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Creep Deformation of Allvac 718Plus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The creep deformation behavior of Allvac 718Plus was studied over the temperature range of 923 K to 1005 K (650 C to 732 C) at initial applied stress levels ranging from 517 to 655 MPa. Over the entire experimental temperature-stress regime this alloy exhibits Class M-type creep behavior with all creep curves exhibiting a decelerating strain rate with strain or time throughout primary creep. However, unlike pure metals or simple solid solution alloys, this gamma prime strengthened superalloy does not exhibit steady-state creep. Rather, primary creep is instantly followed by a long duration of accelerating strain rate with strain or time. These creep characteristics are common among the gamma prime strengthened superalloys. Allvac 718Plus also exhibits a very high temperature dependence of creep rate. Detailed TEM examination of the deformation structures of selected creep samples reveals dislocation mechanisms similar to those found in high volume fraction gamma prime strengthened superalloys. Strong evidence of microtwinning is found in several of the deformation structures. The presence of microtwinning may account for the strong temperature dependence of creep rate observed in this alloy. In addition, due to the presence of Nb and thus, grain boundary delta phase, matrix dislocation activity which is not present in non-Nb-bearing superalloys occurs in this alloy. The creep characteristics and dislocation mechanisms are presented and discussed in detail.

Hayes, Robert W.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Nasrollahzadeh, Maryam



Creep deformation of B2 aluminides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The creep resistance and elevated temperature deformation mechanisms in CoAl, FeAl, and NiAl are reviewed. The stress and temperature dependencies of the steady state creep rate, the primary creep behavior, the dislocation substructure, and the response during transient tests are used as the main indicators of the deformation processes. In single phase intermetallics, the influence of grain size, stoichiometry, and solid solution hardening have been examined. In addition, the effect of adding dispersoids, precipitates, and other types of reinforcements to improve creep strength are compared.

Nathal, M. V.



Finite Element Analysis of Plastic Deformation During Impression Creep  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finite element (FE) analysis of plastic deformation associated with impression creep deformation of 316LN stainless steel was carried out. An axisymmetric FE model of 10 10 10 mm specimen with 1-mm-diameter rigid cylindrical flat punch was developed. FE simulation of impression creep deformation was performed by assuming elastic-plastic-power-law creep deformation behavior. Evolution of the stress with time under the punch during elastic, plastic, and creep processes was analyzed. The onset of plastic deformation was found to occur at a nominal stress about 1.12 times the yield stress of the material. The size of the developed plastic zone was predicted to be about three times the radius of the punch. The material flow behavior and the pile-up on specimen surface have been modeled.

Naveena; Ganesh Kumar, J.; Mathew, M. D.



Finite Element Analysis of Plastic Deformation During Impression Creep  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finite element (FE) analysis of plastic deformation associated with impression creep deformation of 316LN stainless steel was carried out. An axisymmetric FE model of 10 10 10 mm specimen with 1-mm-diameter rigid cylindrical flat punch was developed. FE simulation of impression creep deformation was performed by assuming elastic-plastic-power-law creep deformation behavior. Evolution of the stress with time under the punch during elastic, plastic, and creep processes was analyzed. The onset of plastic deformation was found to occur at a nominal stress about 1.12 times the yield stress of the material. The size of the developed plastic zone was predicted to be about three times the radius of the punch. The material flow behavior and the pile-up on specimen surface have been modeled.

Naveena; Ganesh Kumar, J.; Mathew, M. D.



Fatigue and creep-fatigue deformation of several nickel-base superalloys at 650 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transmission electron microscopy has been used to study the bulk deformation characteristics of seven nickel-base superalloys tested in fatigue and creep-fatigue at 650 C. The alloys were Waspalloy, HIP Astroloy, H plus F Astroloy, H plus F Rene 95, IN 100, MERL 76, and NASA IIB-7. The amount of bulk deformation observed in all the alloys was low. In tests with inelastic strain amplitudes less than about 0.003, only some grains exhibited yielding and the majority of those had the 110 line near the tensile axis. Deformation occurred on octahedral systems for all of the alloys except MERL 76 which also showed abundant primary cube slip. Creep-fatigue cycling occasionally produced extended faults between partial dislocations, but otherwise deformation was much the same as for fatigue cycling.

Miner, R. V.; Gayda, J.; Maier, R. D.



Brittle creep in basalt and its application to time-dependent volcano deformation M.J. Heap a,b,  

E-print Network

on deformation characteristics. Mechanically, pressurized pore fluids reduce all the applied normal stresses. Ricard Keywords: stress corrosion brittle creep triaxial basalt Mt. Etna time-dependent deformation Time, a mechanism known as stress corrosion, allows rock to fail under a constant stress that is well below its


Microstructure evolution and deformation features of AZ31 Mg-alloy during creep  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means of the measurement of the creep curve and the observation of SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM), an investigation has been made into the microstructure evolution and deformation features of AZ31 Mg-alloy during high temperature creep. Results show that the deformation features of the alloy in the primary stage of creep are that significant amount of dislocation slips

Sugui Tian; Ling Wang; Keun Yong Sohn; Kyung Hyun Kim; Yongbo Xu; Zhuangqi Hu



Time-dependent brittle deformation (creep) at Mt. Etna volcano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mt. Etna is the largest and most active volcano in Europe. Time-dependent weakening mechanisms, leading to slow fracturing, have been shown to act during pre-eruptive patterns of flank eruptions at Mt. Etna volcano. Due to the high permeability of its volcanic rocks, the volcanic edifice hosts one of the biggest hydrogeologic reservoirs of Sicily (Ogniben, 1966). The presence of a fluid phase in cracks within rock has been shown to dramatically affect both mechanical and chemical interactions. Chemically, it promotes time-dependent brittle deformation through such mechanisms as stress corrosion cracking that allows rocks to deform at stresses far below their short-term failure strength. Such crack growth is highly non-linear and accelerates towards dynamic failure over extended periods of time, even under constant applied stress; a phenomenon known as brittle creep'. Here we report results from a study of time-dependent brittle creep in water-saturated samples of Etna basalt (EB) under triaxial stress conditions (confining pressure of 50 MPa and pore fluid pressure of 20 MPa). Samples of EB were loaded at a constant strain rate of 10-5 s-1 to a pre-determined percentage of the short-term strength and left to deform under constant stress until failure. Crack damage evolution was monitored throughout each experiment by measuring the independent damage proxies of axial strain, pore volume change and output of acoustic emission (AE) energy, during brittle creep of creep strain rates ranging over four orders of magnitude. Our data not only demonstrates that basalt creeps in the brittle regime but also that the applied differential stress exerts a crucial influence on both time-to-failure and creep strain rate in EB. Furthermore, stress corrosion is considered to be responsible for the acceleratory cracking and seismicity prior to volcanic eruptions and is invoked as an important mechanism in forecasting models. Stress-stepping creep experiments were then performed to allow the influence of the effective confining stress to be studied in detail. Experiments were performed under effective stress conditions of 10, 30 and 50 MPa (whilst maintaining a constant pore fluid pressure of 20 MPa). In addition to the purely mechanical influence of water, governed by the effective stress, which results in a shift of the creep strain rate curves to lower strain rates at higher effective stresses. Our results also demonstrate that the chemically-driven process of stress corrosion cracking appears to be inhibited at higher effective stress. This results in an increase in the gradient of the creep strain rate curves with increasing effective stress. We suggest that the most likely cause of this change is a decrease in water mobility due to a reduction in crack aperture and an increase in water viscosity at higher pressure. Finally, we show that a theoretical model based on mean-field damage mechanics creep laws is able to reproduce the experimental strain-time relations. Our results indicate that the local changes in the stress field and fluid circulation can have a profound impact in the time-to-failure properties of the basaltic volcanic pile.

Heap, M. J.; Baud, P.; Meredith, P. G.; Vinciguerra, S.; Bell, A. F.; Main, I. G.



Deformation Microstructures and Creep Mechanisms in Advanced ZR-Based Cladding Under Biazal Loading  

SciTech Connect

Investigate creep behavior of Zr-based cladding tubes with attention to basic creep mechanisms and transitions in them at low stresses and/or temperatures and study the dislocation microstructures of deformed samples for correlation with the underlying micromechanism of creep

K. Linga (KL) Murty



Multimechanism-Deformation Parameters of Domal Salts Using Transient Creep Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Use of Gulf Coast salt domes for construction of very large storage caverns by solution mining has grown significantly in the last several decades. In fact, among the largest developers of storage caverns along the Gulf Coast is the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) which has purchased or constructed 62 crude oil storage caverns in four storage sites (domes). Although SPR and commercial caverns have been operated economically for many years, the caverns still exhibit some relatively poorly understood behaviors, especially involving creep closure volume loss and hanging string damage from salt falls. Since it is possible to postulate that some of these behaviors stem from geomechanical or reformational aspects of the salt, a method of correlating the cavern response to mechanical creep behavior as determined in the laboratory could be of considerable value. Recently, detailed study of the creep response of domal salts has cast some insight into the influence of different salt origins on cavern behavior. The study used a simple graphical analysis of limited non-steady state data to establish an approach or bound to steady state, as an estimate of the steady state behavior of a given salt. This permitted analysis of sparse creep databases for domal salts. It appears that a shortcoming of this steady state analysis method is that it obscures some critical differences of the salt material behavior. In an attempt to overcome the steady state analysis shortcomings, a method was developed based on integration of the Multimechanism-Deformation (M-D) creep constitutive model to obtain fits to the transient response. This integration process permits definition of all the material sensitive parameters of the model, while those parameters that are constants or material insensitive parameters are fixed independently. The transient analysis method has proven more sensitive to differences in the creep characteristics and has provided a way of defining different behaviors within a given dome. Characteristics defined by the transient analysis are related quantitatively to the volume loss creep rate of the SPR caverns. This increase in understanding of the domal material creep response already has pointed to the possibility y of delineating the existence of material spines within a specific dome. Further definition of the domal geology and structure seems possible only through expansion of the creep databases for domal salts.




Final Report on In-Reactor Creep-Fatigue Deformation Behaviour of a  

E-print Network

V) neutrons and will experience at the same time thermo-mechanical cyclic loading (i.e. fatigue) as a resultFinal Report on In-Reactor Creep- Fatigue Deformation Behaviour of a CuCrZr Alloy: COFAT 2 B3) , J. Dekeyser3) , and J.F. Stubbins4) Title: Final Report on In-reactor Creep-fatigue Deformation


Experimental research on creep characteristics of Nansha soft soil.  


A series of tests were performed to investigate the creep characteristics of soil in interactive marine and terrestrial deposit of Pearl River Delta. The secondary consolidation test results show that the influence of consolidation pressure on coefficient of secondary consolidation is conditional, which is decided by the consolidation state. The ratio of coefficient of secondary consolidation and coefficient of compressibility (Ca/Cc) is almost a constant, and the value is 0.03. In the shear-box test, the direct sheer creep failure of soil is mainly controlled by shear stress rather than the accumulation of shear strain. The triaxial creep features are closely associated with the drainage conditions, and consolidation can weaken the effect of creep. When the soft soil has triaxial creep damage, the strain rate will increase sharply. PMID:24526925

Luo, Qingzi; Chen, Xiaoping



Experimental Research on Creep Characteristics of Nansha Soft Soil  

PubMed Central

A series of tests were performed to investigate the creep characteristics of soil in interactive marine and terrestrial deposit of Pearl River Delta. The secondary consolidation test results show that the influence of consolidation pressure on coefficient of secondary consolidation is conditional, which is decided by the consolidation state. The ratio of coefficient of secondary consolidation and coefficient of compressibility Ca/Cc is almost a constant, and the value is 0.03. In the shear-box test, the direct sheer creep failure of soil is mainly controlled by shear stress rather than the accumulation of shear strain. The triaxial creep features are closely associated with the drainage conditions, and consolidation can weaken the effect of creep. When the soft soil has triaxial creep damage, the strain rate will increase sharply. PMID:24526925

Luo, Qingzi; Chen, Xiaoping



Mechanisms of creep deformation in gamma-based titanium aluminide alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The creep behavior of gamma-based titanium aluminide alloys has been characterized phenomenologically in detail in recent years but is still not well understood mechanistically. It is apparent that a large number of variables potentially influence creep behavior; however, isolation of the effects of individual variables has been difficult. In order to understand creep deformation mechanisms and the sources which contribute to creep strain, this investigation has thoroughly examined the effect of several critical variables by conducting experiments on materials where microstructure and composition have been carefully controlled. Important variables examined include the effects of phase morphology/distribution, grain size, aluminum and molybdenum content, stress, temperature, structure stability, and prior deformation path. The resulting effects of these variables on creep properties was assessed by careful experiments examining minimum creep rates, evolution of creep rate with time and strain, sliding at grain boundaries, creep transients, and deformation substructure development. Results of the heat treatment study have shown that microstructure development in this system is highly dependent upon processing variables including heating rate, cooling rate, and annealing temperature. Controlled gamma phase grain growth can also be achieved near the binary alloy eutectoid temperature. Results of creep experiments indicate that the minimum creep rate of a wide range of multiphase structures, including equiaxed and duplex morphologies, is relatively insensitive to second phase morphology. Molybdenum present in solid solution in the gamma phase decreases minimum creep rates. A similar reduction occurs with increased aluminum content on the aluminum-lean side of stoichiometry. Grain boundary sliding contributes significantly to creep deformation for grain sizes of 10--100um with as much as 25% of the strain being attributed to sliding. Examination of dislocation substructures developed during creep indicates that creep is likely to be controlled by solute drag processes at low stresses. At high stresses, deformation appears to be controlled by glide processes involving the dragging of jogged screw dislocations. Resulting stress exponents typically transition from approximately 3 to 7 as stress is increased. Twinning occurs at 760C during creep and tensile deformation at high stresses, but does not result in a significant prior deformation path dependence of creep rate.

Ott, Eric A.


Creeping deformation mechanisms for mixed hydrate-sediment submarine landslides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Globally widespread gas hydrates are proposed to stabilize the seafloor by increasing sediment peak shear strength; while seafloor failure localises at the base of the gas hydrate stability field (BGHS). The primary mechanism by which gas hydrates are proposed to induce slope failure is by temperature or pressure controlled dissociation of hydrate to free gas resulting in a significant pore pressure increase at the BGHS. Direct evidence for this process is lacking however, and the interaction between gas hydrate and seafloor stability remains poorly understood. We present evidence that, contrary to conventional views, gas hydrate can itself destabilize the seafloor. Morphological (Kongsberg-Simrad EM300 and EM302 multibeam) and high-resolution multichannel seismic refection data from a 100 km2 submarine landslide complex in ~450 m water depth, 20 km off the east coast of New Zealand indicate flow-like deformation within gas hydrate-bearing sediments. This "creeping" deformation occurs immediately downslope of where the BGHS reaches the seafloor, as indicated by a hydrate-indicating bottom simulating reflector (BSR) cutting through the landslide debris, suggesting involvement of gas hydrates. We propose two mechanisms to explain how the shallow gas hydrate system could control these landslides. 1) The Hydrate Valve: Overpressure and/or temperature fluctuations below low-permeability gas hydrate-bearing sediments causes hydrofracturing where the BGHS approaches the landslide base, both weakening sediments and creating a valve for transferring excess pore pressure into the upper landslide body. 2) Hydrate-sediment Glacier: Gas hydrate-bearing sediment exhibits time-dependent plastic deformation enabling glacial-style deformation. This second hypothesis is supported by recent laboratory observations of time-dependent behaviour of gas-hydrate-bearing sands. Given the ubiquitous occurrence of gas hydrates on continental slopes, our results may require a re-evaluation of slope stability following future climate-forced variation in bottom water temperatures.

Mountjoy, Joshu; Pecher, Ingo; Henrys, Stuart; Barnes, Philip; Plaza-Faverola, Andreia



A TEM Study of Creep Deformation Mechanisms in Allvac 718Plus  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary study on the evolution of creep deformation substructure in Ni-base superalloy Allvac 718Plus has been performed. Specimens crept at 620 MPa and at temperatures ranging from 690-732 C were examined utilizing diffraction contrast TEM characterization techniques. Creep was interrupted at 1-2.5% strain in order to study the deformation substructure following a limited amount of deformation. The dominant deformation modes at each of the test temperatures were highly planar in nature and involved shearing of the matrix and precipitates on {111} glide planes. In addition, paired a/2<110> dislocations were evident which suggest an antiphase boundary shearing mechanism. Creep induced microtwinning was also observed at the highest creep temperature which was created by identical a/6<112> Shockley partial dislocations that shear the matrix and precipitates on consecutive close packed {111} glide planes.

Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL; Unocic, Kinga A [ORNL; Hayes, Robert [Metals Technology, Inc; Daehn, Glenn [Ohio State University; Mills, Michael J. [Ohio State University



Creep Behavior and Deformation Mechanisms for Nanocluster-Strengthened Ferritic Steels  

SciTech Connect

Mechanically alloyed, nanostructured ferritic steels represent a class of alloys that can display high resistance to radiation and creep deformation, which are derived from the presence of nanoclusters, precipitates and solute segregation to the grain boundaries. The creep responses for a 14YWT nanostructured ferritic steel were measured over a range of temperatures and stress levels. The stress exponent was observed to vary non-linearly with applied stress; stress exponents were found to decrease with decreasing stress approaching unity at low stress. Transmission electron microscopy studies clearly demonstrated that creep deformation proceeds by a dislocation glide within nanoscale grains and that glide dislocations are attracted to and pinned by nanoclusters. In light of these observations, a new model of the creep response, inspired by the Kocks-Argon-Ashby model, is developed to explain the low creep rates and small stress exponents that are exhibited by these alloys.

Brandes, Matthew C [Ohio State University; Kovarik, L. [Ohio State University; Miller, Michael K [ORNL; Daehn, Glenn [Ohio State University; Mills, Michael J. [Ohio State University



On the creep deformation mechanisms of an advanced disk nickel-base superalloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this research was aimed at investigating the fundamental relationship between microstructure and creep deformation mechanisms using a variety of electron microscopy characterization techniques. The alloy used in this research, Rene 104, is a newer generation powder metallurgy Ni-base superalloy that was developed specifically for aircraft gas turbine disk applications with extended service durability at temperatures exceeding 650C. The influence of stress and temperature was studied first and it was found that during creep deformation at temperatures between 677--815C and stresses between 345--724MPa a variety of distinctly different creep deformation mechanisms were operative. In addition to identifying the creep deformation mechanisms an attempt was made to determine the creep rate limiting process so that an improved understanding of the fundamental processes that control deformation can be better understood. Microtwinning was found to the dominant deformation mechanism following creep at 677C/690MPa and 704C/724MPa. Microtwins form by the motion of paired a/6<112> Shockley partial dislocations that shear both the gamma matrix and gamma' precipitates. The rate limiting process in this mechanism is diffusion mediated atomic reordering that occurs in the wake of the shearing, twinning partial dislocations in order to maintain the ordered L12 structure of the gamma' precipitates. This reordering process helps to fundamentally explain the temperature and rate dependence of microtwinning under creep conditions within this temperature and stress regime. At a slightly higher temperature but lower stress (760C and 345MPa), a stacking fault related shearing mechanism, which typically spanned only a few micrometers in length, was the principle deformation mode. The faults left behind in the gamma' precipitates determined to be extrinsic in nature. During creep at the highest temperature and lowest stress (815C and 345MPa) a thermally activated climb/bypass mechanism of a/2<110> dislocations were found to be the dominant deformation mechanism. In this mechanism, the gamma' precipitates were not sheared but instead were bypassed by a/2<110> matrix dislocations. In addition to the identification of creep deformation mechanisms as a function of stress and temperature, characterization of the post creep gamma' precipitate microstructure revealed that microstructural evolution of the gamma' precipitates has occurred during creep at the higher test temperatures where the secondary gamma' precipitates have coarsened and the tertiary gamma' precipitates have dissolved. In combination with creep at low stress and high temperature, the microstructural evolution may have contributed to the transition from one deformation mode to another. In an attempt to link the influence of microstructure (gamma' precipitate size scale, distribution, volume fraction, and gamma channel width spacing) on creep deformation behavior and creep deformation mechanisms, specimens with different size scaled microstructural features were crept at the same temperature and stress (677C and 724MPa) in order to provide a direct comparison between differences in microstructure. It was found that a microstructure consisting of a bimodal distribution of gamma' precipitates with coarse secondary gamma' precipitates, a high volume fraction of tertiary gamma' precipitates and a wide gamma channel width spacing results in a less creep resistance microstructure that deformed primary by a/2<110> dislocation activity in the gamma matrix at small strain and secondary gamma' shearing via superlattice intrinsic stacking faults at higher strains. The more creep resistant microstructure consisted of a bimodal distribution of gamma' precipitates with a finer secondary gamma' precipitate size, low volume fraction of gamma' and narrow gamma channel width spacing. The combination of these microstructural features promoted a/2<110> dislocation dissociation and decorrelation of a/6<112> Shockley partial di

Unocic, Raymond R.


Characterizing viscous creep deformation of Martian landforms in Noachis and Hellas using MOC and MOLA data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of widespread "softened" terrain and large-scale debris flows on Mars has long been attributed to viscous creep and flow phenomena associated with near-surface ground ice in high latitude permafrost terrain. On the basis of Viking Orbiter images, Squyres (1989) identified two classes of creep-related landforms: (1) softened terrain, which results from in situ viscous deformation and is particularly evident in impact craters which exhibit degraded rims and flat topographic profiles, and (2) debris flows, which are produced by mass wasting along escarpments, e.g., lobate debris aprons, lineated valley fill, and concentric crater fill. Such features have been linked with evidence of ground ice in the upper hundreds of meters of soil at higher latitudes, with depths to the top of the ice less than 100-200 m (Squyres et al., 1992). We are using MOC and MOLA data to document the structural and topographic characteristics of softened landforms and debris flows in the Hellas and Noachis regions. By comparing the observed landforms to the results of finite-element models of viscous creep relaxation which incorporate recent laboratory measurements of ice/rock mixtures (Durham et al., 1997, 2000; Mangold et al., 1999), we can constrain the conditions necessary to allow such deformation on Mars. Durham W.B. (1997), JGR, 102, 16293-16302. Durham W.B. (2000) Second Intl. Conf. on Mars Polar Sci. and Exploration, LPI Contribution #1057, 28-29. Mangold N. (1999) LPSC, XXX, #1016. Squyres S. (1989) Icarus, 79, 229-288. Squyres S. (1992) in Mars, Ed. H Kieffer, Univ.Arizona Press, Tucson, 523-554.

Turtle, E. P.; Pathare, A. V.; Hartmann, W. K.; Crown, D.; Esquerdo, G. A.



Gyro pump wear and deformation analysis in vivo study: creep deformation.  


The Gyro pump has a double pivot bearing system to support its impeller. In this study, the integrity of the bearing system was examined after ex vivo studies. The pumps were implanted into calves and evaluated for different periods as a paracorporeal left ventricular assist device (LVAD). One pump was subjected to a test of 30 days, 1 for 15 days, 4 for 14 days, 1 for 10 days, 1 for 7 days, 2 for 4 days, and 4 for 2 days. One additional pump was subjected to percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS) condition for 6 days (total pressure head 500 mm Hg with a pump flow rate of 3 L/min). The anticoagulation treatment consisted of a continuous administration of heparin to maintain an achieved clotting time (ACT) of 200-250 s during the LVAD study and 250-300 s during the PCPS study. After the experiment, the pumps were disassembled, and the wear and deformation of male and female bearings were analyzed. There were no dimensional changes on male bearings but there were on female bearings. Wear and deformation of the female bearings were calculated as follows: wear and deformation = (depth of female before pumping) - (depth after pumping). Thirteen assembled Gyro pumps were disassembled to measure the depth of the female bearings before pumping. There was no statistical relationship between the wear and deformation and the motor speed x driving period. From these results, the deformation was not due to wear but to the creep or elastic deformation. This study suggested that the double pivot bearing system of the Gyro pump is highly durable. PMID:10971256

Nakata, K; Yoshikawa, M; Takano, T; Maeda, T; Nonaka, K; Linneweber, J; Kawahito, S; Glueck, J; Fujisawa, A; Makinouchi, K; Yokokawa, M; Nos, Y



Creep deformation behavior in eutectic SnAg solder joints using a novel mapping technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creep deformation behavior was measured for 60100 m thick solder joints. The solder joints investigated consisted of: (a)\\u000a non-composite solder joints made with eutectic Sn-Ag solder, and (b) composite solder joints with eutectic Sn-Ag solder containing\\u000a 20 vol. %, 5 m diameter in-situ Cu6Sn5 intermetallic reinforcements. All creep testing in this study was carried out at room temperature. Qualitative and

J. P. Lucas; F. Guo; J. McDougall; T. R. Bieler; K. N. Subramanian; J. K. Park



Deformation mechanism for high temperature creep of a directionally solidified nickel-base superalloy  

SciTech Connect

Modern nickel-base superalloys, which contain a high volume fraction of hard cubical {gamma}{prime} precipitates embedded coherently in a softer {gamma} matrix, are used as turbine blade material due to their good resistance to creep deformation at high temperature. In this present study, the authors will analyze the relationship between the steady-state creep rate and the applied stress of DZ17G, a modern DS cast nickel-base superalloy used for producing turbine blades and vanes for aeroengine applications. On the basis of TEM observations and calculations of the threshold stress for different deformation mechanism, the authors finally propose the deformation mechanism for creep of DZ17G superalloy at high temperature.

Yuan, C. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China)] [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China); [Northeastern Univ., Shenyang (China). School of Materials and Metallurgy; Guo, J.T.; Wang, S.H. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China)] [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China); Yang, H.C. [Northeastern Univ., Shenyang (China). School of Materials and Metallurgy] [Northeastern Univ., Shenyang (China). School of Materials and Metallurgy



2 Transient creep, aseismic damage and slow failure in Carrara marble 3 deformed across the brittle-ductile transition  

E-print Network

2 Transient creep, aseismic damage and slow failure in Carrara marble 3 deformed across the brittle triaxial compression experiments were performed 8 on Carrara marble at high confining pressure, in creep 9 in Carrara marble deformed across the brittle-ductile transition, 31 Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, LXXXXX, doi:10

Fortin, Jérôme


Post- and interseismic deformation due to both localized and distributed creep at depth (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are two end-member representations of the ductile lithosphere (i.e., the lower crust and uppermost mantle) commonly used in models of post- and interseismic deformation around strike-slip faults: either (1) laterally homogeneous ductile layers, with sharp contrasts in rheological properties between the layers, in which creep is distributed; or (2) discrete extensions of the fault at depth in which creep is fully localized. The most realistic representation of the ductile lithosphere on earthquake cycle time scales likely falls between these two end-members. Researchers have considered both distributed and localized creep when interpreting post- and interseismic deformation, although the two mechanisms are most commonly treated separately, with the localized creep often approximated by kinematic slip on planar faults. There are a few noteworthy models that considered the feedback between both distributed and localized creep, although those models were largely constrained to 2D geometries of infinite length faults. The thickness of shear zones in the ductile lithosphere may be comparable to the locking depth of the fault, and the existence of a deep shear zone does not preclude the possibility that some distributed creep occurs in the surrounding lithosphere. Furthermore, variations in rheology, including both rheological models and their parameters, may be more subtle than the discrete contrasts typically assumed. In this presentation, we consider models of postseismic deformation following a finite length, strike-slip fault, as well as models of interseismic deformation around an infinite length strike-slip fault. Both sets of models are capable of localized and distributed creep at depth, and use Maxwell viscoelasticity. We show that the horizontal surface velocities during the early postseismic period are most sensitive to the viscosity of the shear zone; however during much of the interseismic period the shear zone is not apparent from the surface deformation, which is consistent with very large uniform viscosities in the ductile lithosphere. On the other hand, the vertical postseismic surface deformation is highly sensitive to the depth-dependent distribution of viscosities, regardless of whether the model contains purely distributed creep or also includes a component of localized creep. Hence, vertical postseismic deformation can discriminate vertical contrasts in viscosity, but is not a good discriminant of localized vs. distributed creep at depth. Models that contain components of both localized and distributed creep predict transient postseismic deformation, characterized by a fast relaxation phase followed by a slower relaxation phase, even when the model only contains steady Maxwell viscosities. This transience is equivalent to that predicted in models that approximate the ductile lithosphere with transient viscoelasticity, and we discuss the implication on the lithosphere rheology inferred from deformation following the 1997 Manyi, China, earthquake. Finally, we address the mechanism in which shear zones might develop under strike-slip faults and the implication of power-law creep rheologies.

Hetland, E. A.; Zhang, G.; Hines, T.



Identification of wavelengths of strain heterogeneities during creep deformation in Carrara Marble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a new technique combining microfabrication technology and compression tests to map the strain field at a micrometric scale in polycrystalline materials. The motivation of such high-resolution mapping is to identify characteristic wavelengths of heterogeneities for different plasticity mechanisms under varying creep conditions. The micro-strain mapping technique was applied to Carrara Marble under different deformation regimes, at a confining pressure of 300 MPa and temperatures ranging from 200 to 700 C. In samples deformed to 10% strain in compression at 400C, 500C and 600C, at a 3x10-5 s-1 strain rate, strain can be up to 5 times greater along twins and grain boundaries compared to the macroscopic strain accommodated over the entire sample. Strain averaged across a particular grain may vary by as much as 100%. Moreover, there is a gradual but clear change in the accommodation of strain, from twins to grain boundaries as temperature increases. For a fixed temperature of 600C, varying strain from 10% to 30% does not appear to increase the wavelength of heterogeneities (i.e. the strain field does not homogenize). Macroscopically, strain hardening is minimal and there seems to be a constant generation of perturbations of similar wavelength.

Quintanilla-Terminel, Alejandra; Evans, Brian



Methods of investigating the deformation and strength properties of clayey soils under creep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of determining the strength and deformability of soils under creep during triaxial compression are examined. A kinematic\\u000a method of determining the strength and deformability of soils with a consistency ranging from fluid to hard in accordance\\u000a with an unconsolidated-undrained scheme is proposed for such soils. It is demonstrated that the results of the experimental\\u000a investigations can be represented by

G. V. Sorokina



Cavitation in the neck of a deformed Ti-47Al-2Nb-2Cr creep specimen  

SciTech Connect

In creep deformation, intergranular cavitation is the predominant damage process that leads to fracture. In addition to the strain rate, nucleation and growth of cavities are the most important issues to examine when considering material lifetimes. Cavities tend to grow on boundaries normal to the tensile stress axis. Constrained cavity growth models describe how the growth rate is retarded due to the need for the surrounding matrix to accommodate the volume increase. Near-{gamma} TiAl has a microstructure that is very sensitive to heat treatment and deformation history. In this study, the authors investigate a necked creep specimen upon which creep rates were evaluated in a history that started with a large stress and steadily decreased by stress changes through the end of the experiment. Since creep rates at similar stresses are as much as an order of magnitude higher than in a specimen deformed in a generally increasing stress change history, the cavitation evident in the neck is expected to be strongly affected by the particular deformation history in the material.

Sneary, P.R.; Beals, R.S.; Bieler, T.R. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mechanics] [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mechanics



Elevated-temperature flow strength, creep resistance and diffusion welding characteristics of Ti-gAl-2Nb-1Ta-0.8Mo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the flow strength, creep resistance and diffusion welding characteristics of the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-2Nb-1Ta-0.8Mo was conducted. Two mill-processed forms of this alloy were examined. The forged material was essentially processed above the beta transus while the rolled form was subjected to considerable work below the beta transus. Between 1150 and 1250 K, the forged material was stronger and more creep resistant than the rolled alloy. Both forms exhibit superplastic characteristics in this temperature range. Strain measurements during diffusion welding experiments at 1200 K reveal that weld interfaces have no measurable effect on the overall creep deformation. Significant deformation appears to be necessary to produce a quality diffusion weld between superplastic materials. A 'soft' interlayer inserted between faying surfaces would seemingly allow manufacture of quality diffusion welds with little overall deformation.

Whittenberger, J. D.; Moore, T. J.



Experimental research of the effects of preconsolidation on the time-dependent deformationscreep of marl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental research on marl prismatic specimens under uniaxial loading indicated that, under the constant uniaxial compressive stress, marl exhibits significant time-dependent deformations, creep. A rheological model for soft rock is defined for creep after the loading and unloading (Tomanovic in Mech. Time-Depend. Mater. 10(2):135-154, 2006), whereas material parameters for the rock concerned are determined based on the result of the creep test after the initial loading. The influence of the compressive stress preconsolidation level and the loading duration on material parameters that describe the creep represents the central part of this examination. For the purpose of quantification of material parameters of the rheological model that describes creep, the laboratory research has been resumed using series of prismatic specimens under uniaxial load. The paper presents some of the so far registered results of the marl creep behavior, following previously conducted creep tests at different stress levels and different loading duration.

Zivaljevic, S.; Tomanovic, Z.



Characterization of crystallographic evolution during creep deformation of a single crystal superalloy  

SciTech Connect

In the present study, the electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) technique has been used to monitor the changes in microcrystallinity that occurs in specimens of SRR99 with complex crystal orientation when deformed to various creep strains and to failure at a range of stresses and temperatures. The current version of the anisotropic model has been used to simulate these deformations and predict the crystal rotations that will occur as a function of creep strain. The investigation compared the experimental and predicted extents and nature of crystal rotation. It also examined the wider issues of sources in variation of experimental measurements and the influence of the microstructural heterogeneities on the uniformity and consistency of crystal rotation determinations.

Shollock, B.A.; Buffiere, J.Y.; Henderson, M.B.; McLean, M. [Imperial Coll of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials] [Imperial Coll of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Curtis, R.V. [Guy`s and St. Thomas`s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). United Medical and Dental School] [Guy`s and St. Thomas`s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). United Medical and Dental School



Influence of flowing sodium on creep deformation and rupture behaviour of 316L(N) austenitic stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of flowing sodium on creep deformation and rupture behaviour of AISI 316L(N) austenitic stainless steel has been investigated at 873 K over a stress range of 235-305 MPa. The results were compared with those obtained from testing in air environment. The steady state creep rates of the material were not influenced appreciably by the testing environments. The time to onset of tertiary stage of creep deformation was delayed in sodium environment. The creep-rupture lives of the material increased in sodium environment, which became more pronounced at lower applied stresses. The increase in rupture life of the material in flowing sodium was accompanied by an increase in rupture ductility. The creep damage on specimen surface as well as inside the specimen was less in specimen tested in sodium. SEM fractographic investigation revealed predominantly transgranular dimple failure for the specimen tested in sodium, whereas predominantly intergranular creep failure was observed in the air tested specimens. Almost no oxidation was observed in the specimens creep tested in the sodium environment. Absence of oxidation and less creep damage cavitation extended the secondary state in liquid sodium tests and lead to increase in creep rupture life and ductility of the material as compared to in air.

Ravi, S.; Laha, K.; Mathew, M. D.; Vijayaraghavan, S.; Shanmugavel, M.; Rajan, K. K.; Jayakumar, T.



Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue Deformation of an Ultra-Fine Precipitate Strengthened Advanced Austenitic Alloy  

SciTech Connect

An advanced austenitic alloy, HT-UPS (high-temperature ultrafine-precipitation-strengthened), has been identified as an ideal candidate material for the structural components of fast reactors and energy-conversion systems. HT-UPS alloys demonstrate improved creep resistance relative to 316 stainless steel (SS) through additions of Ti and Nb, which precipitate to form a widespread dispersion of stable nanoscale metallic carbide (MC) particles in the austenitic matrix. The low-cycle fatigue and creep-fatigue behavior of an HT-UPS alloy have been investigated at 650 C and a 1.0% total strain, with an R-ratio of -1 and hold times at peak tensile strain as long as 150 min. The cyclic deformation response of HT-UPS is directly compared to that of standard 316 SS. The measured values for total cycles to failure are similar, despite differences in peak stress profiles and in qualitative observations of the deformed microstructures. Crack propagation is primarily transgranular in fatigue and creep-fatigue of both alloys at the investigated conditions. Internal grain boundary damage in the form of fine cracks resulting from the tensile hold is present for hold times of 60 min and longer, and substantially more internal cracks are quantifiable in 316 SS than in HT-UPS. The dislocation substructures observed in the deformed material differ significantly; an equiaxed cellular structure is observed in 316 SS, whereas in HT-UPS the microstructure takes the form of widespread and relatively homogenous tangles of dislocations pinned by the nanoscale MC precipitates. The significant effect of the fine distribution of precipitates on observed fatigue and creep-fatigue response is described in three distinct behavioral regions as it evolves with continued cycling.

M.C. Carroll; L.J. Carroll



Creep-characteristics of a tropical wood-polymer composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wood polymer composite (WPC) specimens were produced by impregnating a tropical wood with methyl methacrylate and subsequently polymerised by ?-irradiation. Beam specimens of varying weight percentages of polymer were then subjected to a three point bend creep test under a constant load condition, for 250, 300 and 350 N. A Norton-Bailey (power law) mathematical model was used to describe the creep behavior, with the creep components determined by a nonlinear regression analysis. Significant creep improvements were obtained from the composite specimens as compared to the untreated wood specimens. Results indicated that maximum creep resistance is obtained when the amount of polymer loading exceeded 30%. An interfacial interaction between the polymer and the wood cell wall was used to account for the behavior of the increase in the creep resistance.

Chia, L. H. L.; Teoh, S. H.; Boey, F. Y. C.


Understanding creep in sandstone reservoirs - theoretical deformation mechanism maps for pressure solution in granular materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface exploitation of the Earth's natural resources removes the natural system from its chemical and physical equilibrium. As such, groundwater extraction and hydrocarbon production from subsurface reservoirs frequently causes surface subsidence and induces (micro)seismicity. These effects are not only a problem in onshore (e.g. Groningen, the Netherlands) and offshore hydrocarbon fields (e.g. Ekofisk, Norway), but also in urban areas with extensive groundwater pumping (e.g. Venice, Italy). It is known that fluid extraction inevitably leads to (poro)elastic compaction of reservoirs, hence subsidence and occasional fault reactivation, and causes significant technical, economic and ecological impact. However, such effects often exceed what is expected from purely elastic reservoir behaviour and may continue long after exploitation has ceased. This is most likely due to time-dependent compaction, or 'creep deformation', of such reservoirs, driven by the reduction in pore fluid pressure compared with the rock overburden. Given the societal and ecological impact of surface subsidence, as well as the current interest in developing geothermal energy and unconventional gas resources in densely populated areas, there is much need for obtaining better quantitative understanding of creep in sediments to improve the predictability of the impact of geo-energy and groundwater production. The key problem in developing a reliable, quantitative description of the creep behaviour of sediments, such as sands and sandstones, is that the operative deformation mechanisms are poorly known and poorly quantified. While grain-scale brittle fracturing plus intergranular sliding play an important role in the early stages of compaction, these time-independent, brittle-frictional processes give way to compaction creep on longer time-scales. Thermally-activated mass transfer processes, like pressure solution, can cause creep via dissolution of material at stressed grain contacts, grain-boundary diffusion and precipitation on pore walls. As a first step to better describe creep in sands and sandstones, we have derived a simple model for intergranular pressure solution (IPS) within an ordered pack of spherical grains, employing existing IPS rate models, such as those derived by Renard et al. (1999) and Spiers et al. (2004). This universal model is able to predict the conditions under which each of the respective pressure solution serial processes, i.e. diffusion, precipitation or dissolution, is dominant. In essence, this creates generic deformation mechanism maps for any granular material. We have used our model to predict the amount and rate of compaction for sandstone reservoirs, and compared our predictions to known subsidence rates for reservoirs around the world. This gives a first order-comparison to verify whether or not IPS is an important mechanism in controlling reservoir compaction.

Hangx, Suzanne; Spiers, Christopher



Analysis of Mining Terrain Deformation Characteristics with Deformation Information System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mapping and prediction of mining related deformations of the earth surface is an important measure for minimising threat to surface infrastructure, human population, the environment and safety of the mining operation itself arising from underground extraction of useful minerals. The number of methods and techniques used for monitoring and analysis of mining terrain deformations is wide and increasing with the development of geographical information technologies. These include for example: terrestrial geodetic measurements, global positioning systems, remote sensing, spatial interpolation, finite element method modelling, GIS based modelling, geological modelling, empirical modelling using the Knothe theory, artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic calculations and other. The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of an integrated Deformation Information System (DIS) developed in geographic information systems environment for analysis and modelling of various spatial data related to mining activity and demonstrate its applications for mapping and visualising, as well as identifying possible mining terrain deformation areas with various spatial modelling methods. The DIS concept is based on connected modules that include: the spatial database - the core of the system, the spatial data collection module formed by: terrestrial, satellite and remote sensing measurements of the ground changes, the spatial data mining module for data discovery and extraction, the geological modelling module, the spatial data modeling module with data processing algorithms for spatio-temporal analysis and mapping of mining deformations and their characteristics (e.g. deformation parameters: tilt, curvature and horizontal strain), the multivariate spatial data classification module and the visualization module allowing two-dimensional interactive and static mapping and three-dimensional visualizations of mining ground characteristics. The Systems's functionality has been presented on the case study of a coal mining region in SW Poland where it has been applied to study characteristics and map mining induced ground deformations in a city in the last two decades of underground coal extraction and in the first decade after the end of mining. The mining subsidence area and its deformation parameters (tilt and curvature) have been calculated and the latter classified and mapped according to the Polish regulations. In addition possible areas of ground deformation have been indicated based on multivariate spatial data analysis of geological and mining operation characteristics with the geographically weighted regression method.

Blachowski, Jan; Milczarek, Wojciech; Grzempowski, Piotr



Stiffness and damping characteristics of aluminum in creep  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tensile creep tests conducted at 200 C were performed on annealed commercially pure aluminum specimens in order to measure the dominant elevated temperature dislocation processes. Testing consisted of applying small lateral loads to measure flexural stiffness, and vibrating the specimens laterally in order to measure dynamic modulus and internal damping. It was concluded that (1) the strain hardening increased static stiffness and decreased internal damping during early creep, and (2) the dynamic modulus remained essentially constant at the elastic value during creep. These results imply that primary creep may constitute a mechanism of recovery of dislocatory disorder induced by yielding the material during loading, and that the inelastic modulus utilized as a mathematical concept in several creep buckling theories is not a directly measurable material property.

Berkovits, A.



Characteristics of irradiation creep in the first wall of a fusion reactor  

SciTech Connect

A number of significant differences in the irradiation environment of a fusion reactor are expected with respect to the fission reactor irradiation environment. These differences are expected to affect the characteristics of irradiation creep in the fusion reactor. Special conditions of importance are identified as the (1) large number of defects produced per pka, (2) high helium production rate, (3) cyclic operation, (4) unique stress histories, and (5) low temperature operations. Existing experimental data from the fission reactor environment is analyzed to shed light on irradiation creep under fusion conditions. Theoretical considerations are used to deduce additional characteristics of irradiation creep in the fusion reactor environment for which no experimental data are available.

Coghlan, W.A.; Mansur, L.K.



Dislocation evolution during thermal creep deformation in V-4Cr-4Ti with various thermal and mechanical treatments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dislocation evolution during thermal creep deformation was investigated at 1023 K for V-4Cr-4Ti alloys with various thermal and mechanical treatments. Changes in the density and Burgers vector of dislocations were examined with various materials and experimental variables (e.g., cold work introducing dislocations, thermal aging introducing high density of Ti-rich precipitates, applied stress, and creep deformation levels). The Burgers vector analysis showed that, in the annealed specimens, dislocations induced by the thermal creep were predominantly of a/2<1 1 1> type. The densities of a<1 0 0> and a/2<1 1 1> type dislocations were comparable for the cold worked V-4Cr-4Ti, but the fraction of a/2<1 1 1> type dislocations increased with the creep deformation. Similar changes to the Burgers vector fraction were observed for specimens with a high density of precipitation prior to the cold work. On the other hand, cold work followed by aging (i.e., strain aging) was effective in keeping dislocation structures during the creep deformation.

Muroga, T.; Nagasaka, T.; Zheng, P. F.; Li, Y. F.; Watanabe, H.



Evolution of load transfer between hydroxyapatite and collagen during creep deformation of bone.  


While the matrix/reinforcement load-transfer occurring at the micro- and nanoscale in nonbiological composites subjected to creep deformation is well understood, this topic has been little studied in biological composites such as bone. Here, for the first time in bone, the mechanisms of time-dependent load transfer occurring at the nanoscale between the collagen phase and the hydroxyapatite (HAP) platelets are studied. Bovine cortical bone samples are subjected to synchrotron X-ray diffraction to measure in situ the evolution of elastic strains in the crystalline HAP phase and the evolution of viscoelastic strains accumulating in the mineralized collagen fibrils under creep conditions at body temperature. For a constant compressive stress, both types of strains increase linearly with time. This suggests that bone, as it deforms macroscopically, is behaving as a traditional composite, shedding load from the more compliant, viscoelastic collagen matrix to the reinforcing elastic HAP platelets. This behavior is modeled by finite-element simulation carried out at the fibrillar level. PMID:21878399

Deymier-Black, A C; Yuan, F; Singhal, A; Almer, J D; Brinson, L C; Dunand, D C



Microstructure and Impression Creep Characteristics of Cast Mg-5Sn- xBi Magnesium Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructure and creep behavior of a cast Mg-5Sn alloy with 1, 2, and 3 wt pct Bi additions were studied by impression tests in the temperature range 423 K to 523 K (150 C to 250 C) under punching stresses in the range 125 to 475 MPa for dwell times up to 3600 seconds. The alloy containing 3 wt pct Bi showed the lowest creep rates and, thus, the highest creep resistance among all materials tested. This is attributed to the favorable formation of the more thermally stable Mg3Bi2 intermetallic compound, the reduction in the volume fraction of the less stable Mg2Sn phase, and the dissolution of Bi in the remaining Mg2Sn particles. These particles strengthen both the matrix and grain boundaries during creep deformation of the investigated system. The creep behavior of the Mg-5Sn alloy can be divided into the low- and high-stress regimes, with the respective average stress exponents of 5.5 and 10.5 and activation energies of 98.3 and 163.5 kJ mol-1. This is in contrast to the creep behavior of the Bi-containing alloys, which can be expressed by a single linear relationship over the whole stress and temperature ranges studied, yielding stress exponents in the range 7 to 8 and activation energies of 101.0 to 107.0 kJ mol-1. Based on the obtained stress exponents and activation energies, it is proposed that the dominant creep mechanism in Mg-5Sn is pipe-diffusion controlled dislocation viscous glide the low-stress regime and dislocation climb creep with back stress in the high-stress regime. For the Mg-5Sn- xBi alloys, however, the controlling creep mechanism is dislocation climb with an additional particle strengthening effect, which is characterized by the higher stress exponent of 7 to 8.

Keyvani, Mahsa; Mahmudi, Reza; Nayyeri, Ghazal



Creep deformation and rupture behavior of CLAM steel at 823 K and 873 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel is selected as the candidate structural material in Fusion Design Study (FDS) series fusion reactor conceptual designs. The creep property of CLAM steel has been studied in this paper. Creep tests have been carried out at 823 K and 873 K over a stress range of 150-230 MPa. The creep curves showed three creep regimes, primary creep, steady-state creep and tertiary creep. The relationship between minimum creep rate (??min) and the applied stress (?) could be described by Norton power law, and the stress exponent n was decreased with the increase of the creep temperature. The creep mechanism was analyzed with the fractographes of the rupture specimens which were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The coarsening of precipitates observed with transmission electron microscope (TEM) indicated the microstructural degradation after creep test.

Zhong, Boyu; Huang, Bo; Li, Chunjing; Liu, Shaojun; Xu, Gang; Zhao, Yanyun; Huang, Qunying



Dislocation decorrelation and relationship to deformation microtwins during creep of a y' precipitate strengthened Ni-based superalloy  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of microtwins during high temperature creep deformation in a strengthened Ni-base superalloy has been investigated through a combination of creep testing, TEM characterization, theoretical modeling and computer simulation. Experimentally, microtwin nucleation sources were identified and their evolution was tracked by characterizing the deformation substructure at different stages of the creep deformation. Initially, deformation is highly localized around stress concentrators such as carbides, borides and serrated grain boundaries, which act as sources of a/2<110> matrix type dislocations. Due to microstructural effects such as fine channels between particles and low matrix stacking fault energies, the a/2<110> matrix dislocations dissociate into a/6<112> Shockley partials, which were commonly observed to be decorrelated from one another, creating extended intrinsic stacking faults in the matrix. As deformation progress further, microtwins form via partial dislocations cooperatively shearing both and phases on adjacent {111} glide planes. The TEM observations lead directly to an analysis of dislocation-precipitate interactions. Through phase field simulations and theoretical analysis based on Orowan looping, the important processes of dislocation dissociation and decorrelation are modeled in detail, providing comprehensive insight into the microstructural features and applied stress conditions that favor the microtwinning deformation mode in strengthened Ni-based superalloys.

Unocic, R. R.; Zhou, N.; Kovarik, Libor; Shen, C.; Wang, Y.; Mills, M. J.



Dislocation creep accommodated Grain Boundary Sliding: A high strain rate/low temperature deformation mechanism in calcite ultramylonites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grain boundary sliding (GBS) is an important grain size sensitive deformation mechanism that is often associated with extreme strain localization and superplasticity. Another mechanism has to operate simultaneously to GBS in order to prevent overlaps and voids between sliding grains. One of the most common accommodating mechanisms is diffusional creep but, recently, dislocation creep has been reported to operate simultaneous to GBS. Due to the formation of a flanking structure in nearly pure calcite marble on Syros (Cyclades, Greece) at lower greenschist facies conditions, an extremely fine grained ultramylonite developed. The microstructure of the layer is characterized by (1) calcite grains with an average grain size of 3.6 m (developed by low temperature/high strain rate grain boundary migration recrystallization, BLG), (2) grain boundary triple junctions with nearly 120 angles and (3) small cavities preferentially located at triple junctions and at grain boundaries in extension. These features suggest that the dominant deformation mechanism was GBS. In order to get more information on the accommodation mechanism detailed microstructural and textural analyses have been performed on a FEI Quanta 3D FEG instrument equipped with an EDAX Digiview IV EBSD camera. The misorientation distribution curves for correlated and uncorrelated grains follow almost perfect the calculated theoretical curve for a random distribution, which is typical for polycrystalline material deformed by GBS. However, the crystallographic preferred orientation indicates that dislocation creep might have operated simultaneously. We also report Zener-Stroh cracks resulting from dislocation pile up, indicating that dislocation movement was active. We, therefore, conclude that the dominant deformation mechanism was dislocation creep accommodated grain boundary sliding. This is consistent with the observed grain size range that plots at the field boundary between grain size insensitive and grain size sensitive creep, in a deformation mechanism map for calcite.

Rogowitz, Anna; Grasemann, Bernhard



Quantitative analysis of microstructure deformation in creep fenomena of ferritic SA-213 T22 and austenitic SA-213 TP304H material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The failure of critical component of fossil fired power plant that operated in creep range (high stress, high temperature and in the long term) depends on its microstructure characteristics. Ferritic low carbon steel (2.25Cr-1Mo) and Austenitic stainless alloy (18Cr-8Ni) are used as a boiler tube in the secondary superheater outlet header to deliver steam before entering the turbin. The tube failure is occurred in a form of rupture, resulting trip that disrupts the continuity of the electrical generation. The research in quantification of the microstructure deformation has been done in predicting the remaining life of the tube through interrupted accelerated creep test. For Austenitic Stainless Alloy (18Cr-8Ni), creep test was done in 550C with the stress 424.5 MPa and for Ferritic Low Carbon Steel (2.25Cr-1Mo) in 570C with the stress 189 MPa. The interrupted accelerated creep test was done by stopping the observation in condition 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% of remaining life, the creep test fracture was done before. Then the micro hardness test, photo micro, SEM and EDS were obtained from those samples. Refer to ASTM E122, microstructure parameters were calculated. The results indicated that there are a consistency of decreasing their grain diameters, increasing their grain size numbers, micro hardness, and the length of crack or void number per unit area with the decreasing of remaining life. While morphology of grain (stated in parameter ?=LV/LH) relatively constant for austenitic. However, for ferritic the change of morphology revealed significantly. Fracture mode propagation of ferritic material is growth with voids transgranular and intergranular crack, and for austenitic material the fracture growth with intergranular creep fracture void and wedge crack. In this research, it was proposed a formulation of mathematical model for creep behavior corresponding their curve fitting resulted for the primary, secondary and tertiary in accelerated creep test. In addition, it was also developed a new method for predicting the remaining life using quantification of microstructure and using expansion of parameter Larson Miller from Taylor series for critical component in high temperature in industry. It was found that the proposed method was easier to be applied in field with the results more accurate then Larson Miller Method.

Mulyana, Cukup; Taufik, Ahmad; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Siregar, Rustam Efendi



The sliding mode control for different shapes and dimensions of IPMC on resisting its creep characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) is a novel smart material which has been widely implemented in MEMS, biomimetic mechanical and electrical integrated system and micro operation system. While the IPMC with different shapes and dimensions has been implemented in many different types of biomechanical integrated systems, one of its inherent properties called creep characteristic is difficult to be handled, which limits the further application of different IPMCs in integrated systems. A promising control method called sliding mode control (SMC) is proposed to resist the creep characteristics in this paper. The SMC controller can regulate IPMC actuators with different shapes and dimensions effectively to resist the creep characteristics without changing parameters of the control system. Experiments of four different types of IPMC actuators were conducted on the semi-physical SMC experimental platform. All the experimental results confirm the feasibility of the SMC control approach on regulating the multi-IPMCs with different shapes and dimensions based integrated system.

