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Sample records for creek swamp megafauna

  1. The timing and cause of megafauna mass deaths at Lancefield Swamp, south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dortch, Joe; Cupper, Matt; Grün, Rainer; Harpley, Bernice; Lee, Kerrie; Field, Judith

    2016-08-01

    Lancefield Swamp, south-eastern Australia, was one of the earliest sites to provoke interest in Pleistocene faunal extinctions in Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea). The systematic investigation of the deposit in the early 1970s identified megafaunal remains dominated by the 100-200 kg kangaroo Macropus giganteus titan. Associated radiocarbon ages indicated that the species was extant until c.30,000 BP, suggesting significant overlap with human settlement of Sahul. This evidence was inconsistent with contemporary models of rapid human-driven extinctions. Instead, researchers inferred ecological tethering of fauna at Lancefield Swamp due to intense drought precipitated localised mass deaths, consistent with Late Pleistocene climatic variability. Later investigations in another part of the swamp, the Mayne Site, remote to the initial investigations, concluded that mass flow disturbed this area, and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) analyses on megafauna teeth returned wide-ranging ages. To clarify site formation processes and dating of Lancefield Swamp, we excavated new test-pits next to previous trenches in the Classic and Mayne Sites. We compared absolute chronologies for sediments and teeth, sedimentology, palaeo-topography, taphonomy, and macropod age at death across the swamp. Luminescence dating of sediments and ESR analysis of teeth returned ages between c.80,000 and 45,000 years ago. We found no archaeological remains in the bone beds, and evidence of carnivore activity and fluvial action, in the form of reactivated spring flow. The latter disturbed limited parts of the site and substantial areas of the bone beds remained intact. The faunal assemblage is dominated by megafaunal adult Macropus, consistent with mass die-offs due to severe drought. Such droughts appear to have recurred over millennia during the climatic variability of Marine Isotope Stages 4 and 3. These events began tens of millennia before the first appearance of Aboriginal people in Sahul

  2. Results of the 2000 Creek Plantation Swamp Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Fledderman, P.D.

    2000-10-30

    This report is a survey of the Creek Plantation located along the Savannah River and borders the southeast portion of the Savannah River Site. The land is primarily undeveloped and agricultural; its purpose is to engage in equestrian-related operations. A portion of Creek Plantation along the Savannah River is a low-lying swamp, known as the Savannah River Swamp, which is uninhabited and not easily accessible.

  3. HELL HOLE BAY, WAMBAW SWAMP, LITTLE WAMBAW SWAMP, AND WAMBAW CREEK WILDERNESSES, SOUTH CAROLINA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cameron, Cornelia C.; Martin, Clay M.

    1984-01-01

    Four wildernesses, including Hell Hole Bay about 10. 6 sq mi, Wambaw Swamp about 8 sq mi, Little Wambaw Swamp about 4 sq mi, and Wambaw Creek about 2. 5 sq mi, are swamp lands in the Francis Marion National Forest on the lower Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina, about 30 mi northeast of Charleston. A mineral survey of the wildernesses showed that one of the areas, Wambaw Swamp, has a peat resource potential. An estimated 810,000 tons of demonstrated peat resources on the dry basis occurs in an area of substantiated peat resource potential within easy access to a good road network. No mineral or other energy resources were identified in this study.

  4. Water quality study at the Congaree Swamp National monument of Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Rikard, M.

    1991-11-01

    The Congaree Swamp National Monument is one of the last significant near virgin tracts of bottom land hardwood forests in the Southeast United States. The study documents a water quality monitoring program on Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Basic water quality parameters were analyzed. High levels of aluminum and iron were found, and recommendations were made for further monitoring.

  5. The distribution of ichthyoplankton in thermal and non-thermal creeks and swamps on the Savannah River Plant, February-July 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.; Saul, B.M.; Hughes, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    The report deals with the distribution of ichthyoplankton in the Savannah River tributary streams and associated swamps located on the SRP during the 1985 spawning season (February-July). The 1985 sampling program was a continuation of the 1984 program and, except for the addition of seven sampling stations and minor methodological changes, incorporated the same sampling sites and procedures. The streams under study were Upper Three Runs Creek, Beaver Dam Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, Meyer's Branch and Lower Three Runs Creek. The objectives were to determine: (1) the density, distribution and species composition of ichthyoplankton at sample sites in the creeks and swamps of the SRP; (2) how ichthyoplankton in SRP creeks and swamps is distributed in relation to habitat and temperature; (3) the effects of elevated temperatures on ichthyoplankton distribution and abundance and on the time of spawning; and (4) the magnitude of yearly variations in ichthyoplankton abundance in the creeks and swamps of the SRP and the reasons for these variations.

  6. Vegetation change detection in the Savannah River swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, J.R.; Christensen, E.J.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Portions of Pen Branch, Four Mile Creek, Steel Creek, and Beaver Dam Creek deltas in the Savannah River swamp were evaluated for wetlands vegetation change using aircraft multispectral scanner (MSS) data acquired at 2440 meters altitude. Areas of 190 hectares on the Pen Branch, Four Mile Creek, and Beaver Dam Creek deltas, and a 240-hectare portion of Steel Creek delta were registered, classified, and wetlands vegetation change detection categories determined. Pen Branch and Four Mile Creek deltas each lost about 12 hectares of swamp forest from 1981 to 1984. Secondary successional forest regrew on portions of the Four Mile Creek delta (2.4 hectares) and the Beaver Dam Creek delta (15.4 hectares). About 5 hectares of swamp forest regrew on the Steel Creek delta. This may be the first study to detect wetlands vegetation change over several years using aircraft MSS data. One reason could be due to difficulties similar to those encountered in this study. Data distortion from aircraft movement in some areas of the swamp made image-to-image registration difficult. Best results were obtained on Beaver Dam Creek and Steel Creek deltas which had average registration accuracies within one data element, or pixel, of 5.6 x 5.6 meters. Phenological differences and shadows caused difficulties in vegetation-type discrimination and classification. As a result, the number of vegetation change classes were sometimes limited.

  7. LONG SWAMP ROADLESS AREA, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evarts, Russell C.; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    Based on geologic and geochemical surveys the Long Swamp Roadless Area is considered to have a probable resource potential for metallic minerals in three separate areas. An area of hydrothermal alteration west of the Chewack River contains anomalous concentrations of copper, lead, zinc, molybdenum, and silver. Relatively high concentrations of gold and silver along Windy Creek and copper and lead along Basin Creek have been detected in stream sediments. The bedrock sources of these elements have not been located, but are probably rather small. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy and nonmetallic mineral resources in the roadless area.

  8. Subglacial swamps

    PubMed Central

    Kyrke-Smith, T. M.; Fowler, A. C.

    2014-01-01

    The existence of both water and sediment at the bed of ice streams is well documented, but there is a lack of fundamental understanding about the mechanisms of ice, water and sediment interaction. We pose a model to describe subglacial water flow below ice sheets, in the presence of a deformable sediment layer. Water flows in a rough-bedded film; the ice is supported by larger clasts, but there is a millimetric water layer submerging the smaller particles. Partial differential equations describing the water film are derived from a description of the dynamics of ice, water and mobile sediment. We assume that sediment transport is possible, either as fluvial bedload, but more significantly by ice-driven shearing and by internal squeezing. This provides an instability mechanism for rivulet formation; in the model, downstream sediment transport is compensated by lateral squeezing of till towards the incipient streams. We show that the model predicts the formation of shallow, swamp-like streams, with a typical depth of the order of centimetres. The swamps are stable features, typically with a width of the order of tens to hundreds of metres. PMID:25383024

  9. Impoundment and baldcypress swamp management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2006-01-01

    Baldcypress swamps (Taxodium distichum) are impounded for many reasons, but this practice results in the demise of the swamp. The permanent impoundment of baldcypress swamps first lowers primary production and eventually results in death of the trees.

  10. ESR dating of teeth from Brazilian megafauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, L. C.; Kinoshita, A.; Barreto, A. M. F.; Figueiredo, A. M.; Silva, J. L. L.; Baffa, O.

    2010-11-01

    The study of radiation defects created in biomaterials, such as bone and teeth, can be used in dating with importance to palaeontology and archaeology. Two Stegomastodon teeth (AL1 and AL2) from north-eastern Brazilian megafauna were studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The samples were collected in Fazenda Ovo da Ema, (913349 / 3714965) UTM, Alagoas state, Brazil. The dating of these samples can contribute to the better knowledge of megafauna presence in this region as well as to the events associated to the extinction of these species.

  11. Swamp to Space exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The menacing-looking alligator is really harmless. It is one of the realistic props to help convince visitors that the feel of the swamp is real in StenniSphere's Swamp to Space exhibit at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss. The historical section of the Swamp to Space exhibit tells the story of why and how Stennis Space Center came to be. It also pays tribute to the families who moved their homes to make way for the space age in Mississippi.

  12. Goodbye, Viola Swamp!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremer, Hale W.; Kuehmichel, Barbara

    1979-01-01

    A kindergarten teacher stimulated many language experience and dramatic activities when she came to class one day impersonating the crabby teacher Viola Swamp, from the children's story, "Miss Nelson Is Missing!" (SJL)

  13. Georgia: Okefenokee Swamp

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... part of the swamp ecosystem, however, and a number of key plant and animal species within the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge ... NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed ...

  14. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology.

    PubMed

    Hays, Graeme C; Ferreira, Luciana C; Sequeira, Ana M M; Meekan, Mark G; Duarte, Carlos M; Bailey, Helen; Bailleul, Fred; Bowen, W Don; Caley, M Julian; Costa, Daniel P; Eguíluz, Victor M; Fossette, Sabrina; Friedlaender, Ari S; Gales, Nick; Gleiss, Adrian C; Gunn, John; Harcourt, Rob; Hazen, Elliott L; Heithaus, Michael R; Heupel, Michelle; Holland, Kim; Horning, Markus; Jonsen, Ian; Kooyman, Gerald L; Lowe, Christopher G; Madsen, Peter T; Marsh, Helene; Phillips, Richard A; Righton, David; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Sato, Katsufumi; Shaffer, Scott A; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; Sims, David W; Skomal, Gregory; Takahashi, Akinori; Trathan, Philip N; Wikelski, Martin; Womble, Jamie N; Thums, Michele

    2016-06-01

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. PMID:26979550

  15. Steel Creek fish: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.; Heuer, J.H.; Kissick, L.A.

    1988-03-01

    Fish samples were collected from Steel Creek during 1986 and 1987 following the impoundment of the headwaters of the stream to form L-Lake, a cooling reservoir for L-Reactor which began operating late in 1985. Electrofishing and ichthyoplankton sample stations were located throughout the creek. Fykenetting sample stations were located in the creek mouth and just above the Steel Creek swamp. Larval fish and fish eggs were collected with 0.5 m plankton nets. Multivariate analysis of the electrofishing data suggested that the fish assemblages in Steel Creek exhibited structural differences associated with proximity to L-Lake, and habitat gradients of current velocity, depth, and canopy cover. The Steel Creek corridor, a lotic reach beginning at the base of the L-Lake embankment was dominated by stream species and bluegill. The delta/swamp, formed where Steel Creek enters the Savannah River floodplain, was dominated by fishes characteristic of slow flowing waters and heavily vegetated habitats. The large channel draining the swamp supported many of the species found in the swamp plus riverine and anadromous forms.

  16. Pen Branch Delta and Savannah River Swamp Hydraulic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.F.

    1999-05-13

    The proposed Savannah River Site (SRS) Wetlands Restoration Project area is located in Barnwell County, South Carolina on the southwestern boundary of the SRS Reservation. The swamp covers about 40.5 km2 and is bounded to the west and south by the Savannah River and to the north and east by low bluffs at the edge of the Savannah River floodplain. Water levels within the swamp are determined by stage along the Savannah River, local drainage, groundwater seepage, and inflows from four tributaries, Beaver Dam Creek, Fourmile Branch, Pen Branch, and Steel Creek. Historic discharges of heated process water into these tributaries scoured the streambed, created deltas in the adjacent wetland, and killed native vegetation in the vicinity of the delta deposits. Future releases from these tributaries will be substantially smaller and closer to ambient temperatures. One component of the proposed restoration project will be to reestablish indigenous wetland vegetation on the Pen Branch delta that covers about 1.0 km2. Long-term predictions of water levels within the swamp are required to determine the characteristics of suitable plants. The objective of the study was to predict water levels at various locations within the proposed SRS Wetlands Restoration Project area for a range of Savannah River flows and regulated releases from Pen Branch. TABS-MD, a United States Army Corps of Engineer developed two-dimensional finite element open channel hydraulic computer code, was used to model the SRS swamp area for various flow conditions.

  17. Weathering of a petroleum spill in a tropical mangrove swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S.J.; Alexander, R.; Kagi, R.I.

    1996-12-31

    In August 1987, an indeterminate amount of petroleum condensate was released from a buried pipe leading to contamination of a tropical mangrove swamp surrounding a tidal creek in North Western Australia. Since no bioremediation was attempted at this site, we have monitored the natural weathering of the condensate by detailed analysis of the petroleum hydrocarbons extracted from sediment samples collected on 11 occasions over a 3 year period.

  18. Steel Creek zooplankton: L Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Starkel, W.M.; Chimney, M.J.

    1988-03-01

    The objectives of this portion of the Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program were to analyze data on macrozooplankton taxonomy and density in the Steel Creek corridor and swamp/delta, and compare the composition of the post-impoundment macrozooplankton community with pre-impoundment conditions and communities from other stream and swamp systems. The data presented in the report cover the period January 1986 through December 1987. Macrozooplankton samples were collected monthly using an 80 ..mu..m mesh net at Stations 275, 280, and 290 in the Steel Creek corridor and Stations 310, 330, 350, and 370 in the Steel Creek delta/swamp. Macrozooplankton taxa richness was highest at the two Steel Creek corridor stations nearest the L-Lake dam (Stations 275 and 280); mean values were 10.6 and 7.2 taxa collected/month in 1986 vs 12.1 and 12.3 taxa collected/month in 1987. The lowest taxa richness occurred at Steel Creek swamp/delta stations; means ranged from 1.9 to 4.2 taxa collected/month during both years.

  19. Carboniferous coal swamp vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T.L.; Peppers, R.A.; DiMichele, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Carboniferous Period was one of considerable change on the Earth. The volume explores these changes by using plant morphology and paleoecology to develop the relationship between plant evolution and the derived coal sources. Both are interrelated by the regional and stratigraphic trends in paleoecology and paleoclimatology. The book is divided into three sections dealing with geology, plant morphology including palynology, and paleoecology. In Section I, the paleogeography, geologic settings of major coal basins, coal resources, coal-ball origins and occurrences, and the sources of paleobotanical information are presented with biostratigraphic correlations of Europe and the United States. Section II emphasizes plant morphology as form and structure provide the means of identifying plants and, in turn, establishing development, size, habit, reproductive biology, environmental parameters, and evolutionary change. Quantitative abundances and stratigraphic ranges of plants and spores are compared and summarized. Lastly, Section III integrates coal-ball peats and coal-spore floras as complementary sources for the quantitative analyses of coal-swamp vegetation in relation to climate and coal. The local and regional swamp studies are interfaced and basinal geology and depositional interpretations in a stratigraphic succession.

  20. Swamp Works- Multiple Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carelli, Jonathan M.; Schuler, Jason M.; Chandler, Meredith L.

    2013-01-01

    My Surface Systems internship over the summer 2013 session covered a broad range of projects that utilized multiple fields of engineering and technology. This internship included a project to create a command center for a 120 ton regolith bin, for the design and assembly of a blast shield to add further protection for the Surface Systems engineers, for the design and assembly of a portable four monitor hyper wall strip that could extend as large as needed, research and programming a nano drill that could be utilized on a next generation robot or rover, and social media tasks including the making of videos, posting to social networking websites and creation of a new outreach program to help spread the word about the Swamp Works laboratory.

  1. Swamp Works- Multiple Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carelli, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    My Surface Systems internship over the summer 2013 session covered a broad range of projects that ranged multiple aspects and fields of engineering and technology. This internship included a project to create a command center for a 120 ton regolith bin, a design and build for a blast shield to add further protection for the Surface Systems engineers, a design for a portable four monitor hyper wall that can extend as large as needed, research and programming a nano drill for a next generation robot, and social media tasks including the making of videos, posting to social networking websites and implementation of a new weekly outreach program to help spread the word about the Swamp Works laboratory. The objectives for the command center were to create a central computer controlled area for the still in production lunar regolith bin. It needed to be easy to use and the operating systems had to be Linux. The objectives for the hyper wall were to build a mobile transport of monitors that could potentially attach to one another. It needed to be light but sturdy, and have the ability to last. The objectives for the blast shield included a robust design that could withstand a small equipment malfunction, while also being convenient for use. The objectives for the nano-drill included the research and implementation of programming for vertical and horizontal movement. The hyper wall and blasts shield project were designed by me in the Pro/Engineer/Creo2 software. Each project required a meeting with the Swamp Works engineers and was declared successful.

  2. Magruder Park Swamp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotchkiss, N.; Uhler, F.M.

    1967-01-01

    The last Tuesday in August, between five-thirty and seven in the evening, we zigzaged through this glorious jungle, attended by a family of Wood Pewees for whom we seemed to be stirring up a feast of flying insects. There was gentle background music by Mole Crickets. A few steps in from the playing field and we were out of sight in ten-foot-high Cattails. All through, we met -- as high as we, or higher--clumped Cinnamon Ferns, deep-rose Joe Pye Weed, and orange, pendent flowers of Jewelweed (first cousins to Balsam and Sultana). Here and there were soft, white spikes of Canadian Burnet, a rare plant hereabouts, and deep purple Ironweed. Dense-foliaged Hempweed climbed over bushes and up small trees, filling the air with its delicate fragrance. Arrowleaf Tear-thumb snatched at us with tiny prongs on its angled stems. Once in a while we tripped over huge sedge tussocks, half-hidden in the tangle. A few times we steered around a small bush of Poison Sumac. The next day We remembered seeing ninety kinds of plants on this hasty trip. Skunk Cabbage leaves recalled April, when a person, from the edge of the lawn, could see huge clumps of them all the way across the swamp. The sky had been washed by last week's downpours; scattered Gums were reddening; and Maples were getting ready for crimson beauty a month from now. There wasn't a mosquito! (Ed. Note.-The Hyattsville City Council is taking pains to preserve this interesting swamp.)

  3. Baldcypress swamp management and climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2006-01-01

    In the future, climates may become warmer and drier in the southeastern United States; as a result, the range of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) swamps may shrink. Managers of baldcypress swamps at the southern edge of the range may face special challenges in attempting to preserve these swamp habitats in the future if climates become warmer and drier.

  4. Megafauna and ecosystem function from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene

    PubMed Central

    Malhi, Yadvinder; Doughty, Christopher E.; Galetti, Mauro; Smith, Felisa A.; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Terborgh, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Large herbivores and carnivores (the megafauna) have been in a state of decline and extinction since the Late Pleistocene, both on land and more recently in the oceans. Much has been written on the timing and causes of these declines, but only recently has scientific attention focused on the consequences of these declines for ecosystem function. Here, we review progress in our understanding of how megafauna affect ecosystem physical and trophic structure, species composition, biogeochemistry, and climate, drawing on special features of PNAS and Ecography that have been published as a result of an international workshop on this topic held in Oxford in 2014. Insights emerging from this work have consequences for our understanding of changes in biosphere function since the Late Pleistocene and of the functioning of contemporary ecosystems, as well as offering a rationale and framework for scientifically informed restoration of megafaunal function where possible and appropriate. PMID:26811442

  5. Megafauna and ecosystem function from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Malhi, Yadvinder; Doughty, Christopher E; Galetti, Mauro; Smith, Felisa A; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Terborgh, John W

    2016-01-26

    Large herbivores and carnivores (the megafauna) have been in a state of decline and extinction since the Late Pleistocene, both on land and more recently in the oceans. Much has been written on the timing and causes of these declines, but only recently has scientific attention focused on the consequences of these declines for ecosystem function. Here, we review progress in our understanding of how megafauna affect ecosystem physical and trophic structure, species composition, biogeochemistry, and climate, drawing on special features of PNAS and Ecography that have been published as a result of an international workshop on this topic held in Oxford in 2014. Insights emerging from this work have consequences for our understanding of changes in biosphere function since the Late Pleistocene and of the functioning of contemporary ecosystems, as well as offering a rationale and framework for scientifically informed restoration of megafaunal function where possible and appropriate. PMID:26811442

  6. Ecological consequences of Late Quaternary extinctions of megafauna

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C.N.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Large herbivorous vertebrates have strong interactions with vegetation, affecting the structure, composition and dynamics of plant communities in many ways. Living large herbivores are a small remnant of the assemblages of giants that existed in most terrestrial ecosystems 50 000 years ago. The extinction of so many large herbivores may well have triggered large changes in plant communities. In several parts of the world, palaeoecological studies suggest that extinct megafauna once maintained vegetation openness, and in wooded landscapes created mosaics of different structural types of vegetation with high habitat and species diversity. Following megafaunal extinction, these habitats reverted to more dense and uniform formations. Megafaunal extinction also led to changes in fire regimes and increased fire frequency due to accumulation of uncropped plant material, but there is a great deal of variation in post-extinction changes in fire. Plant communities that once interacted with extinct large herbivores still contain many species with obsolete defences against browsing and non-functional adaptations for seed dispersal. Such plants may be in decline, and, as a result, many plant communities may be in various stages of a process of relaxation from megafauna-conditioned to megafauna-naive states. Understanding the past role of giant herbivores provides fundamental insight into the history, dynamics and conservation of contemporary plant communities. PMID:19324773

  7. Preservation of daily tidal cycles and stacked alluvial swamp deposits: Depositional response to early compaction of buried peat bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Demko, T.M.; Gastaldo, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The character of the clastic depositional environments represented in the lower Mary Lee coal zone of the Pennsylvanian Pottsville Formation in the Warrior basin Alabama (tidally influenced mud flats and alluvial swamps) was controlled by the compaction of buried peat bodies. The lowest mineable coal in the Mary Lee coal zone, the Jagger, is overlain by laminated shale and sandstone exhibiting pronounced cycle bedding. This bedding records daily tidal cyclicity in the form of sand-mud couplets. These correspond to flood-current deposition of the coarser fraction followed by fallout of the finer grained fraction during ensuing slack-water periods. These couplets are cyclically bundled-sandier bundles corresponding to spring tides and muddier bundles to neap tides (lamination counts suggest a 24-30-day cycle). The clastic sequence above the overlying Blue Creek coal is characterized by a series of stacked alluvial swamp horizons. These can be identified by autochthonous fossil plants and pedological features indicative of gleyed paleosols. Catastrophic flooding buried and preserved these horizons. The rapid, early compaction of the buried Jagger and Blue Creek peat bodies created accommodation space that allowed both the preservation of tidalites in the Jagger coal to Blue Creek coal interval and the stacking of alluvial swamp paleosols above the Blue Creek seam. Carboniferous peats were comprised of highly compressible plant parts and hence, were sensitive to sediment loading. Once the peat bodies had compressed to a certain extent, stability of the overlying sediment surface created conditions amenable to resumption of peat accumulation.

  8. Miscellaneous pocosin peat deposits of North Carolina: Gull Rock; Van Swamp; Bay City - Gum Swamp. Open-grounds pocos in Hofmann Forest; Angola Swamp; Holly Shelter; Green Swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, R.L.; Otte, L.J.; Witner, T.W.

    1983-06-01

    In earlier reports the coastal swamp or pocosin peat deposits of Dismal Swamp, Pamlimarle Peninsula, Croatan Forest, and Light Ground Pocosin were described (Ingram and Otte, 1980, 1981a, 1981b, and 1982). This report describes the remaining coastal swamp or pocosin deposits of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Total peat resources of these remaining deposits are: (1) Gull Rock - 8100 acres, 4.6 million tons, moisture free, (2) Van Swamp - 6600 acres, 5.8 million tons, (3) Bay City - Gum Swamp - 12,3000 acres, 5.9 million tons, (4) Open Grounds - 11,000 acres, 6.3 million tons, (5) Hofmann Forest - 5200 acres, 4.2 million tons, (6) Angola Swamp - 21,900 acres, 15.2 million tons, (7) Holly Shelter - 9200 acres, 6.7 million tons, and (8) Green Swamp - 16,400 acres, 10.3 million tons. A revised estimation of the total peat resources of North Carolina is 700,000 acres (1100 sq mi) of peatland with 500 million tons of peat. Of this total, 290,000 acres (460 sq mi) is underlain by peat greater than 4 ft thick with 330 million tons of peat.

  9. Role of leaf litter nitrogen immobilization in the nitrogen budget of a swamp stream

    SciTech Connect

    Qualls, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Attempts were made to determine if immobilization-mobilization of N in the litter layer is of a sufficient magnitude to affect the concentrations of inorganic N in the overlying water, and to determine the effect of concentrations of dissolved nutrients and hydroperiod on litter decomposition, N uptake, and N release by litter. The study was conducted in two blackwater stream swamps in North Carolina: Creeping Swamp (CR) and Chicod Creek (CH). With the low levels of dissolved nutrients in CR, there was little difference in litter decomposition rate along elevation gradients. Decomposition was faster at the inundated sites in CH and the faster decomposition was associated with nutrient enrichment. Exogenous N immobilized in litter reached higher levels in the enriched swamp CH. Despite faster decomposition in CH, no substantial mineralization of litter N had occurred prior to June. A budget of litter N and dissolved inorganic N inflow showed that immobilization by flooded litter over 1 linear km of CR during the sampling period was 87 kg, equivalent to about 25% of the inorganic N inflow. This proportion shows that litter can play a significant role in controlling N concentration in stream water in small swamp streams. 24 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  10. Seasonal and diel patterns of larval fish drift in a western South Carolina swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Kissick, L.A.; Paller, M.H.; Heuer, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Fish larvae were collected weekly during 1986-1987 from the lower 3 km of Steel Creek (Barnwell County), a riverine swamp, to assess reproduction in this rarely studied habitat type. In 1987, larvae appeared in the following order and abundance (as a percentage of the total diural density): blackbanded darter Percina nigromaculatus (3%) and other darters Etheostoma spp. (32%); pirate perch Aphredoderus sayanus (NA); pygmy sunfish Elassoma spp. (7%); chubsuckers Erimyson spp. (13%); bluespotted sunfish Enneacanthus gloriosus (16%); bluegill Lepomis macrochirus (1%), redbreast sunfish L. auritus (<1%), brook silverside Labidesthes sicculus (6%) and ironcolor shiner Notropis chalybaeus (8%); warmouth L. gulosus (8%); spotted sunfish L. punctatus (NA). Unidentified cyprinids (2%), centrarchids (2%) and miscellaneous species (3%) were collected throughout the study period. Monthly diel collections showed that drift densities of chubsuckers, cyprinids, Etheostoma spp., bluegill and pygmy sunfish increased 41 to 160X after sundown; pirate perch and spotted sunfish were collected only at night. Swamp densities peaked during 2000-0159 h (111.5 per 100m), whereas densities in the channel that drained the swamp into the Savannah River peaked during 0200-0759 h (38.7). The later peak in the channel was attributed to larvae that had drifted from the swamp and were essentially lost from the system. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Megafauna biomass tradeoff as a driver of Quaternary and future extinctions

    PubMed Central

    Barnosky, Anthony D.

