the intriguing possibility of pCREB as a biomarker of cognitive function and disease progression in AD. PMID:27480489

  17. The epithelial polarity regulator LGALS9/galectin-9 induces fatal frustrated autophagy in KRAS mutant colon carcinoma that depends on elevated basal autophagic flux

    PubMed Central

    Wiersma, Valerie R; de Bruyn, Marco; Wei, Yunwei; van Ginkel, Robert J; Hirashima, Mitsuomi; Niki, Toshiro; Nishi, Nozomu; Zhou, Jin; Pouwels, Simon D; Samplonius, Douwe F; Nijman, Hans W; Eggleton, Paul; Helfrich, Wijnand; Bremer, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic mutation of KRAS (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) in colorectal cancer (CRC) confers resistance to both chemotherapy and EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor)-targeted therapy. We uncovered that KRAS mutant (KRASmut) CRC is uniquely sensitive to treatment with recombinant LGALS9/Galectin-9 (rLGALS9), a recently established regulator of epithelial polarity. Upon treatment of CRC cells, rLGALS9 rapidly internalizes via early- and late-endosomes and accumulates in the lysosomal compartment. Treatment with rLGALS9 is accompanied by induction of frustrated autophagy in KRASmut CRC, but not in CRC with BRAF (B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase) mutations (BRAFmut). In KRASmut CRC, rLGALS9 acts as a lysosomal inhibitor that inhibits autophagosome-lysosome fusion, leading to autophagosome accumulation, excessive lysosomal swelling and cell death. This antitumor activity of rLGALS9 directly correlates with elevated basal autophagic flux in KRASmut cancer cells. Thus, rLGALS9 has potent antitumor activity toward refractory KRASmut CRC cells that may be exploitable for therapeutic use. PMID:26086204

  18. Environmental enrichment: effects on spatial memory and hippocampal CREB immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Williams, B M; Luo, Y; Ward, C; Redd, K; Gibson, R; Kuczaj, S A; McCoy, J G

    2001-07-01

    Environmental enrichment has been shown to improve performance in tests of spatial memory, induce neurogenesis in the hippocampus, enhance survival of newly formed granule cells, and inhibit spontaneous apoptosis. Although neuroplasticity of the mammalian brain declines with age, recent evidence suggests that the adult brain exhibits significant plasticity in response to environmental stimulation. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of environmental enrichment on spatial memory and on immunoreactivity to cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) from the hippocampus. C57/BL/6 mice were trained in a Morris water maze after exposure to an enriched environment, either from 35 to 94 days or from 100 to 159 days of age. Hippocampal tissue from representative animals was later analyzed by Western blot for CREB immunoreactivity. Results indicate that environmental enrichment (particularly during the earlier period) improved performance on the Morris water maze and tended to increase immunoreactivity to CREB in the hippocampus. Social interaction by itself did not result in significant differences in navigational performance. Results with regard to social interaction and CREB immunoreactivity were mixed. Results are discussed in terms of evaluating the construct of enrichment, the correlation of CREB transcription and behavior change, and the importance of the developmental period for enrichment. PMID:11495671

  19. Involvement of phosphorylated Apis mellifera CREB in gating a honeybee's behavioral response to an external stimulus.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Katrin B; Heufelder, Karin; Feige, Janina; Bauer, Paul; Dyck, Yan; Ehrhardt, Lea; Kühnemund, Johannes; Bergmann, Anja; Göbel, Josefine; Isecke, Marlene; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2016-05-01

    The transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) is involved in neuronal plasticity. Phosphorylation activates CREB and an increased level of phosphorylated CREB is regarded as an indicator of CREB-dependent transcriptional activation. In honeybees(Apis mellifera)we recently demonstrated a particular high abundance of the phosphorylated honeybee CREB homolog (pAmCREB) in the central brain and in a subpopulation of mushroom body neurons. We hypothesize that these high pAmCREB levels are related to learning and memory formation. Here, we tested this hypothesis by analyzing brain pAmCREB levels in classically conditioned bees and bees experiencing unpaired presentations of conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US). We demonstrate that both behavioral protocols display differences in memory formation but do not alter the level of pAmCREB in bee brains directly after training. Nevertheless, we report that bees responding to the CS during unpaired stimulus presentations exhibit higher levels of pAmCREB than nonresponding bees. In addition, Trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor that is thought to enhance histone acetylation by CREB-binding protein, increases the bees' CS responsiveness. We conclude that pAmCREB is involved in gating a bee's behavioral response driven by an external stimulus. PMID:27084927

  20. Distinctive Roles for Amygdalar CREB in Reconsolidation and Extinction of Fear Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tronson, Natalie C.; Wiseman, Shari L.; Neve, Rachael L.; Nestler, Eric J.; Olausson, Peter; Taylor, Jane R.

    2012-01-01

    Cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) plays a critical role in fear memory formation. Here we determined the role of CREB selectively within the amygdala in reconsolidation and extinction of auditory fear. Viral overexpression of the inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) or the dominant-negative mCREB, specifically within the lateral…

  1. Evidence for Conservation of the Calcitonin Superfamily and Activity-regulating Mechanisms in the Basal Chordate Branchiostoma floridae: INSIGHTS INTO THE MOLECULAR AND FUNCTIONAL EVOLUTION IN CHORDATES.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Toshio; Kuwasako, Kenji; Ogasawara, Michio; Takahashi, Hiroki; Matsubara, Shin; Osugi, Tomohiro; Muramatsu, Ikunobu; Sasayama, Yuichi; Suzuki, Nobuo; Satake, Honoo

    2016-01-29

    The calcitonin (CT)/CT gene-related peptide (CGRP) family is conserved in vertebrates. The activities of this peptide family are regulated by a combination of two receptors, namely the calcitonin receptor (CTR) and the CTR-like receptor (CLR), and three receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). Furthermore, RAMPs act as escort proteins by translocating CLR to the cell membrane. Recently, CT/CGRP family peptides have been identified or inferred in several invertebrates. However, the molecular characteristics and relevant functions of the CTR/CLR and RAMPs in invertebrates remain unclear. In this study, we identified three CT/CGRP family peptides (Bf-CTFPs), one CTR/CLR-like receptor (Bf-CTFP-R), and three RAMP-like proteins (Bf-RAMP-LPs) in the basal chordate amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae). The Bf-CTFPs were shown to possess an N-terminal circular region typical of the CT/CGRP family and a C-terminal Pro-NH2. The Bf-CTFP genes were expressed in the central nervous system and in endocrine cells of the midgut, indicating that Bf-CTFPs serve as brain and/or gut peptides. Cell surface expression of the Bf-CTFP-R was enhanced by co-expression with each Bf-RAMP-LP. Furthermore, Bf-CTFPs activated Bf-CTFP-R·Bf-RAMP-LP complexes, resulting in cAMP accumulation. These results confirmed that Bf-RAMP-LPs, like vertebrate RAMPs, are prerequisites for the function and translocation of the Bf-CTFP-R. The relative potencies of the three peptides at each receptor were similar. Bf-CTFP2 was a potent ligand at all receptors in cAMP assays. Bf-RAMP-LP effects on ligand potency order were distinct to vertebrate CGRP/adrenomedullin/amylin receptors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first molecular and functional characterization of an authentic invertebrate CT/CGRP family receptor and RAMPs. PMID:26644465

  2. Gene network inference and biochemical assessment delineates GPCR pathways and CREB targets in small intestinal neuroendocrine neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Drozdov, Ignat; Svejda, Bernhard; Gustafsson, Bjorn I; Mane, Shrikant; Pfragner, Roswitha; Kidd, Mark; Modlin, Irvin M

    2011-01-01

    Small intestinal (SI) neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are increasing in incidence, however little is known about their biology. High throughput techniques such as inference of gene regulatory networks from microarray experiments can objectively define signaling machinery in this disease. Genome-wide co-expression analysis was used to infer gene relevance network in SI-NETs. The network was confirmed to be non-random, scale-free, and highly modular. Functional analysis of gene co-expression modules revealed processes including 'Nervous system development', 'Immune response', and 'Cell-cycle'. Importantly, gene network topology and differential expression analysis identified over-expression of the GPCR signaling regulators, the cAMP synthetase, ADCY2, and the protein kinase A, PRKAR1A. Seven CREB response element (CRE) transcripts associated with proliferation and secretion: BEX1, BICD1, CHGB, CPE, GABRB3, SCG2 and SCG3 as well as ADCY2 and PRKAR1A were measured in an independent SI dataset (n = 10 NETs; n = 8 normal preparations). All were up-regulated (p<0.035) with the exception of SCG3 which was not differently expressed. Forskolin (a direct cAMP activator, 10(-5) M) significantly stimulated transcription of pCREB and 3/7 CREB targets, isoproterenol (a selective ß-adrenergic receptor agonist and cAMP activator, 10(-5) M) stimulated pCREB and 4/7 targets while BIM-53061 (a dopamine D(2) and Serotonin [5-HT(2)] receptor agonist, 10(-6) M) stimulated 100% of targets as well as pCREB; CRE transcription correlated with the levels of cAMP accumulation and PKA activity; BIM-53061 stimulated the highest levels of cAMP and PKA (2.8-fold and 2.5-fold vs. 1.8-2-fold for isoproterenol and forskolin). Gene network inference and graph topology analysis in SI NETs suggests that SI NETs express neural GPCRs that activate different CRE targets associated with proliferation and secretion. In vitro studies, in a model NET cell system, confirmed that transcriptional effects are

  3. Overlapping ETS and CRE Motifs ((G/C)CGGAAGTGACGTCA) preferentially bound by GABPα and CREB proteins.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Raghunath; Zhao, Jianfei; He, Ximiao; Shlyakhtenko, Andrey; Mann, Ishminder; Waterfall, Joshua J; Meltzer, Paul; Sathyanarayana, B K; FitzGerald, Peter C; Vinson, Charles

    2012-10-01

    Previously, we identified 8-bps long DNA sequences (8-mers) that localize in human proximal promoters and grouped them into known transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). We now examine split 8-mers consisting of two 4-mers separated by 1-bp to 30-bps (X(4)-N(1-30)-X(4)) to identify pairs of TFBS that localize in proximal promoters at a precise distance. These include two overlapping TFBS: the ETS⇔ETS motif ((C/G)CCGGAAGCGGAA) and the ETS⇔CRE motif ((C/G)CGGAAGTGACGTCAC). The nucleotides in bold are part of both TFBS. Molecular modeling shows that the ETS⇔CRE motif can be bound simultaneously by both the ETS and the B-ZIP domains without protein-protein clashes. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) shows that the ETS protein GABPα and the B-ZIP protein CREB preferentially bind to the ETS⇔CRE motif only when the two TFBS overlap precisely. In contrast, the ETS domain of ETV5 and CREB interfere with each other for binding the ETS⇔CRE. The 11-mer (CGGAAGTGACG), the conserved part of the ETS⇔CRE motif, occurs 226 times in the human genome and 83% are in known regulatory regions. In vivo GABPα and CREB ChIP-seq peaks identified the ETS⇔CRE as the most enriched motif occurring in promoters of genes involved in mRNA processing, cellular catabolic processes, and stress response, suggesting that a specific class of genes is regulated by this composite motif. PMID:23050235

  4. CP-154,526 Modifies CREB Phosphorylation and Thioredoxin-1 Expression in the Dentate Gyrus following Morphine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference

    PubMed Central

    García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Camejo, Daymi M.; Almela, Pilar; Jiménez, Ana; Milanés, María-Victoria; Sevilla, Francisca; Laorden, María-Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) acts as neuro-regulator of the behavioral and emotional integration of environmental and endogenous stimuli associated with drug dependence. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is a functional protein controlling the redox status of several proteins, which is involved in addictive processes. In the present study, we have evaluated the role of CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) in the rewarding properties of morphine by using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. We also investigate the effects of the CRF1R antagonist, CP-154,526, on the morphine CPP-induced activation of CRF neurons, CREB phosphorylation and Trx expression in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and dentate gyrus (DG) of the mice brain. CP-154,526 abolished the acquisition of morphine CPP and the increase of CRF/pCREB positive neurons in PVN. Moreover, this CRF1R antagonist prevented morphine-induced CRF-immunoreactive fibers in DG, as well as the increase in pCREB expression in both the PVN and DG. In addition, morphine exposure induced an increase in Trx-1 expression in DG without any alterations in PVN. We also observed that the majority of pCREB positive neurons in DG co-expressed Trx-1, suggesting that Trx-1 could activate CREB in the DG, a brain region involved in memory consolidation. Altogether, these results support the idea that CRF1R antagonist blocked Trx-1 expression and pCREB/Trx-1 co-localization, indicating a critical role of CRF, through CRF1R, in molecular changes involved in morphine associated behaviors. PMID:26313266

  5. Role of calcium-activated potassium channels in the regulation of basal and agonist-elevated tones in isolated conduit arteries. Short communication.

    PubMed

    Pataricza, J; Márton, Z; Hegedus, Z; Krassói, Irén; Kun, A; Varró, A; Papp, J Gy

    2004-01-01

    Functional role of calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels on the basal and agonist-elevated arterial tones was investigated in isolated rabbit aorta, porcine and canine coronary arteries as well as in human internal mammary artery. The vascular tones enhanced by contractile agents were increased further by preincubation of these conduit blood vessels with selective (charybdotoxin or iberiotoxin) or nonselective (tetraethylammonium) inhibitors of KCa channels. The basal tone (without an agonist) was increased only in the canine coronary artery. The results indicate a feed-back regulatory role of KCa channels counteracting the vasospasm of conduit arteries. PMID:16438119

  6. Frequency-Dependent Regulation of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone β by Pulsatile Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Is Mediated by Functional Antagonism of bZIP Transcription Factors ▿

    PubMed Central

    Ciccone, Nick A.; Xu, Shuyun; Lacza, Charlemagne T.; Carroll, Rona S.; Kaiser, Ursula B.

    2010-01-01

    Oscillatory synthesis and secretion of the gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), under the control of pulsatile hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), is essential for normal reproductive development and fertility. The molecular mechanisms by which various patterns of pulsatile GnRH regulate gonadotrope responsiveness remain poorly understood. In contrast to the α and LHβ subunit genes, FSHβ subunit transcription is preferentially stimulated at low rather than high frequencies of pulsatile GnRH. In this study, mutation of a cyclic AMP response element (CRE) within the FSHβ promoter resulted in the loss of preferential GnRH stimulation at low pulse frequencies. We hypothesized that high GnRH pulse frequencies might stimulate a transcriptional repressor(s) to attenuate the action of CRE binding protein (CREB) and show that inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) fulfills such a role. ICER was not detected under basal conditions, but pulsatile GnRH stimulated ICER to a greater extent at high than at low pulse frequencies. ICER binds to the FSHβ CRE site to reduce CREB occupation and abrogates both maximal GnRH stimulation and GnRH pulse frequency-dependent effects on FSHβ transcription. These data suggest that ICER production antagonizes the stimulatory action of CREB to attenuate FSHβ transcription at high GnRH pulse frequencies, thereby playing a critical role in regulating cyclic reproductive function. PMID:20008557

  7. Curcumin modulates dopaminergic receptor, CREB and phospholipase c gene expression in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Curcumin, an active principle component in rhizome of Curcuma longa, has proved its merit for diabetes through its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aims at evaluating the effect of curcumin in modulating the altered dopaminergic receptors, CREB and phospholipase C in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of STZ induced diabetic rats. Radioreceptor binding assays and gene expression was done in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of male Wistar rats using specific ligands and probes. Total dopaminergic receptor binding parameter, Bmax showed an increase in cerebral cortex and decrease in the cerebellum of diabetic rats. Gene expression studies using real time PCR showed an increased expression of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor in the cerebral cortex of diabetic rats. In cerebellum dopamine D1 receptor was down regulated and D2 receptor showed an up regulation. Transcription factor CREB and phospholipase C showed a significant down regulation in cerebral cortex and cerebellum of diabetic rats. We report that curcumin supplementation reduces diabetes induced alteration of dopamine D1, D2 receptors, transcription factor CREB and phospholipase C to near control. Our results indicate that curcumin has a potential to regulate diabetes induced malfunctions of dopaminergic signalling, CREB and Phospholipase C expression in cerebral cortex and cerebellum and thereby improving the cognitive and emotional functions associated with these regions. Furthermore, in line with these studies an interaction between curcumin and dopaminergic receptors, CREB and phospholipase C is suggested, which attenuates the cortical and cerebellar dysfunction in diabetes. These results suggest that curcumin holds promise as an agent to prevent or treat CNS complications in diabetes. PMID:20513244

  8. Creb coactivators direct anabolic responses and enhance performance of skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Nelson E; Kelly, Kimberly A; Hawkins, Richard; Bramah-Lawani, Mariam; Amelio, Antonio L; Nwachukwu, Jerome C; Nettles, Kendall W; Conkright, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    During the stress response to intense exercise, the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) induces rapid catabolism of energy reserves through the release of catecholamines and subsequent activation of protein kinase A (PKA). Paradoxically, chronic administration of sympathomimetic drugs (β-agonists) leads to anabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle, suggesting that sympathetic outflow also regulates myofiber remodeling. Here, we show that β-agonists or catecholamines released during intense exercise induce Creb-mediated transcriptional programs through activation of its obligate coactivators Crtc2 and Crtc3. In contrast to the catabolic activity normally associated with SNS function, activation of the Crtc/Creb transcriptional complex by conditional overexpression of Crtc2 in the skeletal muscle of transgenic mice fostered an anabolic state of energy and protein balance. Crtc2-overexpressing mice have increased myofiber cross-sectional area, greater intramuscular triglycerides and glycogen content. Moreover, maximal exercise capacity was enhanced after induction of Crtc2 expression in transgenic mice. Collectively these findings demonstrate that the SNS-adrenergic signaling cascade coordinates a transient catabolic stress response during high-intensity exercise, which is followed by transcriptional reprogramming that directs anabolic changes for recovery and that augments subsequent exercise performance. PMID:24674967

  9. Leptin augments recruitment of IRF-1 and CREB to thrombospondin-1 gene promoter in vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Soumyadip; Ganguly, Rituparna; Raman, Priya

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported that high pathophysiological concentrations of leptin, the adipocyte-secreted peptide, upregulate the expression of a potent proatherogenic matricellular protein, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), in vascular smooth muscle cells. Moreover, this regulation was found to occur at the level of transcription; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. The goal of the present study was to investigate the specific transcriptional mechanisms that mediate upregulation of TSP-1 expression by leptin. Primary human aortic smooth muscle cell cultures were transiently transfected with different TSP-1 gene (THBS1) promoter-linked luciferase reporter constructs, and luciferase activity in response to leptin (100 ng/ml) was assessed. We identified a long THBS1 promoter (-1270/+750) fragment with specific leptin response elements that are required for increased TSP-1 transcription by leptin. Promoter analyses, protein/DNA array and gel shift assays demonstrated activation and association of transcription factors, interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), to the distal fragment of the THBS1 promoter in response to leptin. Supershift, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and coimmunoprecipitation assays revealed formation of a single complex between IRF-1 and CREB in response to leptin; importantly, recruitment of this complex to the THBS1 promoter mediated leptin-induced TSP-1 transcription. Finally, binding sequence decoy oligomer and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that regulatory elements for both IRF-1 (-1019 to -1016) and CREB (-1198 to -1195), specific to the distal THBS1 promoter, were required for leptin-induced TSP-1 transcription. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that leptin promotes a cooperative association between IRF-1 and CREB on the THBS1 promoter driving TSP-1 transcription in vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:27281481

  10. NALP1 is a transcriptional target for cAMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB) in myeloid leukaemia cells

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    NALP1 (also called DEFCAP, NAC, CARD7) has been shown to play a central role in the activation of inflammatory caspases and processing of pro-IL1β (pro-interleukin-1β). Previous studies showed that NALP1 is highly expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In the present study, we report that expression of NALP1 is absent from CD34+ haematopoietic blast cells, and its levels are upregulated upon differentiation of CD34+ cells into granulocytes and to a lesser extent into monocytes. In peripheral blood cells, the highest levels of NALP1 were observed in CD3+ (T-lymphocytes), CD15+ (granulocytes) and CD14+ (monocytes) cell populations. Notably, the expression of NALP1 was significantly increased in the bone marrow blast cell population of some patients with acute leukaemia, but not among tissue samples from thyroid and renal cancer. A search for consensus sites within the NALP1 promoter revealed a sequence for CREB (cAMP-response-element-binding protein) that was required for transcriptional activity. Moreover, treatment of TF1 myeloid leukaemia cells with protein kinase C and protein kinase A activators induced CREB phosphorylation and upregulated the mRNA and protein levels of NALP1. Conversely, ectopic expression of a dominant negative form of CREB in TF1 cells blocked the transcriptional activity of the NALP1 promoter and significantly reduced the expression of NALP1. Thus NALP1 is transcriptionally regulated by CREB in myeloid cells, a mechanism that may contribute to modulate the response of these cells to pro-inflammatory stimuli. PMID:15285719

  11. Serine 133 phosphorylation is not required for hippocampal CREB-mediated transcription and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Briand, Lisa A.; Lee, Bridgin G.; Lelay, John; Kaestner, Klaus H.

    2015-01-01

    The cAMP response element (CRE)-binding protein, CREB, is a transcription factor whose activity in the brain is critical for long-term memory formation. Phosphorylation of Ser133 in the kinase-inducible domain (KID), that in turn leads to the recruitment of the transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP), is thought to mediate the activation of CREB. However, the importance of phosphorylation for CREB binding to DNA and subsequent gene transcription in vivo is controversial. To definitively address the role of CREB phosphorylation in gene transcription and learning and memory, we derived mutant mice lacking the Ser133 phosphorylation site. These mice exhibit normal CREB-mediated gene transcription for a number of genes implicated in learning and memory processes. Furthermore these mice have no deficits in hippocampus- or striatum-dependent learning. Strikingly, our findings show that CREB phosphorylation at Ser133 is not necessary for CREB binding to CRE sites, CREB-mediated transcription, or CREB-mediated behavioral phenotypes associated with learning and memory. PMID:25593297

  12. Activated Acinus boosts basal autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Nilay; Tyra, Lauren K; Krämer, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Acinus (Acn) is a nuclear protein that participates in the regulation of autophagy. Loss of Acn function prevents autophagy in starving cells. Conversely, Acn activation induces basal autophagy. This enhances the quality control functions of autophagy such as the removal of misfolded proteins, thereby reducing neurodegeneration and prolonging lifespan. Acn activity is enhanced by Akt1-mediated phosphorylation, which counteracts the cleavage of Acn by a caspase-3 homolog. PMID:27308482

  13. Transcriptional Profiling of a Selective CREB Binding Protein Bromodomain Inhibitor Highlights Therapeutic Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Chekler, Eugene L Piatnitski; Pellegrino, Jessica A; Lanz, Thomas A; Denny, R Aldrin; Flick, Andrew C; Coe, Jotham; Langille, Jonathan; Basak, Arindrajit; Liu, Shenping; Stock, Ingrid A; Sahasrabudhe, Parag; Bonin, Paul D; Lee, Kevin; Pletcher, Mathew T; Jones, Lyn H

    2015-12-17

    Bromodomains are involved in transcriptional regulation through the recognition of acetyl lysine modifications on diverse proteins. Selective pharmacological modulators of bromodomains are lacking, although the largely hydrophobic nature of the pocket makes these modules attractive targets for small-molecule inhibitors. This work describes the structure-based design of a highly selective inhibitor of the CREB binding protein (CBP) bromodomain and its use in cell-based transcriptional profiling experiments. The inhibitor downregulated a number of inflammatory genes in macrophages that were not affected by a selective BET bromodomain inhibitor. In addition, the CBP bromodomain inhibitor modulated the mRNA level of the regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4) gene in neurons, suggesting a potential therapeutic opportunity for CBP inhibitors in the treatment of neurological disorders. PMID:26670081

  14. Dysregulation of neurotrophic and inflammatory systems accompanied by decreased CREB signaling in ischemic rat retina.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xian Jun; Tian, Xue Song; Ruan, Zhi; Chen, Yu Ting; Wu, Lei; Gong, Qi; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hai Yan

    2014-08-01

    Although permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO) has been demonstrated to induce retinal injury, there is still a lack of systematic research on the complex processing of retinal degeneration. In the present study, time-dependent (at three, 14, 60 days after 2VO surgery) changes of neurotrophic and inflammatory systems, as well as cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) signaling, which has been previously reported to effectively regulate these two systems, were evaluated. First, a morphological study confirmed that 2VO surgery progressively induced severe inner retinal degeneration and down-regulation of synaptic proteins, PSD95 and synaptophysin. The mRNA or protein levels of neurotrophic factors (NGF, BDNF, NT-3 and GDNF) and their receptors (TrkA, TrkB and TrkC) showed marked and persistent down-regulation in the rat retina since three days after 2VO surgery, whereas the gene transcription levels of CNTF were increased and p75(NTR) mRNA levels remained unchanged. In contrast to inner retinal degeneration, retinal Müller cells displayed rapid and prolonged activation since three days after 2VO lesion, whereas the microglia cell number, and TNF-α and IL-1β levels showed a robust increase with a maximal effect at three days and returned to levels that were slightly over baseline at 14 and 60 days after 2VO lesion. Interestingly, the gene expression levels of iNOS significantly decreased in the rat retina at both three and 14 days after 2VO surgery. Finally, as we hypothesized, remarkable reduction of CREB and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation levels were observed in the rat retina at three days after 2VO surgery. Thus, for the first time, our study demonstrated that chronic ischemia induced long-term aberrant CREB signaling and time-dependent progressive dysregulation of neurotrophic and inflammatory systems in the retina, which may provide important clues for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of

  15. Chronic TNFalpha and cAMP pre-treatment of human adipocytes alter HSL, ATGL and perilipin to regulate basal and stimulated lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Bézaire, Véronic; Mairal, Aline; Anesia, Rodica; Lefort, Corinne; Langin, Dominique

    2009-09-17

    We examined the effects of chronic TNFalpha and dibutyryl-cAMP (Db-cAMP) pre-treatment on the lipolytic machinery of human hMADS adipocytes. TNFalpha decreased adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) protein content and triglycerides (TG)-hydrolase activity but increased basal lipolysis due to a marked reduction in perilipin (PLIN) protein content. Conversely, Db-cAMP increased ATGL and HSL protein content but prevented PLIN phosphorylation, the net result being accentuated basal lipolysis. In forskolin-stimulated conditions, TNFalpha and Db-cAMP pre-treatment decreased stimulated TG-hydrolase activity and impaired PLIN phosphorylation. Together, this resulted in a severely attenuated response to forskolin-stimulated lipolysis. PMID:19695247

  16. Sodium Phenylbutyrate Enhances Astrocytic Neurotrophin Synthesis via Protein Kinase C (PKC)-mediated Activation of cAMP-response Element-binding Protein (CREB)

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Grant T.; Roy, Avik; Pahan, Kalipada

    2013-01-01

    Neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), are believed to be genuine molecular mediators of neuronal growth and homeostatic synapse activity. However, levels of these neurotrophic factors decrease in different brain regions of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). Induction of astrocytic neurotrophin synthesis is a poorly understood phenomenon but represents a plausible therapeutic target because neuronal neurotrophin production is aberrant in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we delineate that sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB), a Food and Drug Administration-approved oral medication for hyperammonemia, induces astrocytic BDNF and NT-3 expression via the protein kinase C (PKC)-cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway. NaPB treatment increased the direct association between PKC and CREB followed by phosphorylation of CREB (Ser133) and induction of DNA binding and transcriptional activation of CREB. Up-regulation of markers for synaptic function and plasticity in cultured hippocampal neurons by NaPB-treated astroglial supernatants and its abrogation by anti-TrkB blocking antibody suggest that NaPB-induced astroglial neurotrophins are functionally active. Moreover, oral administration of NaPB increased the levels of BDNF and NT-3 in the CNS and improved spatial learning and memory in a mouse model of AD. Our results highlight a novel neurotrophic property of NaPB that may be used to augment neurotrophins in the CNS and improve synaptic function in disease states such as AD. PMID:23404502

  17. Methylmercury, an environmental electrophile capable of activation and disruption of the Akt/CREB/Bcl-2 signal transduction pathway in SH-SY5Y cells

    PubMed Central

    Unoki, Takamitsu; Abiko, Yumi; Toyama, Takashi; Uehara, Takashi; Tsuboi, Koji; Nishida, Motohiro; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) modifies cellular proteins via their thiol groups in a process referred to as “S-mercuration”, potentially resulting in modulation of the cellular signal transduction pathway. We examined whether low-dose MeHg could affect Akt signaling involved in cell survival. Exposure of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells of up to 2 μM MeHg phosphorylated Akt and its downstream signal molecule CREB, presumably due to inactivation of PTEN through S-mercuration. As a result, the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was up-regulated by MeHg. The activation of Akt/CREB/Bcl-2 signaling mediated by MeHg was, at least in part, linked to cellular defence because either pretreatment with wortmannin to block PI3K/Akt signaling or knockdown of Bcl-2 enhanced MeHg-mediated cytotoxicity. In contrast, increasing concentrations of MeHg disrupted Akt/CREB/Bcl-2 signaling. This phenomenon was attributed to S-mercuration of CREB through Cys286 rather than Akt. These results suggest that although MeHg is an apoptosis-inducing toxicant, this environmental electrophile is able to activate the cell survival signal transduction pathway at lower concentrations prior to apoptotic cell death. PMID:27357941

  18. PFOS Disturbs BDNF-ERK-CREB Signalling in Association with Increased MicroRNA-22 in SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wu; He, Qing-zhi; Wu, Cheng-qiu; Pan, Xiao-yuan; Wang, Jing; Tan, Yan; Shan, Xiao-yun; Zeng, Huai-cai

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, is neurotoxic to mammalian species. However, the underlying mechanism of its neurotoxicity was unclear. We hypothesized that PFOS suppresses BDNF expression to produce its neurotoxic effects by inhibiting the ERK-CREB pathway. SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were exposed to various concentrations of PFOS to examine the role of the BDNF-ERK-CREB signalling pathway in PFOS-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity. Furthermore, to ascertain the mechanism by which PFOS reduces BDNF signalling, we examined the expression levels of miR-16 and miR-22, which potentially regulate BDNF mRNA translation at the posttranscriptional level. Results indicated that PFOS significantly decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, BDNF and pERK protein levels decreased after PFOS treatment; however, pCREB protein levels were significantly elevated in PFOS treated groups. TrkB protein expression increased in the 10 μM and 50 μM PFOS groups and significantly decreased in the 100 μM PFOS group. Our results demonstrated that PFOS exposure decreased miR-16 expression and increased miR-22 expression, which may represent a possible mechanism by which PFOS decreases BDNF protein levels. PFOS may inhibit BDNF-ERK-CREB signalling by increasing miR-22 levels, which may, in part, explain the mechanism of PFOS neurotoxicity. PMID:26649298

  19. Methylmercury, an environmental electrophile capable of activation and disruption of the Akt/CREB/Bcl-2 signal transduction pathway in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Unoki, Takamitsu; Abiko, Yumi; Toyama, Takashi; Uehara, Takashi; Tsuboi, Koji; Nishida, Motohiro; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) modifies cellular proteins via their thiol groups in a process referred to as "S-mercuration", potentially resulting in modulation of the cellular signal transduction pathway. We examined whether low-dose MeHg could affect Akt signaling involved in cell survival. Exposure of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells of up to 2 μM MeHg phosphorylated Akt and its downstream signal molecule CREB, presumably due to inactivation of PTEN through S-mercuration. As a result, the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was up-regulated by MeHg. The activation of Akt/CREB/Bcl-2 signaling mediated by MeHg was, at least in part, linked to cellular defence because either pretreatment with wortmannin to block PI3K/Akt signaling or knockdown of Bcl-2 enhanced MeHg-mediated cytotoxicity. In contrast, increasing concentrations of MeHg disrupted Akt/CREB/Bcl-2 signaling. This phenomenon was attributed to S-mercuration of CREB through Cys286 rather than Akt. These results suggest that although MeHg is an apoptosis-inducing toxicant, this environmental electrophile is able to activate the cell survival signal transduction pathway at lower concentrations prior to apoptotic cell death. PMID:27357941

  20. Autoimmune basal ganglia disorders.

    PubMed

    Dale, Russell C; Brilot, Fabienne

    2012-11-01

    The basal ganglia are deep nuclei in the brain that include the caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra. Pathological processes involving the basal ganglia often result in disorders of movement and behavior. A number of different autoimmune disorders predominantly involve the basal ganglia and can result in movement and psychiatric disorders. The classic basal ganglia autoimmune disorder is Sydenham chorea, a poststreptococcal neuropsychiatric disorder. Resurgence in the interest in Sydenham chorea is the result of the descriptions of other poststreptococcal neuropsychiatric disorders including tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder, broadly termed pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection. Encephalitic processes affecting the basal ganglia are also described including the syndromes basal ganglia encephalitis, encephalitis lethargica, and bilateral striatal necrosis. Last, systemic autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome can result in chorea or parkinsonism. Using paradigms learned from other autoantibody associated disorders, the authors discuss the autoantibody hypothesis and the role of systemic inflammation in autoimmune basal ganglia disorders. Identification of these entities is important as the clinician has an increasing therapeutic repertoire to modulate or suppress the aberrant immune system. PMID:22832771

  1. An essential GT motif in the lamin A promoter mediates activation by CREB-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Janaki Ramaiah, M.; Parnaik, Veena K. . E-mail: veenap@ccmb.res.in

    2006-09-29

    Lamin A is an important component of nuclear architecture in mammalian cells. Mutations in the human lamin A gene lead to highly degenerative disorders that affect specific tissues. In studies directed towards understanding the mode of regulation of the lamin A promoter, we have identified an essential GT motif at -55 position by reporter gene assays and mutational analysis. Binding of this sequence to Sp transcription factors has been observed in electrophoretic mobility shift assays and by chromatin immunoprecipitation studies. Further functional analysis by co-expression of recombinant proteins and ChIP assays has shown an important regulatory role for CREB-binding protein in promoter activation, which is mediated by the GT motif.