Hao, Lina; Chen, Yang; Sun, Zhiyong



Dislocation decorrelation and relationship to deformation microtwins during creep of a precipitate strengthened Ni-based superalloy  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of microtwins during high temperature creep deformation in a strengthened Ni-base superalloy has been investigated through a combination of creep testing, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), theoretical modeling, and computer simulation. Experimentally, microtwin nucleation sources were identified and their evolution was tracked by characterizing the deformation substructure at different stages of creep deformation. Deformation is highly localized around stress concentrators such as carbides, borides and serrated grain boundaries, which act as sources of a/2<110> matrix-type dislocations. Due to fine channels between particles, coupled with the low matrix stacking fault energy, the a/2<110> matrix dislocations dissociate into a/6<112> Shockley partials, which were commonly observed to be decorrelated from one another, creating extended intrinsic stacking faults in the matrix. Microtwins are common and form via Shockley partial dislocations cooperatively shearing both and phases on adjacent {111} glide planes. The TEM observations lead directly to an analysis of dislocation-precipitate interactions. Through phase field simulations and theoretical analyses based on Orowan looping, the important processes of dislocation dissociation and decorrelation are modeled in detail, providing comprehensive insight into the microstructural features and applied stress conditions that favor the microtwinning deformation mode in strengthened Ni-based superalloys.

Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL; Zhou, Ning [Ohio State University; Kovarik, Libor [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Shen, Chen [GE Global Research; Wang, Yunzhi [Ohio State University; Mills, Michael J. [Ohio State University



An assessment of creep deformation and fracture behavior of 2.25Cr1Mo similar and dissimilar weld joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of the creep deformation and fracture behavior of a 2.25Cr-1Mo steel base metal, a 2.25Cr-1Mo\\/2.25Cr-1Mo similar\\u000a weld joint, and a 2.25Cr-1Mo\\/Alloy 800 dissimilar weld joint at 823 K over a stress range of 90 to 250 MPa has been carried\\u000a out. The specimens for creep testing were taken from single-V weld pads fabricated by a shielded metal arc-welding

K. Laha; K. S. Chandravathi; K. Bhanu Sankara Rao; S. L. Mannan; D. H. Sastry



Macro- and Micro-deformation Features of the Creeping Strand of the San Andreas Fault, and Evidence for Changes in Historic Creep Rate, Flook Ranch, Bitterwater Valley, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence of active right lateral creep on the San Andreas Fault (SAF) at Flook Ranch (latitude 36.3982 ) includes offset cultural features, prominent tectonic geomorphology, macro- to micro-scale deformation of late Holocene alluvium, and historic variations in rate of activity. At Flook Ranch, the fault zone consists of two N35 W-striking faults that bound a fault-parallel, linear swale that is bordered by two 0.5-m-high scarps. Trenches excavated at the site exposed massive silt and clay loam overlain by <1,100-year-old thin-bedded silt and gravel, and two (western and eastern) fault zones bounding, in part, the margins of the linear swale. Creep-related structures at the fault zones include 4-m-wide zones of abundant fractures extending across the eastern and western fault zones, broad synformal warping, and truncated alluvial deposits. Initial observations of faulted sand samples at the microscopic scale show many distinct, narrow (<0.5mm) faults that consist of ultra-fine grained (clay size) material and bound silt and silty sand units. Sand units immediately adjacent to faults are notable for their lack of textural features that might record faulting; no porosity reduction, grain size reduction, or localized preferred grain orientation is observed at fault contacts. At the eastern fault zone: (1) apparent vertical offsets range from <0.2 m to 1.0 m, (2) Reidel shears dip steeply to the east, strike 10 -30 clockwise from the main SAF zone, and flower upward into pervasive extensional fractures, and (3) Reidel shears, rotate clockwise into extensional fractures as they approach the ground surface. In comparison, the western fault zone is characterized by: (1) apparent vertical offsets of as much as 2 m, (2) steep west dipping Reidel shears that strike 0 -50 clockwise from the fault zone, and (3) fractures extending to the ground surface show no progressive clockwise rotation up section. A March 2003 survey of an offset 95 year-old fence line yielded a dextral offset of 1.19-1.51 m and a creep rate of 22-28 mm/yr. This creep rate is: (1) lower than a 1966 reported creep rate of 32-33 mm/yr of the same fence line (Brown and Wallace, 1968), and (2) lower than a 1983 reported historic creep rate of 28-32 mm/yr of the fence line (Cotton et al., 1986), but (3) greater than the average 26 year (1969-1995) creep rate of 16-17 mm/yr of a U.S.G.S creep meter located <10 m south of the fence (Schulz, 1989). In summary, structural relations exposed in trenches, coupled with survey data, indicate that creep is concentrated primarily within the two fault zones, and that these fault zones record different faulting styles and variability in activity and deformational histories.

Swanson, K. R.; Cashman, S. M.; Baldwin, J. N.



Creep and creep rupture of rock salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental review is given of creep properties and flow processes of experimentally and naturally deformed rocksalt as background pertinent to waste repository design. Deformational behavior of halite single crystals is discussed first, followed by a brief treatment of experimentally deformed artifically prepared halite aggregates. The results of recent extensive quasi-static compression and creep tests on natural aggregates, especially on



Creep, stress relaxation, and plastic deformation in Sn-Ag and Sn-Zn eutectic solders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the high homologous operation temperature of solders used in electronic devices, time and temperature dependent relaxation and creep processes affect their mechanical behavior. In this paper, two eutectic lead-free solders (96.5Sn-3.5Ag and 91Sn-9Zn) are investigated for their creep and stress relaxation behavior. The creep tests were done in load-control with initial stresses in the range of 10-22 MPa at two temperatures, 25 and 80C. The stress relaxation tests were performed under constant-strain conditions with strains in the range of 0.3-2.4% and at 25 and 80C. Since creep/relaxation processes are active even during monotonie tensile tests at ambient temperatures, stress-strain curves at different temperatures and strain rates provide insight into these processes. Activation energies obtained from the monotonic tensile, stress relaxation, and creep tests are compared and discussed in light of the governing mechanisms. These data along with creep exponents, strain rate sensitivities and damage mechanisms are useful for aiding the modeling of solder interconnects for reliability and lifetime prediction. Constitutive modeling for creep and stress relaxation behavior was done using a formulation based on unified creep plasticity theory which has been previously employed in the modeling of high temperature superalloys with satisfactory results.

Mavoori, H.; Chin, J.; Vaynman, S.; Moran, B.; Keer, L.; Fine, M.



Characteristics of Creeping Discharge along Aerial Insulated Wire under Impulse Voltages with Various Durations of Wave Front  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the lightning occurs at the neighborhood of outdoor high voltage distribution lines, the creeping discharges propagate along the wire surface from the binding wire tip just after the flashover of insulator. These discharges give rise to the various disasters at distribution lines, for instance, disconnection and melting of wire, punch-through breakdown etc. We must clarify the creeping discharge characteristics under various inductive lightning surges from a viewpoint of a safety in high voltage distribution systems. In our previous paper, it was reported that the lengths and aspects of the negative creeping discharges were influenced by the duration of wave front of impulse voltage applied to the central line under the grounded binding wire. The present study was accomplished in order to obtain more information on such creeping discharges. This paper describes the distinctive characteristics of creeping discharge along the insulated wire surface when the impulse voltages with various durations of wave front are applied to the binding wire.

Nishi, Toshiyuki; Hanaoka, Ryoichi; Takata, Shinzo; Miyamoto, Toshio


Creep deformation of a fully lamellar gamma based titanium aluminide alloy  

SciTech Connect

A complex two phase {gamma}-TiAl alloy, Ti-47Al-1Cr-1Mn-2Ta-0.2Si (at.%) in a fully lamellar condition, has been creep tested at a stress of 200 MPa and a temperature of 700 C. This simulates the in-service operating conditions for several potential gas turbine aero engine applications where creep resistance is a design limiting material property. The results indicate that reduction in lamellae thickness and avoidance of feathery type microstructures contribute to improved creep resistance.

Herrouin, F.; Bowen, P.; Jones, I.P. [Univ. of Birmingham, Edgbaston (United Kingdom). School of Metallurgy and Materials



Elevated Temperature Creep Deformation in Solid Solution <001> NiAL-3.6Ti Single Crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 1100 to 1500 K slow plastic strain rate compressive properties of <001> oriented NiAl-3.6Ti single crystals have been measured, and the results suggests that two deformation processes exist. While the intermediate temperature/faster strain rate mechanism is uncertain, plastic flow at elevated temperature/slower strain rates in NiAl-3.6Ti appears to be controlled by solute drag as described by the Cottrell-Jaswon solute drag model for gliding b = a(sub 0)<101> dislocations. While the calculated activation energy of deformation is much higher (approximately 480 kJ/mol) than the activation energy for diffusion (approximately 290 kJ/mol) used in the Cottrell-Jaswon creep model, a forced temperature compensated - power law fit using the activation energy for diffusion was able to adequately (greater than 90%) predict the observed creep properties. Thus we conclude that the rejection of a diffusion controlled mechanism can not be simply based on a large numerical difference between the activation energies for deformation and diffusion.

Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Noebe, Ronald D.; Darolia, Ram



The high temperature creep deformation of Si3N4-6Y2O3-2Al2O3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The creep properties of silicon nitride containing 6 wt percent yttria and 2 wt percent alumina have been determined in the temperature range 1573 to 1673 K. The stress exponent, n, in the equation epsilon dot varies as sigma sup n, was determined to be 2.00 + or - 0.15 and the true activation energy was found to be 692 + or - 25 kJ/mol. Transmission electron microscopy studies showed that deformation occurred in the grain boundary glassy phase accompanied by microcrack formation and cavitation. The steady state creep results are consistent with a diffusion controlled creep mechanism involving nitrogen diffusion through the grain boundary glassy phase.

Todd, J. A.; Xu, Zhi-Yue



The high temperature creep deformation of Si3N4-6Y2O3-2Al2O3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The creep properties of silicon nitride containing 6 wt percent yttria and 2 wt percent alumina have been determined in the temperature range 1573 to 1673 K. The stress exponent, n, in the equation epsilon dot varies as sigma sup n, was determined to be 2.00 + or - 0.15 and the true activation energy was found to be 692 + or - 25 kJ/mol. Transmission electron microscopy studies showed that deformation occurred in the grain boundary glassy phase accompanied by microcrack formation and cavitation. The steady state creep results are consistent with a diffusion controlled creep mechanism involving nitrogen diffusion through the grain boundary glassy phase.

Todd, J. A.; Xu, Zhi-Yue



Creep Measurement Video Extensometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding material behavior under load is critical to the efficient and accurate design of advanced aircraft and spacecraft. Technologies such as the one disclosed here allow accurate creep measurements to be taken automatically, reducing error. The goal was to develop a non-contact, automated system capable of capturing images that could subsequently be processed to obtain the strain characteristics of these materials during deformation, while maintaining adequate resolution to capture the true deformation response of the material. The measurement system comprises a high-resolution digital camera, computer, and software that work collectively to interpret the image.

Jaster, Mark; Vickerman, Mary; Padula, Santo, II; Juhas, John



Evaluation of permanent deformation of CRM-reinforced SMA and its correlation with dynamic stiffness and dynamic creep.  


Today, rapid economic and industrial growth generates increasing amounts of waste materials such as waste tyre rubber. Attempts to inspire a green technology which is more environmentally friendly that can produce economic value are a major consideration in the utilization of waste materials. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of waste tyre rubber (crumb rubber modifier (CRM)), in stone mastic asphalt (SMA 20) performance. The virgin bitumen (80/100) penetration grade was used, modified with crumb rubber at four different modification levels, namely, 6%, 12%, 16%, and 20% by weight of the bitumen. The testing undertaken on the asphalt mix comprises the indirect tensile (dynamic stiffness), dynamic creep, and wheel tracking tests. By the experimentation, the appropriate amount of CRM was found to be 16% by weight of bitumen. The results show that the addition of CRM into the mixture has an obvious significant effect on the performance properties of SMA which could improve the mixture's resistance against permanent deformation. Further, higher correlation coefficient was obtained between the rut depth and permanent strain as compared to resilient modulus; thus dynamic creep test might be a more reliable test in evaluating the rut resistance of asphalt mixture. PMID:24302883

Mashaan, Nuha Salim; Karim, Mohamed Rehan



Evaluation of Permanent Deformation of CRM-Reinforced SMA and Its Correlation with Dynamic Stiffness and Dynamic Creep  

PubMed Central

Today, rapid economic and industrial growth generates increasing amounts of waste materials such as waste tyre rubber. Attempts to inspire a green technology which is more environmentally friendly that can produce economic value are a major consideration in the utilization of waste materials. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of waste tyre rubber (crumb rubber modifier (CRM)), in stone mastic asphalt (SMA 20) performance. The virgin bitumen (80/100) penetration grade was used, modified with crumb rubber at four different modification levels, namely, 6%, 12%, 16%, and 20% by weight of the bitumen. The testing undertaken on the asphalt mix comprises the indirect tensile (dynamic stiffness), dynamic creep, and wheel tracking tests. By the experimentation, the appropriate amount of CRM was found to be 16% by weight of bitumen. The results show that the addition of CRM into the mixture has an obvious significant effect on the performance properties of SMA which could improve the mixture's resistance against permanent deformation. Further, higher correlation coefficient was obtained between the rut depth and permanent strain as compared to resilient modulus; thus dynamic creep test might be a more reliable test in evaluating the rut resistance of asphalt mixture. PMID:24302883

Mashaan, Nuha Salim; Karim, Mohamed Rehan



The effect of low angle boundary misorientation on creep deformation in the superalloy CM 247 LC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of low angle boundary misorientation on the creep properties of superalloy CM 247LC bicrystals has been investigated in the medium temperature - medium stress creep regime. Constant load tensile creep tests were performed on mixed Low Angle Boundary (LAB) samples with misorientations ranging from 3o-16o; the LABs where the boundaries were oriented approximately transverse to the tensile axis. Five repeats of each LAB sample were ruptured with an initial stress of 300 MPa and three repeats of each LAB sample were ruptured with an initial stress of 200 MPa, both at 950C. A drastic decrease in creep rupture life and strain to failure was observed in bicrystals with misorientations greater than 10. Fractography of the fracture surfaces indicated that a transition from ductile transgranular fracture to intergranular fracture coincided with the decrease in creep properties. The decrease in strain to failure was correlated to a decrease in the slip compatibility factor m'. Specimens of several misorientations were also interrupted prior to failure at strains of 2%, 5% and 10% and examined by electron microscopy techniques in an effort to better understand the sequences leading to failure. For samples that fractured intergranularly, voids formed adjacent to large MC carbides located at the LABs and propagated along the boundary, ultimately linking to cracks that initiated at the specimen edge. Electron Back Scattered Diffraction (EBSD) scans were performed and Crystal reference Orientation (CO) maps were generated from the partially crept specimens. An increase in misorientation from the crystal reference orientation was observed with increasing LAB misorientation for a given interrupted strain level indicative of the poorer slip compatibility at the higher misorientations Two bicrystals with nearly identical scalar misorientation, both 10, exhibited surprisingly different behavior with one failing intergranularly at low strain to failure and the other failing transgranularly at high strain to failure; these differences were related to the different slip compatibilities as determined by an analysis of the nature of their misorientations. In addition, grain boundary migration was prevalent in the samples that fractured transgranularly, but was rarely observed on any specimen that fractured intergranularly. Based on the collective observations, it is concluded that (1) it is necessary to consider more than just the scalar misorientation when considering whether a single crystal containing LABs should be rejected and (2) characterization of the properties of superalloy bicrystals grown using traditional Bridgman methods is difficult due to the complex, non-planar nature of the resulting LABs that is associated with their dendritic growth.

Kirsch, Mathew


A furnace with rotating load frame for in situ high temperature deformation and creep experiments in a neutron diffraction beam line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A resistive furnace combined with a load frame was built that allows for in situ neutron diffraction studies of high temperature deformation, in particular, creep. A maximum force of 2700 N can be applied at temperatures up to 1000 C. A load control mode permits studies of, e.g., creep or phase transformations under applied uni-axial stress. In position control, a range of high temperature deformation experiments can be achieved. The examined specimen can be rotated up to 80 around the vertical compression axis allowing texture measurements in the neutron time-of-flight diffractometer HIPPO (High Pressure - Preferred Orientation). We present results from the successful commissioning, deforming a Zr-2.5 wt.% Nb cylinder at 975 C. The device is now available for the user program of the HIPPO diffractometer at the LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Science Center) user facility.

Reiche, H. M.; Vogel, S. C.; Mosbrucker, P.; Larson, E. J.; Daymond, M. R.



A furnace with rotating load frame for in situ high temperature deformation and creep experiments in a neutron diffraction beam line.  


A resistive furnace combined with a load frame was built that allows for in situ neutron diffraction studies of high temperature deformation, in particular, creep. A maximum force of 2700 N can be applied at temperatures up to 1000 C. A load control mode permits studies of, e.g., creep or phase transformations under applied uni-axial stress. In position control, a range of high temperature deformation experiments can be achieved. The examined specimen can be rotated up to 80 around the vertical compression axis allowing texture measurements in the neutron time-of-flight diffractometer HIPPO (High Pressure - Preferred Orientation). We present results from the successful commissioning, deforming a Zr-2.5 wt.% Nb cylinder at 975 C. The device is now available for the user program of the HIPPO diffractometer at the LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Science Center) user facility. PMID:22667627

Reiche, H M; Vogel, S C; Mosbrucker, P; Larson, E J; Daymond, M R



An asperity model for fault creep and interseismic deformation in northeastern Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the potential geodetic signature of mechanical stress shadows surrounding inferred major seismic asperities along the Japan-Kurile subduction megathrust. Such stress shadows result from a decrease in creep rates late in the interseismic period. We simplify the rupture history along this megathrust as the repeated rupture of several asperities, each with its own fixed recurrence interval. In our models, megathrust creep throughout the interseismic period evolves according to velocity strengthening friction, as opposed to common kinematic back-slip models of locked or partially locked (i.e. coupled) regions of the megathrust. Such backslip models are usually constrained by onshore geodetic data and typically find spatially extensive and smooth estimates of plate coupling, a likely consequence of model regularization necessitated by poor model resolution. Of course, these large coupled regions could also correspond to seismogenic asperities, some of which have not experienced a significant earthquake historically. A subset of existing kinematic models of coupling along the Japan Trench, particularly those that use both horizontal and vertical geodetic data, have inferred a surprisingly deep (100 km) locked zone along the megathrust or have called upon complex, poorly constrained megathrust processes, such as subduction erosion, to explain the geodetic observations. Here, we posit two scenarios for distributions of asperities on a realistic 3-D megathrust interface along the Japan-Kurile Trench off NE Japan. These scenarios reflect common assumptions made before and after the 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake. We find that models that include two shallow M9-class asperities (one corresponding to the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake and one offshore of Hokkaido) and associated stress-shadows can explain geodetic observations of interseismic strain along the eastern halves of Honshu and Hokkaido. Specifically, models including localized fault creep can explain most of the observed long-term vertical subsidence in this region during the past century and thus appealing to processes such as deep locking or subduction erosion may not be required.

Kanda, Ravi V. S.; Hetland, Eric A.; Simons, Mark



Creep deformation of grain boundary in a highly crystalline SiC fibre.  


Silicon carbide (SiC) matrix composites reinforced by SiC fibres (SiC/SiC composites) are currently being considered as alternative materials in high Ni alloys for high-temperature applications, such as aerospace components, gas-turbine energy-conversion systems and nuclear fusion reactors, because of their high specific strength and fracture toughness at elevated temperatures compared with monolithic SiC ceramics. It is important to evaluate the creep properties of SiC fibres under tensile loading in order to determine their usefulness as structural components. However, it would be hard to evaluate creep properties by monoaxial tensile properties when we have little knowledge on the microstructure of crept specimens, especially at the grain boundary. Recently, a simple fibre bend stress relaxation (BSR) test was introduced by Morscher and DiCarlo to address this problem. Interpretation of the fracture mechanism at the grain boundary is also essential to allow improvement of the mechanical properties. In this paper, effects of stress applied by BSR test on microstructural evolution in advanced SiC fibres, such as Tyranno-SA including small amounts of Al, are described and discussed along with the results of microstructure analysis on an atomic scale by using advanced microscopy. PMID:12741492

Shibayama, Tamaki; Yoshida, Yutaka; Yano, Yasuhide; Takahashi, Heishichiro



Quasi-static strength and creep characteristics of 100-mm-diameter specimens of salt from Avery Island, Louisiana  

SciTech Connect

This report primarily describes triaxial compression creep experiments performed on dome salt from Avery Island, Louisiana. The ranges of axial stress difference, confining pressure sigma2, and temperature T studied covered those expected in a nuclear waste repository: 5.4 less than or equal to less than or equal to 20.7 MPa, 0.7 less than or equal to sigma2 less than or equal to 20.7 MPa, 24/sup 0/C less than or equal to T less than or equal to 200/sup 0/C. All specimens exhibited transient creep, and the strain data were fitted to a constitutive law of the form epsilon = At/sup m/ n/T/sub p/. The duration of some creep experiments was long enough for the specimens to reach steady-state deformation. An activation energy for the rate-controlling deformation mechanism was calculated using data from these experiments. A few quasi-static strength tests were performed at 24/sup 0/C. A common load rate of 0.002 MPa/sec was used for each experiment while confining pressures ranged from 0 to 20.7 MPa. The data presented in this report obtained using 100-mm-diam specimens. The results were compared to previous work, which used 50-mm-diam specimens.

Mellegard, K.D.; Senseny, P.E.; Hansen, F.D.



Creep deformation and buttressing capacity of damaged ice shelves: theory and application to Larsen C ice shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Around the perimeter of Antarctica, much of the ice sheet discharges to the ocean through floating ice shelves. The buttressing provided by ice shelves is critical for modulating the flux of ice into the ocean, and the presently observed thinning of ice shelves is believed to be reducing their buttressing capacity and contributing to the acceleration and thinning of the grounded ice sheet. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the role that fractures play in the flow and stability of ice shelves and their capacity to buttress the flow of grounded ice. Here, we develop an analytical framework for describing the role that fractures play in the creep deformation and buttressing capacity of ice shelves. We apply principles of continuum damage mechanics to derive a new analytical relation for the creep of an ice shelf as a function of ice thickness, temperature, material properties, resistive backstress and damage. By combining this analytical theory with an inverse method solution for the spatial rheology of an ice shelf, both backstress and damage can be calculated. We demonstrate the applicability of this new theory using satellite remote sensing and Operation IceBridge data for the Larsen C ice shelf, finding damage associated with known crevasses and rifts. We find that increasing thickness of mlange between rift flanks correlates with decreasing damage, with some rifts deforming coherently with the ice shelf as if completely healed. We quantify the stabilizing backstress caused by ice rises and lateral confinement, finding high backstress associated with two ice rises that likely stabilize the ice front in its current configuration. Though overall the ice shelf appears stable at present, the ice in contact with the Bawden ice rise is weakened by fractures, and additional damage or thinning in this area could portend significant change for the shelf. Using this new approach, field and remote sensing data can be utilized to monitor the structural integrity of ice shelves, their ability to buttress the flow of ice at the grounding line, and thus their indirect contribution to ice sheet mass balance and global sea level.

Borstad, C. P.; Rignot, E.; Mouginot, J.; Schodlok, M. P.



Creep deformation and buttressing capacity of damaged ice shelves: theory and application to Larsen C ice shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Around the perimeter of Antarctica, much of the ice sheet discharges to the ocean through floating ice shelves. The buttressing provided by ice shelves is critical for modulating the flux of ice into the ocean, and the presently observed thinning of ice shelves is believed to be reducing their buttressing capacity and contributing to the acceleration and thinning of the grounded ice sheet. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the role that fractures play in the ability of ice shelves to sustain and transmit buttressing stresses. Here, we present a new framework for quantifying the role that fractures play in the creep deformation and buttressing capacity of ice shelves. We apply principles of continuum damage mechanics to derive a new analytical relation for the creep of an ice shelf that accounts for the softening influence of fractures on longitudinal deformation using a state damage variable. We use this new analytical relation, combined with a temperature calculation for the ice, to partition an inverse method solution for ice shelf rigidity into independent solutions for softening damage and stabilizing backstress. Using this new approach, field and remote sensing data can be utilized to monitor the structural integrity of ice shelves, their ability to buttress the flow of ice at the grounding line, and thus their indirect contribution to ice sheet mass balance and global sea level. We apply this technique to the Larsen C ice shelf using remote sensing and Operation IceBridge data, finding damage in areas with known crevasses and rifts. Backstress is highest near the grounding line and upstream of ice rises, in agreement with patterns observed on other ice shelves. The ice in contact with the Bawden ice rise is weakened by fractures, and additional damage or thinning in this area could diminish the backstress transmitted upstream. We model the consequences for the ice shelf if it loses contact with this small ice rise, finding that flow speeds would increase by 25% or more over an area the size of the former Larsen B ice shelf. Such a perturbation could potentially destabilize the northern part of Larsen C along pre-existing lines of weakness, highlighting the importance of the feedback between buttressing and fracturing in an ice shelf.

Borstad, C. P.; Rignot, E.; Mouginot, J.; Schodlok, M. P.



High-pressure creep of serpentine, interseismic deformation and initiation of subduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Serpentines, phyllosilicates resulting from mantle hydration, have a low viscosity compared with other mantle and slab materials within subduction zones. They have a global geodynamic importance on the timescale of mantle convection because a serpentinite layer may decouple the mantle wedge from the subducting slab, therefore influencing plate tectonics regime on the Earth. The seismic implications are far reaching as serpentinite rheology may govern stress build-up and downdip relaxation over the slab surface, which are critical parameters for earthquake triggering and for the downdip extent of major ruptures. However, limitation of apparatus has restricted previous high temperature deformation experiments on serpentinites to pressures below 0.7 GPa, and the lack of data at relevant P-T impeded quantification of serpentine rheology influence on subduction zones dynamics. We present in situ deformation experiments on the high-pressure variety antigorite, at low strain rates and pressure-temperature (P-T) of 1 and 4 GPa and 200 to 500C, respectively, i.e. over most of the antigorite stability field, using the Deformation-DIA (D-DIA) apparatus coupled with synchrotron X-ray at 13-BM-D at GSE-CARS (Advanced Photo Source). Strain rates and stresses were obtained respectively from in-situ monitoring the sample length with X-ray radiographs, and azimuthal dependence of d-spacings on diffraction patterns. The determined stress-strain curves were fitted to a power-law equation including both temperature and pressure dependence. Regardless of the temperature, serpentinized mantle at the slab surface has a low viscosity that allows localizing the deformation and impeding stress build-up. The consequences of such a rheology for subduction zones dynamics at short and long term include limitation of the downdip propagation of large earthquakes and viscous relaxation as an origin of post-seismic deformations and slow earthquakes. The low viscosity of serpentinized faults in the oceanic lithosphere makes them possible sites for subduction initiation.

Reynard, B.; Hilairet, N.; Wang, Y.; Daniel, I.; Merkel, S.; Petitgirard, S.; Nishiyama, N.



Compilation of Surface Creep on California Faults and Comparison of WGCEP 2007 Deformation Model to Pacific-North American Plate Motion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This Appendix contains 3 sections that 1) documents published observations of surface creep on California faults, 2) constructs line integrals across the WG-07 deformation model to compare to the Pacific ? North America plate motion, and 3) constructs strain tensors of volumes across the WG-07 deformation model to compare to the Pacific ? North America plate motion. Observation of creep on faults is a critical part of our earthquake rupture model because if a fault is observed to creep the moment released as earthquakes is reduced from what would be inferred directly from the fault?s slip rate. There is considerable debate about how representative creep measured at the surface during a short time period is of the whole fault surface through the entire seismic cycle (e.g. Hudnut and Clark, 1989). Observationally, it is clear that the amount of creep varies spatially and temporally on a fault. However, from a practical point of view a single creep rate is associated with a fault section and the reduction in seismic moment generated by the fault is accommodated in seismic hazard models by reducing the surface area that generates earthquakes or by reducing the slip rate that is converted into seismic energy. WG-07 decided to follow the practice of past Working Groups and the National Seismic Hazard Map and used creep rate (where it was judged to be interseismic, see Table P1) to reduce the area of the fault surface that generates seismic events. In addition to following past practice, this decision allowed the Working Group to use a reduction of slip rate as a separate factor to accommodate aftershocks, post seismic slip, possible aseismic permanent deformation along fault zones and other processes that are inferred to affect the entire surface area of a fault, and thus are better modeled as a reduction in slip rate. C-zones are also handled by a reduction in slip rate, because they are inferred to include regions of widely distributed shear that is not completely expressed as earthquakes large enough to model. Because the ratio of the rate of creep relative to the total slip rate is often used to infer the average depth of creep, the ?depth? of creep can be calculated and used to reduce the surface area of a fault that generates earthquakes in our model. This reduction of surface area of rupture is described by an ?aseismicity factor,? assigned to each creeping fault in Appendix A. An aseismicity factor of less than 1 is only assigned to faults that are inferred to creep during the entire interseismic period. A single aseismicity factor was chosen for each section of the fault that creeps by expert opinion from the observations documented here. Uncertainties were not determined for the aseismicity factor, and thus it represents an unmodeled (and difficult to model) source of error. This Appendix simply provides the documentation of known creep, the type and precision of its measurement, and attempts to characterize the creep as interseismic, afterslip, transient or triggered. Parts 2 and 3 of this Appendix compare the WG-07 deformation model and the seismic source model it generates to the strain generated by the Pacific - North American plate motion. The concept is that plate motion generates essentially all of the elastic strain in the vicinity of the plate boundary that can be released as earthquakes. Adding up the slip rates on faults and all others sources of deformation (such as C-zones and distributed ?background? seismicity) should approximately yield the plate motion. This addition is usually accomplished by one of four approaches: 1) line integrals that sum deformation along discrete paths through the deforming zone between the two plates, 2) seismic moment tensors that add up seismic moment of a representative set of earthquakes generated by a crustal volume spanning the plate boundary, 3) strain tensors generated by adding up the strain associated with all of the faults in a crustal volume spanning the plate

Wisely, Beth A.; Schmidt, David A.; Weldon, Ray J., II



Anatomical Characteristics and Surgical Treatments of Pincer Nail Deformity  

PubMed Central

Background Pincer nail deformity is a transverse overcurvature of the nail. This study aimed to define the anatomical characteristics of pincer nail deformity and to evaluate the surgical outcomes. Methods A retrospective review was conducted on 20 cases of pincer nail deformity of the great toe. Thirty subjects without pincer nail deformity or history of trauma of the feet were selected as the control group. Width and height indices were calculated, and interphalangeal angles and base widths of the distal phalanx were measured with radiography. We chose the surgical treatment methods considering perfusion-related factors such as age, diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, and peripheral vascular disease. The zigzag nail bed flap method (n=9) and the inverted T incision method (n=11) were used to repair deformities. The outcomes were evaluated 6 months after surgery. Results The interphalangeal angle was significantly greater in the preoperative patient group (14.03.6) than in the control group (7.93.0) (P<0.05). The postoperative width and height indices were very close to the measurements in the control group, and most patients were satisfied with the outcomes. Conclusions We believe that the width and height indices are useful for evaluating the deformity and outcomes of surgical treatments. We used two different surgical methods for the two patient groups with respect to the perfusion-related factors and found that the outcomes were all satisfactory. Consequently, we recommend taking into consideration the circulatory condition of the foot when deciding upon the surgical method for pincer nail deformity. PMID:25798393

Jung, Dong Ju; Kim, Jae Hee; Lee, Hee Young; Kim, Dong Chul; Lee, Se Il



On the influence of grain morphology on creep deformation and damage mechanisms in directionally solidified and oxide dispersion strengthened superalloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Directionally solidified (DS) and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) superalloys like CM 247 LC and MA 760 exhibit elongated macrograins. In uniaxial creep tests, the creep strength of such alloys in the direction of the longitudinal grains is higher than that of an equiaxed grain structure, because significantly less grain boundary (GB) segments are perpendicular to the axis of the applied stress. The present study investigates how creep in the longitudinal direction of these alloys is influenced (1) by deviations of individual grain orientations from the optimum growth direction during casting (CM 247 LC) and (2) by the spatial distribution of the small transverse GB segments (MA 760) for a given grain aspect ratio. In the case of creep ductile CM 247 LC, it was shown that if there is a large fraction of grains that are oriented for single slip, this results in higher creep rates and lower rupture times than if there is only a small fraction of such grains. The study of the influence of grain morphology on creep damage accumulation in the creep-brittle and notch-sensitive ODS alloy MA 760 showed that large scatter in creep rupture lives is related to (1) the stochastic nature of creep damage accumulation on transverse GB segments and (2) the spatial distribution of transverse GB segments. It is the combination of these two factors that results in increased scatter in rupture lives as compared to equiaxed fine grain structures.

Demestral, B.; Eggeler, G.; Klam, H.-J.



Microstructural changes of CM186LC single-crystal superalloy during creep deformation at 750 degrees C.  


The microstructure of creep-tested CM186LC Ni-base single-crystal alloy was studied to assess its suitability for use in the gas turbine environment. Creep tests were conducted at 750 degrees C and at stresses of 560 and 675 MPa up to 11 440 h. The microstructure of fractured and terminated specimens was investigated by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and analytical transmission electron microscopy. Microstructural analysis revealed the differences in the microstructure of creep-tested CM186LC depending on the stress applied during creep at 750 degrees C. PMID:17100893

Dubiel, B; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, A



Correlation of Creep Behavior of Domal Salts  

SciTech Connect

The experimentally determined creep responses of a number of domal salts have been reported in, the literature. Some of these creep results were obtained using standard (conventional) creep tests. However, more typically, the creep data have come from multistage creep tests, where the number of specimens available for testing was small. An incremental test uses abrupt changes in stress and temperature to produce several time increments (stages) of different creep conditions. Clearly, the ability to analyze these limited data and to correlate them with each other could be of considerable potential value in establishing the mechanical characteristics of salt domes, both generally and specifically. In any analysis, it is necessary to have a framework of rules to provide consistency. The basis for the framework is the Multimechanism-Deformation (M-D) constitutive model. This model utilizes considerable general knowledge of material creep deformation to supplement specific knowledge of the material response of salt. Because the creep of salt is controlled by just a few micromechanical mechanisms, regardless of the origin of the salt, certain of the material parameters are values that can be considered universal to salt. Actual data analysis utilizes the methodology developed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) program, and the response of a bedded pure WIPP salt as the baseline for comparison of the domal salts. Creep data from Weeks Island, Bryan Mound, West Hackberry, Bayou Choctaw, and Big Hill salt domes, which are all sites of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage caverns, were analyzed, as were data from the Avery Island, Moss Bluff, and Jennings salt domes. The analysis permits the parameter value sets for the domal salts to be determined in terms of the M-D model with various degrees of completeness. In turn this permits detailed numerical calculations simulating cavern response. Where the set is incomplete because of the sparse database, reasonable assumptions permit the set to be completed. From the analysis, two distinct response groups were evident, with the salts of one group measurably more creep resistant than the other group. Interestingly, these groups correspond well with the indirectly determined creep closure of the SPR storage caverns, a correlation that probably should be expected. Certainly, the results suggest a simple laboratory determination of the creep characteristics of a salt material from a dome site can indicate the relative behavior of any potential cavern placed within that dome.

Munson, D.E.



Influence of topographic and climatological characteristics on rock glacier creep rates in the Western Austrian Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in remote sensing technologies and data analysis tools resulted in detailed monitoring activities of rock glacier surface kinetics. In combination with geophysical methods and numerical modeling the remotely sensed data led to an increased process understanding of rock glacier creep dynamics. However, the number of studies where such method combinations are carried out is limited to a rather small number of rock glaciers. With our study we aim to contribute to an improved understanding on the significance of topographic and climatological variables on rock glacier creep rates. Therefore, creep rates of 347 intact rock glaciers in the Western Austrian Alps (Tyrol) are calculated. According to the new Tyrolean rock glacier inventory 200 of them are active and 147 inactive. In contrast to other studies, where often a few rock glaciers are investigated in detail, the 347 rock glaciers represent all rock glaciers within the study area of 887 sqkm. For the calculation of creep rates, the Open Source image-correlation software IMCORR is used and implemented into an automated work-flow. Input data for the image correlation are shaded relief raster maps with 0.5 m spatial resolution, which were obtained form airborne laser scanning data acquisition campaigns carried out in 2006 and 2010. By comparing the calculated creep rates with results from differential global positioning system data, an absolute accuracy of 0.30 m (standard deviation) could be determined. Thus, reliable interpretations can be made for creep rates > 0.30 m between 2006 and 2010. In such cases, statistical correlations between the rock glacier creep rates and topographic parameters of the rock glacier, e. g. surface gradient, thickness, length, area, elevation, aspect, potential solar radiation and surface roughness (also indicator for geological properties), as well as climatological parameters, e. g. temperature are calculated. Spatial descriptive statistics on the calculated creep rates, as well as the significance of individual topographic and climatological variables on rock glacier creep will be presented.

Bollmann, E.; Abermann, J.; Krainer, K.; Sailer, R.; Spross, M.; Sttter, J.



ACCEPT: a three-dimensional finite element program for large deformation elastic-plastic-creep analysis of pressurized tubes (LWBR/AWBA Development Program)  

SciTech Connect

ACCEPT is a three-dimensional finite element computer program for analysis of large-deformation elastic-plastic-creep response of Zircaloy tubes subjected to temperature, surface pressures, and axial force. A twenty-mode, tri-quadratic, isoparametric element is used along with a Zircaloy materials model. A linear time-incremental procedure with residual force correction is used to solve for the time-dependent response. The program features an algorithm which automatically chooses the time step sizes to control the accuracy and numerical stability of the solution. A contact-separation capability allows modeling of interaction of reactor fuel rod cladding with fuel pellets or external supports.

Hutula, D.N.; Wiancko, B.E.



On the influence of grain morphology on creep deformation and damage mechanisms in directionally solidified and oxide dispersion strengthened superalloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Directionally solidified (DS) and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) superalloys like CM 247 LC and MA 760 exhibit elongated\\u000a macrograins. In uniaxial creep tests, the creep strength of such alloys in the direction of the longitudinal grains is higher\\u000a than that of an equiaxed grain structure, because significantly less grain boundary (GB) segments are perpendicular to the\\u000a axis of the applied

B. Demestral; G. Eggeler; H.-J. Klam



Short-term and creep shear characteristics of a needlepunched thermally locked geosynthetic clay liner  

SciTech Connect

A series of constant-rate direct shear tests were conducted on a needlepunched thermally locked geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) in accordance with ASTM Test Method for Determining the Coefficient of Soil and Geosynthetic or Geosynthetic and Geosynthetic Friction by the Direct Shear Method (D 5321). The test results demonstrate that the needlepunched thermally locked reinforcing fibers provide substantial short-term shear strength to a GCL. However, there is a growing concern that the long-term shear strength to a GCL. However, there is a growing concern that the long-term shear strength of this type of GCL can be affected due to the potential of creep within the reinforcing fibers under sustained constant loads which occur in the field. An attempt was made to address this concern through an incrementally-loaded creep shear test conducted in a newly developed constant-load (creep) shear testing device. The results of the creep shear test to date show that the GCL has undergone relatively small shear displacements with incremental shear rates decreasing with time within each loading phase.

Siebken, J.R. [National Seal Co., Galesburg, IL (United States). Technical Services; Swan, R.H. Jr.; Yuan, Z. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Atlanta, GA (United States). Soil-Geosynthetic Interaction Testing Lab.



Characteristics of Creep Damage for 60Sn40Pb Solder Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a viscoplasticity model taking into account the effects of change in grain or phase size and damage on the characterization of creep damage in 60Sn-40Pb solder. Based on the theory of damage mechanics, a two-scalar damage model is developed for isotropic materials by introducing the free energy equivalence principle. The damage evolution equations are derived in terms

Y. Wei; C. L. Chow; H. E. Fang; M. K. Neilsen



Active disturbance rejection control for output force creep characteristics of ionic polymer metal composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) are a type of electroactive polymer (EAP) that can be used as both sensors and actuators. An IPMC has enormous potential application in the field of biomimetic robotics, medical devices, and so on. However, an IPMC actuator has a great number of disadvantages, such as creep and time-variation, making it vulnerable to external disturbances. In addition, the complex actuation mechanism makes it difficult to model and the demand of the control algorithm is laborious to implement. In this paper, we obtain a creep model of the IPMC by means of model identification based on the method of creep operator linear superposition. Although the mathematical model is not approximate to the IPMC accurate model, it is accurate enough to be used in MATLAB to prove the control algorithm. A controller based on the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) method is designed to solve the drawbacks previously given. Because the ADRC controller is separate from the mathematical model of the controlled plant, the control algorithm has the ability to complete disturbance estimation and compensation. Some factors, such as all external disturbances, uncertainty factors, the inaccuracy of the identification model and different kinds of IPMCs, have little effect on controlling the output block force of the IPMC. Furthermore, we use the particle swarm optimization algorithm to adjust ADRC parameters so that the IPMC actuator can approach the desired block force with unknown external disturbances. Simulations and experimental examples validate the effectiveness of the ADRC controller.

Xiong, Yan; Chen, Yang; Sun, Zhiyong; Hao, Lina; Dong, Jie



Field dependent creep characteristics in Tl2Ba2CuO6 single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The isothermal magnetization hysteresis loops were measured for Tl2Ba2CuO6 (Tl-2201) single crystals by using a SQUID magnetometer and a micro Hall sensor. In the temperature window from 15 to 30 K, the Hall sensor measurements for M(B) showed a second magnetization peak (SMP) at a peak field, Bsp, and an onset field, Bon. In this temperature region, the second peak appeared as a shoulder in the M(H) plots when measured by using SQUID. At a temperature of 20 K, time relaxation measurements for the time interval of 1-104 s were carried out at different fields by using a Hall sensor. From these relaxation data, for both flux exit and entry, the activation barrier, U0, and the creep exponent, mgr, were separately calculated as a function of local field, Bz, by using the weak collective pinning theory. The variation of mgr, and U0 as a function B indicates that below the onset of the second peak field, Bon, the creep mechanism is an elastic process, but above it, a gradual transition to plastic creep takes place. At higher fields, mgr and U0 reduce sharply. This has been interpreted as a smooth transition to a 2D collective pinning state. These results are compared with that obtained in a double layer Tl compound, Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8 (Tl-2212),as well as other high-Tc materials.

Chowdhury, P.; Kim, Heon-Jung; Gupta, S. K.; Lee, Sung-Ik



Current-voltage characteristics and flux creep in melt-textured YBa2Cu3O7-?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the current-voltage (E - J) characteristics in melt-textured YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> strips by measuring the magnetic-field sweep rate dependence of magnetization. We took account of the current density J distribution in the specimen using a previously developed method (Mawatari Y et al 1997 Appl. Phys. Lett. 70 2300). For a wide temperature and magnetic-field range (60-80 K, 0.2-5.0 T), the E - J curves in the electric-field window E = 10-10 -10-5 V m-1 exhibited power-law behaviour E icons/Journals/Common/propto" ALT="propto" ALIGN="TOP"/> Jn, and the power index n generally became smaller at higher magnetic fields and temperatures. In low magnetic fields (0 Ha icons/Journals/Common/le" ALT="le" ALIGN="TOP"/> 0.5 T) the n values were large (icons/Journals/Common/ge" ALT="ge" ALIGN="TOP"/> 20), and thus the Bean model becomes a good approximation. The E - J characteristics in the lower E window were also derived from the relaxation of magnetization, the flux creep, and we found that the wide-range E - J characteristics exhibit near-power-law behaviour but that there exist slight downward curvatures in the log E versus log J plots. This downward curvature reveals that the dissipation approaches zero when the current is substantially reduced. The drastic decrease of the flux creep, which was observed when the sample temperature was decreased in a fixed magnetic field, is consistent with the observed E - J characteristics.

Yamasaki, H.; Mawatari, Y.



Deterministic Multiaxial Creep and Creep Rupture Enhancements for CARES/Creep Integrated Design Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High temperature and long duration applications of monolithic ceramics can place their failure mode in the creep rupture regime. A previous model advanced by the authors described a methodology by which the creep rupture life of a loaded component can be predicted. That model was based on the life fraction damage accumulation rule in association with the modified Monkman-Grant creep rupture criterion. However, that model did not take into account the deteriorating state of the material due to creep damage (e.g., cavitation) as time elapsed. In addition, the material creep parameters used in that life prediction methodology, were based on uniaxial creep curves displaying primary and secondary creep behavior, with no tertiary regime. The objective of this paper is to present a creep life prediction methodology based on a modified form of the Kachanov-Rabotnov continuum damage mechanics (CDM) theory. In this theory, the uniaxial creep rate is described in terms of sum, temperature, time, and the current state of material damage. This scalar damage state parameter is basically an abstract measure of the current state of material damage due to creep deformation. The damage rate is assumed to vary with stress, temperature, time, and the current state of damage itself. Multiaxial creep and creep rupture formulations of the CDM approach are presented in this paper. Parameter estimation methodologies based on nonlinear regression analysis are also described for both, isothermal constant stress states and anisothermal variable stress conditions This creep life prediction methodology was preliminarily added to the integrated design code CARES/Creep (Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures/Creep), which is a postprocessor program to commercially available finite element analysis (FEA) packages. Two examples, showing comparisons between experimental and predicted creep lives of ceramic specimens, are used to demonstrate the viability of Ns methodology and the CARES/Creep program.

Jadaan, Osama M.



Assessing the P-wave attenuation and phase velocity characteristics of fractured media based on creep and relaxation tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fractures are present in most geological formations and they tend to dominate not only their mechanical but also, and in particular, their hydraulic properties. For these reasons, the detection and characterization of fractures are of great interest in several fields of Earth sciences. Seismic attenuation has been recognized as a key attribute for this purpose, as both laboratory and field experiments indicate that the presence of fractures typically produces significant energy dissipation and that this attribute tends to increase with increasing fracture density. This energy loss is generally considered to be primarily due to wave-induced pressure diffusion between the fractures and the embedding porous matrix. That is, due to the strong compressibility contrast between these two domains, the propagation of seismic waves can generate a strong fluid pressure gradient and associated pressure diffusion, which leads to fluid flow and in turn results in frictional energy dissipation. Numerical simulations based on Biot's poroelastic wave equations are computationally very expensive. Alternative approaches consist in performing numerical relaxation or creep tests on representative elementary volumes (REV) of the considered medium. These tests are typically based on Biot's consolidation equations. Assuming that the heterogeneous poroelastic medium can be replaced by an effective, homogeneous viscoelastic solid, these numerical creep and relaxation tests allow for computing the equivalent seismic P-wave attenuation and phase velocity. From a practical point of view, an REV is typically characterized by the smallest volume for which rock physical properties are statistically stationary and representative of the probed medium in its entirety. A more general definition in the context of wavefield attributes is to consider an REV as the smallest volume over which the P-wave attenuation and phase velocity dispersion are independent of the applied boundary conditions. That is, the corresponding results obtained from creep and relaxation tests must be equivalent. For most analyses of media characterized by patchy saturation or double-porosity-type structures these two definitions are equivalent. It is, however, not clear whether this equivalence remains true in the presence of strong material contrasts as those prevailing in fractured rocks. In this work, we explore this question for periodically fractured media. To this end, we build a medium composed of infinite replicas of a unit volume containing one fracture. This unit volume coincides with the smallest possible volume that is statistically representative of the whole. Then, we perform several creep and relaxation tests on samples composed of an increasing number of these unit volumes. We find that the wave field signatures determined from relaxation tests are independent from the number of unit volumes. Conversely, the P-wave attenuation and phase velocity characteristics inferred from creep tests are different and vary with the number of unit volumes considered. Quite interestingly, the creep test results converge with those of the relaxation tests as the number of unit volumes increases. These findings are expected to have direct implications for corresponding laboratory measurements as well as for our understanding of seismic wave propagation in fractured media.

Milani, Marco; Germn Rubino, J.; Mller, Tobias M.; Quintal, Beatriz; Holliger, Klaus



Probing the coupled adhesion and deformation characteristics of suspension cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By combining optical trapping with fluorescence imaging, the adhesion and deformation characteristics of suspension cells were probed on single cell level. We found that, after 24 h of co-culturing, stable attachment between non-adherent K562 cells and polystyrene beads coated with fibronectin, collagen I, or G-actin can all be formed with an adhesion energy density in the range of 1 - 3 10 - 2 mJ/m2, which is about one order of magnitude lower than the reported values for several adherent cells. In addition, it was observed that the formation of a stronger adhesion is accompanied with the appearance of a denser actin cell cortex, especially in the region close to the cell-bead interface, resulting in a significant increase in the apparent modulus of the cell. Findings here could be important for our understanding of why the aggregation of circulating cells, like that in leukostasis, takes place in vivo as well as how such clusters of non-adherent cells behave. The method proposed can also be useful in investigating adhesion and related phenomena for other cell types in the future.

Hui, T. H.; Zhu, Q.; Zhou, Z. L.; Qian, J.; Lin, Y.



Creep and creep rupture of rock salt  

SciTech Connect

A fundamental review is given of creep properties and flow processes of experimentally and naturally deformed rocksalt as background pertinent to waste repository design. Deformational behavior of halite single crystals is discussed first, followed by a brief treatment of experimentally deformed artifically prepared halite aggregates. The results of recent extensive quasi-static compression and creep tests on natural aggregates, especially on southeastern New Mexico bedded salt and on Avery Island domal salt, are then reviewed in some detail. The mechanical behavior of these two very different rocksalts is remarkably similar, an observation that provides some confidence to extrapolations of the results to repository condition. The relatively scarce data for accelerating creep and creep-rupture of rocksalt are reviewed, followed by a general treatment of relevant experiments and observations from the Project Salt Vault demonstration. The question of brine migration is then discussed and pertinent observations from flow of rocksalt glaciers and diapirs are reviewed briefly. Recommendations are made for additional fundamental research in various areas and it is concluded, on the basis of all available information, that dry domal salt deposits would provide nearly ideal media for radioactive waste repositories.

Carter, N.L.



Increased variability of bone tissue mineral density resulting from estrogen deficiency influences creep behavior in a rat vertebral body.  


Progressive vertebral deformation increases the fracture risk of a vertebral body in the postmenopausal patient. Many studies have observed that bone can demonstrate creep behavior, defined as continued time-dependent deformation even when mechanical loading is held constant. Creep is a characteristic of viscoelastic behavior, which is common in biological materials. We hypothesized that estrogen deficiency-dependent alteration of the mineral distribution of bone at the tissue level could influence the progressive postmenopausal vertebral deformity that is observed as the creep response at the organ level. The objective of this study was thus to examine whether the creep behavior of vertebral bone is changed by estrogen deficiency, and to determine which bone property parameters are responsible for the creep response of vertebral bone at physiological loading levels using an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model. Correlations of creep parameters with bone mineral density (BMD), tissue mineral density (TMD) and architectural parameters of both OVX and sham surgery vertebral bone were tested. As the vertebral creep was not fully recovered during the post-creep unloading period, there was substantial residual displacement for both the sham and OVX groups. A strong positive correlation between loading creep and residual displacement was found (r=0.868, p<0.001). Of the various parameters studied, TMD variability was the parameter that best predicted the creep behavior of the OVX group (p<0.038). The current results indicated that creep caused progressive, permanent reduction in vertebral height for both the sham and OVX groups. In addition, estrogen deficiency-induced active bone remodeling increased variability of trabecular TMD in the OVX group. Taken together, these results suggest that increased variability of trabecular TMD resulting from high bone turnover influences creep behavior of the OVX vertebrae. PMID:22944606

Kim, Do-Gyoon; Navalgund, Anand R; Tee, Boon Ching; Noble, Garrett J; Hart, Richard T; Lee, Hye Ri



Nanogranular origin of concrete creep  

E-print Network

Concrete, the solid that forms at room temperature from mixing Portland cement with water, sand, and aggregates, suffers from time-dependent deformation under load. This creep occurs at a rate that deteriorates the durability ...