    2008-01-01

    Earth's most recent major extinction episode, the Quaternary Megafauna Extinction, claimed two-thirds of mammal genera and one-half of species that weighed >44 kg between ≈50,000 and 3,000 years ago. Estimates of megafauna biomass (including humans as a megafauna species) for before, during, and after the extinction episode suggest that growth of human biomass largely matched the loss of non-human megafauna biomass until ≈12,000 years ago. Then, total megafauna biomass crashed, because many non-human megafauna species suddenly disappeared, whereas human biomass continued to rise. After the crash, the global ecosystem gradually recovered into a new state where megafauna biomass was concentrated around one species, humans, instead of being distributed across many species. Precrash biomass levels were finally reached just before the Industrial Revolution began, then skyrocketed above the precrash baseline as humans augmented the energy available to the global ecosystem by mining fossil fuels. Implications include (i) an increase in human biomass (with attendant hunting and other impacts) intersected with climate change to cause the Quaternary Megafauna Extinction and an ecological threshold event, after which humans became dominant in the global ecosystem; (ii) with continued growth of human biomass and today's unprecedented global warming, only extraordinary and stepped-up conservation efforts will prevent a new round of extinctions in most body-size and taxonomic spectra; and (iii) a near-future biomass crash that will unfavorably impact humans and their domesticates and other species is unavoidable unless alternative energy sources are developed to replace dwindling supplies of fossil fuels. PMID:18695222

  12. Kennedy Space Center: Swamp Works

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeFilippo, Anthony Robert

    2013-01-01

    When I began my internship with the Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations laboratory (GMRO), also known as Swamp Works, I was given the unique opportunity to shadow many teams working on various projects, and decide what projects I wanted to take part in. Before I go into details of my experiences at Swamp Works, I would like to take a moment to explain what I discovered Swamp Works to be. Swamp Works is a family of hardworking, dedicated, and driven people from various backgrounds and skill sets. These people all work to advance technologies and make science fiction science fact through means of rapid prototyping. They support and encourage failure as an option when learning new things, as long as lesson learned from said failure. In fact, their motto states "Fail, Fast, Forward." What this means is, not if but when one fails he or she must do so quickly and spring forward from the failure so that his or her progress is not delayed. With this acceptance, it provided me the confidence to dive into a multitude of projects working in various fields and with a wide range of skill sets. The first project I joined was Badger. My motivation for taking on this project was the opportunity I would have to obtain valuable experience working with 3D modeling and 3D printing technologies. Badger was a digging apparatus to be used in a highly dusty environment in a material known as Regolith. Regolith is a scientific term for the dirt or top soil found on planetary bodies. Regolith contains a large quantity of sediments less than lOppm and as a result poses a challenge of keeping it out of any cracks and crevices. Furthermore, regolith can create high levels of electrostatic energy, which can prove damaging to sensitive electrical hardware. With these characteristics in mind, I decided to take on the task of designing and manufacturing a dust proof cover for the sensitive electrical hardware. When I began this project, I did not have the slightest idea as to how to use 3D

  13. 12. LOCK GATES AT THE SWAMP LOCKS, SEPARATING THE UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. LOCK GATES AT THE SWAMP LOCKS, SEPARATING THE UPPER AND LOWER LOCK CHAMBERS, SHOWING PADDLE VALVES, LOOKING WEST: 1976 - Pawtucket Canal, Swamp Locks, Pawtucket & Merrimack Canals, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  14. Aspects of organic matter transport and processing within Savannah River Plant streams and the Savannah River flood plain swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Hauer, F.R.

    1985-06-01

    The studies were directed toward understanding; (1) the transport dynamics, storage, and retention of organic matter, (2) the processing of leaf material that enters the streams and swamp habitats of the SRP, and (3) how these factors are influenced by current or previous reactor operations at the SRP. Suspended particulate organic matter, benthic organic matter, and in-stream wood were investigated along selected reaches of Steel Creek from April 1983 to April 1984. Concentrations of organic seston ranged from 0.4 to 5.7 mg l/sup -1/. Steel Creek transported significantly higher concentrations of particulate organic matter than did either Meyers Branch or the waters at the swamp site. Seston and dissolved organic matter were investigated on Four Mile Creek, a thermal stream on the SRP, within three different reactor cycles; reactor not operating (cold flow), reactor operating in early portion of cycle (early hot flow), and reactor operating in late portion of cycle (late hot flow). Significantly higher concentrations of particulate organic matter were transported at all study sites during hot flow than during cold flow. Particulate organic matter and dissolved organic matter concentrations were investigated at twelve sampling sites to quantify input and output dynamics of organic matter to the flood plain swamp. Samples were taken biweekly from February 1983 to March 1984. Dissolved organic matter concentrations ranged from 1.3 to 9.9 mg l/sup -1/ and particulate organic matter concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 5.1 mg l/sup -1/. Leaf decomposition of three bottomland tree species was studied at six stream and four swamp sites under various temperature regimes.

  15. A Creek to Bay Biological Assessment in Oakland, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, E.; Ramirez, N.; Lopez, A.; Avila, M.; Ramirez, J.; Arroyo, D.; Bracho, H.; Casanova, A.; Pierson, E.

    2011-12-01

    In 2007, the Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program (SWAMP) assessed the impact of trash on water quality in the Peralta Creek which is located in the Fruitvale district of Oakland, CA. This 2011 follow-up study will take further steps in evaluating the physical and biological impacts of pollution and human development on Peralta Creek and in the San Leandro Bay, where the Creek empties into the larger San Francisco Bay estuary. This study will utilize two forms of biological assessment in order to determine the level of water quality and ecosystem health of Peralta Creek and San Leandro Bay in Oakland, California. A Rapid Bioassesment Protocal (RBP) will be used as the method of biological assessment for Peralta Creek. RBP uses a biotic index of benthic macroinvertebrates to provide a measure of a water body's health. Larval trematodes found in two mud snails (Ilynassa obsoleta and Cerithidea californica) will be used to evaluate the health of the San Leandro Bay. Due to the complex life cycle of trematodes, the measure of trematode diversity and richness in host species serves as an indicator of estuarine health (Huspeni 2005). We have completed the assessment of one section of Peralta Creek, located at 2465 34th Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601. Abundance results indicate a moderately healthy creek because there were high levels of pollution tolerant benthic macroinvertebrates. The tolerant group of benthic macroinvertebrates includes such organisms as flatworms, leeches, and scuds. This is possibly due to this section of the creek being pumped up to the surface from culverts impacting the macroinvertebrate's life cycle. Another contributing factor to creek health is the amount of organic debris found in the creek, which inhibits the flow and oxygenation of the water, allowing for more pollution tolerant aquatic insects to persist. Further investigation is being conducted to fully assess the Peralta Creek watershed; from the preliminary results one can surmise that

  16. Invitation to the Swamp: An Educational Insert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Bill

    1976-01-01

    In this third special educational supplement, the swamp is discussed. Included is information on where land and water meet to form the great incubator of wildlife, and on endangered species of wildlife, such as the red wolf, brown pelican, manatee, great white heron and woodstork. (BT)

  17. Adaptive transitions and environmental change in the northern Great Basin: A view from Diamond Swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Musil, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    The presence of sedentary prehistoric occupations in association with wetland settings in the Great Basin has been the focus of continued debate. Theoretical discussions concerning the nature of hunter-gatherer adaptations to wetland environments have been based on two models: (1) Stress-based or push models, which argue that hunter-gatherer populations would reduce mobility as a response to less favorable conditions, and (2) abundance-based or pull models, which argue that hunter-gatherers would have been attracted to localized environments of diverse and plentiful resources. Archaeological evidence from Diamond Swamp provides insight into human adaptive transitions in wetland environments. Archaeological data from Diamond Swamp revealed a series of cultural components representing significant portions of the Holocene. The components at the Dunn and McCoy Creek sites consist of collections of artifactual, faunal, and floral materials, in association with semi-subterranean pithouse features dated between 3500 and 900 BP. These occupations correspond to periods of increased moisture and higher water tables. During periods of climatic amelioration semi-sedentary occupations occurred with the expansion of highly productive marsh and juniper grassland vegetation zones. The component at the McCoy Creek Site corresponds to a period of decreasing moisture punctuated by periodic drought, evidenced by the presence of a less substantial wickiup occupation dated at 500 BP. This occupation is indicative of a transition to a more mobile, less intensive occupational episode. The study provides evidence that transitions to sedentary pithouse villages in Diamond Swamp are best accounted for by the abundance-based model. A shift towards a less substantial, more mobile, occupation occurred with a decline in effective moisture. The research reflects adaptations made by local hunter-gatherer populations to long term environmental change within a typical Great Basin wetlands setting.

  18. Ice-age megafauna in Arctic Alaska: extinction, invasion, survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, Daniel H.; Groves, Pamela; Kunz, Michael L.; Reanier, Richard E.; Gaglioti, Benjamin V.

    2013-01-01

    Radical restructuring of the terrestrial, large mammal fauna living in arctic Alaska occurred between 14,000 and 10,000 years ago at the end of the last ice age. Steppe bison, horse, and woolly mammoth became extinct, moose and humans invaded, while muskox and caribou persisted. The ice age megafauna was more diverse in species and possibly contained 6× more individual animals than live in the region today. Megafaunal biomass during the last ice age may have been 30× greater than present. Horse was the dominant species in terms of number of individuals. Lions, short-faced bears, wolves, and possibly grizzly bears comprised the predator/scavenger guild. The youngest mammoth so far discovered lived ca 13,800 years ago, while horses and bison persisted on the North Slope until at least 12,500 years ago during the Younger Dryas cold interval. The first people arrived on the North Slope ca 13,500 years ago. Bone-isotope measurements and foot-loading characteristics suggest megafaunal niches were segregated along a moisture gradient, with the surviving species (muskox and caribou) utilizing the warmer and moister portions of the vegetation mosaic. As the ice age ended, the moisture gradient shifted and eliminated habitats utilized by the dryland, grazing species (bison, horse, mammoth). The proximate cause for this change was regional paludification, the spread of organic soil horizons and peat. End-Pleistocene extinctions in arctic Alaska represent local, not global extinctions since the megafaunal species lost there persisted to later times elsewhere. Hunting seems unlikely as the cause of these extinctions, but it cannot be ruled out as the final blow to megafaunal populations that were already functionally extinct by the time humans arrived in the region.

  19. Ice-age megafauna in Arctic Alaska: extinction, invasion, survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Daniel H.; Groves, Pamela; Kunz, Michael L.; Reanier, Richard E.; Gaglioti, Benjamin V.

    2013-06-01

    Radical restructuring of the terrestrial, large mammal fauna living in arctic Alaska occurred between 14,000 and 10,000 years ago at the end of the last ice age. Steppe bison, horse, and woolly mammoth became extinct, moose and humans invaded, while muskox and caribou persisted. The ice age megafauna was more diverse in species and possibly contained 6× more individual animals than live in the region today. Megafaunal biomass during the last ice age may have been 30× greater than present. Horse was the dominant species in terms of number of individuals. Lions, short-faced bears, wolves, and possibly grizzly bears comprised the predator/scavenger guild. The youngest mammoth so far discovered lived ca 13,800 years ago, while horses and bison persisted on the North Slope until at least 12,500 years ago during the Younger Dryas cold interval. The first people arrived on the North Slope ca 13,500 years ago. Bone-isotope measurements and foot-loading characteristics suggest megafaunal niches were segregated along a moisture gradient, with the surviving species (muskox and caribou) utilizing the warmer and moister portions of the vegetation mosaic. As the ice age ended, the moisture gradient shifted and eliminated habitats utilized by the dryland, grazing species (bison, horse, mammoth). The proximate cause for this change was regional paludification, the spread of organic soil horizons and peat. End-Pleistocene extinctions in arctic Alaska represent local, not global extinctions since the megafaunal species lost there persisted to later times elsewhere. Hunting seems unlikely as the cause of these extinctions, but it cannot be ruled out as the final blow to megafaunal populations that were already functionally extinct by the time humans arrived in the region.

  20. New U/Th ages for Pleistocene megafauna deposits of southeastern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Gilbert J.; Zhao, Jian-xin; Feng, Yue-xing; Hocknull, Scott A.

    2009-02-01

    Arguments over the extinction of Pleistocene megafauna have become particularly polarised in recent years. Causes for the extinctions are widely debated with climate change, human hunting and/or habitat modification, or a combination of those factors, being the dominant hypotheses. However, a lack of a spatially constrained chronology for many megafauna renders most hypotheses difficult to test. Here, we present several new U/Th dates for a series of previously undated, megafauna-bearing localities from southeastern Queensland, Australia. The sites were previously used to argue for or against various megafauna extinction hypotheses, and are the type localities for two now-extinct Pleistocene marsupials (including the giant koala, Phascolarctos stirtoni). The new dating allows the deposits to be placed in a spatially- and temporally constrained context relevant to the understanding of Australian megafaunal extinctions. The results indicate that The Joint (Texas Caves) megafaunal assemblage is middle Pleistocene or older (>292 ky); the Cement Mills (Gore) megafaunal assemblage is late Pleistocene or older (>53 ky); and the Russenden Cave Bone Chamber (Texas Caves) megafaunal assemblage is late Pleistocene (˜55 ky). Importantly, the new results broadly show that the sites date prior to the hypothesised megafaunal extinction 'window' (i.e., ˜30-50 ky), and therefore, cannot be used to argue exclusively for or against human/climate change extinction models, without first exploring their palaeoecological significance on wider temporal and spatial scales.

  1. Climate change not to blame for late Quaternary megafauna extinctions in Australia.

    PubMed

    Saltré, Frédérik; Rodríguez-Rey, Marta; Brook, Barry W; Johnson, Christopher N; Turney, Chris S M; Alroy, John; Cooper, Alan; Beeton, Nicholas; Bird, Michael I; Fordham, Damien A; Gillespie, Richard; Herrando-Pérez, Salvador; Jacobs, Zenobia; Miller, Gifford H; Nogués-Bravo, David; Prideaux, Gavin J; Roberts, Richard G; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2016-01-01

    Late Quaternary megafauna extinctions impoverished mammalian diversity worldwide. The causes of these extinctions in Australia are most controversial but essential to resolve, because this continent-wide event presaged similar losses that occurred thousands of years later on other continents. Here we apply a rigorous metadata analysis and new ensemble-hindcasting approach to 659 Australian megafauna fossil ages. When coupled with analysis of several high-resolution climate records, we show that megafaunal extinctions were broadly synchronous among genera and independent of climate aridity and variability in Australia over the last 120,000 years. Our results reject climate change as the primary driver of megafauna extinctions in the world's most controversial context, and instead estimate that the megafauna disappeared Australia-wide ∼13,500 years after human arrival, with shorter periods of coexistence in some regions. This is the first comprehensive approach to incorporate uncertainty in fossil ages, extinction timing and climatology, to quantify mechanisms of prehistorical extinctions. PMID:26821754

  2. Climate change not to blame for late Quaternary megafauna extinctions in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Saltré, Frédérik; Rodríguez-Rey, Marta; Brook, Barry W.; Johnson, Christopher N; Turney, Chris S. M.; Alroy, John; Cooper, Alan; Beeton, Nicholas; Bird, Michael I.; Fordham, Damien A.; Gillespie, Richard; Herrando-Pérez, Salvador; Jacobs, Zenobia; Miller, Gifford H.; Nogués-Bravo, David; Prideaux, Gavin J.; Roberts, Richard G.; Bradshaw, Corey J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Late Quaternary megafauna extinctions impoverished mammalian diversity worldwide. The causes of these extinctions in Australia are most controversial but essential to resolve, because this continent-wide event presaged similar losses that occurred thousands of years later on other continents. Here we apply a rigorous metadata analysis and new ensemble-hindcasting approach to 659 Australian megafauna fossil ages. When coupled with analysis of several high-resolution climate records, we show that megafaunal extinctions were broadly synchronous among genera and independent of climate aridity and variability in Australia over the last 120,000 years. Our results reject climate change as the primary driver of megafauna extinctions in the world's most controversial context, and instead estimate that the megafauna disappeared Australia-wide ∼13,500 years after human arrival, with shorter periods of coexistence in some regions. This is the first comprehensive approach to incorporate uncertainty in fossil ages, extinction timing and climatology, to quantify mechanisms of prehistorical extinctions. PMID:26821754

  3. A model for the Holocene extinction of the mammal megafauna in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficcarelli, G.; Coltorti, M.; Moreno-Espinosa, M.; Pieruccini, P. L.; Rook, L.; Torre, D.

    2003-03-01

    This paper presents the results of multidisciplinary research in the Ecuadorian coastal regions, with particular emphasis on the Santa Elena Peninsula. The new evidence, together with previous data gathered on the Ecuadorian cordillera during the last 12 years, allows us to formulate a model that accounts for most of the mammal megafauna extinction at the Pleistocene/Holocene transition. After the illustration of geomorphological and paleontological evidences of the area of the Santa Elena Peninsula (and other sites), and of a summary of the paleoclimatic data, the main results and conclusions of this work are: (1) Late Pleistocene mammal assemblages survived in the Ecuadorian coast until the Early Holocene sea level rise; (2) Prior to the extinction of most of the megafauna elements (mastodons, ground sloths, equids, sabre-tooth felids), the mammal communities at Santa Elena Peninsula comprise elements with differing habitat requirements, attesting conditions of high biological pressure; (3) At the El Cautivo site (Santa Elena Peninsula), we have discovered Holocene sediments containing the first known occurrences in Ecuador of lithic artifacts that are associated with mammal megafauna remains; (4) During the last 10,000 years, the coastal region of Ecuador underwent significant changes in vegetation cover. At the Pleistocene/Holocene transition the climate changed from very arid conditions to humid conditions. Our data indicates that the megafauna definitively abandoned the Cordillera areas around 12,000 yr BP due to t he increasing aridity, and subsequently migrated to coastal areas where ecological conditions still were suitable, Santa Elena Peninsula and mainly Amazonian areas being typical. We conclude that the unusual high faunal concentrations and the change to dense vegetation cover (due to a rapid increase in precipitation in the lower Holocene) at 8000-6000 yr BP, caused the final collapse and extinction of most elements of the mammal megafauna

  4. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Swamp Rabbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  5. 1. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF EAGLE CREEK TRAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF EAGLE CREEK TRAIL REGISTRY BOOTH. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Eagle Creek Recreation Area, Historic Columbia River Highway at Eagle Creek, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  6. Toxicity of 5% rotenone to nonindigenous Asian swamp eels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, P.J.; Nico, L.G.

    2007-01-01

    Our primary goal was to determine whether rotenone would be a useful control against introduced populations of Asian swamp eels (family Synbranchidae, genus Monopterus). We report the results of a laboratory experiment comparing the efficacy of various rotenone concentrations (1, 2, 4, and 8 mg of 5% liquid rotenone/L of water) in killing nonindigenous swamp eels of various sizes (1-350 g) from the three known Florida populations. Although most small swamp eels were killed at concentrations of 2 and 4 mg/L. 100% mortality of adult swamp eels was achieved only at 8 mg/L. We conclude that the effective use of rotenone to control established Florida swamp eel populations would be difficult, based on the relatively high concentration of rotenone needed to kill swamp eels; the complexity of the swamp eel's habitat; and our observations of the species' habitat use and behavior, including its widespread distribution and life history characteristics (e.g., burrowing and overland movement) that enhance its invasion and survival in multiple environments. Nevertheless, control of swamp eels may be achieved in certain situations. A combination of rotenone and electroshocking may be an effective way to eradicate swamp eels from small water bodies and to control populations in larger habitats. However, we are cautious in this recommendation and provide details related to the technical aspects of this type of strategy and caveats related to the toxicity of the chemical.

  7. Restoring Fossil Creek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaccus, Kathleen; Vlieg, Julie; Marks, Jane C.; LeRoy, Carri J.

    2004-01-01

    Fossil Creek had been dammed for the past 90 years, and plans were underway to restore the stream. The creek runs through Central Arizona and flows from the high plateaus to the desert, cutting through the same formations that form the Grand Canyon. This article discusses the Fossil Creek monitoring project. In this project, students and teachers…

  8. Operational restoration of the Pen Branch bottomland hardwood and swamp wetlands - the research setting

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.A.

    2000-01-05

    The Savannah River Swamp is a 3020 Ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River and is located on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC. Historically the swamp consisted of approximately 50 percent bald cypress-water tupelo stands, 40 percent mixed bottomland hardwood stands, and 10 percent shrub, marsh, and open water. Creek corridors were typical of Southeastern bottomland hardwood forests. The hydrology was controlled by flooding of the Savannah River and by flow from four creeks that drain into the swamp prior to flow into the Savannah River. Upstream dams have caused some alteration of the water levels and timing of flooding within the floodplain. Major impacts to the swamp hydrology occurred with the completion of the production reactors and one coal-fired powerhouse at the SRS in the early 1950's. Water was pumped from the Savannah River, through secondary heat exchangers of the reactors, and discharged into three of the tributary streams that flow into the swamp. Flow in one of the tributaries, Pen Branch, was typically 0.3 m3 s-1 (10-20) cfs prior to reactor pumping and 11.0 m3 s-1 (400 cfs) during pumping. This continued from 1954 to 1988 at various levels. The sustained increases in water volume resulted in overflow of the original stream banks and the creation of additional floodplains. Accompanying this was considerable erosion of the original stream corridor and deposition of a deep silt layer on the newly formed delta. Heated water was discharged directly into Pen Branch and water temperature in the stream often exceeded 65 degrees C. The nearly continuous flooding of the swamp, the thermal load of the water, and the heavy silting resulted in complete mortality of the original vegetation in large areas of the floodplain. In the years since pumping was reduced, early succession has begun in some affected areas. Most of this has been herbs, grasses, and shrubs. Areas that have seedlings are generally willow

  9. Effect of marine litter on the benthic megafauna of coastal soft bottoms: a manipulative field experiment.

    PubMed

    Katsanevakis, Stelios; Verriopoulos, George; Nicolaidou, Artemis; Thessalou-Legaki, Maria

    2007-06-01

    The effect of litter on the abundance and community structure of soft-bottom epibenthic megafauna was investigated in three coves of the Saronikos Gulf (Aegean Sea). At each site, two surfaces were defined on the sea-bottom. One of the surfaces was uniformly littered with debris (16 items per 100 m(2)), while the other remained 'clean' and acted as control. Benthic megafauna was censused with SCUBA diving, once before the littering episode and then monthly for one year. Both total abundance and the number of species showed an increasing trend in the impacted surfaces, either because the litter provided refuge or reproduction sites for mobile species or because hard-substratum sessile species had the opportunity to settle on provided surfaces. A marked gradual deviation in the community structure of the impacted surface from the control and a clear successional pattern of change in the community composition of the impacted surfaces were demonstrated. PMID:17303184

  10. Sarcoptic mange in a wild swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor).

    PubMed

    Holz, P H; Orbell, G M B; Beveridge, I

    2011-11-01

    A wild adult male swamp wallaby from Victoria was found to be infested with Sarcoptes scabiei. Hyperkeratotic skin lesions were confined predominantly to the head and shoulders. This is the first report of sarcoptic mange in a swamp wallaby. PMID:22008126

  11. Are You Phrog Farming or Helping to Drain the Swamp?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Jerry B.

    1983-01-01

    The difference between phrogfessors and teachers is that phrogfessors train tadpoles in the way of the swamp (i.e., create likenesses of themselves) while teachers produce people and thereby help to drain the swamp. Phrogfessors take responsibility for what their students learn. They believe that if a student does badly, it is the phrogfessor's…

  12. Diversity, Abundance and Community Structure of Benthic Macro- and Megafauna on the Beaufort Shelf and Slope

    PubMed Central

    Nephin, Jessica; Juniper, S. Kim; Archambault, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Diversity and community patterns of macro- and megafauna were compared on the Canadian Beaufort shelf and slope. Faunal sampling collected 247 taxa from 48 stations with box core and trawl gear over the summers of 2009–2011 between 50 and 1,000 m in depth. Of the 80 macrofaunal and 167 megafaunal taxa, 23% were uniques, present at only one station. Rare taxa were found to increase proportional to total taxa richness and differ between the shelf ( 100 m) where they tended to be sparse and the slope where they were relatively abundant. The macrofauna principally comprised polychaetes with nephtyid polychaetes dominant on the shelf and maldanid polychaetes (up to 92% in relative abundance/station) dominant on the slope. The megafauna principally comprised echinoderms with Ophiocten sp. (up to 90% in relative abundance/station) dominant on the shelf and Ophiopleura sp. dominant on the slope. Macro- and megafauna had divergent patterns of abundance, taxa richness ( diversity) and diversity. A greater degree of macrofaunal than megafaunal variation in abundance, richness and diversity was explained by confounding factors: location (east-west), sampling year and the timing of sampling with respect to sea-ice conditions. Change in megafaunal abundance, richness and diversity was greatest across the depth gradient, with total abundance and richness elevated on the shelf compared to the slope. We conclude that megafaunal slope taxa were differentiated from shelf taxa, as faunal replacement not nestedness appears to be the main driver of megafaunal diversity across the depth gradient. PMID:25007347

  13. Methane flux in the Great Dismal Swamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harriss, R. C.; Sebacher, D. I.; Day, F. P., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The paper reports measurements made over a 17-month period of the methane flux in the Great Dismal Swamp of Virginia in light of the potential implications of variations in atmospheric methane concentrations. Gas flux measurements were made by a technique combining a gas filter correlation IR absorption analyzer with improved sampling chambers that enclose a soil area under conditions ranging from totally flooded soils to dry soils resulting from drought conditions. Methane emissions are found to range from 0.0013 g CH4/sq m per day to 0.019 g CH4/sq m per day, depending on temperature and season, when the soil is in a waterlogged state. During drought conditions, the peat soils in the swamp were a sink for atmospheric methane, with fluxes from less than 0.001 to 0.005 g CH4/sq m per day and decreasing with decreasing temperature. Results illustrate the potential complexity of the processes which regulate the net flux of methane between wetland soils and the atmosphere.