  2. MAPK, CREB and zif268 are all required for the consolidation of recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Bozon, Bruno; Kelly, Aine; Josselyn, Sheena A; Silva, Alcino J; Davis, Sabrina; Laroche, Serge

    2003-04-29

    There has been nearly a century of interest in the idea that encoding and storage of information in the brain requires changes in the efficacy of synaptic connections between neurons that are activated during learning. Recent research into the molecular mechanisms of long-term potentiation (LTP) has brought about new knowledge that has provided valuable insights into the neural mechanisms of memory storage. The evidence indicates that rapid activation of the genetic machinery can be a key mechanism underlying the enduring modification of neural networks required for the stability of memories. In recent years, a wealth of experimental data has highlighted the importance of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signalling in the regulation of gene transcription in neurons. Here, we briefly review experiments that have shown MAPK/ERK, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and the immediate early gene (IEG) zif268 are essential components of a signalling cascade required for the expression of late phase LTP and of certain forms of long-term memory. We also present experiments in which we have assessed the role of these three molecules in recognition memory. We show that pharmacological blockade of MAPK/ERK phosphorylation, functional inactivation of CREB in an inducible transgenic mouse and inactivation of zif268 in a mutant mouse result in a similar deficit in long-term recognition memory. In the continuing debate about the role of LTP mechanisms in memory, these findings provide an important complement to the suggestion that synaptic changes brought about by LTP and memory consolidation and storage share, at least in part, common underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:12740127

  3. MAPK, CREB and zif268 are all required for the consolidation of recognition memory.

    PubMed Central

    Bozon, Bruno; Kelly, Aine; Josselyn, Sheena A; Silva, Alcino J; Davis, Sabrina; Laroche, Serge

    2003-01-01

    There has been nearly a century of interest in the idea that encoding and storage of information in the brain requires changes in the efficacy of synaptic connections between neurons that are activated during learning. Recent research into the molecular mechanisms of long-term potentiation (LTP) has brought about new knowledge that has provided valuable insights into the neural mechanisms of memory storage. The evidence indicates that rapid activation of the genetic machinery can be a key mechanism underlying the enduring modification of neural networks required for the stability of memories. In recent years, a wealth of experimental data has highlighted the importance of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signalling in the regulation of gene transcription in neurons. Here, we briefly review experiments that have shown MAPK/ERK, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and the immediate early gene (IEG) zif268 are essential components of a signalling cascade required for the expression of late phase LTP and of certain forms of long-term memory. We also present experiments in which we have assessed the role of these three molecules in recognition memory. We show that pharmacological blockade of MAPK/ERK phosphorylation, functional inactivation of CREB in an inducible transgenic mouse and inactivation of zif268 in a mutant mouse result in a similar deficit in long-term recognition memory. In the continuing debate about the role of LTP mechanisms in memory, these findings provide an important complement to the suggestion that synaptic changes brought about by LTP and memory consolidation and storage share, at least in part, common underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:12740127

  4. Activating PIK3CA Mutations Induce an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)/Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK) Paracrine Signaling Axis in Basal-like Breast Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Young, Christian D.; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Hoshino, Daisuke; Formisano, Luigi; Hanker, Ariella B.; Gatza, Michael L.; Morrison, Meghan M.; Moore, Preston D.; Whitwell, Corbin A.; Dave, Bhuvanesh; Stricker, Thomas; Bhola, Neil E.; Silva, Grace O.; Patel, Premal; Brantley-Sieders, Dana M.; Levin, Maren; Horiates, Marina; Palma, Norma A.; Wang, Kai; Stephens, Philip J.; Perou, Charles M.; Weaver, Alissa M.; O'Shaughnessy, Joyce A.; Chang, Jenny C.; Park, Ben Ho; Liebler, Daniel C.; Cook, Rebecca S.; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in PIK3CA, the gene encoding the p110α catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) have been shown to transform human mammary epithelial cells (MECs). These mutations are present in all breast cancer subtypes, including basal-like breast cancer (BLBC). Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we identified 72 protein expression changes in human basal-like MECs with knock-in E545K or H1047R PIK3CA mutations versus isogenic MECs with wild-type PIK3CA. Several of these were secreted proteins, cell surface receptors or ECM interacting molecules and were required for growth of PIK3CA mutant cells as well as adjacent cells with wild-type PIK3CA. The proteins identified by MS were enriched among human BLBC cell lines and pointed to a PI3K-dependent amphiregulin/EGFR/ERK signaling axis that is activated in BLBC. Proteins induced by PIK3CA mutations correlated with EGFR signaling and reduced relapse-free survival in BLBC. Treatment with EGFR inhibitors reduced growth of PIK3CA mutant BLBC cell lines and murine mammary tumors driven by a PIK3CA mutant transgene, all together suggesting that PIK3CA mutations promote tumor growth in part by inducing protein changes that activate EGFR. PMID:25953087

  5. Activating PIK3CA Mutations Induce an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)/Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK) Paracrine Signaling Axis in Basal-like Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Young, Christian D; Zimmerman, Lisa J; Hoshino, Daisuke; Formisano, Luigi; Hanker, Ariella B; Gatza, Michael L; Morrison, Meghan M; Moore, Preston D; Whitwell, Corbin A; Dave, Bhuvanesh; Stricker, Thomas; Bhola, Neil E; Silva, Grace O; Patel, Premal; Brantley-Sieders, Dana M; Levin, Maren; Horiates, Marina; Palma, Norma A; Wang, Kai; Stephens, Philip J; Perou, Charles M; Weaver, Alissa M; O'Shaughnessy, Joyce A; Chang, Jenny C; Park, Ben Ho; Liebler, Daniel C; Cook, Rebecca S; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2015-07-01

    Mutations in PIK3CA, the gene encoding the p110α catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) have been shown to transform human mammary epithelial cells (MECs). These mutations are present in all breast cancer subtypes, including basal-like breast cancer (BLBC). Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we identified 72 protein expression changes in human basal-like MECs with knock-in E545K or H1047R PIK3CA mutations versus isogenic MECs with wild-type PIK3CA. Several of these were secreted proteins, cell surface receptors or ECM interacting molecules and were required for growth of PIK3CA mutant cells as well as adjacent cells with wild-type PIK3CA. The proteins identified by MS were enriched among human BLBC cell lines and pointed to a PI3K-dependent amphiregulin/EGFR/ERK signaling axis that is activated in BLBC. Proteins induced by PIK3CA mutations correlated with EGFR signaling and reduced relapse-free survival in BLBC. Treatment with EGFR inhibitors reduced growth of PIK3CA mutant BLBC cell lines and murine mammary tumors driven by a PIK3CA mutant transgene, all together suggesting that PIK3CA mutations promote tumor growth in part by inducing protein changes that activate EGFR. PMID:25953087

  6. TRPA1 Channels Are Regulators of Astrocyte Basal Calcium Levels and Long-Term Potentiation via Constitutive d-Serine Release

    PubMed Central

    Shigetomi, Eiji; Jackson-Weaver, Olan; Huckstepp, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Astrocytes are found throughout the brain where they make extensive contacts with neurons and synapses. Astrocytes are known to display intracellular Ca2+ signals and release signaling molecules such as d-serine into the extracellular space. However, the role(s) of astrocyte Ca2+ signals in hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a form of synaptic plasticity involved in learning and memory, remains unclear. Here, we explored a recently discovered novel TRPA1 channel-mediated transmembrane Ca2+ flux pathway in astrocytes. Specifically, we determined whether block or genetic deletion of TRPA1 channels affected LTP of Schaffer collateral to CA1 pyramidal neuron synapses. Using pharmacology, TRPA1−/− mice, imaging, electrophysiology, and d-serine biosensors, our data indicate that astrocyte TRPA1 channels contribute to basal Ca2+ levels and are required for constitutive d-serine release into the extracellular space, which contributes to NMDA receptor-dependent LTP. The findings have broad relevance for the study of astrocyte–neuron interactions by demonstrating how TRPA1 channel-mediated fluxes contribute to astrocyte basal Ca2+ levels and neuronal function via constitutive d-serine release. PMID:23761909

  7. Neuroprotective effects of 3,6'-disinapoyl sucrose through increased BDNF levels and CREB phosphorylation via the CaMKII and ERK1/2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuan; Liu, Ming-Yue; Liu, Ping; Dong, XianZhe; Boran, Aislyn D W

    2014-08-01

    3,6'-Disinapoyl sucrose (DISS) is an oligosaccharide ester natural product originating from the root of wild Polygala tenuifolia. Our previous reports suggested that DISS can have neuroprotective effects and antidepressive activity in rats, at least in part, by increased expression of cyclic AMP response element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB) and its downstream target protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The aim of the present study was to explore the mechanism of DISS-modulated BDNF and CREB expression. In this study, we confirmed its neuroprotective effect by showing that DISS, at concentrations above 30 μM, could promote the neuron cell viability and protected the glutamate and H2O2-induced toxicity in the human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cell line. DISS treatment also increased acute (from 15 to 30 min) BDNF expression and CREB phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. Pharmacological inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (ERK1/2), CaMKII, and Trk (with U0126, KN93, or K252a, respectively) partially attenuated the stimulatory effect of DISS on phospho-CREB and BDNF expression; however, it was not inhibited by pharmacological inhibition of PKA or PI3K (with H89 and LY294002, respectively). The results are consistent with the effects of DISS on CRE-directed gene transcription, as U0126 and KN-93 treatment also blocked the DISS-induced expression of the CRE-luciferase reporter gene. The results from the present study suggest that DISS-mediated regulation of BDNF gene expression is associated with CREB-mediated transcription of BDNF and upstream activation of ERK1/2 and CaMKII. Finally, DISS may exert neuroprotective and antidepressant effects through these signaling pathways in neuronal cells. PMID:24488601

  8. Basal cell cancer (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is needed to prove the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. Treatment varies depending on the size, depth, and location of the cancer. Early treatment by a dermatologist may result in a cure rate of more than 95%, but regular examination ...

  9. Basal cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur in younger people who have had extensive sun exposure. You are more likely to get basal cell ... severe sunburns early in life Long-term daily sun exposure (such as the sun exposure received by people ...

  10. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lanoue, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly occurring cancer in the world and overall incidence is still on the rise. While typically a slow-growing tumor for which metastases is rare, basal cell carcinoma can be locally destructive and disfiguring. Given the vast prevalence of this disease, there is a significant overall burden on patient well-being and quality of life. The current mainstay of basal cell carcinoma treatment involves surgical modalities, such as electrodessication and curettage, excision, cryosurgery, and Mohs micrographic surgery. Such methods are typically reserved for localized basal cell carcinoma and offer high five-year cure rates, but come with the risk of functional impairment, disfigurement, and scarring. Here, the authors review the evidence and indications for nonsurgical treatment modalities in cases where surgery is impractical, contraindicated, or simply not desired by the patient. PMID:27386043

  11. Krüppel-like factor 4 synergizes with CREB to increase the activity of apolipoprotein E gene promoter in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Stavri, Simona; Simionescu, Maya; Kardassis, Dimitris; Gafencu, Anca V

    Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a critical regulator of monocyte differentiation and macrophage polarization, and it also plays an important role in several vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is an essential anti-atherosclerotic glycoprotein involved in lipid metabolism, expressed by the liver, macrophages and other cell types. We hypothesized that KLF4 is involved in apoE gene regulation in macrophages. Our experiments showed that differentiation of THP-1 monocytes to macrophages using PMA was associated with a robust induction of both KLF4 and apoE genes. KLF4 bound to the apoE promoter, as revealed by chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNA pull-down (DNAP) assays, and transactivated the apoE promoter in a dose-dependent manner. Using a series of apoE promoter deletion mutants we revealed the biological activity of multiple KLF4 binding sites located in the [-500/-100] region of apoE promoter. Moreover, overexpression of cAMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB) further increased KLF4 up-regulatory effect on apoE promoter. Despite the fact that no putative CREB binding sites were predicted in silico, we found that in macrophages CREB bound to apoE proximal promoter in the region -200/+4 and even more strongly on -350/-274 region. In similar DNAP experiments using cell extracts obtained from monocytes (lacking KLF4), a very weak binding of CREB was detected, indicating that interaction of CREB with apoE promoter takes place indirectly. In conclusion our results show: (i) a robust synchronized induction of KLF4 and apoE expression during differentiation of monocytes to macrophages; (ii) KLF4 up-regulates apoE gene in a dose-dependent manner; (iii) biologically active KLF4 binding sites are present on apoE promoter and (iv) the interaction of KLF4 with CREB results in an enhanced up-regulatory effect of KLF4 on apoE promoter. Taken together these data provide novel knowledge on apoE gene regulation mechanism in macrophages

  12. Dorsal Hippocampal CREB Is Both Necessary and Sufficient for Spatial Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekeres, Melanie J.; Neve, Rachael L.; Frankland, Paul W.; Josselyn, Sheena A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the transcription factor CREB has been widely implicated in memory, whether it is sufficient to produce spatial memory under conditions that do not normally support memory formation in mammals is unknown. We found that locally and acutely increasing CREB levels in the dorsal hippocampus using viral vectors is sufficient to induce robust…

  13. Chronic Enhancement of CREB Activity in the Hippocampus Interferes with the Retrieval of Spatial Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viosca, Jose; Malleret, Gael; Bourtchouladze, Rusiko; Benito, Eva; Vronskava, Svetlana; Kandel, Eric R.; Barco, Angel

    2009-01-01

    The activation of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)-dependent gene expression is thought to be critical for the formation of different types of long-term memory. To explore the consequences of chronic enhancement of CREB function on spatial memory in mammals, we examined spatial navigation in bitransgenic mice that express in a…

  14. Serine 133 Phosphorylation Is Not Required for Hippocampal CREB-Mediated Transcription and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brian, Lisa A.; Lee, Bridgin G.; Lelay, John; Kaestner, Klaus H.; Blendy, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    The cAMP response element (CRE)-binding protein, CREB, is a transcription factor whose activity in the brain is critical for long-term memory formation. Phosphorylation of Ser133 in the kinase-inducible domain (KID), that in turn leads to the recruitment of the transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP), is thought to mediate the…

  15. NMDA-stimulated ERK1/2 Signaling and the Transcriptional Up-regulation of Plasticity-related Genes are Developmentally Regulated following in vitro Neuronal Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xianju; Moon, Changjong; Zheng, Fei; Luo, Yongneng; Soellner, Deborah; Nuñez, Joseph L.; Wang, Hongbing

    2010-01-01

    The general features of neuroplasticity are developmentally regulated. Although it has been hypothesized that the loss of plasticity in mature neurons may be due to synaptic saturation and functional reduction of NMDA receptors (NMDAR), the molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. We examined the effects of NMDAR activation and KCl-mediated membrane depolarization on ERK1/2 signaling following in vitro maturation of cultured cortical neurons. Although NMDA stimulated robust increase of intracellular calcium at both DIV (day in vitro) 3 and 14, the activation of ERK1/2 and CREB was impaired at DIV 14. Specifically, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was stimulated by both NMDA and KCl at DIV 3. However, at DIV 14, NMDA-, but not KCl-stimulated ERK1/2 and CREB phosphorylation was significantly diminished. Consistently, the NMDA-induced transcription of ERK/CREB-regulated genes Bdnf exon 4, Arc and zif268 was significantly attenuated at DIV 14. Moreover, compared to DIV 3 neurons, the basal level of phosphorylated-ERK1/2 in DIV 14 neurons increased tremendously following maturation, and was more susceptible to dephosphorylation. Blocking calcium channels by nifedipine or NMDAR by APV caused more dramatic ERK dephosphorylation in DIV 14 neurons. We further demonstrate that the loss of plasticity-related signaling is unrelated to NMDA-induced cell death of the DIV 14 neurons. Taken together, these results suggest that the attenuation of certain aspects of neuroplasticity following maturation may be due to the reduction of NMDAR-mediated gene transcription and a saturation of ERK1/2 activity. PMID:19396876

  16. Identification of compounds that potentiate CREB signaling as possible enhancers of long-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Guo, Vicky; Southall, Noel; Cho, Ming-Hsuang; Inglese, James; Austin, Christopher P.; Nirenberg, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have implicated the cAMP Response Element Binding (CREB) protein signaling pathway in long-term memory. To identify small molecule enhancers of CREB activation of gene expression, we screened ≈73,000 compounds, each at 7–15 concentrations in a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) format, for activity in cells by assaying CREB mediated β-lactamase reporter gene expression. We identified 1,800 compounds that potentiated CREB mediated gene expression, with potencies as low as 16 nM, comprising 96 structural series. Mechanisms of action were systematically determined, and compounds that affect phosphodiesterase 4, protein kinase A, and cAMP production were identified, as well as compounds that affect CREB signaling via apparently unidentified mechanisms. qHTS folowed by interrogation of pathway targets is an efficient paradigm for lead generation for chemical genomics and drug development. PMID:19196967

  17. The Steroid Hormone 20-Hydroxyecdysone Enhances Gene Transcription through the cAMP Response Element-binding Protein (CREB) Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yu-Pu; Wang, Di; Han, Xiao-Lin; Dong, Du-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2016-06-10

    Animal steroid hormones regulate gene transcription through genomic pathways by binding to nuclear receptors. These steroid hormones also rapidly increase intracellular calcium and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels and activate the protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA) nongenomic pathways. However, the function and mechanism of the nongenomic pathways of the steroid hormones are unclear, and the relationship between the PKC and PKA pathways is also unclear. We propose that the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) activates the PKA pathway to enhance 20E-induced gene transcription in the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera The expression of the catalytic subunit 1 of PKA (PKAC1) increased during metamorphosis, and PKAC1 knockdown blocked pupation and repressed 20E-responsive gene expression. 20E regulated PKAC1 phosphorylation at threonine 200 and nuclear translocation through an ecdysone-responsive G-protein-coupled receptor 2. PKAC1 induced cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation at serine 143, which bound to the cAMP response element on DNA to enhance 20E-responsive gene transcription. Through ecdysone-responsive G-protein-coupled receptor 2, 20E increased cAMP levels, which induced CREB PKA phosphorylation and 20E-responsive gene expression. This study demonstrates that the PKA/CREB pathway tightly and critically regulates 20E-induced gene transcription as well as its relationship with the 20E-induced PKC pathway. PMID:27129227

  18. Regulation of genotoxic stress response by homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 through phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein at serine 271.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kensuke; Huang, Bo-Wen; Iwasaki, Kenta; Hailemariam, Kiros; Ninomiya-Tsuji, Jun; Tsuji, Yoshiaki

    2010-08-15

    CREB (cyclic AMP response element-binding protein) is a stimulus-induced transcription factor that plays pivotal roles in cell survival and proliferation. The transactivation function of CREB is primarily regulated through Ser-133 phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and related kinases. Here we found that homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2), a DNA-damage responsive nuclear kinase, is a new CREB kinase for phosphorylation at Ser-271 but not Ser-133, and activates CREB transactivation function including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression. Ser-271 to Glu-271 substitution potentiated the CREB transactivation function. ChIP assays in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells demonstrated that CREB Ser-271 phosphorylation by HIPK2 increased recruitment of a transcriptional coactivator CBP (CREB binding protein) without modulation of CREB binding to the BDNF CRE sequence. HIPK2-/- MEF cells were more susceptible to apoptosis induced by etoposide, a DNA-damaging agent, than HIPK2+/+ cells. Etoposide activated CRE-dependent transcription in HIPK2+/+ MEF cells but not in HIPK2-/- cells. HIPK2 knockdown in SH-SY5Y cells decreased etoposide-induced BDNF mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that HIPK2 is a new CREB kinase that regulates CREB-dependent transcription in genotoxic stress. PMID:20573984

  19. Changes in CREB and deltaFosB are associated with the behavioural sensitization induced by methylenedioxypyrovalerone.

    PubMed

    Buenrostro-Jáuregui, Mario; Ciudad-Roberts, Andres; Moreno, Josep; Muñoz-Villegas, Patricia; López-Arnau, Raúl; Pubill, David; Escubedo, Elena; Camarasa, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a synthetic cathinone which has recently emerged as a designer drug of abuse. The objective of this study was to investigate the locomotor sensitization induced by MDPV in adolescent mice, and associated neuroplastic changes in the nucleus accumbens and striatum through deltaFosB and CREB expression. Behavioural testing consisted of three phases: Phase I: conditioning regimen with MDPV (0.3 mg/kg/day for five days) or saline; Phase II: resting (11 days); Phase III: challenged with MDPV (0.3 mg/kg), cocaine (10 mg/kg) or saline on day 16 for both groups. Mice repeatedly exposed to MDPV increased locomotor activity by 165-200% following acute MDPV or cocaine administration after an 11-day resting period, showing a MDPV-induced sensitization to itself and to cocaine. An explanation for this phenomenon could be the common mechanism of action between these two psychostimulants. Furthermore, the MDPV challenge resulted in higher levels of phospho-CREB in MDPV-conditioned mice compared with MDPV-naive mice, probably due to an up-regulation of the cAMP pathway. Likewise, MDPV exposure induced a persistent increase in the striatal expression of deltaFosB; the priming dose of MDPV also produced a significant increase in the accumbal expression of this transcription factor. This study constitutes the first evidence that an exposure to a low dose of MDPV during adolescence induces behavioural sensitization and provides a neurobiological basis for a relationship between MDPV and cocaine. We hypothesize that, similar to cocaine, both CREB and deltaFosB play a role in the induction of this behavioural sensitization. PMID:27147595

  20. Ginger improves cognitive function via NGF-induced ERK/CREB activation in the hippocampus of the mouse.

    PubMed

    Lim, Soonmin; Moon, Minho; Oh, Hyein; Kim, Hyo Geun; Kim, Sun Yeou; Oh, Myung Sook

    2014-10-01

    Ginger (the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe) has been used worldwide for many centuries in cooking and for treatment of several diseases. The main pharmacological properties of ginger include anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antiarthritic, antiemetic and neuroprotective actions. Recent studies demonstrated that ginger significantly enhances cognitive function in various cognitive disorders as well as in healthy brain. However, the biochemical mechanisms underlying the ginger-mediated enhancement of cognition have not yet been studied in normal or diseased brain. In the present study, we assessed the memory-enhancing effects of dried ginger extract (GE) in a model of scopolamine-induced memory deficits and in normal animals by performing a novel object recognition test. We found that GE administration significantly improved the ability of mice to recognize novel objects, indicating improvements in learning and memory. Furthermore, to elucidate the mechanisms of GE-mediated cognitive enhancement, we focused on nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced signaling pathways. NGF enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis revealed that GE administration led to elevated NGF levels in both the mouse hippocampus and rat glioma C6 cells. GE administration also resulted in phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), as revealed by Western blotting analysis. Neutralization of NGF with a specific NGF antibody inhibited GE-triggered activation of ERK and CREB in the hippocampus. Also, GE treatment significantly increased pre- and postsynaptic markers, synaptophysin and PSD-95, which are related to synapse formation in the brain. These data suggest that GE has a synaptogenic effect via NGF-induced ERK/CREB activation, resulting in memory enhancement. PMID:25049196

  1. Life beyond the Basal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Jeanne; Carbone, Carole

    1987-01-01

    Reading is a tool for learning. The goal for the teaching of reading must be to produce lovers of reading. A holistic approach should replace exclusive dependence on basal readers. Effective methods are the following: (1) language experience approach; (2) word banks; (3) pattern books; (4) sustained silent reading; and (5) directed…

  2. Heterozygous PTCH1 Mutations Impact the Bone Metabolism in Patients With Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Likely by Regulating SPARC Expression.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yingying; Zhang, Jianyun; Zhang, Heyu; Li, Xuefen; Qu, Jiafei; Zhai, Jiemei; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Feng; Li, Tiejun

    2016-07-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by bone and skin abnormalities and a predisposition to various tumors. Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs), which are common tumors of the jaw that cause extensive damage to the jawbone, are usually accompanied with NBCCS. Germline PTCH1 mutations in NBCCS tumorigenesis have been frequently studied; however, little is known regarding the pathogenesis of bone abnormalities in this disease. This study sought to investigate the mechanism underlying heterozygous PTCH1 mutation-mediated abnormal bone metabolism in patients with NBCCS. Stromal cells were isolated from the fibrous capsules of patients with NBCCS-associated or non-syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumors and non-syndromic tumor stromal cells without PTCH1 mutations served as controls. Germline PTCH1 heterozygous mutations were confirmed in all NBCCS samples and differential protein expression was identified using tandem mass tag-labeled proteomics analysis. Our findings revealed that osteonectin/SPARC expression was significantly downregulated in syndromic stromal cells compared with non-syndromic stromal cells. SPARC expression was even lower in stromal cells carrying PTCH1 protein truncation mutations. PTCH1 siRNA transfection demonstrated that SPARC downregulation correlates with decreased PTCH1 expression. Furthermore, exogenous SPARC promoted osteogenic differentiation of syndromic stromal cells with enhanced development of calcium nodules. In addition, bone mineral density tests showed that patients with NBCCS exhibit weak bone mass compared with sex- and age-matched controls. This study indicates that germline PTCH1 heterozygous mutations play a major role in bone metabolism in patients with NBCCS, in particular in those with PTCH1 protein truncation mutations. SPARC may represent an important downstream modulator of PTCH1 mediation of bone metabolism. Thus, bone mineral density monitoring is critical

  3. Structurally distinct modes of recognition of the KIX domain of CBP by Jun and CREB.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Kathleen M; Lumb, Kevin J

    2002-11-26

    Gene expression is coordinated in part by interactions between transcriptional activators and other transcription factors such as coactivators. The KIX domain of the coactivator and histone acetyltransferase CREB binding protein (CBP) binds numerous mammalian and viral transcriptional activators such as BRCA1, CREB, c-Jun, c-Myb, p53, papillomavirus E2, and HTLV-1 Tax. Formation of the CREB-CBP complex depends on phosphorylation of the KID region of CREB and involves induced folding of KID upon binding a hydrophobic groove of the KIX domain of CBP. Here we investigate the formation of the complex formed by human KIX and the N-terminal activation domain of human c-Jun. The c-Jun activation domain and KID do not share significant sequence similarity. Circular dichroism spectroscopy shows that the Jun N-terminal activation domain is intrinsically disordered in isolation and that KIX binding is independent of Jun phosphorylation. In contrast to the mode of binding exhibited by CREB, NMR chemical shift mapping indicates that the c-Jun activation domain binds to a distinctly different surface of KIX than used by CREB. Moreover, NMR and sedimentation equilibrium studies show that the activation domains of c-Jun and CREB can simultaneously bind the KIX domain of CBP. The results illustrate a new mode of binding and combinatorial recruitment via the KIX domain of CBP by multiple transcriptional activators. PMID:12437352

  4. WSKY, a traditional Chinese decoction, rescues cognitive impairment associated with NMDA receptor antagonism by enhancing BDNF/ERK/CREB signaling.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin; Chen, Zheng-Hua; Wang, Hui-Ling; Liu, Zhong-Chun; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Zhou, Ben-Hong; Yang, Can; Zhang, Xue-Ping; Xiao, Ling; Shu, Chang; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Gao-Hua

    2015-04-01

    Warm‑supplementing kidney yang (WSKY) is an herbal prescription that has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for the treatment of psychiatric conditions. A previous study by our group found that WSKY significantly improved cognitive function of schizophrenia patients. In the present study, the effects of WSKY on cognitive function and their underlying mechanisms were investigated. WSKY was administered to an MK‑801‑induced rat model of chronic schizophrenia for 14 days. Memory performance was assessed using the Morris water maze (MWM) test. The expression of brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), activation of cAMP response element binding protein (pCREB/CREB) and activation of extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (pERK/ERK) in the hippocampus was detected using western blot analysis. In the acquisition phase of the MWM test, the escape latency was significantly increased in the MK‑801‑treated group compared with the normal control group (P<0.01). Treatment with WSKY for 14 days at doses of 100 or 250 mg/kg rescued this cognitive impairment (P<0.05). In the probe test, 250 mg/kg WSKY treatment increased the time spent in the target quadrant (P<0.05) and number of platform crossings (P<0.01). Western blot analysis demonstrated that the levels of BDNF expression in the hippocampus of rats without behavioral tests were elevated following 14 days of WSKY treatment, and the effect of WSKY treatment on hippocampal BDNF expression was presented in an inverted U‑shaped dose‑response pattern. The pERK1/2 in the hippocampus was significantly enhanced following 100 mg/kg (P<0.01) and 250 mg/kg (P<0.01) WSKY treatment, while only 250 mg/kg WSKY increased the phosphorylation of CREB (P<0.01). The results of the present study indicated that WSKY enhances cognitive performance via the upregulation of BDNF/ERK/CREB signaling, and that WSKY has potential therapeutic implications for cognitive impairment of schizophrenia. PMID:25503442

  5. Expression of Tas1 Taste Receptors in Mammalian Spermatozoa: Functional Role of Tas1r1 in Regulating Basal Ca2+ and cAMP Concentrations in Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Dorke; Voigt, Anja; Widmayer, Patricia; Borth, Heike; Huebner, Sandra; Breit, Andreas; Marschall, Susan; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Boehm, Ulrich; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Gudermann, Thomas; Boekhoff, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Background During their transit through the female genital tract, sperm have to recognize and discriminate numerous chemical compounds. However, our current knowledge of the molecular identity of appropriate chemosensory receptor proteins in sperm is still rudimentary. Considering that members of the Tas1r family of taste receptors are able to discriminate between a broad diversity of hydrophilic chemosensory substances, the expression of taste receptors in mammalian spermatozoa was examined. Methodology/Principal Findings The present manuscript documents that Tas1r1 and Tas1r3, which form the functional receptor for monosodium glutamate (umami) in taste buds on the tongue, are expressed in murine and human spermatozoa, where their localization is restricted to distinct segments of the flagellum and the acrosomal cap of the sperm head. Employing a Tas1r1-deficient mCherry reporter mouse strain, we found that Tas1r1 gene deletion resulted in spermatogenic abnormalities. In addition, a significant increase in spontaneous acrosomal reaction was observed in Tas1r1 null mutant sperm whereas acrosomal secretion triggered by isolated zona pellucida or the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 was not different from wild-type spermatozoa. Remarkably, cytosolic Ca2+ levels in freshly isolated Tas1r1-deficient sperm were significantly higher compared to wild-type cells. Moreover, a significantly higher basal cAMP concentration was detected in freshly isolated Tas1r1-deficient epididymal spermatozoa, whereas upon inhibition of phosphodiesterase or sperm capacitation, the amount of cAMP was not different between both genotypes. Conclusions/Significance Since Ca2+ and cAMP control fundamental processes during the sequential process of fertilization, we propose that the identified taste receptors and coupled signaling cascades keep sperm in a chronically quiescent state until they arrive in the vicinity of the egg - either by constitutive receptor activity and/or by tonic receptor activation by

  6. Member of the CREB/ATF protein family, but not CREB alpha plays an active role in BLV tax trans activation in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Kiss-Toth, E; Paca-uccaralertkun, S; Unk, I; Boros, I

    1993-01-01

    The trans activator protein of Bovine Leukaemia Virus (tax) increases the rate of transcription from the virus promoter through 21 bp sequences located in three tandem copies in the virus LTR. Based on data obtained by three different experimental approaches we concluded that the central CRE-like motif found in each of the BLV 21 bp repeats plays an important and indispensable role in tax mediated trans activation. These include (i) in vivo analysis of the function of mutant 21 bp sequences in transient transfection, (ii) gel mobility shift assay to show that CREB binds to BLV 21 bp repeats in vitro and (iii) the demonstration that the production of antisense CREB mRNA inhibits tax trans activation. Further studies with different deletion mutant CREB proteins suggest that although CREB alpha can interact with factors involved in BLV trans activation, it does not promote transcription initiation; consequently some other member/s of the CREB/ATF family must be involved. Images PMID:8396235

  7. Resveratrol abrogates lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior, neuroinflammatory response, and CREB/BDNF signaling in mice.

    PubMed

    Ge, Li; Liu, Liwei; Liu, Hansen; Liu, Song; Xue, Hao; Wang, Xueer; Yuan, Lin; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Dexiang

    2015-12-01

    Current evidence supports that depression is accompanied by the activation of the inflammatory-response system, and overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines may play a role in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders. Resveratrol has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-depressant-like properties. Using an animal model of depression induced by a single administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the present study investigated the effects of resveratrol on LPS-induced depressive-like behavior and inflammatory-response in adult mice. Our results showed that pretreatment with resveratrol (80mg/kg, i.p.) for 7 consecutive days reversed LPS-increased the immobility time in the forced swimming test and tail suspension test, and LPS-reduced sucrose preference test. Moreover, the antidepressant action of resveratrol was paralleled by significantly reducing the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and up-regulating phosphorylated cAMP response-element-binding protein (pCREB)/brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus. In addition, resveratrol ameliorated LPS-induced NF-κB activation in the PFC and hippocampus. The results demonstrate that resveratrol may be an effective therapeutic agent for LPS-induced depressive-like behavior, partially due to its anti-inflammatory aptitude and by modulating pCREB and BDNF expression in the brain region of mice. PMID:26485503

  8. RACK1 promotes maintenance of morphine-associated memory via activation of an ERK-CREB dependent pathway in hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Litao; Zhu, Jiejun; Zhou, Liming; Wan, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    Existence of long-term drug-associated memories may be a crucial factor in drug cravings and relapse. RACK1 plays a critical role in morphine-induced reward. In the present study, we used conditioned place preference (CPP) to assess the acquisition and maintenance of morphine conditioned place preference memory. The hippocampal protein level of RACK1 and synaptic quantitation were evaluated by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, respectively. Additionally, shRACK1 (shGnb2l1) was used to silence RACK1 in vivo to evaluate the role and the underlying mechanism of RACK1 in maintenance of morphine CPP memory. We found that morphine induced CPP was maintained for at least 7 days after the last morphine treatment, which indicated a positive correlation with hippocampal RACK1 level, and was accompanied simultaneously by increases in the synapse density and hippocampal expression of synaptophysin (SYP), phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (pERK1/2) and the phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding (pCREB). ShGnb2l1 icv injection significantly suppressed the expression of all above proteins, decreased the synapse density in the hippocampus and attenuated the acquisition and maintenance of morphine CPP. Our present study highlights that RACK1 plays an important role in the maintenance of morphine CPP, likely via activation of ERK-CREB pathway in hippocampus. PMID:26830449

  9. Forkhead box C1 promoter upstream transcript, a novel long non-coding RNA, regulates proliferation and migration in basal-like breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juntao; Shen, Lei; Yao, Jie; Li, Yi; Wang, Yongcheng; Chen, Hong; Geng, Peiliang

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have crucial regulating roles in carcinogenesis. Forkhead box C1 (FOXC1) is an important cancer‑associated gene in basal‑like breast cancer (BLBC). In the present study, a novel lncRNA, FOXC1 promoter upstream transcript (FOXCUT) was investigated in BLBC patients using polymerase chain reaction analysis. The results showed that the expression of FOXCUT and FOXC1 were positively correlated. When the expression of FOXCUT was downregulated by small interfering RNA, the expression of FOXC1 was similarly reduced. Furthermore, in MDA‑MB‑231 and MDA‑MB‑468 breast cancer cells, knockdown of FOXCUT markedly inhibited cell proliferation and migration in vitro. In conclusion, FOXCUT lncRNA may be functionally involved in the tumor progression of BLBCs through the regulation of its paired mRNA, FOXC1, demonstrating that FOXCUT may serve as a novel biomarker and therapeutic target in BLBCs. PMID:25516208

  10. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this disorder is a type of skin cancer called basal cell carcinoma , that develops around the time of puberty. Other ... if: You or any family members have nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, especially if you are planning to have ...