Vandamme, Matthieu


Deformational characteristics of rock in low permeable reservoir and their effect on permeability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the development of oil and gas the pressure in the rocks of reservoir changes constantly and rocks are compressed and deformed. So their permeability reduces. And the production capacity of oil and gas well is affected by the permeability. This paper deals with the deformational characteristics of rocks in low permeable reservoir and their effect on the permeability. The

Hong-Xing Wang; Guan Wang; Ron C. K. Wong



Creep and creep rupture of strongly reinforced metallic composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A creep and creep damage theory is presented for metallic composites with strong fibers. Application is to reinforced structures in which the fiber orientation may vary throughout but a distinct fiber direction can be identified locally (local transverse isotropy). The creep deformation model follows earlier work and is based on a flow potential function that depends on invariants reflecting stress and the material symmetry. As the focus is on the interaction of creep and damage, primary creep is ignored. The creep rupture model is an extension of continuum damage mechanics and includes an isochronous damage function that depends on invariants specifying the local maximum transverse tension and the maximum longitudinal shear stress. It is posited that at high temperature and low stress, appropriate to engineering practice, these stress components damage the fiber/matrix interface through diffusion controlled void growth, eventually causing creep rupture. Experiments are outlined for characterizing a composite through creep rupture tests under transverse tension and longitudinal shear. Application is made to a thin-walled pressure vessel with reinforcing fibers at an arbitrary helical angle. The results illustrate the usefulness of the model as a means of achieving optimal designs of composite structures where creep and creep rupture are life limiting.

Robinson, D. N.; Binienda, W. K.; Miti-Kavuma, M.



The influence of temperature on residual deformation of Phenylon and Nomex yarns following the creeprecovery process  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-performance synthetic filaments and yarns are subjected to different loads and temperature during their practical and industrial applications, resulting in changes in their mechanical properties. Knowledge of the deformation and strength properties of these polymer materials at various temperatures and different levels of preliminary stretching is therefore very important. Semi-rigid chain polymers Phenylon and Nomex yarns are popular materials for

E. S. Tsobkallo; V. A. Kvaratskheliya; J. Shen; J. Harwood



Relevance of primary creep in thermo-mechanical cycling for life-time prediction in Sn-based solders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time and temperature dependant creep deformation of solder alloys has to be studied to describe material characteristics and failure behaviour in order to use it for lifetime evaluation by FE-simulations. It is often found in the literature that material behaviour of eutectic SnPb and lead-free such as SnAgCu solders is described considering only secondary creep. To improve the material

S. Deplanque; W. Nuchter; M. Spraul; B. Wunderie; R. Dudek; B. Michel



On the Nonlinear Creep and Recovery of Open Cell Earplug Foams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compressive creep and recovery of foam earplugs was studied at various applied stresses leading to different fi nal creep strains. Deformation was determined from digital videos of the earplugs via image processing software. Creep could not be modeled by a single exponential in time; creep approximated a power law in time. Nonlinear viscoelasticity was observed: creep compliance depends on

B. Calcagno; C. Lopez Garcia; M. Kuhns; R. S Lakes


Creep of dry clinopyroxene aggregates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have determined diffusional and dislocation creep rheologies for clinopyroxenite Ca1.0Mg0.8Fe0.2Si2O6 under dry conditions by deforming natural and hot-pressed samples at confining pressures of 300-430 MPa and temperatures of 1100-1250C with the oxygen fugacity buffered by either nickel-nickel oxide or iron-wstite powders. The coarse-grained natural Sleaford Bay clinopyroxenite yielded a stress exponent of n = 4.7 0.2 and an activation energy for creep of Q = 760 40 kJ mol-1, consistent with deformation in the dislocation creep regime. The strength of the natural clinopyroxenite is consistent with previous high-temperature measurements of dislocation creep behavior of Sleaford Bay clinopyroxenite by Kirby and Kronenberg [1984] and Boland and Tullis [1986]. Fine-grained clinopyroxenite was prepared from ground powders of the natural clinopyroxenite. Hot-pressed samples were deformed under similar conditions to the natural samples. Mixed-mode deformation behavior was observed, with diffusional creep (n = 1) at lower differential stresses and dislocation creep (with n and Q similar to those of the natural samples) at higher differential stresses. Within the dislocation creep field the predried hot-pressed samples generally yielded creep rates that were about an order of magnitude faster than the natural samples. Thus, even at the highest differential stresses, a component of strain accommodation by grain boundary diffusion was present in the hot-pressed samples. Optical and electron microscope investigations of the deformation microstructures of the natural and hot-pressed samples show evidence for mechanical twinning and activation of dislocation slip systems. When extrapolated to geological conditions expected in the deep crust and upper mantle on Earth and other terrestrial planets, the strength of dry single-phase clinopyroxene aggregates is very high, exceeding that of dry olivine-rich rocks.

Bystricky, Misha; Mackwell, Stephen



High energy X-ray diffraction measurement of the superstructure reflection (100) for a creep deformed AM1 single crystal superalloy specimen  


Creeping soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil creep is the most widespread and perhaps the least understood process of erosion on soil-mantled hillslopes. Soil is slowly ``stirred'' by burrowing creatures, and particles are displaced in wetting-drying cycles. These actions can cause downslope creep by processes analogous to particle diffusion. Other possible transport mechanisms include shear and viscous-like creep, such that precise characterization of the entire process

Arjun M. Heimsath; John Chappell; Nigel A. Spooner; Danile G. Questiaux



Investigation of contact deformation and wear characteristics of discrete track recording media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contact deformation and wear characteristics of smooth and discrete track recording (DTR) media are investigated using\\u000a nano-indentation and nano-scratch testing. Plastic deformation of the land areas between adjacent grooves was found to be\\u000a substantially larger than in the smooth regions of the same disk. Reciprocating wear tests showed that wear was more severe\\u000a for discrete track disks than for

Y. Yoon; F. E. Talke



Deterministic and Probabilistic Creep and Creep Rupture Enhancement to CARES/Creep: Multiaxial Creep Life Prediction of Ceramic Structures Using Continuum Damage Mechanics and the Finite Element Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High temperature and long duration applications of monolithic ceramics can place their failure mode in the creep rupture regime. A previous model advanced by the authors described a methodology by which the creep rupture life of a loaded component can be predicted. That model was based on the life fraction damage accumulation rule in association with the modified Monkman-Grant creep ripture criterion However, that model did not take into account the deteriorating state of the material due to creep damage (e.g., cavitation) as time elapsed. In addition, the material creep parameters used in that life prediction methodology, were based on uniaxial creep curves displaying primary and secondary creep behavior, with no tertiary regime. The objective of this paper is to present a creep life prediction methodology based on a modified form of the Kachanov-Rabotnov continuum damage mechanics (CDM) theory. In this theory, the uniaxial creep rate is described in terms of stress, temperature, time, and the current state of material damage. This scalar damage state parameter is basically an abstract measure of the current state of material damage due to creep deformation. The damage rate is assumed to vary with stress, temperature, time, and the current state of damage itself. Multiaxial creep and creep rupture formulations of the CDM approach are presented in this paper. Parameter estimation methodologies based on nonlinear regression analysis are also described for both, isothermal constant stress states and anisothermal variable stress conditions This creep life prediction methodology was preliminarily added to the integrated design code CARES/Creep (Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures/Creep), which is a postprocessor program to commercially available finite element analysis (FEA) packages. Two examples, showing comparisons between experimental and predicted creep lives of ceramic specimens, are used to demonstrate the viability of this methodology and the CARES/Creep program.

Jadaan, Osama M.; Powers, Lynn M.; Gyekenyesi, John P.



Simulation of Persistence Characteristics of Textures During Plastic Deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ideal orientations of textures that develop at large strains can be identified with the help of crystal plasticity simulations. In this short review, an overview is presented on these types of simulations that helped in the identification of the deformation texture components of fcc, bcc and hcp materials in pure shear (rolling) as well as in simple shear (torsion) during the last 20 years. The technique is based on the so-called persistence parameter that was introduced by Tth, Gilormini and Jonas in 1988 [Acta Metall., 36, 3077-3091]. The formation of textures and several texture effects can be understood with the help of the persistence parameter together with the rotation field of orientations in Euler space and the divergence quantity. The stability of ideal orientations is especially investigated and it is shown that simple shear distinguishes from pure shear in a very particular way; all ideal orientations of simple shear are positioned at orientations where the divergence is zero while in rolling they are situated within a negative divergence field.

Tth, Lszl S.


Constraining the characteristics of tsunami waves from deformable submarine slides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a marine hazard, submarine slope failures have the potential to directly destroy offshore infrastructure, and, if a tsunami is generated, it also endangers the life of those who live and work at the coastline. The hazard and risk from tsunamis generated by submarine mass failure is difficult to quantify and evaluate due to difficulties to estimate the time of trigger for submarine slide bodies, and the problems to constrain the characteristics of the triggered submarine landslide. The missing age constraint and the unconstrained tsunami-wave characteristics generate unquantifiable uncertainties in hazard assessments. To lower the uncertainty from the unconstrained tsunami-characteristic, we present a method that determines material parameters for the slide body to constrain the generated tsunami waves with an iterative method. Our method employs the mapped distribution of landslide run-out masses and their comparison with simulations. It assumes that the slide material can be approximated by bulk values during the slide motion. The free parameter that will be changed during in iterations is the viscosity of the slide body. The goal of the procedure is to find the optimal viscosity, which represents the viscosity for which the slide body matches well with the mapped slide run-out masses. The tsunami waves generated in the simulations employing the optimal viscosity are then considered constrained within the framework of our work. While we understand that viscosity does not accurately describe the dynamics of the slide body, we argue that viscosity can be employed as a first-order approximation to constrain the tsunami wave characteristics. To demonstrate our method, we make use of Valdes slide run-out masses off the Chilean coast. We show the difference in tsunami characteristics for slides whose viscosity is too low, too high and optimal. Furthermore, we will present an overview on how these differences result in dramatically different wave amplitudes as functions of the distance to the landslide-trigger area in general and for the Chilean coast due to the Valdes slide.

Weiss, R.; Krastel, S.; Anasetti, A.; Wuennemann, K.



Present-day deformation along the El Pilar Fault in eastern Venezuela: Evidence of creep along a major transform boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The right-lateral strike-slip El Pilar Fault is one of the major structures that accommodate the relative displacement between the Caribbean and South-America Plates. This fault, which trends East-West along the northeastern Venezuela margin, is a seismogenic source, and shows numerous evidence for active tectonics, including deformation of the Quaternary sediments filling the Cariaco Gulf. Because the main El Pilar Fault strand belongs to a set of strike-slip faults and thrusts between the stable Guyana shield (South) and the Caribbean oceanic floor (North), a GPS network was designed and installed to measure the relative motion of the El Pilar Fault and other faults. The results obtained from the comparison of 2003 and 2005 surveys indicate: (i) a lack of significant displacement (especially shortening) in the Serrania del Interior (Neogene cordillera overthrusted above the Guyana craton), (ii) an eastward displacement (relative to fixed south America plate) up to 22 mm/year of benchmarks located north of the El Pilar Fault. Velocities simulations using dislocations in an elastic half-space show: (1) the concentration along the El Pilar Fault of the whole Caribbean-South America relative displacement, (2) the existence of an important component of aseismic displacement along the upper part of the El Pilar Fault. Between 12 km depth and the surface, only 40% of displacement is locked for the western segment and 50% for the eastern segment. This last phenomenon may be related to the existence of serpentinite lenses along the fault zone as observed for segments of San Andreas and North Anatolian faults.

Jouanne, Franois; Audemard, Franck A.; Beck, Christian; Van Welden, Aurlien; Ollarves, Reinaldo; Reinoza, Carlos



Analysis of the Deformation Behavior in Tension and Tension-Creep of Ti-3Al-2.5V (wt pct) at 296 K and 728 K (23 C and 455 C) Using In Situ SEM Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deformation behavior of a Ti-3Al-2.5V (wt pct) near-? alloy was investigated during in situ deformation inside a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two plates with distinct textures were examined. Tensile experiments were performed at 296 K and 728 K (455 C) (~0.4 T m), while a tensile-creep experiment was performed at 728 K (455 C) and 180 MPa ( ?/ ? ys = 0.72). The active deformation systems were identified in the ? phase using electron backscattered diffraction based slip-trace analysis and SEM images of the surface. Prismatic slip deformation was the dominant slip mode observed for all the experiments in both plates, which was supported by a critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) ratio analysis. However, due to the texture of plate 1, which strongly favored the activation of prismatic slip, the percentages of prismatic slip activity for specimens from plate 1 tested at 296 K and 728 K (23 C and 455 C) were higher than the specimens from plate 2 under the same testing conditions. T1 twinning was an active deformation mode at both 296 K and 728 K (23 C and 455 C), but the extent of twinning activity decreased with increased temperature. T1 twinning was more frequently observed in specimens from plate 2, which exhibited a higher fraction of twinning systems favoring activation at both 296 K and 728 K (23 C and 455 C). The tension-creep experiment revealed less slip and more grain boundary sliding than in the higher strain rate tensile experiments. Using a previously demonstrated bootstrapping statistical analysis methodology, the relative CRSS ratios of prismatic, pyramidal < a>, pyramidal < c+ a>, and T1 twinning deformation systems compared with basal slip were calculated and discussed in light of similar measurements made on CP Ti and Ti-5Al-2.5Sn (wt pct).

Li, Hongmei; Boehlert, Carl J.; Bieler, Thomas R.; Crimp, Martin A.



Precipitation Behavior in the Heat-Affected Zone of Boron-Added 9Cr-3W-3Co Steel During Post-Weld Heat Treatment and Creep Deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the previous paper, we demonstrated that the addition of boron was effective in preventing type IV failure due to suppression of grain refinement in the heat-affected zone at the peak temperature of around AC3 (AC3 HAZ). However, some fine prior austenite grains (PAGs) still remained around the coarse PAG boundaries, and these fine PAGs may affect the creep property of the welded joint. In the present study, the effect of these fine PAGs on the creep property of the boron-added 9Cr-3Co-3W steel (B steel) Ac3 HAZ is investigated. Different heat treatments are carried out on B steel base metal to form different Ac3 HAZ-simulated microstructures of coarse PAG with and without fine PAGs. Ac3 HAZ microstructure shows that a lot of M23C6 carbides are formed at the block boundary in the interior of coarse PAG. On the other hand, few M23C6 carbides are formed at the fine PAG boundaries, but a number of ? phases (W6Fe7 type) cover the boundary. The formation of ? phase retards the recovery of dislocation at the fine PAG boundary and contributes to stabilizing the microstructure in the primary and transient creep regions. The ? phase transforms to the Laves phase during creep. As the growth rate of Laves phase is higher than that of M23C6 carbides during creep, the creep strength of fine PAG boundary, which is strengthened only by Laves phase, becomes a little bit lower than the other boundaries strengthened by M23C6 carbides after long-term creep. The mismatch of creep strength between the fine PAG boundary and the matrix should be taken into account to attain an excellent long-term creep property of the B steel welded joint.

Liu, Yuan; Tsukamoto, Susumu; Sawada, Kota; Tabuchi, Masaaki; Abe, Fujio



Constraining the characteristics of tsunami waves from deformable submarine slides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a marine hazard, submarine slope failures have the potential to directly destroy offshore infrastructure, and, if a tsunami is generated, it also endangers the life of those who live and work at the coastline. The hazard and risk from tsunamis generated by submarine mass failure is difficult to quantify and evaluate due to the problems to constrain the characteristics of the triggered submarine landslide, which introduces unquantifiable uncertainty to hazard assessments based on numerical modelling. To lower the uncertainty, we present a method that determines material parameters for the slide body to constrain the generated tsunami waves. Our method employs the distribution of landslide run-out masses and their comparison with simulations. It assumes that the slide material can be approximated by bulk values during the slide motion. To demonstrate our method, we make use of Valdes slide run-out masses off the Chilean coast.

Weiss, Robert; Krastel, Sebastian; Anasetti, Andreas; Wnnemann, Kai



Experimental pressure solution creep of polymineralic aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unexpected creep behavior is obtained when experimentally compacting an aggregate containing two different minerals. Sieved mixtures of calcite and halite grains are experimentally compacted in pressure cells in the presence of a saturated aqueous solution. The individual halite grains deform easily by pressure solution creep whereas calcite grains act as hard objects and resist compaction. The fastest rate of compaction

S. Zoubtsov; F. Renard; J.-P. Gratier; R. Guiguet; D. K. Dysthe; V. Traskine



Constraining the characteristics of tsunami waves from deformable submarine slides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last decade has produced unprecedented increase in national and international relevance of coastal cities. Coastal cities are important links in the quickly globalizing economy. As a marine hazard, submarine slope failures have the potential to directly destroy offshore infrastructure, and, if a tsunami in generated, it also endangers the life of those who life and/or work at the coastline. Tsunami generated by earthquakes can be constrained by independent measurements of the parent earthquake by seismographs. Such measurements are impossible in case of landslides. Hence, the use of simulation tools in less effective and reliable due to the introduced unpredictable uncertainty. This uncertainty has to decrease. To lower the uncertainty, we present a method that determines material parameters for the slide body that result in a more realistic rheological behavior and a constraint of the generated tsunami waves. Our method employs the distribution of landslide run-out masses and their comparison with simulations. If the characteristic of observed run-out masses is reproduced with a certain amount of confidence, then it is assumed that the dynamical behavior of the slide is known, and the tsunami waves are constraint. To demonstrate our method, we make use of Valdes run-out masses off the Chilean coast. Even though our method suffers from the basic assumption that the parameters describing the rheological behavior of the slide do not change during the slide motion, our method represents a first step toward a better and more constraint understanding of risk and hazard from tsunami waves generated by submarine landslides.

Weiss, R.; Krastel, S.; Anasetti, A.



Microscopic Evaluation of Change in Springback Characteristics Due to Plastic Deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of plastic deformation on the changes in springback characteristics of sheet metal was analyzed using both macroscopic and microscopic measurement of elastic modulus in this study. In macroscopic measurement, the change in the elastic modulus was measured before and after plastic deformation using a precise tensile test, and in microscopic measurement the variation in the elastic modulus was investigated using a nano-indentation tester by which a regional material properties in a crystalline can be obtained. Both macroscopic and microscopic measurements show that the elastic moduli decreased according to increasing plastic strain, and this decrease affects on the springback significantly.

Yang, Ming; Akiyama, Yuta; Sasaki, Tomonori



Creep behavior of uranium carbide-based alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present work gives the results of experiments on the influence of zirconium carbide and tungsten on the creep properties of uranium carbide. The creep behavior of high-density UC samples follows the classical time-dependence pattern of (1) an instantaneous deformation, (2) a primary creep region, and (3) a period of steady-state creep. Creep rates for unalloyed UC-1.01 and UC-1.05 are several orders of magnitude greater than those measured for carbide alloys containing a Zr-C and/or W dispersoid. The difference in creep strength between alloyed and unalloyed materials varies with temperature and applied stress.

Seltzer, M. S.; Wright, T. R.; Moak, D. P.



Electrochemical control of creep in nanoporous gold  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the mechanical stability of nanoporous gold (npg) in an electrochemical environment, using in situ dilatometry and compression experiments. It is demonstrated that the gold nano-ligaments creep under the action of surface stress which leads to spontaneous volume contractions in macroscopic npg samples. The creep of npg, under or without external forces, can be controlled electrochemically. The creep rate increases with increasing potential in double-layer potential region, and deceases to almost zero when the gold surface is adsorbed with oxygen. Surprisingly, we also noticed a correlation between creep and surface diffusivity, which links the deformation of nanocrystals to mobility of surface atoms.

Ye, Xing-Long; Jin, Hai-Jun, E-mail: [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)] [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)



Quasi-static strength and creep characteristics of 100-mm-diameter specimens of salt from Avery Island, Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report primarily describes triaxial compression creep experiments performed on dome salt from Avery Island, Louisiana. The ranges of axial stress difference, confining pressure sigma2, and temperature T studied covered those expected in a nuclear waste repository: 5.4 less than or equal to less than or equal to 20.7 MPa, 0.7 less than or equal to sigma2 less

K. D. Mellegard; P. E. Senseny; F. D. Hansen



Deformation characteristics of {delta} phase in the delta-processed Inconel 718 alloy  

SciTech Connect

The hot working characteristics of {delta} phase in the delta-processed Inconel 718 alloy during isothermal compression deformation at temperature of 950 deg. C and strain rate of 0.005 s{sup -1}, were studied by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and quantitative X-ray diffraction technique. The results showed that the dissolution of plate-like {delta} phase and the precipitation of spherical {delta} phase particles coexisted during the deformation, and the content of {delta} phase decreased from 7.05 wt.% to 5.14 wt.%. As a result of deformation breakage and dissolution breakage, the plate-like {delta} phase was spheroidized and transferred to spherical {delta} phase particles. In the center with largest strain, the plate-like {delta} phase disappeared and spherical {delta} phase appeared in the interior of grains and grain boundaries.

Zhang, H.Y., E-mail: [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhang, S.H., E-mail: [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Cheng, M. [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, Z.X. [Beijing Institute of Aeronautica1 Materials, Beijing 100095 (China)



PTtdeformationfluid characteristics of lode gold deposits: evidence from alteration systematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structurally hosted lode gold-bearing quartz vein systems in metamorphic terranes possess many characteristics in common, spatially and through time; they constitute a single class of epigenetic precious metal deposit, formed during accretionary tectonics or delamination. The ore and alteration paragenesis encode numerous intensive and extensive variables that constrain the pressuretemperaturetimedeformationfluid (PTtdf) evolution of the host terrane and hence the origin

T. Campbell McCuaig; Robert Kerrich



Creep of plasma sprayed zirconia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Specimens of plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings with three different porosities and different initial particle sizes were deformed in compression at initial loads of 1000, 2000, and 3500 psi and temperatures of 1100 C, 1250 C, and 1400 C. The coatings were stabilized with lime, magnesia, and two different concentrations of yttria. Creep began as soon as the load was applied and continued at a constantly decreasing rate until the load was removed. Temperature and stabilization had a pronounced effect on creep rate. The creep rate for 20% Y2O3-80% ZrO2 was 1/3 to 1/2 that of 8% Y2O3-92% ZrO2. Both magnesia and calcia stabilized ZrO2 crept at a rate 5 to 10 times that of the 20% Y2O3 material. A near proportionality between creep rate and applied stress was observed. The rate controlling process appeared to be thermally activated, with an activation energy of approximately 100 cal/gm mole K. Creep deformation was due to cracking and particle sliding.

Firestone, R. F.; Logan, W. R.; Adams, J. W.



Features of the high-temperature deformation and structural state of SB1 alloy under creep conditions in a rarefied flow of oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increase in the concentration of active impurities in rarefied atmospheres or in inert gases leads to an increase in creep resistance and in the stress-rupture strength of alloys as the result of precipitation during the gas-metal reaction of finely dispersed interstitial phases (oxides, carbides, nitrides) which may directly promote hardening, being effective stoppers in the path of advance of

O. I. Eliseeva



Numerical investigation of hyperelastic wall deformation characteristics in a micro-scale stenotic blood vessel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stenosis is the drastic reduction of blood vessel diameter because of cholesterol accumulation in the vessel wall. In addition to the changes in blood flow characteristics, significant changes occur in the mechanical behavior of a stenotic blood vessel. We conducted a 3-D study of such behavior in micro-scale blood vessels by considering the fluid structure interaction between blood flow and vessel wall structure. The simulation consisted of one-way coupled analysis of blood flow and the resulting structural deformation without a moving mesh. A commercial code based on a finite element method with a hyperelastic material model (Neo-Hookean) of the wall was used to calculate wall deformation. Three different cases of stenosis severity and aspect ratios with and without muscles around the blood vessel were considered. The results showed that the wall deformation in a stenotic channel is directly related to stenosis severity and aspect ratio. The presence of muscles reduces the degree of deformation even in very severe stenosis.

Cheema, Taqi Ahmad; Park, Cheol Woo



Load bearing and deformation characteristics of monofilament nylon 66 and their implications for ophthalmic surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The load bearing and deformation characteristics of monofilament nylon 66 have been examined. This material has been shown to have increased strength and altered deformation properties compared to bulk nylon. These features are beneficial in its role as a corneal suture. However, the load bearing performance of monofilament nylon 66 has been shown to be influenced by the manner in which it is stressed, making the task of producing identical stitches difficult. Moreover, a period of rapid relaxation has been shown to occur immediately after installation which makes the time taken to install the suture a critical factor in its subsequent performance. These factors, which are essentially beyond the control of the ophthalmic surgeon, must surely play a significant role in the inconsistent post operative results seen.

Clark, D.; Fleming, W.; Bosanquet, R.; Down, E.



The characteristics of cavitation during superplastic deformation of a warm-rolled Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr alloy  

SciTech Connect

The process of superplastic forming has become important in numerous commercial applications. However, there may be some deleterious defects on the properties of superplastically-formed components due to the presence of minor levels of cavitation introduced during the forming process. Thus, it is important to obtain information on nucleation, growth and interlinkage of cavities in a wide range of superplastic materials. Two different thermomechanical processing routes may be employed to develop fine grain sizes conducive to superlasticity in Al-Li alloys. In one of them, a fine grain size microstructure is obtained by static recrystallization prior to superplastic deformation, and in another, a fine grain size microstructure is obtained by deformation-induced recrystallization during the initial stage of superplastic deformation. The deformation-induced recrystallization of a cold (or warm)-rolled Al-Li alloy is strongly dependent on the strain rate microstructural change during the initial stage of superplastic deformation due to deformation-induced recrystallization. There have been some studies dealing with cavitation in superplastic Al-Li alloys. However, there is no research work reported on the effect of deformation-induced recrystallization on the characteristics of cavitation during superplastic deformation of a warm-rolled Al-Li alloy. This paper deals with the relationship between deformation-induced recrystallization and cavitation characteristics during superplastic deformation of a warm-rolled Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr alloy. The results show that there are three kinds of cavities. The first includes the fine cavities formed at the beginning stage of deformation, the second the large cavities formed around the intermetallic particles and the third the grain boundary cavities. All three kinds of cavities are closely related to deformation-induced recrystallization.

Liu, Q. (Analysis and Measurement Centre, Harbin Inst. of Tech., Harbin 150006 (CN)); Huang, X.; Yang, J.; Yao, M. (Dept. of Metals and Technology, Harbin Inst. of Tech., Harbin 150006 (CN))



Structural Characteristics of the Northern Cascadia Deformation Front: Preliminary Result of the SeaJade Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cascadia subduction zone, capable of generating megathrust earthquakes, poses the greatest seismic hazard to the Pacific Northwest. Many research projects have been initiated in the past to investigate the seismogenic structures of the Cascadia subduction zone, but few could provide sufficient constraints on the detailed velocity structures within the toe of the northern Cascadia accretionary prism and the oceanic Juan de Fuca plate seaward from the deformation front. This is mainly due to their offshore setting too far outside of station coverage of the land-based seismograph network. To address this significant knowledge gap, an international research effort was planned in 2008 to deploy 32 ocean-bottom seismographs (OBS) in the vicinity of the deformation front of the northern Cascadia accretionary prism offshore southwest of Vancouver Island (VI). The experiment, named the Seafloor Earthquake Array-Japan-Canada Cascadia Experiment (SeaJade), was conducted between July and October of 2010 and has recorded over 1400 local earthquakes. In this study, we examine the 3-component waveforms recorded by stations on both sides of the deformation front to delineate the structural characteristics of the subduction system. We first use air-gun data and the T-phase of local earthquakes to calibrate the azimuthal orientation of each OBS station. The calibrated waveforms are then systematically rotated and shifted to determine the corresponding fast axis and delay time of the crustal anisotropy beneath each station. For some stations, we also notice the existence of multiple converted phases between the P and S arrivals. Our preliminary results indicate that the fast axes are oriented consistently in the E-W direction, basically sub-normal to the trench axis, for stations located on the seaward side of the deformation front. This pattern agrees well with the mantle anisotropy observed at stations on southern VI and Puget Sound, and can be interpreted as the lattice-preferred orientation (PLO) of anisotropic minerals within the Juan de Fuca plate. The orientation of fast axes appears to be much more complicated for stations on the other side of the deformation front, perhaps resulted from the combined effects of anisotropy in the subducting oceanic plate and the deformation within the accretionary prism. The multiple converted phases are also indicative of the complex velocity structures at shallow depths near the prism toe. Our results can be used to establish a realistic boundary condition for numerical modeling of the thermo-mechanical regime of the Cascadia subduction system, which in turn controls the overall seismogenic processes of megathrust earthquakes.

Shan, S.; Kao, H.; Obana, K.



Comparison of cleaning efficiency and deformation characteristics of Twisted File and ProTaper rotary instruments  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of the following study is to compare the cleaning efficiency and deformation characteristics of Twisted File (TF) and ProTaper (PT) nickel-titanium rotary instruments in root canal preparation. Materials and Methods: A total of 52 canals from 26 extracted maxillary first molars were randomly assigned into two groups of each including 13 mesiobuccal and 12 distobuccal (DB) canals. Two DB canals were as blank controls. After preparation with TF and PT, we recorded the preparation time and evaluate the amounts of debris and smear layer at apical, middle and coronal canals under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Three cross-sections of canals at 3 mm, 5 mm and 7 mm from the apex foramens were scanned before and after preparation under micro-computed tomography. Changes of the cross-section area (CSA) at the three levels were calculated with Photoshop CS4. File deformation was also investigated under SEM. Two groups were statistically compared with Mann-Whitney test and independent sample t-test. Results: Less debris and smear layer were found in coronal regions of canals prepared with TF (P = 0.006, P = 0.001, respectively). TF group displayed more CSA change than PT group (P = 0.045) at cross-sections of 5 mm from the apex foramens and took significantly less preparation time than PT group did (P = 9.06 10?28). All five TF files without obvious micro-cracks and two out of 25 PT files with many micro-cracks showed visible unwound deformation. Conclusion: Neither TF nor PT achieves complete cleanliness of canal walls. Their deformation features might indicate different fracture resistance. TF single-file technique would substantially shorten the time of root canal preparation. PMID:24966769

Li, Hang; Zhang, Chenzheng; Li, Qing; Wang, Changning; Song, Yaling



Combination of metamorphism and deformation affect the nano-scale pore structures and macromolecule characteristics of high-rank deformed coals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal constitutes a large proportion of total energy supply in the world. Coalbed Methane (CBM) composes the greenhouse gases, which has attracted more and more scientists' concern and attention. The adsorption/desorption characteristics and mechanism of CBM on high-rank deformed coals are in favor of enhancing gas recovery, reducing coal mining accidents and carbon emission. Although the influence factors of CBM adsorption/desorption on different coals have been intensively studied, the combined action of metamorphism and deformation on high-rank coals have been rarely researched. Nevertheless. Metamorphism and deformation are the most fundamental driving forces that cause the changes of inner structures and compositions in coal strata, and then alter the adsorption/desorption capacities of CBM on different coalbeds. South of Qinshui Basin in Shanxi province developed with abundant high-rank coals is the first demonstrate area of CBM development in China. Meanwhile Southwest of Fujian province represents high metamorphic-deformed coals region due to the intense volcanic activities. Therefore samples were taken in both areas to elaborate the adsorption/desorption characteristics and mechanism of CBM. Based on hand specimens description, coal macerals testing, proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and vitrinite reflectance testing, the physical properties and composition characteristics of high-rank deformed coals have been studied. Combined with liquid nitrogen adsorption experiments, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) observation, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments, the results show that nano-pores increase and become homogenization with metamorphic-deformation enhancement, stacking of the macromolecular basic structural units (BSU) enhances, aromatic compound increases while aliphatic chain compound and oxygen-containing function groups decrease. Comparing to coal adsorption/desorption isotherm experiments indicates that adsorption/desorption capacity shows a 'U' type with nano-pores volume and specific surface area, coals with best adsorption capacity contained both vitrinite and inertinite with an approximate ratio of 4:1 or 1:4, the increase of aromatic and aliphatic content individually facilitated the adsorption of CBM. Generally speaking, the adsorption/desorption capacity of ductile deformed coals is higher than that of brittle ones, but metamorphism could dramatically affects the final results. To enhance CBM production and reduce carbon emission, the appropriate coal-bearing strata need to be chosen. Our research shows that metamorphism and deformation affect the nano-scale pore structures and macromolecule characteristics of different coals. Therefore brittle-ductile superposed zone with medium-high rank coals has high gas content and permeability which is promising to exploit and helpful to environmental protection.

Zhang, W.; Li, H.; Ju, Y.



Study on creep properties of Japonica cooked rice and its relationship with rice chemical compositions and sensory evaluation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Creep properties of four varieties japonica cooked rice were tested using a Dynamic Mechanical Analyser (DMA Q800). The creep curve was described by Burgers model. The creep process of japonica cooked rice mainly consisted of retarded elastic deformation, epsilonR and viscous flow deformation, epsil...


A New Creep Constitutive Model for 7075 Aluminum Alloy Under Elevated Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure of aluminum alloy to an elastic loading, during "creep-aging forming" or other manufacturing processes at relatively high temperature, may lead to the lasting creep deformation. The creep behaviors of 7075 aluminum alloy are investigated by uniaxial tensile creep experiments over wide ranges of temperature and external stress. The results show that the creep behaviors of the studied aluminum alloy strongly depend on the creep temperature, external stress, and creep time. With the increase of creep temperature and external stress, the creep strain increases quickly. In order to overcome the shortcomings of the Bailey-Norton law and ? projection method, a new constitutive model is proposed to describe the variations of creep strain with time for the studied aluminum alloy. In the proposed model, the dependences of creep strain on the creep temperature, external stress, and creep time are well taken into account. A good agreement between the predicted and measured creep strains shows that the established creep constitutive model can give an accurate description of the creep behaviors of 7075 aluminum alloy. Meanwhile, the obtained stress exponent indicates that the creep process is controlled by the dislocation glide, which is verified by the microstructural observations.

Lin, Y. C.; Jiang, Yu-Qiang; Zhou, Hua-Min; Liu, Guan



Low Temperature Creep of Hot-Extruded Near-Stoichiometric NiTi Shape Memory Alloy. Part I; Isothermal Creep  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This two-part paper is the first published report on the long term, low temperature creep of hot-extruded near-stoichiometric NiTi. Constant load tensile creep tests were conducted on hot-extruded near-stoichiometric NiTi at 300, 373 and 473 K under initial applied stresses varying between 200 and 350 MPa as long as 15 months. These temperatures corresponded to the martensitic, two-phase and austenitic phase regions, respectively. Normal primary creep lasting several months was observed under all conditions indicating dislocation activity. Although steady-state creep was not observed under these conditions, the estimated creep rates varied between 10(exp -10) and 10(exp -9)/s. The creep behavior of the two phases showed significant differences. The martensitic phase exhibited a large strain on loading followed by a primary creep region accumulating a small amount of strain over a period of several months. The loading strain was attributed to the detwinning of the martensitic phase whereas the subsequent strain accumulation was attributed to dislocation glide-controlled creep. An "incubation period" was observed before the occurrence of detwinning. In contrast, the austenitic phase exhibited a relatively smaller loading strain followed by a primary creep region, where the creep strain continued to increase over several months. It is concluded that the creep of the austenitic phase occurs by a dislocation glide-controlled creep mechanism as well as by the nucleation and growth of deformation twins.

Raj, S. V.; Noebe, R. D.



Creep of trabecular bone from the human proximal tibia.  


Creep is the deformation that occurs under a prolonged, sustained load and can lead to permanent damage in bone. Creep in bone is a complex phenomenon and varies with type of loading and local mechanical properties. Human trabecular bone samples from proximal tibia were harvested from a 71-year old female cadaver with osteoporosis. The samples were initially subjected to one cycle load up to 1% strain to determine the creep load. Samples were then loaded in compression under a constant stress for 2h and immediately unloaded. All tests were conducted with the specimens soaked in phosphate buffered saline with proteinase inhibitors at 37 C. Steady state creep rate and final creep strain were estimated from mechanical testing and compared with published data. The steady state creep rate correlated well with values obtained from bovine tibial and human vertebral trabecular bone, and was higher for lower density samples. Tissue architecture was analyzed by micro-computed tomography (?CT) both before and after creep testing to assess creep deformation and damage accumulated. Quantitative morphometric analysis indicated that creep induced changes in trabecular separation and the structural model index. A main mode of deformation was bending of trabeculae. PMID:24857486

Novitskaya, Ekaterina; Zin, Carolyn; Chang, Neil; Cory, Esther; Chen, Peter; D'Lima, Darryl; Sah, Robert L; McKittrick, Joanna



Temperature, Thermal Stress, And Creep In A Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents comparison of predicted and measured temperatures, thermal stresses, and residual creep stresses in heated and loaded titanium structure. Study part of continuing effort to develop design capability to predict and reduce deleterious effects of creep, which include excessive deformations, residual stresses, and failure.

Jenkins, Jerald M.



Geodetic characteristic of the postseismic deformation following the interplate large earthquake along the Japan Trench (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On March 9, 2011 at 2:45 (UTC), an M7.3 interplate earthquake (hereafter foreshock) occurred ~45 km northeast of the epicenter of the M9.0 2011 Tohoku earthquake. This foreshock preceded the 2011 Tohoku earthquake by 51 hours. Ohta et al., (2012, GRL) estimated co- and postseismic afterslip distribution based on a dense GPS network and ocean bottom pressure gauge sites. They found the afterslip distribution was mainly concentrated in the up-dip extension of the coseismic slip. The coseismic slip and afterslip distribution of the foreshock were also located in the slip deficit region (between 20-40m slip) of the coiseismic slip of the M9.0 mainshock. The slip amount for the afterslip is roughly consistent with that determined by repeating earthquake analysis carried out in a previous study (Kato et al., 2012, Science). The estimated moment release for the afterslip reached magnitude 6.8, even within a short time period of 51 hours. They also pointed out that a volumetric strainmeter time series suggests that this event advanced with a rapid decay time constant (4.8 h) compared with other typical large earthquakes. The decay time constant of the afterslip may reflect the frictional property of the plate interface, especially effective normal stress controlled by fluid. For verification of the short decay time constant of the foreshock, we investigated the postseismic deformation characteristic following the 1989 and 1992 Sanriku-Oki earthquakes (M7.1 and M6.9), 2003 and 2005 Miyagi-Oki earthquakes (M6.8 and M7.2), and 2008 Fukushima-Oki earthquake (M6.9). We used four components extensometer at Miyako (39.59N, 141.98E) on the Sanriku coast for 1989 and 1992 event. For 2003, 2005 and 2008 events, we used volumetric strainmeter at Kinka-zan (38.27N, 141.58E) and Enoshima (38.27N, 141.60E). To extract the characteristics of the postseismic deformation, we fitted the logarithmic function. The estimated decay time constants for each earthquake had almost similar range (1-15 h) with the foreshock of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake (4.8h), but relatively small compared with the typical interplate earthquakes. The comparison of decay time constant with other typical large interplate earthquakes is very difficult because of difference in the observation sensors such as GPS and strainmeter. In any case, decay time constant of postseismic deformation for the foreshock of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake is not anomalous compared with other events in this region.

Ohta, Y.; Hino, R.; Ariyoshi, K.; Matsuzawa, T.; Mishina, M.; Sato, T.; Inazu, D.; Ito, Y.; Tachibana, K.; Demachi, T.; Miura, S.



Couple effect between creep and plasticity of type 316 stainless steel at elevated temperature  

SciTech Connect

Interaction between creep and plastic strains is discussed for metallic materials at elevated temperature. We first estimate qualitatively an applicability of representative unified constitutive equations to combined creep and plastic deformations. Then, some actual creep-plasticity interaction of type 316 stainless steel is shown in comparison with predicted results.

Kawai, M.; Ohashi, Y.



Creep Mechanisms of a Ni-Co-Based-Wrought Superalloy with Low Stacking Fault Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to study the influences of stress and temperature on the creep deformation mechanisms of a newly developed Ni-Co-based superalloy with low stacking fault energy, creep experiments were carried out under a stress range of 345 to 840 MPa and a temperature range of 923 K to 1088 K (650 C to 815 C). The mechanisms operated under the various creep conditions were identified and the reasons for their transformation were well discussed. A deformation mechanism map under different creep conditions was summarized, which provides a qualitative representation of the operative creep mechanisms as a function of stress and temperature.

Tian, Chenggang; Xu, Ling; Cui, Chuanyong; Sun, Xiaofeng



Static characteristic measurement of MEMS deformable mirror with phase-shift interferometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MEMS deformable mirrors (DM) have many merits of low drive voltage, high response speed, small power consumption, low cost and small size. Its surface shape and displacement versus applied voltage are significant factors of MEMS DM. Phase-shifting interferometer (PSI) has many advantages such as non-contact, quickness and high precision. A phase-only liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM), as a linear phase-shifter in PSI, is linear calibrated for its phase-shift characteristics. The PSI is set up to measure the static characteristic of MEMS DM. Five-step phase-shifting method is used to calculate the phase distribution from interference fringes, and Global phase unwrapping algorithm to solve the holes, noise and breakpoint of interfere images. Compared to the measurement results using Zygo instrument, these two experimental results are very close. The experiment results show, this measuring system is very reliable, convenient and cheap. Moreover, this test system need not stitch some fringe images to get the whole surface shape of the mirror like the Zygo instrument.

Wu, Kui; Cai, Dongmei; Wang, Dong; Peng, Jia



Quantitative investigation of the tensile plastic deformation characteristic and microstructure for friction stir welded 2024 aluminum alloy  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the microstructure heterogeneity on the tensile plastic deformation characteristic of friction stir welded (FSW) 2024 aluminum alloy was investigated for the potential applications on light weight design of vehicles. The microstructure characteristics of the FSW joints, such as the grain structure, dislocation density and the distribution of precipitation, were studied by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The tensile deformation characteristic of the FSW joints was examined using the automatic strain measuring system (ASAME) by mapping the global and local strain distribution, and then was analyzed by mechanics calculation. It is found that the tensile deformation of the FSW joints is highly heterogeneous leading to a significant decrease in global ductility. The FSW joints mainly contain two typical deformation zones, which show great effect on the regional inhomogeneous deformation. One is the nugget zone (NZ) with a region of 8 mm in width, and the other is part of the BM with a region of 10 mm in width. The BM of the joints is the weakest region where the strain localizes early and this localization extends until fracture with a strain over 30%, while the strain in the NZ is only 4%. Differences in regional strain of FSW joints, which are essentially controlled by grain structure, the distribution of precipitation and dislocation density, result in decrease on the overall mechanical properties. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructure heterogeneity of welds on tensile deformation behavior is studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The welds contain two typical deformation zones, affecting the global ductility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Regional strain of welds is controlled by grain structure and dislocation density. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Theoretical calculation is in good agreement with experimental result.

Hu, Z.L., E-mail: [National Key Laboratory of Precision Hot Processing of Metals, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, X.S. [National Key Laboratory of Precision Hot Processing of Metals, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)] [National Key Laboratory of Precision Hot Processing of Metals, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Yuan, S.J., E-mail: [National Key Laboratory of Precision Hot Processing of Metals, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)



Anomalous creep behaviour of aluminium high current joint materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

During creep deformation the technical aluminium alloys EN AW-1350 (Al99.5) and EN AW-6060 (AlMgSi0.5) under certain conditions of stress and temperature show deformation thrusts of several millimetres, indicating discontinuous dynamic recrystallization. To study this anomalous creep behaviour in more detail the alloys were characterized by global and local texture measurements using neutron and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), respectively. In the

C.-G. Oertel; R. Tamm; W. Skrotzki; H.-G. Brokmeier




Microsoft Academic Search

Dismembered ophiolitic rocks including abundant sheared, serpentinized peridotite (mostly harzburgite) and minor basalts, dolerites, gabbros, and altered metabasites (mainly altered amphibolite) were drilled at most of the sites on the upper to lower Middle America Trench landward slope off Guatemala during Leg 84 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. These rocks show characteristic Cataclastic deformation with zeolite facies metamorphism and

Yujiro Ogawa; Kantaro Fujioka; Tadao Nishiyama; Seiichiro Uehara; Masaharu Nakagawa


In Situ Creep Strength Measurements on Ringwoodite at 18 GPa and 1700K Using a Deformation-DIA Apparatus Combined with Synchrotron Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to study rheology of deep Earth materials at pressure-temperature conditions of the lower mantle transition zone, technical improvements in deformation experiments with a deformation-DIA (D-DIA) apparatus have been made. We optimized dimensions of anvil truncation, a pressure medium and gasket to achieve the deformation experiments at 18 GPa at relatively low press load (0.5 MN) to minimize damage of X-ray transparent second-stage anvils. Stress and strain of a sample were determined quantitatively by means of in situ X-ray radial diffraction and radiography, respectively, in conjunction with synchrotron radiation at BL04B1 beamline, SPring-8. We adopted low X-ray absorption materials (e.g. cubic BN anvils, graphite window in a LaCrO3 heater) along an X-ray path to enable the in situ stress-strain measurements. Based on the developed technique, the deformation experiments on ringwoodite were carried out in uniaxial geometry at pressures of 17-18 GPa and temperatures of 1500-1700 K with strain rates of 3.38-5.56 10-5 s-1 and strains up to 26.0 %. In the present study, the pressure condition of the in situ stress-strain measurements in the D-DIA apparatus was successfully expanded from 14.5 GPa to 18 GPa at temperatures of 1500-1700 K. The present technical improvements in the in situ stress-strain measurements with the D-DIA apparatus should greatly contribute to studies on rheology of the deep Earth materials.

Kawazoe, T.; Nishihara, Y.; Ohuchi, T.; Maruyama, G.; Higo, Y.; Funakoshi, K.; Irifune, T.



Irradiation creep of nano-powder sintered silicon carbide at low neutron fluences  

SciTech Connect

The irradiation creep behavior of nano-powder sintered silicon carbide was investigated using the bend stress relaxation method under neutron irradiation up to 1.9 dpa. The creep deformation was observed at all temperatures ranging from 380 to 1180 C mainly from the irradiation creep but with the increasing contributions from the thermal creep at higher temperatures. Microstructural observation and data analysis were performed.

Koyanagi, Takaaki [ORNL; Shimoda, Kazuya [Kyoto University, Japan; Kondo, Sosuke [Kyoto University, Japan; Hinoki, Tatsuya [Kyoto University, Japan; Ozawa, Kazumi [ORNL; Katoh, Yutai [ORNL



Creep of Rocks Under Small Mechanical Loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of rocks under small (typically s = 0.1 MPa) mechanical loading is of great importance both for a better understanding of geological deformation features and for the analysis of rock mass behavior at large distance from underground openings. A very small amount of experimental data is available. Very long-term tests are required, as the creep rates induced by such

P. Berest; J. P. Charpentier; F. Vales



Time-aging time-stress superposition in soft glass under tensile deformation field  

E-print Network

We have studied the tensile deformation behaviour of thin films of aging aqueous suspension of Laponite, a model soft glassy material, when subjected to a creep flow field generated by a constant engineering normal stress. Aqueous suspension of Laponite demonstrates aging behaviour wherein it undergoes time dependent enhancement of its elastic modulus as well as its characteristic relaxation time. However, under application of the normal stress, the rate of aging decreases and in the limit of high stress, the aging stops with the suspension now undergoing a plastic deformation. Overall, it is observed that the aging that occurs over short creep times at small normal stresses is same as the aging that occurs over long creep times at large normal stresses. This observation allows us to suggest an aging time - process time - normal stress superposition principle, which can predict rheological behaviour at longer times by carrying out short time tests.

Asima Shaukat; Ashutosh Sharma; Yogesh M. Joshi



In-situ Creep Testing Capability Development for Advanced Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Creep is the slow, time-dependent strain that occurs in a material under a constant strees (or load) at high temperature. High temperature is a relative term, dependent on the materials being evaluated. A typical creep curve is shown in Figure 1-1. In a creep test, a constant load is applied to a tensile specimen maintained at a constant temperature. Strain is then measured over a period of time. The slope of the curve, identified in the figure below, is the strain rate of the test during Stage II or the creep rate of the material. Primary creep, Stage I, is a period of decreasing creep rate due to work hardening of the material. Primary creep is a period of primarily transient creep. During this period, deformation takes place and the resistance to creep increases until Stage II, Secondary creep. Stage II creep is a period with a roughly constant creep rate. Stage II is referred to as steady-state creep because a balance is achieved between the work hardening and annealing (thermal softening) processes. Tertiary creep, Stage III, occurs when there is a reduction in cross sectional area due to necking or effective reduction in area due to internal void formation; that is, the creep rate increases due to necking of the specimen and the associated increase in local stress.

B. G. Kim; J. L. Rempe; D. L. Knudson; K. G. Condie; B. H. Sencer



Regional Analysis of Dynamic Deformation Characteristics of Native Aortic Valve Leaflets  

PubMed Central

Background The mechanical environment of the aortic valve (AV) has a significant impact on valve cellular biology and disease progression, but the regional variation in stretch across the AV leaflet is not well understood. This study, therefore, sought to quantify the regional variation in dynamic deformation characteristics of AV leaflets in the native mechanical environment in order to link leaflet stretch variation to reported AV calcification patterns. Methods Whole porcine AVs (n=6) were sutured into a physiological left-heart simulator and subjected to pulsatile and physiologically normal hemodynamic conditions. A grid of ink dots was marked on the entire ventricular surface of the AV leaflet. Dual camera stereo photogrammetry was used to determine the stretch magnitudes across the entire ventricular surface over the entire diastolic duration. Results Elevated stretch magnitudes were observed along the leaflet base and coaptation line consistent with previously reported calcification patterns suggesting the higher mechanical stretch experienced by the leaflets in these regions may contribute to increased disease propensity. Transient stretch overloads were observed during diastolic closing, predominantly along the leaflet base, indicating the presence of a dynamic fluid hammer effect resulting from retrograde blood flow impacting the leaflet. We speculate the function of the leaflet base is to act in cooperation with the sinuses of Valsalva to dampen the fluid hammer effect and reduce stress levels imparted on the rest of the leaflet. PMID:21458817

Weiler, Michael; Yap, Choon Hwai; Balachandran, Kartik; Padala, Muralidhar; Yoganathan, Ajit P.



Modeling creep behavior in a directionally solidified nickel base superalloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Directionally solidified (DS) nickel-base superalloys provide significant improvements relative to the limitations inherent to equiaxed materials in the areas of creep resistance, oxidation, and low and high cycle fatigue resistance. Since these materials are being pushed to the limits of their capability in gas turbine applications, accurate mathematical models are needed to predict the service lives of the hot-section components to prevent unscheduled outages due to sudden mechanical failures. The objectives of this study are to perform critical experiments and investigate the high temperature tensile, fracture toughness, creep deformation, creep rupture and creep crack growth behavior of DS GTD111 as well as to apply creep deformation, rupture and crack growth models that will enable the accurate representation of the life times of the DS GTD111 superalloy gas turbine components that are exposed to high temperatures under sustained tensile stresses. The applied models will be capable of accurately representing the creep deformation, rupture and crack growth behavior as a function of stress, time and temperature. The yield strength and fracture toughness behavior with temperature is governed by the gamma particles. The longitudinal direction showed higher ductility and strength than the transverse direction. The TL direction exhibited higher fracture toughness than the LT orientation because the crack follows a more tortuous path. The longitudinal direction showed higher creep ductility, lower minimum strain rates and longer creep rupture times than the transverse direction. The results in the transverse direction were similar to the ones for the equiaxed version of this superalloy. Two models for creep deformation have been evaluated. The power-law model includes a secondary and a tertiary creep term with the primary creep represented by a constant. A theta-projection model has also been evaluated and it appears to provide a more accurate representation of creep deformation over a wide range of stress, time and temperature conditions. The Monkman-Grant relationship, the Larson-Miller parameter and the theta projection model have been successfully used to predict the time to rupture for different orientation-temperature-stress conditions. The time dependent fracture mechanics approach is used to model creep crack growth behavior. The creep crack grows faster at higher temperatures and in the LT orientation, but the crack advance rate is uniquely characterized by Ct independent of the orientation and temperature.

Ibanez, Alejandro R.


Deformation Characteristics of Gland Packings Made of Heat-Expanded Graphite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research data for five types of gland packings are reported. Relationships are shown with due regard for the number of loadings\\u000a and the number of packing layers: relative deformation of the packing due to unit load, unit load on the packing due to its\\u000a relative deformation, and compression and recovery modulus arising from relative deformation of the packing.

V. V. Avdeev; E. T. Il'in; S. G. Ionov; G. V. Bozhko; O. V. Gusak; V. D. Prodan




SciTech Connect

The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) may be joined to piping or other components by welding. Creep-fatigue deformation is expected to be a predominant failure mechanism of the IHX1 and thus weldments used in its fabrication will experience varying cyclic stresses interrupted by periods of elevated temperature deformation. These periods of elevated temperature deformation are greatly influenced by a materials creep behavior. The nickel-base solid solution strengthened alloy, Alloy 617, is the primary material candidate for a VHTR-type IHX, and it is expected that Alloy 617 filler metal will be used for welds. Alloy 617 is not yet been integrated into Section III of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, however, nuclear component design with Alloy 617 requires ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Code qualification. The Code will dictate design for welded construction through significant performance reductions. Despite the similar compositions of the weldment and base material, significantly different microstructures and mechanical properties are inevitable. Experience of nickel alloy welds in structural applications suggests that most high temperature failures occur at the weldments or in the heat-affected zone. Reliably guarding against this type of failure is particularly challenging at high temperatures due to the variations in the inelastic response of the constituent parts of the weldment (i.e., weld metal, heat-affected zone, and base metal) [ref]. This work focuses on the creep-fatigue behavior of nickel-based weldments, a need noted during the development of the draft Alloy 617 ASME Code Case. An understanding of Alloy 617 weldments when subjected to this important deformation mode will enable determination of the appropriate design parameters associated with their use. Specifically, the three main areas emphasized are the performance reduction due to a weld discontinuity in terms of the reduced number of the cycles to failure and whether a saturation in reduced cycle life with increased hold times is observed, the microstructural stability over long cycle times, and finally, the location of the generated weldment data on a creep-fatigue damage diagram (D-diagram).