  14. Sedimentology, stratigraphy, and extinctions during the Cretaceous-Paleogene transition at Bug Creek, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Fastovsky, D.E.; Dott, R.H. Jr.

    1986-04-01

    Bug Creek Valley, the source of an unusual and controversial Cretaceous-Paleogene coincidence of mammals, dinosaurs, pollen, and iridium, exemplifies the importance of depositional process in the reconstruction of evolutionary events. Five sedimentary facies are recognized at Bug Creek: a cross-stratified sandstone, a green and purple siltstone, a lateral accretionary sandstone, a coal, and a variegated siltstone. Repeated fluvial channeling restricts the accuracy of lateral correlations, and the relationship of the fossil assemblage to the presumed Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary cannot be established. Sedimentologically, the Cretaceous-Paleogene transition is represented here by Cretaceous meandering channels that gave way initially to Paleogene swamp deposition. 13 references, 4 figures.

  15. Methane metabolism in a temperate swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Amaral, J.A.; Knowles, R.

    1994-11-01

    Methane production has received much attention due not only to its importance as a terminal step in anaerobic organic matter degradation but also to its potentially significant role in climatic change and atmospheric chemistry. Wetlands are an important source and potential reservoir of methane, but the factors controlling its production and emission are not fully understood. This study examined in situ availability of substrates and the distribution of electron acceptors in a temperate peat swamp to determine how the chemistry and microbiology of the site affects methane production. Measurements were obtained in summer, fall and spring at two sites. Laboratory incubations with slurried peat soil were carried out. From the results, the authors speculate that along with differences in hydrology and chemical characteristics, heterogeneity in microbial activity may also contribute to the spatial variability of methane production and emission in wetlands. 45 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Hydrodynamic and geomorphological controls on suspended sediment transport in mangrove creek systems, a case study: Cocoa Creek, Townsville, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryce, S.; Larcombe, P.; Ridd, P. V.

    2003-03-01

    In tide-dominated sedimentary systems, close relationships exist between tidal hydrodynamics, sediment transport and geomorphology. Tropical coastlines contain many tide-dominated mangrove creeks, yet few studies to date have examined the detail of such relationships for these environments. Time-series observations of tidal height, currents and suspended sediment concentrations were taken between 1992 and 1996 in Cocoa Creek, a mangrove creek system near Townsville, NE Australia. The creek and surrounding mangrove swamps and salt flats were surveyed with an echo-sounder and total survey station, respectively. For 'within-channel' tides, the flood tide is always the fastest, at up to 0.5 m s -1. In contrast, for overbank tides (i.e. tidal height > + 1.5 m Australian Height Datum, AHD) ebb currents are fastest in July, December and January, but flood currents are fastest in August and September, at up to 1 m s -1 in both cases. The tidal asymmetry of overbank tides in Cocoa Creek is controlled by the interaction between offshore tidal forcing and the intertidal storage effect of the mangrove swamps and salt flats, with the result being that during certain periods of the year there tends to be a predominance of either faster flood or ebb velocities on overbank tides. Significant tidal suspended sediment transport in the channel is only initiated at overbank height. On overbank tides, measured net suspended sediment fluxes in the channel are mostly seaward-directed (up to 180 t per tidal cycle). However, the net flux measured over a neap-spring period may be either landwards or seawards (up to 465 and 60 t, respectively). Furthermore, on the larger overbank tides (where the maximum tidal height >+1.85 m AHD) net sediment fluxes may be reduced because of a limited supply of available material. Thus hydrodynamic and sediment sampling durations of up to a month may not be representative of long-term trends. Given that our large dataset has not identified a clear long

  17. Stable parabolic Higgs bundles as asymptotically stable decorated swamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Nikolai

    2016-06-01

    Parabolic Higgs bundles can be described in terms of decorated swamps, which we studied in a recent paper. This description induces a notion of stability of parabolic Higgs bundles depending on a parameter, and we construct their moduli space inside the moduli space of decorated swamps. We then introduce asymptotic stability of decorated swamps in order to study the behaviour of the stability condition as one parameter approaches infinity. The main result is the existence of a constant, such that stability with respect to parameters greater than this constant is equivalent to asymptotic stability. This implies boundedness of all decorated swamps which are semistable with respect to some parameter. Finally, we recover the usual stability condition of parabolic Higgs bundles as asymptotic stability.

  18. 10. TRUSS DETAILS, BRIDGE OVER SCOTT SWAMP (Shop Drawing, Berlin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. TRUSS DETAILS, BRIDGE OVER SCOTT SWAMP (Shop Drawing, Berlin Construction Company) Sheet 1 of 2, July 5, 1927 - Bridge No. 475, Spanning Pequabuck River on U.S. Route 6, Farmington, Hartford County, CT

  19. 11. FLOOR SYSTEM DETAILS, BRIDGE OVER SCOTT SWAMP (Shop Drawing, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. FLOOR SYSTEM DETAILS, BRIDGE OVER SCOTT SWAMP (Shop Drawing, Berlin Construction Company) Sheet 2 of 2, July 9, 1927 - Bridge No. 475, Spanning Pequabuck River on U.S. Route 6, Farmington, Hartford County, CT

  20. The Warm-Blooded Plant of the Swamps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camazine, Scott

    1986-01-01

    Describes remarkable characteristics of the skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus) which make it an interesting swamp plant to study in February and March: its warm-blooded nature, unpleasant skunky odor, and peculiar root system. (NEC)

  1. Shell Creek Summers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

    2005-01-01

    In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality provided…

  2. Regeneration potential of Taxodium distichum swamps and climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    Seed bank densities respond to factors across local to landscape scales, and therefore, knowledge of these responses may be necessary in forecasting the effects of climate change on the regeneration of species. This study relates the seed bank densities of species of Taxodium distichum swamps to local water regime and regional climate factors at five latitudes across the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley from southern Illinois to Louisiana. In an outdoor nursery setting, the seed banks of twenty-five swamps were exposed to non-flooded (freely drained) or flooded treatments, and the number and species of seeds germinating were recorded from each swamp during one growing season. Based on ANOVA analysis, the majority of dominant species had a higher rate of germination in non-flooded versus flooded treatments. Similarly, an NMS comparison, which considered the local water regime and regional climate of the swamps, found that the species of seeds germinating, almost completely shifted under non-flooded versus flooded treatments. For example, in wetter northern swamps, seeds of Taxodium distichum germinated in non-flooded conditions, but did not germinate from the same seed banks in flooded conditions. In wetter southern swamps, seeds of Eleocharis cellulosa germinated in flooded conditions, but did not germinate in non-flooded conditions. The strong relationship of seed germination and density relationships with local water regime and regional climate variables suggests that the forecasting of climate change effects on swamps and other wetlands needs to consider a variety of interrelated variables to make adequate projections of the regeneration responses of species to climate change. Because regeneration is an important aspect of species maintenance and restoration, climate drying could influence the species distribution of these swamps in the future. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  3. Organic carbon flow in a swamp-stream ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    An annual organic carbon budget is presented for an 8-km segment of Creeping Swamp, an undisturbed, third-order swamp-stream in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, USA. Annual input of organic carbon (588 gC/m/sup 2/) was 96% allochthonous and was dominated by leaf litter inputs (36%) and fluvial, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) inputs (31%). Although the swamp-stream was primarily heterotrophic, autochthonous organic carbon input, primarily from filamentous algae, was important during February and March when primary production/ecosystem respiration (P/R) ratios of the flooded portions were near one. Annual output of organic carbon via fluvial processes (214 gC/m/sup 2/), 95% as DOC, was 36% of total annual inputs, indicating that the swamp-stream segment ecosystem was 64% efficient at retaining organic carbon. Organic carbon dynamics in the Creeping Swamp segment were compared to those reported for upland stream segments using indices of organic matter processing suggested by Fisher (1977) and a loading potential index suggested here. Creeping Swamp, while loading at a high rate, retains a much larger portion of its organic carbon inputs than two upland streams. Despite the high degree of retention and oxidation of organic inputs to Creeping Swamp, there is a net annual fluvial export of 21 gC/m/sup 2/, mostly in the dissolved form. Watersheds drained by swamp-streams in the southeastern United States are thought to have large organic carbon exports compared to upland forested drainages, because the stream network covers a much greater proportion of the total watershed area.

  4. Methane cycling in a tidal freshwater swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Megonigal, J.P.; Schlesinger, W.H. )

    1993-06-01

    Previous studies of methanogenesis in a tidal freshwater swamp on the North Carolina coast have found that potential rates of methane production overestimate observed rates of methane flux, especially during summer months. This research investigates three possibilities for the unexplained losses: methane oxidation, lateral export of dissolved methane to the adjacent river, and ebullition. It is possible that each of these sinks increase during the summer. The potential for methane oxidation was demonstrated in intact soil cores incubated for 21 hours under a 0.5% CH[sub 3]F atmosphere. Methane flux increased from 10+/-27 (mean+/-sd) to 60+/-3 mg m[sup [minus]2] d[sup [minus]1] in treated cores; control core fluxes were 15+/-3 and 19+/-3 mg m[sup [minus]2] d[sup [minus]1] over the same periods. Incubations of slightly unsaturated soils with [sup 14]CH[sub 4] confirmed rapid potential rates of methane oxidation.

  5. Aquifer test results, Green Swamp area, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tibbals, C.H.; Grubb, Hayes F.

    1982-01-01

    An aquifer test conducted in the Green Swamp area December 15-16 , 1975 was designed to stress the uppermost part of the Floridan aquifer so that the leakage characteristics of the overlying confining bed could be determined. A well tapping the upper part of the Floridan aquifer was pumped at a rate of about 1,040 gallons per minute for 35 hours; drawdown was measured in the Floridan aquifer and in two horizons in the confining bed. Analysis of the data indicates that the transmissivity of the uppper 160 feet of the Floridan is 13,000 square feet per day, the storage coefficient is about 0.0002.5, and the overlying confining bed leakance coefficient is about 0.02 to 0.025 per day. The vertical hydraulic diffusivity of the confining bed ranged from 610 square feet per day to 16,000 square feet per day. Results of the test indicate that, in the area of the test site, a Floridan aquifer well field would induce additional recharge to the Floridan. As a result of that increased recharge , water levels in the surficial aquifer would tend to stand lower, runoff from the area would tend to be less, and, perhaps, evapotranspiration would be less than normal.(USGS)

  6. Life and extinction of megafauna in the ice-age Arctic.

    PubMed

    Mann, Daniel H; Groves, Pamela; Reanier, Richard E; Gaglioti, Benjamin V; Kunz, Michael L; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-11-17

    Understanding the population dynamics of megafauna that inhabited the mammoth steppe provides insights into the causes of extinctions during both the terminal Pleistocene and today. Our study area is Alaska's North Slope, a place where humans were rare when these extinctions occurred. After developing a statistical approach to remove the age artifacts caused by radiocarbon calibration from a large series of dated megafaunal bones, we compare the temporal patterns of bone abundance with climate records. Megafaunal abundance tracked ice age climate, peaking during transitions from cold to warm periods. These results suggest that a defining characteristic of the mammoth steppe was its temporal instability and imply that regional extinctions followed by population reestablishment from distant refugia were characteristic features of ice-age biogeography at high latitudes. It follows that long-distance dispersal was crucial for the long-term persistence of megafaunal species living in the Arctic. Such dispersal was only possible when their rapidly shifting range lands were geographically interconnected. The end of the last ice age was fatally unique because the geographic ranges of arctic megafauna became permanently fragmented after stable, interglacial climate engendered the spread of peatlands at the same time that rising sea level severed former dispersal routes. PMID:26578776

  7. Extinct New Zealand megafauna were not in decline before human colonization

    PubMed Central

    Allentoft, Morten Erik; Heller, Rasmus; Oskam, Charlotte L.; Lorenzen, Eline D.; Hale, Marie L.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Jacomb, Christopher; Holdaway, Richard N.; Bunce, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The extinction of New Zealand's moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) followed the arrival of humans in the late 13th century and was the final event of the prehistoric Late Quaternary megafauna extinctions. Determining the state of the moa populations in the pre-extinction period is fundamental to understanding the causes of the event. We sampled 281 moa individuals and combined radiocarbon dating with ancient DNA analyses to help resolve the extinction debate and gain insights into moa biology. The samples, which were predominantly from the last 4,000 years preceding the extinction, represent four sympatric moa species excavated from five adjacent fossil deposits. We characterized the moa assemblage using mitochondrial DNA and nuclear microsatellite markers developed specifically for moa. Although genetic diversity differed significantly among the four species, we found that the millennia preceding the extinction were characterized by a remarkable degree of genetic stability in all species, with no loss of heterozygosity and no shifts in allele frequencies over time. The extinction event itself was too rapid to be manifested in the moa gene pools. Contradicting previous claims of a decline in moa before Polynesian settlement in New Zealand, our findings indicate that the populations were large and stable before suddenly disappearing. This interpretation is supported by approximate Bayesian computation analyses. Our analyses consolidate the disappearance of moa as the most rapid, human-facilitated megafauna extinction documented to date. PMID:24639531

  8. Extinct New Zealand megafauna were not in decline before human colonization.

    PubMed

    Allentoft, Morten Erik; Heller, Rasmus; Oskam, Charlotte L; Lorenzen, Eline D; Hale, Marie L; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Jacomb, Christopher; Holdaway, Richard N; Bunce, Michael

    2014-04-01

    The extinction of New Zealand's moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) followed the arrival of humans in the late 13th century and was the final event of the prehistoric Late Quaternary megafauna extinctions. Determining the state of the moa populations in the pre-extinction period is fundamental to understanding the causes of the event. We sampled 281 moa individuals and combined radiocarbon dating with ancient DNA analyses to help resolve the extinction debate and gain insights into moa biology. The samples, which were predominantly from the last 4,000 years preceding the extinction, represent four sympatric moa species excavated from five adjacent fossil deposits. We characterized the moa assemblage using mitochondrial DNA and nuclear microsatellite markers developed specifically for moa. Although genetic diversity differed significantly among the four species, we found that the millennia preceding the extinction were characterized by a remarkable degree of genetic stability in all species, with no loss of heterozygosity and no shifts in allele frequencies over time. The extinction event itself was too rapid to be manifested in the moa gene pools. Contradicting previous claims of a decline in moa before Polynesian settlement in New Zealand, our findings indicate that the populations were large and stable before suddenly disappearing. This interpretation is supported by approximate Bayesian computation analyses. Our analyses consolidate the disappearance of moa as the most rapid, human-facilitated megafauna extinction documented to date. PMID:24639531

  9. Insights into Holocene megafauna survival and extinction in southeastern Brazil from new AMS 14C dates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbe, Alex; Hubbe, Mark; Karmann, Ivo; Cruz, Francisco W.; Neves, Walter A.

    2013-03-01

    The extinction of late Quaternary megafauna in South America has been extensively debated in past decades. The majority of the hypotheses explaining this phenomenon argue that the extinction was the result of human activities, environmental changes, or even synergism between the two. Although still limited, a good chronological framework is imperative to discuss the plausibility of the available hypotheses. Here we present six new direct AMS 14C radiocarbon dates from the state of São Paulo (Brazil) to further characterize the chronological distribution of extinct fauna in this part of South America. The new dates make evident that ground sloths, toxodonts, and saber-toothed cats lived in the region around the Pleistocene/Holocene transition, and, in agreement with previous studies, also suggest an early Holocene survival for the ground sloth Catonyx cuvieri. Taken together with local paleoclimatic and archaeological data, the new dates do not support hunting or indirect human activities as a major cause for megafauna extinction. Although more data are required, parsimony suggests that climatic changes played a major role in this extinction event.

  10. Test of Martin’s overkill hypothesis using radiocarbon dates on extinct megafauna

    PubMed Central

    Surovell, Todd A.; Pelton, Spencer R.; Anderson-Sprecher, Richard; Myers, Adam D.

    2016-01-01

    Following Martin [Martin PS (1973) Science 179:969–974], we propose the hypothesis that the timing of human arrival to the New World can be assessed by examining the ecological impacts of a small population of people on extinct Pleistocene megafauna. To that end, we compiled lists of direct radiocarbon dates on paleontological specimens of extinct genera from North and South America with the expectation that the initial decline of extinct megafauna should correspond in time with the initial evidence for human colonization and that those declines should occur first in eastern Beringia, next in the contiguous United States, and last in South America. Analyses of spacings and frequency distributions of radiocarbon dates for each region support the idea that the extinction event first commenced in Beringia, roughly 13,300–15,000 BP. For the United States and South America, extinctions commenced considerably later but were closely spaced in time. For the contiguous United States, extinction began at ca. 12,900–13,200 BP, and at ca. 12,600–13,900 BP in South America. For areas south of Beringia, these estimates correspond well with the first significant evidence for human presence and are consistent with the predictions of the overkill hypothesis. PMID:26504205

  11. The legacy of the Pleistocene megafauna extinctions on nutrient availability in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, Christopher E.; Wolf, Adam; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2013-09-01

    In the late Pleistocene, 97 genera of large animals went extinct, concentrated in the Americas and Australia. These extinctions had significant effects on ecosystem structure, seed dispersal and land surface albedo. However, the impact of this dramatic extinction on ecosystem nutrient biogeochemistry, through the lateral transport of dung and bodies, has never been explored. Here we analyse this process using a novel mathematical framework that analyses this lateral transport as a diffusion-like process, and we demonstrate that large animals play a disproportionately large role in the horizontal transfer of nutrients across landscapes. For example, we estimate that the extinction of the Amazonian megafauna decreased the lateral flux of the limiting nutrient phosphorus by more than 98%, with similar, though less extreme, decreases in all continents outside of Africa. This resulted in strong decreases in phosphorus availability in eastern Amazonia away from fertile floodplains, a decline which may still be ongoing. The current P limitation in the Amazon basin may be partially a relic of an ecosystem without the functional connectivity it once had. We argue that the Pleistocene megafauna extinctions resulted in large and ongoing disruptions to terrestrial biogeochemical cycling at continental scales and increased nutrient heterogeneity globally.

  12. Chronology and ecology of late Pleistocene megafauna in the northern Willamette Valley, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilmour, Daniel M.; Butler, Virginia L.; O'Connor, James E.; Davis, Edward Byrd; Culleton, Brendan J.; Kennett, Douglas J.; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.

    2015-01-01

    Since the mid-19th century, western Oregon's Willamette Valley has been a source of remains from a wide variety of extinct megafauna. Few of these have been previously described or dated, but new chronologic and isotopic analyses in conjunction with updated evaluations of stratigraphic context provide substantial new information on the species present, timing of losses, and paleoenvironmental conditions. Using subfossil material from the northern valley, we use AMS radiocarbon dating, stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) analyses, and taxonomic dietary specialization and habitat preferences to reconstruct environments and to develop a local chronology of events that we then compare with continental and regional archaeological and paleoenvironmental data. Analysis of twelve bone specimens demonstrates the presence of bison, mammoth, horse, sloth, and mastodon from ~ 15,000–13,000 cal yr BP. The latest ages coincide with changing regional climate corresponding to the onset of the Younger Dryas. It is suggested that cooling conditions led to increased forest cover, and, along with river aggradation, reduced the area of preferred habitat for the larger bodied herbivores, which contributed to the demise of local megafauna. Archaeological evidence for megafauna–human interactions in the Pacific Northwest is scarce, limiting our ability to address the human role in causing extinction.

  13. Morphospecies and taxonomic sufficiency of benthic megafauna in scientific bottom trawl surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brind'Amour, Anik; Laffargue, Pascal; Morin, Jocelyne; Vaz, Sandrine; Foveau, Aurélie; Le Bris, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Scientific fisheries surveys routinely identify a large diversity of commercial and non-commercial benthic megainvertebrates that could provide useful information for Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) descriptors. Species is obviously the basic taxonomic level to which most ecological studies and theories refer. Identification at this level of organization is indeed always preferred over any other taxonomic level. Nevertheless, aggregation of species to higher taxonomic levels may be unavoidable sometimes, since errors of identification are known or suspected to occur in many surveys. Using analyses of taxonomic sufficiency (identification of organisms at various taxonomic resolutions) and groups of morphospecies (taxa identified easily by non-experts on the basis of evident morphological traits), this study aims to quantify the loss of ecological information incurred by partial identification of benthic megafauna in bottom trawl surveys in order to put such data to good use. The analyses were conducted on five scientific surveys representing a large range of geographical areas (from 150 km2 to 150 000 km2) and environmental conditions. Results show that genus, family and, particularly, morphospecies are good surrogates for species identification in community analyses. We suggest that bottom trawl surveys can provide reliable megafauna data that may usefully complete those obtained by grab surveys. The use of morphospecies could lead to new strategies, combining different datasets to provide indicators for MSFD descriptors (e.g. D6).

  14. Life and extinction of megafauna in the ice-age Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Daniel H.; Groves, Pamela; Reanier, Richard E.; Gaglioti, Benjamin V.; Kunz, Michael L.; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the population dynamics of megafauna that inhabited the mammoth steppe provides insights into the causes of extinctions during both the terminal Pleistocene and today. Our study area is Alaska's North Slope, a place where humans were rare when these extinctions occurred. After developing a statistical approach to remove the age artifacts caused by radiocarbon calibration from a large series of dated megafaunal bones, we compare the temporal patterns of bone abundance with climate records. Megafaunal abundance tracked ice age climate, peaking during transitions from cold to warm periods. These results suggest that a defining characteristic of the mammoth steppe was its temporal instability and imply that regional extinctions followed by population reestablishment from distant refugia were characteristic features of ice-age biogeography at high latitudes. It follows that long-distance dispersal was crucial for the long-term persistence of megafaunal species living in the Arctic. Such dispersal was only possible when their rapidly shifting range lands were geographically interconnected. The end of the last ice age was fatally unique because the geographic ranges of arctic megafauna became permanently fragmented after stable, interglacial climate engendered the spread of peatlands at the same time that rising sea level severed former dispersal routes.

  15. Test of Martin's overkill hypothesis using radiocarbon dates on extinct megafauna.

    PubMed

    Surovell, Todd A; Pelton, Spencer R; Anderson-Sprecher, Richard; Myers, Adam D

    2016-01-26

    Following Martin [Martin PS (1973) Science 179:969-974], we propose the hypothesis that the timing of human arrival to the New World can be assessed by examining the ecological impacts of a small population of people on extinct Pleistocene megafauna. To that end, we compiled lists of direct radiocarbon dates on paleontological specimens of extinct genera from North and South America with the expectation that the initial decline of extinct megafauna should correspond in time with the initial evidence for human colonization and that those declines should occur first in eastern Beringia, next in the contiguous United States, and last in South America. Analyses of spacings and frequency distributions of radiocarbon dates for each region support the idea that the extinction event first commenced in Beringia, roughly 13,300-15,000 BP. For the United States and South America, extinctions commenced considerably later but were closely spaced in time. For the contiguous United States, extinction began at ca. 12,900-13,200 BP, and at ca. 12,600-13,900 BP in South America. For areas south of Beringia, these estimates correspond well with the first significant evidence for human presence and are consistent with the predictions of the overkill hypothesis. PMID:26504205

  16. Life and extinction of megafauna in the ice-age Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Daniel H.; Groves, Pamela; Reanier, Richard E.; Gaglioti, Benjamin V.; Kunz, Michael L.; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the population dynamics of megafauna that inhabited the mammoth steppe provides insights into the causes of extinctions during both the terminal Pleistocene and today. Our study area is Alaska's North Slope, a place where humans were rare when these extinctions occurred. After developing a statistical approach to remove the age artifacts caused by radiocarbon calibration from a large series of dated megafaunal bones, we compare the temporal patterns of bone abundance with climate records. Megafaunal abundance tracked ice age climate, peaking during transitions from cold to warm periods. These results suggest that a defining characteristic of the mammoth steppe was its temporal instability and imply that regional extinctions followed by population reestablishment from distant refugia were characteristic features of ice-age biogeography at high latitudes. It follows that long-distance dispersal was crucial for the long-term persistence of megafaunal species living in the Arctic. Such dispersal was only possible when their rapidly shifting range lands were geographically interconnected. The end of the last ice age was fatally unique because the geographic ranges of arctic megafauna became permanently fragmented after stable, interglacial climate engendered the spread of peatlands at the same time that rising sea level severed former dispersal routes. PMID:26578776

  17. Water quality in the shingle creek basin, Florida, before and after wastewater diversion

    SciTech Connect

    O`Dell, K.M.