  11. Distinct effect of CacyBP/SIP on the ERK1/2-CREB-BDNF pathway in undifferentiated and differentiated neuroblastoma NB2a cells.

    PubMed

    Rosińska, Sara; Leśniak, Wiesława; Filipek, Anna

    2016-07-01

    CacyBP/SIP, a protein expressed to high extent in the brain, has been shown to act as ERK1/2 phosphatase in vitro and in cultured cells. It has been demonstrated recently that CacyBP/SIP can modulate the activity of some transcription factors in neurons and glioma cells. In the present work we have examined the effect of CacyBP/SIP overexpression and silencing on the phosphorylation/activity of ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) and CREB (pCREB) and on the level of BDNF mRNA in differentiated and undifferentiated neuroblastoma NB2a cells. We have shown that in undifferentiated cells the amount of pERK1/2 decreased upon CacyBP/SIP overexpression. Further studies have shown that the activity of CREB and the level of BDNF mRNA, downstream effectors of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway, also depended on the CacyBP/SIP level and strictly matched the level of pERK1/2. Interestingly, in differentiated NB2a cells, overexpression of CacyBP/SIP appeared to have a distinct effect on the pERK1/2 level from that observed in undifferentiated cells. Subsequent studies have revealed that distinct function of CacyBP/SIP in undifferentiated and differentiated NB2a cells might be due to changes in its posttranslational modifications and protein ligands. Altogether, our studies suggest that CacyBP/SIP is involved in the ERK1/2-CREB-BDNF pathway and that it might regulate this pathway depending on the stage of NB2a cell differentiation. PMID:27180052

  12. Sweet Dream Liquid Chinese Medicine Ameliorates Learning and Memory Deficit in a Rat Model of Paradoxical Sleep Deprivation through the ERK/CREB Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Su, Xinyun; Wang, Chunhua; Wang, Xiuhua; Han, Fang; Lv, Changjun; Zhang, Xiuli

    2016-05-01

    Sweet dream oral liquid (SDOL), a traditional Chinese herbal compound contains 17 traditional Chinese medicines. It has various pharmacological effects, such as improving brain dysfunction and increasing sleeping quality. This study investigated the neuroprotective effect and the underlying mechanisms of SDOL-impaired hippocampus learning and memory-induced paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) in rats. Sixty Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups. Before PSD, SDOL treatment group rats were intragastrically administered SDOL for 25 days at dose of 2.1, 4.2, and 8.4 mL/kg body weight per day. Normal control group, large platform control group, and PSD groups were treated with normal saline instead of SDOL. After 25 days treatment, PSD and SDOL groups were deprived of paradoxical sleep for 72 h. Then two behavioral studies were conducted to test the spatial learning and memory ability using the open field test and Morris water maze test. Expression of the c-fos, c-jun, cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)/ERK kinase (MEK), and p-CREB, p-ERK, and p-MEK in the hippocampus were also assayed by western blot. In this study, PSD decreased the levels of p-CREB, p-ERK, p-MEK, c-fos, and c-jun. However, SDOL treatment increased expressions of these proteins. Our results showed that SDOL improved 72-h PSD-induced cognitive impairment. These affects may be mediated by increasing the contents of c-fos, c-jun, and p-CREB/ERK signaling. PMID:26870900

  13. Nicotinamide ameliorates palmitate-induced ER stress in hepatocytes via cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway-dependent Sirt1 upregulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiaxin; Dou, Xiaobing; Li, Songtao; Zhang, Ximei; Zeng, Yong; Song, Zhenyuan

    2015-11-01

    Nicotinamide (NAM) is the amide of nicotinic acid and a predominant precursor for NAD(+) biosynthesis via the salvage pathway. Sirt1 is a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, playing an important role in regulating cellular functions. Although hepatoprotective effect of NAM has been reported, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. ER stress, induced by saturated fatty acids, in specific palmitate, plays a pathological role in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. This study aims to determine the effect of NAM on palmitate-induced ER stress in hepatocytes and to elucidate molecular mechanisms behind. Both HepG2 cells and primary mouse hepatocytes were exposed to palmitate (conjugated to BSA at a 2:1 M ratio), NAM, or their combination for different durations. Cellular NAD(+) level, Sirt1 expression/activity, ER stress, as well as cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway activation were determined. NAM increased Sirt1 expression and enzymatic activity, which contributes to the ameliorative effect of NAM on palmitate-triggered ER stress. NAM increased intracellular NAD(+) level in hepatocytes, however, blocking the salvage pathway, a pathway for NAD(+) synthesis from NAM, only partially prevented NAM-induced Sirt1 upregulation while completely prevented NAD+ increase in response to NAM. Further mechanistic investigations revealed that NAM elevated intracellular cAMP level via suppressing PDE activity, leading to downstream PKA and CREB activation. Importantly, cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway blockade abolished not only NAM-induced Sirt1 upregulation, but also its protective effect against ER stress. Our results demonstrate that NAM protects hepatocytes against palmitate-induced ER stress in hepatocytes via upregulating Sirt1. Activation of the cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway plays a key role in NAM-induced Sirt1 upregulation. PMID:26352206

  14. Expression of cell wall related genes in basal and ear internodes of silking brown-midrib-3, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) down-regulated, and normal maize plants

    PubMed Central

    Guillaumie, Sabine; Goffner, Deborah; Barbier, Odile; Martinant, Jean-Pierre; Pichon, Magalie; Barrière, Yves

    2008-01-01

    Background Silage maize is a major forage and energy resource for cattle feeding, and several studies have shown that lignin content and structure are the determining factors in forage maize feeding value. In maize, four natural brown-midrib mutants have modified lignin content, lignin structure and cell wall digestibility. The greatest lignin reduction and the highest cell wall digestibility were observed in the brown-midrib-3 (bm3) mutant, which is disrupted in the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. Results Expression of cell wall related genes was investigated in basal and ear internodes of normal, COMT antisens (AS225), and bm3 maize plants of the INRA F2 line. A cell wall macro-array was developed with 651 gene specific tags of genes specifically involved in cell wall biogenesis. When comparing basal (older lignifying) and ear (younger lignifying) internodes of the normal line, all genes known to be involved in constitutive monolignol biosynthesis had a higher expression in younger ear internodes. The expression of the COMT gene was heavily reduced, especially in the younger lignifying tissues of the ear internode. Despite the fact that AS225 transgene expression was driven only in sclerenchyma tissues, COMT expression was also heavily reduced in AS225 ear and basal internodes. COMT disruption or down-regulation led to differential expressions of a few lignin pathway genes, which were all over-expressed, except for a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene. More unexpectedly, several transcription factor genes, cell signaling genes, transport and detoxification genes, genes involved in cell wall carbohydrate metabolism and genes encoding cell wall proteins, were differentially expressed, and mostly over-expressed, in COMT-deficient plants. Conclusion Differential gene expressions in COMT-deficient plants highlighted a probable disturbance in cell wall assembly. In addition, the gene expressions suggested modified chronology of the different events leading

  15. Metformin Inhibits Androgen-Induced IGF-IR Up-Regulation in Prostate Cancer Cells by Disrupting Membrane-Initiated Androgen Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Malaguarnera, Roberta; Sacco, Antonella; Morcavallo, Alaide; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Migliaccio, Antimo; Morrione, Andrea; Maggiolini, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that, in prostate cancer cells, androgens up-regulate IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) by inducing cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) activation and CREB-dependent IGF-IR gene transcription through androgen receptor (AR)-dependent membrane-initiated effects. This IGF-IR up-regulation is not blocked by classical antiandrogens and sensitizes cells to IGF-I-induced biological effects. Metformin exerts complex antitumoral functions in various models and may inhibit CREB activation in hepatocytes. We, therefore, evaluated whether metformin may affect androgen-dependent IGF-IR up-regulation. In the AR+ LNCaP prostate cancer cells, we found that metformin inhibits androgen-induced CRE activity and IGF-IR gene transcription. CRE activity requires the formation of a CREB-CREB binding protein-CREB regulated transcription coactivator 2 (CRTC2) complex, which follows Ser133-CREB phosphorylation. Metformin inhibited Ser133-CREB phosphorylation and induced nuclear exclusion of CREB cofactor CRTC2, thus dissociating the CREB-CREB binding protein-CRTC2 complex and blocking its transcriptional activity. Similarly to metformin action, CRTC2 silencing inhibited IGF-IR promoter activity. Moreover, metformin blocked membrane-initiated signals of AR to the mammalian target of rapamycin/p70S6Kinase pathway by inhibiting AR phosphorylation and its association with c-Src. AMPK signals were also involved to some extent. By inhibiting androgen-dependent IGF-IR up-regulation, metformin reduced IGF-I-mediated proliferation of LNCaP cells. These results indicate that, in prostate cancer cells, metformin inhibits IGF-I-mediated biological effects by disrupting membrane-initiated AR action responsible for IGF-IR up-regulation and suggest that metformin could represent a useful adjunct to the classical antiandrogen therapy. PMID:24437490

  16. Cortical basal ganglionic degeneration.

    PubMed

    Scarmeas, N; Chin, S S; Marder, K

    2001-10-01

    In this case study, we describe the symptoms, neuropsychological testing, and brain pathology of a retired mason's assistant with cortical basal ganglionic degeneration (CBGD). CBGD is an extremely rare neurodegenerative disease that is categorized under both Parkinsonian syndromes and frontal lobe dementias. It affects men and women nearly equally, and the age of onset is usually in the sixth decade of life. CBGD is characterized by Parkinson's-like motor symptoms and by deficits of movement and cognition, indicating focal brain pathology. Neuronal cell loss is ultimately responsible for the neurological symptoms. PMID:14602941

  17. Importin-mediated retrograde transport of CREB2 from distal processes to the nucleus in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Kwok-On; Zhao, Yali; Ch'ng, Toh Hean; Martin, Kelsey C.

    2008-01-01

    Signals received at distal synapses of neurons must be conveyed to the nucleus to initiate the changes in transcription that underlie long-lasting synaptic plasticity. The presence of importin nuclear transporters and of select transcription factors at synapses raises the possibility that importins directly transport transcription factors from synapse to nucleus to modulate gene expression. Here, we show that cyclic AMP response element binding protein 2 (CREB2)/activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), a transcriptional repressor that modulates long-term synaptic plasticity and memory, localizes to distal dendrites of rodent hippocampal neurons and neurites of Aplysia sensory neurons (SNs) and binds to specific importin α isoforms. Binding of CREB2 to importin α is required for its transport from distal dendrites to the soma and for its translocation into the nucleus. CREB2 accumulates in the nucleus during long-term depression (LTD) but not long-term potentiation of rodent hippocampal synapses, and during LTD but not long-term facilitation (LTF) of Aplysia sensory-motor synapses. Time-lapse microscopy of CREB2 tagged with a photoconvertible fluorescent protein further reveals retrograde transport of CREB2 from distal neurites to the nucleus of Aplysia SN during phenylalanine-methionine-arginine-phenylalanine-amide (FMRFamide)-induced LTD. Together, our findings indicate that CREB2 is a novel cargo of importin α that translocates from distal synaptic sites to the nucleus after stimuli that induce LTD of neuronal synapses. PMID:18957537

  18. Doxorubicin blocks proliferation of cancer cells through proteolytic activation of CREB3L1

    PubMed Central

    Denard, Bray; Lee, Ching; Ye, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Doxorubicin is used extensively for chemotherapy of diverse types of cancer, yet the mechanism through which it inhibits proliferation of cancer cells remains unclear. Here we report that doxorubicin stimulates de novo synthesis of ceramide, which in turn activates CREB3L1, a transcription factor synthesized as a membrane-bound precursor. Doxorubicin stimulates proteolytic cleavage of CREB3L1 by Site-1 Protease and Site-2 Protease, allowing the NH2-terminal domain of CREB3L1 to enter the nucleus where it activates transcription of genes encoding inhibitors of the cell cycle, including p21. Knockdown of CREB3L1 mRNA in human hepatoma Huh7 cells and immortalized human fibroblast SV589 cells conferred increased resistance to doxorubicin, whereas overexpression of CREB3L1 in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells markedly enhanced the sensitivity of these cells to doxorubicin. These results suggest that measurement of CREB3L1 expression may be a useful biomarker in identifying cancer cells sensitive to doxorubicin. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00090.001 PMID:23256041

  19. Fast Modulation of Visual Perception by Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Estandian, Daniel; Xu, Min; Kwan, Alex C.; Lee, Seung-Hee; Harrison, Thomas C.; Feng, Guoping; Dan, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The basal forebrain provides the primary source of cholinergic input to the cortex, and it plays a crucial role in promoting wakefulness and arousal. However, whether rapid changes in basal forebrain neuron spiking in awake animals can dynamically influence sensory perception is unclear. Here we show that basal forebrain cholinergic neurons rapidly regulate cortical activity and visual perception in awake, behaving mice. Optogenetic activation of the cholinergic neurons or their V1 axon terminals improved performance of a visual discrimination task on a trial-by-trial basis. In V1, basal forebrain activation enhanced visual responses and desynchronized neuronal spiking, which could partly account for the behavioral improvement. Conversely, optogenetic basal forebrain inactivation decreased behavioral performance, synchronized cortical activity and impaired visual responses, indicating the importance of cholinergic activity in normal visual processing. These results underscore the causal role of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in fast, bidirectional modulation of cortical processing and sensory perception. PMID:24162654

  20. Transcriptional regulation of the human cystathionine beta-synthase -1b basal promoter: synergistic transactivation by transcription factors NF-Y and Sp1/Sp3.

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Y; Konrad, M A; Matherly, L H; Taub, J W

    2001-01-01

    Cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) catalyses the condensation of serine and homocysteine to form cystathionine, an intermediate step in the synthesis of cysteine. Human CBS encodes five distinct 5' non-coding exons, the most frequent termed CBS -1a and CBS -1b, each transcribed from its own unique GC-rich TATA-less promoter. The minimal transcriptional region (-3792 to -3667) of the CBS -1b promoter was defined by 5'- and 3'-deletions, and transient transfections of reporter gene constructs in HepG2 cells, characterized by CBS transcription exclusively from the -1b promoter. Included in this 125 bp region are 3 GC-boxes (termed GC-a, GC-b and GC-c), an inverted CAAT-box and an E-box. By gel-shift and supershift assays, binding of specificity protein (Sp)1 and Sp3 to the GC-box elements, upstream stimulatory factor 1 (USF-1) to the E-box, and both nuclear factor (NF)-Y and an NF-1-like factor to the CAAT box could be demonstrated. By transient trans fections and reporter gene assays in HepG2 and Drosophila SL2 cells, a functional interplay was indicated between NF-Y binding to the CAAT-box, or between USF-1 binding to the E-box, and Sp1/Sp3 binding to the GC-box elements. In SL2 cells, NF-Y and Sp1/Sp3 were synergistic. Furthermore, both Sp1 and the long Sp3 isoform transactivated the CBS -1b minimal promoter; however, the short Sp3 isoforms were potent repressors. These results may explain the cell- or tissue-specific regulation of CBS transcription, and clarify the bases for alterations in CBS gene expression in human disease and Down's syndrome. PMID:11415440

  1. Genetics Home Reference: familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    MedlinePlus

    ... in regulating phosphate levels within the body (phosphate homeostasis) by transporting phosphate across cell membranes. The SLC20A2 ... link familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification with phosphate homeostasis. Nat Genet. 2012 Feb 12;44(3):254- ...

  2. A cleavage clock regulates features of lineage-specific differentiation in the development of a basal branching metazoan, the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    DNA to cytoplasmic ratio, are critical for the appearance of lineage-specific differentiation. Conclusion Our work corroborates previous studies demonstrating that the cleavage program is causally involved in the spatial segregation and/or activation of factors that give rise to distinct cell types in ctenophore development. These factors are segregated independently to the appropriate lineage at the 8- and the 16-cell stages and have features of a clock, such that comb-plate-like cilia and light-emitting photoproteins appear at roughly the same developmental time in cleavage-arrested embryos as they do in untreated embryos. Nuclear division, which possibly affects DNA-cytoplasmic ratios, appears to be important in the timing of differentiation markers. Evidence suggests that the 60-cell stage, just prior to gastrulation, is the time of zygotic gene activation. Such cleavage-clock-regulated phenomena appear to be widespread amongst the Metazoa and these cellular and molecular developmental mechanisms probably evolved early in metazoan evolution. PMID:24485336

  3. Activation of CREB in the nucleus accumbens shell produces anhedonia and resistance to extinction of fear in rats.

    PubMed

    Muschamp, John W; Van't Veer, Ashlee; Parsegian, Aram; Gallo, Miranda S; Chen, Melissa; Neve, Rachael L; Meloni, Edward G; Carlezon, William A

    2011-02-23

    Stress triggers psychiatric conditions including depressive and anxiety disorders. The mechanisms by which stress produces persistent changes in behavior are not fully understood. Here we show in rats that stress (footshock) activates the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) within the nucleus accumbens shell (NAS), a brain area involved in encoding reward and aversion. To examine the behavioral significance of altered CREB function in the NAS, we used viral vectors to elevate or disrupt CREB in this region. Elevated CREB produced increases in intracranial self-stimulation thresholds, a depressive-like sign reflecting anhedonia (decreased sensitivity to reward), whereas disruption of CREB function by expression of a dominant-negative CREB had the opposite effect. To determine whether neuroadaptations that produce anhedonia subsequently affect vulnerability to stress-induced behavioral adaptations, we subjected rats with altered CREB function in the NAS to fear conditioning. Although neither elevation nor disruption of CREB function altered the development of conditioned fear, elevation of CREB impaired extinction of conditioned fear. To mimic downstream effects of CREB activation on expression of the opioid peptide dynorphin, we microinjected the κ-opioid receptor (KOR) agonist U50,488 directly into the NAS. KOR stimulation produced anhedonia but had no effect on expression or extinction of conditioned fear. These findings demonstrate that activation of CREB in the NAS produces multiple behavioral signs (anhedonia, impaired extinction) characteristic of experience-dependent psychiatric conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder. Although CREB activation is a common trigger, expression of these individual signs appears to involve divergent downstream mechanisms. PMID:21414930

  4. JAB1/CSN5 inhibits the activity of Luman/CREB3 by promoting its degradation

    PubMed Central

    DenBoer, Lisa M.; Iyer, Aarti; McCluggage, Adam R.R.; Li, Yu; Martyn, Amanda C.; Lu, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Luman/CREB3 (also called LZIP) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-bound transcription factor that has been implicated in the ER stress response. In this study, we used the region of Luman containing the basic DNA-binding domain as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen and identified the Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 (JAB1) or the COP9 signalosome complex unit 5 (CSN5) as an interacting protein. We confirmed their direct binding by glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays, and verified the existence of such interaction in the cellular environment by mammalian two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Deletion mapping studies revealed that the MPN domain in JAB1 was essential and sufficient for the binding. JAB1 also colocalized with Luman in transfected cells. More interestingly, the nuclear form of Luman was shown to promote the translocation of JAB1 into the nucleus. We found that overexpression of JAB1 shortened the half-life of Luman by 67%, and repressed its transactivation function on GAL4 and unfolded protein response element (UPRE)-containing promoters. We therefore propose that JAB1 is a novel binding partner of Luman, which negatively regulates the activity of Luman by promoting its degradation. PMID:23583719

  5. Paramecium tetraurelia basal body structure.

    PubMed

    Tassin, Anne-Marie; Lemullois, Michel; Aubusson-Fleury, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Paramecium is a free-living unicellular organism, easy to cultivate, featuring ca. 4000 motile cilia emanating from longitudinal rows of basal bodies anchored in the plasma membrane. The basal body circumferential polarity is marked by the asymmetrical organization of its associated appendages. The complex basal body plus its associated rootlets forms the kinetid. Kinetids are precisely oriented within a row in correlation with the cell polarity. Basal bodies also display a proximo-distal polarity with microtubule triplets at their proximal ends, surrounding a permanent cartwheel, and microtubule doublets at the transition zone located between the basal body and the cilium. Basal bodies remain anchored at the cell surface during the whole cell cycle. On the opposite to metazoan, there is no centriolar stage and new basal bodies develop anteriorly and at right angle from the base of the docked ones. Ciliogenesis follows a specific temporal pattern during the cell cycle and both unciliated and ciliated docked basal bodies can be observed in the same cell. The transition zone is particularly well organized with three distinct plates and a maturation of its structure is observed during the growth of the cilium. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses have been performed in different organisms including Paramecium to understand the ciliogenesis process. The data have incremented a multi-organism database, dedicated to proteins involved in the biogenesis, composition and function of centrosomes, basal bodies or cilia. Thanks to its thousands of basal bodies and the well-known choreography of their duplication during the cell cycle, Paramecium has allowed pioneer studies focusing on the structural and functional processes underlying basal body duplication. Proteins involved in basal body anchoring are sequentially recruited to assemble the transition zone thus indicating that the anchoring process parallels the structural differentiation of the transition zone. This feature

  6. Human basal body basics.

    PubMed

    Vertii, Anastassiia; Hung, Hui-Fang; Hehnly, Heidi; Doxsey, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In human cells, the basal body (BB) core comprises a ninefold microtubule-triplet cylindrical structure. Distal and subdistal appendages are located at the distal end of BB, where they play indispensable roles in cilium formation and function. Most cells that arrest in the G0 stage of the cell cycle initiate BB docking at the plasma membrane followed by BB-mediated growth of a solitary primary cilium, a structure required for sensing the extracellular environment and cell signaling. In addition to the primary cilium, motile cilia are present in specialized cells, such as sperm and airway epithelium. Mutations that affect BB function result in cilia dysfunction. This can generate syndromic disorders, collectively called ciliopathies, for which there are no effective treatments. In this review, we focus on the features and functions of BBs and centrosomes in Homo sapiens. PMID:26981235

  7. Interactions between the Class II Transactivator and CREB Binding Protein Increase Transcription of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Genes

    PubMed Central

    Fontes, Joseph D.; Kanazawa, Satoshi; Jean, Dickson; Peterlin, B. Matija

    1999-01-01

    Class II major histocompatibility (class II) genes are regulated in a B-cell-specific and gamma interferon-inducible fashion. The master switch for the expression of these genes is the class II transactivator (CIITA). In this report, we demonstrate that one of the functions of CIITA is to recruit the CREB binding protein (CBP) to class II promoters. Not only functional but also specific binding interactions between CIITA and CBP were demonstrated. Moreover, a dominant negative form of CBP decreased the activity of class II promoters and levels of class II determinants on the surface of cells. Finally, the inhibition of class II gene expression by the glucocorticoid hormone could be attributed to the squelching of CBP by the glucocorticoid receptor. We conclude that CBP, a histone acetyltransferase, plays an important role in the transcription of class II genes. PMID:9858618

  8. A Composite Element that Binds Basic Helix Loop Helix and Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors Is Important for Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Regulation of the Follicle-Stimulating Hormone β Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ciccone, Nick A.; Lacza, Charlemagne T.; Hou, Melody Y.; Gregory, Susan J.; Kam, Kyung-Yoon; Xu, Shuyun; Kaiser, Ursula B.

    2008-01-01

    Although FSH plays an essential role in controlling gametogenesis, the biology of FSHβ transcription remains poorly understood, but is known to involve the complex interplay of multiple endocrine factors including GnRH. We have identified a GnRH-responsive element within the rat FSHβ promoter containing an E-box and partial cAMP response element site that are bound by the basic helix loop helix transcription factor family members, upstream stimulating factor (USF)-1/USF-2, and the basic leucine zipper member, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), respectively. Expression studies with CREB, USF-1/USF-2, and activating protein-1 demonstrated that the USF transcription factors increased basal transcription, an effect not observed if the cognate binding site was mutated. Conversely, expression of a dominant negative CREB mutant or CREB knockdown attenuated induction by GnRH, whereas dominant negative Fos or USF had no effect on the GnRH response. GnRH stimulation specifically induced an increase in phosphorylated CREB occupation of the FSHβ promoter, leading to the recruitment of CREB-binding protein to enhance gene transcription. In conclusion, a composite element bound by both USF and CREB serves to integrate signals for basal and GnRH-stimulated transcription of the rat FSHβ gene. PMID:18550775

  9. Multiple protein kinase A-regulated events are required for transcriptional induction by cAMP.

    PubMed Central

    Brindle, P; Nakajima, T; Montminy, M

    1995-01-01

    The second messenger cAMP stimulates the expression of numerous genes via the protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) at Ser-133. Ser-133 phosphorylation, in turn, appears to induce target gene expression by promoting interaction between CREB and CBP, a 265-kDa nuclear phospho-CREB-binding protein. It is unclear, however, whether Ser-133 phosphorylation per se is sufficient for CREB-CBP complex formation and for target gene induction in vivo. Here we examine CREB activity in Jurkat T cells after stimulation of the T-cell receptor (TCR), an event that leads to calcium entry and diacylglycerol production. Triggering of the TCR stimulated Ser-133 phosphorylation of CREB with high stoichiometry, but TCR activation did not promote CREB-CBP complex formation or target gene induction unless suboptimal doses of cAMP agonist were provided as a costimulus. Our results demonstrate that, in addition to mediating Ser-133 phosphorylation of CREB, protein kinase A regulates additional proteins that are required for recruitment of the transcriptional apparatus to cAMP-responsive genes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7479832

  10. Blockade of Cannabinoid CB1 receptor attenuates the acquisition of morphine-induced conditioned place preference along with a downregulation of ERK, CREB phosphorylation, and BDNF expression in the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianbo; Wang, Na; Chen, Bo; Wang, Yi'nan; He, Jing; Cai, Xintong; Zhang, Hongbo; Wei, Shuguang; Li, Shengbin

    2016-09-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) is highly expressed in the mesocorticolimbic system and associated with drug craving and relapse. Clinical trials suggest that CB1R antagonists may represent new therapies for drug addiction. However, the downstream signaling of CB1R is not fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between CB1R and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and hippocampus in morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), which is used to assess the morphine-induced reward memory. The protein level of CB1R, ERK, CREB, and BDNF were detected by western blotting. Additionally, a CB1R antagonist, AM251, was used to study whether blockade of CB1R altered the CPP and above-mentioned molecules. We found an increase of CB1R expression in the NAc and hippocampus of the mice following morphine CPP, but not those after repeated morphine in home cage without context exposure (NO-CPP). Both morphine CPP and NO-CPP induced an upregulation of ERK, CREB phosphorylation and BDNF expression. Furthermore, pretreatment with AM251 before morphine attenuated the CPP acquisition and CB1R expression as well as the activation of ERK-CREB-BDNF cascade. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that (1) Repeated morphine with context exposures but not merely the pharmacological effects of morphine increased CB1R expression both in the NAc and hippocampus. (2) CB1R antagonist mediated blockade of ERK-CREB-BDNF signaling activation in the NAc and hippocampus may be an important mechanism underlying the attenuation of morphine CPP. PMID:27461790

  11. Bidirectional regulation of the cAMP response element binding protein encodes spatial map alignment in prism-adapting barn owls.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Grant S; DeBello, William M

    2008-10-01

    The barn owl midbrain contains mutually aligned maps of auditory and visual space. Throughout life, map alignment is maintained through the actions of an instructive signal that encodes the magnitude of auditory-visual mismatch. The intracellular signaling pathways activated by this signal are unknown. Here we tested the hypothesis that CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) provides a cell-specific readout of instructive information. Owls were fitted with prismatic or control spectacles and provided rich auditory-visual experience: hunting live mice. CREB activation was analyzed within 30 min of hunting using phosphorylation state-specific CREB (pCREB) and CREB antibodies, confocal imaging, and immunofluorescence measurements at individual cell nuclei. In control owls or prism-adapted owls, which experience small instructive signals, the frequency distributions of pCREB/CREB values obtained for cell nuclei within the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX) were unimodal. In contrast, in owls adapting to prisms or readapting to normal conditions, the distributions were bimodal: certain cells had received a signal that positively regulated CREB and, by extension, transcription of CREB-dependent genes, whereas others received a signal that negatively regulated it. These changes were restricted to the subregion of the inferior colliculus that received optically displaced input, the rostral ICX, and were not evident in the caudal ICX or central nucleus. Finally, the topographic pattern of CREB regulation was patchy, not continuous, as expected from the actions of a topographically precise signal encoding discrete events. These results support a model in which the magnitude of CREB activation within individual cells provides a readout of the instructive signal that guides plasticity and learning. PMID:18829948

  12. Distinctive Patterns of CTNNB1 (β-Catenin) Alterations in Salivary Gland Basal Cell Adenoma and Basal Cell Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jo, Vickie Y; Sholl, Lynette M; Krane, Jeffrey F

    2016-08-01

    Salivary gland basaloid neoplasms are diagnostically challenging. Limited publications report that some basal cell adenomas harbor CTNNB1 mutations, and nuclear β-catenin expression is prevalent. We evaluated β-catenin expression in basal cell adenomas and adenocarcinomas in comparison with salivary tumors in the differential diagnosis and performed targeted genetic analysis on a subset of cases. β-catenin immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded whole sections from 73 tumors. Nuclear staining was scored semiquantitatively by extent and intensity. DNA was extracted from 6 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples (5 basal cell adenomas, 1 basal cell adenocarcinoma) for next-generation sequencing. Nuclear β-catenin staining was present in 18/22 (82%) basal cell adenomas; most were diffuse and strong and predominant in the basal component. Two of 3 basal cell adenocarcinomas were positive (1 moderate focal; 1 moderate multifocal). All adenoid cystic carcinomas (0/20) and pleomorphic adenomas (0/20) were negative; 2/8 epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas showed focal nuclear staining. Most β-catenin-negative tumors showed diffuse membranous staining in the absence of nuclear staining. Four of 5 basal cell adenomas had exon 3 CTNNB1 mutations, all c.104T>C (p.I35T). Basal cell adenocarcinoma showed a more complex genomic profile, with activating mutations in PIK3CA, biallelic inactivation of NFKBIA, focal CYLD deletion, and without CTNNB1 mutation despite focal β-catenin expression. Nuclear β-catenin expression has moderate sensitivity (82%) for basal cell adenoma but high specificity (96%) in comparison with its morphologic mimics. CTNNB1 mutation was confirmed in most basal cell adenomas tested, and findings in basal cell adenocarcinoma suggest possible tumorigenic mechanisms, including alterations in PI3K and NF-κB pathways and transcriptional regulation. PMID:27259009

  13. CREB1 gene polymorphisms combined with environmental risk factors increase susceptibility to major depressive disorder (MDD)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Yang, Yanjie; Yang, Xiuxian; Qiu, Xiaohui; Qiao, Zhengxue; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Sui, Hong; Ma, Jingsong

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most severe psychiatric disorders. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of CREB1 gene polymorphisms on risk of developing MDD and the joint effects of gene-environment interactions. Genotyping was performed by Taqman allelic discrimination assay among 586 patients and 586 healthy controls. A significant impact on rs6740584 genotype distribution was found for childhood trauma (P = 0.015). We did not find an association of CREB1 polymorphisms with MDD susceptibility. However, we found a significantly increased risk associated with the interactions of CREB1 polymorphisms and drinking (OR = 11.67, 95% CI = 2.52-54.18; OR = 11.52, 95% CI = 2.55-51.95 for rs11904814; OR = 4.18, 95% CI = 1.87-9.38; OR = 5.02, 95% CI = 2.27-11.14 for rs6740584; OR = 7.58, 95% CI = 2.05-27.98; OR = 7.59, 95% CI = 2.12-27.14 for rs2553206; OR = 8.37, 95% CI = 3.02-23.23; OR = 7.84, 95% CI = 2.93-20.98 for rs2551941). We also noted that CREB polymorphisms combined with family harmony and childhood trauma conferred increased susceptibility for MDD. In conclusion, polymorphisms in the CREB gene may not be independently associated with MDD risk, but they are likely to confer increased susceptibility by interacting with environmental risk factors in the Chinese population. PMID:25755794

  14. Oxytocin is involved in the proconvulsant effects of Sildenafil: Possible role of CREB.

    PubMed

    Khoshneviszadeh, Mahsima; Rahimian, Reza; Fakhfouri, Gohar; Payandemehr, Borna; Khodagholi, Fariba; Ejtemaei Mehr, Shahram; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-08-10

    Sildenafil is a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor mainly used for male erectile dysfunction. One of rare yet serious adverse effects of Sildenafil is its potential to decrease seizure threshold. Ample evidence suggests that Sildenafil exerts central effects through induction of Oxytocin (OT) secretion and CREB phosphorylation. The aim of the present study is to evaluate potential roles of OT and CREB in the proconvulsant effects of Sildenafil. The Pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure was used as a standard convulsion model in this study. OT release and pCREB expression were evaluated in the hippocampus of mice using ELISA and western blot assays, respectively. Our results showed that Sildenafil at the dose of 10mgkg(-1) or higher, significantly decreased seizure threshold. Pretreatment with a non-effective dose of OT, potentiated while OT receptor antagonist, Atosiban, reversed fully the proconvulsant effects of Sildenafil (5mgkg(-1)). At biochemical inspection, Sildenafil markedly increased CREB which was attenuated by coadministration of Atosiban. The present study shows for the first time that OT release and the subsequent CREB phosphorylation are involved in the proconvulsant effects of acute Sildenafil treatment in an experimental model of seizure. PMID:27220266

  15. Selective inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl-hydroxylase 1 mediates neuroprotection against normoxic oxidative death via HIF- and CREB-independent pathways.