Wright, Jill; Carroll, Laura; Wright, Richard



Microstructural changes during creep of CMSX-4 single crystal Ni base superalloy at 750 degrees C.  


TEM studies of creep tested CMSX-4 nickel-base single crystal superalloy were performed to analyse a microstructure evolution during creep at temperature 750 degrees C, and uniaxial tensile stress of 675 MPa. Microstructural analyses were focused mainly on examination of dislocation configurations during primary and secondary creep stages of high temperature deformation. At such low temperature and high stress creep deformation proceed by cutting of gamma' particles by dislocations. It was found that primary creep is initiated by movement of dislocations with Burgers vector a/2 <110> in the gamma phase. The second type of dislocations active at primary creep stage are extended dislocation ribbons with overall a<112> Burgers vector, separated by superlattice stacking faults, cutting both the gamma and gamma' phases. The movement of the dislocation ribbons is inhibited at secondary creep stage by dislocation networks formed at gamma-gamma' interfaces. PMID:20500397

Dubiel, B T; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, A



Material Parameters for Creep Rupture of Austenitic Stainless Steel Foils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Creep rupture properties of austenitic stainless steel foil, 347SS, used in compact recuperators have been evaluated at 700 C in the stress range of 54-221 MPa to establish the baseline behavior for its extended use. Creep curves of the foil show that the primary creep stage is brief and creep life is dominated by tertiary creep deformation with rupture lives in the range of 10-2000 h. Results are compared with properties of bulk specimens tested at 98 and 162 MPa. Thin foil 347SS specimens were found to have higher creep rates and higher rupture ductility than their bulk specimen counterparts. Power law relationship was obtained between the minimum creep rate and the applied stress with stress exponent value, n = 5.7. The value of the stress exponent is indicative of the rate-controlling deformation mechanism associated with dislocation creep. Nucleation of voids mainly occurred at second-phase particles (chromium-rich M23C6 carbides) that are present in the metal matrix by decohesion of the particle-matrix interface. The improvement in strength is attributed to the precipitation of fine niobium carbides in the matrix that act as obstacles to the movement of dislocations.

Osman, H.; Borhana, A.; Tamin, M. N.



Microstructure and Creep Property of Isothermal Forging GH4169G Superalloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By means of direct aging, microstructure observation and creep property measurement, the microstructure and creep behaviors of GH4169G superalloy are investigated. Results show that, after direct aging, the grain size is inhomogeneous in the alloy, and some ? precipitates discontinuously distribute in the grain and along the boundaries, which may improve the bonding strength of the boundaries. Under the experimental conditions, the creep activation energy of the alloy during steady-state creep are calculated to be Q = 594.7 kJ/mol. During creep, the deformation features of the alloy are twinning deformation and dislocations slipping in the matrix. As creep goes on, deformed dislocations pile up near the boundary regions to induce stress concentration for promoting the initiation and propagation of cracks along boundaries.

Li, Zhenrong; Ma, Chunlei; Tian, Sugui; Chen, Liqing; Liu, Xianghua



Endochronic theory of transient creep and creep recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Short time creep and creep recovery were investigated by means of the endochronic theory of viscoplasticity. It is shown that the constitutive equations for constant-strain-rate stress-strain behavior, creep, creep recovery, and stress relaxation can all ber derived from the general constitutive equation by imposing appropriate constraints. In this unified approach, the effect of strain-hardening is naturally accounted for when describing creep and creep recovery. The theory predicts with reasonable accuracy the creep and creep recovery behaviors for Aluminum 1100-0 at 150 C. It was found that the strain-rate history at prestraining stage affects the subsequent creep. A critical stress was also established for creep recovery. The theory predicts a forward creep for creep recovery stress greater than the critical stress. For creep recovery stress less than the critical stress, the theory then predicts a normal strain recovery.

Wu, H. C.; Chen, L.



Creep-assisted slow crack growth in bio-inspired dental multilayers.  


Ceramic crown structures under occlusal contact are often idealized as flat multilayered structures that are deformed under Hertzian contact loading. Previous models treated each layer as linear elastic materials and resulted in differences between the measured and predicted critical loads. This paper examines the combined effects of creep (in the adhesive and substrate layers) and creep-assisted slow crack growth (in the ceramic layer) on the contact-induced deformation of bio-inspired, functionally graded multilayer (FGM) structures and the conventional tri-layers. The time-dependent moduli of each of the layers were determined from constant load creep tests. The resulting modulus-time characteristics were modeled using Prony series. These were then incorporated into a finite element model for the computation of stress distributions in the sub-surface regions of the top ceramic layer, in which sub-surface radial cracks, are observed as the clinical failure mode. The time-dependent stresses are incorporated into a slow crack growth (SCG) model that is used to predict the critical loads of the dental multilayers under Hertzian contact loading. The predicted loading rate dependence of the critical loads is shown to be consistent with experimental results. The implications of the results are then discussed for the design of robust dental multilayers. PMID:25771255

Du, Jing; Niu, Xinrui; Soboyejo, Wole



Transient Analysis for the Multimechanism-Deformation Parameters of Several Domal Salts  

SciTech Connect

Use of Gulf Coast salt domes for construction of very large storage caverns by solution mining has grown significantly in the last several decades. In fact, a nationally important Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage occurs in large cavern arrays in some of these domes. Although caverns have been operated economically for these many years, these caverns have a range of relatively poorly understood behaviors, involving creep closure fluid loss and damage from salt falls. It is certainly possible to postulate that many of these behaviors stem from geomechanical or deformational aspects of the salt response. As a result, a method of correlating the cavern response to mechanical creep behavior as determined in the laboratory could be of considerable importance. Recently, detailed study of the creep response of domal salts has cast some insight into the influence of different salt origins on cavern behavior. The study used a simple graphical analysis of the limited non-steady state data to give a bound, or an approach to steady state, as an estimate of the steady state behavior of a given domal salt. This permitted the analysis of sparse creep databases for domal salts. It appears that a shortcoming of the steady state analysis was in masking some of the salt material differences. In an attempt to overcome the steady state analysis shortcomings, a method was developed based on the integration of the Multimechanism-Deformation (M-D) creep constitutive model to fit the transient response. This integration process essentially permits definition of the material sensitive parameters of the model, while those parameters that are either constants or material insensitive parameters are fixed independently. The transient analysis method has proven more sensitive to differences in the creep characteristics and has provided a way of defining different behaviors within a given dome. Creep characteristics, as defined by the transient analysis of the creep rate, are related quantitatively to the volume loss creep rate of the caverns. This type of understanding of the domal material creep response already has pointed to the possibility of establishing various distinct material spines within a given dome. Furthermore, if the creep databases for domal salts can be expanded, one could expect additional definition of domal geology and structure.

Munson, Darrell E.



Interface Evolution During Transient Pressure Solution Creep  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When aggregates of small grains are pressed together in the presence of small amounts of solvent the aggregate compacts and the grains tend to stick together. This hap- pens to salt and sugar in humid air, and to sediments when buried in the Earths crust. Stress concentration at the grain contacts cause local dissolution, diffusion of the dissolved material out of the interface and deposition on the less stressed faces of the grains{1}. This process, in geology known as pressure solution, plays a cen- tral role during compaction of sedimentary basins{1,2}, during tectonic deformation of the Earth's crust{3}, and in strengthening of active fault gouges following earth- quakes{4,5}. Experimental data on pressure solution has so far not been sufficiently accurate to understand the transient processes at the grain scale. Here we present ex- perimental evidence that pressure solution creep does not establish a steady state inter- face microstructure as previously thought. Conversely, cumulative creep strain and the characteristic size of interface microstructures grow as the cubic root of time. A sim- ilar transient phenomenon is known in metallurgy (Andrade creep) and is explained here using an analogy with spinodal dewetting. 1 Weyl, P. K., Pressure solution and the force of crystallization - a phenomenological theory. J. Geophys. Res., 64, 2001-2025 (1959). 2 Heald, M. T., Cementation of Simpson and St. Peter Sandstones in parts of Okla- homa, Arkansas and Missouri, J. Geol. Chicago, 14, 16-30 (1956). 3 Schwartz, S., Stckert, B., Pressure solution in siliciclastic HP-LT metamorphic rocks constraints on the state of stress in deep levels of accretionary complexes. Tectonophysics, 255, 203-209 (1996). 4 Renard, F., Gratier, J.P., Jamtveit, B., Kinetics of crack-sealing, intergranular pres- sure solution, and compaction around active faults. J. Struct. Geol., 22, 1395-1407, (2000). 5 Miller, S. A., BenZion, Y., Burg, J. P.,A three-dimensional fluid-controlled earth- quake model: Behavior and implications. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 10621-10638 (1999).

Dysthe, D. K.; Podladchikov, Y. Y.; Renard, F.; Jamtveit, B.; Feder, J.


Effect of strain and deformation route on grain boundary characteristics and recrystallization behavior of aluminum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of strain and deformation route on the recrystallization behavior of aluminum sheets has been investigated using well lubricated cold rolling and continuous equal channel angular extrusion. Three different deformation routes in plane strain corresponding to (1) simple shear, (2) compression, and (3) the combination of simple shear and compression were performed on 1100 aluminum sheet. Fixed amounts of the equivalent strain of 1.28 and 1.06 were accumulated in each route. In case of the combined deformation route, the ratio of shear strain to the total equivalent strain was varied. The recrystallized grain size was finer if the combined deformation route was employed instead of the monotonic route under the same amount of equivalent strain at either strain level. The density of high angle grain boundaries that act as nucleation sites for recrystallization was higher in materials deformed by the combined route. The orientation imaging micrographs revealed that the change in deformation route is effective for introducing a larger number of new high angle grain boundaries with relatively low misorientation angle.

Sakai, Tetsuo; Utsunomiya, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yasuo



Effect of Phosphorous Inoculation on Creep Behavior of a Hypereutectic Al-Si Alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Creep behavior of Al-Si hypereutectic alloys inoculated with phosphorus was investigated using the impression creep testing. The results showed that at stress regimes of up to 400-450 MPa and temperatures up to 300 C, no significant creep deformation occurred in both uninoculated and inoculated specimens; however, at temperatures above 300 C, the inoculated alloys presented better creep properties. Creep data were used to calculate the stress exponent of steady-state creep rate, n, and creep activation energy, Q, for different additive conditions where n was found varied between 5 and 8. Owing to the fact that most alloys have lower values for n (4, 5), threshold stress was estimated for studied conditions. The creep governing mechanisms for different conditions are discussed here, with a particular attention to the effect of phosphorous addition on the microstructural features, including number of primary silicon particles, mean primary silicon spacing, and morphology and distribution of eutectic silicon.

Faraji, Masoumeh; Khalilpour, Hamid



Creep behaviour of modified 9Cr-1Mo ferritic steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Creep deformation and fracture behaviour of indigenously developed modified 9Cr-1Mo steel for steam generator (SG) tube application has been examined at 823, 848 and 873 K. Creep tests were performed on flat creep specimens machined from normalised and tempered SG tubes at stresses ranging from 125 to 275 MPa. The stress dependence of minimum creep rate obeyed Norton's power law. Similarly, the rupture life dependence on stress obeyed a power law. The fracture mode remained transgranular at all test conditions examined. The analysis of creep data indicated that the steel obey Monkman-Grant and modified Monkman-Grant relationships and display high creep damage tolerance factor. The tertiary creep was examined in terms of the variations of time to onset of tertiary creep with rupture life, and a recently proposed concept of time to reach Monkman-Grant ductility, and its relationship with rupture life that depends only on damage tolerance factor. SG tube steel exhibited creep-rupture strength comparable to those reported in literature and specified in the nuclear design code RCC-MR.

Choudhary, B. K.; Isaac Samuel, E.



Probabilistic models for creep-fatigue in a steel alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In high temperature components subjected to long term cyclic operation, simultaneous creep and fatigue damage occur. A new methodology for creep-fatigue life assessment has been adopted without the need to separate creep and fatigue damage or expended life. Probabilistic models, described by hold times in tension and total strain range at temperature, have been derived based on the creep rupture behavior of a steel alloy. These models have been validated with the observed creep-fatigue life of the material with a scatter band close to a factor of 2. Uncertainties of the creep-fatigue model parameters have been estimated with WinBUGS which is an open source Bayesian analysis software tool that uses Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to fit statistical models. Secondly, creep deformation in stress relaxation data has been analyzed. Well performing creep equations have been validated with the observed data. The creep model with the highest goodness of fit among the validated models has been used to estimate probability of exceedance at 0.6% strain level for the steel alloy.

Ibisoglu, Fatmagul


Scaling of the acoustic emission characteristics during plastic deformation and fracture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scaling of the amplitude and time distributions of acoustic emission pulses, which reflects the self-similarity of defect structures, is revealed. The possibility of separation of independent contributions to the flow of acoustic emission events, which have substantially different scaling exponents, is shown for porous materials. The differences in the scaling exponents are related to the development of plastic deformation and fracture of the materials. The developed approach to an analysis of acoustic emission can be used to describe its predominant mechanisms during deformation.

Lependin, A. A.; Polyakov, V. V.



Tension-Compression Asymmetry of Creep and Unilateral Creep Damage in Aluminum for Isothermal and Nonisothermal Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A constitutive model is proposed to describe the damage development in aluminum alloys under creep conditions for both isothermal and nonisothermal processes. Special emphasis is laid on four specific phenomena: tension-compression asymmetry of creep, damage induced anisotropy, unilateral creep damage and damage deactivation. Within the framework of the phenomenological approach in the Continuum Damage Mechanics, the nonlinear tensor constitutive equation for creep deformation and damage evolution equation are proposed to account for different orientation of microcracks in aluminum alloys under tensile and compressive loading types. After a determination of the material parameters in the obtained constitutive equation and damage growth equation, the proposed model is applied to the describing creep behavior of the aluminum alloy under uniaxial nonproportional and multiaxial nonproportional loading for both isothermal and nonisothermal processes.

Zolochevsky, Alexander; Obataya, Yoichi


Investigating the Creeping Segment of the San Andreas fault using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the temporal characteristics of the creeping section of the San Andreas fault in Central California, using persistent scatterer interferometry (PS-InSAR) time series methods. In PS-InSAR, we identify a network of pixels whose scattering properties vary little between multiple SAR acquisitions spanning a period of time and use phase measurements at these points as a function of time to derive deformations. Applying PS-InSAR to natural terrains where conventional interferograms tend to suffer decorrelation is difficult, yet several PS-InSAR methods have been proposed and have been shown to work reliably in urban environments. The Stanford Method for PS (StaMPS) was the first method developed to extend the scope of PS-InSAR to work effectively in vegetated regions. We applied a maximum likelihood approach to PS selection and find it to be effective in identifying PS points in vegetated areas of the San Francisco Bay Area and Imperial Valley in California, USA. A key advantage of both StaMPS and the maximum likelihood method are that they do not require an a priori temporal model for the deformation pattern. Here we present results from applying these methods to the creeping section of the San Andreas fault. This segment of the fault creeps at rates in excess of 20 mm per year. Geodetic measurements in this area from creepmeters, alignment arrays and GPS typically have poor spatial and/or temporal resolution. Conventional stacking of ERS interferograms covering this segment of the fault provides good surface deformation information in parts of this region, but is not viable in areas that are heavily decorrelated due to vegetation and topography. The PS methods generate time series of surface displacement, even in steep, vegetated areas, and readily reproduce the creep rate of about 26 mm/yr along the fault and the spatial distribution of deformation away from the fault. The results are consistent, but more detailed than, the observations from GPS networks. We use elastic dislocation maps to invert for the time-series of the fault creep.

Agram, P.; Ryder, I.; Rolandone, F.; Zebker, H.



Continuous cavity nucleation and creep fracture  

SciTech Connect

Intergranular creep fracture under the stress and temperature conditions experienced by components in service is generally acknowledged as resulting from nucleation and growth of intergranular cavities. Firstly, there seemed to be an approximately linear reciprocal relationship between time-to-fracture and minimum rate of creep deformation. Secondly, cavity growth by stress-directed flow of atoms was shown by Hull and Rimmer to lead to lifetime being inversely proportional to the maximum principal stress providing that all cavities initiated at the start of the test. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the boundary conditions imposed by Hull and Rimmer were unnecessarily restrictive and that more realistic ones result in cavity growth rates being proportional to strain rates. Nevertheless, there is an increasing body of experimental evidence on engineering alloys and also iron which indicates that cavities are not all nucleated in a short time interval, but are nucleated continuously. This paper collates the evidence for the continous nucleation of cavities, places this within the framework of creep fracture modelling and introduces a quantitative assessment of the likely errors of measurement. A model of cavity nucleation based on the stochastic nature of transgranular creep deformation is also discussed.

Dyson, B.F.




Microsoft Academic Search

Free and forced vibration analyses for initially stressed functionally graded plates in thermal environment are presented. Material properties are assumed to be temperature dependent, and graded in the thickness direction according to a simple power law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents. Theoretical formulations are based on Reddy's higher order shear deformation plate theory and include

J. Yang; H.-S. SHEN



The effect of dissolved magnesium on creep of calcite II: transition from diffusion creep to dislocation creep  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extended a previous study on the influence of Mg solute impurity on diffusion creep in calcite to include deformation under\\u000a a broader range of stress conditions and over a wider range of Mg contents. Synthetic marbles were produced by hot isostatic\\u000a pressing (HIP) mixtures of calcite and dolomite powders for different intervals (230h) at 850C and 300MPa confining pressure.

Lili Xu; Jrg Renner; Marco Herwegh; Brian Evans



EBSD and TEM investigation of the hot deformation substructure characteristics of a type 316L austenitic stainless steel.  


The evolution of crystallographic texture and deformation substructure was studied in a type 316L austenitic stainless steel, deformed in rolling at 900 degrees C to true strain levels of about 0.3 and 0.7. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used in the investigation and a comparison of the substructural characteristics obtained by these techniques was made. At the lower strain level, the deformation substructure observed by EBSD appeared to be rather poorly developed. There was considerable evidence of a rotation of the pre-existing twin boundaries from their original orientation relationship, as well as the formation of highly distorted grain boundary regions. In TEM, at this strain level, the substructure was more clearly revealed, although it appeared rather inhomogeneously developed from grain to grain. The subgrains were frequently elongated and their boundaries often approximated to traces of [111] slip planes. The corresponding misorientations were small and largely displayed a non-cumulative character. At the larger strain, the substructure within most grains became well developed and the corresponding misorientations increased. This resulted in better detection of sub-boundaries by EBSD, although the percentage of indexing slightly decreased. TEM revealed splitting of some sub-boundaries to form fine microbands, as well as the localized formation of microshear bands. The substructural characteristics observed by EBSD, in particular at the larger strain, generally appeared to compare well with those obtained using TEM. With increased strain level, the mean subgrain size became finer, the corresponding mean misorientation angle increased and both these characteristics became less dependent on a particular grain orientation. The statistically representative data obtained will assist in the development of physically based models of microstructural evolution during thermomechanical processing of austenitic stainless steels. PMID:15009696

Cizek, P; Whiteman, J A; Rainforth, W M; Beynon, J H



Creep Prediction of an Undisturbed Sensitive Clay Alexandre, G. F., D.Sc.  

E-print Network

Undrained creep. Constitutive equations. Soil behavior. Strain rate effects. Time effects. Viscosity investigators to study creep and the effects of rate of loading on the shear characteristics of soils. They showed that soil specimens subjected to undrained creep loadings failed with deviatoric stresses

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Mechanical behavior of low porosity carbonate rock: from brittle creep to ductile creep  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical compaction and associated porosity reduction play an important role in the diagenesis of porous rocks. They may also affect reservoir rocks during hydrocarbon production, as the pore pressure field is modified. This inelastic compaction can lead to subsidence, cause casing failure, trigger earthquake, or change the fluid transport properties. In addition, inelastic deformation can be time - dependent. In particular, brittle creep phenomena have been deeply investigated since the 90s, especially in sandstones. However knowledge of carbonates behavior is still insufficient. In this experimental study, we focus on the mechanical behavior of a low porosity (9%) white Tavel (France) carbonate rock (>98% calcite) at P-Q conditions beyond the elastic domain. It has been shown that in sandstones composed of quartz, cracks are developing under these conditions. However, in carbonates, calcite minerals can meanwhile also exhibit microplasticity. The samples were deformed in the triaxial cell of the Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris at effective confining pressures ranging from 35 MPa to 85 MPa and room temperature. Experiments were carried on dry and water saturated samples to explore the role played by the pore fluids. Time dependency was investigated by a creep steps methodology: at each step, differential stress was increased rapidly and kept constant for at least 24h. During these steps elastic wave velocities (P and S) and permeability were measured continuously. Our results show two different creep behaviors: (1) brittle creep is observed at low confining pressures, whereas (2) ductile creep is observed at higher confining pressures. These two creep behaviors have a different signature in term of elastic wave velocities and permeability changes. Indeed, in the brittle domain, the primary creep is associated with a decrease of elastic wave velocities and an increase of permeability, and no secondary creep is observed. In the ductile domain, the primary creep is also associated with a decreased in elastic wave velocity and an increase of the permeability. However, the secondary creep is associated with an increase of velocities and a decrease of permeability (pointing to recovery). This behavior observed in the ductile regime can be explained by two mechanisms: cracks propagation and plasticity. Indeed, the increase of stress induces fractures. When long term plastic phenomena take place at the tips of the cracks, these fractures close partially.

Nicolas, A.; Fortin, J.; Gueguen, Y.



Continuous deformation versus episodic deformation at high stress - the microstructural record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructural record of continuous high stress deformation is compared to that of episodic high stress deformation on two examples: 1. Folding of quartz veins in metagreywacke from Pacheco Pass, California, undergoing deformation by dissolution precipitation creep at temperatures of 300 50C. The microfabric of the folded quartz veins indicates deformation by dislocation creep accompanied by subgrain rotation. The small recrystallized grain size of ~86 m in average implies relatively high differential stresses of a few hundred MPa. The stress concentration in the vein is due to a high contrast in effective viscosities between the single phase material and the polyphase fine-grained host metagreywacke deforming by dissolution precipitation creep. Smoothly curved, but generally not sutured, grain boundaries as well as the small size and a relatively high dislocation density of recrystallized grains suggest that strain-induced grain boundary migration was of minor importance. This is suspected to be a consequence of low strain gradients, which are due to the relative rates of dynamic recovery and continuous dislocation production during climb-controlled creep, at high stress and the given low temperature. Subgrain rotation recrystallization is thus proposed to be characteristic for continuous deformation at high differential stress. 2. Episodic deformation in the middle crust at the tip of a seismic active fault zone. The microfabric of mid-crustal rocks exhumed in tectonically active regions can record episodic high stress deformation at the base of the seismogenic layer. The quartz veins from St. Paul la Roche in the Massif Central, France, are very coarse grained. On the scale of a thin section they are basically single crystalline. However, they show a very heterogeneous microstructure with a system of healed microcracks that are decorated by subgrains and more rarely by small recrystallized grains. Undulating deformation lamellae that do not show a preferred crystallographic orientation are found by transmission electron microscopy to represent dislocation walls with a high density of dislocations. They are interpreted as a modified microstructure that reflects a stage of initial high stress deformation with restricted dynamic recovery. The missing aggregates of recrystallized grains rule out dynamic recrystallization, which is proposed to be due to a high strain rate, preventing effective dislocation climb. Instead, localized single grains in random orientations that are aligned along fractures indicate quasi-static recrystallization and recovery at a subsequent stage of low stress and temperatures of ~300 50C. Such a microstructure is characteristic of initial short-term high stress glide-controlled deformation accompanied by microcracking during coseismic loading and subsequent modification by recovery and recrystallization at rapidly decreasing stresses during postseismic relaxation in the middle crust below the seismogenic layer. Both examples indicate deformation of quartz at similar conditions in terms of temperature (~300 50C) and high stress. However, the deformation and recrystallization processes and the resulting microfabrics are completely different due to the different loading time and rate.

Trepmann, C. A.; Stckhert, B.



Very slow creep tests on salt samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term creep tests have been performed on rock-salt and argillite samples under very small uniaxial loadings (sigma = 0.02 to 0.1 MPa) . To minimize the effects of temperature variations, testing devices were set in a mine where temperature fluctuations are of the order of one-hundredth of a degree Celsius. The mechanical loading was provided by dead weights. The deformations

P. Brest; J. F. Braud; B. Brouard; P. A. Blum; J. P. Charpentier; V. de Greef; H. Gharbi; F. Vals



Creep and creep rupture of ERNiCr-3 weld metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Creep and creep-rupture tests were made on AWS A5.14 Class ERNiCr-3 weld metal, commonly known as Inconel 82. Specimens from gas tungsten-arc welds were tested over the range 454-732C. Tests at 454, 510, and 566C displayed different characteristics from those at 621, 677, and 732C. The lower temperature creep curves showed a rapid transient, a long steady-state stage, and little tertiary creep. At elevated temperatures the transient stage was slower, the steady-state stage was shorter, and the tertiary stage was longer. Creep-rupture curves and stress-minimum creep rate curves were much flatter at lower temperatures. Certain tests at 454, 510, and 566C exhibited an "instantaneous elongation" or "strain burst" phenomenon, in which the creep curves contained strain jumps. At these same temperatures several specimens failed prematurely. The difference in behavior in the two temperature regimes was attributed to short-range order.

Klueh, R. L.; King, J. F.



Novel characteristics of energy spectrum for 3D Dirac oscillator analyzed via Lorentz covariant deformed algebra  

PubMed Central

We investigate the Lorentz-covariant deformed algebra for Dirac oscillator problem, which is a generalization of Kempf deformed algebra in 3 + 1 dimension of space-time, where Lorentz symmetry are preserved. The energy spectrum of the system is analyzed by taking advantage of the corresponding wave functions with explicit spin state. We obtained entirely new results from our development based on Kempf algebra in comparison to the studies carried out with the non-Lorentz-covariant deformed one. A novel result of this research is that the quantized relativistic energy of the system in the presence of minimal length cannot grow indefinitely as quantum number n increases, but converges to a finite value, where c is the speed of light and ? is a parameter that determines the scale of noncommutativity in space. If we consider the fact that the energy levels of ordinary oscillator is equally spaced, which leads to monotonic growth of quantized energy with the increment of n, this result is very interesting. The physical meaning of this consequence is discussed in detail. PMID:24225900

Betrouche, Malika; Maamache, Mustapha; Choi, Jeong Ryeol



Wear characteristics of severely deformed aluminum sheets by accumulative roll bonding (ARB) process  

SciTech Connect

Wear behavior of severely deformed aluminum sheets by accumulative roll bonding (ARB) process was characterized using a pin on disc wear machine at different conditions. The sheets were processed up to eight ARB cycles in order to induce a high strain ({approx} 6.4) to the samples. EBSD results showed that after eight cycles of ARB, sheets were found to contain ultrafine grains with high fraction of high angle grain boundaries. Wear experiments were conducted under different loading and operating conditions, including dry and immersion lubrication, and rotation speeds. Wear was continuously monitored by measuring the wear rates and morphologies of worn surfaces by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Contrary to expectation, the wear resistance of the ARBed Al sheets was less than the non-processed sheets. Wear rates of the ARBed Al sheets increased by increasing wear load and rotation speed, while, immersion lubrication decreased the wear rate significantly. Based on the observation and results, a model for the wear of the ARBed Al was proposed. - Research Highlights: {yields}The wear rate of the ARBed Al was higher than that of the non-processed alloy. {yields}This unexpected behavior was related to the low strain hardening capability and evolution of the ARB subsurface microstructure during the wear process. {yields}Sliding wear of the ARBed Al proceeded by surface deformation, and progressed by delamination of the deformed surface layer. {yields}The wear rate of ARBed Al increased by increasing applied load and sliding speed.

Talachi, A. Kazemi; Eizadjou, M., E-mail:; Manesh, H. Danesh; Janghorban, K.



Apparent and effective creep parameters in single crystals of a nickel base superalloy. I. Incubation period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct observation of the dislocation structures in connection with the values of the effective parameters suggests a creep model for that particular creep stage observed in superalloys. The incubation period may be described as a steady state creep rate when deformation is produced by the glide of a low density of mobile screw dislocations (p\\/sub m\\/ approximately equal to 10⁵

C. Carry; J. L. Strudel



An integrated process for modelling of precipitation hardening and springback in creep age-forming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creep age-forming (CAF) process has been developed and used to manufacture complex-shaped panel components in aerospace applications. CAF is based on the complex combination of stress relaxation, creep and age hardening. The aim of this paper is to introduce an integrated technique to model stressrelaxation, creep deformation, precipitate hardening and springback in a CAF process. Firstly, a new set of

J. Lin; K. C. Ho; T. A. Dean



On the creep behavior at 1033 K of new generation single-crystal superalloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The various parameters influencing the creep behavior at 1033K of the MC544 and MC534 new generation single crystal nickel-based superalloys were analyzed in comparison with that of the first generation AM1 superalloy. A clear relationship was evidenced between the main deformation process and the amplitude of primary creep stage. A large amplitude of primary creep is always associated with heterogeneous

F. Diologent; P. Caron



Microstructure and creep of eutectic indium\\/tin on copper and nickel substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior during creep in shear of eutectic indium-tin joints on copper and nickel substrates was examined in order to\\u000a determine the effect of creep deformation on the microstructure of the alloy. Primary creep was absent in all the samples\\u000a tested. The stress exponent at 20 C was much higher for samples on nickel than for those on copper, indicating

J. L. Freer; J. W. Jr. Morris



Threshold Stress Creep Behavior of Alloy 617 at Intermediate Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Creep of Alloy 617, a solid solution Ni-Cr-Mo alloy, was studied in the temperature range of 1023 K to 1273 K (750 C to 1000 C). Typical power-law creep behavior with a stress exponent of approximately 5 is observed at temperatures from 1073 K to 1273 K (800 C to 1000 C). Creep at 1023 K (750 C), however, exhibits threshold stress behavior coinciding with the temperature at which a low volume fraction of ordered coherent y' precipitates forms. The threshold stress is determined experimentally to be around 70 MPa at 1023 K (750 C) and is verified to be near zero at 1173 K (900 C)temperatures directly correlating to the formation and dissolution of y' precipitates, respectively. The y' precipitates provide an obstacle to continued dislocation motion and result in the presence of a threshold stress. TEM analysis of specimens crept at 1023 K (750 C) to various strains, and modeling of stresses necessary for y' precipitate dislocation bypass, suggests that the climb of dislocations around the y' precipitates is the controlling factor for continued deformation at the end of primary creep and into the tertiary creep regime. As creep deformation proceeds at an applied stress of 121 MPa and the precipitates coarsen, the stress required for Orowan bowing is reached and this mechanism becomes active. At the minimum creep rate at an applied stress of 145 MPa, the finer precipitate size results in higher Orowan bowing stresses and the creep deformation is dominated by the climb of dislocations around the y' precipitates.

J.K. Benz; L.J. Carroll; J.K. Wright; R.N. Wright; T. Lillo



Characterization of the groundwater response to rainfall on a hillslope with fractured bedrock by creep deformation and its implication for the generation of deep-seated landslides on Mt. Wanitsuka, Kyushu Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the hydrogeological response of a hillslope affected by gravitational deformation was analyzed based on the data obtained for two observation boreholes: a 10-m borehole representing a relatively superficial section of the hillslope dominated by soil and old landslide deposits and a 40-m borehole representing the bedrock aquifer. For this analysis, the precipitation events in the area, groundwater levels of the two boreholes, electrical conductivity and isotopic concentration (oxygen and hydrogen) of the groundwater in the boreholes and rainfall samples were measured. Derived from the rainfall data, the antecedent precipitation index (API) with a 6-h half-life offers a good correlation with the peaks in the groundwater levels in the bedrock aquifer. The characteristics of the groundwater response suggest the existence of a single structure in the bedrock that controls the response of the hillslope. The structure serves as a conduit, which rapidly drives the rainfall water (recharge) into the bedrock. Evidently, this process is unrelated to the superficial section represented by the observations in the 10-m borehole. The structure is associated with an area of high hydraulic conductivity in the bedrock caused by the gravitational deformation in the hillslope. The strong control of this structure in the hillslope's hydrogeological response makes it responsible for the hillslope's stability during high-precipitation events. This information is highly relevant to areas featuring the generation of several deep-seated landslides under heavy-rain conditions.

Padilla, Cristobal; Onda, Yuichi; Iida, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Shinya; Uchida, Taro



Mechanosorptive creep in nanocellulose materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creep behavior of nanocellulose films and aerogels are studied in a dynamic moisture environment, which is crucial to their performance in packaging applications. For these materials, the creep rate under cyclic humidity conditions exceeds any constant humidity creep rate within the cycling range, a phenomenon known as mechanosorptive creep. By varying the sample thickness and relative humidity ramp rate,

S. B. Lindstrm; E. Karabulut; A. Kulachenko; H. Sehaqui; L. Wgberg



Creep analysis of fuel plates for the Advanced Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

The reactor for the planned Advanced Neutron Source will use closely spaced arrays of fuel plates. The plates are thin and will have a core containing enriched uranium silicide fuel clad in aluminum. The heat load caused by the nuclear reactions within the fuel plates will be removed by flowing high-velocity heavy water through narrow channels between the plates. However, the plates will still be at elevated temperatures while in service, and the potential for excessive plate deformation because of creep must be considered. An analysis to include creep for deformation and stresses because of temperature over a given time span has been performed and is reported herein.

Swinson, W.F.; Yahr, G.T.



Effect of elastic deformations on magnetic characteristics of chromium-nickel steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dependences of the coercive force, remanent induction, maximum magnetic permeability, and distribution of critical magnetic fields for chromium-nickel steels 15KhN4D and 11KhN3D have been obtained upon elastic deformation by uniaxial tension (compression), torsion, internal pressure, and their combinations. It has been shown that the processes of magnetization reversal differ in weak and strong magnetic fields. With a series of major and minor hysteresis loops, the field values at which magnetization depends weakly on applied stresses have been detected.

Gorkunov, E. S.; Yakushenko, E. I.; Zadvorkin, S. M.; Mushnikov, A. N.



Diffusion creep in the mantle may create and maintain anisotropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion creep is thought to play an important role in lower mantle deformation and hence must be understood in detail if Earth behaviour is to be explained. It is commonly claimed that diffusion creep gives rise to equant grain shapes and destroys any crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO), so all physical properties would be isotropic. Some experiments on olivine support the first assertion but other minerals, and polyphase rocks, commonly show inequant grain shapes in nature and experiment even when diffusion creep is thought to be a major contribution to strain. Numerical models allow rigorous exploration of the effects of deformation under conditions not easily reached in experiments. A numerical model named 'DiffForm' (Wheeler & Ford 2007) gives insight into how grain shapes and microstructures evolve during diffusion creep. Modelling shows that whilst grains may initially rotate in apparently chaotic fashion during diffusion creep, such rotations slow down as grains become inequant. Consequently, an initial CPO (formed, for example, by dislocation creep at higher strain rates) will be decreased in intensity but not destroyed. Seismic anisotropy will decrease but not disappear (Wheeler 2009). Diffusion creep is also predicted to have intense mechanical anisotropy. In simple models diffusion creep is controlled entirely by diffusion and sliding along grain boundaries; there is no crystallographic influence. An aggregate of equant grains must then be mechanically isotropic, but a model microstructure with inequant grains has marked mechanical anisotropy (Wheeler 2010) - an effect related to the fact that grain boundary sliding is an intrinsic part of diffusion creep. That work was based on a very simple microstructure with a single inequant grain shape but I present here new results showing that for more complicated microstructures, mechanical anisotropy is intense even for quite modest grain elongations. There will be feedback between strain and rheology which may control overall mantle strength. This theoretical development and some recent experiments indicate that diffusion creep is quite a different process to what was envisaged 10 years ago. This means that its relationship to seismic and mechanical anisotropy in the Earth requires reappraisal. .Wheeler, J. 2009. The preservation of seismic anisotropy in the Earth's mantle during diffusion creep. Geophysical Journal International 178, 1723-1732. Wheeler, J. 2010. Anisotropic rheology during grain boundary diffusion creep and its relation to grain rotation, grain boundary sliding and superplasticity. Philosophical Magazine 90, 2841-2864. Wheeler, J. & Ford, J. M. 2007. Diffusion Creep. In: Microdynamic simulation - From microprocess to patterns in rocks (edited by Bons, P. D., Jessell, M. & Koehn, D.). Lecture Notes in Earth Science. Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg, 161-169.

Wheeler, John



Modeling the Role of Dislocation Substructure During Class M and Exponential Creep. Revised  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The different substructures that form in the power-law and exponential creep regimes for single phase crystalline materials under various conditions of stress, temperature and strain are reviewed. The microstructure is correlated both qualitatively and quantitatively with power-law and exponential creep as well as with steady state and non-steady state deformation behavior. These observations suggest that creep is influenced by a complex interaction between several elements of the microstructure, such as dislocations, cells and subgrains. The stability of the creep substructure is examined in both of these creep regimes during stress and temperature change experiments. These observations are rationalized on the basis of a phenomenological model, where normal primary creep is interpreted as a series of constant structure exponential creep rate-stress relationships. The implications of this viewpoint on the magnitude of the stress exponent and steady state behavior are discussed. A theory is developed to predict the macroscopic creep behavior of a single phase material using quantitative microstructural data. In this technique the thermally activated deformation mechanisms proposed by dislocation physics are interlinked with a previously developed multiphase, three-dimensional. dislocation substructure creep model. This procedure leads to several coupled differential equations interrelating macroscopic creep plasticity with microstructural evolution.

Raj, S. V.; Iskovitz, Ilana Seiden; Freed, A. D.



Bend stress relaxation and tensile primary creep of a polycrystalline alpha-SiC fiber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding the thermomechanical behavior (creep and stress relaxation) of ceramic fibers is of both practical and basic interest. On the practical level, ceramic fibers are the reinforcement for ceramic matrix composites which are being developed for use in high temperature applications. It is important to understand and model the total creep of fibers at low strain levels where creep is predominantly in the primary stage. In addition, there are many applications where the component will only be subjected to thermal strains. Therefore, the stress relaxation of composite consituents in such circumstances will be an important factor in composite design and performance. The objective of this paper is to compare and analyze bend stress relaxation and tensile creep data for alpha-SiC fibers produced by the Carborundum Co. (Niagara Falls, NY). This fiber is of current technical interest and is similar in composition to bulk alpha-SiC which has been studied under compressive creep conditions. The temperature, time, and stress dependences will be discussed for the stress relaxation and creep results. In addition, some creep and relaxation recovery experiments were performed in order to understand the complete viscoelastic behavior, i.e. both recoverable and nonrecoverable creep components of these materials. The data will be presented in order to model the deformation behavior and compare relaxation and/or creep behavior for relatively low deformation strain conditions of practical concern. Where applicable, the tensile creep results will be compared to bend stress relaxation data.

Hee Man, Yun; Goldsby, Jon C.; Morscher, Gregory N.



Prediction Procedure of Creep Rupture of Polypropylene Resin based on Time-temperature Superposition Principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the effects of intensity of electron beam, detergent and colorant on creep rupture of polypropylene resin (PP), which is widely used in medicine containers, were investigated and the evaluation method of the long-term forecast of creep rupture was examined. Concretely, first, PP resins including colorant or not were prepared and samples that variously changed intensity of the electron beam irradiation were made. Creep rupture test of those samples was carried in detergent having various consistencies. The effects of those factors on creep rupture were considered and long-term forecast was tried by using time-temperature superposition principle about creep deformation. The following results were obtained. (1) Although creep rupture of PP resin receives the effects of the presence of colorant, intensity of electron beam irradiation and detergent, the time-temperature dependence of creep rupture of PP resin including those affecting factors can be estimated by using the time-temperature superposition principle for creep deformation of the original PP resin. Based on this equivalency, it is possible to predict the long-term forecast of creep rupture of PP resin. (2) Creep rupture is affected by the presence of colorant, intensity of electron beam irradiation and detergent and it happens earlier when the intensity of electron beam irradiation and consistency of detergent are increased.

Yamada, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Masayuki; Shimbo, Minoru; Miyano, Yasushi


Uniaxial compaction creep of wet gypsum aggregates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uniaxial compaction creep behavior of wet, granular gypsum is investigated under both chemically closed (i.e., drained) and open (i.e., flow through) conditions known to favor pressure solution. The experiments were performed using applied stresses of 0.5 to 2.5 MPa and grain sizes of 32-280 ?m, at room temperature, using pore fluids saturated with respect to unstressed sample material. All wet-tested samples crept rapidly. In contrast, control experiments using dry and oil-saturated samples showed no measurable creep. The microstructures developed in the wet tests provide classical evidence for the operation of grain boundary diffusional pressure solution. To enable detailed comparison with theory, it is demonstrated that despite minor effects of the water of crystallization, conventional pressure solution creep models, for closed systems, are applicable to gypsum. However, the mechanical behavior observed in the closed-system experiments does not fully match these models for either dissolution, diffusion, or precipitation control. Nonetheless, independent crystal growth data suggest that precipitation is most likely to be rate controlling. Additional evidence for this was provided by the experiments with through-flowing solution. In such experiments, precipitation can no longer control the rate of deformation, so that dissolution or diffusion are expected to take over as the rate-limiting process, thus enhancing the creep rate. Indeed, a 10 to 30 times increase in compaction creep rate was observed in the flow-through tests, confirming that creep in the closed-system case probably occurred by precipitation-controlled grain boundary diffusional pressure solution.

de Meer, Siese; Spiers, Christopher J.



Coupling between pressure solution creep and diffusive mass transport in porous rocks  

E-print Network

by stress differences and its rate is affected by temperature, grain size, and fluid chemistry. Pressure. Introduction [2] Pressure solution creep is a temperature- and stress- dependent deformation mechanism, the mechanochemical processes associated with pressure solution creep can be kinetically controlled by reactions

Dysthe, Dag Kristian


[011] Creep in a single crystal nickel base superalloy at 1033 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

TEM investigations are performed on [011] single crystals of SRR99 after creep at 1,033 K under a load of 680 MPa. At the creep rate minimum, multiple slip in the matrix occurs on four octahedral slip systems. Octahedral cross slip or cubic slip is not activated. Due to the superposition of coherency and external stresses in small matrix channels, deformation

M. Feller-Kniepmeier; T. Kuttner



Creep damage mechanisms in composites  

SciTech Connect

During the past year, research has focused on processing and characterization of intermetallic composites synthesized by plasma spray deposition. This versatile process allows rapid synthesis of a variety of different composite systems with potential applications for coatings, functionally gradient materials, rapid proto-typing and 3d printing, as well as near-net-shape processing of complex shapes. We have been pursuing an experimental program of research aimed at a fundamental understanding of the microstructural processes involved in the synthesis of intermetallic composites, including diffusion, heat transfer, grain boundary migration, and the dependence of these phenomena on deposition parameters. The work has been motivated by issues arising from composite materials manufacturing technologies. Recent progress is described in section B on the following topics: (1) Reactive atomization and deposition of intermetallic composites (Ni3Al); (2) Reactive synthesis of MoSi2-SiC composites; (3) Mechanical alloying of nanocrystalline alloys; (4) Tensile creep deformation of BMAS glass-ceramic composites.

Nutt, S.R.



Analysis of Multistage and Other Creep Data for Domal Salts  

SciTech Connect

There have existed for some time relatively sparse creep databases for a number of domal salts. Although all of these data were analyzed at the time they were reported, to date there has not been a comprehensive, overall evaluation within the same analysis framework. Such an evaluation may prove of value. The analysis methodology is based on the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) description of salt creep and the corresponding model parameters determined from conventional creep tests. The constitutive model of creep wss formulated through application of principles involved in micromechanical modeling. It was possible, at minimum, to obtain the steady state parameters of the creep model from the data on the domal salts. When this was done, the creep of the domal salts, as compared to the well-defined Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) bedded clean salt, was either essentially identical to, or significantly harder (more creep resistant) than WIPP salt. Interestingly, the domal salts form two distinct groups, either sofl or hard, where the difference is roughly a factor often in creep rate between the twcl groups. As might be expected, this classification corresponds quite well to the differences in magnitude of effective creep volume losses of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns as determined by the CAVEMAN cavern pressure history analysis, depending upon the specific dome or region within the dome. Creep response shoulcl also correlate to interior cavern conditions that produce salt falls. WMle, in general, the caverns in hard sah have a noticeably greater propensity for salt falls, a smaller number of similar events are exhibited even in the caverns in soft salt.

Munson, D.E.



Creep behavior of 6 micrometer linear low density polyethelene film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Creep tests were performed to provide material characteristics for a 6.4 ?m polyethelene film used to construct high altitude balloons. Results suggest simple power law relationships are adequate for stresses below about 4.83 MPa.

Simpson, J. M.; Schur, W. W.



A unified creep-plasticity model suitable for thermo-mechanical loading  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimentally based unified creep-plasticity constitutive model was implemented for 1070 steel. Accurate rate and temperature effects were obtained for isothermal and thermo-mechanical loading by incorporating deformation mechanisms into the constitutive equations in a simple way.

Slavik, D.; Sehitoglu, H.



Time-Dependent Behavior of Diabase and a Nonlinear Creep Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Triaxial creep tests were performed on diabase specimens from the dam foundation of the Dagangshan hydropower station, and the typical characteristics of creep curves were analyzed. Based on the test results under different stress levels, a new nonlinear visco-elasto-plastic creep model with creep threshold and long-term strength was proposed by connecting an instantaneous elastic Hooke body, a visco-elasto-plastic Schiffman body, and a nonlinear visco-plastic body in series mode. By introducing the nonlinear visco-plastic component, this creep model can describe the typical creep behavior, which includes the primary creep stage, the secondary creep stage, and the tertiary creep stage. Three-dimensional creep equations under constant stress conditions were deduced. The yield approach index (YAI) was used as the criterion for the piecewise creep function to resolve the difficulty in determining the creep threshold value and the long-term strength. The expression of the visco-plastic component was derived in detail and the three-dimensional central difference form was given. An example was used to verify the credibility of the model. The creep parameters were identified, and the calculated curves were in good agreement with the experimental curves, indicating that the model is capable of replicating the physical processes.

Yang, Wendong; Zhang, Qiangyong; Li, Shucai; Wang, Shugang



Genetic-algorithm-based method to optimize spatial profile utilizing characteristics of electrostatic actuator deformable mirror  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arbitrary spatial beam shaping was demonstrated with a membrane electrostatic actuator type deformable mirror (DM). An automatic closed loop system must optimize such beam shapes as flattop. Well-characterized short pulse laser beam is widely required for a photocathode RF gun or for microscopic processing, etc. We propose a new sophisticated optimizing method based on a genetic algorithm (GA) for spatial shaping. A membrane type DM is driven by electrostatic attraction power, and applied electrode voltages vs displacement of membrane surface have a square function relationship. We prepare discrete electrode voltages to linearly change displacement as a utilized gene of the initial population in GA. Using uniform crossover without mutation in this method, we can make an arbitrary spatial beam shape quasi-flattop.

Matsui, Futoshi; Goriki, Shin'ichi; Shimizu, Yukio; Tomizawa, Hiromitsu; Kawato, Sakae; Kobayashi, Takao



Algorithms for elasto-plastic-creep postbuckling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper considers the development of an improved constrained time stepping scheme which can efficiently and stably handle the pre-post-buckling behavior of general structure subject to high temperature environments. Due to the generality of the scheme, the combined influence of elastic-plastic behavior can be handled in addition to time dependent creep effects. This includes structural problems exhibiting indefinite tangent properties. To illustrate the capability of the procedure, several benchmark problems employing finite element analyses are presented. These demonstrate the numerical efficiency and stability of the scheme. Additionally, the potential influence of complex creep histories on the buckling characteristics is considered.

Padovan, J.; Tovichakchaikul, S.



Irradiation Creep in Graphite  

SciTech Connect

An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William



Standard test method for creep-fatigue crack growth testing  

E-print Network

1.1 This test method covers the determination of creep-fatigue crack growth properties of nominally homogeneous materials by use of pre-cracked compact type, C(T), test specimens subjected to uniaxial cyclic forces. It concerns fatigue cycling with sufficiently long loading/unloading rates or hold-times, or both, to cause creep deformation at the crack tip and the creep deformation be responsible for enhanced crack growth per loading cycle. It is intended as a guide for creep-fatigue testing performed in support of such activities as materials research and development, mechanical design, process and quality control, product performance, and failure analysis. Therefore, this method requires testing of at least two specimens that yield overlapping crack growth rate data. The cyclic conditions responsible for creep-fatigue deformation and enhanced crack growth vary with material and with temperature for a given material. The effects of environment such as time-dependent oxidation in enhancing the crack growth ra...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia



Diffusion-controlled creep in mixed-conducting oxides  

SciTech Connect

Steady-state creep rate of the mixed conducting oxides La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (x=0.1, 0.15, 0.25) and La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} has been investigated between 1150 and 1300 C. Creep parameters and TEM indicate that deformation is controlled by lattice diffusion of one of the cations. Dependence of creep rate on Sr concentration, combined with a point-defect model, confirms this hypothesis; however the oxygen partial pressure dependence of creep (from 10{sup -1} to 2x10{sup 4} Pa) cannot be accounted for within the framework of a simple point-defect model.

Routbort, J.L.; Goretta, K.C.; Cook, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Wolfenstine, J. [California Coll. of Medicine, Irvine, CA (United States); Armstrong, T.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Clauss, C.; Dominguez-Rodriguez, A. [Seville Univ. (Spain). Dept. Materia Condensada



Investigating the Creeping Segment of the San Andreas fault using a Maximum Likelihood Persistent Scatterer Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous new methods that use multiple SAR interferograms have been developed recently to study the temporal characteristics of deformation in a region of interest. Persistent scatterers (PS) approach relies on identifying a network of pixels in the interferogram whose scattering properties vary little with time. Various PS- InSAR methods have been proposed and have been shown to work reliably in urban environments. The Stanford Method for PS (StaMPS) was the first method developed to extend the scope of PS-InSAR, to work effectively in vegetated regions. The maximum likelihood approach to PS selection (also developed at Stanford) is a new method that has been shown to be effective in identifying PS in the vegetated areas in the Bay Area in California, USA. The primary advantage of both these methods are that they do not assume a model for the deformation pattern. Ability of the maximum likelihood method to identify a reasonably dense PS network in vegetated regions, where conventional InSAR and other PS-InSAR algorithms failed, makes it a powerful tool for estimating the deformation time-series in heavily decorrelated regions. This method identifies PS by estimating the most likely Signal-to-Clutter Ratio (SCR) by comparing the time-series of interferometric phase of pixels in a stack of interferograms with a statistical model describing the interferometric phase. We will present the results from maximum likelihood PS-InSAR analysis of the creeping section of the San Andreas fault in central California, one of the first areas to which this new technique has been applied. This section of the fault is known to creep at rates in excess of 20 mm per year. Geodetic measurements up to now ( e.g. from creepmeters, GPS) have tended to have poor spatial and/or temporal resolution. A stack of multiple ERS interferograms covering the creeping segment between 1992 and 2001 gives good spatial information about surface deformation, but the stacking technique assumes linear displacement gradients over time. The PS approach offers the opportunity to generate time series of surface displacement at a potentially large number of points, which may provide important clues about the mechanics of creep at depth.

Agram, P. S.; Ryder, I.



Sources of Variation in Creep Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Creep rupture is an important material characteristic for the design of rocket engines. It was observed during the characterization of GRCop-84 that the complete data set had nearly 4 orders of magnitude of scatter. This scatter likely confounded attempts to determine how creep performance was influenced by manufacturing. It was unclear if this variation was from the testing, the material, or both. Sources of variation were examined by conducting tests on identically processed specimens at the same specified stresses and temperatures. Significant differences existed between the five constant-load creep frames. The specimen temperature was higher than the desired temperature by as much as 43 C. It was also observed that the temperature gradient was up to 44 C. Improved specimen temperature control minimized temperature variations. The data from additional tests demonstrated that the results from all five frames were comparable. The variation decreased to 1/2 order of magnitude from 2 orders of magnitude for the baseline data set. Independent determination of creep rates in a reference load frame closely matched the creep rates determined after the modifications. Testing in helium tended to decrease the sample temperature gradient, but helium was not a significant improvement over vacuum.

Loewenthal, William S.; Ellis, David L.



A creep apparatus to explore the quenching and ageing phenomena of PVC films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A creep apparatus has been constructed for an in situ determination of length and length change. Using this apparatus, the creep behavior of PVC thin films associated with quenching and aging was studied. The more severe the quench through the glass transition temperature, the greater is the instantaneous elastic deformation and the subsequent creep behavior. As aging proceeds, the quenched films gradually lose the ductility incurred by quenching. These results agree well with the well-known phenomena of physical aging. Thus, the changes reflecting molecular mobilities due to quenching and aging can be properly monitored by such a creep apparatus.

Lee, H. H. D.; Mcgarry, F. J.