    1994-05-01

    Shingle Creek is a major inflow to Lake Tohopekaliga, Florida. Water quality and the trophic status of Lake Tohopekaliga are affected strongly by the water quality of Shingle Creek. This report documents 10 yr of water quality data in Shingle Creek at the lake outfall; for a pre- (October 1981-December 1986) and a post-wastewater discharge (January 1987-September 1991) removal period. Nutrient budgets for the subbasins were calculated from an intense research program (January 1983-December 1985) to document instream impacts attributable to wastewater, determine the role of the cypress swamp in the middle subbasin, and document relationships between water quality and land uses. Rapid urbanization converted forested uplands and agricultural lands to housing and commercial land use during the study. Stormwater runoff in Florida has been identified as a major pollution source. Treatment of stormwater pollution, through Best Management Practices (BMPs), has been regulated by the State of Florida in this area since 1982. By 1988, 84% of the urban landuse in the upper basin was subject to stormwater treatment prior to being discharged to the creek. Potential increases in urban derived nutrient inputs were offset by stormwater management, and alum treatment and diversion of municipal wastewater. Nitrogen loading and P loads and variance decreased significantly during the 10-yr period, despite rapid urbanization in the northern and central subbasins. Nutrient export from the subbasins was influenced by the dominant land use. The middle subbasin contains a swamp that contributed the greatest P and Cl{sup -} loads because of the increase in discharge to the swamp from sources other than the canal. The northern urban subbasin received the wastewater discharges and served as a net sink for N and P exported from the subbasin. 24 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Investigation of acidity and other water-quality characteristics of Upper Oyster Creek, Ocean County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fusillo, Thomas V.; Schornick, J.C., Jr.; Koester, H.E.; Harriman, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    Water-quality data collected in the upper Oyster Creek drainage basin, Ocean County, N.J., indicate that the stream has excellent water quality except for a persistently low pH. The mean concentrations of the major inorganic ions were all less than 6.0 milligrams per liter. Mean concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus were 0.15 mg/L and 0.01 mg/L, respectively. Dissolved oxygen averaged 8.7 mg/L and 81% saturation. Low pH levels are typical of streams draining cedar swamps. In Oyster Creek, the pH tended to decrease downstream due to chemical and biological processes. The pH levels in swamps were one-half unit or more lower than the pH levels in the adjacent stream. Sharp declines in stream pH were noted during runoff periods as the result of the mixing of poorly-buffered stream water with more highly acidic water from surrounding swamp areas. The quality of ground water within the study area was similar to the quality of streamflow, except for higher iron and ammonia-nitrogen concentrations and a higher pH range of 4.9 to 6.5. Precipitation represented a major source of many chemical constituents in the ground- and surface-waters of the Oyster Creek basin. (USGS)

  19. Brief communication: Artificial cranial modification in Kow Swamp and Cohuna.

    PubMed

    Durband, Arthur C

    2014-09-01

    The crania from Kow Swamp and Cohuna have been important for a number of debates in Australian paleoanthropology. These crania typically have long, flat foreheads that many workers have cited as evidence of genetic continuity with archaic Indonesian populations, particularly the Ngandong sample. Other scientists have alleged that at least some of the crania from Kow Swamp and the Cohuna skull have been altered through artificial modification, and that the flat foreheads possessed by these individuals are not phylogenetically informative. In this study, several Kow Swamp crania and Cohuna are compared to known modified and unmodified comparative samples. Canonical variates analyses and Mahalanobis distances are generated, and random expectation statistics are used to calculate statistical significance for these tests. The results of this study agree with prior work indicating that a portion of this sample shows evidence for artificial modification of the cranial vault. Many Kow Swamp crania and Cohuna display shape similarities with a population of known modified individuals from New Britain. Kow Swamp 1, 5, and Cohuna show the strongest evidence for modification, but other individuals from this sample also show evidence of culturally manipulated changes in cranial shape. This project provides added support for the argument that at least some Pleistocene Australian groups were practicing artificial cranial modification, and suggests that caution should be used when including these individuals in phylogenetic studies. PMID:24964764

  20. Evapotranspiration of tropical peat swamp forests.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Takashi; Kusin, Kitso; Limin, Suwido; Osaki, Mitsuru

    2015-05-01

    In Southeast Asia, peatland is widely distributed and has accumulated a massive amount of soil carbon, coexisting with peat swamp forest (PSF). The peatland, however, has been rapidly degraded by deforestation, fires, and drainage for the last two decades. Such disturbances change hydrological conditions, typically groundwater level (GWL), and accelerate oxidative peat decomposition. Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major determinant of GWL, whereas information on the ET of PSF is limited. Therefore, we measured ET using the eddy covariance technique for 4-6 years between 2002 and 2009, including El Niño and La Niña events, at three sites in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. The sites were different in disturbance degree: a PSF with little drainage (UF), a heavily drained PSF (DF), and a drained burnt ex-PSF (DB); GWL was significantly lowered at DF, especially in the dry season. The ET showed a clear seasonal variation with a peak in the mid-dry season and a large decrease in the late dry season, mainly following seasonal variation in net radiation (Rn ). The Rn drastically decreased with dense smoke from peat fires in the late dry season. Annual ET forced to close energy balance for 4 years was 1636 ± 53, 1553 ± 117, and 1374 ± 75 mm yr(-1) (mean ± 1 standard deviation), respectively, at UF, DF, and DB. The undrained PSF (UF) had high and rather stable annual ET, independently of El Niño and La Niña events, in comparison with other tropical rainforests. The minimum monthly-mean GWL explained 80% of interannual variation in ET for the forest sites (UF and DF); the positive relationship between ET and GWL indicates that drainage by a canal decreased ET at DF through lowering GWL. In addition, ET was decreased by 16% at DB in comparison with UF chiefly because of vegetation loss through fires. PMID:24912043

  1. Chronological overlap between humans and megafauna in Sahul (Pleistocene Australia New Guinea): A review of the evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Judith; Fillios, Melanie; Wroe, Stephen

    2008-08-01

    Over 60 faunal species disappeared from the Australian continent during the Middle-Late Pleistocene. Most of these animals were large to gigantic marsupials, birds and reptiles. A terminal extinction date of 46.4 kyr has been proposed for the megafauna, with all sites containing younger fossil megafauna dismissed by some researchers because of questions over stratigraphic integrity or chronologies. The timing of the extinctions is argued to be broadly coincident with estimates of first colonization of the continent by modern humans, and explanatory extinction models involving humans have subsequently gained currency. However there is considerable evidence to suggest that in some parts of the continent, people and some species of megafauna may have co-existed well beyond 46.4 kyr. In other places, such as Tasmania and the north of the continent, there is no known record of a human-megafauna temporal overlap. A review of the available evidence indicates that only 13 species of megafauna were extant on human arrival in Australia. The archaeology of this period indicates that rather than a focus on big game hunting or 'firestick farming', it was characterized by regional variability in subsistence strategies consistent with the range of environmental zones. At the present time there is no substantive argument for a terminal extinction date of 46.4 kyr, the current evidence indicating that there is no specific time period that correlates to any single mass extinction event. On the basis of available evidence arguments for either human or climatic causation are entirely circumstantial and implicitly require acceptance of many unproven assumptions. Claims to have eliminated climate as a primary driver are premature and the recent focus on delivering 'proof' of human causation in Pleistocene faunal extinctions diverts attention from achieving a better understanding of the differential impacts of climate change and short term climatic flux in a land of environmental

  2. Delimiting oceanographic provinces to determine drivers of mesoscale patterns in benthic megafauna: A case study in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacharité, Myriam; Jørgensen, Lis Lindal; Metaxas, Anna; Lien, Vidar S.; Skjoldal, Hein Rune

    2016-08-01

    Communities of benthic megafauna in the deep waters of continental shelves (> 100 m) are important components of marine ecosystems. In high-latitude ecosystems, this fauna is increasingly impacted by human activities and climate variability. In this study, we provide baseline knowledge on the oceanographic conditions affecting its distribution in the Barents Sea in the vicinity of the Polar Front - an oceanic front occurring at the transition zone between the Atlantic and Arctic water masses. We used fields of temperature and currents from an ocean circulation model (Regional Ocean Modelling System - ROMS) to derive variables divided into 3 groups relevant to bottom fauna (temperature, water column structure and bottom currents) expressing either mean conditions or temporal variability over 10 years (2001-2010). Benthic megafauna was surveyed in summer 2011 at 139 sites. To analyze the relationship between spatial variability in the composition of benthic megafauna (i.e., β-diversity) and oceanographic conditions, we: (1) used generalized dissimilarity modelling (GDM) and (2) delimited oceanographic provinces (i.e., regions of similar conditions) for each group of variables using principal component analysis (PCA) followed by cluster analysis. Turnover in benthic megafauna was explained by 7 oceanographic variables (temperature: 4, water column structure: 2, bottom currents: 1), depth and geographic distance (56.7% of total deviance explained). Concurrently, patterns in oceanographic provinces among the 3 groups of variables coincided with results from the GDM, where provinces derived from temperature were sharply delimited relative to the other groups. We concluded that the spatial structure of the environment is important in the relationship between spatial variability of benthic megafauna and oceanographic conditions in shelf deep waters. Ocean models are powerful tools to study this relationship, but the way in which their inherent uncertainty affects the

  3. Differences in impacts of Hurricane Sandy on freshwater swamps on the Delmarva Peninsula, Mid−Atlantic Coast, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane wind and surge may have different influences on the subsequent composition of forests. During Hurricane Sandy, while damaging winds were highest near landfall in New Jersey, inundation occurred along the entire eastern seaboard from Georgia to Maine. In this study, a comparison of damage from salinity intrusion vs. wind/surge was recorded in swamps of the Delmarva Peninsula along the Pocomoke (MD) and Nanticoke (DE) Rivers, south of the most intense wind damage. Hickory Point Cypress Swamp (Hickory) was closest to the Chesapeake Bay and may have been subjected to a salinity surge as evidenced by elevated salinity levels at a gage upstream of this swamp (storm salinity = 13.1 ppt at Nassawango Creek, Snow Hill, Maryland). After Hurricane Sandy, 8% of the standing trees died at Hickory including Acer rubrum, Amelanchier laevis, Ilex spp., and Taxodium distichum. In Plot 2 of Hickory, 25% of the standing trees were dead, and soil salinity levels were the highest recorded in the study. The most important variables related to structural tree damage were soil salinity and proximity to the Atlantic coast as based on Stepwise Regression and NMDS procedures. Wind damage was mostly restricted to broken branches although tipped−up trees were found at Hickory, Whiton and Porter (species: Liquidamabar styraciflua, Pinus taeda, Populus deltoides, Quercus pagoda and Ilex spp.). These trees fell mostly in an east or east−southeast direction (88o−107o) in keeping with the wind direction of Hurricane Sandy on the Delmarva Peninsula. Coastal restoration and management can be informed by the specific differences in hurricane damage to vegetation by salt versus wind.

  4. Substrate heterogeneity and regeneration of a swamp tree, Nyssa aquatica

    SciTech Connect

    Huenneke, L.F.; Sharitz, R.R. )

    1990-03-01

    We investigated physical characteristics of several substrate types in a South Carolina riverine swamp forest, and the effect of those characteristics upon germination and seedling growth of the dominant swamp tree, Nyssa aquatica (water tupelo). Substrates were categorized as emergent (surfaces of trees, living cypress knees, stumps, or logs), protected (submerged sediment adjacent to an emergent object), or open (sediment > 50 cm from any emergent object and fully submerged during the growing season). Water tupelo seeds germinated best (> 25% in 16 days) on emergent substrates, but seed predation was extremely high on these same substrates. Substrate types differed significant in permanence and in rates of sediment loss or deposition. Growth rates of transplanted seedlings did not differ among substrate types. The result suggest that mortality due to erosional scour or impermanent rooting zones, superimposed on germination patterns, is responsible for the observed nonrandom distribution of woody plant seedlings among substrate types in the swamp forest.

  5. Geochemistry of mercury in tropical swamps impacted by gold mining.

    PubMed

    Marrugo-Negrete, José; Pinedo-Hernández, José; Díez, Sergi

    2015-09-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) poses a serious threat to the local environment. Colombia has very active ASGM activities, where mercury (Hg) ends in piles of mining waste, soils, and waterways. In this study, we assessed Hg speciation and bioavailability in sediments of two tropical swamps, impacted by ASGM. In Ayapel swamp, total Hg (T-Hg) concentrations in sediments ranged between 145 and 313 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) (mean: 235 ± 49 ng g(-1) dw), whereas Grande Achi swamp levels are 3-fold higher (range: 543-1021 ng g(-1) dw; mean: 722 ± 145 ng g(-1) dw). Even though lower levels of Hg were found in Ayapel, methylation was found to be significantly higher than in Grande Achi, and it is significantly higher in the dry than in the rainy season for both swamps. This increased methylation is linked to the statistically significant correlation between T-Hg, MeHg and organic matter in the Ayapel swamp. In fact, Hg content in both swamps is mainly associated to the organic fraction (Hg-o), with a higher statistically significant difference in Ayapel (43 ± 5%) compared to Grande Achi (33 ± 5%). On the other hand, a significant percentage (30 ± 6%) of elemental Hg fraction (Hg-e) was found in Grande Achi, directly related with Hg released during the gold recovery process from upstream ASGM sites. The percentage of the bioavailable fraction (Hg-w and Hg-h) is elevated (up to 15%), indicating a potential risk to the aquatic environment and human health because these labile Hg species could enter the water column and bioaccumulate in biota. PMID:25911046

  6. 33 CFR 117.820 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. 117.820 Section 117.820 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... North Carolina § 117.820 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. The draw of the Great Dismal Swamp Canal Bridge, mile 28.0 at South Mills, NC, shall operate as follows:...

  7. 33 CFR 117.820 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. 117.820 Section 117.820 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... North Carolina § 117.820 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. The draw of the Great Dismal Swamp Canal Bridge, mile 28.0 at South Mills, NC, shall operate as follows:...

  8. 43 CFR 2625.1 - Selection and patenting of swamp lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Selection and patenting of swamp lands... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) STATE GRANTS Swamp-land Grants § 2625.1 Selection and patenting of swamp lands. (a) All lands properly selected and reported...

  9. 43 CFR 2625.1 - Selection and patenting of swamp lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Selection and patenting of swamp lands... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) STATE GRANTS Swamp-land Grants § 2625.1 Selection and patenting of swamp lands. (a) All lands properly selected and reported...

  10. 33 CFR 117.820 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. 117.820 Section 117.820 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... North Carolina § 117.820 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. The draw of the Great Dismal Swamp Canal Bridge, mile 28.0 at South Mills, NC, shall operate as follows:...

  11. 43 CFR 2625.2 - Applications in conflict with swamp-land claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applications in conflict with swamp-land...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) STATE GRANTS Swamp-land Grants § 2625.2 Applications in conflict with swamp-land claims. Applications adverse to the...

  12. 43 CFR 2625.2 - Applications in conflict with swamp-land claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applications in conflict with swamp-land...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) STATE GRANTS Swamp-land Grants § 2625.2 Applications in conflict with swamp-land claims. Applications adverse to the...

  13. SwampLog II: A Structured Journal for Personal and Professional Inquiry within a Collaborative Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicassio, Frank J.

    SwampLog is a type of journal keeping that records the facts of daily activities as experienced and perceived by practitioners. The label, "SwampLog," was inspired by Donald Schon's metaphor used to distinguish the "swamplands of practice" from the "high, hard ground of research." Keeping a SwampLog consists of recording four general types of…

  14. 43 CFR 2625.1 - Selection and patenting of swamp lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selection and patenting of swamp lands... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) STATE GRANTS Swamp-land Grants § 2625.1 Selection and patenting of swamp lands. (a) All lands properly selected and reported...

  15. 33 CFR 117.820 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. 117.820 Section 117.820 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... North Carolina § 117.820 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. The draw of the Great Dismal Swamp Canal Bridge, mile 28.0 at South Mills, NC, shall operate as follows:...

  16. 33 CFR 117.820 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. 117.820 Section 117.820 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... North Carolina § 117.820 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. The draw of the Great Dismal Swamp Canal Bridge, mile 28.0 at South Mills, NC, shall operate as follows:...

  17. 43 CFR 2625.2 - Applications in conflict with swamp-land claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applications in conflict with swamp-land...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) STATE GRANTS Swamp-land Grants § 2625.2 Applications in conflict with swamp-land claims. Applications adverse to the...

  18. 43 CFR 2625.1 - Selection and patenting of swamp lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Selection and patenting of swamp lands... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) STATE GRANTS Swamp-land Grants § 2625.1 Selection and patenting of swamp lands. (a) All lands properly selected and reported...

  19. 43 CFR 2625.2 - Applications in conflict with swamp-land claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applications in conflict with swamp-land...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) STATE GRANTS Swamp-land Grants § 2625.2 Applications in conflict with swamp-land claims. Applications adverse to the...

  20. 77 FR 72737 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Dismal Swamp...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... (Alternate Route), Dismal Swamp Canal, South Mills, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary... deviation from the regulations governing the operation of the Great Dismal Swamp Canal Bridge, at mile 28.0, over the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Dismal Swamp Canal, South Mills, NC....

  1. Development of a grid-cell topographic surface for Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loftin, C.S.; Rasberry, W.; Kitchens, W.M.

    2000-01-01

    The Okefenokee Swamp is a 160,000 ha freshwater wetland in Southeast Georgia, USA that developed in a landscape basin. Hydrologic variability across the swamp suggests that water-surface elevations are not uniform across the swamp. The topographic surface map discussed herein was developed to describe the swamp topography at local to landscape scales and relate the swamp peat- and sand-surface elevations to elevation above mean sea level. These data were then used to relate water-surface elevations across the swamp so that the swamp hydrologic environment could be described spatially and temporally with a spatial hydrology model. The swamp was divided into 5 sub-basins that reflect similar seasonal hydrodynamics but also indicate local conditions unique to the basins. Topographic gradient influences water-level dynamics in the western swamp (2 sub-basins), which is dominated by the Suwannee River floodplain. The eastern swamp (3 sub-basins) is terraced, and the regional hydrology is driven less by topographic gradient and more by precipitation and evapotranspiration volumes. The relatively steep gradient and berm and lake features in the western swamp's Suwannee River floodplain limit the spatial extent of the Suwannee River sill's effects, whereas system sensitivities to evapotranspiration rates are more important drivers of hydrology in the eastern swamp.

  2. Climate change frames debate over the extinction of megafauna in Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea).

    PubMed

    Wroe, Stephen; Field, Judith H; Archer, Michael; Grayson, Donald K; Price, Gilbert J; Louys, Julien; Faith, J Tyler; Webb, Gregory E; Davidson, Iain; Mooney, Scott D

    2013-05-28

    Around 88 large vertebrate taxa disappeared from Sahul sometime during the Pleistocene, with the majority of losses (54 taxa) clearly taking place within the last 400,000 years. The largest was the 2.8-ton browsing Diprotodon optatum, whereas the ∼100- to 130-kg marsupial lion, Thylacoleo carnifex, the world's most specialized mammalian carnivore, and Varanus priscus, the largest lizard known, were formidable predators. Explanations for these extinctions have centered on climatic change or human activities. Here, we review the evidence and arguments for both. Human involvement in the disappearance of some species remains possible but unproven. Mounting evidence points to the loss of most species before the peopling of Sahul (circa 50-45 ka) and a significant role for climate change in the disappearance of the continent's megafauna. PMID:23650401

  3. Climate change frames debate over the extinction of megafauna in Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wroe, Stephen; Field, Judith H.; Archer, Michael; Grayson, Donald K.; Price, Gilbert J.; Louys, Julien; Faith, J. Tyler; Webb, Gregory E.; Davidson, Iain; Mooney, Scott D.

    2013-05-01

    Around 88 large vertebrate taxa disappeared from Sahul sometime during the Pleistocene, with the majority of losses (54 taxa) clearly taking place within the last 400,000 years. The largest was the 2.8-ton browsing Diprotodon optatum, whereas the ∼100- to 130-kg marsupial lion, Thylacoleo carnifex, the world's most specialized mammalian carnivore, and Varanus priscus, the largest lizard known, were formidable predators. Explanations for these extinctions have centered on climatic change or human activities. Here, we review the evidence and arguments for both. Human involvement in the disappearance of some species remains possible but unproven. Mounting evidence points to the loss of most species before the peopling of Sahul (circa 50-45 ka) and a significant role for climate change in the disappearance of the continent's megafauna.

  4. The Role of Seep Ecosystems in Distribution Patterns of Deep-Sea Megafauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, J.; McKelvey, Z.; Jacobson, A.; Hoerauf, E.; Van Dover, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    One of the key questions about methane seeps is the sphere of influence on the surrounding area they provide in terms of habitat structure, food sources, and geochemical environment. Understanding the distribution of megafauna relative to the seep environment is an initial step toward understanding these ecosystem properties. Systematic photo surveys using AUV Sentry were conducted at 4 methane seeps at the Blake Ridge Diapir and a seep at Cape Fear Diapir. Distributions of dominant seep features (bivalves, carbonates, bacterial mats) were used to define the active seep site. Geospatial mapping indicates that non-seep-endemic taxa (those not hosting chemoautotrophic endosymbionts) either avoid (e.g., sea urchins, certain sea cucumbers), are attracted to (e.g., squat lobsters, cake urchins) or show no distributional bias to (e.g., sea stars, certain fish) the presence of a seep. Further investigation into these faunal relationships may improve understanding of services that seeps provide to the larger ocean ecosystem.

  5. A megafauna's microfauna: gastrointestinal parasites of New Zealand's extinct moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes).

    PubMed

    Wood, Jamie R; Wilmshurst, Janet M; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Bonner, Karen I; Worthy, Trevor H; Kinsella, John M; Cooper, Alan

    2013-01-01

    WE PERFORM THE FIRST MULTIDISCIPLINARY STUDY OF PARASITES FROM AN EXTINCT MEGAFAUNAL CLADE USING COPROLITES FROM THE NEW ZEALAND MOA (AVES: Dinornithiformes). Ancient DNA and microscopic analyses of 84 coprolites deposited by four moa species (South Island giant moa, Dinornis robustus; little bush moa, Anomalopteryx didiformis; heavy-footed moa, Pachyornis elephantopus; and upland moa, Megalapteryx didinus) reveal an array of gastrointestinal parasites including coccidians (Cryptosporidium and members of the suborder Eimeriorina), nematodes (Heterakoidea, Trichostrongylidae, Trichinellidae) and a trematode (Echinostomida). Parasite eggs were most prevalent and diverse in coprolites from lowland sites, where multiple sympatric moa species occurred and host density was therefore probably higher. Morphological and phylogenetic evidence supports a possible vicariant Gondwanan origin for some of the moa parasites. The discovery of apparently host-specific parasite taxa suggests paleoparasitological studies of megafauna coprolites may provide useful case-studies of coextinction. PMID:23451203

  6. Climate change frames debate over the extinction of megafauna in Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea)

    PubMed Central

    Wroe, Stephen; Field, Judith H.; Archer, Michael; Grayson, Donald K.; Price, Gilbert J.; Louys, Julien; Faith, J. Tyler; Webb, Gregory E.; Davidson, Iain; Mooney, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    Around 88 large vertebrate taxa disappeared from Sahul sometime during the Pleistocene, with the majority of losses (54 taxa) clearly taking place within the last 400,000 years. The largest was the 2.8-ton browsing Diprotodon optatum, whereas the ∼100- to 130-kg marsupial lion, Thylacoleo carnifex, the world’s most specialized mammalian carnivore, and Varanus priscus, the largest lizard known, were formidable predators. Explanations for these extinctions have centered on climatic change or human activities. Here, we review the evidence and arguments for both. Human involvement in the disappearance of some species remains possible but unproven. Mounting evidence points to the loss of most species before the peopling of Sahul (circa 50–45 ka) and a significant role for climate change in the disappearance of the continent’s megafauna. PMID:23650401

  7. Changing NPP consumption patterns in the Holocene: from Megafauna "liberated" NPP to "ecological bankruptcy"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, C.

    2015-12-01

    There have been vast changes in how net primary production (NPP) is consumed by humans and animals during the Holocene beginning with a potential increase in availability following the Pleistocene megafauna extinctions. This was followed by the development of agriculture which began to gradually restrict availability of NPP for wild animals. Finally, humans entered the industrial era using non-plant based energies to power societies. Here I ask the following questions about these three energy transitions: 1. How much NPP energy may have become available following the megafauna extinctions? 2. When did humans, through agriculture and domestic animals, consume more NPP than wild mammals in each country? 3. When did humans and wild mammals use more energy than was available in total NPP in each country? To answer this last question I calculate NPP consumed by wild animals, crops, livestock, and energy use (all converted to units of MJ) and compare this with the total potential NPP (also in MJ) for each country. We develop the term "ecological bankruptcy" to refer to the level of consumption where not all energy needs can be met by the country's NPP. Currently, 82 countries and a net population of 5.4 billion are in the state of ecologically bankruptcy, crossing this threshold at various times over the past 40 years. By contrast, only 52 countries with a net population of 1.2 billion remain ecologically solvent. Overall, the Holocene has seen remarkable changes in consumption patterns of NPP, passing through three distinct phases. Humans began in a world where there was 1.6-4.1% unclaimed NPP to consume. From 1700-1850, humans began to consume more than wild animals (globally averaged). At present, >82% of people live in countries where not even all available plant matter could satisfy our energy demands.

  8. Beaver Creek Wilderness, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Englund, K.J.; Hammack, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Beaver Creek Wilderness, Kentucky, was studied in 1980 by the USGS and USBM. Coal is the most important mineral resource in the Beaver Creek Wilderness. The coal is tentatively ranked as high-volatile A bituminous, and like coal of this rank in nearby mining areas, it is primarily suitable for use as steam coal. The coal resources are estimated to total 8.31 million short tons in beds greater than 14 in. thick. Nonmetallic minerals present in the Wilderness include limestone, shale, clay, and sandstone; these commodities are abundant outside the wilderness. The information available is not adequate for the assessment of the oil and gas resource potential of the Beaver Creek Wilderness. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources.

  9. BEAVER CREEK WILDERNESS, KENTUCKY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Englund, K.J.; Hammack, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Beaver Creek Wilderness, Kentucky, was studied. Coal is the most important mineral resource in the Beaver Creek Wilderness. The coal is tentatively ranked as high-volatile A bituminous, and like coal of this rank in nearby mining areas, it is primarily suitable for use as steam coal. The coal resources are estimated to total 8. 31 million short tons in beds greater than 14 in. thick. Nonmetallic minerals present in the Wilderness include limestone, shale, clay, and sandstone; these commodities are abundant outside the wilderness. The information available is not adequate for the assessment of the oil and gas resource potential of the Beaver Creek Wilderness. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources.

  10. Characteristics of mangrove swamps managed for mosquito control in eastern Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, B.; Devlin, D.; Proffitt, E.; McKee, K.; Cretini, K.F.

    2008-01-01

    Manipulations of the vegetation and hydrology of wetlands for mosquito control are common worldwide, but these modifications may affect vital ecosystem processes. To control mosquitoes in mangrove swamps in eastern Florida, managers have used rotational impoundment management (RIM) as an alternative to the worldwide practice of mosquito ditching. Levees surround RIM swamps, and water is pumped into the impoundment during the summer, a season when natural swamps have low water levels. In the New World, these mosquito-managed swamps resemble the mixed basin type of mangrove swamp (based on PCA analysis). An assessment was made of RIM, natural (control), and breached-RIM (restored) swamps in eastern Florida to compare their structural complexities, soil development, and resistance to invasion. Regarding structural complexity, dominant species composition differed between these swamps; the red mangrove Rhizophora mangle occurred at a higher relative density in RIM and breached-RIM swamps, and the black mangrove Avicennia germinans had a higher relative density in natural swamps. Tree density and canopy cover were higher and tree height lower in RIM swamps than in natural and breached-RIM swamps. Soil organic matter in RIM swamps was twice that in natural or breached-RIM swamps. RIM swamps had a lower resistance to invasion by the Brazilian pepper tree Schinus terebinthifolius, which is likely attributable to the lower porewater salinity in RIM swamps. These characteristics may reflect differences in important ecosystem processes (primary production, trophic structure, nutrient cycling, decomposition). Comparative assessments of managed wetlands are vital for land managers, so that they can make informed decisions compatible with conservation objectives. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  11. Coatal salt marshes and mangrove swamps in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shi-Lun; Chen, Ji-Yu

    1995-12-01

    Based on plant specimen data, sediment samples, photos, and sketches from 45 coastal crosssections, and materials from two recent countrywide comprehensive investigations on Chinese coasts and islands, this paper deals with China’s vegetative tidal-flats: salt marshes and mangrove swamps. There are now 141700 acres of salt marshes and 51000 acres of mangrove swamps which together cover about 30% of the mud-coast area of the country and distribute between 18°N (Southern Hainan Island) and 41 °N (Liaodong Bay). Over the past 45 years, about 1750000 acres of salt marshes and 49400 acres of mangrove swamps have been reclaimed. The 2.0×109 tons of fine sediments input by rivers into the Chinese seas form extensive tidal flats, the soil basis of coastal helophytes. Different climates result in the diversity of vegetation. The 3˜8 m tidal range favors intertidal zone development. Of over 20 plant species in the salt marshes, native Suaeda salsa, Phragmites australis, Aeluropus littoralis, Zoysia maerostachys, Imperata cylindrica and introduced Spartina anglica are the most extensive in distribution. Of the 41 mangrove swamps species, Kandelia candel, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Excoecaria agallocha and Avicennia marina are much wider in latitudinal distribution than the others. Developing stages of marshes originally relevant to the evolution of tidal flats are given out. The roles of pioneer plants in decreasing flood water energy and increasing accretion rate in the Changjiang River delta are discussed.