    PubMed

    Siddiq, Ambreena; Aminova, Leila R; Troy, Carol M; Suh, Kyungsun; Messer, Zachary; Semenza, Gregg L; Ratan, Rajiv R

    2009-07-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to tissue injury in conditions ranging from cardiovascular disease to stroke, spinal cord injury, neurodegeneration, and perhaps even aging. Yet the efficacy of antioxidants in human disease has been mixed at best. We need a better understanding of the mechanisms by which established antioxidants combat oxidative stress. Iron chelators are well established inhibitors of oxidative death in both neural and non-neural tissues, but their precise mechanism of action remains elusive. The prevailing but not completely substantiated view is that iron chelators prevent oxidative injury by suppressing Fenton chemistry and the formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. Here, we show that iron chelation protects, rather unexpectedly, by inhibiting the hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl 4-hydroxylase isoform 1 (PHD1), an iron and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase. PHD1 and its isoforms 2 and 3 are best known for stabilizing transcriptional regulators involved in hypoxic adaptation, such as HIF-1alpha and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Yet we find that global hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-PHD inhibition protects neurons even when HIF-1alpha and CREB are directly suppressed. Moreover, two global HIF-PHD inhibitors continued to be neuroprotective even in the presence of diminished HIF-2alpha levels, which itself increases neuronal susceptibility to oxidative stress. Finally, RNA interference to PHD1 but not isoforms PHD2 or PHD3 prevents oxidative death, independent of HIF activation. Together, these studies suggest that iron chelators can prevent normoxic oxidative neuronal death through selective inhibition of PHD1 but independent of HIF-1alpha and CREB; and that HIF-2alpha, not HIF-1alpha, regulates susceptibility to normoxic oxidative neuronal death. PMID:19587290

  16. The anxious amygdala: CREB signaling and predisposition to anxiety and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Wand, Gary

    2005-10-01

    The amygdala is believed to play a key role in assigning emotional significance to specific sensory input, and conditions such as anxiety, autism, stress, and phobias are thought to be linked to its abnormal function. Growing evidence has also implicated the amygdala in mediation of the stress-dampening properties of alcohol. In this issue of the JCI, Pandey and colleagues identify a central amygdaloid signaling pathway involved in anxiety-like and alcohol-drinking behaviors in rats. They report that decreased phosphorylation of cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) resulted in decreased neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression in the central amygdala of alcohol-preferring rats, causing high anxiety-like behavior. Alcohol intake by these animals was shown to increase PKA-dependent CREB phosphorylation and thereby NPY expression, subsequently ameliorating anxiety-like behavior. These provocative data suggest that a CREB-dependent neuromechanism underlies high anxiety-like and excessive alcohol-drinking behavior. PMID:16200206

  17. Spatial Memory in the Morris Water Maze and Activation of Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding (CREB) Protein within the Mouse Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porte, Yves; Buhot, Marie Christine; Mons, Nicole E.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of learning-induced cAMP response element-binding protein activation/phosphorylation (pCREB) in mice trained in a spatial reference memory task in the water maze. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined pCREB immunoreactivity (pCREB-ir) in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 and related brain structures. During the…

  18. Recurrent EWSR1-CREB3L1 gene fusions in sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Arbajian, Elsa; Puls, Florian; Magnusson, Linda; Thway, Khin; Fisher, Cyril; Sumathi, Vaiyapuri P; Tayebwa, Johnbosco; Nord, Karolin H; Kindblom, Lars-Gunnar; Mertens, Fredrik

    2014-06-01

    Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) and low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) are 2 distinct types of sarcoma, with a subset of cases showing overlapping morphologic and immunohistochemical features. LGFMS is characterized by expression of the MUC4 protein, and about 90% of cases display a distinctive FUS-CREB3L2 gene fusion. In addition, SEF is often MUC4 positive, but is genetically less well studied. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies have shown involvement of the FUS gene in the majority of so-called hybrid LGFMS/SEF and in 10% to 25% of sarcomas with pure SEF morphology. In this study, we investigated a series of 10 primary tumors showing pure SEF morphology, 4 cases of LGFMS that at local or distant relapse showed predominant SEF morphology, and 1 primary hybrid LGFMS/SEF. All but 1 case showed diffuse expression for MUC4. Using FISH, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and/or mRNA sequencing in selected cases, we found recurrent EWSR1-CREB3L1 fusion transcripts by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in 3/10 pure SEF cases and splits and deletions of the EWSR1 and/or CREB3L1 genes by FISH in 6 additional cases. All 5 cases of LGFMS with progression to SEF morphology or hybrid features had FUS-CREB3L2 fusion transcripts. Our results indicate that EWSR1 and CREB3L1 rearrangements are predominant over FUS and CREB3L2 rearrangements in pure SEF, highlighting that SEF and LGFMS are different tumor types, with different impacts on patient outcome. PMID:24441665

  19. CREB1 modulates the influence of childhood sexual abuse on adult's anger traits.

    PubMed

    Hasler, R; Perroud, N; Baud, P; Olié, E; Guillaume, S; Malafosse, A; Courtet, P

    2012-08-01

    Childhood maltreatment and genes underlie vulnerability to suicidal behaviours (SB), possibly by affecting the constitution of endophenotypes such as anger traits. The CREB protein has been implicated in antidepressant response, suicide and mood disorders in general. The aim of this study was to investigate if CREB1 gene is associated with SB and/or anger-related traits and if these associations are modulated by childhood maltreatment. Five hundred and thirty-four male suicide attempters and 357 male non-suicide attempters were genotyped for several polymorphisms within CREB1 gene. Four hundred and thirty-seven (156 non-suicide attempters and 281 suicide attempters) completed the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) and 288 (265 suicide attempters and 23 controls) fulfilled the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). In total, 72 males had experienced childhood sexual abuse. Our results did not show any significant association between CREB1 and suicide behaviour. We found a significant interaction showing that CREB1 rs4675690 polymorphism modulated the effect of childhood sexual abuse on adulthood anger-out levels (P = 0.003). Sexually abused subjects carrying the CC genotype showed higher anger-out scores than T allele carriers, whereas no difference was observed in non-sexually abused subjects. CREB1 rs4675690 polymorphism modulates the association between childhood sexual abuse and adulthood anger-trait level. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show such an interaction and to highlight the main effect of this gene on modulating the effect of child abuse on psychopathologies and warrant further investigation on this topic. PMID:22574704

  20. Differences in long-term memory stability and AmCREB level between forward and backward conditioned honeybees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Felsenberg, Johannes; Dyck, Yan; Feige, Janina; Ludwig, Jenny; Plath, Jenny Aino; Froese, Anja; Karrenbrock, Melanie; Nölle, Anna; Heufelder, Karin; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2015-01-01

    In classical conditioning a predictive relationship between a neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus; CS) and a meaningful stimulus (unconditioned stimulus; US) is learned when the CS precedes the US. In backward conditioning the sequence of the stimuli is reversed. In this situation animals might learn that the CS signals the end or the absence of the US. In honeybees 30 min and 24 h following backward conditioning a memory for the excitatory and inhibitory properties of the CS could be retrieved, but it remains unclear whether a late long-term memory is formed that can be retrieved 72 h following backward conditioning. Here we examine this question by studying late long-term memory formation in forward and backward conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER). We report a difference in the stability of memory formed upon forward and backward conditioning with the same number of conditioning trials. We demonstrate a transcription-dependent memory 72 h after forward conditioning but do not observe a 72 h memory after backward conditioning. Moreover we find that protein degradation is differentially involved in memory formation following these two conditioning protocols. We report differences in the level of a transcription factor, the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) known to induce transcription underlying long-term memory formation, following forward and backward conditioning. Our results suggest that these alterations in CREB levels might be regulated by the proteasome. We propose that the differences observed are due to the sequence of stimulus presentation between forward and backward conditioning and not to differences in the strength of the association of both stimuli. PMID:25964749

  1. The cAMP response element binding protein, CREB, is a potent inhibitor of diverse transcriptional activators.

    PubMed Central

    Lemaigre, F P; Ace, C I; Green, M R

    1993-01-01

    Cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) activates transcription of cAMP response element (CRE)-containing promoters following an elevation of intracellular cAMP. Here we show that CREB and the highly related protein ATF-1 are also potent transcription inhibitors. Strikingly, CREB inhibits transcription of multiple activators, whose DNA-binding domains and activation regions are unrelated to one another. Inhibition requires that the CREB dimerization and DNA-binding domains are intact. However, inhibition is not dependent upon the presence of a CRE in the promoter, and does not involve heterodimer formation between CREB and the activator. The ability of an activator protein to inhibit transcription in such a promiscuous fashion has not been previously reported. Images PMID:8332500

  2. PKC-α-dependent augmentation of cAMP and CREB phosphorylation mediates the angiotensin II stimulation of renin in the collecting duct.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Alexis A; Liu, Liu; Lara, Lucienne S; Bourgeois, Camille R T; Ibaceta-Gonzalez, Cristobal; Salinas-Parra, Nicolas; Gogulamudi, Venkateswara R; Seth, Dale M; Prieto, Minolfa C

    2015-11-15

    In contrast to the negative feedback of angiotensin II (ANG II) on juxtaglomerular renin, ANG II stimulates renin in the principal cells of the collecting duct (CD) in rats and mice via ANG II type 1 (AT1R) receptor, independently of blood pressure. In vitro data indicate that CD renin is augmented by AT1R activation through protein kinase C (PKC), but the exact mechanisms are unknown. We hypothesize that ANG II stimulates CD renin synthesis through AT1R via PKC and the subsequent activation of cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway. In M-1 cells, ANG II increased cAMP, renin mRNA (3.5-fold), prorenin, and renin proteins, as well as renin activity in culture media (2-fold). These effects were prevented by PKC inhibition with calphostin C, PKC-α dominant negative, and by PKA inhibition. Forskolin-induced increases in cAMP and renin expression were prevented by calphostin C. PKC inhibition and Ca2+ depletion impaired ANG II-mediated CREB phosphorylation and upregulation of renin. Adenylate cyclase 6 (AC) siRNA remarkably attenuated the ANG II-dependent upregulation of renin mRNA. Physiological activation of AC with vasopressin increased renin expression in M-1 cells. The results suggest that the ANG II-dependent upregulation of renin in the CD depends on PKC-α, which allows the augmentation of cAMP production and activation of PKA/CREB pathway via AC6. This study defines the intracellular signaling pathway involved in the ANG II-mediated stimulation of renin in the CD. This is a novel mechanism responsible for the regulation of local renin-angiotensin system in the distal nephron. PMID:26268270

  3. Astaxanthin Inhibits Acetaldehyde-Induced Cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells by Modulating Akt/CREB and p38MAPK/ERK Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Tingting; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Xia; Lin, Xiaotong

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction. Acetaldehyde, the most toxic metabolite of ethanol, mediates the brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction induced by chronic excessive alcohol consumption. In this study, the effect of astaxanthin, a marine bioactive compound, on acetaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity was investigated in SH-SY5Y cells. It was found that astaxanthin protected cells from apoptosis by ameliorating the effect of acetaldehyde on the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins, preventing the reduction of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the increase of pro-apoptotic protein Bak induced by acetaldehyde. Further analyses showed that astaxanthin treatment inhibited acetaldehyde-induced reduction of the levels of activated Akt and cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB). Astaxanthin treatment also prevented acetaldehyde-induced increase of the level of activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and decrease of the level of activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs). Activation of Akt/CREB pathway promotes cell survival and is involved in the upregulation of Bcl-2 gene. P38MAPK plays a critical role in apoptotic events while ERKs mediates the inhibition of apoptosis. Thus, astaxanthin may inhibit acetaldehyde-induced apoptosis through promoting the activation of Akt/CREB and ERKs and blocking the activation of p38MAPK. In addition, astaxanthin treatment suppressed the oxidative stress induced by acetaldehyde and restored the antioxidative capacity of SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, astaxanthin may protect cells against acetaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity through maintaining redox balance and modulating apoptotic and survival signals. The results suggest that astaxanthin treatment may be beneficial for preventing neurotoxicity associated with acetaldehyde and excessive alcohol consumption. PMID:26978376

  4. Astaxanthin Inhibits Acetaldehyde-Induced Cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells by Modulating Akt/CREB and p38MAPK/ERK Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tingting; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Xia; Lin, Xiaotong

    2016-03-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction. Acetaldehyde, the most toxic metabolite of ethanol, mediates the brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction induced by chronic excessive alcohol consumption. In this study, the effect of astaxanthin, a marine bioactive compound, on acetaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity was investigated in SH-SY5Y cells. It was found that astaxanthin protected cells from apoptosis by ameliorating the effect of acetaldehyde on the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins, preventing the reduction of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the increase of pro-apoptotic protein Bak induced by acetaldehyde. Further analyses showed that astaxanthin treatment inhibited acetaldehyde-induced reduction of the levels of activated Akt and cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB). Astaxanthin treatment also prevented acetaldehyde-induced increase of the level of activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and decrease of the level of activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs). Activation of Akt/CREB pathway promotes cell survival and is involved in the upregulation of Bcl-2 gene. P38MAPK plays a critical role in apoptotic events while ERKs mediates the inhibition of apoptosis. Thus, astaxanthin may inhibit acetaldehyde-induced apoptosis through promoting the activation of Akt/CREB and ERKs and blocking the activation of p38MAPK. In addition, astaxanthin treatment suppressed the oxidative stress induced by acetaldehyde and restored the antioxidative capacity of SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, astaxanthin may protect cells against acetaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity through maintaining redox balance and modulating apoptotic and survival signals. The results suggest that astaxanthin treatment may be beneficial for preventing neurotoxicity associated with acetaldehyde and excessive alcohol consumption. PMID:26978376

  5. Modulation of opiate-related signaling molecules in morphine-dependent conditioned behavior: conditioned place preference to morphine induces CREB phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Morón, José A; Gullapalli, Srinivas; Taylor, Chirisse; Gupta, Achla; Gomes, Ivone; Devi, Lakshmi A

    2010-03-01

    Opiate addiction is a chronic, relapsing behavioral disorder where learned associations that develop between the abused opiate and the environment in which it is consumed are brought about through Pavlovian (classical) conditioning processes. However, the signaling mechanisms/pathways regulating the mechanisms that underlie the responses to opiate-associated cues or the development of sensitization as a consequence of repeated context-independent administration of opiates are unknown. In this study we examined the phosphorylation levels of various classic signaling molecules in brain regions implicated in addictive behaviors after acute and repeated morphine administration. An unbiased place conditioning protocol was used to examine changes in phosphorylation that are associated with (1) the expression of the rewarding effects of morphine and (2) the sensitization that develops to this effect. We also examined the effects of a delta-receptor antagonist on morphine-induced conditioned behavior and on the phosphorylation of classic signaling molecules in view of data showing that blockade of delta-opioid receptor (deltaOR) prevents the development of sensitization to the rewarding effects of morphine. We find that CREB phosphorylation is specifically induced upon the expression of a sensitized response to morphine-induced conditioned behavior in brain areas related to memory consolidation, such as the hippocampus and cortex. A similar effect is also observed, albeit to a lesser extent, in the case of the GluR1 subunit of AMPA glutamate receptor. These increases in the phosphorylation levels of CREB and pGluR1 are significantly blocked by pretreatment with a deltaOR antagonist. These results indicate a critical role for phospho-CREB, AMPA, and deltaOR activities in mediating the expression of a sensitized response to morphine-dependent conditioned behavior. PMID:19956087

  6. [Basal and spinous cell epitheliomas].

    PubMed

    Shaw, M; Sanguinetti, O; de Kaminsky, A R; Kaminsky, C A

    1975-01-01

    A study on 502 epithelial cutaneous cancers was carried out by the authors. The study included 377 basal cell carcinomas (57,5% in males and 42,4% in females) and 125 squamous cell carcinomas (78,4% in males and 21,6% in females). The basal cell carcinomas in both sexs had an earlier onset than the squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:1241706

  7. Disruption of the CREBBP gene and decreased expression of CREB, NFκB p65, c-JUN, c-FOS, BCL2 and c-MYC suggest immune dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Torres, Leuridan Cavalcante; Kulikowski, Leslie Domenici; Ramos, Patrícia Locosque; Sugayama, Sofia Mizuko Miura; Moreira-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda

    2013-08-01

    Genomic aberrations in the CREBBP (CREB-binding protein - CREBBP or CBP) gene such as point mutations, small insertions or exonic copy number changes are usually associated with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTs). In this study, the disruption of the CREBBP gene on chromosome 16p13.3, as revealed by CGH-array and FISH, suggests immune dysregulation in a patient with the Rubinstein Taybi syndrome (RTs) phenotype. Further investigation with Western blot techniques demonstrated decreased expression of CREB, NFκB, c-Jun, c-Fos, BCL2 and cMyc in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, thus indicating that the CREBBP gene is essential for the normal expression of these proteins and the regulation of immune responses. PMID:23643710

  8. [Anti-basal ganglia antibody].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masaharu

    2013-04-01

    Sydenham's chorea (SC) is a major manifestation of rheumatic fever, and the production of anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) has been proposed in SC. The pathogenesis is hypothesized as autoimmune targeting of the basal ganglia via molecular mimicry, triggered by streptococcal infection. The spectrum of diseases in which ABGA may be involved has been broadened to include other extrapyramidal movement disorders, such as tics, dystonia, and Parkinsonism, as well as other psychiatric disorders. The autoimmune hypothesis in the presence and absence of ABGA has been suggested in Tourette's syndrome (TS), early onset obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). Recently, the relationship between ABGA and dopamine neurons in the basal ganglia has been examined, and autoantibodies against dopamine receptors were detected in the sera from patients with basal ganglia encephalitis. In Japan, the occurrence of subacute encephalitis, where patients suffer from episodes of altered behavior and involuntary movements, has increased. Immune-modulating treatments are effective, indicating the involvement of an autoimmune mechanism. We aimed to detect the anti-neuronal autoantibodies in such encephalitis, using immunohistochemical assessment of patient sera. The sera from patients showing involuntary movements had immunoreactivity for basal ganglia neurons. Further epitopes for ABGA will be investigated in basal ganglia disorders other than SC, TS, OCD, and PANDAS. PMID:23568985

  9. Intra-Amygdala Injections of CREB Antisense Impair Inhibitory Avoidance Memory: Role of Norepinephrine and Acetylcholine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canal, Clinton E.; Chang, Qing; Gold, Paul E.

    2008-01-01

    Infusions of CREB antisense into the amygdala prior to training impair memory for aversive tasks, suggesting that the antisense may interfere with CRE-mediated gene transcription and protein synthesis important for the formation of new memories within the amygdala. However, the amygdala also appears to modulate memory formation in distributed…

  10. Rapid Forgetting of Social Transmission of Food Preferences in Aged Rats: Relationship to Hippocampal CREB Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Countryman, Renee A.; Gold, Paul E.

    2007-01-01

    A major characteristic of age-related changes in memory in rodents is an increase in the rate of forgetting of new information, even when tests given soon after training reveal intact memory. Interference with CREB functions similarly results in rapid decay of memory. Using quantitative immunocytochemistry, the present experiment examined the…

  11. A high-fat diet or galanin in the PVN decreases phosphorylation of CREB in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Bocarsly, M E; Avena, N M

    2013-09-17

    A high-fat diet (HFD) can increase hypothalamic galanin (GAL). GAL has recently been shown to inhibit opiate reward, which in turn, decreases cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We hypothesized that injection of GAL into the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), or consumption of a HFD, would be associated with a decrease in NAc CREB. In Exp. 1, GAL in the PVN of naïve rats decreased phosphorylated-CREB (pCREB) which is the activated form of CREB, in the NAc compared to saline-injected controls. In Exp. 2, rats fed ad libitum HFD for 4 weeks had reduced NAc pCREB levels compared to rats with sporadic tastes of the HFD. Body weight, serum triglyceride and leptin levels were also raised in the chronic HFD-fed rats. These data suggest that PVN GAL or chronic intake of a HFD can decrease NAc pCREB. The implications of these findings may help to explain the lack of opiate-like withdrawal that has been reported in response to overeating a HFD, thereby providing a potential mechanism underlying behavioral differences seen with addiction-like overconsumption of different types of palatable foods. PMID:23747305

  12. Involvement of PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a and PKA/CREB Signaling Pathways in the Protective Effect of Fluoxetine Against Corticosterone-Induced Cytotoxicity in PC12 Cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Bingqing; Li, Yiwen; Niu, Bo; Wang, Xinyi; Cheng, Yufang; Zhou, Zhongzhen; You, Tingting; Liu, Yonggang; Wang, Haitao; Xu, Jiangping

    2016-08-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine is neuroprotective in several brain injury models. It is commonly used to treat major depressive disorder and related conditions, but its mechanism of action remains incompletely understood. Activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B/forkhead box O3a (PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a) and protein kinase A/cAMP-response element binding protein (PKA/CREB) signaling pathways has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of depression and might be the downstream target of fluoxetine. Here, we used PC12 cells exposed to corticosterone (CORT) to study the neuroprotective effects of fluoxetine and the involvement of the PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a and PKA/CREB signaling pathways. Our results show that CORT reduced PC12 cells viability by 70 %, and that fluoxetine showed a concentration-dependent neuroprotective effect. Neuroprotective effects of fluoxetine were abolished by inhibition of PI3K, Akt, and PKA using LY294002, KRX-0401, and H89, respectively. Treatment of PC12 cells with fluoxetine resulted in increased phosphorylation of Akt, FoxO3a, and CREB. Fluoxetine also dose-dependently rescued the phosphorylation levels of Akt, FoxO3a, and CREB, following administration of CORT (from 99 to 110, 56 to 170, 80 to 170 %, respectively). In addition, inhibition of PKA and PI3K/Akt resulted in decreased levels of p-CREB, p-Akt, and p-FoxO3a in the presence of fluoxetine. Furthermore, fluoxetine reversed CORT-induced upregulation of p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (Puma) and Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death (Bim) via the PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a signaling pathway. H89 treatment reversed the effect of fluoxetine on the mRNA level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which was decreased in the presence of CORT. Our data indicate that fluoxetine elicited neuroprotection toward CORT-induced cell death that involves dual regulation from PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a and PKA/CREB pathways. PMID:27412469

  13. Evolution of sensory structures in basal metazoa.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Dave K; Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Yuan, David; Camara, Anthony; Nichols, Scott A; Hartenstein, Volker

    2007-11-01

    Cnidaria have traditionally been viewed as the most basal animals with complex, organ-like multicellular structures dedicated to sensory perception. However, sponges also have a surprising range of the genes required for sensory and neural functions in Bilateria. Here, we: (1) discuss "sense organ" regulatory genes, including; sine oculis, Brain 3, and eyes absent, that are expressed in cnidarian sense organs; (2) assess the sensory features of the planula, polyp, and medusa life-history stages of Cnidaria; and (3) discuss physiological and molecular data that suggest sensory and "neural" processes in sponges. We then develop arguments explaining the shared aspects of developmental regulation across sense organs and between sense organs and other structures. We focus on explanations involving divergent evolution from a common ancestral condition. In Bilateria, distinct sense-organ types share components of developmental-gene regulation. These regulators are also present in basal metazoans, suggesting evolution of multiple bilaterian organs from fewer antecedent sensory structures in a metazoan ancestor. More broadly, we hypothesize that developmental genetic similarities between sense organs and appendages may reflect descent from closely associated structures, or a composite organ, in the common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria, and we argue that such similarities between bilaterian sense organs and kidneys may derive from a multifunctional aggregations of choanocyte-like cells in a metazoan ancestor. We hope these speculative arguments presented here will stimulate further discussion of these and related questions. PMID:21669752

  14. RFamide peptides in agnathans and basal chordates.

    PubMed

    Osugi, Tomohiro; Son, You Lee; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Satake, Honoo; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Since a peptide with a C-terminal Arg-Phe-NH2 (RFamide peptide) was first identified in the ganglia of the venus clam in 1977, RFamide peptides have been found in the nervous system of both invertebrates and vertebrates. In vertebrates, the RFamide peptide family includes gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), neuropeptide FF (NPFF), prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), pyroglutamylated RFamide peptide/26RFamide peptide (QRFP/26RFa), and kisspeptins (kiss1 and kiss2). They are involved in important functions such as the release of hormones, regulation of sexual or social behavior, pain transmission, reproduction, and feeding. In contrast to tetrapods and jawed fish, the information available on RFamide peptides in agnathans and basal chordates is limited, thus preventing further insights into the evolution of RFamide peptides in vertebrates. In this review, we focus on the previous research and recent advances in the studies on RFamide peptides in agnathans and basal chordates. In agnathans, the genes encoding GnIH, NPFF, and PrRP precursors and the mature peptides have been identified in lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and hagfish (Paramyxine atami). Putative kiss1 and kiss2 genes have also been found in the genome database of lamprey. In basal chordates, namely, in amphioxus (Branchiostoma japonicum), a common ancestral form of GnIH and NPFF genes and their mature peptides, as well as the ortholog of the QRFP gene have been identified. The studies revealed that the number of orthologs of vertebrate RFamide peptides present in agnathans and basal chordates is greater than expected, suggesting that the vertebrate RFamide peptides might have emerged and expanded at an early stage of chordate evolution. PMID:26130238

  15. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins.

    PubMed

    Mannucci, Edoardo; Giannini, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane) and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec) differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with regard to cardiovascular safety will provide definitive evidence. PMID:26203281

  16. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins

    PubMed Central

    Mannucci, Edoardo; Giannini, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane) and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec) differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with regard to cardiovascular safety will provide definitive evidence. PMID:26203281

  17. Model Predicts That MKP1 and TAB1 Regulate p38α Nuclear Pulse and Its Basal Activity through Positive and Negative Feedback Loops in Response to IL-1

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Raghvendra

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-1 mediates inflammation and stress response through nuclear activity of p38α. Although IL-1 receptor is not degraded, p38α activation is transient. IL-1 also causes cell migration and EMT by modulating cell-cell junctions. Although molecules involved in p38 activation are known, mechanism of the transient nuclear response and its basal activity remains unknown. By mathematical modeling of IL1/p38 signaling network, we show that IL-1 induces robust p38α activation both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm/membrane. While nuclear response consists of an acute phase, membrane response resembles a step change. Following stimulation, p38α activity returns to a basal level in absence of receptor degradation. While nuclear pulse is controlled by MKP1 through a negative feedback to pp38, its basal activity is controlled by both TAB1 and MKP1 through a positive feedback loop. Our model provides insight into the mechanism of p38α activation, reason for its transient nuclear response, and explanation of the basal activity of MKK3/6 and p38α, which has been experimentally observed by other groups. PMID:27314954

  18. Pedunculopontine nucleus and basal ganglia: distant relatives or part of the same family?

    PubMed

    Mena-Segovia, Juan; Bolam, J Paul; Magill, Peter J

    2004-10-01

    The basal ganglia are more highly interconnected with the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPN) than with any other brain region. Regulation and relay of basal ganglia activity are two key functions of the PPN. The PPN provides an interface for the basal ganglia to influence sleep and waking, and the two structures are similarly implicated in learning, reward and other cognitive functions. Perturbations of basal ganglia activity have consequences for the PPN and vice versa, exemplified by their interdependencies in motor function and Parkinson's disease. Thus, close anatomical and physiological links between the PPN and basal ganglia make it increasingly difficult to consider the two as separate functional entities. PMID:15374668

  19. Multiple pigmented basal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Shoji, T; Lee, J; Hong, S H; Oh, C H; Kim, W K; Bhawan, J

    1998-04-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common of all skin cancers and the most prevalent one among Caucasians. Rarely, these tumors are seen in other races. We report a 77-year-old Korean woman who presented with multiple darkly pigmented enlarging nodules on her scalp, face, trunk, and extremities. The patient had first noted a 6-mm pigmented lesion on her left eyebrow 10 years previously. Since then, other lesions had appeared in many locations on her body. She had been otherwise healthy and without a history of exposure to arsenic or radiation. There was no family history of skin cancer, xeroderma pigmentosum, or basal cell nevus syndrome. On physical examination, multiple darkly pigmented dome-shaped papules and nodules were present on her scalp, face, right forearm, lower abdomen, and inguinal areas. They ranged in size from 0.5 mm to 2 cm. The larger ones showed central ulceration. Multiple biopsy specimens from different sites showed pigmented basal cell carcinomas. Clinically, there was no evidence of nevus sebaceus, xeroderma pigmentosum, basal cell nevus syndrome, or immunodeficiency. Clinical workup including chest radiography, abdominal ultrasound, bone scan, and brain computerized axial tomography scan did not demonstrate primary or secondary tumors. The results of serologic and hematologic tests were also within normal limits. This is an unusual case report of multiple pigmented basal cell carcinomas in an Asian woman without any predisposing risk factors. PMID:9557792

  20. Cognitive-motor interactions of the basal ganglia in development

    PubMed Central

    Leisman, Gerry; Braun-Benjamin, Orit; Melillo, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function. The basal ganglia are key elements in the control of reward-based learning, sequencing, discrete elements that constitute a complete motor act, and cognitive function. Imaging studies of intact human subjects and electrophysiologic and tracer studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. We know that the relation between the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortical region allows for connections organized into discrete circuits. Rather than serving as a means for widespread cortical areas to gain access to the motor system, these loops reciprocally interconnect a large and diverse set of cerebral cortical areas with the basal ganglia. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia associated with motor areas of the cerebral cortex is highly correlated with parameters of movement. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops associated with the prefrontal cortex is related to the aspects of cognitive function. Thus, individual loops appear to be involved in distinct behavioral functions. Damage to the basal ganglia of circuits with motor areas of the cortex leads to motor symptoms, whereas damage to the subcortical components of circuits with non-motor areas of the cortex causes higher-order deficits. In this report, we review some of the anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral findings that have contributed to a reappraisal of function concerning the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with the cerebral cortex and apply it in clinical applications to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD

  1. Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein 1 (LRP1) Modulates N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) Receptor-dependent Intracellular Signaling and NMDA-induced Regulation of Postsynaptic Protein Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Chikako; Kulik, Akos; Frotscher, Michael; Herz, Joachim; Schäfer, Michael; Bock, Hans H.; May, Petra

    2013-01-01

    The lipoprotein receptor LRP1 is essential in neurons of the central nervous system, as was revealed by the analysis of conditional Lrp1-deficient mouse models. The molecular basis of its neuronal functions, however, is still incompletely understood. Here we show by immunocytochemistry, electron microscopy, and postsynaptic density preparation that LRP1 is located postsynaptically. Basal and NMDA-induced phosphorylation of the transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) as well as NMDA target gene transcription are reduced in LRP1-deficient neurons. In control neurons, NMDA promotes γ-secretase-dependent release of the LRP1 intracellular domain (LRP1-ICD). However, pull-down and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed no direct interaction between the LRP1-ICD and either CREB or target gene promoters. On the other hand, NMDA-induced degradation of the postsynaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 was impaired in the absence of LRP1, whereas its ubiquitination was increased, indicating that LRP1 influences the composition of postsynaptic protein complexes. Accordingly, NMDA-induced internalization of the AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 was impaired in LRP1-deficient neurons. These results show a role of LRP1 in the regulation and turnover of synaptic proteins, which may contribute to the reduced dendritic branching and to the neurological phenotype observed in the absence of LRP1. PMID:23760271

  2. Dioscin Derived from Solanum melongena L. "Usukawamarunasu" Attenuates α-MSH-Induced Melanogenesis in B16 Murine Melanoma Cells via Downregulation of Phospho-CREB and MITF.