A constitutive model for representing coupled creep, fracture, and healing in rock salt  

SciTech Connect

The development of a constitutive model for representing inelastic flow due to coupled creep, damage, and healing in rock salt is present in this paper. This model, referred to as Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture model, has been formulated by considering individual mechanisms that include dislocation creep, shear damage, tensile damage, and damage healing. Applications of the model to representing the inelastic flow and fracture behavior of WIPP salt subjected to creep, quasi-static loading, and damage healing conditions are illustrated with comparisons of model calculations against experimental creep curves, stress-strain curves, strain recovery curves, time-to-rupture data, and fracture mechanism maps.

Chan, K.S.; Bodner, S.R. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Munson, D.E.; Fossum, A.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)



Irradiation creep in the US fusion alloy PCA at fusion He/dpa levels  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation creep has been studied in fast reactors where little helium is generated and in research reactors where very high levels of helium are generated in stainless steels. A summary of the conclusions made from the viewgraph information of this paper follows: the creep rate is 4 to 10 times higher for the fusion He/dpa ratio compared to the breeder reactor results; higher creep rate can only result from differences in the neutron spectrum; a higher level of irradiation creep could be beneficial in relieving swelling stresses, but detrimental in causing deformation under primary loads in the structure. (LSP)

Grossbeck, M.L.



Creep of oxide dispersion strengthened materials (with special reference to TD nichrome)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was shown that the creep behavior of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys is controlled principally by the creep properties of the matrix of the alloy devoid of particles. Thus, diffusion controlled slip process determine the rate controlling step in such materials. The role of the particles is to stabilize a fine substructure which is invariant with the creep stress over a wide range of stress. This characteristic leads to negligible strain hardening during creep and suggests that creep relations developed for pure metals and many solid solution alloys at constant structure should be used to describe the creep of ODS alloys. A second characteristics of the ODS alloys is that a stress may exist below which creep will not occur (threshold stress).

Lin, J.; Sherby, O. D.



Effect of cyclic deformation on the pseudoelasticity characteristics of Ti-Ni alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Change in the pseudoelasticity characteristics of Ti-Ni alloys during tension cycling was investigated. The critical stress\\u000a for inducing martensites and the hysteresis of a stress-strain curve decreased with increasing number of cyclic loading, while\\u000a the permanent elongation increased. The degree of the change in these values showed a strong dependence on the maximum applied\\u000a stress during stress-induced martensitic transformation. However,

S. Miyazaki; T. Imai; Y. Igo; K. Otsuka



Probing the Characteristic Deformation Behaviors of Transformation-Induced Plasticity Steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristic micromechanical behaviors of contrasting transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels were investigated\\u000a under tensile loading by in-situ neutron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy in detail. As demonstrated by the lattice strain development from\\u000a the neutron diffraction, in the TRIP steel with ?10pct RA, microyielding of soft ferrite was responsible for the first stress\\u000a partition, but a second stress sharing was

Sheng Cheng; Xun-Li Wang; Zhili Feng; Bjorn Clausen; Hahn Choo; Peter K. Liaw



Creep damage characterization using nonlinear ultrasonic guided wave method: A mesoscale model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early deformations in materials such as creep, plasticity, and fatigue damages have been proved to have a close relationship with the nonlinear effect of ultrasonic waves propagating in them. In the present paper, a theoretical mesoscale model of an ultrasonic non-destructive method has been proposed to evaluate creep deformed states based on nonlinear guided waves. The model developed here considers the nonlinear generation of Lamb waves response from precipitates variation in the dislocation network, which can be applicable to all precipitate stages including coherent and semi-coherent precipitates in the metallic alloy undergoing creep degradation. To verify the proposed model, experiments of titanium alloy Ti60 plates were carried out with different creep strains. An "increase-decrease" change of the acoustic nonlinearity of guided wave versus the creep life fraction has been observed. Based on microscopic images analyses, the mesoscale model was then applied to these creep damaged Ti60 specimens, which revealed a good accordance with the measured results of the nonlinear guided waves. It is shown that the change of the nonlinear Lamb wave depends on the variations of the ?2 precipitation volume fraction, the dislocation density, the growth of the creep-voids, and the increasing mismatch of the phase velocities during the creep deformation process. The results indicate that the effect of the precipitate-dislocation interactions on the nonlinear guided wave is likely the dominant mechanism responsible for the change of nonlinear guided wave propagation in the crept materials.

Xiang, Yanxun; Deng, Mingxi; Xuan, Fu-Zhen



Diffusion to dislocation creep transition in upper-mantle from Si grain-boundary diffusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dislocation creep causes non-Newtonian viscosity and seismic anisotropy, whereas diffusion creep causes Newtonian viscosity and no or weak seismic anisotropy. Determination of deformation mechanism in the Earth's interior is thus essential to understand mantle dynamics. Although previous deformation studies on olivine suggested the dislocation to diffusion creep transition with depth in the upper mantle, recent studies suggested possible misinterpretation of those results due to experimental difficulties. Since the olivine creep is considered to be controlled by silicon diffusion, we measured silicon grain-boundary diffusion coefficient in Mg-olivine as a function of temperature, pressure, and water content to estimate the diffusion creep rate. The experimental results show a small activation enthalpy (240-260 kJ/mol), small activation volume (1.80.2 cm3/mol), and small water-content exponent (0.220.05). The smaller activation energy of grain-boundary diffusion than that of dislocation creep predicts a diffusion to dislocation creep transition in the upper mantle, which is in contrast with the previous model. The Gutenberg discontinuity could be caused by this creep-mechanism transition. The weak seismic anisotropy in lithosphere is interpreted as fossil anisotropy formed at spreading ridges. The dominance of diffusion creep in upper lithosphere accounts for the Newtonian rheology suggested by postglacial rebound.

Fei, Hongzhan; Koizumi, Sanae; Sakamoto, Naoya; Hashiguchi, Minako; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Yamazaki, Daisuke; Katsura, Tomoo



Creep Strain and Strain Rate Response of 2219 Al Alloy at High Stress Levels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a result of high localized plastic deformation experienced during proof testing in an International Space Station connecting module, a study was undertaken to determine the deformation response of a 2219-T851 roll forging. After prestraining 2219-T851 Al specimens to simulate strains observed during the proof testing, creep tests were conducted in the temperature range from ambient temperature to 107 C (225 F) at stress levels approaching the ultimate tensile strength of 2219-T851 Al. Strain-time histories and strain rate responses were examined. The strain rate response was extremely high initially, but decayed rapidly, spanning as much as five orders of magnitude during primary creep. Select specimens were subjected to incremental step loading and exhibited initial creep rates of similar magnitude for each load step. Although the creep rates decreased quickly at all loads, the creep rates dropped faster and reached lower strain rate levels for lower applied loads. The initial creep rate and creep rate decay associated with primary creep were similar for specimens with and without prestrain; however, prestraining (strain hardening) the specimens, as in the aforementioned proof test, resulted in significantly longer creep life.

Taminger, Karen M. B.; Wagner, John A.; Lisagor, W. Barry



Creep modeling of rock salts for geoenvironmental application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before using a rock salt as a nuclear waste repository, it is necessary to have adequate knowledge of the mechanical and thermomechanical behavior of the host geologic media. In rock salt, such mechanical and thermomechanical behavior is dominated, among other factors, by the time-dependent deformation commonly referred to as creep. The paper discusses a rate-dependent constitutive model to describe the

M. I. Hossain; M. O. Faruque; M. Zaman



The effect of cement creep and cement fatigue damage on the micromechanics of the cement-bone interface.  


The cement-bone interface provides fixation for the cement mantle within the bone. The cement-bone interface is affected by fatigue loading in terms of fatigue damage or microcracks and creep, both mostly in the cement. This study investigates how fatigue damage and cement creep separately affect the mechanical response of the cement-bone interface at various load levels in terms of plastic displacement and crack formation. Two FEA models were created, which were based on micro-computed tomography data of two physical cement-bone interface specimens. These models were subjected to tensile fatigue loads with four different magnitudes. Three deformation modes of the cement were considered: 'only creep', 'only damage' or 'creep and damage'. The interfacial plastic deformation, the crack reduction as a result of creep and the interfacial stresses in the bone were monitored. The results demonstrate that, although some models failed early, the majority of plastic displacement was caused by fatigue damage, rather than cement creep. However, cement creep does decrease the crack formation in the cement up to 20%. Finally, while cement creep hardly influences the stress levels in the bone, fatigue damage of the cement considerably increases the stress levels in the bone. We conclude that at low load levels the plastic displacement is mainly caused by creep. At moderate to high load levels, however, the plastic displacement is dominated by fatigue damage and is hardly affected by creep, although creep reduced the number of cracks in moderate to high load region. PMID:20692663

Waanders, Daan; Janssen, Dennis; Mann, Kenneth A; Verdonschot, Nico



The effect of cement creep and cement fatigue damage on the micromechanics of the cement-bone interface  

PubMed Central

The cement-bone interface provides fixation for the cement mantle within the bone. The cement-bone interface is affected by fatigue loading in terms of fatigue damage, or micro cracks, and creep, both mostly in the cement. This study investigates how fatigue damage and cement creep separately affect the mechanical response of the cement-bone interface at various load levels in terms of plastic displacement and crack formation. Two FEA models were created, which were based on micro-computed tomography data of two physical cement-bone interface specimens. These models were subjected to tensile fatigue loads with four different magnitudes. Three deformation modes of the cement were considered; only creep, only damage or creep and damage. The interfacial plastic deformation, the crack reduction as a result of creep and the interfacial stresses in the bone were monitored. The results demonstrate that, although some models failed early, the majority of plastic displacement was caused by fatigue damage, rather than cement creep. However, cement creep does decrease the crack formation in the cement up to 20%. Finally, while cement creep hardly influences the stress levels in the bone, fatigue damage of the cement considerably increases the stress levels in the bone. We conclude that at low load levels the plastic displacement is mainly caused by creep. At moderate to high load levels, however, the plastic displacement is dominated by fatigue damage and is hardly affected by creep, although creep reduced the number of cracks in moderate to high load region. PMID:20692663

Waanders, Daan; Janssen, Dennis; Mann, Kenneth A.; Verdonschot, Nico



Creep-Fatigue Interactions in a 9 Pct Cr-1 Pct Mo Martensitic Steel: Part I. Mechanical Test Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Creep-fatigue (CF) tests are carried out on a modified 9 pct Cr-1 pct Mo (P91) steel at 550 C. These CF tests are strain controlled during the cyclic part of the stress-strain hysteresis loop and then load controlled when the stress is maintained at its maximum value, to produce a prescribed value of the creep strain before cyclic deformation is reversed under strain-controlled conditions. The observed cyclic softening implies that the applied creep stress continuously decreases with the number of cycles. However, the minimum creep rates measured at the end of the holding periods do not decrease when the applied stress decreases. The minimum creep rates measured at the end of these tests can be hundreds of times faster than those observed for the as-received material. This acceleration of creep rates can be to the microstructural coarsening and to the decrease of the dislocation density observed after fatigue and CF loadings. Cyclic creep tests consisting of very long holding periods interrupted by unloading/reloading are also carried out. These results suggest that cyclic loadings affect the creep lifetime and flow behavior only if a plastic strain is applied during cycling. Creep tests carried out on a material cyclically prestrained and fatigue tests carried out on a material previously deformed in creep confirm that the deterioration of the mechanical properties is much faster in fatigue and CF compared to creep.

Fournier, B.; Sauzay, M.; Cas, C.; Noblecourt, M.; Mottot, M.; Allais, L.; Tournie, I.; Pineau, A.



Creep of Uncoated and Cu-Cr Coated NARloy-Z  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stress rupture creep tests were performed on uncoated and Cu-30vol%Cr coated NARloy-Z copper alloy specimens exposed to air at 482 C to 704 C. The results showed that creep failure in air of unprotected NARloy-Z was precipitated by brittle intergranular surface cracking produced by strain assisted grain boundary oxidation (SAGBO) which in turn caused early onset of tertiary creep. For the protected specimens, the Cu-Cr coating remained adherent throughout the tests and was effective in slowing down the rate of oxygen absorption, particularly at the higher temperatures, by formation of a continuous chromium oxide scale. As the result of reducing oxygen ingress, the coating prevented SAGBO initiated early creep failure, extended creep deformation and increased the creep rupture life of NARloy-Z over the entire 482 C to 704 C test temperature range.

Walter, R. J.; Chiang, K. T.



ORNL irradiation creep facility  

SciTech Connect

A machine was developed at ORNL to measure the rates of elongation observed under irradiation in stressed materials. The source of radiation is a beam of 60 MeV alpha particles from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). This choice allows experiments to be performed which simulate the effects of fast neutrons. A brief review of irradiation creep and experimental constraints associated with each measurement technique is given. Factors are presented which lead to the experimental choices made for the Irradiation Creep Facility (ICF). The ICF consists of a helium-filled chamber which houses a high-precision mechanical testing device. The specimen to be tested must be thermally stabilized with respect to the temperature fluctuations imposed by the particle beam which passes through the specimen. Electrical resistance of the specimen is the temperature control parameter chosen. Very high precision in length measurement and temperature control are required to detect the small elongation rates relevant to irradiation creep in the test periods available (approx. 1 day). The apparatus components and features required for the above are presented in some detail, along with the experimental procedures. The damage processes associated with light ions are discussed and displacement rates are calculated. Recent irradiation creep results are given, demonstrating the suitability of the apparatus for high resolution experiments. Also discussed is the suitability of the ICF for making high precision thermal creep measurements.

Reiley, T.C.; Auble, R.L.; Beckers, R.M.; Bloom, E.E.; Duncan, M.G.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, R.H.



Relationship governing the effect of frequency and temperature on the fatigue resistance of creep-resisting nickel alloys  

SciTech Connect

Important components of gas turbine engines such as blades and turbine rotors made of creep-resisting nickel alloys, operate in a wide range of temperatures and loading frequencies. In conditions of high temperature, the frequency and temperature are the factors affecting the variation of the fatigue resistance characteristics of the creep-resisting nickel alloys. For this reason, the authors determine the relationships governing the effect of the cyclic loading frequency on the fatigue resistance in a wide temperature range, in order to use the multicycle fatigue characteristics usually obtained at loading frequencies of 25-50 Hz. The investigations were selected on nickel-based creep-resisting alloys: deformable EI867, EP109 alloys, and cast ZhS6k, ZhS6U, and VZhL12U alloys. Various relationships governing the effect of loading frequency on the fatigue resistance of EI867 alloy in the temperature ranges below and above 0.55-0.6 T/sub m/ were determined. It was shown that in the temperature ranges above 0.55-0.6 T/sub m/, the results of the fatigue tests carried out at various temperatures and loading frequencies can be described on the basis of the kinetic model with the piecewise-exponential dependences of the number of cycles to fracture on loading frequency at the field levels of alternating stress.

Ishchenko, I.I.; Sinaiskii, B.N.



On the characteristic length scales associated with plastic deformation in metallic glasses  

SciTech Connect

Atomistic simulations revealed that the spatial correlations of plastic displacements in three metallic glasses, FeP, MgAl, and CuZr, follow an exponential law with a characteristic length scale l{sub c} that governs Poisson's ratio {nu}, shear band thickness t{sub SB}, and fracture mode in these materials. Among the three glasses, FeP exhibits smallest l{sub c}, thinnest t{sub SB}, lowest {nu}, and brittle fracture; CuZr exhibits largest l{sub c}, thickest t{sub SB}, highest {nu}, and ductile fracture, while properties of MgAl lie in between those of FeP and CuZr. These findings corroborate well with existing experimental observations and suggest l{sub c} as a fundamental measure of the shear transformation zone size in metallic glasses.

Murali, P.; Zhang, Y. W. [Institute of High Performance Computing, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Gao, H. J. [School of Engineering, Brown University, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)



Probing the Characteristic Deformation Behaviors of Transformation-Induced Plasticity Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristic micromechanical behaviors of contrasting transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels were investigated under tensile loading by in-situ neutron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy in detail. As demonstrated by the lattice strain development from the neutron diffraction, in the TRIP steel with 10 pct RA, microyielding of soft ferrite was responsible for the first stress partition, but a second stress sharing was caused by effective martensitic transformation. In the TRIP steel with less than 5 pct RA, where the contribution from the martensitic transformation was minor, stress partition took place virtually between the ferrite and bainite phase. Probing with systematic transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, we pin down the inherent correlation between the microstructural evolutions and the stress partition mechanism. Based on the experimental observations, the factors influencing the work-hardening behavior of TRIP steels are discussed.

Cheng, Sheng; Wang, Xun-Li; Feng, Zhili; Clausen, Bjorn; Choo, Hahn; Liaw, Peter K.



Creep Feeding Beef Calves.  

E-print Network

Husbandmen in collaboration with JOHN H. JONES, Professor of Animal Husbandry and JOHN K. RIGGS, A~sociate Professor of Animal Husbandry Texas A. & M. College System "Creep feeding" beef calves may tices during the first 6 to 8 months , increase weight..., regard- igh this arrangement calves less of the material used. Figure 2 Ilowed access to additional shows a section of creep using both 1 : s 8 !; 81 : : I I : : 0 I I I 1 I I I , , I * : : LA LA $1 ..-A Bluerint Na 261 fig. 2. Section of a...

Smith, A. L. (Albert Lorenzo)



Modelling of creep curves of Ni3Ge single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the creep model of alloys with L12 superstructure is presented. The creep model is based on the idea of the mechanisms superposition connected with the different elementary deformation processes. Some of them are incident to the ordered structure L12 (anomalous mechanisms), others are typical to pure metals with the fcc structure (normal mechanisms): the accumulation of thermal APBs by means of the intersection of moving dislocations; the formation of APB tubes; the multiplication of superdislocations; the movement of single dislocations; the accumulation of point defects, such as vacancies and interstitial atoms; the accumulation APBs at the climb of edge dislocations. This model takes into account the experimental facts of the wetting antiphase boundaries and emergence of the disordered phase within the ordered phase. The calculations of the creep curves are performed under different conditions. This model describes different kinds of the creep curves and demonstrates the important meaning of the deformation superlocalisation leading to the inverse creep. The experimental and theoretical results coincide rather well.

Starenchenko, V. A.; Starenchenko, S. V.; Pantyukhova, O. D.; Solov'eva, Yu V.



Relation between creep compliance and elastic modulus in organic-rich shales observed through laboratory experiments.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the ductile creep behavior of organic-rich shales from shale gas reservoirs in North America through laboratory triaxial experiments to better understand controls on the physical behavior of these rocks over time and the effect of creep on other rock properties. Laboratory experiments conducted at room-temperature conditions show that creep deformation observed at in-situ differential stress conditions is approximately linear with the applied differential pressure. The creep behavior is also anisotropic such that creep occurs more in the bedding-perpendicular direction than in the bedding-parallel direction. The reduction in sample volume during creep suggests that the creep is accommodated by a small amount of pore compaction occurring in the clay-aggregates and/or the relatively porous kerogen in the rock. Thus, the tendency to creep (creep compliance) is generally observed to increases with clay and kerogen volume. However, the strongest correlation is found between creep compliance and Young's modulus. A strong negative correlation between creep compliance and elastic Young's modulus exists regardless of the sample orientation and despite the wide range of sample mineralogy (5-50% clay, 5-60% quartz-feldspar-pyrite, 0-80% carbonates). This correlation is quite interesting as inelastic creep and elastic stiffness depend on somewhat different physical attributes. We attempt to quantitatively explain the correlation between creep behavior and elastic stiffness by appealing to a stress-partitioning that occurs between the soft components (clay and kerogen) and stiff components (quartz, feldspar, pyrite, carbonates) of the shale rock. First, the stress-partitioning occurring within the soft and stiff components is quantified based on the rock composition, elastic properties of the individual components, and the overall average Young's modulus of the rock. By combining the stress-partitioning behavior with knowledge that the creep behavior is linear against the applied stress, we forward calculate the creep compliance of the whole rock. Results show that when creep is linear against stress, a unique relation between creep compliance and elastic modulus can be established for rocks with similar mineral assemblages, consistent with our laboratory results. Thus, our results provide insights into how creep behaviors of poly-mineralic rocks can be re-constructed from the creep properties of the individual phases composing the rock.

Sone, Hiroki; Zoback, Mark



Creep-constitutive behavior of Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder using an internal stress approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental tensile creep deformation of bulk Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder at temperatures between 263 K and 398 K, covering lifetimes up to 3,500 h, has been rationalized using constitutive equations that incorporate structure-related internal state variables. Primary creep is accounted for using an evolving internal back stress, due to the interaction between the soft matrix phase and a more creep-resistant particle phase. Steady-state creep is incorporated using a conventional power law, modified to include the steady-state value of internal stress. It is demonstrated that the observed behavior is well-fitted using creep constants for pure tin in the modified creep power law. A preliminary analysis of damage-induced tertiary creep is also presented.

Rist, Martin A.; Plumbridge, W. J.; Cooper, S.



Creep, fatigue and creep-fatigue interactions in modified 9% Chromium - 1% Molybdenum (P91) steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grade P91 steel, from the class of advanced high-chrome ferritic steels, is one of the preferred materials for many elevated temperature structural components. Creep-fatigue (C-F) interactions, along with oxidation, can accelerate the kinetics of damage accumulation and consequently reduce such components' life. Hence, reliable C-F test data is required for meticulous consideration of C-F interactions and oxidation, which in turn is vital for sound design practices. It is also imperative to develop analytical constitutive models that can simulate and predict material response under various long-term in-service conditions using experimental data from short-term laboratory experiments. Consequently, the major objectives of the proposed research are to characterize the creep, fatigue and C-F behavior of grade P91 steels at 625 C and develop robust constitutive models for simulating/predicting their microstructural response under different loading conditions. This work will utilize experimental data from 16 laboratories worldwide that conducted tests (creep, fatigue and C-F) on grade P91 steel at 625C in a round-robin (RR) program. Along with 7 creep deformation and rupture tests, 32 pure fatigue and 46 C-F tests from the RR are considered in this work. A phenomenological constitutive model formulated in this work needs just five fitting parameters to simulate/predict the monotonic, pure fatigue and C-F behavior of grade P91 at 625 C. A modified version of an existing constitutive model is also presented for particularly simulating its isothermal creep deformation and rupture behavior. Experimental results indicate that specimen C-F lives, as measured by the 2% load drop criterion, seem to decrease with increasing strain ranges and increasing hold times at 625C. Metallographic assessment of the tested specimens shows that the damage mode in both pure fatigue and 600 seconds hold time cyclic tests is predominantly transgranular fatigue with some presence of oxidation spikes. The damage mode in 1800 second hold time cyclic tests is an interaction of transgranular fatigue with dominant oxide spikes and creep cavitation. Other experimental results including the statistical analysis and inter- and intra-laboratory variability in the C-F lifetimes are provided in the text. Scatter factor for any of creep, monotonic, pure fatigue and C-F simulations is shown to be at a maximum of 1.3, in comparison to > 5 expected for a RR. Moreover, the microstructural variability between nominally homogeneous specimens can be inherently accounted by the formulated constitutive model.

Kalyanasundaram, Valliappa


Localized and distributed creep along the southern San Andreas Fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the spatial pattern of surface creep and off-fault deformation along the southern segment of the San Andreas Fault using a combination of multiple interferometric synthetic aperture radar viewing geometries and survey-mode GPS occupations of a dense array crossing the fault. Radar observations from Envisat during the period 2003-2010 were used to separate the pattern of horizontal and vertical motion, providing a high-resolution image of uplift and shallow creep along the fault trace. The data reveal pervasive shallow creep along the southernmost 50 km of the fault. Creep is localized on a well-defined fault trace only in the Mecca Hills and Durmid Hill areas, while elsewhere creep appears to be distributed over a 1-2 km wide zone surrounding the fault. The degree of strain localization is correlated with variations in the local fault strike. Using a two-dimensional boundary element model, we show that stresses resulting from slip on a curved fault can promote or inhibit inelastic failure within the fault zone in a pattern matching the observations. The occurrence of shallow, localized interseismic fault creep within mature fault zones may thus be partly controlled by the local fault geometry and normal stress, with implications for models of fault zone evolution, shallow coseismic slip deficit, and geologic estimates of long-term slip rates.

Lindsey, Eric O.; Fialko, Yuri; Bock, Yehuda; Sandwell, David T.; Bilham, Roger



Effect of Creep and Oxidation on Reduced Creep-Fatigue life of Ni-based Alloy 617 at 850 C  

SciTech Connect

Low cycle fatigue (LCF) and creep fatigue testing of Ni-based alloy 617 was carried out at 850 C. Compared with its LCF life, the material s creep fatigue life decreases to different extents depending on test conditions. To elucidate the microstructure-fatigue property relationship for alloy 617 and the effect of creep and oxidation on its fatigue life, systematic microstructural investigations were carried out using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). In LCF tests, as the total strain range increased, deformations concentrated near high angle grain boundaries (HAGBs). The strain hold period in the creep fatigue tests introduced additional creep damage to the material, which revealed the detrimental effect of the strain hold time on the material fatigue life in two ways. First, the strain hold time enhanced the localized deformation near HAGBs, resulting in the promotion of intergranular cracking of alloy 617. Second, the strain hold time encouraged grain boundary sliding, which resulted in interior intergranular cracking of the material. Oxidation accelerated the initiation of intergranular cracking in alloy 617. In the crack propagation stage, if oxidation was promoted and the cyclic oxidation damage was greater than the fatigue damage, oxidation-assisted intergranular crack growth resulted in a significant reduction in the material s fatigue life.

Chen, Xiang [ORNL] [ORNL; Yang, Zhiqing [ORNL] [ORNL; Sokolov, Mikhail A [ORNL] [ORNL; ERDMAN III, DONALD L [ORNL] [ORNL; Mo, Kun [ORNL] [ORNL; Stubbins, James [ORNL] [ORNL




PubMed Central

The rate of upward creeping in negatively geotropic rats aged 13 to 14 days is a function of the gravitational stimulus. The rate of upward movement on the creeping plane, like the angle of orientation, is directly proportional to the logarithm of the gravity component. The variability in the speed of creeping decreases in proportion to the logarithm of the gravitational effect. When weights are attached to the animals' tails the rate of upward creeping varies almost directly as the logarithm of the attached weight, and the speed of creeping is still proportional to the angle of upward orientation. PMID:19872341

Pincus, G.



A review of water contents and ductile deformation mechanisms of olivine: Implications for the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary of continents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water plays an important role in the ductile deformation and evolution of the upper mantle. Water contents of natural olivine from 240 samples reveal a wide variation of 0-170 ppm H 2O, suggesting heterogeneous water distribution in the continental upper mantle. The average water contents (17 13 ppm H 2O) in kimberlite nodules provide the best estimation of water concentrations in olivine in the lithosphere beneath cratons. The very low water contents (7 9 ppm H 2O) of olivine from basalt xenoliths are caused by significant hydrogen loss during transport, while the high values (44 34 ppm H 2O) in olivine megacrysts from kimberlites reflect restricted fluid-rich conditions in the upper mantle. To compare deformation in different tectonic environments, the western Superior Province (Canada), the Dabie Mountains and the North Jiangsu basin (China) are selected to represent an Archean craton, an orogenic belt and a rift basin, respectively. Using recent flow laws of olivine, deformation maps of dry and wet olivine are constructed under P- T conditions of the three tectonic units and in a continental subduction zone characterized by P = 6.28 GPa and T = 900 C. For dry olivine, diffusion creep is the dominant mechanism in all the cases, which is contrary to the widely observed crystal preferred orientation of olivine in peridotites and seismic anisotropy observations. For wet olivine, only a small amount of water (50 H/10 6 Si) can remarkably decrease the stress of dislocation creep and increase contribution of dislocation creep to the deformation of olivine. The strain rate profiles of olivine indicate a transition from dislocation creep to diffusion creep at a depth of 220 km, which can be related with the Lehmann discontinuity characterized by a rapid decrease in seismic anisotropy. However, the pressure-induced fabric transition from [100] slip to [001] slip may be responsible for the Lehmann discontinuity in subduction zones. Therefore rheology of the continental upper mantle is controlled by power-law creep of wet olivine, and diffusion creep is the dominant deformation mechanism in the deep upper mantle, especially for fine-grained peridotites. The mechanical lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) can be defined by the characteristic pressure derivative of effective viscosity. The sharp LAB beneath the Dabie Mountains and the Sulu terrane favors the lithosphere-asthenosphere decoupling, while the diffuse LAB beneath the western Superior Province will protect the continental root from convective erosion and mantle metasomatism. The long-term preservation of the continental roots can be attributed to a large viscosity contrast (temperature contrast) at a depth of < 150 km, and a thick and diffuse LAB at a depth of > 150 km.

Wang, Qin



Creep behavior of submarine sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A series of experiments on drained creep of marine sediment indicates that strength degradation results from the creep process, which implies an associated reduction in slope stability. Furthermore, the highest creep potential of a sediment may be at its preconsolidation stress. Results from the experiments on samples from Georges Bank continental slope were also used in conjunction with a preliminary theoretical model to predict creep displacements. For the case illustrated in this report, steep slopes (>20??) and thick sections (>30 m) give rise to substantial creep and probable creep rupture; as angles or thicknesses decrease, displacements rapidly become negligible. Creep may be a significant geologic process on many marine slopes. Not only can it cause major displacements of surface sediment, but it may also be the precursor to numerous slope failures. ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Silva, Armand J.; Booth, J.S.



Creep and fracture of dispersion-strengthened materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The creep and fracture of dispersion strengthened materials is reviewed. A compilation of creep data on several alloys showed that the reported values of the stress exponent for creep varied between 3.5 and 100. The activation energy for creep exceeded that for lattice self diffusion in the matrix in the case of some materials and a threshold stress behavior was generally reported in these instances. The threshold stress is shown to be dependent on the interparticle spacing and it is significantly affected by the initial microstructure. The effect of particle size and the nature of the dispersoid on the threshold stress is not well understood at the present time. In general, most studies indicate that the microstructure after creep is similar to that before testing and very few dislocations are usually observed. It is shown that the stress acting on a dispersoid due to a rapidly moving dislocation can exceed the particle yield strength of the G sub p/1000, where G sub p is the shear modulus of the dispersoid. The case when the particle deforms is examined and it is suggested that the dislocation creep threshold stress of the alloy is equal to the yield strength of the dispersoid under these conditions. These results indicate that the possibility that the dispersoid creep threshold stress is determined by either the particle yield strength or the stress required to detach a dislocation from the dispersoid matrix interface. The conditions under which the threshold stress is influenced by one or the other mechanism are discussed and it is shown that the particle yield strength is important until the extent of dislocation core relaxation at the dispersoid matrix interface exceeds about 25 pct. depending on the nature of the particle matrix combination. Finally, the effect of grain boundaries and grain morphology on the creep and fracture behavior of dispersoid strengthened alloys is examined.

Raj, Sai V.



Microscopic evaluation of creep-fatigue interaction in a nickel-based superalloy  

SciTech Connect

In order to verify the applicability of Nickel-based alloy Alloy 263 for the thick component, a series of creep, fatigue and creep-fatigue experiments were carried out. To investigate the detailed damage process under the creep-fatigue condition, simple aged, crept, fatigued, and creep-fatigued specimens were subjected to electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) pattern observation in the SEM. While the simple aged and fatigued specimens showed no remarkable local change in orientation (less than 1deg), the crept specimen exhibited inhomogeneous change of crystallographic orientation, at most 5 degrees, within the grains. This shows that the creep strain is inhomogeneously distributed in the grains due to the effect of relative constraint among the grains. The creep-fatigued specimen exhibited similar local inhomogeniety in strain distribution compared to the crept sample near the center of the grains. However, the creep-fatigued specimen showed remarkable local change in orientation at the vicinity of grain boundaries up to 15 degrees, indicating the occurrence of high strain concentration nearby the grain boundaries. A detailed observation of creep-fatigue damage evolution process in SEM revealed that the inhomogeneous grain deformation precedes the remarkable inhomogeneous deformation nearby the grain boundaries, and followed by the grain boundary cracking.

Santella, Michael L [ORNL; Yamamoto, Masato [CRIEPI, Japan; Shingledecker, John P [ORNL; Boehlert, C. J. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Ogata, Takashi [ORNL



Creep-rupture behavior of a directionally solidified nickel-base superalloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The creep-rupture behavior of the directionally solidified (DS) nickel-base superalloy DZ17G has been investigated over a wide stress range of 60 to 950 MPa at high temperature (923 to 1323 K). In this article, the detailed creep deformation and fracture mechanisms at constant load have been studied. The results show that all creep curves exhibit a short primary and a dominant accelerated creep stage, which results in higher ductility of DS superalloy DZ17G compared to the conventionally cast alloy. From the creep parameters and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, it is suggested that the dominant creep deformation mechanism has a change from gamma prime particles shearing by matrix dislocations in high stress region to dislocation climb process in low stress region. It is found that the fracture mode of DS superalloy DZ17G is transgranular, and it is controlled by the propagation rate of creep cracks initiated at both surface and inner microstructure discontinuities. The creep rupture data follows the Monkman-Grant relationship under all the explored test conditions.

Guo, J. T.; Yuan, C.; Yang, H. C.; Lupinc, V.; Maldini, M.



Creep property and microstructure evolution of a nickel-base single crystal superalloy in [011] orientation  

SciTech Connect

The creep property and microstructure evolution of a single crystal superalloy with [011] orientation were investigated at the temperatures of 700 C, 900 C and 1040 C. It is shown that there exist stages of primary, steady-state, and tertiary creep under the lower temperature 700 C. As the temperature increases to high temperatures of 900 C and 1040 C, steady-state creep stage is reduced or disappears and the shape of creep curves is dominated by an extensive tertiary stage. The minimum creep strain rate exhibits power law dependence on the applied stress; the stress exponents at 700 C, 900 C and 1040 C are 28, 13 and 6.5, respectively. Microstructure observation shows that the morphologies of ?? phase almost keep original shape at the lower temperature 700 C and high applied stress. With the increasing creep temperature, ?? precipitates tend to link together and form lamellar structure at an angle of 45 inclined to the applied stress. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations reveal that multiple < 110 > (111) slip systems gliding in the matrix channels and shearing ?? precipitates by stacking faults or bending dislocation pairs are the main deformation mechanism at the lower temperature of 700 C. At the high temperatures of 900 C and 1040 C, dislocation networks are formed at ?/?? interfaces and the ?? rafts are sheared by dislocation pairs. - Highlights: Creep properties of < 011 >-oriented single crystal superalloys were investigated. ?? phases become rafting at an angle of 45 inclined to the applied stress. Creep deformation mechanisms depend on temperature and stress.

Han, G.M., E-mail:; Yu, J.J.; Hu, Z.Q.; Sun, X.F.



Prediction and verification of creep behavior in metallic materials and components, for the space shuttle thermal protection system. Volume 1, phase 1: Cyclic materials creep predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cyclic creep response was investigated and design methods applicable to thermal protection system structures were developed. The steady-state (constant temperature and load) and cyclic creep response characteristics of four alloys were studied. Steady-state creep data were gathered through a literature survey to establish reference data bases. These data bases were used to develop empirical equations describing creep as a function of time, temperature, and stress and as a basis of comparison for test data. Steady-state creep tests and tensile cyclic tests were conducted. The following factors were investigated: material thickness and rolling direction; material cyclic creep response under varying loads and temperatures; constant stress and temperature cycles representing flight conditions; changing stresses present in a creeping beam as a result of stress redistribution; and complex stress and temperature profiles representative of space shuttle orbiter trajectories. A computer program was written, applying creep hardening theories and empirical equations for creep, to aid in analysis of test data. Results are considered applicable to a variety of structures which are cyclicly exposed to creep producing thermal environments.

Davis, J. W.; Cramer, B. A.



Helium effects on creep properties of Fe-14CrWTi ODS steel at 650 C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, the effects of helium on creep properties of Fe-14CrWTi ODS steel were studied by in-beam and post He-implantation creep tests. In-situ creep was performed in an in-beam creep device under uniaxial tensile stresses from 350 to 370 MPa during homogeneous helium implantation. Helium ions of energies varying from 0 to 25 MeV were implanted at a rate of 6 10-3 appm/s (corresponding to a displacement dose rate of 1.5 10-6 dpa/s). The average temperature was controlled to 650 C within 2 C. In addition, post He-implantation creep tests were conducted at 650 C as well. Subsequently, fracture surfaces and helium bubble evolution were studied in detail by SEM and TEM observations, respectively. Preliminary creep results show that helium slightly shortens the creep life time of ODS steel at 650 C. Fracture surfaces of reference as well as implanted specimens, show areas with various grades of deformation. Areas of highest deformation can be interpreted as necking, while areas of low deformation show in helium implanted specimens a more granular structure. The results are discussed in terms of possible embrittlement of ODS steels by helium.

Chen, J.; Jung, P.; Rebac, T.; Duval, F.; Sauvage, T.; de Carlan, Y.; Barthe, M. F.



Viscoplastic BEM analysis of creeping metallic structural components in the presence of temperature gradients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A boundary element formulation for the solution of time-dependent inelastic problems arising in creeping metallic plates at high temperatures is presented. The formulation allows the use of models of inelastic deformation using state variables for characterizing the time-dependent behaviour of metals and alloys under thermal loading conditions. The deformation of the plate is simulated using a viscoplastic model developed by

C. P. Providakis; S. G. Kourtakis



Impression creep behavior of atmospheric plasma sprayed and hot pressed MoSi{sub 2}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}  

SciTech Connect

The use of MoSi{sub 2} as a high temperature oxidation resistant structural material is hindered by its poor elevated temperature creep resistance. The addition of second phase Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} holds promise for improving the creep properties of MoSi{sub 2} without decreasing oxidation resistance. The high temperature impression creep behavior of atmospheric plasma sprayed (APS) and hot pressed (HP) MoSi{sub 2}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites was investigated. Values for steady state creep rates, creep activation energies, and creep stress exponents were measured. Grain boundary sliding and splat sliding were found to be the dominant creep mechanisms for the APS samples while grain boundary sliding and plastic deformation were found to be the dominant creep mechanisms for the HP samples.

Hollis, K.J.; Butt, D.P.; Castro, R.G.



Effect of prior cold work on creep properties of a titanium modified austenitic stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prior cold worked (PCW) titanium-modified 14Cr-15Ni austenitic stainless steel (SS) is used as a core-structural material in fast breeder reactor because of its superior creep strength and resistance to void swelling. In this study, the influence of PCW in the range of 16-24% on creep properties of IFAC-1 SS, a titanium modified 14Cr-15Ni austenitic SS, at 923 K and 973 K has been investigated. It was found that PCW has no appreciable effect on the creep deformation rate of the steel at both the test temperatures; creep rupture life increased with PCW at 923 K and remained rather unaffected at 973 K. The dislocation structure along with precipitation in the PCW steel was found to change appreciably depending on creep testing conditions. A well-defined dislocation substructure was observed on creep testing at 923 K; a well-annealed microstructure with evidences of recrystallization was observed on creep testing at 973 K. Creep rupture life of the steel increased with the increase in PCW at 923 K. This has been attributed to the partial retention of prior cold work induced dislocations which facilitated the extensive precipitation of secondary Ti(C,N) particles on the stable dislocation substructure. Creep rupture life of the steel did not vary with PCW at 973 K due to softening by recrystallization and absence of secondary Ti(C,N).

Vijayanand, V. D.; Parameswaran, P.; Nandagopal, M.; Panneer Selvi, S.; Laha, K.; Mathew, M. D.



Correlation of Creep Behavior of Domal Salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimentally determined creep responses of a number of domal salts have been reported in, the literature. Some of these creep results were obtained using standard (conventional) creep tests. However, more typically, the creep data have come from multistage creep tests, where the number of specimens available for testing was small. An incremental test uses abrupt changes in stress and




High-temperature creep of synthetic calcite aggregates: influence of Mn-content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the role of impurities on the deformation of calcite rocks, we performed creep experiments on fine-grained synthetic calcite aggregates with varying Mn-content. The tests were performed in a uniaxial creep apparatus at temperatures of 700-830 C and stresses between 15 and 65 MPa, resulting in strain rates of 10 -7 to 10 -4 s -1. Varying the oxygen fugacity, fO 2, between 10 -18 and 10 -4 MPa did not affect the creep strength. Applying a power law constitutive relationship on the creep data, two distinct creep regimes were observed, a low stress regime (<15 MPa) and a high stress regime (>20-25 MPa). In the low stress regime, a stress exponent n of 1.70.3 and an activation energy of Q=30045 kJ/mol were found. The mechanical data and microstructural observations suggest that grain-boundary sliding accommodated by grain-boundary diffusion is the dominant creep mechanism. At high stresses, we obtained a stress exponent of n=3.10.6 and an activation energy of Q=49050 kJ/mol, indicating dislocation creep. Transmission-electron microscopy (TEM) observations show a dominance of recovery-related dislocation structures suggesting that dislocation climb is important. Increasing Mn-concentration from 10 to 670 ppm leads to an enhancement in creep rate in both creep regimes, but the effect is more substantial in the diffusion creep regime (one order of magnitude). In the diffusion creep regime, the enhancement of creep rate by Mn is attributed to the substitution of Ca by Mn, which may increase grain-boundary diffusivity of calcite. In the dislocation regime, it is interpreted as a combination of dislocation climb and glide with the exchange of Ca by aliovalent Mn, which may affect the point defect concentration.

Freund, Dieter; Wang, Zichao; Rybacki, Erik; Dresen, Georg



Experimental and Numerical Studies on Mudstone's Creep Behavior During Water Injection and Its Effect on Casing Damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the process of water injection production in oilfield, when water cuts into the mudstone, as a result, large numbers of casings are damaged because of mudstone's creep characteristic. In order to analyze this phenomenon, the uniaxial compression experiments and creep experiments of mudstone from Daqing Oil Field under different saturation conditions were done, it was studied that how the mudstone's mechanical parameters and creep characteristic would change with the increment of water contents. The results indicate that the rock strength and elastic modulus are decreased rapidly with the increment of water contents, on the other hand, the creep strain and steady state creep strain rate are increased with the increment of water contents, and also the steady state creep strain rate is enhanced with the increment of deviatoric stress. Through the creep characteristic curves, a nonlinear creeping constitutive equation of mudstone considering the changes of water contents was established. In the deep stratum of the oilfield, the calculation model of casing-cement sheath-mudstone was built, based on the experiment results of mudstone and its creep constitutive equation, mudstone's creep pressure with time under different water contents was simulated. The simulation results show that the increasing water content accelerates the incremental rate of the creep pressure of mudstone, so the time of reaching yield state of casing will descend greatly, which means service time of casing becomes much shorter.

Huang, X. L.; Yang, C. H.; Liu, J. J.; He, X.; Xiong, J.



The effects of computed tomography image characteristics and knot spacing on the spatial accuracy of B-spline deformable image registration in the head and neck geometry  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore the effects of computed tomography (CT) image characteristics and B-spline knot spacing (BKS) on the spatial accuracy of a B-spline deformable image registration (DIR) in the head-and-neck geometry. Methods The effect of image feature content, image contrast, noise, and BKS on the spatial accuracy of a B-spline DIR was studied. Phantom images were created with varying feature content and varying contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and deformed using a known smooth B-spline deformation. Subsequently, the deformed images were repeatedly registered with the original images using different BKSs. The quality of the DIR was expressed as the mean residual displacement (MRD) between the known imposed deformation and the result of the B-spline DIR. Finally, for three patients, head-and-neck planning CT scans were deformed with a realistic deformation field derived from a rescan CT of the same patient, resulting in a simulated deformed image and an a-priori known deformation field. Hence, a B-spline DIR was performed between the simulated image and the planning CT at different BKSs. Similar to the phantom cases, the DIR accuracy was evaluated by means of MRD. Results In total, 162 phantom registrations were performed with varying CNR and BKSs. MRD-values < 1.0 mm were observed with a BKS between 1020 mm for image contrast ? 250 HU and noise < 200 HU. Decreasing the image feature content resulted in increased MRD-values at all BKSs. Using BKS = 15 mm for the three clinical cases resulted in an average MRD < 1.0 mm. Conclusions For synthetically generated phantoms and three real CT cases the highest DIR accuracy was obtained for a BKS between 1020 mm. The accuracy decreased with decreasing image feature content, decreasing image contrast, and higher noise levels. Our results indicate that DIR accuracy in clinical CT images (typical noise levels < 100 HU) will not be effected by the amount of image noise. PMID:25074293



Observations of orientation dependent creep of Ni{sub 3}Al  

SciTech Connect

The influence of crystal orientation on the high temperature creep behavior of Ni{sub 3}(Al Ti Ta) was investigated by tensile creep testing under a constant load at a temperature of 1,123K. The single crystals were oriented close to [001], [011], [111], [557] and [012]. The results show an increasing stationary creep rate from [111] over [011] to [001]. The evolution of the microstructure during creep deformation was studied, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Only few systems are active in the primary regime, whereas several slip systems operate in the secondary stage. habit planes of dislocation pairs separated by an antiphase boundary were examined and compared with anisotropic elastic calculations, explaining the good creep response of [111] oriented using crystals.

Knobloch, C.; Glock, K.; Glatzel, U.



Microdeformation experiments on chalk - fluids, fracture and creep  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chalks are fine grained aggregates of biogenic calcite that creep and fracture and the deformation is very sensitive to the nature of the fluid present. Close to yield there is a time scale and spatial scale of transition from distributed to localized deformation. This transition is governed by the grain scale mechanism involved - subcritical crack growth, pore collapse, ion exchange in the grain contact, mechanochemical processes and others. We present a microdeformation rig with accurate control of temperature, small strains and the pore fluid. The thin chalk samples are imaged at different scales with a resolution down to 0.5 micrometers. Deformation measurements are performed by digital image correlation. Examples of localized and distributed deformation and effects of rapid change of pore fluid during deformation are presented.

Bergsaker, Anne; Neuville, Amelie; Ryne, Anja; Dysthe, Dag Kristian



SAR interferometry and optical remote sensing for analysis of co-seismic deformation, source characteristics and mass wasting pattern of Lushan (China, April 2013) earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Co-seismic deformation associated with the Lushan (China) earthquake that occurred along the south-western segment of the Longmenshan Fault Zone (LFZ) on the 20th April 2013 has been estimated by differential interferometric SAR (DInSAR) technique using Radarsat-2 data. The Lushan earthquake resulted in the deformation of the Sichuan basin and the Longmenshan ranges in proximity to the LFZ. The line of sight (LOS) displacement values obtained from DInSAR technique mainly range between -4.0 cm to +3.0 cm. The western Sichuan basin shows oblique westward movement with predominant downward component in areas farther from LFZ and predominant westward component over the downward movement in areas closer to the source fault. Inversion modelling has been used to derive the seismic source characteristics from DInSAR derived deformation values using elastic dislocation source type. The linear inversion model converged at a double-fault source solution consisting of a deeper, steep, NW dipping fault plane-1 of 60 km 16 km dimension and a shallower, gentle, NW dipping fault plane-2 of 60 km 15 km dimension, with distributed slip values varying between 0 to 2.26 m. These fault planes (fault planes-1 and -2) coincide with the Dachuan-Shuangshi fault and the buried Range Front Fault, respectively. The inversion model gives a moment magnitude of 6.81 and the geodetic moment of 2.07 1019 Nm, comparable to those given in literature, derived using teleseismic body wave data. Thus DInSAR technique helped to quantify the co-seismic deformation and to retrieve the source characteristics from the estimated deformation values. The study also evaluated the distribution pattern of earthquake induced landslides (EIL) triggered fresh or re-activated during the Lushan earthquake and found that they show spatial association with the seismic source zone and also with various pre-conditioning factors of slope instability.

Mathew, John; Majumdar, Ritwik; Kumar, K. Vinod



Damage-enhanced creep and creep rupture in fiber composites  

SciTech Connect

Creep in fiber composites at high temperatures is an important phenomenon that can lead to accelerated failure in several different ways. For systems with matrix creep rates larger than those of the fibers, creep transfers load onto the fibers and the fibers undergo progressive damage under the increasing load. This leads to enhanced composite creep rates, relative to non-breaking fibers, in both ceramic and metal matrix composites. In metal composites, creep rupture can then occur by excessive damage accumulation even in the absence of explicit high-temperature fiber degradation mechanisms. In ceramic composites, creep rupture occurs following fiber degradation such as slow crack growth, a process accelerated by the enhanced stress on the fibers. Here, these phenomena are discussed within the framework of the composite model of Curtin, which is generalized to include creep and creep rupture. The model generally accounts for the statistical evolution of fiber damage and for the interfacial slip between fibers and matrix that occur in both CMC and MMC materials, both of which can be functions of time at elevated temperatures. Application of the theory to creep rupture in titanium matrix composites reinforced with SiC fibers shows good agreement with experimental results for creep rates and failure times versus applied load. Application to creep rupture in ceramic matrix composites in which the fibers undergo slow crack growth demonstrates the dependence of lifetime on load and crack growth rate. A much longer lifetime for composites, as compared to the lifetime of individual fibers tested in the laboratory, is demonstrated; this is a result of the small effective gauge length of fibers in the composite relative to the typical gauge lengths tested in single fiber stress rupture tests.

Curtin, W.A.; Fabeny, B.; Iyengar, N. [Virginia State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)



Characteristics of High-Temperature Deformation Behavior of Ti-45Al-2Cr-3Ta-0.5W Alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-temperature deformation behavior tests of as-cast Ti-45Al-2Cr-3Ta-0.5W alloy were conducted over a wide range of strain rates (0.001-1.0 s-1) and temperatures (1150-1300 C). The flow curves for the current alloy exhibited sharp peaks at low strain levels, followed by pronounced work hardening and flow localization at high strain levels. Phenomenological analysis of the strain rate and temperature dependence of peak stress data yielded an average value of the strain rate sensitivity equal to 0.25 and an apparent activation energy of ~420 kJ/mol. Processing maps were established under different deformation conditions, and the optimal condition for hot work on this material was determined to be 1250 C/0.001 s-1. The stable deformation region was also found to decrease with increasing strain. Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) was the major softening mechanism controlling the growth of grains at the grain boundary. Meanwhile, local globularization and dynamic recovery (DR) were the main softening mechanisms in the lamellar colony. When deformed at higher temperatures (~1300 C), the cyclic DRX and DR appeared to dominate the deformation. Moreover, the evolution of the ? phase during hot deformation played an important role in the dynamic softening of the alloy.

Luo, Y. Y.; Xi, Z. P.; Zeng, W. D.; Mao, X. N.; Yang, Y. L.; Niu, H. Z.



Creep Crack Initiation and Growth Behavior for Ni-Base Superalloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural components which are used in high temperature gas turbines have various shapes which may cause the notch effect. Moreover, the site of stress concentration might have the heterogeneous microstructural distribution. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the creep fracture mechanism for these materials in order to predict the life of creep fracture with high degree of accuracy. In this study, the creep crack growth tests were performed using in-situ observational testing machine with microscope to observe the creep damage formation and creep crack growth behavior. The materials used are polycrystalline Ni-base superalloy IN100 and directionally solidified Ni-base superalloy CM247LC which were developed for jet engine turbine blades and gas turbine blades in electric power plants, respectively. The microstructural observation of the test specimens was also conducted using FE-SEM/EBSD. Additionally, the analyses of two-dimensional elastic-plastic creep finite element using designed methods were conducted to understand the effect of microstructural distribution on creep damage formation. The experimental and analytical results showed that it is important to determine the creep crack initiation and early crack growth to predict the life of creep fracture and it is indicated that the highly accurate prediction of creep fracture life could be realized by measuring notch opening displacement proposed as the RNOD characteristic.

Nagumo, Yoshiko; Yokobori, A. Toshimitsu, Jr.; Sugiura, Ryuji; Ozeki, Go; Matsuzaki, Takashi


Probability distributions for parameters of the Munson-Dawson salt creep model  

SciTech Connect

Stress-related probability distribution functions are determined for the random variable material model parameters of the Munson-Dawson multi-mechanism deformation creep model for salt. These functions are obtained indirectly from experimental creep data for clean salt. The parameter distribution functions will form the basis for numerical calculations to generate an appropriate distribution function for room closure. Also included is a table that gives the values of the parameters for individual specimens of clean salt under different stresses.

Fossum, A.F.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)



Creep behavior of beams using the viscoplasticity theory based on total strain and overstress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The viscoplasticity theory based on total strain and overstress can reproduce rate-dependent inelastic deformation without distinction between plastic and creep strain using two material functions. A viscosity function and an equilibrium stress-strain curve characterize rate-dependency and work hardening, respectively. The theory is used to analyze the creep behavior of a beam subjected to a linearly increasing moment which is subsequently

T. Hiroe; E. Krempl



Continuous turbine blade creep measurement based on Moir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Moir imaging has been used to measure creep in the airfoil section of gas turbine blades. The ability to accurately assess creep and other failure modes has become an important engineering challenge, because gas turbine manufacturers are putting in place condition-based maintenance programs. In such maintenance programs, the condition of individual components is assessed to determine their remaining lives. Using pad-print technology, a grating pattern was printed directly on a turbine blade for localized creep detection using the spacing change of moir pattern fringes. A creep measurement prototype was assembled for this application which contained a lens, reference grating, camera and lighting module. This prototype comprised a bench-top camera system that can read moir patterns from the turbine blade sensor at shutdown to determine creep level in individual parts by analyzing the moir fringes. Sensitivity analyses and noise factor studies were performed to evaluate the system. Analysis software was also developed. A correlation study with strain gages was performed and the measurement results from the moir system align well with the strain gage readings. A mechanical specimen subjected to a one cycle tensile test at high temperature to induce plastic deformation in the gage was used to evaluate the system and the result of this test exhibited good correlation to extensometer readings.