  12. Learning To Love the Swamp: Reshaping Education for Public Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schall, Ellen

    1996-01-01

    The world of public service is compared to a swamp in which important, complex, and messy problems are addressed, and it is argued that graduate and professional education must be reshaped to produce leaders who can make sense of current challenges. Education that is more experiential, behavioral, interactive, and collectively oriented is…

  13. FISH UTILIZATION OF AN INUNDATED SWAMP-STREAM FLOODPLAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The inundated floodplain of Creeping Swamp (Pitt County, North Carolina) was sampled weekly for fish from November 1979 through May 1980. The fish community was dominated by pirate perch and redfin pickerel. Other frequently occurring species included flier, mud sunfish, eastern ...

  14. Distribution of periphytic algae in wetlands (Palm swamps, Cerrado), Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dunck, B; Nogueira, I S; Felisberto, S A

    2013-05-01

    The distribution of periphytic algae communities depends on various factors such as type of substrate, level of disturbance, nutrient availability and light. According to the prediction that impacts of anthropogenic activity provide changes in environmental characteristics, making impacted Palm swamps related to environmental changes such as deforestation and higher loads of nutrients via allochthonous, the hypothesis tested was: impacted Palm swamps have higher richness, density, biomass and biovolume of epiphytic algae. We evaluated the distribution and structure of epiphytic algae communities in 23 Palm swamps of Goiás State under different environmental impacts. The community structure attributes here analyzed were composition, richness, density, biomass and biovolume. This study revealed the importance of the environment on the distribution and structuration of algal communities, relating the higher values of richness, biomass and biovolume with impacted environments. Acidic waters and high concentration of silica were important factors in this study. Altogether 200 taxa were identified, and the zygnemaphycea was the group most representative in richness and biovolume, whereas the diatoms, in density of studied epiphyton. Impacted Palm swamps in agricultural area presented two indicator species, Gomphonema lagenula Kützing and Oedogonium sp, both related to mesotrophic to eutrophic conditions for total nitrogen concentrations of these environments. PMID:23917560

  15. Biology and control of swamp dodder (Cuscuta gronovii)

    SciTech Connect

    Bewick, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    A simple model predicting swamp dodder (Cuscuta gronovii Willd.) emergence was developed. The model states that 0.1% of the cranberry seedlings will emerge after 150 to 170 GDD have accumulated after the winter ice has melted on the cranberry beds, using 0 C as the low temperature threshold. Experiments in cranberry showed that pronamide (3,5-dichloro-(N-1,1-dimethyl-2-propynyl)benzamide) was effective in controlling swamp dodder when applied preemergence. Rates below 2.4 kg ai/ha appeared to be safe for cranberry plants and fruit. Experiments with /sup 14/C glyphosate showed that the herbicide moved out of carrot leaves to the physiological sinks in the plant. In carrots parasitized by swamp dodder the dodder acted as one of the strongest sinks for photosynthates from the host. In cranberry glyphosate moved out of the leaves, but most remained in the stem to which the treated leaves were attached. The only physiological sinks that accumulated significant amounts of label were the stem apices. The concentration of the herbicide in this sink decreased with time. Swamp dodder stems were able to absorb glyphosate directly from solution.

  16. Impacts of sewage effluent on tree survival, water quality and nutrient removal in coastal plain swamps

    SciTech Connect

    Kuenzler, E.J.

    1987-09-01

    An investigation was conducted of the impacts of sprayed municipal sewage on swamp tree survival and the effects of the swamp system on nutrient concentrations below the outfalls on two streams on the coastal plain of North Carolina. Effluent was discharged to one swamp stream by aerial spraying and to the other stream by way of a small ditch. Ninety-eight percent of the trees struck directly by the spray were dead within 18 months of the date spraying began. Both swamp systems removed sufficient quantities of nitrogen and phosphorus within a few kilometers to account for virtually all of the sewage nutrient load to the swamps.

  17. [Effects of forest and swamp on hydrochemical characteristics of streams].

    PubMed

    Man, Xiuling; Fan, Jinfeng; Tan, Xiaojing; Cai, Tijiu

    2006-06-01

    With the upper reaches of Gongbiela River in the northeast part of Xiaoxing' an Mountains as test area, this paper studied the hydrochemical characteristics of the streams in forest and swamp during the period of June - September 2004. The results indicated that the hydrochemistry of forest and swamp streams belonged to calcium-bicarbonate type I (C1(Ca)). The pH value, mineralization rate, total hardness, and HCO3(-), SO4(2-), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Fe concentrations of forest streams were lower than those of swamp streams, while the concentrations of total N, total P, Cl-, K+, and Na+ were in adverse. In both of the streams, the contents of heavy metal elements such as Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb were lower than the class I in Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water (EQSSW) of China. The concentrations of total N and P in forest streams were (0.27 +/- 0.04) mg x L(-1) and (0.040 +/- 0.005) mg x L(-1), respectively, being significantly higher than those ((0.21 +/- 0.02) mg x L(-1) and (0.025 +/- 0.004) mg x L(-1)) in swamp streams. Swamp wetland had a stronger ability in depositing and adsorbing N and P, with more NH4(+) -N adsorbed than NO3(-) -N, and also had a stronger ability on the reduction and release of Fe, with the Fe content ((0.26 +/- 0.05) mg x L(-1)) in its streams obviously higher than that in forest streams. PMID:16964929

  18. The Paint Creek Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northrop, David; Vonck, Beth

    1998-01-01

    Describes a summer program project designed and conducted by a mixed-age group of elementary children. Students collected data to determine whether a local stream was polluted, and interpretations of the data varied. An informational video about the project and the creek was produced. (PVD)

  19. Boulder Creek Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingaman, Deirdre; Eitel, Karla Bradley

    2010-01-01

    Boulder Creek runs literally in the backyard of Donnelly Elementary School and happens to be on the EPA list of impaired water bodies. Therefore, a unique opportunity for problem solving opened the door to an exciting chance for students to become scientists, while also becoming active in their community. With the help of the Idaho Department of…

  20. WILLOW CREEK RECLAMATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Working in cooperation with the EPA, Colorado Division of Minerals and Geology, and others, the Willow Creek Reclamation Committee (WCRC) will investigate the sources and character of water entering the mine workings on the Amethyst vein near the town of Creede, Colorado. Activi...

  1. Hydrological modification, saltwater intrusion, and tree water use of a Pterocarpus officinalis swamp in Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colón-Rivera, Ricardo J.; Feagin, Rusty A.; West, Jason B.; López, Natalia B.; Benítez-Joubert, Rafael J.

    2014-06-01

    Tidal freshwater forested wetlands occupy a narrow ecological space determined by the balance between saltwater and freshwater inputs to the system. However, this balance is not well understood. In the Caribbean, tidal freshwater-forested wetlands dominated by Pterocarpus officinalis are vulnerable to changes in tidal influence and freshwater inputs. In this setting, the seasonal interactions of saltwater and freshwater inputs create less than ideal conditions for these forests to survive. Hence, it is crucial to have a better understanding of the hydrologic context of these and other tidal freshwater forested wetlands. We examined the extent of tidal forcing and saltwater influence in the largest Pterocarpus swamp of Puerto Rico by installing automated water level and conductivity recorders across a tidal creek transect at four different distances from the ocean, and by using water stable isotopes ratios (δD, δ18O) as natural tracers to determine the most important freshwater sources for tree transpiration. Records of water level and salinity revealed that the amount of rainfall was most influential on saltwater wedge migration in the creek for locations at the front and back of the tidal network, but that tidal dynamics were most influential at the middle section of the tidal network. Saltwater intrusion into the deepest parts of the tidal network was most prominent during sustained dry periods. Isotopic ratios of the surface water samples in the forest revealed that most of the water there was derived from freshwater runoff, but there was a seasonal change in its relative contribution to the forest hydrology. During the dry season, high δ values suggested the presence of runoff-derived water that had undergone evaporation, and saline influences were found in locations where past deforestation created preferential pathways for this water. During both seasons, δ 18O values of groundwater revealed the influence of saline water at depths 60 cm and greater near

  2. Did a Bolide Impact Trigger the Younger Dryas and Wipe Out American Megafauna? A Skeptic's Reaction to an Intriguing Hypothesis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedel, S. J.

    2007-05-01

    Perhaps there is credible physical evidence of a bolide impact in North America at 12,900 cal BP. However, several incongruous aspects of the paleoclimatic, archaeological, and faunal records of the Terminal Pleistocene must be addressed to allay skepticism about the hypothesis of dramatic effects upon humans or megafauna: 1) Paleoindian populations (e.g., Folsom, Dalton) thrived after the Younger Dryas (YD) onset; 2) megafauna, including giant sloths were wiped out in Florida, but medium-sized sloths in the Caribbean islands (including Cuba) survived into the mid-Holocene; 3) South American megafauna survived until at least 12,500 cal BP, probably longer; why was there not a synchronous extinction? 4) Late Pleistocene cold reversals in Antarctica and southern South America are not synchronous with the YD; 5) Bison and grizzly survived, and elk and moose expanded into North America in the Terminal Pleistocene-Early Holocene; why did they survive and thrive? 6) Mammoths survived on Wrangel Island and probably in pockets in Siberia well into the Holocene; why did the supposed impact in the Arctic not wipe them out? 7) Finally, the YD ended at 11,590 cal BP even more abruptly than it began (over less than a decade); does this require another impact? If not, why does the YD onset call for an extraterrestrial trigger?

  3. Stable isotope records of inland California megafauna - new insights into Pleistocene paleoecology and paleoenvironmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trayler, R. B.; Dundas, R. G.; Van De Water, P. K.; Fox-Dobbs, K.

    2012-12-01

    Paleodietary studies of California megafauna have focused primarily on the coastal late Pleistocene Rancho La Brea tar seeps (RLB) in Los Angeles, while other sites remain understudied. We examined two Pleistocene fossil localities from inland California (San Joaquin Valley) and report δ13C and δ18O values measured from tooth enamel of mammalian megafauna at both sites. The late Pleistocene McKittrick tar seeps in Kern County has a similar fauna to RLB. The middle Irvingtonian (~700,000 year old) Fairmead Landfill site, near Chowchilla, contains a megafaunal assemblage dominated by Equus, Camelops and Mammuthus. We used stable isotope values measured in carnivore and herbivore tooth enamel to investigate paleodietary and paleoecological patterns at both sites. δ13C values of tooth enamel is controlled by diet and can be used to investigate resource usage and partitioning among and between taxa. In large mammals δ18O ratios are controlled by drinking water, and by proxy, climate. Ontogenetic serial tooth δ18O and δ13C reveal seasonal trends in resource usage, from which we can infer patterns of forage availability. We sampled 85 individuals from 16 taxa; Arctodus, Bison, Camelops, Canis, Capromeryx, Cervus, Equus, Hemiauchenia, Homotherium, Mammut, Mammuthus, Miracinonyx, Panthera, Platygonus, Smilodon and Tetrameryx. Faunal δ13C differ significantly (p<0.001) between Fairmead and McKittrick, ranging from -13.5‰ to -8.2‰ and -11.8 to -0.7‰, respectively. No significant differences were detected in δ18O between sites (p=0.7). Fairmead δ13C values are consistent with an environment dominated by C3 vegetation. Platygonus and Camelops had the lowest and highest δ13C, respectively. Camelops exhibited the most variable δ13C among herbivores, though several other taxa are represented by single individuals, thus lacking dietary ranges. Among carnivores, Smilodon had the lowest δ13C values (-13.4‰) and Canis latrans the highest (-10.7‰). Carnivore δ13C

  4. Distribution of diffuse flow megafauna in two sites on the Eastern Lau Spreading Center, Tonga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podowski, Elizabeth L.; Moore, Tom S.; Zelnio, Kevin A.; Luther, George W., III; Fisher, Charles R.

    2009-11-01

    Hydrothermal vent environments are characterized by large gradients of toxic chemicals and high temperatures, which play a significant role in defining species' distributions. We used high-resolution imagery and spatially explicit in-situ physico-chemical measurements analyzed within a Geographic Information System (GIS) in order to characterize the spatial relations among different groups of megafauna, temperature, and chemistry within two discrete vent communities (40 and 50 m 2) on the Eastern Lau Spreading Center (ELSC). Chemical (sulfide and O 2 concentrations) and temperature data were obtained from approximately 75 different locations within each community using in-situ instruments. All data were integrated into a GIS, which served as a visualization tool and enabled the data to be analyzed in a spatial context. Our results confirm the importance of abiotic variables in defining the distributions of some fauna and elucidate several biological associations that are consistent between the two communities. The provannid snail, Alviniconcha spp., appears to actively avoid temperatures above 32-46 °C and/or sulfide concentrations exceeding approximately 260 μM. Slightly higher average sulfide concentrations and temperatures were measured among aggregations of Ifremeria nautilei compared to aggregations of the mussel Bathymodiolus brevior; however, the presence of mixed aggregations of the two species indicates an overlap in requirements. The brachyuran crab, Austinograea spp., was consistently observed directly on symbiont-containing species, particularly Alviniconcha spp. The solitary snail, Eosipho desbruyeresi, was rarely observed on biological substrata, but was often (60% of its population at the most active site) within 5 cm of symbiont-containing fauna, indicating a tolerance and preference for proximity to areas of high productivity. Densities and coverage of species differed substantially between the two communities despite high species overlap

  5. Factors influencing the distribution of epibenthic megafauna across the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosch, Thomas; Sommer, Stefan; Dengler, Marcus; Noffke, Anna; Bohlen, Lisa; Pfannkuche, Olaf; Liebetrau, Volker; Wallmann, Klaus

    2012-10-01

    Current de-oxygenation of the oceans is associated with severe habitat loss and distinct changes in the species composition of bentho-pelagic communities. We investigated the distributions of epibenthic megafauna across the Peruvian OMZ (11°S) at water depths ranging from ˜80 to 1000 m water depth using sea floor images. Likely controls of distributions were adressed by combining the abundances of major groups with geochemical parameters and sea-floor topography. In addition to bottom-water oxygen levels and organic-carbon availability, particular emphasis is laid on the effects of local hydrodynamics. Beside the occurrence of microbial mats at the shelf and upper slope, distinct zones of highly abundant megafauna, dominated by gastropods (900 ind. m-2), ophiuroids (140 ind. m-2), and pennatulaceans (20 ind. m-2), were observed at the lower boundary of the OMZ. Their distribution extended from 460 m water depth (O2 levels < 2 μM), where gastropods were abundant, to 680 m (O2 ˜6 μM) where epifaunal abundances declined sharply. Bottom water O2 represents a major factor that limits the ability of metazoans to invade deeply into the OMZ where they could have access to labile organic carbon. However, depending on their feeding mode, the distribution of organisms appeared to be related to local hydrodynamics caused by the energy dissipation of incipient internal M2 tides affecting the suspension, transport and deposition of food particles. This was particularly evident in certain sections of the investigated transect. At these potentially critical sites, energy dissipation of internal tides is associated with high bottom shear stress and high turbulences and coincides with elevated turbidity levels in the benthic boundary layer, increased Zr/Al-ratios, low sedimentation rates as well as a shift in the grain size towards coarser particles. In or near such areas, abundant suspension-feeding organisms, such as ophiuroids, pennatulaceans, and tunicates were present

  6. CANEY CREEK WILDERNESS, ARKANSAS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ericksen, George E.; Dunn, Maynard L., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources identified in the Caney Creek Wilderness, Arkansas, include many small manganese deposits in areas of novaculite, tripoli, shale, and slate. Small amounts of hand-sorted manganese-oxide ore have been recovered from several of the manganese deposits during sporadic mining activity. Additional manganese resources remain in the known deposits, but the amount in any given deposit is small.

  7. Panoramic Okavango Swamp, Botswana and Fires in Angola, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In this panoramic view of the Okavango Swamp, Botswana, (19.0S, 22.0E), the Okavango River, seen in sunglint, flows into a topographic trough to form an inland delta. Water, trapped in the meandering delta distributaries is evaporated or transpired by vegetation. In Angola to the north, the many fires of the seasonal burning of savannah vegetation for land clearing, in preparation for agriculture, has filled the atmosphere with haze and smoke.

  8. Lithologic and borehole geophysical data, Green Swamp area, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grubb, Hayes F.; Chappelear, John W.; Miller, James A.

    1978-01-01

    Continuous unconsolidated cores were obtained at 74 sites in the Green Swamp are to evaluate the potential for downward leakage to the Floridian aquifer. Depth of the core holes ranged from 21 to 227 feet and averaged about 87 feet., Lithology was determined by microscopic examination of the core from each hole. Geophysical logs were obtained from 59 of the 74 core holes. This report presents the detailed lithologic and geophysical data for these core holes.

  9. Evaluation of the Steel Creek ecosystem in relation to the proposed restart of the L-Reactor: interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    This interim report of findings from studies by SREL has updated information on several key components of the Steel Creek ecosystem. We have emphasized two categories of the Steel Creek biota: Endangered Species (American alligator) and species for which environmental degradation within SRP boundaries might result in changes in offsite resource abundance. Wintering waterfowl surveys in the vicinity of the Steel Creek delta have demonstrated a pattern of increased utilization over the duration of these studies (1981-83). Wood stork utilization of SRP swamp areas also appeared to be substantially increased relative to previous years. Thermal alteration of the Steel Creek delta areas will eliminate this area as wood stork foraging habitat. Anadromous fish utilization of the Steel Creek area was also substantially increased in 1983 relative to 1982. The differences in anadromous fish species utilization patterns between 1982 and 1983 are probably a result of the markedly different river flow conditions between the two years. Studies of the American alligator have continued. No further reproduction by alligators has been observed in the Steel Creek system. 24 references, 14 figures, 13 tables.

  10. Effect of Surface Coal Mining on the Hydrology of Crooked and Turkey Creek Basins, Jefferson County, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puente, Celso; Newton, John G.

    1979-01-01

    Streamflow, sediment yield, and water quality were monitored from October 1975 through May 1977 to determine the impact of surface coal mining on the hydrology of Crooked and Turkey Creek basins in Jefferson County, Alabama. The basins are in the northeast part of the Warrior coal field. Coal is and has been mined from the Blue Creek, Mary Lee, and and Newcastel coal beds in the Mary Lee group. Results show water-quality degradation, increased sediment yields, and increased low flow in most tributaries draining mined areas. The impact of mine drainage and sediment yield from mined subbasins on water in the main stem of Turkey Creek was small due to the alkalinity of the water in the creek and to dilution ratios that ranged from 1:30 to 1:300. Mine drainage has affected the quality of water in Crooked Creek. The dissolved solids concentration in water downstream from the mined areas was as much as 7 times greater than that in water in unmined parts of the basin. The sediment yield to Crooked Creek was lower in the mined area than in the unmined segment of the stream. The lower yield is due, in part, to the trapping of sediment in sediment ponds in the mines and in a swamp downstream from the mines. (USGS)

  11. Dietary controls on extinction versus survival among avian megafauna in the late Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox-Dobbs, Kena; Stidham, Thomas A.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Emslie, Steven D.; Koch, Paul L.

    2006-08-01

    The late Pleistocene extinction decimated terrestrial megafaunal communities in North America, but did not affect marine mammal populations. In coastal regions, marine megafauna may have provided a buffer that allowed some large predators or scavengers, such as California condors (Gymnogyps californianus), to survive into the Holocene. To track the influence of marine resources on avifaunas we analyzed the carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen isotope composition of collagen from late Pleistocene vultures and raptors, including species that survived the extinction (condor, bald eagle, golden eagle) and extinct species (teratorn, black vulture). At the Rancho La Brea and McKittrick tar pits of southern California, isotope values for extinct teratorns (Teratornis merriami, n = 10) and black vultures (Coragyps occidentalis, n = 8) show that they fed entirely in a terrestrial C3 ecosystem. In contrast, La Brea condors cluster into two groups, one with a terrestrial diet (n = 4), and the other with a strong marine influence (n = 5). At localities in the American southwest, Texas, and Florida, where condors became extinct, they have isotope values indicating entirely terrestrial diets (n = 10). Our results suggest that dependence upon terrestrial megafaunal carrion as a food source led to the extinction of inland California condor populations and coastal populations of teratorns and black vultures at the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary, whereas use of marine foods allowed coastal condor populations to survive.

  12. Sizing ocean giants: patterns of intraspecific size variation in marine megafauna

    PubMed Central

    Balk, Meghan A.; Benfield, Mark C.; Branch, Trevor A.; Chen, Catherine; Cosgrove, James; Dove, Alistair D.M.; Gaskins, Lindsay C.; Helm, Rebecca R.; Hochberg, Frederick G.; Lee, Frank B.; Marshall, Andrea; McMurray, Steven E.; Schanche, Caroline; Stone, Shane N.; Thaler, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    What are the greatest sizes that the largest marine megafauna obtain? This is a simple question with a difficult and complex answer. Many of the largest-sized species occur in the world’s oceans. For many of these, rarity, remoteness, and quite simply the logistics of measuring these giants has made obtaining accurate size measurements difficult. Inaccurate reports of maximum sizes run rampant through the scientific literature and popular media. Moreover, how intraspecific variation in the body sizes of these animals relates to sex, population structure, the environment, and interactions with humans remains underappreciated. Here, we review and analyze body size for 25 ocean giants ranging across the animal kingdom. For each taxon we document body size for the largest known marine species of several clades. We also analyze intraspecific variation and identify the largest known individuals for each species. Where data allows, we analyze spatial and temporal intraspecific size variation. We also provide allometric scaling equations between different size measurements as resources to other researchers. In some cases, the lack of data prevents us from fully examining these topics and instead we specifically highlight these deficiencies and the barriers that exist for data collection. Overall, we found considerable variability in intraspecific size distributions from strongly left- to strongly right-skewed. We provide several allometric equations that allow for estimation of total lengths and weights from more easily obtained measurements. In several cases, we also quantify considerable geographic variation and decreases in size likely attributed to humans. PMID:25649000

  13. How marine debris ingestion differs among megafauna species in a tropical coastal area.

    PubMed

    Di Beneditto, Ana Paula Madeira; Awabdi, Danielle Rodrigues

    2014-11-15

    The marine debris ingested by megafauna species (Trichiurus lepturus, Chelonia mydas, Pontoporia blainvillei, and Sotalia guianensis) was recorded in a coastal area of southeastern Brazil (21-23°S). Marine debris was recorded in all species, mainly consisting of plastic material (flexible and hard plastics - clear, white, and colored- and nylon filaments). The 'pelagic predators' T. lepturus and S. guianesis showed the lowest percent frequencies of debris ingestion (0.7% and 1.3%, respectively), followed by the 'benthic predator' P. blainvillei (15.7%) and the 'benthic herbivorous C. mydas (59.2%). The debris found in C. mydas stomachs was opportunistically ingested during feeding activities on local macroalgal banks. In the study area, the benthic environment accumulates more anthropogenic debris than the pelagic environment, and benthic/demersal feeders are more susceptible to encounters and ingestion. The sub-lethal effects observed in C. mydas, such as intestinal obstruction due to hardened fecal material, should be considered a local conservation concern. PMID:25256299

  14. Age constraints on Pleistocene megafauna at Tight Entrance Cave in southwestern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayliffe, Linda K.; Prideaux, Gavin J.; Bird, Michael I.; Grün, Rainer; Roberts, Richard G.; Gully, Grant A.; Jones, Rhys; Fifield, L. Keith; Cresswell, Richard G.

    2008-09-01

    A well-stratified succession of fossiliferous sediments occurs in Tight Entrance Cave, southwestern Australia. These infill deposits contain the remains of megafauna and have accumulated intermittently since the Middle Pleistocene: >137, 137-119 and 50-29 ka, according to the results of 14C, U-Th, ESR and OSL dating techniques. Megafaunal species richness was highest in the latest part of the penultimate glacial maximum and during the subsequent last interglacial (137-119 ka), but remains are less abundant following an apparent ˜70 ka depositional hiatus in the sequence. Most megafaunal specimens from the upper (<44 ka) units are fragmentary, and reworking from older strata cannot yet be ruled out. However, one specimen of Simosthenurus occidentalis (a large extinct kangaroo), a pair of articulated dentaries showing no signs of secondary transportation, was found within a sedimentary layer deposited between 48 and 50 ka. This represents one of the youngest demonstrably in situ occurrences of an Australian megafaunal taxon.

  15. 216. Construction of the Back Creek Bridge over Back Creek ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    216. Construction of the Back Creek Bridge over Back Creek and Virginia Route 613. This is a good example of a precast concrete girder bridge. Note the fallen beam at the far end. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  16. The Beaver Creek story

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, W.H., Jr.; Whitworth, B.G.; Smith, G.F.; Byl, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    Beaver Creek watershed in West Tennessee includes about 95,000 acres of the Nation's most productive farmland and most highly erodible soils. In 1989 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Agriculture, began a study to evaluate the effect of agricultural activities on water quality in the watershed and for best management practices designed to reduce agricultural nonpoint-source pollution. Agrichemical monitoring included testing the soils, ground water, and streams at four farm sites ranging from 27 to 420 acres. Monitoring stations were operated downstream to gain a better understanding of the water chemistry as runoff moved from small ditches into larger streams to the outlet of the Beaver Creek watershed. Prior to the implementation of best management practices at one of the farm study sites, some storms produced an average suspended-sediment concentration of 70,000 milligrams per liter. After the implementation of BMP's, however, the average value never exceeded 7,000 milligrams per liter. No-till crop production was the most effective best management practice for conserving soil on the farm fields tested. A natural bottomland hardwood wetland and a constructed wetland were evaluated as instream resource-management systems. The wetlands improved water quality downstream by acting as a filter and removing a significant amount of nonpoint-source pollution from the agricultural runoff. The constructed wetland reduced the sediment, pesticide, and nutrient load by approximately 50 percent over a 4-month period. The results of the Beaver Creek watershed study have increased the understanding of the effects of agriculture on water resources. Study results also demonstrated that BMP's do protect and improve water quality.