    PubMed

    Nishina, Atsuyoshi; Ebina, Kodai; Ukiya, Motohiko; Fukatsu, Makoto; Koketsu, Mamoru; Ninomiya, Masayuki; Sato, Daisuke; Kimura, Hirokazu

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to chemically isolate and explore an antimelanogenesis inducer in extracts of Solanum melongena L. "Usukawamarunasu" eggplant. We successfully identified dioscin ([25R]-Spirost-5-en-3β-yl) 2-O-(6-deoxy-α-L-mannopyranosyl) - 4-O-(6-deoxy-α-L-mannopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside] in the plant, and examined the effects of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)-induced melanogenesis in B16 murine melanoma cells by this plant-derived dioscin. Immunoblot analysis suggested that dioscin reduced the expression of tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), and TRP-2, resulting in inhibition of intracellular production of melanin. In addition, dioscin caused reduction of phosphorylated cAMP-responsive element binding protein 1 transcription factors (CREB), which led to a reduction of microphthalmia-related transcription factor (MITF) in α-MSH-stimulated cells, but did not affect phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Furthermore, dioscin significantly downregulated the expression of tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2, which led to the reduction of α-MSH-induced melanogenesis in B16 cells. These results suggest that dioscin may decrease the level of MITF via inhibition of phosphorylation of CREB in α-MSH-induced melanogenesis in B16 cells. PMID:26352003

  3. DC Priming by M. vaccae Inhibits Th2 Responses in Contrast to Specific TLR2 Priming and Is Associated with Selective Activation of the CREB Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Le Bert, Nina; Chain, Benjamin M.; Rook, Graham; Noursadeghi, Mahdad

    2011-01-01

    The environmental mycobacterium, M. vaccae has been used in mouse models to support the contemporary hygiene hypothesis that non-pathogenic microorganisms reduce allergy associated T helper (Th)2 responses and inflammatory diseases by augmenting regulatory T cells. However, data for human models and possible mechanisms are limited. We tested the effect of innate immune interactions between human DC and M. vaccae on DC-dependent T cell responses. M. vaccae activation of DC via Toll like receptor (TLR)2 was compared to a specific TLR2 ligand (Pam3CSK4) and alternative stimulation with a TLR4 ligand (LPS). M. vaccae induced DC dependent inhibition of Th2 responses, in contrast to Pam3CSK4, which had the opposite effect and LPS, which had no polarizing effect. DC maturation, gene expression and cytokine production, in response to each stimulus did not correlate with the specific functional effects. Comparable DC transcriptional responses to M. vaccae and Pam3CSK4 suggested that TLR2 mediated transcriptional regulation was not sufficient for inhibition of Th2 responses. Transcription factor enrichment analysis and assessment of signaling events, implicated a role for selective early activation of the CREB pathway by M. vaccae. Further study of the CREB pathway may provide novel insight into the molecular mechanisms of DC-dependent T cell polarization. PMID:21483768

  4. Resveratrol protects CA1 neurons against focal cerebral ischemic reperfusion-induced damage via the ERK-CREB signaling pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Fang, Fang; Wang, Yuanyin; Wang, Liecheng

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is a primary cause of mortality and disability in the aged population. Resveratrol (Res), a natural polyphenol enriched in plants, presents diverse biological activities, e.g., antiinflammatory and anti-oxidation effects. Here, we evaluated whether Res pretreatment influenced focal cerebral ischemia-induced cognitive impairment, and we explored the underlying mechanisms in rats. The results showed that a single administration of Res (30mg/kg, i.p.) at 1 or 4h, but not at 24h before focal cerebral ischemia exerted significant neuroprotective effects, including a reduction in hippocampal CA1 neuronal death and spatial cognition deficits caused by ischemia. The neuroprotective effects of Res were suppressed by pretreatment with MK801, an NMDA receptor blocker, or U0126, an extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) kinase inhibitor. A western blot analysis revealed that Res treatment at 1h before ischemia significantly increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, which can be prevented with U0126 pretreatment. The results showed that the NMDA receptor-mediated ERK-CREB signaling pathway might participates in Res-induced neuroprotection in rats with focal cerebral ischemia. PMID:27143440

  5. Tissue Kallikrein Alleviates Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Activating the B2R-ERK1/2-CREB-Bcl-2 Signaling Pathway in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Kunxiong; Hu, Bin; Sang, Hongfei; Xie, Yi; Xu, Lili; Cao, Qinqin; Chen, Xin; Zhao, Lingling; Liu, Xinfeng; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Renliang

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) substantially increases the risk of ischemic stroke and reduces the tolerance to ischemic insults. Tissue kallikrein (TK) has been demonstrated to protect neurons from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in orthoglycemic model by activating the bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R). Considering the differential effects of B2R or bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R) on cardioprotection and neuroprotection in I/R with or without diabetes, this study was designed to investigate the role of TK during cerebral I/R injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Intravenous injection of TK inhibited apoptosis in neurons, alleviated edema and inflammatory reactions after focal cerebral I/R, significantly reduced the infarct volume, and improved functional recovery. These beneficial effects were accompanied by activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), cAMP response element-binding (CREB), and Bcl-2 signal proteins. Inhibition of the B2R or ERK1/2 pathway abated the effects of TK, whereas an antagonist of B1R enhanced the effects. These findings reveal that the neuroprotective effect of TK against cerebral I/R injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats mainly involves the enhancement of B2R and ERK1/2-CREB-Bcl-2 signaling pathway activity.

  6. Basal cell carcinoma – diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Monika; Strzelecka-Węklar, Daria; Dańczak-Pazdrowska, Aleksandra; Adamski, Zygmunt

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer in the Caucasian population. The cancer arises in sun exposed areas of the skin. The incidence of morbidity is high and it is still growing. The metastatic rate is low, but the enlarging tumor may cause severe tissue disfigurement and a poor cosmetic outcome. The diagnosis is usually clinical but there are many subtypes of this carcinoma and correct diagnosis is the clue to appropriate treatment of the lesion. The main problem in basal cell carcinoma management is the high recurrence rate. PMID:24592119

  7. DNA Hypermethylation of CREB3L1 and Bcl-2 Associated with the Mitochondrial-Mediated Apoptosis via PI3K/Akt Pathway in Human BEAS-2B Cells Exposure to Silica Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yang; Li, Qiuling; Jiang, Lizhen; Guo, Caixia; Li, Yanbo; Yu, Yang; Li, Yang; Duan, Junchao; Sun, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    The toxic effects of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) are raising concerns due to its widely applications in biomedicine. However, current information about the epigenetic toxicity of SiNPs is insufficient. In this study, the epigenetic regulation of low-dose exposure to SiNPs was evaluated in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells over 30 passages. Cell viability was decreased in a dose- and passage-dependent manner. The apoptotic rate, the expression of caspase-9 and caspase-3, were significantly increased induced by SiNPs. HumanMethylation450 BeadChip analysis identified that the PI3K/Akt as the primary apoptosis-related pathway among the 25 significant altered processes. The differentially methylated sites of PI3K/Akt pathway involved 32 differential genes promoters, in which the CREB3L1 and Bcl-2 were significant hypermethylated. The methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza, further verified that the DNA hypermethylation status of CREB3L1 and Bcl-2 were associated with downregulation of their mRNA levels. In addition, mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis was triggered by SiNPs via the downregulation of PI3K/Akt/CREB/Bcl-2 signaling pathway. Our findings suggest that long-term low-dose exposure to SiNPs could lead to epigenetic alterations. PMID:27362941

  8. MnTE-2-PyP reduces prostate cancer growth and metastasis by suppressing p300 activity and p300/HIF-1/CREB binding to the promoter region of the PAI-1 gene.

    PubMed

    Tong, Qiang; Weaver, Michael R; Kosmacek, Elizabeth A; O'Connor, Brian P; Harmacek, Laura; Venkataraman, Sujatha; Oberley-Deegan, Rebecca E

    2016-05-01

    To improve radiation therapy-induced quality of life impairments for prostate cancer patients, the development of radio-protectors is needed. Our previous work has demonstrated that MnTE-2-PyP significantly protects urogenital tissues from radiation-induced damage. So, in order for MnTE-2-PyP to be used clinically as a radio-protector, it is fully necessary to explore the effect of MnTE-2-PyP on human prostate cancer progression. MnTE-2-PyP inhibited prostate cancer growth in the presence and absence of radiation and also inhibited prostate cancer migration and invasion. MnTE-2-PyP altered p300 DNA binding, which resulted in the inhibition of HIF-1β and CREB signaling pathways. Accordingly, we also found that MnTE-2-PyP reduced the expression of three genes regulated by HIF-1β and/or CREB: TGF-β2, FGF-1 and PAI-1. Specifically, MnTE-2-PyP decreased p300 complex binding to a specific HRE motif within the PAI-1 gene promoter region, suppressed H3K9 acetylation, and consequently, repressed PAI-1 expression. Mechanistically, less p300 transcriptional complex binding is not due to the reduction of binding between p300 and HIF-1/CREB transcription factors, but through inhibiting the binding of HIF-1/CREB transcription factors to DNA. Our data provide an in depth mechanism by which MnTE-2-PyP reduces prostate cancer growth and metastasis, which validates the clinical use of MnTE-2-PyP as a radio-protector to enhance treatment outcomes in prostate cancer radiotherapy. PMID:26944191

  9. Rescuing prefrontal cAMP-CREB pathway reverses working memory deficits during withdrawal from prolonged alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, G; Dagnas, M; Decorte, L; Vandesquille, M; Belzung, C; Béracochéa, D; Mons, N

    2016-03-01

    Both human and animal studies indicate that alcohol withdrawal following chronic alcohol consumption (CAC) impairs many of the cognitive functions which rely on the prefrontal cortex (PFC). A candidate signaling cascade contributing to memory deficits during alcohol withdrawal is the protein kinase A (PKA)/cAMP-responsive element binding (CREB) cascade, although the role of PKA/CREB cascade in behavioral and molecular changes during sustained withdrawal period remains largely unknown. We demonstrated that 1 week (1W) or 6 weeks (6W) withdrawal after 6-month CAC impairs working memory (WM) in a T-maze spontaneous alternation task and reduces phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) in the PFC but not the dorsal CA1 region (dCA1) of the hippocampus compared with CAC and water conditions. In contrast, both CAC-unimpaired and withdrawn-impaired mice exhibited decreased pCREB in dCA1 as well as reduced histone H4 acetylation in PFC and dCA1, compared with water controls. Next, we showed that enhancing CREB activity through rolipram administration prior to testing improved WM performance in withdrawn mice but impaired WM function in water mice. In addition, WM improvement correlates positively with increased pCREB level selectively in the PFC of withdrawn mice. Results further indicate that direct infusion of the PKA activator (Sp-cAMPS) into the PFC significantly improves or impairs, respectively, WM performance in withdrawn and water animals. In contrast, Sp-cAMPS had no effect on WM when infused into the dCA1. Collectively, these results provide strong support that dysregulation of PKA/CREB-dependent processes in prefrontal neurons is a critical molecular signature underlying cognitive decline during alcohol withdrawal. PMID:25388276

  10. The Mitochondrial Uncoupler DNP Triggers Brain Cell mTOR Signaling Network Reprogramming and CREB Pathway Upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong; Zhang, Yongqing; Gharavi, Robert; Park, Hee Ra; Lee, Jaewon; Siddiqui, Sana; Telljohann, Richard; Nassar, Matthew R.; Cutler, Roy G.; Becker, Kevin G.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial metabolism is highly responsive to nutrient availability and ongoing activity in neuronal circuits. The molecular mechanisms by which brain cells respond to an increase in cellular energy expenditure are largely unknown. Mild mitochondrial uncoupling enhances cellular energy expenditure in mitochondria and can be induced with 2, 4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a proton ionophore previously used for weight loss. We found that DNP treatment reduces mitochondrial membrane potential, increases intracellular Ca2+ levels and reduces oxidative stress in cerebral cortical neurons. Gene expression profiling of the cerebral cortex of DNP-treated mice revealed reprogramming of signaling cascades that included suppression of the mTOR and insulin – PI3K – MAPK pathways, and up-regulation of tuberous sclerosis complex 2, a negative regulator of mTOR. Genes encoding proteins involved in autophagy processes were up-regulated in response to DNP. CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) signaling, Arc and BDNF, which play important roles in synaptic plasticity and adaptive cellular stress responses, were up-regulated in response to DNP, and DNP-treated mice exhibited improved performance in a test of learning and memory. Immunoblot analysis verified that key DNP-induced changes in gene expression resulted in corresponding changes at the protein level. Our findings suggest that mild mitochondrial uncoupling triggers an integrated signaling response in brain cells characterized by reprogramming of mTOR and insulin signaling, and up-regulation of pathways involved in adaptive stress responses, molecular waste disposal and synaptic plasticity. PMID:26010875

  11. Teachers Reflect Standards in Basals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Dozens of teachers and literacy specialists from across the country hunkered down in Baltimore at round tables, with laptops, pens, and paper, intent on rewriting the collections that wield tremendous influence over the way millions of U.S. children learn literacy skills: the big-name basal readers. Hailing from 18 school districts in 11 states,…

  12. Identification of a Potent Inhibitor of CREB-Mediated Gene Transcription with Efficacious in Vivo Anticancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that nuclear transcription factor cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) is overexpressed in many different types of cancers. Therefore, CREB has been pursued as a novel cancer therapeutic target. Naphthol AS-E and its closely related derivatives have been shown to inhibit CREB-mediated gene transcription and cancer cell growth. Previously, we identified naphthamide 3a as a different chemotype to inhibit CREB’s transcription activity. In a continuing effort to discover more potent CREB inhibitors, a series of structural congeners of 3a was designed and synthesized. Biological evaluations of these compounds uncovered compound 3i (666-15) as a potent and selective inhibitor of CREB-mediated gene transcription (IC50 = 0.081 ± 0.04 μM). 666-15 also potently inhibited cancer cell growth without harming normal cells. In an in vivo MDA-MB-468 xenograft model, 666-15 completely suppressed the tumor growth without overt toxicity. These results further support the potential of CREB as a valuable cancer drug target. PMID:26023867

  13. A high-fat diet or galanin in the PVN decreases phosphorylation of CREB in the nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Bocarsly, Miriam E.; Avena, Nicole M.

    2013-01-01

    A high-fat diet (HFD) can increase hypothalamic galanin (GAL). GAL has recently been shown to inhibit opiate reward, which in turn, decreases cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We hypothesized that injection of GAL into the PVN, or consumption of a HFD, would be associated with a decrease in NAc CREB. In Exp. 1, GAL in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of naïve rats decreased phosphorylated-CREB (pCREB) in the NAc compared to saline injected controls. In Exp. 2, rats fed ad libitum HFD for 4 wks had reduced NAc pCREB levels compared to rats with sporadic tastes of the HFD. Body weight, serum triglyceride and leptin levels were also raised in the chronic HFD-fed rats. These data suggest that PVN GAL or chronic intake of a HFD can decrease NAc pCREB. The implications of these findings may help to explain the lack of opiate-like withdrawal that has been reported in response to overeating a high fat diet, thereby providing a potential mechanism underlying behavioral differences seen with addiction-like overconsumption of different types of palatable foods. PMID:23747305

  14. Exercise Prevents Memory Impairment Induced by Arsenic Exposure in Mice: Implication of Hippocampal BDNF and CREB

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zi-Jiang; Yu, Yan; Xiao, Chao-Lun; Kang, Chao-Sheng; Ge, Guo; Linghu, Yan; Zhu, Jun-De; Li, Yu-Mei; Li, Qiang-Ming; Luo, Shi-Peng; Yang, Dang; Li, Lin; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Tian, Guang

    2015-01-01

    High concentrations of arsenic, which can be occasionally found in drinking water, have been recognized as a global health problem. Exposure to arsenic can disrupt spatial memory; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we tested whether exercise could interfere with the effect of arsenic exposure on the long-term memory (LTM) of object recognition in mice. Arsenic (0, 1, 3, and 10 mg/ kg, i.g.) was administered daily for 12 weeks. We found that arsenic at dosages of 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg decreased body weight and increased the arsenic content in the brain. The object recognition LTM (tested 24 h after training) was disrupted by 3 mg/ kg and 10 mg/ kg, but not 1 mg/ kg arsenic exposure. Swimming exercise also prevented LTM impairment induced by 3 mg/ kg, but not with 10 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (pCREB) in the CA1 and dentate gyrus areas (DG) of the dorsal hippocampus were decreased by 3 mg/ kg and 10 mg/ kg, but not by 1 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure. The decrease in BDNF and pCREB in the CA1 and DG induced by 3 mg/ kg, but not 10 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure were prevented by swimming exercise. Arsenic exposure did not affect the total CREB expression in the CA1 or DG. Taken together, these results indicated that swimming exercise prevented the impairment of object recognition LTM induced by arsenic exposure, which may be mediated by BDNF and CREB in the dorsal hippocampus. PMID:26368803

  15. Roles of Nucleus Accumbens CREB and Dynorphin in Dysregulation of Motivation

    PubMed Central

    Muschamp, John W.; Carlezon, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Psychostimulants such as amphetamine and cocaine are believed to produce dependence by causing rapid, supraphysiological elevations in synaptic dopamine (DA) within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) (Volkow et al. 2009, Neuropharmacology 56: 3–8). These changes in forebrain DA transmission are similar to those evoked by natural reinforcers (Louilot et al. 1991, Brain Res 553: 313–317; Roitman et al. 2004, J Neurosci 24: 1265–1271), but are of greater magnitude and longer duration. Repeated drug exposure causes compensatory neuroadaptations in neurons of the NAc, some of which may modulate excess DA in a homeostatic fashion. One such adaptation is the activation of the transcription factor CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) within neurons of the NAc. Although elevated levels of transcriptionally active CREB appear to attenuate DA transmission by increasing expression of the endogenous κ opioid receptor (KOR) ligand dynorphin, increased dynorphin transmission may ultimately have undesirable effects that contribute to drug withdrawal states as well as comorbid psychiatric illnesses such as depression. This state may prompt a return to drug use to mitigate the adverse effects of withdrawal. This article summarizes our current understanding of how CREB and dynorphin contribute to the dysregulation of motivation and describes novel therapeutic strategies that derive from preclinical research in this area. PMID:23293139

  16. Senescent-induced dysregulation of cAMP/CREB signaling and correlations with cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Rolf T; Zhang, Han-Ting

    2013-06-21

    It is well known that alongside senescence there is a gradual decline in cognitive ability, most noticeably certain kinds of memory such as working, episodic, spatial, and long term memory. However, until recently, not much has been known regarding the specific mechanisms responsible for the decline in cognitive ability with age. Over the past decades, researchers have become more interested in cAMP signaling, and its downstream transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in the context of senescence. However, there is still a lack of understanding on what ultimately causes the cognitive deficits observed with senescence. This review will focus on the changes in intracellular signaling in the brain, more specifically, alterations in cAMP/CREB signaling in aging. In addition, the downstream effects of altered cAMP signaling on cognitive ability with age will be further discussed. Overall, understanding the senescent-related changes that occur in cAMP/CREB signaling could be important for the development of novel drug targets for both healthy aging, and pathological aging such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23623816

  17. CREB Binding Protein (CBP) Activation Is Required for Luteinizing Hormone Beta Expression and Normal Fertility in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ryan S.; Wolfe, Andrew; He, Ling; Radovick, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Normal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is dependent on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH)-stimulated synthesis and secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gonadotroph. While the transcriptional coactivator CREB binding protein (CBP) is known to interact with Egr-1, the major mediator of GNRH action on the Lhb gene, the role of CBP in Lhb gene expression has yet to be characterized. We show that in the LβT2 gonadotroph cell line, overexpression of CBP augmented the response to GNRH and that knockdown of CBP eliminated GNRH responsiveness. While GNRH-mediated phosphorylation of CBP at Ser436 increased the interaction with Egr-1 on the Lhb promoter, loss of this phosphorylation site eliminated GNRH-mediated Lhb expression in LβT2 cells. In vivo, loss of CBP phosphorylation at Ser436 rendered female mice subfertile. S436A knock-in mice had disrupted estrous cyclicity and reduced responsiveness to GNRH. Our results show that GNRH-mediated phosphorylation of CBP at Ser436 is required for Egr-1 to activate Lhb expression and is a requirement for normal fertility in female mice. As CBP can be phosphorylated by other factors, such as insulin, our studies suggest that CBP may act as a key regulator of Lhb expression in the gonadotroph by integrating homeostatic information with GNRH signaling. PMID:22508984

  18. Transcriptional and post-translational regulation of mouse cation transport regulator homolog 1.

    PubMed

    Oh-Hashi, Kentaro; Nomura, Yuki; Shimada, Kiyo; Koga, Hisashi; Hirata, Yoko; Kiuchi, Kazutoshi

    2013-08-01

    Recently, cation transport regulator homolog 1 (Chac1) has been identified as a novel pro-apoptotic factor in cells under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Of the three major ER stress sensors, it is suggested that ATF4 participates in the transcriptional regulation of Chac1 gene expression. The precise characterization of the Chac1 promoter, however, has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we detected the induction of Chac1 mRNA expression using DNA array analysis and RT-PCR of thapsigargin (Tg)-inducible genes in Neuro2a cells. Chac1 mRNA expression was also induced immediately following treatment with tunicamycin (Tm) and brefeldin A. Characterization of the mouse Chac1 promoter activity using a luciferase reporter assay revealed that the CREB/ATF element and amino acid response element in the mouse Chac1 promoter are functional and respond to Tm stimulation and ATF4 overexpression. Mutations in either element in the Chac1 promoter did not inhibit the responsiveness of this promoter to Tm and ATF4; however, mutations in both of these elements dramatically decreased the basal activity and response to ER stress stimuli. In addition to the transcriptional regulation, we found that Chac1 protein expression was only detected in the presence of MG132, a proteasome inhibitor, even though mouse Chac1 gene was transiently overexpressed in Neuro2a cells. Taken together, we are the first to demonstrate the transcriptional and post-translational regulation of Chac1 expression in a neuronal cell line. PMID:23615711

  19. Cell cycle of globose basal cells in rat olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Huard, J M; Schwob, J E

    1995-05-01

    The olfactory epithelium of adult mammals has the unique property of generating olfactory sensory neurons throughout life. Cells of the basal compartment, which include horizontal and globose basal cells, are responsible for the ongoing process of neurogenesis in this system. We report here that the globose basal cells in olfactory epithelium of rats, as in mice, are the predominant type of proliferating cell, and account for 97.6% of the actively dividing cells in the basal compartment of the normal epithelium. Globose basal cells have not been fully characterized in terms of their proliferative properties, and the dynamic aspects of neurogenesis are not well understood. As a consequence, it is uncertain whether cell kinetic properties are under any regulation that could affect the rate of neurogenesis. To address this gap in our knowledge, we have determined the duration of both the synthesis phase (S-phase) and the full cell cycle of globose basal cells in adult rats. The duration of the S-phase was found to be 9 hr in experiments utilizing sequential injections of either IdU followed by BrdU or 3H-thy followed by BrdU. The duration of the cell cycle was determined by varying the time interval between the injections of 3H-thy and BrdU and tracking the set of cells that exit S shortly after the first injection. With this paradigm, the interval required for these cells to traverse G2, M, G1, and a second S-phase, is equivalent to the duration of one mitotic cycle and equals 17 hr. These observations serve as the foundation to assess whether the cell cycle duration is subject to regulation in response to experimental injury, and whether such regulation is partly responsible for changes in the rate of neurogenesis in such settings. PMID:7647371

  20. Basal body structure in Trichonympha.

    PubMed

    Guichard, Paul; Gönczy, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Trichonympha is a symbiotic flagellate of many species of termites and of the wood-feeding cockroach. Remarkably, this unicellular organism harbors up to over ten thousand flagella on its surface, which serve to propel it through the viscous environment of the host hindgut. In the 1960s, analysis of resin-embedded Trichonympha samples by electron microscopy revealed that the basal bodies that give rise to these flagella are exceptionally long, with a proximal, cartwheel-bearing, region some 50 times longer than that of regular centrioles. In recent years, this salient feature has prompted the analysis of the 3D architecture of Trichonympha basal bodies in the native state using cryo-electron tomography. The resulting ~40 Å resolution map of the basal body proximal region revealed a number of novel features that may be conserved in centrioles of other systems. These include proximal-distal polarity of the pinhead structure that links the cartwheel to centriolar microtubules, as well as of the linker between the A and the C microtubules. Moreover, this work demonstrated that the cartwheel is made of stacked ring-like structures that likely each comprise 18 molecules of SAS-6 proteins. PMID:26937279

  1. Hippocampal overexpression of mutant creb blocks long-term, but not short-term memory for a socially transmitted food preference.

    PubMed

    Brightwell, Jennifer J; Smith, Clayton A; Countryman, Renee A; Neve, Rachael L; Colombo, Paul J

    2005-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB on Ser133 is implicated in the establishment of long-term memory for hippocampus-dependent tasks, including spatial learning and contextual fear conditioning. We reported previously that training on a hippocampus-dependent social transmission of food preference (STFP) task increases CREB phosphorylation in the hippocampus of trained rats in comparisons with controls. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that CREB function is necessary for long-term memory for STFP using herpes simplex viral (HSV) vector-mediated gene transfer. Rats received intrahippocampal infusions of HSV-mCREB (a mutant form of CREB, in which Ser133 has been replaced with Ala), HSV-LacZ, or saline, and were trained 3 d later. Rats were tested for food preference (demonstrated vs. novel foods) immediately (short-term test) and 11 d (long-term test) after training. Rats in all treatment groups showed a significant preference for the demonstrated food at the short-term memory test. At the long-term memory test, however, the percentage of demonstrated food eaten by mCREB-treated rats was significantly less than that eaten by the LacZ- or saline-treated rats. Quantitative Western blotting confirmed that mCREB-infused rats had significantly more hippocampal CREB protein than controls during training. The present results show that hippocampal CREB function is necessary for long-term, but not short-term memory for STFP. PMID:15687228

  2. YC-1 potentiates cAMP-induced CREB activation and nitric oxide production in alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Tsong-Long; Tang, Ming-Chi; Kuo, Liang-Mou; Chang, Wen-De; Chung, Pei-Jen; Chang, Ya-Wen; Fang, Yao-Ching

    2012-04-15

    Alveolar macrophages play significant roles in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory lung diseases. Increases in exhaled nitric oxide (NO) are well documented to reflect disease severity in the airway. In this study, we investigated the effect of 3-(5′-hydroxymethyl-2′-furyl)-1-benzyl indazole (YC-1), a known activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase, on prostaglandin (PG)E{sub 1} (a stable PGE{sub 2} analogue) and forskolin (a adenylate cyclase activator) induced NO production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression in rat alveolar macrophages (NR8383). YC-1 did not directly cause NO production or iNOS expression, but drastically potentiated PGE{sub 1}- or forskolin-induced NO production and iNOS expression in NR8383 alveolar macrophages. Combination treatment with YC-1 and PGE{sub 1} significantly increased phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), but not nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation. The combined effect on NO production, iNOS expression, and CREB phosphorylation was reversed by a protein kinase (PK)A inhibitor (H89), suggesting that the potentiating functions were mediated through a cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. Consistent with this, cAMP analogues, but not the cGMP analogue, caused NO release, iNOS expression, and CREB activation. YC-1 treatment induced an increase in PGE{sub 1}-induced cAMP formation, which occurred through the inhibition of cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity. Furthermore, the combination of rolipram (an inhibitor of PDE4), but not milronone (an inhibitor of PDE3), and PGE{sub 1} also triggered NO production and iNOS expression. In summary, YC-1 potentiates PGE{sub 1}-induced NO production and iNOS expression in alveolar macrophages through inhibition of cAMP PDE activity and activation of the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway. Highlights: ► YC-1 potentiated PGE1-induced iNOS expression in alveolar macrophages. ► The combination of YC-1 and PGE1 increased CREB but not NFκB activation.

  3. Ferulic Acid Administered at Various Time Points Protects against Cerebral Infarction by Activating p38 MAPK/p90RSK/CREB/Bcl-2 Anti-Apoptotic Signaling in the Subacute Phase of Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chin-Yi; Tang, Nou-Ying; Kao, Shung-Te; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ferulic acid (FA) administered at various time points before or after 30 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) followed by 7 d of reperfusion and to examine the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in the cortical penumbra. Methods FA was intravenously administered to rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg 24 h before ischemia (B-FA), 2 h before ischemia (P-FA), immediately after ischemic insult (I-FA), 2 h after reperfusion (R-FA), or 24 h after reperfusion (D-FA). Results Our study results indicated that P-FA, I-FA, and R-FA effectively reduced cerebral infarct areas and neurological deficits. P-FA, I-FA, and R-FA significantly downregulated glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), mitochondrial Bax, cytochrome c, and cleaved caspase-3 expression, and effectively restored the phospho-p38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK)/p38 MAPK ratio, phospho-90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p-p90RSK) expression, phospho-Bad (p-Bad) expression, the phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB)/CREB ratio, the cytosolic and mitochondrial Bcl-2/Bax ratios, and the cytosolic Bcl-xL/Bax ratio in the cortical penumbra 7 d after reperfusion. SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, administered 30 min prior to ischemia abrogated the downregulating effects of I-FA on cerebral infarction, and mitochondrial Bax and cleaved caspase-3 expression, and the upregulating effects of I-FA on the p-p38 MAPK/p38 MAPK ratio, p-p90RSK expression, p-Bad expression, and the p-CREB/CREB, and cytosolic and mitochondrial Bcl-2/Bax ratios. Conclusions Our study results thus indicate that P-FA, I-FA, and R-FA effectively suppress reactive astrocytosis and exert neuroprotective effects against cerebral infarction by activating p38 MAPK signaling. The regulating effects of P-FA, I-FA, and R-FA on Bax-induced apoptosis result from activation of the p38 MAPK/p90RSK/CREB/Bcl-2 signaling pathway, and eventually contribute to

  4. Adipocyte iron regulates leptin and food intake

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yan; Li, Zhonggang; Gabrielsen, J. Scott; Simcox, Judith A.; Lee, Soh-hyun; Jones, Deborah; Cooksey, Bob; Stoddard, Gregory; Cefalu, William T.; McClain, Donald A.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary iron supplementation is associated with increased appetite. Here, we investigated the effect of iron on the hormone leptin, which regulates food intake and energy homeostasis. Serum ferritin was negatively associated with serum leptin in a cohort of patients with metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the same inverse correlation was observed in mice fed a high-iron diet. Adipocyte-specific loss of the iron exporter ferroportin resulted in iron loading and decreased leptin, while decreased levels of hepcidin in a murine hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) model increased adipocyte ferroportin expression, decreased adipocyte iron, and increased leptin. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with iron decreased leptin mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. We found that iron negatively regulates leptin transcription via cAMP-responsive element binding protein activation (CREB activation) and identified 2 potential CREB-binding sites in the mouse leptin promoter region. Mutation of both sites completely blocked the effect of iron on promoter activity. ChIP analysis revealed that binding of phosphorylated CREB is enriched at these two sites in iron-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared with untreated cells. Consistent with the changes in leptin, dietary iron content was also directly related to food intake, independently of weight. These findings indicate that levels of dietary iron play an important role in regulation of appetite and metabolism through CREB-dependent modulation of leptin expression. PMID:26301810

  5. Adipocyte iron regulates leptin and food intake.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Li, Zhonggang; Gabrielsen, J Scott; Simcox, Judith A; Lee, Soh-hyun; Jones, Deborah; Cooksey, Bob; Stoddard, Gregory; Cefalu, William T; McClain, Donald A

    2015-09-01

    Dietary iron supplementation is associated with increased appetite. Here, we investigated the effect of iron on the hormone leptin, which regulates food intake and energy homeostasis. Serum ferritin was negatively associated with serum leptin in a cohort of patients with metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the same inverse correlation was observed in mice fed a high-iron diet. Adipocyte-specific loss of the iron exporter ferroportin resulted in iron loading and decreased leptin, while decreased levels of hepcidin in a murine hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) model increased adipocyte ferroportin expression, decreased adipocyte iron, and increased leptin. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with iron decreased leptin mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. We found that iron negatively regulates leptin transcription via cAMP-responsive element binding protein activation (CREB activation) and identified 2 potential CREB-binding sites in the mouse leptin promoter region. Mutation of both sites completely blocked the effect of iron on promoter activity. ChIP analysis revealed that binding of phosphorylated CREB is enriched at these two sites in iron-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared with untreated cells. Consistent with the changes in leptin, dietary iron content was also directly related to food intake, independently of weight. These findings indicate that levels of dietary iron play an important role in regulation of appetite and metabolism through CREB-dependent modulation of leptin expression. PMID:26301810

  6. CREB and CREB-binding proteins play an important role in the IE2 86-kilodalton protein-mediated transactivation of the human cytomegalovirus 2.2-kilobase RNA promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, R; Helmich, B; Spector, D H

    1996-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) immediate-early region 2 86-kDa protein (IE2 86) is the major transactivator of the promoter for the 2.2-kb class of early RNAs (open reading frame UL 112-113). Previously, we reported that a DNA segment on this promoter between nucleotides (nt) -113 and -59 was critical for activation by IE2 86 in vivo and could be bound by IE2 86 in vitro (R. Schwartz, M. H. Sommer, A. Scully, and D. H. Spector, J. Virol. 68:5613-5622, 1994). With a set of site-specific mutations within nt -84 to -61, we have localized the essential cis-acting sequences to nt -72 to -61, which contain an ATF/CREB-binding site. The IE2 86-binding site between nt -113 and -85 is not essential for activation of the promoter by IE2 86 in transient-expression assays, but its presence can enhance the level of activation mediated through the sequences located between nt -84 and -59. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with a segment containing nt -84 to -59 and nuclear extracts from human cells permissive for the HCMV infection revealed a complex band pattern. However, by supershift analysis with specific antibodies, we were able to identify CREB as the major ATF/CREB family member in the protein-DNA complexes. Further evidence that CREB is a target for IE2 86-mediated induction, is provided by the finding that IE2 86 activates the somatostatin promoter to high levels. Although the binding of IE2 86 to nonphosphorylated full-length CREB or deltaCREB is minimal, IE2 86 does form complexes with p300 and the CREB-binding protein (CBP), which in turn bind to CREB and can serve as adaptor proteins for CREB function. In addition, the in vivo functional relevance of the interaction between IE2 86 and CBP is indicated by the ability of IE2 86 to enhance transcriptional activation mediated by a GAL4-CBP fusion protein brought to a promoter by GAL4-binding sites. PMID:8794339

  7. Discourse Types in Canadian Basal Reading Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sharon

    This study examined the authorship and discourse types of Canadian basal anthologies to determine whether the lingering centrality of the basal anthology in Canadian programs controls students and teachers by controlling language and reading. Each selection within five Canadian basal series (Gage Expressways II, Ginn Journeys, Holt Impressions,…

  8. "Basal Cell Blanche": A Diagnostic Maneuver to Increase Early Detection of Basal Cell Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Quach, Olivia Leigh; Barry, Megan; Roberts Cruse, Allison; Wilson, Barbara B

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas represent one of the most common skin cancers and often present initially in the primary care setting. Subtle basal cell carcinomas may be difficult to detect, and early detection of these carcinomas remains important in limiting patient morbidity. In this article, we present a simple diagnostic maneuver, "basal cell blanche," to increase early detection of basal cell carcinomas. PMID:27170799

  9. Combination of early and delayed ischemic postconditioning enhances brain-derived neurotrophic factor production by upregulating the ERK-CREB pathway in rats with focal ischemia

    PubMed Central

    WU, HUI; YANG, SHAO-FENG; DAI, JIONG; QIU, YONG-MING; MIAO, YI-FENG; ZHANG, XIAO-HUA

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic postconditioning, including early and delayed ischemic postconditioning, has been recognized as a simple and promising strategy in the treatment of stroke. However, the effects of the combination of early and delayed ischemic postconditioning, and the mechanisms underlying these effects, remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the combination of early and delayed ischemic postconditioning offers greater protection against stroke, and enhances the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). A combination of early and delayed ischemic postconditioning was established by repeated, transient occlusion and reperfusion of the ipsilateral common carotid artery in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion. Infarct size, motor function, cerebral blood flow and brain edema were then evaluated, in order to confirm the effects of combinative ischemic postconditioning. TUNEL staining was used to analyze the rate of apoptosis of cells in the penumbral area. BDNF, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) expression was detected using immunofluorescence staining and western blot analysis. The results of the present study indicated that the combination of early and delayed ischemic postconditioning further reduced the infarct volume, stabilized cerebral blood disturbance and attenuated neuronal apoptosis, compared with either alone. However, combinative postconditioning exerted the same effect on neurological function and brain edema, compared with early or delayed ischemic postconditioning alone. Further investigation indicated that combinative ischemic postconditioning increased the expression of BDNF, and a significantly higher number of BDNF-positive cells was observed in neurons and astrocytes from the combined group than in the early or delayed groups. Combinative ischemic postconditioning also induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and CREB in the cortex

  10. The basal bodies of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Dutcher, Susan K; O'Toole, Eileen T

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is a biflagellated cell that can swim or glide. C. reinhardtii cells are amenable to genetic, biochemical, proteomic, and microscopic analysis of its basal bodies. The basal bodies contain triplet microtubules and a well-ordered transition zone. Both the mother and daughter basal bodies assemble flagella. Many of the proteins found in other basal body-containing organisms are present in the Chlamydomonas genome, and mutants in these genes affect the assembly of basal bodies. Electron microscopic analysis shows that basal body duplication is site-specific and this may be important for the proper duplication and spatial organization of these organelles. Chlamydomonas is an excellent model for the study of basal bodies as well as the transition zone. PMID:27252853

  11. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month). The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unravel this phenomenon, we used high field (human) brain imaging to compare functional responses, functional connectivity and brain morphology in patients whose migraine episodes did not progress (LF) to a matched (gender, age, age of onset and type of medication) group of patients whose migraine episodes progressed (HF). Results In comparison to LF patients, responses to pain in HF patients were significantly lower in the caudate, putamen and pallidum. Paradoxically, associated with these lower responses in HF patients, gray matter volume of the right and left caudate nuclei were significantly larger than in the LF patients. Functional connectivity analysis revealed additional differences between the two groups in regard to response to pain. Conclusions Supported by current understanding of basal ganglia role in pain processing, the findings suggest a significant role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of the episodic migraine. PMID:21936901

  12. Multiple mRNA isoforms of the transcription activator protein CREB: generation by alternative splicing and specific expression in primary spermatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Ruppert, S; Cole, T J; Boshart, M; Schmid, E; Schütz, G

    1992-01-01

    We have characterized cDNA clones representing mouse CREB (cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein) mRNA isoforms. These include CREB delta and CREB alpha, of which the rat and human homologues have been previously identified. Both encode proteins with CRE-binding activity and identical transactivation potential. The additional CREB mRNA isoforms potentially encode CREB related proteins. From the structural organization of the mouse CREB gene we conclude that the multiple transcripts are generated by alternative splicing. Furthermore we show that specific CREB mRNA isoforms are expressed at a high level in the adult testis. Expression of these isoforms is induced after commencement of spermatogenesis. In situ hybridization suggests that this expression occurs predominantly in the primary spermatocytes. Comparison of the CREB gene with the recently isolated CREM (cAMP responsive element modulator) cDNAs illustrates that the two genes have arisen by gene duplication and have diverged to encode transcriptional activators and repressors of the cAMP signal transduction pathway. Images PMID:1532935

  13. CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE INDUCTION BY POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) STIMULATES CREB PHOSPHORYLATION VIA A CALCIUM-DEPENDENT, PKC-INDEPENDENT PATHWAY IN CORTICAL NEURONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have previously demonstrated that the PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254 (A1254), increases the phosphorylated form of CREB (pCREB), the cAMP-responsive element binding protein. This transcription factor is important in nervous system development and plasticity. Phosphorylation
    of C...