Liao, Yi; Tait, Robert; Harding, Kevin; Nieters, Edward J.; Hasz, Wayne C.; Piche, Nicole




SciTech Connect

We present the results of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study hightemperature deformation of nanocrystalline UO2. In qualitative agreement with experimental observations, the oxygen sub-lattice undergoes a structural transition at a temperature of about 2200 K (i.e., well below the melting point of 3450 K of our model system), whereas the uranium sub-lattice remains unchanged all the way up to melting. At temperatures well above this structural transition, columnar nanocrystalline model microstructures with a uniform grain size and grain shape were subjected to constantstress loading at levels low enough to avoid microcracking and dislocation nucleation from the GBs. Our simulations reveal that in the absence of grain growth, the material deforms via GB diffusion creep (also known as Coble creep). Analysis of the underlying self-diffusion behavior in undeformed nanocrystalline UO2 reveals that, on our MD time scale, the uranium ions diffuse only via the grain boundaries (GBs) whereas the much faster moving oxygen ions diffuse through both the lattice and the GBs. As expected for the Coble-creep mechanism, the creep activation energy agrees well with that for GB diffusion of the slowest moving species, i.e., of the uranium ions.

Tapan G. Desai; Paul C. Millett; Dieter Wolf



Creep-fatigue life prediction of in situ composite solders  

SciTech Connect

Eutectic tin-lead solder alloys subjected to cyclic loading at room temperature experience creep-fatigue interactions due to high homologous temperature. Intermetallic reinforcements of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} and Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} are incorporated into eutectic tin-lead alloy by rapid solidification processes to form in situ composite solders. In this study, the in situ composite solders were subjected to combined creep and fatigue deformation at room temperature. Under cyclic deformation, the dominant damage mechanism of in situ composite solders is proposed to be growth of cavities. A constrained cavity growth model is applied to predict creep-fatigue life by taking into account the tensile loading component as well as the compressive loading component when reversed processes can occur. An algorithm to calculate cavity growth in each fatigue cycle is used to predict the number of fatigue cycles to failure, based on a critical cavity size of failure. Calculated lives are compared to experimental data under several fatigue histories, which include fully reversed stress-controlled fatigue, zero-tension stress-controlled fatigue, stress-controlled fatigue with tension hold time, fully reversed strain-controlled fatigue, and zero-tension strain-controlled fatigue. The model predicts the creep-fatigue lives within a factor of 2 with the incorporation of an appropriate compressive healing factor in most cases. Discrepancy between calculated lives and experimental results is discussed.

Kuo, C.G.; Sastry, S.M.L.; Jerina, K.L. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)



Non-Contact Measurements of Creep Properties of Refractory Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

State-of-the-art technologies for hypersonic aircraft, nuclear electric/thermal propulsion for spacecraft, and more efficient jet engines are driving ever more demanding needs for high-temperature (>2000 C) materials. At such high temperatures, creep rises as one of the most important design factors to be considered. Since conventional measurement techniques for creep resistance are limited to about 17OO0C, a new technique is in demand for higher temperatures. This paper presents a non-contact method using electrostatic levitation (ESL) which is applicable to both metallic and non-metallic materials. The samples were rotated quickly enough to cause creep deformation by centrifugal acceleration. The deformation of the samples was captured with a high speed camera and then the images were analyzed to estimate creep resistance. Finite element analyses were performed and compared to the experiments to verify the new method. Results are presented for niobium and tungsten, representative refractory materials at 2300 C and 2700 C respectively.

Lee, Jonghyun; Bradshaw, Richard C.; Hyers, Robert W.; Rogers, Jan R.; Rathz, Thomas J.; Wall, James J.; Choo, Hahn; Liaw, Peter



Non-contact Creep Resistance Measurement for Ultra-High Temperature Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conventional techniques for measuring creep are limited to about 1700 C, so a new technique is required for higher temperatures. This technique is based on electrostatic levitation (ESL) of a spherical sample, which is rotated quickly enough to cause creep deformation by centrifugal acceleration. Creep of samples has been demonstrated at up to 2300 C in the ESL facility at NASA MSFC, while ESL itself has been applied at over 3000 C, and has no theoretical maximum temperature. The preliminary results and future directions of this NASA-funded research collaboration will be presented.

Lee, J.; Bradshaw, C.; Rogers, J. R.; Rathz, T. J.; Wall, J. J.; Choo, H.; Liaw, P. K.; Hyers, R. W.



Long-term performance of ceramic matrix composites at elevated temperatures: Modelling of creep and creep rupture  

SciTech Connect

The models developed, contain explicit dependences on constituent material properties and their changes with time, so that composite performance can be predicted. Three critical processes in ceramic composites at elevated temperatures have been modeled: (1) creep deformation of composite vs stress and time-dependent creep of fibers and matrix, and failure of these components; (2) creep deformation of ``interface`` around broken fibers; and (3) lifetime of the composite under conditions of fiber strength loss over time at temperature. In (1), general evolution formulas are derived for relaxation time of matrix stresses and steady-state creep rate of composite; the model is tested against recent data on Ti-MMCs. Calculations on a composite of Hi-Nicalon fibers in a melt-infiltrated SiC matrix are presented. In (2), numerical simulations of composite failure were made to map out time-to-failure vs applied load for several sets of material parameters. In (3), simple approximate relations are obtained between fiber life and composite life that should be useful for fiber developers and testers. Strength degradation data on Hi-Nicalon fibers is used to assess composite lifetime vs fiber lifetime for Hi-Nicalon fiber composites.

Curtin, W.A.; Fabeny, B.; Ibnabdeljalil, M.; Iyengar, N.; Reifsnider, K.L. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Engineering Science and Mechanics



Interactions between fracturing and pressure solution creep in the upper crust: evidence from natural observations and experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fracturing and pressure solution creep processes are very often associated in the upper crust deformation. One can see for example that mineral grains and pebbles are both fractured and dissolved under stress, that stylolites are bounded by fractures or that pressure solution spaced cleavage is associated with veins. The question is thus how pressure solution creep and fracturing processes interact in the upper crust to make it behave in both a brittle and viscous manner? Dynamic indenting experiments allow understanding how fracturing and pressure solution creep processes interact. Such experimental technique includes the static loading of a sample by an indenter and its dynamic loading by episodic shocks. The experimental results show that fracturing and comminuting processes induced by the shock accelerate the pressure solution creep rate by reducing the distance of mass transfer. However, it is also observed that after each shock the creep rate progressively decreases due to healing and sealing processes. The main healing processes, in non-porous material such as halite crystal, are crack healing and grain compaction. In porous aggregates such as plaster, the main healing processes are grain sliding, grain dissolution indenting and redeposition. In both cases, when pressure solution is the creep mechanism, fracturing and comminuting weaken the rock whereas compaction, healing and sealing strengthen it. This leads to a non-steady state creep process. This also leads to a chemical segregation of the rocks which is amplified by lithological effect: all the conditions of the deformation being the same, pressure solution creep rate is faster for a mixture of soluble and insoluble minerals than for monomineralic soluble material. Consequently in natural deformation, starting from the common mixture of soluble (quartz, calcite, feldspars) and insoluble (oxides, phyllosilicates) minerals, successive fracturing and creep-healing events develop a segregation of the rock with the development of rock heterogeneity that is seen for example in faulted rocks with two end members: (i) weak active creep zones, which are the zones of progressive depletion in soluble species and (ii) damage zones, which are progressively strengthen by the redeposited minerals and which are the zones of potential (micro)seismicity. Actually, the microseismicity in the damage zone could even activate the pressure solution creep rate as long as deposition does not occur in the creeping zone. So fracturing and pressure solution creep are associated processes that interact in the upper crust in order to accommodate its deformation in a ductile or brittle manner depending on the geological conditions and such interactions amplify the segregation between brittle (seismic) and ductile (creep) deformation.

Gratier, Jean-Pierre



Brittle creep and subcritical crack propagation in glass submitted to triaxial conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental work is presented that aimed at improving our understanding of the mechanical evolution of cracks under brittle creep conditions. Brittle creep may be an important slow deformation process in the Earth's crust. Synthetic glass samples have been used to observe and document brittle creep due to slow crack-propagation. A crack density of 0.05 was introduced in intact synthetic glass samples by thermal shock. Creep tests were performed at constant confining pressure (15 MPa) for water saturated conditions. Data were obtained by maintaining the differential-stress constant in steps of 24 h duration. A set of sensors allowed us to record strains and acoustic emissions during creep. The effect of temperature on creep was investigated from ambient temperature to 70C. The activation energy for crack growth was found to be 32 kJ/mol. In secondary creep, a large dilatancy was observed that did not occur in constant strain rate tests. This is correlated to acoustic emission activity associated with crack growth. As a consequence, slow crack growth has been evidenced in glass. Beyond secondary creep, failure in tertiary creep was found to be a progressive process. The data are interpreted through a previously developed micromechanical damage model that describes crack propagation. This model allows one to predict the secondary brittle creep phase and also to give an analytical expression for the time to rupture. Comparison between glass and crystalline rock indicates that the brittle creep behavior is probably controlled by the same process even if stress sensitivity for glass is lower than for rocks.

Mallet, Cline; Fortin, Jrme; Guguen, Yves; Bouyer, Frdric



Extended-time-scale creep measurement on Maraging cantilever blade springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two controlled temperature facilities were built to induce an accelerated creep rate in a Maraging steel GAS spring and to measure the material's creep over an artificially extended period of time. The data acquisition of the first experiment lasted for almost a year, but then the blades were allowed to creep for six more years before measuring the permanent deformation integrated over time. The data from this first experiment was polluted by a defect in the data acquisition software, but yielded overall creep limits and an evaluation of the Arrhenius acceleration of creep speed with temperature (1.280.13 C -1). The duration of the second experiment was only 1 year but more free of systematic errors. The effective test period of this second experiment (normalized with the Arrhenius acceleration measured in the first experiment) extends in billions of years showing no sign of anomalous creep. The result of both experiments also produced a simple procedure capable of eliminating all practical effects of creep from the Advanced LIGO seismic isolation and suspensions. Measurements of creep under various stress levels, and of the thermal variations of Young's modulus (2.023 (0.013)10 -4 C -1) are reported as well.

Virdone, Nicole; Agresti, Juri; Bertolini, Alessandro; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Stellacci, Rosalia; Kamp, Justin; Mantovani, Maddalena; Sannibale, Virginio; Tarallo, Marco; Kaltenegger, Lisa



Creep behavior in SiC whisker-reinforced alumina composite  

SciTech Connect

Grain boundary sliding (often accompanied by cavitation) is a major contributor to compressive and tensile creep deformation in fine-grained aluminas, both with and without whisker-reinforcement. Studies indicate that the creep response of alumina composites reinforced with SiC whiskers can be tailored by controlling the composite microstructure and composition. The addition of SiC whiskers (< 30 vol%) significantly increases the creep resistance of fine-grained (1--2 {mu}m) alumina in air at temperatures of 1,200 and 1,300 C. However, at higher whisker contents (30 and 50 vol%), the creep resistance is degraded due to enhanced surface oxidation reactions accompanied by extensive creep cavitation. Densification aids (i.e., Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}), which facilitate silica glass formation and thus liquid phase densification of the composites, can also result in degradation of creep resistance. On the other hand, increasing the matrix grain size or decreasing the whisker aspect ratio (increased whisker number density) results in raising the creep resistance of the composites. These observations not only explain the variability in the creep response of various SiC whisker-reinforced alumina composites but also indicate factors that can be used to enhance the elevated temperature performance.

Lin, H.T.; Becher, P.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.



Creep behavior of beams using the viscoplasticity theory based on total strain and overstress  

SciTech Connect

The viscoplasticity theory based on total strain and overstress can reproduce rate-dependent inelastic deformation without distinction between plastic and creep strain using two material functions. A viscosity function and an equilibrium stress-strain curve characterize rate-dependency and work hardening, respectively. The theory is used to analyze the creep behavior of a beam subjected to a linearly increasing moment which is subsequently held constant. The analysis shows the existence of two possible states of equilibrium: termination of primary creep or secondary creep. They occur when the equilibrium stress-strain curve has positive or zero slope in the plastic strain range. The numerical experiments illustrate that the stress distribution at the end of the moment increase depends on the moment rate. The rate effects disappear with time when stress is redistributed. The equilibrium solution is obtained before 10/sup 7/ sec, when the material functions representing AISI Type 304 Stainless Steel at room temperature are used. The other equilibrium solution (secondary creep) is reached after primary creep when the constant moment is above the limiting equilibrium moment which corresponds to the plastic hinge moment of plasticity theory. The stress distribution during stationary creep is shown to be the solution corresponding to the Norton Law of creep theory.

Hiroe, T.; Krempl, E.



Elevated temperature creep properties of the 54Fe-29Ni-17Co "Kovar" alloy.  

SciTech Connect

The outline of this presentation is: (1) Applications of Kovar Alloy in metal/ceramic brazing; (2) Diffusion bonding of precision-photoetched Kovar parts; (3) Sample composition and annealing conditions; (4) Intermediate temperature creep properties (350-650 C); (5) Power law creep correlations--with and without modulus correction; (6) Compressive stress-strain properties (23-900 C); (7) Effect of creep deformation on grain growth; and (8) Application of the power law creep correlation to the diffusion bonding application. The summary and conclusions are: Elevated temperature creep properties of Kovar from 750-900 C obey a power law creep equation with a stress exponent equal to 4.9, modulus compensated activation energy of 47.96 kcal/mole. Grain growth in Kovar creep samples tested at 750 and 800 C is quite sluggish. Significant grain growth occurs at 850 C and above, this is consistent with isothermal grain growth studies performed on Kovar alloy wires. Finite element analysis of the diffusion bonding of Kovar predict that stresses of 30 MPa and higher are needed for good bonding at 850 C, we believe that 'sintering' effects must be accounted for to allow FEA to be predictive of actual processing conditions. Additional creep tests are planned at 250-650 C.

Stephens, John Joseph, Jr.; Rejent, Jerome Andrew; Schmale, David T.



Experimental deformation of rocksalt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using newly designed apparatus for triaxial-compression testing of 10 by 20-cm cores of Avery Island rocksalt at constant strain-rates between 10-4 and 10-6/s, temperatures between 100 and 200C, and confining pressures of 3.4 and 20 MPa, comparing our data with those of other workers on the same material, and observing natural deformations of rocksalt, we find that (1) constant-strain-rate and quasi-constant stress-rate tests (both often called quasi-static compression tests) yield essentially similar stress-strain relations, and these depend strongly on strain rate and temperature, but not confining pressure; (2) fracture excluded, the deformation mechanisms observed for differential stresses between 0.5 and 20 MPa are intracrystal-line slip (dislocation glide and cross-slip) and polygonization (dislocation glide and climb by ion-vacancy pipe diffusion); (3) the same steady-state strain rate ?., and flow stress are reached at the same temperature in both constant-strain-rate and constant-stress (creep) tests, but the strain-time data from transient creep tests do not match the strain-hardening data unless the initial strain, ?0 (time-dependent in rocksalt) is accounted for; in creep tests the clock is not started until the desired constant stress is reached; (4) because the stress-strain curve contains the entire history of the deformation, the constant-strain-rate test rather than the creep test may well be preferred as the source of constitutive data; (5) furthermore, if the stress or temperature of the creep test is too low to achieve the steady state in laboratory time, one cannot predict the steady-state flow stress or strain rate from the transient response alone, whereas we can estimate them rather well from constant-strain-rate data even when strain rates are too high or temperatures too low to reach the steady state within a few hours; (6) the so-called "baseline creep law", giving creep strain, ? = ea[1-exp(-?t)]+?. ss t, where ea, ?, and ?. ss are regarded as material properties as well as fitting parameters, can be valid, if at all, only over intervals of stress and temperature where the same deformation mechanisms operate and only if it is independent of structural changes, that is of loading path, and it poorly predicts constant-stress-rate response in triaxial-compression tests and long-term, low-stress response from data taken over short time at high stress; (7) a potentially more useful, semi-empirical constitutive model, incorporating stress (?), strain (?), strain rate (?.), and absolute temperature (T), and capable of matching at least limited constant-strain-rate, constant-stress-rate, constant-stress (creep), and relaxation (nearly constant strain) data even though constant structure is assumed, is ?=K?. q exp(B/T)[1={exp(-r1?) + exp(-r2?)}/2], where K, q, B, r1, and r2 are to be treated as fitting parameters until their physical significance is better understood; (8) however, we doubt that any single, perfectly general constitutive equation can be written to satisfy all conditions pertinent to repository design, say 25 ? T ? 300C and 1 ? ? ? 20 MPa, and also to be workable in numerical modeling; (9) hence, no matter how abundant and precise site-specific laboratory data may become, one can expect only to approximate the rheological behavior of the prototype.

Handin, J.; Russell, J. E.; Carter, N. L.


A creep model for austenitic stainless steels incorporating cavitation and wedge cracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model of damage evolution in austenitic stainless steels under creep loading at elevated temperatures is proposed. The initial microstructure is idealized as a space-tiling aggregate of identical rhombic dodecahedral grains, which undergo power-law creep deformation. Damage evolution in the form of cavitation and wedge cracking on grain-boundary facets is considered. Both diffusion- and deformation-driven grain-boundary cavity growth are treated. Cavity and wedge-crack length evolution are derived from an energy balance argument that combines and extends the models of Cottrell (1961 Trans. AIME 212 191-203), Williams (1967 Phil. Mag. 15 1289-91) and Evans (1971 Phil Mag. 23 1101-12). The time to rupture predicted by the model is in good agreement with published experimental data for a type 316 austenitic stainless steel under uniaxial creep loading. Deformation and damage evolution at the microscale predicted by the present model are also discussed.

Mahesh, S.; Alur, K. C.; Mathew, M. D.



Influence of mineral fraction on the rheological properties of forsterite + enstatite during grain size sensitive creep: 3. Application of grain growth and flow laws on peridotite ultramylonite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microstructures of a layered peridotite ultramylonite from the Oman ophiolite are compared with that of experimentally deformed samples. Average grain sizes and grain size ratios of olivine and pyroxene from each layer are compared with respect to the fraction of pyroxene (fpx) in the layer. Grain size of the pyroxene is almost constant among different fpx layers, whereas olivine grain size decreases significantly with increasing fpx, both of which were characteristic features found in forsterite + enstatite aggregates after grain growth experiments (Tasaka and Hiraga). Furthermore, the Zener relationship (log dol/dpx versus log fpx) found in the ultramylonite is remarkably comparable to that observed in our experiments. These observations indicate effective pinning of olivine grain growth due to the presence of pyroxene grains during the deformation of the rocks. Olivine grains in layers with fpx ? 0.03 do not exhibit lattice-preferred orientation (LPO), whereas the grains in layers with fpx < 0.03 exhibit LPO, indicating that deformation proceeded via diffusion- and dislocation-accommodated creep in the former and the latter layers, respectively. We simulated the evolution of grain size and viscosity in the shear zone based on our grain growth and flow laws obtained for diffusion creep of forsterite + enstatite (Tasaka and Hiraga; Tasaka et al.) and successfully reproduced the observed grain sizes in the ultramylonite. We therefore conclude that the relative values of the kinetic parameters, some of which are functions of the fpx, are applicable to nature.

Tasaka, Miki; Hiraga, Takehiko; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi



Creep-Fatigue Interaction Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fatigue fives in metals are nominally time independent below 0.5 T(sub Melt). At higher temperatures, fatigue lives are altered due to time-dependent, thermally activated creep. Conversely, creep rates are altered by super. imposed fatigue loading. Creep and fatigue generally interact synergistically to reduce material lifetime. Their interaction, therefore, is of importance to structural durability of high-temperature structures such as nuclear reactors, reusable rocket engines, gas turbine engines, terrestrial steam turbines, pressure vessel and piping components, casting dies, molds for plastics, and pollution control devices. Safety and lifecycle costs force designers to quantify these interactions. Analytical and experimental approaches to creep-fatigue began in the era following World War II. In this article experimental and life prediction approaches are reviewed for assessing creep-fatigue interactions of metallic materials. Mechanistic models are also discussed briefly.

Halford, Gary R.



Creep in Topopah Spring Member welded tuff. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory investigation has been carried out to determine the effects of elevated temperature and stress on the creep deformation of welded tuffs recovered from Busted Butte in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Water saturated specimens of tuff from thermal/mechanical unit TSw2 were tested in creep at a confining pressure of 5.0 MPa, a pore pressure of 4.5 MPa, and temperatures of 25 and 250 C. At each stress level the load was held constant for a minimum of 2.5 {times} 10{sup 5} seconds and for as long as 1.8 {times} 10{sup 6} seconds. One specimen was tested at a single stress of 80 MPa and a temperature of 250 C. The sample failed after a short time. Subsequent experiments were initiated with an initial differential stress of 50 or 60 MPa; the stress was then increased in 10 MPa increments until failure. The data showed that creep deformation occurred in the form of time-dependent axial and radial strains, particularly beyond 90% of the unconfined, quasi-static fracture strength. There was little dilatancy associated with the deformation of the welded tuff at stresses below 90% of the fracture strength. Insufficient data have been collected in this preliminary study to determine the relationship between temperature, stress, creep deformation to failure, and total failure time at a fixed creep stress.

Martin, R.J. III; Boyd, P.J.; Noel, J.S. [New England Research, Inc., White River Junction, VT (United States); Price, R.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)



Coupling creep and damage in concrete under high sustained loading: Experimental investigation on bending beams and application of Acoustic Emission technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Creep and damage in concrete govern the long-term deformability of concrete. Thus, it is important to understand the interaction between creep and damage in order to design reliable civil engineering structures subjected to high level loading during a long time. Many investigations have been performed on the influence of concrete mixture, the effect of the bond between the matrix and the aggregates, temperature, aging and the size effect on the cracking mechanism and fracture parameters of concrete. But there is a lack of results on the influence of the creep loading history. In the present paper, an experimental investigation on the fracture properties of concrete beams submitted to three point bending tests with high levels of sustained load that deals with creep is reported. The results aim first to investigate the ranges of variation of the time response due to creep damage coupled effects under constant load and secondly to evaluate the residual capacity after creep. For this purpose a series of tests were carried out on geometrically similar specimens of size 100x200x800mm with notch to depth ratio of 0.2 in all the test specimens. The exchange of moisture was prevented and beams were subjected to a constant load of 70% and 90% of the maximum capacity. Three point bending test were realized on specimen at the age of 28 days to determine the characteristics of concrete and the maximum load so we could load the specimens in creep. Threepoint bend creep tests were performed on frames placed in a climate controlled chamber [1]. Then after four months of loading, the beams subjected to creep were removed from the creep frames and then immediately subjected to three-point bending test loading up to failure with a constant loading rate as per RILEM-FMC 50 recommendations. The residual capacity on the notched beams and the evolution of the characteristics of concrete due to the basic creep was considered. The results show that sustained loading had a strengthening effect on concrete, probably because of the consolidation of the hardened cement paste. The influence of creep on fracture energy, fracture toughness, and characteristic length of concrete is also studied. The fracture energy and the characteristic length of concrete increases slightly when creep occurs prior to failure and the size of the fracture process zone increases too. The load-CMOD relationship is linear in the ascending portion and gradually drops off after the peak value in the descending portion. The length of the tail end portion of the softening curve increases with beams subjected to creep. Relatively more ductile fracture behavior was observed with beams subjected to creep. The contribution of non-destructive and instrumental investigation methods is currently exploited to check and measure the evolution of some negative structural phenomena, such as micro-and macro-cracking, finally resulting in a creep-like behaviour. Among these methods, the non-destructive technique based on acoustic Emission proves to be very effective, especially to check and measure micro-cracking that takes place inside a structure under mechanical loading. Thus as a part of the investigation quantitative acoustic emission techniques were applied to investigate microcracking and damage localization in concrete beams. The AE signals were captured with the AE WIN software and further analyzed with Noesis software analysis of acoustic emission data. AE waveforms were generated as elastic waves in concrete due to crack nucleation. And a multichannel data acquisition system was used to record the AE waveforms. During the three point bending tests, quantitative acoustic emission (AE) techniques were used to monitor crack growth and to deduce micro fracture mechanics in concrete beams before and after creep. Several specimens are experimented in order to match each cluster with corresponding damage mechanism of the material under loading. At the same time acoustic emission was used to investigate characteristic of the fracture process zone (length width and macro crack propagation

Saliba, J.; Loukili, A.; Grondin, F.



Transient and steady-state creep in a tin-silver-copper lead-free solder alloy: Experiments and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been conventional to simplify the thermo-mechanical modeling of solder joints by omitting the primary (transient) contributions to total creep deformation, assuming that secondary (steady-state) creep strain is dominant and primary creep is negligible. The error associated with this assumption has been difficult to assess because it depends on the properties of the solder joint and the temperature-time profile. This research examines the relative contributions of primary and secondary creep in Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu solder using the constant load creep and stress relaxation measurements for bulk tensile specimens and the finite element analysis of a chip resistor (trilayer) solder joint structure that was thermally cycled under multiple temperature ranges and ramp rates. It was found that neglect of primary creep can result in errors in the predicted stress and strain of the solder joint. In turn, these discrepancies can lead to errors in the estimation of the solder thermal fatigue life due to the changing proportion of primary creep strain to total inelastic strain under different thermal profiles. The constant-load creep and stress relaxation data for Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu span a range of strain rates 10-8s-1 < 3? < 10-4 s-1, and temperatures 25C, 75C and 100C. Creep and stress relaxation measurements show that transient creep caused faster strain rates during stress relaxation for a given stress compared to the corresponding minimum creep rate from constant-load creep tests. The extent of strain hardening during primary creep was a function of temperature and strain rate. A constitutive creep model was presented for Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu that incorporates both transient and steady-state creep to provide agreement for both creep and stress relaxation data with a single set of eight coefficients. The model utilizes both temperature compensated time and strain rate to normalize minimum strain rate and saturated transient creep strain, thereby establishing equivalence between decreased temperature and increased strain rate. The apparent activation energy of steady-state creep was indicative of both dislocation core and bulk lattice diffusion was the most sensitive model parameter. A saturation threshold was defined that distinguishes whether primary or secondary creep is dominant under either static or variable loading.

Shirley, Dwayne R.


Creep mechanisms of a new Ni-Co-base disc superalloy at an intermediate temperature.  


The microstructures of a new Ni-Co-base disc superalloy, TMW-4M3, before and after the creep test at 725 C/630 MPa have been systematically investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crept microstructures were marked as three different deformation stages (I, II and III) corresponding to the gradually increased strain. At stage I, stacking fault (SF) shearing was the main deformation mechanism. The SF was extrinsic and lay on {111} plane. However, deformation microtwinning became the dominant mode at stage II and III. The average spacing of deformation twins decreased from 109 15 nm at stage II to 76 12 nm at stage III, whereas the twin thickness did not change significantly. The influence of stacking fault energy (SFE) of ? matrix on the deformation mechanism is discussed. It is suggested that lower SFE in TMW-4M3 is partly responsible for the enhanced creep resistance. PMID:22834947

Yuan, Y; Gu, Y F; Zhong, Z H; Osada, T; Cui, C Y; Tetsui, T; Yokokawa, T; Harada, H



High temperature indentation creep tests on anhydrite - a promising first look  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indentation creep tests are established in materials engineering, providing information on rheology, deformation mechanisms, and related microstructures of materials. Here we explore the potential of this method on natural, polycrystalline anhydrite. The tests are run at atmospheric pressure, temperatures between 700 and 920 C, and reference stresses between 7 and 30 MPa. An activation energy Q of 338 kJ mol-1 and a stress exponent n of 3.9 are derived. Deformation is localized into shear zones bounding a less deformed approximately conical plug underneath the indenter. Shear zone microstructures reveal inhomogeneous crystal-plastic deformation, subgrains, and extensive strain-induced grain boundary migration, while mechanical twinning appears not to be activated. Microstructure and mechanical data are consistent with deformation by dislocation creep.

Dorner, D.; Rller, K.; Stckhert, B.



Active fault creep variations at Chihshang, Taiwan, revealed by creep meter monitoring, 19982001  

E-print Network

Active fault creep variations at Chihshang, Taiwan, revealed by creep meter monitoring, 1998] The daily creep meter data recorded at Chihshang in 19982001 are presented. The Chihshang creep meter similar annual shortening rates: 16.2 mm at the Tapo site (comprising two connected creep meters) and 15

Lee, Jian-Cheng


Water weakening of clinopyroxene in the dislocation creep regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed a series of triaxial compressive creep experiments at two different water fugacities to investigate the effect of water on the creep strength of a natural clinopyroxenite. Samples were deformed under water-saturated conditions at temperatures between 1373 and 1473 K, confining pressures of 150 and 300 MPa, and differential stresses from 34 to 261 MPa. Strain rates were in the range 10-7 to 10-5 s-1. Water fugacity was controlled at either 140 or 280 MPa. The creep results yield a stress exponent of 2.7 0.3 and an activation energy of 670 40 kJ/mol. Compared to dry clinopyroxene, wet samples creep over 100 times faster at a given temperature, confining pressure, water fugacity, and differential stress. The creep rate of clinopyroxene is proportional to the water fugacity to the 3.0 0.6 power, with an activation volume of 0 m3/mol. One possible water-weakening mechanism is an enhancement of the rate of dislocation climb associated with increases in the concentration of jogs and the diffusivity of silicon ions. Compared to other major minerals in Earth's lower crust, specifically olivine and plagioclase, the water-weakening effect is most significant for clinopyroxene. Under hydrous conditions the strengths of clinopyroxene and anorthite are comparable over the investigated stress range, and both phases are weaker than olivine. Since the mineral assemblages in Earth's lower continental crust are often dominated by plagioclase and pyroxene, in places where a wet flow law applies, the mechanical behavior of clinopyroxene will have a substantial effect on creep strength.

Chen, S.; Hiraga, T.; Kohlstedt, D. L.



Improved high temperature creep resistant austenitic alloy  


An improved austenitic alloy having in wt% 19-21 Cr, 30-35 Ni, 1.5-2.5 Mn, 2-3 Mo, 0.1-0.4 Si, 0.3-0.5 Ti, 0.1-0.3 Nb, 0.1-0.5 V, 0.001-0.005 P, 0.08-0.12 C, 0.01-0.03 N, 0.005-0.01 B and the balance iron that is further improved by annealing for up to 1 hour at 1150-1200/degree/C and then cold deforming 5-15%. The alloy exhibits dramatically improved creep rupture resistance and ductility at 700/degree/C. 2 figs.

Maziasz, P.J.; Swindeman, R.W.; Goodwin, G.M.



High temperature creep resistant austenitic alloy  


An improved austenitic alloy having in wt % 19-21 Cr, 30-35 Ni, 1.5-2.5 Mn, 2-3 Mo, 0.1-0.4 Si, 0.3-0.5 Ti, 0.1-0.3 Nb, 0.1-0.5 V, 0.001-0.005 P, 0.08-0.12 C, 0.01-0.03 N, 0.005-0.01 B and the balance iron that is further improved by annealing for up to 1 hour at C. and then cold deforming 5-15 %. The alloy exhibits dramatically improved creep rupture resistance and ductility at C.

Maziasz, Philip J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Swindeman, Robert W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Goodwin, Gene M. (Lenoir City, TN)



Extensional deformation along the southern boundary of the Gyeonggi Massif, South Korea: structural characteristics, age constraints, and tectonic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Permo-Triassic collision of the North and South China blocks caused the development of the Dabie-Sulu Orogen in China and Songrim Orogen in the Korean Peninsula. Extension after this collision is known from the Dabie-Sulu Orogen, but post-orogenic extension is not well defined in the Korean Peninsula. Extensional deformation along the southern boundary of the Gyeonggi Massif in Korea is characterized by top-down-to-the-south ductile shearing and subsequent brittle normal faulting, and was predated by regional metamorphism and north-vergent contractional deformation. Extension occurred between ~220 and 185 Ma based on the ages of pre-extensional regional metamorphism and post-extensional pluton emplacement. 40Ar/39Ar dating of syn-extensional muscovite in quartz-mica mylonite yields an age of 187.8 5.6 (2 ?) Ma, in agreement with constraints from structural relationships. Together with the extensional deformation identified along the northern boundary of the Gyeonggi Massif (~226 Ma), the extension along the southern boundary is probably related to the exhumation of the massif during late-orogenic or post-orogenic extension associated with the Songrim Orogeny of the Korean Peninsula and forms an important event in the Phanerozoic crustal evolution of East Asia.

Han, Raehee; Min, Kyoungwon; Ree, Jin-Han; Foster, David A.



Invited review paper: Fault creep caused by subduction of rough seafloor relief  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the wide range of thermal, petrologic, hydrological, and structural factors that potentially affect subduction earthquakes, the roughness of the subducting seafloor is among the most important. By reviewing seismic and geodetic studies of megathrust locking/creeping state, we find that creeping is the predominant mode of subduction in areas of extremely rugged subducting seafloor such as the Kyushu margin, Manila Trench, northern Hikurangi, and southeastern Costa Rica. In Java and Mariana, megathrust creeping state is not yet constrained by geodetic observations, but the very rugged subducting seafloor and lack of large earthquakes also suggest aseismic creep. Large topographic features on otherwise relatively smooth subducting seafloor such as the Nazca Ridge off Peru, the Investigator Fracture Zone off Sumatra, and the Joban seamount chain in southern Japan Trench also cause creep and often stop the propagation of large ruptures. Similar to all other known giant earthquakes, the Tohoku earthquake of March 2011 occurred in an area of relatively smooth subducting seafloor. The Tohoku event also offers an example of subducting seamounts stopping rupture propagation. Very rugged subducting seafloor not only retards the process of shear localization, but also gives rise to heterogeneous stresses. In this situation, the fault zone creeps because of distributed deformation of fractured rocks, and the creep may take place as transient events of various spatial and temporal scales accompanied with small and medium-size earthquakes. This process cannot be described as stable or unstable friction along a single contact surface. The association of large earthquakes with relatively smooth subducting seafloor and creep with very rugged subducting seafloor calls for further investigation. Seafloor near-trench geodetic monitoring, high-resolution imaging of subduction fault structure, studies of exhumed ancient subduction zones, and laboratory studies of low-temperature creep will greatly improve our understanding of the seismogenic and creep processes and their hazard implications.

Wang, Kelin; Bilek, Susan L.



Non-contact Creep Resistance Measurement for Ultra-high temperature Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuing pressures for higher performance and efficiency in propulsion are driving ever more demanding needs for high-temperature materials. Some immediate applications in spaceflight include combustion chambers for advanced chemical rockets and turbomachinery for jet engines and power conversion in nuclear-electric propulsion. In the case of rockets, the combination of high stresses and high temperatures make the characterization of creep properties very important. Creep is even more important in the turbomachinery, where a long service life is an additional constraint. Some very high-temperature materials are being developed, including platinum group metals, carbides, borides, and silicides. But the measurement of creep properties at very high temperatures is itself problematic, because the testing instrument must operate at such high temperatures. Conventional techniques are limited to about 1700 C. A new, containerless technique for measuring creep deformation has been developed. This technique is based on electrostatic levitation (ESL) of a spherical sample, which is heated to the measurement temperature and rotated at a rate such that the centrifugal acceleration causes creep deformation. Creep of samples has been demonstrated at up to 2300 C in the ESL facility at NASA MSFC, while ESL itself has been applied at over 3000 C, and has no theoretical maximum temperature. The preliminary results and future directions of this NASA-funded research collaboration will be presented.

Hyers, Robert W.; Lee, Jonghuyn; Bradshaw, Richard C.; Rogers, Jan; Rathz, Thomas J.; Wall, James J.; Choo, Hahn; Liaw, Peter K.



Dislocation and diffusion creep of synthetic anorthite aggregates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic fine-grained anorthite aggregates were deformed at 300 MPa confining pressure in a Paterson-type gas deformation apparatus. Creep tests were performed at temperatures ranging from 1140 to 1480 K, stresses from 30 to 600 MPa, and strain rates between 210-6 and 110-3 s-1. We prepared samples with water total contents of 0.004 wt % (dry) and 0.07 wt % (wet), respectively. The wet (dry) material contained <0.7 (0.2) vol % glass, associated with fluid inclusions or contained at triple junctions. The arithmetic mean grain size of the specimens varied between 2.70.1 ?m for the dry material and 3.40.2 ?m for wet samples. Two different creep regimes were identified for dry and wet anorthite aggregates. The data could be fitted to a power law. At stresses >120 MPa we found a stress exponent of n = 3 irrespective of the water content, indicating dislocation creep. However, the activation energy of wet samples is 3569 kJ mol-1, substantially lower than for dry specimens with 64820 kJ mol-1. The preexponential factor is log A = 2.6 (12.7) MPa-n s-1 for wet (dry) samples. Microstructural observations suggest that grain boundary migration recrystallization is important in accommodating dislocation creep. In the low-stress regime we observed a stress exponent of n = 1, suggesting diffusion creep. The activation energies for dry and wet samples are 467 16 and 170 6 kJ mol-1, respectively. Log A is 12.1 MPa-n ?mm s-1 for the dry material and 1.7 MPa-n ?mm s-1 for wet anorthite. The data show that the strengths of anorthite aggregates decrease with increasing water content in both the dislocation and diffusion creep regimes. A comparison of the creep data of synthetic plagioclase from this study with published data for feldspar, olivine, and quartz indicates a linear relationship between activation energy and log A similar to the suggested compensation law for diffusion in silicates.

Rybacki, E.; Dresen, G.



Creep fatigue life prediction for engine hot section materials (isotropic)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first two years of a two-phase program aimed at improving the high temperature crack initiation life prediction technology for gas turbine hot section components are discussed. In Phase 1 (baseline) effort, low cycle fatigue (LCF) models, using a data base generated for a cast nickel base gas turbine hot section alloy (B1900+Hf), were evaluated for their ability to predict the crack initiation life for relevant creep-fatigue loading conditions and to define data required for determination of model constants. The variables included strain range and rate, mean strain, strain hold times and temperature. None of the models predicted all of the life trends within reasonable data requirements. A Cycle Damage Accumulation (CDA) was therefore developed which follows an exhaustion of material ductility approach. Material ductility is estimated based on observed similarities of deformation structure between fatigue, tensile and creep tests. The cycle damage function is based on total strain range, maximum stress and stress amplitude and includes both time independent and time dependent components. The CDA model accurately predicts all of the trends in creep-fatigue life with loading conditions. In addition, all of the CDA model constants are determinable from rapid cycle, fully reversed fatigue tests and monotonic tensile and/or creep data.

Moreno, Vito; Nissley, David; Lin, Li-Sen Jim



Fracturing of ice under compression creep as revealed by a multifractal analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fracturing of freshwater granular ice up to failure under uniaxial compression creep was investigated from series of interrupted creep tests and from a multifractal analysis of the corresponding fracture patterns. At the early stages of damage corresponding to primary and secondary creep, the fracturing process is dominated by the nucleation of microcracks from stress concentrations within the material (unlike rocks, artificial freshwater ice does not contains starter flaws). Because of the crack nucleation mechanisms, the microstructure of the material (e.g., the nonfractal grain size distribution) strongly influences the organization of fracturing which is therefore nonfractal. As fracturing proceeds during tertiary creep, a hierarchical (fractal) organization of the fracturing emerges progressively over a wider scale range. At failure, this fractal organization is fully developed without detectable lower or upper bound, and the role of the initial microstructure has completely disappeared. Similarly, cracks are preferentially oriented along the compression axis at the early stages of damage, but this anisotropy vanishes as failure is approached. The simultaneity between the onset of tertiary creep and the emergence of fractal organization suggests that the acceleration of the deformation during tertiary creep is due to the cataclasis of a material which becomes granular. An important consequence of the fractal organization of fracturing is that homogenization procedures, as well as damage mechanics, developed to study the behavior of damaged materials, cannot be used to describe tertiary creep and failure.

Weiss, JRMe; Gay, Michel



Creep and shrinkage of high performance lightweight concrete: A multi-scale investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This multi-scale investigation aimed to provide new knowledge and understanding of creep and shrinkage of high performance lightweight concrete (HPLC) by assessing prestress losses in HPLC prestressed members in a large-scale study; by quantifying the effect of the constituent materials and external conditions on creep and shrinkage in a medium-scale study; and by improving the fundamental understanding of creep and shrinkage in a small-scale study. Creep plus shrinkage prestress losses were between two and eight times lower than those estimated for the design standards and approximately 50% of those measured in similar strength normal weight high performance concrete girders. The lower creep and shrinkage exhibited by HPLC was found to be caused by a synergy between the pre-soaked lightweight aggregate and the low water-to-cementitious material ratio matrix. That is, the water contained in the lightweight aggregate contributes to enhance hydration by providing an internal moist curing. The water in the aggregate also contributes to maintain a high internal relative humidity which reduces or eliminates autogenous shrinkage. This higher internal relative humidity also reduces creep by preventing load-induced water migration. Finally, lightweight aggregate exhibits a better elastic compatibility with the paste than normal weight aggregate. This improved elastic matching and the enhanced hydration are believed to reduce peak deformations at the ITZ which further decreases creep and shrinkage.

Lopez, Mauricio


The development of methods for the prediction of primary creep behavior in metals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The applicability of a thermodynamic constitutive theory of deformation to the prediction of primary creep and creep strain relaxation behavior in metals is examined. Constitutive equations derived from the theory are subjected to a parametric analysis in order to determine the influence of several parameters on the curve forms generated by the equations. A computer program is developed which enables the solution of a generalized constitutive equation using experimental data as input. Several metals were tested to form a data base of primary creep and relaxation behavior. The extent to which these materials conformed to the constitutive equation showed wide variability, with the alloy Ti-6Al-4V exhibiting the most consistent results. Accordingly, most of the analysis is concentrated upon data from that alloy, although creep and relaxation data from all the materials tested are presented. Experimental methods are outlined as well as some variations in methods of analysis. Various theoretical and practical implications of the work are discussed.

Zerwekh, R. P.



A nonlocal continuum damage mechanics approach to simulation of creep fracture in ice sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a Lagrangian finite element formulation aimed at modeling creep fracture in ice-sheets using nonlocal continuum damage mechanics. The proposed formulation is based on a thermo-viscoelastic constitutive model and a creep damage model for polycrystalline ice with different behavior in tension and compression. In this paper, mainly, we detail the nonlocal numerical implementation of the constitutive damage model into commercial finite element codes (e.g. Abaqus), wherein a procedure to handle the abrupt failure (rupture) of ice under tension is proposed. Then, we present numerical examples of creep fracture under four-point bending, uniaxial tension, and biaxial tension in order to illustrate the viability of the current approach. Finally, we present simulations of creep crack propagation in idealized rectangular ice slabs so as to estimate calving rates at low deformation rates. The examples presented demonstrate the mesh size and mesh directionality independence of the proposed nonlocal implementation.

Duddu, Ravindra; Waisman, Haim



Numerical analysis for elucidation of nonlinear frictional characteristics of a deformed erythrocyte moving on a plate in medium subject to inclined centrifugal force.  


Complex interactions between blood cells, plasma proteins, and glycocalyx in the endothelial surface layer are crucial in microcirculation. To obtain measurement data of such interactions, we have previously performed experiments using an inclined centrifuge microscope, which revealed that the nonlinear velocity-friction characteristics of erythrocytes moving on an endothelia-cultured glass plate in medium under inclined centrifugal force are much larger than those on plain or material-coated glass plates. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the nonlinear frictional characteristics of an erythrocyte on plain or material-coated glass plates as the basis to clarify the interaction between the erythrocyte and the endothelial cells. We propose a model in which steady motion of the cell is realized as an equilibrium state of the force and moment due to inclined centrifugal force and hydrodynamic flow force acting on the cell. Other electrochemical effects on the surfaces of the erythrocyte and the plate are ignored for the sake of simplicity. Numerical analysis was performed for a three-dimensional flow of a mixture of plasma and saline around a rigid erythrocyte model of an undeformed biconcave shape and a deformed shape with a concave top surface and a flat bottom surface. A variety of conditions for the concentration of plasma in a medium, the velocity of the cell, and the minimum gap width and the angle of attack of the cell from the plate, were examined to obtain the equilibrium states. A simple flat plate model based on the lubrication theory was also examined to elucidate the physical meaning of the model. The equilibrium angle of attack was obtained only for the deformed cell model and was represented as a power function of the minimum gap width. A simple flat plate model qualitatively explains the power function relation of the frictional characteristics, but it cannot explain the equilibrium relation, confirming the computational result that the deformation of the cell is necessary for the equilibrium. The frictional characteristics obtained from the present computation qualitatively agree with those of former experiments, showing the validity of the proposed model. PMID:25271707

Oshibe, Takashi; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Funamoto, Kenichi; Shirai, Atsushi



In situ tensile and creep testing of lithiated silicon nanowires  

SciTech Connect

We present experimental results for uniaxial tensile and creep testing of fully lithiated silicon nanowires. A reduction in the elastic modulus is observed when silicon nanowires are alloyed with lithium and plastic deformation becomes possible when the wires are saturated with lithium. Creep testing was performed at fixed force levels above and below the tensile strength of the material. A linear dependence of the strain-rate on the applied stress was evident below the yield stress of the alloy, indicating viscous deformation behavior. The observed inverse exponential relationship between wire radius and strain rate below the yield stress indicates that material transport was controlled by diffusion. At stress levels approaching the yield strength of fully lithiated silicon, power-law creep appears to govern the strain-rate dependence on stress. These results have direct implications on the cycling conditions, rate-capabilities, and charge capacity of silicon and should prove useful for the design and construction of future silicon-based electrodes.

Boles, Steven T.; Kraft, Oliver [Institute for Applied Materials, KIT, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)] [Institute for Applied Materials, KIT, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Thompson, Carl V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Mnig, Reiner [Institute for Applied Materials, KIT, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany) [Institute for Applied Materials, KIT, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Helmholtz Institute Ulm for Electrochemical Energy Storage (HIU), 89069 Ulm (Germany)



Creep modeling of rock salts for geoenvironmental application  

SciTech Connect

Before using a rock salt as a nuclear waste repository, it is necessary to have adequate knowledge of the mechanical and thermomechanical behavior of the host geologic media. In rock salt, such mechanical and thermomechanical behavior is dominated, among other factors, by the time-dependent deformation commonly referred to as creep. The paper discusses a rate-dependent constitutive model to describe the creep deformation of rock salts. The model is based on the dislocation-related micromechanisms; the concept of effective stress is utilized by incorporating the back stress as an internal variable. The model is used to predict the creep potential of rock salt under general thermo-mechanical loading. The experimental test results from Avery Island dome salt are used in this work. The associated five model parameters are evaluated by using an optimization technique, called box algorithm. The parameters are then used with the model to predict unoptimized experimental data sets. The influence of temperature and confining pressure are investigated in detail for the selected rock salt. Overall, excellent correlations are observed.

Hossain, M.I. [SEARCH, Inc., Norman, OK (United States); Faruque, M.O.; Zaman, M. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)



Optimal combination of InSAR and GPS for measuring interseismic crustal deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High spatial resolution measurements of interseismic deformation along major faults are critical for understanding the earthquake cycle and for assessing earthquake hazard. We propose a new remove/filter/restore technique to optimally combine GPS and InSAR data to measure interseismic crustal deformation, considering the spacing of GPS stations in California and the characteristics of interseismic signal and noise using InSAR. To constrain the longer wavelengths (>40 km) we use GPS measurements, combined with a dislocation model, and for the shorter wavelength information we rely on InSAR measurements. Expanding the standard techniques, which use a planar ramp to remove long wavelength error, we use a Gaussian filter technique. Our method has the advantage of increasing the signal-to-noise ratio, controlling the variance of atmosphere error, and being isotropic. Our theoretical analysis indicates this technique can improve the signal-to-noise ratio by up to 20%. We test this method along three segments of the San Andreas Fault (Southern section near Salton Sea, Creeping section near Parkfield and Mojave/Big Bend section near Los Angeles), and find improvements of 26%, 11% and 8% in these areas, respectively. Our data shows a zone of uplift to the west of the Creeping section of the San Andreas Fault and an area of subsidence near the city of Lancaster. This work suggests that after only 5 years of data collection, ALOS interferograms will provide a major improvement in measuring details of interseismic deformation.

Wei, Meng; Sandwell, David; Smith-Konter, Bridget



Characteristics of lateral electrical surface stimulation (LESS) and its effect on the degree of spinal deformity in idiopathic scoliosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clinical studies were carried out in the period of 2003-2006 at the Provincial Children's Rehabilitation Hospital in Ameryka near Olsztyn (Poland). The study involved a group of children and youth exhibiting spinal deformity progression in idiopathic scoliosis (IS) of more than 5 per year according to the Cobb scale. Four hundred and fifty patients between 4 and 15 years of age were divided into three groups (n = 150). Group I and group II received 2-hour and 9-hour lateral electrical surface stimulation (LESS), respectively, whereas group III (control) was treated only with corrective exercises for 30 minutes twice a day. LESS was performed with the use of a battery-operated SCOL-2 stimulator manufactured by Elmech, Warsaw, Poland. The effectiveness of this method was confirmed in the treatment of spinal IS in children and youth, especially when the initial spinal deformity did not exceed 20 according to the Cobb scale. A short-duration electrostimulation (2 hours daily) was found to produce results similar to those obtained after overnight (9 h) electrostimulation. Moreover, the analysis of the Harrington prognostic index F confirms the positive effect of LESS in both groups of patients (2 h and 9 h of LESS).

Kowalski, Ireneusz M.; Palko, Tadeusz; Pasniczek, Roman; Szarek, Jozef



Effect of Annealing Time on Microstructural Evolution and Deformation Characteristics in 10Mn1.5Al TRIP Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate microstructural evolution and its effects on the deformation behaviors of cold-rolled 10Mn1.5Al TRIP steel, a series of intercritical annealing treatments with various holding times from 3 minutes to 48 hours were conducted. With the increase of the holding time from 3 minutes to 12 hours, the elongation was improved from 15 to 42 pct, while the tensile strength was only reduced from 1210 to 1095 MPa; the strength-ductility combination thus exceeded 45 GPa pct. Austenite was found to coexist with martensite within deformed grains, which reduced the strain concentration at the interface. The austenite transformation fraction, as measured from the {220} peaks, after 3 minutes annealing was half that after 12 hours annealing. This is an indication that the slip systems were more easily activated in the micro-scaled grains compared with nano-scaled grains. Therefore, although the stability of austenite would have increased during annealing, size-induced slip suppression was reduced. Thus, more strain was accommodated in the austenite, facilitating a greater strain-induced transformation and better ductility.

Han, Qihang; Zhang, Yulong; Wang, Li



Creep Behavior of Near-Stoichiometric Polycrystalline Binary NiAl  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New and published constant load creep and constant engineering strain rate data on near-stoichiometric binary NiAl in the intermediate temperature range 700 to 1300 K are reviewed. Both normal and inverse primary creep curves are observed depending on stress and temperature. Other characteristics relating to creep of NiAl involving grain size, stress and temperature dependence are critically examined and discussed. At stresses below 25 MPa and temperatures above 1000 K, a new grain boundary sliding mechanism was observed with n approx. 2, Qc approx. 100 kJ/ mol and a grain size exponent of about 2. It is demonstrated that Coble creep and accommodated grain boundary sliding models fail to predict the experimental creep rates by several orders of magnitude.

Raj, S. V.



A model for high temperature creep of single crystal superalloys based on nonlocal damage and viscoplastic material behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model for high temperature creep of single crystal superalloys is developed, which includes constitutive laws for nonlocal damage and viscoplasticity. It is based on a variational formulation, employing potentials for free energy, and dissipation originating from plasticity and damage. Evolution equations for plastic strain and damage variables are derived from the well-established minimum principle for the dissipation potential. The model is capable of describing the different stages of creep in a unified way. Plastic deformation in superalloys incorporates the evolution of dislocation densities of the different phases present. It results in a time dependence of the creep rate in primary and secondary creep. Tertiary creep is taken into account by introducing local and nonlocal damage. Herein, the nonlocal one is included in order to model strain localization as well as to remove mesh dependence of finite element calculations. Numerical results and comparisons with experimental data of the single crystal superalloy LEK94 are shown.

Trinh, B. T.; Hackl, K.



Creep of plasma-sprayed-ZrO2 thermal-barrier coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Specimens of plasma-sprayed-zirconia thermal-barrier coatings with three different porosities and different initial particle sizes were deformed in compression at initial loads of 6900, 13,800, and 24,100 kPa (1000, 2000, and 3500 psi) and temperatures of 1100, 1250, and 1400 C. The coatings were stabilized with lime, MgO, and two different concentrations of Y2O3. Creep began as soon as the load was applied and continued at a constantly decreasing rate until the load was removed. Temperature and stabilization had a pronounced effect on creep rate while the stress, particle size, and porosity had a lesser effect. Creep deformation was due to cracking and particle sliding.