  17. Mobile demersal megafauna at artificial structures in the German Bight - Likely effects of offshore wind farm development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krone, R.; Gutow, L.; Brey, T.; Dannheim, J.; Schröder, A.

    2013-07-01

    Within the next few decades, large underwater structures of thousands of wind turbines in the northern European shelf seas will substantially increase the amount of habitat available for mobile demersal megafauna. As a first indication of the possible effects of this large scale habitat creation on faunal stocks settling on hard substrata, we compared selected taxa of the mobile demersal megafauna (decapods and fish) associated with the foundation of an offshore research platform (a wind-power foundation equivalent) with those of five shipwrecks and different areas of soft bottoms in the southern German Bight, North Sea. When comparing the amount of approximately 5000 planned wind-power foundations (covering 5.1 × 106 m2 of bottom area) with the existing number of at least 1000 shipwrecks (covering 1.2 × 106 m2 of bottom area), it becomes clear that the southern North Sea will provide about 4.3 times more available artificial hard substratum habitats than currently available. With regard to the fauna found on shipwrecks, on soft substrata and on the investigated wind-power foundation, we predict that the amount of added hard substrata will allow the stocks of substrata-limited mobile demersal hard bottom species to increase by 25-165% in that area. The fauna found at the offshore platform foundations is very similar to that at shipwrecks. Megafauna abundances at the foundations, however, are lower compared to those at the highly fractured wrecks and are irregularly scattered over the foundations. The upper regions of the platform construction (5 and 15 m depth) were only sparsely colonized by mobile fauna, the anchorages, however, more densely. The faunal assemblages from the shipwrecks and the foundations, respectively, as well as from the soft bottoms clearly differed from each other. We predict that new wind-power foundations will support the spread of hard bottom fauna into soft bottom areas with low wreck densities.

  18. Human influence on distribution and extinctions of the late Pleistocene Eurasian megafauna.

    PubMed

    Pushkina, Diana; Raia, Pasquale

    2008-06-01

    Late Pleistocene extinctions are of interest to paleontological and anthropological research. In North America and Australia, human occupation occurred during a short period of time and overexploitation may have led to the extinction of mammalian megafauna. In northern Eurasia megafaunal extinctions are believed to have occurred over a relatively longer period of time, perhaps as a result of changing environmental conditions, but the picture is much less clear. To consider megafaunal extinction in Eurasia, we compare differences in the geographical distribution and commonness of extinct and extant species between paleontological and archaeological localities from the late middle Pleistocene to Holocene. Purely paleontological localities, as well as most extinct species, were distributed north of archaeological sites and of the extant species, suggesting that apart from possible differences in adaptations between humans and other species, humans could also have a detrimental effect on large mammal distribution. However, evidence for human overexploitation applies only to the extinct steppe bison Bison priscus. Other human-preferred species survive into the Holocene, including Rangifer tarandus, Equus ferus, Capreolus capreolus, Cervus elaphus, Equus hemionus, Saiga tatarica, and Sus scrofa. Mammuthus primigenius and Megaloceros giganteus were rare in archaeological sites. Carnivores appear little influenced by human presence, although they become rarer in Holocene archaeological sites. Overall, the data are consistent with the conclusion that humans acted as efficient hunters selecting for the most abundant species. Our study supports the idea that the late Pleistocene extinctions were environmentally driven by climatic changes that triggered habitat fragmentation, species range reduction, and population decrease, after which human interference either by direct hunting or via indirect activities probably became critical. PMID:18199470

  19. Abundance and size distribution dynamics of abyssal epibenthic megafauna in the northeast Pacific.

    PubMed

    Ruhl, Henry A

    2007-05-01

    The importance of interannual variation in deep-sea abundances is now becoming recognized. There is, however, relatively little known about what processes dominate the observed fluctuations. The abundance and size distribution of the megabenthos have been examined here using a towed camera system at a deep-sea station in the northeast Pacific (Station M) from 1989 to 2004. This 16-year study included 52 roughly seasonal transects averaging 1.2 km in length with over 35600 photographic frames analyzed. Mobile epibenthic megafauna at 4100 m depth have exhibited interannual scale changes in abundance from one to three orders of magnitude. Increases in abundance have now been significantly linked to decreases in mean body size, suggesting that accruals in abundance probably result from the recruitment of young individuals. Examinations of size-frequency histograms indicate several possible recruitment events. Shifts in size-frequency distributions were also used to make basic estimations of individual growth rates from 1 to 6 mm/month, depending on the taxon. Regional intensification in reproduction followed by recruitment within the study area could explain the majority of observed accruals in abundance. Although some adult migration is certainly probable in accounting for local variation in abundances, the slow movements of benthic life stages restrict regional migrations for most taxa. Negative competitive interactions and survivorship may explain the precipitous declines of some taxa. This and other studies have shown that abundances from protozoans to large benthic invertebrates and fishes all have undergone significant fluctuations in abundance at Station M over periods of weeks to years. PMID:17536411

  20. Rethinking Trade-Driven Extinction Risk in Marine and Terrestrial Megafauna.

    PubMed

    McClenachan, Loren; Cooper, Andrew B; Dulvy, Nicholas K

    2016-06-20

    Large animals hunted for the high value of their parts (e.g., elephant ivory and shark fins) are at risk of extinction due to both intensive international trade pressure and intrinsic biological sensitivity. However, the relative role of trade, particularly in non-perishable products, and biological factors in driving extinction risk is not well understood [1-4]. Here we identify a taxonomically diverse group of >100 marine and terrestrial megafauna targeted for international luxury markets; estimate their value across three points of sale; test relationships among extinction risk, high value, and body size; and quantify the effects of two mitigating factors: poaching fines and geographic range size. We find that body size is the principal driver of risk for lower value species, but that this biological pattern is eliminated above a value threshold, meaning that the most valuable species face a high extinction risk regardless of size. For example, once mean product values exceed US$12,557 kg(-1), body size no longer drives risk. Total value scales with size for marine animals more strongly than for terrestrial animals, incentivizing the hunting of large marine individuals and species. Poaching fines currently have little effect on extinction risk; fines would need to be increased 10- to 100-fold to be effective. Large geographic ranges reduce risk for terrestrial, but not marine, species, whose ranges are ten times greater. Our results underscore both the evolutionary and ecosystem consequences of targeting large marine animals and the need to geographically scale up and prioritize conservation of high-value marine species to avoid extinction. PMID:27291051

  1. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  2. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Ecology of red swamps in the glaciated northeast: a community profile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golet, Francis C.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; DeRagon, William R.

    1993-01-01

    This report is part of a series of profiles on the ecology of wetland and deepwater habitats. This particular profile addresses red maple swamps in the glaciated northeastern United States. Red maple (Acer rubrum) swamp is a dominant wetland type in most of the region; it reaches its greatest abundance in southern New England and northern New Jersey, where it comprises 60-800/o of all inland wetlands. Red maple swamps occur in a wide variety of hydrogeologic settings, from small, isolated basins in till or glaciofluvial deposits to extensive wetland complexes on glacial lake beds, and from hillside seeps to stream floodplains and lake edges. Individual swamps may be seasonally flooded, temporarily flooded, or seasonally saturated, and soils may be mineral or organic. As many as five distinct vegetation layers may occur in these swamps, including trees, saplings, shrubs, herbs, and ground cover plants such as bryophytes and clubmosses. On a regional scale, red maple swamps support at least 50 species of trees, more than 90 species of shrubs and vines, and more than 300 species of nonwoody plants. These swamps also provide habitat for a rich faunal community, including several wetland-dependent species. In areas that are becoming urbanized, these wetlands often constitute critical habitat for facultative species as well. Red maple swamps also are important sites for flood storage, water quality improvement, recreation, scenic beauty, and open space.

  4. Global patterns of marine mammal, seabird, and sea turtle bycatch reveal taxa-specific and cumulative megafauna hotspots.

    PubMed

    Lewison, Rebecca L; Crowder, Larry B; Wallace, Bryan P; Moore, Jeffrey E; Cox, Tara; Zydelis, Ramunas; McDonald, Sara; DiMatteo, Andrew; Dunn, Daniel C; Kot, Connie Y; Bjorkland, Rhema; Kelez, Shaleyla; Soykan, Candan; Stewart, Kelly R; Sims, Michelle; Boustany, Andre; Read, Andrew J; Halpin, Patrick; Nichols, W J; Safina, Carl

    2014-04-01

    Recent research on ocean health has found large predator abundance to be a key element of ocean condition. Fisheries can impact large predator abundance directly through targeted capture and indirectly through incidental capture of nontarget species or bycatch. However, measures of the global nature of bycatch are lacking for air-breathing megafauna. We fill this knowledge gap and present a synoptic global assessment of the distribution and intensity of bycatch of seabirds, marine mammals, and sea turtles based on empirical data from the three most commonly used types of fishing gears worldwide. We identify taxa-specific hotspots of bycatch intensity and find evidence of cumulative impacts across fishing fleets and gears. This global map of bycatch illustrates where data are particularly scarce--in coastal and small-scale fisheries and ocean regions that support developed industrial fisheries and millions of small-scale fishers--and identifies fishing areas where, given the evidence of cumulative hotspots across gear and taxa, traditional species or gear-specific bycatch management and mitigation efforts may be necessary but not sufficient. Given the global distribution of bycatch and the mitigation success achieved by some fleets, the reduction of air-breathing megafauna bycatch is both an urgent and achievable conservation priority. PMID:24639512

  5. Global patterns of marine mammal, seabird, and sea turtle bycatch reveal taxa-specific and cumulative megafauna hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Lewison, Rebecca L.; Crowder, Larry B.; Wallace, Bryan P.; Moore, Jeffrey E.; Cox, Tara; Zydelis, Ramunas; McDonald, Sara; DiMatteo, Andrew; Dunn, Daniel C.; Kot, Connie Y.; Bjorkland, Rhema; Kelez, Shaleyla; Soykan, Candan; Stewart, Kelly R.; Sims, Michelle; Boustany, Andre; Read, Andrew J.; Halpin, Patrick; Nichols, W. J.; Safina, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on ocean health has found large predator abundance to be a key element of ocean condition. Fisheries can impact large predator abundance directly through targeted capture and indirectly through incidental capture of nontarget species or bycatch. However, measures of the global nature of bycatch are lacking for air-breathing megafauna. We fill this knowledge gap and present a synoptic global assessment of the distribution and intensity of bycatch of seabirds, marine mammals, and sea turtles based on empirical data from the three most commonly used types of fishing gears worldwide. We identify taxa-specific hotspots of bycatch intensity and find evidence of cumulative impacts across fishing fleets and gears. This global map of bycatch illustrates where data are particularly scarce—in coastal and small-scale fisheries and ocean regions that support developed industrial fisheries and millions of small-scale fishers—and identifies fishing areas where, given the evidence of cumulative hotspots across gear and taxa, traditional species or gear-specific bycatch management and mitigation efforts may be necessary but not sufficient. Given the global distribution of bycatch and the mitigation success achieved by some fleets, the reduction of air-breathing megafauna bycatch is both an urgent and achievable conservation priority. PMID:24639512

  6. Characterization of epibenthic and demersal megafauna at Mississippi Canyon 252 shortly after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Marla M; Benfield, Mark C

    2013-12-15

    The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill resulted in the release of a large quantity of oil and gas into the northern Gulf of Mexico from a bathypelagic source. Due to a lack of pre-spill quantitative data the baseline condition of the communities near the spill site is unknown. This makes it difficult to determine the impact of the spill on deepwater megafauna. Remotely operated vehicles were used to quantify megafauna at five study sites during August and September 2010:2000 m north, west, south, and east, and 500 m north of the Macondo well. Comparisons of animal abundances indicated that 2000 m-N and 2000 m-W had the greatest taxonomic richness and highest abundances while 2000 m-E had slightly lower values. In contrast 500 m-N and 2000 m-S had the lowest taxonomic richness and abundances. Our study also suggests that certain taxa were potentially more resistant or sensitive to the spill. PMID:24269011

  7. Ecology of red maple swamps in the glaciated northeast: A community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Golet, F.C.; Calhoun, A.J.K.; DeRagon, W.R.; Lowry, D.J.; Gold, A.J.

    1993-06-01

    The report is part of a series of profiles on the ecology of wetland and deepwater habitats. This particular profile addresses red maple swamps in the glaciated northeastern United States. Red maple (Acer rubrum) swamp is a dominant wetland type in most of the region; it reaches the greatest abundance in southern New England and northern New Jersey; where it comprises 60-80% of all inland wetlands. Red maple swamps occur in a wide variety of hydrogeologic settings, from small, isolated basins in till or glaciofluvial deposits to extensive wetland complexes on glacial lake beds, and from hillside seeps to stream floodplains and lake edges. Individual swamps may be seasonally flooded, temporarily flooded, or seasonally saturated, and soils may be mineral or organic. As many as five distinct vegetation layers may occur in these swamps, including trees, saplings, shrubs, herbs, and ground cover plants such as bryophytes and clubmosses.

  8. Understanding the Distribution of Marine Megafauna in the English Channel Region: Identifying Key Habitats for Conservation within the Busiest Seaway on Earth

    PubMed Central

    McClellan, Catherine M.; Brereton, Tom; Dell'Amico, Florence; Johns, David G.; Cucknell, Anna-C.; Patrick, Samantha C.; Penrose, Rod; Ridoux, Vincent; Solandt, Jean-Luc; Stephan, Eric; Votier, Stephen C.; Williams, Ruth; Godley, Brendan J.

    2014-01-01

    The temperate waters of the North-Eastern Atlantic have a long history of maritime resource richness and, as a result, the European Union is endeavouring to maintain regional productivity and biodiversity. At the intersection of these aims lies potential conflict, signalling the need for integrated, cross-border management approaches. This paper focuses on the marine megafauna of the region. This guild of consumers was formerly abundant, but is now depleted and protected under various national and international legislative structures. We present a meta-analysis of available megafauna datasets using presence-only distribution models to characterise suitable habitat and identify spatially-important regions within the English Channel and southern bight of the North Sea. The integration of studies from dedicated and opportunistic observer programmes in the United Kingdom and France provide a valuable perspective on the spatial and seasonal distribution of various taxonomic groups, including large pelagic fishes and sharks, marine mammals, seabirds and marine turtles. The Western English Channel emerged as a hotspot of biodiversity for megafauna, while species richness was low in the Eastern English Channel. Spatial conservation planning is complicated by the highly mobile nature of marine megafauna, however they are important components of the marine environment and understanding their distribution is a first crucial step toward their inclusion into marine ecosystem management. PMID:24586985

  9. Megafauna and frozen soil: the drivers of atmospheric CH4 dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimov, N.; Zimov, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    During the last deglaciation (LD) a strong increase in atmospheric methane (CH4) concentrations occurred simultaneously with a rise in Greenland temperatures indicating that in the north, during this time period, strong CH4 sources “awakened”, as additionally documented by the appearance of a strong gradient between northern (Greenland) and southern (Antarctica) hemisphere atmospheric CH4 concentrations. This rise could not be caused by wetland expansion. A reconstruction of peatland formation dynamics has indicated that wetlands on Earth were few in LD and only actively expanded 10,000 yr BP, after atmospheric CH4 concentrations began to decline. Destabilization of methane clathrates also could not be the source for atmospheric CH4 increase. Geological CH4 (including methane clathrates) has the highest deuterium content (δD) among all of the known sources of CH4 while atmospheric CH4 δD values determined for the LD were record low. To explain recorded atmospheric CH4 and its isotopic dynamics required a strong northern source, which was active only during the LD and that provided very low δD CH4 values. Such a source is permafrost thawing under anaerobic conditions (or better stated soils of mammoth steppe-tundra ecosystems). Permafrost thawing is the strongest, among known, wetland sources (usually over 100g CH4/m2yr) and has a unique isotopic signature (δD = -400 per mil (-338 to -479 per mil), δ13C = -73 per mil (-58 to -99 per mil)). The main sources of atmospheric CH4 have different isotopic signatures (δ13C, δD). The isotopic content of atmospheric CH4 is a simple function of the weight average for all of the sources. Inclusion of permafrost source into a budget model of the atmospheric methane and its isotopes allowed us to reconstruct the dynamics of methane’s main sources. Model indicated geological source to be negligible as in LGM so and in LD and Holocene. During the glaciation, the largest methane source was megafauna, whose 1

  10. Variations in the invertebrate abyssal megafauna in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurston, M. H.; Bett, B. J.; Rice, A. L.; Jackson, P. A. B.

    1994-09-01

    Epibenthic sledge and otter trawl samples of invertebrate megabenthos were collected from the abyss of the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Stations were selected to have contrasting overlying water column structure. Strong seasonal pulses of phytodetritus on the sea floor have been recorded on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP) but not on the Madeira Abyssal Plain (MAP). Sledge-and trawl-derived abundances of 13.73 and 8.13 individuals 10 3 m -2 were found at PAP, with corresponding wet biomass values of 169.4 and 189.2 g 10 3 m -2. Data from sledge hauls taken at MAP gave an abundance of 7.48 individuals and 5.15g 10 3 m -2. Sledge and trawl abundances at Great Meteor East (GME) were 2.91 and 2.19 individuals 10 3 m -2 and 4.31 and 11.30 g 10 3 m -2. Holothurians dominated the invertebrate biomass at PAP while Astoroidea and Decapoda Natantia were important taxa at MAP and GME. Otter trawl samples demonstrated fish to be the major component of total megadaunal biomass and suggest that small fixed-frame trawls give gross underestimates of fish abundance and biomass. Size spectra based on abundance and biomass data indicated the megafauna to be a functional group at PAP stationl only. Here peak invertebrate biomass occurred in the 40-80 g wet wt size class. In contrast, no large invertebrates (>20 g wet wt) were found at MAP of GME. Concurrent photographic records indicate higher faunal densities than do net catches. Faunal differences between stations were examined, and a weak relationship between surface productivity and megafaunal abundance was established. Data are inadequate to detect a similar relationship with biomass. Biomass values at PAP of 16-39 times those of MAP and GME appear to be explained by the deposition of phytodetritus at PAP but not at MAP or, probably, at GME. Among invertebrates, detritivores form the dominant feeding guild at all localities, but carnivores are important at MAP and GME. Phytodetritus appears to support the abundant surface

  11. Underside of span over Pickering Creek, showing highly skewed piers, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Underside of span over Pickering Creek, showing highly skewed piers, looking south. - Pennsylvania Railroad, Pickering Creek Trestle, Spanning Pickering Creek, south of Buckwalter Road, Pickering, Chester County, PA

  12. 5. VIEW OF MOSIER CREEK BRIDGE, NORTH ELEVATION. Historic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF MOSIER CREEK BRIDGE, NORTH ELEVATION. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Mosier Creek Bridge, Spanning Mosier Creek carrying Historic Columbia River Highway, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  13. EAGLE CREEK BRIDGE, WEST ELEVATION LOOKING 55 DEGREES NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAGLE CREEK BRIDGE, WEST ELEVATION LOOKING 55 DEGREES NORTHEAST - Historic Columbia River Highway, Eagle Creek Bridge, Spanning Eagle Creek on Historic Columbia River Highway, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  14. 2. MOSIER CREEK BRIDGE LOOKING NORTHWEST AT SOUTH ELEVATION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. MOSIER CREEK BRIDGE LOOKING NORTHWEST AT SOUTH ELEVATION. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Mosier Creek Bridge, Spanning Mosier Creek carrying Historic Columbia River Highway, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  15. 2. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF COMMUNITY KITCHEN. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF COMMUNITY KITCHEN. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Eagle Creek Recreation Area, Historic Columbia River Highway at Eagle Creek, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  16. Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, looking NW. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  17. Holocene mangrove swamps of West Africa sedimentology and soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marius, C.; Lucas, J.

    The mangrove swamps of West African Coast belong to the Atlantic type which is characterized by a small number of species. They colonize tidal environments which are dissected by numerous meandering tidal channels and are presently subject to a low rate of sediment accumulation. The mangrove vegetation exhibits a characteristic zonation pattern that basically reflects the adaptation of the various species to saline conditions. The typical zonation sequence is: Rhizophora racemosa (or Rh. mangle), Rh. mangle + Avicennia africana, Avicennia, flooded tanne, barren tanne, herbaceous tanne. The tannes are generated by aridic climatic conditions, heavy soil and water salt content, and are, in a way a peculiar feature of mangrove swamps in West Africa. The sediment colonized by the mangroves is relatively homogenous. Mineralogically, they are dominated by quartz and clay to which are associated halite, pyrite and jarosite. The clay suite is mainly composed of smectite and kaolinite. Smectite is predominant in the inlet areas and is replaced inland by kaolinite. Chemically, the sediments contain very low amounts of Ca, bases and trace elements. The mangrove swamp floodwaters have a chemical composition similar to that of seawater. It is dominated by sodium and chloride. Morphologically, the ripening of the soils appears with a chestnut mash colour horizon and buttery consistency in relation with the decomposition of fibrous roots of Rhizophora and also with pale yellow jarosite mottles in the top horizons of the tanne profiles due to the oxidation of pyrine. The two main properties of the mangrove soils of West Africa are acidity and salinity; the first is related to the high content of sulphur and the second to the sea influence. The acidity has to be connected mainly to the Rhizophora vegetation whose the root system is a real trap for catching the pyrites resulting from the reduction of the sulphates of sea water by the sulphate reducing bacteria, in a reduced

  18. Distribution, abundance, and habitat affinities of the Coastal Plain Swamp Sparrow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beadell, J.; Greenberg, R.; Droege, S.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2003-01-01

    We examined the distribution and abundance of the Coastal Plain Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza georgiana nigrescens) at previously occupied sites and points within potential habitat. We found Swamp Sparrows throughout their formerly documented range except in southern Chesapeake Bay. Swamp Sparrows were most common in the Mullica River region of New Jersey where we detected individuals at 78% of systematically chosen points with a mean count of 4.1 birds/point. The percentages of points with positive detections in. the regions of Delaware River (39%), eastern Delaware Bay (23%), western Delaware Bay (34%), and Tuckahoe River (31%) were lower. The mean count of birds/point was between 0.4 and 0.6 in these regions. A higher resolution Poisson model of relative abundance suggested that the greatest concentrations of Swamp Sparrows occurred not only in the Mullica River area but also along northwestern Delaware Bay. Regression analysis of Swamp Sparrow counts and habitat features identified shrubs (Iva frutescens and Baccharis halimifolia) as a key habitat component. By applying density estimates generated by DISTANCE (Thomas et al. 1998) to the approximate area of potential shrub habitat along Delaware Bay, we estimated that the core population of Coastal Plain Swamp Sparrows was less than 28,000 pairs. We recommend that the Coastal Plain Swamp Sparrow be listed as a subspecies of concern by state and local governments because of its relatively small population size, restricted distribution in the mid-Atlantic region, and narrow habitat requirements.

  19. Jejunal pseudodiverticulosis in a swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor).

    PubMed

    Haist, V; von Dörnberg, K; Jacobsen, B

    2012-11-01

    Necropsy examination of an 8-year-old female swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor) from a zoological garden revealed four intestinal diverticular outpouchings at the mesenteric border of the jejunum, which were partly ruptured causing a fatal peritonitis. Microscopically, affected small intestinal segments were characterized by an abrupt gap in the muscular layer with subsequent herniation of respective mucosal and submucosal layers, interpreted as acquired pseudodiverticula. Multifocal perforations of these diverticula were associated with prominent fibrinosuppurative serositis with leakage of ingesta. In addition, there was intestinal nematodal endoparasitism with accompanying neutrophilic to eosinophilic enteritis. Small intestinal pseudodiverticula resembling human colonic diverticulosis are rare in animals and can lead to fatal peritonitis by faecal impaction, subsequent transmural inflammation and eventual perforation. PMID:22717131

  20. SWAMP+: multiple subsequence alignment using associative massive parallelism

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfadt, Shannon Irene; Baker, Johnnie W

    2010-10-18

    A new parallel algorithm SWAMP+ incorporates the Smith-Waterman sequence alignment on an associative parallel model known as ASC. It is a highly sensitive parallel approach that expands traditional pairwise sequence alignment. This is the first parallel algorithm to provide multiple non-overlapping, non-intersecting subsequence alignments with the accuracy of Smith-Waterman. The efficient algorithm provides multiple alignments similar to BLAST while creating a better workflow for the end users. The parallel portions of the code run in O(m+n) time using m processors. When m = n, the algorithmic analysis becomes O(n) with a coefficient of two, yielding a linear speedup. Implementation of the algorithm on the SIMD ClearSpeed CSX620 confirms this theoretical linear speedup with real timings.

  1. Soil chemistry and phosphorus retention capacity of North Carolina coastal plain swamps receiving sewage effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, C.J.; Walbridge, M.R.; Burns, A.

    1988-11-01

    Several hundred freshwater swamps in North Carolina currently receive municipal waste-water inputs. In the study researchers examined three Coastal Plain wetlands to (1) characterize their soil chemical properties, (2) determine short-term and long-term effects of effluent additions on soil chemistry, (3) estimate the phosphorus sorption capacities of these swamp soils and determine the relationship between P sorption capacity and soil chemistry, and (4) develop a predictive index to evaluate the P sorption potentials of other N.C. Coastal Plain swamps.

  2. Fate of added nitrate and ammonium-nitrogen entering a Louisiana gulf coast swamp forest

    SciTech Connect

    Lindau, C.W.; De Laune, R.D.; Jones, G.L.

    1988-03-01

    Added /sup 15/N labeled inorganic nitrogen was used to determine the significance of nitrification-denitrification in flooded swamp soil in removing nitrogen. Nitrogen-15 labeled (NH/sub 2/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and KNO/sub 3/ were added to replicated plots in a swamp forest receiving agricultural runoff. Nitrous oxide and N/sub 2/ fluxes were measured and maximum fluxes were estimated at 24g N/m/sup 2/ x yr and 110 g N/m/sup 2/ x yr, respectively. The capacity of the swamp forest to remove large quantities of nitrogen via nitrification-denitrification processes was demonstrated.