  14. A case of Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome with a CREB-binding protein gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Hee; Lim, Byung Chan; Chae, Jong Hee; Kim, Ki Joong; Hwang, Yong Seung

    2010-06-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a congenital disorder characterized by typical facial features, broad thumbs and toes, with mental retardation. Additionally, tumors, keloids and various congenital anomalies including congenital heart defects have been reported in RTS patients. In about 50% of the patients, mutations in the CREB binding protein (CREBBP) have been found, which are understood to be associated with cell growth and proliferation. Here, we describe a typical RTS patient with Arnold-Chiari malformation. A mutation in the CREBBP gene, c.4944_4945insC, was identified by mutational analysis. PMID:21189944

  15. Docosahexaenoic acid consumption inhibits deoxynivalenol-induced CREB/ATF1 activation and IL-6 gene transcription in mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jia, Qunshan; Zhou, Hui-Ren; Shi, Yuhui; Pestka, James J

    2006-02-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induces IgA nephropathy in mice by upregulating IL-6 expression, which is suppressed by (n-3) PUFA consumption. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that consumption of the (n-3) PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) interferes with DON-induced transcriptional and post-transcriptional upregulation of IL-6 mRNA in murine macrophages. DON evoked expression of IL-6 mRNA and IL-6 heterogenous nuclear RNA (hnRNA), an indicator of ongoing IL-6 transcription, in macrophages elicited from mice fed control AIN-93G diet for 4 wk, whereas expression of both RNA species was suppressed in macrophages from mice fed AIN-93G modified to contain 30 g DHA/kg diet for the same time period. DON enhanced IL-6 mRNA stability similarly in macrophages from control and DHA-fed mice suggesting that (n-3) PUFA effects were not post-transcriptional. DON upregulated binding activity of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and activator protein (AP-1) to their respective consensus sequences in nuclear extracts from control-fed mice, whereas both activities were suppressed in nuclear extracts from DHA-fed mice. DON induced phosphorylation of CREB at Ser-133 and ATF1 at Ser-63 as well as intranuclear binding of phospho-CREB/ATF1 to the cis element of the IL-6 promoter in control macrophages, whereas both activities were inhibited in macrophages from DHA-fed mice. DHA consumption blocked DON-induced phosphorylation of the CREB kinase AKT. Inhibition of AKT suppressed both CREB/ATF1 phosphorylation and IL-6 transcription. These data suggest that DHA consumption suppresses DON-induced IL-6 transcription in macrophages in part by interfering with AKT-dependent phosphorylation and subsequent binding of CREB/ATF1 to the IL-6 promoter. PMID:16424113

  16. Neuritogenic Monoglyceride Derived from the Constituent of a Marine Fish for Activating the PI3K/ERK/CREB Signalling Pathways in PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Luo, Yan; Tang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Hui; Ye, Ying; Xiang, Lan; Qi, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    A neuritogenic monoglyceride, 1-O-(myristoyl) glycerol (MG), was isolated from the head of Ilisha elongate using a PC12 cell bioassay system, and its chemical structure was elucidated using spectroscopic methods. MG significantly induced 42% of the neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells at a concentration of 10 μM. To study the structure-activity relationships of MG, a series of monoglycerides was designed and synthesised. Bioassay results indicated that the alkyl chain length plays a key role in the neuritogenic activity of the monoglycerides. The groups that link the propane-1,2-diol and alkyl chain were also investigated. An ester linkage, rather than an amido one, was found to be optimal for neuritogenic activity. Therefore, 1-O-(stearoyl) glycerol (SG), which induces 57% of the neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells at 10 μM, was determined to be a lead compound for neuritogenic activity. We then investigated the mechanism of action of neurite outgrowth induced by SG on PC12 cells using protein specific inhibitors and Western blot analysis. The mitogen-activated kinase/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126 and the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 significantly decreased neurite outgrowth. At the same time, SG increased phosphorylation of CREB in protein level. Thus, SG-induced neuritogenic activity depends on the activation of the extracellular-regulated protein kinase (ERK), cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and PI3K signalling pathways in PC12 cells. PMID:24351811

  17. Allicin inhibits oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis by promoting PI3K/AKT and CREB/ERK signaling in osteoblast cells

    PubMed Central

    DING, GUOLIANG; ZHAO, JIANQUAN; JIANG, DIANMING

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease of the skeleton that is characterized by the loss of bone mass and degeneration of bone microstructure, resulting in an increased risk of fracture. Oxidative stress, which is known to promote oxidative damage to mitochondrial function and also cell apoptosis, has been recently indicated to be implicated in osteoporosis. However, there are few agents that counteract oxidative stress in osteoporosis. In the present study, the protective effects of allicin against the oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis were investigated in murine osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. The results demonstrated that allicin counteracted the reduction of cell viability and induction of apoptosis caused by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure. The inhibition of apoptosis by allicin was confirmed by the inhibition of H2O2-induced cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. Moreover, the inhibition of apoptosis by allicin was identified to be associated with the counteraction of H2O2-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, allicin was demonstrated to be able to significantly ameliorate the repressed phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB)/extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways by H2O2, which may also be associated with the anti-oxidative stress effects of allicin. In conclusion, allicin protects osteoblasts from H2O2-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells by improving mitochondrial function and the activation of PI3K/AKT and CREB/ERK signaling. The present study implies a promising role of allicin in oxidative stress-associated osteoporosis. PMID:27284348

  18. The effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on chronic stress induced depression-like behaviors, BDNF expression and the phosphorylation of PKA and CREB in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Qi, Y; Cheng, Z; Zhu, X; Fan, C; Yu, S Y

    2016-05-13

    Depression is a common neuropsychiatric disorder which has been associated with a wide range of structural and functional changes within specific brain regions. Ginsenoside Rg1 has been shown to exert a number of neuroprotective effects as demonstrated in various in vivo and in vitro studies. However, little information is available regarding the site and mechanisms of ginsenoside Rg1 in promoting antidepressant effects. The present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective and ameliorating effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on depression-like behavior as induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). The results showed that CUMS was effective in producing depression-like behaviors in rats as indicated by decreased responses in sucrose preference and forced swim tests which were associated with ultrastructural changes in neurons within the amygdala. Moreover, levels of PKA and CREB phosphorylation and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were decreased in the amygdala of CUMS rats. Remarkably, chronic ginsenoside Rg1 (40mg/kg, i.p., 5weeks) treatment significantly ameliorated these behavioral and biochemical alterations associated with CUMS-induced depression. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrate that ginsenoside Rg1 exhibits antidepressant-like effects against CUMS-induced depression. This amelioration of depression-like behaviors by ginsenoside Rg1 appears to be mediated, at least in part, by a CREB-regulated increase of BDNF expression in the amygdala of rats. Therefore, these findings reveal the therapeutic potential of ginsenoside Rg1 for use in clinical trials in the treatment of depression. PMID:26926964

  19. UVB Stimulates the Expression of Endothelin B Receptor in Human Melanocytes via a Sequential Activation of the p38/MSK1/CREB/MITF Pathway Which Can Be Interrupted by a French Maritime Pine Bark Extract through a Direct Inactivation of MSK1

    PubMed Central

    Tagashira, Hideki; Miyamoto, Aki; Kitamura, Sei-ichi; Tsubata, Masahito; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Takagaki, Kinya; Imokawa, Genji

    2015-01-01

    Melanogenesis is the physiological process by which melanin is synthesized to protect the skin from UV damage. While paracrine interactions between keratinocytes and melanocytes are crucial for regulating epidermal pigmentation, the endothelin (EDN)-endothelin B-receptor (EDNRB) interaction is one of the key linkages. In this study, we found that a single exposure of normal human melanocytes (NHMs) with UVB stimulates the expression of EDNRB and its upstream transcription factor microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) at the transcriptional and translational levels. That stimulation can be abrogated by post-irradiation treatment with a French maritime pine bark extract (PBE). UVB stimulated the phosphorylation of p38 and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not ERK, followed by the increased phosphorylation of MSK1 and CREB. The post-irradiation treatment with PBE did not affect the increased phosphorylation of p38 and JNK, but distinctly abrogated the phosphorylation of MSK1 and CREB. Post-irradiation treatment with the MSK1 inhibitor H89 significantly down-regulated the increased gene expression of MITF and EDNRB in UVB-exposed NHMs. Our findings indicate for the first time that the increased expression of MITF that leads to the up-regulation of melanocyte-specific proteins in UVB-exposed NHMs is mediated via activation of the p38/MSK1/CREB pathway but not the ERK/RSK/CREB pathway. The mode of action by PBE demonstrates that interrupting MSK1 activation is a new target for antioxidants including PBE which can serve as anti-pigmenting agents in a reactive oxygen species-depletion-independent manner. PMID:26030901

  20. UVB Stimulates the Expression of Endothelin B Receptor in Human Melanocytes via a Sequential Activation of the p38/MSK1/CREB/MITF Pathway Which Can Be Interrupted by a French Maritime Pine Bark Extract through a Direct Inactivation of MSK1.

    PubMed

    Tagashira, Hideki; Miyamoto, Aki; Kitamura, Sei-Ichi; Tsubata, Masahito; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Takagaki, Kinya; Imokawa, Genji

    2015-01-01

    Melanogenesis is the physiological process by which melanin is synthesized to protect the skin from UV damage. While paracrine interactions between keratinocytes and melanocytes are crucial for regulating epidermal pigmentation, the endothelin (EDN)-endothelin B-receptor (EDNRB) interaction is one of the key linkages. In this study, we found that a single exposure of normal human melanocytes (NHMs) with UVB stimulates the expression of EDNRB and its upstream transcription factor microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) at the transcriptional and translational levels. That stimulation can be abrogated by post-irradiation treatment with a French maritime pine bark extract (PBE). UVB stimulated the phosphorylation of p38 and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not ERK, followed by the increased phosphorylation of MSK1 and CREB. The post-irradiation treatment with PBE did not affect the increased phosphorylation of p38 and JNK, but distinctly abrogated the phosphorylation of MSK1 and CREB. Post-irradiation treatment with the MSK1 inhibitor H89 significantly down-regulated the increased gene expression of MITF and EDNRB in UVB-exposed NHMs. Our findings indicate for the first time that the increased expression of MITF that leads to the up-regulation of melanocyte-specific proteins in UVB-exposed NHMs is mediated via activation of the p38/MSK1/CREB pathway but not the ERK/RSK/CREB pathway. The mode of action by PBE demonstrates that interrupting MSK1 activation is a new target for antioxidants including PBE which can serve as anti-pigmenting agents in a reactive oxygen species-depletion-independent manner. PMID:26030901

  1. Molecular interaction and synergistic activation of a promoter by Six, Eya, and Dach proteins mediated through CREB binding protein.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Keiko; Watanabe, Yoko; Ohto, Hiromi; Kawakami, Kiyoshi

    2002-10-01

    Drosophila sine oculis, eyes absent, and dachshund are essential for compound eye formation and form a gene network with direct protein interaction and genetic regulation. The vertebrate homologues of these genes, Six, Eya, and Dach, also form a similar genetic network during muscle formation. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the network among Six, Eya, and Dach, we examined the molecular interactions among the encoded proteins. Eya interacted directly with Six but never with Dach. Dach transactivated a multimerized GAL4 reporter gene by coproduction of GAL4-Eya fusion proteins. Transactivation by Eya and Dach was repressed by overexpression of VP16 or E1A but not by E1A mutation, which is defective for CREB binding protein (CBP) binding. Recruitment of CBP to the immobilized chromatin DNA template was dependent on FLAG-Dach and GAL4-Eya3. These results indicate that CBP is a mediator of the interaction between Eya and Dach. Contrary to our expectations, Dach binds to chromatin DNA by itself, not being tethered by GAL4-Eya3. Dach also binds to naked DNA with lower affinity. The conserved DD1 domain is responsible for binding to DNA. Transactivation was also observed by coproduction of GAL4-Six, Eya, and Dach, indicating that Eya and Dach synergy is relevant when Eya is tethered to DNA through Six protein. Our results demonstrated that synergy is mediated through direct interaction of Six-Eya and through the interaction of Eya-Dach with CBP and explain the molecular basis for the genetic interactions among Six, Eya, and Dach. This work provides fundamental information on the role and the mechanism of action of this gene cassette in tissue differentiation and organogenesis. PMID:12215533

  2. Phosphorylation of ETS Transcription Factor ER81 in a Complex with Its Coactivators CREB-Binding Protein and p300

    PubMed Central

    Papoutsopoulou, Stamatia; Janknecht, Ralf

    2000-01-01

    The ETS protein ER81 is a DNA-binding factor capable of enhancing gene transcription and is implicated in cellular transformation, but presently the mechanisms of its actions are unclear. In this report, ER81 is shown to coimmunoprecipitate with the transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP) and the related p300 protein (together referred to as CBP/p300). Moreover, confocal laser microscopic studies demonstrated that ER81 and p300 colocalized to nuclear speckles. In vitro and in vivo interaction studies revealed that ER81 amino acids 249 to 429, which encompass the ETS DNA-binding domain, are responsible for binding to CBP/p300. However, mutation of a putative protein-protein interaction motif, LXXLL, in the ETS domain of ER81 did not affect interaction with CBP/p300, whereas DNA binding of ER81 was abolished. Furthermore, two regions within CBP, amino acids 451 to 721 and 1891 to 2175, are capable of binding to ER81. Consistent with the physical interaction between ER81 and the coactivators CBP and p300, ER81 transcriptional activity was potentiated by CBP/p300 overexpression. Moreover, an ER81-associated protein kinase activity was enhanced upon p300 overexpression. This protein kinase phosphorylates ER81 on serines 191 and 216, and mutation of these phosphorylation sites increased ER81 transcriptional activity in Mv1Lu cells but not in HeLa cells. Altogether, our data elucidate the mechanism of how ER81 regulates gene transcription, through interaction with the coactivators CBP and p300 and an associated kinase that may cell type specifically modulate the ability of ER81 to activate gene transcription. PMID:10982847

  3. Recognition of the disordered p53 transactivation domain by the transcriptional adapter zinc finger domains of CREB-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Krois, Alexander S; Ferreon, Josephine C; Martinez-Yamout, Maria A; Dyson, H Jane; Wright, Peter E

    2016-03-29

    An important component of the activity of p53 as a tumor suppressor is its interaction with the transcriptional coactivators cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP) and p300, which activate transcription of p53-regulated stress response genes and stabilize p53 against ubiquitin-mediated degradation. The highest affinity interactions are between the intrinsically disordered N-terminal transactivation domain (TAD) of p53 and the TAZ1 and TAZ2 domains of CBP/p300. The NMR spectra of simple binary complexes of the TAZ1 and TAZ2 domains with the p53TAD suffer from exchange broadening, but innovations in construct design and isotopic labeling have enabled us to obtain high-resolution structures using fusion proteins, uniformly labeled in the case of the TAZ2-p53TAD fusion and segmentally labeled through transintein splicing for the TAZ1-p53TAD fusion. The p53TAD is bipartite, with two interaction motifs, termed AD1 and AD2, which fold to form short amphipathic helices upon binding to TAZ1 and TAZ2 whereas intervening regions of the p53TAD remain flexible. Both the AD1 and AD2 motifs bind to hydrophobic surfaces of the TAZ domains, with AD2 making more extensive hydrophobic contacts consistent with its greater contribution to the binding affinity. Binding of AD1 and AD2 is synergistic, and structural studies performed with isolated motifs can be misleading. The present structures of the full-length p53TAD complexes demonstrate the versatility of the interactions available to an intrinsically disordered domain containing bipartite interaction motifs and provide valuable insights into the structural basis of the affinity changes that occur upon stress-related posttranslational modification. PMID:26976603

  4. CREB-BDNF Pathway Influences Alcohol Cue-Elicited Hyperactivation in Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiayu; Hutchison, Kent E.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Claus, Eric; Turner, Jessica A.; Sui, Jing; Liu, Jingyu

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is suggested to have polygenic risk factors and also exhibits neurological complications, strongly encouraging a translational study to explore the associations between aggregates of genetic variants and brain function alterations related to alcohol use. In this study, we used a semiblind multivariate approach, parallel independent component analysis with multiple references (pICA-MR) to investigate relationships of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with alcohol cue elicited brain activations in 326 healthy drinkers. The genetic component derived from the CREB-BDNF pathway reference was significantly associated (r = −0.36, p = 2.98×10−11) with an imaging component reflecting hyperactivation in precuneus, superior parietal lobule, and posterior cingulate for drinkers with more severe AD scores. The highlighted brain regions participate in many cognitive processes and have been robustly implicated in craving-related studies. The genetic factor highlighted the CREB and BDNF references, as well as other genes including GRM5, GRM7, GRID1, GRIN2A, PRKCA and PRKCB. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that the genetic component was enriched in synaptic plasticity, GABA and protein kinase A signaling. In summary, our findings suggest genetic variations in various neural plasticity and signaling pathways partially explain the variance of precuneus reactivity to alcohol cue which appears to be associated with AD severity. PMID:25939814

  5. Prenatal choline supplementation advances hippocampal development and enhances MAPK and CREB activation.

    PubMed

    Mellott, Tiffany J; Williams, Christina L; Meck, Warren H; Blusztajn, Jan Krzysztof

    2004-03-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient for animals and humans. Previous studies showed that supplementing the maternal diet with choline during the second half of gestation in rats permanently enhances memory performance of the adult offspring. Here we show that prenatal choline supplementation causes a 3-day advancement in the ability of juvenile rats to use relational cues in a water maze task, indicating that the treatment accelerates hippocampal maturation. Moreover, phosphorylation and therefore activation of hippocampal mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) in response to stimulation by glutamate, N-methyl-D-aspartate, or depolarizing concentrations of K+ were increased by prenatal choline supplementation and reduced by prenatal choline deficiency. These data provide the first evidence that developmental plasticity of the hippocampal MAPK and CREB signaling pathways is controlled by the supply of a single essential nutrient, choline, during fetal development and point to these pathways as candidate mechanisms for the developmental and long-term cognitive enhancement induced by prenatal choline supplementation. PMID:14715695

  6. Transmembrane Protease Serine 4 Promotes Thyroid Cancer Proliferation via CREB Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Hongyu; Liang, Weiwei; Liu, Juan; Wei, Guohong; Li, Hai; Xiu, Lingling; Xiao, Haipeng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Transmembrane protease serine 4 (TMPRSS4), one of the type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs), is elevated in various cancers and is associated with multiple malignant phenotypes. However, the expression pattern and biologic significance of TMPRSS4 in thyroid cancer are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the expression of TMPRSS4 in thyroid cancer and assessed the pro-proliferative role of TMPRSS4 in thyroid cancer. Methods: Immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays were performed to assess the expression of TMPRSS4 in thyroid cancer. We evaluated in vitro cell proliferation using MTT, colony formation, anchorage-independent growth, flow cytometry analysis, and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation assays. Western blot, real-time RT-PCR, and luciferase assays were conducted to reveal the underlying mechanisms. Results: TMPRSS4 is overexpressed in thyroid cancer and is associated with the grade of malignancy. Depletion of TMPRSS4 in thyroid cancer cells significantly suppressed proliferation. Moreover, the proliferation of thyroid cancer cells with TMPRSS4 overexpression was significantly enhanced. We also show that cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB)-cyclin D1 signaling mediates, at least partially, the role of TMPRSS4 in thyroid cancer cell proliferation. Conclusions: TMPRSS4 is overexpressed in thyroid cancer and TMPRSS4-CREB signaling is needed to sustain thyroid cancer cell proliferation. PMID:25244400

  7. Functional Neuroanatomy of the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Lanciego, José L.; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The “basal ganglia” refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amplified with the emergence of new data. Furthermore, parallel circuits subserve the other functions of the basal ganglia engaging associative and limbic territories. Disruption of the basal ganglia network forms the basis for several movement disorders. This article provides a comprehensive account of basal ganglia functional anatomy and chemistry and the major pathophysiological changes underlying disorders of movement. We try to answer three key questions related to the basal ganglia, as follows: What are the basal ganglia? What are they made of? How do they work? Some insight on the canonical basal ganglia model is provided, together with a selection of paradoxes and some views over the horizon in the field. PMID:23071379

  8. Striatal plasticity and basal ganglia circuit function.

    PubMed

    Kreitzer, Anatol C; Malenka, Robert C

    2008-11-26

    The dorsal striatum, which consists of the caudate and putamen, is the gateway to the basal ganglia. It receives convergent excitatory afferents from cortex and thalamus and forms the origin of the direct and indirect pathways, which are distinct basal ganglia circuits involved in motor control. It is also a major site of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Striatal plasticity alters the transfer of information throughout basal ganglia circuits and may represent a key neural substrate for adaptive motor control and procedural memory. Here, we review current understanding of synaptic plasticity in the striatum and its role in the physiology and pathophysiology of basal ganglia function. PMID:19038213

  9. Disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 Gln31Leu polymorphism results in social anhedonia associated with monoaminergic imbalance and reduction of CREB and β-arrestin-1,2 in the nucleus accumbens in a mouse model of depression.

    PubMed

    Lipina, Tatiana V; Fletcher, Paul J; Lee, Frankie H; Wong, Albert H C; Roder, John C

    2013-02-01

    Disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) is associated with mental disorders, including major depression. We previously showed that DISC1-Q31L mutant mice have depression-like behaviors and can therefore be used to study neurobiological mechanisms of depression and antidepressant (AD) medication action. First, we found reduced levels of dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine in the nucleus accumbens (NAC) of DISC1-Q31L mutants. Next, we assessed social-conditioned place preference as a reward-dependent task and the capacity of distinct ADs to correct impaired social behavior in DISC1-Q31L mice. Bupropion, but not fluoxetine or desipramine, was able to correct deficient social facilitation, social reward, and social novelty in DISC1-Q31L mutants, whereas all three ADs were able to improve social motivation and behavioral despair in DISC1-Q31L mutants. Furthermore, we sought to correlate social anhedonia with molecular and cellular features including dendritic spine density, β-arrestin-1,2, and cAMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB) in the NAC as biomarkers related to depression and the DISC1 pathway. DISC1-Q31L mutants showed reduced levels of β-arrestin-1,2, CREB, and spine density in the NAC, further supporting the construct validity of the genetic model. Bupropion induced the greatest effect on CREB in DISC1-Q31L mutants, whereas all studied ADs corrected the reduced levels of β-arrestin-1,2 and modestly ameliorated deficient spine density in this brain region. Overall, we find neurobiological changes accompanying social anhedonia in the NAC of DISC1-Q31L mutant mice, consistent with a role for DISC1 in regulating social reward as an endophenotype of depression. PMID:23011268

  10. Acute sleep deprivation enhances avoidance learning and spatial memory and induces delayed alterations in neurochemical expression of GR, TH, DRD1, pCREB and Ki67 in rats.

    PubMed

    Azogu, Idu; de la Tremblaye, Patricia Barra; Dunbar, Megan; Lebreton, Marianne; LeMarec, Nathalie; Plamondon, Hélène

    2015-02-15

    The current study investigated the effects of acute versus repeated periods of sleep deprivation on avoidance learning and spatial memory and on the expression of discrete biochemical brain signals involved in stress regulation, motivation and brain plasticity. Male Long-Evans rats were sleep deprived using the platform-over-water method for a single 4 h period (ASD) or for daily 4h RSD period on five consecutive days (CSD). The Y maze passive avoidance task (YM-PAT) and the Morris water maze (MWM) were used to determine learning and memory 1h following the last SD period. Region-specific changes in glucocorticoid receptors (GR), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine 1 receptors (DRD1), phospho-CREB (pCREB) and Ki-67 expression were assessed in the hippocampal formation, hypothalamus and mesolimbic regions 72 h following RSD. Behaviorally, our findings revealed increased latency to re-enter the aversive arm in the YM-PAT and reduced distance traveled and latency to reach the platform in the MWM in ASD rats compared to all other groups, indicative of improved avoidance learning and spatial memory, respectively. Acute SD enhanced TH expression in the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens and A11 neurons of the hypothalamus and DRD1 expression in the lateral hypothalamus. Cell proliferation in the subventricular zone and pCREB expression in the dentate gyrus and CA3 regions was also enhanced following acute SD. In contrast, repeated SD significantly elevated GR-ir at the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and CA1 and CA3 layers of the hippocampus compared to all other groups. Our study supports that a brief 4h sleep deprivation period is sufficient to induce delayed neurochemical changes. PMID:25433096

  11. Upregulation of miR-328 and inhibition of CREB-DNA-binding activity are critical for resveratrol-mediated suppression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and subsequent metastatic ability in human osteosarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Peng; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Hsiao, Michael; Hsieh, Feng-Koo; Chien, Ming-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcomas, the most common malignant bone tumors, show a potent capacity for local invasion and pulmonary metastasis. Resveratrol (RESV), a phytochemical, exhibits multiple tumor-suppressing activities and has been tested in clinical trials. However, the antitumor activities of RESV in osteosarcomas are not yet completely defined. In osteosarcoma cells, we found that RESV inhibited the migration/invasion in vitro and lung metastasis in vivo by suppressing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2. We identified that RESV exhibited a transcriptional inhibitory effect on MMP-2 through reducing CREB-DNA-binding activity. Moreover, a microRNA (miR) analysis showed that miR-328 was predominantly upregulated after RESV treatment. Inhibition of miR-328 significantly relieved MMP-2 and motility suppression imposed by RESV treatment. Furthermore, ectopic miR-328 expression in highly invasive cells decreased MMP-2 expression and invasive abilities. Mechanistic investigations found that JNK and p38 MAPK signaling pathways were involved in RESV-regulated CREB-DNA-binding activity, miR328 expression, and cell motility. Clinical samples indicated inverse expression between MMP-2 and miR-328 in normal bone and osteosarcoma tissues. The inverse correlation of MMP-2 and miR-328 was also observed in tumor specimens, and MMP-2 expression was linked to tumor metastasis. Taken together, our results provide new insights into the role of RESV-induced molecular and epigenetic regulation in suppressing tumor metastasis. PMID:25605016

  12. Are the basal cells of the mammalian epididymis still an enigma?

    PubMed

    Arrighi, S

    2014-10-01

    Basal cells are present in the columnar pseudostratified epithelium covering the epididymis of all mammalian species, which regulates the microenvironment where the functionally incompetent germ cells produced by the testis are matured and stored. Striking novelties have come from investigations on epididymal basal cells in the past 30-40 years. In addition to an earlier hypothesised scavenger role for basal cells, linked to their proven extratubular origin and the expression of macrophage antigens, basal cells have been shown to be involved in cell-cell cross-talk, as well as functioning as luminal sensors to regulate the activity of principal and clear cells. Involvement of basal cells in the regulation of electrolyte and water transport by principal cells was hypothesised. This control is suggested to be mediated by the local formation of prostaglandins. Members of the aquaporin (AQP) and/or aquaglyceroporin family (AQP3, AQP7 and AQP8) are also specifically expressed in the rat epididymal basal cells. Transport of glycerol and glycerylphosphorylcholine from the epithelium of the epididymis to the lumen in relation to sperm maturation may be mediated by AQP. Most probably basal cells collaborate to the building up of the blood-epididymis barrier through cell adhesion molecules, implying an involvement in immune control exerted towards sperm cells, which are foreigners in the environment in which they were produced. PMID:24138802

  13. sine oculis in basal Metazoa.

    PubMed

    Bebenek, Ilona G; Gates, Ruth D; Morris, Joshua; Hartenstein, Volker; Jacobs, David K

    2004-07-01

    We report the recovery of homologs of Six1/2/sine oculis (so), a homeodomain-containing member of the Six-gene family, from a diverse set of basal Metazoa, including representatives of the poriferan classes Demospongia, Calcarea and Hexactinellida, the cnidarian classes Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa and Anthozoa, as well as a ctenophore. so sequences were also recovered from a platyhelminth, an echiurid and two bivalve molluscs, members of the super-phyletic group Lophotrochozoa. In the case of the platyhelminth, multiple distinct so sequences were recovered, as well as a member of the related group Six4/5/D-Six4. Extended sequences of the so gene were recovered from the demosponge, Haliclona sp., and the scyphozoan Aurelia aurita via PCR, and 3' RACE. The affinities of all recovered sequences were assessed using a parsimony analysis based on both nucleic and amino acid sequence and using successive character weighting. Our results indicate that so is highly conserved across the animal kingdom. Preliminary expression data for Aurelia reveal that transcripts of the so homolog are present in the manubrium as well as in the rhopalia, which contain the statocyst and eyes, in the free-swimming ephyra and juvenile stages of these jellyfish. PMID:15221378

  14. Increases in cAMP, MAPK Activity and CREB Phosphorylation during REM Sleep: Implications for REM Sleep and Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jie; Phan, Trongha X.; Yang, Yimei; Garelick, Michael G.; Storm, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) transcriptional pathway is required for consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory. In mice, this pathway undergoes a circadian oscillation required for memory persistence that reaches a peak during the daytime. Since mice exhibit polyphasic sleep patterns during the day, this suggested the interesting possibility that cAMP, MAPK activity and CREB phosphorylation may be elevated during sleep. Here, we report that cAMP, phospho-p44/42 MAPK and phospho-CREB are higher in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep compared to awake mice but are not elevated in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. This peak of activity during REM sleep does not occur in mice lacking calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclases, a mouse strain that learns but cannot consolidate hippocampus-dependent memory. We conclude that a preferential increase in cAMP, MAPK activity and CREB phosphorylation during REM sleep may contribute to hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation. PMID:23575844

  15. Increases in cAMP, MAPK activity, and CREB phosphorylation during REM sleep: implications for REM sleep and memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Phan, Trongha X; Yang, Yimei; Garelick, Michael G; Storm, Daniel R

    2013-04-10

    The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) transcriptional pathway is required for consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory. In mice, this pathway undergoes a circadian oscillation required for memory persistence that reaches a peak during the daytime. Because mice exhibit polyphasic sleep patterns during the day, this suggested the interesting possibility that cAMP, MAPK activity, and CREB phosphorylation may be elevated during sleep. Here, we report that cAMP, phospho-p44/42 MAPK, and phospho-CREB are higher in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep compared with awake mice but are not elevated in non-REM sleep. This peak of activity during REM sleep does not occur in mice lacking calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclases, a mouse strain that learns but cannot consolidate hippocampus-dependent memory. We conclude that a preferential increase in cAMP, MAPK activity, and CREB phosphorylation during REM sleep may contribute to hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation. PMID:23575844

  16. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition in diabetic rats leads to activation of the transcription factor CREB in β-cells.

    PubMed

    Pugazhenthi, Subbiah; Qin, LiMei; Bouchard, Ron

    2015-05-15

    Incretin therapies are effective in controlling blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients by improving the survival and function of β-cells. They include dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs. We have previously reported that GLP-1 enhances the survival of cultured human islets by activation of the transcription factor CREB. To test the in vivo relevance of these findings, we examined the effects of alogliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, in Zucker Diabetic rats, a model for type 2 diabetes. The plasma levels of GLP-1 increased in alogliptin-treated diabetic rats leading to normoglycemia. Pancreatic islets of untreated diabetic rats were characterized by decreased immunostaining for insulin and PDX-1. Elevation of GLP-1 in treated diabetic rats resulted in the improved survival of β-cells. Dual immunofluorescent staining showed phosphorylation/activation of CREB in insulin-positive β-cells of islets. This led to increases in the levels of CREB targets including Bcl-2, an antiapoptotic mitochondrial protein, BIRC3, a caspase inhibitor and IRS-2, an adapter protein needed for insulin signaling. Findings from this study suggest potential activation of cytoprotective CREB by GLP-1 in pancreatic β-cells of diabetic patients undergoing incretin-based therapies. PMID:25720341

  17. Functional interaction between the human cytomegalovirus 86-kilodalton IE2 protein and the cellular transcription factor CREB.