Firestone, R. F.; Logan, W. R.; Adams, J. W.; Bill, R. C., Jr.



Grain-size effect on compressive creep of silicon-carbide-whisker-reinforced aluminum oxide.  

SciTech Connect

The steady-state compressive creep of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with 10 vol% SiC whiskers having grain sizes of 1.2, 2.3, and 4.0 {mu}m has been measured at 1400 C in argon. The creep rate is related to the free volume within the whisker network, not the nominal grain size. The results are consistent with diffusional-controlled creep with different contributions from grain-boundary sliding. Under low stresses, only Liftshitz sliding is possible and the diffusional process controls deformation, while at stresses over a threshold, Rachinger sliding is the mechanism controlling deformation. The evolution between Liftshitz and Rachinger sliding is marked by a significant increase in the value of the stress exponent.

De Arellano-Lopez, A. R.; Melendez-Martinez, J. J.; Dominguez-Rodriguez, A.; Routbort, J. L.; Lin, H.-T.; Becher, P. F.; Energy Technology; Univ. de Sevilla; ORNL



Influence of grain size on the creep behavior of HfC-dispersed NiAl  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rapid solidification technology has been utilized to produce a NiAl-4(wt pct)HfC composite containing about 0.3 vol pct HfC as dispersed 50 nm particles. Study of the 1300 K compressive creep properties demonstrated that the initial, small grain size microstructure was unstable under slow strain rate deformation conditions. The grain growth which occurred during testing led to considerable strengthening. Subsequent measurements of the creep properties of the coarse grained specimens revealed that this strength was achieved by a large increase in the activation energy for deformation without any change in the stress exponent. Based on this work, it is concluded that large grain microstructures will be required for optimum elevated temperature creep properties in dispersed NiAl.

Whittenberger, J. D.; Ray, Ranjan; Jha, Sunil C.



High-temperature deformation of dry diabase with application to tectonics on Venus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have performed an experimental study to quantify the high-temperature creep behavior of natural diabase rocks under dry deformation conditions. Samples of both Maryland diabase and Columbia diabase were investigated to measure the effects of temperature, oxygen fugacity, and plagioclase-to-pyroxene ratio on creep strength. Flow laws determined for creep of these diabases were characterized by an activation energy of Q

S. J. Mackwell; M. E. Zimmerman; D. L. Kohlstedt



Arc Hyperbolic sine creep theory applied to torsion-tension member of circular cross section  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiaxial creep theory is presented in this paper which will predict the total deformations of a load-carrying member at any specified time after load. Load-deformation relations are derived based on the assumption that the isochronous stress-strain diagram of the material can be represented by an arc hyperbolic sine function [see, eq (2)]. A closed solution was obtained for the

S. Dharmarajan; O. M. Sidebottom



(Irradiation creep of graphite)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended the Conference, International Symposium on Carbon, to present an invited paper, Irradiation Creep of Graphite,'' and chair one of the technical sessions. There were many papers of particular interest to ORNL and HTGR technology presented by the Japanese since they do not have a particular technology embargo and are quite open in describing their work and results. In particular, a paper describing the failure of Minor's law to predict the fatigue life of graphite was presented. Although the conference had an international flavor, it was dominated by the Japanese. This was primarily a result of geography; however, the work presented by the Japanese illustrated an internal program that is very comprehensive. This conference, a result of this program, was better than all other carbon conferences attended by the traveler. This conference emphasizes the need for US participation in international conferences in order to stay abreast of the rapidly expanding HTGR and graphite technology throughout the world. The United States is no longer a leader in some emerging technologies. The traveler was surprised by the Japanese position in their HTGR development. Their reactor is licensed and the major problem in their graphite program is how to eliminate it with the least perturbation now that most of the work has been done.

Kennedy, C.R.



Stress versus temperature dependent activation energies in creep  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The activation energy for creep at low stresses and elevated temperatures is lattice diffusion, where the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is dislocation climb. At higher stresses and intermediate temperatures, the rate controlling mechanism changes from that of dislocation climb to one of obstacle-controlled dislocation glide. Along with this change, there occurs a change in the activation energy. It is shown that a temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy does a good job of correlating steady-state creep data, while a stress-dependent Gibbs free energy does a less desirable job of correlating the same data. Applications are made to copper and a LiF-22 mol. percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt.

Freed, A. D.; Raj, S. V.; Walker, K. P.



Synchrotron 3D microtomography of halite aggregates during experimental pressure solution creep and evolution of the permeability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressure solution creep is one of the possible processes of mechano-chemical deformation that controls porosity and permeability variations in the upper crust. The three-dimensional geometry of the porous network of halite aggregates was imaged during compaction driven by pressure solution creep using X-ray synchrotron computed microtomography. This technique can be used to monitor individual grain contacts and whole aggregate textural

Franois Renard; Dominique Bernard; Xavier Thibault; Elodie Boller



The Effect of Holding Time on Nanoindentation Measurements of Creep in Bone  

PubMed Central

Viscoelasticity may affect both the elastic and fracture characteristics of bone. Nanoindentation can be used to measure the creep behavior of bone by fitting the depth vs. time data at constant load to rheological models. However, the creep data may be influenced by latent effects arising during the loading phase of indentation. As such, the loading protocol, particularly the holding time, may affect the measured creep time constants. To characterize the effect of holding time on the measures, four cortical bone samples were prepared from four bovine femora and subjected to nanoindentation to measure the creep behavior. The creep time constants were found by fitting the indentation depth vs. time curve to three different rheological models: the standard linear solid, Burgers model, and a two-dashpot Kelvin model. All three models provided good fits to the data, which were relatively insensitive to the initial parameter estimates. The calculated creep time constants increased monotonically with increasing holding time for all three models. However, the relative differences between measurements within a single osteon, within a single sample, and between samples were maintained for creep holding times over 16 s. Hence, while the creep time constants measured by nanoindentation with hold times up to 30 s may not provide accurate property measurements, comparisons between samples are valid if all are assessed at the same holding time. Considering the long-term viscosity of bone tissue, Burgers model provided the best performance in terms of stability and goodness of fit, and is recommended for future studies. PMID:21353675

Wu, Ziheng; Baker, Tyler A.; Ovaert, Timothy C.; Niebur, Glen L



"A New Class of Creep Resistant Oxide/Oxide Ceramic Matrix Composites"  

SciTech Connect

Despite recent progress in the development of SiC-SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), their application in industrial gas turbines for distributed energy (DE) systems has been limited. The poor oxidation resistance of the non-oxide ceramics warrants the use of envrionmental barrier coatings (EBCs), which in turn lead to issues pertaining to life expectancy of the coatings. On the other hand, oxide/oxide CMCs are potential replacements, but their use has been limited until now due to the poor creep resistance at high temperatures, particularly above 1200 oC: the lack of a creep resistant matrix has been a major limiting factor. Using yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) as the matrix material system, we have advanced the state-of-the-art in oxide/oxide CMCs by introducing innovations in both the structure and composition of the matrix material, thereby leading to high temperature matrix creep properties not achieved until now. An array of YAG-based powders with a unique set of particle characteristics were produced in-house and sintered to full density and compressive creep data was obtained. Aided in part by the composition and the microstructure, the creep rates were found to be two orders of magnitude smaller than the most creep resistant oxide fiber available commercially. Even after accounting for porosity and a smaller matrix grain size in a practical CMC component, the YAG-based matrix material was found to creep slower than the most creep resistant oxide fiber available commercially.

Dr. Mohit Jain, Dr. Ganesh Skandan, Prof. Roger Cannon, Rutgers University



Properties of shallow creep on the Southern San Andreas Fault from InSAR and GPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a detailed characterization of surface creep and off-fault deformation along the Coachella Valley segment of the San Andreas Fault from 33.3-33.7 deg. North using a combination of campaign GPS and multiple InSAR viewing geometries. An array of 30 survey monuments spanning 3km across the fault at Painted Canyon was occupied with campaign-mode GPS between 2007 and 2012, providing a direct measurement of creep at that location; the rate of 3+/-1mm/yr is in good agreement with long-term geologic estimates of 2-4 mm/yr (Sieh and Williams, 1990). A combination of over 400 radar interferograms from ascending and descending Envisat (Tracks 356 and 77), ALOS (Tracks 213-214) (Tong et. al, 2012), and ERS (Track 356) were used to isolate the creep signal from other non-tectonic sources of deformation, providing a high-resolution image of the near-fault horizontal deformation pattern. The results indicate a creep rate consistent with the GPS at Painted Canyon, and reveal along-strike variations in both the creep rate and effective shear zone width. This width varies from less than a few meters at Painted Canyon to as wide as 4km along the North Shore section of the fault. In this area, previous geologic and geodetic observations have not identified localized surface creep. Instead, the satellite data indicates 3-4 mm/yr of fault-parallel surface deformation is distributed over a wide shear zone. We compare the geodetic data to numerical simulations of earthquake cycles incorporating laboratory-derived rate and state friction, allowing us to constrain the depth extent of the velocity-strengthening and velocity-weakening layers and the process of stress evolution in the seismogenic zone.

Lindsey, E. O.; Fialko, Y.; Bock, Y.



Experimental characterization of intragranular strain field in columnar ice during transient creep  

E-print Network

Mecanique et Materiaux, CNRS, Arts & Metiers ParisTech, 151 Bd de l'hopital, 75013 Paris, France 20, France Abstract A Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique has been adapted to polycrystalline scale during transient creep deformation (compression tests). Specimens exhibit a columnar

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de


Creep Behavior of Bi-Containing Lead-Free Solder Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The creep behavior of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305), Sn-3.4Ag-1.0Cu-3.3Bi (SAC-Bi), and Sn-3.4Ag-4.8Bi (SnAg-Bi, all wt.%) was studied in constant-stress creep tests from room temperature to 125C. The alloys were tested in two microstructural conditions. As-cast alloys had a composite eutectic-primary Sn structure, while in aged alloys the eutectic regions were replaced by a continuous Sn matrix with coarsened intermetallic (Cu6Sn5 and Ag3Sn) particles. After aging, Bi in SAC-Bi and SnAg-Bi was found as precipitates at grain boundaries and grain interiors. The creep resistance of of-cast SAC305 was higher than that of as-cast Bi-containing alloys, but after aging the SAC305 had the lowest creep resistance. The creep strain rates in SAC-Bi and SnAg-Bi were much less affected by aging. The apparent activation energy for creep was also changed more for SAC305 than for the other two alloys. The creep behavior of SAC-Bi and SnAg-Bi can be understood by considering the solubility of Bi in Sn. The difference in creep behavior between as-cast and aged SAC-Bi is greatly reduced when room-temperature test results are excluded from analysis. This suggests that the strongest influence on creep in these alloys is due to Bi solute interaction with moving dislocations during deformation.

Witkin, David



Temperature-dependent transient creep and dynamics of cratonic lithosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale mantle convection forms the upper boundary layer (lithosphere) where the vertical temperature drop is about 1300 K. Theoretical rheology and laboratory experiments with rock samples show that transient creep occurs while creep strains are sufficiently small. The transient creep is described by the temperature-dependent Andrade rheological model. Since plate tectonics allows only small deformations in lithospheric plates, creep of the lithosphere plates is transient whereas steady-state creep, described by non-Newtonian power-law rheological model, takes place in the underlying mantle. The solution of stability problem shows that the lithosphere is stable but small-scale convective oscillations are attenuated very weakly in regions of thickened lithosphere beneath continental cratons (subcratonic roots) where the thickness of the lithosphere is about 200 km. These oscillations create small-scale convective cells (the horizontal dimensions of the cells are of the order of the subcratonic lithosphere thickness). Direction of motion within the cells periodically changes (the period of convective oscillations is of the order of 3 108 yr). In this study, the oscillations of cratonic lithosphere caused by initial relief perturbation are considered. This relief perturbation is assumed to be created by overthrusting in orogenic belts surrounding cratons. The perturbation of the Earth's surface relief leads to a fast isothermal process of isostatic recovery. In the presence of vertical temperature gradient, vertical displacements, associated with the recovery process in the lithosphere interior, instantly produce the initial temperature perturbations exciting thermoconvective oscillations in the cratonic lithosphere. These small-amplitude convective oscillations cause oscillatory crustal movements which form sedimentary basins on cratons.

Birger, Boris I.



A high temperature deformation mechanism map for the high performance Ni-base superalloy GTD-111  

Microsoft Academic Search

GTD-111, used for gas turbine first stage blades, is a new, high performance and less investigated Ni-based superalloy. This alloy, with high volume fraction of ?? phase, has excellent creep resistance. It is believed that several creep deformation mechanisms operate at various combinations of temperature and stress. The regions of the controlling mechanisms can be described in terms of a

S. A. Sajjadi; S. Nategh



Temperature-dependent creep buckling of plates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Time-dependent lateral deflection of flat rectangular plates is predicted by the Norton-Bailey (Norton 1929, Bailey 1935) power law for material creep. The plates have a through-thickness steady-state temperature distribution, and the effects are considered by using Maxwell's law to modify the power creep law. Equations are derived for creep exponents of 3 and 5, using the sandwich plate element to predict creep buckling of plates. Predictions of creep buckling with a temperature variation between the inner and outer plate surfaces are found to be somewhat dependent on the creep buckling relationship assumed. When significant scatter justifies a variation in the creep constants up to an order of magnitude, discrepancies in predictions using the two exponents are reasonable, and for one engineering material, the predictions have the same degree of agreement with experimental data as have the respective creep laws.

Ross, D. A.; Berke, L.



Experimental Creep Life Assessment for the Advanced Stirling Convertor Heater Head  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The United States Department of Energy is planning to develop the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for potential use on future space missions. The ASRG provides substantial efficiency and specific power improvements over radioisotope power systems of heritage designs. The ASRG would use General Purpose Heat Source modules as energy sources and the free-piston Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) to convert heat into electrical energy. Lockheed Martin Corporation of Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, is integrating the ASRG systems, and Sunpower, Inc., of Athens, Ohio, is designing and building the ASC. NASA Glenn Research Center of Cleveland, Ohio, manages the Sunpower contract and provides technology development in several areas for the ASC. One area is reliability assessment for the ASC heater head, a critical pressure vessel within which heat is converted into mechanical oscillation of a displacer piston. For high system efficiency, the ASC heater head operates at very high temperature (850 C) and therefore is fabricated from an advanced heat-resistant nickel-based superalloy Microcast MarM-247. Since use of MarM-247 in a thin-walled pressure vessel is atypical, much effort is required to assure that the system will operate reliably for its design life of 17 years. One life-limiting structural response for this application is creep; creep deformation is the accumulation of time-dependent inelastic strain under sustained loading over time. If allowed to progress, the deformation eventually results in creep rupture. Since creep material properties are not available in the open literature, a detailed creep life assessment of the ASC heater head effort is underway. This paper presents an overview of that creep life assessment approach, including the reliability-based creep criteria developed from coupon testing, and the associated heater head deterministic and probabilistic analyses. The approach also includes direct benchmark experimental creep assessment. This element provides high-fidelity creep testing of prototypical heater head test articles to investigate the relevant material issues and multiaxial stress state. Benchmark testing provides required data to evaluate the complex life assessment methodology and to validate that analysis. Results from current benchmark heater head tests and newly developed experimental methods are presented. In the concluding remarks, the test results are shown to compare favorably with the creep strain predictions and are the first experimental evidence for a robust ASC heater head creep life.

Krause, David L.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Shah, Ashwin R.; Korovaichuk, Igor



Seismological characteristics of the 2011 unrest in Santorini caldera: Implications for observed deformation and volcano-tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Santorini caldera has experienced several explosive eruptions in the past, the most well-known of these being the Late Bronze Age (ca. 1628 BC) eruption that may have been responsible for the demise of the Minoan civilization. Since the early 1950's the volcano has been dormant without exhibiting any significant activity except from discharge of low-temperature hydrothermal fluids. In January 2011 both deformation and seismic activity increased considerably signaling a period of unrest which however, did not result in an eruption. One permanent and seven temporary seismic stations equipped with three-component sensors were deployed by the National Observatory of Athens. These were combined with seismic stations from the University of Thessaloniki, seven with only a vertical component and four with three-component sensors and all operated under the Hellenic Unified Seismic Network, thus densely monitoring the Santorini Volcano. These seismic stations have recorded the seismic activity from its start up to now. About 290 micro-earthquakes recorded by at least 5 stations were analyzed for the purpose of obtaining accurate epicentral and hypocentral locations using both catalog and differential travel times from waveform cross-correlation. All of these events exhibit clear P- and S-phases indicating that they resulted from shear failure of rock rather than fluid-flow within volcanic conduits. Results show two well-defined clusters in Palea and Nea Kameni islands within the caldera with hypocentral depths ranging between 5-10 km. Interestingly, one more cluster of events with depths between 15-19 km appears near the area of Cape Coloumbo and developed almost simultaneously with the clusters within the caldera. The Mogi source depth inferred from geodetic observations previously is shallower (~4 km) and does not coincide spatially with the clusters within the caldera. This points to the possibility that seismicity and deformation may be excited by deeper pressure changes. Shear wave splitting measurements have also been performed using all available waveform data in order to understand the nature and spatial variation of the stress field during the unrest. Fast polarization directions exhibit some orientations consistent with the regional NW-SE extension in the area, but also orientations along NE-SW that signify the presence of a local stress field as well.

Konstantinou, Konstantinos; Evangelidis, Christos; Melis, Nikolaos; Liang, Wen-Tzong



Granular and semi-brittle descriptions of slip and creep  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crustal deformation generates a wide range of creep and slip behaviors. Coseismic fault slip, aseismic creep, long-term strain transients, and slow-slip events all accommodate a great deal of tectonic strain and cause or contribute to destructive geohazards. Moreover, all have different time scales and exhibit differing degrees of periodicity. The dynamic frictional response of fault surfaces and fault rocks to slip may control a great deal of crustal slip and creep behaviors. Such is also the case for effective stress changes through fluid-pressure fluctuation and remote triggering. Yet, few existing friction and effective-stress models address the heterogeneity, range of metamorphic conditions, and range of deformational time scales that characterize natural shear zones. A useful framework for addressing this geological diversity is to treat natural shear zones as granular media. Physical experiments using analog materials provide some insight into such an approach. Shear zones of dry, granular materials produce stick-slip events via jamming phenomena, including influencing the periodicity and duration of events. When added to such granular mixtures, viscous materials enhance localization and smooth stick-slip events. Though such experimental approaches are difficult to simulate numerically, analytical and numerical solutions for fracture propagation into semi-brittle media can produce strain transients with a wide range of durations and recurrence intervals. A good example of how to use these concepts is in the characterization of possible slip behaviors for now-exhumed mid-crustal shear zones. Such shear zones tend to have deformed via predominantly viscous crystal plastic mechanisms, yet their creep behavior may well have produced strain transients including episodic tremor and slip. Fracture propagation into creeping media comprising mixtures of strong and weak materials could explain the generation of such phenomena. Geological observations of strong mafic lenses within weaker quartz-rich gneiss, cut by syntectonic quartz veins, are widely observed structural records of such behavior. Extending this analysis into the upper crust, however, will require a more complete framework for describing the strength of granular materials in the crust.

Hayman, N. W.; Lavier, L. L.



Thermal creep model for CWSR zircaloy-4 cladding taking into account the annealing of the irradiation hardening  

SciTech Connect

After irradiation and cooling in a pool, spent nuclear fuel assemblies are either transported for wet storage to a devoted site or loaded in casks for dry storage. During dry transportation or at the beginning of dry storage, the cladding is expected to be submitted to creep deformation under the hoop stress induced by the internal pressure of the fuel rod. The thermal creep is a potential mechanism that might lead to cladding failure. A new creep model was developed, based on a database of creep tests on as-received and irradiated cold-worked stress-relieved Zircaloy-4 cladding in a wide range of temperatures (310 degrees C to 470 degrees C) and hoop stress (80 to 260 MPa). Based on three laws-a flow law, a strain-hardening recovery law, and an annealing of irradiation hardening law this model allows the simulation of not only the transient creep and the steady-state creep, but also the early creep acceleration observed on irradiated samples tested in severe conditions, which was not taken into account in the previous models. The extrapolation of the creep model in the conditions of very long-term creep tests is reassuring, proving the robustness of the chosen formalism. The creep model has been assessed in progressively decreasing stress conditions, more representative of a transport. Set up to predict the cladding creep behavior under variable temperature and stress conditions, this model can easily be implemented into codes in order to simulate the thermomechanical behavior of spent fuel rods in various scenarios of postirradiation phases. (authors)

Cappelaere, Chantal; Limon, Roger; Duguay, Chrstelle; Pinte, Gerard; Le Breton, Michel [CEA Saclay, DEN, Serv Etud Mat Irradies, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Bouffioux, Pol [EDF R et D Renardieres, F-77818 Ecuelles, Moret Sur Loing, (France); Chabretou, Valerie [AREVA NP SAS, AREVA, F-69456 Lyon 6, (France); Miquet, Alain [EDF SEPTEN, F-69628 Villeurbanne, (France)



Creep behavior and lifetime of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiC nanocomposites  

SciTech Connect

Creep behavior and lifetime of various Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiC nanocomposite materials were investigated and compared with the properties of monolithic silicon nitride materials. The composites differed in the type and amount of the submicron-sized SiC particles incorporated. Creep and time-to-failure were studied in four-point bending in air at temperatures ranging from 1400 to 1600{degrees}C and stresses up to 600 MPa. The creep resistance was strongly dependent both on the impurity level and the volume content of the SiC particles. Increasing the SiC content caused the creep rate to go through a minimum located at about 10 - 15 wt.% SiC. The effect of stress on the creep behavior could be described by the occurrence of two different stress regimes. At low and intermediate stresses, the creep behavior was characterized by a homogeneous bulk deformation, a high creep resistance, low creep damage, and a long lifetime. However, at stresses exceeding a certain threshold level (200 - 550 MPa, depending on the specific material), the mechanical behavior was controlled by subcritical crack growth, leading to pronounced damage and premature failure due to cracking.

Rendtel, A.; Huebner, H. [Technische Universitaet, Hamburg (Germany)



A comparison of Unified creep-plasticity and conventional creep models for rock salt based on predictions of creep behavior measured in several in situ and bench-scale experiments  

SciTech Connect

A unified creep-plasticity (UCP) model, a conventional elastic-secondary creep (ESC) model, and an elastic-secondary creep model with greatly reduced elastic moduli (RESC model) are used to compute creep responses for five experimental configurations in which rock salt is subjected to several different complex loadings. The UCP model is exercised with three sets of model parameters. Two sets are for salt from the site of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico, and the third is for salt from Avery Island, Louisiana. The WIPP reference secondary creep parameters are used in both the EC and RESC models. The WIPP reference values for the elastic moduli are also used in the ESC model. These moduli are divided by 12.5 in the RESC model. The geometrical configurations include the South Drift at the WIPP site, a hypothetical shaft in rock salt, a large hollow cylinder of rock salt subjected to external pressure while still in the floor of a drift at Avery Island, Louisiana, a laboratory-scale hollow cylinder subjected to external pressure, and a model pillar of salt subjected to axial load. Measured creep responses are available for all of these experiments except the hypothetical shaft. In all cases, deformations computed with the UCP model are much larger than the ESC predictions and are in better agreement with the data. The RESC model also produces larger deformations than the ESC model, and for the South Drift, the RESC predictions agree well with measured closures. 46 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

Morgan, H.S.; Krieg, R.D.



Improved Creep Measurements for Ultra-High Temperature Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our team has developed a novel approach to measuring creep at extremely high temperatures using electrostatic levitation (ESL). This method has been demonstrated on niobium up to 2300 C, while ESL has melted tungsten (3400 C). This method has been extended to lower temperatures and higher stresses and applied to new materials, including a niobium-based superalloy, MASC. High-precision machined spheres of the sample are levitated in the NASA MSFC ESL, a national user facility and heated with a laser. The samples are rotated with an induction motor at up to 30,000 revolutions per second. The rapid rotation loads the sample through centripetal acceleration, producing a shear stress of about 60 MPa at the center, causing the sample to deform. The deformation of the sample is captured on high-speed video, which is analyzed by machine-vision software from the University of Massachusetts. The deformations are compared to finite element models to determine the constitutive constants in the creep relation. Furthermore, the non-contact method exploits stress gradients within the sample to determine the stress exponent in a single test.

Hyers, Robert W.; Ye, X.; Rogers, Jan R.



Advances in Non-contact Measurement of Creep Properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our team has developed a novel approach to measuring creep at extremely high temperatures using electrostatic levitation (ESL). This method has been demonstrated on niobium up to 2300 C, while ESL has melted tungsten (3400 C). High-precision machined spheres of the sample are levitated in the NASA MSFC ESL, a national user facility, and heated with a laser. The laser is aligned off-center so that the absorbed photons transfer their momentum to the sample, causing it to rotate at up to 250,000+ RPM. The rapid rotation loads the sample through centripetal acceleration, causing it to deform. The deformation of the sample is captured on high-speed video, which is analyzed by machine-vision software from the University of Massachusetts. The deformations are compared to finite element models to determine the constitutive constants in the creep relation. Furthermore, the noncontact method exploits stress gradients within the sample to determine the stress exponent in a single test. This method was validated in collaboration with the University of Tennessee for niobium at 1985 C, with agreement within the uncertainty of the conventional measurements. A similar method is being employed on Ultra-High-Temperature ZrB2- SiC composites, which may see application in rocket nozzles and sharp leading edges for hypersonic vehicles.

Hyers, Robert W.; Canepari, Stacy; Rogers, Jan. R.



Creep-Feeding Range Calves  

E-print Network

TEXAS 'X6RICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A COLLE .. B. COI :GE STAT; VNER, DIRECTOR [ON, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 470 DECEMBER, 1932 DIVISION OF RANGE ANIMAL HUSBANDRY dreep#Feeding Range Calves -- AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL..., it has been found profitable to supply rain to calves during their suckling period. This may be done y what is known as creep feeding. Creeps are enclosures in nrhich the calves are fed an3 the entrances, of which are of such size that the calves can...

Jones, J. M. (John McKinley); Jones, John H.



Testing Protocol for Module Encapsulant Creep (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Recently there has been an interest in the use of thermoplastic encapsulant materials in photovoltaic modules to replace chemically crosslinked materials, e.g., ethylene-vinyl acetate. The related motivations include the desire to: reduce lamination time or temperature; use less moisture-permeable materials; or use materials with better corrosion characteristics. However, the use of any thermoplastic material in a high-temperature environment raises safety and performance concerns, as the standardized tests currently do not expose the modules to temperatures in excess of 85C, yet modules may experience temperatures above 100C in operation. Here we constructed eight pairs of crystalline-silicon modules and eight pairs of glass/encapsulation/glass mock modules using different encapsulation materials of which only two were designed to chemically crosslink. One module set was exposed outdoors with insulation on the back side in Arizona in the summer, and an identical set was exposed in environmental chambers. High precision creep measurements and performance measurements indicate that despite many of these polymeric materials being in the melt state at some of the highest outdoor temperatures achievable, very little creep was seen because of their high viscosity, temperature heterogeneity across the modules, and in the case of the crystalline-silicon modules, the physical restraint of the backsheet. These findings have very important implications for the development of IEC and UL qualification and safety standards, and in regards to the necessary level of cure during the processing of crosslinking encapsulants.

Kempe, M. D.; Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.; Moseley, J. M.; Shah, Q.; Tamizhmani, G.; Sakurai, K.; Inoue, M.; Doi, T.; Masuda, A.



Microstructural Characterization of Dislocation Networks During Harper-Dorn Creep of fcc, bcc, and hcp Metals and Alloys  

SciTech Connect

Harper-Dorn (H-D) creep is observed in metals and geological materials exposed to very low stresses at temperatures close to the melting point. It is one of several types of creep processes wherein the steady-state strain rate is proportional to the applied stress, Nabarro-Herring creep and Coble creep being two other important processes. H-D creep can be somewhat insidious because the creep rates are much larger than those expected for Nabarro-Herring or Coble creep. Since the working conditions of structural components of power plants and propulsion systems, as well as the motion of the earths mantle all involve very low stresses, an understanding of the factors controlling H-D creep is critical in preventing failures associated with those higher-than-expected creep rates. The purpose of this investigation was to obtain missing microstructural information on the evolution of the dislocation structures during static annealing of materials with fcc, bcc and hcp structure and use obtained results to test predictive capabilities of the dislocation network theory of H-D creep. In our view the evolutionary processes during static annealing and during Harper-Dorn creep are intimately related. The materials used in this study were fcc aluminum, hcp zinc and bcc tin. All characterizations of dislocation structures, densities and dislocation link length distributions were carried out using the etch pit method. To obtain quantitative information on the evolution of the dislocation networks during annealing the pure fcc aluminum samples were pre-deformed by creep at 913 and 620 K and then annealed. The higher deformation temperature was selected to generate starting dislocation networks similar to those forming during Harper-Dorn creep and the lower, to obtain higher dislocation densities suitable for reliable estimates of the parameters of the network growth law. The measured experimental link length distribution were, after scaling, (1) the same for all annealing temperatures, (2) time invariant and (3) identical to the distributions obtained previously for Harper-Dorn creep. This has never been shown before and confirms our theoretical expectations that evolution of the dislocation networks during annealing and H-D creep is governed by the same growth law. Obtained results were also used to predict H-D steady creep rates from annealing kinetics data using equations of the dislocation network theory. For the three considered stresses the theory predicts systematically smaller creep rates by the average factor of 4.5. Considering that the creep rates have been predicted from the annealing data alone and without any adjustable parameters, this results shout be considered as outstanding. In case of hcp zinc the samples were pre-deformed in compression at constant stress of 4 MPa at temperature of 573 K and subsequently annealed at the same temperature. During annealing samples readily recrystallized, but it was possible to obtain information on the link length distributions from several unrecrystallized grains. The results showed that the scaled link length distributions were time invariant and similar to those of the aluminum. The annealing studies on bcc tin were also curtailed by the concurrent recrystallization. It was only possible to obtain link length distribution for samples deformed in compression at constant load of 2 MPa at 423 K after unloading. The link length distribution was also in this case similar to that of the aluminum and zinc. These results suggest that the scaled link length distribution is universal and the same for the three considered crystal structures. This supports theoretical findings of these studies that appropriately scaled dislocation link length distribution should both universal and time invariant. We have also investigated the possibility of using alternative methods of estimating local dislocation densities from etch pits which could give more precise estimates of the dislocation link-lengths. The two most promising method are based on the use of Voronoi diagrams and uniform 3-connected nets

Przystupa, Marek A.



Tensile, creep, and ABI tests on sn5%sb solder for mechanical property evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sn5%Sb is one of the materials considered for replacing lead containing alloys for soldering in electronic packaging. We evaluated the tensile properties of the bulk material at varied strain-rates and temperatures (to 473K) to determine the underlying deformation mechanisms. Stress exponents of about three and seven were observed at low and high stresses, respectively, and very low activation energies for creep (about 16.7 and 37.7 kJ/mole) were noted. A maximum ductility of about 350% was noted at ambient temperature. Creep tests performed in the same temperature regime also showed two distinct regions, albeit with slightly different exponents (three and five) and activation energy (about 54.4 kJ/mole). Ball indentation tests were performed on the shoulder portions of the creep samples (prior to creep tests) using a Stress-Strain Microprobe@ (Advanced Technology Corporation) at varied indentation rates (strain-rates). The automated ball indentation (ABI) data were at relatively high strain-rates; however, they were in excellent agreement with creep data, while both these results deviated from the tensile test data. Work is planned to perform creep at high stresses at ambient and extend ABI tests to elevated temperatures.

Murty, K. Linga; Haggag, Fahmy M.; Mahidhara, Rao K.



Pressure solution creep in gypsum: Evidence for precipitation reaction control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uniaxial compaction experiments have been performed on wet granular gypsum aggregates under conditions favouring pressure solution creep, with the aim of identifying the process which controls the rate of deformation by this mechanism. Experiments were performed under both (chemically) closed- and open-system conditions, and using a saturated CaSO4 solution with varying dissolved NaCl content. The results of these experiments, together with results obtained from crystal growth experiments performed on natural gypsum, suggest that pressure solution in gypsum is rate limited by the precipitation reaction, but other possibilities can not yet be eliminated.

de Meer, S.; Spiers, C. J.; Peach, C. J.


Non-isothermal elastoviscoplastic snap-through and creep buckling of shallow arches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of buckling of shallow arches under transient thermomechanical loads is investigated. The analysis is based on nonlinear geometric and constitutive relations, and is expressed in a rate form. The material constitutive equations are capable of reproducing all non-isothermal, elasto-viscoplastic characteristics. The solution scheme is capable of predicting response which includes pre and postbuckling with creep and plastic effects. The solution procedure is demonstrated through several examples which include both creep and snap-through behavior.

Simitses, G. J.; Riff, R.



Associations between characters in populations of creeping-rooted lucerne (Medicago sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correlations were calculated between some non-creeping characters first season of growth. The non-creeping characters were: length of seed pods, the number of pod spirals, and autumn growth score.Correlations between the different measures of the size of the plant were consistently highly significant. Correlations between traits considered characteristic of M. falcata were not as close or consistent, and were considered to

M. W. Dunbier



High temperature tensile deformation behavior of Grade 92 steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Candidate structural materials for advanced reactors need to have superior high temperature strength and creep-rupture properties among other characteristics. The ferritic-martensitic Grade 92 steel (Fe-9Cr-2W-0.5Mo, wt.%) is considered such a candidate structural material. Tensile tests were performed at temperatures of 600, 650 and 700 C in the strain rate range of 10-5-10-3 s-1. After analyzing the tensile results using the Bird-Mukherjee-Dorn (BMD) equation, a stress exponent of about 9.5 and an activation energy of about 646 kJ/mol were obtained. In the light of high values of the stress exponent and activation energy, the threshold stress concept was used to elucidate the operating high temperature deformation mechanism. As a result of this modification, the true activation energy and stress exponent of the high temperature deformation in Grade 92 steel were found to be about 245 kJ/mol and 5, respectively. Thus, the dominant high temperature deformation mechanism was identified as the high temperature climb of edge dislocations and the appropriate constitutive equation was developed.

Alsagabi, Sultan; Shrestha, Triratna; Charit, Indrajit



Patterns of brittle deformation under extension on Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of fractures at regular length scales is a widespread feature of Venusian tectonics. Models of lithospheric deformation under extension based on non-Newtonian viscous flow and brittle-plastic flow develop localized failure at preferred wavelengths that depend on lithospheric thickness and stratification. The characteristic wavelengths seen in rift zones and tessera can therefore provide constraints on crustal and thermal structure. Analytic solutions were obtained for growth rates in infinitesimal perturbations imposed on a one-dimensional, layered rheology. Brittle layers were approximated by perfectly-plastic, uniform strength, overlying ductile layers exhibiting thermally-activated power-law creep. This study investigates the formation of faults under finite amounts of extension, employing a finite-element approach. Our model incorporates non-linear viscous rheology and a Coulomb failure envelope. An initial perturbation in crustal thickness gives rise to necking instabilities. A small amount of velocity weakening serves to localize deformation into planar regions of high strain rate. Such planes are analogous to normal faults seen in terrestrial rift zones. These 'faults' evolve to low angle under finite extension. Fault spacing, orientation and location, and the depth to the brittle-ductile transition, depend in a complex way on lateral variations in crustal thickness. In general, we find that multiple wavelengths of deformation can arise from the interaction of crustal and mantle lithosphere.

Neumann, G. A.; Zuber, M. T.



Time-dependent model of creep on the Hayward fault from joint inversion of 18 years of InSAR and surface creep data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial and temporal variations of aseismic fault creep influence the size and timing of large earthquakes along partially coupled faults. To solve for a time-dependent model of creep on the Hayward fault, we invert 18 years of surface deformation data (1992-2010), obtained by interferometric processing of 52 and 50 SAR images acquired by the ERS1/2 and Envisat satellites, respectively, and surface creep data obtained at 19 alinement and 4 creepmeter stations. For multi-temporal analysis of the SAR data we developed a method for identifying stable pixels using wavelet multi-resolution analysis. We also implement a variety of wavelet-based filters for reducing the effects of environmental artifacts. Using a reweighted least squares approach, we inverted the interferometric data to generate a time series of surface deformation over the San Francisco Bay Area with a precision of better than a few millimeters. To jointly invert the InSAR displacement time series and the surface creep data for a time-dependent model of fault creep, we use a robust inversion approach combined with a Kalman filter. The time-dependent model constrains a zone of high slip deficit that may represent the locked rupture asperity of past and future M?7 earthquakes. We identify several additional temporal variations in creep rate along the Hayward fault, the most important one being a zone of accelerating slip just northwest of the major locked zone. We estimate that a slip-rate deficit equivalent to Mw 6.3-6.8 has accumulated on the fault, since the last event in 1868.

Shirzaei, M.; Brgmann, R.



The deformation behavior of solid polymers and modeling with the viscoplasticity theory based on overstress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inelastic deformation of six engineering polymers has been investigated with the desideratum being a thorough mapping of the mechanical response characteristics and the subsequent application of a state-variable based constitutive material model to the data. Materials included in the investigation were polycarbonate (PC), Nylon 66, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polyethylene-terephthalate (PET), polyethersulfone (PES) and polyphenylene oxide (PPO). Cylindrical specimens were machined from as-received rod stock. The use of a servo-hydraulic test frame with control mode switching capability has permitted data collection under strain and load controlled test configurations. In the region of homogeneous deformation with strain typically less than 10%, during loading all materials have been found to exhibit, (i) positive non-linear rate sensitivity in loading, (ii) the magnitude of the response in creep, relaxation and recovery tests varies non-linearly with changes in the prior loading rate, and (iii) in the inelastic flow region the stress drop in relaxation has been found to be independent of the test strain value. In addition to these findings, perhaps the most singular deformation response has been in the instance of relaxation (creep) during unloading when the rate of change of stress (strain) may undergo a change in sign. This phenomenon has been labeled 'rate reversal' and has surfaced in tensile and compression load conditions. The preponderance of data, therefore, suggests that the amorphous versus crystalline distinction does not largely manifest itself in the qualitative nature of the deformation behavior. This finding endorses the competence of macro-based models to undertake the task of polymer deformation modeling. Common response characteristics such as positive strain rate sensitivity, monotonic decreases in the stress magnitude in a relaxation test (strain hold), and response during creep have been modeled well with the existing viscoplasticity theory based on overstress (VBO), a state variable model consisting of a set of non-linear differential equations. Material constants and model predictions for HDPE and PPO have been generated. Curved unloading and the aforementioned rate reversal behavior, however, appear to fall beyond the purview of the existing formulation. Potential modifications to the model are discussed.

Khan, Fazeel Jilani


Life at Mission Creep U  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term "mission creep" was originally coined nearly a hundred years ago to describe the gradual process by which a military mission's stated methods and goals change, and recently the term has been applied to incremental organizational changes. In this article, the term is used to describe what happens when a teaching-oriented college or

Dubrow, Greg; Moseley, Bryan; Dustin, Daniel




SciTech Connect

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to study diffusion-accommodated creep deformation in nanocrystalline molybdenum, a body-centered cubic metal. In our simulations, the microstructures are subjected to constant-stress loading at levels below the dislocation nucleation threshold and at high temperatures (i.e., T > 0.75Tmelt), thereby ensuring that the overall deformation is indeed attributable to atomic self-diffusion. The initial microstructures were designed to consist of hexagonally shaped columnar grains bounded by high-energy asymmetric tilt grain boundaries (GBs). Remarkably the creep rates, which exhibit a double-exponential dependence on temperature and a double power-law dependence on grain size, indicate that both GB diffusion in the form of Coble creep and lattice diffusion in the form of NabarroHerring creep contribute to the overall deformation. For the first time in an MD simulation, we observe the formation and emission of vacancies from high-angle GBs into the grain interiors, thus enabling bulk diffusion.

Paul C. Millett; Tapan Desai; Vesselin Yamakov; Dieter Wolf



Tensile creep behavior of polycrystalline alumina fibers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tensile creep studies were conducted on polycrystalline Nextel 610 and Fiber FP alumina fibers with grain sizes of 100 and 300 nm, respectively. Test conditions were temperatures from 800 to 1050 C and stresses from 60 to 1000 MPa. For both fibers, only a small primary creep portion occurred followed by steady-state creep. The stress exponents for steady-state creep of Nextel 610 and Fiber FP were found to be about 3 and 1, respectively. At lower temperatures, below 1000 C, the finer grained Nextel 610 had a much higher 0.2 percent creep strength for 100 hr than the Fiber FP; while at higher temperatures, Nextel 610 had a comparable creep strength to the Fiber FP. The stress and grain size dependencies suggest Nextel 610 and Fiber FP creep rates are due to grain boundary sliding controlled by interface reaction and Nabarro-Herring mechanisms, respectively.

Yun, H. M.; Goldsby, J. C.



High-temperature creep of polycrystalline chromium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The creep properties of high-purity, polycrystalline chromium were determined over the temperature range 0.51 to 0.78 T sub m, where T sub m is the melting temperature. Creep rates determined from step-load creep tests can be represented by the general creep equation; epsilon/D = k((sigma/E) to the nth power) where epsilon is the minimum creep rate, D is the diffusivity, k is the creep rate constant, sigma is the applied stress, E is the modulus, and n is the stress exponent, equal to 4.3 for chromium. This correlation and metallographic observations suggest a dislocation climb mechanism is operative in the creep of chromium over the temperature range investigated.

Stephens, J. R.; Klopp, W. D.



Universal mechanism of thermomechanical deformation in metallic glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the atomistic structure of metallic glasses subjected to thermomechanical creep deformation using high energy x-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics simulation. The experiments were performed in situ at high temperatures as a time dependent deformation in the elastic regime, and ex situ on samples quenched under stress. We show that all the anisotropic structure functions of the samples that have undergone thermomechanical creep can be scaled into a single curve, regardless of the magnitude of anelastic strain, stress level, and the sign of the stress, demonstrating universal behavior and pointing to a unique atomistic unit of anelastic deformation. The structural changes due to creep are strongly localized within the second nearest neighbors, involving only a small group of atoms.

Dmowski, W.; Tong, Y.; Iwashita, T.; Yokoyama, Y.; Egami, T.



The microstructure and creep behavior of cold rolled udimet 188 sheet.  


Udimet 188 was subjected to thermomechanical processing (TMP) in an attempt to understand the effects of cold-rolling deformation on the microstructure and tensile-creep behavior. Commercially available sheet was cold rolled to varying amounts of deformation (between 5-35% reduction in sheet thickness) followed by a solution treatment at 1,464 K (1,191 C) for 1 h and subsequent air cooling. This sequence was repeated four times to induce a high-volume fraction of low-energy grain boundaries. The resultant microstructure was characterized using electron backscattered diffraction. The effect of the TMP treatment on the high-temperature [1,033-1,088 K (760-815 C)] creep behavior was evaluated. The measured creep stress exponents (6.0-6.8) suggested that dislocation creep was dominant at 1,033 K (760 C) for stresses ranging between 100-220 MPa. For stresses ranging between 25-100 MPa at 1,033 K (760 C), the stress exponents (2.3-2.8) suggested grain boundary sliding was dominant. A significant amount of grain boundary cracking was observed both on the surface and subsurface of deformed samples. To assess the mechanisms of crack nucleation, in situ scanning electron microscopy was performed during the elevated-temperature tensile-creep deformation. Cracking occurred preferentially along general high-angle grain boundaries (GHAB) and less than 25% of the cracks were found on low-angle grain boundaries (LAB) and coincident site lattice boundaries (CSLB). Creep rupture experiments were performed at T = 1,088 K (815 C) and ? = 165 MPa and the greatest average time-to-rupture was exhibited by the TMP sheet with the greatest fraction of LAB+CSLB. However, a clear correlation was not exhibited between the grain boundary character distribution and the minimum creep rates. The findings of this work suggest that although grain boundary engineering may be possible for this alloy, simply relating the fraction of grain boundary types to the creep resistance is not sufficient. PMID:21205424

Boehlert, C J; Longanbach, S C



Microstructural evolution of uranium dioxide following compression creep tests: An EBSD and image analysis study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sintered UO2 pellets with relatively large grains (?25 ?m) are tested at 1500 C under a compressive stress of 50 MPa, at different deformation levels up to 12%. Electron Back Scattered Diffraction (EBSD) is used to follow the evolution, with deformation, of grains (size, shape, orientation) and sub-grains. Image analyses of SEM images are performed to characterize emergence of a population of micron size voids. For the considered microstructure and test conditions, the results show that the deformation process of UO2 globally corresponds to grain boundary sliding, partly accommodated by a dislocational creep within the grains, leading to a highly sub-structured state.

Iltis, X.; Gey, N.; Cagna, C.; Hazotte, A.; Sornay, Ph.



Creep of wet gypsum aggregates under hydrostatic loading conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gypsum-dominated evaporite sequences are known to play an important role in controlling the mechanics of foreland thrust and nappe tectonics, as well as occasionally forming large-scale halokinetic structures associated with oil and gas accumulations. However, relatively little is known regarding the relevant deformation mechanisms and mechanical behaviour of gypsum. In this study, attention is focused on determining the compaction creep behaviour of wet granular gypsum aggregates with the aim of assessing the importance of pressure solution. Hydrostatic compaction experiments were performed at room temperature and applied effective pressures in the range 0.4-3.9 MPa, using grain sizes ranging from 15 to 125 ?m. The microstructure of the wet-tested samples showed that compaction occurred by a process of dissolution within grain contacts and precipitation on pore walls. In addition, for most of the range of conditions investigated, the mechanical data were found to be broadly consistent with models for interface-reaction-controlled grain boundary diffusional pressure solution. Combining the mechanical data with kinetic data taken from the crystal growth / dissolution literature it is suggested that for the bulk of conditions studied, creep of our wet granular gypsum aggregates was probably rate-limited by precipitation on the pore walls. This is in sharp contrast to the diffusion-controlled pressure solution creep behaviour recently reported for highly soluble salts, such as NaCl and NaNO 3, under similar conditions.

de Meer, Siese; Spiers, Christopher J.



The Role of Eta Phase Formation on the Creep Strength and Ductility of INCONEL Alloy 740 t 1023 k (750 Degrees C)  

SciTech Connect

INCONEL alloy 740 is an age-hardenable nickel-based superalloy proposed for advanced ultrasupercritical steam boiler applications operating at high stress and long times above 973 K (700 C), where creep will be the dominate deformation mode. During high-temperature exposure, the alloy can form eta phase platelets that many have suggested may be detrimental to creep strength and ductility. In this study, creep-rupture tests were conducted on smooth and notched bars of INCONEL alloy 740 at 1023 K (750 C) for times up to 20,000 hours. Examination of the creep-rupture life, creep ductility, failure modes, and microstructure by quantitative electron microscopy shows that a small amount of eta phase does not diminish the creep performance. Applied stress appears to have a minor effect on the precipitation of the eta phase but not its growth rate. Based on the observation that the microstructure after 20,000 hours of creep exposure has reached equilibrium in comparison to thermodynamic calculations, it is concluded that 20,000 hour creep tests are adequate for prediction of long-term creep performance.

Shingledecker, John P [ORNL; Pharr, George Mathews [ORNL



Deformation mechanisms of experimentally deformed Salina Basin bedded salt  

SciTech Connect

Petrofabrics of deformed salt from the Cleveland area within the Salina Basin are presented. Quasi-static compression at room temperature and 1 MPa confining pressure is dominated by fracture. Incipient failure is evidenced by wide zones of coalesced fractures at an axial strain of 5%. Strain hardening, evidenced by photoelastic effects, abounds under these conditions. At 5 MPa far fewer fractures are found at axial strains of 13%. Photoelastic effects are appreciably diminished at 5 MPa, which must mean more homogeneous ductile flow ensues, perhaps owing to activation of many dislocation mills. Clearly, the brittle-to-ductile transition requires additional petrographic work for documentation. Because the dominant mechanism is very pressure sensitive at relative low mean stresses, it appears necessary to include confining pressure in the deformation mechanism map. Creep at 15 MPa and temperatures >100/sup 0/C is dominated by thermally activated diffusion. Fracture and photoelastic effects are almost totally suppressed relative to quasi-static experiments at lower confining pressure and temperature. The mechanism of climb into stable polygons is fully documented by etch pit studies in samples that are deformed well into steady state. Creep properties of Cleveland and Avery Island salt are very similar under conditions of elevated temperature and intermediate stresses. As temperature is reduced the predicted flow stress of Cleveland becomes greater than that of Avery Island. However, extrapolation of either flow law to low temperature is not justified because the governing mechanisms change from climb to fracture and glide.

Hansen, F.D.



The Rate of Creep Deformation St Edmund's College, Cambridge  

E-print Network

for the degree of Master of Philosophy at the University of Cambridge August 2003 #12;ii Preface This dissertation is submitted for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Modelling of Materials at the University was used to make predictions against variation of composition, stress and temperature. The dependence

Cambridge, University of


Low cycle fatigue and creep-fatigue behavior of Ni-based alloy 230 at 850 C  

SciTech Connect

Strain-controlled low cycle fatigue (LCF) and creep-fatigue testing of Ni-based alloy 230 were carried out at 850 C. The material creep-fatigue life decreased compared with its low cycle fatigue life at the same total strain range. Longer hold time at peak tensile strain further reduced the material creep-fatigue life. Based on the electron backscatter diffraction, a novel material deformation characterization method was applied, which revealed that in low cycle fatigue testing as the total strain range increased, the deformation was segregated to grain boundaries since the test temperature was higher than the material equicohesive temperature and grain boundaries became weaker regions compared with grains. Creep-fatigue tests enhanced the localized deformation, resulting in material interior intergranular cracking, and accelerated material damage. Precipitation in alloy 230 helped slip dispersion, favorable for fatigue property, but grain boundary cellular precipitates formed after material exposure to the elevated temperature had a deleterious effect on the material low cycle fatigue and creep-fatigue property.

Chen, Xiang [ORNL; Yang, Zhiqing [ORNL; Sokolov, Mikhail A [ORNL; ERDMAN III, DONALD L [ORNL; Mo, Kun [ORNL; Stubbins, James [ORNL



Subsurface Creep and Geometry of the Hayward-Calaveras Stepover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The San Francisco Bay Area has not experienced a major earthquake beneath and urban center since 1906. The Hayward fault is the most populated fault in the area, and 140 years after its last rupture, also has the greatest risk associated with it. A contiguous subsurface stepover connecting the Hayward and the Calaveras faults appears to directly transfer slip between the two faults, and may affect earthquake rupture scenarios on both faults. Although the Hayward fault is partially locked for much of its trace, the southernmost fault creeps up to 9 mm/yr, equal to its long-term slip rate. At the proposed juncture region, the southern Calaveras fault also exhibits a surface creep rate close to total slip rate of 15mm/yr. Although, creep on the northern Calaveras is poorly constrained, its geologic slip rate is about 6 mm/yr, suggesting direct slip transfer from the southern Calaveras to the Hayward fault. Relocated seismicity outlines an eastward-dipping Hayward fault which appears to dip into and merge with the central Calaveras fault at depth. Additionally, characteristic repeating earthquakes through the stepover indicate that subsurface creep occurs between the two faults. Using both continuous GPS and updated GPS campaign data, we re-evaluate slip on Bay Area faults, and map slip through the Hayward-Calaveras stepover using a contiguous fault model. We use background seismicity and repeating earthquakes to constrain the geometry of the stepover, and invert GPS and InSAR data for slip. We interpret our map of creep transfer between the Hayward and Calaveras faults for its implications for seismic rupture through the stepover and seismic hazard in the Bay Area.

Evans, E. L.; Brgmann, R.; Meade, B.; Houlie, N.; Nadeau, R.; Funning, G. J.



Effect of Nb and Cu on the high temperature creep properties of a high MnN austenitic stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

The effect of Nb and Cu addition on the creep properties of a high MnN austenitic stainless steel was investigated at 600 and 650 C. In the original high MnN steel, which was initially precipitate-free, the precipitation of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} (M = Cr, Fe) and Cr{sub 2}N took place mostly on grain boudaries during creep deformation. On the other hand, the minor addition of Nb resulted in high number density of Z-phases (CrNbN) and MX (M = Nb; X = C, N) carbonitrides inside grains by combining with a high content of N, while suppressing the formation of Cr{sub 2}N. The addition of Cu gave rise to the independent precipitation of nanometer-sized metallic Cu particles. The combination of the different precipitate-forming mechanisms associated with Z-phase, MX and Cu-rich precipitates turned out to improve the creep-resistance significantly. The thermodynamics and kinetics of the precipitation were discussed using thermo-kinetic simulations. - Highlights: The creep rupture life was improved by Nb and Cu addition. The creep resistance of the steel A2 in this study was comparable to that of TP347HFG. The size of Z-phase and MX carbonitride did not change significantly after creep test. The nanometer sized Cu-rich precipitate was observed after creep. The predicted size of precipitates by MatCalc agreed well with measured size.