  3. Assessing patterns and processes of landscape change in Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loftin, Cynthia Smith

    The Okefenokee Swamp is one of the largest freshwater wetlands in the world. Currently protected and managed as a national wilderness area and national wildlife refuge, the swamp has a history of human-caused manipulation and modification. The swamp landscape is dynamic; vegetation compositions and distributions continually change as the hydrologic environments change. These dynamics are driven by natural processes such as peat accumulation and wildfire, as well as the artificial manipulations of the recent past. The Suwannee River sill was constructed following extensive wildfires during 1954--1955, with the intent of protecting the swamp and surrounding uplands from effects of wildfires. During subsequent years, concern was raised that the dam might be adversely affecting the swamp, ecology by extending periods of inundation, increasing water depths, and subsequently affecting swamp vegetation. Delineating the effects of the Suwannee River sill on the swamp hydrologic environment and vegetation distributions, in the process of exploring relationships among driving functions and landscape responses, was a purpose of this dissertation research. Data collected at various spatial and temporal scales were examined to identify the sill's effects. A water level recorder network was spatially linked with a global positioning system survey, and the resultant topographic surface and hydrologic data were included in a grid-cell based hydrology model to track water movement throughout the swamp. Model simulations illustrated swamp water level fluctuations before and after the sill was in place, and predicted recent hydrologic history in the sill's absence, as well as sensitivities of swamp hydrology to altered evapotranspiration rates. Model simulations also predicted that the sill was affecting about 18% of the swamp area with increased inundation depths and durations, and vegetation change attributed to the sill was limited to this area. Vegetation dynamics were also

  4. Old carbon efflux from tropical peat swamp drainage waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vihermaa, Leena; Waldron, Susan; Evers, Stephanie; Garnett, Mark; Newton, Jason

    2014-05-01

    Tropical peatlands constitute ~12% of the global peatland carbon pool, and of this 10% is in Malaysia1. Due to rising demand for food and biofuels, large areas of peat swamp forest ecosystems have been converted to plantation in Southeast Asia and are being subjected to degradation, drainage and fire, changing their carbon fluxes eg.2,3. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) lost from disturbed tropical peat can be derived from deep within the peat column and be aged from centuries to millennia4 contributing to aquatic release and cycling of old carbon. Here we present the results of a field campaign to the Raja Musa Peat Swamp Forest Reserve in N. Selangor Malaysia, which has been selectively logged for 80 years before being granted timber reserve status. We measured CO2 and CH4efflux rates from drainage systems with different treatment history, and radiocarbon dated the evasion CO2 and associated [DOC]. We also collected water chemistry and stable isotope data from the sites. During our sampling in the dry season CO2 efflux rates ranged from 0.8 - 13.6 μmol m-2 s-1. Sediments in the channel bottom contained CH4 that appeared to be primarily lost by ebullition, leading to sporadic CH4 efflux. However, dissolved CH4 was also observed in water samples collected from these systems. The CO2 efflux was aged up to 582±37 years BP (0 BP = AD 1950) with the associated DOC aged 495±35 years BP. Both DOC and evasion CO2 were most 14C-enriched (i.e. younger) at the least disturbed site, and implied a substantial component of recently fixed carbon. In contrast, CO2 and DOC from the other sites had older 14C ages, indicating disturbance as the trigger for the loss of old carbon. 1Page et al., 2010 2Hooijer et al., 2010 3Kimberly et al., 2012 4Moore et al., 2013

  5. Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek Watershed Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon; Smith, J.G.

    1999-03-01

    Biological monitoring of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, which border the Paducah Site, has been conducted since 1987. Biological monitoring was conducted by University of Kentucky from 1987 to 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 through March 1999. In March 1998, renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permits were issued to the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Enrichment Corporation. The renewed DOE permit requires that a watershed monitoring program be developed for the Paducah Site within 90 days of the effective date of the renewed permit. This plan outlines the sampling and analysis that will be conducted for the watershed monitoring program. The objectives of the watershed monitoring are to (1) determine whether discharges from the Paducah Site and the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) associated with the Paducah Site are adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assess the ecological health of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, (3) assess the degree to which abatement actions ecologically benefit Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek, (4) provide guidance for remediation, (5) provide an evaluation of changes in potential human health concerns, and (6) provide data which could be used to assess the impact of inadvertent spills or fish kill. According to the cleanup will result in these watersheds [Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks] achieving compliance with the applicable water quality criteria.

  6. Micropetrographic characteristics of peats from modern coal-forming environments in Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia and Albemarle-Pamlico Peninsular Swamps, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Corvinus, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Okefenokee Swamp, over 400,000 acres, is a swamp-marsh complex dominated by Taxodium-swamp vegetaion on its west side and Nymphaea-marsh vegetation onits east side. The Albemarle-Pamlico Peninsular Swamps primarily support a pocosin-bay vegetation. The Taxodium-dominated peats of the Okefenokee are more similar botanically to the Albemarle-Pamlico bay peats than are the Okefenokee Nymphaea-dominated peats. Some petrographic characteristics are common to all three peat types. The majority of cell walls in the peat exhibit colors (yellow to orange to red) which they did not display in their living state. This is believed to be from impregnation by the various cell fillings present in the peats. Unoxidized fragmented (granular) material in all three peat types usually occurs in larger amounts than oxidized (darkened) material. In Taxodium-dominated and bay peats the fragmented matrix is also usually more prevalent than the preserved material (intact cell walls and cell fillings). On the other hand, preserved material is most common in Nymphaea-dominated peats. It is believed that the majority of fragmented material is derived from the surface litter and that swamp vegetation contributes more surface litter than does marsh vegetation.

  7. 5. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, EXTERIOR VIEW OF PORTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, EXTERIOR VIEW OF PORTION OF EAGLE CREEK OVERLOOK. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Eagle Creek Recreation Area, Historic Columbia River Highway at Eagle Creek, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  8. 6. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, INTERIOR VIEW OF PORTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, INTERIOR VIEW OF PORTION OF EAGLE CREEK OVERLOOK. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Eagle Creek Recreation Area, Historic Columbia River Highway at Eagle Creek, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  9. SwampLog: A Structured Journal for Reflection-in-Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicassio, Frank

    1992-01-01

    Describes "SwampLog," an action-research journal process useful for recording and reflecting upon ongoing experience, exploring and creating innovative approaches to education, and gauging the resultant effects upon organizational, instructional, and individual renewal. (PRA)

  10. MANAGEMENT OF BOTTOMLAND HARDWOODS AND DEEPWATER SWAMPS FOR THREATENED AND ENDANGERED SPECIES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bottomland hardwood forests (BLH) and deepwater swamps on military installations support multiple uses beyond Department of Defense (DoD) training and testing missions, including threatened and endangered species (TES) conservation, public recreation, and forest commodities produ...

  11. 77 FR 42714 - Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To Intervene, Protests, and Comments Take notice that...

  12. PECONIC ESTUARY PROGRAM TIDAL CREEK STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    EEA evaluated ten tidal creeks throughout the Peconic Estuary representing a wide range of watershed variables. Primary focus was directed towards the collection and analysis of the macrobenthic invertebrate communities of these ten tidal creeks. Analysis of the macrobenthic comm...

  13. 78 FR 62616 - Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By letter filed September 23, 2013, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company informed the Commission that they have changed its name to Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC for...

  14. Landscape Dissection in the Alakai Swamp on Kauai by Groundwater Enhanced Weathering and and Surface Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pederson, D. T.; Knapp, E.; Blay, C.; Gates, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    The Alakai Swamp lies on the high western-side of the shield volcano that created Kauai some 5 million years ago. The swamp itself rests on younger lower-gradient lava flows. The basalts are of mantle origin and usually weather rapidly and directly to clays on the island. The remnants of the high points of the shield volcano form a natural "rain making" geometry (with the trade winds) such that the highest points of the Alakai Swamp near the summit experience rainfalls around 1500 mm/yr tapering off to approximately 250 mm/yr in the lower northwestern part of the swamp. Frequent dense fogs also represent a source of moisture for plant growth. The surface of the swamp approximates a sloping plane surface dissected by headward advancing tributaries of the deeply incised Waimea Canyon. Areas of bog/swamps and dense taller vegetation are located in the headwaters and divide areas of tributaries. The bog/swamp areas have a pronounced dip parallel to the general paths of the incising tributaries and represent the local surface of saturation of a zone of chemical and organic reactions weathering (etching) the underlying basalts. Away from the bogs/swamps vegetation height is greater reflecting opportunities for greater root development. Headwaters areas of the tributaries are small with tributary discharge curves during rainfall events suggesting significant groundwater contributions. The tributary canyons are very steep-sided and wide in the lower reaches resulting in very narrow drainage divides. The steep canyon walls are a result of high weathering rates associated with vegetation growth enhanced by groundwater discharge. The rapid growth of roots is also very effective in breaking up rock creating additional surface areas for weathering which increases the rate of conversion of basalts to clay. There is a rapid narrowing of tributary canyons upstream, in places to notch canyons, which further supports the contention that groundwater supported weathering processes are

  15. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.

    1995-04-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

  16. Isolation of heat-tolerant myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    Chotichayapong, Chatrachatchaya; Wiengsamut, Kittipong; Chanthai, Saksit; Sattayasai, Nison; Tamiya, Toru; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki; Tsuchiya, Takahide

    2012-10-01

    Myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus was purified from fish muscle using salt fractionation followed by column chromatography and molecular filtration. The purified Mb of 0.68 mg/g wet weight of muscle was determined for its molecular mass by MALDI-TOF-MS to be 15,525.18 Da. Using isoelectric focusing technique, the purified Mb showed two derivatives with pI of 6.40 and 7.12. Six peptide fragments of this protein identified by LC-MS/MS were homologous to Mbs of sea raven Hemitripterus americanus, yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacores, blue marlin Makaira nigicans, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish Carassius auratus. According to the Mb denaturation, the swamp eel Mb had thermal stability higher than walking catfish Clarias batrachus Mb and striped catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus Mb, between 30 and 60 (°)C. For the thermal stability of Mb, the swamp eel Mb showed a biphasic behavior due to the O(2) dissociation and the heme orientation disorder, with the lowest increase in both Kd(f) and Kd(s). The thermal sensitivity of swamp eel Mb was lower than those of the other Mbs for both of fast and slow reaction stages. These results suggest that the swamp eel Mb globin structure is thermally stable, which is consistent with heat-tolerant behavior of the swamp eel particularly in drought habitat. PMID:22538454

  17. Soil characteristics of sediment-amended baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) swamps of coastal Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, Ming; Middleton, Beth A.

    2011-01-01

    Amendments of sediment from dredging activities have played an important role in raising the elevation of sinking coastal wetlands. This study compared the soil characteristics of sediment- amended coastal swamps in the Barataria Preserve unit of Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve with natural swamps along Bayou des Familles. The sandy sediment amendments used in the coastal forests had different soil texture and characteristics than the more organic soils of the natural swamps. Three years after the application of these sediments on the sediment-amended swamps, dewatering and compaction of the sediment had occurred but the sediment still had high salinity and bulk density, and low organic matter content. The two sediment-amended swamps differed from each other in that Site 1 had a higher elevation (mean = 25 cm higher) and drier soil than Site 2. The effects of sediment in coastal forested wetlands require separate consideration from studies of salt marshes, e.g., the weight of the sediment might damage tree roots, or the amendments might influence soil stability during storms in a different way. Generally, this study suggests that shallower depths of sediment are more likely to yield environments beneficial to these sinking baldcypress swamps in coastal Louisiana.

  18. Origin of discontinuities in coal-bearing strata at roaring creek (basal Pennsylvanian of Indiana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, W.J.; Eggert, D.L.; DiMichele, W.A.; Stecyk, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    Basal Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata exposed along Roaring Creek, west-central Indiana, exhibit extreme lateral discontinuity. Coal seams abruptly change in thickness and elevation; they split, grade into shale, are cut out by channels and disrupted by soft-sediment deformational structures. Initial sediments were laid down by a network of southwest-flowing streams that traversed a deeply channelized upland surface of Mississippian carbonate rocks. Channels aggraded rapidly as uplands were worn down, so the region changed through time from uplands to upper deltaic plain. Local environments included channels, localized point bars, small natural levees and crevasse splays, overbank deposits, and swamps. Differential compaction and subsidence, slumping stream banks, and possibly collapsing sinkholes influenced sedimentation. As a consequence, coals are too discontinuous for economical mining, although they are locally thick and high in quality. ?? 1985.

  19. OXYGEN AERATION AT NEWTOWN CREEK

    EPA Science Inventory

    A successful initial feasibility investigation of oxygen aeration at the 0.11-cu m/sec (2.5-mgd) municipal wastewater treatment plant in Batavia, New York, prompted a larger demonstration at New York City's 13.6-cu m/sec (310-mgd) Newtown Creek Plant. A 34-mo evaluation was perfo...

  20. Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This pamphlet describes Union Oil's shale oil project in the Parachute Creek area of Garfield County, Colorado. The oil shale is estimated to contain 1.6 billion barrels of recoverable oil in the high Mahogany zone alone. Primarily a public relations publication, the report presented contains general information on the history of the project and Union Oil's future plans. (JMT)

  1. Interlocking mats support drilling rig on frozen swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-15

    This paper discusses how a company employed a unique mat system to reduce environmental impact and to support the drilling rig on its Astosch No. 1 exploratory well at Granite Point in the Trading Bay Wildlife Refuge. The site is on the west side of Cook Inlet. During winter, the travel time from Anchorage to the base camp near the Tyonek Indian village was 5 hr by ice road or 45 min by fixed wing aircraft. Eighteen miles of existing gravel roads were used from this base camp to the edge of the frozen muskeg swamp, and from there, they constructed 7 miles of ice road to the well site. They constructed a snow and ice pad with two impermeable liners and then installed Uni-Mat International Inc.'s patented interlocking mats for the final foundation. After moving in the rig, a snow berm was built around the perimeter of the location and an impermeable liner was then draped and secured over the berm.

  2. Micromonospora humi sp. nov., isolated from peat swamp forest soil.

    PubMed

    Songsumanus, Apakorn; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Thawai, Chitti; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Kudo, Takuji

    2011-05-01

    A novel actinomycete, strain P0402(T), was isolated from peat swamp forest soil collected in Thailand. Its taxonomic position was determined by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of this strain matched those of the genus Micromonospora, i.e. the presence of meso-diaminopimelic acid and N-glycolyl muramic acid in the peptidoglycan, whole-cell sugar pattern D, phospholipid type II, and cellular fatty acid type 3b. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a close relationship between strain P0402(T) and Micromonospora coxensis JCM 13248(T) (99.0 % similarity), Micromonospora eburnea JCM 12345(T) (99.0 %), Micromonospora marina JCM 12870(T) (98.9 %), Micromonospora halophytica JCM 3125(T) (98.7 %), Micromonospora chalcea JCM 3031(T) (98.7 %), Micromonospora purpureochromogenes JCM 3156(T) (98.6 %) and Micromonospora aurantiaca JCM 10878(T) (98.5 %). It could be clearly distinguished from these type strains based on low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness and phenotypic differences. On the basis of the data presented, strain P0402(T) is suggested to represent a novel species of the genus Micromonospora, for which the name Micromonospora humi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is P0402(T) ( = JCM 15292(T)  = PCU 315(T)  = TISTR 1883(T)). PMID:20562246

  3. Atmospheric lead deposition to Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, B.P.; Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    'Capsule:' Coal combustion emissions appear to be a major source of Pb in the Okefenokee wetland. Contamination of the environment from atmospheric deposition during the twentieth century is pervasive even in areas ostensibly considered pristine or remote from point sources. In this study, Pb concentrations in a Pb-210-dated peat core collected from the Okefenokee Swamp, GA were used to assess historical contaminant input via atmospheric deposition. Lead isotope ratios were determined by dynamic reaction cell ICP-MS (DRC-ICP-MS). Increases in Pb concentration occurred in the late nineteenth century and a marked rise in Pb concentrations pre-dated the widespread use of leaded gasoline within the US. The Pb-206/Pb-207 ratios of 1.19 during this period were consistent with coal combustion emissions. A later increase in Pb concentration, concurrent with a trend toward more radiogenic Pb-206/Pb-207 ratios in gasoline is consistent with an increased input of Pb from leaded gasoline emissions. However, it appears that coal combustion emissions remain a major source of Pb to the Okefenokee.

  4. Seasonal dynamics of megafauna on the deep West Antarctic Peninsula shelf in response to variable phytodetrital influx

    PubMed Central

    Sumida, P. Y. G.; Smith, C. R.; Bernardino, A. F.; Polito, P. S.; Vieira, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    The deep West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) shelf is characterized by intense deposition of phytodetritus during spring/summer months, while very little food material reaches the seafloor during winter. The response of the shelf benthic megafauna to this highly variable food supply is still poorly understood. In order to characterize the deposition of phytodetritus and the megabenthic community response, we deployed a seafloor time-lapse camera at approximately 590 m depth on the mid WAP shelf west of Anvers Island for 15 months. Seafloor photographs were taken at intervals of 12 or 24 h nearly continuously from 9 December 1999 (austral winter) to 20 March 2001 (summer) and analysed for phytodetritus deposition and megafaunal dynamics. Seafloor images indicated a marked seasonal arrival of greenish phytodetritus, with large interannual and seasonal variability in the coverage of depositing phytodetrital particles. The surface-deposit-feeding elasipod holothurians Protelpidia murrayi and Peniagone vignoni dominated the epibenthic megafauna throughout the year, frequently constituting more than 80% of the megafaunal abundance, attaining total densities of up to 2.4 individuals m−2. Elasipod abundances were significantly higher in summer than winter. During summer periods of high phytodetrital flux, Pr. murrayi produced faecal casts at higher rates, indicating intensified population-level feeding activity. In March–June 2000, faecal casts lasted longest, suggesting lower horizontal bioturbation activity during autumn–winter. Our data indicate that the Pr. murrayi population increases its feeding rates in response to increasing amounts and/or lability of organic matter on the sediment surface. Assuming that this species feeds on the top millimetre of the sediment, we estimate that, during periods of high phytodetrital flux, the Pr. murrayi population reworks one square metre of sediment surface in approximately 287 days. We suggest that Pr. murrayi is an

  5. Use of sediment amendments to rehabilitate sinking coastal swamp forests in Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.; Jiang, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Coastal wetlands are losing elevation worldwide, so that techniques to increase elevation such as sediment amendment might benefit these wetlands. This study examined the potential of sediment amendment to raise elevation and support the production and regeneration of vegetation in coastal forests in Louisiana. Before sediment amendment, the vegetation did not differ in these Taxodium distichum–Nyssa aquatica forests with respect to herbaceous and tree seedling composition, and sapling and tree characteristics. After the application of sediment in January 2007, sediment-amended swamps had higher elevations and salinity levels than natural swamps. The layer of sediment applied to Treasure Island in Jean Lafitte National Historic Park and Preserve was relatively deep (sediment depth at Site One and Site Two: 0.89 and 0.69 m, respectively, six months after application), and may have exceeded an optimal threshold. Sediment-amended swamp with the highest elevation had some tree mortality and little tree growth of T. distichum. Also, sediment-amended swamp had higher root biomasses of ruderal species, and lower species richness and cover of herbaceous species. Nevertheless, during controlled water releases during an oil spill emergency in 2010, both sediment-amended and reference forest had higher production levels than in other years. While sediment amendment is a compelling management alternative for sinking coastal wetlands, optimal thresholds were not determined for these T. distichum–N. aquatica swamps.

  6. [Analysis of environmental gradient and community of forest-swamp ecotone in Changbai mountains].

    PubMed

    Mu, C; Han, S; Luo, J; Wang, X

    2001-02-01

    This paper discussed the change pattern between environmental gradients and community structure, productivity and plant diversity of forest-swamp ecotones, and the mechanism forming those community's traits, which could supply a theoretical basis for conserving and managing the biological resources of ecotonal communities. By setting up sample belts along the environmental gradients on three kinds of ecotones between forests and swamps in Changbai Mountains and through investigating initial data and establishing regression models, the authors studied the dynamic pattern of species composition, diameter class and age class of dominant species, plant diversity, community productivity of forest-swamp ecotone communities with environmental gradients. The results showed that the distribution patterns of community structure characteristics, plant diversity and community productivity were consistent with the changes of environmental gradients of forest-swamp ecotones. Along the environmental gradient from swamp to forest, the displace of dominant species happened, and the species number increased by positive exponent. The diameter distribution of trees decreased by inverse curve, and the age class of trees was suited to cubic distribution. The plant diversity increased by quadratic, and the community biomass increased by cubic power curve along the environmental gradients. The above-mentioned results suggested that the relationships between communities and environmental gradients were closely related. PMID:11813409

  7. Heavy metal concentrations in freshwater macrophytes from the Aldomirovsko swamp in the Sofia District, Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Yurukova, L.; Kochev, K. )

    1994-08-01

    Man's impact on the environment has become global and presents an international problem. The selective ionic absorption by hydrophytes in littoral ecosystems may be used for indicating the chemistry of water medium and submersed soils. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in the main species of aquatic macrophytes distributed in the Aldomirovsko swamp in the Sofia District, Bulgaria. An evaluation of the anthropogenic contamination of this area will be made before the area is declared a protected locality. Aldomirovsko is one of the few inland swamps which is well preserved in Bulgaria. The swamp is situated to the northwest of Slivnica town, at the foot of the Tri Usi hills, around 650 m above sea level. It is of Karst origin. The area is about 2.5 km[sup 2]. The water capacity of the swamp varies throughout the year. Its depth decreases down to 1.10 m and is maintained by rainfall. The pH varies from 7.5 to 8.0. There is a considerable layer of silt at the bottom, with a pH of about 8.5. Thus far the swamp has been mainly a study area for floristic, faunistic, phytocoenological and ecological investigations. 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  8. Development and application of a spatial hydrology model of Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loftin, C.S.; Kitchens, W.M.; Ansay, N.

    2001-01-01

    The model described herein was used to assess effects of the Suwannee River sill (a low earthen dam constructed to impound the Suwannee River within the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge to eliminate wildfires) on the hydrologic environment of Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia. Developed with Arc/Info Macro Language routines in the GRID environment, the model distributes water in the swamp landscape using precipitation, inflow, evapotranspiration, outflow, and standing water. Water movement direction and rate are determined by the neighborhood topographic gradient, determined using survey grade Global Positioning Systems technology. Model data include flow rates from USGS monitored gauges, precipitation volumes and water levels measured within the swamp, and estimated evapotranspiration volumes spatially modified by vegetation type. Model output in semi-monthly time steps includes water depth, water surface elevation above mean sea level, and movement direction and volume. Model simulations indicate the sill impoundment affects 18 percent of the swamp during high water conditions when wildfires are scarce and has minimal spatial effect (increasing hydroperiods in less than 5 percent of the swamp) during low water and drought conditions when fire occurrence is high but precipitation and inflow volumes are limited.

  9. Links between physical, chemical and biological processes in Bashita-minato, a mangrove swamp in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazda, Yoshihiro; Sato, Yoshio; Sawamoto, Shozo; Yokochi, Hiroyuki; Wolanski, Eric

    1990-12-01

    Bashita-minato in Iriomote Island, Japan, is a mangrove swamp separated from a coral reef slightly offshore by a sill made of coral sand. As a result of storm-dominated formation and erosion of the sill, the water properties in the swamp vary widely with time. When water flows over the sill into the swamp from a nearby coral reef at flood tide, the oxygen cycle and the water properties in the swamp depend on both the semi-diurnal tidal flows and the diurnal cycle of oxygen concentration in reef waters, which is caused by biological activities, i.e. photosynthesis and respiration in the shallow coral reef area. When the entrance is blocked by the sill, the swamp becomes ponded, and the water temperature increases rapidly (1 °C day -1), with a temperature maximum at a mid-water layer as in a solar pond. The bottom layer, rich in organic matter from decaying mangrove detritus, becomes anoxic within a day after the sill closure. Various chemicals are then released from the bottom mud, the irradiance extinction coefficient increasing by as much as 1 m -1 day -1. This in turn results in continuous degradations in photosynthetic activity of benthic algae and in water properties until the sill is breached again under spring high tides or intense rainfall.

  10. Spatial and temporal variation in the abundance, distribution and population structure of epibenthic megafauna in Port Foster, Deception Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranmer, T. L.; Ruhl, H. A.; Baldwin, R. J.; Kaufmann, R. S.

    2003-06-01

    Abundance and spatial distribution of epibenthic megafauna were examined at Port Foster, Deception Island, five times between March 1999 and November 2000. Camera sled surveys and bottom trawls were used to identify and collect specimens, and camera sled photographs also were used to determine abundances and spatial distributions for each species. The ophiuroid Ophionotus victoriae, the regular echinoid Sterechinus neumayeri, and one or more species of Porifera were the most abundant taxa during this sampling period. Abundances of O. victoriae varied throughout the annual cycle, peaking in June 2000, and were correlated positively with sedimentation rates. In contrast, abundances of S. neumayeri were consistent throughout the sampling period, except for a peak in June 2000, during austral winter. Peak abundances for both species coincided with a large number of small individuals, indicating apparent recruitment events for O. victoriae and S. neumayeri during this time period. Poriferans, as a group, had statistically similar abundances during each sampling period. Low-abundance species tended to be aggregated on both small and large spatial scales, their distributions probably influenced by reproductive method, gregarious settlement, and food availability. The spatial distribution of S. neumayeri in June 2000 and O. victoriae was random across multiple spatial scales, perhaps in response to food availability and broad environmental tolerances, respectively.

  11. Composition and diversity patterns of megafauna discards in the deep-water shrimp trawl fishery off Brazil.

    PubMed

    Perez, J A A; Pereira, B N; Pereira, D A; Schroeder, R

    2013-10-01

    Composition and spatial diversity patterns of retained and discarded catches in the deep-water shrimp (family Aristeidae) trawling fishery off Brazil were assessed by observers on-board commercial operations in 2005 and 2006. These trawls caught 19,440 kg and 180,076 individuals of which 76·0 and 65·2%, respectively, were discarded at sea. Finfishes represented 54% of the numerical catch but were almost fully discarded (98%). Crustaceans represented 40% of the numerical catch and were mostly retained (80%). The scarlet shrimp Aristaeopsis edwardsiana comprised approximately half of the retained catch. The remainder of the retained proportion comprised mainly the red giant shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea, the alistado shrimp Aristeus antillensis and small quantities of Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi and gulf hake Urophycis mystacea. Discards comprised 108 species including 72 fish species, 19 crustaceans and 10 cephalopods. The large-scaled lanternfish Neoscopelus macrolepidotus was dominant in the discards, followed by the benthopelagic fishes Monomitopus agassizii, Synagrops bellus, Dibranchus atlanticus and Gadella imberbis and various macrurid species. This fishery was restricted to a limited bathymetric range (700-800 m), where discrete megafauna assemblages exist and may have been significantly affected. PMID:24090549

  12. Impact of the German Harz Mountain Weichselian ice-shield and valley glacier development onto Palaeolithic and megafauna disappearances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, C.