    PubMed Central

    Lang, D; Gebert, S; Arlt, H; Stamminger, T

    1995-01-01

    The 86-kDa IE2 protein (IE86) of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been described as a promiscuous transactivator of viral, as well as cellular, gene expression. Investigation of the mechanism used by IE86 to activate gene expression from the early UL112/113 promoter of HCMV revealed the existence of three binding sites for IE86 located between nucleotides -290 and -120 relative to the transcriptional start site (H. Arlt, D. Lang, S. Gebert, and T. Stamminger, J. Virol. 68:4117-4125, 1994). As shown previously, deletion of these target sites resulted in a reduction of IE86-mediated transactivation by approximately 70%. The remaining promoter, however, could still be stimulated about 40-fold, indicating the presence of an additional responsive element within these sequences. Here, we provide evidence that a binding site for the cellular transcription factor CREB can also act as a target for IE86 transactivation. By DNase I protection analysis, a binding sequence for CREB could be detected between nucleotides -78 and -56 within the respective promoter region. After in vitro mutagenesis of this CREB-binding site within the context of the entire UL112/113 promoter, a marked reduction in transactivation levels was evident. Moreover, when individual CREB-binding sites were positioned upstream of a minimal, TATA box-containing UL112/113 promoter, they were able to confer strong IE86 responsiveness, whereas a mutated sequence did not exert any effect. In far Western blot and pull-down experiments, a direct interaction of IE86 with the cellular transcription factor CREB could be observed. The in vivo relevance of this in vitro interaction was confirmed by using various GAL4 fusion proteins in the presence or absence of IE86 which revealed a strong activation only in the presence of both a GAL4-CREB fusion and IE86. This shows that at least one specific member of the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors is involved in mediating transactivation by the HCMV IE86 protein

  18. Readiness in the Basal Reader: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Pamela

    A study examined two 1989 basal reading series' (published by McGraw Hill and Holt) readiness/priming sequences in order to ascertain the theoretical bases of each and then compared the findings with those of an earlier study. All pages of the readiness/priming sequence student texts and workbooks of both basal reading series were analyzed using…

  19. Modern basal insulin analogs: An incomplete story

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Gangopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The currently available basal insulin does not completely mimic the endogenous insulin secretion. This has continued to promote the search for ideal basal insulin. The newer basal insulin have primarily focused on increasing the duration of action, reducing variability, and reducing the incidence of hypoglycemia, particularly nocturnal. However, the changing criteria of hypoglycemia within a short span of a few years along with the surprising introduction of major cardiac events as another outcome measure has not only clouded the assessment of basal insulin but has also polarized opinion worldwide about the utility of the newer basal insulin. A critical review of both the pre and post FDA analysis of all the basal insulin in this article attempts to clear some of the confusion surrounding the issues of hypoglycemia and glycemic control. This article also discusses all the trials and meta-analysis done on all the current basal insulin available along with their head-to-head comparison with particular attention to glycemic control and hypoglycemic events including severe and nocturnal hypoglycemia. This in-depth analysis hopes to provide a clear interpretation of the various analyses available in literature at this point of time thereby acting as an excellent guide to the readers in choosing the most appropriate basal insulin for their patient. PMID:25364672

  20. Modern basal insulin analogs: An incomplete story.

    PubMed

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Gangopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar

    2014-11-01

    The currently available basal insulin does not completely mimic the endogenous insulin secretion. This has continued to promote the search for ideal basal insulin. The newer basal insulin have primarily focused on increasing the duration of action, reducing variability, and reducing the incidence of hypoglycemia, particularly nocturnal. However, the changing criteria of hypoglycemia within a short span of a few years along with the surprising introduction of major cardiac events as another outcome measure has not only clouded the assessment of basal insulin but has also polarized opinion worldwide about the utility of the newer basal insulin. A critical review of both the pre and post FDA analysis of all the basal insulin in this article attempts to clear some of the confusion surrounding the issues of hypoglycemia and glycemic control. This article also discusses all the trials and meta-analysis done on all the current basal insulin available along with their head-to-head comparison with particular attention to glycemic control and hypoglycemic events including severe and nocturnal hypoglycemia. This in-depth analysis hopes to provide a clear interpretation of the various analyses available in literature at this point of time thereby acting as an excellent guide to the readers in choosing the most appropriate basal insulin for their patient. PMID:25364672

  1. The basal ganglia communicate with the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Bostan, Andreea C; Dum, Richard P; Strick, Peter L

    2010-05-01

    The basal ganglia and cerebellum are major subcortical structures that influence not only movement, but putatively also cognition and affect. Both structures receive input from and send output to the cerebral cortex. Thus, the basal ganglia and cerebellum form multisynaptic loops with the cerebral cortex. Basal ganglia and cerebellar loops have been assumed to be anatomically separate and to perform distinct functional operations. We investigated whether there is any direct route for basal ganglia output to influence cerebellar function that is independent of the cerebral cortex. We injected rabies virus (RV) into selected regions of the cerebellar cortex in cebus monkeys and used retrograde transneuronal transport of the virus to determine the origin of multisynaptic inputs to the injection sites. We found that the subthalamic nucleus of the basal ganglia has a substantial disynaptic projection to the cerebellar cortex. This pathway provides a means for both normal and abnormal signals from the basal ganglia to influence cerebellar function. We previously showed that the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum has a disynaptic projection to an input stage of basal ganglia processing, the striatum. Taken together these results provide the anatomical substrate for substantial two-way communication between the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Thus, the two subcortical structures may be linked together to form an integrated functional network. PMID:20404184

  2. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy. PMID:26971503

  3. Adenosine and the adenosine A2A receptor agonist, CGS21680, upregulate CD39 and CD73 expression through E2F-1 and CREB in regulatory T cells isolated from septic mice.

    PubMed

    Bao, Rui; Shui, Xianqi; Hou, Jiong; Li, Jinbao; Deng, Xiaoming; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Tao

    2016-09-01

    The number of regulatory T cells (Treg cells) and the expression of ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (ENTPD1; also known as CD39) and 5'-ectonucleotidase (NT5E; also known as CD73) on the Treg cell surface are increased during sepsis. In this study, to determine the factors leading to the high expression of CD39 and CD73, and the regulation of the CD39/CD73/adenosine pathway in Treg cells under septic conditions, we constructed a mouse model of sepsis and separated the Treg cells using a flow cytometer. The Treg cells isolated from the peritoneal lavage and splenocytes of the mice were treated with adenosine or the specific adenosine A2A receptor agonist, CGS21680, and were transfected with specific siRNA targeting E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F-1) or cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element-binding protein (CREB), which are predicted transcription regulatory factors of CD39 or CD73. The regulatory relationships among these factors were then determined by western blot analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay. In addition, changes in adenosine metabolism were measured in the treated cells. The results revealed that adenosine and CGS21680 significantly upregulated CD39 and CD73 expression (P<0.01). E2F-1 and CREB induced CD39 and CD73 expression, and were upregulated by adenosine and CGS21680. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis and adenosine generation were inhibited by the knockdown of E2F-1 or CREB, and were accelerated in the presence of CGS21680. Based on these results, it can be inferred that adenosine, the adenosine A2A receptor agonist, E2F-1 and CREB are the possible factors contributing to the high expression of CD39 and CD73 on the Treg cell surface during sepsis. Adenosine and its A2A receptor agonist served as the signal transducer factors of the CD39/CD73/adenosine pathway, accelerating adenosine generation. Our study may benefit further research on adenosine metabolism for the treatment of sepsis

  4. Preliminary investigation of the influence of CREB1 gene polymorphisms on cognitive dysfunction in Chinese patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junhui; Liu, Zhongchun; Dai, Hong; Zhu, Zhixian; Wang, Huiling; Yang, Can; Xiao, Ling; Huang, Yonglan; Wang, Gaohua

    2014-01-01

    Research has increasingly focused on the role of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding (CREB) protein in learning and memory, particularly its role in cognitive disorders and neurodegeneration, such as Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, and Coffin-Lowry syndrome. The cognitive dysfunction of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), which is widely recognized, is not completely in accordance with depressive severity, and the dysfunction persists upon clinical remission in some patients. However, few studies have focused on the role of CREB on cognitive function in patients with MDD. This study aimed to investigate the influence of CREB1 polymorphism on cognitive function in patients with MDD. The current study comprised 113 patients with MDD. The severity of depression was measured using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and cognitive function was assessed using the Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test, verbal fluency test, and tests of immediate logical memory and visual reproduction. All subjects were genotyped with regard to CREB1 polymorphisms (rs10932201, rs2551645, rs2254137, rs6740584, and rs2551640). For the verbal fluency test, the results showed significant differences for all single-nucleotide polymorphism genotypic groups. For the Stroop color-word task, a significant difference was found only for rs6740584. No significant differences were found for the Stroop color task, the immediate logical memory test or the visual reproduction test. In conclusion, there was an effect of CREB1 polymorphism on selective attention and retrieval of long-term memory, but not on immediate memory. PMID:23844928

  5. Localization and Function of GABA Transporters GAT-1 and GAT-3 in the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xiao-Tao; Galvan, Adriana; Wichmann, Thomas; Smith, Yoland

    2011-01-01

    GABA transporter type 1 and 3 (GAT-1 and GAT-3, respectively) are the two main subtypes of GATs responsible for the regulation of extracellular GABA levels in the central nervous system. These transporters are widely expressed in neuronal (mainly GAT-1) and glial (mainly GAT-3) elements throughout the brain, but most data obtained so far relate to their role in the regulation of GABAA receptor-mediated postsynaptic tonic and phasic inhibition in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Taking into consideration the key role of GABAergic transmission within basal ganglia networks, and the importance for these systems to be properly balanced to mediate normal basal ganglia function, we analyzed in detail the localization and function of GAT-1 and GAT-3 in the globus pallidus of normal and Parkinsonian animals, in order to further understand the substrate and possible mechanisms by which GABA transporters may regulate basal ganglia outflow, and may become relevant targets for new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of basal ganglia-related disorders. In this review, we describe the general features of GATs in the basal ganglia, and give a detailed account of recent evidence that GAT-1 and GAT-3 regulation can have a major impact on the firing rate and pattern of basal ganglia neurons through pre- and post-synaptic GABAA- and GABAB-receptor-mediated effects. PMID:21847373

  6. The effect of basal channels on oceanic ice-shelf melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millgate, Thomas; Holland, Paul R.; Jenkins, Adrian; Johnson, Helen L.

    2013-12-01

    The presence of ice-shelf basal channels has been noted in a number of Antarctic and Greenland ice shelves, but their impact on basal melting is not fully understood. Here we use the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model to investigate the effect of ice-shelf basal channels on oceanic melt rate for an idealized ice shelf resembling the floating tongue of Petermann Glacier in Greenland. The introduction of basal channels prevents the formation of a single geostrophically balanced boundary current; instead the flow is diverted up the right-hand (Coriolis-favored) side of each channel, with a return flow in the opposite direction on the left-hand side. As the prescribed number of basal channels is increased the mean basal melt rate decreases, in agreement with previous studies. For a small number of relatively wide channels the subice flow is found to be a largely geostrophic horizontal circulation. The reduction in melt rate is then caused by an increase in the relative contribution of weakly melting channel crests and keels. For a larger number of relatively narrow channels, the subice flow changes to a vertical overturning circulation. This change in circulation results in a weaker sensitivity of melt rates to channel size. The transition between the two regimes is governed by the Rossby radius of deformation. Our results explain why basal channels play an important role in regulating basal melting, increasing the stability of ice shelves.

  7. Scopoletin from Cirsium setidens Increases Melanin Synthesis via CREB Phosphorylation in B16F10 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Mi-Ja; Hur, Sun-Jung; Kim, Eun-Hyun; Lee, Seung Hoon; Shin, Jun Seob; Kim, Myo-Kyoung; Uchizono, James A.; Whang, Wan-Kyunn

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we isolated scopoletin from Cirsium setidens Nakai (Compositae) and tested its effects on melanogenesis. Scopoletin was not toxic to cells at concentrations less than 50 µM and increased melanin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. As melanin synthesis increased, scopoletin stimulated the total tyrosinase activity, the rate-limiting enzyme of melanogenesis. In a cell-free system, however, scopoletin did not increase tyrosinase activity, indicating that scopoletin is not a direct activator of tyrosinase. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that scopoletin stimulated the production of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase expression via cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. Based on these results, preclinical and clinical studies are needed to assess the use of scopoletin for the treatment of vitiligo. PMID:25177162

  8. Morphological elucidation of basal ganglia circuits contributing reward prediction

    PubMed Central

    Fujiyama, Fumino; Takahashi, Susumu; Karube, Fuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to the dopamine signal, via the mechanism of dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of the reward prediction error and conduct reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits. The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor–critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, focusing on the striosome/matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome/matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments. PMID:25698913

  9. Morphological elucidation of basal ganglia circuits contributing reward prediction.

    PubMed

    Fujiyama, Fumino; Takahashi, Susumu; Karube, Fuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to the dopamine signal, via the mechanism of dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of the reward prediction error and conduct reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits. The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor-critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, focusing on the striosome/matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome/matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments. PMID:25698913

  10. [Morphological Re-evaluation of the Basal Ganglia Network].

    PubMed

    Fujiyama, Fumino

    2016-07-01

    Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to dopamine signals, via dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of reward prediction error and conducts reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits. The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor-critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, with particular focus on the striosome and matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome and matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments. PMID:27395470

  11. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome. PMID:25506011

  12. The Basal Ganglia-Circa 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehler, William R.

    1981-01-01

    Our review has shown that recent studies with the new anterograde and retrograde axon transport methods have confirmed and extended our knowledge of the projection of the basal ganglia and clarified their sites of origin. They have thrown new light on certain topographic connectional relationships and revealed several new reciprocal connections between constituent nuclei of the basal ganglia. Similarly, attention has been drawn to the fact that there have also been many new histochemical techniques introduced in recent years that are now providing regional biochemical overlays for connectional maps of the central nervous system, especially regions in, or interconnecting with, the basal ganglia. However, although these new morphological biochemical maps are very complex and technically highly advanced, our understanding of the function controlled by the basal ganglia still remains primitive. The reader who is interested in some new ideas of the functional aspects of the basal ganglia is directed to Nauta's proposed conceptual reorganization of the basal ganglia telencephalon and to Marsden's more clinically orientated appraisal of the unsolved mysteries of the basal ganglia participation in the control of movement.

  13. Regulation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein during neuroglial interactions.

    PubMed

    Qin, LiMei; Bouchard, Ron; Pugazhenthi, Subbiah

    2016-03-01

    Communications between neurons and glial cells play an important role in regulating homeostasis in the central nervous system. cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), a transcription factor, is down-regulated by neurotoxins, which are known to be released by activated glial cells. To determine the role of CREB signaling in neuroglial interactions, we used three neuroglial coculture models consisting of human neuroprogenitor cell (NPC)-derived neurons and human microglia. Conditioned medium from the Abeta (Aβ)-activated microglia decreased CREB phosphorylation and brain-derived neurotrophic factor promoter activity (47%), whereas the same medium induced (p < 0.01) the promoter of CXCL10, a chemokine, in NPC-derived neuron-rich cultures. These effects were reversed when microglia were exposed to Aβ in the presence of minocycline, an anti-inflammatory agent. The expression of CREB targets, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, synapsin-1, and BIRC3 decreased by 50-65% (p < 0.01) in neurons isolated by laser capture microdissection in close proximity of microglia in neuroglial mixed cultures. Neuronal survival actively modulated microglial behavior when neurons and microglia were cocultured side-by-side on semicircles of ACLAR membrane. Neuronal injury, caused by the over-expression of dominant negative form of CREB, exacerbated Aβ-mediated microglial activation, whereas CREB over-expression resulted in decreased microglial activation. Decreases in the levels of neuronal markers were observed when NPCs were differentiated in the presence of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor α, or IL-6. Instead, the NPCs differentiated into a glial phenotype, and these effects were more pronounced in the presence of tumor necrosis factor α. Our findings suggest that CREB down-regulation is an important component of defective neuroglial communications in the brain during neuroinflammation. Neuroglial interactions were examined using coculture

  14. Thermodynamic significance of human basal metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cuncheng

    1993-06-01

    The human basal state, a non-equilibrium steady state, is analysed in this paper in the light of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics whereby the thermodynamic significance of the basal metabolic rate and its distinction to the dissipation function and exergy loss are identified. The analysis demonstrates the correct expression of the effects of the blood flow on the heat balance in a human-body bio-heat model and the relationship between the basal metabolic rate and the blood perfusion.

  15. Basal encephalocele and morning glory syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Caprioli, J; Lesser, R L

    1983-01-01

    Basal encephaloceles are often associated with other midline anomalies such as hypertelorism, broad nasal root, cleft lip, and cleft palate. Optic disc anomalies such as pallor, dysplasia, optic pit, coLoboma, and megalopapilla have been reported to occur in patients with basal encephalocele We report a case of a child with a sphenoethmoidal encephalocele and morning glory syndrome of the optic nerve. The presence of such optic nerve anomalies with facial midline anomalies should alert the clinician to the possible presence of a basal encephalocele. Images PMID:6849854

  16. Stimulation of StAR expression by cAMP is controlled by inhibition of highly inducible SIK1 via CRTC2, a co-activator of CREB.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinwoo; Tong, Tiegang; Takemori, Hiroshi; Jefcoate, Colin

    2015-06-15

    In mouse steroidogenic cells the activation of cholesterol metabolism is mediated by steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). Here, we visualized a coordinated regulation of StAR transcription, splicing and post-transcriptional processing, which are synchronized by salt inducible kinase (SIK1) and CREB-regulated transcription coactivator (CRTC2). To detect primary RNA (pRNA), spliced primary RNA (Sp-RNA) and mRNA in single cells, we generated probe sets by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These methods allowed us to address the nature of StAR gene expression and to visualize protein-nucleic acid interactions through direct detection. We show that SIK1 represses StAR expression in Y1 adrenal and MA10 testis cells through inhibition of processing mediated by CRTC2. Digital image analysis matches qPCR analyses of the total cell culture. Evidence is presented for spatially separate accumulation of StAR pRNA and Sp-RNA at the gene loci in the nucleus. These findings establish that cAMP, SIK and CRTC mediate StAR expression through activation of individual StAR gene loci. PMID:25662274

  17. The Basal NPO crh Fluctuation is Sustained Under Compromised Glucocorticoid Signaling in Diurnal Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chen-Min

    2015-01-01

    The circadian activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal/interrenal (HPA/I) axis is crucial for maintaining vertebrate homeostasis. In mammals, both the principle regulator, corticotropin-releasing hormone (crh) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the final effector, the glucocorticoids show daily rhythmic patterns. While glucocorticoids are the main negative regulator of PVN crh under stress, whether they modulate the PVN crh rhythm under basal condition is unclear in diurnal animals. Using zebrafish larvae, a recently-established diurnal model organism suited for the HPA/I axis and homeostasis research, we ask if glucocorticoid changes are required to maintain the daily variation of PVN crh. We first characterized the development of the HPI axis overtime and showed that the basal activity of the HPI axis is robust and tightly regulated by circadian cue in 6-day old larvae. We demonstrated a negative correlation between the basal cortisol and neurosecretory preoptic area (NPO) crh variations. To test if cortisol drives NPO crh variation, we analyzed the NPO crh levels in glucorcorticoid antagonist-treated larvae and mutants lacking circadian cortisol variations. We showed that NPO crh basal fluctuation is sustained although the level was decreased without proper cortisol signaling in zebrafish. Our data indicates that glucocorticoids do not modulate the basal NPO crh variations but may be required for maintaining overall NPO crh levels. This further suggests that under basal and stress conditions the HPA/I axis activity is modulated differently by glucocorticoids. PMID:26696807

  18. From tyrosine to melanin: Signaling pathways and factors regulating melanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rzepka, Zuzanna; Buszman, Ewa; Beberok, Artur; Wrześniok, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Melanins are natural pigments of skin, hair and eyes and can be classified into two main types: brown to black eumelanin and yellow to reddish-brown pheomelanin. Biosynthesis of melanins takes place in melanosomes, which are specialized cytoplasmic organelles of melanocytes - dendritic cells located in the basal layer of the epidermis, uveal tract of the eye, hair follicles, as well as in the inner ear, central nervous system and heart. Melanogenesis is a multistep process and begins with the conversion of amino acid L-tyrosine to DOPAquinone. The addition of cysteine or glutathione to DOPAquinone leads to the intermediates formation, followed by subsequent transformations and polymerization to the final product, pheomelanin. In the absence of thiol compounds DOPAquinone undergoes an intramolecular cyclization and oxidation to form DOPAchrome, which is then converted to 5,6-dihydroksyindole (DHI) or 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA). Eumelanin is formed by polymerization of DHI and DHICA and their quinones. Regulation of melanogenesis is achieved by physical and biochemical factors. The article presents the intracellular signaling pathways: cAMP/PKA/CREB/MITF cascade, MAP kinases cascade, PLC/DAG/PKCβ cascade and NO/cGMP/PKG cascade, which are involved in the regulation of expression and activity of the melanogenesis-related proteins by ultraviolet radiation and endogenous agents (cytokines, hormones). Activity of the key melanogenic enzyme, tyrosinase, is also affected by pH and temperature. Many pharmacologically active substances are able to inhibit or stimulate melanin biosynthesis, as evidenced by in vitro studies on cultured pigment cells. PMID:27356601

  19. Plant basal resistance to nematodes: an update.

    PubMed

    Holbein, Julia; Grundler, Florian M W; Siddique, Shahid

    2016-03-01

    Most plant-parasitic nematodes are obligate biotrophs feeding on the roots of their hosts. Whereas ectoparasites remain on the root surface and feed on the outer cell layers, endoparasitic nematodes enter the host to parasitize cells around or within the central cylinder. Nematode invasion and feeding causes tissue damage which may, in turn, lead to the activation of host basal defence responses. Hitherto, research interests in plant-nematode interaction have emphasized effector-triggered immunity rather than basal plant defence responses. However, some recent investigations suggest that basal defence pathways are not only activated but also play an important role in determining interaction outcomes. In this review we discuss the major findings and point out future directions to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying plant basal defence to nematodes further. PMID:26842982

  20. Automatic basal slice detection for cardiac analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paknezhad, Mahsa; Marchesseau, Stephanie; Brown, Michael S.

    2016-03-01

    Identification of the basal slice in cardiac imaging is a key step to measuring the ejection fraction (EF) of the left ventricle (LV). Despite research on cardiac segmentation, basal slice identification is routinely performed manually. Manual identification, however, has been shown to have high inter-observer variability, with a variation of the EF by up to 8%. Therefore, an automatic way of identifying the basal slice is still required. Prior published methods operate by automatically tracking the mitral valve points from the long-axis view of the LV. These approaches assumed that the basal slice is the first short-axis slice below the mitral valve. However, guidelines published in 2013 by the society for cardiovascular magnetic resonance indicate that the basal slice is the uppermost short-axis slice with more than 50% myocardium surrounding the blood cavity. Consequently, these existing methods are at times identifying the incorrect short-axis slice. Correct identification of the basal slice under these guidelines is challenging due to the poor image quality and blood movement during image acquisition. This paper proposes an automatic tool that focuses on the two-chamber slice to find the basal slice. To this end, an active shape model is trained to automatically segment the two-chamber view for 51 samples using the leave-one-out strategy. The basal slice was detected using temporal binary profiles created for each short-axis slice from the segmented two-chamber slice. From the 51 successfully tested samples, 92% and 84% of detection results were accurate at the end-systolic and the end-diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle, respectively.

  1. Epidemiology of basal-like breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Millikan, Robert C.; Newman, Beth; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Moorman, Patricia G.; Conway, Kathleen; Smith, Lisa V.; Labbok, Miriam H.; Geradts, Joseph; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Jackson, Susan; Nyante, Sarah; Livasy, Chad; Carey, Lisa; Earp, H. Shelton; Perou, Charles M.

    2008-01-01

    Risk factors for the newly identified “intrinsic” breast cancer subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, basal-like and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive/estrogen receptor-negative) were determined in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based, case–control study of African-American and white women. Immunohistochemical markers were used to subtype 1,424 cases of invasive and in situ breast cancer, and case subtypes were compared to 2,022 controls. Luminal A, the most common subtype, exhibited risk factors typically reported for breast cancer in previous studies, including inverse associations for increased parity and younger age at first full-term pregnancy. Basal-like cases exhibited several associations that were opposite to those observed for luminal A, including increased risk for parity and younger age at first term full-term pregnancy. Longer duration breastfeeding, increasing number of children breastfed, and increasing number of months breastfeeding per child were each associated with reduced risk of basal-like breast cancer, but not luminal A. Women with multiple live births who did not breastfeed and women who used medications to suppress lactation were at increased risk of basal-like, but not luminal A, breast cancer. Elevated waist-hip ratio was associated with increased risk of luminal A in postmenopausal women, and increased risk of basal-like breast cancer in pre- and postmenopausal women. The prevalence of basal-like breast cancer was highest among premenopausal African-American women, who also showed the highest prevalence of basal-like risk factors. Among younger African-American women, we estimate that up to 68% of basal-like breast cancer could be prevented by promoting breastfeeding and reducing abdominal adiposity. PMID:17578664

  2. Metformin and Insulin Suppress Hepatic Gluconeogenesis by Inhibiting cAMP Signaling Through Phosphorylation of CREB Binding Protein (CBP)

    PubMed Central

    He, Ling; Sabet, Amin; Djedjos, Stephen; Miller, Ryan; Sun, Xiaojian; Hussain, Mehboob A.; Radovick, Sally; Wondisford, Fredric E.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Insulin resistance and elevated glucagon levels result in non-suppressible hepatic glucose production and hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. The CREB co-activator complex controls transcription of hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme genes. Here we show that both the antidiabetic agent metformin and insulin phosphorylate the transcriptional co-activator CBP at serine 436 via PKCι/λ. This event triggers the dissociation of the CREB-CBP-TORC2 transcription complex and reduces gluconeogenic enzyme gene expression. Mice carrying a germline mutation of this CBP phosphorylation site (S436A) demonstrate resistance to the hypoglycemic effect of both insulin and metformin. Obese, hyperglycemic mice display hepatic insulin resistance, but metformin is still effective in treating the hyperglycemia of these mice since it stimulates CBP phosphorylation by bypassing the block in insulin signaling. PMID:19450513

  3. Interleukin-17A Acts to Maintain Neuropathic Pain Through Activation of CaMKII/CREB Signaling in Spinal Neurons.

    PubMed

    Yao, Cheng-Ye; Weng, Ze-Lin; Zhang, Jian-Cheng; Feng, Tao; Lin, Yun; Yao, Shanglong

    2016-08-01

    Immunity and neuroinflammation play major roles in neuropathic pain. Spinal interleukin (IL)-17A, as a mediator connecting innate and adaptive immunity, has been shown to be an important cytokine in neuroinflammation and acute neuropathic pain. However, the effects and underlying mechanisms of spinal IL-17A in the maintenance of neuropathic pain remain unknown. This study was designed to investigate whether spinal IL-17A acted to maintain neuropathic pain and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms in IL-17A knockout or wild-type (WT) mice following L4 spinal nerve ligation (L4 SNL). WT mice were treated with anti-IL-17A neutralized monoclonal antibody (mAb) or recombinant IL-17A (rIL-17A). We showed that IL-17A levels were significantly increased 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after SNL in spinal cord. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that astrocytes were the major cellular source of spinal IL-17A. IL-17A knockout or anti-IL-17A mAb treatment significantly ameliorated hyperalgesia 7 days after SNL, which was associated with a significant reduction of p-CaMKII and p-CREB levels in spinal cord, whereas rIL-17A treatment conferred the opposite effects. Furthermore, we showed that blocking CaMKII with KN93 significantly reduced SNL- or rIL-17A-induced hyperalgesia and p-CREB expression. Our in vitro data showed that KN93 also significantly inhibited rIL-17A-induced CREB activation in primary cultured spinal neurons. Taken together, our study indicates that astrocytic IL-17A plays important roles in the maintenance of neuropathic pain through CaMKII/CREB signaling pathway in spinal cord, and thus targeting IL-17A may offer an attractive strategy for the treatment of chronic persistent neuropathic pain. PMID:26166359

  4. NKCC1 mediates traumatic brain injury-induced hippocampal neurogenesis through CREB phosphorylation and HIF-1α expression.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kwok-Tung; Huang, Tai-Chun; Wang, Jia-Yi; You, Ya-Shen; Chou, Jian-Liang; Chan, Michael W Y; Wo, Peter Y Y; Amstislavskaya, Tamara G; Tikhonova, Maria A; Yang, Yi-Ling

    2015-08-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most prevalent causes of worldwide mortality and morbidity. We previously had evidenced that TBI induced Na-K-2Cl co-transporter (NKCC1) upregulation in hippocampus. Here, we aim to investigate the role of NKCC1 in TBI-induced neurogenesis and the detailed mechanisms. The TBI-associated alternations in the expression of NKCC1, HIF-1α, VEGF, MAPK cascade, and CREB phosphorylation were analyzed by Western blot. TBI-induced neurogenesis was determined by immuno-fluorescence labeling. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to elucidate whether HIF-1α would activate VEGF gene after TBI. We found that the level of hippocampal NKCC1 and VEGF began to rise 8 h after TBI, and both of them reached maxima at day 7. Along with the upregulation of NKCC1 and VEGF, MAPK cascade was activated and hippocampal neurogenesis was promoted. Administration of CREB antisense oligonucleotide significantly attenuated the expression of HIF-1α, while HIF-1α antisense oligonucleotide exhibited little effect on the expression of CREB. However, HIF-1α antisense oligonucleotide administration did effectively suppress the expression of VEGF. Our results of the chromosome immunoprecipitation also indicated that HIF-1α could directly act on the VEGF promoter and presumably would elevate the VEGF expression after TBI. All these results have illustrated the correlation between NKCC1 upregulation and TBI-associated neurogenesis. The pathway involves the activation of Raf/MEK/ERK cascade, CREB phosphorylation, and HIF-1α upregulation, and finally leads to the stimulation of VEGF expression and the induction of neurogenesis. PMID:25201604

  5. Status epilepticus stimulates NDEL1 expression via the CREB/CRE pathway in the adult mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sik; Lee, Boyoung; Hansen, Katelin F; Aten, Sydney; Horning, Paul; Wheaton, Kelin L; Impey, Soren; Hoyt, Kari R; Obrietan, Karl

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear distribution element-like 1 (NDEL1/NUDEL) is a mammalian homolog of the Aspergillus nidulans nuclear distribution molecule NudE. NDEL1 plays a critical role in neuronal migration, neurite outgrowth and neuronal positioning during brain development; however within the adult central nervous system, limited information is available regarding NDEL1 expression and functions. Here, the goal was to examine inducible NDEL1 expression in the adult mouse forebrain. Immunolabeling revealed NDEL1 within the forebrain, including the cortex and hippocampus, as well as the midbrain and hypothalamus. Expression was principally localized to perikarya. Using a combination of immunolabeling and RNA seq profiling, we detected a marked and long-lasting upregulation of NDEL1 expression within the hippocampus following a pilocarpine-evoked repetitive seizure paradigm. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis identified a cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) binding site within the CpG island proximal to the NDEL1 gene, and in vivo transgenic repression of CREB led to a marked downregulation of seizure-evoked NDEL1 expression. Together these data indicate that NDEL1 is inducibly expressed in the adult nervous system, and that signaling via the CREB/CRE transcriptional pathway is likely involved. The role of NDEL1 in neuronal migration and neurite outgrowth during development raises the interesting prospect that inducible NDEL1 in the mature nervous system could contribute to the well-characterized structural and functional plasticity resulting from repetitive seizure activity. PMID:27298008

  6. Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 and CREB-Binding Protein/p300 Are Subunits of Double-Stranded RNA-Activated Transcription Factor DRAF1

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Brian K.; Kumar, K. Prasanna; Reich, Nancy C.