Lee, Kyu-Ho, E-mail: [High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Jin-Yoo, E-mail: [High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Joo-Youl, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Dae-Bum, E-mail: [High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung-Min, E-mail: [High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Jae-Hyeok, E-mail: [High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Woo-Sang, E-mail: [High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)



Triaxial creep measurements on rock salt from the Jennings dome, Louisiana, borehole LA-1, core {number_sign}8  

SciTech Connect

Tejas Power Company requested that facilities in the Rock Mechanics Laboratory at Sandia National Laboratories be used to assess the time-dependent properties of rock salt from the Jennings dome in Acadia Parish, Louisiana. Nominally 2.5-inch diameter slat core from borehole LA-1, core 8 (depth 3924.8 to 3837.8 ft; 1196.8--1197.1 m) was provided to accomplish two tasks: (1) Using the smallest possible number of experiments, evaluate the tendency of Jennings salt to undergo time-dependent deformation (creep) under constant applied stresses, and compare the creep of Jennings salt with creep data for rock salt from other locations. (2) Assess the applicability of published laboratory-derived creep properties for rock salt from several bedded and domal sites in finite element analyses concerning the design of new gas storage caverns in the Jennings dome. The characterization of Jennings salt followed the same strategy that was applied in earlier laboratory experiments on core from the Moss Bluff dome near Houston, Texas. This report summarizes the relevant details of five creep experiments on a sample from depth 3927.5 ft, the results obtained, and how these results compared with laboratory creep measurements gathered on rock salt from other locations including the West Hackberry, Bryan Mound and Moss Bluff domes. The report also considers the estimates of specific creep parameters commonly used in numerical engineering design analyses.

Wawersik, W.R.; Zimmerer, D.J.



High temperature creep of SiC densified using a transient liquid phase  

SciTech Connect

Silicon carbide-based ceramics can be rapidly densified above approximately 1850 {degree}C due to a transient liquid phase resulting from the reaction between alumina and aluminum oxycarbides. The resulting ceramics are fine-grained, dense, and exhibit high strength at room temperature. SiC hot pressed at 1875 {degree}C for 10 min in Ar was subjected to creep deformation in bending at elevated temperatures between 1500 and 1650 {degree}C in Ar. Creep was thermally activated with an activation energy of 743 kJ/mol. Creep rates at 1575 {degree}C were between 10{sup {minus}9}/s and 10{sup {minus}7}/s at an applied stress between 38 and 200 MPa, respectively, resulting in a stress exponent of {approx}1.7.

Jou, Z.C.; Virkar, A.V. (Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (USA)); Cutler, R.A. (Ceramatec, Inc., 2425 South 900 West, Salt Lake City, Utah (USA))



Compressive Creep Behavior of Spark Plasma Sintered 8 mol% Yttria Stabilized Cubic Zirconia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper describes compressive creep behavior of cubic 8 mol% Yttria-stabilized Zirconia, fabricated by spark plasma sintering, in the temperature range of 1300-1330 C at a stress level of 78-193 MPa in vacuum. The pre- and post-creep microstructures, along with the values of the stress exponent ( n = 1.7-2.7) and the activation energy ( Q = 711-757 kJ/mol) suggest that a mixed mode of plastic deformation, dominated by grain boundary sliding, occurred in this material. The relatively high activation energy observed was related to the pinning of the grain boundaries by voids during creep, leading to microcrack formation, shear strain-induced grain exfoliation, and finally creation of new voids at grain boundaries.

Robles Arellano, K. D.; Bichler, L.; Mondal, K.; Fong, R.



Creep Properties of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Glass-Ceramic Seal G18  

SciTech Connect

This study utilizes nanoindentation to investigate and measure creep properties of a barium calcium aluminosilicate glass-ceramic used for solid oxide fuel cell seals (SOFCs). Samples of the glassceramic seal material were aged for 5h, 50h, and 100h to obtain different degrees of crystallinity. Instrumented nanoindentation was performed on the samples with different aging times at different temperatures to investigate the strain rate sensitivity during inelastic deformation. The temperature dependent behavior is important since SOFCs operate at high temperatures (800-1000C). Results show that the samples with higher crystallinity were more resistant to creep, and the creep compliance tended to decrease with increasing temperature, especially with further aged samples.

Milhans, Jacqueline; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Sun, Xin; Tehrani, Mehran; Al-Haik, Marwan; Garmestani, Hamid



Using UAVSAR to Estimate Creep Along the Superstition Hills Fault, Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UAVSAR data were first acquired over the Salton Trough region, just north of the Mexican border in October 2009. Second passes of data were acquired on 12 and 13 April 2010, about one week following the 5 April 2010 M 7.2 El Mayor - Cucapah earthquake. The earthquake resulted in creep on several faults north of the main rupture, including the Yuha, Imperial, and Superstition Hills faults. The UAVSAR platform acquires data about every six meters in swaths about 15 km wide. Tropospheric effects and residual aircraft motion contribute to error in the estimation of surface deformation in the Repeat Pass Interferometry products. The Superstition Hills fault shows clearly in the associated radar interferogram; however, error in the data product makes it difficult to infer deformation from long profiles that cross the fault. Using the QuakeSim InSAR Profile tool we extracted line of site profiles on either side of the fault delineated in the interferogram. We were able to remove much of the correlated error by differencing profiles 250 m on either side of the fault. The result shows right-lateral creep of 1.5.4 mm along the northern 7 km of the fault in the interferogram. The amount of creep abruptly changes to 8.4.4 mm of right lateral creep along at least 9 km of the fault covered in the image to the south. The transition occurs within less than 100 m along the fault. We also extracted 2 km long line of site profiles perpendicular to this section of the fault. Averaging these profiles shows a step across the fault of 14.9.3 mm with greater creep on the order of 20 mm on the northern two profiles and lower creep of about 10 mm on the southern two profiles. Nearby GPS stations P503 and P493 are consistent with this result. They also confirm that the creep event occurred at the time of the El Mayor - Cucapah earthquake. By removing regional deformation resulting from the main rupture we were able to invert for the depth of creep from the surface. Results indicate that the slip occurred from the surface to 10-20 km, not shallowly, as previously suggested.

Donnellan, A.; Parker, J. W.; Pierce, M.; Wang, J.



Creep dynamics of viscoelastic interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The movement of a purely elastic interface driven on a disordered energy potential is characterized by a depinning transition: when the pulling force ? is larger than some critical value \\sigma_1 the system is in a flowing regime and moves at a finite velocity. On the other hand, if \\sigma < \\sigma_1 the interface remains pinned and its velocity is zero. We show that in the case of a one-dimensional interface, the inclusion of viscoelastic relaxation produces the appearance of an intervening regime between the pinned and the flowing phases in a well-defined stress interval \\sigma_0<\\sigma<\\sigma_1 , in which the interface evolves through a sequence of avalanches that give rise to a creep process. As \\sigma \\to\\sigma_0^+ the creep velocity vanishes as a power law. As \\sigma \\to\\sigma_1^- the creep velocity increases as a power law due to the increase of the typical size of the avalanches. The present observations may serve to improve the understanding of fatigue failure mechanisms.

Jagla, E. A.



Compression creep of filamentary composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Axial and transverse strain fields induced in composite laminates subjected to compressive creep loading were compared for several types of laminate layups. Unidirectional graphite/epoxy as well as multi-directional graphite/epoxy and graphite/PEEK layups were studied. Specimens with and without holes were tested. The specimens were subjected to compressive creep loading for a 10-hour period. In-plane displacements were measured using moire interferometry. A computer based data reduction scheme was developed which reduces the whole-field displacement fields obtained using moire to whole-field strain contour maps. Only slight viscoelastic response was observed in matrix-dominated laminates, except for one test in which catastrophic specimen failure occurred after a 16-hour period. In this case the specimen response was a complex combination of both viscoelastic and fracture mechanisms. No viscoelastic effects were observed for fiber-dominated laminates over the 10-hour creep time used. The experimental results for specimens with holes were compared with results obtained using a finite-element analysis. The comparison between experiment and theory was generally good. Overall strain distributions were very well predicted. The finite element analysis typically predicted slightly higher strain values at the edge of the hole, and slightly lower strain values at positions removed from the hole, than were observed experimentally. It is hypothesized that these discrepancies are due to nonlinear material behavior at the hole edge, which were not accounted for during the finite-element analysis.

Graesser, D. L.; Tuttle, M. E.



Structural Benchmark Creep Testing for the Advanced Stirling Convertor Heater Head  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified the high efficiency Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) as a candidate power source for use on long duration Science missions such as lunar applications, Mars rovers, and deep space missions. For the inherent long life times required, a structurally significant design limit for the heater head component of the ASRG Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) is creep deformation induced at low stress levels and high temperatures. Demonstrating proof of adequate margins on creep deformation and rupture for the operating conditions and the MarM-247 material of construction is a challenge that the NASA Glenn Research Center is addressing. The combined analytical and experimental program ensures integrity and high reliability of the heater head for its 17-year design life. The life assessment approach starts with an extensive series of uniaxial creep tests on thin MarM-247 specimens that comprise the same chemistry, microstructure, and heat treatment processing as the heater head itself. This effort addresses a scarcity of openly available creep properties for the material as well as for the virtual absence of understanding of the effect on creep properties due to very thin walls, fine grains, low stress levels, and high-temperature fabrication steps. The approach continues with a considerable analytical effort, both deterministically to evaluate the median creep life using nonlinear finite element analysis, and probabilistically to calculate the heater head s reliability to a higher degree. Finally, the approach includes a substantial structural benchmark creep testing activity to calibrate and validate the analytical work. This last element provides high fidelity testing of prototypical heater head test articles; the testing includes the relevant material issues and the essential multiaxial stress state, and applies prototypical and accelerated temperature profiles for timely results in a highly controlled laboratory environment. This paper focuses on the last element and presents a preliminary methodology for creep rate prediction, the experimental methods, test challenges, and results from benchmark testing of a trial MarM-247 heater head test article. The results compare favorably with the analytical strain predictions. A description of other test findings is provided, and recommendations for future test procedures are suggested. The manuscript concludes with describing the potential impact of the heater head creep life assessment and benchmark testing effort on the ASC program.

Krause, David L.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Bowman, Randy R.; Shah, Ashwin R.



Maxwell's Thermal Creep in Two Space Dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal Creep is a steady streaming motion, induced by atemperature gradient parallel to a fluid boundary, in theabsence of gravity. Thermal creep has been studied by Maxwell,analyzed by Kennard, and simulated by Ibsen, Soto, and Cordero. Here we report several two-dimensional simulations. We find that the creep velocity is sensitive to the imposed macroscopicboundary conditions and that the agreement with existingtheoretical predictions is only semiquantitative.

Shida, Koichiro; Hoover, Wm.



Cumulative creep damage for polycarbonate and polysulfone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The literature for creep to failure cumulative damage laws are reviewed. Creep to failure tests performed on polycarbonate and polysulfone under single and two step loadings are discussed. A cumulative damage law or modified time fraction rule is developed using a power law for transient creep response as the starting point. Experimental results are approximated well by the new rule. Damage and failure mechanisms associated with the two materials are suggested.

Zhang, M.; Brinson, H. F.



Earthquakes and fault creep on the northern San Andreas fault  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At present there is an absence of both fault creep and small earthquakes on the northern San Andreas fault, which had a magnitude 8 earthquake with 5 m of slip in 1906. The fault has apparently been dormant after the 1906 earthquake. One possibility is that the fault is 'locked' in some way and only produces great earthquakes. An alternative possibility, presented here, is that the lack of current activity on the northern San Andreas fault is because of a lack of sufficient elastic strain after the 1906 earthquake. This is indicated by geodetic measurements at Fort Ross in 1874, 1906 (post-earthquake), and 1969, which show that the strain accumulation in 1969 (69 ?? 10-6 engineering strain) was only about one-third of the strain release (rebound) in the 1906 earthquake (200 ?? 10-6 engineering strain). The large difference in seismicity before and after 1906, with many strong local earthquakes from 1836 to 1906, but only a few strong earthquakes from 1906 to 1976, also indicates a difference of elastic strain. The geologic characteristics (serpentine, fault straightness) of most of the northern San Andreas fault are very similar to the characteristics of the fault south of Hollister, where fault creep is occurring. Thus, the current absence of fault creep on the northern fault segment is probably due to a lack of sufficient elastic strain at the present time. ?? 1979.

Nason, R.



Fiber Creep Evaluation by Stress Relaxation Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple bend stress relaxation (BSR) test has been used to measure the creep related properties of a chemically vapor-deposited SiC fiber. Time, temperature, and strain dependent BSR data were analyzed to ascertain the ability of the stress relaxation results to predict tensile creep as a function of the same parameters. The predictions compared very well to actual creep data obtained by axial measurements, indicating that the BSR test could be used for determining both creep and stress relaxation of polycrystalline ceramic fibers under tensile loading.

Morscher, Gregory N.; Dicarlo, James A.; Wagner, Timothy



Coupling between leaching and creep of concrete  

SciTech Connect

In a radioactive waste disposal, concrete containment structures must be studied over extended periods during which it is necessary to account for a possible degradation by calcium leaching due to on-site water. An experimental investigation is described where the effects of an accelerated calcium leaching process of concrete on creep of concrete are highlighted. The comparison with a creep test where the sample is immersed in water shows that leaching generates tertiary creep and rupture of the specimen. A Dirichlet series coupled to a mechanical damage are used to model the coupled tertiary creep. With this method we can evaluate the lifetime of concrete structures subjected to chemical and mechanical loading.

Torrenti, J.M. [LCPC, Paris (France); ENS Cachan, LMT (France)], E-mail:; Nguyen, V.H. [LAMI/Institut Navier/ENPC-LCPC, Marne la Vallee (France); Colina, H. [ATILH, Paris (France); Le Maou, F. [LCPC, Paris (France); Benboudjema, F. [ENS Cachan, LMT (France); Deleruyelle, F. [IRSN, DSU, SSIAD, BERIS, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)



Creep and stress rupture of a mechanically alloyed oxide dispersion and precipitation strengthened nickel-base superalloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The creep and stress rupture behavior of a mechanically alloyed oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) and gamma-prime precipitation strengthened nickel-base alloy (alloy MA 6000E) was studied at intermediate and elevated temperatures. At 760 C, MA 6000E exhibits the high creep strength characteristic of nickel-base superalloys and at 1093 C the creep strength is superior to other ODS nickel-base alloys. The stress dependence of the creep rate is very sharp at both test temperatures and the apparent creep activation energy measured around 760 C is high, much larger in magnitude than the self-diffusion energy. Stress rupture in this large grain size material is transgranular and crystallographic cracking is observed. The rupture ductility is dependent on creep strain rate, but usually is low. These and accompanying microstructural results are discussed with respect to other ODS alloys and superalloys and the creep behavior is rationalized by invoking a recently-developed resisting stress model of creep in materials strengthened by second phase particles.

Howson, T. E.; Tien, J. K.; Mervyn, D. A.



Measurement of Creep Properties of Ultra-High-Temperature Materials by a Novel Non-Contact Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A non-contact technique for measuring the creep properties of materials has been developed and validated as part of a collaboration among the University of Massachusetts, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Electrostatic Levitation Facility (ESL), and the University of Tennessee. This novel method has several advantages over conventional creep testing. The sample is deformed by the centripetal acceleration from the rapid rotation, and the deformed shapes are analyzed to determine the strain. Since there is no contact with grips, there is no theoretical maximum temperature and no concern about chemical compatibility. Materials may be tested at the service temperature even for extreme environments such as rocket nozzles, or above the service temperature for accelerated testing of materials for applications such as jet engines or turbopumps for liquid-fueled engines. The creep measurements have been demonstrated to 2400 C with niobium, while the test facility, the NASA MSFC ESL, has processed materials up to 3400 C. Furthermore, the ESL creep method employs a distribution of stress to determine the stress exponent from a single test, versus the many tests required by conventional methods. Determination of the stress exponent from the ESL creep tests requires very precise measurement of the surface shape of the deformed sample for comparison to deformations predicted by finite element models for different stress exponents. An error analysis shows that the stress exponent can be determined to about 1% accuracy with the current methods and apparatus. The creep properties of single-crystal niobium at 1985 C showed excellent agreement with conventional tests performed according to ASTM Standard E-139. Tests on other metals, ceramics, and composites relevant to rocket propulsion and turbine engines are underway.

Hyers, Robert W.; Lee, Jonghyun; Rogers, Jan R.; Liaw, Peter K.



High-Temperature Creep Degradation of the AM1/NiAlPt/EBPVD YSZ System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The failure mechanisms of a NiAlPt/electron beam physical vapor deposition yttria-stabilized-zirconia thermal barrier coating system deposited on the AM1 single crystalline substrate have been investigated under pure creep conditions in the temperature range from 1273 K to 1373 K (1000 C to 1100 C) and for durations up to 1000 hours. Doubly tapered specimens were used allowing for the analysis of different stress states and different accumulated viscoplastic strains for a given creep condition. Under such experiments, two kinds of damage mechanisms were observed. Under low applied stress conditions ( i.e., long creep tests), microcracking is localized in the vicinity of the thermally grown oxide (TGO). Under high applied stress conditions, an unconventional failure mechanism at the substrate/bond coat interface is observed because of large creep strains and fast creep deformation, hence leading to a limited TGO growth. This unconventional failure mechanism is observed although the interfacial bond coat/top coat TGO thickening is accelerated by the mechanical applied stress beyond a given stress threshold.

Riallant, Fanny; Cormier, Jonathan; Longuet, Arnaud; Milhet, Xavier; Mendez, Jos



Development of a simplified procedure for rocket engine thrust chamber life prediction with creep  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical method for predicting engine thrust chamber life is developed. The method accounts for high pressure differentials and time-dependent creep effects both of which are significant in limiting the useful life of the shuttle main engine thrust chamber. The hot-gas-wall ligaments connecting adjacent cooling channels ribs and separating the coolant flow from the combustion gas are subjected to a high pressure induced primary stress superimposed on an alternating cyclic thermal strain field. The pressure load combined with strain-controlled cycling produces creep ratcheting and consequent bulging and thinning of these ligaments. This mechanism of creep-enhanced ratcheting is analyzed for determining the hot-gas-wall deformation and accumulated strain. Results are confirmed by inelastic finite element analysis. Fatigue and creep rupture damage as well as plastic tensile instability are evaluated as potential failure modes. It is demonstrated for the NARloy Z cases analyzed that when pressure differentials across the ligament are high, creep rupture damage is often the primary failure mode for the cycle times considered.

Badlani, M. L.; Porowski, J. S.; Odonnell, W. J.; Peterson, D. B.



Shear Correction Factors in Creep-Damage Analysis of Beams, Plates and Shells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern design rules for thin-walled structures which operate at elevated temperatures are based on the demand that the creep and may be the damage behaviour should be taken into account. In the last four decades various models including the scalar or tensor valued hardening and damage variables are established. These models reflect the influence of the deformation or the damage induced anisotropy on the creep response. One problem in creep analysis of thin-walled structures is the selection of the structural mechanics model which has to be adequate to the choice of the constitutive equations. Considering complex loading conditions the structural mechanics model has to reflect for instance the different constitutive behaviour in tension and compression. Below the applicability of classical engineering models for beams, plates and shells to the creep-damage analysis is discussed. It will be shown that a first improvement of the classical approach can be given within the assumptions of the first order shear deformation theory. Based on the beam equations we demonstrate that the shear correction factors have to be modified within the time-step analysis.

Altenbach, Holm; Naumenko, Konstantin


Characteristics of geological structures and seismicity in inner and outer foothills of western Taiwan: their implications of deformation in fold-and-thrust belt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characteristics of seismicity in the frontal part of an ongoing mountain-building belt can be integrated with geological structural style to give some crucial information of deformation in the belt. In this study, we address variation in fault plane solutions of strike-slip fault in inner and outer foothills of western Taiwan, which are characterized by distinct fault and fold structural styles. We first describe the characteristics of structural settings on the surface to illustrate the differences and define the boundary between the inner and outer foothills. We then delineate variation in subsurface structural features in several balanced cross sections across the foothills. The correspondence between the geological structure and the seismicity is demonstrated in the final. The outer part of fault-and-thrust belt in northwestern Taiwan is characterized by two settings of thrust and accompanied fold, one trending ENE-WSW, representing reactivated structures of pre-existing normal faults, and the other trending NNE-SSW, parallel to the main strike of the fold-and-thrust belt. The formers cut off the latters and extend to terminate at the boundary between the inner and outer parts of the belt. The trend of structural settings in the inner part of foothills parallels that of the fold-and-thrust belt. In southwestern Taiwan, very few settings that trend ENE-WSW appear in the outer part of the foothills; almost all of them remain as normal fault features. In the balanced cross sections across the foothills of northwestern Taiwan, open fold structures predominate in the outer part, while the inner part is characterized by tight folds with tilted thrusts that originally cut low angle at the beddings. The change in tightness of fold is abrupt between two belts and can be assigned to define the boundary. However, structures of open and gentle styles recur in surface and shallow part of the innermost part of the foothills, meaning that hinterlandward increase of stratal deformation may not be the case in the entire foothills. Similar features in the inner part of foothills also occur in southwestern Taiwan. Most of the hypocenters of earthquake are located at the depth shallower than 15 kilometers. The fault plane solutions of strike-slip fault show different characters in the inner and outer part of the foothills. In the inner part the resolved main fault planes mainly strike NW-SE, normal to that of the fold-and-thrust belt and representing the direction of mass translation in the belt, while they strike ENE-WSW in the outer part, parallel to that of the reactivated normal faults in northwestern and southwestern Taiwan. The coincidence between the strike of fault plane solution and that of structural setting in different parts of the foothills suggest that two distinct processes of mountain-building, normal fault reactivation and low angle thrusting, have been happening in different belts since the beginning of tectonics that eventually result in the structural features in the foothills today.

Yang, K.; Rau, R.; Yang, C.; Huang, S.; Mei, W.; Wu, J.



Creep buckling of axially compressed circular cylindrical shells of a zirconium alloy: Experiment and computer simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were performed to study the deformation and buckling of axially compressed circular cylindrical shells of Zr2.5Nb zirconium alloy under creep conditions. Computer simulation using the MSC.Marc 2012 software was conducted by step-by-step integration of the equations of quasistatic deformation of thin shells using Norton's law of steady creep. The results of the experiment and computer simulation show that the buckling modes are a combination of axisymmetric bulges located near one end or both ends of the shell and axisymmetric buckling modes with the formation of three or four waves in the circumferential direction. A comparison is made of the time dependences of the axial strain of the shells obtained in the experiment and by computer simulation. It is shown that for large axial compressive stresses, these dependences are in satisfactory agreement. For lower values of these stresses, the difference between the theoretical and experimental dependences is greater.

Korobeynikov, S. N.; Torshenov, N. G.; Lyubashevskaya, I. V.; Larichkin, A. Yu.; Chunikhina, E. V.



Non-contact measurements of creep properties of niobium at 1985?C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stress exponent in the power-law creep of niobium at 1985?C was measured by a non-contact technique using an electrostatic levitation facility at NASA MSFC. This method employs a distribution of stress to allow the stress exponent to be determined from each test, rather than from the curve fit through measurements from multiple samples that is required by conventional methods. The sample is deformed by the centripetal acceleration from the rapid rotation, and the deformed shapes are analyzed to determine the strain. Based on a mathematical proof, which revealed that the stress exponent was determined uniquely by the ratio of the polar to equatorial strains, a series of finite-element analyses with the models of different stress exponents were also performed to determine the stress exponent corresponding to the measured strain ratio. The stress exponent from the ESL experiment showed a good agreement with those from the literature and the conventional creep test.

Lee, J.; Wall, J. J.; Rogers, J. R.; Rathz, T. J.; Choo, H.; Liaw, P. K.; Hyers, R. W.



Petrology and micromechanics of experimentally deformed natural rock salt: Physical processes: Topical report  

SciTech Connect

Effects of impurities and microprocesses on the creep of natural salt samples are presented. Salts are analyzed from four sites (Palo Duro Unit 4 and Palo Duro Unit 5, Texas; Avery Island, Louisiana; and Salina Basin, Michigan). The salts have been deformed at temperatures and pressures that simulate repository conditions. Bulk chemistry, optical petrology, and microprobe analyses are used to identify the species and to quantify the amount of each impurity. General effects of impurities on the rheology of natural salt are discussed. The physical processes that control creep deformation of salt are identified by etchpit techniques. The nature of desolation motion which controls the creep behavior of salt changes dramatically over the temperature range of 25 to 200/degree/C. Physical bases for constitutive modeling are established through observations documented in this report. Composition of the salts range from nearly pure, uniform halite to a heterogeneous composite of halite and anhydrite. Impurities evidently increase creep resistance at lower test temperatures. At higher test temperatures, creep deformation is much less sensitive to the presence of impurities. Anhydrite is the only mineral species that correlates strongly with creep response. Generally, greater amounts of anhydrite increase the creep resistance. 13 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs.

Hansen, F.D.



Dimensional changes and creep of silica core ceramics used in investment casting of superalloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dimensional changes and creep deformation of a silica\\/zircon (74%\\/24%, respectively) and a high silica (93% silica and 3% zircon) ceramic were characterized and compared. All specimens were tested with a thermal profile that consisted of a 300C\\/h heating rate to 1475 or 1525C, followed by a one-hour isothermal hold (where each specimen was compressively crept under a static stress of

A. A. Wereszczak; K. Breder; M. K. Ferber; T. P. Kirkland; E. A. Payzant; C. J. Rawn; E. Krug; C. L. Larocco; R. A. Pietras; M. Karakus



Transient and steady state creep response of ice I and magnesium sulfate hydrate eutectic aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using uniaxial compression creep experiments, we characterized the transient and steady state deformation behaviors of eutectic aggregates of system ice I and MgSO4 11H2O (MS11; meridianiite), which has significance because of its likely presence on moons of the outer solar system. Synthetic samples of eutectic liquid bulk composition, which produce eutectic colonies containing 0.35-0.50 volume fraction MS11, were tested

Christine McCarthy; Reid F. Cooper; David L. Goldsby; William B. Durham; Stephen H. Kirby



Cleavage and creep fracture of rock salt  

SciTech Connect

The dominant failure mechanism in rock salt at ambient temperature is either cleavage or creep fracture. Since the transition of creep fracture to cleavage in a compressive stress field is not well understood, failure of rock salt by cleavage and creep fracture is analyzed in this paper to elucidate the effect of stress state on the competition between these two fracture mechanisms. For cleavage fracture, a shear crack is assumed to cause the formation and growth of a symmetric pair of wing cracks in a predominantly compressive stress field. The conditions for wing-crack instability are derived and presented as the cleavage fracture boundary in the fracture mechanism map. Using an existing creep fracture model, stress conditions for the onset of creep fracture and isochronous failure curves of specified times-to-rupture are calculated and incorporated into the fracture mechanism map. The regimes of dominance by cleavage and creep fracture are established and compared with experimental data. The result indicates that unstable propagation of cleavage cracks occurs only in the presence of tensile stress. The onset of creep fracture is promoted by a tensile stress, but can be totally suppressed by a high confining pressure. Transition of creep fracture to cleavage occurs when critical conditions of stress difference and tensile stress for crack instability are exceeded.

Chan, K.S. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)] [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bodner, S.R. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)] [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); [Technion, Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Fossum, A.F. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)] [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)



Cumulative creep damage for polycarbonate and polysulfone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Creep to failure tests performed on polycarbonate and polysulfone under single and two step loadings are discussed. A cumulative damage law or modified time fraction rule is developed using a power law for transient creep response as the starting point. Experimental results are approximated well by the new rule. Damage and failure mechanisms associated with the two materials are suggested.

Zhang, M. J.; Straight, M. R.; Brinson, H. F.



Experimental pressure solution compaction of chalk in aqueous solutions Part 1. Deformation behavior and chemistry  

E-print Network

Experimental pressure solution compaction of chalk in aqueous solutions Part 1. Deformation solution creep, chalk from the Paris basin (France) was deformed in a tri- axial press with fluids. The major goal of this investigation was to study the physico-chemical reactions that occur when chalk


Strain localization during deformation of Westerly granite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A specimen of Westerly granite was cyclically loaded to near failure at 50 MPa confining pressure. Holographic interferometry provided detailed measurements of localized surface deformations during loading and unloading. The data are consistent with deformation occurring primarily elastically at low differential stress; in conjunction with one incipient fault zone between approximately 350 and 520 MPa differential stress; and in conjunction with a second incipient fault zone above 580 MPa and/or during creep. During unloading only one fault zone, that which is active at the intermediate stress levels during loading, is seen to recede.

Brodsky, N. S.; Spetzler, H. A.



Influence of Hold Time on Creep-Fatigue Behavior of an Advanced Austenitic Alloy  

SciTech Connect

An advanced austenitic alloy, HT-UPS (high temperature-ultrafine precipitate strengthened), is a candidate material for the structural components of fast reactors and energy-conversion systems. HT-UPS provides improved creep resistance through a composition based on 316 stainless steel (SS) with additions of Ti and Nb to form nano-scale MC precipitates in the austenitic matrix. The low cycle fatigue and creep-fatigue behavior of a HT-UPS alloy has been investigated at 650 C, 1.0% total strain, and an R ratio of -1 with hold times as long as 9000 sec at peak tensile strain. The cyclic deformation response of HT-UPS is compared to that of 316 SS. The cycles to failure are similar, despite differences in peak stress profiles and the deformed microstructures. Cracking in both alloys is transgranular (initiation and propagation) in the case of continuous cycle fatigue, while the primary cracks also propagate transgranularly during creep-fatigue cycling. Internal grain boundary damage as a result of the tensile hold is present in the form of fine cracks for hold times of 3600 sec and longer and substantially more internal cracks are visible in 316 SS than HT-UPS. The dislocation substructures observed in the deformed material are different. An equiaxed cellular structure is observed in 316 SS, whereas tangles of dislocations are present at the nanoscale MC precipitates in HT-UPS and no cellular substructure is observed.

Mark Carroll; Laura Carroll



Effect of creep and oxidation on reduced fatigue life of Ni-based alloy 617 at 850 C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low cycle fatigue (LCF) and creep-fatigue testing of Ni-based alloy 617 was carried out at 850 C. Compared with its LCF life, the material's creep-fatigue life decreases to different extents depending on test conditions. To elucidate the microstructure-fatigue property relationship for alloy 617 and the effect of creep and oxidation on its fatigue life, systematic microstructural investigations were carried out using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). In LCF tests, as the total strain range increased, deformations concentrated near high angle grain boundaries (HAGBs). The strain hold period in the creep-fatigue tests introduced additional creep damage to the material, which revealed the detrimental effect of the strain hold time on the material fatigue life in two ways. First, the strain hold time enhanced the localized deformation near HAGBs, resulting in the promotion of intergranular cracking of alloy 617. Second, the strain hold time encouraged grain boundary sliding, which resulted in interior intergranular cracking of the material. Oxidation accelerated the initiation of intergranular cracking in alloy 617. In the crack propagation stage, if oxidation was promoted and the cyclic oxidation damage was greater than the fatigue damage, oxidation-assisted intergranular crack growth resulted in a significant reduction in the material's fatigue life.

Chen, Xiang; Yang, Zhiqing; Sokolov, Mikhail A.; Erdman, Donald L.; Mo, Kun; Stubbins, James F.



Aging in a Colloidal Glass in Creep Flow: Time-Stress Superposition  

E-print Network

In this work, we study ageing behavior of aqueous laponite suspension, a model soft glassy material, in creep. We observe that viscoelastic behavior is time dependent and is strongly influenced by the deformation field; the effect is known to arise due to ageing and rejuvenation. We show that irrespective of strength of deformation field (shear stress) and age, when imposed time-scale is normalized with dominating relaxation mode of the system, universal ageing behavior is obtained demonstrating time-stress superposition; the phenomena that may be generic in variety of soft materials.

Yogesh M. Joshi; G. Ranjith; K. Reddy



Creep-rupture reliability analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A probabilistic approach to the correlation and extrapolation of creep-rupture data is presented. Time temperature parameters (TTP) are used to correlate the data, and an analytical expression for the master curve is developed. The expression provides a simple model for the statistical distribution of strength and fits neatly into a probabilistic design format. The analysis focuses on the Larson-Miller and on the Manson-Haferd parameters, but it can be applied to any of the TTP's. A method is developed for evaluating material dependent constants for TTP's. It is shown that optimized constants can provide a significant improvement in the correlation of the data, thereby reducing modelling error. Attempts were made to quantify the performance of the proposed method in predicting long term behavior. Uncertainty in predicting long term behavior from short term tests was derived for several sets of data. Examples are presented which illustrate the theory and demonstrate the application of state of the art reliability methods to the design of components under creep.

Peralta-Duran, A.; Wirsching, P. H.



InSAR measurements around active faults: creeping Philippine Fault and un-creeping Alpine Fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) time-series analyses have been frequently applied to measure the time-series of small and quasi-steady displacements in wide areas. Large efforts in the methodological developments have been made to pursue higher temporal and spatial resolutions by using frequently acquired SAR images and detecting more pixels that exhibit phase stability. While such a high resolution is indispensable for tracking displacements of man-made and other small-scale structures, it is not necessarily needed and can be unnecessarily computer-intensive for measuring the crustal deformation associated with active faults and volcanic activities. I apply a simple and efficient method to measure the deformation around the Alpine Fault in the South Island of New Zealand, and the Philippine Fault in the Leyte Island. I use a small-baseline subset (SBAS) analysis approach (Berardino, et al., 2002). Generally, the more we average the pixel values, the more coherent the signals are. Considering that, for the deformation around active faults, the spatial resolution can be as coarse as a few hundred meters, we can severely 'multi-look' the interferograms. The two applied cases in this study benefited from this approach; I could obtain the mean velocity maps on practically the entire area without discarding decorrelated areas. The signals could have been only partially obtained by standard persistent scatterer or single-look small-baseline approaches that are much more computer-intensive. In order to further increase the signal detection capability, it is sometimes effective to introduce a processing algorithm adapted to the signal of interest. In an InSAR time-series processing, one usually needs to set the reference point because interferograms are all relative measurements. It is difficult, however, to fix the reference point when one aims to measure long-wavelength deformation signals that span the whole analysis area. This problem can be solved by adding the displacement offset in each interferogram as a model parameter and solving the system of equations with the minimum norm condition. This way, the unknown offsets can be automatically determined. By applying this method to the ALOS/PALSAR data acquired over the Alpine Fault, I obtained the mean velocity map showing the right-lateral relative motion of the blocks north and south of the fault and the strain concentration (large velocity gradient) around the fault. The velocity gradient around the fault has along-fault variation, probably reflecting the variation in the fault locking depth. When one aims to detect fault creeps, i.e., displacement discontinuity in space, one can additionally introduce additional parameters to describe the phase ramps in the interferograms and solve the system of equations again with the minimum norm condition. Then, the displacement discontinuity appears more clearly in the result at the cost of suppressing long-wavelength displacements. By applying this method to the ALOS/PALSAR data acquired over the Philippine Fault in Leyte Island, I obtained the mean velocity map showing fault creep at least in the northern and central parts of Leyte at a rate of around 10 mm/year.

Fukushima, Y.



Creep of partially molten fine-grained gabbro under dry conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural fine-grained gabbro was deformed in a Paterson deformation apparatus to evaluate the flow strength of lower crustal rocks containing partial melt. We performed 94 creep stepping tests on seven samples at 300 MPa confining pressure, temperatures between 950C and 1150C, and axial stresses of 25-510 MPa, resulting in strain rates between 2.3 10-4 and 6.7 10-8 s-1. Water content of samples predried at 1000C at 1 atm was about 0.035 wt % H2O. The drying process induced partial melting of the starting material of 1 vol % Si-poor and Fe-rich melt at grain boundaries, which increased further up to 2 vol % during creep tests. Creep tests reveal strain rates increasing with duration of the tests related to increasing melt content present in the samples. Microstructural observations of deformed samples show melt in triple junctions and melt films contained in grain boundaries. The observed microstructures indicate that the samples were deformed in the dislocation creep regime. Dislocation walls are present in pyroxene and plagioclase grains. Very fine grained (about 10 ?m) pyroxene and olivine were produced by mineral reactions and dynamic recrystallization at temperatures >1000C. Melt fraction ? of creep test samples and annealed samples increases linearly with logarithm of time (log(t)), suggesting that strain rate enhancement by partial melting can be described by an exponential function of melt fraction with an exponent coefficient of 128. After applying a correction for the time-dependent increase of melt content the data were fitted to a power law creep equation, resulting in a stress exponent of n = 4.0 0.3, an activation energy of Q = 644 75 kJ mol-1, and a preexponential factor of A = 1010.3 0.4 MPan s-1 for dry gabbro that contains 1 vol % melt. The flow law for gabbro from this study is compared to published flow law parameters of basaltic composition rocks.

Zhou, Yongsheng; Rybacki, Erik; Wirth, Richard; He, Changrong; Dresen, Georg



Developing and testing models for creep of polycrystalline ice: new laboratory approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory creep experiments provide invaluable constraints on ice rheology. If laboratory and natural deformation rates are similar then experiments that use 'natural' glacial ice as starting materials are appropriate. Often however, laboratory data have to be extrapolated across orders of magnitude of strain-rate to be applicable to natural deformation conditions. Since the strain-rate sensitivities of grain-size insensitive (GSI: e.g. dislocation creep) and grain-size sensitive (GSS: e.g. grain boundary sliding and/or diffusion creep) creep mechanisms are different, experiments that simulate natural behavior need starting materials with a different mean grain-size to natural samples in order to balance correctly the relative contributions of GSI and GSS mechanisms. Of particular interest are fine-grained (~1 - 500?m) polycrystalline ice samples that can be used in the laboratory to understand the mechanisms and mechanics associated with slower background creep rates in natural systems. Furthermore very fine-grained (<150?m) enable quantification of GSS creep where it is dominant. These data can be integrated with the larger data set from coarse-grained ice to generate mechanism maps that enable the microstructural and rheological effects of strain-rates changes with time (tidal cycle, seasonal etc) to be assessed. Although we have been able to get mechanical data for fine-grained ices for some time, good quality microstructural and fabric data have been harder to obtain. We have adapted the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) method in the scanning electron microscope so that we can collect quantitative microstructural maps and fabric data from fine-grained ice in a relatively routine manner. We will outline the methods used in sample preparation and data acquisition. We will use EBSD data to illustrate the microstructural differences in samples fabricated by different methods. Additionally we will show microstructural data related to fine-grained ice deformed in well-constrained laboratory experiments and will discuss the implications of these data for understanding deformation mechanisms and rheology of ice in natural systems.

Prior, D. J.; Caswell, T. E.; Durham, W. B.; Golding, N.; Goldsby, D. L.; Lilly, K.; Piazolo, S.; Seidemann, M.; Vaughan, M.; Wilson, C.



Elevated temperature creep properties for selected active metal braze alloys  

SciTech Connect

Active metal braze alloys reduce the number of processes required for the joining of metal to ceramic components by eliminating the need for metallization and/or Ni plating of the ceramic surfaces. Titanium (Ti), V, and Zr are examples of active element additions which have been used successfully in such braze alloys. Since the braze alloy is expected to accommodate thermal expansion mismatch strains between the metal and ceramic materials, a knowledge of its elevated temperature mechanical properties is important. In particular, the issue of whether or not the creep strength of an active metal braze alloy is increased or decreased relative to its non-activated counterpart is important when designing new brazing processes and alloy systems. This paper presents a survey of high temperature mechanical properties for two pairs of conventional braze alloys and their active metal counterparts: (a) the conventional 72Ag-28Cu (Cusil) alloy, and the active braze alloy 62.2Ag- 36.2Cu-1.6Ti (Cusil ABA), and (b) the 82Au-18Ni (Nioro) alloy and the active braze alloy Mu-15.5M-0.75Mo-1.75V (Nioro ABA). For the case of the Cusil/Cusil ABA pair, the active metal addition contributes to solid solution strengthening of the braze alloy, resulting in a higher creep strength as compared to the non-active alloy. In the case of the Nioro/Nioro ABA pair, the Mo and V additions cause the active braze alloy to have a two-phase microstructure, which results in a reduced creep strength than the conventional braze alloy. The Garofalo sinh equation has been used to quantitatively describe the stress and temperature dependence of the deformation behavior. It will be observed that the effective stress exponent in the Garofalo sinh equation is a function of the instantaneous value of the stress argument.

Stephens, J.J.



Effect of Creep of Ferritic Interconnect on Long-Term Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks  

SciTech Connect

High-temperature ferritic alloys are potential candidates as interconnect (IC) materials and spacers due to their low cost and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) compatibility with other components for most of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) . However, creep deformation becomes relevant for a material when the operating temperature exceeds or even is less than half of its melting temperature (in degrees of Kelvin). The operating temperatures for most of the SOFCs under development are around 1,073 K. With around 1,800 K of the melting temperature for most stainless steel, possible creep deformation of ferritic IC under the typical cell operating temperature should not be neglected. In this paper, the effects of IC creep behavior on stack geometry change and the stress redistribution of different cell components are predicted and summarized. The goal of the study is to investigate the performance of the fuel cell stack by obtaining the changes in fuel- and air-channel geometry due to creep of the ferritic stainless steel IC, therefore indicating possible changes in SOFC performance under long-term operations. The ferritic IC creep model was incorporated into software SOFC-MP and Mentat-FC, and finite element analyses were performed to quantify the deformed configuration of the SOFC stack under the long-term steady-state operating temperature. It was found that the creep behavior of the ferritic stainless steel IC contributes to narrowing of both the fuel- and the air-flow channels. In addition, stress re-distribution of the cell components suggests the need for a compliant sealing material that also relaxes at operating temperature.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.



Microstructural Evolution of INCONEL Alloy 740H Fusion Welds During Creep  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron microscopy techniques have been used to investigate the cause of premature creep failure in the fusion zone of INCONEL Alloy 740H (INCONEL and 740H are registered trademarks of Special Metals Corporation) welds. The reduced creep rupture lives of all-weld-metal and cross-weld creep specimens (relative to base metal specimens) have been attributed to the presence of large grain boundary regions that were denuded in fine ?' but contained coarse, elongated particles. Investigation of creep rupture specimens has revealed four factors that influence the formation of these coarsened zones, and the large particles found within them have been identified as ?'. Comparisons of the microstructural characteristics of these zones to the characteristics that are typical of denuded zones formed by a variety of mechanisms identified in the literature have been made. It is concluded that the mechanism of ?'-denuded zone formation in alloy 740H is discontinuous coarsening of the ?' phase. The discontinuous reaction is catalyzed by the grain boundary migration and sliding which occur during creep and likely promoted by the inhomogeneous weld metal microstructure that results from solute segregation during solidification. The increased susceptibility to the formation of the observed ?'-denuded zones in the weld metal as compared to the base metal is discussed in the context of differences in the contributions to the driving force for the discontinuous coarsening reaction.

Bechetti, Daniel H.; DuPont, John N.; de Barbadillo, John J.; Baker, Brian A.; Watanabe, Masashi



Constitutive laws for steady state deformation of metals, a microstructural model  

SciTech Connect

Based on extensive investigations of the steady state conditions for creep and hot working, Sellars and McG. Tegart demonstrated that the flow stress was well represented by the following relation: {sigma}{sub s} = 1/{alpha}{prime} Arc sinh (Z/A{prime}){sup 1/n} where {alpha}{prime}, A{prime}, n are temperature independent constants and Z is the Zener-Hollomon parameter, Z = {dot {var_epsilon}} exp U/kT, where {dot {var_epsilon}} is the applied strain rate and U is an activation energy. This relationship is widely used in the modelling of metal forming processes such as hot rolling, forging and extrusion. The objective this work is to explore the possibilities for deriving an alternative, physically based, relationship which is capable of correlating the steady state flow stress both to the alloy condition and the microstructural characteristics of steady state deformation.

Nes, E. [Norwegian Inst. of Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Metallurgy] [Norwegian Inst. of Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Metallurgy



Compaction creep of sands due to time-dependent grain failure: Effects of chemical environment, applied stress, and grain size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-dependent brittle creep plays a role in controlling compaction of sands and sandstones under upper crustal conditions, influencing phenomena such as production-induced reservoir compaction, surface subsidence, and induced seismicity. Brittle creep also plays a role in determining the mechanical behavior of gouge-rich faults. We performed uniaxial creep experiments on sand to investigate the effects of chemical environment (dry versus solution flooded), grain size (d = 196-378 m), and applied effective stress (?a up to 30 MPa), at room temperature conditions favoring grain-scale brittle processes. Creep measurements were complemented with acoustic emission (AE) detection and microstructural analysis to characterize the main creep mechanism. Wet samples showed much higher creep strains than dry-tested samples. AE event counts showed a direct relation between grain failure and creep strain, with higher AE rates occurring in the wet samples. Therefore, we inferred that time-dependent deformation was dominated by subcritical crack growth, resulting in grain failure accompanied by intergranular sliding rearrangements, and that crack growth in the presence of chemically active fluids was controlled by stress corrosion. The sensitivity of the compaction rate of the sands to d and ?a can be expressed as ???di?aj where i ? 6 and j ? 21 under dry conditions and i ? 9 and j ? 15 under wet conditions. Our results were compared to a simple model based on Hertzian contact theory, linear elastic fracture mechanics, and subcritical crack growth. This model showed agreement between the observed stress and grain size sensitivities of creep, within a factor of 2.

Brzesowsky, R. H.; Hangx, S. J. T.; Brantut, N.; Spiers, C. J.



Fault Creep along the Southern San Andreas from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar, Permanent Scatterers, and Stacking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) provides a practical means of mapping creep along major strike-slip faults. The small amplitude of the creep signal (less than 10 mm/yr), combined with its short wavelength, makes it difficult to extract from long time span interferograms, especially in agricultural or heavily vegetated areas. We utilize two approaches to extract the fault creep signal from 37 ERS SAR images along the southem San Andreas Fault. First, amplitude stacking is utilized to identify permanent scatterers, which are then used to weight the interferogram prior to spatial filtering. This weighting improves correlation and also provides a mask for poorly correlated areas. Second, the unwrapped phase is stacked to reduce tropospheric and other short-wavelength noise. This combined processing enables us to recover the near-field (approximately 200 m) slip signal across the fault due to shallow creep. Displacement maps fiom 60 interferograms reveal a diffuse secular strain buildup, punctuated by localized interseismic creep of 4-6 mm/yr line of sight (LOS, 12-18 mm/yr horizontal). With the exception of Durmid Hill, this entire segment of the southern San Andreas experienced right-lateral triggered slip of up to 10 cm during the 3.5-year period spanning the 1992 Landers earthquake. The deformation change following the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake was much smaller (4 cm) and broader than for the Landers event. Profiles across the fault during the interseismic phase show peak-to-trough amplitude ranging from 15 to 25 mm/yr (horizontal component) and the minimum misfit models show a range of creeping/locking depth values that fit the data.

Lyons, Suzanne; Sandwell, David



Rheology of the plate interface Dissolution precipitation creep in high pressure metamorphic rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subduction zone models invoke deformation to be concentrated along the plate interface, in a region of particularly low temperature. Geophysical observations do not provide constraints on temperature, stress and deformation patterns with desired resolution. In contrast, the record of high pressure metamorphic rocks exhumed from subduction zones provides details on P-T-history, deformation mechanisms, and stress state, albeit not readily correlated with the former dynamic situation on larger scale. Here we review available information on dissolution precipitation creep (DPC) in high pressure metamorphic rocks, which - if representative for subduction zones in general - can pose constraints on conditions, rheology, and flow patterns along the plate interface. The key observations and conclusions are that: (1) Deformation is typically highly inhomogeneous and localized into shear zones; (2) stresses are generally too low to drive crystal plastic deformation; (3) microfabrics suggest dissolution precipitation creep to be the predominant deformation mechanism; (4) an aqueous fluid at quasi-lithostatic pressure is available throughout, allowing for tensile fracturing and crack healing or sealing; (5) low stress combined with high strain rates required for localized deformation at typical subduction rates implies low viscosity; and (6) contribution of shear heating to the thermal budget of subduction zones should be moderate. The dominant deformation mechanism DPC is reviewed in some detail, including experimental and theoretical approaches. Various examples of DPC in high pressure metamorphic rocks are illustrated, emphasizing the role of interphase boundaries as sites of dissolution. Rheology governed by DPC is proposed to control interplate coupling and development of a subduction channel with return flow, being a likely candidate for rapid exhumation of high pressure metamorphic rocks.

Wassmann, Sara; Stckhert, Bernhard



Prediction of creep of polymer concrete  

SciTech Connect

We studied the applicability of the phenomenological approach to the prediction of long-time creep of polymer concrete consisting of polyester binder with diabase filler and diabase aggregate. We discovered that the principles of temperature-time analogy, of moisture-time analogy, and of temperature-moisture-time analogy are applicable to the description of the diagrams of short-time creep and to the prediction of long-time creep of polymer concrete at different temperatures and constant moisture content of the material.

Khristova, Yu.; Aniskevich, K. [Central Lab. of Physicochemical Mechanics, Sofia (Bulgaria)



Strain localization during high temperature creep of marble: The effect of inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deformation of rocks in the Earth's middle and lower crust is often localized in ductile shear zones. To better understand the initiation and propagation of high-temperature shear zones induced by the presence of structural and material heterogeneities, we performed deformation experiments in the dislocation creep regime on Carrara marble samples containing weak (limestone) or strong (novaculite) second phase inclusions. The samples were mostly deformed in torsion at a bulk shear strain rate of ? 1.9 10- 4 s- 1 to bulk shear strains ? between 0.02 and 2.9 using a Paterson-type gas deformation apparatus at 900 C temperature and 400 MPa confining pressure. At low strain, twisted specimens with weak inclusions show minor strain hardening that is replaced by strain weakening at ? > 0.1-0.2. Peak shear stress at the imposed conditions is about 20 MPa, which is ? 8% lower than the strength of intact samples. Strain progressively localized within the matrix with increasing bulk strain, but decayed rapidly with increasing distance from the inclusion tip. Microstructural analysis shows twinning and recrystallization within this process zone, with a strong crystallographic preferred orientation, dominated by {r} and (c) slip in < a >. Recrystallization-induced weakening starts at local shear strain of about 1 in the process zone, corresponding to a bulk shear strain of about 0.1. In contrast, torsion of a sample containing strong inclusions deformed at similar stress as inclusion-free samples, but do not show localization. The experiments demonstrate that the presence of weak heterogeneities initiates localized creep at local stress concentrations around the inclusion tips. Recrystallization-induced grain size reduction may only locally promote grain boundary diffusion creep. Accordingly, the bulk strength of the twisted aggregate is close to or slightly below the lower (isostress) strength bound, determined from the flow strength and volume fraction of matrix and inclusions.

Rybacki, E.; Morales, L. F. G.; Naumann, M.; Dresen, G.



Analysis of creep data for various natural rock salts  

SciTech Connect

Data from creep tests conducted on natural rock salt from Lyons, Kansas, Jefferson Island, Louisiana and Avery Island, Louisiana are analyzed using an exponential transient creep law. Steady-state creep rates are fitted to a thermally activated stress-power law, while transient creep parameters are fitted to a model which relates them to steady-state creep rates. The results are compared with previous results for salt from the Salado formation in the WIPP study area in Southeastern New Mexico.

Herrmann, W.; Lauson, H.S.



Analysis of creep data for various natural rock salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from creep tests conducted on natural rock salt from Lyons, Kansas, Jefferson Island, Louisiana and Avery Island, Louisiana are analyzed using an exponential transient creep law. Steady-state creep rates are fitted to a thermally activated stress-power law, while transient creep parameters are fitted to a model which relates them to steady-state creep rates. The results are compared with previous

W. Herrmann; H. S. Lauson



A soft creeping robot actuated by dielectric elastomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dielectric elastomer actuator showed significant advantages at high energy density, large deformation with comparing to other artificial muscle. The robot actuated by dielectric elastomer will be more lightweight and have lower cost, which shows great potential in field of future planetary exploration based on a group of micro-robot. In this context, a quite simple structure for creeping was designed to make the robot more lightweight. The actuation unit of the robot is made of an ellipse frame which can expand and contract with membrane under electric field. After joining four actuation units, the robot can move forward in a cooperative manner. Fabrication and some preliminary experiments of the robot were presented and the proposed motion principle was demonstrated.

Zhao, Jianwen; Niu, Junyang; Liu, Liwu; Yu, Jiangcheng



Experimental investigation of creep behavior of reactor vessel lower head  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the USNRC supported Lower Head Failure (LHF) Experiment Program at Sandia National Laboratories is to experimentally investigate and characterize the failure of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lower head due to the thermal and pressure loads of a severe accident. The experimental program is complemented by a modeling program focused on the development of a constitutive formulation for use in standard finite element structure mechanics codes. The problem is of importance because: lower head failure defines the initial conditions of all ex-vessel events; the inability of state-of-the-art models to simulate the result of the TMI-II accident (Stickler, et al. 1993); and TMI-II results suggest the possibility of in-vessel cooling, and creep deformation may be a precursor to water ingression leading to in-vessel cooling.

Chu, T.Y.; Pilch, M.; Bentz, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Behbahani, A. [NRC, Washington, DC (United States)