    2013-12-01

    Three Pleistocene stages are recorded by 3D Google-Earth geomorphology, cave sediments, river terraces, megafauna, archaeological sites of the Harz Mountain Range and its forelands of northern Germany (central Europe, peak 1141 a.s.l.). Late Pleistocene glaciation stages are modeled preliminary in valley elevations between 407 and 760 a.s.l., starting all southeast below the Brocken Ice Field (above 750 a.s.l.). The 14-11 km long Oder and Bode Valley glaciers left typical moraines, kames, or dead ice depressions, such as fluvial cave relic sediments. The Bode River glacier passed during the LGM the Rübeland Caves, where it deposited reworked kames/lateral moraines in the Baumann's Cave, which floods mixed a Neanderthal camp, leopard lair and cave bear den area. 60 km downstream, fluvial to aeolian deposits were trapped in the gypsum karst doline Westeregeln (Neanderthal camp/hyena den). Late Aurignacians replaced in the region Neanderthals, but a gap of Late Palaeolithic (Gravettian-Magdalenian - 26,000-16,000 BP) settlement, and latest starting speleothem genesis (around 24,260 ± 568 BP) correlate to the LGM, when an "arctic reindeer fauna" with alpine elements (ibex, chamois) accumulated in bone assemblages of a wolverine, polar fox, mustelid, such as European eagle owl dens, which allow landscape reconstructions.

  13. GRAHAM CREEK ROADLESS AREA, TEXAS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houser, B.B.; Ryan, George S.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and geochemical investigation of the Graham Creek Roadless Area, Texas was conducted. The area has a probable mineral-resource potential for oil and gas. The roadless area contains a deposit of kaolinite clay similar to deposits being mined west of the area; the southeast part of the roadless area has a substantiated kaolinite clay resource potential. Semectite clay and sand deposits also are present in the area but these resources are relatively abundant throughout the region. Detailed analyses of well logs from the vicinity of the Graham Creek Roadless Area in conjunction with study of seismic data are necessary to determine if subsurface stratigraphy and structure are favorable for the accumulation of oil and gas.

  14. PINE CREEK ROADLESS AREA, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, George W.; Denton, David K., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Examination of the Pine Creek Roadless Area, Oregon indicates that there is little likelihood for the occurrence of energy or metallic mineral resources in the area. No mines or mineral prospects were identified during the investigation. Although nearby parts of Harney Basin are characterized by higher than normal heat flow, indicating that the region as a whole may have some as yet undefined potential for the occurrence of the geothermal energy resources, no potential for this resource was identified in the roadless area.

  15. Formation of particulate organic carbon in water from a southeastern swamp-stream

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    The rate of particulate organic carbon (POC) formation in water from a small North Carolina swamp-stream, low in ionic strength but high in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), was low. Mean POC formation rate, expressed as DOC utilization, was about 0.2% of DOC per day and was primarily the result of microbial activity. When Ca/sup 2 +/ and Hg/sup 2 +/ were added to swamp water, and when swamp water and seawater were mixed, the rate of POC formation increased as a result of a rapid physiochemical flocculation process. Although the DOC load of rivers and streams of the southeastern U.S. represents a substantial energy input to estuarine regions, these results indicate that only about 25-30% of it is transformed through flocculation to a form more readily retained and utilized within the estuarine system. The remainder may be transported to the sea.

  16. Formation of particulate organic carbon in water from a southeastern swamp-stream

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, P.J.

    1981-07-01

    The rate of particulate organic carbon (POC) formation in water from a small North Carolina swamp-stream, low in ionic strength but high in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), was low. Mean POC formation rate, expressed as DOC utilization, was about 0.2% of DOC per day and was primarily the result of microbial activity. When Ca/sup 2 +/ and Hg/sup 2 +/ were added to swamp water, and when swamp water and seawater were mixed, the rate of POC formation increased as a result of a rapid physiochemical flocculation process. Although the DOC load of rivers and streams of the southeastern US represents a substantial energy input to estuarine regions, these results indicate that only about 25 to 30% of it is transformed through flocculation to a form more readily retained and utilized within the estuarine system. The remainder may be transported to the sea.

  17. Ecology of red maple swamps in the glaciated northeast: A community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Golet, F.C.; Calhoun, A.J.K.; DeRagon, W.R.; Lowry, D.J.; Gold, A.J.

    1993-06-01

    In many areas of the glaciated northeastern United States, forested wetlands dominated by red maple (Acer rubrum) cover more of the landscape than all other nontidal wetland types combined. Yet surprisingly little of their ecology, functions, or social significance has been documented. Bogs, salt marshes, Atlantic white cedar swamps, and other less common types of wetlands have received considerable attention from scientists, but, except for botanical surveys, red maple swamps have been largely ignored. The report conveys what is known about these common wetlands and identifies topics most in need of investigation. Red maple swamps are so abundant and so widely distributed in the Northeast that their physical, chemical, and biological properties range widely as well, and their values to society are diverse. The central focus of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service community profile series is the plant and animal communities of wetlands and deepwater habitats.

  18. Changing patterns of Pennsylvanian coal-swamp vegetation and implications of climatic control on coal occurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, T.L.; Peppers, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Improved regional and interregional stratigraphic correlations of Pennsylvanian strata permit comparisons of vegetational changes in Euramerican coal swamps. The coal-swamp vegetation is known directly from in situ coal-ball peat deposits from more than 65 coals in the United States and Europe. Interpretations of coal-swamp floras on the basis of coal-ball peat studies are extended to broader regional and stratigraphic patterns by use of coal palynology. Objectives of the quantitative analyses of the vegetation in relation to coal are to determine the botanical constituents at the peat stage and their environmental implications for plant growth and peat accumulation. Morphological and paleoecological analyses provide a basis for deducing freshwater regimes of coal swamps. Changes in composition of Pennsylvanian coal-swamp vegetation are quire similar from one paralic coal region to another and show synchrony that is attributable to climate. Paleobotany and paleogeography of the Euramerican province indicate a moist tropical paleoclimate. Rainfall, runoff and evapotranspiration were the variable climatic controls in the distribution of coal-swamp vegetation, peat accumulation and coal resources. In relative terms of climatic wetness the Pennsylvanian Period is divisible into five intervals, which include two relatively drier intervals that developed during the Lower-Middle and Middle-Upper Pennsylvanian transitions. The climate during Early Pennsylvanian time was moderately wet and the median in moisture availability. Early Middle Pennsylvanian was drier, probably seasonally dry-wet; late Middle Pennsylvanian was the wettest in the Midcontinent; early Late Pennsylvanian was the driest; and late Late Pennsylvanian was probably the wettest in the Dunkard Basin. The five climatic intervals represent a general means of dividing coal resources within each region into groups with similar botanical constituents and environments of peat accumulation. Regional differences in

  19. Floods in Starkweather Creek basin, Madison, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Carl L.; Holmstrom, Barry K.

    1972-01-01

    The reaches evaluated are (1) Starkweather Creek and West Branch Starkweather Creek, for a distance of 6.0 river miles from the mouth at Lake Monona upstream to the U.S. Highway 51 crossing north of Truax Field; and (2) East Branch Starkweather Creek (2.8 river miles), from its confluence with the West Branch near Milwaukee Street upstream to a point near the Interstate Highway 90-94 crossing.

  20. Traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek, upper Colorado River basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurdak, Jason J.; Spahr, Norman E.; Szmajter, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    In the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, major highways are often constructed in stream valleys. In the event of a vehicular accident involving hazardous materials, the close proximity of highways to the streams increases the risk of contamination entering the streams. Recent population growth has contributed to increased traffic volume along Colorado highways and has resulted in increased movement of hazardous materials, particularly along Interstate 70. Gore Creek and its major tributary, Black Gore Creek, are vulnerable to such contamination from vehicular accidents along Interstate 70. Gore Creek, major tributary of the Eagle River, drains approximately 102 square miles, some of which has recently undergone significant urban development. The headwaters of Gore Creek originate in the Gore Range in the eastern part of the Gore Creek watershed. Gore Creek flows west to the Eagle River. Beginning at the watershed boundary on Vail Pass, southeast of Vail Ski Resort, Interstate 70 parallels Black Gore Creek and then closely follows Gore Creek the entire length of the watershed. Interstate 70 crosses Gore Creek and tributaries 20 times in the watershed. In the event of a vehicular accident involving a contaminant spill into Gore Creek or Black Gore Creek, a stepwise procedure has been developed for water-resource managers to estimate traveltimes of the leading edge and peak concentration of a conservative contaminant. An example calculating estimated traveltimes for a hypothetical contaminant release in Black Gore Creek is provided. Traveltime measurements were made during May and September along Black Gore Creek and Gore Creek from just downstream from the Black Lakes to the confluence with the Eagle River to account for seasonal variability in stream discharge. Fluorometric dye injection of rhodamine WT and downstream dye detection by fluorometry were used to measure traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek. During the May traveltime measurements

  1. Long-term disturbance dynamics and resilience of tropical peat swamp forests

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Lydia E S; Bhagwat, Shonil A; Willis, Katherine J

    2015-01-01

    1. The coastal peat swamp forests of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, are undergoing rapid conversion, predominantly into oil palm plantations. This wetland ecosystem is assumed to have experienced insignificant disturbance in the past, persisting under a single ecologically-stable regime. However, there is limited knowledge of the past disturbance regime, long-term functioning and fundamentally the resilience of this ecosystem to changing natural and anthropogenic perturbations through time. 2. In this study, long-term ecological data sets from three degraded peatlands in Sarawak were collected to shed light on peat swamp forest dynamics. Fossil pollen and charcoal were counted in each sedimentary sequence to reconstruct vegetation and investigate responses to past environmental disturbance, both natural and anthropogenic. 3. Results demonstrate that peat swamp forest taxa have dominated these vegetation profiles throughout the last c. 2000-year period despite the presence of various drivers of disturbance. Evidence for episodes of climatic variability, predominantly linked to ENSO events, and wildfires is present throughout. However, in the last c. 500 years, burning and indicators of human disturbance have elevated beyond past levels at these sites, concurrent with a reduction in peat swamp forest pollen. 4. Two key insights have been gained through this palaeoecological analysis: (i) peat swamp forest vegetation has demonstrated resilience to disturbance caused by burning and climatic variability in Sarawak in the late Holocene, however (ii) coincident with increased fire combined with human impact c. 500 years ago, these communities started to decline. 5. Synthesis. Sarawak's coastal peat swamps have demonstrated resilience to past natural disturbances, with forest vegetation persisting through episodes of fire and climatic variability. However, palaeoecological data presented here suggest that recent, anthropogenic disturbances are of a greater magnitude, causing

  2. Mineral resource assessment map of the Big Gum Swamp Roadless Area, Columbia and Baker counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cathcart, J.B.; Cameron, C.C.; Patterson, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    The geology of the Big Cum Swamp Roadless Area, which is discussed briefly in this report, is covered in somewhat more detail in a report by Patterson, Cathcart, Cameron, and Schruben (1984). The mineral resource potential is quite similar to that in the Natural Area Roadless Area outlined by Cathcart, Patterson and Crandall (1983). The Natural Area, which is east of the eastern boundary of the Big Gum Swamp (fig. 1), also was designated a Wilderness Study Area by Public Law 98-430, September 28, 1984.

  3. Indirect effects of prey swamping: differential seed predation during a bamboo masting event.

    PubMed

    Kitzberger, Thomas; Chaneton, Enrique J; Caccia, Fernando

    2007-10-01

    Resource pulses often involve extraordinary increases in prey availability that "swamp" consumers and reverberate through indirect interactions affecting other community members. We developed a model that predicts predator-mediated indirect effects induced by an epidemic prey on co-occurring prey types differing in relative profitability/preference and validated our model by examining current-season and delayed effects of a bamboo mass seeding event on seed survival of canopy tree species in mixed Patagonian forests. The model shows that predator foraging behavior, prey profitability, and the scale of prey swamping influence the character and strength of short-term indirect effects on various alternative prey. When in large prey-swamped patches, nonselective predators decrease predation on all prey types. Selective predators, instead, only benefit prey of similar quality to the swamping species, while very low or high preference prey remain unaffected. Negative indirect effects (apparent competition) may override such positive effects (apparent mutualism), especially for highly preferred prey, when prey-swamped patches are small enough to allow predator aggregation and/or predators show a reproductive numerical response to elevated food supply. Seed predation patterns during bamboo (Chusquea culeou) masting were consistent with predicted short-term indirect effects mediated by a selective predator foraging in large prey-swamped patches. Bamboo seeds and similarly-sized Austrocedrus chilensis (ciprés) and Nothofagus obliqua (roble) seeds suffered lower predation in bamboo flowered than nonflowered patches. Predation rates on the small-seeded Nothofagus dombeyi (coihue) and the large-seeded Nothofagus alpina (rauli) were independent of bamboo flowering. Indirect positive effects were transient; three months after bamboo seeding, granivores preyed heavily upon all seed types, irrespective of patch flowering condition. Moreover, one year after bamboo seeding

  4. Sediment transport through a tidal creek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Malcolm O.; Hancock, Nicole J.

    2012-08-01

    A 3-month field experiment was conducted at Henderson Creek, New Zealand. The data show how tidal creeks that are an extension of the freshwater drainage network (as opposed to tidal creeks that are part of an estuarine distributary network with no direct connection to the land) variously import, export and deposit fine sediment sourced from both landward and seaward of the creek, depending on the wind and freshwater runoff, and modulated by the tide. During freshwater spates, saltwater was largely displaced from the tidal creek at low tide, and sediment sourced from the land was deposited inside the tidal creek and exported to the wider estuary beyond the base of the creek. In one spate, during which 80 mm of rain fell in less than one day, 580 t of sediment was sourced from landward of the tidal creek, and a maximum of 33% of this was exported to the wider estuary. Between rainstorms when it was calm, sediment was returned from the wider estuary by tidal currents (but not necessarily the same sediment that was exported during spates), and sediment was also eroded from the middle reaches of the tidal creek and transported to the upper reaches, where it was deposited. The up-estuary deposition is explainable in Lagrangian terms as a type of settling lag, which results in an asymmetrical response of suspended-sediment concentration to current speed in the tidal creek. The return of sediment to the tidal creek between spates was greatly enhanced by wind waves that resuspended sediments from the intertidal flats of the wider estuary, with that sediment being transported by tidal currents into the tidal creek where it was deposited, largely in the middle reaches. There is a broad consensus that waves drive a net loss of sediment from intertidal flats to offshore, which reverses a net accumulation of sediment on intertidal flats during calm weather. In contrast, waves on the intertidal flats outside the mouth of Henderson Creek initiate net landward transport of

  5. LIGHTNING CREEK, PACK RIVER, AND SAND CREEK, BONNER COUNTY, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY SUMMARY, 1978

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Water Year 1978, water quality studies were conducted on Lightning Creek, Pack River, and Sand Creek in Bonner County, Idaho (17010214, 17010213) to determine the present status of the streams. Water quality in Lightning Creek was generally very high. No violations of standa...

  6. 33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish...

  7. 33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish...

  8. DEEP CREEK AND MUD CREEK, TWIN FALLS, IDAHO. WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1986

    EPA Science Inventory

    Deep Creek and Mud Creek are located in Twin Falls County near Buhl, Idaho (17040212). From April through October, these creeks convey irrigation drainage water from the western part of the Twin Falls irrigation tract to the Snake River. During 1986, water quality surveys were ...

  9. 75 FR 40034 - Northeastern Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, Beaver Creek, Clear Creek, Boone, Fort...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... (Significant Threat), or Rank 3 (Lesser Threat) on the Tennessee Exotic Plant Pest Council list of Invasive... Northeastern Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, Beaver Creek, Clear Creek, Boone, Fort Patrick Henry... Land Management Plan (NTRLMP) for the 4,933 acres of TVA-managed public land on Beaver Creek,...

  10. 6. General perspective view of Neawanna Creek Bridge, showing bushhammered, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. General perspective view of Neawanna Creek Bridge, showing bush-hammered, recessed panels in fascia wall - Neawanna Creek Bridge, Spanning Neawanna Creek at Milepoint 19.72 on U.S. 101 (Oregon Coast Highway), Seaside, Clatsop County, OR

  11. 3. Threequarter view of Oak Creek Bridge behind visitor center ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Three-quarter view of Oak Creek Bridge behind visitor center facing southwest - Oak Creek Administrative Center, One half mile east of Zion-Mount Carmel Highway at Oak Creek, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  12. 1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and silt sluice gate (center), main canal headworks (to right), view to northwest - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  13. 2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  14. 8. DETAIL VIEW OF DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'HARP CREEK, LUTEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW OF DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'HARP CREEK, LUTEN BRIDGE CO., CONTRACTOR, ARKANSAS STATE HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT, 1928' - Harp Creek Bridge, Spans Harp Creek at State Highway 7, Harrison, Boone County, AR

  15. Detail view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge, view looking northeast at the modified "X" bracing and concrete hangers. - Ten Mile Creek Bridge, Spanning Ten Mile Creek on Oregon Coast Highway, Yachats, Lincoln County, OR

  16. Detail view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge decorative concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge decorative concrete arched balustrade at southeast corner of bridge, view looking east. - Ten Mile Creek Bridge, Spanning Ten Mile Creek on Oregon Coast Highway, Yachats, Lincoln County, OR

  17. Detail perspective view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge arch, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail perspective view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge arch, decorative cantilevered balustrade, and floor beams. - Ten Mile Creek Bridge, Spanning Ten Mile Creek on Oregon Coast Highway, Yachats, Lincoln County, OR

  18. Elevation view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  19. Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking south. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  20. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  1. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking southeast. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  2. Topographic view of the Spring Creek Bridge and Collier State ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Topographic view of the Spring Creek Bridge and Collier State Park, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  3. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking northwest. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  4. Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking north. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking north. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  5. 3. MOSIER CREEK BRIDGE LOOKING 135 DEGREES SOUTHEAST AT NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. MOSIER CREEK BRIDGE LOOKING 135 DEGREES SOUTHEAST AT NORTH ELEVATION. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Mosier Creek Bridge, Spanning Mosier Creek carrying Historic Columbia River Highway, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  6. EAGLE CREEK BRIDGE, EAST ELEVATION, SUBSTRUCTURE DETAIL LOOKING 333 DEGREES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAGLE CREEK BRIDGE, EAST ELEVATION, SUBSTRUCTURE DETAIL LOOKING 333 DEGREES NORTH-NORTHWEST - Historic Columbia River Highway, Eagle Creek Bridge, Spanning Eagle Creek on Historic Columbia River Highway, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  7. 4. MOSIER CREEK BRIDGE LOOKING 202 DEGREES SOUTHWEST AT NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. MOSIER CREEK BRIDGE LOOKING 202 DEGREES SOUTHWEST AT NORTH ELEVATION. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Mosier Creek Bridge, Spanning Mosier Creek carrying Historic Columbia River Highway, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  8. NORTH ELEVATION OF MULTNOMAH CREEK BRIDGE, VIEW LOOKING 130 DEGREES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH ELEVATION OF MULTNOMAH CREEK BRIDGE, VIEW LOOKING 130 DEGREES SOUTHEAST - Historic Columbia River Highway, Multnomah Creek Bridge, Historic Columbia River Highway spanning Multnomah Creek, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  9. 1. MOSIER CREEK BRIDGE LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. MOSIER CREEK BRIDGE LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER AT BRIDGE SURFACE. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Mosier Creek Bridge, Spanning Mosier Creek carrying Historic Columbia River Highway, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  10. DETAIL OF MULTNOMAH CREEK BRIDGE, LOOKING 25 DEGREES NORTHNORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF MULTNOMAH CREEK BRIDGE, LOOKING 25 DEGREES NORTH-NORTHEAST - Historic Columbia River Highway, Multnomah Creek Bridge, Historic Columbia River Highway spanning Multnomah Creek, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  11. EAGLE CREEK BRIDGE, EAST ELEVATION, VIEW LOOKING 290 DEGREES WESTNORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAGLE CREEK BRIDGE, EAST ELEVATION, VIEW LOOKING 290 DEGREES WEST-NORTHWEST - Historic Columbia River Highway, Eagle Creek Bridge, Spanning Eagle Creek on Historic Columbia River Highway, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  12. 3. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF PICNIC AREA WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF PICNIC AREA WITH COMMUNITY KITCHEN IN BACKGROUND. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Eagle Creek Recreation Area, Historic Columbia River Highway at Eagle Creek, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  13. 1. Deep Creek Road, picnic pavilion Great Smoky Mountains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Deep Creek Road, picnic pavilion - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Deep Creek Road, Between Park Boundary near Bryson City & Deep Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  14. 2. Deep Creek Road, old bridge at campground entrance. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Deep Creek Road, old bridge at campground entrance. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Deep Creek Road, Between Park Boundary near Bryson City & Deep Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  15. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  16. 7. Cable Creek Bridge after completion. Zion National Park negative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Cable Creek Bridge after completion. Zion National Park negative number 1485, classification series 002, 12. - Floor of the Valley Road, Cable Creek Bridge, Spanning Cable Creek on Floor of Valley, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  17. 59. Credit FM. Flood waters on South Battle Creek next ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Credit FM. Flood waters on South Battle Creek next to powerhouse. Note height of water in relation to tailraces. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  18. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF LOBOS CREEK INLET STRUCTURE (#1786), LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF LOBOS CREEK INLET STRUCTURE (#1786), LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Lobos Creek Inlet Structure, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. Tributary-stream infiltration in Marsh Creek Valley, north-central Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John H.

    1991-01-01

    The geohydrology of infiltration from five tributary streams along a 3.6-mile reach of Marsh Creek valley in north-central Pennsylvania was investigated during 1983-85. Marsh Creek valley is underlain by up to 100 feet of stratified drift that overlies Devonian bedrock. The stratified drift is overlain by up to 30 feet of alluvial-fan deposits near the tributary streams. Four of the five tributary streams lose large amounts of water to the stratified-drift aquifer in Marsh Creek valley. Along reaches away from the valley wall, infiltration losses from the streams averaged about 2 cubic feet per second per 1,000 feet of wetted channel length. Estimated hydraulic conductivity of the deposits near these streams ranges from 31 to 100 feet per day and averages 61 feet per day. Silty beds of lower permeability near the streams may significantly affect infiltration. The low permeability of the sediments near the fifth stream, which probably consist largely of fine-grained alluvium and swamp deposits, may account for the lack of infiltration losses along this stream. Tributary-stream infiltration accounted for more than 70 percent of the estimated recharge to the stratified-drift aquifer along the reach investigated during water year 1985, in which annual precipitation was below average. The sources of recharge and their estimated rates were: (1) direct infiltration of precipitation on the valley, 1.7 cubic feet per second; (2) unchanneled runoff and ground-water inflow from the uplands, 2.7 cubic feet per second; and (3) tributary-stream infiltration from Asaph Run, 3.7 cubic feet per second, Straight Run, 3.7 cubic feet per second, Dantz Run, 1.2 cubic feet per second, and Canada Run, 1.9 cubic feet per second. The temporal variation in recharge from tributary-stream infiltration greatly affects drawdowns caused by pumping from the wellfield at the National Fisheries Research and Development Laboratory near Straight Run.

  20. Underside from northeast. Waterville Bridge, Spanning Swatara Creek at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Underside from northeast. - Waterville Bridge, Spanning Swatara Creek at Appalachian Trail (moved from Little Pine Creek at State Route 44, Waterville, Lycoming County), Green Point, Lebanon County, PA

  1. Bathymetric and temporal variation among Osedax boneworms and associated megafauna on whale-falls in Monterey Bay, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braby, Caren E.; Rouse, Greg W.; Johnson, Shannon B.; Jones, William J.; Vrijenhoek, Robert C.

    2007-10-01

    The discovery in 2002 of a natural whale-fall at 2893 m depth in Monterey Bay, California, led to the description of Osedax, a novel genus of bone-eating worms (Annelida: Siboglinidae). Osedax obtain their nutrition via ramifying roots that host symbiotic bacteria and consume whale bones. To assess the bathymetric range of these unusual worms and their role in whale-fall community succession, we sank beached whale carcasses at three additional depths (1820, 1018, and 385 m) in the Monterey Submarine Canyon. The four sunken carcasses experienced different temperature, oxygen, and disturbance regimes and hosted megafaunal communities that differed in both species diversity and composition. However, Osedax were found at all four sites, and molecular analyses allowed us to assign them to six distinct species, four of which are new to science. The previously known species, O. rubiplumus (1820-2893 m) and O. frankpressi (2893 m), were found below the oxygen minimum zone. One of the new species appears to be a late successional species that attacks sediment-covered bone fragments at the 2893-m whale-fall. The other new species occur at the shallower whale-falls, which are in oxygen-poor water. One is an early colonizer at the 1018-m whale-fall, and two occur at the 385-m whale-fall. Dense Osedax populations at the 1018-m whale-fall led to rapid degradation of whale bones, whereas sparse Osedax populations were associated with slow degradation at the 385-m whale-fall. Thus, we hypothesize that Osedax may be a foundation species in Monterey whale-fall communities, regulating the longevity of whale bones and thereby affecting the succession of associated megafauna.

  2. KANAB CREEK ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Billingsley, George H.; Ellis, Clarence E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, the Kanab Creek Roadless Area in north-central Arizona has a probable mineral-resource potential for uranium and copper in four small areas around five collapse structures. Gypsum is abundant in layers along the canyon rim of Snake Gulch, but it is a fairly common mineral in the region outside the roadless area. There is little promise for the occurence of fossil fuels in the area. Studies of collapse structures in surrounding adjacent areas might reveal significant mineralization at depth, such as the recent discovery of the uranium ore body at depth in the Pigeon Pipe.

  3. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge,...

  4. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge,...

  5. 33 CFR 117.1013 - Kinsale Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kinsale Creek. 117.1013 Section 117.1013 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1013 Kinsale Creek. The draw of...

  6. 33 CFR 117.1013 - Kinsale Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kinsale Creek. 117.1013 Section 117.1013 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1013 Kinsale Creek. The draw of...

  7. 33 CFR 117.1013 - Kinsale Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kinsale Creek. 117.1013 Section 117.1013 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1013 Kinsale Creek. The draw of...

  8. 33 CFR 117.1013 - Kinsale Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kinsale Creek. 117.1013 Section 117.1013 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1013 Kinsale Creek. The draw of...

  9. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draws of the...

  10. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draw of the...