    1998-01-01

    Cells respond to viral infection or double-stranded RNA with the transcriptional induction of a subset of alpha/beta interferon-stimulated genes by a pathway distinct from the interferon signal pathway. The transcriptional induction is mediated through a DNA sequence containing the alpha/beta interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE). We previously identified a novel transcription factor, designated double-stranded RNA-activated factor 1 (DRAF1), that recognizes this response element. The DNA-binding specificity of DRAF1 correlates with transcriptional induction, thereby distinguishing it as a positive regulator of alpha/beta interferon-stimulated genes. Two of the components of DRAF1 have now been identified as interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) and the transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP)/p300. We demonstrate that IRF-3 preexists in the cytoplasm of uninfected cells and translocates to the nucleus following viral infection. Translocation of IRF-3 is accompanied by an increase in serine and threonine phosphorylation. Coimmunoprecipitation analyses of endogenous proteins demonstrate an association of IRF-3 with the transcriptional coactivators CBP and p300 only subsequent to infection. In addition, antibodies to the IRF-3, CBP, and p300 molecules react with DRAF1 bound to the ISRE target site of induced genes. The cellular response that leads to DRAF1 activation and specific gene expression may serve to increase host survival during viral infection. PMID:9488451

  7. Schwann cell basal lamina and nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ide, C; Tohyama, K; Yokota, R; Nitatori, T; Onodera, S

    1983-12-12

    Nerve segments approximately 7 mm long were excised from the predegenerated sciatic nerves of mice, and treated 5 times by repetitive freezing and thawing to kill the Schwann cells. Such treated nerve segments were grafted into the original places so as to be in contact with the proximal stumps. The animals were sacrificed 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10 days after the grafting. The grafts were examined by electron microscopy in the middle part of the graft, i.e. 3-4 mm distal to the proximal end and/or near the proximal and distal ends of the graft. In other instances, the predegenerated nerve segments were minced with a razor blade after repetitive freezing and thawing. Such minced nerves were placed in contact with the proximal stumps of the same nerves. The animals were sacrificed 10 days after the grafting. Within 1-2 days after grafting, the dead Schwann cells had disintegrated into fragments. They were then gradually phagocytosed by macrophages. The basal laminae of Schwann cells, which were not attacked by macrophages, remained as empty tubes (basal lamina scaffolds). In the grafts we examined, no Schwann cells survived the freezing and thawing process. The regenerating axons always grew out through such basal lamina scaffolds, being in contact with the inner surface of the basal lamina (i.e. the side originally facing the Schwann cell plasma membrane). No axons were found outside of the scaffolds. One to two days after grafting, the regenerating axons were not associated with Schwann cells, but after 5-7 days they were accompanied by Schwann cells which were presumed to be migrating along axons from the proximal stumps. Ten days after grafting, proliferating Schwann cells observed in the middle part of the grafts had begun to sort out axons. In the grafts of minced nerves, the fragmented basal laminae of the Schwann cells re-arranged themselves into thicker strands or small aggregations of basal laminae. The regenerating axons, without exception, attached to one side

  8. Clonal Dynamics Reveal Two Distinct Populations of Basal Cells in Slow-Turnover Airway Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Watson, Julie K; Rulands, Steffen; Wilkinson, Adam C; Wuidart, Aline; Ousset, Marielle; Van Keymeulen, Alexandra; Göttgens, Berthold; Blanpain, Cédric; Simons, Benjamin D; Rawlins, Emma L

    2015-07-01

    Epithelial lineages have been studied at cellular resolution in multiple organs that turn over rapidly. However, many epithelia, including those of the lung, liver, pancreas, and prostate, turn over slowly and may be regulated differently. We investigated the mouse tracheal epithelial lineage at homeostasis by using long-term clonal analysis and mathematical modeling. This pseudostratified epithelium contains basal cells and secretory and multiciliated luminal cells. Our analysis revealed that basal cells are heterogeneous, comprising approximately equal numbers of multipotent stem cells and committed precursors, which persist in the basal layer for 11 days before differentiating to luminal fate. We confirmed the molecular and functional differences within the basal population by using single-cell qRT-PCR and further lineage labeling. Additionally, we show that self-renewal of short-lived secretory cells is a feature of homeostasis. We have thus revealed early luminal commitment of cells that are morphologically indistinguishable from stem cells. PMID:26119728

  9. ATG12–ATG3 connects basal autophagy and late endosome function

    PubMed Central

    Murrow, Lyndsay; Debnath, Jayanta

    2015-01-01

    In addition to supporting cell survival in response to starvation or stress, autophagy promotes basal protein and organelle turnover. Compared to our understanding of stress-induced autophagy, little is known about how basal autophagy is regulated and how its activity is coordinated with other cellular processes. We recently identified a novel interaction between the ATG12–ATG3 conjugate and the ESCRT-associated protein PDCD6IP/Alix that promotes basal autophagy and endolysosomal trafficking. Moreover, ATG12–ATG3 is required for diverse PDCD6IP-mediated functions including late endosome distribution, exosome secretion, and viral budding. Our results highlight the importance of late endosomes for basal autophagic flux and reveal distinct roles for the core autophagy proteins ATG12 and ATG3 in controlling late endosome function. PMID:25998418

  10. Extrastriatal Dopaminergic Circuits of the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Rommelfanger, Karen S.; Wichmann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia are comprised of the striatum, the external and internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPe and GPi, respectively), the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and the substantia nigra pars compacta and reticulata (SNc and SNr, respectively). Dopamine has long been identified as an important modulator of basal ganglia function in the striatum, and disturbances of striatal dopaminergic transmission have been implicated in diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), addiction and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, recent evidence suggests that dopamine may also modulate basal ganglia function at sites outside of the striatum, and that changes in dopaminergic transmission at these sites may contribute to the symptoms of PD and other neuropsychiatric disorders. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the anatomy, functional effects and behavioral consequences of the dopaminergic innervation to the GPe, GPi, STN, and SNr. Further insights into the dopaminergic modulation of basal ganglia function at extrastriatal sites may provide us with opportunities to develop new and more specific strategies for treating disorders of basal ganglia dysfunction. PMID:21103009

  11. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Protein Expression in Basal Cell Adenomas and Basal Cell Adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Tesdahl, Brennan A; Wilson, Thomas C; Hoffman, Henry T; Robinson, Robert A

    2016-06-01

    Basal cell adenomas and basal cell adenocarcinomas show marked histomorphologic similarity and are separated microscopically primarily by the invasive characteristics of the adenocarcinomas. We wished to explore potential differences in the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition associated proteins in these two tumor types. A tissue microarray was constructed utilizing 29 basal cell adenomas and 16 basal cell adenocarcinomas. Immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin, beta-catenin, Twist 1 and vimentin were investigated. Both tumors expressed all proteins in a relatively similar manner. Nuclear beta-catenin was essentially limited to the abluminal cell populations in both tumor types. E-cadherin was limited largely to luminal locations but was more prevalent in the adenocarcinomas as compared to the adenomas. Primarily abluminal expression for vimentin was seen, sometimes present in an apical dot-like pattern. Distinct populations of cellular expression of these four markers of epithelial mesenchymal transition were present but were similar in locations in both tumors with no patterns discerned to separate basal cell adenoma from basal cell adenocarcinoma. Given these findings, the mechanisms by which basal cell adenocarcinoma is able to invade while its counterpart, basal cell adenoma can not, may be more complex than in other tumor types. PMID:26442856

  12. The effect of loxiglumide (CR-1505) on basal and bombesin-stimulated gallbladder volume in man.

    PubMed

    Douglas, B R; Jebbink, M C; Tjon a Tham, R T; Jansen, J B; Lamers, C B

    1989-07-18

    This study was undertaken in 5 normal subjects to determine the role of cholecystokinin (CCK) in the regulation of basal gallbladder volume and gallbladder contraction stimulated by infusion of bombesin. Administration of the CCK-receptor antagonist, loxiglumide (CR-1505), led to doubling of the gallbladder volume (increase 104 +/- 26%; P less than 0.05) and reduced the bombesin-stimulated gallbladder contraction from 69 +/- 17 to 19 +/- 17% (P less than 0.05). The findings provide evidence suggesting that CCK plays an important role in the regulation of basal gallbladder tone and in mediating the gallbladder contraction induced by the administration of bombesin. PMID:2792196

  13. Shaping Action Sequences in Basal Ganglia Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Costa, Rui M

    2015-01-01

    Many behaviors necessary for organism survival are learned anew and become organized as complex sequences of actions. Recent studies suggest that cortico-basal ganglia circuits are important for chunking isolated movements into precise and robust action sequences that permit the achievement of particular goals. During sequence learning many neurons in the basal ganglia develop sequence-related activity - related to the initiation, execution, and termination of sequences - suggesting that action sequences are processed as action units. Corticostriatal plasticity is critical for the crystallization of action sequences, and for the development of sequence-related neural activity. Furthermore, this sequence-related activity is differentially expressed in direct and indirect basal ganglia pathways. These findings have implications for understanding the symptoms associated with movement and psychiatric disorders. PMID:26189204

  14. Can basal magma oceans generate magnetic fields?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegman, D. R.; Ziegler, L. B.; Davies, C.

    2015-12-01

    Earth's magnetic field is very old, with recent data now showing the field possibly extended back to 4.1 billion years ago (Tarduno et al., Science, 2015). Yet, based upon our current knowledge there are difficulties in sustained a core dynamo over most of Earth's history. Moreover, recent estimates of thermal and electrical conductivity of liquid iron at core conditions from mineral physics experiments indicate that adiabatic heat flux is approximately 15 TW, nearly 3 times larger than previously thought, exacerbating difficulties for driving a core dynamo by convective core cooling alone throughout Earth history. A long-lived basal magma ocean in the lowermost mantle has been proposed to exist in the early Earth, surviving perhaps into the Archean. While the modern, solid lower mantle is an electromagnetic insulator, electrical conductivities of silicate melts are known to be higher, though as yet they are unconstrained for lowermost mantle conditions. Here we explore the geomagnetic consequences of a basal magma ocean layer for a range of possible electrical conductivities. For the highest electrical conductivities considered, we find a basal magma ocean could be a primary dynamo source region. This would suggest the proposed three magnetic eras observed in paleomagnetic data originate from distinct sources for dynamo generation: from 4.5-2.45 Ga within a basal magma ocean, from 2.25-0.4 Ga within a superadiabatically cooled liquid core, and from 0.4-present within a quasi-adiabatic core that includes a solidifying inner core. We have extended this work by developing a new code, Dynamantle, which is a model with an entropy-based approach, similar to those commonly used in core dynamics models. We present new results using this code to assess the conditions under which basal magma oceans can generate positive ohmic dissipation. This is more generally useful than just considering the early Earth, but also for many silicate exoplanets in which basal magma oceans

  15. cAMP/PKA/CREB/GLT1 signaling involved in the antidepressant-like effects of phosphodiesterase 4D inhibitor (GEBR-7b) in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xu; Guo, Haibiao; Sayed, Mohammad Daud SOM; Lu, Yang; Yang, Ting; Zhou, Dongsheng; Chen, Zhongming; Wang, Haitao; Wang, Chuang; Xu, Jiangping

    2016-01-01

    Objectives GEBR-7b, a potential phosphodiesterase 4D inhibitor, has been shown to have memory-enhancing effects in rodents. However, it is still unknown whether GEBR-7b also has the antidepressant-like effects in rats. Herein, we examined the potential of GEBR-7b to attenuate depression-like behaviors in the rat model of depression induced by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). Next, we also investigated the alterations of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), protein kinase A (PKA) catalytic subunit (PKAca), cAMP response element-binding (CREB), and glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1) levels produced by GEBR-7b in the rats model of depression. Methods Effects of GEBR-7b on CUS (35 days)-induced depression-like behaviors were examined by measuring immobility time in the forced swimming test (FST). Hippocampal cAMP levels were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas PKAca, phosphorylation of CREB (pCREB), CREB, and GLT1 in the hippocampus of rats were subjected to Western blot analysis. Results CUS exposure caused a depression-like behavior evidenced by the increased immobility time in FST. Depression-like behavior induced by CUS was accompanied by a significant increased GLT, decreased cAMP, PKAca, pCREB activities in hippocampus. However, repeated GEBR-7b administration significantly reversed CUS-induced depression-like behavior and changes of cAMP/PKA/CREB/GLT1 signaling. No alteration was observed in locomotor activity in open field test. Conclusion These findings indicate that GEBR-7b reversed the depression-like behaviors induced by CUS in rats, which is at least in part mediated by modulating cAMP, PKAca, pCREB, and GLT1 levels in the hippocampus of rats, supporting its neuroprotective potential against behavioral and biochemical dysfunctions induced by CUS. PMID:26855578

  16. The connectome of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Oliver; Eipert, Peter; Kettlitz, Richard; Leßmann, Felix; Wree, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The basal ganglia of the laboratory rat consist of a few core regions that are specifically interconnected by efferents and afferents of the central nervous system. In nearly 800 reports of tract-tracing investigations the connectivity of the basal ganglia is documented. The readout of connectivity data and the collation of all the connections of these reports in a database allows to generate a connectome. The collation, curation and analysis of such a huge amount of connectivity data is a great challenge and has not been performed before (Bohland et al. PloS One 4:e7200, 2009) in large connectomics projects based on meta-analysis of tract-tracing studies. Here, the basal ganglia connectome of the rat has been generated and analyzed using the consistent cross-platform and generic framework neuroVIISAS. Several advances of this connectome meta-study have been made: the collation of laterality data, the network-analysis of connectivity strengths and the assignment of regions to a hierarchically organized terminology. The basal ganglia connectome offers differences in contralateral connectivity of motoric regions in contrast to other regions. A modularity analysis of the weighted and directed connectome produced a specific grouping of regions. This result indicates a correlation of structural and functional subsystems. As a new finding, significant reciprocal connections of specific network motifs in this connectome were detected. All three principal basal ganglia pathways (direct, indirect, hyperdirect) could be determined in the connectome. By identifying these pathways it was found that there exist many further equivalent pathways possessing the same length and mean connectivity weight as the principal pathways. Based on the connectome data it is unknown why an excitation pattern may prefer principal rather than other equivalent pathways. In addition to these new findings the local graph-theoretical features of regions of the connectome have been determined. By

  17. Basal ganglia germinoma with progressive cerebral hemiatrophy.

    PubMed

    Liu, E; Robertson, R L; du Plessis, A; Pomeroy, S L

    1999-04-01

    The authors describe a 7-year-old Chinese-American female with a germinoma of the basal ganglia who presented with progressive hemiparesis and cerebral hemiatrophy. The additional finding of markedly elevated antiphospholipid antibodies suggests the possibility of an autoimmune pathogenesis for the progressive cerebral atrophy, as well as the later development of cognitive decline, tics, and obsessive-compulsive behaviors. PMID:10328283

  18. Basal Ganglia Germinoma in an Adult.

    PubMed

    Vialatte de Pémille, Clément; Bielle, Franck; Mokhtari, Karima; Kerboua, Esma; Alapetite, Claire; Idbaih, Ahmed

    2016-08-01

    Intracranial germinoma is a rare primary brain cancer, usually located within the midline and mainly affecting Asian pediatric patients. Interestingly, we report here the peculiar case of a young North-African adult patient suffering from a basal ganglia germinoma without the classical ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy associated with this location. PMID:27241091

  19. Reward functions of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-07-01

    Besides their fundamental movement function evidenced by Parkinsonian deficits, the basal ganglia are involved in processing closely linked non-motor, cognitive and reward information. This review describes the reward functions of three brain structures that are major components of the basal ganglia or are closely associated with the basal ganglia, namely midbrain dopamine neurons, pedunculopontine nucleus, and striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen, nucleus accumbens). Rewards are involved in learning (positive reinforcement), approach behavior, economic choices and positive emotions. The response of dopamine neurons to rewards consists of an early detection component and a subsequent reward component that reflects a prediction error in economic utility, but is unrelated to movement. Dopamine activations to non-rewarded or aversive stimuli reflect physical impact, but not punishment. Neurons in pedunculopontine nucleus project their axons to dopamine neurons and process sensory stimuli, movements and rewards and reward-predicting stimuli without coding outright reward prediction errors. Neurons in striatum, besides their pronounced movement relationships, process rewards irrespective of sensory and motor aspects, integrate reward information into movement activity, code the reward value of individual actions, change their reward-related activity during learning, and code own reward in social situations depending on whose action produces the reward. These data demonstrate a variety of well-characterized reward processes in specific basal ganglia nuclei consistent with an important function in non-motor aspects of motivated behavior. PMID:26838982

  20. How Basal Reading Texts Affect Children's Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckhoff, Barbara L.

    A study investigated how children's writing reflects the syntactic complexity, style, and format of their basal readers. Subjects were 116 students drawn from 10 second, third, and fourth grade classrooms in two different schools located near Boston, Massachusetts. A matched group design was used, and students using a form of the "Ginn" basal…

  1. TEMPORAL VARIABILITY IN BASAL ISOPRENE EMISSION FACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal variability in basal isoprene emission factor (micrograms C /g hr or nmol/ m2 sec, leaf temperature at 30 degrees C and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 1000 micromol/ m2 sec) was studied during the 1998 growing season at Duke Forest in the North Carolina Pie...

  2. Enhancing Basal Vocabulary Instruction in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenfest, Ashleigh; Reed, Deborah K.

    2015-01-01

    To enhance the basal vocabulary instruction for kindergarten students at risk for reading difficulties, lessons provided in typical curricular materials can be supplemented with instructional elements derived from research. This article addresses how teachers can add 15 minutes of higher order instructional activities to daily reading lessons to…

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphism near CREB1, rs7591784, is associated with pretreatment methamphetamine use frequency and outcome of outpatient treatment for methamphetamine use disorder.

    PubMed

    Heinzerling, Keith G; Demirdjian, Levon; Wu, Yingnian; Shoptaw, Steven

    2016-03-01

    Although stimulant dependence is highly heritable, few studies have examined genetic influences on methamphetamine dependence. We performed a candidate gene study of 52 SNPs and pretreatment methamphetamine use frequency among 263 methamphetamine dependent Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White participants of several methamphetamine outpatient clinical trials in Los Angeles. One SNP, rs7591784 was significantly associated with pretreatment methamphetamine use frequency following Bonferroni correction (p < 0.001) in males but not females. We then examined rs7591784 and methamphetamine urine drug screen results during 12 weeks of outpatient treatment among males with treatment outcome data available (N = 94) and found rs7591784 was significantly associated with methamphetamine use during treatment controlling for pretreatment methamphetamine use. rs7591784 is near CREB1 and in a linkage disequilibrium block with rs2952768, previously shown to influence CREB1 expression. The CREB signaling pathway is involved in gene expression changes related to chronic use of multiple drugs of abuse including methamphetamine and these results suggest that variability in CREB signaling may influence pretreatment frequency of methamphetamine use as well as outcomes of outpatient treatment. Medications targeting the CREB pathway, including phosphodiesterase inhibitors, warrant investigation as pharmacotherapies for methamphetamine use disorders. PMID:26736037

  4. Conantokins inhibit NMDAR-dependent calcium influx in developing rat hippocampal neurons in primary culture with resulting effects on CREB phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Luoxiu; Balsara, Rashna D.; Sheng, Zhenyu; Castellino, Francis J.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of conantokin (con)-G, con-R[1-17], and con-T on ion flow through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) ion channels were determined in cultured primary rat hippocampal neurons. The potency of con-G diminished, whereas inhibition by con-R[1-17] and con-T did not change, as the neurons matured. Con-G, con-R[1-17], and con-T effectively diminished NMDA-induced Ca2+ influx into the cells. A similar age-dependent decrease in con-G-mediated inhibition of the amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) was observed, compared to con-R[1-17] and con-T. The effects of the conantokins on NMDA-induced cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in immature (DIV 9) and mature (DIV 16) neurons showed that, at DIV 9, con-G, con-R[1-17], and con-T inhibited NMDA-mediated P-CREB levels, whereas in DIV 16 neurons the conantokins did not inhibit overall levels of NMDA-induced P-CREB. In contrast, P-CREB levels were enhanced through inhibition of the protein phosphatases, PP1 and PP2B (calcineurin). This ability of conantokins to sustain CREB phosphorylation can thus enhance neuronal survival and plasticity. PMID:20600930

  5. CREB antisense oligodeoxynucleotide administration into the dorsal hippocampal CA3 region impairs long- but not short-term spatial memory in mice

    PubMed Central

    Florian, Cédrick; Mons, Nicole; Roullet, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    The transcription factor cAMP response-element binding protein (CREB) has a pivotal role in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent long-term memory. We recently demonstrated that the dorsal hippocampal CA3 region is involved in memory consolidation of spatial information tested on a Morris water maze in mice. To test whether activation of CREB in the CA3 region is required for memory consolidation of spatial information, bilaterally cannulated mice were infused 18 h before the beginning of the behavioral training with antisense or control sense CREB oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) or buffer. Mice were then subjected to massed training in a spatial version of the water maze and tested for retention 0 or 24 h after the last training session. We showed that CREB antisense ODN-infusion in the CA3 region impaired long-term memory when tested 24 h later but had no effect on spatial acquisition or short-term memory tested immediately after behavioral training. These findings provide evidence that the regionally restricted activation of CREB in the dorsal hippocampal CA3 region is critical for the long-term memory consolidation phase of spatial learning but not for short-term memory. PMID:16882863

  6. Neurotrophin-mediated degradation of histone methyltransferase by S-nitrosylation cascade regulates neuronal differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Nilkantha; Snyder, Solomon H.

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of histones mediates neurotrophin actions with histone acetylation enhancing cAMP response element-binding (CREB)-associated transcription elicited by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve-growth factor (NGF). Roles for histone methylation in CREB's transcriptional activity have not been well characterized. We show that depletion of the histone methyltransferase suppressor of variegation 3–9 homolog 1 (SUV39H1) selectively augments BDNF- and NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth. SUV39H1 is the principal enzyme responsible for trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 9, a molecular mark associated with transcriptional silencing. BDNF and NGF act via a signaling cascade wherein degradation of SUV39H1 down-regulates trimethylation of H3K9 in a nitric oxide-dependent pathway. BDNF activates neuronal NOS with the nitrosylated GAPDH/seven in absentia (Siah) homolog complex translocating to the nucleus. Degradation of SUV39H1 by Siah facilitates histone H3 on lysine 9 acetylation, CREB binding to DNA, enhanced expression of CREB-regulated genes and neurite outgrowth. PMID:22123949

  7. Metabolic Flux Analysis of Escherichia coli creB and arcA Mutants Reveals Shared Control of Carbon Catabolism under Microaerobic Growth Conditions▿

    PubMed Central

    Nikel, Pablo I.; Zhu, Jiangfeng; San, Ka-Yiu; Méndez, Beatriz S.; Bennett, George N.

    2009-01-01

    Escherichia coli has several elaborate sensing mechanisms for response to availability of oxygen and other electron acceptors, as well as the carbon source in the surrounding environment. Among them, the CreBC and ArcAB two-component signal transduction systems are responsible for regulation of carbon source utilization and redox control in response to oxygen availability, respectively. We assessed the role of CreBC and ArcAB in regulating the central carbon metabolism of E. coli under microaerobic conditions by means of 13C-labeling experiments in chemostat cultures of a wild-type strain, ΔcreB and ΔarcA single mutants, and a ΔcreB ΔarcA double mutant. Continuous cultures were conducted at D = 0.1 h−1 under carbon-limited conditions with restricted oxygen supply. Although all experimental strains metabolized glucose mainly through the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway, mutant strains had significantly lower fluxes in both the oxidative and the nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathways. Significant differences were also found at the pyruvate branching point. Both pyruvate-formate lyase and the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex contributed to acetyl-coenzyme A synthesis from pyruvate, and their activity seemed to be modulated by both ArcAB and CreBC. Strains carrying the creB deletion showed a higher biomass yield on glucose compared to the wild-type strain and its ΔarcA derivative, which also correlated with higher fluxes from building blocks to biomass. Glyoxylate shunt and lactate dehydrogenase were active mainly in the ΔarcA strain. Finally, it was observed that the tricarboxylic acid cycle reactions operated in a rather cyclic fashion under our experimental conditions, with reduced activity in the mutant strains. PMID:19561129

  8. Enrichment of Conserved Synaptic Activity-Responsive Element in Neuronal Genes Predicts a Coordinated Response of MEF2, CREB and SRF

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Tornos, Fernanda M.; San Aniceto, Iñigo; Cubelos, Beatriz; Nieto, Marta

    2013-01-01

    A unique synaptic activity-responsive element (SARE) sequence, composed of the consensus binding sites for SRF, MEF2 and CREB, is necessary for control of transcriptional upregulation of the Arc gene in response to synaptic activity. We hypothesize that this sequence is a broad mechanism that regulates gene expression in response to synaptic activation and during plasticity; and that analysis of SARE-containing genes could identify molecular mechanisms involved in brain disorders. To search for conserved SARE sequences in the mammalian genome, we used the SynoR in silico tool, and found the SARE cluster predominantly in the regulatory regions of genes expressed specifically in the nervous system; most were related to neural development and homeostatic maintenance. Two of these SARE sequences were tested in luciferase assays and proved to promote transcription in response to neuronal activation. Supporting the predictive capacity of our candidate list, up-regulation of several SARE containing genes in response to neuronal activity was validated using external data and also experimentally using primary cortical neurons and quantitative real time RT-PCR. The list of SARE-containing genes includes several linked to mental retardation and cognitive disorders, and is significantly enriched in genes that encode mRNA targeted by FMRP (fragile X mental retardation protein). Our study thus supports the idea that SARE sequences are relevant transcriptional regulatory elements that participate in plasticity. In addition, it offers a comprehensive view of how activity-responsive transcription factors coordinate their actions and increase the selectivity of their targets. Our data suggest that analysis of SARE-containing genes will reveal yet-undescribed pathways of synaptic plasticity and additional candidate genes disrupted in mental disease. PMID:23382855

  9. Sequential development of apical-basal and planar polarities in aggregating epitheliomuscular cells of Hydra.

    PubMed

    Seybold, Anna; Salvenmoser, Willi; Hobmayer, Bert

    2016-04-01

    Apical-basal and planar cell polarities are hallmarks of metazoan epithelia required to separate internal and external environments and to regulate trans- and intracellular transport, cytoskeletal organization, and morphogenesis. Mechanisms of cell polarization have been intensively studied in bilaterian model organisms, particularly in early embryos and cultured cells, while cell polarity in pre-bilaterian tissues is poorly understood. Here, we have studied apical-basal and planar polarization in regenerating (aggregating) clusters of epitheliomuscular cells of Hydra, a simple representative of the ancestral, pre-bilaterian phylum Cnidaria. Immediately after dissociation, single epitheliomuscular cells do not exhibit cellular polarity, but they polarize de novo during aggregation. Reestablishment of the Hydra-specific epithelial bilayer is a result of short-range cell sorting. In the early phase of aggregation, apical-basal polarization starts with an enlargement of the epithelial apical-basal diameter and by the development of belt-like apical septate junctions. Specification of the basal pole of epithelial cells occurs shortly later and is linked to synthesis of mesoglea, development of hemidesmosome-like junctions, and formation of desmosome-like junctions connecting the basal myonemes of neighbouring cells. Planar polarization starts, while apical-basal polarization is already ongoing. It is executed gradually starting with cell-autonomous formation, parallelization, and condensation of myonemes at the basal end of each epithelial cell and continuing with a final planar alignment of epitheliomuscular cells at the tissue level. Our findings reveal that epithelial polarization in Hydra aggregates occurs in defined steps well accessible by histological and ultrastructural techniques and they will provide a basis for future molecular studies. PMID:26921448

  10. The CREB-binding protein inhibitor ICG-001 suppresses pancreatic cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Arensman, Michael D; Telesca, Donatello; Lay, Anna R; Kershaw, Kathleen M; Wu, Nanping; Donahue, Timothy R; Dawson, David W

    2014-10-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly lethal cancer due in part to a lack of highly robust cytotoxic or molecular-based therapies. Recent studies investigating ligand-mediated Wnt/β-catenin signaling have highlighted its importance in pancreatic cancer initiation and progression, as well as its potential as a therapeutic target in PDAC. The small-molecule ICG-001 binds cAMP-responsive element binding (CREB)-binding protein (CBP) to disrupt its interaction with β-catenin and inhibit CBP function as a coactivator of Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcription. Given its ability to inhibit Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcription in vitro and in vivo, as well as its efficacy in preclinical models of colorectal cancer and other Wnt-driven diseases, we examined ICG-001 and its potential role as a therapeutic in PDAC. ICG-001 alone significantly inhibited anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of multiple PDAC lines, and augmented in vitro growth inhibition when used in combination with gemcitabine. ICG-001 had only variable modest effects on PDAC apoptosis and instead mediated PDAC growth inhibition primarily through robust induction of G₁ cell-cycle arrest. These effects, however, seemed decoupled from its inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcription. DNA microarrays performed on PDAC cells in the context of ICG-001 treatment revealed ICG-001 altered the expression of several genes with well-established roles in DNA replication and cell-cycle progression, including direct actions on SKP2 and CDKN1A. ICG-001 also significantly prolonged survival in an in vivo orthotopic xenograft model of PDAC, indicating ICG-001 or derived compounds that disrupt CBP activity are potentially useful small-molecule therapeutics for pancreatic cancer. PMID:25082960

  11. The evolution of basal progenitors in the developing non-mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Tadashi; Ohtaka-Maruyama, Chiaki; Yamashita, Wataru; Wakamatsu, Yoshio; Murakami, Yasunori; Calegari, Federico; Suzuki, Kunihiro; Gotoh, Hitoshi; Ono, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The amplification of distinct neural stem/progenitor cell subtypes during embryogenesis is essential for the intricate brain structures present in various vertebrate species. For example, in both mammals and birds, proliferative neuronal progenitors transiently appear on the basal side of the ventricular zone of the telencephalon (basal progenitors), where they contribute to the enlargement of the neocortex and its homologous structures. In placental mammals, this proliferative cell population can be subdivided into several groups that include Tbr2(+) intermediate progenitors and basal radial glial cells (bRGs). Here, we report that basal progenitors in the developing avian pallium show unique morphological and molecular characteristics that resemble the characteristics of bRGs, a progenitor population that is abundant in gyrencephalic mammalian neocortex. Manipulation of LGN (Leu-Gly-Asn repeat-enriched protein) and Cdk4/cyclin D1, both essential regulators of neural progenitor dynamics, revealed that basal progenitors and Tbr2(+) cells are distinct cell lineages in the developing avian telencephalon. Furthermore, we identified a small population of subapical mitotic cells in the developing brains of a wide variety of amniotes and amphibians. Our results suggest that unique progenitor subtypes are amplified in mammalian and avian lineages by modifying common mechanisms of neural stem/progenitor regulation during amniote brain evolution. PMID:26732839

  12. Two appendages homologous between basal bodies and centrioles are formed using distinct Odf2 domains

    PubMed Central

    Tateishi, Kazuhiro; Yamazaki, Yuji; Nishida, Tomoki; Watanabe, Shin; Kunimoto, Koshi; Ishikawa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Ciliogenesis is regulated by context-dependent cellular cues, including some transduced through appendage-like structures on ciliary basal bodies called transition fibers and basal feet. However, the molecular basis for this regulation is not fully understood. The Odf2 gene product, ODF2/cenexin, is essential for both ciliogenesis and the formation of the distal and subdistal appendages on centrioles, which become basal bodies. We examined the effects of Odf2 deletion constructs on ciliogenesis in Odf2-knockout F9 cells. Electron microscopy revealed that ciliogenesis and transition fiber formation required the ODF2/cenexin fragment containing amino acids (aa) 188–806, whereas basal foot formation required aa 1–59 and 188–806. These sequences also formed distal and subdistal appendages, respectively, indicating that the centriole appendages are molecularly analogous to those on basal bodies. We used the differential formation of appendages by Odf2 deletion constructs to study the incorporation and function of molecules associated with each appendage type. We found that transition fibers and distal appendages were required for ciliogenesis and subdistal appendages stabilized the centrosomal microtubules. PMID:24189274

  13. The evolution of basal progenitors in the developing non-mammalian brain

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Tadashi; Ohtaka-Maruyama, Chiaki; Yamashita, Wataru; Wakamatsu, Yoshio; Murakami, Yasunori; Calegari, Federico; Suzuki, Kunihiro; Gotoh, Hitoshi; Ono, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The amplification of distinct neural stem/progenitor cell subtypes during embryogenesis is essential for the intricate brain structures present in various vertebrate species. For example, in both mammals and birds, proliferative neuronal progenitors transiently appear on the basal side of the ventricular zone of the telencephalon (basal progenitors), where they contribute to the enlargement of the neocortex and its homologous structures. In placental mammals, this proliferative cell population can be subdivided into several groups that include Tbr2+ intermediate progenitors and basal radial glial cells (bRGs). Here, we report that basal progenitors in the developing avian pallium show unique morphological and molecular characteristics that resemble the characteristics of bRGs, a progenitor population that is abundant in gyrencephalic mammalian neocortex. Manipulation of LGN (Leu-Gly-Asn repeat-enriched protein) and Cdk4/cyclin D1, both essential regulators of neural progenitor dynamics, revealed that basal progenitors and Tbr2+ cells are distinct cell lineages in the developing avian telencephalon. Furthermore, we identified a small population of subapical mitotic cells in the developing brains of a wide variety of amniotes and amphibians. Our results suggest that unique progenitor subtypes are amplified in mammalian and avian lineages by modifying common mechanisms of neural stem/progenitor regulation during amniote brain evolution. PMID:26732839

  14. Functional anatomy of thalamus and basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Herrero, María-Trinidad; Barcia, Carlos; Navarro, Juana Mari

    2002-08-01

    THALAMUS: The human thalamus is a nuclear complex located in the diencephalon and comprising of four parts (the hypothalamus, the epythalamus, the ventral thalamus, and the dorsal thalamus). The thalamus is a relay centre subserving both sensory and motor mechanisms. Thalamic nuclei (50-60 nuclei) project to one or a few well-defined cortical areas. Multiple cortical areas receive afferents from a single thalamic nucleus and send back information to different thalamic nuclei. The corticofugal projection provides positive feedback to the "correct" input, while at the same time suppressing irrelevant information. Topographical organisation of the thalamic afferents and efferents is contralateral, and the lateralisation of the thalamic functions affects both sensory and motoric aspects. Symptoms of lesions located in the thalamus are closely related to the function of the areas involved. An infarction or haemorrhage thalamic lesion can develop somatosensory disturbances and/or central pain in the opposite hemibody, analgesic or purely algesic thalamic syndrome characterised by contralateral anaesthesia (or hypaesthesia), contralateral weakness, ataxia and, often, persistent spontaneous pain. BASAL GANGLIA: Basal ganglia form a major centre in the complex extrapyramidal motor system, as opposed to the pyramidal motor system (corticobulbar and corticospinal pathways). Basal ganglia are involved in many neuronal pathways having emotional, motivational, associative and cognitive functions as well. The striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen and nucleus accumbens) receive inputs from all cortical areas and, throughout the thalamus, project principally to frontal lobe areas (prefrontal, premotor and supplementary motor areas) which are concerned with motor planning. These circuits: (i) have an important regulatory influence on cortex, providing information for both automatic and voluntary motor responses to the pyramidal system; (ii) play a role in predicting future events

  15. Bidirectional Plasticity in Striatonigral Synapses: A Switch to Balance Direct and Indirect Basal Ganglia Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aceves, Jose J.; Rueda-Orozco, Pavel E.; Hernandez-Martinez, Ricardo; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, Jose

    2011-01-01

    There is no hypothesis to explain how direct and indirect basal ganglia (BG) pathways interact to reach a balance during the learning of motor procedures. Both pathways converge in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) carrying the result of striatal processing. Unfortunately, the mechanisms that regulate synaptic plasticity in striatonigral…

  16. Different effects of prenatal stress on ERK2/CREB/Bcl-2 expression in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex of adult offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zeen; Sun, Hongli; Gong, Xiaojie; Li, Hui

    2016-05-25

    It has become increasingly evident that p